Citation
Report of experiments in the manufacture of sugar by diffusion at Magnolia Station, Lawrence, La., season of 1888-'89

Material Information

Title:
Report of experiments in the manufacture of sugar by diffusion at Magnolia Station, Lawrence, La., season of 1888-'89
Series Title:
Bulletin / U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Division of Chemistry ;
Creator:
Spencer, Guilford L ( Guilford Lawson ), 1858-1925
Place of Publication:
Washington, D.C.
Publisher:
U.S. G.P.O.
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
67 p. : ill. ; 23 cm.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Sugar -- Manufacture and refining ( lcsh )
Genre:
federal government publication ( marcgt )

Notes

Additional Physical Form:
Also available in electronic format.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Guilford L. Spencer.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
This item is a work of the U.S. federal government and not subject to copyright pursuant to 17 U.S.C. §105.
Resource Identifier:
029705794 ( ALEPH )
39823238 ( OCLC )

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.. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE.

DIVISION OF CHEMISTRY.

STLIN No. 21.




REPORT


OF



T ENTS IN TUHE MANUFACTURE OF SUGAR


BY DIFFUSION,

AT


MAGNOLIA STATION, LAWRENCE, LA.,
























GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE.
1889.
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PREFATORY NOTE.



S : In submitting for your nspection Mr. G. L. Spencer's report of
rk doe t Magnolia plantation during 1888-89 I desire to call youo
to the advancement mae in the last few years in the sugar
instry of Louisiana.
S18 the Department established, in connection with the expositien
SOrleans, a complete sugar laboratory. At the -same time the
tal diffusion battery, used by the Department in its work of
r ing year, was placed on exhibition.
g the same year the Department of Agriculture established at
plnttion, Lawrence, La., a complete chemical cntrol of the

In Dee er of the same year I delivered an address before the Sugar
Association of Louisiana, in which the attention of sugar
was called to the importance of chemical control and new

the Department made an attept to introduce the process of
into Louisiana on a manufacturing scale. By reason of de-
inery, however, thi attempt resulted in failure. In 188,
the joint efforts of Mr. J. B. Wilkinson, the late Mr. E. J. Gay,
d th Department of Agriculture, 150 tons of Louisiana cane were
Sto Kansas and worked by the press of diffusion, securing a
d fully 30 per cent. greater than the average milling process would
ve g In 1887 the diffus process ws successfuly introduced
the Department on Magnolia plantation.
g the coming season the diffusion process will be used on four
ge plantations in Louisiana.' Many other planters have also insti-
a chemical control of the factory, and a sugar experiment station
beenin succesfu operation at Kenner for four years.
The pra l result of the work first undertaken in Louisiaa by the
t of Agriculture is seen ready in a more scientific agri-
re, a better knowledge of the problem of sugar manufacture, a
n method in the sugar-house, and the introduction of reent
d improved machinery. Before the time first mentioned the average
ld of sugar per ton on the best plantations in the State was y
5pounds.It is now over 00 pounds.
Uagnolia, Des Ligne8, Berwick, Lagouda.
3








Perhaps there has ever been an instance in the history
partment where its effort have been so promptly manifst
wonderful practical results. It is but just to the Departmn
mitting the data herein contained, to call attention to the a
in the history of the sugar industry of Louisiana. The

sugar station at Kenner, has taken up the line of work
out by the Department of Agriculture, and the result is a
prosperity and a future of assured success for a great agri
dustry.
Respectfully,


Hon. J. M. RUSK,
Secretary.








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LETTERS OF SU BMITTAL.

lNITED STATES DEiPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,


DIVISION OF CHEMISTRY,
Washington, D. C., August 2, 1889.
: By arragement with your predecessor, Hon. Norman J. Col-
M G. L. Spencer, an assistant chemist in this division, was de-
to perform the chemical work in connection with the manufacture
y diffusion at Gov. H. C. Warmoth's Magnolia plantation
uring the season of 1888-'89.
G rr Warmoth was also permitted to use the machinery of the De-
a t at Magnolia, which was employed in making the experiments
in Bulletin No. 17 of this division.
M Ss report is herewith submitted for your approval and,



Chemist.
on. J. M. RUSK,
retary of Agriculture.



WASHINGTON, D. C., July 31, 1889.
S: I have the honor of submitting my report of the work at Mag-
l atation the past season for your inspection and publication.
port has been considerably delayed by the non-arrival of neces-
yamples and data. The chemical work was largely confined to the
trol of the battery and to a study of diffusion.

G. L. SPENCER,


Chemitt.
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T MANUFACTURE OF SUGAR BY DIFFUSION AT MAGNOLIA,
SEASON OF 1888.


egning of the work at Magnolia was a series of disappoint-
ments.Firt of all, the cane cutter did not work satisfactorily, but
,after many vexatious delays on this account, we succeeded in
g a maximum tting capacity of less than 200 tons of straight
day, d often when the cane was very crooked less than 150
ts we cut. As soon as our cutting difficulties were fairly overcome
lllorisators of the battery were discovered to leak so badly that
l stopped for repairs. During the intervals when the bat-
ter snot in operation, milling was employed for the extraction of
e j This alternate use of the mill and battery has complicated
to such an extent thati it impossible to separate the work of
the early part of the season, hence I am compelled to credit all, up to
period, to the mill. It must surely prove a disappointment to
all ansugar producers that these irregularities prevented a care-
l study of diffusion throughout the season.
The diffion work, of which we have a complete separate record,
SDecember 1, and continued t the end of the season. In
th we had a serious loss in the bone-black room. Unfortunately
Som lled to include this in our record of diffusion work. This
ooin some degree the value of thee results, especially to
planters who do not use bone-black filters.
the general averages for the crop, the diffusion work is compelled
out the average of the mill work. This is a heavy burden to
ce the work of the mill on 2,700 tons, augmented by that of
on battery on 00 tons of cae, will average at least 40
pounds of sugar less than the diffusion yield on two-thirds of the crop.
I hve made a separate statement of the work of the diffusion bat-
tery, and trust that those interested in the investigatiion of this process
Sexamine this statement without being biased by the comparativly
of the entire crop


The cttig apparatus was the same as that used in the Depart-
ments experiments last season. It was built by the angerhauer

7








the dis, and revIolving in a cast-iron shel There are i e
or hoppers placed at an angle of about 45 degrees to the eaoth
disc. The cane, thrown lengthwise into the chutes, descends b
to the knives, where it is sliced diagonally. A itable arrang
throwing the chips into the elevator boot is provided. Tise
designed by the builders to revolve one hundred and ten re
per minute, and its capacity was guaranteed to be from 200 to
of chips per twenty-four hours. After ov
serious faults inthe construction of the cutter and increasing
to one hundred and eighty revolutions, an increase of 63 per
were enabled to cut 195 tons of chips from straight cane in tw
hours, the largest day's work we accomplished.
Mr. Fred Hinze, an able and experienced sugar manuat
charge of this work, and through his skill we were enabled to
the difficulties in preparing the cane for the battery. Last sea
the first failure of the cutter, Dr. Wiley ordered small steel
be attached to the upper surface and side edge of the tting d
cane was very juicy in 1887, hence he as enabled to tne
tons of cane without appreciable wear of these scrapers. Thi
on the contrary, the cane was exceptionally woody, and scrape
best file steel were worn out in cutting less than 400 ton of
addition to the trouble with these scrapers, it was found that
from the cane collected between the dis and outer shell and
pletely blockaded the cutter. Mr. Hinze had openings t b
cover and upper part of the shell to relieve the disc of the accum
of fiber. It was only after these alterations were made that
able to use the cutter at all.
Economical diffusion of sugar cane demands an exceedingly
or chip. With our best work we were unable to obtain a chip
an eighth of an inch thick. This is double the thickness re
good work.
Taking into consideration the large labor bills, dificulty i
adjustment of the knives, and impossibility of obtaining a s
thin chip, this cutter is not suitable for difsion work in Loui
THE HUGHES CUTTER.
The system of cutting cane used at Colonel C nighams t
Texas and in the sorghum houses in Kansas is the invention
Hughes, of Cape May City, N. J. This cutter consists of am
inder, carrying a number of knives, whose blades project fro
cumference of the cylinder in the direction of rotation. The
is rapidly revolved in front of a dead knife set parallel to it fa
cane, previously cut into short pieces, is thrown into a hoppe
it is caught by the knives and carried against the dead knife.






by the centrifugal force is throw into a receiver below. This eat-
S i aa u in ion with an ensilage cutter,
h latter furnishes the ort pieces of cane.
t of cane diffusion is largely dueo Mr.


THE NATIONAL CANE SHREDDER.

at Magnolia Plantation this season uggested the
of the cane shredder to the preparation of cane for the bat-
hismaine has been used several seasons by Governor War-
i shredding of whole ane for the mill. If its work during
Stie be taken as a criterion, the shredder could be readily
to the requirements of diffusion.
THE DIF USION BATTERY.
i ion battery was built in 1887 by the Colwell Iron Works of
Y It was enlarged in 1888 by Edwards & Haubtman, of New
n aoing to the directions of Governor H. C. Warmoth.
e enlargement of the battery the only changes made were in the
the cells and calorisators or heaters, and the addition of two
ll. The battery as used the past season consists of fourteen
iaraged in a circle, and charged from a central reservoir by
s of a revolving chute -
THE CELLS.
are 11 feet long by 44 inches in diameter. The net cane
i cubic feet. The upper doors are 30 inches in diameter and
etening at the discharge gate is 44 inches, the full diameter of
of the cell. Th joint between the discharge gate and
of the cell is the ordinary hydraulic closure.
CALORISATORS.
be cloritors (eaters) as originally constructed were 49 inches
nd 11 inches in diameter, inside measurements. There were
t r tubes 49 inches long by 2 inches in diameter in each, giv-
a eating surface of 17.1 square feet. In enlarging the battery
n tubes 1 by 41 inches were added, giving an additional heating
e of 92 s e ft, and a total of 26.3 square feet per calorisator.
heatg su e was sufficient for the work, but it would have been
to have resed it considerably more. The eating
e per cubic foot of cell space is .46square feet, or nearly 4 cubic


JUICE AND WATER MAINS, ETC.
e jice and water pipes are of cast-iron and have a net diameter of
4inche. The compressed-air pipes are 1J inches in diameter. The












A circular track under the cells, provided with a at ha it
axles ed in the rtn of the adiiof



the flat-car was drawn by a mule to a point opposite theainline


the river served to carry the track far
wash the chips away.

CRITICISMS ON THE DIFFUSION MACHINERY.

The question of arrangement of diffsion a
pend upon local conditions. The batteries built r i
previous to that at Magnolia were of the type known as line batteries.
The circular arrangement was selected for Magnolia in order to give
the planters an additional example of the different types of difion
batteries. The circular arrangement has many advantages. It also has




cell to cell by power and finally run it outside the building for damping.
A circular battery possesses decided advantages over all other forms
in ease and regularity of charging the cells with cane chips,
arrangement, and facility of controlling the
be so arranged that they can be mnipulated fm i e te c .
The measuring tank should also be pla insde
at the center.
DEFECTS IN THE MAGNOLIA BATTERY.

The defects in the battery are not due to the workmanship, brather
to the designers and to oversights when increasing its capacity. The
Department is in no respect responsible for these


The chute should be entirely supported from above, a counterpoise
relieving the strain caused by the weight of the chute coming entirely
on one ide. Instead of a sliding door, to block the flow of chips when

with a hinged spout, balanced in such a manner that it can be thrown
yW^T~f|^^ff^^R ^^^ lSa^|i^
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back ad stop the flow of cipsthe bottom of the spout becomig a
gate. An illustration of such a chute is given on Plate 1, Bulletin 5,
this arrangement is adopted there is ample
room to ace the measuring tank in the center of the upper platform.
The valve d lines being on the inside of the cirle, the battery
Sof the work, and can not be pardoned for over-
heating the cells or making other errors.
In the enlargement of the battery the size of the pipe-lines was not
pop iWe found for rapid work-i. e., a cell every
seven and one-half miutes-that a pipe area of 12 inches is not quite
Sb I lie 20 inches would be ample for a cell of the
dinions of those at Magnolia.
or heaters wereof suficient capacity. In enlarg-
inritors, the original outlets for water of condensation were
This versight caused considerable annoyance, since, owing
ts ncy of the outlets, several check-valves were broken
ters clogged with water
At pre t the lower doors of the battery are managed from below
a block and tackle. The hydraulic method of opening
would have saved considerable anoyance and the labor of one man.
ange in the position of the drainage-valves will render the
the battery more comfortable for the laborers and will
entail but a small expense.
Te hduli method of opening large doors is used in a number of
inIn 1882 visited the works at St. Just, near Clere-
and was much pleased wth the management of the
large doors of their line battery by this method.

GENERAL REMARKS ON DIFUSION BATTERIES AND THEI AR-
RANGEMENT.
I have previously stated, local conditions largely control the
Sofa battery. A single line requires a very long building,
but ease of removal of the exhausted chips and favorable conditions
fr enrging tmhe plant make this arrangement of the cells a favorite
oe. r length of the return pipes is objectionable. The double
Sa fci s the use of a siple method of removal of exhausted
chips. The return pipes are very short and the manipulations are as
Sin the r battery. In both the single and double line
e i difficulty in charging the last cll in the series with
cane without either having cips left over, which fall on the floor, or
giving this cell an irregular supply.
ircar rrge t of a battery requires a very high square
building. The more complicated method of removing the exhausted
chips and the space occupied are the principal objections to this form
of battery. The cost of construction varies but little in the different









In the battery at Magnolia we have been troubled qten
acumulations of air and vapor in the cells. The men at the batt
have Instructions to blow off" these accumulations at frequent i
vals. In working a battery at high temperatures, through carelesane
the battery man will often neglect to reduce the steam pressure on t
calorisators at the proper time and the juice will be heated above
boilig point, and large quantities of stem wi in the
the p sure is reduced Thes vapors and t
to trap and prevent a uniform extraction of the sugar from the i
To over ome this difficulty the attachment illustrated in the aoo
panying figure was devised by K. Leyser, of Oser,
This apparatus consists of a float g, connecting by means ofa spherica
joint at its upper end with the valve b, and gu a


























Fm- 1.
means of a rod at the center of the strainere. The tube a co municte
with the diffuser. If vapors of any kind collect in the diffuser, the
will pass out through the tube a around the float g, through the valv
b and tube 4, into the open air. Any foam that may have accumulate
ji^in ifihi l. ^I; i t jl i
























in the cell will also pass out. As soon as the juice in the ceI riseir
suficiently the float g will lift and close the valve and preent it
~ ~ -~ ~ ~U U~~ i~cii~i, @N





13

of the smallfunnel is to ath any ne pieces of
p which may pass the strainer and prevent them from clogging the
paat. This funnel should be removed from time to time and
ptied. A valve between cc is provided, which is to be closed when


CONTROL OF DIFPUSION WORK.

St ari at comparable results and place the records beyond
tyof error through eglect or forgetfulness of the wormen,
device for registraton is essential. Thoe investigators
us study of diffusion of sugar-cane will realize the neces-
h device. A number of German and other beet-sugar
have devised instruents for recording all that is essen-
work of a battery. These eords, the work of an instru-
t, and made etirely without prejudice or fears of punishment for
li becoe valuable data for locating and correcting errors.
rt cs of such instruments will be many times repaid. A bat-
y man, ter how faithful and capable he may be, is liable to
Sthat may prove very expensive and render valueless stud-
Sithe work. he difusion of sugar-cane presents many
Sdifferent from those which exist in the beet. The com-
atively all amount of work that has been done in the diffusion of
Si t cutry and many of the conditions under which it has been
e, hvted a careful study to determine the most favorable
diti rsuch work. Now that the success of the process is fully
strated, we should turn ourattention to improving the work of

IIORSIN-DAON'S AUTOMATIC REGISTER.'

ler rotated horizontally by clock-work carries a roll of paper
to hours, quarter hours, and fractions of five minutes; a
l c athed to an arm bears directly upon the paper; this pencil,
by a float, follows and registers every change of level in the
.asuring tank. .
Itwill be seen that this nstrument records every chnge that takes
g tank, whether it be charging, discharging, or
eularitieof the work of any kind. The lines traced from the lower
he u r pt of the paper show the charging of the measuring
k, and vice versa those traced from above downward-the discharg-
The lines are more or less inclined according to the rate of charg-
ng or discharging. A counter records the total number of cells filled.
r inhas so ad this ipparatus that it may be
a distance from the diffusion battery, preferably in the ofice or lab-
This description is a free translation of one in Bulletlu do PA8sociation des Chim-
~~9, ~ ~ ~ ~ t or~14 B~b~ f~ ~~~

Blllii de








oratory.; lInorder that the work -may be regualr ada thoextractomi
form, two electric bells are connected with the apparatuft and idct
the proper moment to -open or close the battr valves




,,ii PIM Iii I




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Ir, 2.

