Citation
Methods of evaluating the macadamia nut for commercial use and the variation occurring among seedling plantings in Hawaii

Material Information

Title:
Methods of evaluating the macadamia nut for commercial use and the variation occurring among seedling plantings in Hawaii
Series Title:
Bulletin / Hawaii Agricultural Experiment Station ;
Creator:
Ripperton, J. C ( John Carson ), 1891-1960
Edwards, D. W ( Dorsey Wayne ), 1904-
Moltzau, R. H ( Ralph Hans Egede ), 1909-
Place of Publication:
Washington, D.C.
Publisher:
U.S. G.P.O.
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
26 p., [6] p. of plates : ill. ; 23 cm.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Macadamia nut -- Hawaii ( lcsh )
Genre:
Federal Government Publication ( MARCTGM )

Notes

Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references (p. 23-24).
General Note:
At head of title: Hawaii Agricultural Experiment Station, Honolulu, Hawaii. Under the supervision of the United States Department of agriculture and the University of Hawaii.
Statement of Responsibility:
by J.C. Ripperton, R.H. Moltzau and D.W. Edwards.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
This item is a work of the U.S. federal government and not subject to copyright pursuant to 17 U.S.C. §105.
Resource Identifier:
029611316 ( ALEPH )
16324638 ( OCLC )
Classification:
S52 .E1 no. 64-85 ( lcc )

Full Text

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No. 79
J.:





1W. -RALUATING MACADAMU


FOR COMMERCIAL USE

ARlATlON ,,f l,,,XURRING AMONG

PLANTINGS IN HAWAII




pea RMERTOK Mindot
U. Prhwjw Apkaltwid Aide

"d

P ROWARM Ju*Wr Chemist


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HAAHI -ARICUILTURAL- 7
auder the joint supeviion, of the Offiee ofE Exiraent tp t~f e~e and the University bf RE
Jaes T., Jardin, 'Chief, Off2ie ofn
D. L. Crawford,, President, Uni erst tofUvieSTATION STAFF
AS OF MAY 31, $937
AoMINISTRATIVE
O.' G -Magistad, Pli D.,Diebr
H. K. Hee, Junior Ad-ministrative Assistani. AONOMY: ' J. -M. Westgate, M. S., ,Consul tant -"-Horticulturist.
in Tropical Agrniculture. A.,...GofM
I, D. Whitney, .., AssicAgrono- -Harticulture.
mist. W. W. Jonies, Ph. .,AsP%
F. A. L Bowers, B. S., Prin. Agr. Aide. gist.
A. W. Burt, N. D. D., Prin. Agr. :J. Ei lcM. S. OeiizW
Aide., R. ff. Moltzau-, Prn .
E. Y. Hosaka, M. S.,-Asst. Biol. Aide. J. C. Thompiqon ,-B' Pw
M. Takiahashi, M. B., Asst. in Aide.
Algronomy. W. B. Storey, Be .3,&rAd0
ANML Hunig IRRIGATION:
L. A4. Henke, M S., Animal Hus- H. A. .Wadsworth, e s
bandman. --.Engineer and -Si 6yi
S. H. Work, Ph. D., Assoc. Animal MARKET1lfG:
Hfusbandman. F. Okuihura, B.AJ
G. nW. H. Goo,. s in Assistant.
Animal Husbandry. .O rzer, Be S'I
C. Misruraia., B. S., Farm 846 erin- J. Kanoshiro, 'Be .,, .&i'A
tendedt. .IASITOLOGY AivD-V,0LG,
BATERIOLOGf, PATHOLOGY, AND J. E. Alicata, Ph. D daioit
HISTOLOGY: C J. llarnre, Ph. DZooi
O-N_ Allen, Ph. D., Collaborator in Histologist.'
Bacteriology. -H.'G. Hansen, _Diti;Agtv
G. K. Parisi, Ph. D., Assoc. Plant H..J. Spencer, Be Ae t.B 6(
Pathologist. J. -S. Caceres, Collb
CHMITRY A1ND SOWS W Ordati, 87e-. Al
0. O. Mygistad, Ph. D.-,, Prip4. W shikawa., BeS-s. 8i4-,4
Chemist. T 6Hng, MeS. S8;Ade-,
E. M.; Bilge, Ph. DCollabo-ator, POUTY
indC~hemistry. C.M Bice, B. 8., olrhr00
L. A. Dean, Ph, D., he PChemist ran.,
D. W. Edwa~irds,, M. S., J. Chenmist Be A. Tower, M.
R. R. Thompson, B. S., Sci. Aide. Husbandman.
FOODS AND NUTRITION: F. L. Brown, 48t81 i~Carey D. Miller, M. S., Assoc. SUBSTATIONS:
Professor of Foods, and Nutrition. e R. K., Pahau, B4 1 S
N. P. Larsen, M. D., Collaborator., Kona Substationi A
Martha Potgieter, Ph. D., Assoc.] R." A. Lyman,- Be.) s 9l
Chemist. Haleaikala Sub$t*4
IIn cooperation with Territorial Board of Health. I Tn cooperation with TT S. TDenartment ot A avipniture Threaur 6t Tialoe i l h m






HAWAII AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION HONOLULU, HAWNAlI
Under the joint supervision of the
UNITED STATES DEPARTMIENTr( OF ttzIciLu11iE and the
-NIVESIY OF HIAWAII

BULLETIN No. 79

Washington, D. pil13



METHODS OF EVALUATING THIE MACADAMIA NUT
FOR COMMERCIAL USE AND THE VARIATION OCCURRING AMONG SEEDLING PLANTINGS IN
HAWAII




By~~~ f. CV I irI ION T Ie L! ~I II II Md I~ :U I'u.iiz 11r1I4tu 1 H/ .:11




I Jit~~~~4Aii1VtI 'I i I t T ~I iio ofN, t f~nd ~ili ln e'
0daITInad sUut c t I Ie tIIle fI,; I ii n) tict P21 m t 1S9 m it 11d of2 e v nsia t i l ILI tain ti em t jiiz i( e t( Sunra\ e 1 lt o 1 FA a"utd%- couiercial N saWid-e of0iaa d t litesiable pcitedC)S WC1e a e i t s alIc 0'111 the1( quahtywrat Withod thi Appendixdlr ntret

finveIactdapiia hbee rrowitn In I lwan. loaisate teeral orcharI ids sine te etm o paitsr, introd)ctio abou 1892-- (7.!Notilil~ adii 192 wa6 0 t vs In attemp-,t m fAde cII t rte nut1,11 f"rs cold.ercI use1 A1 satockcv p was fe andIh~IV size'(1 pelanig efre mad"eson" two 31ilas, Oas an Hoawd acii ithis- atmpe fohr te vrst havIe) madeI ilsaprecibepatns nmn oainso h eea
islands, Tepeent o latings comp(lris Sbout 800l acres conainting abou 60i~,000 trnees oste itel of chaeesthnr 15es hearsd Jn9 theifo ni coniii as th rotd vacuum-pachedTarticleyfor theorild


NVell anid to produce nuts of good quality.
The same general situ-ationl appears to exist in Queensland and New SothWaes Auistralia, where the mut, is imidigrenouis. Most of the crop comes from the native "bush" and the rarest bearing orchards
1 italieriumbers in prnh esrefer to Literature Cited, p. 23.
2_JS46l-






2 BULLETI-N 79, HAWAII EXPERIMENT STATION
are but a few acres in size. Certain varieties have been named by nurserymen there, but, as far as can be ascertained, these are not based on extensive tests as to bearing, adaptability, or nut quality.
The investigations of the Hawaii Agricultural Experiment Station here reported consisted of a study of methods of evaluating the macadamia nut from the standpoint of its use as a commercial article in a shelled and roasted form rather than as a table nut in the unshelled form. Such an approach appears justified for a number of reasons. The present trend in the nut trade is strongly in the direction of extracted kernels. Even the thinnest shelled macadamias, are difficult to ciack with ordinary instruments owing to the smooth surface and tough fibrous nature of the shell, while the thick-shelled nuts offer serious obstacles to anything short of commercial machinery. Further, the flavor of the macadamia is greatly enhanced by proper roasting or oil cooking and salting. The station' s investigations show that there is marked variation in kernel quality, and elimination of the inferior kernel is necessary to produce a uniform produc t. This is best accomplished in a commercial plant. Selection from this standpoint emphasizes the qualities of the extracted kernel which adapt it to processing as a roasted product rather than large size of nut or paper-thin shell, although these are not to be overlooked.
Using the methods developed by the station, nuts from the chief bearing orchards have been evaluated. Samples of nuts from individual trees have been tested for several crops. These show the extent to which seedling variation, climate, and type affect the nut characteristics. It is believed that these data, together with the methods of evaluation which have been developed, furnish a basis for an extensive study of the several thousand bearing seedling trees -of the Territory, looking toward the selection of varieties for top working and further planting material.
THE ROUGH-SHELL AND SMOOTH-SHELL TYPES OF MACADAMIA NUTS
There are two distinct types of macadamias in Hawaii, the roughshell type (Macadamia ternijolia) and the smooth-shell type (M. ternij~oiia var. integrifolia). Presumably both types were brought in from Australia where the macadamia is indigenous. The present investigation shows that they have marked differences in both vegetative and nut characteristics (pls. 1, 2, and 3). Table 1 gives a comparison of the two.
2 There is some quest ion as to whether the smooth-shell type should be classed as a separate species or &-, a variety of Mlacadamia ternifolia. For the present, and in this bulletin, the arbitrary term "type" is used instead of "species" or "variety."














Hawaii Agricultural Experimnent Station, 79 PLATE 1







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Hawaii Agricultural Experiment Station, Bull. 79 PLATE 2











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.. 4 ...







































Two ROUGH-SHELL TYPES OF MACADAMIA NUTS.
A,'l r~~l~e 1wt, ovoifd ill shape, Rioderate I thickness (i)f shell, and good size kernel; B3, undesirable t ypO, ('llijdI Icl viav adery t hick sli('ll. 'rlw roiigli-sli( ll iaca(,(laIIiia is characterized b~y aknobb~y snrf.aCC








Hawaii Agricultural Ex eriment Station. Bull. 79 PLATE 3








































1 )



























Two SMOOTH -SHELL-TYPE MACADAMIA NUTS, SHOWING THEIR GENERAL
SPHERICAL SHAPE AND SMOOTH-SHELL SURFACE AND GREAT VARIATION IN
THICKNESS OF SHELL.
The percentage of kernel in different trees ranges from 19 to 42. This type is generally considered superior to the rough-shell for a commercial roasted nut.








