DIVISON O ENAUJBUOIJW-BUAAMMAN N~O.z 35 NW SERIMES
L. 0. HOWARD, Entomologist,
ON CDLING-MOTII INVESTIGATIONS
IN HENORTHWEST ]DURING 1901.
GVEhtNMEMNT PRINTING O117I09.
r i i
U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRI TURE
DivixioN oF ENTOMOLOGY,
S1yashino,;; A. C. ay 19, 1902.
SIR: I have the honor to transmit herewith 'the manuscript
report on the codling-moth investigtion in the Northwest d
1901, conducted by Mr. C. B. Simpson, a special ent of
and prepared by him for publication. Fruit w
west, and especially in the States of Idaho, W i n,
have complained that conditions in that part of the nry m
very different from those which hold in the Eastern a
sections, inasmuch as the remedial treatment which is fo
tory in the East does not give equally good results in
Therefore, under a special appropriation from Con
was begun by this office in the late summer of 1900, Mr. Si
being appointed to carry out the investigation and experiment
report upon the work which he did in the season of 1900
in Bulletin 30 (new series) of this Office (p. 51-).
able to make a somewhat earlier start, and the results were ther
more satisfactory. This work is described in the accompanying
letin. The present summer (1902) Mr. Simpson started for the
early in May, and it is hoped that at the close of the
gation will have arrived at such a point as o enable the publicati
a full and satisfactory bulletin covering the whoe proem. I
mend this bulletin to be published as No. 35 (new se
L. 0. HOWARD,
Hon. JAMES WILSON, F020o ..
Secretary of Agriculture.
It n r r --- --- -- - - - - - -- - - - - - - ----- 5
W o km IthacaN. Y -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- ---- --. 6
Te ch rs isttues-- -- -- -- ---- ----------------- --- - - - - 6
Sta usof he fruit crop forl1901 --------------------------------------------- 6
Inj ry ue ocodlingnumo th in 1901 ---------------------------------------- 7
Frutsinfstd by the codling m oth --------------------------------------- 7
.Iad spread of the codling oth in the Northwest ------- ------ 8
L ifezon s a d present dist~ribution ---------------------------------------- 9
.Lie h sto y f the ecodling m oth ------------------------------------------- 10
T h e eg g .------------- -- --- ------ ------ -------- -- --- -------------- --- 10
T h e larva ------------- ---------------------- ---------------------- 10
T h e ~ p u p a ---------------- --------------------- --------------------- 13
T h e m oth -------------- -------------------- ---------------------- 13
G dn r ati nsof the inesect -------------------- -------------------------- 15
Ove lap ing of generar tions.-------------------------------------------- 18
Causes adcnitions which affet the numbers of this insect --------------- 18
Prevnti e measres employed against the odling moth.-------------------- 19
Uemedal masues employed against the codling moth --------------------- 20
M easuresagainst thnelar lee.------------------------------------------- 20
Spraying ___ -- -- --- -- ---- -- --- -- -- -- --- -- --.................- 21
arly sprayings 21
Later sprayings ---------------------- ---------------------- 22,
Mvaterial for the spray --------------------------------------- 24
Expense of spraying ---------------------------------------- 25
Pcing and destroying wormy fruits ------------------------------ 25
B an ing ------------------- ------------------- ------------------- 26
M eas resagainst the adult.. . . ------ ------ ----- ------ ----- ------ ----- 27
Trap lanterns ...I -------------------.-------------------- 27
Baiting the m oth ---------------------------------------------27
,", = and conclusion ----------------------------------------------------- 27
c~i(R : "R ... .o;,; ,, i i"ii~ ,i :''ii iiiLilii
PLATE 1. Entrance holes of 1arvm --------------------------- 1
11. Fig. 1.-Banded tree and near-by fence. Fig. 2.--Post of4 nehw
,iabove, with splinters removed ---------------------------------- 12
111. Fig. 1.-Portion of fence post, showing old pp kn.Fg
2.-Cocoons in cracks in bark ------ ------------ 1
IV. Fig. .-Piece of bark, Showing ioth just emegd, ad ldpupai ;
... .:,,,,, .... iii;, ,,:, =,i il i;
skins. Fig. 2.-Band on which the remnains of 330 cocoonswere
V. Views in orchard of Hon. Edgar Wion, showing lcio
house in relation to orchard -------------
FIG. 1. Map of Pacific Northwest, showing life zones
__._o v e """"";;l"aiiil, .... ..... "lll
Coc ons e sm .... .:... ,. :.,
... ,, I; :
ce with the authorization of the Secretary of Agricul-
tnstructions of the Entomologist, the following report is
on the investigations of the codling moth in the Pacific
N. Y. June 15, for Idaho, arriving at Salt Lake City,
Utah,1. The Utah Agricultural College was visited and con-
held with the authorities in regard to the codling moth.
kover a grasshopper outbreak. At that place I found
ldrich and with him looked over the infested section.
he results of this work has already been submitted.
tMarket Lake and was accompanied by Professor Aldrich
daho, fro which place I went to Shoshone Falls and
Mr. Perrine's orchard at Blue Lakes was examined
ad mediI measures were advised. The 28th and 29th I
ring conditions about Mountainhome, arriving at Boise
re I spent a few days in looking over the orchards in
.A trip was then made to Nampa, Caldwell, Payette, and
, with return to Boise the 13th of July. Many trips
,-orchards about Boise. August 14 another trip was
cluded Nampa, Caldwell, Payette, Weiser and Emmett.
oise August 25, 1 remained there two days and then
inhome from the 27th to the 0th. In September sev-
Oct 4went to- Portland, Oreg., for the purpose of attending
1 After spending several days at Boise, I started for Wash-
October 22 and arrived there on the 26th.
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observations during the blossoming period, circular letters were
to prominent growers in Idaho asking them to conduct observis
Letter No. 1 asked for observations in regard to the times of b
ing,etc., and on life ofthe inse during that period. Several
dered valuable aid by mking excellent observations.