"With this apparatus, where a complete record of the diffus
is automatically made, one can attain absolute certainty that a
from the laboratory or office have been strictly carried ot
time has not been lost at certain hours of the night only to be
by hurried work in the morning.Y

EUGENE LANGEN'S (COLOGNE, GERMANY) AUTOMATIO REGISE

The following-described apparatus was designed by Eugene agn
a very prominent beet sugar manufacturer, and was constratdb
Fischer &Stechit,Essen am Rtuhr,Germnauy. This apparatus is dwge
not only to register the weasurement of the juice, but also to deemn
its density.
a















14ss







The measurer' of the volume of the juice drawn consists essentially
a cyliner of opr six partments, and is similar in its
tion to a gas-meter. The juice from the diffuser passes immediately
























i f ie Vndic1ted in cubicmeters by meansof the counter on
;n



fto
















a, w makes a complete turn for each
of idrawn The axis a tran smits its mio-
towhes Z (ariableat will), to l).



which is fixed a crank k and a projecting
nd c c m r by mea of the s by onneo nter o
.in oer te w agon t, carying a pcilhe and trael-
o the axids n, hin sua ca anneras to trae a
r n. he ltls vig cylinder Rs, hich is
tion to clo work. The amZ d, touching the electric
a o eth xert and rings an elric bll ting



h e e batery man that he must cloe t
risesrlve. h4 indicates the form of the diag ram vld
iino the gi diagram which v nearly vertical the
r to w argeo adiffuserofjuice. Theshort horiontal lin

ove the center line shows whether the correct amount of juice was
drawn,

at, An~es, pp. 56,57,








the principle of communicating vessels. A column of juice of a

'_ -whose height is
.jnice.
"A portion of the juice measured by th
passes through the small reservoir H intoatu
.S, provided with an overflow at r. Inside
S is another tube, D, which terminates a
funnel-shaped vessel and below in a flexib
bulb, F. The interior of this tube, inclui
bulb, is filledwith water, whose height isre
Supon a cylinder, B, by means
Spencil.



at thelowerend. The s
so obtained is reduced to theo
rm. 5. and the degrees Brix or Baum noted. Mr.
has substituted a bundle of very fine copp
for the spiral in the original apparat in order to
the temperature of the juice and water.
"Foam and mechanical impurities do not affect
apparatus."
If this apparatus is used independent of the automatic me
double ball-valve should be employed, to prevent wastage f
overflowing of the juice.
AUTOMATIC SAMPLING OF THE JUIE.

The simplest method of sampling the juice automatically cot
a three-way valve opened and closed by the rise or fall of a
the measuring tank. One opening of the valve
stand-pipe, extending above the greatest height to w
ever filled; the second opening serves to connect the stand-pi
the bottle in which the sample is to be stored; the third openi
nects the stand-pipe with the measuring tank. The
and connected with the stem of the valve that when the juice
a given height it lifts, and, opening the valve, pl
communication with the tank. When the juice level in the ta
the opening from the ptand-pipe to the tank is closed at the sat
that connecting the stand-pipe and bottle is opened, and thejui
filled the tube passes into the bottle. This is repeated every
cell of juice is drawn, and provides a method of sampling both
and accurate. A certain amount of subacetate of lead in ro







Sl in n w m b pld inthebottle
rder to preserve the juice. Before making the analysis add suf5-

aot part of the sample is taken for polarization and the determina-
nof thglose. Before making the glucose determination the lead
s ld be precipitated and removed by Altration.
ing i way valve sould be at lt lst inch in diam-*
to prevent logging. The tube leadig from the tank should also

order that the valve may work with sufficient rapidity to prevent
ag te btle in communication with both tube and tank at the
time it should be fitted as follows:
section of the valve through the-openings should show a T-shaped
v, in oer that a quarter turn may suffice to connect the stand-
e the sample bottle or the measuring tank. The stem
ale should be prolonged and fitted with a pinion J inch in
.etein turn engages a spur-wheel 4 inches in diameter.
shaft is fitted with a drum 8 inches in diameter. The
eg from the float makes a couple of turis around this drum
a nted. The float is so arranged that it has a rise or fall

Seir atus is of course provided with a suitable framework
enlosed and under lock and key. The delivery tube
i the s -pipe extends nearly to the bottom of the sample bottle
rde t stream of juice may thoroughly mix with the sub
and with preceding charges. The dimensions of the
ring and drum given are such that a very slight change in the level
e jue in te m uring tank will open or close the valve.

PURTHER OHECKS ON THE BATTERY WORK.

Sthe apparatus described above is under lock and key and out
g of the battery man. This workman must be provided with a
king system that will promptly notify him of errors.
r this purpose blanks ruled as below were furnished the men at


be 1
MAGNOLIA rLANTATON.
Date --- ----- ------------ ------W atch ---- ------------------------
BA~x mau----------- ------------------------ ------------------------------------


drawn. drawn.


A 4
.i'~s i#~ ~~:.p,,,;;,
1 t~8~i~
.. .. ." n~ I; ii tii;,i; ;;n, i; ;,







18
The men were required to ll in the blanks and eter t

eah seet the cause of delay

An immediate fall in the density of the juie notifes the workman f
his error. The failure of the cell number to correspond with the num

the error. To illustrate the above-mentioned error, I have given below
a transcript of the battery report for two wathes, December 9. The
numbers in the column headed "Temperature indicate the tempera-
ture of the juice at the time of determining its density, and not necessa

It will be noticed in this report that the i of



MAGNOLA PLANTATION.
Date.-December 9. Watch.-Second day and.Arlt night.
Bitey M.-------------------------------- ------------------------------------------------

Time. when Temper- Liters T T e
CHNo. whenDensity. a rawnm CeNo. w Density. a drawn


osaumlg. 00. oagumg. 00.
4 1.2 6.0 88 1, 1 7.45 5.87
5 2.06 .1 7 1,360 14 7.54 5.8 8 1,0
6 2.15 4.0 50 1,3 00 1 8.04 5.7 43 it 1W
7 2.25 5.3 38 1,60 8.15 .4 48 1,30
8 3.34 5.2 37 1,360 3 8.24 5.5 45 180
S 3.49 4. 2 5 1,30 4 8 4 47 1,
10 4.12 5.0 40 1,830 5 8.42 .5 47 1,30
11 4.22 5.0 1s 1, 8.53 5.5 48 1, is
12 8.21 48 60 1,30 7 9 .02 5.
13 5.30 4.9 5 ,0 8 .1 4
14 5.39 8.4 57 1,60 9 9.20 5. 46 1,00
1 .48 3.30 1,0 10 9.29 5.8 40
2 5.57 2.0 58 1, 0 11 9.8 n.0 43 1,w60
3 6.06 1.8 57 1,60 12 .1 4 1,
4 Not drawn. 13 10.08 0 1
6.25 3.9 44 1,360 14 10.17 5.6 49 1i 80

t* Ii. > t~i i M..*. Ailr.-^i- +
6 6.35 4.2 40 1,360 1 10.34 5.6 4 1,
7 6.5 4.5 4360 2 10.44 5.2 52 1 60
8 (6 58 5.0 37 1,360 3 10.55 5.1 52 1,880
9 7.07 5.2 36 1,300 4 11.14 5. 4 46 1,30
10 7.16 5.5 38 1,360 5 11.23 5.6 46 1,80
11 7.25 5.6 38 1,360 6 11.43 6.0 40 1, "0,
12 7.35 5.8 37 1,360 7 11. 53 5.4 46 1, M

I Work very irregular during second watch, 1.21 to 6 p. ., on acc ut of tble wit the a

