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Object relations and social networks : correlates of adjustment during college

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Object relations and social networks : correlates of adjustment during college
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Fortney, Robert Peter, 1953-
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English
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viii, 157 leaves : ; 28 cm.

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College students ( jstor )
Demography ( jstor )
Density ( jstor )
Fathers ( jstor )
Health care outcome assessment ( jstor )
Love ( jstor )
Mothers ( jstor )
Parents ( jstor )
Social interaction ( jstor )
Social networking ( jstor )
Clinical Psychology thesis Ph. D
Dissertations, Academic -- Clinical Psychology -- UF
Interpersonal relations ( lcsh )
Social groups ( lcsh )
Student adjustment ( lcsh )
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bibliography ( marcgt )
theses ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )

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Thesis:
Thesis (Ph. D.)--University of Florida, 1984.
Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references (leaves 151-155).
Additional Physical Form:
Also available online.
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Typescript.
General Note:
Vita.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Robert Peter Fortney.

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University of Florida
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University of Florida
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Copyright [name of dissertation author]. Permission granted to the University of Florida to digitize, archive and distribute this item for non-profit research and educational purposes. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder.
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OBJECT RELATIONS AND SOCIAL NETWORKS:
CORRELATES OF ADJUSTMENT DURING COLLEGE














BY

ROBERT PETER FORTUNE













A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE COUNCIL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN
PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR
THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY



UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 1984































Dedicated

to

that pursuit
which Aldous Huxley termed
a quest for grace














ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

I would like to express my gratitude to my chairman,

Dr. Hugh Davis, whose ironic vision and well-timed comments and support have guided me through this project; the members of my supervisory committee, Dr. Louis Cohen, Dr. Jacque Goldman, Dr. Eileen Fennell, and Dr. Otto Von Mering, who each contributed to the ideas found in this paper and whose object representation will remain with me throughout my professional career; Mark Waugh and Rebecca (Cooley) Behrends, who kept me current with the research on object relations theory; Sandi Jacot and Kathy Toohey for their care and precision in collecting the data; Steve Billingsley, who was willing to barter his computer consultation time; Wesley Seidel, who taught me the rudiments of word processing and who furnished me with the necessary hardware; Sigmund Freud, who cautioned that the discipline he founded should never become a healing cult.and Teresa, who, after providing invaluable assistance in the most tedious phases of this study and enduring a good deal of relative deprivation during the past seven and a half years, still knows what will not fade away.















TABLE OF CONTENTS


PAGE
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS . iii

LIST OF TABLES . . vi

ABSTRACT . .. x

CHAPTER

ONE INTRODUCTION . 1

Overview *
Theoretical Considerations ....... 4 Object Relations 7 Social Networks 19
Central Thesis: An Interactionist Model 26 Hypotheses 31
1. Interactional Effects .. 33
2. Univariate Comparisons 33 3. Outcome Measures .. .. 34
4. Life Change . 35
5. Qualitative Factors and
ICL Dimensions 35 6. ICL Quadrants . 35

TWO METHOD . .. ..... 36

Subjects o 36
Measures . 36
Category A. Measures of Life Change
and Demographics 36
Category B. Primary Measures o 40
Category C. Measures of Mental Health 46
Procedure 49

THREE RESULTS . 51

Interrater Reliability
and Normative Comparisons ... 51
Interactional Effects ...... 55
Univariate Comparisons 59 Outcome Measures .. 96


iv -









Life Change 97
Qualitative Factors and ICL Dimensions . 98 ICL Quadrants . . . . . 100

FOUR DISCUSSION . . . . . 103

The Hypotheses Reviewed . . . 103 Two Conclusions . . . 108
The Reevaluation of Conceptual Level ..109 The Reevaluation of Network Density . 114 Closing Remarks ....... .118

APPEND ICES

A. NETWORK DENSITY SCORES--AN EXAMPLE ...121

B. CONSENT FORMS . . . . 124

C. DATA COLLECTION INFORMATION . . . 134

Instructions Used in Data Collection 134
Questions Asked by the Subjects and
the Answers Given by the Research
Assistants . . . 138

D. DEMOGRAPHICS QUESTIONNAIRE . . . 139

E. RELIABILITY AND NORMATIVE DATA . . 141

Reliability of the Descriptions of Parents 141
Norms for the Descriptions of Parents
--On Mothers . . 142
Norms for the Descriptions of Parents
--On Fathers . . . . . 143
Norms for Social Networks . . . 144 Norms for the CSRE ... 145
Norms for the POMS 146
Norms for the HSCL 147
Norms for the Love Scale .148
Norms for the ICL . . . . 149

REFERENCES 151

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH . . . . . . 156















LIST OF TABLES
TABLE

PAGE

1. Means (M) and Standard Deviations (SD) of
Selected Variables for Three Groups of
Averaged Conceptual Level (CL) of
Object Representations 56

2. Means (M) and Standard Deviations (SD) of
Selected Variables for Three Groups of
Total Network Density 58

3. Summary of the Correlations Between the Outcome
Measures and the Variables of Life Change, Total Network Size, Total Network Density,
and Averaged Conceptual Level 60

4. Correlation Matrix for the Variables of Life
Change, Total Network Size, Total Network
Density, and Averaged Conceptual Level . 61

5. Correlation matrix for the Outcome Measures .. 62

6. Correlations Between the Subscales of the
Outcome Measures and the Conceptual
Level Scores 63

7. Correlations Between the Subscales of the
Outcome Measures and the variables of Life
Change, Total Network Size, and Total
Network Density 65

8. Correlations Between the Subscales of the
Outcome Measures and the Variables of
Family/Relative Network Density, Friendship
Network Density and Nuclear Family-Friendship
(HF-F) Boundary Density 68

9. Summary of the Differences on Nuclear FamilyFriendship (NF-F) Boundary Density for the
Subjects who Lived at Home versus the
Subjects who Lived Away from Home .... 70




vi -









10. Correlations Between the Qualitative Factors
of "Parent as Striving" and "Parent as
Nurturant and the ICL Dimensions
(DOM and LOV) . . . . . 73

11. Correlations Between the Subscales of the
Outcome Measures and the Variables of
"Parent as Striving" and "Parent
as Nurturant". . . . . .* 74

12. Correlations Between the Subscales of the
Outcome Measures and the ICL Dimensions
(DOM and LOV) . . o o . . 76

13. Correlations Between the Variables of "Parent as
Striving" and "Parent as Nurturant" and the
Variables of Life Change, Total Network Size,
Total Network Density, and Averaged Conceptual
Level o o o o 78

14. Correlations Between the ICL Dimensions (DOM and
LOV) and the Variables of Life Change, Total
Network Size, Total Network Density, and
Averaged Conceptual Level . . . 79

15. Correlation Matrix for the Demographic Variables 81

16. Correlations Between the Demographic Variables
and the Description Length Scores o 82
17. Correlations Between the ICL Control Variables
(Number of Items Checked, NIC, and Average
Intensity, AIN) and the Demographic and
Description Length Variables o o o o 84

18. Summary of the Correlations Between the
Demographic Variables and the Variables
of Life Change, Total Network Size, Total
Network Density, and Averaged
Conceptual Level . . . .. 85

19. Correlations Between the Subscales of the
Outcome Measures and the Demographic
Variables--Part A (Age, Class, Sex,
and SES) o 86

20. Correlations Between the Subscales of the
Outcome Measures and the Demographic Variables--Part B (Employed, Credits,
and Domicile) 87




-vii -









21. Correlations Between the Qualitative Variables
of Object Relations and the Demographic
Variables--Part A (Age, Class, Sex,
and SES) 88

22. Correlations Between the Qualitative Factors
of Object Relations and the Demographic
Variables--Part B (Employed, Credits, and
Domicile) 0 a 89

23. Correlations Between the Description
Length Scores and the Variables of
Life Change, Total Network Size, Total
Network Densiy, and Averaged
Conceptual Level . . . . . 90

24. Correlations Between the Subscales of the
Outcome Measures and the Description
Length Scores . . . . . 91

25. Correlations Between the Descriptions Length
Scores and the Qualitative variables of
Object Relations . . . . . 92

26. Correlations Between the ICL Control Variables
(NIC and AIN) and the Variables of Life
Change, Total Network Size, Total Network
Density, and Averaged Conceptual Level . 93

27. Correlations Between the Subscales of the
Outcome Measures and the ICL Control
Variables (NIC and AIN) . . . . 94

28. Correlations Between the ICL Control Variables
(NIC and AIN) and the Qualitative Variables
of Object Relations . . . . 95

29. Reactivity of the Outcome Measures as Seen in
Linear Regression Models with the Independent
Variables of Life Change, Total Network
Density, and Averaged Conceptual Level of
Object Representations . . . . 97

30. Linear Regression Scores for the Variables
of "Parent as Striving" and "Parent as
Nurturant" and the ICL Dimensions
(DOM and LOV) . . . . . 99

31. Relationships Between the Quadrants of the
ICL and Outcome * . . . . 101




viii -















Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate Council of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy

OBJECT RELATIONS AND SOCIAL NETWORKS:
CORRELATES OF ADJUSTMENT DURING COLLEGE By

Robert Peter Fortney

August, 1984

Chairman: Hugh Davis, Ph.D. major Department: Department of Clinical Psychology

The interactionist model assumes that psychological adjustment is a function of the relationship between personality and social variables. The present study attempted to demonstrate that people with lower conceptual levels of object representations would function best in higher density networks, while those with higher conceptual levels would be best adjusted in lower density networks. Deviation from the adaptive equilibrium of this inverse relationship was expected to result in greater subjective distress (e.g., poorer mood, more symptoms) and impairment in the areas of love and work.

The study involved 65 female and 52 male undergraduate students. The subjects completed, in succession, a demographics questionnaire, the College Schedule of Recent Events, a 5-minute written description of their mother and









another of their father (which were scored for conceptual level of object representations, verbal fluency, and the qualitative factors of "parent as nurturant" and "parent as striving"), the Interpersonal Checklist for mother and another for father, the Social Network List and the Social Network Map (which were scored for network density), the Profile of Mood States, the Hopkins Symptom Checklist, and the Scale of Feelings. Also, their grade point average (GPA) was collected at the end of the term.

Although conceptual level was reliably rated and most other variables were consistent with the normative data presented in earlier studies, the central hypothesis was not supported. The expected inverse relationship between conceptual level and network density was not found, nor were larger deviations from this inverse relationship associated with poorer scores on the outcome measures. Contrary to expectations, conceptual level was unrelated to outcome, and higher, rather than lower, density networks were correlated with better mood scores.

Two main conclusions are suggested. First, the

conceptual level variable used in the current study does not adequately summarize the aspects of intrapsychic structure which are sensitive to psychopathology. Second, the adaptive value of network density probably varies more in relation to the psychosocial concerns of the individual than had previously been reported in the literature.














CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION


Overview

The present dissertation was a study of how the

interaction between certain personality and social variables was related to the individual's state of psychological adjustment. The following is an overview of this dissertation's organization.

The main body of the introductory chapter begins with the section entitled "Theoretical Considerations" in which some of the theoretical assumptions underlying this study are delineated. The argument is advanced that personality and social variables must be examined in unison so as to fully account for the vicissitudes of psychological development. The section ends with a synopsis of the study's central hypothesis.

The relevant personality and social variables, whose interaction form the crux of the central hypothesis, are presented in the next two sections. In the first of these sections, entitled "Object Relations", the variables that are derived from the subjects' descriptions of their parents are introduced. The most important of these variables is the conceptual level of the subjects' object representations



I -






2


(i.e. the subjects' image of their parents). The conceptual level, as a developmental variable, is thought to denote the maturational level of the subjects' ability to accurately perceive and act on their environment. After this variable is defined, the research that relate conceptual level to the type and severity of psychopathology is presented. The variables that provide a more qualitative assessment of object representations are described at the end of this section.

In the section entitled "Social Networks" the concept of network density and the research relevant to it are introduced. The total density of the subjects' social network, which is conceptualized in this study as a developmental variable, serves as the social variable in the interactional paradigm.

In the next section the central hypothesis is put forth. This section ends with a discussion of the population, which is college students, and their suitability for this study.

In the "Hypotheses" section, a summary is presented of the six hypotheses tested in this study. Although the primary focus of this study is on the central hypothesis, five other hypotheses are proposed. These five auxiliary hypotheses are designed to ascertain whether or not the population behaved in a predictable manner,






3


The method section forms the second chapter of this dissertation. In this chapter a description of the subjects, the measures, and the procedure used in this study is provided. The section entitled "Measures" is divided into three categories. In Category A, the demographic and life change measures are presented. Category B is devoted to those measures which assess the relevant personality and social variables. The outcome measures are introduced in Category C.

In the third chapter the results of the data analyses are summarized. This chapter is divided into two main components. The first component, which encompasses the section entitled "Interrater Reliability and Normative Comparisons", is designed to show that the results in the current study are reliably rated and are consistent with the results reported in the literature. The second component consists of six sections, with each section corresponding to one of the six hypotheses described at the end of Chapter 1. Thus, the findings pertaining to the first hypothesis are summarized in the result section entitled "Interactional Effects", and the findings for the five auxiliary hypotheses are each summarized in one of the five succeeding sections.

The fourth chapter is a discussion of the unexpected and somewhat challenging results of the current study and the implications these results have for future research on object relations and social networks. In the first section,






4


the status of each of the hypotheses is considered in light of the results, with particular attention focused on the central hypothesis. In the next section, the discrepancy between the results of the central hypothesis and the five auxiliary hypotheses are considered. Two main conclusions are drawn. These conclusions are articulated in greater detail in the next two sections. The first section pertains to object representations while the other section pertains to network density. In the last section, the implications of this study are set forth, with suggestions given for future research.

Theoretical Considerations

Most theories of personality ascribe to the principle of structuralization, whereby interpersonal relationships serve as a model and an impetus for intrapsychic organization (Loevinger, 1976). In particular, psychoanalytic theories articulate how patterns of child-parent interactions during the first several years of development serve as the foundation for intrapsychic representations of self and other. In turn, these "object" representations serve as a structure of expectations to be used in organizing and directing subsequent interactions with people. While it seems obvious that these early patterns of interactions form the foundation for and have a fundamental influence on later personality development, one cannot treat the object representations formed after






5

childhood in a serendipitous fashion. Indeed, the work of Sullivan (1953), Erikson (1950), and developmental theorists have lengthened the "formative years" to include the adolescent period and beyond. These theorists, however, have concentrated on the structural characteristics and requirements of the developing individual, without defining the structural qualities of the person's ongoing interpersonal relationships. In a way, the more the internal representations of objects are specified and delineated, the more the structural nature of the person's social environment needs to be articulated. In sum, both internal and external patterns of interpersonal representations are necessary for describing the process of structuralization, a process which continues throughout life.

Most structural theories imply that the developing

individual perceives and processes only those interpersonal expectations which can be organized by his or her current level of object representations. This "selective inattention", to use Sullivan's term, to parts of the objective situation accounts for a certain degree of stability or, at least, slowness of change of the individual's personality structure. For change in object representations to take place, the individual must come into contact with "pacers", which are "Stimulus objects of a level of complexity" (Loevinger, 1976, p. 309) slightly






6

greater than those represented within the individual. Hence, "as the person maintains contact with and thus masters a pacer, his own level of complexity grows and he is ready for a new, more complex pacer" (Loevinger, 1976, p. 309). In other words, no interpersonal development occurs unless the individual has access to the proper interpersonal structure. At the same time, one cannot fully account for the development of psychopathology in an individual unless the structural inadequacies of that individual's interpersonal world are defined. Thomas and Chess, in describing the necessity of an interactionist model to explain the dynamics of development, have used the terms "goodness of fit" and "poorness of fit".

Goodness of fit results when properties of the
environment and its expectations and demands are
in accord with the individual's own capacities.
When this consonance between organism and
environment is present, optimal development in a
progressive direction is possible. Conversely,
poorness of fit involves discrepancies and
dissonances between the individual's capacities and environmental opportunities and demands, so
that distorted development and maladaptive
functioning occur. Goodness of fit is never an
abstraction, but is always formulated in terms of the values, demands, and expectations of a given
culture or socioeconomic group. (Thomas and Chess,
1980, p. 234)

The present study used this concept of fitness as a schema for positing a pattern of interaction between a person's conceptual level of object representations, both along structural and qualitative dimensions, and the structure of that person's social network. The "fitness" of






7


this pattern of interaction was to account for the mental health (i.e., the degree of personal distress and the ability to love and work) of an individual during a particular period in life, which, in this case, was during college. This study was made possible by recent research in the assessment of object representations and social networks. These lines of research, which have developed in relative independence of each other, have been integrated within the present study in a way which seemed germane to describing some of the developmental tasks faced by individuals who were in college, individuals who were essentially in a prolonged adolescence.

Object Relations

One the impediments to research on object

representations has been the lack of a reliable system for assessing these internal structures. Blatt and his associates at Yale have tried within the past several years to develop such a system. A major stimulus for their system, besides, psychoanalytic theory, has come from the cognitive-developmental theories of Werner and Piaget, among others. Werner has proposed "an orthogenetic principle which states that wherever development occurs it proceeds from a state of relative globality and lack of differentiation to a state of increasing differentiation, articulation, and hierarchic integration" (Werner, 1972, p. 47). He noted that with increasing self-other






8

differentiation, the developing individual gradually becomes less dominated by the immediate concrete situation and less impelled by internal affective states. The person is increasingly able to delay action and to understand the needs and motives of other people. This increasing freedom permits more task mastery and social competence. Similarly, Piaget (1954) has described the sequence through which a child passes in the development of a concept of object. Although Piaget's work has largely been based on the study of children's responses to inanimate objects, the process by which the developing individual comes to relate to human objects must be similar. After all, what was of importance in the present study was not to uncover what personality structure is but rather what it does; ego is not a thing but a process (Loevinger, 1976). An important theme derived from Piaget was how the child in each successive stage of cognitive development has the ability to represent the object in increasingly more abstract terms, less bound by the stimulus properties of the object. As the representation of the object becomes more symbolic, it becomes more permanent and stable. Repeated contacts with the real object are no longer necessary to maintain the coherency of the representation. The room for merger between the self and other representations is, with this increase in boundaries, greatly reduced. The person is less likely to confuse his or her own feelings and needs with






9


those of other people. Hence, as the self-system becomes more distinct from its inner objects, it becomes better equipped, more cohesive and more resilient, to handle the strum und drang of everyday life. Finally within Piagetian theory, complete development of object representations does not take place until adolescence, and, according to some data (Rowe and Marcia, 1980), the completion of this development is by no means assured for every individual.

Blatt, borrowing from Werner and Piaget, used the

notion that object representations "proceed from amorphous, global representations, to a somewhat differentiated emphasis on part properties, to representations which are highly articulated and integrated, and closely correspond to reality" (Blatt, 1974, p. 142) as the basis for describing his conceptual levels of object representations. In general, beginning conceptual levels are based on actions of the (human) object that are related to the individual's need gratification, intermediate levels are based on specific perceptual features of the object, and later levels are based on more symbolic and "conceptual" inner characteristics of the object. More specifically, Blatt, Chevron# Quinlan, and Wein (1981) have created a system for assessing five distinct levels, or milestones, in the development of the concept of object representations. They place these five conceptual levels on a scale from one through nine. The protocols to be scored are drawn from the






10


subject's description of his or her mother and father, though the protocols could also be figures from the Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) stories or human responses on the Rorschach. The conceptual levels of object representations are based on the following five categories. Note that four of the nine conceptual level scores are substages between one the five categories. These four transitional levels transcend the criteria for one category but do not quite fulfill the criteria for the next.

1. Sensorimotor-Preoperational (score 1)

The stimulus object is described in terms of his or her actions as these activities and functions relate to the gratification and frustration of the subject. The description focuses on the direct value that the person has for the subject. There is little sense of the person as a distinct or separate individual, but rather that the person is only an agent who makes the subject feel good or bad.

2. Concrete-Perceptual (score 3)

Here, the person is described as a separate entity but only in literal, concrete, and global terms. Hence, the description is often in physical terms, describing what the person looks like. Little emphasis is placed on the part properties or non-physical attributes of the person, but rather the person is represented as a literal, concrete totality.









3. External Iconic (score 5)

The person is described in terms of his or her activities and functions, but, in contrast to sensorimotor-preoperational representations, these activities and functions are uniquely the other person's and are described as having little or no direct reference to the subject's gratification or frustration. External iconic representations appear to be the normative level for college students in the sample reported by Blatt et al. (1981), with a scaled score standard deviation of 1.5.

4. Internal Iconic (score 7)

The person is described in terms of partial attributes or features that are directed toward an inner dimension. What the person does in terms of functions and activities is not important, rather the focus is on what the person thinks, feels, and values.

In both iconic levels the description of the person is mostly one-sided, unidimensional, and unintegrated. There is little or no recognition of complexity, varying levels, subtlety, or development over time.

5. Conceptual (score 9)

The description at this level integrates all the

previous levels in a way which forms a complex synthesis of the varying levels upon which a person can be experienced and understood. There is often an appreciation of the person in time and of the changes and variations which can






12

occur in that person. Inner dimensions are appreciated in their own right and are contrasted with external qualities. Although the description may incorporate concrete and literal terms and reference may be made to the person's need gratifying and frustrating impact on the subject, these aspects are integrated to form a cohesive and multidimensional image of the person, an image wherein apparent contradictions are resolved in the service of a larger synthesis.

Blatt et al. (1981) are not attempting to describe

intellectual or cognitive development (Piaget's goal), but rather they strive to describe the development of the subject's interpersonal perception. These conceptual levels denote the capacity the individual has to organize, experience, and act upon the world of people. Because most psychological disorders develop as a response to interpersonal conflicts, the individual's conceptual level of representing human objects is hypothesized as being associated with the occurrence of psychopathological symptoms. This is not to say that the development of cognitive abilities and interpersonal perception are unrelated. It would be difficult to imagine someone having achieved a "conceptual" level score without having also arrived at the cognitive stage of formal operations. The degree of horizontal decalage (or lag in abilities within a stage) that might exist between cognitive and personality development is for another study to determine.






13

Blatt and his associates have found the conceptual level of object representations to be related to the existence of both schizophrenia and depression. Blatt, Brenneis, Schimek, and Glick (1976) used a precursor of the system described in Blatt et al. (1981) to assess the object representations portrayed in the human figure responses on the Rorschach of normal (the Berkeley longitudinal sample) and schizophrenic adolescents. They found, to nobody's surprise, that when compared to the normal subjects, schizophrenic adolescents had impaired object representations, and that the greater the severity of the disorder, the greater the developmental impairment observed. A more intriguing and unexpected set of results was also noted. For moderately disturbed adolescents in the schizophrenic group, the level of object representations was greater than for normal subjects at the same age when the human figure response on the Rorschach was inaccurately perceived (i.e., the response bore little resemblance to the inkblot stimulus), but they scored at a lower conceptual level of object representations when the human figure was accurately perceived. More severely disturbed members of the schizophrenic group showed uniformly lower conceptual levels, regardless of the form quality of the response. Blatt et al. (1976) speculated that the nature of the schizophrenic person's interaction with the real, interpersonal world had a large influence on that person's






14


ability to access appropriate object relational features. In response to an interpersonally threatening world most schizophrenic individuals prefer to remain in what, for the moderately disturbed, seems to be a highly articulated and well-integrated fantasy world and to relate to the real world on the basis of a more primitive level of object representations. Lidz (1978) has remarked that for many people the onset of schizophrenic symptoms occurs when they enter into the stage of formal operations. The increase in cognitive egocentrism, which accompanies the entrance into every new cognitive stage, is especially great at this stage because formal operations permit one to create hypothetical possibilities, to imagine real outcomes without having to test them out. Lidz suggests that "the egocentric aspects of formal operations are overcome through increasing socialization" (Lidz, 1978, p. 85). Without this socialization (its absence might occur for various reasons) predisposed individuals can develop schizophrenic symptoms. Hence, these individuals may form higher conceptual levels of object representations (based on advanced cognitive ablilities) which can only be manifested in a distorted fashion. If a stable, trusting relationship--the main goal in treating someone who is schizophrenic--can be formed, the patient may be able to use this higher level of object representations in dealing with the real world. Of course, for "poor premorbid" individuals, who never reach the stage






15

of formal operations, one can expect a more primitive form of object representations to be used in relating to both the fantasy and the real world. For many, however, the full expression of any conceptual level of object representations appears to be integrally linked to the nature of the person's interpersonal environment. Incidentally, Blatt et al. (1976) were also able to use their system to trace the progressive development of object representations in normal individuals over time.

Blatt, Wein, Chevron, and Quinlan (1979) investigated the relationship between object representations (scored according to the procedure of Blatt et al., 1981) and the intensity and type of depressive experience in a normal sample of college students. Blatt (1974) has divided depressive episodes into two types: anaclitic and introjective. In anaclitic depression, the person who needs continual contact with other people in order to maintain gratification and a sense of self becomes depressed when a significant object loss is experienced. Introjective depression, on the other hand, is characterized by feelings of being unlovable rather than unloved, of having failed to live up to the high expectations and standards of the introjected (or partially assimilated) other. This depression results not from abandonment or neglect, but is a function of demanding, ambivalent, depreciatory, and hostile child-parent interactions. Blatt (1974) reasoned that






16

introjective depression implies a higher form of object representations than does anaclitic depression, because guilt involves the capacity to be self-reflective, to accept responsibility, and to have some sense of self. Blatt et al. (1979) used the Depressive Experience Questionnaire (DEQ) to measure the type of depression. The DEQ produced three dimensions (dependency, self-criticism, and efficacy) which permitted four classifications (in order of decreasing intensity: anaclitic=high dependency, mixed=high dependency and high self-criticism, introjective=high self-criticism, and nondepressed=high efficacy). Incidentally, Blatt, D'Afflitti, and Quinlan (1976) reported that the DEQ factors are significantly correlated with independent measures of depression (for instance, the self-criticism factor of the DEQ correlates significantly with only those 14 items on the Zung Depression Scale which measure the primary factor of "Loss of Self-Esteem", while the dependency factor correlates with the 5 Zung items that assess the more noncognitive, somatic-vegetative signs of depression, and the efficacy factor correlates with the 4 items which signify hopefulness and optimism). Blatt et al. (1979) found that the conceptual level of object representations, based on the subject's description of mother and father, was in a direct, inverse, relationship with type and severity of depression, such that anaclitically depressed subjects reflected the lowest levels and nondepressed subjects had






17

the highest conceptual levels. Thus, lower conceptual levels appear to be associated with an increased risk of psychopathology.

In addition to the conceptual level of object representations, Blatt et al. (1981) also score the subject's view of the person for twelve qualitative characteristics (e.g., the degree to which the person is seen as nurturant, intellectual, punitive, constructively involved, and so on), as well as the degree of ambivalence the subject has toward the person. These characteristics, when factor analyzed, load on two primary dimensions: "parent as nurturant" (which accounts for 40 percent of the variance) and "Parent as striving" (29 percent of the variance). These two factors bear close resemblance to the affiliation and power dimensions proposed by Leary (1957) as part of his interpersonal system of diagnosis.

Using Sullivan's conceptualization of personality as an interpersonal manifestation, Leary and his associates at the Kaiser Foundation in the 1950's constructed a system that located behavioral interactions between people on a two-dimensional "circumplex". Interpersonal behavior is organized on this circumplex in 8 adjectival categories arranged in a circular array around the orthogonal axes of Love-Hate (LOV) and Dominance-Submission (DOM). Despite Foa's (1961) comment that Leary' s circumplex was first formulated on a more or less intuitive basis (adjectives






18

were collected and arranged in a circular pattern) prior to developing ways of measuring this circumplex, research has tended to support the validity and universality of Leary's conceptualization. Lange (1970), in attempting to validate a measurement device--the Interpersonal Checklist (ICL)--used to assess placement on Leary's circumplex, obtained results which supported the notion that 2 bipolar dimensions (DOM and LOV) are arranged according to Leary's original thesis. Other attempts to develop ways of analyzing interpersonal behavior, such as Foa's facet analysis, Schutz's Firo-B, or Berzins' use of the Personality Research Form (PRF) in the Indiana Matching Study bear a close relationship to Leary's circumplex and can easily be reduced to it (Berzins, 1977). In short, it was thought that the incorporation of the ICL in the present study offered a way of obtaining concurrent validity for the qualitative factors of object representations produced by the system of Blatt et al. (1981). In addition, the ICL had the ability to provide additional descriptive data as well as providing variables which are sensitive to the socially desirable response sets that can be given to test protocols (LaForge, 1976).
Thus, the system devised by Blatt et al. (1981)

appeared to have adequately measured a person's degree of structural intrapsychic organization, and both their system and the ICL seemed able to capture the interpersonal






19


qualities of that organization. what was needed, however, was a procedure for analyzing the structural characteristics of the on-going social network within which the individual lives.

Social Networks

The work on the structural properties of social networks done during the past 25 years by such anthropologists as Barnes, Bott, and Boissevain appears to have supplied the materials for this procedure. More recently, their work has found its way into psychological research through two studies by Hirsch (1979a, 1979b). The ease with which certain facets of network analysis have been transferred across disciplines probably can be attributed to the level of analysis employed by these anthropologists. Namely, their analysis focuses on the individual and the exchanges which take place between individuals, as opposed to focusing on the attributes of the culture as a whole. Thus, the impact of the group on the individual can be studied without losing individual differences.

Many researchers feel that density is the most

important structural component of a network of individuals (Hirsch, 1979a), and density was the key network variable examined in the present study. A social network is defined by Mitchell (1969) as "a specific set of linkages among a defined set of persons, with the . property that the characteristics of the linkages as a whole may be used to






20

interpret [the] social behavior of the person involved" (p. 2). For the purposes of this study, the social network was composed of those people who the subject felt were, at the time of the study, a source of support, encouragement, or guidance. Density is commonly defined as the number of perceived relationships among members of the subject's social network over the total number of possible relationships among those members. Therefore, a lower density network is one where most of the members of an individual's network are viewed as having a relationship with one another. All measurements are based on the subject's perception of whether a relationship exists or not between the members.

Hirsch (1979b) examined college students' satisfaction with the social support they received from their social network as a function of density. Although higher density networks, or "extended families", were thought by many college students to be socially desirable (many students with lower density networks even apologized because their associates did not know one another), lower density networks clearly provided more satisfying support for those students who had them. Goldstein (1978), in studying the social networks of first year dental students, also found, contrary to his expectations, that higher levels of support were associated with lower network density. How can this counter-intuitive finding be explained? Hirsch (1979a)






21

suggested that "in order to minimize the possibility of offending individuals involved in intra-network conflict, high density NSS [natural support system) members tend to provide more ambiguous and superficial feedback, decreasing its supportive value" (p. 4). In more psychodynamic terms, such "feedback" would tend to promote the individual's egocentricity, giving rise to interpersonal distortions, at a time when the individual needs "consentual validation". As a result, the individual would become more deviant in a network (high density) which tolerates little deviation, thus increasing the "poorness of fit".