THE MACADAMIA NUT IN HAWAII 3

TABLE 1.-Tree and nut characteristics of the rough-shell and smooth-shell types of macadamia nut


It(rem Rough-shell type Smooth-shell type


Tree:
L aves ............ ..... Excessively spiny; young leaves Somewhat spiny, young leaves
pink to red in color, usually green, rarely pink.
Bark .. ...... ... Light gray with many lenticels. Dark gray with fewer lenticels.
Wood structur Weak, resulting in much splitting Fairly strong; much less splitting.
of branches.
Suseptibility to inwets Attacked by leaf rollers, mealy- Damage negligible except for leaf bugs, grasshoppers, aphids, and rollers.
nut borer.
Age of initial bearing d- 3 to 4 years .... .............-------------------... 4 to 6 years.
lings).
Unshelled nut:
Shape-...............-.. uvoi to elliptical -------------............... Usually spherical.
Shell surface ..... Knb .. ................ -------- Smooth.
Shell texture Tough, e--ar-, and fibrous ....------ More brittle.
Raw kernel:
Color -.............. ... Darker kernel; grayish hase ..-.- Clear, white kernel; usually lightcolored base.
Shrinkage --. Conside'Prable -. -----.........-- ..-- .. -- Usually small.
Texture ---Firm; not esl chippeI or bruised. Tender; easily chipped and bruised.
Quality ... ..... .. ...- Variable.. .. ..... Generally superior and more uniform.
Adhesion to shell .... Generally lu ns readily .. Often adheres. Roasted kernel:
Color )r................... D3ark brown Light golden.
Texture ..... ...... ..... Firm to hard ..... ...... Tender, crisp.
Flavor -----------------Pronounced, s: t, variable Delicate, mild, uniform.


While considerable differences exist within each type both as to tree and to nut characteristics, there is no difficulty in differentiating between the two. From the standpoint of a roasted product the differences are pronounced. In the raw state, the smooth-shell 'kernel
has a rather flat flavor and mealy texture while the rough-shell kernel has a somewhat pleasing sweetish flavor and firm texture. Upon
roasting, the smno6th-shell nut develops a light-brown color, crisp, tender texture, and a delightful mild nutty flavor, while the roughshell kernel darkens quickly and develops a somewhat burned variable flavor and harder texture. Public preference for the smooth-shell roasted nut is by no means universal, but because of the greater uniformity in quality and more desirable field characteristics, the present trend is toward the smooth-shell type.
While most of the commercial plantings are of the smooth-shell type, there is a sufficiency of the rough-shell, particularly in the Kona district, to necessitate its inclusion in this investigation.

METHODS OF EVALUATING MACADAMIA NUTS 3 INDIRECT METHODS OF DETERMINING THE OIL CONTENT

The oil content is of importance in evaluating a nut, not only because oil is the predominant constituent, but also because it serves as a criterion of other qualities. Chemical methods of determining the oil content of various products are laborious and time-consuming so that rapid indirect methods have been developed; for example, the refractive-index method of determining the oil content of flax (2) and avocados (1), and the Babcock method of estimating the oil in pecans
(5). Specific gravity as an indirect means of determining variations min
3 In the station investigation the nuts were brought to air-dry condition. This requires about 3 weeks in a dry, well-ventilated place. The air-dry moisture content of 3 to 4 percent permits cracking with a minimum of damage to the kernels.






4 'BI3JLLEIN ,I. HAWAII EXPERIMENT STATION

chemical composition and quality has been used with a variety of products, for example, to show the starch content of potatoes (4), and the sugar content and maturity of prunes (6).
SPECIFIC GRAVITY
The macadamia kernel lends itself well to specific-gravity measurement, a single nut being of sufficient size to permit individual deternination if desired.
The specific-gravity method, as finally perfected for the macadamia, was as follows: The kernel was suspended by forcing into it a fine steel wire of about 30 gage (Brown & Sharpe). To insure that there were no air spaces between the halves, the kernel was split and the halves were strung on the wire with the convex surface downward. The nmacadamia kernel is of such tender texture that the wire penetrates without difficulty and with a negligible rupturing of tissue. One end of the wire was bent into a hook and the nut was suspended on an ordinary analytical balance. It was weighed in air, and then immersed in ethyl alcohol of about 95 percent or any other convenient strength. Ethyl alcohol was found to be satisfactory for the purpose. Its specific gravity of 0.8092 (95 percent by volume at 25'/25' C.) is sufficiently less than that of the lightest macadamia kernel (about 0.9605) to permit accurate determinations. Imbibition or interaction of nut and alcohol is negligible as judged by the fact that the weight of the kernel remains practically constant during the time required for weighing in alcohol. The volume of that portion of the steel wire which is submerged is a constant factor and too slight to be of consequence. The specific gravity of the alcohol solution was checked at intervals during the tests and frequent measurements of temperatures were made for intermediate corrections.
The kernel, after specific-gravity determination, was wiped dry and placed in a stream of air at 60' to 70' C. for about 1 hour to remove the last traces of liquid adhering. The oil was then determined by ether extraction in a Soxhlet apparatus for 24 hours. The procedure finally adopted was as follows: The kernel was placed on a 7-cm filter paper and shaved very fine with a sharp knife or razor blade. The filter paper and contents were placed in an alundum thimble and extracted in a Soxhlet apparatus overnight. The kernel was then ground in an agate mortar. Sufficient oil had been extracted so that the material could be ground to a fine powder. It was then replaced in the filter paper and alundum thimble and extraction continued for the remainder of the 24-hour period. The oil was dried to constant weight at 1000.
Specific-gravity determination has many desirable features as a laboratory method. It is very rapid and requires no special laboratory equipment. The determination of the specific gravity of a single kernel is often of great advantage. The kernel can subsequently be used for determination of oil, sugars, roasting qualities, or any other properties that it is desired to measure. Use of the entire kernel for ether-extract determination simplifies the procedure 1d increases its accuracy since exact sampling of the ground kernel is exceedingly difficult.
'lable 2 gives the results of specific-gravity and ether-extract determinations on a series of 34 rough-shell and 60 smooth-shell kernels, the 1i11ts being Selected at randon fronm coinniercioll samiiiles.









THE A ADAmiAk _NT IN h-AWVAII 5


TABLE, 2.--I? lahin ttf Npccific graritly and ttl contentb 0(if macadmia nit kernels




Oil() ctn I content Oil ronltenIt


I )eva- 1hvia-Deviani, ~ icfi ac-lon of Iw(cifl Ilion1 of
Specifi (Xlc- ( 11- T Iarn V c~ a Ii~ a
FT i ro n I tT 'r r rthr fi lat

Sfr riri froi
cI ior hit hr tul ehor
e ~~ \ rau ,x: ray xt


Po r Pr Pe-P- Pe- e- e Pr- Pr
cent~~C iet (e! cn t en cen clit ce W
09 2 .23 .900 91 74( J. 271 lt io 21 1 I o4t,3 1 t62. i 0. 4*6
lj719 7t 7 3 7'1 Ilip 1.t I2h, !?,A. J 74.1 1 12t 1f6 ;2. 21 1 ;.9 -3 i764 7j. P-, 7'N 67 51 7 9 7 7. : 71 :i, 1 2 .oN;I i :iS 5. t 1 -1. 27
93783~ 7 6 1 2 T~ 22 2. 1o 4 946 741 A: I~ I 7I t. 1,49 G611 .39
.9 812 77- 63: 77 7$-1 103 71 7 1 ,1 1 1.)9 f 1. 1' .12
.29 78.71 f 7 7,14 -1. 16 1~oc 71 2415 .Th 1o3 9 ~ ~.3
9838-I 78.072' ti 71 -1, 12 1 '115 7ti 1 u3 9 1 59 5,9 94
9 7 7ll 127.7 ,1 .1it ~ ; 7i .4 1 o>7 2-2 11) 22 6 ,u
.9'73 761 7i,0 -1 01 1 129 .2 ;.I -61 1o3 54h 131 l5s
.99 1 74i. 7 7112 .5 ,44 27 711 3






1 964113 .3lj 8 .-7 4 ,1 0. 7 I 71 74 I il l 1 1 tl. J" c9. 13 0. t
.9:9 7%, 117 97 9 .97 52 4 9 I01 5 90 5
.9756 76. K, 7 7 ,32 141 7 75 :i 71 1il 17 69,0 1. 71 2N
9757 7T) 79j 77. 30 1. 1 .99 4 71 't7 -.2 ,096, 54 67 o2 1. 3,%
.78 7 32 7 7.27 -1.0 ($421 7 1 T7 77 ,2 1 012 1 fl o2 67.43 -5 9
.75 79,53 77, 12 -2.4 2 7 5 7~i 72 t11o2 t;, 69 67, 0i -.3 1
.4791 76.39 76l.5T,7 ,1 ll 02, 72 :11 7,1 66i .1 1.13 66 709 .2 .9793 77,9:3 76.5 -14lm5 :.::1 7i u -:3 1 Y2o 59 69
980 1 74,5' 2 7 6.3it 1.84 1,001 71 -It 71 7 :1 112 4 66. 72 668, .- 14 .98l02 77.5 76.34 I7 1,181t)17 72 1,11 71. 1 1 i29 6601 t)(2 65'. 97 -. 5
74,5 74.5 76.,2)s 1.731 1. 181 7. 6 1 7 1,4 1 1 1. 030 I1 66.012 65 73 -29
"9806 76. 37 76. 2 5 -12 1. I I3) 71 17 7 1 3 .2 1012!. 4 5 14 .1 .98s1 76.88- 7 6.04 -.84 1.0 7 71,3R1 71, 1 11.5 4.541 64. 581 .04
.9X24 74.39) 75x7 1.4 1 16 71.4 70 I ~ I 7I l~ I'71 6.8 61,24 .44
9828) 75. 12 75.-) 7,9 67 1. 00 W if k 71,9 71. t 8 t 25 11 IA3 62. 7 62. 93 3 6 .9K814 74. 13 75.6 1., 1.007 71.5 -12 107 6,10 62.o3 -1.0)2
Wit') 74. 60 7-5.62 1.(02 1..) C8 7V3 704 ~ 10 102 160.76 -.26
9S39 76. 39 7. 55 I4 1 .8 71, 42 70 12 1. It 1 I53 I,,:.~ 79 r I tt 67 ~8
9S,52 76,. (1 7),28 7:1 1. 0 70. 57 9 6 71 .04 6050 60. 5 4 06(q 9864 74. 1 19 7.0 2 j.I3 1 136 W9.4 Ill 2 -2 1.0740 -756.02 I.0 .3s


SE uazit io ns (1 a ind(i (2) 11ich aire thle I wst f)t t ing tiurxe of ic Jifiv grvi t I Ii tr Ixtr L(t (f theit rou Lgh-shell 4nd smooth-shtll tyjws, respectively (stec bel wl


The coefficieiits of cor-relation of specific gravity and percent oil,
Clalculated fr-om data in table 2, arl-e all folAlowN s:

Smooth-shell ty -pe-r= -0.979 0.005
Routgh-shell type-r=-0.985 0.005

The degree of correlation is sufficiently high to permit the uke of
the specific gravity as ta measure of the percentage of oil in macadamia
kernels. in figure 1 the best fitting curves which relate specific
gravity to percentage of oil are giv-en for the two types. The equations for these graphs are as follows:

(1) Smooth-shell type-y= -212.57x+ 284.70
(2) Rough-shell type--y=-238.35x+311.40

where y=the percent of oil in the kernel and x-the specific gravity
of the kernel.