Letter No. 2 asked several growers to begin cooperative expe
which the writer would complete when he arrived upon the field
every case the freeze of June 5 left no apples upon the trees w
were selected for the experiments. Much work had been don
some growers in starting these tests.
Letter No. 3 was sent to 60 growers in different parts of the
asking that band records be kept. The fruit growers responded
to this request, and over 40 replies were received. Many val
records were obtained.
During the summer the writer addressed four teachers' insti
upon the subject of the codling moth, the aggregate number of tea
present being about 180.
In each of these talks the damage caused by the insect and the i
tance of the subject were dwelt upon. A brief but fundata
sketch of the life history was given, fully illustrated by photogr
and specimens of the insect's work. The most approved method
control were explained and the results obtained by- the same
given. The teachers were told how they might introduce the su
into their school work as a nature-study topic. Directions were g
as to the method of presenting the work and collection of speci
In these talks the writer took great pains to interest the teacher
has been rewarded by knowing that, in a great number of insta
the teachers put the suggestions into practice.
On account of the small fruit crop no summer meeting of theState
ticultural society was held. Two farmers' meetings were address
one at Caldwell and another at Mountainhome. The attendance
poor, but the interest shown amply repaid the effort exerted.
STATUS OF THE FRUIT CROP FOR 1901.
Early in the spring the fruit crop of 1901 promised to be large
sudden freeze June 5, at which time apples were about the si
marbles, practically ruined all prospect for a good crop. About
prunes and peaches were all killed, and in some orehards no a
were left, while in others considerably over half a crop remained.
ther sections conditions were about the same. Mr. McPherson
in 901andhis estimate is probably not far f rom correct.
t of this short crop the price of apples was high and those
ave a large part of what crop they had made good profits.
INJURY DUE TO CODLING MOTH IN 1901.
t of the small crop it is impossible to give an estimate that
a in regard to the damage by the insect in 1901. It was
ch greater than in 1900.
a with but little fruit the apples were all wormy, many
taining from a to 10 holes. The writer counted the
3 eggs on one apple and 17 on another.
The ber of the insects was decreased but little by the freeze,
umber of fruits they had to work upon was greatly les-
sequently, in the orchards that were well cared for a large
f the fruits was wormy in spite of spraying and banding.
g are estimates of injury by the codling moth in individ-
dand ii localities:
at Nampa, bad over half a crop of apples. Many of them were under-
g and banding were well done. The loss for the whole orchard was
p o0 per cent.
Mr.C. inz, Payette, had about half a crop of Jonathans. About 50 per cent
mthis insect. Spraying alone was used.
ilson ad a small crop of Ben Davis and Jonathans. Early spray-
eand bands were used. Less than 40 per cent of these were saved.
Glinchey bad nearly a full crop at Payette. Early sprays were made
but andng as neglected. Not over 20 per cent was saved.
Meath 9 miles from Mountainhome thinks he saved 80 per cent of his
appes nd ear. Spraying and banding and other measures were used.
hitehead, of Boise, saved only about 20 per cent by spraying and no
s were noted in various localities where all the fruit was wormy.
Pdrich as found that the damage in and about Moscow was about 5
ed that about Walla Walla, Wash., and in the valley of the -upper
the conditions were about as they were in the Boise Valley.
In te Wllaette Valley the writer has been told that the injuries where no meas-
ure wee uedvaried from 30 to 80 per cent.
In suthrn regon the writer found orchards near Central Point in which the
injurydidnt exeed 5 per cent. In an untreated orchard 20 per cent of the apples
wer esimaedto be damaged. Growers said that this orchard showed much less
injuy. tan mny others in that locality.
FRUITS INFESTED BY THE CODLING MOTHI.
The ppleis by far the most subject to the attacks of this pest, and
Pracicaly al of the work has been directed against the insect in this
In.190 itwas noted that some varieties of apples were more subject
Pewaukee (always badly infested).
Grimes Golden, Northern Spy, Gravenatein.
Ben Davis (very variable).
Rome Beauty (variable).
Winesap (always least infested).
This list was made from observations in many orhards an
composite of the conditions in these orchards. Local conditio
to a great extent the cause of the variability.
Pears are but little infested when compared with apples. I
very worst localities the injury sustained rarely if ever reac
per cent, and, when remedial measures are used, injury varies
to 15 per cent.
Many quinces were examined, but not a single case of infe
Having in mind Professor Bruner's observations when he f
larvw which he took to be those of the codling moth feeding i
pods of roses, the writer examined hundreds of these pods w
finding any larvve or eggs.
t has often been reported that the codlig moth lar wr a
ing peaches, prunes, and plums. Upon investigation it was foi
every case that the attack was made by the larva of the peach
INTRODUCTION AND SPREAD OF THE CODING XOTH IN T
Dr. C. V. Riley, in his Sixth Missouri Report (174), mentio
insect as working in Utah, where it had evidently been introdu
year or two previous.
The Scientific American of November 14, 1882mentions th
codling moth made its appearance in California in 1874.
Prof. J. M. Aldrich states that this insect has been known i h
Clearwater Valley since 1887, and in southern Idaho nearly as
By many orchardists in southern Idaho the writer was told th
above date is approximately correct. Many stories are told o
the insect reached Idaho, one being to the effect that the inset
introduced in dried prunes. Without doubt the insect was intro
in apples shipped either from UtahOronorWashington.
t. The pread is found to be along the lines of transporta-
tion Itwas retarded in a great measure by the fact that many
were isolated. A well-marked ase of i unity resulting
ation is shown in the case of Mr. Perrine's orchard at Blue
Lakes.This or-chard was free from the insect until two or three years
adis now but little infested. Mr. Perrine thinks the moth was-
ed into his orchard in old boxes. The spread from orchard to
by the flight of the moths has been comparatively slow, and
usualy fllows a -river valley.
I=E ZONES lAND PRESEBNT 'DISTRIBUTION.
atus of the insect has been studied as far as the data at hand
ermit. The life zones found in Idaho (fig. 1.) may be de-
l one comprises that part of the State known as the Panhandle, a strip
northeastern side of the State and a large area in the central part of the
Stat whih i connected with the eastern strip.
