Citation
Contributions toward a monograph of the American Aleurodidae

Material Information

Title:
Contributions toward a monograph of the American Aleurodidae
Series Title:
Technical series / U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Division of Entomology ;
Added title page title:
Red spiders of the United States (Tetranychus and Stigmaeus)
Creator:
Quaintance, A. L ( Altus Lacy ), 1870-1958
Banks, Nathan, b. 1868
Place of Publication:
Washington, D.C.
Publisher:
U.S. G.P.O.
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
79 p., 8 leaves of plates : ill. ; 24 cm.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Aleyrodidae -- America ( lcsh )
Tetranychus -- America ( lcsh )
Stigmaeus -- United States ( lcsh )
Spider mites -- United States ( lcsh )
Genre:
Federal Government Publication ( MARCTGM )

Notes

Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references and index.
Additional Physical Form:
Also available in electronic format.
Statement of Responsibility:
by A.L. Quaintance. The red spiders of the United States (Tetranychus and Stigmaeus) / by Nathan Banks.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
This item is a work of the U.S. federal government and not subject to copyright pursuant to 17 U.S.C. §105.
Resource Identifier:
029627741 ( ALEPH )
27899608 ( OCLC )
Classification:
QL461 .T39 no.8 1900 ( lcc )

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U. S DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE.

DIVISION OF ENTOMOLOGY.
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A. L. QUAINTANCE, M. S.,
Biologist ad rticulturist of the Georgia Agricultural Experiment Station, Experiment, Ga.





THE RED SPIDERS OF THE UNITED STATES
(TETRANYCHUS AND STIGMJEUS).

BY

NATHAN BANKS, M. S.,
Assant, Division of Entomology, U. S. Department of Agriculture.

PREPARED UNDER THE DIRECTION OF THE ENTOMOLOGIST.

















1900.
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LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL


SUNITED STATE8 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,
DivSION OF ENTOMo oor,
Washington, D. C., April 10, 1900.
I have the honor to submit for publication No. 8 of the tech-
of bulletins of this Division. It contains two articles, the
prepared by Mr. L. Quaintance, biologist and horticulturist,
Agricultural Experiment Station, and the other, at the writer's
n, by Mr. Nathan Banks, of this Division. The subjects con-
the so-called white flies (Family Aleurodie) and the
red spiders e Acarid genera Tetranychus and Stigmus),
groups of very considerable economic importance, some of
e white lies doing considerable damage to Southern horticulture,
d ered spiders being known as greenhouse pests in all parts of
y and as outdoor enemies to certain crops in the warmer
Wi ese groups, as with the others which have been pre-
ted in a monographic way in the earlier bulletins of tis
has existed, p to the present time, so much confusion
Sdifferentition of forms that the economic worker has not
ow with any certainty the exact form upon which he
ght happen to be at work from the remedial standpoint. It is
ped that these papers will clear the field so that this uncertainty


L.. O. HOWARD,

IHIon. JAEs IsoN,

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CONTENTS.


Page.
NTRIBUTIONS TOWARD A MONOGRAPH OF THE AMERICAN ALEURODIDAM
Initroduction -----......... ............................. 9
Family Aerodie..---..........---.....................--...............--------- 11
usAleurde ......................................... 11
Table of the American species of Aleurodes .........-------..--.........--12
(enus Alerdrodicus ..--....---..----------.- -...-..---.----.--.- 43
Table of species of Aleurodicus ................................ 43
n R BPIDER O THE UTITED STATES (Tetanychu8 and Stigmus).
tory -.....................-----------------.......................-------------........ 6----

............................-----........---- ---------------------------- 6


Te ) our... -----------------------------... .... --.. ------------- 70
...mw Koch................................... ------------- 77

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ILLUSTRATIONS.


PLATES.
Page.
SI-VIII. Aleurodid ........................--.. 50, 52,54,56, 58, 60, 62,64
TEXT FIGURES.

1. aacla.................-----------.........-----.........---....---------------...--- 65
2. Trayh: dibuar plate.......------..-------------------.. 67
3. Trayh: cepalothorax from above..------------------------ 67

5. Tetranh: genitalorgans ............................. .
.......----------------------------------------- 69

7. mytilpidi: claws ..---- -.. _............-....-- -- 71
Sbicolor: caw------------.-----------.. ---------- 72
9. Tetra..tumidu....--- ..---..---...--------------------- 73
10. eranycha ....................a..-- --..--..-- ........- 74

Tes teri lpus and plate..------------------.---.----- 75
13. Tetranychus sexma : palpus.--------- --------------- 76
14. Tet h d: palpus and plate-----------------.--------.. 76
15. Tetranychgloveri: palpus and plate........................... 76

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CONTRIBUTIONS TOWARD A MONOGRAPH OF
THE AMERICAN ALEURODIDAE.


By A. L. QUAINTANCE.


INTRODUCTION.

Swriter's atten n was called to this much neglected family of
H prous insects about four years ago by Prof. T. D. A. Cockerell,
which time considerable material has been collected, or sent in
pondents,and during the past year I have had the pleasure,
through the kindness of Dr. L. 0. Howard, of studying the collection
of- Al odidof the Division of Entomology of the United States
Department of Agriculture. A considerable number of species have
been met with that are undescribed, several of which are characterized
St pape. So far as I have been able to ascertain, all
species of Aleurodid are indicated in the following pages;
Aeu esm is included in this list; although originally
ddEurope, it has now become quite common in green-
ous parts of the eastern United States at least. In all
ees made to the original description of a species, and to
senes as are of any importance from a systematic
stt. F a study of this literature it is at once apparent
Sm study of American Aleurodid has been, for
the Most part, done during recent years. In the United States, for
example, there were but three species recorded previous to 1884.
Forbes, in 1884, described from Illinois Aleurodes aceri8, which, how-
ever, should now be known as forbesii Ashmead, since aceriu is pre-
occupied by a European species In 1893 Riley and Howard described
Aleo citi, previously briefly described by Ashmead in the
SMonograph N. Amer. Proctotrypidiae, Bul. 45, U. S. Nat. Mus., p. 294.
9







10

Florida Dispatch, November, 1885. Aleurodes pyrol Gillette and
ker, was described in 1895; Aeuro be cola Cockerell, in
1896; Aleros rborm Cockerell, and Aleurodes areocincta Cock-
erell, in 1897. Since 1897 to date four species have been described
from the United States, giving a total of thirteen, one an Aleurodcus
and twelve belonging to Aleurod. From the West Indies, Mexico,
entral and South America twenty species have been recorded, seven
of which are species of the genu Aleurod and thirteen of Aleu-
rodes. Of these, six were described before 1895. It is evident, there-
fore, to any one who has observed the variety of forms in this family
that our knowledge of American Aleurodid is still very imperfect,
and, with the exception of Aleurode itri, our knowledge of their life
history and habits is even more incomplete.
The specific characters in the genus Aleuode are derived mainly
from the pupa-case, the adults, except in species with banded or
spotted wings, offering but very little of use in characterization. In
Alewrodifus, on the other hand, the most valuable speific characters
are to be found in the adults, although to me there has appeared to be
more variation in the pupa-case than has been generally stated. Ordi-
narily, the founding of species on the characters derived fro imma-
ture stages of insects is unwarranted; but with this family, however,
particularly in Aleurodes, as has been pointed out by askell and
others, the pupa-case offers by far the more valuable characters, and it
is doubtful if species could be satisfactorily separated, except in a
few cases, from adult characters alone. Moreover, it is in the pupal
stage that these insects are most frequently observed and collected, the
minute "white-flies that may be flying around being usually not asso-
ciated with the stationary scale-like insects on the leaves. Again,
injury is caused by these insects it is likely, mainly, in their immature
stages, which fact, from an economic standpoint, renders it necessary
that these stages be characterized. For these reasons the writer
believes that the characterization of species of Aleoe, at least,
should be based largely on pupal haracters; there is as much varia-
tion, probably, in the pupa-case of different pecies of Aeurode as
there is isin the species of Aidiotus, Fyta'p, C ionaspi, or other
genera of the ( i. The wrier by no means favors the disregard
of the imagoes, and especial effort should be made by collectors to
secure this stage. This ordinarily may be easily done, where the
pupal are somewhat numerous, by placing the leaves in a jar for a few
days, to allow the more matre pups to develop into adults.
To preserve Aleurodide satisfactorily for study it is adi to
keep two series. As soon as material is collected, specimens of all
stages should be mounted in xylol alsa on slides, after careful
" live notes" have been taken, particlarly with reference to the col-
oration of the different parts, and with adults as to the division or not








the eyes. Soon after mounting, the relative lengths of th joints of
the antein of adults are much more readily distinguished than later.
he other series should consist of adults preserved dry in vials, and
e infested leaves so pinned that the waxy secretion from the larve
a-ases will not be in any way damaged.
Sunder obligations to Prof. T. D. A. Cockerell for bibliographic
nces, numerous specimens sent, and other courtesies; and I have
n much aided by the careful entry notes made by Mr. Theodor Per-
nde on the material received by the Division of Entomology and
dly furnished me by Dr. L. 0. Howard.

Family ALEURODIDA.

Small to minute insects infesting the leaves of plants, usually on
wer side; the immature stages scale-like; the adults with two
is of w5~, and covered or dusted with a whitish meal-like secre-

In thei ture stages the body may be more or less covered by a
of wax, quite copious. The most distinctive
urodid cha r in he larval or pupal stages is in the presence of
sub t, tr ular or semicircular opening on the dorsum of the
inal segment, known as the "vasiform orifice." This con-
the orifice; the operculum, a more or less lid-like structure
the rim of orifice cepalad, and the lingula, a more or less
tonguer strap-haped organ, attached cephala within the
ifice and extending frequently quite beyond its caudal margin.
t adults the mentum is three segmented, inclosing the three
l ; antenn seven jointed, the first wo joints short and
rs slender and numerously ringed. Eyes usually some-
t tnear the middle, dumb-bell shape or. reniform, or
divided. Above each eye is a single ocellus. Tarsi
i ithree terminal claws, the middle one of which is
Sa s The wigs whenat rest are nearly horizontal, extend-
ly beyond the abdomen, rounded distally. Both
re and hind wings may be immaculate or variously spotted or banded,
sually with dusky or reddish.

Genus ALEURODES Latrei ile.
With the characters of the family. Adults, with but a single basal
ranch to vein of fore wings; hind wings, with but a single vein.

Z. Inst., 1895, p. 41.







12

TABLE OF THE AMERICAN SPECIES OF ALEURODE.

I. Pupa-case usually but little hidden by secretion; with lateral fringe-i. e., any
secretion from marginal wax tubes.
II. Pupa-case usually hidden by a mass of hairy, waxy or flocculent secretion.
. Pupa-ase evident, and without lateral fringe.



. Pupa-se sually but little hidden by seretion; with lateral fringe-i. e., anysecre-
tion from the marginal wax tubes.
Pu,-case uniformly brown or black.
With dorsal secretion of wax. Dorsal secretion cottony or mealy in
appearance.
Pupa-case dark brown to black, elliptical, slightly convex, about
0.85 mm. long. Dorsum covered with white meal, frequently
becoming quite solid. Lateral fringe, all around, agglomerated
almost into a solid plate, of unequal length, giving a star shape of
about 8 rays. Operculum subcircular, covering about one-half of
orifice; lingula obsolete......---........... tea Mak. (37.)
Pupa-case black, elliptical, convex, 1.8 mm. long. Margin thick
with conspicuous groove on dorsal surface, and short fringe of
wax on ventral surface. Around vasiform orifice, a large, nearly
transparent, hemispherical area, but dusted with white secretion.
Around lateral margin, a row of about 32 sharp sword-like hairs.
Adult 9 with -basal half and portions of rest'of ng smoky.
fumipenni empel (18.)
Pupa-case shiny black; size about 0.92 by 0.61 mm.; subeliptical,
moderately convex; lateral fringe rather short, truncate; dorsal
secretion of 3 longitudinal stripes of cottony or mealy wax.
acacin. sp. (3.)
Pupa-case dull black; subelliptical; 0.81 by 0.52 mm.; the copious
lateral fringe, about twice the width of case in length. A slight
mealy secretion may occur on dorsum; with tube-like longitudinal
medio-dorsal elevation, cephalad, arrow-shaped; along abdominal
egments, suggting a trachea, with a glottis caud.
tracheifer n. Hp. (38.)
pa-cse shiny black, flat, subovate; 0.95 by 0.81 mm.; cephalo-
lateral mrgins on each side with an indenture and thickening.
Lateral fringe semitransparent; a very light ealy secretion of
wax may occur along body segments. Dorsum with inall black
dos ............................... ra. r -aqn.s. (33)
Without dorsal secreion of wax.
Lateral fringe gelatinous looking (translucent).
a e pitch black, oval, hardly one millimeter long. The gela-
tiou fringe extendig out from case, rather mor than oe-half
width of se, and raising it up somewhat. Fro cephalo-latral
margin on each side and from audal end a pencil of white wax
resting on gelao rim................... (19)
quc n. sp. See above.
Lateral fringe a series of istinct radiating waxy ribbon
Pupa-case intense black, oval, hardly over a millimeter long. The
ateral fringe of 12 broad ri -like rayofg y
basally, about as long as length of case.....voioid kll. (41)










Lateral fringe a narrow, continuous rim of white waxen filaments.
Pup-cse dense blck, brodly elliptical, 1.2 mm. long. Moderately
convex, with rounded median ridge. cocerelli v. Ihering. (9)
Lateral fring a more or less copious cottony secretion.
pa-e shiny black, elliptical, about 0.7 by 0.55 mm. A copious
white cottony fringe all around, continuous basally, but ragged
distally. Case moderately convex, with evident rounded median
ridge. Fore-wings of adults marked with red and brownish
black........................................... moriQ. (24)
L"rva (Pupa-case?) flavous, the disk of the larger individuals
dark brown; the margin is ciliate with white." Wings of adults
immaculate ..--------....-----------------... cori Hald. (10)
Pupa-case shiny black, subelliptical 0.7 by 0.55 mm. Dorsal disk
larger than ventral, and the marginal rim of wax tubes bent
downward and inward. The scant cottony secretion from mar-
ginal wax tubes appearing as a vertical fringe. .abnormis n. sp. (1)
'tracifer n. sp. See above.
a-eyellowish, or greenish.
Dorsal secretion imply a submarginal series of brittle curved waxen
rods from distinct pores or papille.
Pupa-ase pale yellow, elliptical, about 0.56 mm. long, flattish.
Margin minutely crenulated, the wax tubes bearing a short fringe
of straight white tubes. Within the submarginal series of papille
on doraux ,are 8 large circular orifices: 2 on cephalic, 4 on
th., a nd two on abdominal region .....erigeronti Mask. (12)
Doral a submarginal series of curved waxen rods from dis-
tinct pores or pustules, and a more central secretion of thin, brit-
tie, yellow wax, usually fragmentary.
P, yellow, the median region at length darkening, ellip-
S about 0.75 mm long. With two lateral depressions on each
side, similar to those in a Leanium Lateral fringe short, frag-
mentary. Within submarginal series of pustules on dorsum are
12 other tules: 2 large oncephalic region, 2 large on thoraci
region, 4 large on abdominal region, 2 large on caudal region,
and 2 small at vasiform orifice..............coian Mask (26)
Without dor al secretion.I
Te latel fringe, a delicate, white, band-like secretion.
pale greenish, ov, with margins anteriorly very sinu-
ous; 05 mm. long. Within margin all around a parallel line the
intervening space crossed by equidistant straight lines; a second
parallel line, often faint, within the first, the space thus formed
also crossed by lines closer and shorter than in first zone. On
ventral surface, near middle line are five pairs of strong setaceous
hairs, all very long, and projecting mostly beyond the margin.
Wings ..o lt immaculate; eyes large, b lack, bean-shaped-

The lateral fringe consisting of but three curling, white waxen filaments,
pores, opening, one on each side in
cephallaeral region, and one at caudal end of case.
Pupa-case pale greenish yellow to yellowish, broadly oval, but
little convex, applied close to leaf, and inconspicuous; 1.4 by
lines extendi mesad. Vasiform orifice, small, subircular;


wings ... ...----------------------------- R. & 1. (8)
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14