6 BULLETIN 79, HAWAII EXPERIMENT STATION

REFRACTIVE INDEX

The method described by Coleman and Fellows (2) was used in determining the refractive index of macadamia kernels: A weighed amount of the material is ground in a mortar with a known amount of Halowax and the index of refraction of the liquid determined. By referring this value to a curve of the refractive indexes of varying proportions of ialowax and oil of the material being determined,
85


so, "


o
8 0
z




-SMOOTH-SHELL TYPE
o
0
ow 6 5




S60
z







50 0
I-IMOOH-SEL ROTYSELPTP

09 009





0.96 0.98 1.00 1.02 1.04 1.06 1.08 I.10 SPECIFIC GRAVITY OF KERNEL
FIGURE l.-Relation of specific gravity of macadamia kernels to ether extract.

the percent of oil in the Halowax is read off and the percent of oil in the original material calculated.
In the construction of this curve, oil was extracted from the smoothshell type of macadamia kernels with ethyl ether. The oil was dried in vacuo at about 600 C. and filtered through filter paper. Varying amounts of this oil were added to constant amounts of Halowax for refractive-index determination. The Halowax was measured with a pipette, the same pipette being used for all determinations both of the oil and of the kernel. To 5 ml of Halowax weighing 6.060.01 g weighed amounts of macadamia oil were added to provide a range of I) to 29 pteIcennt of oil ill the mixture. Ih refractive ill(eX was (leter-






THE MA'AI)AMIA NT IN HAWAII 7

mined in a water-jacketed Abbe-Zeiss refractometer, the temperature being maintained at 27.50 C. This refractometer permitted direct reading to the third decimal place, the fourth place being estimated. The degree of accuracy is correspondingly less than that possible with an instrument of narrower range as used by Coleman and Fellows.
The values for index of refraction (N,) are plotted against corresponding percents of oil in the Halowax-oil mixtures in figure 2. The equation for thle best fitting curve is (3) y =-497.11 -- 806.56 where y=the percent oil in the Halowax-oil mixtures and .r=N0, the index of refraction.
The curve in the above equation does not hold for all values of .r as proved by the fact that extrapolation of the equation to x- 1.4651, the index of refraction of pure macadamia-kernel oil gives values for y of 78 percent instead
of 100 percent, its true I
value. Within thelimits used, x=- 1.57 to 1.63, the true values of y z 30 follow the curve very C closely. '-*
-25
Using the relation- 5 ship given in equation z
(3), the applicability 2
of the refractive-index 3o method to determina- o tion of the oil content of macadamia kernel was next studied. Kernels of the smooth- X o
shell type were sepa- a rated by specific gray- ity into 7 samples, each o
.t i n to 7 ...... ........ .. ... ... ....... ............ .
containing 12 to 1 5
kernels. Each sample
was then finely y 0
chopped and thorough- 1.5750 1.5850 1.5950 1.6050 1.6150 1.6250 1.6350 ly mixed. Ether- INDEX OF REFRACTION
e x t ra c t determina- G,.RE 2.-index of refraction of mixtures of maeadania nut oil and Halowax in varying proportions.
tions were made as described under specific gravity. In determining the refractive index, 5 ml of Halowax were measured exactly as in the procedure described in the foregoing section and added to a weighed portion of the kernel in a small porcelain mortar. The mixture was then triturated with a pestle for about 10 minutes. A drop of liquid was withdrawn and the refractive index determined. Trituration was then continued until a constant reading resulted. For the final reading, a portion of the liquid was passed through filter paper. N, determinations were made in triplicate and ether extract in duplicate. The results are given in table 3.








8 BULLETIN 79, HAWAI I EXPERIMENT STATION


TABLE 3.-Comparison of percent of oil by refractive index method with percent ether extract in macadamia kernels

Proportion of oil in kernel

Index of re- Proportion Deviation
Weight of sample (grams) fraction at of oil in
275 C lalowax- Calculated Ehre- of calcu27.5 C. oil mixture from equa- Ethrext lated value tion I rc from ether
extract


Percent Percent Percent Percent
2.0473 ------------------------------------ 1.5899 21.438 80.77------------2.0403------------------------------------ 1.5902 21.325 80.55------------2.0022------------------------------------ 1.5909 20. 916 80. 10 77.26 -----Average -------------------------- ------------ ------------ 80.47 77.26 +3.21

2.1076------------------------------------- 1.5899 21.-428 78.45 -----------2.0464------------------------------------ 1.5907 21.019 78.85 73.76 -----2.0294------------------------------------ 1.5912 20.763 78.29 7-4.84 -----Average -------------------------- ------------ ------------ 78.53 74. 30 +4.23

2.1728------------------------------------ 1.5909 20.916 73.81 --------- -----------2.2027--------------------------------- 1. 5902 21. 274 74.38 71.28 -----2.2405---------------------------------------- 1. 5895 21. 632 74.70 70.41 -----Average -------------------------- ------------ ------------ 74.30 70.85 +3.45

2.0713------------------------------------ 1.5919 20.405 75.04------------2.1184 ----------------- ------------------- 1.5911 20.814 75.23 70.97--------2.2546 --------------------- --------------- 1. 5893 21. 734 74.68 71.27 -----Average -------------------------- ------------ ------------ 74.98 71.12 +3.86

2.1647------------------------------------ 1. 5918 20. 456 72.03------------2.0507------------------------------------ 1L5930 19.843 73.19 68.78 -----2.0273------------------------------------ 1.5936 19.536 72.61 66.87 -----Average------------------------------- --- ------------ 72.61 67.83 +4.78

2.0438 ------------------------------------ 1.5958 18.411 66.95------------2.1495 ---------------------------------- 1.5940 19. 332 67.60 66.12 -----2.3798---------------------------------- 1.5908 20.968 67.60 66.51 -----Average--------------------------- ----------- ------------ 67.38 66.32 +1.06

2.1546 -- - - - - 1.5961 18.258 62.86 - -- -
2.2618------------------------------------ 1.5949 18.871 62.35 61.23----------2.4903------------------------------------ 1.5917 20.507 62.81 61.03----------Average ---------------------------------------- 62.67 61.13 +1.54

1Equation (3) 1). 7.


Table 3 shows the results by the refractometer method to be consistently higher than those by thie ether-extract method, due probably to the solution of substances other thani oil wbichi affect the refractive index. The close agreement of triplicate results indicates that the refractive-index method of determining the oil content of macadamia nuts is essentially accurate if proper corrections of the curve are made. In fact, the differences between determinations are less in most instances than those by the ether-extract mnethod.
For the present purpose the refractometer method has little to C-otyifnl it as comlpaired with the specific-gravity method. It -is intich more cumbersome and requires relatively expensive equipment. Moreover, with the specific-gravity method, the kernels are unaffect-ed, so that direct correlation may be had with other characteristics such as chemical composition, roasting qualities, and the like.






'111E 21A(ADAMIA -NUT IN 11AWAIt 9

RIELATIO)N OF 8P-ECII CHAVITY TO TOTAL SUTGARS
Figur-e 3 shows the rehltionshil) of specific, graviNty to total suga-rIs inl a series of smlooth-shiell kernlels. )p~e ipezlr~ to be a definite positive corrlelaItionl of the two0 where01 the J)er-Cef1lue of sugar are highJ and1( the kernels "1re obvioulyI imia frc.4 The percentage of t o tal sugatrs, inl norm,111 mature kerels( vaies frotit about 3 to 5 percent. Withinl this range there Is, little corr-elationl.
RELATION OF SPECIFIC G[ZAVITY TO ROA.STIN(;G 01ALITIES
If kernlels, of varyilpg speCific gravtie are oas ted .5 therIe will be
tiotedl ta mlarkedl relationship Ibetweeli speific grvt Illd the~ ('ilaracter


01
.98 0- __ ___z


U,1.002 ...

0
-1.04



1.0 6 .- .... .... ...


