M 4 1
PAAMA CANAL MISCELLANEOUS
44~f 4t ~
OF THE P N hA
MERCANT MARINE AND FISHERIES
4 -FIRST SESSION
..CZ. IOLGIAL ARtEA AUTHQRIZATION-H.jR. 3348
M&ARCH 22, 1977
PROLES F CNA ZNERESDENTS AND
APRI 12,1 1-B4-LBO4 CANAL ZONIE
.Sra No. 95Prined or he se f te comitee n Mrchnt arine and Fisheries
PANAMA CANAL MISCELLANEOUS
SUBCOMMITTEE ON THE PANAMA CANAL
MERCHANT MARINE AND FISHERIES
HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES
C.Z. BIOLOGICAL AREA AUTHORIZATION-H.R. 3348
MARCH 22, 1977
PROBLEMS OF CANAL ZONE RESIDENTS AND EMPLOYEES
APRIL 12, 13, 1977-BALBOA, CANAL ZONE
.Serial No. 95-9
Printed for the use of the Committee on Merchant Marine and Fisheries
U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 95-549 0 WASHINGTON : 1977
COMMITTEE ON MERCHANT MARINE AND FISHERIES
JOHN M. MURPHY, New York, Chairman
THOMAS L. ASHLEY, Ohio PHILIP E. RUPPE, Michigan
JOHN D. DINGELL, Michigan PAUL N. McCLOSKEY, JR., California
PAUL G. ROGERS, Florida GENE SNYDER, Kentucky
WALTER B. JONES, North Carolina EDWIN B. FORSYTHE, New Jersey ROBERT L. LEGGETT, California DAVID C. TREEN, Louisiana
MARIO BIAGGI, New York JOEL PRITCHARD, Washington
GLENN M. ANDERSON, California DON YOUNG, Alaska
E (KIKA) DE LA GARZA, Texas ROBERT E. BAUMAN, Maryland
RALPH H. METCALFE, Illinois NORMAN F. LENT, New York
JOHN B. BREAUX, Louisiana DAVID F. EMERY, Maine
FRED B. ROONEY, Pennsylvania ROBERT K. DORNAN, California
BO GINN, Georgia THOMAS B. EVANS, JR., Delaware
GERRY E. STUDDS, Massachusetts PAUL S. TRIBLE, JR., Virginia
DAVID R. BOWEN, Mississippi JOSHUA EILBERG, Pennsylvania RON DE LUGO, Virgin Islands CARROLL HUBBARD, JR., Kentucky DON BONKER, Washington LES AuCOIN, Oregon NORMAN E. D'AMOURS, New Hampshire JERRY M. PATTERSON, California LEO C. ZEFERETTI, New York JAMES L. OBERSTAR, Minnesota WILLIAM J. HUGHES, New Jersey BARBARA A. MIKULSKI, Maryland DAVID E. BONIOR, Michigan DANIEL K. AKAKA, Hawaii CARL L. PERIAN, Chief of Staff ERNEST J. CORRADO, Chief Counsel FRANCES STILL, Chief Clerk W. PATRICK MORRIS, Chief Minority Counsel
SUBCOMMITTEE ON PANAMA CANAL RALPH H. METCALFE, Illinois, Chairman
ROBERT L. LEGGETT, California GENE SNYDER, Kentucky
DAVID R. BOWEN, Mississippi ROBERT K. DORNAN, California
CARROLL HUBBARD, JR., Kentucky BO GINN, Georgia PHILIP E. RUPPE, Michigan
LEO C. ZEFERETTI, New York (ex officio)
JOHN M. MURPHY, New York
TERRENCE W. MODGLIN, Professional Staff BERNARD TANNENBAUM, Consultant NICHOLAS T. NONNENMACHER, Professional Staff, Minority
CANAL ZONE BIOLOGICAL AREA AUTHORIZATION
Hearing held--March 2,17-------------------1
Text of-H.R. 34-----------------------2
Reports fromGeneral Accounting Office ----------------------------------- 3
Panama Canal Cmay-------------------6
Smithsonian Institution ---------------------------------------- 8
Statement ofChallinor, Dr. David, Assistant Secretary for Science, Smithsonian
Jameson, John F., Assistant Secretary for Administration, Smithsonian Institution_---------------------------11
Rand, Dr. A. Stanley, Assistant, Smithsonian Tropical Research
Rubinoff, Dr. Ira, Director, Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute-. 11
Additional material suppliedSmithsonian Institution:
Contract No. 1, informal translation by the Embassy-------49
Cooperative research with universities and other organizations
in foreign countries-------------------------------------- 76
Current and future research projects conducted by Smithsonian
scientists on Barro Colorado Island------------------------ 65
Examples of STRI research with applications to resource management, disease control, wildlife conservation, food production, and other areas------------------------------------- 53
Fellowships at STRI--------------------61
Future status of Barro Colorado Island---------------72
Origin of purchases for Barro Colorado Island----------------- 69
Papers Published Annually by employees and associates of the
Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute-----------24
Proposed capital poet-----------------22
Questions of Subcommittee answered by Dr. Ira Rubinoff-----85
Research projects currently under investigation by visiting
scientists on Barro Colorado Island and anticipated endpoins------------------------------------63
PROBLEMS OF CANAL ZONE RESIDENTS AND EMPLOYEES
Hearings heldApril 12, 1977----------------------------------------------- 99
April 13, 17-----------------------175
Statement ofAmerican Federation of Teachers, expanded statement of local 29 -- 336
Anderson, Luis, interpreter, Panama Canal Atlantic Side Dock
President, Local 907, Armed Forces employees union-----343
Baglien, David, Local 14, American Federation of Government
American Federation of Teachers-Continued Page
Blenman, Samuel H., president, Paraiso Civic Council ------------126
Boreham, Dr. Melvin, president, Coco Solo-France Field Civic
Delgadc, Jose L., General Secretary, Panama Canal Atlantic
Side Dock Worker's Uno-------------- 340
Drummond, William R., president, AF&GE, Local 1798________-206 Fulton, Mrs. Patricia, president, Pacific Civic Council------139
Gaskin, Edward A., assistant regional director, National _Maritime Union in Latin America and the Caribbean--------176
Goldson, Robert S., Vice President, Pacific Region, Local 900,
American Federation of State, County, and Municipal
Gordon, Clarence G., president, Santa Cruz Civic Council,
Graham, Alfred, president, Canal Zone Central Labor Union
and Metal Trades Cucl---------------206
Green, Harold B., Jr., president, Gamboa Civic Council ----------139
Johnson, Eugene A., president, Congress of Latin American
Kennedy, Mrs. Charlotte, president, Cristobal-'-MIargarit a- Brazos
Heights Civic Council------------------------------------ 139
Lioeanjie, Rene, regional director fcr the National 'Maritime
Union in Latin America and the Caribbean ---------.------- 176
Mlauge, Saturnin G. president., Local 900, American Federation
of State, County, and Municipal Employeesz------------------185
Metcalfe, lion. Ralph H., a Representative in Congress from
the State of Ilni------------------123
Morrissey, Captain Joe, vice president, Panama Canal Pilots
O'Donnell, James J. president, Local No. 14, American Federation
of Government Emlye---------------345
Parfltt, Harold R1., Governor of the Canal Zone, and president
of the Panama Canal Cmay-------------100
Sheppard, Ralph, president, American Federation of Teachers,
Simpkins, Talmage E., executive director of the AFL-CIO
Sinclair, William H., area director, American Federation of
State, County, and Municipal Employvees, AFL-CIO ----------185
Valentine, Captain R.D., past president, Panama Canal Pilots
Williams, Frenando, Panama Canal Atlantic Side Dock Worker's
Williams, J. R., president, Panama Canal Pilots Association. --- 363 Windle, Dale, president, Gatun Civic Council ----------------- 139
Additional material suppliedDrummond, William R.:
Articles of the 1972 political constitution instituting a nondiscriminatory system of employment in the Republic of
Chart of Government of Republic of Panama----------------- 269
Communist and front organizations and participants------------286
Key Communists ----------------------------------------- 270
List of important offices and office holders in the Republic of
Newspaper clippings -------------------------------------- 245
News releases of the Inter-American Development Bank ---------288 Public witnesses-March 30, 197-------------233
Statement of events (summarized) of activities that led to my
resignation from the Canal Zone Government------------217
Statement in response to inquiry of Communist influence in the
Panama labor foc------------------236
The Communist path to power in Panama -------------------- 260
Gordon, Clarence G.:
Bachelor quarters vacancy bulletin No. 137 ------------------- 377
Family quarters vacancy bulletin No. 37- -----------379
O'Donnell, James J.: Page
Ccurt case-Espinoza et vir v. Farah Manufacturing Co., Inc-- 387
Recommendations of the AFL-CIO Committee on Panama
Canal Treaty 348
Panama Canal Company:
Assurances for present employees of the Panama Canal/Canal
Zone Government under a new Panama Canal Treaty --------- 103
Sinclair, William H.:
Workers' Buying Power in Major Cities of World --------------- 381
Williams, Capt. J. R.:
Treaty position paper statement on early retirement 369
Treaty position paper of Panama Canal Pilots' Association 372
Communications submittedBoreham, Dr. Melvin:
Letter of March 23, 1977, to Harold R. Parfitt- 152
Davis, Diana R.:
Letter of March 11, 1977, to Lt. Gen. D. P. McAuliffe ----------- 169
Letter of March 14, 1977, to Hon. Gene Snyder- 168
Drummond, William R.:
Letter of March 26, 1977, to Gov. Harold R. Parfitt- 224
Letter of April 21, 1977, to Gordon M. Frick- 227
Letter of April 21, 1977, to William F. Kessler, 225
Letter of March 11, 1977, to Hon. M. G. Snyder- 160
Green, Harold B., Jr. and Mrs. Patricia Fulton: Letter of March 28,
1977, to Harold R. Parfitt ------------------------------------- 231
Kessler, W. F.:
Letter of May 3, 1977, to William R. Drummond 226
Metcalfe, Ralph H.:
Letter of May 24, 1977, to James J. O'Donnell 382
O'Donnell, James J.:
Letter of April 13, 1977, to Ralph H. Metcalfe- 362
Letter of April 30, 1977, to Hon. Ralph H. Metcalfe 383
Parfitt, H. R.:
Letter of September 8, 1975, to Kenneth H. Hannah - 339
Richbourg, Donald E.:
Letter of March 23, 1977, to William R. Drummond - 223
Sheppard, Ralph 0.:
Letter of April 14, 1977, to Representative Ralph Metcalfe ------- 335
Sinclair, William H.:
Letter of April 12, 1977, to Hon. Ralph H. Metcalfe 192
Williams Capt. J. R.:
Letter of April 11, 1977, to Representative Ralph H. Metcalfe - - 367 Letter of April 15, 1977, to Representative Ralph H. Metcalfe - - 371 Letter of May 1, 1977, to Representative Ralph H. Metcalfe ----- 368
Digitized by the Internet Archive
CANAL ZONE BIOLOGICAL AREA AUTHORIZATION
TUESDAY, MARCH 22,1977
SUBCOMMITTEE ON PANAMA CANAL,
COMMITTEE ON MERCHANT MARINE AND FISHERIES,
U.S. HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES,
The Subcommittee met in Room 1334, Longworth Building, beginning at 2:07 p.m., Ralph H. Metcalfe, Chairman of the Subcommittee, presiding.
Mr. METCALFE. The Subcommittee on Panama Canal will come to order.
Distinguished guests from the Smithsonian Institution, ladies and gentlemen:
This afternoon the Subcommittee will hear testimony from the representatives of the Smithsonian Institution on the bill H.R. 3348. This bill would raise the present annual limit on funds authorized for Barro Colorado Island in the Canal Zone to $600,000. The present limit of $350,000, as contained in Title 20 of the U.S. Code, was legislated in 1965. This Subcommittee has held no hearings on Barro Colorado Island since the 1965 legislation, so this is the first time in at least twelve years we have had an opportunity to examine the management and the financial needs of this island, which is officially called the Canal Zone Biological Area. In my view, therefore, these are important hearings. The Senate passed legislation very similar to H.R. 3348 in the 94th Congress. Unfortunately, that Senate-passed legislation was referred to this Subcommittee during the last month of the deliberations of the 94th Congress.
Since no hearings had been conducted on the Canal Zone Biological Area by either House or Senate in the 94th or many previous Congresses, we thought it would be premature to pass legislation without some public examination of the status of the Island of Barro Colorado. Thus, we did not act last year. Today is the time for that public examination which we believe ought to occur before deliberations on H.R. 3348.
After today's hearing, the Subcommittee will proceed to study and analyze all the data presented orally by the Smithsonian Institution as well as all data submitted for the record of the hearing. We hope to take whatever action is appropriate by May 15 in accordance with the Budget Control Act.
I want to make it clear that the Subcommittee is proud of the Canal Zone Biological Area and the personnel who have managed it over the years. Clearly this area is a focal point for scientists all over the world who wish to do tropical research. Clearly there has been very important research which would not have been possible without the facilities at Barro Colorado Island. I know that the testimony we receive today will bring out these facts.
At this point I ask unanimous consent that the bill, H.R. 3348, and such executive agency reports as we have received or will receive on this matter be inserted in the record.
Are there any objectives?
Hearing none, it is so ordered.
[Bill H.R. 3348 and executive agency reports follow:]
1ST SEIOREH. R. 3348
IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES FEBRUARY 9, 1977
Mr. METCALFE (by request) introduced the following bill; which was referred
to the Committee on Merchant Marine and Fisheries
To amend the Act of July 2, 1940, as amended, to increase the
amount authorized to be appropriated for the Canal Zone
1 Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representa2 ties of the United States of America in Congress assembled, 3 That section 7 of th& Act of July 2, 1940 (20 U.S.C. 79e), 4 as amended by Public Law 89-280, be further amended 5 by striking out "$350,000," and inserting in lieu thereof
COMPTROLLER GENERAL OF THE UNITED STATES 4: WASHIINGTON. D.C. "N94
B-188652 APR 19 1977
The Honorable John M. Murphy Chairman, Committee on Merchant Marine
House of R~presentatives
Dear Mr. Chairman:
By letter dated March 16, 1977, you requested our comments on H.R. 3348, a bill to increase the amount authorized to be appropriated annually for the Canal .Zone Biological Area from the present limit of $350,000, established in 1965, to $600,000.
The Canal Zone Biological Area is located in the
Panama Canal Zone on Barro Colorado Island (BCI). It is part of the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute (STRI) which conducts research there and in other tropical areas, principally in Central and South America. The annual budget justifications of the Smithsonian do not show BCI as a separate line item; the amounts requested are included in the salaries and expenses appropriation justification under the line item for STRI.
The Smithsonian does not maintain separate accounting records for BCI. An informal budget is prepared each year to show the estimated amounts to be expended for BCI and a cost finding system is used to relate these costs to the appropriation authorization limitation. For fiscal year 1976, this system showed operating costs
of $285,254 for BCI.
In reviewing the costs allocated to BCI for fiscal year 1976, we no ted several problems in determining the amounts to be charged to the appropriation authorization limitation. For example, the full amount expended to install telephone facilities, and for materials, supplies and contract services to renovate a tramway was not charged to such limitation. Instead, a prorated amount based on the estimated useful life of these items was charged.
Also, no indirect costs--such as a portion of the salary of the Director and administrative personnel at STRI and the costs incurred by Smithsonian employees in Washington, D.C., who provided support services--were charged to this limitation.
We recommend that the Committee report on this bill make clear whether the annual appropriation authorization limitation is intended to include the total obligations incurred for construction and renovation as well as those for salaries and expenses, and which, if any, indirect costs are chargeable to such limitation. We have no special information on the need for the increase in the authorization.
The enactment of this bill would not result in any additional costs by the General Accounting Office.
[JPuty Comptroller General
of the United States
United States Department of the Interior
OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY WASHINGTON, D.C. 20240
Ibnrable John M. Murphy Chairman, Committee on Merchant Marine and Fisheries House of Representatives Washingtcn, D. C. 20515
Dear Mr. Chairman:
Your Oommttee has requested the views of this Department on H. R. 3348, a bill "To amend the Act of July 2, 1940, as amexled, to increase the wmt authorized to be appropriated for the Canal Zoe Biological Area."
7he bill does not appear to relate to any matter within the jurisdiction of this Department or to affect any matter upon which the Department would be in a position to give helpful information or advice. Accordingly, we have no cunment to offer with respect to the merits of the bill.
We welcome the opportunity to submit rx endations on any measure uhere possibly the activities of the Department may be involved, or %here its experience may be of value.
7he Office of Management and Budget has advised that there is no objection to the presentation of this report frcm the standpoint of the Adnnistration's program.
Si n cerey,
CANAL ZONE GOVERNMENr
BALBOA RMOBTS. CANAL ZONZ
Orriox OF TBZ GOVZ2N01k
APR 2 8 1977
Honorable John M. Murphy
Chairman, Committee on Merchant Marine and Fisheries
House of Representatives
Washington, D. C. 20515
Dear Mr. Murphy:
This is in response to your request of February 16, 1977, for a report on H. R. 3348, a bill "To increase the amount authorized to be appropriated for the Canal Zone Biological Area. The bill would amend the Act of July 2, 1940 (20 U. S. C. 79e), as amended, by increasing the amount of the annual appropriation from $350, 000 to $600, 000.
The Canal Zone Biological Area (Barro Colorado Island) was designated as a wildlife preserve and study area in 1923. It was placed under the administrative control of the Smithsonian Institution from 1946 until 1966 at which time the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute assumed that responsibility. The island has acquired a worldwide reputation as a tropical field research station at which a .large number of scientific studies are carried out. According to our agency environmental control personnel, these studies are crucial to the understanding of changes occurring in tropical areas of the world. The station is ideally located for continuing research on a diversity of terrestrial and marine projects.
While the Canal agencies are cognizant of the significant role of the island in the areas of tropical research and conservation, neither the Panama Canal Company nor the Canal Zone Government exercises responsibility for the funding or operation of the Canal Zone Biological Area. Consequently, these agencies have no basis upon which to comment concerning the necessity for the proposed legislation.
APR 2 8 1977 Honorable John M. Murphy
The Office of Management and Budget has advised that it has no objection to the presentation of this report to your committee.
Sincerely yours, 15,
H. R. Parfitt Governor of the Canal Zone President, Panama Canal Company
w,4~T WMIARC AND f~
March 17, 1977
Honorable John M. Murphy
Committee on Merchant Marine and Fisheries U. S. House of Representatives Washington, D. C. 20515
Dear Mr. Chairman:
Thank you for your letter of February 16 requesting the comments of the Smithsonian Institution on H.L R. 3348 a bill to amend the Act of July 2, 1940, as amended, to increase the amount authorized to be appropriated for the Canal Zone Biological Area.The Act, as effectuated by Executive Order 8515, established the Canal Zone Biological Area as an independent unit with its own Board of Trustees and -an annual appropriation authorization of up to $10, 000. The Act also established a trust fund within the U. S. Treasury for the deposit of future donations to, the facility and of fees charged to visiting scientists as a means of additional support. The functions and authority of the Board were transferred to the Smithsonian Institution by Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1946 and are recited in 20 U. S. C. 79.
The Canal Zone Biological Area, which is essentially
Barro Colorado Island located in Gatun Lake, is now an integral part of the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute (STRI). The activities and programs of STRI, which are focused on tropical biology, extend to areas throughout Central and South America, as well as to the Old World tropics, and include facilities in Panama at Ancon, Galeta, and Naos, and in Cali, Colombia. The operations of STRI are gover -ned by the general authorities of the Smithsonian (20 U. S. C. 41 et seq. ) as well as that cited previously.
The Barro Colorado Island reserve was initially created in 1923 by decree of the Governor of the Canal Zone at the behest and under the aegis of the Institute for Research in Tropical America, an organization composed of several independent research institutions, including the Smithsonian, for the study of tropical flora and fauna. The cooperating institutions each contributed to its funding and administration, 'and by 1940 more than 400 scientific papers had been published on the research carried out there. It had become a valuable educational facility for teachers and students from around the world, and in order to ensure continued preservation and conservation of the Island's natural features, as well as adequate funding for research programs and maintenance of the facility, a more formal entity was deemed necessary by the cooperating institutions. With the support of several Government departments that had benefited from the facility's research efforts,, it then turned to the Congress for assistance, and the Act of July 2, 1940, ensued. The Act was amended by P. L. 89-280, approved October 20, 1965, in order to raise the limit on appropriations from $ 10, 000 to $350, 000.