II. Pupa usually hidden by a mass of hairy, waxy, or flocculent
The secretion white, felt-like, or hairy.
Pupa-case black, oval, 0.94 mm. long. Flat, but dorsum with a
median ridge, and several transverse furrows. Margin with
double crenulation. Vasiform orifice and operculm hemispher-
ical; operculu small, not filling orifice. Wings of adult
immaulate.............................parvu Hempel. (27)
arva yellowish green, somewhat roundish, 0.5 mm. long. Margin
with double crenulaions which are pointed distally. Ventralsur-
face with five pairs of bristles along middle line, about as long as
one-third width of body. Pupa case with 10 to 12 long radiating
ax threads, star-like.......---.. ---......--goyabt G6di. (20)
Lava similar to goyabx, but only the caudal pair of bristles readily
cernible. Pupa-cae cantily covered with the unequal curling
waxen threads. A submarginal series of equally spaced short
brt.............---.........................eim di. Gdi(4)
The secretion yellowish, long, hair-like.
Pupa-cae light yellow, elliptical, 1 mm. long, flat. Denuded of
the yellowish hair-like secretion, a longitudinal median, and
submarginal secretion on each side of white wax is evident
Vasiform orifice subelliptial. Operculum hemispherical, nearly
fitting orifice, the caudal end notched. Adult with wings
imaculate, eyes black .................hodu Hempel. (22)
The secretion white, flocculent.
Pupa-case ull yellow, elliptical, 0.56 to 0.84 mm. long, slightly
convex. Margin conspicuousy crenulated, the wax tubes bear-
ing besides the flocculent matter a moderately lg fringe of
straight, white wax tubes. Dorsum with six long slender cylin-
drical spines, the caudal pair frequently bearing a pencil of white
wax. Vasiform orifice twice as broad as long; operculun short,
broad; lingula obsolete.....--------......... floccoa Mak. (15)
The secretion of very long, curling bundles of snowy white wax in the
form of a rosette.
Pupa-case yellowish, elliptical 0.78 by 0.5 mm.; the curling bundes
of white wax from submarginal area, and a more or less columnar
central secretion. A submarginal series of glassy, urved, wax
rods, from distinct papil; case raised on vertial fringe......
pergandei n. sp. (
The retion a submarginal series of broad waxy ribbons with a
centl secretion, more or less clumnar in appearance.
aa shinyblk, suelliptical; 0.72 by.46mm. The
secretion, as a whole, rosette-like, the ribbon of wax rather
curving outward and downward. Lateral fringe semi-transpare
and agglomerated............. --.... plum n. p.
III. pa-c evident, and without lateral fringe.
Pulpa-ae more or less marked with brown or black, but not
With dorsal secretion of wax from ditinct pores or pap .
The secretion, a submarginal series, of brittle more or
waxen rods.
Pu pa-casyel lowish to whitish, with broad longi
o1al and of dark-brown; eliptical, 0.7 by 0.4 m.;
vertical fringe- .................................. hin. sp. (14)
pa-ce greenish white, but h a row one
ler bowih spot elliptical 0. by 0.57 The









from very closely set bmarginal papille, and frequently as long
Bitt"i mul f Buymii



as case ii is wie ...........................ri.de.is n. sp. (1.6)


of central stripe; elliptical, 0.75 by 0.52 mm. The sub-
marginal series of waxen rods rather short. No vertical fringe -..
.it tata 'n. sp. (42)
The secretion in part a submarginal series of sheathed bundles of small,
ing, white waxen rods, from distinct groups of rather small

-ase with marginal, somewhat wedged-shaped, dashes of
brown; two broad, longitudinal, interrupted, sub-dorsal bands of
brown; subovate; 1.79 by 1.26 mm. A central and two lateral
longitudinal matted exudations of wax. A very high vertical
fringe ...................---...-.......----......--------aliima n. sp. (5)
The se tion a submarginal series of glassy, curved, waxen rods from
papill or pores, andsimiar rod more or less promiscuous on
dorsm *from circular pores.
Pupa-case yellowish to whitish, but with frequently a brownish
coloratioalongdorsi-meson; elliptical; 0.72 by 0.45 mm. On the
the pores are promiscuous, ut along abdomen are inclined
to occur in longitudinal rows. Adults with wings marked with
smoky black -.......--..--.................--........rolfii Q. (34)
Doral seretion whe present in form of a whitish, mealy exudation, or
in extreme cases a matted plate of wax covering entire dorsum.
Pup se brown to brownish black, with 3 more or less evident
stripes of whitish: one at cephalic end, one at middle,
and one at caudal end, crossing vasiform orifice. Ovate, to
broadly elliptical, about 1.5 mm. long. Case raised quite high on
verti ringe of wax, about as high as one-half width of case.
............................................----forbesii Ash. (17)
Without dorsal secretion of wax.
Syewish-brown, and with more or less interrupted
ris of dar brown along dorsi-meson; oblong to elliptical; 1 by
0.46 mm. On each side of median rounded keel, along abdomen,
to d depressions, usually a pair to each
segment. In adult o wings immaculate; eyes divided; antenna
with longterminal pr s ................ graminicolaQ. (21)
rva (pupacase?) plane above and beneath; elevation about
the length, periphery vertical; pale flavous; the larger
witha conspicuous dorsal vitta abuiloeaHald. (2)
Pupaase, dorsally black but with a very broad lemon-yellow or
whitish marginal area; oval, somewhat over a millimeter long.
Adult with eyes completely divided; wings with suffused
at of more evident on cephalic pair......


The dorsal secretion, a submarginal series of glassy, curling waxen rod

Pupa-case ovate, about 0.8 mm. long. The glassy waxen rods in


not completely divided ..... ................ruborum Ckll. (35)
The dorsal secretion, a submarginal series of short, truncate, white,








16

Pupa-cae hiny black, subelliptical, 0.92 by 0.66 m. The sub-
marna ribbons, extending out at an angle of about 45, giving
appearance of anelliptical crown ............corona sp. (11)
Pupa-ae, uniformly yellowish or whitih.
Without waxy secretion of any kind.
Pupa-case, pale straw-yellow, somewat darker towards center,
elliptical, 1.25 by 1 mm. Margin fiely and densely wrinkled all
around, the wrinkles extending radially inward to about one-
half the length to the middle line, on the sides. Vasiform
orifice darker than surrounding area, unequally triangula ---
pyrola G. & B. (32)
Pupa-case (empty) colorless, oval, 0.75 mm. long. Margin radiately
striate. Vasiform orifice an elongated triangle, the two sides
nearly straight, and nearly twice as long as base. Operculum
hemispherical or semilunar, concave at base. Lingula elongate,
sub-spatate. No conspicuous submarginal ofices. Adult 9
with immaculate wings; head and entire body deep orange-
yellow; legs pale lemon yellow. Eyes jet black, each one com-
pletely divided..-...-.......................bla Ckll. (7)
Pupa-case whitish, elliptical, 1 by 0.61 mm. Flat, marginal wax
tubes evident. Vasiform orifice sub-cordate without corrugations;
lingula terminating in subircular lobe.. nehroepidi sp. (25)
Pupa-case yellow to lighter, ovate, narrowed caudad; 0.81 by 0.55
mm. Somewhat convex, marginal wax tubes obscure. Vasiform
orifice subtriangular, inner lateral margins corrugated; lingula
arrow-shaped distally.................... in cn. sp. (23)
Secretion present.
Dorsal secretion a submarginal series of glassy, curved, waxen rods from
distinct pores of papillae, and a more dorsal secretion of very long,
tapering, curved, waxen rods, in pairs, from large circular pores.
Pupa-case yellowish, oval to elliptical; about 0.76 by 0.48 mm.
The submarginal wax tubes rather short, and blunt. The very
long rods from dorsum occurring: a pair very close to cephalic
margin, a pair on cephalic region, a pair on thoracic region; two
pairs on abdominal region; a pair at caudal end, and a pair just
within margin, from caudo-lateral region. In adults rostrum
reaching nearly to abdomen. Wings immaculate -...--..-....
raporariorun Westw. (34)
With a rather copious, white, dorsal secretion.
Pupa-case yellowish, elliptical, 0.86 by 0.53 mm. With a short,
downward curving, pearly white submargal secretion of wax,
hiding margin of case, and 3 prominent, more central, inward-
curving colmnns set in a triangle. Operculum considerably
broader than long; lingula sptulate, with 2 pairs of set near
distal end.................................... perse n.sp. (29)
pernde n. sp. See above.
oal secrtion a variable submarinal sries of glassy, curved rod
from distinct pores or papilhe.
Pupa-syellowish, ellipticl, 0.65 by 0.36 mm., raised ocal
fringe of white wax. Vasiform orifice with rounded indenture
cadal; lingula four-fifts length of orifice, with 3 pair of laa
lobes and a distal lobe In adul, wings immaculate....... ...

ave.variabili sp. (40
rolf~i Se above.:








Without dorsul secretion.
pa-case yellow, broadly elliptical, convex, 1.15 by 0.83 mm. A
Sll o f white wa doubt-
less homologous with vertical fringe. Vasiform orifice broadly
ovate, lingula spatulate. Dorsum void of pores and papillae. In
adults, wings with a distal dusky spot ......pirwoides n. ap. (836)
t has not been possible to indicate in the above table, the Aleurodes
of Blanchard, reported from Chile, in 1840. The descrip-
n eager, and based on the adult. In the Division of Entomology
are specimens of an Aleurodes, received through Professor
,from Mr. F. Lataste, Chile, under the name Aleurode
atste. Possibly this is meant for Blanchard's pha--
nl more information is obtained on this point, and pending
of Lataste's description, it may be well not to consider A.
Lataste, as a distinct species.
Ale de abnormin. sp. (Plate I, figures 1-3.)
.-Size about 0.7 by 0.55 mm.; dense black, and cleared
r prolonged boiling in KOH. Shape, subellptical, varying
t in outline. There is no lateral fringe, in the ordinary sense.
case becomes a length comparatively thick, and the dorsal
islarger than the ventral. The marginal rim of wax tubes is
donwad inw to the ventral surface of case, thus con-
ing.the ventral and dorsal disks by an inward slanting rim. From
Sreflexion of the maginl rim the lateral wax tubes open directly
the surf of leaf, and the white cottony exudation of wax
Ssight as homologous to the vertical fringe of wax, or
lisade by which, in any species, the pupa-case is elevated from
rfa l This edation is light, and does not elevate the case
any extent from the leaf. On the reflexed marginal rim the flut-
gs of th atubes may be observed with varying distinctness up
Sof case Dorsum void of exudation of any kind.
immature specimns dorsum is concave, and there is a furrow all
argin of dorum, the rim being quite prominent
Sris b line. C at length becomes moderately convex.
ere is a pair of set on end of case, and a pair just cephalad
les the abdominal segments ppear
oderately distinct, and the ht suture, extending from third
oracic segment cephalad to margin of case, is quite distinct, and
e margins on either side minutely sculptured. The vasiforin orifice
een in boiled specimens is small, subeircular, with semielliptical

Adult 9.-Lengtht about 0.77 mm.; fore-wing, 0.89 by 0.36 mm.;
ind tarsus 0.17 mm.; hind tibia, 0.20 mm Color of body uniformly
low, legs and antenn paler. Eyes not quite divided, dorsal lobe
4 : 'J""' ." :" "j':"n~ ..:






18

bright red, ventral lobe very dark reddish-brown. Fore-wings with
smoky markings. There are two spots near middle of length of wing,
one on the vein, and the other just within caudal margini on the distal
portion of wing are three spots, one at distal end of vein just within
margin, and one on each side of vein. There is usually, also, an obscure
spot just caudad of basal veinlet; hind-wings without spots. Antennae
of seven joints. Joint 1, short, wider than long, cup-shaped; joint 2,
of usual subpyriform shape, about one-half as broad as long; joint 3,
long, equal in length to distal joints together; joint 4, short, about
one-half length of 5th; 5, 6, and 7, subequal in length; joint 7, some-
what fusiform. Front tibia two-thirds length of hind tibia; hind tarsus
but little longer than front tarsus; hind femur about three-fourths
length of hind tibia. Genitalia ordinary. Basal veinlet of fore-wings
arising at base of wing and apparently distinct from main vein.
This species has been collected from various parts of Florida by the
writer, on leaves of such trees as Quercus aquatica, Q. viren, Q. cates-
bcai, Ilex opaca, Magnolia glauca, and Persea carolinensis. The pupa-
cases are much scattered and rarely occur more than two on a single
leaf, and usually but one. Adult females bred out by the writer.
Type in Div. Ent., U. S. D. A. Described from numerous pupa-cases
and three $ specimens.
2. Aleurodes abutilonea Haldeman.
White, body pale flavous, with a tinge of greenish; wings each
with a single nervure, the superior ones with two irregular obscure
bands across them, and a circular apical spot; eyes black, double upon
each side, inferior ones large and prominent; thorax above, with large
irregular fuscous spots; abdomen with 3 or 4 transverse lines of the
same color; rostrum as long as the head, bi-articulate, apex black;
antennae with the basal articulation robust; feet with short hairs,
slender, dimerous, one-half line long.
"Larva oval, plane above and beneath, elevation about one-third
the length, periphery vertical; pale flavous, the larger individuals
with a conspicuous dark dorsal vitta.
"Found upon the lower surface of the leaves of ida (Abutilon)
abutiln, to which the larva is immovably attached. It is sometimes
so abundant that there are from 50 to 100 in half an inch square,
causing the leaf to curl and die. The perfect insect is very active,
walking and flying readily, and leaping from 1 to 1J inches. It seems
nearest allied to A. bfaciatus Steph. When the imago first appears
the wings are more translucent and the dark fascia are entirely want-
ing, so that it might be taken for a distinct species.
"Burmeister's figure of A. roletell Linn. exhibits 2 nervures,
probably because the wings were in contact when drawn, which, on
acount of their translucency, would allow the nervures of both to be







he same time. Fond in Pennsylvania from August to the

Am.n. of i. and Arts., Vol. IX, 1850, p. 108. Signoret, Ann. de ]a Soc.

des acaci n. p. (Plate I, figue 4-7, and Plate VII, figure 68.)
--Size about 0.18 by 0.092 mm.; curved, yellowish, and marked
her indistinct polygons. Stalk short, and attached somewhat





merous as in pupa-case.
e.-Size about 0.9 by 0.61 mm.; shape subelliptical, nar-
omewhat, cauded and cepalad. Color on leaf, under hand
en wax is removed, shining black. Under microscope, by

a becomes moderately convex. There is a rather short and
r trimmed marginal fringe all around from the lateral wax
sxtending out flat on the surface of leaf. In the older speci-
ere is a dorsal white waxy secretion, which typically occurs in
ngitudinal lines, a broad central one and a narrower stripe. on
e.. These lateral stripes maynot extend but along the abdomi-
on, or frequently quite along the entire dorsum and more or
allel to margin of ase, forming somewhat of an ellipse. A

eie strilpes.

medio-doreal ridge is evident, and on each side is a furrow. Cen-
the abdminal segments are quite distinct. There is a distinct



thic e ri the margin is renulated, the incisions quite uniform
,6104Ni whi& it a sia th orif
.,,, + i+
...........l I in +++ ;++ + + ++ :i++ : +; + + + + +


iisi,n,~~~ N""OII;R; |1; ;i~i~ "' .' ;; ; 1;' : Ii;;i


ii::u;;: u








though it is made out with difficulty. On ventral surface, rudimentary
feet quite distinct.
Adults unknown.
Received by the Division of Entomology at Washington from Dr.
Vasey, of the Department of Agriculture, specimens on leaves of
Acaria (mesquite) from Chilhua, Mexico, January 27, 886; from
W. E. Collins, Ontario, Cal., on Acaci, October 6, 1889; again o
Acati from Los Angeles, Cal., and on Benser mrophylla, Carmen
Isle. off Lower California. This same species, it is stated in Mr.
Pergande's notes, was found on leaves of mesquite from Bastophilus,
Mexico: Div. Ent. No. 3863. No. 5876 is doubtless this same species,
from Fullerton, Cal., July 30, 1893, on an undetermined plant. Type
3863, from Ciilhua, Mexico. Described from numerous pupa-cases.
4. Aleurodes aipim Goldi.
Mittheil. Schweitz. entom. Gesellsch., VII, 1886, p. 250.
On "Aepin (" Mandioca doce") Rio de Janeiro.
5. Aleurodes altissima n. sp. (Plate I, figures 8-12, and Plate VII, figure 70.)
Lirnwa.-Size about 0.89 by 0.52 mm.; yellowish white. A series
all around of about 30 setae. On dorsum are 5 pairs of moderately
developed seta, a pair on cephalic segment, a pair on each of the
thoracic segments, and a pair at vasiform orifice. Margin of case
slightly crenulated. On the dorsum a few pores may occ somewhat
promiscuously, and there are a few groups of pores around the mar-
gin. This stage in many respects approaches quite close in structure
to the pupa-case.
P aca.e.- Size about 1.79 by 1.26 mm.; subovate, narrowed ceph-
alad. Color of younger pupae, yellowish to white, and usually with-
out other coloration. In more mature examples the color may vary
from whitish to those more or less mottled with brownish, wih
extreme cases alnost uniform brownish black, though in these latter
cases such examples have plainly been parasitized, and this color ma
have resulted from this fact. Typically, this brownish coloration
(cC.urs in (lshes, from the outer margin inward, varying distances
and more or less radially. Along the dorsi-meson there is a more or
less clear longitudinal central stripe, with an interrupted stripe
(dark brown on each side, these latter varying considerably in exten
and distinctness In well-marked specimens the radial wedge-sha
lashes may extend quite itnto these subdorsal b)ands of dark brown.
P'upa-case when young, with moderately rounded keel, oth
lat; at le(ngt becoming solewhat convex, and raised on an iu
high vertical fringe of white wax. There is no lateral fring,
just within the margin all around there is a series of groups of
ros. These rods arise from groups of from usualy 22 to 26 ci
rs. Eac bundle of rods is surrounded with a rather srt







21

of wax, forming a sheath at base. Individually, the rods are
ning white, and inc to curl at tip. These wax
s v c derablyn ilength, but are, as a whole, short, curl-
g outward and downward from the case. Along central dorsal
ion is a broad and somewhat matted secretion of wax extending
Svasior orifice to cephalic end and covering the rounded keel.
eachsideof this central dorsal secretion is a curved and narrower
eretion extending from just laterad of vasiform orifice to cephalic
These three dorsal lines of wax may be much interrupted trans-
sely, particularly in younger examples, but in older cases each is
ually continuous.
is a very narrow marginal rim and the argin of case is
crenulated. Just within the margin all around is a series of
ther long and slender tuberled setae, about 30 in all, or 15 on each
e. The pores of the submarginal groups are rather small, simple,
d c. These ma vary cotisiderably in number in the different
and an occasional pore occur outside of group. These grups
are usually n the brownish coloration extending in from the
argin. There is usually a group of very small pores on each side of
iform orifice, and a y pretty group on each side of the second
nt. This consists of an irregular circle of small pores
Sa central rote figure. The usul series of brownish colored
mpound pores with cylindrical rim and central rod are present,
ely small. On caudal end 4 of these pres occur in
S row, caudad of orifice, and from this 3 extend
phalad each side to about the fourth abdominal segmet.
to,, '"l" ...
cordate, about as wide as long. Operculum sub-

quite to caudal margin of orifice and bearing
Susual two pairs Qf subterminal set. Margin of orifice extended
ard all round, but more pronounced caudad, into a thin and some-
uted rim. Operculm and lingula minutely setose or punctured.
Sthe ventral surface the reduced les and antene are quite distinct.