This sudde fall in density is du to moe than one drw being mad
from one cell, or, In ther words, t worman nglecte to cloe a cer-
tain valve connecting with the juice main and hee, instead of draw-
ing from the cell last filled with fresh chips drew repeatedly from a
eed cell throush thi eglectd valve Th batt man min
|+ i l ++ +]+ + "P+ i+~ ~
... ++++ ++p +++++++ i; ++
7. 5. 6~i 38 Irsr @i~~ ,,, +++, +I]+++
~~~ ica :+!iZC~ ~r~1:1


~i~~rs ;ui~El ~ir P~ i+l"l+

i+,.W+$" "" "8 +++

P, fwe x! l""""~










-hiti is made.r
tis aps needless to add that the battery man who made these
r is relieved fro duty the following day, when he carelessly
eated the above mistakes. It would be very easy for a workman to
c is e by mkng a fase entry in his report. Theuseofthe
tomatiregistering apparatus I have described would effectually pre-

DIFPUSION WORK.
The diffion battery having been used three days continuously, it
Sdecided to lear the yard and sugar-house and begin test runs.
ese rns began December 1 and were continued until the end of the
son. In this time there were few delays chargeable to the battery.
ere were numerous delays caused by the inefficiency of the cutters
ely foul condition of the Yaryan quadruple effect. This
er failed to work up to its guaranteed capacity on account of a thick
posit of scale on the tubes. Late in the season Mr. Yaryan visited
Spn and recommended boiling out the pans with caustic
tment was very effective, and the capacity was soon
St for the work required. In preparation for further en-
use, Governor Waroth ha contracted for an 18-
i quadrple effect of the Yaryan system.
omee d y was caused at the beginning of the season
account of the clarifiers not being in readiness. It was Governor
Sintention to depend entirely upon the clarification of the
e the difers. This work was unsatisfactory, so he returned to

MANIPULATION OF THE DIFUSION BATTERY.
of ting a battery in the diffusion of sugar-cane has
Seibed in the reports of the Chemical Division, that I
llongia brief r6s 6 of the practical work, in order to render
sequent portions of this bulletin more intelligible to those who are
Sthoroughly posted.
THE FIRST OPERATIONS.
or cells with water heated to near its boiling-point.
Sthese cells precede cellNo. e., the first cell filled withfresh
ps. By a proper manipulation of the valvesforcewater intothe first
the cells containing hot water, driving the latter forward and into
SNo. 1 at the bottom. By admitting the water at the bottom of the



diseharge of exbousted chips. aUd X0. 14 is filing with freah chios.







cell the air is driven out at the vent in the cover. In the antime cell
No. 2 is flledwith fresh chips. When No. 1 is fll of je the aes
are changed, and the circuit established through the valve net
with the upper part of the diffuser. The valve connecting with the
bottom of No. 2 is then opened, and the juice from No. 1 passes in at the
bottom of this cell, water taking the place of this juice. ell No.
filled with chips, and the same operations are
six or seven cells are filled. The number of cells so lled is dependent
largely on the temperature of the water entering cell No. 1 and the
probable extraction. Let us assume that seven cells have been lled
A charge of juice must now be drawn. The juice having passed through
seven cells of chips, no draw having been made, has about reached its
maximum density. The work is now continued, a charge of jice being
drawn from each cell filled, When cell No. 12 is reached the hot water
in No. 13 is ischarged into the ditch; whie No.13 illing the water
in No. 14 is discharged. The first round of the battery is now co
pleted. The chips in No. 1 have been treated twelve times with fresh
water and are now ready to be rejected. While cell No. 14 is fling with
fresh chips the exhausted chips in No. 1 are being removed. his
routine continues without variation. A few hours'pra e at a battery
is sufficient to train an intelligent laborer to do this work.
INFLUENCE OF THE DIMENSIONS AND FORM OF THE CELL.
If we place cuttings of cane in a vessel and surround them with
water, no matter what may be the size or shape of the vessel, an equi-
librium will soon be established, and the diluted jie bathing the hips
will be sensibly of the same density as that contained in the cuttings
themselves.
If, in the construction of a diffusion cell, we give it a diameter of 4
feet and a depth of but a few inches, there is no reason why the ex-
traction should be either better or poorer than in a cell a few inches in
diameter and several feet long, provided the circuation is equally good
in each case. It is this proviso which should control the dimensions
and form of a diffusion cell, and not the possibility of an increased or
diminished extraction through variations in length of the column of
chips which the water must traverse. The length of the column of
chips has no influence whatever upon the extraction, but should not
be sufficient to impede the circulation.
In the manufacture of sugar from beets there i a seriousobjection
to a large cell, hence the tendency to make a capacity of 300 tons per
day per battery a limit. This objection is the liability of the beet cut
tings packing or matting, and thus nterfering with the circulation.
In the diffusion of cane even at high temperatures we fd such
tendency to matting. The extraction in the Magnolia battery this
season was very uniform, notwithstanding the increased length of the







s o lar di er tere ia ibility of difulty in uni
ly distributing the juic. The experience in cane work has been
antt h ave been erected where a careful stud
e work hasb ade, that we have little data on this point. A
f diameter can be built for less money than one of the same
l contents but greater diameter. This refers especially to large
doors of a cell of large diameter should have
t tto supports, viz the hinge and latch, in order to pre

of the cell i excessive, the great length of the column
will retard the current of juice, and it will be necessary to
ase the water pressure.
e ess l conditions which must be observed in the construction
Sare that the form and dimensions must be such as to secure
lation of the juice through the chips.
CLARIFICATION IN THE DIFFUSION BATTERY.
dayof the season, as mentioned above, an attempt was
e lime in the cells of the diffusion battery for the purpose of
ati u ient milk of lime was added to each cl of fresh
Sto neralize the acids of the juice. The temperature of the three
e g that containing the fresh chips was maintained at as
y 95 (2030 .) as possible. The results may be summed up
y as follows
dision juice was bright and perfectly clear. In order to be
clarification was complete,the juice was run into th
ted to the boiling point. Quite a blanket" formed,
dering the preliminary clarification which had already been made.
impurities evidently resulted from the partial clarification that
akn place in cell No. 12 of the battery. The fresh chips, being
much co r than the juice coming from the precding cell, lower
e below the point necessary to a good clarification. At
S of this work, Mr. Fred Hinze suggested drawing from the
the last, i.e., No 10. he juice from this cell, having
ated to the highest temperature practicable in the battery, is
u y This plan was not adopted, since it reduces the
er of cells under pressure to ten, and necessitates driving two cells
ce ea The juice in these cells soon reaches its maximum den
and s to heat the chips to such a temperature that a good
ication can be obtained.
Sto heat the chips i cell No. 12 in the follow-
anner: Cell No. 12 was filled with chips and juice in the usual
er, except that compressed air was used to force the juice through
ells without changing the main battery valves the air vent on
1 was opened, that on No. 12 closed and the current reversed
ng air into No. 12. The air vent on No. 12 was again opened and
Itwo(k.








juice, the first time raising their temperature considerably, ad the
second, sufficiently high for clarification. The draw was made from
No. 12 as usual.


NOTES ON THE USE OF LIME IN THE DIBATTERY.
Mr. Fromentin1 advises "the use of a smallquantityof limeqin thediffa-
ion of bees, 2 to 3 liters of milk of lime at



l .l
perdiffuser. An increase in the p y of th
tion are obtained." In the same place Mr. Fromentin ites an experi-
ment in which the purity of the jie was in s 2 s
In the above experiments a complete ciii
claimed. Subsequent treatment by the carbonatation process was nee
essary.
In 1883 0. B. Jennings, of Honey Creek, Wi.,
patentfor certain proin s
cally states that he uses either dry lime or lime whitewash mixed with
the cane cuttings for the purpose of obtain agi
the diffusion apparatus. Mr. Jennings also claims that this proess is
applicable in the diffusion ofs ugar-cane.
Lime3 was used in the diffusion cells at Wn n
season for the purpose of clarification.
Lime was also used in the diffusers at the Planters' Experiment Sta

with this process, which were made entirely d
of other experimenters, were very successful.
This method of clarification is discussed in ui u Division
of Chemistry, pages 23-25.
I made a few experiments at Magnolia on a small sale to determine
how perfect a clarification can be obtained by this process. A presre
flask, such as is used in analytical work, was nearly filled with cane
chips; sufficient lime was added to neutralize the acids in the juice,
and the flask was finally filled with clarified diffusion juice, closed and
heated ten minutes to a temperature of 950 C. (2030 F.). The flask was
cooled, opened, and the juice was filtered through linen cloth. The
filtered juice was then heated to its oiling point in the open air. It re-
mained perfectly clear, and even on boiling did not show signs of tur-
bidity.
The conditions of this experiment we the same as those existing in
regular diffusion work, except that in the latter case it is impossible to
heat the last cell to as bigh a temperature as that obtained in the ex-
IRevue Universelle des Progr6i do Is Fabrication du Sucre, 18&3-i84, p. 21.







-riaeut. This experiment shows that as soon as we obtain some
mof a ng the jicein the l cell ofthe ba y to
ently high temperature, we can obtain a clarification superior
nable in theordinary manner.
Sisesto be recommendedwhenthe work is
rregular or the cane damaged by frost and subsequent fermentation.
WOKN TEMPERATURE OF THE BATTERY.
Oo thickness of the chips furnished by the cutter it was
to wok the battery at a high temperature in order to obtain
extraction as possible with a low dilution. There is a de-
nience in working at high temperatures, due to the liability
boiling in the heaters and steam collecting in the cells. It
for steam and air to collect to a sufficient extent to interfere
ulation of the juice near the top of the cell.
n te reliiary work with the diffusion battery the temperatur
8,9, and 10 was maintained as nearly as possible at 850 C.
1850.) Thejuice issuing from cell No.11was kept as hot as consistent
th rapid rk. The temperature of cells Nos. 2 to 7, inclusive, ranged
Sa 0 to 700 C. (1490 to 15o .), and of No. 1 about 600 C.
St 1490 F.). With thin chips and a moderate dilution
was very good. Owing to a lack of cuttin capacity we
to the thickness of the chips and work the bat-
uh r temperature. In the early part of the work
e passed the water for the battery through a large heater; later on
S o bta as good results without the eater as

The range of temperature during the greater portion of the season is
i ftable. It must be remembered in exmining
Sble that the Magnolia battery has 14 cells, 12 of which are in
tivity, 1 fillig and1 emptying. The small amount of heating sur-
ace in the calorisato should also be taken into account.

Temperature.

Cent. Fahr.
0 0
2 ................

70-80 158-176
S................





12................ 70 158






it; "as *& 'i li .a ni ss"".i liil" iiigh il ""i fci+?iiiiii i ,








1................ 240 10




T cmainotellowo temperaturesof wl .1 a ,1
the modrt ated jie ............ 3 to 1
c l o0 0 ................)













onh cou temperatures bn of h1gh
Prab tici hise deam.Ionstre elsait an12h o temperature a de
S libe to sdrelriousely interiferel iith the p0 o gionih
S................it not the a














duct caue dttifuon is lTrgey the cause of eltho i
i xpetri e n d in mrillinge the exhasted fcipet In





in 1887 at Magnolaaion.ider iffitywas ex i s
the chips; so much, in fact, that theeerient was
710 (1o b.), d the I. it r d t
h low tmperature weetof w ie t a the boi Qth sin




abe hesn nteaml In rep thier i temperature n drui
o tite od lyheto niolmin ei conta with theet
cold tcunhas e of i 3 0




Owin g to the t h e ee e pe t t we had nowell
ting te irulion. Eergl n if itwef e dicle ta as be
capciety of the mlolig trs is conced to in the temperatu of
clNo 18 t above 400 C. (10i4 F.), it wouldb objctionable





tr cie hps demouns in ated that tha eperan bo p Ci cl
is lite to seriou thin tere hter sing e o N s
1Is it not (10 thatb the high teprache at wihe eo uully

duct caue disiton is lawy the causn ofo te d.fO l the has tb
exeince in milling t exharuste chips? In thecexperim ents mpe
rin 187 at Magnolia cons idenot edic was exp......... in mTilli
the chips; so much, ine t th e experiment wasnolactice G ioue.
In the b e w the waitr en terng cel No. 1 wurther oppout
710 C.k (1600ime)tand by the time ithe the sond ct it tem
wperaturew. lithe below the boiling p oit Ond thecot; ;marim

tunrf re efirst cli not exee 60 (10 F.) There i w lillbel n
opportunity t tinue hee exp a M







that the relatively lower purity of the diffion juices as compared

pelled to work.
S a a e of 850 0. (1850 F.) admits of easier
h treatment in the sugar-house.

DILUTION.

sof stating the dilution of the normal juice are employed
Sviz, apparent dilution and the actual dilution. In ad-
extra evaporation in terms of the diffusion juice is also given.
g to the frequent variations in the juice content of the cane we
a variable dilution even with a constant draw. For the same
o have a variable reduction in the percentage of sucrose in
ice aide from irregularities of extraction. The relatio of the
ion juie drawn to the actual amount contained in the cane is
e parent dilution. It has been customary in diffusion work
try to arbitrarily assume a juice content of 90 per cent. of
eanendreduce this weight to volumetric terms based upon the
t he normal juice; a comparison of this volume of juice is
t ma with the volume of diffusion juice drawn. In this report
l lume of juice in the cane is compared with the volume of
ion juice drawn and the result is termed the apparent dilution.
nearer we approach a perfect extraction, the nearer the apparent
ion approaches the actual.
tion is the roportion of water added t the normal
its percentage of sugar to that of the diffusion juice;
theactualdilution represents the evaporation necessary, per
ce, to remove the added water. In calculating the
ion take the sum of the percentages of sucrose and glucose in
r to diminish the errors resulting from inversion.
figuring coal consumption in the comparison of mill and diffusion
allateents should be based on the actual dilution.















GENERAL ANALYTICAL DATA.



DIFFUSION WORK.

In the following table, giving general analytical data, and in
quent tables giving special analytical and manufacturig data of
"run," all the analyses necessary in deducing the results stated
printed in full.
An attempt has been made to tabulate these analyses and dedn
as completely as possible, and in such a manner that there may b
difficulty in others making any further deductions permitted by
scope of the work.
At the beginning of the diffusion work it was my intention to a
three sets of analyses per day, but irregular work very often preve
me from doing so, and on several occasions the samples fermented
fore a sufficient quantity had been collected for an analysis. Se
sets of analyses were rejected in the final tabulations owing to mani
errors in the battery work. Reference to the battery reports was
ally suffeicient to decide the rejection or retention of doubtful anal
On three occasions, when, owing to irregular work, no analysis
made, that of the previous day was taken to represent the avera