I)W.I.-tapof the Pacific Northwest, showing life zones-locaities infested by codling mnoth indi-
cated by dots.
ThiiTrasition zone is limited to an irregular area in the north and a fringe around
the Boealin the south. The southwestern and southeastern parts of the* State are
-Alo i tl zone. The Transition area in the northern part of the State is somewhat
vm- that of the southern part, on account of the larger amount of rainfall.
ing farm extends down the Snake River Valle on the western border. A mall are
this C one is present in the valleys of the Snake and Clearwater rivers at Lewso
CounAt this pointy, state thatl of the Lower Sofind noran fruits are grown.
The relations of inthe codling moth toones are as follows:
not well fitted for the g i ofape
Boreal.-As no applbes can be grown in this zone, this insect does not occur.
this zone. e varees ofa ra T
Transition.mum -The inset occurs in ofthis one, but is never greatly injurious. At
cow the injuries for the past three years have been 21, 10, and 5 per cent, respectiv
iy no i y to 2 p c. Cs a
MaCounty, state that they can find no indications of the insect at those places.
not weed in 1of901. apples. Te n n pt of ts z ,
As in 1900, manysouthern part.
thiwere but Some varieties of apples reach perfection. The codling moth reacheno
thapple invthe stigatiof orn has beenref s ade.
(P. I, D); on 17. It
Many impofrtant variations in the life history of this insect w
wnoted in 1901.
.with an aver o about fi days.
In a day or so after he e gg is laid, a hoss ho hae
As in 1900, many eggs were observed. In orchards where th
ma be sily diin i d. In
wear b few i wayp s eggs were shend in enom s numbe. On
anpple the er of eggs or remains of eggs was found to be
athing of tan egg, the e ie f a i f eit
few times thaverage wasof about five days.
In a de or so after the e s d orse a,
and the embryonic larva, may be the form of the la
In 1900 the earlier countings showed that about 60 per cent ente
the calyx end. Without doubt this low ercentage was caused
te were.two worms each. Three larv.. were killed by fungi or
those which bad left the apples, 13 had left by the calyx
ther places than the calyx-in some cases, from 90 to 100
They enter at the sides (Pl. I), at the stem, and particu
he apples touch. In badly infested orchards it is a rare
ind apples which touch without finding also the entrance
place of a codling-moth larva.
a of the second generation were taken out of their bur,
s after they had entered and were placed uipon apples in
hat they would do. All immediately commenced search-
a to enter. They would try to bite through the smooth
r jaws would make but little impression. One of them
o rr I found that the larve while entering eat but little, if
kin or flesh of the fruit but push the particles out behind
eem intent upon getting away from the light. Professiiiiiior
that he has seen them spin silk over the mouths of the
Aho s they have fully entered.
ors have advanced the opinion that those larvwe which
eaves eat sparingly of the leaves before they find the
ite of many attempts to throw light upon this point, the
wfer no evidence; but he believes that many perish on
s habit as they get any poison that maly be on the leaves.
large majority of newly hatched larve never reach an
ish. This was especially true in 1901 on account of the
ples.' The apples which had 23 and 17 eggs had only 5
is e larva eats. out a circular mine immediately under
When the central portion of the fruit is reached the larva
iegular cavity which is found filled with pellets of excre-
nts toundf together with silk. Data as to howiolongnit takes t.helarv
ments and the number of larvae were smnall and more
fourteen days and the longest twenty-ive, with twenty-on
average. When the larva i s full grown it eats its way to
of ape, but remains within, plugging the hole
a day or so this obstruction is pushed out, and the larva
and immediately seeks a placein which to spin its cocon a
The effect of this insect on the apples and pears is ac thatthe
ripen prematurely and fall from the tree, being worthl
tree. Experiments conducted by Professor Aldrich upon
bands show that twice as many larv spin their cocoos "n
was found under the bottom band. In case of windfall
leav thec apple and crawl to a suitable place along the gr
trunk;udespintr on.f.nce p
few cases the larvak drop from the tree to the -ground
thread. Many of these threads have been noted nty the w:
The larvi e spin their cocoons in a variety of places. The
as follows: Under loose pieces of bark (Pl. in1, fig. 2) on r
in the cracks in the' crtches of trees; in cracks or holes
trunks; under splinters on fence posts (Pl. 11, and fig. 1
in the rough bark of adjacent trees (Pl. III, fig. 2); in
trees; in cracks in the dry earth about the trees; and, i
casimes, in dried fallen apples. The place of first choice u
conditions is under the loose bark, in the crotches, or in
crack s in the tree. When the tree is smooth and the eari
sometimes find a considerable number of cocoons in the
In general the larva selects a dry, tight place, and it m
silk is found. Cloth bands furnish a place for spinning c
The larva spins its cocoon in about two days. The coco
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;+ ++ + ++ + +.2+ +?;++.+ +++/++ + +~ ~
.;r1 -il -' m ~
Bul. 35, New Series, Div, of Entomology, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture. PLATE I.
. . . .
ENTANE OLS F ARf-
Bul. 35, New Series, Div. of Entomology, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture. PLATE II.
FIG. 1.-BANDED TREE AND NEAR-BY FENCE.
FIG. 2.-POST OF FENCE SHOWN ABOVE, WITH SPLINTERS REMOVED.
FI.1-BNE TE N NA-ByFNE
FIG.2.-OST F FNCE HOW ABOE, ITH PLITERSREMVED
Bul. 35. New Series, Dev. of Entomology, S. Dept.of Agriculture.; PLAT E 111.