Although current obligations are within the statutory limit (the FY177 budget estimate for STRI is $1,465, 000, of which $327, 000 will be obligated for activities related to Barro Colorado Island), increasing costs and needed capital improvements suggest that the limit will be reached in the near future. Furthermore, the General Accounting Office has suggested that indirect costs associated with Barro Colorado be applied to its account. It has not been our past practice to do this. We have instead chosen to subsume these costs within the general administrative expenses of STRI as a whole. To apply indirect costs, as suggested by the General Accounting Office, to operations for FY177 would exceed the existing limit and, based on current estimates,, will exceed the limit of $600, 000 proposed in H. R. 3348 in the near future, thus requiring further Congressional action to once more raise the authorized ceiling.
We would, therefore, recommend that consideration be given to the possibility of raising the limit to $750, 000 or to removing it altogether.
The Office of Management and Budget advises that there
is no objection to the bill or the submission of this report from
the standpoint of the Administration's program.
S. Dillon Ripley
Mr. METCALFE. I also ask unanimous consent that additional material relevant to H.R. 3348 which has been submitted to the Subcommittee in the last year be inserted in the record.
Are there any objections to that?
Hearing none, it will be so ordered.
[The material was placed in the record files of the subcommittee.] Mr. METCALFE. The principal witness for the Smithsonian Institution today will be Dr. Ira Rubinoff, Director of the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, which manages the Canal Zone Biological Area.
Accompanying Dr. Rubinoff are Dr. A. Stanley Rand, Assistant Director of the Tropical Research Institute, Dr. David Challinor, Assistant Secretary for Science, and Mr. John F. Jameson, Assistant Secretary for Administration of the Smithsonian Institution. We welcome all of you here today. I would like to ask who will be the first witness. Mr. SNYDER. Mr. Chairman?
Mr. METCALFE. I recognize the distinguished minority Member, Mr. Snyder.
Mr. SNYDER. Thank you, Mr. Chairman. I want to take this opportunity to welcome Dr. Rubinoff and the other people from the Smithsonian Institution on behalf of the minority, and I appreciate this opportunity to learn more about your operation in the Canal Zone.
It has been a couple of years since I have been in the Canal Zone.
I never really had a good opportunity to learn what the Smithsonian was doing down there.
One of the questions on the mind of everybody who has any interest in the Canal Zone is one that I hope you will address yourself to today, and that is, what will happen to the facility in the event of a treaty.
The public press has indicated that the eight points of the Kissinger-Tack Agreement in the negotiations include the idea of turning the Zone over to the Panamanian government within three
years after the ratification of the treaty and the operation of the Canal after twenty years.
I hope you can address yourself to that as well as the justification for the additional expenditure you seek, which, of course, is the primary purpose for which we have gathered here today.
I know that we will want to scrutinize the latter as well as looking into the idea of what happens to this facility and our investment there in the event of a treaty.
We want to look at it probably a little bit more so than usual because of Mr. Carter's campaign commitments to attempt to go toward zero base budgeting during his tenure in office, and that makes us all want to go back and scrutinize the expenditures.
I appreciate the opportunity of being here with you.
I have another meeting at three o'clock, so I will not talk any longer.
Mr. GINN. Mr. Chairman?
Mr. METCALFE. Mr. Ginn.
Mr. GINN. I only want to join you and Mr. Snyder in welcoming Dr. Rubinoff and his associates.
Your very fine reputation precedes you and I, like Mr. Synder, would like to know what would happen to Barro Colorado Island in the event the treaty that is in the news is consummated. Mr. Metcalfe. Dr. Rubinoff, do you wish to be the leadoff witness in this proceeding?
Dr. RUBINOFF. Yes.
STATEMENT OF DR. IRA RUBINOFF, DIRECTOR OF THE SMITHSONIAN TROPICAL RESEARCH INSTITUTE; ACCOMPANIED BY DR. A. STANLEY RAND,, ASSISTANT OF THE SMITHSONIAN TROPICAL RESEARCH INSTITUTE; DR. DAVID CHALLINOR,, ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR SCIENCE, SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION; AND MR. JOHN F. JAMESON, ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR ADMINISTRATION, SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION
Dr. RUBINOFF. Thank you, Mr. Chairman. I appreciate the opportunity to appear before you today in support of H.R. 3348, which would raise the amount authorized to be appropriated for the Canal Zone Biological Area. The Canal Zone Biological Area, which is essentially Barro Colorado Island, located in Gatun Lake in the Canal Zone-it is this (indicating) area in the center of the lake, the largest island in the lake is for scientific and administrative reasons, and by means of a process which I shall describe shortly, an integral part of the Smithsonian Institution's Tropical Research Institute. An increase in the limit on appropriations authorized is needed in order to continue operating Barro Colorado as a tropical reserve and research station and to permit a modest program of reconstruction. Barro Colorado Island was formed when the Chagres River was dammed in 1914 to create Gatun Lake during construction of the Panama Canal. In 1923 a group of botanists, zoologists, and medical scientists, who had been brought to the Isthmus of Panama by Colonel William A. Gorgas to investigate diseases such as yellow
95-549 0 77 2
fever, malaria, and the plague, petitioned the Governor of the Canal Zone to reserve an area in the Zone for scientific research. The petition was successful, and the Governor offered the largest island in Gatun Lake to the scientists on which a 6,000 acre reserve and research station was established. Barro Colorado Island, as it was called, was put under the general supervision of the Institute for Research in Tropical America, a unit of the National Research Council, and the first Resident Naturalist was Dr. James Zetek, a specialist on the Anopheles mosquito, who combined administration of the reserve with his continuing work for the Department of Agriculture.
The expenses of the station in the twenties and thirties were paid by subscriptions from a number of North American universities and institutions; fees from visiting scientists; and the generosity of Dr. Thomas Barbor, the Director of the Museum of Comparative Zoology at Harvard, who had provided the initial funds to buy out the three farmers who had settled on the island before it became a reserve.
By 1940 Barro Colorado had acquired a worldwide reputation as a tropical field station, and publications about its flora and'fauna had made it one of the best known pieces of tropical real estate on earth, which, in turn, made it valuable for further research. In that year, Congress authorized the President to establish the Canal Zone Biological Area as a separate agency under a board of directors that incl ded the Secretaries of War, Agriculture, and Interior; the Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution; the President of the National Academy of Sciences; and three eminent biologists.
The Act of July 2, 1940 sought to preserve and conserve the natural features of the Island in order to provide an undisturbed place for scientific research and authorized $10,000 for the administration of the Act and the maintenance of a laboratory and other facilities. Under Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1946 the functions for the Board of Directors of the Canal Zone Biological Area were transferred to the Smithsonian Institution.
The tropics provide unusually favorable opportunities for studies of a variety of subjects and problems of both theoretical interest and practical importance. Generally, these are most productively investigated by comparative methods. To utilize effectively the rich scientific resource represented by Barro Colorado Island-a moist lowland habitat-and to provide an appropriate structure within which to pursue comparative studies of other regions and habitats such as highlands, grasslands, mangrove, coral reefs, and islands, in the Old World as well as the New, the Board of Regents of the Smithsonian Institution created the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute on April 18, 1966.
It was entrusted with the administration of the Canal Zone Biological Area; the development and maintenance of marine laboratories on both the Atlantic and Pacific Coasts of Panama; and the encouragement and support of research throughout the tropics.
It is important to understand the tropics for a variety of reasons, among which is the fact that this region contains the most rapidly growing segment of the human population, and tropical peoples are now changing their environment at an unprecedented rate. We
must understand the complex ecological interactions of tropical forests and coral reefs if we are to mitigate man's increasing impact on these unique habitats and preserve a reservoir of genetic diversity for future generations.
In addition, the tropics contain more species of animals and plants than any other region on earth. For example, there are more species of birds in Panama than in all of the United States and Canada. Indeed, most of the birds inhabiting North America in the summer are migrants from the tropics, merely using the north for nesting.
The fauna and flora of Barro Colorado Island are particularly rich in species, and typical of what similar habitats used to be elsewhere in Panama. There are approximately 1,300 species of vascular plants, and certain species of mammals and birds that are hunted elsewhere are more tame and abundant on Barro Colorado Island. There are about 465 species of land vertebrates recorded from the Island; 310 species of birds (some 200 species breed there), 65 species of mammals, 58 species of reptiles, and 32 species of amphibians.
Several hundred people from the United States and foreign universities and research institutes visit Barro Colorado Island each year, involved in one way or another with the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute's major functions: research, education, and conservation.
Most research on Barro Colorado is done by biologists interested in ecology and in the behavior of the island's plants and animals. However, work is also done by physiologists, anthropologists, psychologists, geologists, geographers, and geneticists.
Barro Colorado Island is attractive to research workers because of the fifty-year accumulation of information about a protected forest preserve that stands a reasonable chance of remaining undisturbed forest; living conditions that are healthful and moderately comfortable; and a community of biologists with which to exchange ideas. The Smithsonian supports the basic maintenance and operating costs of the station, but researchers pay their own living expenses and a laboratory fee. Support for the research itself comes from many sources, such as Smithsonian fellowships or grants from the National Science Foundation, National Institutes of Health, and private foundations.
In 1965 the level of appropriations authorized for the Island was raised from the original $10,000 to $350,000 and we are now seeking a further increase essentially to keep pace with inflation and to provide for some necessary capital improvements on Barro Colorado.
Over the past twelve years costs such as fuel, food, utilities, and salaries associated with Barro Colorado Island have increased. As an example, salaries of launch operators, cooks, and game wardens have increased in a range between 88 and 150 percent since 1965. Furthermore, the introduction of game fish into Gatun Lake has dramatically increased the use of the area for recreational purposes. The increase in population pressure has required STRI to employ additional game wardens to protect Barro Colorado Island against poaching and trespassing.
With respect to capital improvements, there is a need to gradu-
ally convert the existing.wooden structures on Barro Colorado to cement construction in order to provide more sanitary and easily maintained accommodations to preclude periodic replacement caused by termite and dry rot damage. Additionally, there has been a significant trend toward longer term investigations by scientists who need to study variations between the wet and dry seasons and environmental differences from one year to another. Thus, housing more substantial than that which serves scientists on short-term studies, unaccompanied by their families, is required.
A listing of capital projects proposed through fiscal year 1982 is attached to this statement and I shall be happy to discuss these whatever detail the Subcommittee may require.
In the past it has not been our practice to ascribe to Barro Colorado Island any indirect costs, electing instead to subsume these within the general administrative expenses of STRI as a whole. However, the General Accounting Office has recently suggested that such costs be appropriately attributed.
While we are certainly willing to accet that suggestion, we have not yet determined a methodology for doing so. However, application to the current year's operations will probably exceed the existing limitation on appropriations, and will exceed the limit of $600,000 in H.R. 3348 in the near future.
We would, therefore, respectfully recommend that the Subcommittee consider the possibility of a limit on the order of $750,000 or the prospect of removing the limit altogether in view of Barro Colorado's integral relationship to STRI.
In closing, I would like to comment briefly on a matter of obvious concern, the future status of Barro, Colorado Island in light of the current treaty negotiations. It is our hope that, should a treaty be concluded placing the Canal Zone under the responsibility of the government of Panama, the Island would remain a reserve under Smithsonian Institution custodianship and supervision. Its existing status could continue under international agreement and mitht also be protected under the terms of a contract recently signed by the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute and the Government of Panama which gives to STRI official recognition and a number of specific benefits such as tax and customs exemptions for scientific activities carried out in the Republic Panama.
Mr. Chairman, attached to my statement is a list of proposed capital projects and expenditures for Barro Colorado Island for fiscal year 1974 projected through 1982, which I would like to include in the record with your permission.
Mr. METCALFE. It will be done, unless there are objections.
[The complete statement of Dr. Rubinoff, together with attachments follows:]
STATEMENT OF DR. IRA RUBINOFF, DIRECTOR OF THE SMITHSONIAN TROPICAL RESEARCH INSTITUTE
Thank you, Mr. Chairman.
I appreciate the opportunity to.appear befqre you today in support of H. R.,3348 which would raise the amount authorized to be appropriated for the Canal Zone Biological.Area. The Canal Zone Biological Area, which is- essentially 'Barro..Colorado Island, located in Gatun Lake in the Canal Zone, is for sciientificland administrative reasons, -and by means of a process which I shall desvrib.e Whdrtly, an integral part of the Smithsonian Institution's Tropical Research Institute, -An increase in the.limit on appropriations authorized is needed in order, to,.continge operating Barro Colorado as a.tropical reserve and research station and to permit ~ modest program of recosir-ictibs -.
Barro Colorado Island was formed when the Chagres River was dammed in 1914 to create Gatun Lake during construction of -the 1anama Canal. In 1923 a group of botanists, zoologists, and medical scieAtists, who had been brought to the Isthmus of Panama by' Colonel William A. Gorgas to investigate diseases such as-yellow fever, malaria, and -the plague, petitioned the Goverior "of the Canal Zone' to reserve an area i the Zone for scientific research. The'petition was successful, and the Governox
-.offerpd the largest island in Gatun Lake to the scientists on which a 6, OOO acre reserve and research station was established. Barro Colorado Island, as it was called, was put under the general supervision of the
Institute for Research in Tropical America, and the first Resident
Naturalist was Dr. James Zetek, a specialist on the Anopheles mosquito, who combined administration of the reserve with his
continuing work for the Department of Agriculture. The expenses of
the station in the twenties and thirties were paid by subscriptions from
a number of North American universities and institutions; fees from
visiting scientists; and the generosity of Dr. Thomas Barbour, the
Director of the Museum of Comparative Zoology at Harvard, who had
provided the initial funds to buy out the three farmers settled on the
island before it became a reserve.
By 1940 Barro Colorado had acquired a worldwide reputation as a tropical field station, and publications about its flora and fauna had made it one of the best known pieces of tropical real estate on earth, which, in turn, made it valuable for further research. In that year Congress authorized the President to establish the Canal Zone Biological Area as a separate agency under a board of directors that included the Secretaries of War, Agriculture, and Interior; the Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution-, the President of the National Academy of Sciences; and three eminent biologists. The Act of July 2, 1940 sought to preserve and conserve the natural features of the Island in order to provide an undisturbed place for scientific research and authorized $10, 000 for the administration of the Act and the maintenance of a laboratory and other facilities. Under Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1946 the functions of the Board of Directors of the Canal Zone Biological Area were transferred to the Smithsonian Institution.
The tropics provide unusually favorable opportunities for studies
of a variety of subjects and problems of both theoretical interest and practical importance. Generally, these are most productively investigated by comparative methods. To utilize effectively the rich scientific resource represented by Barro Colorado Island- -a moist lowland habitat and to provide an appropriate structure within which to pursue comparative studies of other regions and habitats such as highlands, grasslands, mangrove, coral reefs, and islands, in the Old World as well as the New, the Board of Regents of the Smithsonian Institution created the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute on April 18, 1966. It was entrusted with the administration of theCanal Zone Biological Area; the development and maintenance of marine laboratories on both the Atlantic and Pacific Coasts of Panama; and the encouragement and support of research throughout the tropics.
It is important to understand the tropics for a variety of reasons, among which is the fact that the region contains the most rapidly growing segment of the human population, and tropical peoples are now changing their environment at an unprecedented rate. We must understand the complex ecological interactions of tropical forests and coral reefs if we are to mitigate man's increasing impact on these unique habitats and preserve a reservoir of genetic diversity for future generations. In addition, the tropics contain more species of animals and plants than any other region on earth. For example, there are more species of birds in Panama than in all of the United States and Canada. Indeed, most of the birds inhabiting North America in the summer are migrants from the tropics, merely using the north for nesting.
The fauna and flora of Barro Colorado are particularly rich in
species, and typical of what similar habitats used to be elsewhere in Panama. There are approximately 1, 300 species of vascular plants, and certain species of mammals and birds that are hunted elsewhere are more tame and abundant on Barro Colorado Island. There are about 465 species of land vertebrates recorded from Barro Colorado; 310 species of birds (some 200 species breed there), 65 species of mammals, 58 species of reptiles, and 32 species of amphibians. Invertebrates are present in a proportional variety.
Several hundred people from the United States and foreign universities
and research institutes visit Barro Colorado Island each year, involved in one way or another with the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute's major functions: research, education, and conservation.
Most research on Barro Colorado is done by biologists interested
in ecology and in the behavior of the island's plants and animals. However,
work is also done by physiologists, anthropologists, psychologists, geologists, geographers, and geneticists.
Research currently in progress can be arranged under topics such as social behavior, including communication, sociobiology, and social organization; population ecology, including population fluctuations
and control mechanisms; forest function and structure, including phonology, regrowth, primary productivity, and nutrient cycling; and complex interspecific relationships which include evolution of plants and animals; predator-prey, parasite-host, and herbivore-plant interactions; pollination and seed-dispersal systems; and competition and resource partitioning between and within systems.
Some studies have continued for more than a decade, conducted either by staff scientists or by scientists from elsewhere who visit the island repeatedly. Much research is done on a long-term basis by scientists who come for a year or two, live on the island, and devote full-time to their research. These are usually graduate students working on doctoral theses, recent graduates doing postdoctoral studies, or senior scientists on sabbatical leave. Short-term scientists who stay a week to three months also play an important role. They may be doing a limited research project; part of a project, much of which is done elsewhere; or a pilot study for a long-term project. Visitors who stay only a day or so are seldom able to do research, but are able to learn enough about the island to plan a return visit of longer duration.
Barro Colorado Island is attractive to research workers because
of the fifty-year accumulation of information about a protectedforest preserve that stands a reasonable chance of remaining undisturbed; the juxtaposition of modern laboratory facilities and undisturbed forest; living conditions that are healthful and moderately comfortable; and a community of biologists with which to exchange ideas.
The Smithsonian supports the basic maintenance and operating
costs of the station, but researchers pay their own living expenses and a laboratory fee. Support for the research itself comes from many sources, such as Smithsonian fellowships or grants from the National Science Foundation, National Institutes of Health, and private foundations.
In 1965 the level of appropriations authorized for the Island was raised from the original $10, 000 to $350, 000, and we are now seeking a further increase essentially to keep pace with inflation and to provide for some necessary capital improvements on Barro Colorado.
Over the past twelve years costs such as fuel, food, utilities,
and salaries associated with Barro Colorado Island have increased. As an example, salaries of launch operators, cooks, and game wardens have increased in a range between 88 and 15056 since 1965. Furthermore. the introduction of game fish into Gatun Lake has dramatically increased the use of the area for recreational purposes. The increase in population pressure has required STRI to employ additional game wardens to protect Barro Colorado Island against poaching and trespassing.
With respect to capital improvements, there is a need to gradually convert the existing wooden structures on Barro Colorado to cement construction in order to provide more sanitary and easily maintained accommodations and to preclude periodic replacement caused by termite and dry rot damage. Additionally, there has been a significant trend toward longer term investigations on Barro Colorado Island by scientists who need to study variations between the wet and dry seasons and environmental differences from one year to another. Thus, housing more substantial than that which serves scientists on short-term studies, unaccompanied by their families, is required.
A listing of capital projects proposed through fiscal year 1982
is attached o tnis statement and I shall be happy to discuss 4-hese in
whatever detail the subcomr-nittee may require.
In the past it has not been our practice to ascribe to Barro Colorado Island any indirect costs, electing instead to subsume these within the general administrative expenses of STRI as a whole. However, the General Accounting Office has recently suggested that such costs be appropriately attributed. While we are certainly willing to accept that suggestion, we have not yet determined a methodology for doing so. However, application to the current year's operations will probably exceed the existing limitation on appropriations, and will exceed the limit of $600, 000 proposed in H. R. 3348 in the near future.
We would, therefore, respectfully recommend that the subcommittee consider the possibility of a limit on the order of $750, 000 or the prospect of removing the limit altogether in view of Barro Colorado's integral relationship to STRI.
In closing, I would like to comment briefly on a matter of obvious concern, the future status of Barro Colorado Island in light of the current treaty negotiations. It is our hope that, should a treaty be concluded placing the Canal Zone under the aegis of the Government of Panama, the island would remain a reserve under Smithsonian Institution custodianship and supervision. Its existing status could continue under international agreement and might also be protected under the terms of a contract recently signed by the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute
and the Government of Panama which gives to STRI official recognition and
a number of specific benefits such as tax and customs exemptions for
scientific activities carried out in the Republic of Panama.
This concludes my statement, Mr. Chairman, but I would
welcome the opportunity to respond to any questions you may have.