the day's work.
The method of sampling pursued in former seasons was the onl
available. One hundred cubic centimeters of juice were taken
each charge and stored in a large bottle until a sufficient quantity
a fair sample had been taken. A hbaindful of ne aken. A handful of fresh aexha
chips were also taken from each cell. The former was passed thr
a small hand mill, and the juice so obtained was analyzed and
analysis taken to represent the normal juice of the cane.
Probably some of the perplexing and eeingly conflicting re
obtained should be ib e he ributed to the method of diff
juice, and the lack of a reliable check on the amount of juice dra
The battery work was followed up as carefully as possible, both by
self and Mr. Fred Hinze, the latter having immediate supervisio
the work. Many of the irregularities in the amount of juice draw
shown in the tabulated statements of each "run," were due to er









he part of the batteryme. In justice to these men, who performed
r duties conscientiously and faithfully, I wish to say that these
ors are perhaps largely attributable to faulty measuring apparatus
d irregular work, which had a tendency to confuse them.
n case he Department decides to continue its experiments at Mag-
Snext season the very best control apparatus should be provided.

T" I.- omparion of normal and diffusion juice.

NORMAL JUICES.

SReducing .Co-efi- Gleae--

SBau~1 getravityc. O Ipurity. sIcrose.


1888. Per cent. Per cent.
c 1 1 I 6. 2 9.0 1.0665 14.2 .58 87.65 4.08
1 15.5 8.6 1.34 13.7 .46 88.22 3.36
2 3 15.7 8.7 1.043 13.7 .46 87.27 3.3
Dec. 2 4 159 8.8 1,0652 13.7 .46 86.17 3.36
De. 5 1. 3 9. 0 1. 0669 14.3 .49 87.66 3 43
c 3 6 16.3 9.0 1. 869 14.5 .39 88.88 2.69
D 3 7 16.2 9.0 1.065 14.1 .48 86 43 3.40
4 8 15.8 8.8 0647 14.0 .39 88.27 2.78
Dec. 4 9 16.3 9.0 1.0669 14. .52 86.43 3.69
4 10 16.2 9.0 1.0665 14.4 .53 88. 8 3.20
Dec 5 11 16.3 9. 1.0669 14.4 .42 88.27 2.91
Dec. 6 1 16. 9. 1.0665 14.0 .52 86.38 3.71
Dec. 6 13 16.0 8.9 10656 14.1 .48 88.12 3.40
Dec. 6 14 16.2 9.0 1.06C5 14.1 .51 87.00 3.62
Dec. 7 15 16.0 8.9 1.0656 14.0 .51 87.50 3.71
Dec. 8 1 15.7 8.7 1.0643 13., .54 86.00 4.00
D 17 17. 9.4 1.0700 14. .44 85.85 3.01
18 16.9 9.4 1.0695 14.5 .52 85.84 3.59
Dc 1 17.1 9.5 1.0704 14.6 .53 8. 41 3.63
Dec. 1 20 16. 9.2 1.082 14. .44 87.89 3.01
Dec. 11 21 15.7 8.7 1.0643 13.6 .67 86.63 4.92
12 22 16.4 9.1 1.0674 14.3 .60 87.23 4.19
12 23 16.8 9.3 1. 091 15.0 .57 89.25 3.80
S13 24 1.8 9.3 1.91 14.7 .62 87.46 4.22
Dec. 13 25 17.0 9.4 1.0700 14.7 .60 86.44 4.08
Dec. 13 26 17. 9.4 1.0700 14. 7 .60 86.44 4.08
De. 14 27 17.1 9.5 1.0704 15.2 .62 88.92 4. 08
Dec. 15 28 16.8 9.3 1.0691 14.5 60 86. 27 4.14
Dec. 15 29 17.1 9.5 1.0704 15.3 .47 89. 0 3.07
Dec. 10 30 15.8 8.8 1.0647 12. 9 1 00 81. 6 7.75
Dc. 17 31 17.1 9.5 1.0704 13.7 .81 80.14 5.91
Dec. 18 382 17.2 9.5 1.0709 15.3 .51 88.89 3.33

Dec. 19 34 16.8 9.3 1.0691 14.5 53 86. 27 3.
Dec. 1 35 17.0 9.4 1.0700 14.8 .60 87.02 4.06
Dec. 20 0 17.8 9.6 3.0713 15.2 .4o 87.86 3.02
Dec. 20 37 17.3 .6 1. 0713 15.2 .53 8786 .48
Dec. 21 38 17. 4 9 1.0717 14.9 .55 .7 3.69
S 30 17.1 9.5 1.0704 14.9 .60 87.16 4.03


I Degr s Ba m6 are from the old calculations as given in Tuoker's M anal."



















1888.2

Dtee. 40 r 17.o 4 su.g m6 o714.0 i
e c 27 41 17. 1 9.5 1. 70 14 .8
eite. 25 4 17.4 9.5 1.071 14.79 6 .5 404 9

Dec. 169 9., 18 14.2 .8
Dec. 28 44 17., 9.8 1.071l 1.il .72 86.5 4.87

Dec. 28 45 17.8 9.9 1.0735 15.7 .674 85.4 4.35
De,. 29 46 17.8 9.9 1.0765 14. .7 8.2 54
Dec. 29 47 17.3 9.6 1.0713 14.5 .79 86.70 4.62
Dec. 29 48 17.1 9.5 1.0704 14.9 .62 8716 4.16
iDec. 30i 49 16. 9 9. 4 1. 0695 14. 6 .61 8(L 43 4.18
Dec.30 50 16.4 9.1 1.0674 14.0 .58 85.40 4.14
Dec. 31 51 16.5 9.1 1.078 14.0 67 8 4 4.
Dec. 31 52 16.5 9.1 1.0678 14.5 .63 87.87 4.35
1889.
Jia. 1 53 16.6 9.2 1.0682 13.7 .83 81 47 6.0;
Jan. 2 54 16.3 9.0 1.0669 14.0 .01 85.82 4-6
Jan. 2 55 16.1 8.9 1.0660 13.6 .73 84.46 5.37
Jan. 3 56 17.1 9.5 1.0704 14.9 .55 87.1 3.
Jan. 3 57 16.0 8.9 1.0656 13.5 .70 84.37 5.19
Jan. 4 58 15.5 8.6 1.0634 13.2 .55 8ii 14 4.
Jan. 4 59 16.0 8.9 1.0656 13.6 .70 85.00 5.15
Jan. 5 60 14.6 8.1 1.0596 11.9 .81 81.51 6.80
Jan. 5 61 14.0 7.8 1.0570 11.3 ..74 80.68 6.55
Jam. 6 62 12.9 7.2 1.0523 10.1 .62 8.27 .
Jan. 6 63 16.3 90 1.0669 14.6 .41 8 0 2. 81
Jan. 7 64 16.2 9. 1.0663 14.4 41
Jan. 8 65 16.2 9.0 1.0665 14.4 .33 885 2.2
a. 8 66 16.2 9.0 1.0665 14.1 .37 870
Jan. 9 47 15.9 8.8 1.0652 14.2 .40. 89.32 2.82
Jan. 9 68 16.0 8.9 1.0656 13.9 .40 86.87 2.88
Jan. 10 69 16.1 8.0 1.0660 13.9 .40 8.32 2.88
Jan. 10 70 15.9 8.8 1.0652 13.4 .33 ft.29 2.46
Jan. 11 71 15.4 8.5 1.0630 13.3 .41 86.32 3.08
Jan. 11 72 15.4 8.5 1.0630 12.8 .42 83.07 8.28
Jan. 12 73 15.7 8.7 1.0643 13.6 .45 86.63 3.30
Jan. 12 74 15.5 8.6 1.0634 13.2 .44 85.14 8.83
Jan, 13 75 15.3 8.5 1.0626 13.0 .44 85.02 8.88
Jan. 14
Means.. ...... 16.4 9.1 0 10072 14.1 .56 8&.07 3.97

E Degrees Bau are from the old calculations as given in Tucker's Manual."
s$attr work irrenu du to beavy rains and cons eqnent sh l f e.









TABLx I.-Coasparison of twrmal and diJf.ionjuince-Centinued.



SReducing Co-effi- Glucose
No. SucBriorse. cient of pr 100
A Brix. Baam6.1 gravity. .(g-in B, parity. sucrose.


1888. Per cenBt. Per cent.
"s i '"" i rl l B If V w


D 1 1 12.6 7.0 1.0510 10.8 .42 85.79 388
S 2 12.8 7.1 1.0519 11.1 .42 8.85 3. 78
D 2 1.2 7.3 1.0536 11.4 .43 86.30 3.77
De. 2 4 13 7.5 1.55 11.4 .43 83.79 3.77
e 12.4 6. 10502 10. .40 85.44 3.76
De. 8 12.8 7.1 1.0519 11.2 .l2 87.47 2.32
DM 7 11.6 .4 1.0468 A0. 4 .34 89.65 3.27
.4 8 12. 6.7 1.0485 10.4 .39 86.63 3.75
4 9 122 6.8 1.0493 10.5 .47 8.10 4.48
Dec. 4 10 13.1 7. 10531 11.3 .30 86.22 2.85
1W. 5 11 11.7 6.5 1.0472 10.6 .42 90.63 3.95
De. 1 12.2 .8 1.0493 11.1 .38 91.62 3.42
De. 1 12.8 7.1 0519 11.0 .34 85.91 3.09
6 14 12.7 7.0 1.0514 10.9 .39 85.78 3.58
D 7 15 12.6 7.0 1. 0512 10. 8 .39 85.75 9
D 1 12.6 7.0 1.0510 10.7 .41 84. 6 3.81
S8 17 12.4 6.9 1.0502 10.7 .36 8 24 3.3
Dec.9 18 13.0 7.2 1.0527 10.7 .42 82.28 3.91
Dec. 10 1 13.7 7. 10557 11.7 .42 85. 1 3. 59
.11 2 1.0 7.2 1.0527 10. .30 83.82 2.75
D 11 21 12.8 7.1 1.0519 10. 7 82.78 .30
Dec. 12 22 12.6 7.0 1.0510 10.7 .65 84.96 8.07
Dec. I 23 12.8 7.1 1. 0519 10.8 .58 8. 35 5.34
S 24 13.0 7.2 1.0527 10.9 .40 83.82 .67
Dec. 1 2 12.2 6.8 1.0493 10.7 .44 87.74 4.09
Dec. 1 26 13.1 7.3 1.0531 11. .48 8951 4.14
S14 27 1 2.9 7.2 0523 11.0 .45 85. 5 4.09
Dec. 15 28 13.2 7.3 10536 11.1 .60 84.03 5.40
Dec. 15 2 12.5 .9 1.050 10. .41 84.80 .866
Dec. 1 30 12.5 6.9 1.0508 10,1 .60 80.80 5.94
Dec 17 31 12.7 7.0 1.0514 10.38 .55 81.06 5.833
S 18 32 1.8 7., 1.0561 11. .51 84.10 4.40
Dec. 18 33 14.6 8.1 1.0596 12.5 .47 85.62 3.76
De. 19 4 13.9 7. 7 1.0566 12.0 .49 86.28 4. 08
Dae. 19 35 13.7 7.6 1.0557 11.9 .48 86.87 4. 03




S2 39 13.7 7.6 1.0557 11.7 .50 85.41 4.28

Dec. 2 0 13. 8 7 6 1. 051 11.9 .51 8.83 4. 28

Dec. 27 42 1 3.2 2 I f7t.053 10.9 .-47 82.51 4. 31

Dec. 28 13. 7.3 1.0531 11.0O .50D 83. 93 5.3 3
Dec. 28 45 13.5 7.5 1.0548 11.. .58 8373 5.13
Dec. 20 46 13.3 7.4 1.0540 11.0 .760 82.72 5.45
Dec. 29 47 13.w1 7.3 1,0531 10. 72 2.40 6. 6

Degmes Buum mb frrom the old calulat on s giv en In "T utcker's Mia m S"
:. qa{ B I*
t_ ~ .,I
tf ''*I ** w 1a nA 8
-~r KM Vlarln .^ ... *


i-iiii ;i; ;f .;Ssi li; 9 S^C it II;, ;;;lc: ^ t ^ ^ l il















DI USION JICES-1888.Cotie d. n



B rix. 29 gr 1vity 1( p u i t 8 su o ". 8

Dec. 30 49 13.2 7.3 1.0536 11.0 70 83.27 6.6
Dec. 30 0 13.5 7.5 1.0548 11.3 .71 8.
Dec.31 51 13.3 7.4 1. 050 10.9 .
c. 1 52 18.6 7. 5 1.05 11.6 8
1889.
Jan. 1 5 12. 6 7.0 1. 0510 10. 7 86
Jan. 2 5 12.7 7.0 1.0514 10.6 .45
Jan. 2 55 12.4 6.9 1.0502 10. 2 47 4.4
Jan. 83 13.4 7.4 1.054 11.2 .
Jan. 3 57 12.9 7.2 1.023 11.0 .57 8
Jan. 4 58 12.4 6.9 1.0502 10.2 .75 .1 7.5
Jan. 4 59 1. 7.4 1.0544 11.1 .75
Jan. 5 0 12.4 6.9 1.0502 10.2 21. 17
Jan. 5 61 12.4 6.9 1.0502 10.2 .55 8.21' 5.9
Jan. 6 63 11.5 8.4 1.0464 8.8 .54 .47 .1*
Jan. 6 63 13.6 7.5 1.055 11.5 .28 84.52 2.5
Jan. 7 64 13.3 7.4 1. 0540 11.6 87.2 2.50
Jan. 8 65 13.2 7.3 1.05 11.3 .45 8
Jan. 8 66 13.7 7.6 1.0557 11.7 .39 85.41 3.33
Jan. 9 67 13. 1 7.3 1.0531 11.3 .41 8.2
Jan. 9 8 12.4 6.9 1.0502 11.4 .38
Jan. 10 69 12.5 6.9 1.0506 11.0 .34 8800 .0

Jan. 11 71 12. .9 1. 0502 1. .8 8.
Jan. 11 72 2.1 6.7 1.048 10.0
Jan. 12 73 11.9 6.6 1.0481 10.4 .37 87.3 5
Jan. 12 74 12.2 6.8 1.0493 10.6 .
Jan. 13 75 11.9 6.6 1 0481 10.4 .40 87.! 8.5
Jan. 14




















+& ,
Rdum6 showeing the mean composition of the 1tormal and diffaion jai&es the nia'amum and
minimum density, percentageg of eucroae, redutcing Pugar8 (glucoee, etc.), c e Of








Degree Brix ......................... 16.4 1"1. 8 12.0 12.9 14.6 11.5


Sucrose.....................per cent. 14.1 15.3 10.1 11.0 12. 8.8


Reducin ur(gluoset.).. 1.0 .33 .48 .72 .2
Glucooper sucrose .......... 3.97 7.75 2.2 4.8 7.35 2.5
I.veri.on, per cent. diffu..on juice .. .......... .......... ......... .055 2. H 0.0





o31


A inspection of Table I shows that the normal juices were of excep-
al richness and purity. (Compare similar tables in Bulletins 5, 11,
7, an 18.) The purity of the diffusion juice is generally lower
t that of the normal.
Sgluose per 100 sucrose is generally higher in the diffusion than
e normal juices. This indicates an inversion, although the same
e per 100 surose in the two juices would not necessarily indicate
there had been no inversion. A lower glucose per 100 sucrose in
ion juice is not an absurdity, as will be shown further on. A
r glucose per 100 sucrose might exist in the diffusion jnice and still
version of sucrose have taken place. This question will be dis-
edfurtheron under the eading "Inversion," page 32.
e lower mean purity of the diffusion juice is in a measure attrib-
le to inversion but the greater part of this reduction is a result of
high temperature at which battery work was conducted. It is no-
able that from the 1st of December to the 8th, during which time
as employed in the battery for clarification, with the exception
r instances the purity of the diffusion is lower than that of the
al juice. This continues during the remainder of the season with
exceptions, which latter raise te mean purity of the diffusion juice
early that of the normal. The experience of beet sugar manufact-
isthattoohigh a temperature in certain cells of the battery has a
ency to produce an impure juice. Reasoning from analogy, no other
ce of deterioration being apparent, we must attribute the lower
ty of the cane diffusion juice to the same cause.
Sthe evidence we have seems to indicate that the method of con-
ing the battery must be modified. With thinner chips next season
hoped that a lower range of temperature can be employed except
e last three cells, in which a high temperature is requisite. It
Sbe understood that these statements are made for battery work
which lime is not used for clarification in the cells. In this latter
a high temperature is essential to a good clarification.
mmencing ecember 31, a small quantity of lime was used in the
ery as a precautionary measure. This amount was not sufficient to
rent the large inversion of January 4.
may b of interest to call attention to the analyses of the normal


ne left standing in ds at the time of this freeze. None of this
a was widrowed. It was cut as fast as possible and covered with
b. The cutters finished work about January 9.
he meteorological conditions for a few days after the freeze were as
ows: December 21 and 22 clear and cool; 23 and 24, temperature
;UM 650 F.: 26, rain; 26, heavy rain : 27 and 28, cool.





*"* ii"::8 '* a e'rt < fc ^ t llM *i"iU iH i I

A small amount of cane left on the yard was injuredf t ight ex-





been damaged by the freeze, but notithtanig
tie The first ca nete r ws an

h rlandh eing su as rshow lia been any haus eeve
before been grow n oning e




There are no indica tions fprom porthe oe c
been damagto ed by the freeze, but notwithstandg ia de ofg



tin ds of ces the csoe, de acesi were o e t
time previous to January 3, the date of working the

season.

The actual inversion in the battery can not bedetermined with c
tainty when lime is employed in the cells for larica
excess of lime over that required to saturte the o
with the dextrose usually present and forms co n
posable even at low temperatures. The destruction of these compounds
naturally reduces the percentag of glucose
juice, and proportionately lowers the ratio of the gl
A second dificulty in determining inversion arises from possible in-
accuracy in estimating the glucose I in the very dilte solutions obtained
from the exhausted chips. There is no necessity for
except when the battery work is conducted ry
ing a body which diffuses comparatively lowly, in aai
work would not be extracted in the same proportion as the se.
In orde under these conditions, to determine the
of glucose in the exhausted chips must be known. Ordinarily it is s f-
cient to gure the glucose in thexhausted
glucose to sucrose in the diffusion juice, assuming at the sugar in
the diffusion juice and exhausted chips are in the same ratio. As no
determinations of glucose in the exhausted chips were madehis season,
I have used this method of calculation. The work was rarely con-
ducted with sufficient rapidity at Magnolia to render the retention of
glucose beyond the proportion in the diffusion juice probable. During
the first few days' work lime wa ued in the battery. The lower gl

to ier use.
The increase in the ratio of the glucose to the sucrose of a diffusion

employed here) all redu0iug sugars present.








dig n l jie is not directly a meas-
~re of inversion, but an exaggerated statement ofthelossfromthis
I To ~illustrate this point I give the following example:
.Per cent.
r ................................................. 13.20
G lucose. ------------------------------------------------.- 55
G ose per 100 rose.......... ...................... 4.16
Diffusion juice:
G cose ...... -- -- - -- --...- ...- .75
Glucose per 100 sucrose.................................. 7. 05
Increase in glucose per 100 erose................. 3.19
The actual inversion was 2.81 per cent. of the sucrose contained in

It is evident that any inversion is accompanied by a corresponding
increase in the percentage of glucose. In figuring the glucose per 100
inversion an augmented glucose percentage is divided by
a diminished sucrose percentage, and while the ratio obtained for this
modied juice is correct we do not obtain a direct measure of inversion.
here i sti a ther source of exaggeration due to the amount of in-
vertoe formed being greater than the weight of sucrose inverted. The
o os of scrose and invertose are as 95 to 100
The following formulae have been employed in this report in calcu-
lating inversion

= evaporation necessary to concentrate the diffusion juice to the density of the
normal, exp s n terms of the diffusion juice.
r c gl s (redcing sugars) in the normal juice.
percent.glucose (reducing sugars) in the diffusion juice-i-100.




Surose. ................................................. 13.20
Glucose.......................................... .55
Difusion j ice:



S crose ................................................. 10. 20
Glucose................................................. .75

Evaporation E = 20.3.

the values of the letters in the rmula, as given in
the example, we have:

[.75-(296 per cent. sucrose inverted, expre in
terms of the diffusion juice.
A Aslighterror is introduced here, due to the invert sugar formed being greater than
the weight of crose inverted in the proportion 100 : 95. This error, except in ex-

of(10,000 tons average crop).at
m;







Referring to Table V, Part we find, the total weight of diff

44.47 =juice drawn per ton of cane=2,161 p

and 2,161 x.296=6.4 pounds sucrose inverted per ton of cane

As stated in the foot-note, this formula does not gi e t re
but, since the error is so very small as to be alaa
saves the labor of calculations by the longer andd
The greater the inversion the larger the error will be. by an i
tion of the glucose ratios of the diffusion an norm j we
very large inversion indicated, use one of the longer formula given
below.
[Formula by Lieut. A. B. Clements, U'.J. Navy.

(1) x=sucrose inverted per cent. diffusion juice a r

10,000
10000= 105.26315
95

ri=glucose per 100 of sucrose in difusion juice.