When the adult is discovered it will very likely prove to be an

d T, July, 1897, at San Francisco
PealTabascoMexicoona plant called "Palo de Gusano. Div.





Tularo Cek. New Mexico.








8. Aleurodes citri Riley and IHoward.
Insect Life, Vol. V (1893), pp. 219-226.
Food plants: Orange, ei aederac, Vibumum ,udumn, Cape jas-
saine, and occasionally on er tic. Florida, Louisiana, an
greenhouses gnerlly.
9. Aleurodes cockerelli von Ihering.
"Os Piolhos Vegetas do Brazil." Revista do Museu Paulisto, N. II., 1897,
p. 393. On Btccharis paucfloscula, Sa5 Paulo, Brazil.
10. Aleurodes corni Haldeman.
Size and general appearance of A. abutilne; Body pale laous
eyes black; wings pure white, without bands. Pennsylvania in Sep-
tember and October; the larva and imago on the inferior surface of
the leaves of Oorwus sericea.
"Larva flavous, the disk of the larger individuals dark brown; the
margin is ciliate with white. A great many are destroyed in th larva
state by Amitus corni Hald."
Am. Jn. of Sci. and Arts, Vol. IX (1850), p. 109. Signoret, Ann. de la Soc. Entom.
de France, Dec., 1867, p. 398.
11. Aleurodes coronata n. sp. (Plate II, figures 13-15, and Plate VII, fgureV 69.)
gg. -Size about 0.2 by 0.092 mm.; yellowish, considerably convex
on one side: unmarked, stalk short, attached to egg at )ne side of
asal end.
L(r-a.-Size about 0.55 by 0.37 mm.; pale yellowish white; subel-
liptical, becoming narrower caudad; abdominal segments but moder-
ately distinct across the middle. No distinct marginal rim. Margin
crenulated, the lobes somewhat truncate, and separated by linelike
Incisions.
There is a pair of setf at vasiform orifice, and a pair just within
caudal margin of case. There is also a pir on caudo-lateral margin o
case and on the cephalic margin. There is no dorsal exudation of
wax. Vasiform orifice practically as in pupa case. Legand anten
obsolete. Eye spots quite small and reddish.
I ua Size about 0.92 by 0.63 nn.; shape subelliptical a
rule, somewhat pointed cephalad, and broadly rounded caudad; widest
about the middle, or just caudad of middle. Under hand lens case
is shiny black in color; dark brown by transmitted light under mi
scope. There is ordinarily no lateral fringe, but there is a bea
ellipe of white waxy bands or ribbons from the subarginal rea
the dorsui. These project from the case more usually at anage
about 45;, and are but little cured; they are truncate
of varying width, and rarely as long as the case is wide.
along the longitudinal dorsal region three distinct white waxy secre-
tions; at vasiform orifice is a concave shell-like plume or rib
on each side of orfice, forming at base much flattened






23

become spread out into a continuous broad ribbon at

exudation arises which meet cephalad, a short, transverse, but
tck column arising from last thoracic segment. At cephalic end is
pair of ribbon rather narrow, and appressed together at top. The
whole appears as an elliptical rosette or crown when viewed dorsally.
ome specimens have what appears to be a secretion from thelateral
ores. This is closely applied to leaf all around, and of a gelatinous

Margin all around finely crenulated with a double rim, the dorsal
i much more distinct and the incisions acute; the ventral rim of
ax tubes are bluntly rounded an4d the incisions shallow and rather

eis r marginal rim of varying distinctness, with a
i, margin, of small disk-like tubercles, quite similar to
e in a but smaller. There is also on the dorsum, on each
of line, a row of these tuberles; on the abdominal sutures
is a pair to each segment of dark-brown spots. On the margin,
i c end, is a pair of minute set, and the usual caudo-lateral
air o t d at lic end of vasiform orifice, there is a pair
a pair aut midway between orifice and caudal end

Dorum slightly raised along dorsi-meson of abdominal segments

d ln dorsum as in aa".a
Vasiform orifice broadly elliptical, about four-fifths as wide as long.
Sobscure Lingula quite short, stout,
udimentary. Operculut and interior of orifice thickly covered with
inte b t ibly spine-like tubereles. On ventral surface
udimentary feet very distinct.
Received by the Division of Entomology, at Washington, D. C., from
SW. Cot, Los Angeles, Cal., December 5, 1887, on leaves of
in from M. oquillett, same locality and
1,1888; also from S. A. Pease, Pomona, Cal.,
Ssame host plant, S mer 14, 1896. Specimens of this insect
ere received also from Prof. J. H. Comstock, from Santa Rosa,
Cal., on leaves of "live oak," October 7, 1880. Div. Ent. Nos. 4238

This Aleurodid occurs in great abundance on the lower surface of

bserved on the upper surface. There is considerable variation in the


ua cases. Type 4238 Los Aneles Cal. December 1887.







24

12. Aleurodes erigerontis Maskell.
Trans. Z. Inst., 1895, p. 429. Entom. News, Vol. VII, p. 247 .Onan ri
Escalon, Mexico.
13. Aleurodes filicium G6ldi.
Mittl. Schweitz. Entom. Gesellsch., VII (1886), p. 247. See also Ent. Mo.
Mag., 1891, p. 44. On Asplenium cuneatum and other Brazilian ferns, in the
botanic garden at Rio de Janeiro; also on Oleandra articulata and Peri quad-
riolata in the fern house, Kew Gardens.
v 14. Aleurodes fitchi n. sp. (Plate II, figures 16 and 19, and Plate VII, figure 71.)
Larva.-Size about 0.49 by 0.27 mm.; subelliptical in shape, narrow-
ing somewhat caudad. Color clear whitish, with irregular blotches of
orange. Eye spots reddish. There is no marginal fringe and the lat-
eral wax tubes seem to be wanting, though the margin is somewhat
undulate. Dorsum void of tubercles and pores and without waxy exu-
dation of any kind. Vasiform orifice practically as in pupa-case. On
caudal end there is a pair of strong tubercled setae.
Pupa-case.-Size about 0.7 by 0.43 mm.; shape elliptical. Margin
of case whitish. There is a broad longitudinal dorsal band of dark
brown or smoky black, which will vary somewhat in width and dis-
tinctness, usually occurring on the entire medio-dorsal area of case.
In extreme cases this coloration may be all but absent. There is no
marginal fringe, though there is a narrow but well-marked rin'tf mar-
ginal wax tubes. The incisions between wax tubes very shallow, and
the tubes distally are well rounded. In immature specimens the pupa-
case is applied quite closely to leaf; in older specimens the case is
raised on a vertical fringe or rim of white wax, which in some cases
may be 0.2 mm. high. Dorsum almost flat, except a slight medio-
longitudinal rounded keel or ridge. There is a submarginal .ow or
series of short, broadly conical papillae all around, varying considera-
bly in position and number. From these papilla rather short, more
or less curved, glassy, waxen rods are produced, forming a fringe all
around. There is a subdorsal series on each side of very minute cir-
cular transparent spots and a row on each side of keel, of depressions
of irregular outline, but bounded cephalad, usually, by the straight mar-
gin of the preceding segment. In this respect this species appraches
nicola, though the depressions are smaller. Just within audal
margin there is a pair of well-developed setb and a much smaller pair
at vasiform orifice. Less usually there may be a pair of small set n
the first abdominal segment and on the cephalic segment. Vasiform
orifice subovate with caudal end somewhat truncate apparently, ut
under high power is seen to have a rounded indenture, thus prod
two rounded lobes. Operculum aut one-half length of orife, b-
elliptical, broader than long. Lingula about three-fourth lngth of
orifice; distally it is lobed, and distal four-fifths etoe. From caudal









d of ligula arises a pair of upward-curvig set A narrow furrow

Adit .-Length, about 0.84 mm.; fore-wing, 1.07 by 0.49 mm.;
d tibia, 0.37 mm.; hind tarsus, 0.2 mm.; color of body, uniformly
llow, except the frons, which is deep browni!h black, and the caudal
argin of head, and certain thoracic slerites; antenna and legs paler;
s deep red, constricted in the middle. Wings marked with two
regular bands of reddish brown. The proximal band crosses the
ing near the middle of its length. Caudad of vein it has an irrregular
-shape, the apex of the V distad. Cephalad of vein the marking
of an irregular rhomboid shape. The distal band is somewhat nar-
w and interrupted as it crosses the vein. It crosses wing at about
Swidest part. A short distance distad of the caudal flexure of vein
gins a narrow strip of this reddish-brown color, which extends along
in to its stal end, where it terminates in an enlarged spot. At
ase of wing, just caudd of veinlet, is also a small spot.
Antenn 7-jointed; joint 1, short subpyriform; joint 2, also sub-
riform, but much larger; joint 3, long cylindrical, four-fifths length
distal four together joint 4, short, about one-half length of fifth;
nt 6, somewhat shorr than 7. Mentum usual. Hind tarsus but
ghtly longer than anterior tarsus Anterior and middle tarsi sub-
ual in length. Operculum, when elevated and seen in lateral aspect,
bconical, though somewhat more slanting cephalad than caudad.
ingula protruded, tapering, and with a sickle-like curve.
.-Length, ut 0.67 mm.; genitalia ordinary; in other respects
sentially as in female, but proportionately smaller.
Collected by Dr. CV. Riley on cotton plant in his garden, Wash-
gton, D. C., October 4, 1879, and later at Selma, Ala. Also col-
ted.on leaves of cotton plant at Columbus, Tex., in July, 1879, and
eeived by the Division of Entomology, United States Department of
griculture, August 27 and September 14, 1895, from S. B. Mullen,
rriville, Miss., also on cotton. The leaves received from S. B.
ullen are quite thickly covered on the lower surface with the pupa-
ases. Concerning what is probably this same species in Mississippi,

"This pecies lives on the leaves, and toward the latter part of July and the mid-
e of August becomes exceedingly numerous, many hundreds occurring on asingle
ant, and when disturbed they fly up in powdery cloud The eggs, from ifty to
hundred or more, are laid on the underside of a leaf without any regard to order,
sembling those of the orange Aleurodes, only somewhat smialler, with a short
pdicel, paler color, and with the surface perfectly smooth and shiny. These hatch

n feeding on its juic Although occurring by thousands, I could detect but

igt injury caused by these insects."






,26

I am unable to agree with Mr. Ashmead, in referring this species
Fitch'~ Aleurode (Aspidiotus) gossypii. From a study of the single
type specimen of Aleurodes gossypii, which was received by Dr. Fit
from Nigapo, China, certain important differences have appear.
There is no dark medio-dorsal stripe in gosypii, and the series all
around of submarginal pores and waxen rods is also wanting. In
gosypi the pupa-case is quite convex and the marginl area is
strongly reflexed down to the margin of the leaf, much after the man-
ner of a Lecanium. In ftchi, however, the case is scarcely at all cpn-
vex, regularly elliptical in shape, and is raised on a vertical fringe al
around of white wax. The two species are scarcely of the same type.
From the convexity of the single specimen of Aleurodes goyp,
am inclined to regard it as representing the pupal stage, and not he
larval, as regarded by Mr. C. L. Marlatt. (Ento. News,Vol. X, p. 146.)
Div. Ent., Nos. 1163 and 1178. Type of larva and pupa-case, 1178,
Harrisville, Miss., September 14, 1895. Described from numerous
larvae and very many pupa-cases. Type of adults, 1163, slide
2-1-47. Described from 3 9 and 2 & specimens.
15. Aleurodes floccosa Maskell.
Trans. N. Z., Inst., 1895, p. 432. From Jamaica, on Lignum wit, in company
with A. stellata.
16. Aleurodes floridensis n. sp. (Plate II, figures 20-22.)
Pupa-case.-Length about 0.83 mm.; width about 0.57 mm.; vary-
ing somewhat in size and the subelliptical shape. Color of fresh pupa-
case, according to Mr. Pergande's note (Division of Entomology, No.
6962), pale, semitransparent, greenish, marked on thorax and abdo-
men with subdorsal rows of blackish spots. Margin of body and anal
plates yellowish." Dried specimens on leaf are pale lemon yellow,
and the sots are deep red. In balsam the color of case is pale lemon
yellow, and in more mature specimens there is more or less of orange,
due, without doubt, to the developing imago.
There is no marginal or lateral fringe, in the strict sense of the
word-that is, coming from the lateral pores-but on the extreme
outer margin of dorsum all around there is a very closely set row of
conical papillh, from which originates a beautiful fringe composed of
long, slightly curved, glassy, waxen rods-a rod from each papilla.
These papille are very closely set, touching each other at their ,
and the rods are frequently nearly as long as the pupa-case iswide, and
show basally, minute file-like serrations. The fringe is more less
separated into rays of rods extending mesadquite to case. T r are
sually from 3 to 8 rods in each ray, and these indvidual rays bcome
somewhat curved, independent of the others.
Margin of case crenulated, the incisions between wax tube usually
quite shallow and acute. Pupa-ease applied closely to leaf, and uite









ut as the pues ty it becomes some-
hat more convex. In dried specimenparticularly those that are
mature, the dorsum shows two longitudinal ridges agreeing with
e two rows of colored pustular spots. Abdominal segments distinct
t not extending more than halfway to margin. The entire dorsum
marked with more or less radially arranged thickenings or reticula-
The two rows of pustular spots extend cephalad, on each side,
om near caudl end to the head segment, forming an irregular ellipse,
pximately parallel with margin of case. There are usually about
n of these spots on each side, though the number varies consider-
particularly in the thoracic region. In the abdominal region
are more distinct than elsewhere, where they occur approxi-
on each side, to each segment. Just within this series of
ts, on the abdomen, somewhat smaller markings may occur. Dor-
with four pairs of minute tubercle set -one pair on cephlic
pr one pair on first abdominal segment, one pair at vasifor
i, and one pair just within caudal margin.
Vairm orifice cordate, but very little longer than broad. Caudal
bluntly rounded, but with a minute indenture. Operculum
oadly ordate, about ree-fourths as long as orifice, and minutely
distally. Lingula moderately stot, spatulate, setose distally,
bearing on each side three small lobes, with a larger terminal one.
n v l u rudimentary feet indistinct.

Collected by writer in August of 1898 on leaves of guava
P) at Lakeland and Punta Gorda, Fla. Received by the
of Entomology, United States Department of Agriculture,
om H. G. Hubbard, escent City, Fla., January 8, 1896, and from
Weber, Esti Fla., January 25, 1896, in both cases on leaves
guava. Also collected by J. H. Comstock, Arcadia, Fla., on "alli-
SDiv. Ent., Nos. 6962 and 413. Type 6962. Described
rom numerous pupa-cases.
Aleurodes forbesii Ashmead (aceri of Forbes).
Fourteenth Rept. Ill. St. Et. (1884), p. 110.
This is the common large, box-like species, on leaves of Acer dasyrarpum, in many
WrtsI. Y.; as n, D. C.; Urbana, Il.

:Ps 394. On undetermined g growing on swa
gound, S. Paulo, Brazil.
1. Aleurodes gelatinosus Cockerell.
Can. Ent., Vol. XXX, p. 264. Dripping Spring, Organ Mountains, New Mexico,

0. Aleurodes goyabse G61di.

ooaba and "laurt ersia Rio de Janeiro.
':"







28

21. Aleurodes graminicola Quaintance.
Can. Ent., Vol. XXXI, p. 89. On an undetermined grass, Lae City, Fla.
22. Aleurodes horridus Hempel.
Psyche, vol. 8, No. 280, p. 394. On Psidium sp., S. Paulo, Brazil.
23. Aleurodes inconspicua n. sp. (Plate II, figures 23-25.)
Egg.-About 0.17 mm. long. Oval in shape, uniformly brownish
in color; unmarked. Pedicel very short.
Larva.-Size about 0.5 by 0.3 mm. Elliptical, tapering slightl
caudad. In color light yellow, with a deep orange spot on each Aide
of abdomen. Body flat, no marginal fringe, and without dorsal exu-
dation. Margin of case practically as in pupa-case. There is a pair
of well-developed setae, projecting caudad from caudal margin of
case, arising apparently on the margin. Dorsum void of set Vasi-
form orifice practically as in pupa-case, but the furrow extending
caudad from orifice to margin in the pupa-case seems to be wanting
in the larva. There are two small reddish-brown pigment spots in
cephalic region, marking the eyes.
Pupa-case.-Size about 0.83 by 0.55 mm. but varying somewhat.
Oval in shape, broadest cephalad, and light yellow in color, the color-
ation deepening as the developing insect approaches maturity. Empty
pupa-.ase colorless. On each side of abdomen in younge ua es
there is an irregular, oblong spot of deep orange yellow, evidently
glands, within the body. As the pupa develops these spots tend to
disappear. Case applied closely to leaf, at first flat, but later becom-
ing somewhat convex. From its flatness and color it is quite incon-
spicious on the leaf. There is apparently no lateral fringe, and the
vertical fringe raising the case from the surface of leaf, so common
in aleurodids of this type, is in this species absent. Marginal wax
tubes but little evident, and the incisions usually short and acute.
From these incisions thickenings extend mesad some distance, pro-
ducing an irregularly marked margin. There is a pair of small sete
on the caudo-lateral margin of case. Dorsum without exudation of
wax; there is a more or less evident dorsal keel along dorsi-meson,
more pronounced along abdomen. Some specimens show three rows
of large circular pores; a row along dorsi-meson and a subdorsal row
on each side. These pores vary much in position and number, and
are more frequently not discernible. Dorsum without set, eept
well-developed pair, arisiig from tubercles just within ca margin
of dorsum.
Vasiform orifice, subtriangular about three-fourths as wide as long;
cephalic and lateral margins nearly straight lines. Lateral margins,
with corrugations or folds, extending downward and inwr. A
caudal end of orifice there is a decided ental bend, or loop, of e ri
the orifice thus opening into a furrow which.extends cauda to mar
of case, etween the two tubereled sev.