1.08210
0 24 6 8 10 12 14 16
TOTAL SUGARS IN KERNEL (PERCENT)
1-];lR 13. elto ofttlugrsi mch i' kornch osi f rvly

of thle roasted product. Kevrll of h1igh -jpecilic- gra %ity acq uir-e a
(ltark-br-own color-, a str-onc 1crce.tsea(1 a ar or, toughrj Coi
sistenlcy. A t the other, extr-eme, the low specific-gravity kernels
develop a- light goldenl color, a mil1d nu1tty flalvor-, anld a crisp) texture. Specihfe gravity mnayN thuls be uIseM as, a basis for- roupling of 11aca(lalnia niuts,, accordingp to their adaptability to a conuner-cial roasted product.
A stuldy Was coniductedI to dleterin~e the relation of various specificravity gr-oups of kernels to roasting, (liI ties. Six water solutions were miade up of' the following specifics gravities: 1.100, 1.050, 1.025, 1.000 0.985, and 0.970. Sodlium chiloide wNas used to make the solutionis of specific gravity greater than unity while ethyl alcohol was used for the solutions of less than unity. The increments in specific 4 The term "mature" is used in this bulletin to mean kernels which are plump in appearance and show little shrinkag-e during curing. ',Immature" kernels are defined as those which are shriveled and show considerable shrinkage duirinlg curing.
5 The termi -roasted1" is used throughout this bulletin to indicate either oven roasting or oil cooking. Both mnethods were use.d. Fromn the standpoint of evaluating kernel quality, the two arc interchangeable.
268460-38-2






10 BULLETIN 79, HAWAII EXPERIMENT STATION

gravity were made smaller in the solutions less than unity because of the greater concentration of kernels of normal composition in this narrow range.
To divide a lot of kernels into specific-gravity groups, the kernels are first placed in the solution of specific gravity 1.000 and stirred vigorously to eliminate air bubbles. The kernels which float are skimmed off and the adhering solution removed by centrifuging. They are, then placed in the 0.985 solution. Those which sink obviously have a specific gravity between 1.000-0.985. In a similar manner the other separations are made so that a total of seven groups result from the six solutions, the heaviest group being that which sinks in the 1.100 solution, and the lightest that which floats on the 0.970 solution.
Table 4 shows the division into groups by this method and the relation of these groups to roasting qualities. The percentages of oil corresponding to these specific gravities were taken from the values given in figure 1.
TABLE 4.-Relation of specific gravity of sinooth-shell-type kernels to roasting qualities
Proportion
Specific of oil in Appearance of raw kernel Roasting qualities
gravity kernel

Percent
>1. 100 <50 Small size, shriveled base, hard or V ry dark color, unpleasant burnt tough texture, off color. flavor, hard texture.
1.100-1.050 50 -61.5 ----- do --------------------------------- Do.
1.0,%-1.025 61.5-67 ----- do --------------------------------- Do.
1.025-1.000 67 -72 Slight shriveling of base; variable in Somewhat dark in color, tendency to size and color. off flavors and spongy texture. Saleable, but distinctly inferior to lighter
nuts.
1.000-0.985 72 -715 Smooth base, plump, well filled, light Light golden color, mild nutty flavor, color. crisp texture, excellent.
0.985-0.970 75 -78.5 ----- do --------------------------------- Do.
<0. 970 >78.5 ----- do --------------------------------- Do.

Table 4 shows the best grades of kernels to be those of a specific gravity of 1.000 or less. The group 1.000-1.025 is variable in flavor and texture. Repeated tests of kernels of both types at different seasons of the year and from a number of localities have resulted in the placing of this group in a distinctly lower price class for use possibly in the baking or confectionery trade or as nut butter. Kernels with a specific gravity greater than 1.025 appear to have little value except for vegetable oil or nut butter. There is no perceptible difference in roasting qualities either as to flavor, texture, or color among the groups of specific gravity less than unity.
On this basis, all kernels of a specific gravity less than 1.000 are classed as grade 1; 1.000-1.025 as grade 2; and greater than 1.025 as culls. For practical purposes, it is thus possible to make all necessary separation with two solutions, namely 1.000 and 1.025 (pl. 4).
Ordinary tap water at normal room temperature is sufficiently pure for use in commercial grading. This abbreviated method is now being used commercially. It is more rapid and more accurate, than hand separation of poor-grade kernels on the basis of the darker color and shriveled appearance after cooking. The expanded grading systei-n is of valtie in the study of the differences in kernel quality *in nuts from individual trees.

















Hawaii Agricultural Experimeo-nt Station, Bull. 79 PLATE 4




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THE MACADAMIA NUT IN HAWAII 11

The rough-shell kernel conforms fairly well to the same division into grades. However, the differences in texture, color, and flavor between the rough and smooth types persist throughout all specific,ravity grades.
QUALITY-RATIO METHOD OF SCORING MACADAMIA NUTS
General standards have been set up for the grading of the more
(()iimon commercial nuts. These have to (1o with the size and appear:ane of the unshelled nut, the relative wholeness of the kernels upon extraction from the shell, the color, size, and plumpness of the kernel, and( its condition with respect to insect infestation (3, 8). These
-tandards have been set up largely from the standpoint of marketing the nut in the unshelled form.
The macadamia crop in Hawaii, coming as it does from seedlings, different types, numerous localities, and with great differences in cultural care, is subject to great fluctuation in nut characteristics. There is need for some method of evaluation of these qualities from lie standpoint of both commercial value and selection.
The method of evaluating macadamias as finally developedd is designed to determine the pounds of unshelled nuts required to p)-rodu(e 1 pound of grade 1 roasted kernel. This is designated "quality ratio." The following factors enter into this ratio:
SIZING OF UNSHELLED NUTS
Three screens with round(l holes 2.75, 2.45, and 2.10() cm in diameter, respectively, are used to divide the unshelled nuts. The four sizes of nuts are thus >2.75 cm, 2.75 to 2.45 cm, 2.45 to 2.10 cm, and <2.10 cm in diameter. All nuts of a diameter >2.10 cm are given full value and are termed sizable while those <2.10 cm are termed culls with no value. This division between sizable nuts and(l culls is based on commercial practice. Nuts of the cull size are irregular in size, shape, and quality. Discarding of cull nuts likewise serves to eliminate objectionably small sizes of kernels. No further account i- taken of size of nut or of kernel in calculation of quality ratio.
PROPORTION OF KERNEL
The sizable nuts are cracked and the percent of kernels calculated.
GRADING OF KERNELS
The kernels of the sizable nuts are graded as in the regular specificgravity method and the percent of kernels which are grade 1 deterIined. Grades 2 and 3 are given no value.
QUALITY RATIO
Calculation of the quality ratio is as follows: Quality ratio=
100
Percent sizable nuts X percent kernel X percent grade 1 kernels

An attempt was made to incorporate a color grading into the quality ratio. The normal macadamia kernel has a cream-colored







12 'BULLETIN 79, HAWAII EXPERIMENT STATION

base which roasts into an attractive golden brown. Certain kernels
apparently due to factors of climate and nutrition, as well as inheritance, have off-colored bases in the raw state. Others develop offcolors during roasting. Acceptable color standards for grading have not yet been agreed upon, therefore no account is taken of color in the quality ratio as used in this bulletin.

PURCHASE OF NUTS ON THE BASIS OF THEIR QUALITY RATIO

The quality ratio gives a single summation value for all the important qualities which affect the commercial value of the nut. By sub60



50



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0 o
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2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
QUALITY RATIO
(POUNDS OF UNSHELLED NUTS TO PRODUCE I POUND OF GRADE-I KERNEL)
FIGURE 4.-Quality ratio as a means of determining the gross value of unshelled nuts. The curves represent the selling price of grade 1 kernels. Reading across to the ordinate gives the gross value of the unshelled nuts at prices of grade 1 kernels from 20 cents to $1.20 per pound. From this value must be subtracted the overhead to find the net value. (See below for an example of the use of this graph.)

stituting in the formula the values obtained from analyzing a sample of nuts it is possible for the purchaser of a lot of unshelled nuts to calculate the pounds of finished product he may expect. Figure 4
gives the gross value per pound of unshelled nuts of varying quality ratios for prices of the grade 1 kernel varying from 20 cents to $1.20 per pound.
An example of the method of using the graph is as follows:
Assume that the wholesale price 6 of grade 1 kernels is 80 cents per pound and a given lot of nuts has a quality ratio of 4.5. Reading
across to the ordinate fro'm the intersection of the 80 line and A.5
'' These values for price of kernels and for overhea(l are assumed. The market price and processing costs cannot be estinuated with any degree of accuracy until production assumes larger proportions and methods of processing are better developed. The charging of overhead on the basis of unshelled nuts rather than on ii nished kernels seems justified in view of the fact t hat Ihe factory operations of husking, curing, sizing, cracking, and grading are the same regardless of the quality ratio. The overhead saving in subsequent dehydraLion and roasting of the smaller quantities of nuts front the higher quality ratios would he negligible and would be ot het by the enforced idleness of this part of the factory resulting from the poorer quality.






THE' AIACADAMIA Nur i -N HAWAII 13

qu, liy ratio gives- a across valley 4)f I merits per pound of unslieUed mits as recelve(l. Thl-, vahie can llikewl- e be ea-,ily calculated bv (11\-iding the price per p0lill(I ()f kernel by the (piality ratio; i. e., 80 a 4.5=17.8 cents. Frmn tlii*; 1%.tljie niij -;t f)e subtracted
overhead 111clildi"(")l J)"Ofit J)er pwm(l ()f imslielle(l imt- the liet bellig the price per 1)(mll(l to) be J)"Il(l to the -(ri-4)wer. Thu.,- with an overhead of 8 cents per pwin(l, 17.S-,' ccnt-- per pmIrld ne t.

EVALt;ATING COMMERCIAL SA-MPLES OF -'klA('ADA.\IIA NUTS BY THE QUALITI--RATIO METHOD
Two-pmllml sample-, (d' the N-al-Imls 1()t-; (.)I' mzica(lamla-, receiN-ed by a l(wal I)N- the qllIlltV-I.(Itl0 Illet1w& Samples
Iffe CMII 1)()-,l te,; of aII the (4 the mvil'lr(l 111 11 1111111her of
Im.'alltle-', talml represelit 'sufficlently I'll.(re (111;111title-, (4 1111ts to 111111111lize to a (ri-ent extellt the effect (d, 111(11 -killal tive-;. 'I'llev thil" Indicate. sellsm i'll trell(Is' effect (d* (.11111"Ite. .111(l (111,111ty w hich In't x- 1) e expecte(l fl.()Ill the SO-ellIlliz (wclwnj.- (0, h(oll sillmoll- '111d types.
SNIOOTH-SHELL TYPE
III t1le app-11(lix tnble the
N-i(Ili'll shipllwllt frw li ()ruh.irds (d' sjiio()th--4wll t N-pe, Nklilch are the prillcip'll w-ull'Ink (d, the Terriltol'V. 'I"Ible 5 summarMIS
t1lese re-'llIt's. III t\\() Im .,thm is, W 'IT 'Jill. 1111(1 (11.4tillct seasonal trell(k "Ippear. T he rc'lllt- a(- lll('(l 111to to
Make this 11PP'll'(111t.