To further examine the relationship among higher and

lower density networks, Hirsch (1979a) studied two groups of women who were in the process of adapting to a major life change. One group was composed of older women (mean age=37) who were attempting to go back to college, while the other was made up of recently widowed women (mean age=46). Because these women had families, he especially focused on their nuclear family-friendship (NF-F) boundary density, that is the number of relationships reported to exist between the subject's nuclear family members and subject's friends, divided by the total number of possible relationships. The influence of the density rating is increased because shared variance is removed (nearly everyone reports that the members of their nuclear family have relationships with one another). Of note, the NF-F






22


boundary density was not related to the overall amount of life change encountered by these women. Hirsch also examined the multidimensionality (i.e., the diversity and complexity of interpersonal exchange) of the relationships between the subject and the people in their social networks. He found that subjects with higher density networks, as opposed to those with lower density ones, had fewer multidimensional friendships and smaller total networks, with fewer friends in their networks. This set of results implies that higher density, "extended families", are more homogeneous, offer less varied interactions, and are composed of fewer individuals. The "complex", lower density, social network seems to provide more diverse activities and interactions with a greater number of people. Subjects in higher density networks reported significantly lower satisfaction with supports, more psychological and physical symptoms, poorer overall mood, and lower self-esteem than those in less dense networks. These results are intriguing, considering that conventional wisdom would seem to suggest that, in times of stress, a closely knit unit of family and friends ought to promote mental well-being. Why, then, does a lower density network turn out to be more adaptive for this set of women? Hirsch (1979a) points out that these women, in order to cope successfully with this major change in their life (i.e., the loss of their spouse, or re-entering college), were required






23


to reorganize their familial role in such a way as to make the family a less important source of social support. Thus, they needed a support system that could permit intensified involvement outside the nuclear family. The "extended family" provided less opportunity for change because its lower density offered fewer outlets for alternative interpersonal behaviors. Not only were the women more "locked-in", but there was less temporary refuge from the pre-existing conflicts found in commonplace familial roles and relationships. The "complex" network, because of its greater differentiation of friends from family, allowed the woman the chance to see herself in a diversity of social contexts and roles and, thus, to find the interpersonal identity which best worked for her. The reorganization was less costly (in terms of threats to self-esteem which arose when she had to try new interpersonal behaviors) in the complex network because the diversity of structure meant that established commitments to certain activities or functions in a relationship could be changed without the need to establish entirely new relationships. In other words, a person with only unidimensional relationships would have to establish new relationships in order to engage in new functions or activities. In addition, someone with a history of multidimensional relationships also had a greater repertoire of experiences and probably more knowledge that






24


alternative relationships could work and be satisfying. In sum,

the greater diversity of interests and segregation
of different spheres of activity characterizing
low density, multidimensional NSS can be seen to serve as an insurance policy. This policy serves
to protect individuals from having problematic
changes in particular spheres of their lives
become too encompassing, threatening, and
debilitating. The policy provides rewarding alternative social identities and activities,
facilitating a smoother reorganization of one's
life, at less psychic cost. (Hirsch, 1979a, p. 34)

This understanding of denser or more complex social

networks facilitating successful change and coping has also been proposed by Merton (Coser, 1975) and more recently by Pearlin and Schooler (1978). In summarizing the literature on coping (which they defined as "that behavior which protects people from being psychologically harmed by problematic social experience", p. 2), Pearlin and Schooler (1978) concluded that a larger scope and variety of coping behaviors increased the likelihood those behaviors would be effective. They also observed that effective coping behaviors are unequally distributed in American society, so that the affluent, the educated, and the men in this society tend to make greater use of successful coping behaviors. Coser (1975) applied some of Merton's ideas of "role-sets" to the process of individuation. The distinction was made between simple, or restricted, role-sets and complex role-sets. In a simple role-set the members were usually equal in status and were role partners. Most interactions






25

were made with the same people. Examples of simple role-sets could be found in family or kinship groups, or other higher density networks. Status in a complex role-set was unequally distributed throughout the system and the membership of the system was subject to change. Examples of this system could be found in most white-collar job situations. The complex role-set allowed for increased relativity and perspective taking, and the person within it was exposed to more contradictory expectations, more differential interests, more observability by others, and more opportunity to be both an authority figure to some and a subordinate to others. Coser made the argument that "individuality" was enhanced by complex role-sets and differential social structures.

These writers who extolled the virtues of lower density social networks may have been biased in their conclusions because of the populations they worked with. It seemed highly plausible that a lower density network could be effective for middle-class, well-educated, adults living in a post-industrial society. But for others, who are less well-developed in a material, maturational, and psychological sense this may not be true. In traditional farming communities, a higher density social network can be the difference between life and death for many subsistence farmers. Children need an intact, highly integrated family unit on which to base the foundations of development.







26

Sokolovsky, Cohen, Berger, and Geiger (1978) suggested that former schizophrenic patients living in single-room occupancy (SRO) hotels had fewer rehospitalizations if they were integrated into higher density social networks. Hirsch (1979a) also reported that higher density "pressure groups" can be therapeutically successful in bringing about change in certain individuals. He suggested that, "apparently, therefore, the adaptiveness of dense NSS may vary considerably depending on specific person-NSS characteristics" (Hirsch, 1979a, p. 4). Thus, the need existed to understand the interaction between the density of social networks and the level of object representations.

Central Thesis: An Interactionist Model

The central thesis of the present study was that an

inverse relationship between the total density of a person' s social network and his or her conceptual level of object representations would result in a goodness of fit. In other words, the individual at a lower conceptual level would require a higher density network to be sustained at an optimal level of functioning. Similarly, a person with a higher conceptual level would function best in a lower density network. Deviation from the equilibrium of this expected relationship would, therefore, result in greater subjective distress (e.g., poorer mood, more complaints) and impairment in the areas of love and work. The emphasis of this model was not on predicting specific symptoms or






27

categories of psychopathology. Rather, the attempt here was to describe some of the factors that are associated with a more general sense of adaptiveness. The importance for clinicians, however, was that changes in a person's adaptiveness would probably influence his or her help-seeking behavior. Jacobs and his associates (in a series of studies, reported in Minter and Kimball, 1980) have found that a combination of social and personality characteristics (in this case, unresolved role crises, social isolation, life stress, and an angry-defiant copy style) was influential in increasing the likelihood that a person would seek medical attention for the same symptoms (upper respiratory illness and asthma) that another person might ignore. Hence, the people seen by clinicians are probably those who have suffered a negative change in their state of adaptiveness.

The competing hypothesis was that lower density

networks create an optimal, healthy environment, regardless of the level of a person's object representations. Obviously, lower levels of object representations would have contributed to some decrement in functioning, while higher levels would have given rise to better adaptation. But, overall, this alternative hypothesis held that higher density networks would be uniformly restrictive. This hypothesis, however, seemed to have denied any orthogenetic notions of social networks, as well as any qualitative






28


changes that might have taken place in the development of object representations.

Werner's orthogenetic principle can be applied to

social networks, in that a network also "proceeds from a state of relative globality and lack of differentiation to a state of increasing differentiation, articulation, and hierarchic integration" (Werner, 1972, p. 47). Such is the rhythm of living systems. A child begins with a network density close to 1.00, since almost all the significant others in the child's life probably have a relationship with one another (even in cases of divorce, the child would probably perceive his or her mother and father as having a relationship with one another). Higher network density is adaptive for this level of personality development. In later phases of development, as the child enters school or forms a "chumship" with a same-sex peer (Sullivan's pre-adolescent period), network density decreases to about .50 or .40. These figures are still considered "higher" network density in comparison with the norm for later developmental periods. "Adult" density scores hover between .33 and .25 (personal communication, Hirsch, 1982). Thus, optimal density corresponds to the period of development.

So, it seemed reasonable to propose that an individual whose personality development had been arrested at an early stage would have needed a social network with a reciprocal level of density in order to have displayed optimal






29

functioning. A lower density network for a person with a lower conceptual level of object representations would probably have increased the likelihood that he or she would have experienced overwhelming levels of ambiguity and complexity (i.e., receiving a confusing variety of complex responses from people) as well as having an intensified feeling of social alienation (i.e., the feeling that people in the network are not connected in any meaningful way). Internally, the person's fragile sense of self would have been left less cohesive and more fragmented, which would have resulted in a decrement in this person's adaptation to his or her environment. Likewise, following the principle of relative deprivation, a functionally equivalent decrement would have been expected for someone with a higher conceptual level who lived in a higher density social network. Such a combination would most likely have led to regressive behavior in that person.

College students were chosen as the group upon which the interactionist model was to be tested. Besides the pragmatic aspects of availability offered by using this population, the chief advantage to choosing college students was that they were seen as facing a relatively homogeneous set of psychosocial tasks. Also, the viability of this interactionist model should have been particularly highlighted when tested with people who were engaged in tasks that involved making significant interpersonal adaptations.






30

To this end, college students should be seen as being adolescents (White, 1980). Their entry into the employment market and the more formal responsibilities of adulthood have been postponed. Instead, they enter a prolonged transitional period in which the traditional tasks of adolescence, which are emancipation from parents, sexual adjustment, and vocational choice (Blos, 1941), can be further elaborated and worked through. Hence, it is not surprising that people who attend college become more autonomous, flexible, complex, and tolerant of ambiguity, less materialistic and dogmatic, and better able to be aware of and to express their emotions than their peers who did not attend college (Plant, 1965; Chickering and McCormick, 1973). At the same time, most students complete Erikson's (1950) superordinate psychosocial task of adolescence by having achieved a well-established identity by the time they finish college (Waterman and Goldman, 1976). College, therefore, seems to contribute a profound set of experiences which promote the personality development of those who attend. To extend the rite of passage into adulthood by four years or more, however, creates the room for these individuals to be involved in considerable stress and strain. Therefore, this group of adolescents seemed ideally suited for the requirements of the current study.






31

Hypotheses

Six hypotheses, which include the central hypothesis and five auxiliary hypotheses, have been summarized below. The central thesis of the current study, as described in the previous section, was encapsulated in the the first hypothesis.

The second hypothesis had two basic parts. In the

first part, four variables were predicted to be correlated with the outcome measures. The four variables included the two main variables (i.e averaged conceptual level and total network density), plus two other variables (life change and total network size) which had been shown in the literature to possibly be correlated with the outcome variables. (Note that the literature review for the variable of life change appears in the next chapter under the heading "Measures".) In the second part of this hypothesis, predictions were made about the non-influence of certain demographic and control variables. These predictions were made to expose any moderator variables that may have had an influence on the central hypothesis.

The third hypothesis was constructed to show that the outcome measures behaved predictably within this study. Smith and Glass (1977), in their meta-analysis of psychotherapy outcome studies, reported that certain outcome variables were more likely than others to be correlated with the independent variables. Hence, predictions were made






32

about the reactivity of the four outcome measures in the current study.

In the fourth hypothesis, the possible effects of life change on the main variables were considered. Although the prediction was made in the second hypothesis that the two main variables (i.e averaged conceptual level and total network density) would be independent of life change, the effects of life change, or situation stress, are often thought of as being so powerful as to be a main variable in other studies (see the section on life change under the heading "Measures" in the second chapter).

The two final hypotheses concerned the qualitative

factors derived from the written descriptions of parents and the qualitative dimensions (DOM and LOV) from the ICL. The predictions made in these two hypotheses were not directly related to the central hypothesis. Instead, these predictions served as a way of assessing the internal consistency of the responses given by the subjects and, thereby, could lend more credence to the other results within the current study. The first hypothesis was an attempt to provide concurrent validity for the qualitative factors of the written descriptions of parents by comparing these factors to the corresponding ICL dimensions. In the second hypothesis, the subjects' ICL scores were placed in one of four quadrants of Leary's (1957) circumplex on the basis of the of their DOM and LOV coordinates. The






33

prediction was made that certain quadrants would be correlated more favorably with the outcome measures. Hypothesis 1. Interactional Effects

As the central hypothesis, the total network density

and the averaged conceptual level of object representations would be linked in an inverse relationship, whereby subjects with higher conceptual levels would have lower density networks and subjects with lower conceptual levels would have social networks with higher density. Thus, subjects who had greater deviations from the equilibrium of this inverse relationship would have higher levels of personal distress (i.e., poorer mood and more symptoms) and greater impairment in love and work.

So that this interaction could be observed further, the level of object representations was split into low, medium, and high levels. Thus, for the lower levels of object representations (scaled score=4.0 or lower), higher density would be significantly correlated with better scores on the measures of mental health. In the medium range (4.5-5.5) an average level of density would be related to better adjustment. And, for the higher levels of object representations (6.0 or above), a lower density network would be most adaptive.

Hypothesis 2. Univariate Comparisons

Subjects with higher levels of life change, smaller

total network size, higher total network density, and lower






34


averaged conceptual levels would have significantly higher levels of personal distress and significantly greater impairment in their ability to love and work.

Ideally, the variables of averaged conceptual level, total network size, total network density, and life change would be independent of all demographic variables, such as age, sex, socio-economic status (SES), and so on. Likewise, it was hoped that verbal fluency would be unrelated to the conceptual level of object representations, and that the variables on the ICL which are sensitive to response sets (i.e number of items checked, or NIC, and average intensity, or AIN) would not be correlated with the measures of mental health.

Hypothesis 3. Outcome Measures

As with most correlations to measures of mental health, the present study would demonstrate the total variance (R-squared) explained by the major independent variables (i.e averaged conceptual level and total network density), in association with the variable of life change, to be greater for the multiple linear regression models which use the measures of subjective distress (a mood scale and a symptom checklist) as their dependent variable than for the model which uses a role performance variable (grade point average). The total variance (R-squared) of the model using the relationship measure as the dependent variable would fall within the range of the total variance (R-squared) for the other models. All models would be significant.







35

Hypothesis 4. Life Change

The correlation between total network density and the measures of mental health and the correlation between the averaged conceptual level of object representations and mental health would still be significant after the effect of life change had been partialed out. Hypothesis 5. Qualitative Factors and ICL Dimensions

As an expression of the concurrent validity between the qualitative dimensions of the object representations and the interpersonal factors of the ICL, the striving factor would be similar to the DOM dimension of the ICL for the same sex parent. Likewise, the nurturant factor would correspond to that of LOV on the ICL.

Hypothesis 6. ICL Quadrants

After the ICL dimensions of LOV and DOM were reduced to their component parts, Love (L)-Hate (H) and Dominance

(D)-Submission (S), and four quadrants (DL, DH, SL, and SN) were formed, the quadrants from the ICL for father would be ranked so that, in ascending order, significantly better scores on the mental health measures would be found with SH (worst), SL, DH, and DL (best). In a similar fashion, the quadrants of the ICL for mother would be ranked to that, in ascending order, significantly better scores on the mental health measures would be found within SH (worst), DH, SL, and DL (best).















CHAPTER TWO
METHOD

Subjects

Of the 117 undergraduates at the University of Florida who participated in the present study, 65 were female and 52 were male. They were all single and 18 to 23 years old (average age=19.7 years). They stated that they had attended this university during the Spring or Summer semester of 1983 and that they were not in psychotherapy while participating in the study.

Measures

Category A. Measures of Life Change and Demographics

The variables assessed in Category A (life change and

demographics) could obfuscate the hypothesized relationships between the variables in Category B (level and quality of object representations, density and size of social networks) and those in Category C (degree of subjective distress and success in love and work); hence the need to control for the effects of these "given", life event, variables.

Life Change-College Schedule of Recent Events (CSRE)

Andrews and Tennant (1978), in reviewing the literature, concluded that increases in life change, or situation stress, seem to be related to a higher incidence of


36 -






37


psychological disorders and physical illness. The effects, however, are usually modest, which is consistent with Andrews and Tennant's (1978) contention that life change cannot be said to be the cause for nor does it appear to be a major determinant of physical or psychological problems. Life change is best viewed in terms of its contribution to the psychological and physical states that foster the development of ill-being. Life change probably demoralizes a person and increases a person's need for the benefits of social interaction (be it support or professional help). Of particular relevance to the present study, Smith (1977) and Molen (1978) have found that increased levels of life change, situational stress, in college freshmen, junior college students, and graduate nursing students have been associated with decreases in functioning on a role performance variable, namely grade point average (GPA). This positive correlation between life change and GPA is weak but significant in all the studies.

Hirsch (1979a) reported that a person's network density was independent of his or her experience of life change. The relationship between the conceptual level of object representations and life change is unknown, though it was hypothesized that they are independent. So, while it was thought that the major determinants of maladaptiveness were probably the intrinsic personality and sociodemographic attributes of the person, the level of life change needed to be controlled in the present study.






38

All of the above studies used the Holmes and Rahe (1967) Schedule of Recent Events (SRE) or a reasonable facimile thereof. Each event on this schedule was reduced to a score (expressed in "life change units"--LCJ), which was thought to represent that amount of disruption in a person's life that resulted from the particular event. Some of the 43 events on the SRE, however, were not appropriate for most college students (e.g., "son or daughter leaving home"). Anderson (1972) has developed the College Schedule of Recent Events (CSRE) in response to this deficiency of the SRE. The selection of these events and the LCU assigned to each event was obtained by consensus from the opinions of 284 students, using a procedure which was identical to that employed by Holmes and Rahe (1967). The results show high agreement among all groups within the sample, with the highest agreement being between college juniors and seniors (.97) and the lowest between freshmen and graduate students (.87). For males and females the agreement was .94. Two studies (Marx, Garrity, and Bowers, 1975; Liao, 1977) have used the CSRE to find the expected small but significant relationship between higher levels of LCU and increased incidence of health problems for college freshmen and second year pharmacy students.

For purposes of this study the CSRE was modified

slightly; all items (a total of seven) which pertained to being married were deleted because no subject in the present






39


study was married. Also, the subjects were asked to check the number of times during the last nine, months that any of the events occurred to them. This time interval was comparable with the interval Hirsch (1979a) had instructed his subjects to use on the SRE.

Demographic Variables

Age. Only subjects between the ages of 18 and 23,

inclusive, were used in the study because students within this range should have been concerned with the same psychosocial tasks, as opposed to older or younger students.

Class. Subjects were asked if they were classified as freshmen, sophomores, juniors, or seniors.

Sex. Note was made of the subject's sex. Edwards and Thacker (1979) reported that the females in their study obtained a higher GPA than the males.

Socioeconomic Status (SES). Hollingshead's Two Factor Index of Social Position--The ubiquitous effects of social class differences are well known in the social sciences. SES was measured in the traditional method, using Hollingshead's Two Factor Index of Social Position (Hollingshead, 1957). This instrument combines the educational and occupational status of the "head of the household" of the subject's family as a basis for placing the subject in one of five classes of SES. People in Class I were considered "upper class", those in Class II were "upper-middle class", Class III represented "middle class",






40


Class IV indicated "lower-middle class", and the people in Class V formed the "lower class".

Employed. Of interest here was whether or not the subject was, at the time of the study, employed to help finance his or her education. This financial necessity could have produced an additional source of stress above and beyond that tapped by the CSRE.

Credits. The amount of credits the subjects were

enrolled for during the semester of the study could have varied widely. Those subjects taking an unusually heavy load could have suffered as a result.

Domicile. Of concern here was whether or not the subject lived with his or her parents while attending college. It was thought that living at home could have restricted the subjects' identity formation by inhibiting their separation from their parents, which may have resulted in a general decrease in psychological well-being. Category B. Primary Measures

Object Representations

Procedure. The subjects were given a blank piece of

paper and asked to "describe your mother", with five minutes allotted for the description. They were given another five minutes to "describe your father". These descriptions were then scored for the conceptual level and the qualitative characteristics of the object representations. Verbal fluency was also scored.






41


Conceptual Level. Each description was given a scale score of 1-9 to denote the five conceptual levels. These levels are sensorimotor-preoperational (scaled score=l), concrete-perceptual (3), external iconic (5), internal iconic (7), and "conceptual" (9), and a description of these levels is provided on pages 10 through 12. The interrater reliability given by Blatt et al. (1981) for scoring the level of object representations ranged from .88 (between expert rater and trained rater) to .70 (between expert rater and untrained rater) to .85 (for all three raters).
Qualitative Characteristics. A written description of parent was rated on each of 13 characteristics according to the degree to which the subject was seen as attributing that characteristic to his or her parent. Each characteristic was rated on a scale from 1-7, with a score of 4 given when the characteristic was not relevant or was too vaguely described to be scored accurately. The 13 characteristics were as follows.
(1.) Affectionate--little affection=l, much affection=7

(2.) Ambitious-Driving--relatively non-ambitious and

driving=l, strongly ambitious and driving of self and

others=7
(3.) Malevolent-Benevolent--malevolent=l, benevolent=7

(4.) Cold-Warm--cold=l, warm=7
(5.) Degree of Constructive Involvement-- distinctive or

destructive, intrusive involvement=l, positive and






42


constructive involvement with encouragement of

autonomy and individuality=7

(6.) Intellectual--not at all=l, highly intellectual=7

(7.) Judgemental--non-judgemental=1, highly judgemental=7

(8.) Negative-Positive Ideal--negative ideal=1, positive

ideal=7
(9.) Nurturant--low nurturance=1, high nurturance=7 (10.) Punitive--non-punitive=1, highly punitive=7 (11.) Successful--failure=1, success=7 (12.) Weak-Strong--extremely weak=1, extremely strong=7 (13.) Degree of Ambivalence--little ambivalence=1, marked

ambivalence=3 (note this characteristic is only scored

1-3)
A more thorough description of each characteristic is found in Blatt et al. (1981). The interrater reliability (alpha coefficient) for all three raters ranged from .68 for "affectionate" to .93 for "successful".
Blatt et al. (1981) found that these 13 characteristics loaded on two factors. The first factor, parent as nurturant, was composed of nurturance (factor loading=.90), positive ideal (.90), benevolence (.88), warmth (.87), constructive involvement (.84), affectionate (.80), strength (.67), and successful (.65). The second factor, parent as striving, was made up of judgemental (.90), ambitious (.89), punitive (.88), intellectual (.82), ambivalence (.60), successful (.48), and strength (.48). The scale scores for






43


parent as nurturant and parent as striving were formed by summating the scale scores of the characteristics which loaded on that factor. Overall, the nurturant factor and striving factor had a reliability of .95 and .93, respectively, for all three raters.

Verbal Fluency. This variable was arrived at by coding the length of the typed description (e.g., 1-4 lines=l, 5-7 lines=2, 8-10 lines=3, . more than 19 lines=7). When factor analyzed along with the 13 other characteristics, verbal fluency formed a third, single-variable, factor. It accounted for 8 percent of the total variance (Blatt et al., 1981).

Interpersonal Checklist (ICL)

Description. The ICL has been found to be an efficient means for measuring salient interpersonal dimensions, and it has significantly outperformed several S-R scales in predicting to criterion variables which measure interpersonal behavior (Knudson and Golding, 1974). On the ICL, a 134-item adjective checklist, the subject was asked to circle those items which described the stimulus person (in this case, mother or father). One-hundred and twenty-eight of the items can either produce 16 interpersonal scores or be loaded on the 2 dimensions of Love-Hate (LOV) and Dominance-Submission (DOM). The present study used Form 4 of the ICL. The data were reduced to the LOV and DOM scores so each subject could be sorted into one of four quadrants.






44


Average Intensity (AIN) and Number of Items Checked

(NIC). These variables were used to check for response sets. Each adjective was ranked (1-4) according to its "intensity" of affective charge. For instance, "can be obedient" had an intensity of 1, while "spineless" had an intensity of 4 within the same category. The AIN consisted of the weighed number of adjectives over the total number checked. According to LaForge (1976), an AIN well above 2.00 represented a willingness to criticize the stimulus person; whereas, an intensity well below 2.00 suggested a tendency to idealize the person. AIN correlated -.74 with social desirability (LaForge, 1976). NIC was simply a total of the number of items endorsed by the subject. A very low NIC usually indicated that the subject had only a superficial engagement in the task or was describing someone who was not well known to the subject.

Social Networks

Social Network List. This instrument was used to

obtain the size of the social network. The subjects were asked to list up to 20 significant others in their life with whom they had had contact with (in person, by phone or letter) at least once in the prior 4-6 week period. These significant others were to be listed in the three categories of family members or relatives, friends, and professionals. The instructions requested that the subjects list only those people who were important sources of support, encouragement,






45

or guidance. In Hirsch (1979a) the average size of the network was 14 people (family and relatives=6, friends=7, and professional=l).

Support System Map. This instrument was used to

compute the density scores. The subjects were presented with a blank piece of paper, except for the word "map" at the top. They were instructed to put their name in the middle. They were then to put those individuals they mentioned on the Social Network List onto the map, putting nearest to their own name those individuals whom they felt "closest" to. For convenience sake, they were to put friends on one side of the page, family members and relatives on the other side, and professionals on the bottom. The subjects were then asked to draw lines between themselves and each person on the map. Next, they were asked to draw a line between those individuals whom they considered to have relationships with each other. The formula for computing the density of the family and relatives network, the friendship network, and the total network was as follows.

density=X/(N(N-l )/2)
where X=the number of actual relationships between members of the
subject's network
N=number of people in the subject's network.






46


The formula for nuclear family-friendship (NF-F) boundary density was as follows.

NF-F boundary density=X/(NF)(F)

where NF=number of nuclear family members F=number of friends

X=number of relationships existing between the nuclear family
members and the friends.

An example of how these two formulas can be used for computing the density scores of a hypothetical subject is presented in Appendix A.

Category C. Measures of Mental Health

Subjective Distress
Profile of Mood States (POMS). The construct validity of this 65-item instrument has been demonstrated in numerous studies with both clinical and normal populations and across levels of SES (McNair, Lorr, and Droppleman, 1971). Six factors have been derived from the POMS: tension-anxiety, depression-dejection, anger-hostility, vigor-activity, fatigue-inertia, and confusion-bewilderment. A total mood score was computed by subtracting scores on the vigor-activity scale from the combined score on the other five scales (equal weighting is given to all scales). Subjects were asked to fill out the POMS according to "how you usually feel".
Hopkins Symptom Checklist (HSCL). This instrument was a 58-item scale which had been shown in many studies to have






47

construct validity for both clinical and normal populations and across levels of SES (Derogatis, Lipman, Rickels, Uhlenhuth, and Covi, 1974). Five factors have been extracted from the HSCL: somatization, obsessive-compulsive rumination, interpersonal sensitivity, depression, and anxiety. A total symptom score was computed by combining the scores on all five scales (each receiving equal weighting).

Love (interpersonal exchange of positive affect) Scale of Feelings and the Behavior of Love (Love

Scale). This instrument was a 120-item scale devised by Swensen (1978) which can be used to rate the quality of any relationship (e.g., with spouse, mother, father, or closest friend of same or opposite sex). Six factors were produced by the Love Scale: verbal expression of affection, self-disclosure, toleration of the loved one, non-material evidence, unexpressed feelings, and material evidence. A total Love Scale score was computed by adding up the scores on all six factors (equal weightings). Subjects in the current experiment were asked to fill out the Love Scale on the person whom they felt closest to.

The Love Scale was thought to have been especially well suited for the current study. Grumper (1976) has found that juvenile offenders at the post-conformist stages of ego development have a higher score on the Love Scale for their best friend than do juveniles at the pre-conformist levels






48


of ego development. Kohlhepp (1976) also found that whereas the quality of the relationship as measured by the Love Scale tends to decrease over the course of marriage for spouses at the pre-conformist levels, the amount of "love" expressed by spouses at the post-conformist levels increases over the course of their marriage. Because ego development was thought to be independent of psychopathology (Waugh and McCaulley, 1981) and level of object representations was related to psychopathology, the level of object representations was proposed to have shown a similar, if not stronger, relationship to the Love Scale than that reported for ego development. Nickerson (1977) found that increased expression of love was a function of Bales personality factors of assertiveness (DOM) and positiveness (LOV), with more assertive and positive spouses tending to express more love to their spouses. Hence, subjects whose parents are in the high DOM-high LOV quadrant were hypothesized to have a tendency to score higher on the Love Scale. In addition, Swensen (1978) reported that the expression of love (as measured by the Love Scale) and marriage problems (as measured by the Marriage Problem Scale) are two separate orthogonal factors for normal couples. The POMS usually correlated highly with lists of (marriage) problems. Hence, the dimensions tapped by the POMS (and perhaps the HSCL) and the Love Scale were thought to be different.






49


Work (role performance variable)

Grade Point Average (GPA). The most parsimonious means of measuring the subjects' role performance as college students was chosen to be their GPA for the semester.

Procedure

The subjects were solicited for the study from the Introductory Psychology courses offered during the Fall semester of 1982. They received research credit for their participation, which was applied toward their final grade. A copy of the consent forms are found in Appendix A. Because no interview data was required, the subjects were run in groups with up to five members in each. First, the demographic data were collected. A copy of the demographic questionnaire constructed for this study can be found in Appendix B. Next, the subjects filled out, in sequence, the College Schedule of Recent Events, description of mother, description of father, ICL for mother, ICL for father, Social Network List, Social System Map, POMS, HSCL, and Love Scale. The total time for administering these instruments, with breaks, was approximately 2 hours. The GPA was obtained from the Registrar at the end of the semester. Results were mailed to those who requested them. The data were collected by two research assistants, who were trained by the experimenter. The set of instructions used by the assistants while conducting the data collection protocol can be found in Appendix C. A record of the questions they were






50


asked by the subjects and the answers the assistants gave to them are also found in Appendix C.

The descriptions of mother and father were scored blindly by the experimenter. Fifty descriptions were randomly selected and scored by an independent rater to confirm the reliability of the scoring procedure. The 27 examples given by Blatt et al. (1981) were used as training exercises. Special effort was paid to scoring the conceptual level because of its importance in this study. After the 50 descriptions were scored in the reliability check, the experimenter and the independent rater reviewed those descriptions on which they disagreed. An attempt was made to achieve consensus on these differences. In addition, the experimenter and the independent rater also reviewed the conceptual level of the other dozen cases on which the experimenter had some question.

A FORTRAN program was provided by LaForge (1976) for

reducing the raw data collected by the ICL. The subsequent data analysis was handled by the the computerized statistical analysis system (SAS, 1982) on an IBM 3081 at the Center for Information Technologies of Stanford University.















CHAPTER THREE
RESULTS

In the first section, the reliability correlations for the written descriptions of parents are presented, followed by a comparison of the mean scores of the measures used in the current study with scores reported in previous studies. In the last six sections, the results pertaining to the six hypotheses are set forth.

Interrater Reliability And Normative Comparisons

The interrater reliability correlations for the 13

qualitative descriptors, the length of description, and the conceptual level of the object representations in the reliability sample (n=50) compared favorably with the reliability intercorrelations reported in Blatt et al. (1981). When the 13 qualitative descriptors were reduced to the 2 main qualitative factors of "parent as nurturant" and "parent as striving", the Pearson product-moment correlations between the ratings of the experimenter and those of the independent rater were .82 and .71, respectively, for these 2 factors. The intercorrelations for the length of descriptor was .98. On the crucial ratings of conceptual level, the scores of the experimenter and the independent rater correlated .88 with



51 -






52


each other, which was identical with the intercorrelation that Blatt et al. (1981) found between the scores of their "expert rater" and "trained rater". These results are summarized in Appendix D.

In the present study, the scores derived from the descriptions of parents, the social network scales, the CSRE, the POMS, the HSCL, the Love Scale, and the ICL were fairly similar to the scores expected from the normative data provided by other authors. Very few significant differences were found when these measures were compared with the same measures in the previous studies.

Despite the exclusion of the items pertaining to

marriage, the average CSRE score was still significantly higher in the current study than in Marx et al. (1975). The distribution of scores in the two studies, however, was almost identical, with 15 percent of the subjects being in higher change group (i.e., they had scores which were one standard deviation above the mean), as compared to 14 percent in Marx et al. (1975) and 10 percent in the lower change group, as compared to 11 percent in the earlier study.

Although the mean total symptom score on the HSCL was higher for the present group of subjects (mean=68) than for those in the normative sample (m=51) reported by Derogatis et al. (1974), the HSCL scores in the present study were closer to those found in Hirsch's (1979a) sample of recent






53

widows and women returning to college (m=72). Both samples were significantly less than the mean score for the groups of anxious neurotics (m=90) or depressed neurotics (m=103) reported by Derogatis et al. (1974).