Operulum subelliptial, about three-fourths a long as wide, and
no q one-half length of oi Linul atout five-sixths length
of 'orifice, the distal two-fifths somewhat enlarged, and arrow-shaped,
hickly s andterminati in two stght set, which reach quite
to caudal end of orifice. Rudimentary feet on ventral surface quite

u .-Length, about 0.74 mi .; fore-wing, 0.846 by 0.35 mm.,
hind t 0.32 mm.; hind tarsus, 0.17 mm.; color, bright yellow,
n paler, with a deep reddish-orange spot, due to visceral gland;
legs and antenna pale yellow. Wings immaculate. Eyes undivided,
but somewhat constricted above the middle; dark brownish-red in
coo Mentum usual; first joint, long, slender, widening gradually
; second joint, short, thick, about one-third ength of distal joint;
joint, tout, graduay tapering from second joint to the blunt,
-colored point. Fore-tibia, six-elevenths length of hind-tibia;
tarsus, four-fifths length of hind tarsus.
aiform orifice triangular. Operculum, when elevated and seen
teal easpect, bluntly conical, andthe caudal margin appears
y Lingula long, subcylindrical, tapering abruptly to
an acute point; slightly .urved, the convexity cephalad. Lingula
tly somewhat serrate, due dobtless to obscure setT. In fore-
ngmain vein nearer cephalic than caudal margin, extending distally
t th length of wing. Basal veinlet arising at very bse
ntly distinct from main vein, and extending obliquely
dd to margif wing. enitalia ordinary.
.-Unknown. Collected by the writer on leaves of a species of
at Bartow, Fla., July, 1897, and again in August of 1898 on
leaves of cultivated ok at same place. Received by the Division of
Entomology, United States Department of Agriculture, from Mr. E.
a, Fla., on leaves of sweet potato; Div. Ent. No. 6421.
Adult females were bred out by the writer from pupa collected on
okra in 1898. Type of immature stages 6421, described from numer-
ous specimens. Type of adult specimens bred out by writer from
okra 15, 1898, 8 specimens. Types in Div. Ent. collection.
24. AleurodesmoriQuaintance.
Caa.Ent., Vol. XXXI, pp. 1-4. On Morm, sp. at Tampa, Fla., and at Lake City,
Fla., on Tilia americana, Callicarpa a"mecaina, Liquidamber tyraciflua, Ile.r opaca,

Aleurodes nephrolepidi n. sp. (Plate II, figures 26--30.)
Eg.-Size about 0.1 by 0.092 mm.; subelliptical. Stalk attached
Sone side of center of basal end, scarcely as longasegg is wide;
stalk appears to be jointed, and barbed at asal end. Egg unmarked,

acae.-Size about by 0.1 mm.; elliptical; olor, dirty white
to yellowish. Empty cases in balsam are very pale yellow; eyes of






30

developing pupa bright red. There is no marginal fringe, or but vy
rudimentary. Margin of case crenulated, the wax tubes bluntly
rounded; the incisions between tubes are but moderately deep an
acute; rather light thickenings extend in from margin, and the thick-
ened margins of the wax tubes may be discerned extending a short dis
tance mesad. There is no distinct marginal rim. Pupa-ase applied
quite closely to leaf, and there is no vertical fringe. Dorsum almost
flat, and void of waxy exudation, tubercles, or pores. Abdominal
segments rather obscure, evident only about the middle one-half of
case. There is a pair of well-developed set arising within caudal
margin of case, extending dorso-caudad some distance beyond the
margin. There is a pair of small seta on cephalic margin of case and
a pair on caudo-lateral margin.
Vasiform orifice subelliptical in outline, and comparatively small
Operculum medium, subcircular, broader than long, about one-half
length of orifice; cephalic margin straight. Lingula quite as long as
orifice, frequently protruded, with distal subcircular enlargement,
which is minutely setose; on ventral surface, legs moderately distinct.
Adult 9 .-Length about 0.97 mm.; length of hind tibia, 0.38 mm.;
size of fore-wing, 1.12 by 0.43 mm.; length of hind tarsus 0.22 mm.
Color, pale yellowish; eyes brown, slightly constricted at middle.
Wings unspotted. Antennae of seven joints. Joint 1 nall, cup-
shaped; 2, unusually long, somewhat more than three times length of
first, pyriform; joint 3, slightly more than twice the length of second
Mentum, slender at base; first joint comparatively long, longer than 2
and 3 together; second short, not quite one-half length of third; third
gradually tapering distad, but slightly constricted just proximad of
the brownish black point.
Vasiform orifice cordate. Operculum not one-half length of orifice,
convex dorsally, and on caudal margin concave, the margin thickly set
with rather long sete. Lingula protruded, and strongly bent as it
extends out of orifice, gradually tapering from base to the strap-like
distal portion, very thickly set with sete.
In fore-wing, hasal veinlet rather obscre, and ising apparently
distinct from main vein. Margin of wings all around yellowish, but
deepest on cephalic margin, where the color becomes somewhat reddish.
Received by the Division of Entomology at Washington from George
C. Butz, Pennsylvania State College, November 19, 1898, on N ro-
pis with the statement that hundreds of the winged form are flying
around in the conservatory of the college. A few of the imags we
bred out November 25 from the pups sent, by Mr. Perga from
which the description of the adult stage has been made. ispe
is interesting as occurring on a fern. Div. Ent. No. 8210. Pu
described from numerous secimens; adult from 3 ecien.









Trans. N. Inst., 1895, p. 436; Entom. News, VII, p. 247.On ia ta m,

27. Aleurodes parvus Hempel.
Psyche, vol. 8, No. 280, p.395. On Mayen sp.,Palo,Brazi
sp. (Plate gure 37,d Plate VII, figure 72.)
e.-Size about 0.78 by 0.5 mm.; regularly elliptical in shape;
pale yellow in color, but the empty case almost colorless. The most
character of this species is the exudation from the dorsum of
lite, curled filaments or bundles of wax, forming a beautiful
y large rosette. Near the margin on dorsum is a series
curled, nd slightly flattened bundles, which, extending out-
ard downward, touching surface of leaf, becoming irregurly
Sat the free end. So copious is this exudation that it may have
a diamer of 3 mm., although the pupa-case itself is but 0.78 mm.
From the central dorsum there is usually a stouter form of
exudation, somewhat columnar, but not extending very high from

bundles of wax are composed of many very minute glassy
thr s of wax, which in the longer lateral bundles become quite loose
nd separated on the lower surface of bundle.
On the dorsum, but very close to margin all around, is a series of
ly set, more or les circular, pores. These occur about the
iameter of a pore apart. From this series of pores is produced a
of rather tapering, and somehat curved rods.
project out laterally, around the pupa-case, as is usu in species
of this type, but are hardly discernible until after the removal of the
opious rosette of whi wax from the dorsum. There is no fringe
from the marginal wax tubes, although these form a distinct lateral
. he margin is cre nulted, with the incisions acute. There is a
mey developed vertical fringe, raising the pupa case up some-
of leaf. On caudal margin there is a pair of
moderately developed set, and the usual small caudo-lateral pair of
Sis e t. There is a pair of small sets also at vasiform orifice.
orifice broadly ovate, almost as broad as long; cephalic
i igt, caudal end very broadly rounded. Operculum but
little more than one-half the length of orifice, and wider than long;
ight, and almost coincident with margin of orifice.
ingula about five-sixths length of orifice, stout, and broadly spatulate.
Distal portion with three pairs of lateral lobes and a terminal lobe
also bearing a pair of setw, which project caudad out beyond orifice.
Distal p n of l a s e in the usual way.
Adult .-Length bout 0.77 mm.; fore-wing 1.07 by 0.5 mm.;
th of hind tibia 0.37 mm. lenth of hind tarsus 0.23 mm. Color





32

of body light yellow, legs and antenna paler. Eyes reddish brown,
and apparently barely divided, each part subequal and subcircular
in outline. Wings immaculate. Antennae of 7 joints: Joint 1, short,
usual; joint 2, subpyriform and obliquely truncated distally; joint 3,
long, subcylindrical, about four-fifths as long as joints 5, 6, and 7
together; joints 5 and 6, subequal, and somewhat longer than joints
4 and 7, which are subequal. In hind legs, femur about three-fifths
length of tibia, middle tarsus three-fourths length of hind tarsus.
In fore-wing, basal veinlet arising at very base of wing, and appar-
ently distinct from median. Genitalia usual.
Collected on the grounds of the Department of Agriculture at
Washington, D. C., by Mr. Theodor Pergande on Bigiwnia radicans,
September 3, 1881; at Washington, D. C., Cratagus, September 22,
1882; in Virginia, on Hydrangea, September 27, 1897. This same
species was collected by the writer on plum, at Pomona, Ga., May 20,
1899, and on Cratwgus, Flint River, Spalding County, Ga., during
August, 1899.
This insect occurs either singly or in groups of three or four on the
under surface of the leaves. It is at once one of our prettiest and
most striking Aleurodids. I have pleasure in naming this species for
Mr. Pergande. Div. Ent., Nos. 1002, 2861, and 7800. Type, No. 1002.
Pupa-case described from numerous specimens; adult 9 from 3
specimens; slide 1-32-39.
29. Aleurodes persea n. sp. (Plate IV, figures 38-40.)
Larva.-(Very young, probably in first stage.) Size about 0.338
by 0.18 mm.; subelliptical, very slightly narrowed caudad. Pale yel-
lowish white, with more or less rectangular spots of orange in the
abdominal region. Eye spots reddish. On the margin, cephalad of
eyes, are six sets, and on lateral margins of thoracic region are three
on each side. On caudal margin are six seti, the middle pair of which
is considerably longer than others. On ventral surface, just within
margin, all around, is a series of sparsely set small tubercled set.
egs and antennte well developed. Vasiform orifice practically as in
pupa-case.
l-pau-c ae.-Size about 0.86 by 0.53 mm.; shape subeliptical, with
slightly undulate outline. Color under hand lens, yellowish brow;
empty pupa-case practically colorless. There seems to be no l
fringe, and the margin is not perceptibly crenulated, or but ver indi
tinctly; no lateral wax tubes are to be observed, though ee
thickeed line on the margin. There is a profuse do
First, a rather short, downward-curving fringe of pea
all around, arising from just within margin, and curling outward and
downward over margin to near surface of leaf. This fringe ihardly
continuous but is more or less split aart into rihbn or ands. e-










thi exudtio, wenviewed from above. There is a short veria
frige leatig te ase somewhat from the surface of leaf. Onth
dorumare5 pirsof oup-shaped compound pores, four paiso
-cadalthid o caeand the fifth pair on cephalic segment, onena
eachc 'alo-atealnargin of case. The margin or rim of eachcu


.i i
iiidadiioiiiim within the cup there arises a rather large
inding upward, about one-half its length iiiii,
rim f cu. Wihintube. at base is a short conical elevation.Th
entre trutur, i brwnish in color. Dorsum. void of well-develpe
set sae par jstwithin caudal margin. A pair of minint st
occr o magin ner caudal end of case. There is, howeverjs
withn mrgi ofcas, all around a sparsely set row of minute, brwn
ishOcoore, tberledsetae. Vasiform orifice subcordate, abota
-log a wie, ephlicmargin straight, coinciding with cephalicmr
of oercuum. pereudam subrectangular, the lateral magn
wmewat ouned;considerably wider than long, and with cua
almst.Strigt. Lingula relatively large, particularly distly
ere -i. bcoms boadly spatulate; longer than orifice, and bern
two pirs o setae, the smaller pair proximad. Abdomna
nts odertel distinct. Rudimentary feet and antennw er
t.1
ing note is by Mr. Pergande, made at th
-reeivng he atrial at the Division of Entomology at Wasig
_I'ing ofinsct, of which one was found, transparent, clr
withut ay making, and they are covered with a white secrein
hkh ive, thm amilk-white appearance. The body is yelw
tly',eddshtoard the tip of abdomen. Eyes dark bron.
AIIOOea; o ed on a tag, had, unfortunately, become detce
it cme ito he writer's hands, but from the general strutr
*-ma-- Ma, paticularly the vasiform orifice, and in the prenc
.,*,o~ra cupshped compound pores, it will probably proet

mi fomDr. R., S. Turner, Fort GeorgeF&
AL No. 495.* !Amv desribed from^ numeru


OwO44e Gasyst U0, p., 819 Also, me, Amn. do I& Soc.En.d

nam n. op. (Plate II, Agus 31-43&)
kbpt 0.7S by 0.46 wmm.; shap subelliptladbu
Th -, aay, lukasse as ea u~r





34

hand lens, is much hidden by the dorsal exudation of whitish waxen
ribbons or plumes. Under microscope the case is very dark brown.
These waxy ribbons, in perfect specimens, are quite twice as long as
the case is wide; these occur usually from 3 to 4 on each side of dor-
sum and more or less continuous at base, extending upward and out-
ward. There is also a central, upright, thick column, composed of
the united exudations from the more cephalic of the abdominal seg-
ments. In the caudal pair the plumes are semi-tubular. From the
suture extending cephalad to margin of case from the third thoracic
segnent, there arises on each side a thin ribbon of wax, the two
united cephalad, and spreading distally into a broad wavy plume, and
from between which arises a thin but broad plume. There is a lateral
fringe of amorphous wax extending out in considerable quantity on
the leaf, all around margin of case. Margin of case crenulated with
a double row of wax tubes, the dorsal series somewhat within the
lower. Just within the rim all around is a series of small dark-colored
disc-like tubercles or dots, and small dots of this character may occur
in transverse rows across the dorsum at about the middle of the seg-
ments. There are two pairs of well-developed, brownish-colored setae
at caudal end, a pair just within caudal margin, and a pair at vasiform
orifice; on the margin of case there is a small pair in the usual caudo-
lateral region, and a pair at cephalic end. Under high power of
microscope the subdorsal area is seen to be covered with minute pores,
from which is exuded the ribbons of wax. These pores also occur
along the central abdominal line. Vasiform orifice subcordate, almost
as broad as long; cephalic margin nearly straight, caudal end bluntly
rounded. Operculum about one-third the length of orifice; lingula
quite rudimentary, short, not more than half the length of operculum.
Pupa-case but little convex, even at maturity. Body segments moder-
ately distinct. On ventral surface, feet quite distinct.
Adult? 9 Length about 0.86 rmm.; fore-wing 0.95 by 0.33 mm.;
length of hind tibia 0.24 mrm.; length of hind tarsus 0.17 mrm.; color,
lenmon yellow, legs and antennm paler. Eyes but little divided, dorsal
portion reddish; ventral, deep brownish red; wings immaculate. Joint
1 of antennaW short, not quite one-half length of second; joint 2, pear-
shaped, about one-half as wide as long; joint 3, about as long as the four
remnlaining joints together; joint 4, about two-thirds length of fifth;
joints 5 G. and 7, subequal in length; joint 5, somewhat swollen dis-
tally; joint 7, with a stricture on one side about the middle of its length,
tapering to an acute point. Mentum of three joints, usual. Opercu-
Ilu seen in lateral aspect and when elevated, subconical; lingula con-
sid(erably protruded subcylindrical, with an upward bend near middle,
and nearer end there is another bend, but down to the horizontal.
A rather conmon species in Florida hammocks and higher wood-
lands; on leaves of various plants, as Irea carolineni, anol







granifoa; M. glomw; Rex opaea; Vibwmum nudum and Tlaceinium
spp Adltshave been bred out by the writer. Pupa-case described
from umerus examples; adult Y from two specimens. Types in Div.
ii,iii~l s~ i ,




Colo
..... iii~;;;ii; ,i " i i




i.Hmp oo. .15(ol.Ar.Ep Sti ul 1,Th. Se.)
,,., ,,,






3& A1eurdesquercus-aquaticee n. sp. (Plate IV, figures 41-44.)
Pupa-cm--Size about 0.95 by 0.81 mm.; shape very broadly sub-
ovat, bradst about the middle. On the margin of case, on each
sidl i th cehalo-lateral region, there is an indenture, and a thick-
ene an daker colored area on the marginal wax tubes. Cephalad
fromthisrouded indenture the case is considerablv narrower. Color
unde ban les, shining black; under microscope by transmitted light,
thsbrow with the sutures dark brown. Pupa-case very
fla, sarclyat all convex. There is a lateral continuous fringe
&U arond soewhat longer than one-half the width of case. This
:Frngeis ppied closely to'leaf, and is semi-gelatinous in appearancel,
the odsmor or less indistinct basally, and frequently appearing as a
S semi-transparent rim. From the indentures on the
cophlo-ltera margin, on each side, and from the caudal end of case,,
penc "I f wite wax are exuded out into the semi-gelatinous fringe,
andbycotrset are somewhat conspicuous. On the dorsum, there
ma bea lghtand fragmentary exudation of wax along the body seg-
s is equently absent. Margin of case, distinctly cren-
ulaedandthere are two series of wax tubes all around on the
margn; hes are quite close together, the dorsal series being almost
sd. The somewhat transparent lines between the dorsal
seris ofws: tubes, extend mesad with varying distinctness to a very
] ] ,,,


























fait -ine&Uaround, morpthologically equal to the inner margin of
molored lines may extend mesad from this line, laterally,
*o he odysegments, but hardly continuous with the lines between
wax tbes.Dorsum, with very smaill black dots, occurring in a broad
andlose and on each side of dorsum, the bands of each side termi-
nifig opbaad at the transparent eye spots, and coalescing caudad at
the asiormorifice, Along the sutures of body segments narrow
line ofthe dots occur, usually op both sides of -the suture.
Cenralythe. body segments are quite distinct; the third thoracic
*Vmnt bend cephalad on each side to near the thickened arieas on
the nalindentures of came On the dorsum, near the outer limit
of 'tbe bdoinal segments, is a row on each side of very small trans,-
A. pot. There is a pair of small setm just cephalad of vasi-
orfi,and a pair just within caudal margin of cuse, a seta on
of the thickened marg l pc of fm w o
,,rt