PROPOSED cApr::p POJCTS
1974 Iastallatio, off ecergeancy generator 10,1000
1975 .Renovation off maia laboratory building 28,000
Reconstruction off boathouse and pier 7,0
1976 franmiy renovation. This is a winch dran cart to pull supplies from the lake level to the toDo
o the hill It rej?1aces a system built in 1927'which is now -,safe. .Phase I J7,ob
Inst allation, off a telephone system to replace
pres 'eat -unreliable redito system. 140000
1977- Tza=-ay renovation. ]Phse !1 9,976
Coust,*. o-ff Prel Stora~e Area1,0
Con.st. of' SilberSied imsect. 2,.500
Remodel lower house 1,500
Rebuild ca-mDetz7 stoage area 2,000o
Baeber house 1,500
Kitchen renovation 1,500
ZMA Eou~se- 500
Eask.ins house 500 22,000
19-38 Renovation of Patr ocinjio Is ic use 2.,000
Renovation off Vitolz's house .'1,0
1979 Replacem.ent o 'L dorm t ory bui it in 19214. 125,.000
1030 ~e1-cement of' dinz~ ),*IT and ice facilities
-dith more =oder-,, sanitary facilities 169,500
191Relacement off cu--ren- sntit.r sewage system
with modezru non-voll-atirng sanitar-y treatment facility -50,000
CC= ltiion off remodeliag+ of labooratory b dig 5,0
Construction off new 1ong-t-ermu staff scientist residence 35,00
15,32 Reconstruction off anqla holding facilities 35,00
Construction off plant growth facilities 20,000
Construction o 'L forest canopy access *towers and -walivay 25,'000
EXPENDITURES FOR BAR20 COLORADO ISLAND FY 74-FY 82
OPZRATLNG (1) CAPITAL SOURCE OF
EXPENSES PROJECTS FUNDS TOTAL
FY 74 221,000 $ 10,000- S & E $ 231,000
FY 75 $ 235,000 $ 45,000 S & E $ 280,000
FT 76 $ 277,000 $ 67,000 S & E $ 344,000
FY 77 $ 305,000 $ 22,000 S & E $ 327,000
FY 78 $ 335,170 $ 17,000 R & R $ 352,000
FY 79 $ 369,000 $_125,000 R & R $ 494,000
VY 80 $ 405,500 $ 169,500 R & R $ 575 1000
7! 81 $ 446,000 $ 120,000 S & E/R & R $ 566,000
.7! 82 $ 491,000. $ 80,000 S & E $ 571,006
(1) Actual /figures-up toFY76 from there we assume a 10Z increment over
"*ra l~~viOU5 year
Dr. RUBINOFF. I would also like to include our brochure on STRI; a statement on applied STRI research; charts on vistors to BCI and STRI, together with data on States, universities and organizations; a publications list for 1960-76; a copy of the contract between the government of Panama and STRI; a list of current research projects by visiting scientists; and a list of current projects by Smithsonian scientists.
The brochure, together with some pictures, the statement on applied research, and some visitor data have been supplied separately to members of the Subcommittee for their consideration and review.
This concludes my statement, Mr. Chairman, but I welcome the opportunity to respond to any questions that you may have.
Mr. Metcalfe. If there are no objections, then this additional material would be included in the record as so requested.
Not hearing objections, it is so ordered.
[The brochure on STRI was placed in the record files of the Subcommittee.]
[The other information just referred to follows:]
PAPERS PUBLISHED ANNUALLY BY EMPLOYEESAND, ASSOCIATES
OF THE SMITHSONIAN TROPICAL RESEARCH INSTITUTE
Attached is a bibliography of publications based upon the work of the staff, associates, and visiting scientists at the* Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute. Those related to work done on Barro Colorado Island are indicated in the left hand margin by S (STRI staff scientist) and A (STRI associate). The latter includes a variety of affiliations such as pre- and post-doctoral fellows receiving support from the Smithsonian Institution.
STRI PUBLICATIONSS 1976
.Abele,-Lawrence G-. "Cozparative Species Richnass and Constant Enviroar ents; Coralr .Associated Decapod Crus tace ans. Science, volume 19Z,
nwober 4238 (1976), pages 461-463.
G.', and I-Vaindall "K. Patt= '"rhe of Coral Heads and the com=uai t :32iolomr 'ofAssociated Decapod Cruscaceasms,." Journal of
io-Re6%rajh* vo lumi I number 1 (1975) pages Ii-47.
-; .-:!rews o i-.. M. "Growth Rate in Island a-rid Maialamd Anoliae Lizards."Co-jeii, number 3, (19 76) pages 477-432.
.Arose=8na M. Dalva H., _"Absorci6a do Radiocarboro en el Gol.o do Pana=j. It, Thesis- Fundaci6n Chiver-aidad 'de Bogota -Jorge 'Zadaia to-anoV -Facultad
-do -a ancias dal' t '-1975.
Be rts ch R; "Dis trib Ut-I onal and -knatamical Ob 3 a v a t 10 n s of Berthell a (0-, is th. 070 r C11 ii No t as -j i dw a a) 7h -a tJ: I s 89 9 73)
"Few Data. an MrTca callista (Gastropoda: Ca-P Ulidae) Mie Velizer
Volt is ntsb or'- 1: (19 73) pages 907w-11010.
.3irkeland, Charles, -Axada A.- Reimer, and Joyce Rede=ska Youn&9. IISUZVey, of
Marine Cozm:unitias in Panama and _! xp9==ents th Oil." Ecolo2ica!
Research Seriss, rI.?A-600/3-76-023, 1970, 177 3a;as.
Bonaccorso, Fi:,nk J. "Foraging amad Rai-, r--d,--c 'Ecolo3y iint a Cc of
Bats in Pana-a.lr Mhesis, Universit-I of
.Zoyden, 'rhomas C. "!:PUC-._.3-rfIy and =.par"! a- 3
Ca analla, Paul J. "The Evolution of 'Hating Systecs in Tamperato Zc ae
Draaonflies,(Odonata: Ani-soptera) 11:-Libellula luctocsa (Burnsistar)
Behaviour, volume 54, nu--ber 4 (1973), pages 278-310.
C'--, '-.e, Richard. 'El Hom.*bre 7*la Tierra ia il Panama' 'PrrehistSric ." -!
Ra-vista *Nacional, de Cultura, -nu:nber 2 (1976)1, pages 17-38CrAat, Thomas B.-,.,"Flacourtiaceaa-NL-j to ?an ama Casearia and Xvlosza."
Ann a' s of the -Iissouri Bot-an"I ca1 number 2 (1975)-,
Behavior o f- labit and H a b t a Cla-ses on Barro, Colorado Island (Panama Canal Zoae) 34otro:)ica, -,roiu- J. -urber 4
(i9 115),, pages 270-277.,
Rac-tside=atioa of -r4 -M 4 a ci-oo (A. Juss.) C-'^.- (Meliaceae).
A:,-= as Bo-tanic-l jG=rdea.. voi,=a 07,' ==ber 2 (1975),
?ages 1- 4? 05
: ra-ssiar, R zbezt "I t Graws 1;-a 4n tne Tzaas; --Ra-117 DOes Z-4. a a
S e lbv Gardan 31,11etip, voiu--e 2 (19 7 3) ->ages 22-23Geaero Nida- Orqlj- --aa (Y-ex.) vol=a 5 (1973), pages
235-239--,,-"Notas Sobre No=enclaturas de !as Orquidicaas-VI-" Orquidea.
VOILI-- 5' nucbeir 5 (1973) ?agas- I-IT 1406.
a In First SV :A=
"The Use o -f ?o 1 nari a in 0 -r (: h i d S.vste:2 "t-ics." I
on the Scientific-Asoects 0 z Orc7h4,--:s, Sout'nfield, edited by
Ha=rv Szmanz: and J. Decroit, 1970.
James We--:)'e. :i-vers t7 Of
"Jacquiz na--s-aa4n. 7 ::On VOL=e t=!: er 3/6 (1973)
P z as 0-1
"Proposal for the Conservation of the Generic- Name 1779 On-f dit=
Swartz (Orchidaceae) with"a Conserved Type Species, Oncidium altissiumum.
Sw. Taxon.- volume 24,-,humber,,5/6,(l975), pages 692-693.
6 _d6nservaiioa- -4c Name 1393b
Proposal .for th' of the'Geaet
Phragmioedium Rolfe (1896) (Orchidaceae), against Uropedium Lindley
(1846). Ta'xon, vo i uma, 24, number 5/6- (1975) pages. 691-692-.
Eberhard" M=7 jane- West. "Born: 'Sociobiolog7." (A review). Quarterly
7 a ..ri eI4 Of- Biology-31 Voll-n& 51, number 1 (1975), 0*aes .89-92"Est-adios de las AvisDas Sociales (Hymeno'ptera, Vespidae) del
Valle del Cauca..' I. Objetivos, YAtodos y Notas para Facilitar la !dentificati'n de Especies C omun e's Cesoedesia, -volume 4_-(1975) ,
pa3es 7 -43-267.*
G. "T neIEcologyAa=.-_4 Balhavior of. a Subsocial Pentatomid
_,I a=d ^o -strategy in a Host
3u-, 1-1-o Scelionid WasDs:, Strata,- tar
t'. s Parasites. S Mi t-. I s 0 n contri-0--c ut=ber '03
Ii bulletin of the Brit
"?Ihotogrraphy of Orb -Web s in the 7 eld." _B i s h
Arach=o1ogical Societv-,. -vollrnp 3 (19 76) 'pages ZOO-204.
Gli-zicz, Z. and Biesiadka,, E. "'Pelagi.- Water- Zdtes (Uyd-racarina)'and
heir 1---ffedt-on "the --PlAnkton- Community -in -a Neotropical Pan- Made J_ a.
-A.-ch,&-r fuer H,7drobioIo3ie,,vo1=e 76,. number' l (1975), pa0IQ 63-88.
Peter W_ "A New Shallow-Wacer SeroliC4 (Isopoda: 'Y"a7bellifara) from
th a Pa.: -_:fic Coast of Panama." Journal of I-latural Historv vol=a ]1031
n=bar 1 (1976), pa-ges 7-16.
95-540 0 77 3
__ "M4e Coral. Reef Community."n Enccycopedia Britanuica, Yearbook of
Science'and the 'Future, 1976,pRages '202-219.
Go.~s, R. D.' "Fuagi of. Barro Colorado 131a'ad New aad lntere stir
:7h oiy a t e s Canadian* Journal of Botany, volume 53, number' 24 (1973)
Go re, PRobert Hi. "Patrolisthes zacae HI~ai&,-1963 (Crustacaa, Decapoda,
?orcellaaidae): The- Development, of Lax-ae 1n the Laboratory." Pacif ic
a:~nce, vol~z 29, nu=zber 2 (1975), pales 181.-196.
Go~aGeorge C., Yung J. -Kiz and Roberta. Rubiaof f "Genetic RPatioaships
Of Three Species of Batwgobius from the.Atlantic and Pacific Sides of
'~- 'Coteia, number 2 (1976), pages 361-364'.
G r a=, Je.*ey 3 -"Respiratory, Adapt ations of 'Ma" i=e Air-Breathilng ies.
ZT ?.e~ration of A~mvhibious Verteb3rates, edited b7 G. 14. Hughes. N-aw
:r:Acadaaic ?ress, 1976.
______ "eog1obin Concentrations of Ai 3reatbin3 Fishzes-" American
Zoolo ~ 16, ntx~er 2 (19706), page 192, abstract 73.
Ea:k, Kenneth L. "Comunity St* cture and Effects of ?ollutioa in& SeaCrass ?Ieadows and Adj acent Habitats.", Marine Biology, vol.me 35, numar
___-"Sore Critical Considpratioris of the Theory of pecies Packing."
z;~tionar-7 Theory7, volu~e 1 (1976), pages 247-258.
_____*"Comoarative Comunity Organization inTr plical ai eprt
::;_=-Grass (7h a!a~s aa testudinrn) Mazs"Th-esis, Thp 71*rida State
are, Gordo-:, L. "Ada-iioial S-; -gnicaaze of :h- ?Iaterns of O'Thiuroid
Developmeat." -.=ericai Zoologist, 1zo -5 kS~) p ag a 6 91- 715.
Her--ing, Jon, L.- "A Now Genus and Species of Cylapiclao from Panama
(Ileniptera: Mi radea). Proceedings of the Eutomological-Society of
Washiniton,, volume 78, number' 1 (1976), pages 91-94.
Va r:Janes R. and' Frances C. James "Eco-Elorpholosical Configuretion
a i!d Converger-t Evolution'inSpecies and Comuiies." In Ecolb&Z and
Evolution of Cotmmunities, edited by Miartin L. Cody and Jared Mr. DiamondCambmi dge, U!asachusetts:*. H"jarvard Unaiversity Press, 1975.A
7?zi;t, *Dennis H. "A. Phytosociologica4. Analysis: oE Siecie.s-Ricb Tropical
.ores%. on Barro Colorado Island,' PanAma." Ecological Moniographs,
79o 45, nuber 3 (175-pages 259 -284.
Laid L 5, a'g n ) J a~s "Ext~ensioni Rate: A Primary
control on -the Isotropic. Composition of.West Indian .(Janair-an)
SC a--a czna I eef. Coral Skeleto-As. Xkrine. Biolacr, volume 33 (1973),
ac,. ."On the .?a-versal o F t--e, Coverin3 Rzs-ponse in Lytechintz
variza-hus.(,Astract). Florida N:turalis, volt-.e 39, uuaber 2,
La.-rence, john .. _"Covering Response in Sea Urchins." ?ature, voliue 262,
ni~ber 2268 -(1916), pages 490-491.
T -Ck, Carlps- F. ;,eights of Mirnsand Resident, Birds in Pau'ama."
________volume 46 (1973)-, pages 201-203.'
L_.3, E4bert G. "Population Fluctuations, Conrnnity Stability, and
r-ior.ental Variability." In Eco-;z--y and E-volu:ion of' Co~tites,
e_"ited b-7 '.arrtin L.- Cody and Jaraid Diamond. Ca~brid, e. 'asa~sects:
a 7--a r _; -Prss, 1 75, --.i 17N
(Review) -Sax snd Evolution. by George C., Williams,# American
Scienti3t, vol=*.64 (1976)- 'pages 214-216
"Structura-axid. Climate -i Tropical.. Raim 'Fo st. Annual Review
of Ecoloxy-ana Systematics,, volume, 6. (1975 :, pages, 67-46.'
Z -ares Olga F'' "Fro *the Late Preceramic. ta_ the Early Formative in the Tatermediate-Area.: Some Issues and Z-4a c h o do lo i as Proceedings of
the tirst Puerto Rican Sv=osium 0 n 'ArchAeo1:o!ZV,- report 1 (19 76) j?ages 63-77.Anima-les No Comestibles Son T-,miblas." 'Revista.Nacional da
Cultura,"nuther 2* (1976)v pages
1 :bin, Yaal D. "Stabilimenta and Barrier Webs ia tha'Orb U abs of -Ar7io,>
ar*gcj-.tata (Axz-eae,.A_-aneidae) on 1 a-ohne and Santa Cruz Islands,
Gala-aa2os." Tournal o-;2 Arach=oiczv, volt.-,,a 2 (1975j, pages-119-US.
L. "Thler=oregulation a---: to T*e-_nerature in
Drz4;oaflias (0donata: Anisoptera)." 7cologiza.! !!oraagraphs, Voltrw 46
(19706) pages. 1-32. .
Zatharine. 'Tr =a-Rulbbing im the 'Mancled Rowler Monkey Aluotta
Dalliata.", Folia'Pri=atologica, volu=a 23 (1973),,pages 105-112.
I=on,* Katharine, and Michael L. May. "Body- eight, Diet and Boue Ran&&
Area in Primates." Nature, volume 259 (1976), pages 1459-1-62_Zrrason, Douglas Wildes. "The Foragi=& Baha-7ior aad Feer"a", EC0103V 0 f-.
A 'Neotropical Fri_,it Bat, Artibe,_-, ja=aiceasis." Thesis, Corne,11
Uni ve rs it7, Ithaca, York, 1973.
ar. .0o.. "3 R-no Colo rado is a *In s 's Rala
Saithsorian, volw-e 6, n=-"Der 5 53-62.
~ayihai, artia. "Cocservatism of Displays and Corparable Stereotyped ?atterms Amon& Cephalopods." In F~ction and Evolution in Behaviour, edited b7 G.' Baerends, C. Beer and -A. X~anning. Oxford: Clatendou ?re'ss, 1973, -pages 276-291.
___*"The 'New 'World Primates,." Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton
a;Versi t- Press,' 1976.
____* ."otes on- the Ecology- and-Bahav-ior of. the Pygmy Marmoset (Cebuella
-:;z-ae-a) in Amazonian.Coloabia." In 'Neocr=oa-ical Primates: Field Studies rzi Csezr7arion,- edited by R. W. Tho=ington, Jr., and P. G. Hel-na.
_,ationall-Academy of .Sciences, Washington, D.C., 1976, pages 79-84 ~ i1A7! and A. Stanley Rand. "'Agov~istic Behavior in Nes ting SA Stochasti c~Aay of =Dis-)u-e Settle~eat Dominated b7
~z~aof EzergZ Cost." Zelits&.rift fuer Tierosvchologie,,
-0e (2.3705) gage,-S 279-299.
AIer, -_hcz_- J. 'The "?recerprn~c o.E -?zaa: Mhe Vi.eo f-rom the Interior." ?roce---:=zs ,0 the Fiat "Puerto Rican S v--,osium oi Archaeology, report 1
19T), pages 103-135.
:~.e~r ada A- "Description of a Tetraclita salactifera panamensis
C~riry on a Rocky Intertidal Pacifi Shore of Panama-" Marin 3i*olocv, volumep 35, number 3 (1975), 'pages 1-25-238.
_____ of 'Crude Oil on Corals." -Marina Pollution Bulletin,
volu-n 6, n,'-ber .3 (1975), pages _39-43.
_____ tafcts of Crude. Oil on the Feeding Be'haviour czthe Zoanthid
:~e3 (S),pages 233-265.
_____"Succession -of Invertbrates in Vacant Tests of TetracliJta
stalactifer panamesis.P M~arine BioloSX, voltene 35, number 3 (1976),
Reier'Roger D., and Amada A. Reimer. "Crie~ical Control of Feeding in.
-our Species of Tropical Ohiuroids of %-he Genus O-jhiodezria-'
Comarative Biochermis try and Phvsiolozr volune 51A (1975), pages
?.Li:2e_-fs, Robert E., and Kevin CtBourka. "Asoect Diversity ia M4oths: A
:e"'aperate-Tropical Coi~arison.1 Evolution, voltne 29, number 2 (1975),
7':)1..no, lefichael H.., and Thane Prat:A. "The ?hextolcgy of liexacentrus
z~&~("Y. Walker) at. Wau, Papua, Nlew Guiaea (Orthoptera, Tettigoanjidae) 1
?-C2, 4-0.e 82 (1975), pages 313-323.
_4_;Ch_=e1 H., and 3arbara ?_zb4i7.scn: "The 7Ezolog- and Behavior ofl
e n~ =,a c La ra: A Stn)?p_-erent.it S-!; :*So-"_:_- Coztz ib:utions to Zoology,
==-er 21.9 (1976).
____-"Evolution Beyo-nd t~he Orb --.ib: T7he Web of the Arazeid Spider
?asilobus sp., Its Structure, Operation and Cons truct6oa. Zoological
journal of the Linnean Society, -,vol~e 56, nuber 4 (1973), pages 3231-314.
____-"Technies in Field Studies of Soiders." Bullazi- of ah B-it-ish Azachmo'_ozi call Society, valu~e 3 (1975), ?agers 160-216.
?.~zofIra. (R.eview) The 3Jolog7 of See Snakes, by 7,;i~lis A. flunsan.
:,-e volize 191 (1976), pages 555-556.
Scott,.-No=-qn. J., Don- E-' Wilson, clyde Joues, and Robin M. Aadrelds "Ihe
Choice of.Perch Dimensioni.by Lizards of the Genus.Anolis (Raptilia,
Lacertil *a',',, I iwnidaa) Journal' of HerpetoloIXI,- volume 10, number 2
(19 76) pages 7.5 8 4'."'
Saxton,%Owein J. Vultures feeding an Iguaaa Eggs in P.-uacLi."