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't6hnio this oi olf i c Tn the ear iiiiiend o
arefrad oto heavy r willc mlng and th ofrth later
generation, inn whie ltht lary passes the winteh
The arv whn sinnng it ocoorn ishe nteupn, iotself, bt, when
thespinin iscomlet ed itletaightens and beomdese together inand
thicker In abdtiofii ie dasoiivhsble skinadbiiomes arie
pupa. One can always find this skin i hn.. pellet .t th caudal..iiiii
thepupa.iThepupaiisabou olf arther iiiciiiind t i rstris g a oral
ylocobomg bn Te iig the p tii heig mothei
andwins o th mohmyhe clearl seren, alThleed ptpgepuher itneln
IlUDC10vabe maspi' Thevse ments of the abdomenaemoal andd are
am bon... tPudwa pere baerwad. th
Somee thime afelh: thrh sin or
twenty-one or twnytor days afte comnciglethe spinnng oft the
cocoon in te sumerthontheemergs. Thkpupaplus ow hes itself
throllorbig etee the wallin of the cocoon and otfe rmayosrcin
N~u "1ii ii i
This~~~ th Ths acopisehy ai ortemet ofthe wabdomeln d, aidd b
the spineswhichpkrd. a wenyeor vd tohav
moveyn ih befre sutable plcet emergene h
wasfondeimes othrothremselv through l ug i or
pupa isfreefromthecocong to thesinst redow t bk a
~~~~~~pnadthe mohsollrwsot ayexperimnts were carrdenad outt
determine ~ t thed tieeapigbtsweeng the spinningiouthe ocove and
the~~~~~h emerenc orfhn elce the moth. Thihrettmsastev as n
the~n lonel duigth smerwse twoenyedingshth days, withfull
average ~te the twing-wo Onyavry smally prentanded emerge the
Upon~~~nts fe emerging tewnso the moth are sall, theleseak and
the ing grdua yexpand, and the legst and boyfarduten obnervetio
backlikea buterfy.oTewingserrathen replace and crcterimicothei
avoid the unligt. Ate the wing canrno fullow exaddtnryte
moth f e c et s b
In. from tm
-,,t e otn
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oum trcgih ts,
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It is generally stated by writers on this t thaat the adult is
rarely seen in orchards. During the summnier of 1900 the writier saw
only about half a dozen moths in the field. During thesummerof 1901
usually on the fruit or on the upper surfaces of the leaves.- On bei
disturbed they would flit away and be lost to sight.
But few fruit growers are familiar with the adult form of t
insect. On this account many mistakes are made as to its identi
Anyone can easily confine larvwe or pup and in a short time settle th
question of identity. The moth is quite variable in size, but nev
expands more than an inch. The wings at a glance have the appa
ance of watered silk, but upon closer examination one finds the
crossed by numerous rows of gray and brown scales, which give t
appearance of the plumage of a bird. Behind the tip of the forewi
there is a large dark-brown spot which bears rows of bronze and go
colored scales. The hind wings are of a light grayish color, dar
toward the margin.
The sexes may be readily distinguished by the fact that the ma
bear a black pencil of hairs on the upper surface of the hind wi
and a black spot on the under surface of the forewing.
Mr. Hitt, of Weiser, found in 1896 that of 50 moths but 7 we
males. The writer found the females exceeding the males in number
but can give no figures.
During the summer of 1900 the writer found a moth on the tru
of a tree that had all the appearance of a codling moth except t
color, which was buff and gold throughout, the bronze spot bei
much the same as in the codling moth. During the summer of 19
4 well preserved and 8 badly worn specimens having the same col
were secured, and 2 others were observed in the field. Mr. Hitt,
Weiser, found 7 of these moths among 50 moths bred in 1896.
McPherson has also noted this buff-colored moth. Whether this i
variety of Carpocapsa pomonella or another species has not yet be
According to many observers the codling moth has been seen to fe
upon the juice of ripe apples. Many fruit growers tell me that th
have seen many moths about cider mills and have seen them feed
The conclusion arrived at by all investigators of this insect is ti
it is but little attracted to lights such as are used in t
The writer finds, however, that moths will seek a window when th
have emerged in a dark room or cellar.
In cages the egg laying begins the second day after emergence a
has been observed to continue until the fourth day. In the field so
eggs were observed to have been laid in the late afternoon and eal
uponthefrut, while those of the later generation are laid both upon
thefrit ndleaves. From- many observations the writer is led to
belive tat tere is no general rule as regards the eggs of the second
geneatin. n some orchards the mnajority were found upon the fruit,
and n otersupon the leaves.
In a~es hemoths rarely live over a week.
GENERATIONS OF THE INSECT.
Fromthe conomic standpoint the number of generations is an
impotantfeaure, as that is the chief factor in determining the amount
of daage. n the Eastern States the generations vary from one and
a prtil scod to two and a partial third. In California, Oregon,
NewMexcoand Alabama, various investigators have published the
U sttemnt hatthree gene rations occur. Prof essor Gillette has recently
. 5 coe t th cnclusion that there are only two generations in Colorado.
I Prfessr Codley says that there are only two at Corvallis, Oreg.
Me. n suth dah both Mr. McPherson and Mr. Hitt have advanced the
idere are three full generationsand sometimes -a partial
Thewrierhas regarded this as one of the most essential points to
be dtermnedin the investigation of this insect. In 1900 an attempt
wasmad tosole the problem. At. the end of the season, though but
litle atahadbeen secured, the conclusion was reached that there are
E. treegenratons. The writer wa~s not at all satisfied with this con-
eluion an in1901 considerable time was spent in studying this point.
Examiatio of the records of worms caught under bands showed
tha atcerai periods greater nuimbers of worms went under bands
tha duingthe intervals between these times. By collecting and
stuyin al aailable'recortle it was found -that these periods were
quie onsan, and this appears to be the best and most accurate way
of eteminngthe limits and number of generations.
(InJune,191, circular letters were sent to 60 fruit growers in dif -
fernt art o the State of Idaho asking that records be kept of -the
larw, illd nder bands. But very few growers failed to answer.