..";Is~l:l RO :"i H i
iii ,,~

~l~nl il"iiii;



|' ~ ~ ~ I ii
; iii; i il





36

inates the caudal pencil of white wax previously mentioned. Vasi-
form orifice can not be made out with certainty, but it is relatively
small, short, and about twice as wide as long, and is surrounded with
an obscure fluted rim.
Adult S .-Length about 0.86 mm.; fore-wing 1 by 0.46 mm.;
immaculate. Body yellow, eyes reddish and dumb-bell shape, not
divided. Antennme, joint 1, short, cup-shaped; joint 2, subpyriform,
about two-thirds as wide as long; joint 3, quite long and relatively
large, cylindrical, except at base, where it is tapering, not quite as long
as joints 5, 6. and 7 together; joint 4, short, about one-half length of
tifth; joints 5 and 6, subequal in length; joint 7, slightly longer than
joint 4. Mentum much reduced in size, plainly abnormally reduced.
(enitalia usual; valves strong and clasping at tip; penis curved upwards,
tapering, and enlarged at base.
This species occurs more or less singly on leaves of Quercus aquatica,
on the campus of the Florida Agricultural College, at Lake City.
Pupa-case described from numerous specimens; adult bred out by the
writer, from one specimen. Types in Div. Ent. collection.
34. Aleurodes rolfsii Quaintance.
Can. Ent. Vol. XXXI, p. 90. From Upola, Fla., on cultivated Geranium.
35. Aleurodes ruborum Cockerell.
Jn. N. Y. Ent. Soc., Vol. V., No. 11, p. 96. See also Ann. Rept. Fla. Agr.
Expt. Sta., 1898, p. 66. On cultivated Rubus, Lake City, Fla. Also occurs on
Ruu cneifolius at Lake City and San Mateo, Fla.
86. Aleurodes spirmeoides n. sp. (Plate IV, figures 45-49, and Plate VIII, figure 74.)
Lar~.-Size about 0.78 by 0.52 mm.; subelliptical in shape, becom-
ing narrower caudad. Color, light yellow. In very young larva
there is a rather narrow cottony marginal fringe, but in older speciens
this is in most cases wanting. The margin is flat and closely applied
to leaf. Abdominal segments moderately distinct; thoracic segments
obscure. Margin of case delicately crenulated, the ends of the wax
tubes rounded, and the shallow indentures acute. Dorsum void of
pores, papilla, and setah. There are, however, three pairs of set, on
margin: A small pair at cephalic end, a well-developed pair at cudal
end, and a small pair at caudal end, a seta on each side of large pair.
There is no marginal rim. Vasiform orifice essentially as in pupa
case. On ventral surface the legs are quite obscure. The mall eye
spots are reddish.
Puya-a:e.-Slze, about 1.15 by 0.83 ; broadly elliptical inshape
and bright lemo-yellow in olor. In the more mature specimens there
is more or less of reddish coloatio, due to the developing pup wi
Pupa-case rher strongly convex, and but little flattened
gin. There is no lateral fringe, but a more or less slanting
is present in older specimens, raising the case a hort
9 6 : ^







surfce f laf.This waxen rim is doubtless homologous to the verti-
F cl rlngeofcetain species, -and may vary in direction from vertical,
undecase to a latel fringe, having the general appear-
anc. o atru lteral fringe. In the removal of dried specimens, this
waxe ri usally remains attached to the leaf. Margin of case cren-
ulaed y an~arow rim of closely set wax tubes. On cephalic margin
a pir f sallseton may occur and a pair also on caudal margin.
iti adal margin on dorsumcddofvioroice there
18' soewhtlarger pair. Dorsum without pores and papillw, and
thereis nodorsa waxy secretion. The abdominal segments are but
distint thoracic segments obscure.
Vasiormoriice broadly ovate, almost as broad as long. Operen-
1u~ les tan ne-half length of orifice, subtrapezoidal, cephalic mar-
ginstrigh, cudal end truncate. Lingula extending nearly the
Aengh o orfic, spatulate, the enlarged distal portion minutely setose.
I~isal nd barig two small lobes. Two long setoe arise f rom ventral
surfaeof istl end of lingula, and project candad out beyond the ori-
-fim Jus cehalad of vusifoi-m orifice is a bow-shaped thickening of
3ho egumnt o case.
AdNU S.-ength about 0.95 mm.; fore-wing, 1.38 by 0.56 mm.;
lenth f hndibia, 0.46 mm.;' length of hind tarsus, 0.3 mm. Color*,
as ive. b M. T. Pergande, on fresh material: The winged insects
6ovredwih a white bloom; the f ront wings have two rather indis-
t duky sots, one a little Ibeyond the middfle and the other near
10 Pei ad-one near apex of posterior win-gs; this bloom is easily
off an the insect appears then to be yellow or greenish-
Th yes.-are reddish-brown and the legs and antenne more
le"dusy.,Th6 thorax is marked with blackish and the abdomi-
mgments 3to 7 have each a blackish transverse band, which
'gadally broader toward the end of the body. Vertex and
of he@ac-kish. Veins. slightly yellowish."
o.7 joints: Joint 1, short, subglobular; 2, about twice
of pdsubpyriform, obliquely truncate distally; 8, long, -sub-
asong as joints 4, 5, and 6 together.. Joints 5, 6, and 7
t 4 slightly shorter than 5. Mentum with th .joinii,

















asooov4 pir legs two-thirds length of tibia of third
vqal im leogth to an antenna. Operculum con-
44 rad a long. IUngula protruded, rather
*10lan *ounade protruding iboat one and

a saptnet slddebut hardly divided. W1*g
id ~ Ww 06 fvay htoWe an 0obsure spot way
gran asd&Wa e4d and aohrspot w little diae%&
s obe e spot 4 dol ed of VehL
|a
..... .. ........ ..... ... ..'
:iiiiii~i ; ii
....... = ........ ===~:i r i~i 8i ii ii Hiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii iiiiiiiiii
@ ii iH~~ii iiiii!'====] iiiii iiiiiiii;; .i r ;o s ..................................................


... i~iiii
... iii i =H iiiii



ii iiiiim ...
% iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii:iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii













.,::,,,:i III~ii






38

distinct from main vein. Genitalia forcipate; valves rthehort and
stout. Penis about four-fifths length of valves, somewhat enlarged at
base, where it curves upward; distally it becomes abruptly narrowed
to an acute and curved point.
Insects received by the Division of Entomology at Washington, rom
several correspondents in California, as: Alexander Craw, Los Angeles,
October 23, 1880, on leaves of Fucksia, which, it is reported, were badly
infested; D. W. Coquillett, Los Angeles, October 21, 1887, on Son-
c/ us A. Koebele, Alameda, during November of 1887, on Cool-
lw occidWntall( s A. Koebele, Alameda, November 5, 1885, on falvia
rotindfolia. Specimens also collected by Prof. J. H. Comstock, on
Iris, October 20, 1880 (locality not given). Div. Ent. Nos. 750 (on
Iris); 741 (on Fuchsia); 328 (on Oonvolvulus occidentali); 4218 (on Son-
ckus), and 37 (on adviwa rotundifolia).
Pupa-case approaches citri in color and outline, but is much more
convex, and differs in having a vertical fringe, in the absence of the
cephalo-lateral and caudal indentures and thickenings of the margin,
and the vasiform orifice is widely different. It also approaches
reae of Douglas, but differs in the absence of abdominal rows of tuber-
cles and in the presence of sete at vasiform orifice. (Div. Ent. Nos.,
37, 328, 741,750, and 4218.) Type of all stages 741. Immature stages
described from numerous specimens; adult S, from six specimens.
37. Aleurodes stellata Maskell.
Trans. N. Z. Inst. 1895, p. 442. On Lignum vitx, in company with A.occoa,
Jamaica.
38. Aleurodes tracheifer n. sp. (Plate V, figures 50-52, nd Plate VIII, figure 73.)
lupa-case.-Size about 0.81 by 0.52 mm.; subelliptical, slightly nar
rowed cephalad. Color, under hand lens, rather dull black; unde
microscope, deep brownish in color, with the narrow marginal rim all
around much lighter. There is a copious, white, somewhat cottony
lateral fringe, which may extend out, flat on the leaf, quite twice th
width of pupa-case. Basally this forms a continuous fringe all around
but becomes separated into several lobes from about the basal thi
out. Lateral wax tubes very prominent, rounded distall; the ini-
sions about as deep as tubes are wide and rounded at base. On th
dorsun there may occur, along the middle line, a light mealy exu
tion. There is along the dorsi-meson an evident rounded keel extend
ing cephalad from vasiform orifice to margin of case, but not s
pronounced in t t thoracic region, where cephalad, it becomes widen
out suddenly intdan arrow-shaped figure: Along the abdomial seg
menlt i iis semitubular, and merges cudad into an ovate im a nd
the vasiform orifice, the whole producing somewhat the appearance
a trachea (windpipe), with voice box (the vasiform oriice) attached.
There is in the thoraic region on each side, a short distance within
malgain, a curved, depriess line, xtending cauda to about th see








Samin.nt distinct, extending out

with four pairs of ldeveloped set; a pair on cephalic
io;a pair on metathorax; a pair at vasiform orifice, a seta on each
a r on theaudal end of the large, thickened, subovate
i, surunding the vasiform orifice. There is a pair of minute white
Son the cephaic margin of case, and the usual caudo-lateral pair
Vasiform orifice semicircular, as broad as long; c.phalic
argin almost straight. Operculum subsemicircular, but broader
an long, minutely setose distally. Lingula moderately developed,
eaching caudal margin of operculum; enlarged distally and minutely
tose. The operculu and lingula are made out with difficulty.
Adlults.-Unknown.
Set to te Division of Entomology at Washington, June 2, 1897,
billo," collected at Las Minas, Tobasco, Mexico, by Mr.
HT. Townsend; Div..Ent. No. 7817. Described from 6 specimens.
39. Aleurode vaporariorum Westwood.
Chron., 1856, p. 852; Signoret, Ann. de la Soc. Ent. de France, Dec., 1867,
p. 87; Bitton, Ninth Ann. Rept. Conn. Agr. Expt. Sta., 1895, Pt. II,
p. 203.
species widely distribed in Europe, and has been recorded on
S :onolob, T a, l, olnum, Tomato, Salia
ad mmara. Specimens have been received by
Divi of Entomology, United States Department of Agriculture,
this species, from the following localities in the
ited States: r old, N. J., on Fucia Fairburg, Ill., on FuJ a;
Bto, M on Pelgonium, and other plants; New Haven,
o ; Stor, Conn., on house plant; West Grove, Pa.,
is probably thea species, from Goshen, Ind.
e in ts, to a considerable extent, occur on greenhouse plants,
Sf ring on their present distribution
Div. Ent. Nos. 119, 2124 2224, 4354 4590, 4895, and 6755.
. Aleurodes variabilin. s (Plate V, figures 53-55.)
E .-Length, exclusive of stalk, 0.2 mm.; width one-fifteenth mm.;
ape oblong, tapering toward apical end, which is bluntly rourided,
and about one-half the width of egg at widest part; unmarked; color
fresh; with embryo, yellowish. Stalk about
ne-sixth length of egg, attached to center at base, bearing several



rt irregular prongs.
outline, flat. Color, uniformly light yellowish. Wax tubes, seen f romn






40

a pair of minute sete is sometimes present on second abdominal seg-
ment and on prothorax near dorsi-meson. Vasiform orifice practica
as in pupa-case.
Ppa-case.-Length, 0.65 mm.; width, 0.36 mm., varying somewhat
regularly elliptical. Under hand-lens on leaf, small, yellowish, due to
developing pupa within; more or less mottled with orange. Empty
case, clear white. Very young pupa-case flat; after drying, may becom
concave. Older pupae raised on vertical fringe of white waxen rods,
the length of which varies with the age of the pupa. Mature
pupa-case, somewhat convex above; inclosed pupa bright yellow, ith
the eyes brownish red. Margin of case crenulated, somewhat irregu-
larly, by shallow incisions betweeh the wax tubes. No marginal
fringe; a pair of small setae near caudo-lateral region. A narrow
marginal rim may be distinguished. Abdominal segments moderately
distinct; those of thorax less so. Four pairs of brown sete may
occur near dorsi-meson. These may be all long and equally developed
or any or all pairs may be reduced to mere traces. Usually the cau-
dal pair is well developed; it is situated within the caudal margin an
extends dorso-caudad some distance beyond case. The first pair, sit-
uated on thorax, is usually reduced, or quite obliterated, as may be
also, but less frequently, the second pair on the second abdominal se
ment. The third pair is situated near the vasiform ori a set o
each side, near its cephalic margin. This pair is not infrequently
well developed as caudal pair, but usually less so. There may be
submarginal row all around of rather closely set papille, each bear
ing a white, waxen, curved rod. Circular pores may also occur
this row of papill,a the two intergrading. Just mesad of this row o
papillh, pores nmiy occur irregularly, similar to those in the submar-
ginal row, and from which also arise white, waxen, curved rods. Usu-
ally these papillah and pores are not discernible, or but faintly; those
of the caudal and cephalic margins persist longest. When but dis-
cornible, there are no rods. All gradations may occur from the entire
absence of pores and papilhe to a complete set, bearing rods.
Vasiform orifice large, ovate, broad end cephalad; a rounded inden-
ture on caudal end. Orifice about four-fifths as wide as long. om
the inside of the lateral and caudal margin distinct corrugations, or
folds extend downward and inward in the orifice cavity. Oercul
somewhat semielliptical in outline, about two-fifths the length of
orifice and about twice as wide at base as long. Lingula well devel
oped, about four-fifths as long as orifice; the bsal part is about on
fifth of its length, ith thickened, centrally curving ma

dital two-fifths enlarged, ith three lobes on each side and a
lo dital four-fifths, setose, thicker on distal portion; from dis
end aIrises below a pair of well-developed uward curving pro-








ting cadd to margin of orifice. Just cephalad of orifice are two
t of crecent-shaped thickenings. A shallow furrow extends caudad
om orifice to margin of pupa-case. On ventral surface, the reduced
gs may be made out with difficulty.
A t Length about 0.833 mm.; length of front wing, 0.95 mm.;
idth, 0.33 mm.; length of antenn, about 0.25 mm.; length of hind
bia 0.3 mm.; length of hind tarsus, 0.216 mm.; color, lemon yellow;
et and antenn, lighter; wings, immaculate, anterior margin of both
airs, reddish. Eyes, brownish black. Antenna, seven jointed; joint
very short, about one-third as long as second, subconical, distally
ewh obliquely truncate; joint 2, pear shaped, not quite twice as
g as wide, oblique distally; joint 3, log, slender, as long as 4, 5,
, and 7 together, subcylindrical, bearing distally on outer side a group
Ssets; 5and 6, club-shaped; 7, somewhat fusifor, but tapering
, di bearing a terminal seta on distal oblique argin.
oints 3 and distad, coarsely ringed.
Hin fmur two-thirds length of tibia; tarsus about two-thirds
of tibia; distal joint of tarsus, excluding claw, two-thirds length
Spim nter bearing two long sets on caudal side. Men-
t three jointed; baoint about as long as other two, gradually
i i i y; secon oint about one-half as long as third; third
y to blunt point, which is tipped with black.
orifice, subircular, as een from above; operculum slightly
vex; e on caudal margin, which is minutely setose; lingula
y enlarged dista, minutely setose. Genitalia,
sal. Eyes oblong, somewhat constricted near middle. In first pair
Swings the main vein is long, extending nearly to tip, becoming
fainter from tal half. A basal velet arises from base of
ing, and extends obliquely backwards t6 margin. Margins of both
of wings delicately beaded all around. A short row of seT' on
Sof second pair at base, the distal two of which are
tree or four times longer than the others.
about 0.5 mm.; proportionately smaller than female.
enitalia forcipate, the valves strongly curved at tip; penis tapering,
little more than one-half the length of valves, strongly curved

is spisisingly abundant on the common papaw (rica
orida. Thender surface of the leaves of the
lant are frequently quite covered with the pupa-cases, larve, and
ggs. The adults aalse ingly abundant, usually resting on the
nder surface of the ounger leaves. The different stages described
ypes in Div. Ent. Collection.

Psyche, Vol. 8, No. 266,p. 226; Frontera, Tabasco, Mexico.

...... h+++++++4 ++++++++++ +:
++ +++ ++ +++++ + ? + ++;+:++ :+ B+++ +: ++.. .