Ame'rican--Midland Naturalist, 'olune 93,_number (1975), pages 463-467.J*Iberalied' Robert E. J t. i s u ti bh-ahd'. Recording of Long-wave Ultraviolet
-action fr6m Natural- Majects- Par- I." Functiznal T
volume ll,. number -2 '(19 76), pages 20, 24-29.
"'71sualization'4nd-R I co I rding of-Long OaVe .,LrItraviolet Reflec tion
Lrom NNatural.6bJects Part 2.' funct ',onal ?hoto.zravh7, volume
3 (19 76) pages;31-33,.
Snith, ?. "Altitudinal Seed Ecotypes in W. a Vecezuelaa Andes .
A=e r--' c 2id-1=dNat-:r=Iist, '-vo",=e.94 la
"Ensec. ?ollinatdon an* Hal a- 11 o C ro-O is M in 0-74-troi: hiu=
(Coqpositae) of-the A-dean Paramo. Biotr"ica, voli-e 7, number 4,
(1973) pa gas 234-286.
PRasponse of Plants of an Andean Paran Species to an Axtificlal.
let,. Season. Bulletin. of the Torrq Botanical' Club.,j -volume 102, number1 (1975), pages 28-30.
"Veaetative Psproduc-tive and Close Packin,, in a Succ'essional
Plant Species." 'Nature,: volt---e 26, a=ber 5337 (1976), pages 232-233t'- e 1. .1 te-L; r,
Bernice Ruth- "Re-Droduct4-ua Strategies i-, i __S
.e?-3 -7 '1
3at." Tiaesis, Com2- 'Un tj _-ca. Ya -r Ycr'. 19
1-horington, Richard W. Jr. Xancy A. Muckeahirn, and G. Gene llout&omory.
vements of a Wild Night, Honkey (Aatus. trivirzatus)." Tn Neotmical, as; ervation', edited b Ri U. Thorington,
._ mates: Field S tudi and' Cons y
and F. C. "Heltne.' -National.Acadepy of Sciences, Washia;;toa,- D.C. ,
1976,' pages 32-34.71.*Eric S. '.'Vertical Mlovements and Development Of theProlarvae of
t:ne' kleotrid'Aili," b6rmita t'O'r latif,r'Oni." Co.oeia.' uumb ir 3 '(19 75)
"Terrestrial Grazing by the Eastez-m Trop-ical Pacific Goby
Gobionellus- sa3ittula.-" Coveia, n=ber 2 (19706), pages .374-377. _ase" Jeffrey K., and-G. Gene viontgomery. Cr7ntoses choloeoi: A
Co": rona2ous Moth that Lives on a Sloth." Sc.Eence, -7ol,--.e 193, n=ber
243 (1375), ?.ages 1.57-153.
7 *:, _-_ Z .
R., D. Rcss Robertson, and G. Ifsex atarn-a
a d S a =:a I Sielection." ScIence, vol=e 190, 4215 (1975)31
ean leamo r and 'Iho -1. Zaret. g Effects in N
ia.Gat-m Lake, Panama."' 'Verb andl=gen der Imter-ationalan Vereinim
.i.uer U=61ogie, volu. 19 (1975), pages -!,-80-1483.
riores H., and Robert L. Dress! r. &A.31ossine Pollinatioc of
1 7)athinhvlum (Araceae)." Selbyana, volu=e 1 (1976) paga s 34 9-356.
Donald and Stephen T-. Ealen. "I"Iredator-Pray, Intera tions or
'-It 2n.1 'O-afledglina Banic Swallows and 'Keszrals." Condor,
77 (1975), pa:_ss 331?_361.
'i~so,.Donald Mi., editor. "Environcsatal Xmiaerf" and Baseline Data;
Tropical Studies." (Compiled under the -Siwoi TZstitition.
Environmental Science Progra6' Wahacs$0ua Institution,
19 75, 409 pages..
Zsaot, Thom"s ?L- StraSxiew. for Wa~wos of isp~s ry1
Homogeneous Envrowuuts."- VebiddL= dat M CIGAa* !eroiux un
fuer. U102ie -volizue 1 ("975), a 16i4N
STmI ?UBLICATI0ONS 1975
Abele, Lavrence G. The nacruran decaood Crustacta off Malpelo Island.
Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology 176:69-85.
Bertsch, Hans. Additional data for t-.o dorid nudibr-~chs from the
southern Caribbean Seas. The Vellier 17:!4105-417.
*Distributional and anatcn-,-cal obser-rations of Berthie11a tupala
T5)sthobranchia: iNotaspidea). The Nautilus 89:124-126.
_____*Bev data on Thyca callista (Gastropoda: Catulid,-e). The
Veliger 18: 99-100.
Birkeland, Charles, David L. Meyer, James P. Stamnes and Caryl L. Buford.
Subtida. comities off Yalpelo Island. Sithsonian Contributions
to Zoolosy 176:55-68.
A Bonaccorso, Frank J. Foraging and reproductive ecology in a commuity
of bats in Panama. Thesis (P~rD.) U.niversit-y of Florida, 122p.
Cioanella, Paul J. The evolution off mating systems in tempe-.-te zone
dragonflies (Odonata: Anisopter.) II: Libefl-Tula luctuosa (Burmeister)
Behaviour 54- 278-310.
A Croat, Thomas B. and Philip Busey. reographical affinities of the Barro,
Co2lorado Island flora. Brittonia 27:127-135.
Dana, T.F. Development of contemporary eastern Pacific coral reefs.
Marine Biology 33:355-374s.
Dressier, Robert L. and Eric Hagster. Una especie nueva, del sur de
Mixico: ReI.Zoriella guerrewresis. 0rquidets, (gx.) 5:35-142.
Dressler, Robert L. Nomenclatural notes on the OYfchidaceae '1I. Orquidea,
*Notas sobre nomenclatura, de las orquidiceas VI. Crquidea (mek.)
_____and Norri3 H. Williams. Proposal for the conservation of the
generic nace 1779 Oncidlum Svartz (Orchidacese) -eith a conserved type
3peci.es, OZncidium altissimum Sv. Taxon 24i:692-693.
_____and Norris H. Williwns. Proposal for the conservation of tvie
sen~kric name 1393b Phragmi~ediu= Rolffe (130.6) ('rchidaceae), against'
Uropedium Lindley (1846). Taxon 24:691-692.
_____and BJorris H. Wil~liams Jac-.uin names again. Taxin 24':647-650.
Eberhard, Mary Jane West. The evolution of social behavior by k~n selection. Qixiaterley Reviev of Biology 50:1-33.
Eberhard, William G. The ecology and behavior of e subsocial pentatomid
bug and two scelionid wasps: strategy and co'mterstrategy in a host
and its parasites. Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology 205:1-39.
The "inverted ladder" orb web Scoloderus sp. and the intermediate orb of Eustala (?) sp. Araneae: Printidae. Journal of Natural
A Elton, Charles S. Conservation and the low population density of
invertebrates inside neotropical rain forest. Biological Conservation
Glynn, Peter W., Deborah M. Dexter and Thomas E. Borwan. Exirolama
braziliensis, a Pan-American sand beach isopod: taxonomic status, zonation and distribution. Journal of Zool:gy, Lond. 175:509-521.
Graham, J.B. Biological investigation of Malpelo Island, Colombia.
Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology 176:1-8.
Heat exchange in yellow fin (Thunnus albacares) and skipjack
(Vatsuwonus pelamis) tunas and the adaptive significance of elevated
body temperatures in scombird fishes. Fishery Bulletin 73:219-229.
John H. Gee and Fred S. Robinson. Hydrostatic and gas exchange
functions of the lung of the sea snake Pelamis platurus. Comparative
Biochemistry and Physiology 50A:477-482.
A Haines, Bruce. Impact of leaf-cutting ants on vegetation development
at Barro Colorado Island. In: Golley, Frank B. and Ernesto Medina
(eds.) Tropical ecological systems: trends in terrestrial and aquatic
research. Springer-Verlag, New York. pp.99-11.
A Nespenheide, Henry A. Selective predation by two swifts and a swallow
in Central America. Ibis 117:82-99.
Jones, M.L. and K. Rltzler. Invertebrates of the upper chamber, Gat-n
Locks, Panama Canal, with emphasis on Trochospongilia leidii (Porifera)
Marine Biology 33:57-66.
A Karr, James R. and Frances C. James. Eco-morphological configurations
and convergent evolution in species and communities. In: Cody, Martin
L. and Jared M. Diamond (eds.) Ecology and evolution of communities.
Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Mass. pp.258-291.
A Production, energy pathways, and community diversity in forest
birds. In: Golley, Frank B. and Ernesto Medina (eds.) Tropical ecological systems: trends in terrestrial and aquatic research.
Stringer-Verlag, New York. pp.i61-176.
Kiester, A. Ross, George C. Gorman and David Colon Arroyo. Habitat
selection behavior of three species of Anolis lizards. Ecology 56:
A Knight, Dennis H. A phytosociological analysis of species-rich tropical
forest on Barro Colorado Island, Parama. Ecological Monographs 45:
Land, L.S., J.C. Lang and D.J. Barres. Extension rate: a primary control
on the isotopic composition of West Tndian (Jamaican) seleractinian
reef coral skeletons. Marine Biology 33:221-233.
J.C. Lang and B. N. Smith. Preliminary observations on the carbon
isotopic composition of some reef coral tissues and symbiotic zooxanthellae. Limnology and Oceanography 20:283-287.
A Leck, Charles F. Weights of migrants and resident birds in Panama.
S Leigh, Egber G. Structure and climate in tropical rain forest. Annual
Review of Ecology and Systematics 6:67-86.
S Population fluctuations, community stability, and environmental
variability. In: Cody, Martin L. and Jared M4. Diarond (eds.) Ecology
and evolution of communities. Harvard University Press, Cambridge,
Linares, Olga F. Current research, Central America. American Antiquity
____, Payson D. Sheets and E. Jane Rosenthal. Prehistoric agriculture
in tropical highlands. Science 187:137-145.
Macintyre, Ian G. A diver-operated hydralic drill for coring submerged
substrates. Atoll Research Bulletin 185:21-21s.
Macurda, D.B. And D.L. Meyer. The microstructure of the crinoid endoskeleton. University of Kansas, Paleont. Contrib. 74:1-22.
McCosker, John E. and C.E. Dawson. Biotic passage through the Panama
Canal, with particular reference to fishes. Marine Biology 30:343351.
.and R.H. Rosenblatt. Fishes collected at Malpelo at Malpelo
Island. Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology 176:91-93.
A Milton, Katharine. Urine-rubbing in the mantled howler monkey Alouatta
palliata. Folia Primatologica 23:105-112.
S Montgomery, G.G. and M.E. Sunquist. I pact of sloths on neotropical
forest energy flow and nutrient circling. In: Golley, Frank B. and
Ernesto Medina (eds.) Tropical ecological systems: trens in terrestrial and aquatic research. Springer-Verlag, New York. pp.69-98.
A Morton, Eugene S. Ecological sources of selection on avian sounds.
American Naturalist 109:17-34.
A Moser, Don. Barro Colorado is a Noah's ark in the rain forest.
Moy:rnihan, M. Conservatism of displays and comparable stereotyped
patterns among cephalopods. In: Baerends, Gerard, Colin Beer and
Aubrey Manning (eds.) Function and evolution in behaviour.
ClarendQn Press, Oxford. pp.276-291.
Rand, A. Stanley and Robin Andrews. Adult color dimorphism and
Juvenile pattern in Anolis cuvieri. Journal of Herpetology 9:257260.
George C. Gorman and William M. Rand. Natural history,
behavior, and ecology of Anolis agassizi. Smithsonian Contributions
to Zoology 176:27-38.
Reimer, Amada A. Effects of crude oil on corals. Marine Pollution
Reimer, Roger and Amada A. Reimer. Chemical control of feeding in four
species of tropical ophiuroids of the genus Ophioderma. Comparative
Biochemistry and Physiology 51A:915-927.
A Ricklefs, Robert E. and Kevin O'Rourke. Aspect diversity in moths: a
temperate-tropical comparison. Evolution 29:313-324.
A Seasonal occurrence of night-flyring insects on Barro Colorado
Island, Panama Canal Zone. Journal of the New York Entomological
Robertson, D.R. and J.H. Choat. Protoginous hermaphroditism in fishes
of the family Scaridae. In: Reinboth, R., (ed.) Intersexuality in
the animal kingdom. Springer-Verlag, New York. pp.263-283.
S Robinson, Michael H. The evolution of predatory behavior in araneidspiders. *In: Baerends, Gerard, Colin Beer and Aubrey Manning (eds.)
Function and evolution in Behaviour. Clarendon Press, Oxford.
and B. Robinson. Evolution beyond the orb web: thd web of the
areneid s6der Pasilobus sp., its stricture, operation and construction.
Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 56:301-314.
A Sexton, Oven J. Black vultures feeding on iguana eggs in Panama.
Aerican Midland Naturalist 93:463-6T7.
Seymour, C., P.A. Webb, P.H. Peralta and G.G. Montgomery. Arbovirus
field studies on Panamanian sloths. Paper presented Nov. 13 at the
annual meeting of the American Society of Tropical Medicine and
Hygiene, New Orleans. 9?.
Smith, Alan P. Altitudinal seed -ecotypes in the Venezuelai Andes.
American Midland Naturalist 94~:2l4T-250.
_____*Insect pollination and heliotropism in Qritrophium. limnopbljum
(Compositae) of the Andean Pareamn. Biotropica :284-286.
_____*Response of plants of in Andean pRars.'o s-pecies to am- artificial
wet season. Bulletin of the Tmorrey Botsanical CluYb 102:28-30.
S Smith, Neal G. "Spsbing noise": biological sigaificance of its
attraction and nonattraction by birds. Proceedin~S of th~e National
Academy of Sciences 72:1411-1414.
Todd, Eric S. Vertical movements amd. development of the proJlarvae of
the eleotrid fish Dormitator latifrons. Copeia 1975;564-~568.
Warner, Robert R. The adaptive sigiifficance of s qu'ential hermaphroditism in animals. American Naturalist 109:61-,82.
_____*The reproductive biology of the -p'rotoglious her-naphrodite Plmelometopon pulchrua (Pisces: Labridae). Fishery Bulletin T3:
____D. Ross Robertson and Egbert G. Leigh. Sex change 'and sexual
selection. Science 190:633-638.
Wolda, Henk. Ecosystem of Malpelo Island. Sm~ithsonian Contributions
to Zoology 176:21-26.
Zaret, Thomas M. and W. Charles Kerfoot. Fish predation on Boszrdna
longirostris: body-size selection vs. visibility.. Ecology 56:
February 27, 1976.
STRI PUBLICATIONS 1974
Abele, Lawrence G. "A new species of Sesarma, S. (Holkutopus) Rubinofforw
from the Pacific coast of Panama (Crustacea, Decapoda, Grapsidae)."
Proceedings of the BioZogicaZ Society of Washington, volume 86,
number 27 (1973), pages 333-338.
"Taxonomy, distribution and ecology of the genus Seearm,
(Crustacea, Decapoda, Grapsidae), in eastern North America, with special
reference to Florida". American MidZand Natuiaalist, volume 90, number 2
(1973), pages 375-386.
S"Species diversity of Decapod Crustaceans in marine habitats."
Eoo-ogy, volume 55, number 1 (1974), pages 156-161.
Abele, Lawrence G. and Robert H. Gore. "Selection of a lectotype for
AkgaZobrachiwn gr=Ziferwn Stimpson, 1958, (Decapoda, Forcellanidae)."
ustaceana, volume 25, number 1 (1973), pages 105-106.
Abele, Lawrence G., Michael H. Robinson and Barbara Robinson. "Observations
on sotmund production by two.species of crabs from Panama (Decapoda,
Gecarcinidae and Pseudothelphusidae)." Crustaceana, volume 25,
number 2 (1973), pages 147-152.
Bohlke, James E. and John E. McCosker. "Two additional West Atlantic gohies
(Genus Gobiosoma) that remove ectoparasites from other fishes."
Obpeia, volume 3 (1973), pages 609-610. ;
Buckman, Nancy S. and John C. Ogden. "Territorial behavior of the striped
parrotfish Scarus croicensis Bloch (Scaridae)." EcoZogy., volume 54,
number 6 (1973), pages 1377-1382.
S Dressier, Robert L. "EZlZeanthus a~'pitatus A name that must be changed, or
is it?" American Orchid Society BuZZletin, volume 42 (1973), pages 419-420.
Dressler, Robert L. and Eric Hagsater. "Una govenia nueva del Estado de
Jalisco: Govenia tequiLana." Orquidea (Mex.), volume 3 (1973), pages
Dresser, Robert L. and Glenn E. Pollard. "Una nueva EcyceZia del sureste
de Mxico." 0rqutdea (Wz.), volume 3 (1973), pages 272-279.
Dressler, Robert L. '"Notas sobre el g6nero Encyclia en Mdxico." Orqusdea (Nex)
volume 3, number 10 (1974), pages 306-313.
A Elton, Charles S. "The structure of invertebrate populations inside neotropical
rain forest." Journal of Ani .. aZ Ecology, volume 42, number 1 (1973),
A Fleming, Theodore H. "Numbers of ummal species in North and Central American
forest communities." EcoZogy, volume 54, number 3 (1973), pages 555-563.
A Gliwicz, J. "A short characteristics of a population of Proechiye semispinosau88 (Tomes, 1860) a rodent species of the tropical rain forest."
BuZZ. de Za Acad. PoZonaie de Sciences, Ser. Science Biology, cl. 2,
volume 21, number 6 (1973), pages 413-418.
Glynn, Peter William. "Ecology of a Caribbean coral reef. The Porites reefflat biotope: Part I. Meteorology and hydrography." Marine BioZOgy,
volume 20 (1973), pages 297-318.
,.. !Ecology of a Caribbean coral reef. The Porites reef-flat
Etdotope: Part II. Plankton community with evidence for depletion."
NI'arine BioZogy, volume 22, number 1 (1973), pages 1-21
.Glynn, Peter W. and Robert H. Stewart. "Distribution of coral reefs in the
Pearl Islands (Gulf of Panama) in relation to thermal conditions."
Limnolpg y and Oceanog'raphy, volume 18, number 3 (1973), pages 367-379.
Gore, Robert H. and Lawrence G. Abele. "Three new species of porcefllanid crabs
(Crustacea, Decapoda, Porcellanidae) from the Bay of Panama and adjacent
Caribbean waters." BuZZetin of Marine Science, volume 23, number 3 (1973),
Graham, Jeffrey B. "Heat exchange in the black skipjack, and the blood-gas
relationship of warm-bodied fishes." Proceedings of the NaturaZ Academy
of Science, volume 70, number 7 (1973), pages 1964-1967.
"Terrestrial life of the amphibious fish Nierpeo macrocephazus.
Marine BioZogy, volume 23 (1973), pages 83-91.
A Hespenheide, Henry A. "A novel mimicry complex: beetle and flies." Jou"hat'
of EntomoZltgy, volume 48, number 1 (1973), pages 49-56.
Kropach, Chaim and John D. Soule. "An unusual association between an ectoproce
and a sea snake." Berpetoogica, volume 29, number 1 (1973), pages 17-19.
Lang, Judith. "Interspecific aggression by scleractinian corals. 2. Why the
race is not only to the swift." BuZetin of Marine Science, volume 23,
number 2 (1973), pages 260-279.
Lehman, John T. and James W. Porter. "Chemical activation of feeding in the
Caribbean reef-building coral M.ontastrea cavernosa." BioZlogical BuZZetin,
volume 145 (1973), pages 140-149.
S Leigh, Egbert G. "The evolution of mutation rates." Genetics SuppZdmen.,
volume 73 (1973), pages 1-18.
dWm Olga F. "Current research: Lover Central America." American
A*tquity, volume 38 (1973), pages 234-235.
"Excavaciones en Barriles y Cerro Punta: nuevos datos sobre
I epoca formativa tardia (0-500 D.C.) en el oeste panameflo."
Aotas del Tercer Simposio de Antropologia, Arqueologia y Etnohis8toria
do Panama, Octubre, 1973.
"From the late preceramic to the early formative in the
intermediate area: some issues and methodologies." First Simposiwn
of ArchaeoZogy and Bistory, Puerto Rico, December, 1973.
"lgawbe: Traditions and change among the western Guaymi of
Panama, by Philip D. Young. (Review)." American Ant hropoLZogiast,
volume 75, number 4 (1973), pages 1011-1012.
"Pre-Columbian man finds Central America: the archaeological
bridge, by Doris Stone (Review." Amerioan Journal of Archaeology,
volume 77 (1973), pages 361-362.