Amog tosewho responded, a few stated that apples were, not grown
in heisetios*; others banded and found no larw, or wormy apples;
And A othes could send no record on account of crop failure; -but
a lax numbr sent in valuable records. These records were tabulated
andcrve hve been drawn on cross-section paper.a
alt as te thor's intention to include in the present report a number of charts
shoingthee crves; but owing to incompleteness of preparationi, and other circuim-
stanes;thee earts have been reserved for publication in a later report.
L. 0. H.
Year. Locality, source of rec- ber of maxi- maxi- twee o movtweef per
1 .ma.... .m
1897 Boise ......... Mr. Ayers ..... 140 July 17 Sept. 1 46 12,247 Wee
1898 .....'do'........ .... "do ......... 140 July 10 Sept. 10 62 20,909 ....-o.
1899 Juliaetta ..... Prof. J. M. Ald- 40 July 20 Sept. 24 6 8620 ....do.
.1901 Nampa....... H. G. Gibson 4 July 26 Aug. 11 46 467 D4il 11.75
1901 Payette....... J. Shearer ..... 3 July 18 Aug. 17 60 215 Wee y. .
1901 Provo, Utah.. Utah Agricul- 23 do --. Sept. 2 59 4,141 .....do....
1901 .....do ........ ....do ......... 26 July 1 Aug. 27 45 2,829 .....do...
1901 .....do ... ......do 4 July 5 Sept. 20 2,880 .....do ...
1901 Hagerman ... R. E. Conner.. 27 July 12 Sept. 4 54 194 .....do..2
1901 Caldwell .. Wm. C. George. 10 June 25 Aug. 13 49 640 2-5 days 6
Total and average ........ 659 ---------- ---------- 55 ----.- -- ------
All of the records here given show plainly that the ar but to
maxima of larve entering bands. There are many sources of
in obtaining the figures. A maximum last from six to eight
Weekly records are much more liable to error on account of the l
of the intervals, The average length of time between maxima,
five days, is undoubtedly too high, as the records of Mr. o
and Mr. George show the time to be forty-six and forty-nine
The writer has secured many other records, but they can n
relied upon for determining the number of generations, as so
them were taken on too few trees, and others commenced too l
stopped too early in the season.
The intervals between the maxima may be approximated in an
way. From one maximum of larv entering bands to another
be the length of the life cycle of the insect. The length of the
in the life of this insect vary greatly, and averages can be accuat
determined only by a great number of experiments. The obs
tions of the writer upon the length of the different stag re ar
so complete as could be wished, but will serve to show the ave
approximately. The egg stage was found to vary from three to
days, with an average of about five days. The life of the larva o
of the cocoon is from fourteen days to twenty-five days, aver
about twenty-one days. The time spent in the cocoon was found
from twelve to twenty-eight d ays, averaging about twenty-two
The egg-laying period was observed to begin the second day aft
emergence of the moth and continue till the fourth day. Three
would probably be a good average. The total of these avera
fifty-one days, which time compares favorably with the int
between the maxima of larve enterin bands.
Bul. 35, New Series, Div. of Entomology, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture. PLATE IV.
FIG. 1.-PIECE OF BARK, SHOWING MOTH JUST EMERGED, AND OLD
FIG. 2.-BAND ON WHICH THE REMAINS OF 330 COCOONS WERE
H~iliiiU Elillil ~l
bf-thn generation entering bands. At that date (October 19) no
sucm appears upon the various records. It was noted in
t non of the larv which spn cocoons after September 1
but all wintered as larvie. In 1900 the corresponding
.dt re l spo ilmber OT.n
oerson observed the period of the greatest number of eggs
ofgeneration to be from May 10 to May 25. The writer
same period of the second generation to be from about
ougust 4. But when the time came for the egg period of
ons were made daily in the orchards and the courses of
ility of location of orchards and the overlapping of gener-
vation is very liable to lead to error and can not be itaken
cept in s far as corroborated by other evidein1 e.
n often noted that many young larve enter the apples in
Whether these are the last of the second or the first of
eneration is a question which has puzzled the writer. But
ober, and the writer is inclined to believe that ithe larve
t of the second generation. If there was ever a full third
-ifsess of the season.
notiagreeiiith Professor Gillette when he says that it is impossible
er confesses that- on many points there is a lack of data,
as account does not wish to make the sweeping assertion
ether or not there may be a partial third generation is
rded as a full brood.
knowledge that there is no fourth brood and no full third
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The overlapping of the generations is one of the conditions which
makes the control of the insect most difficult. In 1900, from July 7
to about September 7, the writer could find all stages of the inect.
In 1901 about the same conditions were noted.
According to Mr. Hitt's experiments, the- moths in the spring of
1896 emerged during twenty-three days.
The overlapping renders the spraying less effective than it would be
if all the insects were in the same stage at the same time.
This overlapping is accounted for by the fact that some of the
insects, being in favorable s ituations, grow more rapidly, and others,
in unfavorable places, lag behind.
There are many natural conditions which tend to decrease the num-
bers of this insect in the Pacific northwest. Comparatively few of
the eggs hatch. Infertility, excessive dryness, and the heat of the sun
seem to be the causes of this. In 1901 thousands of the young larv
must have starved on account of not having apples to feed upon.
No insect parasites were noted in 1901. A bird belonging to the
creepers was noted at Payette. This bird was very active in hunting
food on the apple trees, and without doubt destroyed many codling-mot
larv. Growers in this locality say that the bird is increasing in
numbers. Many pups were found to be dried and shrunken, evidently
killed by excessive dryness. In more humid sections bacterial and
fungus diseases kill many. But if these unfavorable conditions and
natural enemies alone are relied upon, almost every apple in an
orchard in badly infested localities will be wormy.
There are many reasons which may be assigned for the large num-
ber and the great destructiveness of the codling moth in Idaho. The
first and probably the most important fact in this connection is that
the second generation is more numerous than the first, and does a
larger part of the injury. This is doubtless due to the climate. It is
also more difficult to combat this second generation with sprays than
it is the first. The overlapping of the generation is another fact that
makes the spraying more difficult.