On the surface, the Love Scale scores, especially for females, appeared to be quite different in the present sample than in the norms provided by Swensen (1978). The main difference seemed to have been that subjects in the present study had far fewer "unexpressed feelings" (which counted negatively toward the total score) than in the earlier study. Perhaps, this difference was a reflection of the relationships which were being rated by the subjects. In the norms found in Swensen (1978), the subjects were asked to rate their relationship with their closest opposite sex friend, whereas in the present study they were instructed to rate their relationship with the person to whom they felt the closest. That females had higher scores than males in the current study was not surprising considering that 43 percent of the females chose to rate their relationships with their fiance or boyfriend whereas only 23 percent of the males had made this choice of relationships.

Many of the scores derived from the ICL were

significantly different in the present study from the norms offered by LaForge (1976). In particular, the number of items checked (NIC) were 8-11 items fewer than expected.






54


The average intensity (AIN) of the adjectives checked was, however, almost identical with the normative data. Although the scores for the present study were sometimes different on the LOV and DOM for mother and for father, the general direction of the LOV and DOM scores and their relationships with one another in the normative sample were maintained in the current study.

The the scores derived from the descriptions of parents were not significantly different in the present study than from what had been given as norms in Blatt et al. (1981).

On the surface, the means for social networks appeared to be very similar in the present study to those in Hirsch (1979a). The size of the social network was 13.7 in the present study, whereas, it was 13.9 in Hirsch (1979a). The total network density was .26 in the current study, compared to .27 in the earlier study. But, the density of the nuclear family/relatives network was higher in the present study (.85) than in Hirsch's (1979a) sample (.59). And, in a similar fashion, the network of friends had slightly higher density (.29) in Hirsch (1979a) than in the present study (.23).

The normative comparisons mentioned above can be found in Appendix D.

Next, the results pertaining to each of the hypotheses are reported. Each of the following six sections corresponds to one of these hypotheses.






55

Interactional Effects

It was proposed, as the central hypothesis of the

current study, that greater deviations from the equilibrium of an inverse relationship between total network density and the averaged conceptual level would result in poorer scores on the outcome measures. Greater deviations from this equilibrium, however, were not significantly correlated with any of the four outcome measures. To obtain these results, the total network density and the averaged conceptual level scores were standardized in the form of z-scores. Then for each subject, the z-score for the conceptual level was subtracted from the z-score for network density. The absolute value of this difference created an inverse relationship between the scores, such that a final score of zero would indicate a perfect fit between network density and conceptual level (e.g., higher network density with lower conceptual level) while a larger final score would represent a more divergent interaction (e.g., lower network density with lower conceptual level). This final score correlated -.07 with the POMS, -.13 with the HSCL, .03 with the Love Scale, and -.07 with GPA. Only the correlation with GPA was in the expected direction. The final score was not significantly correlated with any of the subscales on the POMS, the HSCL, or the Love Scale.

To further elucidate this pattern of results, the

conceptual level scores were divided into three groups. The






56

subjects with an averaged conceptual level of 4.0 or less
were placed in the low group (n=27), while those subjects

with a conceptual level of 6.0 or more were placed in the

high group (n=27). The remaining subjects, whose averaged

scores ranged from 4.5 to 5.5, were placed in the medium


Table 1
Means (M) and Standard Deviations (SD) of Selected
Variables for Three Groups of Averaged Conceptual
Level (CL) of Object Representations


lower medium higher
CL CL CL
(n=27) (n=63) (n=27)
Variables M(SD) M(SD) M(SD)

Network Density 0.28(0.18) 0.27(0.13) 0.26(0.12)
Network Size 13.85(3.81) 13.62(4.24) 13.63(3.99)
Nurturant--Mother 0.65(5.70) -0.55(6.09) 0.64(5.49) Nurturant--Father -0.55(6.27) 0.27(5.75) -0.08(5.59) Striving--Mother -0.03(2.26) -0.13(3.35) 0.34(2.77) Striving--Father* -1.52(3.03) 0.12(2.73) 1.24(3.11) DOM--Mother* 6.95(5.26) 3.93(6.43) 1.57(7.14)
DOM--Father 8.97(5.43) 10.32(5.13) 9.81(5.29)
LOV--Mother 3.83(7.52) 3.96(7.78) 6.22(8.15)
LOV--Father 2.77(9.93) -0.28(7.50) -0.99(7.49)
GPA 2.77(0.82) 2.61(0.68) 2.89(0.84)
POMS 43(19) 42(25) 43(20)
HSCL 71(18) 66(15) 68(12)
Love Scale 191(25) 189(30) 193(26)
CSRE 1248(574) 1018(569) 1053(611)
*=difference in means between low CL and high CL
are significant at p<.05
Note. Network Size and Network Density are both
Total scores.


group (n=63). In Table 1, the means and standard deviations

within each of the three groups are summarized with respect






57


to certain selected variables, variables which were chosen for their overall importance in the study. As can be seen in Table 1, the most striking result is the "flatness" of the distribution of network density scores across the three groups; the mean for network density varies from .28 to .27 to .26 across the three groups. Only the means for the qualitative factor of striving factor from the description of father and the DOM dimension on mother are significantly different across the three groups. Subjects tended to represent their father as more striving and to describe their mothers as less dominant as the conceptual level of the subjects' group increased. Thus, Table I illustrates that the differences between the three groups of conceptual level scores existed only for two of the qualitative dimensions and not for network density or for any of the outcome measures.

The scores for total network density were also divided into three groups. Subjects with total network density scores of .16 or less were placed in the lower density group (n=20), while subjects with total network density scores of .33 or greater were assigned to the higher density group (n=30). The remainder (n=58) fell into the medium density group. The cutting scores for the higher and lower groups were chosen so that approximately 30 subjects would be placed in each of these two groups. Though no direct predictions had been made about these three groups, it was






58

assumed that subjects in the higher density group would have

lower averaged conceptual level scores while those in the

lower density group would have higher averaged conceptual


Table 2
Means (M) and Standard Deviations (SD) of Selected Variables for Three Groups of Total Network Density


lower medium higher
total total total
(n=29) (n=58) (n=30)
Variables M(SD) M(SD) M(SD)

Conceptual Level 4.97(1.14) 4.96(1.11) 4.90(1.17) Network Size* 16.83(3.84) 12.72(3.72) 12.47(3.35)
Nurturant--Mother 0.70(5.78) -0.45(6.17) 0.20(5.36) Nurturant--Father -1.18(6.90) 0.33(5.39) 0.49(5.44) Striving--Mother 0.01(2.86) -0.01(3.20) 0.00(2.75) Striving--Father 0.01(2.98) -0.03(3.25) 0.05(2.65) DOM--Mother 4.95(6.55) 2.97(6.65) 5.38(6.26)
DOM--Father* 11.62(4.07) 9.49(5.36) 9.00(5.70)
LOV--Mother 5.18(8.39) 3.14(7.21) 6.28(8.11)
LOV--Father 0.72(8.84) -0.86(7.49) 3.36(8.23)
GPA 2.65(0.77) 2.75(0.74) 2.68(0.79)
POMS 48(29) 42(19) 39(22)
HSCL 71(16) 68(16) 65(13)
Love Scale 193(24) 188(30) 193(27)
CSRE 1196(538) 1042(635) 1038(516)
*=difference in means between low CL and high CL
are significant at p<.05
Note. Network Size is a Total score and Conceptual
Level-isan Averaged score.


level scores. As can be seen in Table 2, the means for the

conceptual level scores are nearly flat across all three
groups, just as the means for the total network density

scores had been evenly distributed across the three groups

of conceptual level scores in Table 1. In Table 2, total






59


network size is significantly larger (p<.0005) for the lower density group than for the other two groups. In addition, the DOM of the subjects' father is significantly higher (p<.05) in the lower density group than in the higher density group. Thus, Table I and Table 2 illustrate that averaged conceptual level and total network density seem to be unrelated to each other. This lack of relationship between total network density and averaged conceptual level is further substantiated by the -.05 correlation between these two main variables (see Table 4).

Univariate Comparisons

In this section, the results pertaining to the second hypothesis are presented. First, the intercorrelations between the outcome measures and the major variables of social networks and object relations, as well as life change, are examined. Second, the influence of the control variables, which include both the demographic variables and the variables of length of the description (of the subjects parents), number of items checked (NIC) and average intensity (AIN) from the ICL, is analyzed. Additional intercorrelations and other analyses are presented so as to shed more light on the outcome of the central hypothesis.

It was predicted that the variables of life change, total network size, total network density, and averaged conceptual level would each be correlated with the four outcome measures. Pearson product moment correlations were






60


performed between each of these variables. As can be seen



Table 3
Summary of the Correlations Between the Outcome Measures
and the Variables of Life Change, Total Network Size,
Total Network Density, and Averaged Conceptual Level


Total Total Averaged
Outcome Life Network Network Conceptual
Measures Change Size Density Level

POMS .26** -.07 -.l9* .04
HSCL .32*** -.03 -.18 -.001
Love Scale .21* .06 -.01 .04
GPA -.10 -.08 -.04 .07

*=p<.05. **=p<.005. ***=p<.0005.



in Table 3, the variables of total network size and averaged conceptual level are not significantly correlated with any of the four outcome measures. Total network density is significantly correlated (p<.05) with the POMS (a mood scale), but in a direction which was opposite to what had been predicted. This finding was also visible in Table 2. Although the differences between the measures were not significant, the distribution of means of the POMS scores across the three groups of density became smaller as the density of the group became larger. Now, Table 3 shows that, overall, as density of the network increases, the scores on the POMS become significantly lower (i.e., better). There was also a tendency (p<.06) for subjects in higher density networks to also produce better scores on the






61


HSCL (a symptom checklist). Thus, the results found in Table 3 suggest that higher density networks are correlated with lower levels of subjective distress. The variable of life change is also significantly with the P0OMS and the HSCL. As seen in Table 3, subjects who reported higher levels of life change in the nine months prior to the study had significantly (p<.005) better mood scores and significantly (p<.005) fewer symptoms. Unexpectedly, higher life change scores are significantly correlated (p<.05) with better Love Scale scores. Table 3 also shows that the role performance variable, GPA, is not correlated with any of these key variables.

Tables 4 through 9 present a more detailed analysis of the above results. In Table 4, the intercorrelations



Table 4
Correlation Matrix for the Variables of Life Change,
Total Network Size, Total Network Density, and Averaged Conceptual Level



Total Total
Life Network Network
Variables Change Size Density

Total Network Size .11
Total Network Density -.08 ~ 3*
Averaged Conceptual Level -.07 -.01 -.05

*=p<.Q5. **=p<.005. ***=p<.0005.



between each of the independent variables are reported. As expected, total network size and total network density are






62


correlated -.31 (p<.005) with each other. As can be observed in Table 4, total network size, total network density, and averaged conceptual level appear to be independent of the life change variable. As mentioned in the previous section, total network density and averaged conceptual level are only correlated -.05 with each other.

Table 5 is a summary of the intercorrelations between



Table 5
Correlation Matrix for the Outcome Measures


Outcome Love
Measures POMS HSCL Scale

HSCL .66*** --Love Scale -.20* -.12 -GPA -.25* -.09 .05
*=p<.05. **=p<.005. ***=p<.0005.



each of the outcome measures. This Table shows that the POMS is significantly correlated with all the other outcome measures. The POMS is, not surprisingly, strongly correlated with the other measure of subjective distress, the HSCL. Table 5 shows, though, that the HSCL is not related to the other two outcome measures. On the other hand, lower (i.e better) POMS scores are related to higher Love Scale scores and higher GPA's. Table 5 also indicates that although all the other intercorrelations were in the expected direction none were significant. Thus, Table 5






63


seems to suggest that the POMS shares a significant amount

of variance with the other three outcome measures.

In Table 6, the variable of conceptual level is



Table 6
Correlations Between the Subscales of the Outcome
Measures and the Conceptual Level Scores



Outcome Conceptual Level Scores
Measures Mother Father Averaged

POMS--Total -.06 .14 .04
Tension-Anxiety .02 .11 .07
Depression-Dejection -.08 .04 -.03
Anger-Hostility .03 .09 .06
Vigor -.08 -.24* -.17
Fatigue -.15 .07 -.04
Confusion-Bewilderment -.17 .02 -.08

HSCL--Total -.06 .06 -.001
Somatization -.07 -.01 -.05
Obsession -.08 .11 .02
Interpersonal -.07 .06 -.004
Depression -.10 .03 -.04
Anxiety .04 .08 .07

Love Scale Index -.02 .08 .04
Verbal Expression -.05 .05 .00001
Self-Disclosure .01 .12 .07
Toleration .07 .08 .08
Non-Material Evidence -.13 -.09 -.12
Unexpressed Feelings -.08 -.15 -.13
Material Evidence -.09 -.06 -.08

GPA .06 .07 .07
*=p<.05. **=p<.005. ***=p<.0005.



examined in greater detail with respect to the subscales of

the outcome measures. The conceptual level scores are

reported in three ways: the conceptual level of the written






64


description of the mother, the conceptual level of the written description of father, and the averaged conceptual level of both descriptions. The conceptual level of the description of mother correlates .70 (p<.0005) with the conceptual level of father. Averaged conceptual level is correlated .93 (p<.0005) with the conceptual level of mother and .91 (p<.0005) with the conceptual level of father. The POMS has six subscales (tension-anxiety, which correlates .74 with the total POMS score; depression-dejection, .84; anger-hostility, .62; vigor, -.64; fatigue, .75; confusion-bewilderment, .83), the HSCL has five (somatization, which correlates .81 with the total H-SCL score; obsession, .84; interpersonal, .75; depression, .79; anxiety, .89), and the Love Scale has six (verbal expression, which correlates .86 with the Love Scale Index, self-disclosure, .72; toleration, .70; non-material evidence, .54; unexpressed feelings, -.69; material evidence, .45). As can be seen in Table 6, only one of the 51 possible correlations between the three types of conceptual level scores and the 17 subscales is significant. Evidently, subjects with higher conceptual levels on their descriptions of father had significantly (p<.05) less vigorous moods (note that the vigor subscale of the POMS counts negatively toward the total POMS score). The otherwise general lack of significant correlations in Table

6 suggests that the results presented in Table 3 and the






65


means shown in Table 1 are correct; conceptual level appears

to be generally unrelated to the outcome measures.

In Table 7, total network size, total network density,



Table 7
Correlations Between the Subscales of the Outcome Measures and the Variables of Life Change, Total
Network Size, and Total Network Density



Total Total
Outcome Life Network Network
Measures Change Size Density

POMS--Total .26** -.07 -.19*
Tension-Anxiety .36*** -.11 -.13
Depression-Dejection .22* -.03 -.18*
Anger-Hostility .26* -.01 -.22*
Vigor .03 .08 .01
Fatigue .15 -.03 -.11
Confusion-Bewilderment .31** .05 -.22*

HSCL--Total .32*** -.03 -.18
Somatization .37*** -.003 -.12
Obsession .25* -.06 -.15
Interpersonal .22* .04 -.14
Depression .25* -.07 -.16
Anxiety .17 -.03 -.12

Love Scale Index .21* .06 -.01
Verbal Expression .15 .05 -.0004
Self-Disclosure .33*** .06 -.15
Toleration .31** .01 .04
Non-Material Evidence -.12 .12 .08
Unexpressed Feelings .05 .05 .10
Material Evidence .08 .08 .20*

GPA -.10 -.08 -.04

*=p<.05. **=p<.005. ***=p<.0005.



and the variable of life change are correlated with each of

the 17 subscales, with strikingly different results. As






66


indicated by Table 7, life change is significantly correlated with four of the six POMS subscales, with five of six of the HSCL subscales, and with two of the six Love Scale subscales. Subjects who reported greater degrees of life change in the nine months before the study appeared to have greater levels of tension-anxiety, depression-dejection, anger-hostility, and confusion-bewilderment. The mood subscale which are sensitive to activity level (i.e., vigor and fatigue) are not significantly correlated to life change. Subjects with higher life change also had symptoms of somatization, obsession, interpersonal difficulties, and depression. The positive correlation between higher levels of life change and the love scale appears to have been largely due to these subjects feeling as if they had more self-disclosing and tolerant relationships with their significant other.

Table 7 also supports some of the other results that were summarized in Table 3. As can be seen in Table 7, total network size is not only unrelated to any of the total socres of the outcome measures it is also unrelated to any of the subscales of the outcome measures. On the other hand, Table 7 permits a more careful analysis of the significant negative correlation between total network density and the POMS. A constellation of three subscales seems to have produced this result. As seen in Table 7, subjects with lower density networks were more likely to






67


have moods characterized by feelings of depression-dejection, anger-hostility, and confusion-bewilderment. Although none of the correlations between total network density and the five HSCL subscales approach significance, a remarkable consistency exists among these correlations. This consistency is reflected by the correlation of total network density with the total HSCL score being larger than any of the correlations between this density score and the HSCL subscales. Table 7 also shows a significant (p<.05) correlation between total network density and the material evidence of love as expressed on the Love Scale. The lack of even remotely significant correlations between total network density and the Love Scale subscales makes the one significant correlation appear to be an isolated phenomenon. Overall, the results presented in Table 7 appear to offer further substantiation of the findings seen in Table 3.

In Table 8, the subscales of the outcome measures are correlated with three other types of network density scores in an attempt to shed some further light on the unexpected correlations between total network density and subjective distress. Total network density is correlated .25 (p<.05) with family/relative network density, .67 (p<.0005) with friendship network density, and .55 (p<.0005) with nuclear family-friendship (NF-F) boundary density. Family/relative network density was not significantly correlated with either






68




Table 8
Correlations Between the Subscales of the Outcome
Measures and the Variables of Family/Relative Network
Density, Friendship Network Density, and Nuclear
Family-Friendship (NF-F) Boundary Density


Density Scores

Family/ FriendOutcome Relative ship NF-F
Measures Network Network Boundary

POMS--Total -.20* -.09 -.05
Tension-Anxiety -.13 -.05 -.01
Depression-Dejection -.23* -.12 -.03
Anger-Hostility -.17 -.08 -.03
Vigor .08 -.01 .02
Fatigue -.11 -.07 .04
Confusion-Bewilderment -.18 -.08 -.18

HSCL--Total -.13 -.12 -.09
Somatization -.10 -.16 .0001
Obsession -.12 -.08 -.10
Interpersonal -.08 -.02 -.07
Depression -.13 -.14 -.05
Anxiety -.07 -.09 -.10

Love Scale Index .13 .02 -.04
Verbal Expression .12 -.01 -.01
Self-Disclosure .06 -.04 -.13
Toleration .01 .04 .02
Non-Material Evidence .11 .08 -.01
Unexpressed Feelings -.07 .06 .07
Material Evidence .14 .16 .06

GPA .03 -.10 .11
*=p<.05. **=p<.005. ***=p<.0005.



friendship network density (.14) or with NF-F boundary

density (-.03). Friendship network density was correlated

.24 (p<.05) with NF-F boundary density. As can be seen in

Table 7 and Table 8, the family/relative network density






69

scores appeared to have behaved, with respect to the POMS subscales, in much the same manner as the total network density scores. Subjects in higher density family/relative networks had significantly (p<.05) lower (i.e., better) total POMS scores. As was the case with total network density, a three subscale constellation (depression-dejection, anger-hostility, and confusion-bewilderment) tended to be negatively associated with family/relative network density, although only the depression-dejection subscale was significant (p
As reported in Table 8, nuclear family-friendship

(NF-F) boundary density was not significantly correlated with any of the outcome measures or their subscales. Hirsch (1979a) had found NF-F boundary density to be the most influential of the various density scores. One factor that may have lessened the influence of NF-F boundary density in the current study is that only 49 percent of the subjects in the current study had a NF-F boundary density score higher than .00. In other words, only about one half of the subjects had any relationships between their family/relative







70


network and their friendship network. In Hirsch (1979a), 85 percent of the subjects reported at least one relationship between a friend and a family member. A possible mediator of this lack of boundary density in the current study could have been that, because many of the subjects were college students who lived away from home, they had little opportunity for their family and friends to meet.

The possibility that proximity influenced the NF-F

boundary density scores is examined in Table 9. One of the



Table 9
Summary of the Differences on Nuclear Family-Friendship
(NF-F) Boundary Density for the Subjects who Lived at
Home versus the Subjects who Lived Away from Home



Live At Live Away
Home From Home
Conditions (n=21) .(n=96)

Percent with NF-F 48 49
Boundary Density
Density > .00

Mean NF-F Boundary .07 .07
Density--All Subjects

Mean NF-F Boundary .15 .14
Density--Subjects
with Density > .00



demographic variables, domicile, was defined by whether or not the subject lived with his or her parents while attending the university. In Table 9, comparisons are made, for the variable of NF-F boundary density, between those






71


subjects who lived at home (n=21) versus those who lived away from home (n=96). As revealed in Table 9, the numbers between the two groups are remarkably similar, despite the difference in sample sizes. The percentage of subjects who had a NF-F boundary density greater than .00 (i.e., who had a relationship between their family and friends) was 48 for the subjects who lived at home and 49 for those who lived away from home. Of those subjects who had a NF-F boundary density score above .00, the mean density score was .15 (n=10) for those who lived at home and .14 (n=47) for those who lived away from home. The mean NF-F boundary density for all subjects was .07 for each of the two domicile groups. Thus, Table 9 appears to suggest that whether the subjects lived at home or not had little influence on their NF-F boundary density scores.

In Tables 10 through 14 the qualitative variables of object relations are compared first to each other, then to the outcome measures (and their subscales), and finally to the variables of life change, total network size, total network density, and averaged conceptual level.

Each of the qualitative factors derived from the

subjects' written description of their parents cannot be combined and averaged in the same fashion as the conceptual level scores. The striving factor derived from the description of mother is only correlated .10 with the striving factor derived from the description of father. The







-72


correlation on the nurturant factor between the description of father and the description of mother is .31 (p<.0005). This correlation, although significant, is still well under the .70 correlation between conceptual level for mother and the conceptual level for father. Of the four intercorrelations between striving (on mother and father) and nurturant (on mother and father), only the correlation between striving on mother and nurturant on father is significant (r=.29, p<.005). Thus, it seems that the qualitative factors of parent as striving on (mother and father) and parent as nurturant (on mother and father) should not be reduced to summary scores. Similarly, DOM and LOV from the subjects' completion of the ICL on their mother cannot be combined with the DOM and LOV from the ICL on their father because too much information would be lost. The subjects used the ICL to describe their mother and their father. The adjectives they used were then reduced to scores on two dimensions, the dominance-love dimension (DOM) and the love-hate dimension (LOy). Neither the correlation between DOM for mother and DOM for father (r=.02) or LOV for mother and LOV for father (r=.09) were significant. Only LOV for father and DOM for father were significantly correlated (r=.35, p<.0005). The other three intercorrelations, LOV for father and DOM for mother (r=-.03), LOV for mother and DOM for mother (r=-.07), and DOM for father and LOV for mother (r=.03), were not






73

significant. Thus, with only one exception, these dimensions appear to be independent of each other.

In Table 10, the qualitative factors of "parent as


Table 10
Correlations Between the Qualitative Factors of
"Parent as Striving" and "Parent as Nurturant"
and the ICL Dimensions (DOM and LOV)


DOM LOV
Variables Mother Father Mother Father

Striving--Mother .28** .04 -.04 .12
Striving--Father .04 .35*** .08 -.29**
Nurturant--Mother .25** -.01 .46*** .11
Nurturant--Father .09 -.02 .08 .52***

*=p<.05. **=p<.005. ***=p<.0005.


striving" and "parent as nurturant" are compared to the ICL dimensions, LOV and DOM. As expected, the striving factor and DOM and, likewise, the nurturant factor and LOV are significantly correlated. These correlations, as represented by the diagonal axis (top left to bottom right) of Table 10, are significant when the mother-mother and father-father comparisons are made. This set of intercorrelations is examined further in Table 30. None of the mother-father correlations were significant. Two other significant correlations are seen in Table 10. Striving on father is correlated -.29 (p<.005) with LOV for father, which might possibly be associated with DOM for father. The .25 (p<.05) correlation between nurturant on mother and DOM for mother is readily explanable.







74


Tables 11 and 12 report on the intercorrelations

between the outcome measures (and their subscales) and the

qualitative variables of object relations. In Table 11, the



Table 11
Correlations Between the Subscales of the Outcome Measures and the Variables of Parent As Striving and Parent As Nurturant



Parent As Parent As
Striving Nurturant
Outcome
Measures Mother Father Mother Father

POMS--Total -.15 -.003 -.24* -.21*
Tension-Anxiety -.09 -.03 -.28** -.15
Depression-Dejection -.17 -.09 -.21* -.14
Anger-Hostility -.05 .12 -.22* -.10
Vigor .10 -.11 .06 .14
Fatigue -.05 -.02 -.09 -.13
Confusion-Bewilderment -.20* -.08 -.28** -.29**

HSCL--Total -.05 -.11 -.14 -.23*
Somatization -.01 -.22 -.11 -.15
Obsession -.05 -.04 -.15 -.26**
Interpersonal .03 -.04 -.05 -.11
Depression -.12 -.13 -.16 -.21*
Anxiety -.03 -.04 -.08 -.16

Love Scale Index -.04 .01 -.04 .01
Verbal Expression .03 -.002 .02 .05
Self-Disclosure -.05 .08 -.16 -.16
Toleration -.02 -.04 -.17 .05
Non-Material Evidence -.07 -.16 .14 .17
Unexpressed Feelings .05 -.12 .08 .11
Material Evidence .01 -.08 .10 .17

GPA -.17 .002 .02 -.001

*=p<.05. **=p<.005. ***=p<.0005.



qualitative factors derived from the descriptions of parents

(i.e., parents as striving and parents as nurturant) are






75

correlated with the subscales of the outcome measures. As can be observed in Table 11, only one correlation is significant (p<.05) for "striving". Evidently, subjects whose description of their mother was high on the striving factor are less likely to report a confused and bewildered mood. The "nurturant" factor is more often significantly correlated with the outcome measures.

Table 11 illustrates that subjects whose description of their mother is high on the nurturant factor reported feeling less tension-anxiety, depression-dejection, anger-hostility, and confusion-bewilderment. As can be seen in Table 11, the nurturant factor derived from the description of the subjects' father is also significantly (p<.05) correlated with the measures of subjective distress (i.e., the POMS and the HSCL). Although all the subscales on the POMS are in the proper direction (i.e., suggesting that higher nurturant scores are related to better mood scores) only the confusion-bewilderment subscale is significantly (p<.005) correlated with the nurturant factor on father. The HSCL, and in particular the subscales that represent interpersonal difficulties and depression, is also significantly correlated with the nurturant factor on father. Thus, Table 11 seems to suggest that higher scores on the qualitative factor of "parent as nurturant" tend to correlate with reports of better mood and, in some cases, fewer symptoms. The scores for~ the qualitative factor of "parent as striving" seem less influential.






76


In Table 12, the correlations between the two



Table 12
Correlations Between the Subscales of the Outcome
Measures and the ICL Dimensions (DOM and LOV)


Outcome DOM LOV
Measures Mother Father Mother Father

POMS--Total -.34*** .06 -.09 -.14
Tension-Anxiety -.20* .04 -.02 -.09
Depression-Dejection -.26** .02 -.03 -.03
Anger-Hostility -.19* .15 -.09 -.27**
Vigor .36*** .07 .07 .07
Fatigue -.18 .10 -.12 -.13
Confusion-Bewilderment -.31** .02 -.10 -.08

HSCL--Total -.26** .02 .08 -.01
Somatization -.21* .04 .06 .01
Obsession -.14 -.04 .05 -.03
Interpersonal -.16 .01 .05 .07
Depression -.31** .01 .02 -.05
Anxiety -.25* .002 .17 -.05

Love Scale Index .06 -.04 .09 .18*
Verbal Expression .09 -.04 .04 .12
Self-Disclosure -.10 -.02 .04 .04
Toleration -.02 -.06 -.04 .18*
Non-Material Evidence .14 -.03 .20* .31**
Unexpressed Feelings -.01 -.10 .01 .06
Material Evidence .14 -.20* .21* .33***

GPA -.03 -.13 .03 -.02

*=p<.05. **=p<.005. ***=p<.0005.



dimensions of the ICL and the subscales of the outcome

measures are presented. As seen in Table 12, DOM for mother

and LOV for father seemed to each have a stronger

relationship with the outcome measures than did DOM for

father or LOV for mother. All but one of the subscales of






77


the POMS, with the exception of fatigue (p<.06), and three of the five subscales on the HSCL are significantly correlated with DOM for mother. With the exception of the anger-hostility subscale, DOM for father, LOV for mother, and LOV for father are not correlated with the measures of subjective distress. LOV for father is significantly correlated (P<.05) with the Love Scale index. Subjects who described their fathers as high on the Love dimension tended to report relationships which were more tolerant and allowed for more material and nonmaterial expression of love. LOV for mother is also positively correlated (p<.05) with material and nonmaterial expression on the Love Scale, but not with the total Love Scale score. The significant negative correlation between the material expression subscale of the Love Scale and DOM for father and between the anger-hostility subscale of the POMS and LOV for father seem to be isolated phenomenon. Thus, Table 11 appears to suggest that DOM for mother and LOV for father are the most sensitive dimensions of the ICL when related to the outcome measures.

In Table 13 the qualitative factors from the written

descriptions of parents is compared to the variables of life change, total network size, total network density, and averaged conceptual level. Only two correlations were significant. Table 13 confirms that, as also reported in Table 1, striving for father is significantly correlated







78



Table 13
Correlations Between the Variables of "Parent as
Striving" and "Parent as Nurturant" and the Variables
of Life Change, Total Network Size, Total Network
Density and Averaged Conceptual Level



Parent As Parent As
Striving Nurturant
Variables Mother Father Mother Father

Life Change .03 -.07 -.31** -.16
Total Network Size .08 -.06 .14 .10
Total Network Density .05 .03 -.01 .12
Conceptual Level .06 .34*** -.04 .08
*=p<.05. **=p<.005. ***=p<.0005.

Note. Conceptual Level is an Averaged score.


(p<.0005) with conceptual level. The nurturant factor on mother is correlated -.31 (p<.005) with the variable of life change. Subjects who described their mothers as high on nurturance tended to report less life change. This finding forces one to reconsider the results presented in Table 11. A comparison of Table 7 and Table 11 reveals that the variable of life change was correlated with the same subscales of the POMS as the nurturant factor on mother. At the same time, however, life change was significantly (p<.0005) correlated with the HSCL while the nurturant factor was not. Thus, while life change may have had some bearing on the interaction between the nurturant factor and the POMS, it is difficult to delineate a clear causative relationship.







79

In Table 14 the ICL dimensions are compared to the same



Table 14
Correlations Between the ICL Dimensions (DOM and LOV) and the Variables of Life Change, Total Network Size,
Total Network Density, and Averaged Conceptual Level



DOM LOV
Variables Mother Father Mother 'Father

Life Change .002 .19* -.10 -.02
Total Network Size .18 .15 .10 .07
Total Network Density .12 -.11 .05 .22*
Conceptual Level -.27** .03 .14 -.12

*=p<.05. **=p<.005. ***=p<.0005.

Note. Conceptual Level is an Averaged score.



four variables as above. Again, the relationship seen in Table 1 between DOM for mother and conceptual level is confirmed in Table 14. The relationship between the ICL dimensions and total network density that was seen in Table

2 is not, however, supported by Table 14. In Table 2 the means of DOM for father had been significantly different in the lower density group as compared to the higher density group. As shown in Table 14, DOM for father and total network density are correlated only -.11 with each other. On the other hand, LOV for father is correlated .22 (p<.05) with total network density. Table 14 also indicates that DOM for father is significantly correlated (p<.05) with life change. While the nurturant factor and life change were significantly correlated and shared a similar pattern on the







80

POMS, DOM for father appeared to be quite dissimilar from life change on the POMS. Thus, the impact of life change on the qualitative variables of object relations appears to be difficult to interpret.