HAWAII EXPERIMENT STATION 14



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THE MACADAMIA 'NUT HAWAII 15

The season's average of the various localities shows some marked differeiices, particularly with recrard to the (juldity of kernels. In this respect Keatihoti, lHaNV1111 is much IoNver In grade I kernels than the others. It is likewise loN%-er in proportioi-i of keriiel. In percent of sizing culls titid liveraire Nveight. per keriiel, ,ill locations are similar and acceptable.
At Waij)ahu, durliig the hiltial period the qtizilitN of kernels Nvas Imor but iml)roved i-.tl)l(llv. The quality rzttl() reached its hm-est ,altie of :3.75 (hinno- Septelliber alld October. Ill the subsequent I)eriO(I ti)(I k-H-M-1 (jLl,'llltV illC1,(1Cl1,ed sliglitly but tit(, quality ratio dropl)ed due to a decrease ill the proportloii (4 keriiel. T Iiis plienomeiion has been noted in other illstallce", 1111d I-, probablN Slu'lliticant. Poor keriiel (Itudity diji-Nig the early p:irt of' the seasoli i.,, evidelit, at Nutridgel but tbere is iio lipl)reci-ible decrezise ill (judity ratio (Itiring the last, of tile Seasoll.
"I'llere is iio mai-ked seasoiml tl,( lj(t ill tll(, (rl-11(jillo, of tjl( mits froin the other Im-alitles altilml(di ill flie case of lialkii, -Matil, wid Kalaheo, Katlzll the shipillelits \ vn, 111111ted ill 4111110110 lind winibei-, and it is I)OSSible that tile ell-ly 11111-ve-'t (0, Imorer 1111ts flot s(dd. W ith reSI)ect to Ke'.11111ml, tile *()d extelided fm ill
Nfav 1935 till-MIA J111111,11W 1936. D 111-111V till', 011tin', tillIC the (1111111tv ratm relmillied fall-1v cm)-;talit.
"I'lle I ill J)orta lice to the comillen-lal buN-er of the ,(, differences, in (1111111ty ratlo of litits from different 'ource-, l1lid lit different Sellsolis of t1le VV(1lr is lipparelit, ill flie last, coluniti of table 5, Obviouslv these h(rill-e-, would c1ltlll(,e Nvith t1le n ,silliled w-We (wid m-el-Ilead but thev I Io brilig out tile 11111)ortlifit fact. tilat N,111.121tim l ill (111,111t.v is al)I)I-eclable Ill COI ill ll(,I*(, 1al A ll 111tistratioll of it ""111(rle S1111)1liellt, NvIlich N\-as behm- par 1,, Neatihoti, samj)le No. 642 (table 14) N\-Itli a quality ratlo of 6.45. This ,Iill)lll(,Ilt of 695 1)(mild-, oil the basis, 11"ed above, \ -as \\-()rt1i wily 4.4 cents per poutid. Ne \- trees c(millig 111to bearilicr hill.(] drought, exces-;lve clwidv welitlier, witritimild factors, all
itittv be emitributMO, factor-, ill such a Pur(.1111S(i Of llllt 4 ()It the bas]-, of their quillitv nitio NN-ould iiiezin la higher price for hicrii-qualltv 1111ts alld Shmild ll(:t as a StIllitilli-, to urowers to inij)rm-t, quality t1irotigli tol) N\-orl litg and better culttiral practlees.
ROUGH-SHELL TYPE
Salliplo' of 1-migh-Shell litits N-en, froi-ii the Macadarnia,
Ntit Cooperati\-e Nlarketimr Association, locateo-1 tit 1,1"ailual Hawaii. The associatioti blmd-cracl e(l the crop and divided the kernels by ,peci 1 f, 'tic gnavity into grades. Coiiij)o.--,ite samples, of the hand-cracked
kernels of each shi-pnient, were forNvarded to the station. Results of scoring these commercial shipiiieiits ai-e given in table 6.







16 I 'LLETIN 79, HAWA II EXPER IMEX'T STATION
TABLE 6.-Scoring of factory shipments of rough-shell-type macadamia nuts from Kona, Hawaii, 1935-36
Percentage of kernels having
a grade and specific gravity
Weight Propor- of
Simef-N ihate received of uin- tion of -______- _____ Quality Grade 1 litw tat Ilotoliflti shelled kernel1 ratio kernels
nuits Grade I Grade 2 Grade 3
(K .00) (1.000- (> 1.025)
(< 1'0(()) 1.025)

Pounds Percent Percent Percent Percent Pounds
1I--------------Dec. 1935 136 21.7 27.9 38.2 33.9 16.54 8.2
2---------------ebh. 17, 1936------------- 24.0 44.5 40.1 15.4 9.35 ----3 -------------- Mar. 7,1936 295 26.4 53.4 33.7 12.9 7.09 41.7
4 -------------- Mar. 17,1936 808 25.5 70.8 23.5 5.7 5.54 146.1
5-- -------Mar. 26,1936 1, 228 24. 6 65. 5 23. 9 10. 6 6. 22 197. 4
6-------_.May 7,1936 695 23.5 79. 9 16.2 3.9 5.32 130.6
-------May 25, 1936 418 27i.0 84.9 12.7 2.4 4.35 97.0

Table 6 shows an extremely poor quality of kernels in the early part of the season, with only 27.9 percent grade 1. Improvement in quality is rapid as the season advances, the last shipment having the highest value of 84.9 percent. The bulk of the crop was contained in the fourth, fifth, and sixth shipments, in which the proportion of grade 1 kernels was 65.5 to 79.9 percent. This is much below the standard of the smooth-shell types. As has been noted, the roughshell type has other undesirable features as a commercial nut, such as poor color, variable flavor, and undesirable tree characteristics.

EVALUATION OF NUTS FROM DIFFERENT SEEDLING TREES FROM DIFFERENT LOCALITIES
The bearing trees of macadamia are made up of miscellaneous old trees found in many locations throughout the Territory and a number of commercial orchards, many of which are just coming into bearing. All trees are seedlings. The origin of the seed used in the various plantings is seldom known even in the younger commercial orchards. I t requires only casual inspection to note the great variations among tihe trees in any one orchard. These variations are manifest not only ill vegetative characteristics but also in fruiting habits, such as total yields, distribution of tile harvest throughout the year, and the various factors of nut quality.
VARIABLE FACTORS
DISTRIBUTION OF THE CROP THROUGHOUT THE BEARING SEASON
Nuts were collected throughout the bearing season from a series of 12 seedling trees at Waipahu, Oahu, to determine the variations ini the (Iro) of nut.s throughout the year. The results are given in t-able 7




THE ]NA(CA[)ANIA NTiN HAWAII 17

TABLE 7.- Variations in distributio-n of the crop f husked liuts thro'uqhont the
bearing season of 12? 8-year-old seedling trees., of the stimooth-shdl1 tylpe, Waipahu,
Oalha, 1930-31 crop



'I rt Nt. -~Total Jily\ Aug. Serpt (fi. NV)%. Il )t' J11. Feb.h M r. A pr. Mayi

Lb. b. b. b. b. L. L. L. L. Lb. Lb. Lb
17---1---------------13 7 14 10 13 9 o. 6 ,.
2 ------ ----- 4 1 1 9 3 "1.P to2 94 3,9 2.3 1.0 .7 4
4 .3.17)128 120 212. 2. 20 161
41 53 t6 1 9 11 In 10, 52 4 11 1.1 1 1 W5
.31 3 7 4 17~ f;4 1 31, 4. 431
Ii2 2 2 1:3 I 1 7 1 4 7 4. 43,
1 12 1, 16j 43 56 ~ 3 :8j ~ 3
26 9 2315 f; 89 :tsI453 .7 6.
I 6 2 1 1 128 4.8 27------....3
031 17 1 145 115 3 4 675
-------2 64 2 7 105 1 1 .2 _12 1
?29~ 7 12 9 6 :s 6


I ti gr oI-fI( III t rees there.( a re earlIIy I~err (Nos 1 an 12) a1d lajte bearers, (No. 5). Th'lere, are those which) bear thte 1)uIk o)f thIIe irI c rop i)11 2 o)r 3 mon( iIthsI, ( No I1 %I1) cn, oter WhI bea Ir vrl thIIe yearI I around(Nos 7 11l(l 8). Th(aitin)1'~ail h iso the
m1acadaia" givs widel( rang-e of havstpssiblities which. conierilieditoeests, may: use1- to base furth11erlanig od, selectedt trees to, cm'ol-rn, HIi t111rn, withl local laborl '111d JroIessil1g(01di jli.

T Y IES OF I ) ISTUfIVt IN OYI\()F KE I N ELS I NTO P E I YI -I' .\VIT Y ( 1It A\I )ES

Irdn of man oI%. ts of Ianca(IIIania InIuts t I -ell X-4fiem t icaIlly froml specific l( oat ionIs or IIiniidual1 tre has slmkowi 1 IflerIelI It andI


TAL $ 'heirructeristic tylpes of distril),ilf into isw 1'i-gad y(1d If of it t f.)I 1Ifro (/cdI I/gY tro







41 l M8 0 1 02-.


C --- -- - -:9 10 1j 6
-- -- ----- ----1-1--- 40
Roug-h shell:
C1--- -- -;-- 37 22 213 51

I Same treie :o; the followvingt year.

1I, considering table 8, it is not possible to separate out twid evaluate the va.riouis factors of type, locaility, condition of tree, size of crop, and the like which might affe-ct gra.,de of kernels. The differences in specifi-gravit dIrbto between crops from the same tree in
successive years are illustrated in types a and b. In 1930-31, type a, the yield was heavy and practically the entire crop was in groups 1 and 2. In 1931-32, type b, the crop was distributed fairly evenly through all groups, only 56 percent being grade 1 kernels (groups 1







18 BULLETIN 79, HAWAII EXPERIMEX T STATION
to 3, inclusive). Type c is typical of a good smooth-shell tree, a large proportion of the nuts being grade 1. What poor nuts there are tend to be in group 6. Type d represents an extreme example of this tendency. This phenomenon might be ascribed to inherited characteristics or to early nutritional disturbances which later disappear since the distribution in the other groups is normal. Type e is a typical distribution for the rough-shell type. Whereas the smooth-shell type normally has few'nuts in grade 2 (group 4), the rough-shell usually has a considerable percentage. This tendency to underfilling appears to be a characteristic of the rough-shell type rather than the result of nutritional disturbances. Type f shows how extreme this tendency may become with the rough-shell type.

SEASONAL CHANGES IN DISTRIBUTION

It has been previously noted that the crop varies in quality throughout the season, the first nuts which drop usually being poor in quality. If the tree is normal and in good condition, this represents only a small fraction of the crop. Sometimes this poor quality continues throughout the season. In table 9, tree No. 4 illustrates the rapid improvement in quality during the season, the bulk of the crop being borne during the last 3 months. With tree No. 10 the crop remained poor in quality throughout the season. This underfilling caused a marked decrease in the average weight per kernel and in proportion of kernel from that of the previous season.