"Revista Espadola de Antropologla Americana (Trabajos y
conferencias), volume 6, ed. by Jose Alcina French." (Review).
American Journal of Archaeology, volume 77 (1973), pages 253-254.
Lubin, Yael D. "'web structure and function: the non-adhesive orb-web of
Cyrtophora moZuccesis (Doleschall) (Aranaea:Araneidae)."
Forma et Functio, volume 6 (1973), pages 337-358.
Nacurda, Donald B. and David L. Meyer. "Feeding posture of modern stalked
crinoids." Natu-re, volume 247 (1974), pages 394-396.
Meyer, David L. "Feeding behavior and ecology of shallow-water unstalked
crinoids (Echinodermata) in the Caribbean Sea." Marine Biology,
volume 22, number 2 (1973), pages 105-129.
8 Montgomery, G.G., W.E. Cochran and M.E. Sunquist. "Radiolocating arboreal
vertebrates in tropical forest." Journal WiLdlife Management,
volume 37, number 3 (1973), pages 426-428.
S Montgomery, G.G., A.S. Rand and M.E. Sunquist. "Post-nesting movements of
iguanas from a nesting aggregation." Copeia, volume 3 (1973), pages
A -Morton, Eugene S. "On the evolutionary advantages and disadvantages of
fruit eating in tropical birds." American Naturalist, volume 107
(1973), pages 8-22.
S Moynihan, Martin H. "The evolution of behavior and the role of behavior in
evolution." Breviora, volume 415 (1973), pages 1-29.
95-549 O 77 4
Ogden, John C. and Nancy S. Buckman. "Movements, foraging groups, and
diurnal migrations of the striped parrotfish Scarnes eolcensis
Bloch (Scaridal)." Ecology, volume 54, number 3 (1973), pages
A Oppenheimer, John R. social and conmunicatory behavior in the Cebzs
monkey. Pages 251-271 in C.R. Carpenter, editor, BehavioraZ
Regulators of Behavior in Primates. Bucknell University Press:
S Ospina H. Mariano, Robert L. Dressier. "OrquIdeas de las Am4ricas."
Fondo de Publicaciones Cientificas, Medellin. Pages 1-496 (1974).
Porter, James W. "Biological, physical, and historical forces
structuring coral reef communities on opposite sides of the
Isthmus of Panama." Thesis 1973, pages 1-146.
Pbrter, James W. and Karen Porter. "The effects of Panama's Cuna
Indians on coral reefs." Discovery, volume 8, number 2 (1973),
A Ricklefs, Robert E. "Ecology." Chiron Press: Newton, Massachuset,
1973. Pages 1-861.
A Ricklefs, Robert E. and John Cullen. "Embryonic growth of the green
iguana Iguana iguarna." Copeia, volume 2 (1973), pages 296-305.
Robinson, Michael H. "The evolution of cryptic postures in insects, with
special reference to some New Guinea tettigoniids (Orthoptera)."
Psyche, volume 80, number 3 (1973), pages 159-165.
S "Insect anti-predator adaptations and the behavior of
predatory primates." Aotas del IV Congreso Latinoamericano do
Zoologia, volume 2 (1973), pages 811-836.
.S "The stabilimenta of Nephila clavipes and the origins of
stabilimentum-building in araneids." Psyche, volume 80, number 4
(1973), pages 277-288.
"The biology of some Argiope species from New Guinea:
I. Predatory behavior and stabilimentum construction." ZoologicaZ
Journal of the Linnean Society, London.
Robinson, Michael H., B. Robinson and Yael D. Lubin. "Phenology, species
diversity and natural history of web-building spiders on three
transects at Wau, New Guinea." Pacific Insects, volume 20 (1974),
Robinson, Michael H. and Barbara Robinson. "Ecology and behavior of the
giant wood spider Nephila ma-ulata (Fabricius) in New Guinea."
Smithsonian Cor.tribution to Zoology, volume 149 (1973), pages 1-76.
Rubinoff, Ira. A sea level canal in Panama. Theme 3 (1973). Pages 1-13,
in Lea consequences bioZogiques des canaux interoceans. XVII Congres
International de Zoologie, Montecarlo, 1972.
Smith, Wayne L. "Rec6rd of a fish associated with a Caribbean sea
anemone." Copeia, volume 3 (1973), pages 597-598.
Todd, Eric S. "Positive buoyancy and air-breathing: a new piscine gas
bladder function." Copeia, volume 3 (1973), pages 461-464.
"A preliminary report of the respiratory pump in the
DactylZoscopidae." Copeia, volume 1 (1973), pages 115-119.
S Williams, Norris H. and Robert L. Dressier. "Oncidiwn species described
by Jacquin and the typification of Oncidiwn." Ta=on, volume 22,
number 2/3 (1973), pages 221-227.
A Willis, Edwin 0. "The behavior of ocellated antbirds." Smithsonian
Contribution to Zoologjy, volume 144 (1973), pages 1-57.
Wolda, Hindrik. "Ecology of some experimental populations of the
landsnail Cepaea nemoralis (L.). II. Production and survival of eggs and juveniles." NetherZ rad Journal of Zoology, volume 32,
number 2 (1973), pages 168-188.
A Zaret, Thomas M. and R.T. Paine. "Species introduction in a tropical
lake." Science, volume 182 (1973), pages 449-455.
Zucker, Naida. "Shelter building as a means of reducing territory size
in the fiddler crab, Uca terpsichores (Crustacea: Ocypodidae)."
American Midland Naturalist, volume 91 (1973), pages 224-236.
STRI Publications 1973
A Batten, Mary, The tropical forest; ants, animals and plants, New York,
Thomas Y. Crowell, 1973.
Bohlke, James E. and John E. McCosker, Two additional west Atlantic
gohies (genus Gobiosoma) that remove ectoparasites from other
fishes. Copela 1973( 3) c 609-610.
Buckman, Nancy S. and John C. Ogden. Territorial behavior of the striped
parrotfish Scarus croicensis Bloch (Scaridae). Ecology 54(6):
Dresser, Robert L. Elleanthus capitatus A name that must be changed,
or is it? American Orchid Society Bulletin 42:419-420.
Dressler, Robert L. and Eric Bagsater. Zna Govenia nueva del Estado de
Jalisco: Govenia tequilana. Orquidea (Hex.) 3:175-183.
A Elton, Charles S. The structure of invertebrate populations inside
neotropical rain forest. J. Animal Ecol., 42(1):55-104.
A Fleming, Theodore H. Numbers of manal species in North and Central
American forest communities. Ecology 54(3):555-563.
A Glivicz, J. A short characteristics of a population of Proechimys
semispinosus (Tomes, .1860) a rodent species of the tropical
rain forest. Bull. de l'Acad. Polonaise de Sciences, Ser. Sci.
Biol. Cl. 2, 21(6):413-418.
Glynn, Peter W. Acanthaster: effect on coral reef growth in Panama.
Aspects of the ecology of coral reefs in the western Atlantic
region. Biology and geology of coral reefs, ed. by D.A. Jones and
R. Endean. New York Academic Press, 1973:271-324.
Ecology of a Caribbean coral reef. The Porites reef-flat
biotope: Part I. Meteorology and hydrography. Marine Biology
SEcology of a Caribbean coral reef. The Porites reef-flat
biotope: Part II. Plankton community with evidence for depletion.
Marine Biology, 22(1):1-21.
Isopoda of the Suez Canal. Contributions to the knowledge
of Suez Canal migration, ed. by F. D. Por. Israel J. Zool. 21;3-4.
Glynn, Peter W. and Robert H. Stewart. Distributions of coral reefs in
the Pearl Islands (Gulf of Panama) in relation to thermal conditions
Lianology and Oceanography 18(3):367-379.
Graham, Jeffrey B. Heat exchange in the flock skipjack, and the bloodgas relationship of warm-bodied fishes. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci.
STRI Publications 1973 cont'd.
Graham, Jeffrey B, and Lawrence G. Abele. Fanama Bay fish hill and crab
swarming. Smithsonian Institution. Center for short lived phenouena, event information report I54-23, 1618-1619. April 25, 1973.
Hanbury-Tenison, A.R. and P.J.K. Burton. Should the Darien gap be closed?
Geogr. J. 139(1):43-52
Kropach, Chaim and John D. Soule. An unusual association between an
ectoproct and a sea snake. BeHarpetologyica 29(1):17-19,
Lehman, John T. and James W. Porter, Chemical activation of feeding in the
Caribbean reef-building coral Montas trae cavernosa Biol. Bull.
S Leigh, Egbert G. The evolution of mutation rates. Genetics 73, suppl.
(Fogarty International Center Proceedings 17:1-18.)
A LeShack, Leonard A., William R. Brinley and Dale E. McIvor, Automatic
processing of airborne remote sensing data for pattern discrimination of jungle and other vegetation areas. Final report. Silver
Springs, MD, Development and Resources Transportation, 1973.
Lewis, Walter H. A new species of Byrsonima (Malpiguiaceae) from
Panama. Brittonia 25(3):304-306.
Linares, Olga F. Ngawbe: tradition and change among the western Guaymi
of Panama, by Philip D. Young. (Review), Amer. Anthropol.
Pre-Columbian man finds Central America: the archaeological
bridge, by Dons Stone (Review). Amer. J. Arch., 77:361-362.
Revista Espanola de Antropologia Americana (Trabajos y
conferencias), vol. 6, ed, by Jose Alcina Franch. (Review).
Amer. J, Arch. 77:253-254.
Meyer, David L. Feeding behavior and ecology of shallow-water unstalked
crinoids (Echinodermata) in The Caribbean Sea. Mar. Biol. 22(2):
SA Montgomery, G.G., W.W. Cochran and M.E. Sunquist. Radiolocating
arboreal vertebrates in tropical forest. J. Wildly. Manage.
SA Montgomery, GG. A.S. Rand and M,E. Sunquist, Postenesting ioyements of
iguanas from a nesting aggregation, Copaia 1973C3):620,-622,
A Morton, Eugene S. On the evolutionary advantages and disadvantages of
fruit eating in tropical birds. Amer. Nat, 107:8-22,
Moynihan, Martin H. Species proportions a reply. Amer. Nat, 107:155-156.
STRI Publications 1973 cont'd.
Ogden, John C. and Nancy S. Buckman. Movements, foraging groups, and
diurnal migrations of the striped parrotfish Scarus croicensis
Bloch (Scaridal). Ecology 54(3):589-596.
Porter, James W. Biological, physical, and historical forces
structuring coral reef communities on opposite sides ot the
Isthmus of Panama. Thesis (PEL D) Yale University. (photocopy.)
Porter, James W. and Karen Porter. The effects of Panama's Cuna Indians
on coral reefs. Discovery 8C2):65-70.
Reimer, Amada Alvarez. Feeding behavior in the sea anemone Calliactis
polypus (Forskal, 1775) Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 44A:1289-1301.
A Ricklefs, Robert E. and John Cullen. Embryonic growth of the green
iguana Iguana iguana. Copeia 1973(2):296-305,
S Robinson, Michael H. Insect anti-predator adaptations and the behavior
of predatory primates. Actos del IV Congreso Latinoamericano de
Rubinoff, Ira. Biological assessment. The Panamic biota [a revievw3.
S A sea level canal in Panama, XVII Congres International
de Zoologie, Montecarlo, 1972. Theme No. 3, Les consequences
biologiques des canaux interoceans. pp.
Smith, Neal G. A game of brood parasitism: cowbirds versus oropendolas.
Fauna 4, 1973.
Spectacular Buteo migration over Panama. Amer. Birds
Smith, Wayne L. Record of a fish associated with a Caribbean sea anemone.
Todd, Eric S. Positive buoyancy and air-breathing: a new piscine gas
bladder function. Copeia, 1973(3):461-464.
A preliminary report of the respiratory pumnp in the
Dactyloscopidae. Copeia 1973(1) :115-119.
Williams, Norris H. and Robert L. Dressler. Oncidium species described
by Jacquin and the typification of Oncidium. Taxon 22(2/3):221-227
Wolda, Einrik. Ecology of some experimental populations of the landsnail
Cepaea nemoralis (L.). II, Production and survival of eggs and juveniles, by H. Wolda and D.A. Kreulen. Netherlands J. Zool.
A Zaret, Thomas M. and R. T. Paine. Species introduction'in a tropical
lake. Science 182:449-455.
ENCLOSURE I 2
Enclosure to A.-024
INFORM.AL TRANSLATION BY THE EMBASSY
Between the Government of the Republic of Panama, represented by Dr. ABRAHAM SAIED, Minister of Health, duly authorized, on the one part and which hereafter shall be denominated "The NATION", and on the other part, Dr. IRA RUBINOFF, male, of legal age, married, a ~citizen of the United States of America, bearer of Passport #Y1081171, Directo-r of the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute,. hereafter referred to as THE INSTITUTE, acting in the name and in representation of said Institute, with duly approved by-laws and Legal Capacity('Personeria Juridica"') established by Resolution i43 of 15 November 1976, issued by His AExcellency, the President of the Republic, in exercise of his legal powers and inscribed in the Public Registry, and with sufficient powers for the present act, as recorded in public document #10,690, authorized on 22 November 1976, at the Fifth Notary of the Panama Circuit, registered in Volume 1299, Folio 42, Entry ;117,408, under the Section of Public .Persons ("Persona Comun") a contract has been agreed upon, in accordance with Law W'57 of June 6,, 1974 of the Republic of Panama, pursuant to the following clauses.
FIRST: The Institute will effect in the Republic of Panama-activitiesand research of a purely scientific character in the field of tropical biology, including studies on the ecology of the Isthmius of Panama, with advance notification to the National Government, through the 'Ministry of Health, on the projects to be carried out, 60 days prior to the inception thereof.
SECOND: The institute will totally defray the cost of the activitie s and research which will take place in territory of the Republic of Panama, but is obliged to keep the Nation informed of all the activities and research and to provide to it, gratis,
the results of such research.
THIRD: The Institute will provide the Nation with fundamental
information on the ecology of the Isthmus and will offer its collaboration in the execution of such research and programs as may be agreed upon.
FOURTH: The NATION authorizes the INSTITUTE to establish in the Republic of Panama offices, field stations, laboratories and work shops for the activities aad research referred to in Clause One, and in consideration of the benefits which the Republic of Panama will derive from the scientific activities and research work effected by the Institute, it grants the following privileges:
ENCLOSURE # 2
Page 2 of Enclosure to Panama A -2
a) Exemption to thq INSTITUTE of all the national taxes
and liens, real or personal, with the exception of:
1. Indirect taxes such as are normally
included in the price of merchandise
-2.- Taxes on estates;
3. Taxes and liens on private income which
originated in the national territory and such taxes on capital as are assessed on
commercial investments in the Republic of
4. Taxes or assessments pertaining to
private services rendered; and
S.- Registry and judicial fees, mortage
and stamp tax
b) Exemption from the obligation to pay the quotas required
under the Social Security Law on salaries or enioluments which the-Institute pays its foreign scientific personnel which do not have permanent residence in the Republic-. This exemption is extended to the INSTITUTE
and to its said scientific personnel.
c) Exe mption from the payment of any type of customs duty
or related taxes and assessments., with the exception of those expenses in connection with storage charges,
transportation and analogous services for goods, equipment and material belonging to the INSTITUTE, and destined
exclusively for use in its offices and by its officials,
but title to which may not be transferred by purchase,
or gratis, without prior payntent of the corresponding taxes.
It is understood that should the INSTITUTE decide toconstruct its own buildings, it may benefit from the
exoneration here granted only with respect to goods
not produced in Panama;
d) Authorization of visas and residence permits for foreign
scientists and technicians which the INSTITUTE contracts.
to work in Panama;
Page 3 of Enclosure to Panama A_2&
e) Exemption to foreign scientists under contract with the
INSTITUTE for services in the Republic of Panama,
whose repatriation is guaranteed by the INSTITUTE,
from the obligation of making a deposit for repatriation,
or from any tax, duty, or assessment pertaining to
f.) Exe mption from- compliance with- th'e laws on' protection of
the national worker, with regard to the contracting by the
INSTITUTE of foreign scientists and technicians.
For legal purposes the INSTITUTE will advise the Ministry
of Labor and Social Welfare of the arrival in the
country of the foreign scientists and technici 'ans which
are contracted. In each case the status of foreign
the scientist or technician must be verified.
FIFTH: It is expressly agreed that the INSTITUTE is obliged to inscribe in proper form, in the Public Registry, before establishing its offices in Panama, proof of its existence and personality, and also of the appointment of its attorney, residing in the Republic of Panama, with full and sufficient authority to represent the INSTITUTE judicially or extrajudicially in all matters pertaining to its activities, properties, rights and obligations in the Republic of Panama.
SIXTH: The INSTITUTE shall be subject to the laws of the Republic ofP-Tnama and to the jurisdiction of Panamanian tribunals, and renounces recourse to diplomatic redress with reference to the rights and duties arising out of this contract, except in case of denial of justice.
SEVENTH: This contract will remain in effect so long as any of its parties does not express a desire to terminate it, which intention should be made known at least one year before it is desired that the contracts terminate. The INSTITUTE will allow the use of its laboratories,, work shops and field stations upon request of the NATION for scientific research and work when this is possible and available.
Page 4 of Enclosure to Panama A -024
In testimony of all that was expressed above, the contracting parties sign the present contract in the City of Panama on the fifth day of January of the year 1977.
THE NATION THE INSTITUTE
(Sgd.) Dr. ABRAH.AM SkIED Minister of Health (Sgd.) IRA RUBINOFF
Director of the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute
Examples of STRI P search with Applications to Resource Management, Disease Control, Wildlife Conservation, Food Production, and Other Areas
1. Because of its strategic location, the research of STRI marine scientists was of direct use in constructing models of the possible ecological consequences of digging a sea-level canal on the Central American isthmus. Our efforts led to the National Academy of Sciences to recommend that such a canal not be constructed without a careful ecological survey and the inclusion of a biotic barrier to the exchange of organisms between the Atlantic and Pacific, in order to prevent such untoward consequences as the inadvertent and destructive introduction of the sea lamprey into the Great Lakes by the construction of the Welland Ship Canal.
2. STRI mammalogists were examining basic aspects of biology of sloths
when the most recent epidemic of yellow fever (1974) began spreading northward from the Darien jungles. Medical researchers discovered that some sloths possessed a high vire'mia and consequently represented a potential reservoir of the disease, one which could potentially bring it into closer contact with urban human populations. STRI scientists joined a collaborative effort to establish radio-tracked sentinel populations of sloths in order to monitor
the progress of the disease.
3. As a result of its long-term reserve status, Barro Colorado Island has a very large population of Howler monkeys. This species is a natural reservoir of yellow fever-which has an 80% mortality rate among humans-and is extremely susceptible to the disease. As a means of providing local public health authorities with an early warning on the recurrence of yellow fever, we encourage comprehensive research program- on the biology of Howlers on the Island. Therefore, any disease-caused population changes can be recognized immediately and permit early vaccination of the susceptible human population.
4. A fundamental question of tropical forests is how so many different
species maintain themselves when individual densities are relatively low. For example, in an hectare of northern U.S. woods there may be 8 species of trees, whereas the same area of tropical forest may contain dver 55 species. What strategies of forestry or crop rotation should be applied to maximize productivity and yet still preserve the long-range fertility of these two areas? An enormous amount of research has been applied to these problems in the North Temperate Zone, but in the tropics-which contain the fastest-growing segment of the human population-our knowledge of forest regeneration is still anecdotal. STRI has encouraged the research of a number of scientists examining the conditions controlling the germination, survival and recruitment of new seedlings in the forest. These' scientists have taken advantage of natural light gaps in the forest, ranging in size from a single treefall, to a 1.5 hectare wind-induced.blowdown on Barro Colorado Island, to huge areas of tropical forest in southeast Panama denuded by an earthquake in June 1976.
5. The narrowness of the Central American isthmus in Panama enables STRI scientists to monitor the entire populations of migrating broadwinged and Swainson's hawks. The breeding success of these species in North America, as well as their survival in South American wintering grounds, can be monitored by photographing and counting the individuals during their fall and spring migrations. This data is indicative of how well the breeding sites in North America are being protected and haw the species is reacting to the pesticides commonly applied to northern crops, and how successfully it has over-Vintered in the rapidly diminishing South American forests.