One reason for the great destructiveness of the codling moth in Idaho
may be found in the life history of the insect. A great many of the
fiit growers have used remedies which are absurd. When the proper
remedies were used they were not used in the proper manner, and
hence failure resulted.
er use of suitable remedies have resulted in the abundance of
ct, and have caused many to be discouraged and to have the
le that the insect can not be controlled.
resence of o, lected orchards is a source of contant supply
esect, and these orchards render control more difficult.
PNTIVE EASURES EXPLOYED AGAINST THE %ODLING
has been in the past an idea prevalent among the fruit growers
ofheacific northwest that the codling moth can be exterminated.
a is at present held by only a few. The witer has always
t he believed it practicable to entirely eradicate this insect
large area. In an isolated orchard there are strong hopes that
ly isolated and ill methods will be used.
ry best general result that can be expected in Idaho is to
the insect so that its ges will not exceed 10 per cent.
are some localities in Idaho where the moth has not yet
By keeping all infested fruit and old apple boxes away
ese localities, immunity may be secured. In other localities
ltitudes sudden freezes will sometimes reduce the numbers of
t to such an extent that it takes two or three years for it
nbecome injurious. Fruit growers in these localities should
utmost vigilance, and, at the first appearance of the insect,
Sshould be applied and the insect exterminated if possible.
the wormy fruit is picked in the full, it always contains larvaT
t stages. This fruit is stored and the insects complete their
and spin their cocoons in the angles of the boxes and in cracks
n *" building. In the spring, immnediately after emerging, the moths
enearest orchard. Where apples are stored in great quantity
e i on the nearest trees is all damaged. Two well-markei i d cases
ults of storing apples were noted in Idaho in 1900. In both
J one case they were evidently infested in this way for
rows toward the center and about 15 rows along the side of
e hard. In 1901 this place was still the place of worst infesta-
the apples immediately after picking, and destroying the
If the fruit must be stored, the windows and holes of the store-
ily be crushed, or, if the house is so tight that they can not
+++++++ :: . .. +++ + + +
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inp s wfy...chard iT
age o wormy,,pples. owever, e growerestro
the worms the previous season, the second crop would he
but little loss.
It has often been observed in Idaho that the apple in ri
which the trees were irrigated by flooding were less worm n
trees in ground that is continually moist bear less worryfrith
Those w hich are irrigated only occasionally. The only
offered for these facts is that tothe larva will not spin its ino
moist place, and that moisture favors the diseases of the in
tWhenever possible, the writer advises that the ground i
around the trees be kept moist, especially when the larv a
their cocoons in greatest numbers. Care must be taken in
as to uish water will eventull either seriously injure
treesf.ose o l e e
The writer has noted many old, neglected orchards in var
no explanation that these orchards urnish a constant suppl
to adjoining orchards, and in that way the loss in the orcha
Tn towns and cities many people have in their lawns apple tppe t
alheso furnish a constant supply of the insects. These peop
trees for shade only and have no desire to raise fruit. The
REMEDIAL MEASURES EMPLOYED AGAINST THE CODLI
To intelligently apply remedial measures necessitates as a
tial an accurate knowledge of the life history of the insect.
as a basis, any fruit grower may adapt the measures empl
circumstances. It will readily be seen that there are cert
in the life of this insect when it is vulnerable, and others
The few experiments which have been made against the i
that it is impracticable to undertake the destruction of the
MEASURES AGAINST THE LARVE.
A large majority of all the remedial measures that have
are against the insect in this stage.
AI ~ n
Bul. 35, New Series, Div. of Entomology, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture. PLATE V.
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suc'plcestht when the young larvw enter the apple they will get
some o the oion with the, first few meals.
The esttim to spray is immediately after the blossoms fall and
befrqtheloes of the calIyx are closed. By spraying at this time the
t ope calx foms an excellent place to catch the poison, and by the
cloingof helobes it is retained for some time. As before stated,
fro 8 to85per cent of the larvae of the first generation enter by
the clyx. any cases might be cited showi'ng the efficiency of this
firt srayng.One example will suffice: In the spring of 1.901 the
ri'tr eamied two orchards, separated only by a road. One had
0 eenspryedthoroughly and other measures bad been -used; the other
hadno ben prayed, and no other measures had been used. From
thefist enration about 10 per cent of the apples in the sprayed
orchrd wre ormy; in the uinsprayed orchard 25 to 30 per cent were
worm. Bycount it was determined that in the unsprayed orchard
.83percen ofthe wormy apples had been entered through the calyx,
whil inthesprayed orchard, only about 10 per cent of tl~e larvae
whic entredby the calyx had escaped the poison.
On ccontof not being able to commence this work ini the early
sprig, he riter was unable to mhake observations upon the hatching
of he ggsofthe first generation. Mr. Hitt furnishes the following
dat: n 196the first moths appeared May 5, and they continued to
emere utilMay 25. He also noted that the apple trees were in full
bloo Ma 1.In 1901 the moths developed in advance of the bloom-
Mr.Mc~erson noted thei appearance of the first moths April 23, in
190, nd hefirst eggs May 10, which -was about the time that the
blosos fllfrom the Winesap, Jonathan, Golden, and Ben Davis
Invstiatrs in different parts of the country have found that the
poion~tay i the calyx and is effective for at least a week; hence,
thelatnes o the moth offers no difficulty,- Exactly what the moths
do btwente, time of emerging and egg laying still remains to be
stdie'inths locality. Professor -Cordley has noted the same state
of ffars~n regon, and thinks that the cool nights prevent the moths
Thespendspraying should, be done about a week or ten days after
the firstit spraying is intended for late larvae of the first genera-
The writer has neglected no opportunity to impress upon the f
iost important remedial measure against this insect, and has go
far as to state as his belief that one good spraying when the a
is open saves more apples than all of the other remedial meas
LATER SPRAYINGS. "
The question of late sprayings is one of the points now underii
cussion among entomologists and horticulturists. The facts gle
from publications, letters, and conversations with those in the
position to know are as follows:
Professor Gillette, of Colorado, writes that in Colorado there
some fruit growers who advocate 9 or 10 sprayings, while oth
say that they obtain just as good results with 2 or 3. Professor
lette says he has two cases in mind where as good results as one c
wish were obtained with only 2 sprayings. HIe says he can h
how more than a slight benefit can be obtained by any spraying a
Professor Card, in his Nebraska bulletin, rather discourages
Prof. M. V. Slingerland, in his bulletin upon this subject, at
that he can not see how the larvae get any ,of the poison from the
of the fruit.