r2=glucose per 100 of sucrose in normal juice.
a=per cent. sucrose in diffusion juice.
[Formula by Lient. A. B. Clements, U. Navy.]

(2) x=scrose inverted per cent. diffision juice =b
95



_per cent. sucrose in diffusion juice.
per cent. glucose in di fsion juice.
per cent. sucrose in nornmal juice.
per cent. glucose in normal juice.
b= per cent. glucose in diffusion juice.
The calculations by this formula are simle t (1)
or (3).
[Based on Prof. W. C. Stbb's general formula for sugar-houe work.]
(3) x=sucrose inverted per cent. diffusion juice.
a=sucrose per unit of diffusion juice.
b=glucose per unit of diffusion juice.
c=sucrose per unit of normal juice.
d=glucose per unit of normal juice.
^-BiM'wB yt wiaviuijm^O







35

Table shows the invesion for each day of the season, also the
of te work for the corresponding perios. This table is
ly with a view to ascertaining the various sources of in-
SI a instances the inversion is so little that a reasonable
btma e entertained as to whether it has actually taken place
ne a s r in sampling or in the analysis might result in a cor-
pondg f e indication of inversion.

Iwng the character of the work for each day of the season, the percentage
of inversion, and the loss of rose fro this s e.

Mea inversion per ton of cane= 1.12 pounds sucrose.]





SNotes on the character of the work. Q g ~ -





1888. Per t. Per cent. Per ct. Pound. Pounds.
Dec. I Workregular; lime in cells ....... .42 .440 ....... 184,793 ..........
Dec. 1 12 .....do ............................ 42 .374 .044 176,473 75. 9
S...... ............................ 43 .384 .044 175,231 77.1
c. 2 4 ......do ............................ .43 .384 .044 175,523 77. 2
Dec. 3 .....do............................ .40 .365 .033 191,677 63.2
Dec. 3 6 -----do ............................ .26 .300 ........ 54,509 ..........
Dec. 3 17 ......do----------------------,34 .354...........56,375.........5
Dec. 4 18 Work stopped six hours;lime in .39 .293 .092 119,214 109.7
cells.
4 Workregu ; lime incells ....... 47 .390 .076 72,20 54.9
Dec. 4 10 ......do ............................ 30 .412 .-........ 81, 127 ..........
De 5 11 Numerous delays, due to cutter, .42 .312 103 250,576 258. 1
etc.; lime in cells.
S12 Workreglar; lime incel ....... .38 .412 ... 86,565..........
1 ....do............................ 34 .373 ........ 4,967 ..........
Dec. 6 14 ...... ............... .... ..... .39 3 ....... 6,50 ..........
De 7 1 Wok irregular; lime in cells...... .3 .393 ...... 29, 58 ..........
D 8 1r; lime in cells ....... .41 .419 ........ 95,373 ..........
De. 8 17 ......do ............................ .323 .035 229,368 80.3
De. 9 18 Work irregular; stopped two hours; .42 385 .033 312,957 103. 3
no lime in cells.
S19 Workregular; no in cell..... 42 .25 307,731 ..........
De.11 20 ....do.......................... .30 .327 ........ 197,769 ..........
Work ; no lme in cell.. .67 529 .14 92, 576 124.
Work rregular; frequent stops; .5 .457 18 215,087 33. 6
(no lime in cells.
SWrk regular; no i in cell ... .58 .418 .154 11, 256 174.4
De13 24 Work rapid; lie in cel...... .4 457 ....... 119.715 ..........
De 13 25 ...... ........................... .44 .437 ........ 19,297 ..........
D.48 .474 ....... 110,018 .......

De. 1 28 Work g r; no lime in cell .60 .465 .128 173,052 21.
De. 15 29 .. ..o ......... ...... .. .41. .328 .078 182,340 142.2



Water-pump- atopped, 0611a overbeated.
'I ~r ~~a ~r-









TABL I.-Showing th-e character of the work for each day of the 8easse, -the .percentage
o inrersion, a4nd the loss of aerosefrom 1hi source-Continued.





||-





1888.Per t. Per cent. Per ct. Pounds. Pound
Dec. 16 80 Work regular; no line in cells.... .60 770 -_ 308,774

Dec. 18 32 Numerous delays; no limeincells .51 .391 .11 176,54 1.5
Dec. 18 33 ......do ............................ 47 .40 .061 ,480 10.
Dec.19 34 Work regular; no lie in cell .... 49 .440 .047 152, 5 71.
Dec. 19 35 ............................ .48 .484 -158,
Dec.20 13 .....do ............................ .42 .347 .09 18,181 128.5
Dec.20 37 ...... do......... ............ ..... .52 .422 .
Dec. 21 38 Work very slow and irregular, .47.02 151,077 8.9
due to foul condition of quad.
rup effect; no lime in cells.
De 8.232 39 Work very, irregular; no lime-in 50 .472 .027 4072 10
Dec. 24 cells.
Dee. 25 40
40 Work regular; limo in cells ....... .51 .511 ....... 48,071 ........
Dec. 2il..."
D-c.27 41 ......lo..........................------------------------ .51 .525 ........- 15,91 ........
Dec.27 42 ......do .................. ...... .47 .475 ........
Dec.28 43 Work irregular; lime in cells ..... .60 .03 ........ 12031
Dec.28 44 Workregular; limein cells ....... .59 .510 07 120
Dec. 28 45 ...... do ...................... .58 .52 .027 123,682 .
Dec.29 4 Work irregular; lime in ...... .0 .528 .8 11524
Dec.29 47 Work; no l in .... .72 54 1935
Dec.29 48 ......do .......................... .70 .467 .221 11
Dec.3 49 Stopped threeours on accunt of .70 .469 .21 1,
broken belt and trouble with cut-



Dec.31 52 Work; lim ....... .043 177,":010 76.1 :"


.Tall. I i53 ----- ...... ....................... 6 649 010 40, 402 4.0
Jan. 2 54 .....do ............... ....... .45 .402 ........ 150,15 ......
Jan. 2 55 ---......do ............................ .47 3 ........ ,003 .
Jan. 3 '5 ......do ............................ .57 .410 .141 13215 18.3
f B7 ...... do ............................ .57 .570 ........ 132,423 --
Jan. 4 58 Work stopped six hours January .75 .438 .296 00 284.4
3; lime in cells.
Jan, 4 59 Work verylow; delys c ed by .75 .580 .
trouble with the engine; lime in

lan. 5 O Wrk r ; i in clls ....... .1 ... ........ -18..

Janil. 5 I1 .fl I- ............................ .55 .66 ........ 163,57 ........
Jani. 06 2 --
J 0 03 ....do--................... .

..Ja ......o ........ .......---.. ..... -----
i i diff n attry to neutrality, for he purp of clarfication December to 8 n
I Batter wor stoppe six b1um A portion of this ul. rwie forwar to January 8, 4welrsts M -A








A .- oing the character of the work for each y of the season, th e rcen g
of inern, and the W8 of suroe from this ource-Continued.




Date. No. Notes onthe character of the work.
6 Z



Per ct. Per cent. Per ct. Pounds. Poundg.
Jan. 8 65 Work regular; lime n cells....... 45 .263 .178 144,870 257.9
Jan. 8 66 do ............................ .39 .309 .077 145,156 111.8
Jan. 7 ..... do ........................... .41 .321 .084 162, 18 136.2
.Jan. 9 68 --do ---- ---_ -- .38 .330 .047 184,613 77.4
0Jan. 10 6 .................. .......... .34 .317 .022 167,563 36. 9
Jan.10 70 .....do ............................ .43 .275 .147 168,304 247.4
S......do ........................... 38 .329 .048 187,715 90.1
J2 ............................ 8 .330 .047 187,473 88.1
Ja. 12 3 ...do ...------..--..-----..--....... .37 .345 .024 155,628 37.3
Jan.12 74 1---do ......... ................. .42 .356 .061 158,704 96.8
l. 75 .....do --......--. -...- .....40 .354 .044 42,098 216.5
Jan. 14
M ea ........................................ .48 .......... 055 ......................
Tot ~1 ................................................ 12,803, 44 6,701,8


We notice from this table that, when working regularly with
ii for clarification, the inversion was either very small or
here ws loss from this source; we may also notice no loss from
inversin hn the work was regular and no lime used in the cells.
The grtest inversion was during irregular work or complete stop-
I an not account for the inversion the last few days of the sea-
sn, un t i due to the action of the freeze of December 20.
a conclude, from an inspection of this table, that when the
work is lar the danger of loss from inversion is very Imal. It is
wel y when there is danger of delays and consequent irrecular
wor, t add a small amount of lime to each cell of chips. The lime
added near the bottom of the cell that it may be distributed
by the min current of juice.







TABLE III.-Analylical and manufactrittg data ; third run, December I to 8, 1$88.

PART I.
Average weight of cane per cell, 1.388 tons : total cane for the 'run," 1 079.5 tons ]

Diffusion juice analysis. Total
Number Diffusion weight of
e eu tSie o e i To!wc Tota g Sucrose Sucrose Glucose
of cells Total cane juice if Total weiht ei reducing Exhausted lost i oliled i obtained
Date. o. drawn per drawn er o of juice Reducing weight sugars chips lot i obain in obt~

etc.). analysis.

Per cent. Lb. p~r -) n Lbs. per ton Lbn. per ton
Tons. Gallons. P nd Per cent. Per cent. Poundm Pounds. cane. of cane. of cane. of cane.
Dec. 1 1 1 8.65 346.0 1.0510 184,793 10.8 .42 19,958 776 .64 12.8 35.7 9.2
Dec. 1 2 61 84. 65 330.2 1.0519 176,473 11. 1 .42 19,588 741 .59 11.8 23'I. 4 8.7
'Dec. 2 8 63 87.42 317.0 1.0536 175,234 11.4 .43 19,977 753 .70 14.0 228 4 8.4
Dec. 2 4 63 87.42 317.0 1.0553 175,523 11.4 .43 20,010 754 .59 11.8 228. 9 8.4
Dec. 3 5 01 8.65 360. 5 1. 0502 191, 677 1). 6 .40 20, 818 767 .40 8. 0 240. 0 9.1
Dec. 3 6 18 24.98 346. 1.0519 54. 569 11.2 .26 6,112 142 .41 8.2 244.9 5.6
Dec. 3 7 18 24.96 360.5 1.0468 56,375 10.4 .34 5,863 192 .64 12.8 234.8 7.7
Dec. 4 8 38 52.72 360.5 1.0485 119,214 10.4 .39 12,398 456 .80 16.0 235 1 8.6
Dec 4 9 23 31.90 360.5 1.093 72, 206 10.5 .47 7, 582 339 .70 14. 27. 0.
Dec. 4 10 28 38.84 330.2 1.0536 81,127 11.8 .30 9, 167 243 .83 16.6 k:36. 0 6.2
De. 5 11 80 111.00 360. 5 1.0472 250,576 10.6 .42 2,561 1,052 .52 10.4 239.4 ,
Dec. 6 12 30 41.62 330.2 1.0493 86,565 11. 1 .38 9, 09 320 .54 10.8 230.8 7.19
Dec. 6 1 19 26.35 330.2 1.0519 54,067 11.0 .384 6,04 187 .57 11.4 229.4 1
Dec. 6 14 20 27.74 1.0514 501 1. .9 ,2 .45 277 8


Dee- 8 17 73 101.31 30, 5 1. 0502 229,38 10.7 .36 24, 542 8fO .54 10.8 242.2 8.1
S ..... ....... 343.1 1.0508 ...... ...... 10.9 .38 ....................... .58 11. 2 4.7 8.3
.. ,,7, ............ ........... ..39,234 ............ ... .................... ............
+i ++iiiii++li~ ~ ~VI +i i+i +iiiii+ii+i| ii+ii+. +++ +++ + + +
:,],~~~~-- :,: ::]









.... s i!e. 'i' W cent. "norm al aell~of R ed not wi n p r "d iffo o..... al .. . ..... oA nelse o


D No. C jilp I 'al cel of **





S 1 nt....... 88.9 1. 277. 14.2 .58 340 1.0510 24.6 10.8 .42 81.7 24
1 ..do 88.9 1.0B.4 2784 13.7 .48 380.2 1.0519 18.8 11.1 .R4 22.9 18.8
S. .*do ....... 88.9 1.03 278. 13.7 .4 17.0 1.3 8.9 11.4 .48 19.7 10.5
2 4 ....do ...... 88.9 1.0 27.0 .7 .48 817.0 1.0553 13.0 11.4 .43 19.7 1B5
S3 5 .... ....... 88.9 1068 277. 14.3 .49 30,5 1.0502 2.8 10.6 .4 3.4 2,
Dec. 3 .....do ....... 88.9 1.069 277. 14.5 .39 4.0 1.0519 24.6 11.2 .26 29.9 23.0
S3 7 ....do ....... 88.9 1.0643 277.6 14.1 .48 380.5 1.0408 29.8 10.4 .34 35.7 26.3
S4 8 ....do ....... 88.9 1.0647 278.0 14.0 .39 300.5 1.0485 29.7 10.4 .39 339.8 249 ,
De 4 ....do ....... 88.9 1.066 277.6 14.1 .52 360.5 1.0493 29.8 10.5 .47 33. 2 24.
Dec. 4 10 ....do ...... 88.9 1.06 27.6 14. .53 830.2 1.0336 18.9 11.3 .80 28.7 22.8
S5 11....do ....... 88. 1.0 277 14.4 .42 360.5 1.0472 29.8 10.6 .42 84.5 2..7
e 0 12 ....do ....... 88.9 1.06 277. 14.0 .52 330.2 1.0493 18.8 11.1 .88 26.5 20.8
De. 3 13 ....do ....... 88. 1.006 278.0 14.1 .48 330.2 1.0 19 18.8 11.0 .34 28.8 22.
Dec. ...'do ....... 88. 1.008 277.6 14.1 .51 346.0 1.0514 24.6 10.9 .89 29.4 2. 7
S7 1 ....do ....... 88.9 1.06 278.0 14.0 .51 30.0 1.0512 24.4 10.8 .39 29.6 22.
S8 16 .... Dec. 8 17 .... do ....... 88. 1.0700 276.8 14.8 .44 360.5 1.0502 30.2 10.7 .36 36.0 2 .5
.... .......9 1. 066 277.7 14.1 .48 343.1 1.0508 23.4 10.9 .38 29.4 22.7


Dec.7 1 -do...... 88.9 1.056 78.01 1.0 51 30.0 1.012 2.4 0.8.39 9.622.










TABLE II.-Analylical ani manufaotiuing data; third rn, Decemboer 1 to 8, 1888-Continued.
PART III.


Niormal juice analyses. Diffasion juice analyses. Exhausted ,g Redneing
Normdjie S ucrose sugars (glu. obtained in cose et.), Surose

ca c i..
3e. sugars ((gyl Sucrose. sugars (glu- cane. juices. diffotaion
cose, etc.). cose, uoiletc.) ju.csics.

Per cent. Lbs. per ton Lbs. per ton Lbs. per ton Lbs. per ton Lbus. per ton
Per cent. Per cent. Per cent. Per cent. cane. cane. cane. cane. cane. cane.
ec. 1 1 8. 14.2 .58 10.8 .42 .L 252.5 10.3 235.7 9.2 1.8s
1 2 88 13.7 11.1 .42 .5 243. 8.2 231.4 8.7 11.8
Dec. 2 3 88.9 13.7 .4 11.4 .43 .70 243.6 8.2 228.4 8.4 14.0
De. 2 4 88. 9 13.7 .46 11.4 .43 .59 243.6 8.2 228.9 8.4 11.8
ec. 3 5 88.9 14.3 .49 10.6 .40 .40 254.3 8.7 240.0 9.1 '8.0
Dec. 3 6 88.9 14.5 .39 11.2 .28 .41 257.8 6.9 244.9 5.6 8.4
Dec. 3 7 88.9 14.1 .48 10.4 .34 .1 250.7 8.5 234.8 7.7 12.8
Dec. 4 8 88.9 14.0 .39 10.4 .39 .80 248.9 6.9 235.1 8.6 16.0
Dec. 4 9 88.9 14.1 .52 10.5 .47 .70 250.7 9.2 237.6 10.6 .14.0
Dec. 4 10 88.9 14.4 .53 11.3 .30 .83 256.0 9.4 236.0 6.2 16.6
Dec. 5 11 88.9 14.4 .42 10.6 .42 .52 258.0 7.5 239.4 0.5 10.4
Dec. 6 12 88.9 14.0 .52 11.1 .38 .54 248.9 9.2 230.8 7.9 10.8
6 13 88. 11 .48 11.0 .34 .57 250.7 8.5 229.4 7.1 11.4
Dec. 6 14 89 14.1 .51 11.9 .39 .45 250.7 9.1 237.7 8.5 9.0
>ec. 15 88.9 14.0 .51 10.8 .39 .51 248.9 9.1 235.5 8.5 10.2
e*c. 8 16 &8.9 13.5 .54 10.7 .41 .48 240.0 0 222.8 9.5 9.6


xem mg 14.1 .48 10.9 .38 .58 250.4 8.5 234.7 8.2 11.6















Bhus o7.y c dat..8.. 1..... : 1 ..0 11.8 10







Means. Max""st Minima.Means. Maxima.. Minima.
ae .....................................................................a.. 87. 8.. 85e.. 88.20 1.. 8.
Wp c ificger(maris) ... ............................................................. .40 ,.08 2.6 1.48 1 11.13 1.
Surse .......... .......... .............................................. ............................... ....5 1.92 .103 1o0ne.4




R .ed ucing sga.toB( fluos ep lty...... ........-..-..................-...-.... *do..-om ...able II25. .




S ........................................................................................ per cent. cne. 8
acoe oser a e p ---..............................................................-. ..................do .. 11. 1. .
e per ce.....................................................................................................pound.. 2,776 ............. ................
I fooof ll p .cty....................................................................................do.... 25.9 ................ ......... ......



ui ju e t tr el ......................................................................................dgallons.. 38.1 10.85 81
i.ou ed 10e.............................................................................. fdo.... 12. 12,

in .........hips .................................................................... per cenpertonofmal e.. 11.6 1. 86 8


ue ng su r etr t di io jui ................................................... .....................do.... 8.d2 10.(6 5k T
Normal ......................................................................................... per cent. normaljuice.. 2.4 36 18.8
a et d o ...................................................................................................do.... 23.4 30.2 13.

Can p cel .............................................................................................. o.................. 228.27 26..5 1..5
extrction ................. c.................................................................percent.surose l the cane.. 93 73 ................ ................








TABLE IV.-A ltical and manufacturing data; fournth r December 9 to 22, 1886
PART I
(_ Average weight of cane per cell, 1.36 tons; total weight of cane for the "run," 1,7 tons.]

f Diffu Sp f Total Diffusion juice aalyses. oTotal
T otal R n, t
Total icdrawn c of weight of wiTo fl Sucrose Sueh dse suga (
Sper cell of dison educin sucroseper sugas (g chips (su haostod die- usione obttw etc
canechips. juice. sip Sucrose. sugars (ju alysf. cos, tc crose). chips. j ices. di ion
perhus alchips. juices. diffusionobin
cose, etc.). per aaly- ju es.

Per cent. Lbper tn L per ton Lb.per tn
Tons. Galons. Pounds. Per cent. Per cent. Pounds. Pound. e. cane. ane. cane.
Dc 9 1 13 63 359.2 1.0527 12,957 10.7 .42 33,486 1,314 .37 7.4 248.8 8
. 10 19 100 144.15 330.2 1.0557 307,731 11.7 .42 36,001 1,292 .43 8.6 249.8 8.9
c 11 20 5 88.40 346. 0527 17,79 10.9 .30 21,557 593 .71 14.2 243.8 67
c.1 21 32 43.51 3 30.2 1.0519 92, 576 10.6 .67 9,813 620 .57 11.4 225.5 14.2
Dec.12 2 71 9.55 3 0 1.0510 215,087 10.7 .65 23,014 1,398 .51 10.2 238. 14. 5
2 3 48.95 59.2 .0519 113,2<6 10.8 .58 12, 21 8 3C 12.0 2.9