6. There have been many recent attempts to apply the mathematical models of island biogeography to the practical problems of determining the size and shape of natural forests and parks, in order to increase the numbers of species preserved and to minimize the extinction process. This is particularly critican in tropical reserves where many species normally exist as rare specimens or in very low densities. Long-term monitoring of the population of ant birds on Barro Colorado Island has provided inuch of the fundamental data on which the theory (by nomeans uncontroversial) of the size of tropical reserves has been developed.
STRI research contributes to solution of practical problems of crop productivity, pest control, disease vectors, and susceptibility of marine organisms to pollution. The knowledge derived from our studies is often immediately relevant to other scientists asking practical questions about the management of tropical environments, but in all cases it contributes to the fundamental question of how life in the lower latitudes differs quantitatively and qualitatively from that in the higher latitudes and, most importantly, to the ultimate understanding of how events in one zone may affect the quality of life in another.
NUMBER OF VISITORS
NUMBE OF ISITO DRY
NUMBER OF VISITORS
rurin m fu
m IS IS
01 _ _ _-4 NJa
m m h
SMITHSONIAN TROPICAL RESEARCH INSTITUTE
VISITOR DATA FROM
JANUARY 1974 TO DECEMBER 1976
COUNTRIES REPRESENTED U.S. STATES REPREEf"TED
1. Argentina 1. Alabama
2. Austria 2. Arizona
3. Australia 3. California
4. Bahamas 4. Colorado
5.~-Belgium 5. Connecticut
6. Brazil 6. Florida
7. Canada 7. Georgia
8. China 8. Haaii
9. Colombia 9. Idaho
10. Costa Rica 10. Illinois
11. Denmark 11. Indiana
12. El Salvador 12. Iowa
13. England 13. Kansas
14. Fiji 14. Maine
15. France 15. Maryland
16. Germany 16. Massachusetts
17. Ghana 17. Michigan
18. Guatemala 18. Minnesota
19. Honduras 19. Mississippi
20. India 20. Missouri
21. Israel 21. New Hamoshire
22. Italy 22. 7ew Jersey
23. Jamiaca 23. New Mexico
24. Japan 24. Mew York
25. Kenya 25. North Carolina
26. Malaysia 26. Ohio
27. Mexico 27. Oklahoma
28. Netherlands 28, Oregon
29. New Zealand 29. Pennsylvania
30. Nicaragua 30. Rhode Island
31. Panama 31. South Carolina
32. Paraguay 32. South Dakota
33. Peru 33. Tennessee
34. Santo Domingo 34. Texas
35. Sweden 35. Utah
36. Scotland 36. Vermont
37. South Africa 37. Virginia
38. Surinam 38. Washington
39. Switzerland 39. West Virginia
40. United States of America 40. Wisconsin
PLS: Ditrict of Columbia,
Puerto Rico, U.S. Virgin
s!ns and te Canal
1. Albert-Ludwigs Universitat 54. Universidad Nacional Autonma de Mexico
2. Antioch Graduate School of Education 55. Universidad lacional de Costa Rica
3. Baylor University 56. Universidad sacional de Panama
4. Bennington College 57. Universidad Santa Maria la Antigua
-5. Botany Hood College 58. University of Aarhus
California Institute of Technology 59. University of Alabama
7. 'California Polytechnic University 60. University of Alberta
8. California State University 61. University of Arizona
9. Cambridge University 62. University of British Colu*bia
10. Canal Zone College .. 63. University of California, Berkeley
1l.. Chicago-At.Insitute- .... 61,. University-of-California, D,....
12. College of the virginw Islands 65. University of California, Los Angeles
13. Colorado College 66. University of California, San Diego
i. Colorado State University 67. University of California, Santa Barbara
15. Columbia University 68 University of Chicago
16. Cornell University 69. University of Florida
17. Deutsher Akadimischer Austauschdienst 70. University of Ghana
18. Duke University 71. University of Glasgow
19. Duquesnell University 72. University of Gothenburg
20. Florida State University 73. University of Guelph
21. Harvard University 74. University of Idaho
22. Jacksonville State University 75. University of India
23. John Hopkins University 76. University of Iowa
24. Lewis aqd Clark College 77. University of Kansas
25. Massachusetts Institute of Technology 78. University of London, Kings College
26 McMaster University 79. University of London, Queen Mary College
2: McPherson College 80. University of Maine
28. Michigan State University 81. University of Manitoba
29. Middle Tennessee State University 82. University of Maryland
30. New Mexico State University 83, University of Massachusetts
31. North Eastern University 84. University of Michigan
32. Orebro University 85. University of Minnesota
33. Oregon State University 86,.University of North Carolina
34. Oxford University 87. University of Oregon
35. Pennsylvania State Universlta' 88, University of Pennsylvania
36. Princeton University 89. University of Pudget Sound
37. Purdue University 90. University of queensland
38. Queens University 91, University of Rochester
39. Rollins College 92. University of Rhode Island
40. Royal Military Colle 93. University of Saint Louis
41. San Francisco State University 91, University of Saskatchewan
42. Scripps Institution of On w 95, University of Singapore
43. Stanford University 96, University of South Florida
44. Swarthmore College 97, University of the South Pacific
45. State University of X3 'r ft 96, University of Tennessee
46. Tabor College 99, University of Utah
V' Talladega College 100. University of the West Indies
48. Tel Aviv University 101. University of Washington
"9. Temple University 102, University of Wisconsin
50. Texas Lutheran College 103, Vanderbilt University
51. Universidad de Cartagena 10, Washington State University
52. Universidad del Valle 10, Washington University
53. Universidad de Sao Paulo X4, Yale University
107, Zoologisch Laboratorium der Rijksuniversiteit te Groningen
1. 0:;anlzation for Tropical Studies
2. U.S. Arm~y
3. U.S. Navy
4. U.S. Air Force
5. U. S. Congress 6. U.S. Ebassy 7'. U.S. 1Naval Hospitals
8. U.S. Naval Research. Laboratory
9. American M~useum~ of Natural History 10. Balboa Highi School 11-. Audabon Societies 12. Paw- Canal Co---any 13. Gorgas Memoricl Laboratoryj 14 Gulf Coast Research laboratory 15. Tro~ic Test Center 16. British Embassy 17. United 'Nations 18. -Doys Scouts of America 19. EZastman Kodak,. Co. 20. Paoer Tech. Corot. 21. Pura
22. Bomboay Natural Eistory Society 23. institute de Buceo "Viundo Subrzz,-ino" 24. Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission 25. Ft. Kobbe Ele-z-entax-y School I. Association for Military Comptrollers
--7. Musea c- -;- de 11anama 23. iss. B,-anica. Gardens
29. Bill Burruid ?roductions, Inc. 30. Instituto 1-teramericano de Ciencias Agricolas
3 -.-JL-Mnisterio de Agricultura y Ganaderia 32 Curundu Elementary School 33. Tni-Valley High School 34, Peace Corp 35. Centre Natioaal de, la Recherche Scientifique 36. Oregon Regional Primate Research Center 37. Ne-w Fanshire Association ofL Conservation Districts 33. Prim~er Ciclo Amarica 39. Secundaria de ?enononme
0. Insti'uto de 7aseaanza Suaoerior
1. Fairfax Leg-I.id Society, Inc. 42. ',a-li 7rerald 43- "Sea Star" Study S'ai;*o 44. ~igdrfCarbon Co-p
4. Time-Life Bookcs
Lincola Par'. Zoo)
~ e-,r Tribe Missioa
4.8. ItlaE: na ss Y
4.9. 'The Australian 'useu50. 'No-rddeutsher .-"undfunk
05-549 0 77 5
__Pahooy Assoclate ST La--or a oy, P 52. Heinz Steinitz L2arine a:-zoratory 53. Colegio Javier 5'. Florida Stat'e Museun 55. Pi-co Rivera Righ Schaool. 56o. Hispaniolan Research Thsti tiz~e 57. Arecibo Observatory 518. H-arbor Branch Fo~indations, :c 513. Royal British Navy b 0. Federal Aviatioz- Ageacy
S Asociacioa Medica de Paaaza ,7,2. Colegio La Salle '53. ritish ?arl,-a-ent 04. ".-e-wouse ?,ew.s Ser-vice
s~. .~-~triaa Bbassy
05. Center f'or Disease Conzrol. o7. Tnstitute of Miarine Reseazc'Z 681. TastitUt-o de Cultura, b9. Cal~'ri Acadamy of' Sciences 70. 2 -ew York Zoological. Soc-.e:y 72.. Diablo Elementary School 72. Army Officers Wives Club 73. Ac-adezy of Natural Sciences
7.Zoolog'cal Society of C4-cnnati, 75. New.. Y ark Botanica.1 Gazess 76. institato, de Botanica de Sao Paolo
77 .- z--stra au2dlPr
f:ode Ciencias ::7 a-t:ales de, C-o:b;.O 79. Yiso acionaal de Pan=--o3. 3a.7'z-a Elementary Sct.ool 81- Wolgazg Bayer Productions, Inc. 8?. Kilvertone Wildlife ?sz9k 83. Royal Ontario Museum 84. Ramsay Wright Zoo 85, Federal Highway Administration 86. Batel.le Memorial Ins tizute 87. Argonne Natural Laboratory 88. Austrian Consul~ate 89. Argentine Air Force 90. Nicaraguan Embassy 91. !Ministerto de DesaroJ-lo Agrooecuario 92. Monks Wood Experimental Station
FLLOWSUt]PS AT START
Post-doctoral Fellows Degree Conferring Institution
Abele, Lawrence University of Miami
Andrews, Madaleine University of Kansas
Breymeyer, Alicja Polish Academy of Sciences
Campanella, Paul Syracuse University
Cooke, Richard University of London
Cubit, John University of Oregon
Diener, Douglas University of California, San Dic
Glanz, William University of California, Berkell
Gliwicz, Z. Warsaw University
Graham, Jeffrey Scripps Institution of Oceanogral
Healey, Ian University of London
Hespenheide, Henry University-of Pennsylvania
Hladik, Annette University of Paris
Janos, David University of Michigan
Karr, James University of Illinois
Kramer, Donald University of British Columbia
Lubin, Yael The University of Florida
May, Michael University of Florida
Meyer, David Yale University
Morton, Eugene Yale University
Ogden, John Stanford University
Ranere, Anthony University of California, Davis
Ritte, U. University of Michigan
Schemeske, Douglas University of Illinois
Smith, James N.M. Oxford University'
Todd, Eric University of California, Santa
Warner, Robert Scripps Institution of Oceanograj
Wells. Kentwood Cornell University
Windsor, Donald Cornell University
Augspurger, Carol University of Michigan
Fischer, Eric University of California, San Did
Foster, Robin Duke University
Gyllenhaal, Charlotte University of Chicago'
Heck, Kenneth Florida State University
Hoffan, Stephen University of California, Santa
Kiester, A. Ross Harvard University
Kropach, Chaim City University of New York
Lessios, Haris Yale University
McCosker, John Scripps Institution of Oceanogral
Pickering, John Harvard University
Porter, James Yale University
Pratt, Thane Rutgers University
Pa-mirez, Nillian Vniver ;ity of' I'anz ,a:
Smith, Wa-vrn State Unhiv. of F.Y. at Tonyy Brc
Strauich, joseoh University of~ i:icrhi'gan
Tannenboaum, Bernice Cornell Univers-ity
Toft, Catherine Princeton University
Young, Orrey University of Maryland
Zaret, Thomas Yale University
V co co to co co r co
r r" v4 -P, r r r*% f",
c ON 0% 0% a% 04 0%
w C: C rcn 04 "a v ed go 2 co
#-4 0 0
C: 0 0
00 w -4 V
> z E .04 k IV
tz 0 .61 4)
14 w (4 E- k W 41
>4 Od 2t 3 cn 0
Aj 0 Aj 0 0 0
ca Aj -r4 v 4 r4 r-4 "q V-4
_V4 z 0 V-4 w r-4 0 0
z r. w 4) 3md 0) 0
-r4 v 44 0 Ad V r.
10 ac Aj > > I" bo
114 co "4 PA "4 ;k M 0 0 r
-F4 9: C CA C: En cn U) 04 0 -4
> z z a 0 0
C6 0 :3
P4 0 r .9
0) 0 0 -.0
E fa -vo
W-4 C3 sw Im 0 %4
Aj ri v-4 V W "4 "-b 0
%" 14 0
ej cc t*
0 C: 41
As r4 rq
E4 ta W4 AA w
z 0 V-4 4V4 ac
w 9 "q to V-4 CL 9:
"q Aj $4 P.% a -P4
C6 to 41 C3 co 44 0
0 v ft
E-4 V V-4
W 0 r. cn to
0 bo rxd 0 43 0 0 P-4
0 r4 44 r-I to .0
4-1 Id V-4 &A to 0 0 8 to
0 44 9: u E
U 0 "4 Aj >14 w u
W :P.% E 4) "4 0 r4 41 to
C *-4 U 0. (1 41 0 r4 >b ad 0
m E-4 0 0 :3 $4 V-4 AJ
0 m cs 0
94 z C/3 W
00 0. V .0 0 (P to
0 0 0 co "4 (D 44 :1 to Aj $4
r 0 to X
4) 9: 0 U4 M ci (L) C C) 0 C)
U 0 u 04 w W C> u o rCD
0 a 0 0 0 0
W V 0 C3 0 $4 0
2: C3 Ld ej :0 3.4 > 0 to 14 Aj
V W C: 4 ri C3 0 r. 0
4) > .,4 -0 Li 0 "4 -r4 0 W
:3 C* 9: W C) 00 0 r H
0 to Aj 1* 0 1-4 (7 93 %:
to C: u r-q co
ca r 4 0 to 0 rA
4 0 .0 r4 0 ;K 0 to% 0
-rq 0 r4 w = u W-4 C) 4
03 TZ u 14 r-4
iLJ -r4 0 -4 CS C3 .1 r4 cs -r4 V3
z z u z > z cl
Go co r- co co 00 r%
r, P- r t*l r- P0 0% 0% oo C% C7% Ot ON 0%
I-q -4 1 r 4 -4 4 -4
9-1 CL w 60 60 c
Ch 6.3 w C* V :1 cc
Im cz w -f-4 m (a 04 w
E4 Dt c 2k Dt E-4 :)t
cn 0 ul 0 0 0 V) 0
1-4 r4 e-4
r-4 r-4 V-4 -4
V 0) w 0
cc 44 44
Ln tn W cn cn
z z z
w cc 0 w
w C F4
0 Aj is
C3 ca fd
P-4 C-4 -,4 04 el
z cc 0 as
tj V C:
cc .,4 0) V go
m c 0 04
0 CD es V4
w w a) C: AJ
E-4 E- Fa 0 ba C: u 4u
C.) 4) m 0 0 -14 9: co = Jld
w E-4 w w 41 w -r4 P4 "a 03
cc r4 -V-4 4) 0 ci 0 2t w 0
r 4 0 44 Ai oLi 4) 0 1-4 w
2 C: r. -.4 0 cc > 0 0 u r-4 41 c:
04 u 0 0 41 4) 1.4 r4 4) ca V-4 0 r 0
.rj -A -r4 cc W J4 0 41 w Ai w 0 *0 4 Aj
m Ai &J r-4 0 u r4 to Aj r. ci 44 ol cd
4) ca C* 2 A cc N W )-4 .0 1 4 0) 0
> > 4 -,4 r4 41 0
0 cc go 4) r-4 14 V-4 CIO S: r-4 Ai 0
P4 w al > co tv cc t: 0 41
w > r4 > 44 r4 a) -r4 .,4 E -r4 u %4
U) > 0 AJ u U -r4 N tA4 0 w
w q -P4 eq 0 u 0 0 0 0 r.4
u to ts 4) .94 CIO :3 V5 w m $4
0 V r. ci 9: o Aj c -Z) w $4 "
n o 0 m .,1 0 10 #4 "A 416J 0 co u
cn w w 4) 10 41 $4 m Aj 41 C: 41 w w r4
ca al C3 :1 rA 9: 44 4)
C: Qj w 0 0 -4 0 (U 44 u
H -rq cn r z w tj u u u 0 0
m CA %0 fn
bo to (U r-I E
m co r. r.
0 H to
A r_ m r-4
> > 34 -rq Ut U) w ul r-4
cc (D 4) .0 to d -r4 :3 z r4
)--j :) C: C) C4 4 :3:
44 0 l 1w C-) 4 14
0 -r4 cz X u -I
0 E-4 0 ,q b4 4 ci
as P"a t" 0 m cc 0) 4 q
-A $4 .4 -4 -A 4 -r-4 $4 j 0) 4) rq
> :3 1-4 -4 r 4) -4 :3 :) s a :3 : t
co 0 cl 0 0 to :3 ^3 0 to co 0 V
= P4 W cn co >4 pi 1-4 "1 0 w
ro r-4 V4 -4 co
4" C: %64 C: a%
ul 0.4 10
> 9: >
0 4 u 1-4 v
"4 0 0
cn 0 lu
:3 "q c
V-4 40 0 0 0 41 0
0 a 0-4 ca -V4
0 64 0 ow 9: 0
"4 0 "4 z 0 0 -V4 6-4
41 &J At x 44 cc
to 1 0
64 to co 0
V-4 0 u o
00 u 64 0 Vq 4
V4 0 C.)
M w AJ
R w 0
co Aj Q Do% 0 4b
V4 0 00
.0 0 0
z z ad "4 0 0
to 0 Aj
r4 "4 ca
Z Aj W
ts W Aj
r-4 "q co 0 W 0
to u r.
C6 -A to a
0 bo"o 0
c 0 Aj S44 Z 4) 0 a -M
2 cc 9-4 V4 ca fa *a V
0 V-4 0 0 V-4 Ai
$4 w 34 go u 0 cc .
01-4 0 ba 0-4 om w
0 to eq P-k
is co 0
W co z Aj
W = = 0 .9 C 0 0 V)
W.= u to = w ao 0 "2 V >
4j rl co a 4)
-,0% IV AJ cc -0 Aj
E *0 P4 "a c C4
0 93 9rd a
C; u -A L; = = .0 w
9-4 0 a :t Aj 0
V4 co ri 0 3 PC id
41 &d &J "4 'Li -4 Aj .0 r. a
0 Lit W $a $4 0 V-4 $a 0 0 Cc --4 LA
0 a W 4) C go w 0 0 "4 -0 = to
0 V .0 u .0 C* V
T3 a *A 0 T-4 A.J- 2
Ord U; W z 0 cn u
0 Ci r- w 0
0 -* C-C t
f-4 f-4 c. m- ON -% %" 01
E4~$ 1 4 W8
4915 .. 1 1
fr4 >1 > 4 >04c 0
.14 E4 &4 $4
4.) W 0 Vi '.4 WI
'-4~ V- 0 a- a'94 9404 0.
w 10c 0 to4 4$
toK $4w w $4 o o
K 0w $0 0 > 0$ $
La) 0a f 4 wiJ)4
Ai cc 0 C
44 .1 .k
0 0 A) q C
*0 to 41E. .
In to -4C fu 4j 000
U3 r.4 w CU 4' 0o A4 40 0
0d 0 0 go ) U4' W1 4
r. "4-4 r. -P4 %q -4 a) 0 04 0 c
cc 1i 0 Ai. 1.5 4.4 > to 41 10 >0c
:3. 0o0u0 to to w U C: to0
00 W-4 0 -4. = 0a 0 00a Ia
1.4 00~ 0419 C:6 1 4-i 9: C-4 0
02 4c 6)4 a to 0 F4140 V0
'44 0 $4 P.40 % w 4 0 C
$44 > C 44 60 V'
0 1c "4 v40 to 0 C. I g 0 0
0 440$ 00 r4 4w "14 to
C.) u c c0 0.ol CC w U $0 4.5
to) c CO c :3-4- 0jco0 0 0 w4- 0 W
0~ a Oa a '4.40. V-40 toi 4.5 V~O -4 -14
0. C 0 4 0$ 0 00 to 0o "4 C. IV0
04$ Ai4 w a) 0 =0 4) b '-c 4 r. 4i4 1:6.
to0. 'j 4 A W 0'-" w 0 00 0 4.9
C Ai = 4 4> LW 4 $4 co$ w
cc l 0o 4.- 0$ w 0 '-4 u0r >% ).