TABLE 9.-Seasonal changes in distribution in specific-gravity groups, smoothshell type, Waipahu, Oahu

Percentage of kernels having a grade and specific
gravity ofAverage
Proportion wege Grades 2
Tree and month of harvest of kernel weight Grade 3

<0.970 0. 970- 0. 985- >1.000
0.985 1.000

Tree No. 4: Percent Grams Percent Percent Percent Percent
1930 average ------------- 28.5 1.87 13 70 12 4
1931
June ---------------------- 27.6 1.34 0 1 20 79
July ---------------------- -27.4 1.45 1 9 26 64
A ugust --..-----------.....27.3 1.63 1 52 23 24
September ---------------- 26.9 1.74 14 64 12 10
October ----------------- 27.7 1.86 24 70 6 0
November ---------------- 27.6 1.77 20 80 0 0
Tree No. 10:
1930 average ------------- 40.7 1.91 41 A0
1931
July- ..................... 36.8 1.45 6 52 14 28
August ------------------ 35. 7 1.28 2 28 26 44
September 35.9 1.37 7 25 23 45
October ------------------ 36.5 1.37 13 25 18 44
37.5 1.44 20 21 18 41
-ecember .- 37.1 1.39 19 27 16 38

YIELD AND NUT QUALITY OF SEEDLING TREES FROM DIFFERENT LOCATIONS

Study has 1)een made over a period of years of representative trees from i ntimber of the commercial orchards for the purpose of deter-












Hawai Agricu!tural Experimnt Station, Bull. 79 PLATE 5











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VARIATIONS IN SIZE AND SHAPE OF LEAVES FROM SMOOTH-SHELL SEEDLING TREES IN A SINGLE GROVE.













Hawaii Agricultural Experiment Station, Bull. 79 PLATE 6
















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A 12-YEAR-OLD SEEDLING MACADAMIA TREE, SMOOTH-SHELL TYPE.
Seedling trees vary greatly in shape. This demonstrates an open tree with slender branches.







THE M.(AIAMIA NUT IN HAWAIL 19

mining the extent of variation among seedling trees and the adaptability of the macadamia to various localities in Hawaii (pls. 5 and 6).
Certain changes were made in methods used during the progress of the project. Differences in facilities available at the different
locations have hlikewise affected the type of data which could be collected. The data on the individual trees are, therefore, not the same for the different localities. On Oahu it has been possible to get monthly samples and individual tree yields. At the other locations
the data are less complete. No individual tree yields could be had
and the samples usually consisted of but one or two taken during the peak of the crop.
Tables 10 to 12 summarize the study f individual trees from Waipahu and Nutridge on Oahu, Kona and Kohala on Ilawaii.
NUITRIDGE

Complete records were kept of the monthly yield and nlt quality on eight trees at Nutridge over a 3-year period. The trees were
planted at varying times, the average age being about 10 years. These
trees were selected on the basis of some desirable quality such as yield or percentage kernel and hence do not represent a cross section of the orchard.
This grove is at an altitude of 600 to 800 feet and has moderate rainfall.
Table 10 shows that in all cases the season's average percentage of grade 1 kernels is very high, in all but three cases it is more than 90 percent. One tree, C-8-54, would be rated as commercially undesirable because of the large percentage of sizing culls in spite of good quality in other respects. Thie seasonal effect is apparent in (C-14-156 where the size dropped badly in the 1935-36 harvest.

TABLE 10.-Yield and nut charac teristics of 8 smooth-shell-type seedling trees for
3 years, Nutridge, Oahu

Proportion of Yield
I unshelIed Propor- iropor- u of in- Yield of Tree No. Year nuts tion of n shelled grade 1
tested kernels of rat io kernels
>2.10 cm kernel nuts per
in diam- grade 1 year per year
eter

NuAmber Percen Percent Percent Pounds PoYnds
1933-34 6 95 30 S 4.05 51 12. 6
A-i2 73........... 1934-35 9 1C 29 93 3.70 65 17. 6
1935-36 7 100 29 92 3.81 69 18. 1
1933-34 2 9% 32 98 3, 07 75 24. 5
A- 13- 8 3............. 1934 -35 2 95 37 100 2. 85 79 27.7
1935-36 2 0 39 96 3. 24 119 36.8
S1933-34 6 74 40) 92 3. 72 48 12.9
C --8-.............. 1934-3.5 3 48 34 97 6. 32 22 3.5
1935-36 1 23 36 9% 12.42 --1933-34 8 95 28 97 3. 93 44 11.2
(C-8-57-------------....... 1934-3.5 7 100 26 97 3.96 53 13.4
1935-36 5 98 28 97 3. 77 42 11.1
1933-34 8 97 29 87 4.07 33 8.1
(-10-89------------............ 1934-35 5 99 31 99 3.28 38 11.6
1935-36 1 83 33 93 3.87 ----------.-------.........
1933-34 5 99 31 98 3.30 41 -.
C-14-154------------............. 1934-35 5 92 30 97 3.73 60 -.
1935-36 1 98 31 85 3.83 ---- --1933-34 5 85 39 96 3.17 44 13.9
C-14-156---------........... 1934-35 7 88 35 99 3.29 37 11.2
1935-36 6 43 36 92 7.02 47 6.7
1933-34 8 94 32 96 3.48 46 13.2
C-28-415------------............ 1934-35 8 96 33 95 3.32 57 17. 2
1935-36 7 83 34 98 3.60 65 18. 0








20 BULLETIN 79, HAWAII EXPERIMENT STATION

WAIPAHU, OAHU

Twelve trees were selected at random to determine the extent of variation in the Waipahu orchard. The orchard was about 8 years 01(1. The location is at sea level and dry, the trees being irrigated when necessary. Each result is the average of five to seven samples taken throughout the bearing season. These trees are the same as in table 7. The results are given in table 11.


TABLE 11.- Yield and nut characteristics of 12 smooth-shell-type seedling trees at W~aipahu, Oahu, 1930-31 crop


Percentage of kernels having a grade and
specific gravity ofTotal Aver- Yield
TeNo' yield Propor- age Grades Quality o
TeNo' of un- tion of weight Grade 1 2 and 3 ratio -gradeI
shelled kernel per kernuts kernel -____-___ -nels2
<0.970 0. 970- 0. 985- Total >1.(00
0.985 1.000 grade


Pounds Percent Grams Percent Percent Percent Percent Percent Pounds
1------------------- 65.1 32.4 2.02 9 61 21 91 9 3.42 19.1
2------------------- 48.1 33.3 1.72 14 63 14 91 9 3.33 14.5
3 --------------------57.4 31.5 2.02 8 84 7 98 2 3.24 17.7
4------------------- 55.9 28.5 1.87 13 71 14 96 4 3.65 15.3
5---------- 43.1 22.9 1.85 8 58 29 94 6 4.64 9.3
6------------------- 43.8 28.5 1.87 2 62 27 90 10 3.91 11.2
7 --------------------53.5 24.3 2.00 9 67 17 93 7 4.38 12.2
8 --------------------66.6 28.8 2.24 13 79 5 97 3 3.58 18.6
9 --------------------36.2 20.9 2.41 6 58 24 88 12 5.43 6. 7
10 -------------------54.6 40.7 1.91 41 58 0 99 1 2.48 22.0
11 -------------------52.1 31.8 2.23 20 67 8 96 4 3.28 15.9
12 -------------------47.6 30.1 1.86 21 64 12 96 I 4 3.46 13.8

Same trees as in table 7.
2 Total yield of unshelled nuts divided by quality ratio. No sizing of unshelled nuts was done during this time.


As noted in table 11 the proportion of kernels which are grade 1 is uniformly high. All trees but one bore 90 percent or more of grade 1 kernels. The variation in proportion of kernel is from 20.9 to 40.7 percent. The variation in yield of grade 1 kernels per tree of from 6.7 to 22 pounds is indicative of the possibilities for improvement of an orchard through elimination or top working of undesirable trees.


KOHALAt HAWAII

The trees in the Kohala orchard were 8 to 12 years 01(1 at the tie of this test. The elevation is 400 feet above sea level and the rainfall about 40 inches. Only one sample was taken from each tree during the period of greatest nut drop. Results are given in table 12.







THE MAADAMIA NUT IN HAWAII 21

TABLE 12.-Nut characteristics of 10 smooth-shell-type seedling trees at Kohala, Hawaii, 1933-34 harrest

Percentage of kernels having a gradte and
Propor- specific gravity of
tion of Average
unshelled Propor- weight Q y
Tree No. nuts tion of weight Grade 1 Grade 2 irade 3t
>2.10 cm kernel kper ratio
in diami- i kernel
in diameter <09 (
1X) 125 > 1.02


Percent Percent Grams Percent Percent Pe rce nt Percent
Al tr.e.ar..a..pta le 92 32. 3 2. o n 97 0 3 3. 47
average------ w h 1 0 27 3 2,f 95 t 1 3.Th4
portion0o grd --- k 2i. 2 g2. 57 96 4 0 3. 70
i4 that they-hae-unu u) 24. 9 2 73 k r t 5nus
.o ) 33q. u o3,a l 1 ui 3.09
------------AND3 0P E N 3.OF 1
7. ---------94 30.9j 23 :is7 7 4.0IF
.. 1. 3 2. 44 1% 6
10 -------- 3. 7 2. 1 8 2 15


All trees are acceptable as to size of nut with a somewhat higher average weight per kernel than found in other orchards. The proportion of grade 1 kernelss also goo. Trees 5 and 6 are exceptional in that they have unusually lare kerniels, 100-percent sizable nuts, and at the same time a relatively high percentage of kernels. This, together with vey high p)roportion of grade I kernels, results in the low quality ratios of 3.09 ani 3.15.
CORRELATION OF QUALITY OF KERNEL, WEIGHT OF UNSHELLED NUT AND KERNEL AND PERCENT OF KERNEL
A statistical examination was madei of the data secured fro nuts1 of individual trees of the smooth-shell type grown at Nutridge, Oahu (table 10), to determine e the wcorrelation between the different nut characteristics. The results given in table 13 are based on 139 individual samples of nuts.