Dec. 24 38 1. 39.2 1.0527 119, 715 10.9 .40 13, 049 479 .48 9.8 252.65 9. 2
Dec. 25 38 51.67 359.2 1.0493 119,297 10.7 .44 12,764 525 .67 13.4 247.0 10.1
c13 26 38 51.67 330.2 1.0531 110, 18 11.6 .48 12,762 528 .51 10.2 24. 9 10.2
Dec.14 27 91 123.75 359. 2 1.0523 286,512 11.0 45 31, 51 1, 289 .87 7.4 254. 6 10.
S 28 57 77. 51 346.0 1.0536 17,052 11.1 .0 19, 209 1,038 .45 9.0 248.9 1.4
Dec. 1 29 58 78.86 339.2 1.0506 182,340 10. .41 19,3828 747 .74 14.8 245.0 9.4
S102 138.71 8.0 1.0506 308,774 10.1 .00 31,186 1,852 .48 8.0 224.8 1. 8
.17 1 7 131.1 59.2 1.014 30,162 1 1,8 12.
De S 8 78.88 40.0 1.061 176,534 11. .51 ,478 00 .48 25.0 1.4
Dec.18 33 59 80.23 332.5 1.0590 168,480 12.5 .47 21,060 792 .51 6.2 262.4 0.8
De. 19 84 56 16. 15 810.8 1.0566 152,953 12.0 .49 18,3854 74 .54 10.18 241. 9.8
De.N 1 5 51 78.14 328.5 1.0514 158, 682 11.0 .48 18,833 762 .40 8.0 247.2 10.0
0M, 9- 36 63 85.65 336.7 1.0536 186,181 11.4 .42 21,225 782 .57 11.4 247.8 9.1
Dec. 2o 37 52 70.70 3 7 154,165 12.0O .52 18,500 802 .45 261.6
Dec. 21 38 51 69.34 336.7 1.0561 151,077 11. 6 .47 17,525 710 .40 8.0 252.7 10.2






Normal juice analyses. .Analyses of durtsion

Date. No. Cane* juicepedr gavt of auc per Reducing jucdrw gr'ity of aittio ofie dilutio nof Adtoa



normal I diffusion normal e vapora.
cent. cane. juice. c11 of can.S ucose ucgars per cell. dfuso nrmlReducing normal ev ora.
Iue acoe (glucose, juice. juice. Sucrose. sugars (glu- juices. n
t) y~et cose, etc.).
Per cte ifit

Gallons. Per cent. Per cent. Gallons. Per cent. Per cent. Per cent. Per cent. ue.
Dec. 9 18 Plant 87.7 1.0695 267. 6 14.5 .52 359.2 1.0527 34.2 10.7 .42 35.1 25.8


Dec. 10 19 ....do 87.7 1 1.0704 1 23.5 24.8
S...o 877 1.0704 267.4 14.6 .53 330.2 1.0557 11.24. 8 19.8
Dec. 1 20 do... 87.7 1.0682 267.9 14.6 .44 346.0 1.0527 29.1 10.9 .30 34.2 25.4
Dec. 11 1 ....do .. 87.7 1.0643 268.9 13.6 .67 330.2 1.0519 22,6 10.6 .67 26.6 20.9
Dec.12 22 ....do.... 90.3 1.0674 276.1 14.3 .60 346.0 1.0510 25.3 10.7 .65 31.3 23.6
D 2 23 ...do ,... 90.3 1. 0691 278. 8 15.0 .57 359.2 1.0519 28.8 10.8 .68 36.3 26.7
Dec.13 24 o. 88.8 1.0691 274.2 14.7 .62 359.2 1.0527 31.0 10.9 .40 35.7 20.4
Dec.13 25 ....do ..... 88.8 1.0700 270.7 14.7 .60 359.2 1.0493 32.6 10.7 .44 37.3 27.0
Dec.13 26 ...do..... 88.8 1.0700 270.7 14.7 .60 330.2 1.0531 21.9 11.6 .48 26. 20.9
Dec. 14 27 do.... 88.8 1.0704 270. 7 15.2 .62 359.2 1.0523 32.6 11.0 .45 38.1 27.5
S 28 Stubble.. 87.4 1.08691 268.3 14.5 .60 340.0 1.0536 28.8 11.1 .60 29.0 22.2
Dec. 15 29 ...do.... 87.4 1.0704 266.4 15.3 .47 359.2 1.0506 34.8 10.6 .41 43.2 30.0
Dec. 1 30 Plant ... 90.0 1.0647 275.8 12. 9 1. 00 346.0 1.0506 25.4 10.1 .60 2.9 22.9
Dec. 17 31 do..... 90.0 1.0704 274.3 13. 7 .81 359.2 1. 0514 30.9 10.3 .55 33.7 25.0
Dec. 18 32 Stubble.. 87. 9 1. 0709 267.8 15.3 .51 346.0 1.0561 29.2 11.6 .51 30.5 23.1
Dec. 18 33 ...do... 87.9 1. 0719 267. 8 15.2 .49 323. 5 1.0596 20.9 12.5 .47 20.9 17.1
Dec. 19 34 ....do ... 86.6 1.0691 267.4 14.5 .53 310.3 1.0566 16.0 12.0 .49 20.3 16.8
Dec.19 35 .-,do....d 88.5 1.0700 270.0 14.8 .60 323.5 1.0514 19.0 11.9 .48 24.4 19.7
Dec. 20 36 ...do ..... 88.5 1.0713 269.5 15.2 .46 336. 7 1.0336 24.9 11.4 .42 32.5 24.
Dec.20 37 ....do.... 88.5 1.0713 269.5 15.2 .53 336. 7 1. 570 24.9 12.0 .52 25. 6 20.3
Dec.21 38 ...do 88.5 1.0717 269.4 14.9 .55 336.7 1.0561 24.9 11.6 .47 28.0 21.8
Mens................ 88.5 1.0695 270.5 14.6 .59 343.4 1.0531 26.7 11.2 .50 30.7 23.0


SlQ i 35Qi a, ,~S h,7fif t~1:?.0








TABLE IYV.-.Aialytical and mamlatfacturing data; fourth run, December 9 to 22, 1888-Continued.

PART II.


Normal juice analysis. Diffusion juice analysis. Exhausted
chips. Reducing
Normajnic Reducing Sucrose ob- sugars (gin- Sucrose in
Date. N. per cent. SReducing suucrose in sugar (g tained in dif- cose, etc. ob. exhausted
caneducing u Reducing whole cane. coe, e fuion juices. taind in diffu ip
Sucrose. gars (glucose, Sucrose. gars (glucose, Sucrose. whole cane. sion juices.
etc.). etc.).

Lbs. per ton Lbe. per ton Lb8. per ton LbB. per ton Lbs. per Con
Per cent. Per cent. Per cent. Per cent. Per ct. cane. cane. cane. cane. cane. cane.
Dec. 9 18 87.7 14.5 .52 10.7 .42 .37 254:3 9.1 248.8 9.8 7.4
Dec.10 19 87.7 14.6 .53 11.7 .42 .43 256.1 9.3 249.8 8.9 8.6
Dec.11 20 87.7 14.6 .44 10.9 .30 .71 256.1 7.7 243.8 6.7 14.2
Dec.11 21 87.7 13.6 .67 10.6 .67 .57 238.5 11.7 225.5 14.2 11.4
Dec.12 22 90.3 14.3 .60 10.7 .65 .51 258.3 10.8 238.3 14.5 10.2
Dec.2 2 90.3 15.0 .57 10.8 .58 .60 270.9 10.3 24Z 9 12.9 12.0
Dec.13 2 88.8 14.7 .62 10.9 .40 .48 261.1 11.0 252.5 9.2 9.6
Dec.18 25 88.8 14.7 .60 10.7 .44 .67 261.1 10.6 247.0 10.1 18.4
Dec.13 26 88.8 14.7 .60 11.6 .48 .51 261.1 10.6 246.9 10.2 10.2
Dec.14 27 88.8 15.2 .82 11.0 .45 .37 29.9 11.0 254.6 10.4 7.4
Dec.15 28 87.4 14.5 .60 11.1 .00 .45 253.5 10.5 248.9 13.4 9.0
Dec.15 29 87.4 15.3 .47 10.6 .41 .74. 267.4 8.2 245.0 9.4 14.8
Dec.216 0 90.0 12.9 1.00 10.1 .CO .43 232.2 18.0 224.8 13.3 8.8
Dec.17 1 0.0 13.7 .81 10 3 .55 .84 240. 14.8 28. 12.7 .8
D 18 8. 15.3 .51 11.0 .51 .48 2.0 .0 259. 11.4 96
e 1 33 87.9 15.2 .49 12.5 .47 .31 267.2 8.6 262.4 9.8 6.2
Dec.19 84 86.6 14.5 .53 12.0 .49 .54 251.1 9.2 241.0 9.8 10.8
Dec.19 35 88.5 14.8 .00 11.9 .48 .40 262.0 10.6 247.2 10.0 8.0
Dec. 20 36 88.5 15.2 .46 11.4 .42 .57 269.0 8.1 247.8 911 114
De 20 37 88.5 15.2 .53 12.0 .52 .45 269.0 9.4 261.6 11.3 9.0
Dec.21 38 88.5 14.3 .55 11.6 .47 .40 263.:7 .7 252.7 10.2 8.0

::: ............










Deg............................................................. ........... 10. 17.4 15.7 1.1 1. 6 12.2

De Ba ... .................................................................... 9.4 .50 8.7 7.8 8.1 76.47
Specifc gravity.......................................................... .. 1.0695 1.0719 1.0643 1.0531 1.0596 1.049


rose................................................................ .... 4.6 15. 13.6 11.2 12.5 10.
Reducingsugars (glucose,etc.)..................................................do.... .59 1 .44 .5 .67 .30

oeficintIofpurity ................................................................... 86.39 89.50 78.27 85.40 .88 76.47
Inversion,2 per cent. diffuion juice .................................................7 .............. ............... .............. .07 .183 No Inversion.
SFrom Table ,. 2From Table I.
R um of manPufacturing data (battery work). Table IV.
Means. Maxima. Minima.,

rmalJ e .................................................................................................... per cent. cane.. 88.5 90.3 86.6
oody ber (mar ) ........................................................................................................ do.... 1.5 18.4 9.
Ca................................................................ .................................. pounds.. 2,720 .............. ................
anepercu footofcell apacity ........................................................................................do.... 25.4 .............. ................
]Diffusionj ie drawnpercell ........................................................................................... gallons.. 843.4 859.2 310.3
Diffusionjuicesdrawn per100 pounsd cane ................................................................................ do.... 12.6 13.2 11.4
rosen exhaustedchip...................................................................................... per cnt ent.cane.. .4 .7 .31
Sucrseein exhausted chips................................................................................. pounds per ton cane.. 9.8 .............. ................
Sucrose contained in whole cane ................................................................................. pounds per ton.. 258.9 270.9 23. 2
edutd uga conta........................................................................... ........... do.... 10.4 8i8 7.7
Sucrose extracted n difusion jui ces........................................................................ pounds per ton cane.. 216.9 262.4 224.8
Reducing Sugars extracted in diffusion juices ..............do................................................... do.... 10.8 14.5 o.7
Actual dilution........................................................................................... per cent. normial juice.. 30.7 43. 2 20.8
Apparent dilution .................................................. .................................... per cent. normal juice.. 26.7 34.8 16.0
Additional evaporation, i. e. evaporation required to concentrate diffusion juice to density of the normal juice, per cent diffu.
ion e ....................................................................................................................... 23 0.1 1 .9
tr tion r cent. sucrose n the cane .... ..................................................................................... 95.37 .............. ................







TABLE V.-Aaltical and manufacturing data ; jffth run, December 23, 1888, to January 14, 1889.

PART I.

LAverage weight of cane per cell, 1.39 tons; total weight of cane for the "rn," 3,062 tons.]

Diffucion juice analy- Total
Total ses. wep 0 t of z.*
Numberof Totalane Diffusion Specificoaf ea. Total eweiht of Sucrose Sucroseob. sugaR (glu.
juicdraw it of weigt weight oT f nducing Ex te, lost in x t d s etc.)
t per ellof diffuson Reducing suroseper ugars (gl chips (su hausted diffusion obtained in
perss, per cells)f ,flt sioa Rednein- su hauted
ane chips. juice Suros. S sugars(glu- analysis. cose, etc.) ros). chips. uices dif ion
anyi. cose, etc.). -sis juices.
analysis.

1s E Lbs. per Lbs. per Lb. er
To. Gallon Pound. Per cent. Per cent. Pounds. Pounds. P. ct. cane. ton cane. ton cane. ton cane.
.4 1 00 189.04 36 7 1.0557 402,723 11.7 .50 47,118 2,014 .51 10.2 249.2 10.

j40 117.50 163.0 33.7 1.0561 348,071 11.9 .51 41,420 1,775 .77 15. 4 253.5 10.8
27 41 59.00 82.00 359.2 1.0519 185 91 10.8 .51 20,054 947 .51 10.2 244.5 11.
7 42 5.0 8 359.2 1.0536 18 ,003 10.9 .47 20,274 874 .51 10.2 245.0 10.
.28 43 4000 5.60 343.4 1.0519 120,331 11.0 .60 13,236 722 .77 15.4 28.0 12.
4 4.00 55.60 343.4 1.05 120472 11.0 .59 13,252 711 .98 19.6 238. 12.8
Dec. 45 41.00 56.7 343.4 1.0548 123,682 11.3 .58 13, 70 717 1.34 22.8 245.1 12.5
Dee 40 36.00 0.00 1 359.2 1.0540 113,524 11.0 .60 12,488 881 .85 17.0 249.5 18.6
Dee.29 47 37.00 51.43 359.2 1.0531 116,580 10.8 .72 12,591 839 .57 11.4 244.8 16.3
D 8 3700 51.4 50.4 1.051 11,577 11. .70 12,48 75 .97 1.4 242.9 15.4

50 1.0548 179,88 11.3 .71 20,2 1,277 .85 17.0 25.8 14.8
Dee. 31 51 60.00 83-40 330.2 1.030 173,910 10.9 .07 18,958 1,105 .88 17.8 227.8 13.9
33w.31 52 61.00 84.75 330.2 1.0553 177,010 11.0 .55 20,533 973 .57 11.4 242.1 11.4

1 53 14.00 19.40 330.2 1.0510 40,462 10.7 .66 4,329 267 .68 13.6 222.5 13.7
3504 1.014 15,16 .5 ,7 7 .43 8.6 245
i ...









..... ... ... .. .. .. i i *'.% **

97 3. 1.04 1 2 11.8 .45 12,30 1 .0 .0 22 1
Jan. 6 63 50.00 609.48 330.2 1.0553 145,090 11.5 .29 16,685 421 .51 10.2 240.3 6.1
Jan. 7 64 105.00 145.94 330.2 1.0540 304,341 11.6 .29 85,303 882 .40 8.0 241.8 6.0
Jan. 8 65 50.00 60.481 330.2 1.0536 144,870 11.4 .45 16,370 652 .40 8.0 23875 9.4
J 8 6 50.00 69.48 330.2 1.057 143,156 11.7 .89 16,93 566 .45 9.0 244.3 8.1
Jan. 9. 6 6 .i.0 .78 3 30. 2 .48 9. 6 235.3 8.5l


Jan.10 09 58.00 80.60 330.2 1.0506 167,563 11.0 .84 18,432 570 .28 5.6 228.5 7.1
Ja. 10 f0 58.00 80.60 330.2 1.0553 18,304 11.0 .43 18,513 724 .48 9.6 229.6 8.9
Ja.11 71 65.00 90.33 330.2 1.0302 187,715 10.6 .38 19,898 713 .46 9.2 220.1 7.8
Ja. 11 72 65.00 903 30.2 1.0489 187,473 10.0 .38 18,747 712 .51 10.2 207.5 7. 8
Ja.12 73 54.00 75.04 330.2 1.0481 155,628 10.4 .37 10,285 576 .57 11.4 215.5 7.6
J .12 74 55.00 7.53 330.2 1.0193 158,704 10.6 .42 16,822 66 .54 10.8 215.5 8.7
Jan 14
J 14 5 170.75 237.32 330.2 1. 0481 492,008 10.4 .40 51,178 1,968 .91 18.2 207. 3 8.3
---- -- --.--- -

............... .1 1.0524 ............ 10.9 .52 ...... ......... .60 12.0 230.7 11.0
.... ,3, .......... ............ 6,477,247 ....................... 70,734 2,440 ........... ....... ......................
T ota s... 2,20 .25----------.-.

iU







TA V.-Analyical and mantfacturing data; fif4 run, December 23, 1888, to January 14, 1889-Colitinued.
PART II


Normaljie anales. Analyses of difislon
Normal Speciy Normal Diffusion gaiy ofdi on diu of Additional
Date ce per ice drawnsn of
cent cane. eull of cane. Reducing per cell .i 5 Redn i A tion.
Sucrose. smugar (gle.. Sucrose. sugars (gu uI
ose, etc.). cOse, eto.).

-iPer -t difu.
Gallon. Per cent. Per cent. Gallons. Per cent. Per cent. Per cent. Per cent. onQice.
DM 23-


39 Stubble.. 88.5 1.0704 275.8 14.9 .60 3386.7 1.0537 22.0 11.7 .50 27.0 21.8



S....d.5 1.0700 27a7 14.7 .64 359.2 1.0 53 0.2 10.U .47 A.0 25.8
D 8 43 ..... 8.5 1.0095 277.2 14.4 .790 3.4 1.051 28.8 11.0 .60 80.0 2.
Dec ..8..d 885 1.0713 275.0 15.0 .19 343.4 1,0531 24. 6 11.0 .25 .1
De28 4 ..o 88.5 1.0735 275.0 15.2 .74 343.4 1.0548 24.9 11.3 .58 84.1 25.4
Dec.2 46 ....do 83.5 1.0735 275.0 15.1 .72 859.2 1.0540 80.6 11.0 .60 36.b 2o.6
De. 2 47 ....do.. 88.5 1.0713 275.6 14.5 .72 859.2 1.0531 80.3 10.8 .7 32.)1 24.3
Dec.8- 48 ....do 88.5 1.0704 275.8 14.9 .62 350.4 1.0531 27.0 11.0 .70 32.6 24.6




--c
g+i











S... .... 0. 1.06 5 7 14.4 .B 1
Jp83tb... 8.8 1.061 2787.8 14.1 .41 330.2 1.0557 18.4 11.7 .1 27.37 19.5
...do ..... 88. 1.065 277. 14. 330.2 2 1.05 1 11. 2. 17. 6
Jan. ..... 88. 1.065 20.8 1.9 3 1.0 1.9 1. .
Jam 6 88.1 1.00 27.7 11.9 .74 330.2 1.050 18.4 11.0 .3 12.0 1.
ja 7 ...6. Q....d 88. 1.0652 27.2 13.4 .33 330.2 1.04531 19. 11.0 .41 204. 12.7
Jan. ... ..... d18.1 1.066 27.7 14.9 .4 3 3 0.2 1.050 19.8 11.0 .84 26.1 10.7
a 10 .... ..... 88 1.0653 276.2 13.4 .3 330.2 1.0553 19.5 11.0 .4 20.1 216.
Ja 71 .... ..... 87.8 1.0630 275.5 13.3 .41 330.2 1.0502 19.9 10.7 .38 24.8 19.8
Ja 72 Plant.... 89. 1 1. 0630 27. 6 1. .42 330.2 1.0185 18.1 10.0 .38 27.3 21. 4
Jan. .... ~.o ..... 89.1 1.0643 279.2 13.6 .45 330.2 1.0481 18.3 10.4 .37 30.4 23.8
an7 ....do .... 88.1 1.0634 279.5 13.2 .44 330.2 1.0493 18.1 10.6 .42 28.7 1I.1



1 ...2..... ... 1.063 277.2 13.9 .58 334.1 1.054 2. 10.9 .62 28.7 20.8

83






TABLE V.-AJnaytical and manufacturing data; ffth run, December 23, 1888, to January 14, 1889-Coutinued.
PART IllI

Normal juice analyses. Diffusion juice analyses. Reducih
orExhausted Reducin Sucrose o+ su gas (ge Sucrose in
Dahs .- o.Sucrose in pugara (Siu rned in ise, e
SRed chduciips, a whole cane. cose. etc. in diffusion obtained in exhausted
1an Sucrose. sgJia (g Sucrose. sga (gTO Cr case. e whole cane. juices., diffusion
cose, etc.). cose, etc.). juices.

Lbs. per ton, Lbs. per ton, Lbg. per ton, Lb.. per ton
D 23 Per Ment Per cent. Per cent. Per cent. Pr cent. cane. Lbg. per ton. cane cane. .cae. of cane.
88.5 14.9 11. .50 .51 263.7 10.6 249.2 10.6 10.2



Dc 27 41 88.5 14.8 .72 10.8 .51 .51 262.0 12.7 244.5 11.5 10.2
ee27 42 88.5 14.7 .64 10.9 .47 .51 260.2 11.8 245.0 10.6 10.2
Dec.28 43 88.5 14.4 .79 11.0 .60 .77 254.9 14.0 238.0 12.9 15.4
De. 28 44 88.5 15.0 .69 11.0 .59 .98 265.6 12.2 238.3 12.8 18.1
D 28 45 88.5 15.2 .74 11.3 .58 1.14 269.0 13.1 245.1 12.5 22.8
De.29 4 88.5 15.1 .72 11.0 .60 .85 287.3 12.7 249.5 13.6 17.0
Dec.2 47 88.5 14.5 .72 10. .72 .57 25b6. 12.7 244.8 16.8 11.4
Dc.2 48 88.5 14.9 .82 11.0 .70 .97 263.7 12.0 242.9 15.4 1.4
Dee.30 49 88.4 14.8 .61 11.0 .70 .71 258.1 10.8 243.1 15.5 14.2
Dee. 3 5 88.9 14.0 .58 11.3 .71 .85 248.9 10.3 235.8 14.8 17.0
Dec. 1 51 87.5 11.0 .67 10. .7 .88 2465.0 11.7 227.8 1 17.
Dec.31 52 87.5 14.5 .08 11.O .55 j57 253.7 11.0 242.1 11.4 11.4

Jan. 1 50 87.5 18.7 .83 10.7 .60 .68 239.7 14.5 222.5 18.7 18.6
Jant. 2 54 9.9 14.0 .01 10.1 .45 .48 248.9 10.8 224.5 9.9 8.6
Jan. 2 55 88.9 18.6 .73 10.2 .47 .43 241.8 18.C 224.5 10.3
Jan. 3 56 89.1 14.9 .55 11.2 .57 .57 265.5 9.8 247.5 12.6 11.4
an. 3 57 1 8.1 13.5 .790 11.0 .57 .57 240.6 12.5 238.2 12.3 11.4


Jan. 5 60 89.2 111.9 .81 10.2 .63 .74 212.3 14.4 203.3 12.5 14.8
....~~~ ~~ ~ ~rl +,,-fl ,."+',.. ...., .. + +++' : + :':''
++: .+ .+ +. + .++ +: ++ + ? ++++ +:
..... ~~~~~ ~ttr @@++ T @:++++ + +++++ + .. +ml++++i.... +












6 2 2 10.1:.;210.
..... 3 88 1 .41 15 .2 7.3 2o 1


Jan. 7 4 8 1.49 1 .4 1. .29 .40. 22.7 5 7. 2.
n. 8 88.8 4 1.1. .45 .40 255.7 5.9 5.5 9.42. 8.0
Jan 8 11 88.8 14.1 .41 10.7 .38 .45 250.5 7.6 24420. .8 9.0
Jan. 1 7 88.1 14.8 .40 10.0 .3 .148 251. 7.1 2307.5 7.8 1 .6