: 44 '44 U to -..) 0Do 0 4)
v0 ,40 0 0 -4 C415 41 X -4c
tk0N P-4 0 0d0 00 C) a "4 C: 4C C. r. :
0 .,4 T-4 % r.u clJ -r4 = 0>' to 00 0 0 0 w V-4 w .44 $4 0 -r4 C 4.1 A9 -4 r-I u E z4 = 1
0 C3 0> '14 Ow4 C; A5U4 "q- C 00
0.0 c C.1' V 4160 4Q 0 00 b $4 CD 00 0 c> $4 t4C
Q1 0 w QC Go 0 4 OC w r.V4 a 0 w4 940 1 0)
Ai 4 00 *14 V-4 r-41U $4.1 l -4 z' 41 94 .44P4 q
410 ca W$V-( ~0 0 00 0 w M 041 0 > OC:2v
u-4 W0 cc -'-4 > w. 03 0~ z Cr 0 r.
0 0o 0 000 0 0
r- 0 '1q '10 z1 00 tic 9 4
k w -4 to "44 .0 "4 "4
4 00 00 00 00
'0 0. -4 r 0 0. > 19' f: E-4
.14 L42 M)U) 0
S04 to 0 '01 V0 V
I= w-~ 41 $4 Ai $4 -w 00 r- o -4 0%
0 ) ) ) 0 Q 00 im C a~ = x
to cc 0 .0C a 10 .0 C 0d u~ 0 0 u U
4J 4' 041 0C 0C t: -4 -A44-1 .,4 .1q .,4
U) U W-40 94 Ca< C< z En C 4Cd C
Mr. METCALFE. Do any other members of the delegation wish to make a statement at this point?
Dr. RAND. No.
Mr. CHALLINOR. No.
Mr. JAMESON. No.
Mr. METCALFE. Dr. Rubinoff, thanks very much for that very fine statement.
I did note that you were asking the Committee to increase its limit on authorization for appropriation from $600,000 to $750,000.
We will review your request before a final decision is made.
On page 1 of your statement you stated the Canal Zone Biological Area is an integral part of the Smithsonian Institution's Tropical Research Institute.
Do you therefore think that the budget of the Biological Area should continue to be included in the Research Institute's budget?
Do you think they should both be in one budget?
Dr. RUBINOFF. Yes, Sir.
I think the interaction between the two parts of the Smithsonian Institution's Tropical Research Institute are very close.
The work that is going on on the mainland is frequently carried over to the Island. Comparative studies are being done.
The scientists 'might spend two days on the Island and three or four days a week working on the mainland on a similar project. The Island represents one kind of habitat and many studies require comparative work, perhaps at a higher altitude, work on the mainland, or some places closer to the shore, so I think it should be included.
Mr. METCALFE. Our jurisdiction is not the jurisdiction of the Appropriation Committee, so as we take up the authorization limit that has to be considered.
It is my understanding that part of the expenses of operating the Canal Zone Biological Area are recovered by fees from those who use the land.
What percentage of the operating costs of the Canal Zone Biological Area are recovered in user fees? Dr. RUBINOFF. In this fiscal year, Mr. Chairman, the operating expenses of the Barro Colorado Island are $305,000; capital projects which we have planned or are under construction are $21,000 for a total of $326,000 in direct operating costs this year, of which we expect about $50,000 will be recovered in the way of fees from visiting scientists.
Mr. METCALFE. Thank you.
The Section of the United States Code which governs the Canal Zone Biological Area is Section 79 of Title 20. Do you think that the other provisions of Section 79 ought to be changed other than the one figure which we have proposed to change?
Dr. RUBINOFF. I believe that at this point we are operating very efficiently within the other provisions of Section 79. Mr. METCALFE. I refer you to page 7 of your statement. You say that the General Accounting Office believes that indirect costs associated with the Biological Area ought to be included under the limitation of Section 79(e).
Do you agree with this opinion of the General Accounting Off-lee?
Dr. RUBINOFF. I think that indirect costs can be assessed.
However, as I said earlier, the interaction between the research going on in the mainland or other areas of the New World and Old World tropics are so close that it is a difficult assessment and some formula will have to be used.
For instance, the amount of time I think about the administration of Barro Colorado Island versus the time I spend worrying about the rest of the STRI would be difficult to assess accurately.
Mr. METCALFE. You stated capital costs should be included in the funds under Section 79(e). Should capital funds be included in the limits under this bill?
Dr. RUBINOFF. I think so, sir.
Mr. METCALFE. In referring to page 7 of your statement, you indicated there should be no particular problems for the Biological Area to stay intact under the new treaty arrangement.
Are you satisfied with your relationship with the government of Panama?
And do you know of any reason why they would want to change the status of the Island?
I think this goes pretty much to the heart of what Congressman Snyder has said, and he will have his own time, but you might keep his statement in mind as you prepare to answer that question.
Dr. RUBINOFF.We enjoy a very good relationship with the Republic of Panama; with a number of ministries, with the university; and with various other agencies.
We have recently concluded a contract with the Ministry of Health, which authorizes our operations throughout the Isthmus of Panama.
We have cooperated with it and with United States based institutions located in the Panama Canal on a number of environmental projects in the Republic.
I do not anticipate that there will be any change in our operations on the Isthmus if the status of the Canal Zone changes.
Concerning the Island itself, I might point out that there was a treaty for international, inter-American cooperation (the 1940 Convention for Nature Protection and Wildlife Preservation in the Western Hemisphere), which was signed by the United States and by now has been signed by most of the Republics in the New World, allowing them to cooperate on conservation matters and I think the status of Barro Colorado would easily fall under that treaty which has been signed by the Republic of Panama.
We are covered on a number of grounds, both formally and informally, and I am reasonably certain that the future research center of Barro Colorado would be preserved.
Mr. METCALFE. Both the Biological Area and the Research Institute located in the Canal Zone.
This being the case, to what extent are your costs determined by the prices for goods and services by the Panama Canal organization?
Dr. RUBINOFF.We purchase most of our commodities, expendable construction materials and things of that nature, from the Panama Canal organization, but not all. When items are in short supply or
are available locally at a lower price, we purchase them on the local economy. The exact percentage of these two I would have to provide for the record. I don't have them. Mr. METCALFE. You will submit that information for the record. Thank you. [Information about purchases follows:]
N- .0 C0
N LA NO
0 N r LA r-'. J
.,-4 S. S
I-4 0' r- .4
Mr. METCALFE. Finally, are other elements of the Smithsonian Institution, for example, the National Space Museum, subject to an annual authorization process or a limitation on authorized funds?
Mr. JAMESON. No, Mr. Chairman.
Mr. METCALFE. I recognize the distinguished gentleman from Kentucky, Mr. Snyder.
Mr. SNYDER. In response to the Chairman's question, you indicated that the fiscal year 1977 budget was some $350,000 and that approximately $25,000 was spent on capital improvements.
Could you break that down, the balance of the amount of money?
Dr. RUBINOFF. Yes, we have those figures.
Mr. SNYDER. I think we ought to have it in the record how you spend the money.
Do you receive any other money from the United States government, other than what you would be asking for in this authorization?
I know you said that some of your people have come in on study grants and so forth from universities or the National Science Foundation, or such as that, but I am talking about your operation.
Dr. RUBINOFF. I think at the moment there is one of our staff, Dr. Rand, who has a grant from the National Science Foundation and is working on malaria in lizards.
Mr. SNYDER. Nothing then for Project payroll; I gather than none of what you are asking for is for project payroll, it is just the stable operation together with capital improvements.
Are we looking at all of it for the stable operations?
Dr. RUBINOFF. Yes, we are.
Mr. SNYDER. Sometimes we have that problem.
I am not alleging that you are, I am just asking.
You, of course, addressed yourself to the Chairman's question about the prospects of future operations after a treaty might be negotiated and ratified, Lord forbid you don't have to comment on my editorial comments but I dotted down that you were "reasonably certain our status would be preserved." I don't know whether or not "reasonably certain" is going to be good enough if we go to the floor asking for an increased authorization for you.
So I guess what I want to ask you now is what benefits would be derived to the American taxpayer by your continuing any kind of an operation there, if the United States government no longer owned the Canal Zone or the Canal?
Dr. RUBINOFF. The United States is currently gaining benefit from research that is going on in the Canal Zone and in the Republic of Panama as much of our research is performed off Barro Colorado Island.
Mr. SNYDER. I don't question that because of our presence. But if we had no more tropical holdings Dr. RUBINOFF. As long as our contract continues to operate, I imagine the export of benefits in terms of education of students in the United States and in terms of the research performed would still come north, so to speak, and be of benefit to the American taxpayer.
Mr. SNYDER. You imagine?
Dr. RUBINOFF. I am sure of that.
Mr. SNYDER. I noticed in your statement that you talked about there being more species of animals and more species of plants and more species of birds in the Panama Canal than all the United States and Canada.
What does that mean to the people living on the continental United States if, in fact, we have no more presence down there?
Dr. RUBINOFF. Certainly, we do not have any areas in the true tropics under the American flag that are any more secure than the current status of the Canal Zone, and North America is very much subject to the events that go on elsewhere.
We could isolate North America and the United States and still very much have to suffer from the events going on elsewhere in the environment.
For instance, we have had a very severe winter. In the tropics, a large area of the tropics, we have had an enormous drought.
You know that the Panama Canal Company has had a water problem.
Are the events related?
Is the deforestation of a great area of Brazil affecting the water systems and affection our weather? Or are the events in the north affecting the tropical zones? These things are interrelated. We cannot strictly work at North American universities and hope to understand the global environment and make the kind of management decisions about the environment that need to be made.
In many cases we can't pose the questions yet. We have to continue collecting the data. We have a reasonable chance to do it.
Mr. SNYDER. It is very interesting. I don't want to pursue it anymore, however, in the interest of time. It would be helpful if we are going to go to the floor to try to sell it, in view of what is going on, if you could subsequently supplement that answer, prowl around in the deepest resources of your mind, and give us a lot of reasons why we should spend more money there if we are going to lose the Canal Zone. I do feel there will be a reasonable sentiment to the contrary. I am not trying to be pessimistic. But, the Chairman and I have to answer them at some point, if we go over there. [The Supplemental answer follows:]
FUTURE STATUS OFBARRO COLORADO ISLAND
We believe it is essential for the United States to continue fundamental research programs in the trop ics and that the benefits derived from this research will not be affected by potential changes in jurisdiction of the Canal Zone.
The Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute's Barro Colorado Island facility is very much a national resource, used by scientists supported by various Federal programs and by state university systems. Through the years it has been a training and study area for thousands of students from the United States because it allows them to work more effectively than is possible at any other tropical site.
The Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute is primarily concerned with the support of studies that will help place the ecological, evolutionary, and sociological processes occurring in the tropics into a perspective relative to world ecosystems. Through the indiscriminate use of insecticides in the temperate regions as well as the release of radioactive atmospheric pollutants, worldwide effects have been produced and it can be expected that the destruction of tropical forests and pollution of coral reefs will similarly have profound, but as yet unpredicted, effects on the earth's weather and ocean productivity.
The results of the ecological research conducted at STRI are beneficial to the Republic of Panama, as well as to the United States. Developing countries usually cannot afford to sponsor the research necessary to accumulate the fundamental data on which to base management decisions on environmental issues. STRrs research can provide some of this information to the Republic and, in addition, its scientific library, staff expertise, and fellowship programs provide a basis for technical interactions with a variety of Panamanian organizations, agencies, and individuals such as the Ministry of Health; the Ministry of Planning; the University of Panama; the Natural Resources Division; the Director General of Marine Resources; the Institute of Tourism; and the Gorgas Memorial Laboratory.
Good relationships already exist between the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute and these entities and it is anticipated, that they would continue if jurisdiction of the Canal Zone is transferred. In addition, we believe two existing formal agreements wou d further insure the continued operation of STRI and of its Barro Colorado Island facility should jurisdictional changes occur. The first is an international convention, signed by the United States in
1940, providing for cooperation between the American States for purposes of the preservation of flora and fauna and natural areas. This convention was ratified by Panama in 1972. The second is the contract signed by STRI in 1977 with the Ministry of Health authorizing scientific operations throughout the Isthmus.
Certainly tropical research can be done elsewhere, and research needs to be supported elsewhere since no single site or habitat ctm begin to provide all of the scientific requirements. However, Barro Colorado Island is unique because it has been a reserve for more than fifty years; it has an inventory of the plants and animals present; it has produced several thousand scientific publications; and it is a foundation of knowledge that cannot be reproduced elsewhere.
The combination of reserve and research station represented by BCI can continue to provide critical scientific data and to serve as a genetic reservoir in keeping with Thomas Jefferson's observation. that "the greatest service which can be rendered any country is to add a useful plant to its culture. 11
The United States is one of the few surplus food producing countries in the world, yet most of its crops are not native. Wheat is of Near Eastern origin, corn of Mexican. Soy beans come from China and cabbages from the Mediterranean. Economic and social disasters, such as that created by the potato blight in Ireland, occur when we resort to single crop agricultural methods. To prevent this and to be prepared for long-term shifts in climate, which may be unfavorable for certain staple crops, we must have genetic reservoirs of plant species which the tropics, with an extraordinary diversity of plant life, represent. The reserve status of Barro Colorado Island will continue to preserve an enormous number of plants for the future potential agricultural and medicinal use of mankind.
A further advantage to the United States of the reserve on Barro Colorado is the overwintering residence and safe haven which the island represents to migrating birds. Most of the bird populations of North Anaerica, which are vitally important to insect control, overwinter in Central and South America. Without adequate sanctuaries the United States may find itself lacking a critical link in its ecosystem.
It should also be borne in mind that the howler monkey
population on Barro Colorado Island is an important public health sentinel because of this species' acute sensitivity to Yellow Fever. Monitoring this primate population as part of routine Barro Colorado Island studies provides public health authorities with sufficient warning to vaccinate susceptible human populations against a serious disease that has an 80% mortality rate.
Regardless of the flag under which the Canal Zone operates we believe ihat the Barro Colorado Island facility of the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute will continue to offer substantial benefits in education and science to the United States and to the worldwide community.
Mr. SNYDER. What generally is the nature of that operation, that contract with Panama?
Dr. RUBINOFF. There is a copy of the contract which was inserted in the record.
It authorizes us to operate anywhere in the Isthmus. It provides us with the duty free privileges for the import of equipment, field vehicles, etc. It gives us the privileges an international organization such as the United Nations would have.
Mr. SNYDER. Of all the proposed capital projects you listed in 1974-1982, have the ones for 1974, 1975, and 1976 been accomplished?
Dr. RUBINOFF. Yes, they have.
I think the tramway renovation is having the finishing touches put on it this week, but it is essentially completed.
We can now call Barro Colorado Island from this Committee room if you wanted to.
Mr. METCALFE. I think one of the members of the panel wishes to make a comment.
Mr. SNYDER. Surely.
Dr. CHALLINOR. Mr. Snyder raises the question of how worthwhile is is to invest the taxpayers' money in the Panama Canal Zone, which we might lose.
The Smithsonian does a great deal of research under all sorts of conditions, some of which are not as formal as this contract we have with the Ministry of Health in Panama.
Part of our effort that enables different Smithsonian scientists to work in different tropical countries is to maintain a good relationship with those ministries engaged in research.
Keeping a low profile and publishing has relieved anxieties in a lot of other countries, and allowed us to work in Brazil and Venezuela, and many tropical areas elsewhere. Therefore, the change in the jurisdiction over the Canal Zone causing the Institution then to operate under a foreign jurisdiction does not seem any more serious than the problems we face in other countries where we have for years carried out successful research. Mr. Metcalfe. Will the gentleman yield to me for a moment? Mr. SNYDER. Yes.
Mr. Metcalfe. Dr. Challinor, will you submit for our record a list of the various overseas facilities where we are conducting ecological and environmental studies?
We know that a laboratory in Costa Rica is addressing itself to this and doing tropical research, similar research to that of the Smithsonian from which the world benefits. Will you submit a list of those? Mr. CHALLINOR. I will be happy to give a list of countries and the facilities we are enjoying.
Mr. METCALFE. And the subject area which they are studying in that research.
Dr. CHALLINOR. We will be happy to do so. Mr. METCALFE. Thank you.
[The list of research areas follows:]
95-549 0 77 6
Cooperative Research with Universities and Other Organizations in Foreign Countries New Guinea Wau Ecological Institute Nepal Royal Chitwan National Park Ecuador Charles Darwin Research Station, Galapagos Venezuela Department of National Parks Brazil National Institute of Amnazonian Research, Manaos Colombia Universidad del Valle, Cali Egypt -American Research Center in Egypt, Cairo India -National Institute of Amazonian Research, Bangalore Pakistan National Research Council, Islamabad Belize Ministry of Fisheries, Balmopan Tanzania Serengeti Research Institute Bahamas Bahamas National Trust Aldabra Office of the President, Seychelles Republic Ghana University of Ghana, Accra Indonesia -National Institute of Indonesian Sciences, Jakarta Sri Lanka -University of Colombo Tunisia Bardo Museum, Tunis Yugoslavia Federal Agency for International Technical Cooperation, Belgrade
Kenya University of Kenya, Nairobi
Mr. METCALFE. Proceed, Mr. Snvder.
Mr. SNYDER. Dr. Challinor, I do not have any problem with the fact that the Smithsonian is doing good work around the world.
I just perceive that we have a peculiar problem with this situation because if I had to guess right now, and there was a vote in the House of Representatives on the whole issue of the Canal Zone treaty, you would be in bad trouble.
I don't think there is a lot of sympathy right now for General Torrijos and for giving him too much, and there is going to be a lot of speculation about us spending money, particularly for capital improvements if, in fact, we are not going to end up in that operation at all.
I do not think the resentment generally would be against your operation, but I think we will have to justify it a little bit more under these peculiar circumstances than if you were talking about one of those operations somewhere else, where we were getting some benefit from it.
The Washington Post recently carried a series of articles on the Smithsonian's acquisition of property in Maryland. It seemed it got the land and buildings with private funds and then got Federal funds to maintain these lands and facilities.
Is there any similar pattern with your operations there in any way or with any other facilities or properties of the Tropical Research Institute?
Dr. CHALLINOR. Mr. Chairman, if I may reply to that, there was no similarity at all.
This land had always been Federal land. To the best of my knowledge, all the land that we use in Panama has always been in the title of the United States government. Mr. SNYDER. Thank you, Mr. Chairman. Mr. METCALFE. Thank you.
Does the majority staff member wish to ask any questions?
Mr. MODGLIN. Yes, Mr. Chairman.
First, Dr. Rubinoff I might address myself to the question of the relationship between the Canal Zone Biological Area and the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute. The Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute was created by the Board of Regents of the Smithsonian Institution is that correct, in 1966?
Dr. RUBINOFF. Yes, sir.
Mr. MODGLIN. Was there any explicit statutory authorization for the creation of the Research Institute? Dr. RUBINOFF. No.
Dr. CHALLINOR. The general authority, the sections in Title 20, beginning with Section 41.
Mr. MODGLIN. The creation of such a Research Institute by the Smithsonian Board of Regents is not unusual in the conduct of business by the Smithsonian Institution? Mr. JAMESON. There have been occasional establishments by the Board of Regents, but it is not a commonplace activity. Mr. MODGLIN. The Congress did recognize the Institute insofar as you had money appropriated to the Smithsonian Institution with the Research Institute in your budget?
Mr. JAMESON. Yes.
Mr. MODGLIN. The regulations that govern the Research Institute, are they codified in the Code of Federal Regulations or are they Canal Zone regulations or what is the nature of those regulations?
Mr. JAMESON. I don't believe I can answer that.
I don't think it is codified in the Federal Register.
Do you know whether they are published down there?
Dr. RUBINOFF. I don't think so, except for specific authority governing exemptions for certain things like the salary of the Director which is controlled by the Secretary of the Army under the Canal Zone Central Employment Special Regulations; they are essentially covered by the Board of Regents.
Mr. MODGLIN. The Research Institute is principally located in the Canal Zone, is that correct?
Dr. RUBINOFF. Yes.
Mr. MODGLIN. You have therefore obtained a land license from the Governor of the Canal Zone in order to run that particular operation?
Dr. RUBINOFF. That is correct, all of our physical facilities are licensed directly from the Canal Zone government or subleased through the various military organizations that hold the land.
Mr. MODGLIN. I take it from your answer to the question posed by the Subcommittee Chairman, that you do not believe there is any necessity for the Research Institute to be authorized specifically by statute. You feel that the operation is satisfactory at the present time?
Mr. JAMESON. It seems to be proceeding very nicely.
We have the annual appropriations hearings which go into some depth on the Smithsonian Tropical research Institute.
It is a separate, discreet line in our budget.