Tables 15 through 28 are concerned with the control variables, which consist of three separate groups of variables. First, in Tables 15, 16, and 17 the variables in each of these three groups are compared within each group and then across the groups. Next, the variables in the first of these groups, the demographic variables, are compared in Table 18 to the variables of life change, total network size, total network density, and averaged conceptual level. Next, in Tables 19 and 20 the demographic variables are compared to the subscales of the outcome measures. In Tables 21 and 22 the demographic variables are correlated with the qualitative variables of object relations. In Tables 23, 24, and 25 a similar set of comparisons is made for the second group of control variables, the description length scores. In the final three tables of this section, Tables 26, 27, and 28, another three part comparison is made for the ICL control variables.

The first set of control variables are the demographic variables, which include the subjects' age, academic classification (or "class"), sex, SES, employment status (or "employed"), total number of semester credits (or "credits"). and domicile (i.e., whether the subjects lived







81

at home or not). These variables are described in the second chapter (pages 39 to 40). The significant intercorrelations among the variables that are presented in



Table 15
Correlation Matrix for the Demographic Variables


Variables Age Class Sex SES Employed Credits

C l a s s 7 1 * . .. .. .. .. .
Sex .18* .11 ...........
SES .02 -.13 .03 .........
Employed .31** .30** -.03 .08 ......
Credits .25* -.05 .01 .02 -.21" --Domicile -.03 .04 .14 -.01 .10 -.09
*=p<.05. **=p<.005. ***=p<.0005.

Note. For Class, l=sophomore and 3=senior; for
Sex, 0=males and 1= females; for SES, 1=highest and
5=lowest; for employed, 0=no and 1=yes; for domicile,
0=live away from home and l=live at home.


Table 15 are not unexpected. Subjects who were older tended to be in the upper academic classes (r=.71, p<.0005), to be employed (r=.31, p<.005), and to be registered for more credits (r=.25, p<.05). Those in the upper academic classes were more likely to be employed (r=.30, p<.005). And, the subjects who were employed had registered for fewer semester credits (r=.21, p<.05).
The description length scores represented the second

group of control variables. These scores were suggested by Blatt et al. (1981) to be a rough estimate of verbal fluency. The length of the subjects written description of






82

their mother was correlated .75 (p<.0005) with the length of their description of their father. Thus, these variables were combined and averaged. Both the length of the description of mother and the length of the description of father were correlated .93 (p<.0005) with this averaged score.
In Table 16 the demographic variables are correlated



Table 16
Correlations Between the Demographic Variables
and the Description Length Scores



Description Length Scores
Variables Mother Father Averaged

Age .001 .10 .05
Class .002 .05 .03
Sex .41*** .29** .38***
SES -.18 -.13 -.17
Employed .06 .05 .06
Credits .13 .05 .09
Domicile .11 .04 .08
*=p<.05. **=p<.005. ***=p<.0005.

Note. For Class, l=sophomore and 3=senior; for
Sex, 0=males and 1= females; for SES, highest and
5=lowest; for employed, 0=no and l=yes; for domicile,
0=live away from home and l=live at home.


with the description length scores. As seen in Table 16 only the variable of sex was significant. Women tended to write lengthier descriptions of their parents than did men. This finding was consistent with the norms presented by Blatt et al. (1981). A slight but nonsignificant trend was






83

seen in Table 16 between SES and length. This trend suggests that subjects in the higher social classes tended to produce longer descriptions.

The third group of control variables were derived from the ICL. These variables are the number of adjectives the subjects checked to describe their parents ("number of items checked", or NIC) and the average intensity (AIN) of the adjectives the subjects used in the description. while the subjects seemed to have a highly similar NIC score for both mother and father (r=.75, p<.0005), the AIN scores were not significant between the ICL on mother and the ICL on father. NIC and AIN were significantly correlated with each other both within (NIC for mother-AIN for mother, r=.29, p<.005; NIC for father-AIN for father, r=.25, p<.05) and across (NIC for father-AIN for father, r=.24, p<.05; NIC for father-AIN for mother, r=.21, p<.05) the sex of the parents.

In Table 17 the ICL control variables are correlated

with the other two groups of control variables. As seen in Table 17 only two correlations were significant. Subjects in lower academic classes and in lower socio-economic classes used significantly more intense adjectives to describe their mother. None of the correlations between the ICL control variables and the description length scores were significant. Thus, Tables 16 and 17 seem to suggest that each group of control variables accounts for a separate portion of the overall variance.






84



Table 17
Correlations Between the ICL Control Variables
(Number of Items Checked, NIC, and Average
Intensity, AIN) and the Demographic and
Description Length Variables



NIC AIN
Variables Mother Father Mother Father

Demographic
Age .11 .05 -.12 -.08
Class .03 .01 -.18* -.07
Sex .04 -.05 .07 -.01
SES .12 .07 .23* -.08
Employed .05 -.05 -.08 -.01
Credits -.03 -.02 -.01 -.05
Domicile -.14 -.16 -.15 -.06

Description Length
Mother .05 -.11 -.01 -.05
Father .14 .06 .04 .02
Averaged .10 -.02 .02 -.02
*=p<.05. **=p<.005. ***=p<.0005.

Note. For Class, l=sophomore and 3=senior; for
Sex, 0=males and 1= females; for SES, l=highest and
5=lowest; for employed, 0=no and l=yes; for domicile,
0=live away from home and l=live at home.


Table 18 reports on the correlations between the

demographic variables and the variables of life change,

total network size, total network density, and averaged

conceptual level. Only one correlation was significant in

Table 18. It appears that subjects in the lower academic

classes report more life change. Otherwise, these four

variables appear to be independent of the demographic

variables.






85




Table 18
Summary of the Correlations Between the Demographic Variables and the Variables of Life Change, Total Network Size, Total Network Density, and Averaged Conceptual Level


Total Total Averaged
Outcome Life Network Network Conceptual
Measures Change Size Density Level

Age -.12 -.03 .04 -.04
Class -.23* .06 .11 -.07
Sex -.05 -.08 -.005 .07
SES .12 -.12 .10 .03
Employed -.01 -.13 .09 -.01
Credits -.02 -.01 .11 .08
Domicile -.15 .09 .08 .05
*=p<.05. **=p<.005. ***=p<.0005.

Note. For Class, l=sophomore and 3=senior; for
Sex, 0=males and 1= females; for SES, l=highest and
5=lowest; for employed, 0=no and 1=yes; for domicile,
0=live away from home and l=live at home.


In Tables 19 and 20 the demographic variables are

compared with the subscales of the outcome measures. Three of the demographic variables, class, sex, and credits, appear in Tables 19 and 20 to have produced some interesting results. As seen in Table 19 subjects in the upper academic classes appear to report less dysphoric moods. More specifically, the upper academic class subjects, as with the older students, report significantly (p<.05) less fatigue. The subjects in the upper academic classes also tend, though not significantly, to attain better grades. Table 20 shows that subjects who had registered for more credits also have






86




Table 19
Correlations Between the Subscales of the Outcome
Measures and the Demographic Variables-Part A (Age, Class, Sex, and SES)



Outcome
Measures Age Class Sex SES

POMS--Total -.08 -.20* -.17 -.08
Tension-Anxiety .004 -.16 -.18 .12
Depression-Dejection .03 -.09 -.22* -.06
Anger-Hostility .01 -.07 -.25* .06
Vigor .14 .16 -.01 .24*
Fatigue -.25* -.25* -.02 -.12
Confusion-Bewilderment .06 -.07 -.20* .02

HSCL--Total .06 -.09 -.06 .01
Somatization .04 -.05 -.03 .01
Obsession .18* -.01 -.15 .11
Interpersonal .02 -.10 .05 -.04
Depression -.01 -.14 -.07 -.04
Anxiety .06 -.02 -.02 .02

Love Scale Index -.16 -.15 .36*** .07
Verbal Expression -.18 -.15 .27*** .12
Self-Disclosure -.10 -.14 .31** -.06
Toleration -.03 -.05 .22* .07
Non-Material Evidence -.10 -.07 .29** .02
Unexpressed Feelings .17 .12 -.19* -.02
Material Evidence .02 -.02 .19* .14

GPA -.06 .17 .08 -.09

*=p<.05. **=p<.005. ***=p<.0005.

Note. For Class, 1=sophomore and 3=senior; for
Sex, 0=males and 1= females; for SES, l=highest and
5=lowest.


significantly (p<.0005) higher GPA's. Table 19 reports

that, as previously mentioned in the section on normative

comparisons, female students had significantly (p<.0005)

higher Love Scale scores, a finding which was true for every






87




Table 20
Correlations Between the Subscales of the Outcome
Measures and the Demographic Variables-Part B (Employed, Credits, and Domicile)



Outcome
Measures Employed Credits Domicile

POMS--Total .01 .06 -.14
Tension-Anxiety .02 .15 -.12
Depression-Dejection -.02 -.02 -.20*
Anger-Hostility .14 .02 -.06
Vigor -.02 .01 -.01
Fatigue -.06 .1 -.06
Confusion-Bewilderment -.03 .03 -.17

HSCL--Total .06 -.04 -.16
Somatization .05 -.03 -.15
Obsession .03 -.07 -.11
Interpersonal .08 -.03 -.04
Depression .05 -.05 -.16
Anxiety -.003 .05 -.13

Love Scale Index -.02 .03 .17
Verbal Expression -.01 -.02 .24*
Self-Disclosure .06 -.06 .12
Toleration .07 -.06 .08
Non-Material Evidence -.11 .11 .10
Unexpressed Feelings .08 -.15 -.03
Material Evidence -.001 -.04 .10

GPA -.02 .34*** .07
*=p<.05. **=p<.005. ***=p<.0005.

Note. For employed, 0=no and l=yes; for domicile,
0=live away from home and l=live at home.


subscale (note that "unexpressed feelings" counts negatively

toward the total score). As seen in Table 19, women also

appeared to report on the POMS that they felt significantly

(p<.05) less depression-dejection, anger-hostility, and






88

confusion-bewilderment. Tables 19 and 20 also report five other significant correlations; however, these correlations do not appear to represent any coherent pattern of relationships among the variables. Thus, Tables 18, 19, and 20 appear to suggest that several of the demographic variables, while being of little influence on the main variables of the current study, do have a significant influence on some of the outcome measures.

Tables 21 and 22 show that some of the demographic


Table 21
Correlations Between the Qualitative Factors of
Object Relations and the Demographic Variables-Part A (Age, Class, Sex, and SES)


Variables Age Class Sex SES

Striving--Mother -.04 -.09 .002 -.02
Striving--Father -.05 -.004 .05 -.16
Nurturant--Mother .15 .23* .11 -.20*
Nurturant--Father .11 .09 .07 -.12
DOM--Mother -.03 .07 -.01 -.04
DOM--Father -.21* -.08 .01 -.05
LOV--Mother .19* .23* .16 -.08
LOV--Father .14 .04 .27** .03
*=p<.05. **=p<.005. ***=p<.0005.

Note. For Class, l=sophomore and 3=senior; for
Sex, 0=males and 1= females; for SES, 1=highest and
5=lowest.


variables can influence the qualitative variables of object relations. Table 21 suggests that the most consistent interaction (r=.27, p<.005) is found between women and LOV






89


from the ICL for father. Tables 12 and 19 have indicated that each of these variables is related to the Love Scale. When these results are combined, it appears that women tend to describe their fathers higher on LOV and to report on the Love Scale a better rapport and liason with a significant other. Though six other significant correlations are


Table 22
Correlations Between the Qualitative Factors of
Object Relations and the Demographic Variables-Part B (Employed, Credits, and Domicile)



Variables Employed Credits Domicile

Striving--Mother -.05 -.06 .02
Striving--Father .004 -.01 -.09
Nurturant--Mother .03 -.16 .09
Nurturant--Father -.19* -.06 .09
DOM--Mother .03 -.10 .09
DOM--Father -.13 .04 -.18
LOV--Mother .15 -.12 .10
LOV--Father -.1 -.07 .05
*=p<.05. **=p<.005. ***=p<.0005.

Note. For employed, 0=no and 1=yes; for domicile,
0=live away from home and 1=live at home.


reported in Tables 21 and 22, the impact of the other demographic variables on the qualitative variables does not appear to be related to a larger schema.

The description length scores, as control variables, appear to be less influential than the demographic variables. Table 23 indicates that the variables of life change, total network size, total network density, and






90



Table 23
Correlations Between the Description Length Scores
and the Variables of Life Change, Total Network Size,
Total Network Density, and Averaged Conceptual Level


Description Length Scores
Variables Mother Father Averaged

Life Change -.01 -.002 -.01
Total Network Size .15 .09 .13
Total Network Density -.05 -.03 -.04
Averaged Conceptual Level -.05 .01 -.05


averaged conceptual level are not significantly correlated with the description length scores. Thus, as predicted, the conceptual level of the written description appears to be independent of the length of that description.

In Table 24 only two of the the subscales of the

outcome measures are related to the length of the written descriptions of parents. As seen in Table 24, subjects who wrote lengthier descriptions appeared to report significantly (p<.05) less confused and bewildered moods. And, subjects who had longer descriptions after 5 minutes of describing their mother and father also tended to report fewer symptoms of obsession. (Of course one wonders how this last correlation may have been different if the obsessive subjects were given unlimited amounts of time to describe their parents.) Thus, Table 24 suggests that, although the description length scores were related to the outcome measures in ways that are easily understood, the




Full Text
120
affiliation, should be more sensitive to dysphoric moods and
symptoms. The other dimension, that of striving or power,
should be more sensitive to paranoid or obsessional problem
behaviors.
The network density scores need to be assessed across a
number of psychosocial stages. Even two groups of college
students, one younger and one much older, produced quite
different scores. Care should be taken when selecting
samples from different stages of the life cycle to choose
subjects who are in periods of transition so as to
accentuate the effects of social networks. For instance,
people who have recently retired should have greater need
for their social networks than a same-aged group who was
still working.
In the final analysis, a form of the interactional
hypothesis was supported in the current study; lower density
social networks were less adaptive, with respect to
subjective distress, than they were in an earlier study.
The intervening variable, while not being an internal
structural variable, was suspected to be at least partially
internally mediated. Thus, the results of this study
support the contention that social and personality variables
need to be studied in unison.


27
categories of psychopathology. Rather, the attempt here was
to describe some of the factors that are associated with a
more general sense of adaptiveness. The importance for
clinicians, however, was that changes in a person's
adaptiveness would probably influence his or her
help-seeking behavior. Jacobs and his associates (in a
series of studies, reported in Minter and Kimball, 1980)
have found that a combination of social and personality
characteristics (in this case, unresolved role crises,
social isolation, life stress, and an angry-defiant copy
style) was influential in increasing the likelihood that a
person would seek medical attention for the same symptoms
(upper respiratory illness and asthma) that another person
might ignore. Hence, the people seen by clinicians are
probably those who have suffered a negative change in their
state of adaptiveness.
The competing hypothesis was that lower density
networks create an optimal, healthy environment, regardless
of the level of a person's object representations.
Obviously, lower levels of object representations would have
contributed to some decrement in functioning, while higher
levels would have given rise to better adaptation. But,
overall, this alternative hypothesis held that higher
density networks would be uniformly restrictive. This
hypothesis, however, seemed to have denied any orthogenetic
notions of social networks, as well as any qualitative


63
seems to suggest that the POMS shares a significant amount
of variance with the other three outcome measures.
In Table 6, the variable of conceptual level is
Table 6
Correlations Between the Subscales of the Outcome
Measures and the Conceptual Level Scores
Outcome
Measures
POMSTotal
Tension-Anxiety
Depression-Dejection
Anger-Hostility
Vigor
Fatigue
Confusion-Bewilderment
HSCLTotal
Somatization
Obsession
Interpersonal
Depression
Anxiety
Love Scale Index
Verbal Expression
Self-Disclosure
Toleration
Non-Material Evidence
Unexpressed Feelings
Material Evidence
GPA
*=p<.05. **=p<.005.
Conceptual Level Scores
Mother Father Averaged
06
.14
.04
02
.11
.07
08
.04
-.03
03
.09
.06
08
-.24*
-.17
15
.07
-.04
17
.02
-.08
06
.06
-.001
07
-.01
-.05
08
.11
.02
07
.06
-.004
10
.03
-.04
04
.08
.07
02
.08
.04
05
.05
.00001
01
.12
.07
07
.08
.08
13
-.09
-.12
08
-.15
-.13
09
-.06
-.08
06
.07
.07
***=p<.0005.
examined in greater detail with respect to the subscales of
the outcome measures. The conceptual level scores are
reported in three ways: the conceptual level of the written


123
And, total network density would be calculated as follows.
total network size(N)=9
number of relationships(x)=9
total network density=X/(N(N-l)/2)
=9/(9(9-l)/2)
= .25
The following formula was used to compute the NF-F boundary
density.
NF-F boundary density=X/(NF)(F)
where NF=number of nuclear family members
F=number of friends
X=number of relationships existing
between the nuclear family
members and the friends.
Therefore, the subject's NF-F boundary density was
calculated as follows.
size of family network(NF)=4
friendship network size(F)=5
number of relationships(X)=1
NF-F boundary density=X/(NF)(F)
=1/(5)(4)
=. 05


APPENDIX A.
NETWORK DENSITY SCORESAN EXAMPLE
Below is an example of how the density scores of a
hypothetical subject would have been computed. The formulas
presented on page 46 are used to calculate family/relative
network density, friendship network density, total network
density, and NF-F boundary density.
A subject could have had a Social Network List as
follows.
1. Father
2. Mother
3. Grandmother (father's mother)
4. Jane (sister)
5. Karen (friend)
6. Steve (friend)
7. John (friend)
8. Nancy (friend)
9. Brian (friend)
The first four people on this list would constitute the
subjects family/relative network. The next five people
would form the subject's friendship network.
The subject could have drawn a Support System Map as
follows. Note that for the sake of clarity the lines
connecting the members of the social network with the
subject have been not drawn.
121


153
Holmes, T., and Rahe, R. The social readjustment rating
scale. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 1967, 11,
213-218.
Knudson, R.M., and Golding, S.L. Comparative validity of
traditional versus S-R format inventories. Journal of
Research in Personality, 1974, 8, 111-127.
Kohlhepp, K.A. The effects of ego development and pre- and
post-retirement status on marriage relationships.
Unpublished M.S. thesis, Purdue University, 1976.
LaForge, R. Using the ICL. Mill Valley, CA: Author, 1976.
Lange, D.E. Validation of the orthogonal dimensions
underlying the ICL and the octant constellations
assumed to be their measure. Journal of Projective
Techniques in Personality Assessment, 1970 34, 519-527.
Leary, T. Interpersonal Diagnosis of Personality. New
York: The Ronald Press, 1957.
Liao, W. Psychological stress, health status, and health
behavior: Application of life changes concept.
Psychological Reports, 1977, 41, 246.
Lidz, T. A developmental theory. In J.C. Shershow (ed.),
Schizophrenia: Science and Practice. Cambridge:
Havard University Press, 1978.
Loevinger, J. Ego Development. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass
Pub., 1976.
McNair, D.M., Lorr, M., and Droppleman, L.F. Manual for the
Profile of Mood States. San Diego: Educational and
Industrial Testing Service, 1971.
Marx, M.B., Garrity, T.F., and Bowers, F.R. The influence
of recent life experience on the health of college
freshmen. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 1975, 19,
87-98.
Minter, R.E., and Kimball, C.P. Life events, personality
traits, and illness. In I.L Kutash and
L.B. Schlesinger (eds.), Handbook of Stress and
Anxiety. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, Pub., 1980.
Mitchell, J.C. (ed.) Social Networks in Urban Situations.
Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1969.
Molen, M.T. Life stress and academic performance in
graduate students in nursing.
Disseration Abstracts International, 1978, ^8, 3981A.


19 -
qualities of that organization. What was needed, however,
was a procedure for analyzing the structural characteristics
of the on-going social network within which the individual
lives.
Social Networks
The work on the structural properties of social
networks done during the past 25 years by such
anthropologists as Barnes, Bott, and Boissevain appears to
have supplied the materials for this procedure. More
recently, their work has found its way into psychological
research through two studies by Hirsch (1979a, 1979b). The
ease with which certain facets of network analysis have been
transferred across disciplines probably can be attributed to
the level of analysis employed by these anthropologists.
Namely, their analysis focuses on the individual and the
exchanges which take place between individuals, as opposed
to focusing on the attributes of the culture as a whole.
Thus, the impact of the group on the individual can be
studied without losing individual differences.
Many researchers feel that density is the most
important structural component of a network of individuals
(Hirsch, 1979a), and density was the key network variable
examined in the present study. A social network is defined
by Mitchell (1969) as "a specific set of linkages among a
defined set of persons, with the . property that the
characteristics of the linkages as a whole may be used to


9
those of other people. Hence, as the self-system becomes
more distinct from its inner objects, it becomes better
equipped, more cohesive and more resilient, to handle the
strum und dranq of everyday life. Finally within Piagetian
theory, complete development of object representations does
not take place until adolescence, and, according to some
data (Rowe and Marcia, 1980), the completion of this
development is by no means assured for every individual.
Blatt, borrowing from Werner and Piaget, used the
notion that object representations "proceed from amorphous,
global representations, to a somewhat differentiated
emphasis on part properties, to representations which are
highly articulated and integrated, and closely correspond to
reality" (Blatt, 1974, p. 142) as the basis for describing
his conceptual levels of object representations. In
general, beginning conceptual levels are based on actions of
the (human) object that are related to the individuals need
gratification, intermediate levels are based on specific
perceptual features of the object, and later levels are
based on more symbolic and "conceptual" inner
characteristics of the object. More specifically, Blatt,
Chevron, Quinlan, and Wein (1981) have created a system for
assessing five distinct levels, or milestones, in the
development of the concept of object representations. They
place these five conceptual levels on a scale from one
through nine. The protocols to be scored are drawn from the


15
of formal operations, one can expect a more primitive form
of object representations to be used in relating to both the
fantasy and the real world. For many, however, the full
expression of any conceptual level of object representations
appears to be integrally linked to the nature of the
person's interpersonal environment. Incidentally, Blatt et
al. (1976) were also able to use their system to trace the
progressive development of object representations in normal
individuals over time.
Blatt, Wein, Chevron, and Quinlan (1979) investigated
the relationship between object representations (scored
according to the procedure of Blatt et al., 1981) and the
intensity and type of depressive experience in a normal
sample of college students. Blatt (1974) has divided
depressive episodes into two types: anaclitic and
introjective. In anaclitic depression, the person who needs
continual contact with other people in order to maintain
gratification and a sense of self becomes depressed when a
significant object loss is experienced. Introjective
depression, on the other hand, is characterized by feelings
of being unlovable rather than unloved, of having failed to
live up to the high expectations and standards of the
introjected (or partially assimilated) other. This
depression results not from abandonment or neglect, but is a
function of demanding, ambivalent, depreciatory, and hostile
child-parent interactions. Blatt (1974) reasoned that


APPENDIX C.
DATA COLLECTION INFORMATION
Instruction Used in Data Collection
(Note: The following is the set of instructions used by the
research assistants during the data collection phase of this
study. Hence, the "you" refers to the assistants, except
when the "you" appears within the quotation marks. The
sections within the quotation marks represent the parts
which were read aloud to the subjects.)
Have the subjects read the consent form.
Ask if they have any questions.
Get them to sign both consent forms (you sign as the
witness).
The third consent form is optional (i.e., if they want
to receive a written abstract of the results, they should
sign it). Incidentally, they should expect at least nine
months before they receive the results in the mail.
Starting instructions:
as you read in the consent form, your task in this
study is to complete a series of scales and
questionnaires.
There are no right and wrong answers to these
instruments; each person has his or her own style
of responding. It is this uniqueness that we are
interested in.
134


152
Chickering, A.W., and McCormick, J. Personality development
and college experience. Research in Higher Education,
1973, 1, 43-70.
Coser, R.L. The complexity of roles as a seedbed of
individual autonomy. In L. Coser (ed.), The Idea of
Social Structure: Papers in Honor of Robert K. Merton.
New York: Harcourt, Brace, and Jovanovich, 1975.
Derogatis, L.R., Lipman, R.S., Rickels, L., Uhlenhuth, E.H.,
and Covi, D. The Hopkins Symtpom Checklist (HSCL): A
self-report symptom inventory. Behavioral Science,
1974, 19, 1-15.
Edwards, R.P., and Thacker, K. The relationship of
birth-order, gender, and sibling gender in the
two-child family to grade point average in college.
Adolescence, 1979, 14, 111-114.
Erikson, E.H. Childhood and Society. New York: W.W.
Norton and Co., Inc., 1950.
Foa, V.G. Convergence in the analysis of the structure of
interpersonal behavior. Psychological Review, 1961,
68, 341-353.
Geller, J.D., Cooley, R.S., and Hartley, D. Images of the
psychotherapist: A theoretical and methodological
perspective. Imagination, Cognition, and Personality,
1981-82, 1, 123-146.
Goldstein, M.B. Stress, support, and coping among first
year dental students: A correlational analysis.
Dissertation Abstracts International, 1978, 1047B.
Grumper, L.L. Interpersonal maturity level, ego
development, and friendships of juvenile offenders.
Unpublished M.S. thesis, Purdue University, 1976.
Hirsch, B.J. (a) Natural support systems and coping with
major life changes.
Dissertation Abstracts International, 1979, 4^, 2841B,
(University Microfilms No. 7927250).
Hirsch, B.J. (b) Psychological dimensions of social
networks: A multidimensional analysis. American
Journal of Community Psychology, 1979, 7, 263-277.
Hollingshead, A.B. Two Factor Index of Social Position.
New Haven: Author, 1957.


TABLE
LIST OF TABLES
PAGE
1. Means (M) and Standard Deviations (SD) of
Selected Variables for Three Groups of
Averaged Conceptual Level (CL) of
Object Representations 56
2. Means (M) and Standard Deviations (SD) of
Selected Variables for Three Groups of
Total Network Density 58
3. Summary of the Correlations Between the Outcome
Measures and the Variables of Life Change,
Total Network Size, Total Network Density,
and Averaged Conceptual Level 60
4. Correlation Matrix for the Variables of Life
Change, Total Network Size, Total Network
Density, and Averaged Conceptual Level ... 61
5. Correlation Matrix for the Outcome Measures . 62
6. Correlations Between the Subscales of the
Outcome Measures and the Conceptual
Level Scores 63
7. Correlations Between the Subscales of the
Outcome Measures and the Variables of Life
Change, Total Network Size, and Total
Network Density 65
8. Correlations Between the Subscales of the
Outcome Measures and the Variables of
Family/Relative Network Density, Friendship
Network Density and Nuclear Family-Friendship
(NF-F) Boundary Density 68
9. Summary of the Differences on Nuclear Family-
Friendship (NF-F) Boundary Density for the
Subjects who Lived at Home versus the
Subjects who Lived Away from Home
70


133
Optional Feedback
If you would like a written abstract of the results to
be mailed to you upon completion of this study, please fill
in the following information:
Name
Street
City & State
Zip Code


41
Conceptual Level. Each description was given a scale
score of 1-9 to denote the five conceptual levels. These
levels are sensorimotor-preoperational (scaled score=l),
concrete-perceptual (3), external iconic (5), internal
iconic (7), and "conceptual" (9), and a description of these
levels is provided on pages 10 through 12. The interrater
reliability given by Blatt et al. (1981) for scoring the
level of object representations ranged from .88 (between
expert rater and trained rater) to .70 (between expert rater
and untrained rater) to .85 (for all three raters).
Qualitative Characteristics. A written description of
parent was rated on each of 13 characteristics according to
the degree to which the subject was seen as attributing that
characteristic to his or her parent. Each characteristic
was rated on a scale from 1-7, with a score of 4 given when
the characteristic was not relevant or was too vaguely
described to be scored accurately. The 13 characteristics
were as follows.
(1.) Affectionatelittle affection=l, much affection=7
(2.) Ambitious-Drivingrelatively non-ambitious and
driving=l, strongly ambitious and driving of self and
others=7
(3.) Malevolent-Benevolentmalevolent=l, benevolent=7
(4.) Cold-Warmcold=l, warm=7
(5.) Degree of Constructive Involvement distinctive or
destructive, intrusive involvement=l, positive and


47
construct validity for both clinical and normal populations
and across levels of SES (Derogatis, Lipman, Rickels,
Uhlenhuth, and Covi, 1974). Five factors have been
extracted from the HSCL: somatization, obsessive-compulsive
rumination, interpersonal sensitivity, depression, and
anxiety. A total symptom score was computed by combining
the scores on all five scales (each receiving equal
weighting).
Love (interpersonal exchange of positive affect)
Scale of Feelings and the Behavior of Love (Love
Scale). This instrument was a 120-item scale devised by
Swensen (1978) which can be used to rate the quality of any
relationship (e.g., with spouse, mother, father, or closest
friend of same or opposite sex). Six factors were produced
by the Love Scale: verbal expression of affection,
self-disclosure, toleration of the loved one, non-material
evidence, unexpressed feelings, and material evidence. A
total Love Scale score was computed by adding up the scores
on all six factors (equal weightings). Subjects in the
current experiment were asked to fill out the Love Scale on
the person whom they felt closest to.
The Love Scale was thought to have been especially well
suited for the current study. Grumper (1976) has found that
juvenile offenders at the post-conformist stages of ego
development have a higher score on the Love Scale for their
best friend than do juveniles at the pre-conformist levels


112
the representations were significantly correlated with the
patients' perception of therapeutic improvement. Although
this instrument is too specific to be generalized to other
studies of object representations, its theoretical and
methodological advancements can be incorporated into future
studies.
In the past few years, Blatt has made a substantial
change in his theory of intrapsychic development. Instead
of trying to explain conceptual level on the basis of one
dimension, Blatt has developed a more dialectical, two
dimensional model. As recently as their 1979 study, Blatt
and his colleagues thought that the anaclitic concerns of
object loss, which revolve around the need to maintain
direct physical contact with others, were more prominent in
the lower levels of object representations. And they
thought that the introjective concerns, which involve issues
of self-criticism and of maintaining an adequate concept of
self, were more salient during the next higher levels of
object representations. They believed that people who had
mastered these issues were at the highest levels of object
representations. Blatt and his colleagues now propose the
presence of two distinct developmental tasks which delineate
two primary pathways of development:
the establishment of stable and meaningful
interpersonal relatedness defines the anaclitic
developmental line, the development of a
consolidated and differentiated identity and
self-concept defines an introjective developmental
line. In normal development, the two processes of
establishing interpersonal relations and a


77
the POMS, with the exception of fatigue (p<.06), and three
of the five subscales on the HSCL are significantly
correlated with DOM for mother. With the exception of the
anger-hostility subscale, DOM for father, LOV for mother,
and LOV for father are not correlated with the measures of
subjective distress. LOV for father is significantly
correlated (p<.05) with the Love Scale Index. Subjects who
described their fathers as high on the Love dimension tended
to report relationships which were more tolerant and allowed
for more material and nonmaterial expression of love. LOV
for mother is also positively correlated (p<.05) with
material and nonmaterial expression on the Love Scale, but
not with the total Love Scale score. The significant
negative correlation between the material expression
subscale of the Love Scale and DOM for father and between
the anger-hostility subscale of the POMS and LOV for father
seem to be isolated phenomenon. Thus, Table 11 appears to
suggest that DOM for mother and LOV for father are the most
sensitive dimensions of the ICL when related to the outcome
measures.
In Table 13 the qualitative factors from the written
descriptions of parents is compared to the variables of life
change, total network size, total network density, and
averaged conceptual level. Only two correlations were
significant. Table 13 confirms that, as also reported in
Table 1, striving for father is significantly correlated