42
42. Aleurodes vittata n. sp. (Plate V, figures 56-58.)
Egg.-Size 0.25 by 0.09 mm.; slightly curved; color, pae ellow,
unmarked. Stalk very short.
Larva.-Size 0.52 by 0.33 mm.; shape subelliptical, somewht
narrowed caudad. Color whitish, very flat, and closely applied to
leaf. No lateral fringe; margin finely crenulated, but without distinct
marginal rim. Dorsum void of waxy exudation. From caudal end
projects a pair of moderately stout tubercled sete. Vasifo oifr rfice
practically as in pupa-case.
Pupa-case.-Size about 0.75 by 0.52 mm.; shape elliptical. Color
dark brown, with the margin of dorsum all around, and a broad stripe
down dorsi-meson, whitish. The coloration is usually deepest just
laterad of the central dorsal stripe, and gradually fading toward the
margin.
Body segments quite distinct, the thoracic more so than abdominal,
appearing as white lines extending across the dorsum.
There is no marginal fringe, although the lateral wax tubes are well
developed. Just within the margin, all around on the dorsum, is a
closely set series of short papillae, or pores, from which is produced a
fringe of rather short, slightly curved, glassy waxen rods. These are
longest on cephalic and caudal margins. Along lateral margin, at
more or less regular intervals, longer and stouter wax ro are pro-
duced. Just within this submarginal series of papille is an rregular
row all around of small transparent spots, and these may also occur
somewhat promiscuously over the dorsum, but are most numerous
over the central dorsal portion. Around the sub-dorsal area the case
is marked with more or less reticulated lines, which extend out plainly
to the sub-marginal series of pores. Pupa-case applied quite closely
to leaf, and there seems to be no vertical fringe. On the margin, at
caudal end of case, there is, on each side of the furrow from the vasi-
form orifice, a moderately stout seta, and the usual caudo-lateral pair
is present on margin of case. Vasiform orifice subovate, about four-
fifths as wide as long; the inner lateral margin much corrugated.
)Operculum subelliptical, scarcely one-half the length of orifice. Lin-
gula about three-fourths length of orifice, subspatulate, the distal part
with three pairs of lateral lobes and a terminal lobe. Two seta arise
from caudal end of lingula, and project caudad to margin of orifice.
1oth operculum and lingula minutely setose distally.
Adults. Unknown.
This species occurs on leaves of chaparral, and has been received
by the )ivision of Entomology at Washington, D. C., from W. E.
Collins, Ontario, Cal., July, 1894; A. J. Cook, Claremont Cal.ugust
14, 1894; and from S. A. Pease, Pomona, Cal., August 30, 1894. Div.
Ent. No. 6311. Described from three eggs, three lrv, and numerous
pupa-cases.













euros in having the vein in both pairs of wiigs with a distal and
bsl branch.

TABLE OF SPECIS OF ALEURODICUS.1

Wgs of adults immaculate.
-Length 21 mm.; wing expanse 4.1 mm.; length hind tibia 0.78 mm.;
length hind tarsus 0.36 mm.; dull honey yellow with eyes darker. Joint
3 of antennae as long as the three distal joints together, and twice as
long as joints 1 and 2 together. Pupa-case secreting an abundance of
white wax and very long l filaments, ovate, or very broadly ellipti-
cal; compound pores smaller than in anone; operculum but moderately
concave on caudal margin; lingula broad, tapering to rounded end; not
notched distally----------------------------.....................................coco Curtis (4)
Similar to preceding, but larger. Length of fore-wing 3 mm; length hind
tibia 0.96 mm.; length hind tarsus 0.47 mm. Pupa-case more nearly
elliptical and the compound pores larger than in cocois; operculum on
caudal margin uddenly indented and then straight; lingula compara-
tively narrow, notched distally, and tapering to rather acute point.
anonai Morgan (1)
ngs with a dark spot in an of distal bifurcation of vein. ()
thorax, and abdomen pale yellowish white. The dark spot of fore-
wings an obtuse ange, opening distally. Posterior wings with similar
but fainter spot. Eyes brown, two-parted. Tarsi long, exceedg two-
this of tibia. pa-case secreting a white downy wax.
asarumis Shimer (2)
lar to but with by and legs of deep chrome yellow; eyes not
divided, but dumb-bell shape. Fore-wing 2 mm., noticeably iridescent;
spot on fore-wings of rather indistinct outline, and extending cephalad
to margin of w as a very dilute clouding. ind-wings' unspotted.
Pupa-case dark gray or plumbeous, varying to brownish, surrounded by
acottony secretion; along midrib of leaf, as in pulinata; oper-
lum very broad, broadly truncate distally; ingula spatulate, tapering
to a rather rounded point.--.......----- ......iridece Cockerell (6)
-Boh pairs of wings with a distinct brownish-black spot; fore-wings with
Sil-defied clouding all around margin, appearing cntrally as an
y obscure band. Length 0.86 mm.; fore-wing 1.1 by 0.52
mm. Eyes reddish, not divided. Genitalia very much reduced, valves
short and stubby. Pupa-case subelliptical; cephalic and caudal pairnof
compound pores largest; operculu well rounded on cudal margin;
lingula spatulate, gradually tapering to soewhat rounded point.
minimua n. sp. (7)
ngs variously spotted or banded with gray or blackish.
Wings with more or less rounded potr.
and ant paler. Lngth, 1.23 .; length r
wing, 2.4 mm.; with ubmarginalseriesof blackish spots, and moreircular
Aleurodics (Aeurodes) pulti:a Maskell is not indicated in the table, and is
rred to Aleurodis on the authority of Cockerell (Psyche, v. 8, No. 26, 228).
a description of the adult stage of this species has been made, I have not been able







44

spots between forkings of vein. Vertex of head acute and margined with
brownish-red, continuous with eyes of same color. Pupa-case very flat,
subovate and with but little secretion of wax--..---...cockerilli n. sp. (3)
Wings banded with gray.
Length from head to tip of wings somewhat over 2 mm. Forewings with 5
broad transverse bands of gray and a longitudinal band extending from
the outermost band to margin of wing, a little below the apex. On
cephalic margin of wing the bands are mostly straight and equi-distant,
but mostly enlarged about middle of wing. The third and fourth bands
are joined together by inward prolongation of longitudinal band. Third
band interrupted below its middle, and its lower part is joined to second
band, of which it appears an oblique branch. The true prolongation f
second band bends obliquely inward, and is joined at one point to the
first band. The second band is also joined to first by a thin process in the
region of the central nervure..---..------------ornatus Cockerell (9)
Length, 1.66 mm.; forewing, 2.25 by 1.5 mm.; similar to ornatus, but mark-
ings of forewings of different pattern. There are four gray bands cross-
ings the wings, of which only the third and fourth are joined by a longi-
tudinal band. The basal band bends abruptly inward caudad of main
nervure, which branches so near base of wing that there are prac-
tically 2 nervures, the first gray band failing in the angle between them
but strong again before the second. Second band broad as far as the
cephalic nervure; just beyond it interrupted broadly, but continued as
a large nearly circular gray patch, the greater part of which is cephalad
of caudal nervure, and passing thence as an oblique narrow band to the
margin. Third band resembling second as far as cephalic nervure,
which it meets at its fork; after that failing, but reappearig a little
way down the lowest branch of the nervure, and thence passing down-
ward, becoming very faint. Fourth band broad, passing across end of
fork, bent inward, joining continuation of third band after the break,
itself forking at its lower end. The curvure of fourth band leaves a
white apical area in which there is a gray spot. There is also a gray
spot at tip of second nervure...-------.....--........dugesi Cockerell. (5)
Body of male about 2 mnm. exclusive of forceps. Fore-wing slightly over 2 mm.
long by about 1.33 mrm. broad, white, with 2 very pale gray bands, the
first crossing wing just before fork of median vein, but interrupted for a
space below the vein. The second a dilute transverse cloud not far from
apex of wing. Externally pupa-case appears as a large mass (5 to 10 mm.
long) of snowy white cottony tufts, irregularly disposed, from which spring
very long curved white waxen threads........mirabili. Cockerell. (8)
1. Aleurodicus anonae Morgan.
Ent. Mo. Mag., Second Series-Vol. III (1892), p. 32. On Anon muricaa; A.
sqw1osa, Fios, and Riclhrdia pactfica, Demerara. Received by the Div. Ent.,
U. S. Dept. Agric., on Anona, from Pernambuco, Brazil, and onAno reiculaa,
Port-of-Spain, Trinidad.
2. Aleurodicus (Aleurodes) asarumis Shimer.
"Whitish, farinose, downy, especially on the wings. Head, rax,
and abdomen pale yellowish-white. Wings laid flat on the bk in
repose, short and broadly rounded at the apex; near the extremity,
where the strong central vein branches, a dark macula in the frm of
an obtuse angle, opening posteriorly toward the apex of the wing
'The posterior wing has a similar but fainter spot. Antenne six-








inted, first thick, clavate. Eyes brown, two-parted. Tarsi long,
ceeding two-thirds the tibia. I find these insects during the entire
ummer on the under side of Atarum canad8ene (wild ginger). In
ptember I have seen them very numerous in all stages, the larva
ad ppa presenting the usual scale-like form of this family; at this
me the under side of the leaf that has reared a good colony is
vered with a white downy secretion. The imago when slightly dis-
ubed flies away, acting not much like small Tineina, hence it may
ten be found on trees, etc., but I have observed the larva only on
t above-named plant, and believe it to be entirely confined to it."
Mt. Carroll, Ill., August 24, 1867, Shimer. Trans. Am. Ent. Soc., Vol. I, p. 281.
See also Insect Life, 1893,p.219.
Aleurodicus cockerellhi ap. (Plate VI, figures 59-62).
Pupa-cae.-Size about 1.63 by 1.23 mm.; subovate in shape,
aller end cephalad. Color uniformly yellowish. There is but slight
axy exudation from dorsum, which is more or less mealy. No wax
os have been observed. Dried specimens separate easily from leaf,
aving usually a ring of white mealy wax of the size and shape of
ce; extending from the periphery inward are light lines of this
ely wax, more or less ldistinctly marking the position of the abdomi-
lsutures of the case. Dorsum of pupa-case almhnost flat, but as seen
der a hand lens is much wrinkled transversely in dried material.
ese folds or ridges occur mainly along the body segments, and pos-
riorly become much curved around the vasiform orifice. Under the
icroscope the abminal segments are indistinct and scarcely elevated,
cept in the medio-dorsal line, where a slight rounded keel may be
served. Margin of case practically entire. Very slight furrows or
tickenings extend mesfd a short distance from margin of case, rather
arking the margin into more or less distinct rectangular figures.
st within the margin all around is a series of very small disc like
res, usually one to each of these marginal rectangles. Dorsum void
Swell-deveoped set, except a pair just within the caudal margin;
t there is a pai r of small sete at vasiform orifice, and very minute
se occur here and there on the dorsum. The five or more pairs of
rge compound pores, so usual on dorsum of pupa-case of Alerodicu8,
em to be absent in this species, but very many minute transparent
res may be detected on dorsum under high power of microscope.
Vasiform orifice subcordate, somewhat longer than wide; cephalic
argin straight; at caudal end there is a short, stout, spine-like pro-
usion. Operculum subrectangular, about half length of o rifie;
palic and caudal margins practically straight, lateral margins
oded; lateral and caudal margins thick; minutely setose. Lingula
ite as long as orifice very broad, and bearing distally two pairs of
ste, the smaller pair proximad; minutely setose.
Rudimentary legs and anltennae on ventral surface quite distinct







46

Distal joint of legs with a straightand truncate spine. Anten usua
minutely ringed.
Adult 9 .-Length, about 1.96 mm.; fore-wing, about 2,4 by .6mm.
length of hind tibia, 0.8 mm.; length of hind tarsus, 0.56 mm.; le
of front tarsus, 0.32 mm.; color, bright yellow, legs and antenn paler;
wings very broad, and rounded distally. Wings marked with more or
less circular spots of brownish black. In fore-wings, along cephalic
margin, are three spots about equidistant, and farther distad, on curve
of wing, is a spot somewhat farther from the third spot than are two
and three from each other. There is a spot on the margin of outer
caudal curve of wing and three spots on the caudal margin, which,
however, are not equidistant, as in the spots on cephalic margin.
Within the area bounded by the distal fork of the vein are two spots,
and within the area bounded caudad by the proximal branch are from
three to five spots. In hind-wings there is a spot on outer cephalic
margin, and on the outer caudal margin are two spots. There are two
spots in the area bounded by the distal fork of vein, and likewise two
spots in the area bounded caudad by the proximal branch of vein.
Head as seen from above acute cephalad, and margined with deep red-
dish or brownish black, continuous with eyes which are of same color.
Joint 1 of antennae short, subcylindrical, distal end irregularly notched
or toothed. Joint 2, thick, club-shaped, about three times lQnger than
basal and bearing two or three set on outer lateral surface. Joint
3 quite long-quite twice the length of fourth. Distal joint short,
terminating in a single seta.
Received by the Division of Entomology at Washington from Dr.
F. Noack, Instituto Agronomico, Campinas, Estado de S. Paulo, Brazil,
on leaves of a myrtaceous plant, March 30, 1898, and again from Dr.
Noack, on same plant, June 14, 1898. The writer has also received
specimens of this insect from Prof. T. D. A. Cockerell, to whom they
had been sent by Dr. Noack. The adults are unique, in the, genus
Aleurdicus, from the more or less circular spots on the wings. Div.
Ent., Nos. 8010 and 8115. Type pupa-case, 8010, described from nine
specimens, and specimens on leaf, trom Professor Cockerell. Type,
adult 9 8115, described from two specimens.
4. Aleurodicus (Aleurodes) cocois Curtis.
(iard. Chron., 1846, p. 284. A good description by Riley and Howard, with fig-
ures, )ccurs inl Insect Life, Vol. V (1893), p. 314. On cocoanut tres, in Bar-
bados and D)emerar; on guava, Isle of Trinidad; on guava, Caracas, Vene-
zuela; on guava, Para, Brazil.
5. Aleurodicus dugesii Cockerell.
Can. Ent., vol. 28 (1896), p. 302. On Hi roaBeonia, ad other
plants, I ianajuato, Mexico.
6. Aleurodicus iridescens Cockerell.
Isyche, vol. 8, no. 266, p. 226.








7. Aleurodicus minima n. sp. (Plate VI, figure 68--67.)
pa-case.-Size about 1.17 by 0.71 mm., subelliptical, many speci-
ens are somewhat narrowed cephalad. Case usually widest across
egion of second abdominal segment. Color yellowish, varying to
rownish. Empty case semi-transparent, except for the irregular
rown coloration on margin, and at the dorsal pores. Margins
lightly crenulated, with very shallow indentures between the lateral
tubes. There is no marginal im. Just within the margin all
ou, is a closely set row of short disk-like tubercles or papille,
rom which is produced a fringe of almost straight, tapering, glassy
axen rods from one-third to one-half as long as pupa-case is wide
the more central dorsal region a light mealy waxen exudation may
cur. Pupa-case slightly raised from surface of leaf by vertical
rnge of wax, which usually remains attached to leaf on removal of
riespecimens. On the dorsum, nearer the margin n center, is a
o on each side of seven round and well-defined compound pores.
nsidered transversely, these ocur in pairs; a pair on cephalic seg-
mnt; a pair on metathorax; three pairs along the abdominal segments,
d two pairs in the region latero-caudad of the vasiform orifice. The
adal pair is somewhat the largest, with the cephalic pair next in
e; the rest are subelual. These pores, individually, consist of a
lndrical, brownish-colored rim with a central, white, rod-like struc-
On cephali margin of case is a pair of set and a pair on the
do-lateral regon, a seta on each side. There is a pair of small,
erdset t within caudal margin. Around the margin, just
thin the submarginal series of papille, is a row of small tubercled
ete, usually from 24 to 28 in all.
asiform orifice el ate-cordate; about three-fourths as broad as
ng; cephalic margin straight, caudal end bluntly rounded. Oper-
uu, subelliptical, cephalic margin straight, about one-third as long
ce. Lingula usual, broad, extending quite to caudal end of
rifice, bring two pairs of set distally. On ventral surface, rudi-
mentary feet and ntenrnm quite distinct.
Adult .-Length, about 0.86 mm.; fore-wing, 1.1 by 0.52 mm.;
e h of hind tarsus, 0.21 mm.; length of hind tibia, 0.38 i.; length
f hin femur, 0. mm.; color, yellowish white, with dorsum of thorax
rownish. Eyes reddish, undivided, though with a pronounced con-
Joint 1 of antene short, not one-half the length of second.
oint 2, narrow at base, truncate at dist end, widest centrally. oint
Slong, longer than remaining joints together, distal joint ending in
an attenuated process, earing terminal set. Anterior tarsus about
ree- hlength of posterior. Distal tarsal joint of first pair legs
two-tirds length of distal joint of mentum. Wings slightly clouded
around margin and with a very dilute oblique transverse band centrally;
t fork of distal branch of vein is a pronounced spot of brownish-black
iA8~lll~o tfi a;;~"'""' '"""""li;w~' ;i~i





48

coloration, otherwise wings without spots. Margins of wings and th
veins somewhat yellowish. Genitalia quite short for this genus; valves
short and stout.
Adult 9.-Unknown.v
This species approaches in some particulars quite close to Cocker-
ell's 'iridccenx, but it is much smaller, and the pupa-case differs in
several particulars. It is quite similar also to Shimer's asarum is. His
description is so meager that it will hardly be possible to locate his
species unless, peradventure, the type has been preserved.
Specimens received by the Division of Entomology at Washington,
January 28, 1889, on Guayaba," from A. Buisck, Bayamon, Puerto
Rico. Mr. Pergande remarks that quite a large number of the insects
(pupae ?) had been killed by a very curious fungus. Div. Ent., No. 8422.
Pupa-case described from numerous specimens; adult & from two
specimens.
8. Aleurodicus mirabilis Cockerell.
Psyche, vol. 8, No. 266, p. 226; also Psyche, vol. 8, No. 277, p. 360. On a plant
called "laurel," at Boca del Lestumacinta, Tabasco, Mexico; also on Anona,
Minatitlan, Mexico.
9. Aleurodicus ornatus Cockerell.
Ent. Mo. Mag., 1893, p. 105. On Capsicum, Kingston, Jamaica.
10. Aleurodicus (Aleurodes) pulvinata Maskell.
Trans. N. Z. Inst., 1895, p. 439. On Jatropa sp., Trinidad.
Psyche, vol. 8, No. 266, p. 226.

















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HIX; iiiliiiiZi:;i";;i";;; """r "iEi:
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I




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il;r,,,, ,, ,,,,,,,,,,,i(-~,,II,;;~,,r ,,r b;




























EXPLANATION OF PLATE I.