Professor Washburn, of the Oregon station, concludes that 2
sprayings will save from 70 to 80 per cent of the early apples,
that 6 sprayings will save from 65 to 70 per cent of the winter ap
Professor Cordley says that now he can obtain a much higher
The writer visited the orchard of Olwell Bros., Centralpoint, Or
and estimated their loss in 1901 to be 5 per cent from the cod
moth, and Mr. James Olwell told him that the loss was greater
in 1900. Many other apple growers in southern Oregon are obtai
similar results every year.
Mr. Gus Goeldner, of Boise, Idaho, writes that by spraying he s
98 per cent of his apples, and Mr. C. inze, of Payette, Idaho, repo
to the writer in 1900 that by spraying he had saved 95 per cent of
apples. Many statements like these from Mr. Go'oldner and
Hinze will not stand investigation. In fact, many people are dec
g themselves, and get no suh results with spraying alone.
writer does not believe it possible to save even 85 or 90 per cen
southern Idaho by spraying alone.
This question of later spraying has become one of the most imp
s of the control of this insect. The writer bas made many
o be much more frequent in sprayed orchards than in those
unsprayed. Without doubt these larv were killed by
g. Exactly how and when the larve get the poison is a
A has been stated before, the larve eat but little of the
of the apple while entering. The cavities in which they
ad are usually of such size that it would take the larvae a
o make them. Particles of lime are sometimes found in
e. While seeking a place of entrance the larva may get
soepoison, and it may live a day or so after getting the fatal
e of the spray may get into the entrance hole and be eaten.
r dying, the larve become dry, and shrunken and can be
Sonly by the presence of the head.
r once noted a case where 70 cent of the larvoo entering
e of two or three days were found dead. It is extremely
at a considerable part of them died naturally. Many
rvations were made, but never was such efficiency noted
orchards that had been well sprayed, hundreds of these
noted which bad been caused by the larvfe and upon exam-
e -writer found a larva which had begun an entrance hole
nt of these observations and the general results obtained
bysgand banding, the writer has no hesitancy in recommend-
ingtheselaterspr.doubt the efficiency is much less
of the first spraying, but the writer believes them well
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entered the bands. In the record made by Mr. Gibson i
twenty-nine days we get the date of July 26. As the maxim
egg hatching extends over some time, spraying must be done
this date inordertogetthose which are early. In this inst
spraying should have been done between July 15 and Aug
Observation in the orchard in which the record was taken s
the period of greatest number of eggs to be between July 1
The writer has never had an opportunity to test this recome
tion thoroughly. Many practical tests were made, and the resu
these show that it is absolutely essential for highest efficiency
the spraying when the largest number of larve are entering.T
writer would advise two thorough sprayings during this g
Another may be made if infestation is bad.
MATERIAL FOR THE SPRAY.
It is recommended in every case that arsenical sprays be us
this work. Paris green is most used in the proportions of I pou
160 gallons of water with 2 pounds of lime. By the use of this
tion excellent results are secured, but on account of its cost and lia
to settle many are abandoning it for the white arsenic compous
London purple is rarely used alone. Mr. Tiner, of Boise, and O
Brothers, of Centralpoint, Oreg., are using a combination of
green and London purple. Olwell Brothers use the following p
tion: Water, 120 gallons; Paris green and London purple, 9 o
each; and lime,' 2 pounds. Mr. Tiner believes that in this w
poisons are kept in suspension better. Such good results are ob
that these growers are loth to adopt other compounds. White a
compounds are being used more and more with results just as g
those obtained with other arsenicals. Dr. H. P. Ustick, of Bois
Mr. C. Hinze of Payette, have used them successfully. Infort
as to the methods of making these sprays have been published in
and the fruit growers are familiar with them.
As far as the writer can learn, lead arsenate has never been use
spray against this insect in the Pacific northwest. The writer be
that it will be found excellent, and will use it in experiment
season. There are a few fruit growers who use whale-oil soa
the sodium arsenite. Many observations were made in con t
with the use of this mixture to ascertain if it caused the poi
remain on the fruit longer. W ithout doubt this is the case,
soapy solution collects on the under sides of the apples and da
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exli~o , x,, I ; s::;::
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them ~ I maeraly InEY WOne bloc of O Jontha ully W50C per cen of1the
EXPENSE OF SPRAYING.
From he dta given by the fruit growers it is found that spraying
'iscomaraivey inexpensive. The material to spray 2,000 trees costs
..aou $5 Ochardists always have teams and men already employed,
sohatetra expense on account of spraying is very small com-l
_pareebenefit. By the use of a gasoline-power outfit the work
canbe onemuch more quickly, and, in a large orchard, with less
expese i th end. When quickly done the cost should be less than
Z 1 ent er teeper spraying. If inferior appliances are used, or the
ter than the average, the cost will be greater. Labor is
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th, moifactor in spraying.
PICKING AND DESROYINGo Wonuy Fhurr.
Whie te lrvue are feeding in the apples, these may .be picked and
dThis is especiallyr eeommended as an effective remedy for
use arlinthe season. As has often been shown, thinning the ap'ples
!V t 4 nchs aart produces a finer quality of fruit and causes the tree
eh year. It is strongly recommended that in Idaho,
betwen Jne and 15, the fruit be thinned, and that in thinning all
worm aplesbe removed and destroyed. The writer believes it well
wort whle o thin ap ples in order to kill the codling-moth larvoe,
wi~ot cnsiering the, other advantages. Picking and destroying the
*orm appes uring July and August is too ex-pensive to be of any
gret alu i alarge commercial orchard.