Jan.12 73 89.1 13.6 .45 10.4 .37 .57 242.3 8.0 215.5 7.6 11.4
Jan.12 1 80.1 13.2 .44 10.6 .42 .54 235.2 7.8 215.5 8.7 10.8

"75 80.1 13.0 .4A 10.4 .40 .91 231.7 7.8 207.3 8.3 18.2


eans.. 88.7 13.9 .58 10.9 .52 .60 246.2 10.3 230.7 11.0 12.0

taume of analytical data. Table V. (37 8etd of ainalyses.)

Normal juice. Diffusion juice.

Meas. Maxima. Minima. Means. Mxim. a.

Dge ix........................................................................... 16.2 17.8 12.9 12.9 13.8 11.5
Degree, Baum ....................................................................... 9. 9.9 .2 7.2 7.6 6.4
Sgavity........................................................................ 1.0 5 1.0735 1.0523 1.0 24 1.05 1 1.0464
S1rose ......... ..................1.......................................... per cent. 13.9 15.2 10.1 10.9 11.7 8.8
R ucingar(glucose, etc.) .................................................do .58 .83 .3 .52 .75 .29
Coefcient' of purity ............... ........... .. .............................. 85.80 89.50 60.14 84.49 89.51 80.80
Glu-ose per 100 sucrose............................................................... 4.17 7.75 31. 01 4. 77 8. 30 2.75
Inverekn per cent.diffusion jue ..................................................... .............. .............. .............. .0-4 .183 No inversion.

I From Table 1. 2 From Table 11.








Resume of manufacturing data. Battery work. Table V


Means. Maxima. Minima.

o al jice ..................................................................................................... per cent. cane.. 88.7 91. 88.1
Woody er(ar) ........................................................................................................'do.... 11.3 11.9 9.0
e, per cell........................................................................................ ..................po nds.. 2780. .............. ...... ...
aeper bifootof cel cpacity........................................................................................do.... 26. .............. ................
Diuon juice drawn per cell........................................................................................... gallons. 334. 1 359. 2 317
Di ionjuice drawn, per 100 pounds cane................................................................................. do.... 12. 12.9 11.4
rose in ehaustedch ....................................................................................... per cent.cane.. .0 1.14 .28
Ship................................................................................pounds per ton cane.. 12. .............. ................
Sn.................................................................................pounds per ton.. 246.2 29. 182
Sursecnainedouin ediwhole c cau------------------------------------------------------------------------ pu dse on.-. 106.3 14.8 182
Reducing sugars contained in whole cane ................................................................................. do .... 10.3 14.5 5.9
S rose extracted in diusionjices........................................................................ pounds per ton cane.. 230.7 253.5 174.8
Red g sugars extracted in diffusion juices ....................................................................... .. ....do ... 11. 16.3 8.0
Actual dil o ...........................................................................................per cent.normal juice.. 26.7 37.2 12.0
Apparent diltion........................................................................................................do.... 21.4 30.6 10.1
Additional evaporation, .e., evaporation required to concentrate difusion juice to the density of the normal juice, per cent.
dision juice ................................................................................................................. 20. 8 26 10.7
Extraction .......................................................................................percent. surose in the ae.. 93.70 .............. ...............


Blanes .howing the means of manufacturing data, battery work, for tee entire diffaeion .eason.

Cane.per e (di er)..............................................pounds.. 2,760 Actual dilution....................................... per cent. normalnice.. 28.
Cane, per cb foot of cll apacity....................................do.... 25.8 Apparent lution........................ ..............................do. 2.






Difuion juice drawn, per 100 pounds cane...........................gallons.. 12.3 Extraction.....................................per cent sucrose in the cane.. 94.72
..Sucrose left in exhausted chip... ..................... pounds pr ton of cane.. 11.28 a.a
4*~fSSS ;* a~aSSS

""""III~~,lr+*II~l*---I IICIIIII t ~ lic4









TABLE V.Shoing the mean fr of f rth asse ugais..

rose, Sucrose,









oof purity (double:iar-
direct polar- double polar- Glucose.
Sation. izationti

Per cent. Per cent. Per cent.
44.45 48.79 17.45


SVI h ng the mean copoition of molasses fro fourth suagarse).


SucreCoe. Gliciucoseent Coeficientarks












Degree Degree ...00 .......... 6 strikes wagon" eoo fermenntedsirp.
dirt r- l.......... ar Men Glucoe (itretonor- (do f blt polar.
oIation. ization). ization).


Per cent. Per cent. Per cnt.
5 42.0 30.00 33,93 17.6 37. 93 42. 68


TABLE V .- hwig the me conposition of the s89ar s (130 analyses).

Grade. Sucrose. Glucose. Remarks.

Per cent. Per cent.
ist sgar] (white) -u-- 97.94 -----..
low 2).... 96.00 .........Q 6 strikes '_ wagon" from fermented sirup.
tgar (mean) ......... 970 ...... Mean copositio of all first sugars.
Soa! a r ............... [98.40 r "o.
ird gar ................ 8.75 2. 28
rth r.............. 84.60 3.3.

e suga were boiled in a low-pressure pan (7 poiunds back pressure). The first sugars were
y soft, being bodedt in a very high vacuum, and often polarized ns low as 96 to 97 degrees.
D ng early part of th season, on mill work, the second sugars were grained directly from the
a from rt sugas, but during the greater porilon of the campaign a small nucleus of first
uite was left in the pan.
ig to tho exceptionally high grade of first and second sugars the folirth masfecuites were very
Syielde a large proportion of fourth sugar.
TABLE IX.-Crop report- diffusion work.

Weight of sugar per ton of cane.
Aa_: A _____ ______ ^ Total A* ETotal


(white). low ). (ago). (aon). (wa o).

Tons. Pounds Pounds. Pounds. Pound. Pound. Pounds. Pound.




T al--- 5,940.5 .......... ............ .......... .......... ........ 1 318 808 .........



ethird n" cotinsix strike of first sugars which were grained in wagons during troubl
jgaddiffusion in proportion to the yield or the other wiugr~s.


lRamf, showing yield of ge ari .

gar (wh te)....... ............ ......... .................... ..................do .... 4.27

gar grined in w o ................. ...... ...... ........ .................. ....
rst~olorr. Tiril~ r* 4*,,, pr.10i~







Tables 1, IV, and V, showing diffusion work by aiari ar na a .

from those of the mill-work which preceded diffusion. aring the tird
run numereus experiments were made to determine the beat method of
conducting the battery work. The thickness of the chips soon neces
sitated work at high temperatures and compelled me to abandon frther
experiments. The irregularities in the amount of je drawn and
other irregularities are largely due to the experimental nature of the
work of this run.
The yield of sugar in proportion to the surose present was larger
in subsequent "runs." This is partly due, in addition to richer ane,
and in the fourth run" a better extraktion, to losses resulting from
fermentation of the sirups. This fermentation was d to two cass.
The failure of the vacuum-pan traps to opet
the boiling from ten to twelve hours, five hours ally being icient
time in which to boil a strike. This caused an alation of ir
in the storage tanks. At this time a supply of now bone-black was
substituted for the char which had been in use
maker never having ad experience in the use
unprepared for thedifulties in its use. his
be stated that his lack of experience in the use of char was well known
to Governor Warmoth. The writer was also inexperienced in the manip
ulation of chars except in beet-sugar work and in the manufatr at
Magnolia.
The facilities for washing bone-black at Ma
hence the char was sent to the filters badly washed. On the admission
of the hot sirup to the filters dense volumes of ammonia lled the room.
The sirups so filtered fermented with extreme rapidity, entire tanks of
sirup showing a viscous fermentation in two or three It was
often impossible to centrifugal sugars graied in the pan from these
sirups; hence several strikes were boiled to string proof and sent to the
hot room. This fermentation and the consequent difulties in man-
facture undoubtedly caused a large loss of sugar. The following com-
i parison of the yield for the three diffusion runs
of this loss:


i* 7



Fourth .......... 243.3 228-73 94.01
Fifth ............ 230.8 20439B f5



fh the cae was coiderbly better the third, the oose
~a 1 ; i8 -bl,." :L''l||*l* |__/~














emica l control. '
h other runs




There is noting exceptional in' the results of the fourth and fifth
ns. The lower proportionate yied in the fifth "run is probably
dn to the methods of manufeature.

COAL CONSTMPTION.

al~e of the figures on the consumption of fuel is ery mu
sened b te aderse conditions nder whic steam was geerated

Scoal was used for firing. It is evident that economical steaming
Sout of the question under these conditions.
The bgasse burner built under the Fiske patents. The boilers
Sci i. In the ret of the steam plas the boil er ar of the
le-ue teesi fortoa burning coal.
T v he figures gen on coa c onsumptio not desined an exhibit
economical management,but are simply a statement of actual work.
The total coal consumption ftor the diffusion work was 2,674,585
Sd und. is inc s all the e in bo black m.
e fue burne n swingi out sugas r the close of the seas
ed beteen the mill a the dision wk i popoio to the
yedfob cl. efo
eld ~~of sugar. The only basis for estimating the coal consumption for



umehoin the coal consumption for the eason andor eas "run."

lesll Coal co tnsum od Per
So 1,000 pouae Suear.c




betiwee themill and............... 1,757 9.76
Ave*:o for 1* B ...1w ...1 1, 8 e 10.42
In examining the Coal Stateent resterence shoeld ca omde to Tablfo


Sin hich the rlcomparative regulaity o t
own i eneral it is safe to estimao very early as lfre a el con.










coal bills have been more than doubled. Taking into account the
numerous delaysandthe failure of the to niiently thin




ystem of preparing the cane for the battery wll be inuse at that time.
t is conervatve to estimate a coal onsu
1,400 pounds per 1,000 pounds of sugar as suficient under favorable
conditions. In this estimate no account is taken of the exhausted chips,
which ought to furnish a large proportion of the fuel.

THE MILLINTG OF EXHAUSTED CHIPS.

On page 24 attention is called to the probable tofhightempera-
tures on the cane,especiallyin regardto the subsequent milling of the
exhausted chips. In 1867 the milling experiment was practically a fail-
ure, whereas the past season on the contrary it was su ful ope
cial adjustment of the mill was made for the experiments in either case.
These experiments are discussed at the reference cited.
In the experiment the past season the following percentages of water
were left in average samples from h mill:
(1) Chips from three-roller mill retained 60.85 per cent. water.
(2) Chips from five-roller mill retained 52.65 per cent. water.
The chips burned1 freely; those from the three-roller mill would prob-
ably have burned fairly well, but no test could be made.
I believe the milling and burning o the chips i a less difult prob
*d b mg of t ) :

lem than it is usually considered. It ld
economical than the present practice at Magnolia of
the Mississippi River.

INCREASE IN THE EVAPORATION IN THE DIFFUSION PROCESS AS COX-
PARED WITH MILLING.

In comparing the figures on coal consumption manufacturers should
not neglect to note the exceptional rich s of the juice, and, further,
that in the evaporation at agnoliPlantation a q
yan system, is employed.
The following table shows the relative quantities of water to be evapo-
rated in mill and diffusion work I have taken the
since the third run" is approximately an ave of
Thestiation of the ill year is arbitr a i
vious work and the totl juice in the
SFor a desrition of the Fie b burr s Bulleia 11 e 6.





.. .. iiii ."3 X : A .H
57

i difk asper Table III compare wh that of 72 per cent. milling.






Lb wer pr rw

i M. 1W.1 ,B? 8.O 5

SWs an atual inus in tcoal rtio for evap

froa lona. n Evapation poration there are still otheas d
r duct to the dilug- and to the e ter su ex or
Te inc earation in qauple shuld not rei
cane. cnee. cane. cane. Per cet.








1,195.7 48g ,13.1 1,870.5 5

t orin-Dn fthe best equiped t-sugar houes, em-
The above shows etc, buincrease in 4.the coal consum of ption for evapto-
;inedf coalIn a thitn wnt the rMag ta arbasillg thers fdi
it gd biles ell tie, wme hae 15 pounds coal ionl ou l per
7 nd000 in the cegsugar houe. Even tarhe Aust.l
According to Horsin-D'on the best equipped beet-sugar houses, em-




useintheirbest work, where nearly twice as much diffusion juice is
Sp undred pounds of beets as was drawn from the cane at Mag-
Soly 180 pounds per 2,000 pounds of beets. These houses
ploy quadruple effect evaporation, with all Rillieux's improvements.
he large fuel consumption at Magnolia can not be charged to to the
aryan apparatus or to the vacuum pan. Repeated tests have demon-
ratedthe high efficiency of the Yaryan. The vacuum strike pan is
the lowpressure type and of the best modern construction. Bearing
Sin view, we must look to other sources for Magnolia
e fuel consumption. One source is no doubt the use of coal
ilers designed for an entirely different class of fuel. The fuel
rned under the coal boilers, as estimated by several experts, was
ay 1 pound per pounds of water evaporated. There was
r y a larincrease due to the wastage of the waters of conden-
the battery eatrs Te beet-ouses cited do not employ
,hence the fuel consumed in preparing the liquors for filtra-
on, etc., should be deducted in this comiparison.
In the beet-sugar-house work all the evaporation and heating of juices
etc., is in multipe effect. This is accomplished by the ii-
roved hods of Rillieux. All such work at Magnolia is n si
ect except the evaporation.
l availle data in diffusion work indicate that with very best
modern appliances the fuel consumption need not exceed 100 pounds of
al r to of cane or 500 pounds per 1,000 pounds of suar.I am








cane houses, economizing the wet
but, if the Germans and Austrians can work with thigh
economy, can not the American do so as well believe the
distant when coal will be only required as an auxiliary in firi
stoppages, the exhausted chips furnihing the fuel required.
Planters estimating on diffusion and intendig to use the eva
appliances already in place for milling must
they will be compelled to work less cane per day, to
increased evaporation and extraction. In other words, they
large the capacity of their houses in proporio
and dilution.
In case the chips are not burned, at least two
much coal must be provided for diffusion as would be for millin
in the latter case the bagasse is employed as fue



The results of the diffusion work, tough unsatisfactory

the process as applied to sugar-cane. The cane will submit to
treatment in the diffusion battery than the beet, and
manipulations are simpler. This very property of the ca
tempts the battery-men to careless work, resulting in loss to the
Every possible precaution should be taken to secure regularity
It should be remembered that the battery-man is placed in a o
ble position, and he should be remunerated accordingly.
Delays incident to the diffusion battery were of rare occurence
satisfactory cutters, there is very little probabilty of delays ex
bad weather.
The results of this season's work indicate the possibilities of
and justify a raid introduction of the rocess.



















MANUFFACT URING DATA.



MILL WORK.

As stated at the beginning of this report, mill work has unfortunately