72
correlation on the nurturant factor between the description
of father and the description of mother is .31 (p<.0005).
This correlation, although significant, is still well under
the .70 correlation between conceptual level for mother and
the conceptual level for father. Of the four
intercorrelations between striving (on mother and father)
and nurturant (on mother and father), only the correlation
between striving on mother and nurturant on father is
significant (r=.29, p<.005). Thus, it seems that the
qualitative factors of parent as striving on (mother and
father) and parent as nurturant (on mother and father)
should not be reduced to summary scores. Similarly, DOM and
LOV from the subjects' completion of the ICL on their mother
cannot be combined with the DOM and LOV from the ICL on
their father because too much information would be lost.
The subjects used the ICL to describe their mother and their
father. The adjectives they used were then reduced to
scores on two dimensions, the dominance-love dimension (DOM)
and the love-hate dimension (LOV). Neither the correlation
between DOM for mother and DOM for father (r=.02) or LOV for
mother and LOV for father (r=.09) were significant. Only
LOV for father and DOM for father were significantly
correlated (r=.35, p<.0005). The other three
intercorrelations, LOV for father and DOM for mother
(r=-.03), LOV for mother and DOM for mother (r=-.07), and
DOM for father and LOV for mother (r=.03), were not


113
personal identity develop in an interdependent
dialectical process. The quality of interpersonal
relations and self-definition develop in mutually
facilitating, complex interaction. . .
Individuals cope with developmental disruptions by
exagerrated attempts to achieve equilibrium either
in interpersonal relatedness or in a consolidated
concept of self. In the extreme the two
developmental lines define two primary
configurations of psychopathology. The
determination of which developmental line (the
concept of the self or the mode of interpersonal
relatedness) becomes the primary focus of
compensatory maneuvers and symptomatic expression
in psychopathology is influenced by a host of
possible parameters. (Blatt and Shichman, 1983,
pp. 193-194).
Note that Thomas and Chess' (1980) notions of goodness of
fit and poorness of fit between the organism and the
environment are preserved in Blatt and Shichman's (1983)
concept of "equilibrium".
Blatt and Shichman (1983) propose that each line of
development is more prominent at certain periods in the life
span. Using Erikson's (1950) psychosocial stages, with the
addition of another stage (mutuality versus competition)
during the Oedipal period, they suggest a one stage-two
stage interchange between anaclitic and introjective
preoccupations. The first stage of trust versus mistrust
accents anaclitic concerns, while the next two stages of
autonomy versus shame and initiative versus guilt are
predominated by introjective issues. The subsequent stage
of mutuality versus competition marks the return to
anaclitic themes. Again, introjective concerns are
heightened during the next two stages of industry versus


82
their mother was correlated .75 (p<.0005) with the length of
their description of their father. Thus, these variables
were combined and averaged. Both the length of the
description of mother and the length of the description of
father were correlated .93 (p<.0005) with this averaged
score.
In Table 16 the demographic variables are correlated
Table 16
Correlations Between the Demographic Variables
and the Description Length Scores
Variables
Description Length
Mother Father
Scores
Averaqed
Age
.001
.10
.05
Class
.002
.05
.03
Sex
.41***
.29**
.38***
SES
-.18
-.13
-.17
Employed
.06
.05
.06
Credits
.13
.05
.09
Domicile
.11
.04
.08
*=p<.05. **=p<.005. ***=p<.0005.
Note. For Class, l = sophomore and 3 = senior; for
Sex, 0=males and 1= females; for SES, l=highest and
5=lowest; for employed, 0=no and l=yes; for domicile,
0=live away from home and l=live at home.
with the description length scores. As seen in Table 16
only the variable of sex was significant. Women tended to
write lengthier descriptions of their parents than did men.
This finding was consistent with the norms presented by
Blatt et al. (1981). A slight but nonsignificant trend was


7
this pattern of interaction was to account for the mental
health (i.e., the degree of personal distress and the
ability to love and work) of an individual during a
particular period in life, which, in this case, was during
college. This study was made possible by recent research in
the assessment of object representations and social
networks. These lines of research, which have developed in
relative independence of each other, have been integrated
within the present study in a way which seemed germane to
describing some of the developmental tasks faced by
individuals who were in college, individuals who were
essentially in a prolonged adolescence.
Object Relations
One the impediments to research on object
representations has been the lack of a reliable system for
assessing these internal structures. Blatt and his
associates at Yale have tried within the past several years
to develop such a system. A major stimulus for their
system, besides, psychoanalytic theory, has come from the
cognitive-developmental theories of Werner and Piaget, among
others. Werner has proposed "an orthogenetic principle
which states that wherever development occurs it proceeds
from a state of relative globality and lack of
differentiation to a state of increasing differentiation,
articulation, and hierarchic integration" (Werner, 1972,
p. 47). He noted that with increasing self-other


26
Sokolovsky, Cohen, Berger, and Geiger (1978) suggested that
former schizophrenic patients living in single-room
occupancy (SRO) hotels had fewer rehospitalizations if they
were integrated into higher density social networks. Hirsch
(1979a) also reported that higher density "pressure groups"
can be therapeutically successful in bringing about change
in certain individuals. He suggested that, "apparently,
therefore, the adaptiveness of dense NSS may vary
considerably depending on specific person-NSS
characteristics" (Hirsch, 1979a, p. 4). Thus, the need
existed to understand the interaction between the density of
social networks and the level of object representations.
Central Thesis: An Interactionist Model
The central thesis of the present study was that an
inverse relationship between the total density of a persons
social network and his or her conceptual level of object
representations would result in a goodness of fit. In other
words, the individual at a lower conceptual level would
require a higher density network to be sustained at an
optimal level of functioning. Similarly, a person with a
higher conceptual level would function best in a lower
density network. Deviation from the equilibrium of this
expected relationship would, therefore, result in greater
subjective distress (e.g., poorer mood, more complaints) and
impairment in the areas of love and work. The emphasis of
this model was not on predicting specific symptoms or


20
interpret [the] social behavior of the person involved"
(p. 2). For the purposes of this study, the social network
was composed of those people who the subject felt were, at
the time of the study, a source of support, encouragement,
or guidance. Density is commonly defined as the number of
perceived relationships among members of the subject's
social network over the total number of possible
relationships among those members. Therefore, a lower
density network is one where most of the members of an
individual's network are viewed as having a relationship
with one another. All measurements are based on the
subject's perception of whether a relationship exists or not
between the members.
Hirsch (1979b) examined college students' satisfaction
with the social support they received from their social
network as a function of density. Although higher density
networks, or "extended families", were thought by many
college students to be socially desirable (many students
with lower density networks even apologized because their
associates did not know one another), lower density networks
clearly provided more satisfying support for those students
who had them. Goldstein (1978), in studying the social
networks of first year dental students, also found, contrary
to his expectations, that higher levels of support were
associated with lower network density. How can this
counter-intuitive finding be explained? Hirsch (1979a)


90
Table 23
Correlations Between the Description Length Scores
and the Variables of Life Change, Total Network Size,
Total Network Density, and Averaged Conceptual Level
Variables
Description Length Scores
Mother Father Averaged
Life Change
Total Network Size
Total Network Density
Averaged Conceptual Level
01
-.002
-.01
15
.09
.13
05
-.03
-.04
05
.01
-.05
averaged conceptual level are not significantly correlated
with the description length scores. Thus, as predicted, the
conceptual level of the written description appears to be
independent of the length of that description.
In Table 24 only two of the the subscales of the
outcome measures are related to the length of the written
descriptions of parents. As seen in Table 24, subjects who
wrote lengthier descriptions appeared to report
significantly (p<.05) less confused and bewildered moods.
And, subjects who had longer descriptions after 5 minutes of
describing their mother and father also tended to report
fewer symptoms of obsession. (Of course one wonders how
this last correlation may have been different if the
obsessive subjects were given unlimited amounts of time to
describe their parents.) Thus, Table 24 suggests that,
although the description length scores were related to the
outcome measures in ways that are easily understood, the


64
description of the mother, the conceptual level of the
written description of father, and the averaged conceptual
level of both descriptions. The conceptual level of the
description of mother correlates .70 (p<.0005) with the
conceptual level of father. Averaged conceptual level is
correlated .93 (p<.0005) with the conceptual level of mother
and .91 (p<.0005) with the conceptual level of father. The
POMS has six subscales (tension-anxiety, which correlates
.74 with the total POMS score; depression-dejection, .84;
anger-hostility, .62; vigor, -.64; fatigue, .75;
confusion-bewilderment, .83), the HSCL has five
(somatization, which correlates .81 with the total HSCL
score; obsession, .84; interpersonal, .75; depression, .79;
anxiety, .89), and the Love Scale has six (verbal
expression, which correlates .86 with the Love Scale Index,
self-disclosure, .72; toleration, .70; non-material
evidence, .54; unexpressed feelings, -.69; material
evidence, .45). As can be seen in Table 6, only one of the
51 possible correlations between the three types of
conceptual level scores and the 17 subscales is significant.
Evidently, subjects with higher conceptual levels on their
descriptions of father had significantly (p<.05) less
vigorous moods (note that the vigor subscale of the POMS
counts negatively toward the total POMS score). The
otherwise general lack of significant correlations in Table
6 suggests that the results presented in Table 3 and the


35
Hypothesis 4. Life Change
The correlation between total network density and the
measures of mental health and the correlation between the
averaged conceptual level of object representations and
mental health would still be significant after the effect of
life change had been partialed out.
Hypothesis 5. Qualitative Factors and ICL Dimensions
As an expression of the concurrent validity between the
qualitative dimensions of the object representations and the
interpersonal factors of the ICL, the striving factor would
be similar to the DOM dimension of the ICL for the same sex
parent. Likewise, the nurturant factor would correspond to
that of LOV on the ICL.
Hypothesis 6. ICL Quadrants
After the ICL dimensions of LOV and DOM were reduced to
their component parts, Love (L)-Hate (H) and Dominance
(D)-Submission (S), and four quadrants (DL, DH, SL, and SH)
were formed, the quadrants from the ICL for father would be
ranked so that, in ascending order, significantly better
scores on the mental health measures would be found with SH
(worst), SL, DH, and DL (best). In a similar fashion, the
quadrants of the ICL for mother would be ranked to that, in
ascending order, significantly better scores on the mental
health measures would be found within SH (worst), DH, SL,
and DL (best).


100
I CL Quadrants
In this section the results pertaining to the sixth
hypothesis are considered. It was hypothesized that certain
quadrants of Leary's (1957) circumplex would be more
favorably related to the outcome measures. Because the ICL
was developed to measure the circumplex, the scores derived
from the ICL can be easily reduced to one of four quadrants.
The two dimensions of the ICL, namely LOV and DOM, are
orthogonal to each other and, hence, form a two dimensional
array, or circumplex. With Dominance (D) and Submission (S)
as the poles of one axis, and Love (L) and Hate (H) as the
other poles, four quadrants may be formed: DL, DH, SL, and
SH. In this manner the DOM and LOV scores were reduced to a
single point in one of these four quadrants. On the ICL for
mothers, 58 subjects were in DL, 25 in DH, 26 in SL, and
only 8 in SH. On the ICL for fathers, the distribution was
even less uniform because only one DOM score was negative.
Hence, 63 subjects were in DL, 53 were in DH, none in SL,
and only one in SH. Linear regression models were
constructed for each of the four measures of mental health
with the quadrants as the independent variables. These
findings are reported in Table 31. As can be seen in Table
31, only in the POMS model were the quadrants significantly
different when the ICL was filled out on the subjects'
mother. Twenty percent of the total variance (R-squared)
was explained by the POMS model. A Duncan multiple range


114
inferiority and identity versus role confusion. The one
stage-two stage symmetry finishes with intimacy versus
isolation (anaclitic), generativity versus stagnation and
integrity versus despair (both introjective). Thus, a
person who has difficulty with one stage, and the
developmental issues involved therein, may find those issues
re-awakened and the developmental arrests of that earlier
stage highlighted during a later stage of development which
stresses the earlier developmental themes. Although each
line of development has a proactive affect on the other line
of development (e.g., someone will have difficulty
establishing good interpersonal relationships without a good
concept of self, and vice versa), someone can, within
reason, refine one line of development with reasonable
success while still being restricted in the opposite line.
More overall decolage, or disparities between common
abilities, is allowed in this theoretical system.
The Reevaluation of Network Density
In the current study, network density was significantly
correlated with subjective distress, especially as it was
measured by the POMS, but in a pattern opposite to the one
expected. These results appear, on the surface, to stand in
direct contradiction to the results reported by Hirsch
(1979a). In this reevaluation of the network density
results, however, it is proposed that this set of
contradictory results was found because the subjects in


TABLE OF CONTENTS
PAGE
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS i i i
LIST OF TABLES vi
ABSTRACT x
CHAPTER
ONE INTRODUCTION 1
Overview 1
Theoretical Considerations 4
Object Relations 7
Social Networks 19
Central Thesis: An Interactionist Model 26
Hypotheses 31
1. Interactional Effects 33
2. Univariate Comparisons 33
3. Outcome Measures 34
4. Life Change 35
5. Qualitative Factors and
I CL Dimensions 35
6. ICL Quadrants 35
TWO METHOD 36
Subjects 36
Measures 36
Category A. Measures of Life Change
and Demographics 36
Category B. Primary Measures .... 40
Category C. Measures of Mental Health 46
Procedure 49
THREE RESULTS 51
Interrater Reliability
and Normative Comparisons 51
Interactional Effects 55
Univariate Comparisons 59
Outcome Measures 96
- iv -


28
changes that might have taken place in the development of
object representations.
Werner's orthogenetic principle can be applied to
social networks, in that a network also "proceeds from a
state of relative globality and lack of differentiation to a
state of increasing differentiation, articulation, and
hierarchic integration" (Werner, 1972, p. 47). Such is the
rhythm of living systems. A child begins with a network
density close to 1.00, since almost all the significant
others in the child's life probably have a relationship with
one another (even in cases of divorce, the child would
probably perceive his or her mother and father as having a
relationship with one another). Higher network density is
adaptive for this level of personality development. In
later phases of development, as the child enters school or
forms a "chumship" with a same-sex peer (Sullivan's
pre-adolescent period), network density decreases to about
.50 or .40. These figures are still considered "higher"
network density in comparison with the norm for later
developmental periods. "Adult" density scores hover between
.33 and .25 (personal communication, Hirsch, 1982). Thus,
optimal density corresponds to the period of development.
So, it seemed reasonable to propose that an individual
whose personality development had been arrested at an early
stage would have needed a social network with a reciprocal
level of density in order to have displayed optimal


38
All of the above studies used the Holmes and Rahe
(1967) Schedule of Recent Events (SRE) or a reasonable
facimile thereof. Each event on this schedule was reduced
to a score (expressed in "life change units"LCU), which
was thought to represent that amount of disruption in a
person's life that resulted from the particular event. Some
of the 43 events on the SRE, however, were not appropriate
for most college students (e.g., "son or daughter leaving
home"). Anderson (1972) has developed the College Schedule
of Recent Events (CSRE) in response to this deficiency of
the SRE. The selection of these events and the LCU assigned
to each event was obtained by consensus from the opinions of
284 students, using a procedure which was identical to that
employed by Holmes and Rahe (1967). The results show high
agreement among all groups within the sample, with the
highest agreement being between college juniors and seniors
(.97) and the lowest between freshmen and graduate students
(.87). For males and females the agreement was .94. Two
studies (Marx, Garrity, and Bowers, 1975; Liao, 1977) have
used the CSRE to find the expected small but significant
relationship between higher levels of LCU and increased
incidence of health problems for college freshmen and second
year pharmacy students.
For purposes of this study the CSRE was modified
slightly; all items (a total of seven) which pertained to
being married were deleted because no subject in the present


25
were made with the same people. Examples of simple
role-sets could be found in family or kinship groups, or
other higher density networks. Status in a complex role-set
was unequally distributed throughout the system and the
membership of the system was subject to change. Examples of
this system could be found in most white-collar job
situations. The complex role-set allowed for increased
relativity and perspective taking, and the person within it
was exposed to more contradictory expectations, more
differential interests, more observability by others, and
more opportunity to be both an authority figure to some and
a subordinate to others. Coser made the argument that
"individuality" was enhanced by complex role-sets and
differential social structures.
These writers who extolled the virtues of lower density
social networks may have been biased in their conclusions
because of the populations they worked with. It seemed
highly plausible that a lower density network could be
effective for middle-class, well-educated, adults living in
a post-industrial society. But for others, who are less
well-developed in a material, maturational, and
psychological sense this may not be true. In traditional
farming communities, a higher density social network can be
the difference between life and death for many subsistence
farmers. Children need an intact, highly integrated family
unit on which to base the foundations of development.


37
psychological disorders and physical illness. The effects,
however, are usually modest, which is consistent with
Andrews and Tennant's (1978) contention that life change
cannot be said to be the cause for nor does it appear to be
a major determinant of physical or psychological problems.
Life change is best viewed in terms of its contribution to
the psychological and physical states that foster the
development of ill-being. Life change probably demoralizes
a person and increases a person's need for the benefits of
social interaction (be it support or professional help). Of
particular relevance to the present study, Smith (1977) and
Molen (1978) have found that increased levels of life
change, situational stress, in college freshmen, junior
college students, and graduate nursing students have been
associated with decreases in functioning on a role
perfomance variable, namely grade point average (GPA). This
positive correlation between life change and GPA is weak but
significant in all the studies.
Hirsch (1979a) reported that a person's network density
was independent of his or her experience of life change.
The relationship between the conceptual level of object
representations and life change is unknown, though it was
hypothesized that they are independent. So, while it was
thought that the major determinants of maladaptiveness were
probably the intrinsic personality and sociodemographic
attributes of the person, the level of life change needed to
be controlled in the present study.


69
scores appeared to have behaved, with respect to the POMS
subscales, in much the same manner as the total network
density scores. Subjects in higher density family/relative
networks had significantly (p<.05) lower (i.e., better)
total POMS scores. As was the case with total network
density, a three subscale constellation
(depression-dejection, anger-hostility, and
confusion-bewilderment) tended to be negatively associated
with family/relative network density, although only the
depression-dejection subscale was significant (p<.05).
Table 8 also indicates that friendship network density was
not significantly correlated with any of the outcome
measures or their subscales. Thus, Table 8 seems to suggest
that the family/relative network density scores is the most
influential of the three subtypes of density scores in the
current study.
As reported in Table 8, nuclear family-friendship
(NF-F) boundary density was not significantly correlated
with any of the outcome measures or their subscales. Hirsch
(1979a) had found NF-F boundary density to be the most
influential of the various density scores. One factor that
may have lessened the influence of NF-F boundary density in
the current study is that only 49 percent of the subjects in
the current study had a NF-F boundary density score higher
than .00. In other words, only about one half of the
subjects had any relationships between their family/relative


127
name those individuals you feel "closest" to. You
then draw a line between those individuals who you
consider to have a relationship with each other.
This map should take about 10 minutes to
construct.
Profile of Mood States. You indicate to what
extent, if any, you have recently been bothered by
each of the common, possible problems listed on
this scale. It takes approximately 10 minutes to
complete this checklist.
Scale of Feelings. You answer 120 items on
this questionnaire that describe some of the ways
in which you express your feelings toward another
person. You choose, and specify, a person in your
life to whom you feel "closest" (e.g., same or
opposite sex friend, brother, sister, father,
mother) and fill out the questionnaire with that
person in mind. This last instrument should take
about 20 minutes to complete.
These instruments are of sufficient variety and
shortness (note that no scale should take more than 20
minutes to complete) that they should be able to maintain
your interest during the experimental procedure. You will
also be given a short rest period during the experiment.
The entire experimental procedure should last approximately
two hours, and you will receive appropriate course credit
for your participation. No follow-up testing is required.


99
Table 30
Linear Regression Scores for the Variables of "Parent
as Striving" and "Parent as Nurturant" and the ICL
Dimensions (DOM and LOV)
Variables
F-Value
P>F R-Squared
For Mother:
Striving/DOM
9.61
.002 .08
Nurturant/LOV
30.11
.0001 .21
For Father:
Striving/DOM
15.65
.0001 .12
Nurturant/LOV
42.37
.0001 .27
Note: DOM=
Dominance-Submission,
LOV=Love-Hate.
significantly similar for the models which used scores that
had been derived from the subjects' descriptions of their
mother. Eight percent of the total variance was explained
by this interaction. As indicated in Table 30, the
relationship between nurturant and LOV was stronger, with 21
percent of the variance explained. Similar relationships
were found when the models incorporated the scores from the
subjects' descriptions of their father. In the striving/DOM
model 12 percent of the total variance was accounted for,
while in the nurturant/LOV model 27 percent of the variance
was explained. Thus, the results in Table 30 seem to
suggest that, as predicted, nurturant corresponds to LOV and
striving to DOM.


12
occur in that person. Inner dimensions are appreciated in
their own right and are contrasted with external qualities.
Although the description may incorporate concrete and
literal terms and reference may be made to the person's need
gratifying and frustrating impact on the subject, these
aspects are integrated to form a cohesive and
multidimensional image of the person, an image wherein
apparent contradictions are resolved in the service of a
larger synthesis.
Blatt et al. (1981) are not attempting to describe
intellectual or cognitive development (Piagets goal), but
rather they strive to describe the development of the
subject's interpersonal perception. These conceptual levels
denote the capacity the individual has to organize,
experience, and act upon the world of people. Because most
psychological disorders develop as a response to
interpersonal conflicts, the individual's conceptual level
of representing human objects is hypothesized as being
associated with the occurence of psychopathological
symptoms. This is not to say that the development of
cognitive abilities and interpersonal perception are
unrelated. It would be difficult to imagine someone having
achieved a "conceptual" level score without having also
arrived at the cognitive stage of formal operations. The
degree of horizontal decalage (or lag in abilities within a
stage) that might exist between cognitive and personality
development is for another study to determine.


39
study was married. Also, the subjects were asked to check
the number of times during the last nine months that any of
the events occurred to them. This time interval was
comparable with the interval Hirsch (1979a) had instructed
his subjects to use on the SRE.
Demographic Variables
Age. Only subjects between the ages of 18 and 23,
inclusive, were used in the study because students within
this range should have been concerned with the same
psychosocial tasks, as opposed to older or younger students.
Class. Subjects were asked if they were classified as
freshmen, sophomores, juniors, or seniors.
Sex. Note was made of the subjects sex. Edwards and
Thacker (1979) reported that the females in their study
obtained a higher GPA than the males.
Socioeconomic Status (SES). Hollingshead's Two Factor
Index of Social PositionThe ubiquitous effects of social
class differences are well known in the social sciences.
SES was measured in the traditional method, using
Hollingshead's Two Factor Index of Social Position
(Hollingshead, 1957). This instrument combines the
educational and occupational status of the "head of the
household" of the subject's family as a basis for placing
the subject in one of five classes of SES. People in Class
I were considered "upper class", those in Class II were
"upper-middle class", Class III represented "middle class",


- 135 -
You may find some of these instruments easy to
fill out, while others may be more difficult.
Just try to do your best.
If you have any questions when you are filling
them out, please raise your hand.
We will take a short rest period before completing
the last scale.
Any questions? . .
Okay, let's get started. First, you'll do the
demographics questionnaire. Just answer the
following questions. When you are finished with
this page, stop and look up. . .
Okay, turn the page. This next instrument is the
College Schedule of Recent Events. Please read
the instructions as I read them aloud. [When you
finish with the 'last nine months part, you may
want to inform them that nine months is the period
from, for instance for those who do it in
September, 'January until now']. This
questionnaire is three pages long. When you
finish with it, stop and look up.
Do the same (i.e., reading the instructions, providing
them with structure) for each form.
Time the Description of Mother and Description of
Father. Be matter-of-fact about the timing, neither hiding
the fact that they are being timed nor giving them the
impression they are being rushed.
Stop them after each of the Interpersonal Checklists so
that stragglers do not get too far behind. The instructions
in between the two Interpersonal Checklists can simply be,
"now do the samething to describe your father".
On the Support System Map, it may be helpful if you
have them do parts of it before finishing the instructions.
For instance, read to them, "you are to put your name in the


79
In Table 14 the ICL dimensions are compared to the same
Table 14
Correlations Between the ICL Dimensions (DOM and LOV)
and the Variables of Life Change, Total Network Size,
Total Network Density, and Averaged Conceptual Level
DOM LOV
Variables
Mother
Father
Mother
Father
Life Change
.002
.19*
-.10
-.02
Total Network Size
.18
.15
.10
.07
Total Network Density
.12
-.11
.05
.22*
Conceptual Level
-.27**
.03
.14
-.12
*=p<.05. **=p<.005. ***=p<.0005.
Note. Conceptual Level is an Averaged score.
four variables as above. Again, the relationship seen in
Table 1 between DOM for mother and conceptual level is
confirmed in Table 14. The relationship between the ICL
dimensions and total network density that was seen in Table
2 is not, however, supported by Table 14. In Table 2 the
means of DOM for father had been significantly different in
the lower density group as compared to the higher density
group. As shown in Table 14, DOM for father and total
network density are correlated only -.11 with each other.
On the other hand, LOV for father is correlated .22 (p<.05)
with total network density. Table 14 also indicates that
DOM for father is significantly correlated (p<.05) with life
change. While the nurturant factor and life change were
significantly correlated and shared a similar pattern on the


- 32 -
about the reactivity of the four outcome measures in the
current study.
In the fourth hypothesis, the possible effects of life
change on the main variables were considered. Although the
prediction was made in the second hypothesis that the two
main variables (i.e averaged conceptual level and total
network density) would be independent of life change, the
effects of life change, or situation stress, are often
thought of as being so powerful as to be a main variable in
other studies (see the section on life change under the
heading "Measures" in the second chapter).
The two final hypotheses concerned the qualitative
factors derived from the written descriptions of parents and
the qualitative dimensions (DOM and LOV) from the ICL. The
predictions made in these two hypotheses were not directly
related to the central hypothesis. Instead, these
predictions served as a way of assessing the internal
consistency of the responses given by the subjects and,
thereby, could lend more creedence to the other results
within the current study. The first hypothesis was an
attempt to provide concurrent validity for the qualitative
factors of the written descriptions of parents by comparing
these factors to the corresponding ICL dimensions. In the
second hypothesis, the subjects' ICL scores were placed in
one of four quadrants of Leary's (1957) circumplex on the
basis of the of their DOM and LOV coordinates. The


CHAPTER TWO
METHOD
Subjects
Of the 117 undergraduates at the University of Florida
who participated in the present study, 65 were female and 52
were male. They were all single and 18 to 23 years old
(average age=19.7 years). They stated that they had
attended this university during the Spring or Summer
semester of 1983 and that they were not in psychotherapy
while participating in the study.
Measures
Category A. Measures of Life Change and Demographics
The variables assessed in Category A (life change and
demographics) could obfuscate the hypothesized relationships
between the variables in Category B (level and quality of
object representations, density and size of social networks)
and those in Category C (degree of subjective distress and
success in love and work); hence the need to control for the
effects of these "given", life event, variables.
Life ChangeCollege Schedule of Recent Events (CSRE)
Andrews and Tennant (1978), in reviewing the literature,
concluded that increases in life change, or situation
stress, seem to be related to a higher incidence of
36


87
Table 20
Correlations Between the Subscales of the Outcome
Measures and the Demographic Variables
Part B (Employed, Credits, and Domicile)
Outcome
Measures
POMSTotal
Tension-Anxiety
Depression-Dejection
Anger-Hostility
Vigor
Fatigue
Confusion-Bewilderment
HSCLTotal
Somatization
Obsession
Interpersonal
Depression
Anxiety
Love Scale Index
Verbal Expression
Self-Disclosure
Toleration
Non-Material Evidence
Unexpressed Feelings
Material Evidence
GPA
Employed
Credits
Domicile
.01
.06
-.14
.02
.15
-.12
-.02
-.02
-.20*
.14
.02
-.06
-.02
.01
-.01
-.06
.11
-.06
-.03
.03
-.17
.06
-.04
-.16
.05
-.03
-.15
.03
-.07
-.11
.08
-.03
-.04
.05
-.05
-.16
-.003
.05
-.13
-.02
.03
.17
-.01
-.02
.24*
.06
-.06
.12
.07
-.06
.08
-.11
.11
.10
.08
-.15
-.03
-.001
-.04
.10
-.02
.34***
.07
*=p<.05. **=p<.005. ***=p<.0005.
Note. For employed, 0=no and l=yes; for domicile,
0=live away from home and l=live at home.
subscale (note that "unexpressed feelings" counts negatively
toward the total score). As seen in Table 19, women also
appeared to report on the POMS that they felt significantly
(p<.05) less depression-dejection, anger-hostility, and


126
events are thought to represent instances of life
change commonly faced by college students. This
inventory should take about 10 minutes to
complete.
Descriptor of Parents. You write a five
minute description of your mother and a five
minute description of your father.
Interpersonal Checklist. You are presented
with a list of 134 words or phrases, and you
circle those items which describe your mother.
You complete the same checklist on your father.
Each form should take approximately 10 minutes to
fill out.
Social Network List. You list up to 20
significant people in your life with whom you have
had contact with at least once during the past 4
to 6 weeks ("contact with" includes in person, by
phone or letter). You list only those people who
are an important source of support, guidance, or
encouragement. This list should take about 5
minutes to complete.
Support System Map. You use this form to map
out your social network. You put your name in the
middle of the page. Next, you put those
individuals you listed on the Social Network List
onto the page, such that you put nearest to your


71
subjects who lived at home (n=21) versus those who lived
away from home (n=96). As revealed in Table 9, the numbers
between the two groups are remarkably similar, despite the
difference in sample sizes. The percentage of subjects who
had a NF-F boundary density greater than .00 (i.e., who had
a relationship between their family and friends) was 48 for
the subjects who lived at home and 49 for those who lived
away from home. Of those subjects who had a NF-F boundary
density score above .00, the mean density score was .15
(n=10) for those who lived at home and .14 (n=47) for those
who lived away from home. The mean NF-F boundary density
for all subjects was .07 for each of the two domicile
groups. Thus, Table 9 appears to suggest that whether the
subjects lived at home or not had little influence on their
NF-F boundary density scores.
In Tables 10 through 14 the qualitative variables of
object relations are compared first to each other, then to
the outcome measures (and their subscales), and finally to
the variables of life change, total network size, total
network density, and averaged conceptual level.
Each of the qualitative factors derived from the
subjects' written description of their parents cannot be
combined and averaged in the same fashion as the conceptual
level scores. The striving factor derived from the
description of mother is only correlated .10 with the
striving factor derived from the description of father. The


21
suggested that "in order to minimize the possibility of
offending individuals involved in intra-network conflict,
high density NSS [natural support system] members tend to
provide more ambiguous and superficial feedback, decreasing
its supportive value" (p. 4). In more psychodynamic terms,
such "feedback" would tend to promote the individual's
egocentricity, giving rise to interpersonal distortions, at
a time when the individual needs "consentual validation".
As a result, the individual would become more deviant in a
network (high density) which tolerates little deviation,
thus increasing the "poorness of fit".
To further examine the relationship among higher and
lower density networks, Hirsch (1979a) studied two groups of
women who were in the process of adapting to a major life
change. One group was composed of older women (mean age=37)
who were attempting to go back to college, while the other
was made up of recently widowed women (mean age=46).
Because these women had families, he especially focused on
their nuclear family-friendship (NF-F) boundary density,
that is the number of relationships reported to exist
between the subject's nuclear family members and subject's
friends, divided by the total number of possible
relationships. The influence of the density rating is
increased because shared variance is removed (nearly
everyone reports that the members of their nuclear family
have relationships with one another). Of note, the NF-F


22
boundary density was not related to the overall amount of
life change encountered by these women. Hirsch also
examined the multidimensionality (i.e., the diversity and
complexity of interpersonal exchange) of the relationships
between the subject and the people in their social networks.
He found that subjects with higher density networks, as
opposed to those with lower density ones, had fewer
multidimensional friendships and smaller total networks,
with fewer friends in their networks. This set of results
implies that higher density, "extended families", are more
homogeneous, offer less varied interactions, and are
composed of fewer individuals. The "complex", lower
density, social network seems to provide more diverse
activities and interactions with a greater number of people.
Subjects in higher density networks reported significantly
lower satisfaction with supports, more psychological and
physical symptoms, poorer overall mood, and lower
self-esteem than those in less dense networks. These
results are intriguing, considering that conventional wisdom
would seem to suggest that, in times of stress, a closely
knit unit of family and friends ought to promote mental
well-being. Why, then, does a lower density network turn
out to be more adaptive for this set of women? Hirsch
(1979a) points out that these women, in order to cope
successfully with this major change in their life (i.e., the
loss of their spouse, or re-entering college), were required


89 -
from the ICL for father. Tables 12 and 19 have indicated
that each of these variables is related to the Love Scale.
When these results are combined, it appears that women tend
to describe their fathers higher on LOV and to report on the
Love Scale a better rapport and liason with a significant
other. Though six other significant correlations are
Table 22
Correlations Between the Qualitative Factors of
Object Relations and the Demographic Variables
Part B (Employed, Credits, and Domicile)
Variables
StrivingMother
StrivingFather
NurturantMother
NurturantFather
DOM--Mother
DOMFather
LOVMother
LOVFather
*=p<.05. **=p<.005.
Note. For employed,
0=live away from home and
Employed
Credits
Domicile
-.05
-.06
.02
.004
-.01
-.09
.03
-.16
.09
-.19*
-.06
.09
.03
-.10
.09
-.13
.04
-.18
.15
-.12
.10
-.11
-.07
.05
***=p<.0005.
=no and l=yes; for domicile,
=live at home.
reported in Tables 21 and 22, the impact of the other
demographic variables on the qualitative variables does not
appear to be related to a larger schema.
The description length scores, as control variables,
appear to be less influential than the demographic
variables. Table 23 indicates that the variables of life
change, total network size, total network density, and


- 73 -
significant. Thus, with only one exception, these
dimensions appear to be independent of each other.
In Table 10, the qualitative factors of "parent as
Table 10
Correlations Between the Qualitative Factors of
"Parent as Striving" and "Parent as Nurturant"
and the ICL Dimensions (DOM and LOV)
DOM LOV
Variables
Mother
Father
Mother
Father
StrivingMother
.28**
.04
-.04
.12
StrivingFather
.04
.35***
.08
-.29**
NurturantMother
.25**
-.01
.46***
.11
NurturantFather
.09
-.02
.08
.52***
*=p<.05. **=p<.005. ***=p<.0005.
striving" and "parent as nurturant" are compared to the ICL
dimensions, LOV and DOM. As expected, the striving factor
and DOM and, likewise, the nurturant factor and LOV are
significantly correlated. These correlations, as
represented by the diagonal axis (top left to bottom right)
of Table 10, are significant when the mother-mother and
father-father comparisons are made. This set of
intercorrelations is examined further in Table 30. None of
the mother-father correlations were significant. Two other
significant correlations are seen in Table 10. Striving on
father is correlated -.29 (p<.005) with LOV for father,
which might possibly be associated with DOM for father. The
.25 (p<.05) correlation between nurturant on mother and DOM
for mother is readily explanable.


BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH
Peter Fortney graduated from the College of William and
Mary in 1976, with high honors in psychology and a minor in
anthropology. His honors thesis examined ego modalities in
manifest dream content. During the next year he assisted in
psychophysiological research at Eastern State Hospital,
which is near Williamsburg, Virginia.
He entered the clinical psychology graduate program at
the University of Florida in 1977. He received his Master
of Science degree in the spring of 1981. His thesis was a
study of dropouts from psychotherapy at a community mental
health center. He entered doctoral candidacy in the fall of
1981. The areas of special study for his qualifying exam
included theories of schizophrenia, psychotherapy research,
and interpersonal theory in psychotherapy.
Mr. Fortney completed his internship at the Palo Alto
Veterans Administration Medical Center. His rotations
included the Day Hospital, the Family Study Unit, the
Psychological Assesment Unit, and the Coed Intensive
Treatment Unit. Since finishing his internship in 1983, Mr.
Fortney has been working on his dissertation and assisting
in research at the Stanford Sleep Disorders Center.
156


OBJECT RELATIONS AND SOCIAL NETWORKS:
CORRELATES OF ADJUSTMENT DURING COLLEGE
BY
ROBERT PETER FORTNEY
A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE COUNCIL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN
PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR
THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
1984


48
of ego development. Kohlhepp (1976) also found that whereas
the quality of the relationship as measured by the Love
Scale tends to decrease over the course of marriage for
spouses at the pre-conformist levels, the amount of "love"
expressed by spouses at the post-conformist levels increases
over the course of their marriage. Because ego development
was thought to be independent of psychopathology (Waugh and
McCaulley, 1981) and level of object representations was
related to psychopathology, the level of object
representations was proposed to have shown a similar, if not
stronger, relationship to the Love Scale than that reported
for ego development. Nickerson (1977) found that increased
expression of love was a function of Bales personality
factors of assertiveness (DOM) and positiveness (LOV), with
more assertive and positive spouses tending to express more
love to their spouses. Hence, subjects whose parents are in
the high DOM-high LOV quadrant were hypothesized to have a
tendency to score higher on the Love Scale. In addition,
Swensen (1978) reported that the expression of love (as
measured by the Love Scale) and marriage problems (as
measured by the Marriage Problem Scale) are two separate
orthogonal factors for normal couples. The POMS usually
correlated highly with lists of (marriage) problems. Hence,
the dimensions tapped by the POMS (and perhaps the HSCL) and
the Love Scale were thought to be different.


29
functioning. A lower density network for a person with a
lower conceptual level of object representations would
probably have increased the likelihood that he or she would
have experienced overwhelming levels of ambiguity and
complexity (i.e., receiving a confusing variety of complex
responses from people) as well as having an intensified
feeling of social alienation (i.e., the feeling that people
in the network are not connected in any meaningful way).
Internally, the persons fragile sense of self would have
been left less cohesive and more fragmented, which would
have resulted in a decrement in this person's adaptation to
his or her environment. Likewise, following the principle
of relative deprivation, a functionally equivalent decrement
would have been expected for someone with a higher
conceptual level who lived in a higher density social
network. Such a combination would most likely have led to
regressive behavior in that person.
College students were chosen as the group upon which
the interactionist model was to be tested. Besides the
pragmatic aspects of availability offered by using this
population, the chief advantage to choosing college students
was that they were seen as facing a relatively homogeneous
set of psychosocial tasks. Also, the viability of this
interactionist model should have been particularly
highlighted when tested with people who were engaged in
tasks that involved making significant interpersonal
adaptations.


85
Table 18
Summary of the Correlations Between the Demographic
Variables and the Variables of Life Change, Total
Network Size, Total Network Density, and Averaged
Conceptual Level
Total
Total
Averaged
Outcome
Life
Network
Network
Conceptual
Measures
Chanqe
Size
Density
Level
Age
-.12
-.03
.04
-.04
Class
-.23*
.06
.11
-.07
Sex
-.05
-.08
-.005
.07
SES
.12
-.12
.10
.03
Employed
-.01
-.13
.09
-.01
Credits
-.02
-.01
.11
.08
Domicile
-.15
.09
.08
.05
*=p<.
05. **=p<.
005. ***=p<.
0005.
Note.
For Class
, l=sophomore
and 3=senior; for
Sex, 0=males and 1= females; for SES, l=highest and
5=lowest; for employed, 0=no and l=yes; for domicile,
0=live away from home and l=live at home.
In Tables 19 and 20 the demographic variables are
compared with the subscales of the outcome measures. Three
of the demographic variables, class, sex, and credits,
appear in Tables 19 and 20 to have produced some interesting
results. As seen in Table 19 subjects in the upper academic
classes appear to report less dysphoric moods. More
specifically, the upper academic class subjects, as with the
older students, report significantly (p<.05) less fatigue.
The subjects in the upper academic classes also tend, though
not significantly, to attain better grades. Table 20 shows
that subjects who had registered for more credits also have


92
Table 25
Correlations Between the Description Length Scores
and the Qualitative Variables of Object Relations
Variables
Description Length
Mother Father
Scores
Averaqed
StrivingMother
.08
.13
.11
StrivingFather
.11
.15
.14
NurturantMother
.14
.07
.11
NurturantFather
.06
.16
.12
DOMMother
.10
.12
.12
DOMFather
-.06
.07
.01
LOVMother
.15
.10
.13
LOVFather
.16
.15
.17
In Tables 26, 27, and 28 the same comparisons as were
made for the other control variables are made for the ICL
control variables. First, NIC and AIN are correlated with
the variables of life change, total network size, total
network density, and averaged conceptual level. As seen in
Table 26 AIN from both the ICL on mother and the ICL on
father is significantly correlated (p<.005) with life
change. None of the other correlations were significant.
Thus, it appears tht subjects who used adjectives of greater
itensity to describe their parents also reported higher
levels of life change.
The relationship between the ICL control variables and
the outcome measures was smaller than expected, especially
for the relationship between AIN and the measures of
subjective distress. It could have been anticipated that


110
of object representations, as used in the current study,
appears to be more circumscribed and finite than had been
originally anticipated. The authors of two recent additions
to the literature on object representations have attempted
to cope with the limitations of the conceptual level
variable by broadening the way in which object
representations are measured and conceptualized.
Although it was initially hoped that the dimension of
intrapsychic structure which is sensitive to psychological
adjustment would be extracted by the variable of conceptual
level, one can now conclude only that a single score cannot
summarize this sense of object representations. Geller,
Cooley, and Hartley, who used the scoring system of Blatt et
al. (1981) as one way of studying patients' object
representations of their therapists, arrived at a similar
conclusion:
Blatt et al.'s conceptual level scale implies that
the developmental level of an object
representation can be quantified in a single
rating, despite their awareness of the
multi-dimensional, multi-leveled, multi-modal
nature of representation [Blatt et al., 1976],
Our own data indicated that participants within a
given level differed markedly in terms of both the
organization and the thematic content of their
descriptions, and thus a single score could not
adequately capture the complexity of their
representations. (Geller, Cooley, and Hartley,
1981-82, p. 134).
The results of the present study suggest that the
qualitative factors of "parent as nurturant" and "parent as
striving", as well as the ICL dimensions of LOV and DOM, may


14
ability to access appropriate object relational features.
In response to an interpersonally threatening world most
schizophrenic individuals prefer to remain in what, for the
moderately disturbed, seems to be a highly articulated and
well-integrated fantasy world and to relate to the real
world on the basis of a more primitive level of object
representations. Lidz (1978) has remarked that for many
people the onset of schizophrenic symptoms occurs when they
enter into the stage of formal operations. The increase in
cognitive egocentrism, which accompanies the entrance into
every new cognitive stage, is especially great at this stage
because formal operations permit one to create hypothetical
possibilities, to imagine real outcomes without having to
test them out. Lidz suggests that "the egocentric aspects
of formal operations are overcome through increasing
socialization" (Lidz, 1978, p. 85). Without this
socialization (its absence might occur for various reasons)
predisposed individuals can develop schizophrenic symptoms.
Hence, these individuals may form higher conceptual levels
of object representations (based on advanced cognitive
ablilities) which can only be manifested in a distorted
fashion. If a stable, trusting relationshipthe main goal
in treating someone who is schizophreniccan be formed, the
patient may be able to use this higher level of object
representations in dealing with the real world. Of course,
for "poor premorbid" individuals, who never reach the stage


REFERENCES
Anderson, G.E. College Schedule of Recent Events.
Unpublished M.S. thesis, North Dakota State University,
1972.
Andrews, G., and Tennant, C. Life event stress and
psychiatric illness. Psychological Medicine, 1978, 8,
545-549.
Berzins, J.I. Therapist-patient matching. In A.S. Gurman
and A.M. Razin (eds.), Effective Psychotherapy: A
Handbook of Research. New York: Pergamon Press, 1977.
Blatt, S.J. Levels of object representation in anaclitic
and introjective depression. Psychoanalytic Study of
the Child, 1974, 29, 107-157.
Blatt, S.J., Brenneis, C.B., Schimek., J.G., and Glick, M.
(a) Normal development and psychopathological
impairment of the concept of the object on the
Rorschach. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 1976, 85,
364-373.
Blatt, S.J., Chevron, E.S., Quinlan, D.M., and Wein, S. The
Assessment of Qualitative and Structural Dimensions of
Object Representations. New Haven: Author, 1981.
Blatt, S.J., D'Afflitti, and Quinlan, D.M. (b) Experiences
of depression in normal young adults.
Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 1976, 8^, 383-389.
Blatt, S.J., and Shichman, S. Two primary configurations of
psychopathology. Psychoanalysis and Contemporary
Thought, 1983, 6, 187-255.
Blatt, S.J., Wein, S., Chevron, E.S., and Quinlan, D.M.
Parental representations and depression in normal
adults. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 1979, 88,
388-397.
Bios, P. The Adolescent Personality. New York:
Appleton-Century-Crofts, Inc., 1941.
151


154
Nickerson, C. Interactional behavior characteristics of
spouses related to experienced marital quality.
Dissertation Abstracts International, 1977, 37, 3680B.
Pearlin, L., and Schooler, C. The structure of coping.
Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 1978, IJ3, 2-21.
Piaget, J. The Construction of Reality in the Child. New
York: Basic Books, Inc., 1954.
Plant, W.T. Longitudinal changes in tolerance and
authoritarianism for subjects with differing amount of
college education over four years. Genetic Psychology
Monographs, 1965, 12, 247-287.
Rowe, I., and Marcia, J.E. Ego identity status, formal
operations, and moral development. Journal of
Youth and Adolescence,
1980, 9, 87-99.
Smith, M.L., and Glass, G.V. Meta-analysis of psychotherapy
outcome studies. American Psychologist, 1977, 32,
752-760.
Smith, P.E. The relationship of life change, neuroticism,
and academic performance among junior college adults.
Dissertation Abstracts International, 1977, 37, 7475A.
Sokolovsky, J., Cohen, C., Berger, D., and Geiger, J.
Personal networks of ex-mental patients in a Manhattan
S.R.O. hotel. Human Organization, 1978, 31_, 5-15.
Statistical Analysis System (SAS) Institute. SAS Users
Guide: Statistics. Cary, NC: SAS Institute, Inc.,
1982.
Sullivan, H.S. The Interpersonal Theory of Psychiatry. New
York: W.W. Norton, Inc., 1953.
Swensen, C.H. Manual and Test Booklet for the Scale of
Feelings and Behavior of Love! Gary, I1 Author,
1978.
Thomas, A., and Chess, S. The Dynamics of Psycological
Development. New York! Brunner/Mazel, Pub., 1980.
Waterman, A.S., and Goldman, J.A. A longitudinal study of
ego identity development at a liberal arts college.
Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 1976, 5, 361-369.


APPENDIX B.
CONSENT FORMS
Consent To Participate In Research Study
Title of Project: Object Relations and Social Networks:
Correlates of Adjustment During College
Investigator: R. Peter Fortney, M.S., Doctoral
Candidate, Department of Clinical
Psychology
Co-Investigators: Hugh C. Davis, Ph.D., Professor,
Doctoral Chair, Department of
Clinical Psychology
Sandi Jacot, B.S., Research Assistant
Kathleen Toohey, Research Assistant
Name of Volunteer Date Age
Being in college is thought to be a time during which
people change a great deal. The tensions associated with
this change, combined with the other typical pressures of
college life (e.g., grades, finances, extracurricular
activities), produce high levels of stress in many college
students. Researchers have found that the nature of a
persons relationships with other people effects the way
that person copes with the demands and stresses of everyday
life. The study you are being asked to participate in seeks
to further clarify how certain characteristics of your
social relationships influence the manner in which you cope
with being in college.
124


94
Correlations Between
Measures and the ICL
Table 27
the Subscales of
Control Variables
the Outcome
(NIC and AIN)
NIC
AIN
Variables
Mother
Father
Mother
Father
POMSTotal
-.11
-.05
.02
.15
Tension-Anxiety
.08
.10
.10
.17
Depression-Dejection
-.05
-.02
.03
.10
Anger-Hostility
-.02
.06
.02
.23*
Vigor
.28**
.20*
.07
-.02
Fatigue
-.08
-.07
-.02
.13
Confusion-Bewilderment
-.09
-.02
.05
.12
HSCLTotal
.13
.18
.12
.17
Somatization
.17
.21*
.12
.23*
Obsession
.09
.11
.03
.07
Interpersonal
.11
.19*
.07
.19*
Depression
.02
.09
.15
.18
Anxiety
.15
.13
.14
.05
Love Scale Index
.15
.05
.11
-.01
Verbal Expression
.16
.08
.06
.03
Self-Disclosure
.03
-.04
.14
-.001
Toleration
.04
.09
.25*
.05
Non-Material Evidence
.15
.06
-.11
-.15
Unexpressed Feelings
-.12
-.05
-.09
.03
Material Evidence
.07
-.04
-.02
.03
GPA
-.11
-.23*
-.10
-.12
*=p<.05. **=p<.005. ***=p<.0005.
Note. NIC=Number
of Items
Checked;
AIN=Average
Intensity.
vigorous. As also seen in Table 27, the subjects who
checked more items on father had significantly (p<.05)
poorer grades. Thus, while some correlations existed
between the ICL dimensions and outcome, the correlations
were not as numerous, especially for the AIN variables, as
had been anticipated.


Dedicated
to
that pursuit
which Aldous Huxley termed
a quest for grace


10
subject's description of his or her mother and father,
though the protocols could also be figures from the Thematic
Apperception Test (TAT) stories or human responses on the
Rorschach. The conceptual levels of object representations
are based on the following five categories. Note that four
of the nine conceptual level scores are substages between
one the five categories. These four transitional levels
transcend the criteria for one category but do not quite
fulfill the criteria for the next.
1. Sensorimotor-Preoperational (score 1)
The stimulus object is described in terms of his or her
actions as these activities and functions relate to the
gratification and frustration of the subject. The
description focuses on the direct value that the person has
for the subject. There is little sense of the person as a
distinct or separate individual, but rather that the person
is only an agent who makes the subject feel good or bad.
2. Concrete-Perceptual (score 3)
Here, the person is described as a separate entity but
only in literal, concrete, and global terms. Hence, the
description is often in physical terms, describing what the
person looks like. Little emphasis is placed on the part
properties or non-physical attributes of the person, but
rather the person is represented as a literal, concrete
totality.


98
hypothesis was rendered meaningless because only one of
these correlations was significant (see Table 3). In the
only significant relationship, that is, between network
density and the POMS, the removal of the effect of life
change from each of these variables resulted in a
correlation of -.18 between network density and the POMS, a
correlation which was just out of the range of significance
(p<.06). The nonsignificant correlation between network
density and the HSCL was also slightly reduced (-.18 to
-.17), when the effect of life change was partialed out.
The reduction in these correlations was slight because life
change and overall network density were only correlated -.08
with each other.
Qualitative Factors And ICL Dimensions
The fifth hypothesis predicted that the two qualitative
factors from the written descriptions of parents should be
concurrently valid with the two ICL dimensions. More
specifically, it was predicted that "parent as striving"
should be significantly similar to the dominance-submission
dimension (DOM) of the ICL and "parent as nurturant" to the
love-hate dimension (LOV). To test this hypothesis, linear
regression models were constructed between the qualitative
factors of object representations and the dimensions of the
ICL. These findings are encapsulated in Table 30. For each
parent, "striving" was paired with DOM and "nurturant" with
LOV. As shown in Table 30, striving and DOM were


102
quadrant consistently had the best scores. And, except for
the negligible difference in the results for the Love Scale
model, subjects in SH consistently had the poorest scores.
The results for the ICL for father were less revealing
because of the skewed distribution. Table 31 shows that the
model for the Love Scale was significant, with 13 percent of
the total variance (R-squared) accounted for by this model.
Note that only two quadrants were used as independent
variables in this model because SH only had one score and DH
had none. Although, the other models were not significant,
and except for the GPA model where the F-value was so small
as to be .00, subjects in DL consistently had better scores
than those in DH. Hence, while the evidence was not
overwhelming, the DL quadrant does tend to be favorably
correlated with outcome.


130
Please feel free to ask any questions you have at this
point.


43
parent as nurturant and parent as striving were formed by
summating the scale scores of the characteristics which
loaded on that factor. Overall, the nurturant factor and
striving factor had a reliability of .95 and .93,
respectively, for all three raters.
Verbal Fluency. This variable was arrived at by coding
the length of the typed description (e.g., 1-4 lines=l, 5-7
lines=2, 8-10 lines=3, . more than 19 lines=7). When
factor analyzed along with the 13 other characteristics,
verbal fluency formed a third, single-variable, factor. It
accounted for 8 percent of the total variance (Blatt et al.,
1981).
Interpersonal Checklist (ICL)
Description. The ICL has been found to be an efficient
means for measuring salient interpersonal dimensions, and it
has significantly outperformed several S-R scales in
predicting to criterion variables which measure
interpersonal behavior (Knudson and Golding, 1974). On the
ICL, a 134-item adjective checklist, the subject was asked
to circle those items which described the stimulus person
(in this case, mother or father). One-hundred and
twenty-eight of the items can either produce 16
interpersonal scores or be loaded on the 2 dimensions of
Love-Hate (LOV) and Dominance-Submission (DOM). The present
study used Form 4 of the ICL. The data were reduced to the
LOV and DOM scores so each subject could be sorted into one
of four quadrants.


55
Interactional Effects
It was proposed, as the central hypothesis of the
current study, that greater deviations from the equilibrium
of an inverse relationship between total network density and
the averaged conceptual level would result in poorer scores
on the outcome measures. Greater deviations from this
equilibrium, however, were not significantly correlated with
any of the four outcome measures. To obtain these results,
the total network density and the averaged conceptual level
scores were standardized in the form of z-scores. Then for
each subject, the z-score for the conceptual level was
subtracted from the z-score for network density. The
absolute value of this difference created an inverse
relationship between the scores, such that a final score of
zero would indicate a perfect fit between network density
and conceptual level (e.g., higher network density with
lower conceptual level) while a larger final score would
represent a more divergent interaction (e.g., lower network
density with lower conceptual level). This final score
correlated -.07 with the POMS, -.13 with the HSCL, .03 with
the Love Scale, and -.07 with GPA. Only the correlation
with GPA was in the expected direction. The final score was
not significantly correlated with any of the subscales on
the POMS, the HSCL, or the Love Scale.
To further elucidate this pattern of results, the
conceptual level scores were divided into three groups. The


57
to certain selected variables, variables which were chosen
for their overall importance in the study. As can be seen
in Table 1, the most striking result is the "flatness" of
the distribution of network density scores across the three
groups; the mean for network density varies from .28 to .27
to .26 across the three groups. Only the means for the
qualitative factor of striving factor from the description
of father and the DOM dimension on mother are significantly
different across the three groups. Subjects tended to
represent their father as more striving and to describe
their mothers as less dominant as the conceptual level of
the subjects' group increased. Thus, Table 1 illustrates
that the differences between the three groups of conceptual
level scores existed only for two of the qualitative
dimensions and not for network density or for any of the
outcome measures.
The scores for total network density were also divided
into three groups. Subjects with total network density
scores of .16 or less were placed in the lower density group
(n=29), while subjects with total network density scores of
.33 or greater were assigned to the higher density group
(n=30). The remainder (n=58) fell into the medium density
group. The cutting scores for the higher and lower groups
were chosen so that approximately 30 subjects would be
placed in each of these two groups. Though no direct
predictions had been made about these three groups, it was


97
Table 29
Reactivity of the Outcome Measures as Seen in Linear
Regression Models with the Independent Variables of
Life Change, Total Network Density, and Averaged
Conceptual Level of Object Representations
Dependent
Variables
F-Value
P>F
R-Squared
HSCL
5.24
.002
.12
POMS
4.04
.009
.10
Love Scale
1.92
.13
.05
GPA
.62
.61
.02
explained. While it was initially predicted that all models
would be significant, a look at the "p>f" values in Table 29
reveals that only the models with the measures of subjective
distress as the dependent variables were significant. Thus,
Table 29 suggests that the predicted order of the reactivity
of the measures was substantiated.
Life Change
The original intent of the fourth hypothesis was to
partial out the influence of life change, as measured by the
CSRE, from the correlation between the outcome measures and
the total network density. The correlation between the
averaged conceptual level of the object and the outcome
measures was also to have had the effect of life change
partialed out. It was predicted that even after the effects
of life change were removed that each of these correlations
would still be significant. For the most part, this


CHAPTER THREE
RESULTS
In the first section, the reliability correlations for
the written descriptions of parents are presented, followed
by a comparison of the mean scores of the measures used in
the current study with scores reported in previous studies.
In the last six sections, the results pertaining to the six
hypotheses are set forth.
Interrater Reliability And Normative Comparisons
The interrater reliability correlations for the 13
qualitative descriptors, the length of description, and the
conceptual level of the object representations in the
reliability sample (n=50) compared favorably with the
reliability intercorrelations reported in Blatt et
al. (1981). When the 13 qualitative descriptors were
reduced to the 2 main qualitative factors of "parent as
nurturant" and "parent as striving", the Pearson
product-moment correlations between the ratings of the
experimenter and those of the independent rater were .82 and
.71, respectively, for these 2 factors. The
intercorrelations for the length of descriptor was .98. On
the crucial ratings of conceptual level, the scores of the
experimenter and the independent rater correlated .88 with
51


24
alternative relationships could work and be satisfying. In
sum,
the greater diversity of interests and segregation
of different spheres of activity characterizing
low density, multidimensional NSS can be seen to
serve as an insurance policy. This policy serves
to protect individuals from having problematic
changes in particular spheres of their lives
become too encompassing, threatening, and
debilitating. The policy provides rewarding
alternative social identities and activities,
facilitating a smoother reorganization of one's
life, at less psychic cost. (Hirsch, 1979a, p. 34)
This understanding of denser or more complex social
networks facilitating successful change and coping has also
been proposed by Merton (Coser, 1975) and more recently by
Pearlin and Schooler (1978). In summarizing the literature
on coping (which they defined as "that behavior which
protects people from being psychologically harmed by
problematic social experience", p. 2), Pearlin and Schooler
(1978) concluded that a larger scope and variety of coping
behaviors increased the likelihood those behaviors would be
effective. They also observed that effective coping
behaviors are unequally distributed in American society, so
that the affluent, the educated, and the men in this society
tend to make greater use of successful coping behaviors.
Coser (1975) applied some of Merton's ideas of "role-sets"
to the process of individuation. The distinction was made
between simple, or restricted, role-sets and complex
role-sets. In a simple role-set the members were usually
equal in status and were role partners. Most interactions


Norms for the HSCL
Scales
Somatization
Obsession
Interpersonal
Depression
Anxiety
Total
Scales
Somatization
Obsession
Interpersonal
Depression
Anxiety
Total
Note: "
Anxious
Depressed
Normal
eurotics
Neurotics
Sample
(n=1435)
(n=367)
(n=735)
22.9
22.7
13.8
15.6
18.4
9.3
14.0
16.3
7.8
22.4
28.3
12.6
15.5
17.2
7.9
90.5
103.4
51.4
Present
Hirsch
Study
(1979a)
(n=117)
(n=34)
15.8

13.6

10.9

17.1

10.3

67.6
72
" refers to unavailable data


150
Norms for the ICL--Continued
LaForge (1976)
Overall
(n=209)
Variables
For
M
Mother
SD
For
M
Father
SD
NIC
49.20
13.12
45.25
12.56
AIN
1.99
0.20
1.96
0.20
DOM
4.30
6.28
8.52
6.70
LOV
7.84
7.94
0.05
8.68
Present Study
Overall
(n =
117)
For
Mother
For
Father
Variables
M
SD
M
SD
NIC
38.12
13.12
37.24
13.07
AIN
1.98
0.22
2.01
0.21
DOM
4.08
6.57
9.89
5.22
LOV
4.45
7.80
0.26
8.17


50
asked by the subjects and the answers the assistants gave to
them are also found in Appendix C.
The descriptions of mother and father were scored
blindly by the experimenter. Fifty descriptions were
randomly selected and scored by an independent rater to
confirm the reliability of the scoring procedure. The 27
examples given by Blatt et al. (1981) were used as training
exercises. Special effort was paid to scoring the
conceptual level because of its importance in this study.
After the 50 descriptions were scored in the reliability
check, the experimenter and the independent rater reviewed
those descriptions on which they disagreed. An attempt was
made to achieve consensus on these differences. In
addition, the experimenter and the independent rater also
reviewed the conceptual level of the other dozen cases on
which the experimenter had some question.
A FORTRAN program was provided by LaForge (1976) for
reducing the raw data collected by the ICL. The subsequent
data analysis was handled by the the computerized
statistical analysis system (SAS, 1982) on an IBM 3081 at
the Center for Information Technologies of Stanford
University.