TABLE 13.- Correlaction of quality of kernl, weight of ursheld rut aof erel, and percent kernel r o

'oeflicienl
Variables vof correlation (rg
Quality of kernel I ................ .. ..... W eight of nshelled 4u .. ....... ............. -0.02
Do seeling.s..... Weight of kernel t.. Within.a.sinl +.02
Do t s tv........e.. .... Percent f kernel may --varv ---from. 20i
W eight of unshelled nut --------------------- W eight of kernel -............ .....------ +.68
~o ......................... ......... .. Percent of kernel .58
Percent of kernel --------------------- ....... W eight of kernel .................... -- .01
'Percent of kernels which are grade 1 (i. e., with a specific gravity less ii an unity).

From table 13 it may be concluded that (1) quality cannot be improved by selection for weight of nut or of kernel or of percent kernel; and (2) weight of kernel can be increased by selection for weight of nut but in so doing the percent of kernel drops off.

DISCUSSION

Investigations by the Hawaii Experiment Station show the great variation in nut characteristics among the several thousand bearing macadamia seedlings throughout the Territory. Within a single orchard of the same type, the percent kernel may vary from 20 to 40






BULLETIN 79, HAWAII EXPERIMENT STATION 22
and the percent of grade 1 kernels (specific gravity less than 1) from 6 to 100. This percentage likewise may vary between wide limits for the same tree throughout the year as does the average value from one year to the next.
Samples from commercial shipments of nuts received at the factory from different orchards obviously show less fluctuation than those from individual trees. The variations are sufficiently great, however, to warrant their being taken into account in the purchase of the nuts. For example, the quality ratio of the crop from one location was 5.70 during July and August, 3.75 during September and October, and 4.22 for the remainder of the crop. Since quality ratio represents the pounds of nuts in the shell as received to produce 1 pound of grade 1 kernels, these differences are of vital importance, the nuts of 3.75 quality ratio having a value approximately double those of 5.70. Correspondingly greater differences result when nuts are purchased from different localities. It would seem sound commercial practice that some account be taken of these differences in quality ratio in fixing the purchase price for nuts harvested from seedling trees from different localities.
The fact that the composite crop from an orchard of bearing trees shows a small fluctuation in quality ratio. compared with individual seedling trees is of course no argument for seedling trees. It simply means that the high-quality trees neutralize the low-quality, the upper limit being determined by the relative proportion of desirable and undesirable trees present.
The records on individual trees are of value chiefly in showing the nature and extent of variation in nut characters, comprising as they do representative trees from the principal orchards of the Territory. The study likewise has served to develop the teenhique necessary in evaluating the nut characteristics. It has shown that records of nut quality should be made on a tree over more than one crop and during the entire bearing season if possible. If this is not possible, the samples should be taken during the peak of the nut drop over several seasons.
The differences between nuts from different localities were obviously the resultant of such factors as origin of seed, climate, culture, and the like. There are some indications that location affects kernel quality both as to percentage of grade I kernels, and the color of the kernel and the epidermis of the basal portion. From the standpoint of nut quality the best locations appear to be the relatively dry, leeward sides of the islands.
The results given herein would seem to show an inherent difference in nut qualities between the smooth-shell and rough-shell types of nuts. Horticulturally, the two types are distinct. They produce two different curves when specific gravities of kernels are plotted against the corresponding percentages of oil. T he flavor, texture, and roastiaig qualities are likewise different. The rough-shell type appears more prone to underfilling of kernels and appears to show greater variability in this respect than the smooth-shell type. Public preference is generally for the smooth-shell type because of its mild flavor and crisp tender texture, although many prefer the more pronounced, sweeter flavor and firmer texture of the rough-sholl type. The present commercial demand is almost entirely for the smooth-shell type and






YN HAWAII 23

indications are that most of the rough-shell trees -Aill be either eli i nated or top worked.
The methods used lit thl study Avere devised primarily to evaluate the inaCadzinda -,I,, -I ,helled proc(Ill"'Ied kernel. As finally adopted, a sample is carried throtioh tile process of sizing the uns;fieued nut to elinininte smafl "lz(,-,, Shelling, and specific-gravity grading to eliminate kernek of poor quality. Tile re-ultant quality ratio give,-, as a, I --dile tile pollid-, of mlts reo--elved to produce I pound of
Irl'Ilde I kernel. A" slicli tite method lizi,, pn)ved iiseful both ill the (.1xi)(11,111lent'd pluses 2m(t us it c(minierchd procedure.
SUMMARY
Tliis bulletill Ytlpqt ; Investi(ratimis by tile TLLNN-ali Agri(niltural Experiment St:ttlmi wi devel(q)IIIelit of Illetilml-, for evallizitillgr tile 11121cad'.1111UL wlt frmll tit(, staild1wilit, of a slielled r(),t,-',t(1d prodlict, 11,11d npplic"Itiml of tilt'se jlletliod-; to tit(, evaluatimi of nuts from (-()mniercild of-cliank flil-witrilmit tit(, T(,I-1-ItorN-.
It Nvas found th2it tit(%, Specific of tile I1IIc, ldzl1lIi,1 kerflel
H, VVTV 111(di IletrzitlVe cOlTelitimi Nvitli flie percent oil ( -0.9s.5 for tile 1,011(rii-sliell type -md 0.979 for tit(,, ,nioot1-i-,,1w1l type,'. Tile Illetilml tilli-, serve-, -is n rlipid inetliml for deternilinno- tilt, oit content.
Specific (rl.:I\ i-, related to tile rmlstlll(- qualitV of IlIZIC1111111lia kenlek It Ila bt tql f01111(l tll, jt 10,1,11( J, 111,1\- 1)(, (rj:(Ided to roastillo, (11111litles It-, (irade I- -,peciflc IvnivitN- than 1, ,unide 2--specifir 1 .000 and 1 .025, 'llid (,I-ade 3-'fiC (rjj -Ijer flimi 1 .0217). Only o-nzide I kernel, 11.(, lised ill
present coniniercnil pack"-N.
A sill(rle vzlltie as (111.1lity r"Itio w"Is devel(q)('d which desigliate", tit(' polifid", ()f 1111"llelled Illits I, received to produce I poillid of gnide I kernek.
Individual seedling trees Sll()N\- ('1-VLt variation in, nut eliaraaeristics tll(, 1-jj ,tre winiber of bezirill", ti'(4111 furiiislie,, aniple inaterial for selection a-, to "iz(-., percelit j-,-e1'I1VI, and (111:111tY of kerilel, a-, \-ell 11,, total peld.
There is evidence of significlint difference in kernel characteristics J)etWe(,jj tll(, jlld sillootil-sliell typ(-, ()f I lilt ca dallift nuts.
The latter I,; fliet"better t-\-pe -(I-, judged bN- kernel (piality and adapta.tion to the, rmisted pack.'
Coniniercizil shipi-lient-- of iiii-dielled mit-, receiN-ed at the factory show niarked difference ill (Imality ra-tl(). It Is believed thtit the purchase price of the mits SI-twild be based on tile (pullity rz.-Ltio.

LITERATURE CITED
(1) CAM I,, A. F.
119301. AVOCADO MATURITY STUDIES. Fla. Agi-. Expt. Sta. Rept. 1929-30:
79-81.
(2) COLENIAN, 1). A., and FEi.ix)w,4, 11. C.
1927 ()It, CO-NTENT OF FLAXSEED, WITH COMPARISONS OF TESTS FOR DE'I'ERIIINING OIL CONTENT. U. S. Dept. Agr. Bull. 1471, 35 pp.,
illus.
(3) DRAKE, N. F.
1930. A N1 ETHOD FOR GRA DINJ; BLACK WALNUTS. Amer.NutJotir.32(2):28.
0
(4) FOTH 1.
1907. DIE DE, -; S'U.XRKF GEHXLTES DER KARTOFFELN NACH DEM
.,PEZIFISCHEN GEW1CHT. Ztschr. Spiritusindus. [Berlin] 30: 217-218. [Abstract hY J. F. B. in Jour. Soc. Chem. Indus. 26:
705. 1907 j







24 B1"AIIj[N 79, HAWAII EXPERIMENT STATION
(5) LEWIS, R. D.
1932. DETERMINATION OF OIL CONTENT OF PECANS. NEW SULFURIC ACID
DIGESTION METHOD. Indus. and Engin. Chem., Analyt. Ed. 4:
296-297.
(6) NICHOLS, P. F., and REED, H. M.
1932. RELATION OF SPECIFIC GRAVITY TO THE QUALITY OF DRIED PRUNES.
Hilgardia 6: 561-583, illus.
(7) POPE, W. T.
1929. THE MACADAMIA NUT IN HAWAII. Hawaii Agr. Expt. Sta. Bull. 59,
23 p., illus.
(8) SHUHART, D. V.
1932. ENDOSPERM AND EMBRYO DEVELOPMENT AS RELATED TO FILLING OF
PECANS AND WALNUTS. Amer. Soc. Hort Sci. Proc. (1931) 28:
161-163, illus.









APPENDIX

There is- appended table 14 that s.hows; seas-onal variation in nut
quality o)f commercial shipments of niacadamia nuts from different
bearing orchards in Hawaiil.