mplicated the crop data to such an extent, that it is impossible to
ake separate statement of either the mill or diffusion work of the
rly part of the season. No data of value could be obtained of the mill
An automatijuice weigher was ordered, ut reached the
antation after diffsion work had commenced. This apparatus was
tested, and afte slight alterations worked satisfactorily. I
sequence of the failure to determine the quantity of juice extracted
the mill, I only give general analytical and manufacturing data
n the accompanying tables.
Twas apparently as good as in past seasons, but owing to
Sexceptionally igh proportion of woody fiber, the yield of juice was
robably considerably lower.

TABLE X.-Compoiti of raw jie.

amples wer tken at 8 a. in. and 4 p. i.; also once at 1 p. m.]

Reudacing
Date. No. Brix. 1um6. rpcifc eupars. CoefScient
aIt N-(gucomk, of purity.


o Percet. Per cent.
Nov. 12 1 18 1 10.0 1.0748 16 2 1. 49 8. 5
Nov. 12 18. 1 10. 0 1.0748 1. 2 1. 13 89. 5
S117.7 9.8 1. 0730 15.5 14 87.

.14 5 17.8 9.9 1.073 15.5 1.05 87.8
Nov. 15 17.7 9.8 1. 070 1.5 .75 876
Nov. 15 7 17.7 9. 8 1. 0730 1.2 02
Nov, 16 8 17.2 9. 1.17)09 14.5 D6 84. 3
Nov. 16 9 17. 5 9.7 1 0 15-4 .5 7 S8. 0
Nov. 17 10 3 i 6 10713 14.22 8 .

Monarch Atotit Grain F1uid a Uw a u n worI )rt, I uui -11ai













Date. No. Brix. Baum6. Speci Surose. gar, Coe ent

gravity. (glucose, of prity.

Nov. 17 11 17. 3 9.6 1.0713 14.6 T
Nov. 18 12 1-.2 9.5 1.0709 14.86 .55 84.8
Nov. 18 13 17.4 9.6 1.0717 15.0 .53 86.2
Nov. 19 14 17.9 9.9 1. 0739 15.6 .42 87.1
Nov.20 15 17.7 9.8 1.0730 15.0 .47 88.1
Nov. 20 16 17.7 9.8 1.0730 15.6 .41 88.1
Nov. 20 17 17.7 9.8 1.070 15.7 ............ 8.7
Nov. 21 18 17.3 9.0 1.0713 15.1 .i0 87.2
Nov. 21 19 17.3 9.6 1.0713 15.1 .50 8. 2
Nov. 22 20 17.1 9.5 1.0704 14.9 .64 87.1
Nov. 22 21 17.2 10709 15.8 .46 91.8
Nov. 23 22 19.3 10.7 1.0801 16.4.50
Nov. 23 23 16.9 9.4 1.0695 14.4 ............ 8
Nov. 24 24 *17.5 9.7 1.0722 15.9 .46 90.8
Nov. 25 25 17.0 9.4 1.0700 14.8 .58 87.1
Nov. 26 26 18.0 10.0 1.0744 18.4 .44 91.1
Nov. 20 27 17.1 9.5 1.0704 15.1 .42 88 3
Nov. 27 28 18.9 10.5 1.0783 16.6 .57 87.8
Nov. 28 29 17.4 9.6 1.0717 14.9 .46 85.6
Nov. 28 30 17.0 9.4 1.0700 14.8 .44 8. 9
Nov. 29 31 16.6 9.2 1.0683 14.4 .52 86.7
Nov. 29 32 16.9 9.4 1.095 15.0 .48 88.7
Nov. 20 33 16.8 9.3 1.0691 14.5 .44 86.3
Nov. 29 34 17.4 9.6 1.0717 15.3 ............ 87.
Nov. 30 35 10.6 9.2 1.0682 14.4 .52 86.7
Means ..... 17.5 9.7 1.0722 15.3 87.4

Degrees Baumt6 are from the old calculations as given in Tuocer's Manual."

RB6umc'shouring the mean composition of raw juices, also thwe maxima and mbibua, JNo#1et-
ber 12 to 30, inclusive (35 analype).

Means. Maxima. Minima.

Specific gravity ................ ..... 1.0722 1.0801 1.0682

Degroo Baum6 I--------------------- 9.7 10.7 9.2
Sucrose ...............-----per cent. 15.3 16.6 14.
Reducing u gars (glucos, etc.) .do .. 2 1.49 .41
Coliciet of purity ................. 87.4 91.8

1)egree Baum6 are from the old calculations as givelln in" Tu er's Manual"

Analyses of clarified juices, sirups, et., were also ade, but are not
publishled on account of being rendered pr actically valueles by the
lack of definite data in regard to the extraction.
FrOm November 9 to 30, inclusive, 521.5 tou of cae were worked by
diffsion and2673 tons by the mill. It is im o ibl to separatthe ill
work fro that of the difftusio bat ery, so shall o ly state the yield
of sugar por ton. A EE








.. TA XL-The yield of sugar per ton of cane, November 12 to 30, 1888.
ber 12 to 18 inclusive: Cane worked, 1,324.5 Ions; mil work, 1,217 tons; d
work, 107.5 tons.]

Description. Yield. Sugar pe
ton oft Cne.

Pounds. Pound.
First sugar (white).................. 116, 81 88. 22
Second sngar (yellow C)... ......... 63,008 47.57
Third sugar (wagon) ................ 26, 01 20.08
Fourth sugar (wagon) ............... 15,126 11.42
Total....................... 221,586 167. 29

SecondrnNovember 1 to 30 inclusive: Cane worked, 1,870 tons; mill work, 1,456 toins; diffusion
Swork, 414 tons.J

First sugar (whiteo .................. 163, 539 87.46
Second sugar (yellow C) ............. 88,814 47.49
Second sugar (wagon) ............... 6,833 3.12
.Third sugar (wagon) ................ 34,295 18.34
Fourth sugar (wagon) .............. 21,355 11.42
Total ......................... 31 83 167. 84
For average analyses of sugar, see page 53.

DISCUSSION OF TABLES X AND XI.
An ispecton of Table X will show that the juices were remarkably
S. The character of the season producing exceed-
y cane and a small tonnage will acount for this. The first
few analyses show a high percentage of glucose. This is due to the
eterioration of the cane left on the yard during the preliminary work.
ys were unusually frequent at the beginning of his season,
ence considerable cane was left on the yard for several days.
percentage of available sucrose, based upon a extraction of 72
per cent., and calculated by the formula per cent. sucrose minus one
half times the glucose = available sucros was 10.31. The
i le sucrose in pounds per ton of cane= 202, corresponding to
a xmately 214 pounds of commercial sugar. The actual yield of
sugar obtained was about 45 pounds per ton of cane less than this
SNot having reliable data of the mill work it is impossible to
loce te responsibility for this shortage. It is fair to presume that
i w partly due to a lower extraction than 72 per cent., but this ane
will not account for the shortage.
I i probable that the class of sugars made will also account in
part for the low yield. The "firsts" generally graded as "choice
SIn order to obtain this grade it was necessary to use a large
Swater In the cenrifigals. The "seconds" were grained in
the pan. T mola s from irsts" were dil ted, treated with super-
hosphate of lime and alumina, relimed and filtered throulgh bone-black.
Again considerable water was required to be used nll the centrifugals







in order to obtain a high grade of sugar. The 4 seconds" Polarized W
high as the "firsts," and were sold at abont the same pric. Owing to-
the fact that after the first few days of the season a small nucleus of
"firsts" was left in the pan for the formation of the "seconds, these
sugars should both be termed "firsts," and the "thirds and "fourths"
would then be respectively "seconds" and "thirds." The"thirds"and
"fourths" were boiled to string proof as usual.
In making these grades of sugar, necessitating a doable fltration of
the sirup, double the loss was experienced in the bone-black room. The
loss of which I now speak is that due to the absorption of sugar by the
char and the losses in the waste waters. The filters at Magnolia are of
the form termed Dumont or open filters. Owing to the diffiulty of
properly washing the char, without employing a very large quantity of
water, the waste waters contained .onsiderable sugar, as the following
table will show:
TABLchar aId th-Analy losses in ate t.ters from oe-lac m.
Date. No. Sucrose.

Per cent.

Nov.22 3 1.12
Nov.22 4 .44
Nov. 23 5 .73
Nov.24 6 91

These analyses show an enormous loss in the filter room. After No-
vember 24 orders were given the filtermen to wash their filters a very
considerably longer time than they bad been doing.
Samples were frequently brought to the laboratory for examination,
and whenever the proportion of surose exceeded .50 the washing was
continued. It is impossible to estimate the loss from this source, but
it was certainly very large. Under the conditions at Magnolia the
past season it was impracticable to vary the mode of work in the bone.
black room. The quantity of wast water was variously estimated at
from 1,000 to 1,500 gallons per twenty-four hours; this would indicate
losses ranging from less than 100 to nearly 300 pounds of sugar per day,
or from .5 to 1.5 pounds per ton of cane. As there were no means of
ascertaining the exact amount of waste water, these figures are a rough
approximation of little value.
THE USE OF SUPERPHOSPHATES.
I have frequently objected to the use of superphospates of lime and
alumina, but it was not until late in oveber that their use was dis-
continued. These superphosphates usually contain an excess of the
sul ric cid used in their acture and the stock at Magnolia
was no exception to the rule. It is difficult to find any advantage aris-
ing from the use of these superphosphates.
~BI~~~a i~ti~ l 4-i~' l~8".~









MagnoliarPlantton., Crop report, 1 8.








F.s r wit ................... 116, 88. .

e' n :* *-ugar- W;p (yelow V/ .*.*........ as, 08 47. 5i
T (wago) ................. 2,01 20. 08
";pi sugar ( }wago............... 15 128 II. 42


Srun, ovember 1 to 18, incsive: Cane worked, 1,870
tn; work, 1,27 tons; di o work, 4107 tons.]







First sugar (white) ................... 13, 87.4


Second sugar (yellow C) .............. 63, 80084 47.57


Third sugar (wagon) .................. 18.08
Fourth sugar (wagon) ............... 21, 5 11.42
S rn ember 19 to 3, inclusive: Cane worked, 1,070
ton; ll w tons; diffusion work] 414 tons.












First sugar (wifte) ................... 1~03,539 87.24
Second sugar (yellow C).............. 88,814 47.49












Third sugar (wagon) ................ 1,705 29.3
Fourth ugar (wagon) ---------------21..........,355 11.42
Total .... ....-......... 3, 1 .3
[Third run, December I to 8, inclusive: Cane worked, 1,079.5





tons; diffusion work.







First sugar (white) ................... 152, 08 1.1
Second sugar (yellow C)Q ----------- 56,805 52.62












o augar (wagoB) ................ 1 037 8.
Third gar (wagon).................. 71,05 9.
Furth sugar (wagon) .............. 1,50 20.00
Total .........-----.................. 230,185 213.23

Ffth run, December 9 to 22, inclusive: Cane worked, 1,799 tos;
odiffusion work. I














First sugar (white) ................. 15234, 881 8.46
Second sugar (wagon) .........9...... 120 6.69










Scn ua r (ye llowAM i C) ...afc... .. .. 246,t 464 80. 4
Third sugar (wagon) .................. 71, 0-59 39.50












Fourth sugar (wagon) .............-.. 61,240 20.00



One-balf of this sugar was estimated from the half swung out.




D ion average......................do............ 222.
M ill, average ...... ..................... o.------------ 167.9
Di-on, Wrse ...................... do ..... ..... 5L I
mr




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INDEX.



A.
Page.
on of, in the diffusion cells .... ........................... ... 12
gementof difsionbatteries ........................................ 11
matic gister, Eugene Langen ........................................ 14
Hlorin-D .on ............................................ 13
sampler, description of........................................ 16
roseindiffusion juices............................ ............ 54

B.

ay repon form fo.... .......................................... 18
orkheckon the................................ 17
C.


sators, d........ie........................................ 9
der the Ntional ................ ....................... 9
C of the diffusion battery, dimensions of..... 9

Caiation in the diffusion, battery. .... ... 21

Coalconsumption-... __. _... 55
of, in beet sugar houses.... .... ............. 57
pressed-air pipes,diameter of............................................ 9
ption ofcoal ....................................................... 55


er, ........................................................ ......... 7
Hughes ...................... ..... ..... ......... ...... ... ........

D.
D ,general analytical .......a..a....... .. ..c. .. 26
D ulties experienced in the preliminary work.--------------------..._ 7
Df ion batteries and their arrangement, general remarks on..-------------11
description of-.........-.--..-- .-.-- ... ...- -------9
battery, clarification in...-..... ,. .. ...............21
irst operations in the manipulation of ...................... 19
manipulation of............... ............. 19
notes on the use of lime in ................................
working tempera*ture of.................................. 23
cell, infuence of the dimuensions and form of.. ..................... -0
achinery, criticis on .......................... ............... 10
work .............................................................. 26
available su rose.............. a... .. ,a.... *a.... e.-...a.. 54
3824.-No. 21- 5 65









Diffusion work, controlof...................................................


Dilution .................. ... .................................. .. ..........
actual .............................................................
apparent ...........................................................
Doors,hydraulic method of opening ..........................................



Evaporation, comparison of, in the diffusion and milling proeses............
in the di m lnl

increase in, due to the diffusion process .........e--
n diffusion work, compared with that n per
E xample, showing calculation of invers ...................
Exhausted chips, the milling of. --................-a....-a.......-. 5.a


omentin, Mr., experiments of ..............................................

I.
Heaters, dimensions of --....................................................
Hinze, Mr. Fred, suggestions of, in reard to clarification ...... .... ......


Inversion ................................................... ...............
formnil for .... ... .. ................ i.. .l ... ..........

J.
Jennings, O. B., patent of ---s.............................................- ......
Juice, atomatic determination of the density of ......... ........ .
sampling of ................................................
mains, diameter of ....................................................

L.
Itters oftransmittal ........................................................
II,
M.
Magnolia battery, defectsi ...............................................
plantation, crop report of, season of 1888 ................... .......
Mai, juice and water, dimensions of ........................................
Manufacturing data, mill work............................................ ..
Milling the exhausted chips, remarks on .....................................
Millwork, muanufacturing data ........................................ ..... ac

P.


B.
Removl ofxhausted chips,method of ......................................
bum6, showing coal consumption for each diffusion run'.fl
mean composition of rawjuices............................
means of manufacturing data forentireseason..............
yield of sugarsdifusion work ............................ 5






67


Page.
sul xpiments of, in clarification at Kenner, La 22

rphosphates, the us of ........ ...... ...................... ............ 62

T.

parison of normal and diffusion juices ........ .......27,28,29,30
discussion ...c .................................................................. 31
No. 2, character of work for each day of season ....................... 5,36, 37
1,2, and 3, analyticl and manufacturing data, third run38,39,40
6sum6 of analytical and manufacturing da a .................... 41
analytical and manufacturing data, fourth run.42, 43,44
r 6 of analytical and manufacturing data .................... 45
No., p s 1, 2, 3, analytical and manfacturing data, fifth run..-.. 46, 47,
48, 49,50,51
r~sum6 of analytical data ......-.......-....-....-......-......-...... 51
manufacturing data .................................. 52
No. 6, mean composition of fourth massecuite........................ 53
No. 7, mean composition of molasses and fourth sugars................. 53
No. mean composition of sugars .................................... 53
No. 9, crop report, diffusion work--k...........-......--...-. .... -53
No. 10, composition of raw juice ........ ..............60
No. 11, yield of sugar per ton of cane, mill work-........................ 61
12, analysis of wast waters from boneblack room ................. 62
es 10 and 11, discussion of .... .............................................. 61

V.
rs, accumulation of, in diffusion cells .1........* .. ........... .... 12


opringo, Java, ue oflime for clarification at ....................... .... .. 22
at mains, diamer of ............ ............... .. ............. 9
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