65
means shown in Table 1 are correct; conceptual level appears
to be generally unrelated to the outcome measures.
In Table 7, total network size, total network density,
Table 7
Correlations Between the Subscales of the Outcome
Measures and the Variables of Life Change, Total
Network Size, and Total Network Density
Outcome
Measures
POMSTotal
Tension-Anxiety
Depression-Dejection
Anger-Hostility
Vigor
Fatigue
Confusion-Bewilderment
HSCLTotal
Somatization
Obsession
Interpersonal
Depression
Anxiety
Love Scale Index
Verbal Expression
Self-Disclosure
Toleration
Non-Material Evidence
Unexpressed Feelings
Material Evidence
GPA
*=p<.05. **=p<.005.
Total
Total
Life
Network
Network
Chanqe
Size
Density
.26**
-.07
-.19*
.36***
-.11
-.13
.22*
-.03
-.18*
.26*
-.01
-.22*
.03
.08
.01
.15
-.03
-.11
.31**
.05
-.22*
.32***
-.03
-.18
.37***
-.003
-.12
.25*
-.06
-.15
.22*
.04
-.14
.25*
-.07
-.16
.17
-.03
-.12
.21*
.06
-.01
.15
.05
-.0004
.33***
.06
-.15
.31**
.01
.04
-.12
.12
.08
.05
.05
.10
.08
.08
.20*
-.10
co
o

i
O

1
***=p<.0005.
and the variable of life change are correlated with each of
the 17 subscales, with strikingly different results. As


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
I would like to express my gratitude to my chairman,
Dr. Hugh Davis, whose ironic vision and well-timed comments
and support have guided me through this project; the members
of my supervisory committee, Dr. Louis Cohen, Dr. Jacque
Goldman, Dr. Eileen Fennell, and Dr. Otto Von Mering, who
each contributed to the ideas found in this paper and whose
object representation will remain with me throughout my
professional career; Mark Waugh and Rebecca (Cooley)
Behrends, who kept me current with the research on object
relations theory; Sandi Jacot and Kathy Toohey for their
care and precision in collecting the data; Steve
Billingsley, who was willing to barter his computer
consultation time; Wesley Seidel, who taught me the
rudiments of word processing and who furnished me with the
necessary hardware; Sigmund Freud, who cautioned that the
discipline he founded should never become a healing cult;
and Teresa, who, after providing invaluable assistance in
the most tedious phases of this study and enduring a good
deal of relative deprivation during the past seven and a
half years, still knows what will not fade away.
in


70
network and their friendship network. In Hirsch (1979a), 85
percent of the subjects reported at least one relationship
between a friend and a family member. A possible mediator
of this lack of boundary density in the current study could
have been that, because many of the subjects were college
students who lived away from home, they had little
opportunity for their family and friends to meet.
The possibility that proximity influenced the NF-F
boundary density scores is examined in Table 9. One of the
Table 9
Summary of the Differences on Nuclear Family-Friendship
(NF-F) Boundary Density for the Subjects who Lived at
Home versus the Subjects who Lived Away from Home
Live At
Live Away
Home
From Home
Conditions
(n=21)
(n=96)
Percent with NF-F
Boundary Density
Density > .00
48
49
Mean NF-F Boundary
DensityAll Subjects
.07
.07
Mean NF-F Boundary
DensitySubjects
with Density > .00
.15
.14
demographic variables, domicile, was defined by whether or
not the subject lived with his or her parents while
attending the university. In Table 9, comparisons are made,
for the variable of NF-F boundary density, between those


106
The third hypothesis, which concerned the varying
degrees of reactivity of the outcome measures, was generally
corroborated. The self-report measures of subjective
distress (POMS and Love Scale) were more reactive than the
relationship measure (Love Scale) or the role performance
variable (GPA), which was the least reactive. Thus, it
appears that the outcome measures behaved in a predictable
fashion. Although the POMS was highly reactive, it was also
significantly correlated with the other three outcome
measures. Hence, the importance of the results relating to
this self-report mood scale cannot be discounted.
The fourth hypothesis was upheld; however, the
importance of this hypothesis was diminished by the lack of
significance between conceptual level and the outcome
measures. Life change, although significantly related to
three of the outcome measures, was sufficiently independent
of averaged conceptual level and total network density as to
make unnecessary the removal of the effects of life change
from the subsequent analyses of the main variables.
The predictions made in the fifth hypothesis were meant
to establish concurrent validity for the two qualitative
factors (i.e., "parent as striving" and "parent as
nurturant") that were derived from the subjects written
descriptions of their mother and father. The ICL dimensions
of DOM and LOV were found to be significantly similar to the
qualitative factors. The striving factor seemed to


74
Tables 11 and 12 report on the intercorrelations
between the outcome measures (and their subscales) and the
qualitative variables of object relations. In Table 11, the
Table 11
Correlations Between the Subscales of the Outcome
Measures and the Variables of Parent As Striving
and Parent As Nurturant
Parent As Parent As
Striving Nurturant
Outcome
Measures
Mother
Father
Mother
Father
POMSTotal
-.15
-.003
-.24*
-.21*
Tension-Anxiety
-.09
-.03
-.28**
-.15
Depression-Dejection
-.17
-.09
-.21*
-.14
Anger-Hostility
-.05
.12
-.22*
-.10
Vigor
.10
-.11
.06
.14
Fatigue
-.05
-.02
-.09
-.13
Confusion-Bewilderment
-.20*
-.08
-.28**
-.29**
HSCLTotal
-.05
-.11
-.14
-.23*
Somatization
-.01
-.22
-.11
-.15
Obsession
-.05
-.04
-.15
-.26**
Interpersonal
.03
-.04
-.05
-.11
Depression
-.12
-.13
-.16
-.21*
Anxiety
-.03
-.04
-.08
-.16
Love Scale Index
-.04
.01
-.04
.01
Verbal Expression
.03
-.002
.02
.05
Self-Disclosure
-.05
.08
-.16
-.16
Toleration
-.02
-.04
-.17
.05
Non-Material Evidence
-.07
-.16
.14
.17
Unexpressed Feelings
.05
-.12
.08
.11
Material Evidence
.01
-.08
.10
.17
GPA
*=p<.05. **=p<.005
-.17
*** =

.002
:p<.0005.
.02
-.001
qualitative factors derived from
the descriptions
of parent
(i.e., parents as striving and parents as nurturant) are


APPENDIX D.
DEMOGRAPHICS QUESTIONNAIRE
Please answer the following questions:
1. What is your age?
2. Sex:
[ ] male [ ] female
3. What year of college are you in officially?
[ ] freshmen [ ] sophomore [ ] junior
[ ] senior [ ] graduate
4. What is your major, or your intended major?
5. How many credits are you enrolled for this semester?
6. What is your single, greatest source of income?
7. Are you currently employed while attending college?
7a. If so, how many hours, average, do you work each week?
8. Do you live with your parents of guardians?
9. What is your fathers occupation (be precise)?
10. What is your mother's occupation (be precise)?
139


11
3. External Iconic (score 5)
The person is described in terms of his or her
activities and functions, but, in contrast to
sensorimotor-preoperational representations, these
activities and functions are uniquely the other person's and
are described as having little or no direct reference to the
subject's gratification or frustration. External iconic
representations appear to be the normative level for college
students in the sample reported by Blatt et al. (1981), with
a scaled score standard deviation of 1.5.
4. Internal Iconic (score 7)
The person is described in terms of partial attributes
or features that are directed toward an inner dimension.
What the person does in terms of functions and activities is
not important, rather the focus is on what the person
thinks, feels, and values.
In both iconic levels the description of the person is
mostly one-sided, unidimensional, and unintegrated. There
is little or no recognition of complexity, varying levels,
subtlety, or development over time.
5. Conceptual (score 9)
The description at this level integrates all the
previous levels in a way which forms a complex synthesis of
the varying levels upon which a person can be experienced
and understood. There is often an appreciation of the
person in time and of the changes and variations which can


148
Norms
Scales
Verbal Expression
Self-Disclosure
Toleration
Non-Material Evidence
Unexpressed Feelings
Material Evidence
Love Scale Index
Scales
Verbal Expression
Self-Disclosure
Toleration
Non-Material Evidence
Unexpressed Feelings
Material Evidence
Love Scale Index
for the Love Scale
On Females
Swensen
Present
(1978)
Study
(n=95)
(n=65)
46.50
43.15
49.62
48.38
38.33
38.20
64.27
64.21
-52.74
-27.24
32.08
33.57
178.06 200.30
On
Males
Swensen
Present
(1978)
Study
(n=84)
(n=52)
44.32
37.73
47.88
43.75
39.00
35.73
62.45
60.90
-50.31
-31.04
30.24
31.13
173.58
178.33
Note: scores on females and males in Swensen (1978)
are for relationship with closest friend, oppositite sex;
scores on females in the present study are for relationship
with fiance (8 percent), boyfriend (35 percent), same sex
friend (22 percent), parent (28 percent), cibling (6
percent); scores on males in the present study are for
relationship with fiance (2 percent), girlfriend (21
percent), same sex friend (27 percent), parent (33 percent),
cibling (17 percent)


128
We are also interested in your grade point average
(GPA) because GPA is the most direct and pragmatic means of
measuring the role performance of a college student. At the
end of the semester, we will ask the Office of the Registrar
in Tigert Hall to provide us with your GPA for the current
semester and your overall GPA.
As you have noticed, we will be asking you questions
and requesting information about personal topics. We have
taken all possible precautions to assure the confidentiality
of your responses, in the hope that you are able to feel
comfortable and be candid in providing this information.
The possibility exists that, despite these precautions, you
may find yourself at times somewhat distressed as a result
of thinking about the matters found on these instruments.
At all times, you retain the right to decline to answer any
question, at your discretion. We believe that the results
will be more accurate and hence of more benefit, if you are
able to feel in control of the information you provide us.
As a student, your most direct benefits of
participating in this study are experiential and
educational. You will obtain first-hand experience with a
number of psychological scales and questionnaires, an
experience which many people find to be interesting and
informative. Those participants who request a written
abstract of the results of this study will gain some insight
into how various facets of interpersonal behavior can


104
(i.e., lower) scores on the mood scale. These density
findings are exactly opposite of the results reported in
Hirsch (1979a). And, whereas larger sized total networks
were suggested by Hirsch (1979a) to be correlated with
better mood and symptom scores, the current study found that
total network size was unrelated to outcome.
The predictions in the second hypothesis that did not
refer directly to the social network or conceptual level
scores were, for the most part, supported. Higher levels of
life change did indeed correlate significantly with higher
levels of personal distress. In a somewhat paradoxical
finding, subjects with higher levels of life change also had
better scores on the Love Scale. This finding seemed to
have resulted from these subjects tending to rate their
relationship with a significant other as being given to
higher levels of tolerance and self-disclosure. Perhaps
subjects who are under higher levels of situational stress
seek to construct relationships with other people which are
more tolerant and self-disclosing.
The predictions made in the second hypothesis about the
influence of the control variables on certain main variables
were generally substantiated. With the exception of a
significant relationship between academic class and life
change, none of the demographic variables were significantly
correlated with life change, total network size, total
network density, and averaged conceptual level. That


18
were collected and arranged in a circular pattern) prior to
developing ways of measuring this circumplex, research has
tended to support the validity and universality of Leary's
conceptualization. Lange (1970), in attempting to validate
a measurement devicethe Interpersonal Checklist
(ICL)used to assess placement on Leary's circumplex,
obtained results which supported the notion that 2 bipolar
dimensions (DOM and LOV) are arranged according to Learys
original thesis. Other attempts to develop ways of
analyzing interpersonal behavior, such as Foa's facet
analysis, Schutz's Firo-B, or Berzins' use of the
Personality Research Form (PRF) in the Indiana Matching
Study bear a close relationship to Leary's circumplex and
can easily be reduced to it (Berzins, 1977). In short, it
was thought that the incorporation of the ICL in the present
study offered a way of obtaining concurrent validity for the
qualitative factors of object representations produced by
the system of Blatt et al. (1981). In addition, the ICL had
the ability to provide additional descriptive data as well
as providing variables which are sensitive to the socially
desirable response sets that can be given to test protocols
(LaForge, 1976).
Thus, the system devised by Blatt et al. (1981)
appeared to have adequately measured a person's degree of
structural intrapsychic organization, and both their system
and the ICL seemed able to capture the interpersonal


- 157
Mr. Fortney, who is 30 years old, lives in Portola
Valley, California, with his wife, Teresa, and their cat,
Yggdrasill.


117
The subjects in Hirsch's (1979a) study, however, can be
seen as living at different psychosocial stages than those
in the present study. The women in Hirsch's study are
almost a full generation older than the average college
student. Indeed, the widows in Hirsch's sample had children
whose average age was older than the mean for college
students in the present study. All but one of the 34 women
in Hirsch's study had been married at one time; whereas, no
married people were accepted into the current study. The
widows in Hirsch's study were probably beginning to face
issues of integrity versus despair, given that their spouses
were dead and their children grown. The older women who
were returning to college were likely to be in the
psychosocial stage of generativity versus stagnation. On
the other hand, the younger college students of the present
study were presumed to still be in the stage of identity
versus role diffusion. Hence, the subjects in each of these
psychosocial stages were involved with introjective
concerns. But one crucial difference existed in that an
anaclitic stage (i.e., intimacy versus isolation) separated
the subjects in these two studies.
The hypothesis can be advanced that network density
reflects a different form of structural organization within
the total network before and after this anaclitic stage.
Although the total density score was nearly identical in
both studies, the density of the nuclear family and


23
to reorganize their familial role in such a way as to make
the family a less important source of social support. Thus,
they needed a support system that could permit intensified
involvement outside the nuclear family. The "extended
family" provided less opportunity for change because its
lower density offered fewer outlets for alternative
interpersonal behaviors. Not only were the women more
"locked-in", but there was less temporary refuge from the
pre-existing conflicts found in commonplace familial roles
and relationships. The "complex" network, because of its
greater differentiation of friends from family, allowed the
woman the chance to see herself in a diversity of social
contexts and roles and, thus, to find the interpersonal
identity which best worked for her. The reorganization was
less costly (in terms of threats to self-esteem which arose
when she had to try new interpersonal behaviors) in the
complex network because the diversity of structure meant
that established commitments to certain activities or
functions in a relationship could be changed without the
need to establish entirely new relationships. In other
words, a person with only unidimensional relationships would
have to establish new relationships in order to engage in
new functions or activities. In addition, someone with a
history of multidimensional relationships also had a greater
repertoire of experiences and probably more knowledge that


96
although more of the correlations are significant, the
relationships between these variables do not lend themselves
to interpretations beyond what is observable.
Outcome Measures
In the third hypothesis it was predicted that the
measures of subjective distress (i.e., the POMS and HSCL)
would be more reactive than GPA. The Love Scale was
predicted to be less reactive than the POMS and HSCL but
more reactive than GPA. In other words, it was expected
that a self-report mood scale and symptom checklist would be
more reactive than a role performance variable, while a
scale which the subjects filled out about their relationship
with a significant other would have an intermediate level of
reactivity. To test this hypothesis multiple linear
regression models were constructed with each of the four
outcome measures as the dependent variable and the measures
of life change (CSRE), total network density, and the
averaged conceptual level of object representations as the
independent variables. The results found in Table 29 show
that, as expected, the models with the measures of
subjective distress, (the POMS and the HSCL), as the
dependent variable had greater degrees of total variance
(R-squared equalled .10 and .12, respectively) explained in
them, than the model with GPA as the dependent variable
(R-squared=.02). The model with the Love Scale as the
dependent variable had .05 of its total variance (R-squared)


30
To this end, college students should be seen as being
adolescents (White, 1980). Their entry into the employment
market and the more formal responsibilities of adulthood
have been postponed. Instead, they enter a prolonged
transitional period in which the traditional tasks of
adolescence, which are emancipation from parents, sexual
adjustment, and vocational choice (Bios, 1941), can be
further elaborated and worked through. Hence, it is not
surprising that people who attend college become more
autonomous, flexible, complex, and tolerant of ambiguity,
less materialistic and dogmatic, and better able to be aware
of and to express their emotions than their peers who did
not attend college (Plant, 1965; Chickering and McCormick,
1973). At the same time, most students complete Erikson's
(1950) superordinate psychosocial task of adolescence by
having achieved a well-established identity by the time they
finish college (Waterman and Goldman, 1976). College,
therefore, seems to contribute a profound set of experiences
which promote the personality development of those who
attend. To extend the rite of passage into adulthood by
four years or more, however, creates the room for these
individuals to be involved in considerable stress and
strain. Therefore, this group of adolescents seemed ideally
suited for the requirements of the current study.


66
indicated by Table 7, life change is significantly
correlated with four of the six POMS subscales, with five of
six of the HSCL subscales, and with two of the six Love
Scale subscales. Subjects who reported greater degrees of
life change in the nine months before the study appeared to
have greater levels of tension-anxiety,
depression-dejection, anger-hostility, and
confusion-bewilderment. The mood subscale which are
sensitive to activity level (i.e., vigor and fatigue) are
not significantly correlated to life change. Subjects with
higher life change also had symptoms of somatization,
obsession, interpersonal difficulties, and depression. The
positive correlation between higher levels of life change
and the love scale appears to have been largely due to these
subjects feeling as if they had more self-disclosing and
tolerant relationships with their significant other.
Table 7 also supports some of the other results that
were summarized in Table 3. As can be seen in Table 7,
total network size is not only unrelated to any of the total
socres of the outcome measures it is also unrelated to any
of the subscales of the outcome measures. On the other
hand, Table 7 permits a more careful analysis of the
significant negative correlation between total network
density and the POMS. A constellation of three subscales
seems to have produced this result. As seen in Table 7,
subjects with lower density networks were more likely to


54
The average intensity (AIN) of the adjectives checked was,
however, almost identical with the normative data. Although
the scores for the present study were sometimes different on
the LOV and DOM for mother and for father, the general
direction of the LOV and DOM scores and their relationships
with one another in the normative sample were maintained in
the current study.
The the scores derived from the descriptions of parents
were not significantly different in the present study than
from what had been given as norms in Blatt et al. (1981).
On the surface, the means for social networks appeared
to be very similar in the present study to those in Hirsch
(1979a). The size of the social network was 13.7 in the
present study, whereas, it was 13.9 in Hirsch (1979a). The
total network density was .26 in the current study, compared
to .27 in the earlier study. But, the density of the
nuclear family/relatives network was higher in the present
study (.85) than in Hirsch's (1979a) sample (.59). And, in
a similar fashion, the network of friends had slightly
higher density (.29) in Hirsch (1979a) than in the present
study (.23).
The normative comparisons mentioned above can be found
in Appendix D.
Next, the results pertaining to each of the hypotheses
are reported. Each of the following six sections
corresponds to one of these hypotheses.


In the event of sustaining a physical injury which is
proximally caused by this experiment, no professional
medical care will be provided without charge.
I, have read, and I
understand, the procedures and descriptions outlined above.
I have been given the opportunity to ask questions relevant
to my decision to participate, and all such questions have
been answered to my satisfaction. I understand that I may
withdraw my consent and terminate my participation at any
time without jeopardy to the credits earned up to that
point. I hereby agree to participate in this study, and I
have received a copy of this consent form.
Date Signature of Volunteer
Date
Signature of Witness


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119
interactions more influential. Thus, it appears that the
importance of the density of a person's social networks is a
function of the psychosocial issues faced by that person.
Closing Remarks
Despite the lack of supporting results, the central
hypothesis remains, at least in principle, viable. An
optimal relationship, or goodness of fit, between certain
personality and social variables should be associated with
psychological well-being. Conversely, greater deviations
from the structural harmony of this ideal relationship,
deviations which represent a poorness of fit between
personality and social variables, should be related to
psychopathology. Before any lasting conlusions can be made
about the central hypothesis more work needs to be done on
the relevant personality and social variables.
The theory and measurement of object representations is
still evolving. Although no single variable appears to be
able to encapsulate the complexity of an object
representation, variables are needed that can capture the
maturational level of an object representation, variables
which are also sensitive to abnormal development. The body
of research on measuring object representations is still too
young to offer a clear picture of what form these variables
will take. The qualitative factors appear in the current
study to have tapped two dimensions of object
representations. One dimension, that of nurturance or


40
Class IV indicated "lower-middle class", and the people in
Class V formed the "lower class".
Employed. Of interest here was whether or not the
subject was, at the time of the study, employed to help
finance his or her education. This financial necessity
could have produced an additional source of stress above and
beyond that tapped by the CSRE.
Credits. The amount of credits the subjects were
enrolled for during the semester of the study could have
varied widely. Those subjects taking an unusually heavy
load could have suffered as a result.
Domicile. Of concern here was whether or not the
subject lived with his or her parents while attending
college. It was thought that living at home could have
restricted the subjects' identity formation by inhibiting
their separation from their parents, which may have resulted
in a general decrease in psychological well-being.
Category B. Primary Measures
Object Representations
Procedure. The subjects were given a blank piece of
paper and asked to "describe your mother", with five minutes
allotted for the description. They were given another five
minutes to "describe your father". These descriptions were
then scored for the conceptual level and the qualitative
characteristics of the object representations. Verbal
fluency was also scored.


78
Table 13
Correlations Between the Variables of "Parent as
Striving" and "Parent as Nurturant" and the Variables
of Life Change, Total Network Size, Total Network
Density and Averaged Conceptual Level
Parent As Parent As
Striving Nurturant
Variables Mother Father Mother Father
Life Change
.03
-.07
-.31**
-.16
Total Network Size
.08
-.06
.14
.10
Total Network Density
.05
.03
-.01
.12
Conceptual Level
.06
.34***
-.04
.08
*=p<.05. **=p<.005. ***=p<.0005.
Note. Conceptual Level is an Averaged score.
(p<.0005) with conceptual level. The nurturant factor on
mother is correlated -.31 (p<.005) with the variable of life
change. Subjects who described their mothers as high on
nurturance tended to report less life change. This finding
forces one to reconsider the results presented in Table 11.
A comparison of Table 7 and Table 11 reveals that the
variable of life change was correlated with the same
subscales of the POMS as the nurturant factor on mother. At
the same time, however, life change was significantly
(p<.0005) correlated with the HSCL while the nurturant
factor was not. Thus, while life change may have had some
bearing on the interaction between the nurturant factor and
the POMS, it is difficult to delineate a clear causative
relationship.


6
greater than those represented within the individual.
Hence, "as the person maintains contact with and thus
masters a pacer, his own level of complexity grows and he is
ready for a new, more complex pacer" (Loevinger, 1976,
p. 309). In other words, no interpersonal development
occurs unless the individual has access to the proper
interpersonal structure. At the same time, one cannot fully
account for the development of psychopathology in an
individual unless the strutural inadequacies of that
individual's interpersonal world are defined. Thomas and
Chess, in describing the necessity of an interactionist
model to explain the dynamics of development, have used the
terms "goodness of fit" and "poorness of fit".
Goodness of fit results when properties of the
environment and its expectations and demands are
in accord with the individual's own capacities.
When this consonance between organism and
environment is present, optimal development in a
progressive direction is possible. Conversely,
poorness of fit involves discrepancies and
dissonances between the individual's capacities
and environmental opportunities and demands, so
that distorted development and maladaptive
functioning occur. Goodness of fit is never an
abstraction, but is always formulated in terms of
the values, demands, and expectations of a given
culture or socioeconomic group. (Thomas and Chess,
1980, p. 234)
The present study used this concept of fitness as a
schema for positing a pattern of interaction between a
person's conceptual level of object representations, both
along structural and qualitative dimensions, and the
structure of that person's social network. The "fitness" of


Mark the
appopriate box
11. Fathers level of education:
140
[ ] post-graduate training
[ ] graduated from college
] some college training
[ ] graduated from high school
[ ] completed 10th or 11th grade
] completed 7th, 8th, or 9th grade
[ ] completed 6th grade or less
12. Mother's level of education:
[ ] post-graduate training
[ ] graduated from college
[ ] some college training
[ ] graduated from high school
[ ] completed 10th or 11th grade
[ ] completed 7th, 8th, or 9th grade
[ ] completed 6th grade or less


Norms for Social Networks
Hirsch
Present
(1979a)
Study
(n=34)
(n-117)
Network
Size
Size
Family/Relative
6.0
5.6
Friends
6.9
7.8
Pro
1.0
0.4
Overall
13.9
13.7
Hirsch
Present
(1979a)
Study
(n=34)
(n=117)
Network
Density
Density
Family/Relative
0.59
0.85
Friends
0.23
0.29
Pro
--
--
Overall
0.26
0.27
Note
TT V
refers to unavailable data


62
correlated -.31 (p<.005) with each other. As can be
observed in Table 4, total network size, total network
density, and averaged conceptual level appear to be
independent of the life change variable. As mentioned in
the previous section, total network density and averaged
conceptual level are only correlated -.05 with each other.
Table 5 is a summary of the intercorrelations between
Table 5
Correlation
Matrix for the
Outcome
Measures
Outcome
Love
Measures
POMS
HSCL
Scale
HSCL
.66***


Love Scale
-.20*
-.12

GPA
-.25*
-.09
in
o

*=p<.05. **
=p<.005. ***=p<
.0005.
each of the outcome measures. This Table shows that the
POMS is significantly correlated with all the other outcome
measures. The POMS is, not surprisingly, strongly
correlated with the other measure of subjective distress,
the HSCL. Table 5 shows, though, that the HSCL is not
related to the other two outcome measures. On the other
hand, lower (i.e better) POMS scores are related to higher
Love Scale scores and higher GPAs. Table 5 also indicates
that although all the other intercorrelations were in the
expected direction none were significant. Thus, Table 5


10.
Correlations Between the Qualitative Factors
of "Parent as Striving" and "Parent as
Nurturant and the ICL Dimensions
(DOM and LOV) 73
11. Correlations Between the Subscales of the
Outcome Measures and the Variables of
"Parent as Striving" and "Parent
as Nurturant" 74
12. Correlations Between the Subscales of the
Outcome Measures and the ICL Dimensions
(DOM and LOV) 76
13. Correlations Between the Variables of "Parent as
Striving" and "Parent as Nurturant" and the
Variables of Life Change, Total Network Size,
Total Network Density, and Averaged Conceptual
Level 78
14. Correlations Between the ICL Dimensions (DOM and
LOV) and the Variables of Life Change, Total
Network Size, Total Network Density, and
Averaged Conceptual Level 79
15. Correlation Matrix for the Demographic Variables 81
16. Correlations Between the Demographic Variables
and the Description Length Scores .... 82
17. Correlations Between the ICL Control Variables
(Number of Items Checked, NIC, and Average
Intensity, AIN) and the Demographic and
Description Length Variables 84
18. Summary of the Correlations Between the
Demographic Variables and the Variables
of Life Change, Total Network Size, Total
Network Density, and Averaged
Conceptual Level 85
19. Correlations Between the Subscales of the
Outcome Measures and the Demographic
VariablesPart A (Age, Class, Sex,
and SES) 86
20. Correlations Between the Subscales of the
Outcome Measures and the Demographic
VariablesPart B (Employed, Credits,
and Domicile) 87
vi 1


3
The method section forms the second chapter of this
dissertation. In this chapter a description of the
subjects, the measures, and the procedure used in this study
is provided. The section entitled "Measures" is divided
into three categories. In Category A, the demographic and
life change measures are presented. Category B is devoted
to those measures which assess the relevant personality and
social variables. The outcome measures are introduced in
Category C.
In the third chapter the results of the data analyses
are summarized. This chapter is divided into two main
components. The first component, which encompasses the
section entitled "Interrater Reliability and Normative
Comparisons", is designed to show that the results in the
current study are reliably rated and are consistent with the
results reported in the literature. The second component
consists of six sections, with each section corresponding to
one of the six hypotheses described at the end of Chapter 1.
Thus, the findings pertaining to the first hypothesis are
summarized in the result section entitled "Interactional
Effects", and the findings for the five auxiliary hypotheses
are each summarized in one of the five succeeding sections.
The fourth chapter is a discussion of the unexpected
and somewhat challenging results of the current study and
the implications these results have for future research on
object relations and social networks. In the first section,


118
relatives network and the friendship network, as well as the
boundary density between the two networks, were different in
the two studies. And, the meaning, in terms of its
influence on outcome, should be different within each
subgroup of total density over time. For instance, younger
college students are still the children within their nuclear
family and relative networks. The norm would be for these
networks (and these networks are only composed of people who
have a relationship with the subject) to have more
relationships among members, with a more restricted
generational span. For the woman in Hirsch's sample, whose
family/relative network may include her own children,
nieces, and nephews, the relationships among members are
expected to be more diffuse, given the span of the
generations. Whereas, the norm seems to be for younger
college students to have higher density family/relative
networks, older students and widows appear to live in family
networks whose norm is lower density. Deviations from these
norms may produce greater subjective distress. A NF-F
boundary density which was non-existent or very low would be
expected for younger college students, for whom a major
psychosocial task is to separate from their nuclear families
and to establish friendship networks which are more
autonomous, at least initially, from family ties. For older
women, the opportunity for interaction between their
families and friends seems greater, and the density of these


I certify that I have read this study and that in my
opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly
presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality,
as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.
CkisKj (3
Eileen Fennell, Ph.D.
Associate Professor of Clinical
Psychology
I certify that I have read this study and that in my
opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly
presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality,
as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.
Otto Von Mering, PJ
Professor of Anthropology
This thesis was submitted to the Graduate Faculty of the
College of Health Related Professions and to the Graduate
Council, and was accepted as partial fulfillment of the
requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.
Dean, College of Health Related
Professions
Dean for Graduate Studies and
Research
August, 198 4


46
The formula for nuclear family-friendship (NF-F) boundary
density was as follows.
NF-F boundary density=X/(NF)(F)
where NF=number of nuclear family members
F=number of friends
X=number of relationships existing
between the nuclear family
members and the friends.
An example of how these two formulas can be used for
computing the density scores of a hypothetical subject is
presented in Appendix A.
Category C. Measures of Mental Health
Subjective Distress
Profile of Mood States (POMS). The construct validity
of this 65-item instrument has been demonstrated in numerous
studies with both clinical and normal populations and across
levels of SES (McNair, Lorr, and Droppleman, 1971). Six
factors have been derived from the POMS: tension-anxiety,
depression-dejection, anger-hostility, vigor-activity,
fatigue-inertia, and confusion-bewilderment. A total mood
score was computed by subtracting scores on the
vigor-activity scale from the combined score on the other
five scales (equal weighting is given to all scales).
Subjects were asked to fill out the POMS according to "how
you usually feel".
Hopkins Symptom Checklist (HSCL). This instrument was
a 58-item scale which had been shown in many studies to have


115
Hirsch's (1979a) study faced a different set of
psychological issues than the subjects in the current study.
The subjects in the two studies were selected so that,
within each sample, they faced the same set of issues. But,
this homogeniety of issues within each sample produced an
unintended difference in the issues faced between the
samples. The idea that the effects of network density would
vary according to the subjects' intrapsychic issues was a
the heart of the interactional hypothesis of the current
study.
Hirsch (1979a) had found that the total network density
was not significantly correlated with the POMS or the HSCL,
but the trend was for subjects in lower density networks to
obtain lower, hence better, scores. This trend was
significant when Hirsch used the nuclear family to
friendship (NF-F) boundary density in place of total network
density in the correlations. Subjects in Hirsch's study who
had lower NF-F boundary density (i.e., fewer contacts
between their network of family and relatives and their
network of friends) tended to obtain better mood and symptom
scores than those who had higher density NF-F boundary
density, or more contacts across this boundary between
networks. But in the current study nearly half of the
students had no NF-F boundary density, a finding which was
unaffected by any of the demographic variables.


75
correlated with the subscales of the outcome measures. As
can be observed in Table 11, only one correlation is
significant (p<.05) for "striving". Evidently, subjects
whose description of their mother was high on the striving
factor are less likely to report a confused and bewildered
mood. The "nurturant" factor is more often significantly
correlated with the outcome measures.
Table 11 illustrates that subjects whose description of
their mother is high on the nurturant factor reported
feeling less tension-anxiety, depression-dejection,
anger-hostility, and confusion-bewilderment. As can be seen
in Table 11, the nurturant factor derived from the
description of the subjects' father is also significantly
(p<.05) correlated with the measures of subjective distress
(i.e., the POMS and the HSCL). Although all the subscales
on the POMS are in the proper direction (i.e., suggesting
that higher nurturant scores are related to better mood
scores) only the confusion-bewilderment subscale is
significantly (p<.005) correlated with the nurturant factor
on father. The HSCL, and in particular the subscales that
represent interpersonal difficulties and depression, is also
significantly correlated with the nurturant factor on
father. Thus, Table 11 seems to suggest that higher scores
on the qualitative factor of "parent as nurturant" tend to
correlate with reports of better mood and, in some cases,
fewer symptoms. The scores for the qualitative factor of
"parent as striving" seem less influential.


91
Table 24
Correlations Between the Subscales of the Outcome
Measures and the Description Length Scores
Outcome
Measures
POMSTotal
Tension-Anxiety
Depression-Dejection
Anger-Hostility
Vigor
Fatigue
Confusion-Bewilderment
HSCLTotal
Somatization
Obsession
Interpersonal
Depression
Anxiety
Love Scale Index
Verbal Expression
Self-Disclosure
Toleration
Non-Material Evidence
Unexpressed Feelings
Material Evidence
GPA
*=p<.05. **=p<.005.
Description Length
Scores
Mother
Father
Averaqed
-.14
-.17
-.17
-.17
-.09
-.14
-.14
-.17
-.17
-.15
-.13
-.15
.08
.15
.12
.06
-.05
.002
-.19*
-.19*
-.20*
-.08
-.13
-.11
-.09
-.10
-.10
-.21*
-.21*
-.23*
.15
.003
.08
-.08
-.13
-.11
-.05
-.03
-.05
.15
.02
.09
.09
.01
.05
.13
-.05
.04
.08
-.01
.04
.15
.07
.11
-.10
-.03
-.07
.05
.05
.05
.14
.003

o
GO
***=p<.0005.
overall relationship between these scores and the outcome
measures appears to be limited.
As seen in Table 25, the description length scores were
not significantly correlated with any of the qualitative
variables of object relations.