TABLE 14I.-Scoring ).f factopry* shipment14S of smot-heltye is frftm d'ffcre,1
be aring orchards, 19J3



sjiin dianielvr. oIf un-litIlt- Pertenige, df kcrnekl

P4 A~ tr- peifi gc 'l ,ravi1 o( I
notr. cive ccl rIf t, -'rh; ii I
i't e Lar i ~ d ('il. rt tiad ( rae r:id rI I, k
2 75 2 '2~ K1i1 kene k e 2K




209i JuyIv'2 1416 4 247 2to .i 22, ,;

k2 11. Ag16, 11 1"k 42 !7 6 21 6. 1 12. 1 5
231 ,Ai 1 2, 11 3 N1 12 302 1 .; 1 3 4 4,1
235 1,%4p. i 4 2,s .5 13 0s 4 1 1 t .~ 4 21.
I hTot1 or v73~~2 2. ~9 ris~7 2 1 If. 1 7. 11. 0t)

30 Set20 23 24 69 t 14 17 52 2 25 114

39:~~1 2 ~.45 ~ s a~ 20 tp; 1 7 :.~
I4 Ihi 11 ,,, 1 23 0 29. 25 1I NI I I

SubtI or :tvr64911 11e A5 6 3 3 27.01 2 17 '.i 41 2.5 1 409
s17, d4..4. v 4 52 5 25- 2107 It,0 ,p .2 4,1-4
s1 Is eWc 1 *27 -1 18 '727.3 14 4,3 fs.4 40
,S1 --- I~ 11vc 211 j6 1 2 41f 8 24, 1., 9 1 I8 .60
20. % l c, 2. 462 lip 4311 2,1 99. 10 0 4,21L

S21 Jat, I : 02 1 1 3t;7 2t. 2 1 1' 1 :1 2 1 2.' 4. ,26
8%-3 12 Pa, 17 224 1 27 5- 4 26, 2.0 5 4, 2. 2..1
J1,, .li.21 1% 4 24 21 6 2 .1 mI i 2 5.S 2, 0 14.27
nuh i taR) i r i t,
:1 19o&4 82 347 -1 1.2 5.9 26i 2 02 463 2. 1 3 4. 22

Cr,,,565 3 0 '2 2 277 2,11) 01 () 2;: : 4. 27

N I -TlRUIIE I)tI

Lb. Pct, P10. 1Pd. Pd-. Pdl. ("/-(I n, Pd. Pd. Pct.
21,15 --- J uly 2 231 35l~ 5%6 4 211.8 15 737 21.4 4.0 4. 90
20li7 ---JulyI 12 321 5 26 GO 9:1 28-.5 I,9 7-t 4. 5 1-7. 7 9. 8 5. 18
22 .1ul1y 27 31 ~ 57 28 62.S 22. 1 15. 2 6. 17
224.., Aug. 3 256% 23 60 1'; 30. 7 2. 07 83.41 10.3 6,31 4. 65
226 A tiAg, 10 4 25 8 22 .'7 13~ 2s. 1 2. 00 8N3. 0 7. 0 9.7 4. 94
2M0 ----Aug. 17 4 -22 3 26 12 :1. 3 2 1 s0. 1 13.9 60 4. 58
23 2 ----Aug. 20 14T 0S 0 3J 18 9. 9 3. 2 6. 9 3. 37
233 ----- Aug.2 426 5 31 56 t;.8 2. 00 8%0. 3 7. 8 11. 9 4. 51
234~ Sept. :3 776 h 4 2 43 7 31.6 2. 19 8 2. 1 12. 4 5. 5 4. 10
----- ---o ae- 1, 33361 13.8 23.9 54A. .8 2.7 21 78.9 12.7 8.4 4. 71

24,,-;e Iept. 101 866 5 :33 5 30. 1 2.16 94.0 3.4 2.6 3.78
29 --- Sept. 14 124 0 0 100 0 31.8 1.89 90.5 7.0 2.5 3. 45
2'7 Sept. 17 775 5 43 48 4 30.6 2.23 84. 7 10.4 4.9 3.97
:ih Se 24 739 6 3S 5 5 29.3 2.23 837.6 9.1 3.4 4.15
390 Sept. 301 691 4 30 60 6 32.1 2.25 96. 3 3.4 .3 3.46
447 ---Oct.- 7 1 210 6 42 46 6 30.3 2.36 92.5 4.5 2.9 3.83
C50--_ Oc ((t. 14 1, 210 6 37 49 IS 31.0 2.27 94.4 4.7 1.0 3.70
43__ Oct. 21 i1, 258 4.5 45 5 29.6 2.25 94.3 2.4 3.3 3.73
4 M ------- Oct. 28 1,154 6 50 41 4 30.4 2.24 96.0 2.2 1.8 3.61
644----- NON'.26 1,147 2.5 28 431 4 27.3 2.21 99.1 .8 0 3 90
64 --- Dec. 2 997 12 47 27 13 26.6 2.06 97.8 1.4 .8 4.36
64~ ----Dec9 589S 9 39 46 6 29.8 2.22 95. 6 4.1 .3 3.71
S1 --- o 1:3 40 37 10 29.4 2.29 9 7.3'0 2.2 .5 3.89
)11un s of unshelled mw t required 1lo produce 1 punid of grade 1 kernels. 2








26 BULLETIN 79, HAWAII EXPERIMENT STATION

TABLE 14.-Scoring of factory shipments of smooth-shell-type nuts from different bearing orchards, 1935-36-Continued

NUTRIDGE, OAHU-Continued

Sizing (diameter) of unshelled Percentage of kernels
nuts having a grade and
Weight Pro- Aver- specific gravity ofEntry Date re- of nuts por- age Qual
No. ceived re- Medi- tion weight ity
ceived Large, u, Small, Culls, of per Grade Grade Grade ratio
Lr2.45-2.1 kernel kernel 1, 2,
>2.75 2.75- 2.10 1.0 3,
em 2.45 cm cm <1.000 1.000- >1.025
cm

1935 Lb. Pet. Pct. Pet. Pet. Pet. Grams Pet. Pct. Pct.
813 ------ Deo. IC 1,242 11 41 43 5 29.9 2.37 98.8 0 1.2 3.57
70________-Dec. 23 485 0 2 87 11 34.9 1.81 95.3 4.7 0 3.38
814 ----- Dee. 30 690 9 33 51 7 28.5 2.48 100.0 0 0 3.77
1936
815 ------ Jan. 6 814 6 0 91 3 29.9 1.83 97.4 2.1 .5 3.54
816 ------ Jan. 13 427 14 38 42 6 28.7 2.26 97.6 1.3 1.1 3.80
81 -------Jan. 20 428 14 37 42 7 31.0 2.48 97.6 1.2 1.2 3.56
118 ------------ do -------- 10 41 44 5 31.1 2.39 97.7 2.3 0 3.46
119 ------ Jan. 27 341 8 37 48 7 31.2 2.19 98.2 .6 1.2 3.52
Subtotal or average ------------15,275 8.4 33.4 52.1 6. 1 30.2 2.21 95.4 3.2 1.4 3.72
Season total or
average --------18,611 9.8 32.0 51.8 6.2 30.0 2.19 90.4 6.0 3.6 3.92

KEAUHOU, HAWAII

1935 Lbs. Pct. Pct. Pct. Pct. Pct. Grams Pct. Pct. Pet.
203 ------- May 15 8 52 36 4 24.2 1.95 69.2 21.8 9.0 6.23
204 ------- June 28 278 8 42 48 2 25.4 1.95 74.3 12.4 13.3 5.41
223 ------- Aug. 2 529 94 6 0 0 24.4 2.91 73.3 17.2 9.5 5.58
228 ------ Aug. 13 380 4 59 34 3 26.1 2.02 63.7 16.7 7.5 6.22
236 ------ Sept. 3 647 6 58 33 3 27.8 2.20 85.5 10.0 4.4 4.31
251 ------- Aug. 23 408 18 48 31 3 23.7 2.09 80.4 13.9 5.7 5.34
293 ------ Sept. 9 380 15 49 34 1 25.0 2.04 84.6 7.5 7.9 4.78
299 ------ Sept. 20 795 15 47 39 0 26.0 2.12 86.4 6.4 7.2 4.45
388 ------ Sept. 24 739 11 37 45 6 25.3 1.98 82.3 12.8 5.0 5.17
446 ------- Oct. 3 485 25 52 23 1 26.1 2.26 78.0 17.1 5.0 4.97
449 ------ Oct. 11 517 8 38 49 5 24.7 1.85 80.1 13.5 6.4 5.25
452 ------ Oct. 18 (ill 12 48 38 2 25.0 2.04 79.2 13.2 7.6 5. 15
455 ------- Oct. 25 567 13 43 41 3 25.6 1.65 79.2 14.3 6.6 5.01
642 ------ Nov. 15 695 23 37 26 13 34.2 1.93 52.4 27.6 20.0 6.45
645 ------ Nov. 29 475 20 58 22 0 27.0 2.25 86.2 11.1 2.7 4.30
824 ------- Dec. 12 417 24 50 26 0 25.1 2.16 88.8 6.8 4.5 4.48
1936
825 ------ Jan. 10 716 25 48 27 0 24.3 2.12 84.6 10.9 4.5 4.86
116 ------ Jan. 30 336 20 41 36 3 25.9 2.16 89.3 6.4 4.3 4.46
Season total or
average- -------8,975 19.4 45.2 32.7 2.7 25. 8 2.09 78.9 13.5 7.6 5.11

HAIKU, MAUI

1935 Lbs. Pet. Ptd. Pet. Pet. Pct. Grams Pet. Pet. Pet.
227 ------- Aug. 13 55 6 36 55 3 30.2 1.97 86.5 4.2 9.4 3.97
392- Oct. 2 221 12 36 47 5 27.5 2.02 90.3 7.1 2.6 4.32
457- Oct. 29 343 6 39 50 5 29.1 2.12 94.7 3.0 2.3 3.83
641 ..... Nov. 15 212 7 50 40 3 27.7 2.14 94.6 2.1 3.3 3.90
643 ,.. Nov. 23 139 11 48 38 3 28.3 2.00 97.4 1.0 1.5 3.78
647 1)ec. 5 269 23 46 30 1 27.0 2.09 99.5 .5 0 3.76
826 _-- ... .--------- 13 44 37 5 26.9 2.44 97.0 .7 2.2 4.03
827 Dec. 24 373 8 54 33 5 29.4 2.05 99.1 .9 0 3.61
Season total or
average -------- 1,612 10.8 44.2 41.2 3.8 28.6 2.23 94.9 2.4 2.7 3.90

KALAJIEO, KAUAI

19115 Lbs. Pet. Pet. Pct. Pct. Pct. Grams Pct. Pct. Pet.
394 Oct. 7 932 5 28 57 10 28.0 1. 91 90.7 6. 3 2.9 4.38
821 )ec. 23 615 ZI 22 45 11 35.3 2. 15 95.8 2.7 1.5 3.33
I 936
120 Jan. 27 147 17 36 42 5 25.1 1.97 93.2 5.5 1.3 4.51
Season totil or
average I, 694 15. 0 28. 7 48. 3 8.7 29. 5 2.01 93.3 4.8 1.9 4.07

U. 5, GOVHkNMENT PRINTING OFFICE: 193




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REPORT xmlns http:www.fcla.edudlsmddaitss xmlns:xsi http:www.w3.org2001XMLSchema-instance xsi:schemaLocation http:www.fcla.edudlsmddaitssdaitssReport.xsd
INGEST IEID EUP1KTV2A_5I4VZ1 INGEST_TIME 2014-10-09T22:07:12Z PACKAGE AA00025986_00001
AGREEMENT_INFO ACCOUNT UF PROJECT UFDC
FILES