Mr. MODGLIN. I might touch upon one other point, and that is the necessity for increased funding for your operating and capital costs. What aspects of your operating costs have undergone the greatest increase in recent years?
Dr. RUBINOFF. Salaries paid to employees is the area that has inflated the most.
We are covered, as you know, by the minimum wage law of the United States, so that all salaries begin at $2.30 and go on up from there.
Mr. MODGLIN. What factors, both on the Isthmus of Panama and outside the Isthmus of Panama, are major determinants of your increases in operating expenses? Do you think most of them are legislative and statutory in nature, or are they local increases in prices in Panama that bring up the cost of operations?
Dr. RUBINOFF. I think that primarily legislative increases in salary, and inflation in utilities would be the other major increase. We have experienced enormous increases in the cost of electrical power.
Mr. MODGLIN. Has the number of personnel positions in connection with the Canal Zone Biological Area undergone any major increase in the last, say, ten years, and if so, why would that be? Dr. RUBINOFF. Really not.
We have an analysis which we will include for the record if you would like.
The essential increases have been in the area of protection.
I think we run from three to five game wardens in the past five years.
This is necessitated by the increased number of people running around the lake.
Mr. MODGLIN. With respect to your capital expenses, what do you perceive from that list that is included on the last page of your testimony to be the most urgent of your capital expenses, the most
Dr. RUBINOFF. I would think that the replacement of the dormitory which was initially constructed in 1924 and which has rather extensive termite infestation, would be the most important thing.
It is inadequate for a number of reasons, including the ones that I stated. We are having more and more scientists who want to spend longer periods on the Island, and the accommodations are just not adequate for people who are coming to spend one or two years of their life on a particular study.
Mr. MODGLIN. The dormitories mostly?
Dr. RUBINOFF. I would think that is the most important.
Mr. MODGLIN. Again, referring to the summary of proposed capital projet on the last pages of your testimony, how many buildings, actual physical structures which are on the Island at the present time, do you intend to replace?
Dr. RAND. A great deal depends upon the termites.
Mr. MODGLIN. I am sorry?
Dr. RAND. It is not a facetious answer, but a great deal of what we will have to do in the way of replacing buildings depends on the rate by which they are destroyed by termites.
Planned changes essentially include the dormitory, the dining hall, and the half dozen buildings listed here, but it is not impossible that deterioration will force major rebuilding in some of the others.
Mr. MODGLIN. Will all the structures that you intend to build be
Dr. RAND. They will be concrete structures.
Mr MODGLIN. Could you for the purposes of the record, describe the condition of the buildings which you intend to replace?
Dr. RUBINOFF. The dormitory is a wooden structure, subdivided into
Dr. RAND. Providing beds for fifteen people.
Dr. RUBINOFF. I think in units of two beds for a partially divided room.
Essentially, that is it.
It is a screen area, not air conditioned, and represents a hazard in terms of fire and termites in this environment.
The kitchen and dining facilities are also wooden and need to be rebuilt in a more sanitary fashion, or in a fashion that allows us to make dining and living easier.
Mr. MODGLIN. One final question.
How would you characterize the need for these relacement facilities?
As critical? Important? Nice to have?
Dr. RUBINOFF. Critical.
We run the risk of collapsing or breaking up without warning.
Mr. MODGLIN. Okay.
That is all I have, Mr. Chairman.
Mr. METCALFE. Dr. Rubinoff, the gentleman from Kentucky wishes to ask another question.
Mr. SNYDER. Dr. Rubinoff, in your prepared statement, you made the request that we raise the authorization to $750,000, or abolish it altogether.
The Chairman wrote a letter to Secretary Ripley on April 13, 1976, to which he responded on May 3, and I suppose you have copies of that correspondence.
An addendum to his response dated May 11, 1976, shows the actual and estimated budget authority and outlay for 1974 through 1981.
Do you have that document?
Dr. RUBINOFF. No, I don't have it right here.
April 13, is it?
Mr. SNYDER. It certainly is.
(A document was shown to the witness.)
Mr. SNYDER. Now, that item indicated fiscal year 1978 has a right substantial increase from 1977 which, I assume, was for some capital improvements off your list. Then it shows a dropping down. Can you address yourself then to that? Dr. RUBINOFF. Essentially, that is reconstruction of the dormitory and kitchen which would be a one-time expenditure.
Mr. SNYDER. This goes only to-the $500,000 estimate as of 1981. What is the necessity of raising it up above $600,000? Dr. RUBINOFF. The reason we are requesting an increase to $750,000 is because we have been advised, subsequent to the preparation of these estimates, that we should be including the indirect costs in our Barro Colorado expenses. Mr. SNYDER. What expenses? Dr. RUBINOFF. Indirect costs which were not assessed and applied to these figures.
Mr. SNYDER. Where?
What are the indirect costs? Dr. RUBINOFF. The costs of, say, a portion of my salary, the time spent administering Barro Colorado Island, or what Dr. Rand does. The administrative costs of our central office. Mr. SNYDER. Here in Washington? Dr. RUBINOFF. No, in Ancon. Mr. SNYDER. Well, it sounds to me a lot like a part of what you are saying is that a part of the expense directly attributed to Barro Colorado Island is currently being paid by another budget. How much of the direct cost of your salary and other people's salary goes on another budget somewhere? That is a question I asked you earlier. Mr. JAMESON. Shall I try to answer? Mr. SNYDER. If you want my support for this bill, you better answer, because I will tell you with the answer I got right now, I oppose the bill, and I will go to the floor and fight it.
I want it honest; if you need the money and can justify it, I will go and ask for you, but don't pull the wool over my eyes. Dr. RUBINOFF. I apologize.
We have just been advised by the General Accounting Office that we should be including indirect costs.
Barro, Colorado Island is an integral part of the STRI. A scientist may spend a day on the Island and four davs off. We do not keep track of is time in various places, as he pursues research. We have been advised we should do that. An analysis is ongoing. This is the reason we requested an additional amount. There has I been no attempt to deceive you.
Mr. SNYDER.What you are saying is that this submission which is in front of you from Dr. Ripley is going to be changed before we get this bill out?
Dr. RUBINOFF. That precedes the advice from the General Accounting Office by a year, at least. It is May 11, 1976.
The General Accounting auditors were in Panama last month.
Mr. SNYDER. You better send us something to get this straightened out.
Dr. RUBINOFF. It is just a misunderstanding.
Mr. SYNDER. Let us get it straightened out.
Thank you, Mr. Chairman.
I have to leave now.
Mr. METCALFE. Thank you.
Pursuing the subject of the April 13th letter for 1977, it was $399.000, and now you are asking for a figure of $750,000 as a limit. For fiscal year 1978 in the May 11, 1976 letter you project $607,000, but then for the following year, fiscal '79, you have dropped it to $386,000, and then we come up again for fiscal uear 1980 to $427,000.
Is this because of capital construction projects or more construction causing you to go down and up again? Dr. RUBINOFF. I think what we are anticipating is general inflationary increases.
This does not mean that we will spend it all in one year.
We are at the mercy of events we cannot control.
Two weeks ago a freighter, Scottish flag, going through the Canal blew its engine in front of the Island and started to go aground. It was anchored by the pilot.
After tugs got it under control, we discovered that it had our electrical cable entwined. We had to have it fixed. We do not have the bill.
I suspect it will be indemnified.
This could be a $10,000 or $15,000 splicing job, which includes divers working weekends.
Or the same kind of event could be an act of God.
One of the trees sitting there could break the cable.
A tree in a clearing could knock down one of our houses.
We are asking for authority to spend the money if we need to. We don't necessarily plan to spend any specific amount by 1980 or 1981, because we cannot anticipate those needs.
Mr. METCALFE. Does minority counsel, Mr. Nicholas Nonenmacher, have any questions?
Mr. NONNENMACHER. Thank you, Mr. Chairman.
I have about four questions.
I would like to ask, Dr. Rubinoff, this question, beause I think the background needs a bit of clarification.
Could you give us in a couple of sentences the precise structure of STRI and how the Biological Area on the Island fits under that?
I think there is a problem in that the facility at the Island preceded the establishment of what is now the parent body, and if you could address a few remarks to that relationship, it might clarify the matter of the indirect costs.
Obviously, some of them are borne by the parent body which is a creature subsequent in time to the Barro Colorado Island facility itself.
Will you explain that in a little more detail?
Dr. RUBINOFF. That is correct.
The administration of STRI is carried out in our offices in town, just below the Governor's residence in the Canal Zone.
It is a building we lease from the Panama Canal Company.
We operate marine labs on both coasts and on Barro Colorado Island.
Visitors come to work on the Isthmus of Panama through Smithsonian Institution support or using our facilities and are free to go to Barro Colorado or to one of the marine labs to do their studies.
Sometimes a piece of equipment is available at only one locality and they will move from one to the other.
The accounting, the purchasing, the personnel records, are all kept in the Ancon Building, so that the essential administrative services are all handled at one point for all of our activities on the Isthmus as well as our activities of staff working in Africa or elsewhere in the New World Tropics.
We have a string of facilities including Barro Colorado Island. In many ways, the parent organization is now a small, subsidiary part of the Tropical Research Institute. The reason for this was that we wanted to take advantage of the kinds of research we were developing in the fifties and sixties requiring comparative studies. There was a need to see whether the results we were getting in the habitat on Barro Colorado Island were valid at 2,000 meters altitude, or in a tropical grassland, so we wanted to be able to support some scientists off the Island.
Mr. NONNENMACHER. So apart from the work that is carried on, the Tropical Research Institute itself was established solely by the Smithsonian Institution in 1966, is that correct?
Dr. RUBINOFF. That is correct.
Mr. NONENMACHER. Without any Federal interventions or warrant or statute from the Congress?
In other words, the Smithsonian established the Tropical Research Institute entirely on its own?
Dr. RUBINOFF. By the authority of the Board of Regents, yes.
Mr. NONNENMACHER. Then it took over operations which had been authorized in the past by an Act of Congress, namely, the Barro Colorado facility?
Dr. RUBINOFF. That is correct.
Mr. NONENMACHER. For which you were able to get Federal appropriations?
Dr. RUBINOFF. That is correct.
Mr. NONNENMACHER. Now, does STRI itself, this totally Smithsonian body, get Federal funding other than for Barro Colorado?
Dr. RUBINOFF. Yes, it does.
Mr. NONNENMACHER. Is that something that came about subsequent to its establishment as a private organization?
Dr. RUBINOFF. That is correct.
Mr. NONNENMACHER. Are all the properties and facilities then utilized by the Tropical Research Institute, apart from Barro Colorado, Federal?
Dr. RUBINOFF. Yes.
Mr. NONNENMACHER. I gathered that from an earlier answer. There are no private property of facilities whatsoever? Dr. RUBINOFF. Yes, certain bits of equipment might belong to a university, but, yes, essentially, it is Federal. Mr. NONENMACHER. Thank you. Could you tell us what support functions, if any, and at what costs are provided to the Tropical Research Institute, and more, in particular, to Barro Colorado Island, by the Panama Canal Company?
Dr. RUBINOFF. Well, we buy such commodities as food, lumber, fuel, and gasoline for our vesselsMr. NONNENMACHER. But all at your expense? Dr. RUBINOFF. At our expense, yes. Mr. NONNENMACHER. Dr. Rubinoff, is there any support whatsoever that they donate to your functions? Dr. RUBINOFF. No, we pay. In the early history of the Island, back in the '20s and '30s, they were often helpful in giving surplus equipment, but those days are gone.
Mr. N ONNENMACHER. I see. I have two more questions, the first one regarding the treaty possibilities.
If the government of Panama should take over the operation of the Zone, to whom would you report in the government of Panama? I take it that your contract would give you a certain amount of freedom, if not complete freedom, but under whose supervision would you directly come? Would it be the Minister of Health? Dr. RUBINOFF. That is correct, although we are free to deal with the other Ministries as we need to for the permanent exchange of data and things like that. Mr. NONNENMACHER. You feel you would be completely free to operate in the eventuality of a treaty? Dr. RUBINOFF. That is my opinion. Mr. NONNENMACHER. My last question concerns the ecological dangers of a proposed sea level canal. Has the Institute done any work on that? Has it been asked to do any work?
If it has, what findings have you come up with, especially in regard to the dangerous, poisonous species in the Pacific entering into the Atlantic?
Dr. RUBINOFF. We were never asked to do any research, but because of our situation we did a lot of research that was relative to the question back in the latter part of the sixties and early seventies.
It is fair to state that as a result of the research conducted at the STRI marine labs from 1965 on, the National Academy of Sciences established a Committee for Ecological Research of an interocean canal which subsequently recommended that a sea-leval canal not be constructed beause there were potentially hazardous situations.
Dr. CHALLINOR was a member of that Committees. It was our research, designed essentially to find out what the situation was before a canal was built, which put us in the position of making some kinds of predictions of what might happen if a canal were built.
Of course, with limited knowledge these kinds of predictions are difficult to assess, but it is most likely that the introduction of some plants and animals from one ocean to another would have an effect.
Mr. NONNENMACHER. Are you doing research on this now?
Dr. RUBINOFF. On both oceans, but not directly, specifically as to what would happen with a sea-level canal.
Mr. NONNENMACHER. You don't have a budget item proposed over this period of years then, that you had to make such a study to come up with the final determination?
Dr. RUBINOFF. I don't think we can make a final determination, but I think we are going about it in the right way to find our more about the ecology of the oceans in that area so that if and when a decision is made to consider building that again, we will be in a much better position to have a precise statement and we could at least reduce the limits of our estimates of what might happen. Right now, it is pretty broad speculation. Mr. NONNENMACHER. Then at this moment the research you have concluded to date would tend to mitigate against the sea-level
Dr. RUBINOFF. Without a biotic barrier, yes. Mr. NONNENMACHER. Thank you very much. Thank you, Mr. Chairman.
Mr. METCALFE. Thank you very much. Will the members of your panel be available to answer any questions that we propound to you in the future for the record of this hearing?
Dr. RUBINOFF. Yes, Mr. Chairman. Mr. METCALFE. Therefore, let the record show that, without objection, the Chair will have a series of questions, which I would like to submit to the witnesses for the record. Dr. RUBINOFF. Yes, sir.
[The questions of the Chairman, and the answers, follow:]
tn m r rCO CO v j
> C) 0
ol 00 r- r- t4-) v4 4) M o 0 (7, 'D a cc cc
a, 10 10 tn
0 N 0 ho 0 144 1 (a 10 LO m
.0 93 4J 0 E-4 Cd 0
0-4 4) $4 0 V4 Vq 4) W
$4 0-0 44 -0 r-f $4
0 a -4
0 0 040 0 0 4J H
.0 Q .94
40 4J 44 d
o 0 -0 9 o
-10 0 E0 0"4" 4JW M M 0 0
0 41 Q
a V 1> 4k x
0 4) m V4 0 0 c
4J > +) 0 0
$4 :1 Vq a) a 04 tj to
4J 93 4J 'a :3
0 41 cd
Q -rq C) $4 oloo 0 z E k
4J 4J M :S 0 W4 r4 0 ;% 0 .4 ,
CC k 0 4J d $4 Z u B
r4 Cl 0 14 0%4 o c pq
d m 0 0 0 V4 SO V) 0
43 -0 0.0 V4 A u $3 CL 0 m 0 N
o 0.,4 x w rn 9 U 00 0
40 C 4J 4J r-4 z
W4 U 0 ca o Q r-i 3
$4 %4 > 10 :$ .9-4 0 w 5i d -r4 lz 06" 44 Id
0 r-4 14 d V4 co
41 0+) -0 a) 0 0
= 00- m 0 a C: N
14 4J N 0 CJ M 0 V4
0 r-4 %.o 14 $4 $4 0 C, en 0 no 00
0 %4 d 4) :3 :3 0 1- fn Ln r- rQ .0 '0 4J 0 CO f-4 4A 1 ...... I ll ri
v4 44 r. v4 CA 0 CS 0 "1 00
in r$4 0 0"% 93 wo 41 Cd k 0 $4 d 4J (D 0 Q td
.14 93 04 :1 N .0
0 0 A Q (D 0
0 t-I 04
0 14 = 4J 0 0
93 E-4 > --- 0 (A
0 4J > I
.00 > 0 A 0 0
cl c U)
cs m f-4 8 a) %4 ;4 14 0- to
Vq ID 4.) C d 00 Cd :3 C4-1 0
N 93 C14 4J C) -A 010 0 V <
0 0 t- 93 W4 V4 r4 $4 A r-4 0 0% 0-0 C4
41 (* 0 ca bG d 0 Q 0 W tv V W g:
Q .0 cl) 0 d
mokud V44 k
04-) V-4 0 0 H 0 <
r-4 0 *0 4-) V4 V4 m
W4 d 0v4 0 d 044.4 o 0
co 44 0 0 w 0 9 0 14 U) 04 U 00 0
0 co 00
CO CO 10 0
'r 0, 40
od is 64
Id -5; J3
x 00 0
a 00 ol ol
0 > to V
to w U) 0
c S, to
to J: -44
to 41 9 Z
0 0 0
rl: 1; In N en
In (n 0 00 m Nj In r"
1.0 cr, Ni Ci C
00 (0) Ol co
4) 10 fn 00
4J (D m a, M -3
rd a, Ol
4) o U 4)
X 0 0 00
> w C U to
P4 to w w ul
> Z E V 14
0. c (d
z C x (n
0 't 0 0 00 00 co
4A 0 0 M 0 In In co
V4 ri C ', *q:
'o 0 00 OD in
ow 10 r- In 00 '4
4-)%4 r_ F4
0 0 0 0 0
>.0 A4 V4 u
x or- U) 9: U)
W 0) 0 ba
'o C4 -0
fd C p 14 c
C4 40 .4 ul q
:3 w En C4 U ou 0
a 0 0
44I OD* co '
mv VA :f
44 ou ~z
10 r: 00
oo tn a ol
11, Ir C) '0
; . ol
co 0 co
tn C> cy, v 0
Ln Ln cl, Ln co co
0 0 am
14 to M
w 44 z
a 0 in co fn 't
0 0 N tA co co
I'- I:i -. "i Oi C
cz LA m co v 0 N
r- V 't
Zi v C4
0 0 0
tn r kn
x tA C4 u 00 0
%n fl co oc
< a to
c o < X
1'. 4 x k
9 u 0 0 0
cr I. z
3. (a) Does either the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute or the Canal Zone Biological Area borrow any funds from any
sources for capital or operating expenses? (b) If there is any borrowing, list any loans made to eithcr01 the entities over
the last f ive years, and delineate the expez~iitures made by each entity showing the loan duration, interest rates, and the interest paid to date on any loans. (c) If the expenditures
were not made from loans, why did you prorate over their useful [life the costs of telephone installation and tramway renovation instead of listing their full costs as expenditures in the year(s) these projects were accomplished?
Neither the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute nor
the Canal Zone Biological Area borrows funds for any purpose.
An interim internal planning document prorated capital
expenses involved in the r *econstruction of the tramways and the installation of the telephone on Barro Colorado Island in order to
obtain a reasonable estimate of depreciation and a projection of
The telephone installation was originally to be accomplished
by *the Panama Canal Company in its role as supplier of public utilities in the Canal Zone. Had this been done the costs would
have been amoritized to STRI over a number of years. In that
very restricted sense, STRI would have received a loan,. However, because the Canal Company refused to afford this project sufficient
priority to allow capital 'funds for the purchase and installation of the necessary equipment Smithsonian funds were used. The
telephone was charged to the year the contract to the Canal Company
was issued (FY 76), as was the fabrication of the rail support and
procurement of the winch for the tramway. Installation of the winch
and control mechanisms were completed in FY 77 and charged to
the current appropriation.
95-549 0 77 7
What are the rules and regulations which govern the
Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute and the Canal Zone Biological Area? How are the rules and regulations which govern the two entities the same? How are. they different? Who is the issuing authority for the rules and regulations which govern each entity?
The Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute was established in
1966 by the Board of Regents of the Smithsonian Institution. It is
governed by the general provisions of the basic Smithsonian statutes, as well as memoranda and regulations of the Smithsonian Institution
issued under 20 USC 41 et seq. Administration of the Canal Zone
Biological Area (Ba rro Colorado Island), which is an integral part
of STRI, is subject to the same statutes and to the provisions of
20 USC 79a-e as well.
Both entities are further subject to Federal law governing the
uses of appropriated funds, the civil service as it applies to the
Canal Zone, and procurement among others; to the Canal Zone Code
and related laws enacted by Congress; and to executive orders
issued by the Secretary of the Army and the Governor of the Canal