In orer toget est results, orchards should be cleared of all wind-
fals s pompty as possible, so that the worms contained may be
de~troyed n som small. orchards it is the, practice to allow hogs to
runin he rchrdand pick, up the windfalls. It would be an almost
endless an xensive undertaking to pick up and destroy the wind-
falls ~ inalre rchard every day-or two. The writer does not think
it orh te xpense if the proper precautions are taken in the use of
The ho~pst and most effective way to get rid of culls, windfalls,
and he ppls picked in thinning is to bury them. Water should be
alowd to an into the holes, and not less than 10 inches or a foot of
w~h~souldcover the fruit. If the earth is in clods, it will be well
to pak it any observations were made during the season of 1901
th acerainthe effect of burying in this way. In many cases the larvve
succmbe todiseases induced by the moisture. Most of them spun
i.i;i :i li
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When the larv leave the pples and seek a place in which to
their cocoons another point of attack may be taken advantage o
furnishing a suitable place for the spinning of the cocons and b
ing the worms after they have entered the place. This object is ac
plished by placing cloth bands from 8 to 10 inches wide around
trunks of the trees. If the t iees are large, each of the larger bran
may also be banded. The bands may be made of any heavy fa
such as burlap, old clothes, old carpet, etc. The band should be
once lengthwise and placed around the trees about 11 to 2 feet
the ground. After placing the band around the tree, a small
should e driven through the ends firmly into the tree. The he
the nail should be nipped off. Subsequent removal and replacing o
bands may be done more quickly by this method of fastening.
The number of worms caught under these bands is sometimes as
ishing. (P. IV, fig. 2.) It is quite common to find, during a max
period, from 50 to 100 each week for two or three weeks under
band on a single large tree. The highest number Professor Ali
records as caught on one tree froJuly to October 15 is 494. U
neglected bands as many as 200 have been found at one time.
found in orchards that have been sprayed and banded that, in Sep
ber or the first part of October, the worms are vety scarce, thus
way showing the efficiency of the methods.
Apparently banding is one of the most effective methos, and t
are two highly essential features that can not be emphasized
strongly: (1) All places suitable for spinning cocoons other than b
must be removed or rendered unsuitable. The loose bark shoul
scraped from the tree, all holes and cracks in the trees should be f
with mud or cement, and the earth around the trees should be
moist during the periods when the worms are most numerous. (2
regular intervals the bands must be examined and all the larvan
pupa killed. The interval between examinations of the bands rec
mended heretofore has been six or seven days. During the sum
of 1901 the writer, by numerous experiments and observations, fo
that every ten or eleven days is often enough to kill the worms.
extension of time between the changing of the hands reduces the
of banding considerably, as instead of 14 or -15 changes of bands t
is need of only 10 or 11.
Many methods have been devised for killing the larv, but the
rapid and effective is either to crush them or cut them in two wih
I;" o ~~i .i
a " ; ; ;i i
upon trees and examined every day or two. Not a single
ound dead. Many were found to have spun their cocoons
intsn' which was laying in the crotches of the trees.
ould be placed upon the trees not later than the middle of
hould not be finally removed until about a week after the
een harvested. By a close watch on a few bands one can
he worms begin to descend in the spring. After the first
Sptember it is found that very few, if any, larvwe change to
emerge. It is not advisable to let any bands stay on the
inter, as they rot, and the cost of bands is a considerable
't i lrge or.hard.
uit growers believe that under favorable circumstances they
most half their crop by banding alone.
ngly urged that, late in the fall, during the winter, or early
ing, the orchard be examined, and all the larvw, found in
under the bark of the trees kill ed.
MEASURES AGAINST THE ADULT.
able effort has been made to put the facts about trap lan-
tere the Idaho apple growers. The agent for a patented trap
sold2 nBoise and vicinity. He claimed that he caught 6 codling
non ight. A majority of the growers who bought these
out for themselves that this method is useless. A very
te its use. The writer did not think the methd worthy
RISUMt AND CONCLUSION.
x,, iNC~ ~ ~
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least expense has been the object in view. The writr lieve
these measures every year.
recommIendations into practice in one orchard. This would he
done had it not been for the f reeze of 1901. Advice wa give
times as to the treatment of orchards and the results were noted as
as possible. Some of the succses are here given:
M. Kurtz, Nampa, daho, has an orchard of about 2,500 tr
many of which are stunted partly on account of lack of care. In 1
there was less than a full crop, about 50 per cent being damaged
1899 there was a full crop, but only 100 boxes of clean apples w
ing, and banding. There was probably over a half crop. The t
were all sprayed with Paris green four times, and a majority of t
a fifth time. Bands were well attended to. The writer visited
orchard frequently during the season, the last visit being made
latter part of September, when the' fruit was estimated to be dam
as follows: Ben Davis, 5 per cent; Steele's Winter Red, 10 per
and Blue Pearmain, 25 per cent. A few Ben Davis trees showed
per cent of damage. A large amount of the fruit was -undersi
The writer could not get figures after the crop was harvested, bu
believes the work done against the codling moth was quite success
The only cause of uncertainty was the fact that the crop was sm
the year before, and the insect might possibly have been red
on this account.
Hon. Edgar Wilson has an orchard (P V) near Boise, contai
about 4,000 trees, about 2,000 of which were bearing. There a
light crop of Jonathans and about one-half crop of Ben Davis.
the early sprayings were made, and they were well done, Ba
were well attended to. The later sprayings were not made, and
bulk of the injury was done by the second generation. Notove
per cent of the apples in this orchard were free from worms. In 1
from 85 to 90 per cent were saved.
Mr. Tiner, of Boise, has about 400 trees, in a badly infested local
Spraying and banding -were well done, but only about 30 per cen
the fruit was saved. In 1900, 80 per cent was the amount saved.
badly infested localities the loss was always about 100 er cnt.
-e.EgrWlo a norhr P.V er~1
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all that is claimed for the remedial measures
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