Alerodes abnormis.
1. Pupa-case.
2. Diagram of cross section of pupa-case, to illustrate the downward and in
curved marginal rim.
3. Fore-wing of adult.
Aleurodes acacix.
4. Pupa-case. ,
5. Egg.
6. Vasiform orific operculum, and lingla of pupa-case
7. Portion of marginal rim of pupa-case.

Aleurodes altissima.
8. Pupa-case.
9. Portion of margin of pupa-case. .
10. Vasiform orifice, operculum, and lingula of pupa-e.
11. A compound poare, from dorsum of pupa-case.
12. Circle of pores, and rotate figure on dorsum of pupa-ase.
50









Tech. Series No 8, Div. of Entomoiogy, Dept. of Agriculture. PLATE I.
,* /
















0









































0
_o o _ "i i







9 11 12







SALURODID QUAINTANCE.


























EXPLANATION OF PLATE II.

Aleurodes coronata.
13. Pupa-case.
14. Portion of margin of pupa-case.
15. Vasiform orifice of pupa-case.
Aleurodes fitchi.
16. Pupa-case.
17. Fore-wing of adult.
18. Vasiform orifice, operculum, and lingula of pupa-case.
19. Portion of margin of pupa-case.
Aleurodes floridensis.
20. Pupa-case.
21. Portion of margin of pupa-case.
22. Vasiform orifice, operculum, and lingula of pupa-case.
Aleurodes incospicua.
23. Pupa-case.
24. Vasiform orifice, operculum, and lingula of pupa-case.
25. Portion of margin of pupa-case.
52







Tech. Series No. 8, Div. of Entomology, Dept. of Agriculture. PLATE II,











... .. 14













-0
I I-
















_18 1---








321








^ y 24Y
I 20 17T
























19,

AU0




ALEURODID- QUAINTANCE.






























EXPLANATION OF PLATE III.

Aleurodes nephrolepidis.
26. Pupa-case.
27. Portion of margin of pupa-ease.
28. Fore-wing of adult.
29. Vasiform orifice, operculum, and lingula of pupa-case.
30. Egg.
Aleurodes plumosa.
31. Pupa-case.
32. Vasiform orifice, and operculum of pupa-case.
33. Portion of margin of pupa-case.

Aleurodes pergandei.
34. Pupa-case.
35. Portion of margin of pupa-case.
36. Vasiform orifice, operculum, and lingula of pupa-case.
37. Fore-wing of adult.
54
-s '"



I : "1 i;~~,,,i;~ ~lo, I:







Tech. Series No. 8, Div of Entomology, Dept. of Agiculture. PLATE III.











28






030











32 33
v y -^j \ 1 --

















I 36
35




34


A EoI -37



ALEURODIDA--QUAINTAANCE.






























EXPLANATION OF PLATE IV.

Aleurodes persex.
38. Pupa-case.
39. Vasiform orifice, operculum, and lingula of pupa-case.
40. Portion of margin of pupa-case.

Akurodes quercmu-aquatice.
41. Pupa-case.
42. Portion of margin of pupa-case.
43. Outline of vasiform orifice, with the surrounding fluted rim.
44. Fore-wing of adult.
Aleurodes spiraoides.
45. Pupa-case.
46. Portion of margin of pupa-case.
47. VYaiforn orifice, operculum. and lingula of pupa-case.
48. Fore-wing of adult.
49. Hind-wing of adult.
56











i.
I^-








Tech. Series No. 8, Div. of Entomology, Dept. of Agriculture. PLATE IV,





























/ a.
- - - - - -













0 o










63 o











662





ALEURODIDAE-QUAINTANCE.





























EXPLANATION OF PLATE V.

Aleurodes tracheifer.
50. Pupa-case.
51. Portion of margin of pupa-case.
52. Vasiform orifice, operculum, and lingula of pupa-case with the surrounding rim,
and spines.
Aleurodes variabilis.
53. Pupa-case.
54. Fore-wing of adult.
55. Vasiform orifice, operculum, and lingula of pupa-case.
Aleurodes rittat.
56. Pupa-case.
57. Vasiform orifice, operculum, and lingula of pupa-case.
58. Portion of margin of pupa-case.
58







Tech. Series No. 8, Div. of Entomology, Dept. of Agriculture. PLATE V














52


50









o054



00

53






oo





57 5
56



ALEURODIDa QUAINTANCE.
I~ I /: rr































EXPLANATION OF PLATE VI.

Aleurodicus cockerelli.
59. Pupa-case.
60. Fore-wing of adult.
61. Vasiform orifice, operculum, and lingula of pupa-case.
62. Portion of margin of pupa-case.

Aleurodicu minima.
63. Pupa-case.
64. Fore-wing of adult.
65. Vasiform orifice, operculum, and lingula of pupa-case.
66. A compound pore from dorsum of pupa-case.
67. Portion of margin of pupa-case.
60























r";;,"; ;,~ rAi









Tech. Series No. 8, Div. of Entomology, Dept of Agriculture. PLATE VI.


















40


38-






43'










44



























ALEURODIDAE-QUAINTANCE.
41

42










46





45 4






ALEURODIDIE- QUAINTANCEF.






















:i;,I~~ .;;P. ;;'*iiili ''." "'*;'"'= ''lv l : ^ '


i" "s" ./ iii ", ":


I . .. / '^ jJ *.,::'
* ' ' ' ': -

""^^ """" ^ ''

'~ ~ ~~~~~~~~~~a~ .*.i '' /'''"'* 's|s

" ^ "'o* s ss ''

: i '' ". .
'^* ' _,*..i. '

EXLNTO OF PLATE VII '*-**.

68. Alwodesaccide. ***_
69. ~~~~~ ~ ~- Alurds oont. ''* '"











".' *- '-'" "s l' P



~" " ^ ^ ""I

^ .. * *"*.'r







s-. ll """ 1~ -^ii~ z """ ."


' .*s^ 'S ,.,,, ^
' .J ; l ,t









Tech. Series No. 8, Div. of Eraomoiog, D,pt, of Aginculture, PLATL VII.





























ri :8 t~
W..



















Nr












.r.. i 7
ZO ;WS



ell

















AL-UOID,7- UANANE






























EXPLAATIO OF PATEVII
72.l Aleurodes pegnd
73. Aleuoden trcheifer
74.I Aleuode spiriSeoides.
64"' ~ ' i,, ;~B~.E





~ a ; E ;:~i :l~i;,9









ss4



;4







Tech. Series No. 8, Div. of Ent logy, Dept of Agricultur. PLATE VIII.


















72






























74

ALEURODID -QUAINTANCE.









TE RE SPIDERSF THE UITED STATES.
(Tetranyckus and ;Stgmawus.)



By NATHrA BAxINK.



HISTORY.

The genus Tetranych was established in 1832 by Dufour for asmall
te found living gregariously on clumps of gorse. He noticed that
re was a milky whitish irregular web or mesh of threads upon
ich crawled tiny red objects, which, by the aid of a glass, he discov-
eed were mites. He kept specimens in
ottle and saw them produce a similar
b. Since then these creatures have
en known as "spinning mites." Simi-
Sites were known from the time of
nes, and one described by him as
r is considered identical
th ufour% form. These spinning
teswere found o a great variety of

lor, which, coupled with their different
bitat, led the naturalists of that day to
sider these forms as separate species.
adually, it was discovered that certain
cies were extremely variable in color,

overthrew the old classification, and
e then it has never been determined
hat was a species in this genus. The
bt two modern authorities workhig on,

Fmii. 1.-Ttra ihu is
t results. rtain rms of these mites larged (origiua i.
have caused considerble injury to plants.
ecially in greenhouses, and fro the red color of most uof th ,
ave been termed "red spiders." As some of the early awcounts con-

n applied indiscriminately to ll red spiders, both in Europe and
,2110 4 No. 8-15
rrs . ..........................
...... .....






66

this country. So it happens that throughout our economic literare
there occur accounts of Tetranych telarius without any consider-
ation as to whether the form mentioned was identical with the Euro-
pean species of that name. The first break from this custom was
made by Dr. Riley, who, in 1889, recognized that the form occurring
on oranges was different from T. telarius. In 1893 Professor Harvey
described a form found in greenhouses in Maine and New York as T.
b~lmaculatus. With these two exceptions Tetranychus telarius is still
considered responsible for all "red spider" damage. In 1877 Prof.
A. Targioni Tozzetti, in a paper on the mouth and feet of Tetrany-
chus, showed that the form known as T. socus differed from T. telarius
in the nature of the tarsal claws. In the latter, as in many other
forms, the claw is suddenly bent before the middle and the apical
part four-cleft; in T. socius the claw is less curved and simple. Simii-
lar differences obtain in certain of our species, as will be noticed
below. In Prof. A. Berlese's recent work, Acari Italiani, he draws
attention to a hitherto unused character, namely, the small projections
on the tip of the "thumb" of the palpus. These vary in number, size,
and shape, and, I believe, form good characters for the discrimination
of species.
STRUCTURE.
The mites are an order in the class Arachnida. In this order there -
have been various divisions, yet Tetranychus has always been kept in
association with certain other well-known forms, as Trombidw m, Bdella,
Eupode, Erythrceus, etc. This association or group of forms has
received various names, such as Trombididce and Prostigmatat. With
Ttranyckws. has been associated certain other genera to form a fam-
ily N-Ttranychidd;-the limits of which are uncertain, and according
to Canestrini (Pros. Acarofauna Ital.) can not be defined. But the
genus Tetranychts can be separated on fairly definite characters. They
are spinning mites; the body is ovate, roughly oblong, or pyriform;
clothed above with about 24 to 36 bristles, usually long, and arranged
somewhat roughly in four rows. The legs are never much longer
than the body. and the joints are never enlarged. The anterior third
of the body shows a slight constriction, which marks the division
of the body into cephalothorax and abdomen. On the underside
there is no division, but if the natural division is vertical (whieh
I think improbable) the third and fourth pairs of legs arise fro the
abdomen. The body is broadest at the base of the abdomen. The
ephlotorax i somewhat smicircular in outline. On each side a
half way and near the margin is an eye-spot, containing usually, pos-
sibly always, two ocelli. Some authors have figured but on ocellus
each side. The fore part of the cephalothorax incloses the mouth-
parts. Above, there is a plate about twice as long as broad, nd









broar bh ind tn in f it cn be retacited into the cephalo-
thorax. This plate is divided by a median
line r u; on each id below and toward the tip there arises a
long and slender Iurved stylet. This plate appears to be formed
by the union ning of the basal joints of the mandibles.



... ....... / t .











G.-T y : mandibula ate, dorsal and lateral views: a, plate; b, stylet; c, spina; 4r,
ptlps-highly magnified (original).
Bewthis plate is a rather large and conical rostrum, from each side of
Sof which arises a papus, each composed of five joints. The
ul te joint ends in a large claw; the last or "thumb" projects
little if any be this claw, and bears one or more projections or
" gers on i p or sides. In some species, perhaps all, the palpus
of the male has a short,
curved spine on the tip of
the upperide of the third
joint. The rostrum at tip
has a cylindrical projec-
tion rather enlarged at
the n, consisting of an
piece each side, which is ;
possibly the waxilla. The 1
opening between the two
is the moth. At the tip
oaf the bdomen on the Fl(. 3.-Tdramnglchs: eephalothoralx f11o11 aovt: a, palpus;
ventral surface is the anal b, mandibular plate:; c frontal bristl; d subtrontal bristle;
r, eyes-highly magnitied (original)
opening, often showing
from above at the tip of a median pointed projection. On the venter
slightly in front of the anal orifice is the genital opening. In the
female it is surrounded with variously curved stria-; in the male it
is much less conspicuous-a siple slit inlosing a rathr slender
curved penis. The vulva in the various forns aplpar so what
different, althougth on the same plan. utit the difftiunity of exa in-







68

ing these organs in a large series of specimens as well as in the various
species precludes the present possibility of using them for specific
distinction. I am inclined to believe that there is soe variation in
the form of the vulva, due to the condition of the specimen. The lines
and ridges are in a soft tissue, and so are liable to modification and
distortion.
There are four pairs of legs in the adult; in the young, as in the
young of most other mites: but three pairs are present. Each leg
consists of at least six joints, a coxa, more or less anchylosed to the
body; a small trochanter; a femur, the longest joint; a patella, about
one-half the length of the femur; a tibia, slightly longer than the
patella; a tarsus, longer than the tibia and tapering to a fine point.
The tarsus, near its tip, has a division more or less distinct, the small
terminal piece being called the onychium; from the tip of this arises
the claw, which is usually cleft into four slender parts, whence the
name of the genus-Tetranychus-four-claw. The first pair of legs is
the longest, though often scarcely longer than the fourth pair; the
second and third pairs are plainly shorter than the other two and sub-








Fro. 4.-Tetranychus: mouth parts, lateral and ventral views-highly magnified (original).
equal in length. On the ventral surface the basal limits of the coxw
are not well defined, but the coxae are rather widely separate.
The surface of the body is very finely and often regularly striate
mostly in a transverse manner. The hairs or bristles are minutely
serrate, those on the anterior part of body curve forward, those on
the posterior portion of body bend backward; the long ones on the
legs appear to stand nearly erect in life, and doubtless have some
sensory function.
There appears to be much uncertainty regarding the spinning appa-
ratus, and an examination of a large number of specimens does not
throw much light on the subject. Dujardin, Pagenstecher, and Don-
nadieu believed that the thread issued from the mouth or in its close
vicinity. I)ufour and IDug.s assert that it comes from the antl end of
the body. Claparede found some glands opening on the tips of the
palpi which he considered as silk glands. The thread is not produced
during the ordinary wanderings of the mite, but at certain tes
When mites first attack a leaf there are only a few scattered hre
lying close to the surface of the leaf, which are attached here and there








tothe leaf and to the he ites walkbout without using
tm. As the leaf s by loss of juices the th reads become more
separated t are and soe on the
we which to be n their wy Since the thread seems to be
of use at fsn the gin pl it may be that it issues
fromn the genital opening at about the time of oviposition.

HABITS.


the other portion of their
lines. They are sup-
posed to pass the winter
in the adult condition
under and among dead
leaves; in the spring
ascending trees and start-
ing new colo s. It is G. 5.-Tetranehu genital organs-highly magnified (origi-
qui nal).
quite probable that only
females hibernate; if t e females have not been fertilized the first
eggs they lay produce only males, which when adult will pair with
the females, and the latter will thenlay egg producing both sexes.
Various observations have been made on the rapidity of their increase.
The general re are that the female lays fro five to ten eggs per
day for a pero of eight to twelve days; the eggs hatch in about two
to seven days (three days is. probably the most common period); the
Syoung at first have but six
legs; after a few days they
-molt and have eight legs; two
more molts occur a few days
.part, and then hey are adult.
Their movements are ordi-
c "e narily slow, but when dis-
: i turbed they sometimes stir
Sfemr;quite rapidly. For the greater
patea; e, tibiaart of the tine thev rtemain in
o ne place sucking the juies
from the leaf. But migration
wholly dependent on food supply, since plants are
found snily ins n various parts and the mites are not abundant
anywhere. Althouh they spin threads they have never been oh-
served to hang by or limb up one. The thread is extremely ine and
not perceptible to the unaided eye. Yet a web or inesh of threads is
so dense as to form a tissue plainly visible at a considerable di stance.
The web i usually upon the under side of the leaf, attached here and
||







70

there to projecting hairs, veins, and the edges of the leaf. M
exuvivt of the mites are found entangled in this web, and certain
authors think that the mites molt while on the web, but such is cer-
tainly not always the case with all species. The mites usually show
a preference for the under side of the leaf, but in some cases they
are more abundant on the upper side. Occasionally in the spring they
attack the opening buds.

IMPORTANT AMERICAN BIBLIOGRAPHY
RILEY, C.V.-The six-spotted mite of the orange. -Insect Life, Vol. II.
Jan.-Feb., 1890, pp. 225-226, 1 fig.
RILEY, C.V.-The six-spotted mite of the orange.-Rept. of Entom.,
f. 1889, in Ann. Rept. U. S. Dept. Agric. 1889 (1890), pp.
340-345, 1 plate.
HARVEY, F. L.-The two-spotted mite.-Ann. Rept. Maine Agric.
Exp. Sta. f. 1892 (1893), pp. 133-144, 1 plate.
PERKINS, G. H.-Report of the Entomologist.-10th Ann. Rept. Vt.
Agric. Exp. Sta., 1896-97 (1897), pp 75-86, 1 plate.
MORGAN, H. A.-Observations on the cotton mite.-Bul. No. 48, La.
Agric. Exp. Sta., 1897, pp. 130-135.

TETRANYCHIDE.
As previously indicated, this family includes a number of genera;
only a few of them, however, are known as "red spiders." But two
genera have been observed in material collected in this country as red
spiders. These two genera are abundantly distinct in many points.
In Tetranyc tus the body is subpyriform, in Stigmws elongate and
subcylindric, in the former with many long, stiff bristles, in the latter
provided with only a few short hairs.
Tetranychus Dufour. Ann. Sci. Nat., XXV, 274, (1832).
Diitimlats Donnadieu. Rech. Hist. Tetran., (1875).
Phitomtpes Donnadien. Rech. Hist. Tetran., (1875).
HIeterouychi s Can. et Fanz. Acari Ital., (1877).
Olig* ychus Berlese. Acari dann. piante coltiv., (1886).
The principal characters lie in the general shape of the body eclothed
with bristles, with simple, moderate legs-with mandibles haing the
bases flattened and united in a retractile plate, with distal joints ex-
trenely long and slender, and With a palpus having the penultiate
joint ending in a claw, while the last joint forms ia "thumb"
one or Imore "fingers."
Our species as far as known may be tabulated as follows:
1. Bristles of body arise from prominent tuberles ............--..................------ 2
Bristles of dy do not arise from tubereles. .....------------.......--..
2. Lgs of average length, apparently two claws at tip of each tars..
Legs very slender, one claw, four-cleft beyond the miiddle .-------------- -
J;s~









3.law, which is only slightly curved and simple, leg rather
sh ort ---------------------------- .- ..--------------------------- ------..-- 4
s with but one claw, which is strongly bet near it middle and beyond
is four-eleft --------------------------------------------------------------- 5
4. A plate or laell t inner base of thumb, te thumb with several fine hair on

No such plate or lamella, tip of thub with three finge.----.......modt
5. But one finger on tip of thumb, and one towardthe baseon the upperside... 6
Three fingers o l tip of the thumb 7
6. The finger at tip of thumb is very stout,almostasbroad at baseas is thethumh
at the tip plpi rather t................ .. ........... .. .
The finer at tip of thumb s much more slender ..-........-..........---------- imaas
7. Seen in side view thower finger appeathe largest, not yellowish, with six
dark spot --..............................................-------------------telars
Seen in side view the iddl appears the largest...................... 8
8. Yellowish, with six dark spots, on orange.....--.................... eeat
Not so marked..--..---..................--------.................................... 9
9. andibular plate tapers considerably toward the tip; on desert plants. des'rior iI
Mandibular plate less tapering; n cotton--- ---------------.......ri
Tetranychus mytilaspidis Riley.
Riley.-Hubbard, Orange Insects (1885), p. 216.
Rather lager than mot species; body quite broad behind; bristles
stout, each arising frm a prominent tubercle; the subfrontal pair are
very long, more than twice (nearly three times) longer than frontal
pair and farther apart; they have the usual arrange-
ment. The palpi are short and stout, the last joint very
short, Wi hort thumb, upon which is a rather clavate
finger, a sm er finger near base on the upper side, and
a hair at the upper tip. The mandibular plate is broad,
broadly rounded at tip, scarcely earginate in the mid-
r-c-.. o, 7.-- -- y--









die, with the st beneath. Legs rather short, bristles ,
not ese y ong; the femur of leg I is longer than d:i 1aw1
fulltwice the length of the patella; tibia I only a
little longer than patella. The tarsus terminates in a
c. which, sn from below, appears simple; seen from the ide.
shows two claws, the princip&a one but little curved, the other much
more curved and arising (apparently) from blow and near the middle
of the principal one these two laws appear to lie in the saie plane.


This species is a true not a ,/Jx.I It is
closely related to the Europea & Sp cimens come
from several parts of Florida on orange and on LI;mwidu tr;00/at,
on each from ille, (. Riley states that r are
three claws, and Berlese figures the European T. oi s with the lower
left; but n careful observationI n ot discern any to
thelower claw in the many speciens exained, some of hich are
evidently Riley's types. Little is known of the habits of this species.
~~a ~ ~~ 1~ "~ I~~lx; ib$JIOa$ ach m4t







72 ,

Hubbard believed that it fed on scale insects or their eggs. It is
undoubtedly a Tetran ycJuh, and probably feeds, like the other species
of the genus, on plant juices. Hubbard says (Orange Insects, p. 83):
"The eggs are sherry-brown color, quite large and globular, and are
usually deposited singly upon the leaf or strung like amber beads
upon strands of spider's silk, which harbor the mites and their young."
Tetranychus gracilipes n. sp.
Body with the usual bristles stouter than in most of the species,
the lateral ones extending more outwardly than usual; all are situated
on the elevated tubercles. Body a little broader than usual. The
beak is more elongate than in any other species, which is also the case
with the palpi, which are rather closely applied to the beak, the last
joint very slender, ending in a stout claw; thumb stout, truncate,
with one finger. The legs are slender, especially the first pair, which
is much longer than the body; femur I fully five times as long as broad;
on the joints above, toward the tip, is a stout bristle-like spine; very
few other bristles on legs except close to the tip of tarsus. The claw is
at first simple, strongly bent near the middle, and then four cleft
(similar to T. bimaculatus). The mandibular plate is longer and more
slender than usual, tapering slightly to the tip, where it is broadly
rounded, and apparently without a median notch. '
Phcenix, Ariz. Prof. Cockerell found this on the leaves of a species
of Sphteralcea. The leaf bears stellate hairs, to which the mite has a
deceptive resemblance.
Tetranychus bicolor Banks.
Tetranychus bicolor Banks.--Trans. Amer. Ent. Soc., 1894, p. 218.
Body mostly red, often pale in front, and with some dark marks
each side on abdomen; legs pale yellowish; eyes red; bristles white.
Body ( ) rather broader than usual, the legs plainly
shorter than in most of the species; cephalothorax and
abdomen with bristles in the usual positions and of
ordinary length; mandibular plate broad, scarcely taper-
ing toward tip, which is broadly rounded and usually
FIo. s.- Tetrany- distinctly emarginate in the middle. Palpi short, male
cfhs, biootor: with a tooth above on inner tip of tibia; the thumb has
claws, enlarged ".
(orignal) several fine hairs on its tip (but indistinct); the claw is
thick and much curved, and at inner base of thumb
there is a thin plate or lamella (not seen in any other species). The
tarsus is short; there is but one claw, which is long, curved y
toward the tip, and not cleft.
The typical specimens were found on the pper side of chestnut and
oak leaves in the woods near Sea Cliff, N. Y.Other specimens have
been seen from oak at WVashington, D. C., and from Geneva, N. Y.,
on a Norway spruce hede.









Tetranychus modeatua n. sp.
Head, palpi, an dy yellowish, with quite
large b1lackish irregular spots across middle of thorax, a large lateral
spot in of of legs, a b irregular order around
end of bod. Body rather more elongate than usual bristles in the
Usual arrane ient legs short; femur I fuilly twice as long as broad:
tibia I only a itrifle ger than patella I trsus short, en in a long,
simple claw, curved only toward tip, in all respects like that of T
i Madibular plate of moderate length, not much narrowed
toward tip. which is road ronded. Palpi short, thumb not as long
as claw, with three nearly equal fingers on the tip; there is no plate or
lamella. On ach side of the anal opening there is a pair of fine hairs.
Found in August at Washington, D. C., causing a rust-like appear-
ance on he bof corn. Closy allied to the preceding, but
distinct by characters of palpi.
Tetranychus tumiu n. sp.
Dark red ad somewhat pruiose, marked across the thorax with a
dusk and, terminating each side in a rather large dusky spot, a
similar spot oeach side near end of body; in some
specimen there is ain additional spot each side between
the two;eg and mouth parts pale reddish. Young
specimes are paler, with spots more distinct and con--
fluent. Eggs are pale red. Body moderately broad;
bristles rather oger than sual, quite stout, all in the 9,.-Tl ran-
Usual arrangemet. subfrontal pair not twice as long *hs tind udi
S palpus-enlarged
as the frontal pair. Palpi of averae length, thumb is
tn a shtipri
short and stout, on its tip is a large short cylindrical
finger whose base is not much smaller than the tip of thumb, at the
inner upper corner is a short hair, and on the upper side near base
is a slender finger. Mandibular plate about twice as long asbroad
narrowed toward tip, the sides efore tip sightly con brad
rounded at tip, with a small yet distinct emargination in the middle.
gs moderate; femur I fully twice as longas broad, tibia 1 plainl
longer than patella; tarsus of moderate length, terminating ill claw
which is strongly bent near middle and four-ceft beyond.
Collected at Eustis, Fla., on the leaves of water-hyacinth, by I. J.
Webber. It is closely allied to 7 T.im celatsa, Harv.. but distinguished
by the very lare finger o the tip of thumb.
Tetranychus bimaculatus Harvey.
TeIraychus hi latu Harvey.-Ann. Rept. Me. Agri. Exp. Sta. f. 1.42 (1S93)
p.133, P II.
There are several styles of coloration, one is pale greenish yellow,
with a large group of blackish dots each side on base of adomen,.
sometimes a median group of dots; another style is dark crimson red,
black spots along e side of the y legs and hais ple red
,,i~iO"'~~4







74

dish, almost colorles. Body broadest at shoulders, tapeng hind;
bristles long and fine, in the usual arngement, subfrontal pair not
twice as long as frontal pair. Thumb of papus rather long; on its tip is
a cylindrical finger; on its upper corner is a hair, and on the upper side
toward base is a small finger; in male above on inner tip of tibia of pal-
pus is a spine or spur. Mandibular plate about twice as long as broad,
tapering forward, broadly rounded at tip, with a small although
distinct notch in the middle. Legs of moderate length,
femur I fully twice as long as broad, tibia a trifle longer
than patella, tarsus rather slender, terminating in a
claw which is suddenly and strongly bent near the mid-
die and four-cleft beyond.
It is quite probable that this species is the one called
by Boisduval (Entom. Horticole, p. 84) Tetrany
FIG. 10.- Tetrany- ecuCtneri8, but the descriptions of that author in this
chlisabimeacuataus: genus are useless for identification. Quite possibly
palpus-enlarged
(original). several of his names apply to this species. The forms
found in the greenhouse do not appear to differ from
those on garden vegetables and horticultural plants. It appears to be
abundant all through the Eastern States and in several localities in the
West. Specimens have been studied from Orono, Me., on various
greenhouse plants; from Washington, D. C., on violets in grenhouse,
on peach (curling the leaves), on Datura, on squash, on corn, and on
strawberry; from Punta Gorda and Key Largo, Fla., on eggplant; on
watermelon from Eustis, Fla.; on beans at Auburn, Ala.; and on roses
from Weiser, Idaho. Professor Harvey records it from greenhouses
in Ithaca, N. Y., New York City, and Westgrove, Pa.
The color and size are extremely variable. Yet in a
lot from one plant and one region the adults are usually
of one coloration and one size. Other lots from other
localities have a much different appearance, but when
mounted and examined do not disclose any structural
difference. The specimens from Florida and those on
Datura and violets from Washington, D. C., are red;
4F FIG. 11.-T 'ray-
those from Orono, Me., on squash and peaches from cus m
the District of Columlbia, and on rose from Idaho are oag: caws-en-
Iilarged (origi-
greenish, more or less marked with dark. The speci- na).
mncus from squash and IDatur had made a considerable
amount of web, much more than those on greenhouse plants.
This species has, more than any other, stood for the "red spi e,"
T7rfnychu r telardhiu. Harvey remarks that specimens sent to hi as
the gnwnine "red spider" did not differ structurally from his secies.









carua telarius Linn.-Fn. 'Suee., 481, No. 1.974. (1761).

Color variable, often yellowish green, with black spots at sides of
body, andsoeties at tip; legs pale, eyes red. Body rather broad
in Y, considerably tapering behind in the S. Bristles in the usual
in*" us
arrangement,' the frontal and subfrontal pair as near the front m1argin
s in other species (erlese figures them much
farther ), sub tal pair twice as long as
rontal. The palpi are quite prominent, the
male ha i spr a e o tip of the tibia, the
thumb bears o its tip three fingers; seen from
the side the lower one is plainly larger than
ersthose nearthe he claw. The man-
dibular plate is about twice as broad,
notnmuc tapering toward tip, broadly rounded
at tip, wi a faint median notch; the
stylet is split nearly to plate. The legs are
moderately lon; I over twice as long
as broad; tb I plainly lger than patella 1; Ia. 12.- Tfrnanias tri

bent near middle and four-cleft beyond I a
not certain that this is the European species, but it has the characters
of el and does not differ, so far as I can see, from a specimen
oItaly. The legs are a trifle more slender than in
our other ces Specimens have been studied from Melrose High-




Teraex dau Riley.-Inect fe, ol. II, 225.
Pale greenish-yellow, with six usually large dusky patches above.
three oneach si; legs and palpi pale. Palpi of moderate length:; in
m ~ale with a spur above on inner tip of tibia. The thumb is quite stout
and bears on its tip three fingers, of which the middle





a shorter than in T. telairitm, the tibia plainly longer than
argeorii- patella I; trsus I shorter than usual, the claw strongly
a'.bent near middle and four-left beyond.

marked San Diego, (al, on ornuv. This species appears to be sual lei
~i~l~Pl~l~~ilill~l~:~ ~ ~ i ~i~~i~'







76

than the other species of this group. It has at times been extremely
abundant and an orange pest of much importance. An articleon the
species from an economic view is found in the Report of the Ento-
mologist for 1889. They occur on the under surface of the leaves; the
eggs are colorless or pale greenish-yellow
Tetranychus desertorum n. sp.
Dark red, with black spots along each side, and a central spot before
the middle; legs pale. Body quite broad, with the usual bristles, the
frontal pair about one-half as long as the sub-
frontal. The palpi are longer than usual;
there is a spur on the tibia of male as usual;
the thumb not as long as claw and with three
slender fingers on the tip, the middle one (seen
from the side) is the largest. The mandibular
plate is long and slender, narrowed toward
tip; at middle of tip a small but distinct deep
notch; stylet below the plate appears to be
cleft only for a short distance. The legs are
quite stout, the femur I more than twice as
long as broad; tibia I plainly longer than
patella I; tarsus slender, ending in a Olaw,
IG, 14.-etraenycusdes etor~m: which is strongly bent near middle and four-
palpus and mandibular plate-
enlarged (original). cleft beyond.
Specimens come from Mesilla Park, N. Mex.,
on Larrea tridenttat and Phacelia cremnuata. It is- closely allied to the
other species of this group, but the plate is more tapering than usual.
Tetranychus gloveri n. sp.
Red, with irregular dark confluent spots each side of body; legs
yellowish. The body, though broad at the shoulders, tapers behind
even in the female; bristles long and
fine, the subfrontal pair more than twice
the length of the frontal pair; all in the
usual arrangement. The palpi are of
average length, the thumb not so long
as claw; on its tip are three fingers, the
median one (seen from the side) plainly
larger than the others. The mandibular
plate is rather broad, its sides concave Fr. 15.-ranyhsglr: paipu d
near the tip, and almost truncate, some- mandibular plate -enlarged (r
times apparently broadly, though not nal)..
deeply, emv rginate; the median notch is scarcely visible. The leg
are quite slender, femur I more than twice as long as broad; tibia I
plainly longer than patella I; tarsus quite long, endingin claw, which
is strongly bent near its middle and four-cleft beyond.









This species wa figured by Glover in his Cotton Insects, and has
been treated recently by Professor Morgan. Specimens have been

Stigm s Koh.-ebeiht des Archnidenystems, III, p. 53, 1842.
This genus differs from Tetrnychu in structure, but is closely
allied in habits the species living in colonies on leaves. The anterior
d more widely separated than in Tetrany-
chis more elongate and is usually more or less constricted
near the middle;there are no rows of long bristles above; the tarsus
en in laws, which in our species are deeply cleft. The
mandi in our spcies appear to be extremely long and styliform.
The palpi s to be simple, the last joint very slender. But one
spes hs bn rved in our country.
Stigmmus foridanus n. p.
Body elonga more than twice as lage as broad, blunt-pointed at
eacho cted somewhat before the middle, the posterior part
ra rrthan the anterior, constricted slightly between the III



* *
and IV legs, four short
curved bristles near apex,
oie on each anterior sit of
the posterior part and one
on each side near the apical

The legs are nshort and
stout, scarcely as long as
thewidt of body,the an-
terior pairs rather l nger

tarsusendsinapairofdou-
ble claws, the outer branch






longer and less c rved
than the inner branch.
Living in colonies upon
t he bases of the imbricated
leaves of the pineapple in
Florida. A speciesof con- F. e mot pr, and
siderable economic impor-
p0rtance owing to the fact that its punctures give certain destrictive
fungi access to the tisse of the leaf. In Au strIlia r Tron has
recorded a quite different mnite affecting the pineapples in that colony.
He claims that it often carries the spores of the fungous diseasv. Ile
calls the mnite TAr-onaw an.' Professor Itolfs has published'
t tile habits of this Stiueu miand the damage it leads to in Florida.
ueensland gric. r., 3 (1818), No. 6%, pp. 45. % -4.
Bul. No. 50) Fla. Agric. Exp. :ta., ay,1




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iINDEX OF GENERA AND SPECIES.



page. Page.
i es ..... ... ..................... 11 Aleurodes-Continued.
..bnormis............................... 17 rolfsii............. ...................... 36
butilonea ........... 18 ruborum................ .............. 36
aci....... .................. 19 spiraoides .............................. 3
pim ........ ....... ... 2 stellara ...o.............................
tisi i ................... ......... 20 tra he fer .................... .............. 3:
roint............................ 2 vaporariou ........................... 3
erbericola ......... ... 21 varieablis ................. ............ 3
itri ....- ......... .............. 22 nvinsoioides ............................. 41
kerelli ....... ... .........--------- 22 vittaCt ................................ 42
rni ..2d ................. 22 leurodius ....... ............. ......... 41
I ,ronata .. ..-,. .............. 22 a6dums ....................... ....... 41



S. ............ 2 u i ................ .. i..... .......
oriden is.............................. 2 irides ens ............................... 7
rbesii....... ..................... 27 ............. ................. 4
Im ipennis....... .................... 27 m irabilit ................................ I
elatinoss ............................. 27 ornatus ...... .....................
oya ----................- ...... 27 pulvin atas .................. ............ 7i
l t am iniola 28 t.... ...............................
orridus................................ 28 floridav m .............................. 76

ori- .-.-.- --- ---- ..-3 ..- iel-r .-- ---i n-7.5....---.. ... 7
ephrolepidis .......................... bill i t .. ......................... .. .. 7
icotia ............................... 31 de ertoru m .............................
ai I Irvus .................. ................ 31 glover l....... ........................... 7
ergandei .............................. 31 gracilid ................................ 73
persge .............. .................. 32 mlodestus ......................... -.... .
hliala-'noides; ............................ 3:3 111yt i laspidis ............................ 71
lumost ............ .................... 33 sexmaculltIis........... 7
yro e . .................- .......... 35 7li .. ..... ...
qiervis-aqu t ie, -------................ 15 tumlidu..i.....s 7
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