108
the I CL scores across the four quadrants meant that the
quadrants with negative LOV and, especially, with negative
DOM scores were not as well represented as the quadrants
with positive LOV and DOM scores. Nevertheless, those
subjects with positive scores on both DOM and LOV had better
scores on the POMS (on the ICL for mother) and Love Scale
(on the ICL for father). At the same time, subjects who
represented their parents, especially their father, as being
high on the nurturant factor tended to report better moods
and fewer symptoms. Thus, the available results seem to
indicate that subjects who described their parents in
positive terms tended to report a more favorable
psychological adjustment for themselves.
Two Conclusions
In sum, only the predictions pertaining to the
conceptual level of object representations and to the social
network scores were called into question by the results of
the current study. Sometimes a significant relationship
between two variables is not observable when a considerable
amount of measurement error increases the randomness of the
data. The validity of this explanation seems questionable
because conceptual level was reliably rated and network
density was derived from an easily coded mathematical
relationship. The other variables in this sample of
students appear to have been normatively distributed. The
results related to the five auxiliary hypotheses suggest


Ill
be, with respect to outcome, more salient measures of object
representations than was conceptual level. Higher nurturant
scores seemed to have contributed to better mood and fewer
symptoms. The striving factor (for father) was relevant
because it varied significantly across the different
conceptual levels of object representations. LOV and DOM
from the ICL also had a modest relationship with the outcome
measures. DOM, from the ICL on mothers, was significantly
correlated with the measures of subjective distress.
Although LOV was unrelated to these outcome measures, LOV
from the ICL for father was significantly correlated with
the Love Scale. And, in general, subjects in the
Dominance-Love quadrant had better scores on the outcome
measures. Thus, the qualitative variables of object
relations, as opposed to the conceptual level variable,
appeared to have had a stronger relationship with the
outcome measures.
In this spirit, Geller et al. (1981-82) proposed that
an object representation be measured not only with respect
to its stylistic properties (which they have broadened to
include thematic and structural aspects beyond that which is
understood by conceptual level) but its formal and
functional properties as well. They devised the Therapist
Representation Inventory to measure these properties of
patients' object representations of their therapist, and
they found that certain formal and functional properties of


60
performed between each of these variables. As can be seen
Table 3
Summary of the Correlations Between the Outcome Measures
and the Variables of Life Change, Total Network Size,
Total Network Density, and Averaged Conceptual Level
Total
Total
Averaged
Outcome
Life
Network
Network
Conceptual
Measures
Chanqe
Size
Density
Level
POMS
.26**
-.07
-.19*
.04
HSCL
.32***
-.03
-.18
-.001
Love Scale
.21*
.06
-.01
.04
GPA
-.10
-.08
-.04
.07
*=p<.
05. **=p<.005
***=p<
.0005.
i Table 3,
the variables
of total
network size
and averaged
conceptual level are not significantly correlated with any
of the four outcome measures. Total network density is
significantly correlated (p<.05) with the POMS (a mood
scale), but in a direction which was opposite to what had
been predicted. This finding was also visible in Table 2.
Although the differences between the measures were not
significant, the distribution of means of the POMS scores
across the three groups of density became smaller as the
density of the group became larger. Now, Table 3 shows
that, overall, as density of the network increases, the
scores on the POMS become significantly lower (i.e.,
better). There was also a tendency (p<.06) for subjects in
higher density networks to also produce better scores on the


136
middle of the page. . now go ahead and do that". Then
read, "then, put those individuals you listed on the Social
Network List on the page, such that you put nearest to your
name those individuals to whom you feel the 'closest'. For
convenience's sake, please put your family members and
relatives on the left-hand side of your name and your
friends on the right-hand side of your name, with
professionals at the bottom . now go ahead and do that".
Then, read, "next, draw a circle around each name on the
page", pause, and allow them to do that. Then, read, "now,
draw a line between yourself and each individual on the
page", and let them do that. Then, read the rest and let
them finish.
After they finish the Hopkins Symptom Checklists, give
them a break. Tell them that you would prefer if they did
not talk with each other about what they had just done until
after they finish the last scale. Collect their first
instrument packet. During the break check over their
Support System Maps to make sure that they filled them out
legibly.
Tell them that the Scale of Feelings is the last thing
they have to fill out. When they hand them in, make sure
that they specified not a person's name, but what
relationship that person is to them (like, mother, father,
brother, sister, and so on).


84
Table 17
Correlations Between the ICL Control Variables
(Number of Items Checked, NIC, and Average
Intensity, AIN) and the Demographic and
Description Length Variables
NIC
AIN
Variables
Mother Father
Mother
Father
Demoqraphic
Age
.11
.05
-.12
-.08
Class
.03
.01
-.18*
-.07
Sex
.04
.05
.07
-.01
SES
.12
.07
.23*
-.08
Employed
.05
.05
-.08
-.01
Credits
-.03
.02
-.01
-.05
Domicile
-.14
.16
-.15
-.06
Description Lenqth
Mother
.05
.11
-.01
-.05
Father
.14
.06
.04
.02
Averaged
.10
.02
.02
-.02
*=p<.05. **=p<.005. ***=p<
.0005.
Note. For Class,
l=sophomore and 3
=senior;
for
Sex, 0=males and 1= females; for
SES, 1=
highest and
5=lowest; for employed,
0=no and
l=yes;
for domicile,
Olive away from home and l=live
at home

Table 18 reports on the correlations between the
demographic variables and the variables of life change,
total network size, total network density, and averaged
conceptual level. Only one correlation was significant in
Table 18. It appears that subjects in the lower academic
classes report more life change. Otherwise, these four
variables appear to be independent of the demographic
variables.


42
constructive involvement with encouragement of
autonomy and individuality=7
(6.) Intellectualnot at all=l, highly intellectual=7
(7.) Judgementalnon-judgemental=l, highly judgemental=7
(8.) Negative-Positive Idealnegative ideal=l, positive
ideal=7
(9.) Nurturantlow nurturance=l, high nurturance=7
(10.) Punitivenon-punitive=l, highly punitive=7
(11.) Successfulfailure=l, success=7
(12.) Weak-Strongextremely weak=l, extremely strong=7
(13.) Degree of Ambivalencelittle ambivalence=l, marked
ambivalence=3 (note this characteristic is only scored
1-3)
A more thorough description of each characteristic is found
in Blatt et al. (1981). The interrater reliability (alpha
coefficient) for all three raters ranged from .68 for
"affectionate" to .93 for "successful".
Blatt et al. (1981) found that these 13 characteristics
loaded on two factors. The first factor, parent as
nurturant, was composed of nurturance (factor loading=.90),
positive ideal (.90), benevolence (.88), warmth (.87),
constructive involvement (.84), affectionate (.80), strength
(.67), and successful (.65). The second factor, parent as
striving, was made up of judgemental (.90), ambitious (.89),
punitive (.88), intellectual (.82), ambivalence (.60),
successful (.48), and strength (.48). The scale scores for


146
Norms for the POMS
Scales
College
Students
(n=856)
Present
Study
(n=117)
Tension-Anxiety
13.5
9.5
Depression-Dejection
14.1
20.4
Anger-Hostility
9.6
14.6
Vigor
-15.6
-22.5
Fatigue
10.6
13.9
Confusion-Bewilderment
11.1
6.8
Total
43.2
42.7
Scales
Depressive
Sample
(n=106)
Anxious
Sample
(n=26)
Personality
Sample
(n=228)
Tension-Anxiety
22.0
20.1
20.9
Depression-Dejection
30.2
23.5
27.8
Anger-Hostility
17.3
13.5
16.2
Vigor
-8.6
-10.9
-10.2
Fatigue
14.7
13.1
11.6
Confusion-Bewilderment
13.3
14.3
13.6
Total
88.9
73.6
79.9
Note: all samples, except for the present study are
from McNair et al. (1971)


155
Waugh, M.H., and McCaulley, M.H. Relation of level of ego
development to type and severity of psychopathology.
Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 1981,
49, 295-296.
Werner, H. The concept of development from a comparative
and organismic point of view. In C.S. Lavatelli and
F. Stendler (eds.), Readings in Child Behavior and
Development. New York: Hartcourt, Brace, and
Jovanovich, Inc., 1972.
White, K.M. Problems and characteristics of college
students. Adolescence, 1980, 15, 23-41.
Wiggins, J.S. Personality and Prediction: Principles of
Personality Assessment. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley
Pub. Co., 1973.


- 44 -
Average Intensity (AIN) and Number of Items Checked
(NIC). These variables were used to check for response
sets. Each adjective was ranked (1-4) according to its
"intensity" of affective charge. For instance, "can be
obedient" had an intensity of 1, while "spineless" had an
intensity of 4 within the same category. The AIN consisted
of the weighed number of adjectives over the total number
checked. According to LaForge (1976), an AIN well above
2.00 represented a willingness to criticize the stimulus
person; whereas, an intensity well below 2.00 suggested a
tendency to idealize the person. AIN correlated -.74 with
social desirability (LaForge, 1976). NIC was simply a total
of the number of items endorsed by the subject. A very low
NIC usually indicated that the subject had only a
superficial engagement in the task or was describing someone
who was not well known to the subject.
Social Networks
Social Network List. This instrument was used to
obtain the size of the social network. The subjects were
asked to list up to 20 significant others in their life with
whom they had had contact with (in person, by phone or
letter) at least once in the prior 4-6 week period. These
significant others were to be listed in the three categories
of family members or relatives, friends, and professionals.
The instructions requested that the subjects list only those
people who were important sources of support, encouragement,


81
at home or not). These variables are described in the
second chapter (pages 39 to 40). The significant
intercorrelations among the variables that are presented in
Table 15
Correlation Matrix for the Demographic Variables
Variables
Age
Class
Sex
SES
Employed
Credits
Class
.71***





Sex
-.18*
-.11




SES
.02
-.13
-.03



Employed
.31**
.30**
-.03
.08


Credits
.25*
-.05
.01
.02
-.21*

Domic ile
-.03
.04
.14
-.01
.10
cn
o

i
*
ii
XJ
A

05. **
=p<.005.
***=p<.
0005.
Note.
For Class, 1=
sophomore
and
3=senior;
for
Sex, 0=males and
1= females; for SES, 1
=highest
and
5=lowest; for employed, 0=no and l=yes; for domicile,
0=live away from home and l=live at home.
Table 15 are not unexpected. Subjects who were older tended
to be in the upper academic classes (r=.71, p<.0005), to be
employed (r=.31, p<.005), and to be registered for more
credits (r=.25, p<.05). Those in the upper academic classes
were more likely to be employed (r=.30, p<.005). And, the
subjects who were employed had registered for fewer semester
credits (r=.21, p<.05).
The description length scores represented the second
group of control variables. These scores were suggested by
Blatt et al. (1981) to be a rough estimate of verbal
fluency. The length of the subjects written description of


49
Work (role performance variable)
Grade Point Average (GPA). The most parsimonious means
of measuring the subjects' role performance as college
students was chosen to be their GPA for the semester.
Procedure
The subjects were solicited for the study from the
Introductory Psychology courses offered during the Fall
semester of 1982. They received research credit for their
participation, which was applied toward their final grade.
A copy of the consent forms are found in Appendix A.
Because no interview data was required, the subjects were
run in groups with up to five members in each. First, the
demographic data were collected. A copy of the demographic
questionnaire constructed for this study can be found in
Appendix B. Next, the subjects filled out, in sequence, the
College Schedule of Recent Events, description of mother,
description of father, ICL for mother, ICL for father,
Social Network List, Social System Map, POMS, HSCL, and Love
Scale. The total time for administering these instruments,
with breaks, was approximately 2 hours. The GPA was
obtained from the Registrar at the end of the semester.
Results were mailed to those who requested them. The data
were collected by two research assistants, who were trained
by the experimenter. The set of instructions used by the
assistants while conducting the data collection protocol can
be found in Appendix C. A record of the questions they were


95
The relationship between the ICL control variables and
the qualitative variables, while it appears larger, seems to
be somewhat more difficult to interpret. As seen in Table
Table 28
Correlations Between the ICL Control Variables
(NIC and AIN) and the Qualitative Variables of
Object Relations
NIC AIN
Variables
Mother
Father
Mother
Father
StrivingMother
.27**
.25*
.004
-.05
StrivingFather
.08
.08
-.05
.23*
NurturantMother
.12
.05
-.41***
.05
NurturantFather
.15
.24*
-.04
-.27**
DOMMother
.24*
.18
-.24*
.04
DOMFather
.28**
.49***
.06
.26**
LOVMother
.25*
.08
-.05
.10
LOVFather
.14
.16
.10
.30**
*=p<.05. **=p<.005. ***=p<.0005.
Note. NIC=Number of Items Checked; AIN=Average
Intensity.
28, subjects who had larger NIC scores appeared to have
generally more positive scores on the qualitative factors,
especially on striving for mother and DOM for father. Table
28 suggests that the AIN scores are selectively sensitive to
the sex of the parent that each score represents. For
instance, AIN for mother is significantly correlated with
nurturant on mother (p<.0005) and DOM on mother (p<.05)
while AIN for father is significantly correlated with all of
the qualitative variables pertaining to father. Thus,


80
POMS, DOM for father appeared to be quite dissimilar from
life change on the POMS. Thus, the impact of life change on
the qualitative variables of object relations appears to be
difficult to interpret.
Tables 15 through 28 are concerned with the control
variables, which consist of three separate groups of
variables. First, in Tables 15, 16, and 17 the variables in
each of these three groups are compared within each group
and then across the groups. Next, the variables in the
first of these groups, the demographic variables, are
compared in Table 18 to the variables of life change, total
network size, total network density, and averaged conceptual
level. Next, in Tables 19 and 20 the demographic variables
are compared to the subscales of the outcome measures. In
Tables 21 and 22 the demographic variables are correlated
with the qualitative variables of object relations. In
Tables 23, 24, and 25 a similar set of comparisons is made
for the second group of control variables, the description
length scores. In the final three tables of this section,
Tables 26, 27, and 28, another three part comparison is made
for the ICL control variables.
The first set of control variables are the demographic
variables, which include the subjects' age, academic
classification (or "class"), sex, SES, employment status (or
"employed"), total number of semester credits (or
"credits"), and domicile (i.e., whether the subjects lived


107
correspond to the dominance-submission ICL dimension and the
nurturant factor to the love-hate dimension. As an
appropriate test of concurrent validity (Wiggins, 1973), the
correlations between the qualitative factors and the ICL
dimensions were neither too high nor too low. Both
qualitative measures appear to be assessing the same
interpersonal dimensions, which is not surprising because
the two dimensions of Leary's (1957) circumplex, power and
affiliation, have been repeatedly discovered (Berzins,
1977). Each measure, however, approaches power and
affiliation from different methodological premises. For
instance, higher scores on the striving and nurturant
factors are "better" and lower scores are "worse". On the
other hand, LOV and DOM scores as measured by the ICL are
better if they are closer to the center of the circumplex
(which is zero) and worse if they are farther out on the
axes (though positive scores are commonly thought to be
better than negative scores, a notion which was generally
supported in the sixth hypothesis of the current study). In
sum, the qualitative factors of object representations and
the ICL dimensions appear to measure the same constructs but
tend to assess these constructs from different psychometric
perspectives.
To the extent that the skewed distribution of scores
permitted the sixth hypothesis to be appropriately tested,
this hypothesis was supported. The uneven distribution of


53
widows and women returning to college (m=72). Both samples
were significantly less than the mean score for the groups
of anxious neurotics (m=90) or depressed neurotics (m=103)
reported by Derogatis et al. (1974).
On the surface, the Love Scale scores, especially for
females, appeared to be quite different in the present
sample than in the norms provided by Swensen (1978). The
main difference seemed to have been that subjects in the
present study had far fewer "unexpressed feelings" (which
counted negatively toward the total score) than in the
earlier study. Perhaps, this difference was a reflection of
the relationships which were being rated by the subjects.
In the norms found in Swensen (1978), the subjects were
asked to rate their relationship with their closest opposite
sex friend, whereas in the present study they were
instructed to rate their relationship with the person to
whom they felt the closest. That females had higher scores
than males in the current study was not surprising
considering that 43 percent of the females chose to rate
their relationships with their fiance or boyfriend whereas
only 23 percent of the males had made this choice of
relationships.
Many of the scores derived from the ICL were
significantly different in the present study from the norms
offered by LaForge (1976). In particular, the number of
items checked (NIC) were 8-11 items fewer than expected.


Consent to Release Grade Point Averages
Name of Volunteer
Social Security Number
Current Semester
I, having read and signed
the Informed Consent Form, hereby authorize the Office of
the Registrar at the University of Florida to release at the
end of the current semester to the investigators my grade
point average for the current semester and my overall grade
point average.
Date
Signature of Volunteer
Date
Signature of Witness


- 45 -
or guidance. In Hirsch (1979a) the average size of the
network was 14 people (family and relatives=6, friends=7,
and professional=l).
Support System Map. This instrument was used to
compute the density scores. The subjects were presented
with a blank piece of paper, except for the word "map" at
the top. They were instructed to put their name in the
middle. They were then to put those individuals they
mentioned on the Social Network List onto the map, putting
nearest to their own name those individuals whom they felt
"closest" to. For convenience sake, they were to put
friends on one side of the page, family members and
relatives on the other side, and professionals on the
bottom. The subjects were then asked to draw lines between
themselves and each person on the map. Next, they were
asked to draw a line between those individuals whom they
considered to have relationships with each other. The
formula for computing the density of the family and
relatives network, the friendship network, and the total
network was as follows.
density=X/(N(N-l)/2)
where X=the number of actual relationships
between members of the
subject's network
N=number of people in the subject's
network.


another of their father (which were scored for conceptual
level of object representations, verbal fluency, and the
qualitative factors of "parent as nurturant" and "parent as
striving"), the Interpersonal Checklist for mother and
another for father, the Social Network List and the Social
Network Map (which were scored for network density), the
Profile of Mood States, the Hopkins Symptom Checklist, and
the Scale of Feelings. Also, their grade point average
(GPA) was collected at the end of the term.
Although conceptual level was reliably rated and most
other variables were consistent with the normative data
presented in earlier studies, the central hypothesis was not
supported. The expected inverse relationship between
conceptual level and network density was not found, nor were
larger deviations from this inverse relationship associated
with poorer scores on the outcome measures. Contrary to
expectations, conceptual level was unrelated to outcome, and
higher, rather than lower, density networks were correlated
with better mood scores.
Two main conclusions are suggested. First, the
conceptual level variable used in the current study does not
adequately summarize the aspects of intrapsychic structure
which are sensitive to psychopathology. Second, the
adaptive value of network density probably varies more in
relation to the psychosocial concerns of the individual than
had previously been reported in the literature.


I certify that I have read this study and that in my
opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly
presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality,
as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.
Hugh C.
Professor
ivis Ph. D. ,
of Clinical
Chairman
Psychology
I certify that I have read this study and that in my
opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly
presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality,
as a dissertation for the degree/crf^Doctor of Philosophy.
ULC
Louis D. Cohen, Ph.D.
Professor Emeritus of Clinical
Psychology
I certify that I have read this study and that in my
opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly
presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality,
as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.
imfin, Ph.D.
Clinical Psychology


21.
Correlations Between the Qualitative Variables
of Object Relations and the Demographic
Variables--Part A (Age, Class, Sex,
and SES) 88
22.Correlations Between the Qualitative Factors
of Object Relations and the Demographic
VariablesPart B (Employed, Credits, and
Domicile) 89
23. Correlations Between the Description
Length Scores and the Variables of
Life Change, Total Network Size, Total
Network Densiy, and Averaged
Conceptual Level 90
24. Correlations Between the Subscales of the
Outcome Measures and the Description
Length Scores 91
25. Correlations Between the Descriptions Length
Scores and the Qualitative Variables of
Object Relations 92
26.Correlations Between the ICL Control Variables
(NIC and AIN) and the Variables of Life
Change, Total Network Size, Total Network
Density, and Averaged Conceptual Level ... 93
27. Correlations Between the Subscales of the
Outcome Measures and the ICL Control
Variables (NIC and AIN) 94
28. Correlations Between the ICL Control Variables
(NIC and AIN) and the Qualitative Variables
of Object Relations 95
29. Reactivity of the Outcome Measures as Seen in
Linear Regression Models with the Independent
Variables of Life Change, Total Network
Density, and Averaged Conceptual Level of
Object Representations 97
30. Linear Regression Scores for the Variables
of "Parent as Striving" and "Parent as
Nurturant" and the ICL Dimensions
(DOM and LOV) 99
31. Relationships Between the Quadrants of the
ICL and Outcome 101
- viii


138
Questions Asked by the Subjects and the Answers Given
by the Research Assistants
(Note: The following is a sample of the questions that the
assistants recorded during the course of the data collection
phase and the answers they gave in return.)
Q: What is "peeved"?
A: Bothered or irritated.
Q: Is "going home" a vacation?
A: If it was for a holiday or weekend (e.g., not for
the dentist, and so on).
Q: What if I'm a freshman, but this is my second year?
A: Okay.
Q: Does "changed your residence" mean moving from home?
A: Yes.
Q: What do you want me to describe [about mom/dad]?
A: Whatever you want.
Q: Does this mean right now, while I'm taking the test
(POMS)?
A: Yes.
Q: What if I've been sick for the last two days? Does
nausea count [on the HSCL]?
A: Yes.
Q: What if I'm better friends with Joe than my boss?
A: All lines mean the same thing; proximity of names
signifies "closeness".


8
differentiation, the developing individual gradually becomes
less dominated by the immediate concrete situation and less
impelled by internal affective states. The person is
increasingly able to delay action and to understand the
needs and motives of other people. This increasing freedom
permits more task mastery and social competence. Similarly,
Piaget (1954) has described the sequence through which a
child passes in the development of a concept of object.
Although Piaget's work has largely been based on the study
of children's responses to inanimate objects, the process by
which the developing individual comes to relate to human
objects must be similar. After all, what was of importance
in the present study was not to uncover what personality
structure is but rather what it does; ego is not a thing but
a process (Loevinger, 1976). An important theme derived
from Piaget was how the child in each successive stage of
cognitive development has the ability to represent the
object in increasingly more abstract terms, less bound by
the stimulus properties of the object. As the
representation of the object becomes more symbolic, it
becomes more permanent and stable. Repeated contacts with
the real object are no longer necessary to maintain the
coherency of the representation. The room for merger
between the self and other representations is, with this
increase in boundaries, greatly reduced. The person is less
likely to confuse his or her own feelings and needs with


88
confusion-bewilderment. Tables 19 and 20 also report five
other significant correlations; however, these correlations
do not appear to represent any coherent pattern of
relationships among the variables. Thus, Tables 18, 19, and
20 appear to suggest that several of the demographic
variables, while being of little influence on the main
variables of the current study, do have a significant
influence on some of the outcome measures.
Tables 21 and 22 show that some of the demographic
Table 21
Correlations Between the Qualitative Factors of
Object Relations and the Demographic Variables
Part A (Age, Class, Sex, and SES)
Variables
Age
Class
Sex
SES
StrivingMother
-.04
-.09
.002
-.02
StrivingFather
-.05
-.004
.05
-.16
NurturantMother
.15
.23*
.11
-.20*
NurturantFather
.11
.09
.07
-.12
DOMMother
-.03
.07
-.01
-.04
DOMFather
-.21*
-.08
.01
-.05
LOVMother
.19*
.23*
.16
-.08
LOVFather
.14
.04
.27**
.03
*=p<.05. **=p<.005. ***=p<.0005.
Note. For Class, l=sophomore and 3=senior; for
Sex, 0=males and 1= females; for SES, l=highest and
5=lowest.
variables can influence the qualitative variables of object
relations. Table 21 suggests that the most consistent
interaction (r=.27, p<.005) is found between women and LOV


56
subjects with an averaged conceptual level of 4.0 or less
were placed in the low group (n=27), while those subjects
with a conceptual level of 6.0 or more were placed in the
high group (n=27). The remaining subjects, whose averaged
scores ranged from 4.5 to 5.5, were placed in the medium
Table 1
Means (M) and Standard Deviations (SD) of Selected
Variables for Three Groups of Averaged Conceptual
Level (CL) of Object Representations
lower
medium
higher
CL
CL
CL
(n=27)
(n=63)
(n=27)
Variables
M (SD)
M (SD)
M (SD)
Network Density
0.28(0.18)
0.27(0.13)
0.26(0.12)
Network Size
13.85(3.81)
13.62(4.24)
13.63(3.99)
NurturantMother
0.65(5.70)
-0.55(6.09)
0.64(5.49)
NurturantFather
-0.55(6.27)
0.27(5.75)
-0.08(5.59)
StrivingMother
-0.03(2.26)
-0.13(3.35)
0.34(2.77)
StrivingFather*
-1.52(3.03)
0.12(2.73)
1.24(3.11)
DOM--Mother*
6.95(5.26)
3.93(6.43)
1.57(7.14)
DOMFather
8.97(5.43)
10.32(5.13)
9.81(5.29)
LOVMother
3.83(7.52)
3.96(7.78)
6.22(8.15)
LOVFather
2.77(9.93)
-0.28(7.50)
-0.99(7.49)
GPA
2.77(0.82)
2.61(0.68)
2.89(0.84)
POMS
43(19)
42(25)
43(20)
HSCL
71(18)
66(15)
68(12)
Love Scale
191(25)
189(30)
193(26)
CSRE
1248(574)
1018(569)
1053(611)
*=difference in means between low CL and high CL
are significant at p<.05
Note. Network Size and Network Density are both
Total scores.
group (n=63). In Table 1, the means and standard deviations
within each of the three groups are summarized with respect


93
Table 26
Correlations Between the ICL Control Variables
(NIC and AIN) and the Variables of Life Change,
Total Network Size, Total Network Density, and
Averaged Conceptual Level
Variables
NIC
Mother
Father
AIN
Mother
Father
Life Change
.12
.17
.28**
.26**
Total Network Size
.15
.18
-.01
.03
Total Network Density
.04
-.02
.07
.01
Conceptual Level
-.02
-.04
.06
-.04
*=p<.05. **p<.005. ***p<.0005.
Note. NIC=Number of Items Checked; AIN=Average
Intensity; Conceptual Level is an Averaged score.
subjects who used more intense adjectives to describe their
parents would also tend to report more intense moods and
symptoms. As seen in Table 27, subjects who were high on
AIN for father reported significantly (p<.05) greater
feelings of anger-hostility and symptoms of somatization and
interpersonal difficulties. At the same time, the subjects
who checked more items had significantly (p<.05) more
symptoms of somatization and interpersonal difficulties.
The AIN scores for mother in Table 27 are not significantly
correlated with subjective distress. On the other hand,
Table 27 indicates that the NIC scores were both
significantly correlated (for mother, p<.005; for father,
p<.05) with the vigor subscale. It appears that those
subjects who checked more items appeared to feel more


Life Change 97
Qualitative Factors and ICL Dimensions . 98
I CL Quadrants 100
FOUR DISCUSSION 103
The Hypotheses Reviewed 103
Two Conclusions 108
The Reevaluation of Conceptual Level . 109
The Reevaluation of Network Density . 114
Closing Remarks 118
APPENDICES
A. NETWORK DENSITY SCORESAN EXAMPLE . 121
B. CONSENT FORMS 124
C. DATA COLLECTION INFORMATION 134
Instructions Used in Data Collection . 134
Questions Asked by the Subjects and
the Answers Given by the Research
Assistants 138
D. DEMOGRAPHICS QUESTIONNAIRE 139
E. RELIABILITY AND NORMATIVE DATA 141
Reliability of the Descriptions of Parents 141
Norms for the Descriptions of Parents
On Mothers 142
Norms for the Descriptions of Parents
On Fathers 143
Norms for Social Networks 144
Norms for the CSRE 145
Norms for the POMS 146
Norms for the HSCL 147
Norms for the Love Scale 148
Norms for the ICL 149
REFERENCES 151
BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH 156
v


4
the status of each of the hypotheses is considered in light
of the results, with particular attention focused on the
central hypothesis. In the next section, the discrepancy
between the results of the central hypothesis and the five
auxiliary hypotheses are considered. Two main conclusions
are drawn. These conclusions are articulated in greater
detail in the next two sections. The first section pertains
to object representations while the other section pertains
to network density. In the last section, the implications
of this study are set forth, with suggestions given for
future research.
Theoretical Considerations
Most theories of personality ascribe to the principle
of structuralization, whereby interpersonal relationships
serve as a model and an impetus for intrapsychic
organization (Loevinger, 1976). In particular,
psychoanalytic theories articulate how patterns of
child-parent interactions during the first several years of
development serve as the foundation for intrapsychic
representations of self and other. In turn, these "object"
representations serve as a structure of expectations to be
used in organizing and directing subsequent interactions
with people. While it seems obvious that these early
patterns of interactions form the foundation for and have a
fundamental influence on later personality development, one
cannot treat the object representations formed after


129
influence their life. In a broader sense, the results of
this study could be applied in programs to help students
cope more effectively with the stresses and demands of being
in college. In addition, the knowledge gained from this
study can be used to help other groups of people who face
stressful changes in their lives.
If you agree to participate, you will be assigned a
code number. This number, rather than your name, will be
used to identify your data. A record of your name, social
security number, and code number will be kept in a locked
file until the end of the current semester. Once grade
point averages have been received from the Office of the
Registrar, all identifying information will be destroyed.
Any data collected will be held strickly confidential.
Only those persons directly involved in conducting this
study will have access to the data. Analysis of the data
will be done in reference to groups, and thus the individual
characteristics of any subject will be concealed. Of
course, all presentation and publication of the data will
not contain information that would allow someone to guess
the identity of any individual.
Your participation in this study is greatly
appreciated. Even though you agree to participate, you are
free to terminate your participation and to withdraw your
consent at any time without jeopardy to your earned credit.


CHAPTER FOUR
DISCUSSION
The Hypotheses Reviewed
The central hypothesis of the current study, that
larger deviations from the suggested structural harmony
between lower density social networks and higher conceptual
levels of object representations (or, vice versa, higher
density social networks and lower conceptual levels of
object representations) would result in greater subjective
distress and impairement in love and work, was not supported
by the findings. Total network density and averaged
conceptual level were not linked in an inverse relationship.
In fact, these two main variables appeared to be independent
of one another. The means of the total network density
scores were virtually identical across the high, medium, and
low ranges of averaged conceptual level.
The results pertaining to the second hypothesis tended
to confirm the lack of support for the central hypothesis.
When considered individually, higher total network density
and lower averaged conceptual levels were not significantly
correlated with poorer scores on the outcome measures.
Instead, higher total network density and higher
family/relative density were each correlated with better
103


68
Table 8
Correlations Between the Subscales of the Outcome
Measures and the Variables of Family/Relative Network
Density, Friendship Network Density, and Nuclear
Family-Friendship (NF-F) Boundary Density
Density Scores
Outcome
Family/
Relative
Friend
ship
NF-F
Measures
Network
Network
Boundary
POMSTotal
-.20*
-.09
-.05
Tension-Anxiety
-.13
-.05
-.01
Depression-Dejection
-.23*
-.12
-.03
Anger-Hostility
-.17
-.08
-.03
Vigor
.08
-.01
.02
Fatigue
-.11
-.07
.04
Confusion-Bewilderment
-.18
-.08
-.18
HSCLTotal
-.13
-.12
-.09
Somatization
-.10
-.16
.0001
Obsession
-.12
-.08
-.10
Interpersonal
-.08
-.02
-.07
Depression
-.13
-.14
-.05
Anxiety
-.07
-.09
-.10
Love Scale Index
.13
.02
-.04
Verbal Expression
.12
-.01
-.01
Self-Disclosure
.06
-.04
-.13
Toleration
.01
.04
.02
Non-Material Evidence
.11
.08
-.01
Unexpressed Feelings
-.07
.06
.07
Material Evidence
.14
.16
.06
GPA
.03
-.10
.11
*=p<.05. **=p<.005.
***=p<.0005
i.
friendship network density (.14) or with NF-F boundary
density (-.03). Friendship network density was correlated
.24 (p<.05) with NF-F boundary density. As can be seen in
Table 7 and Table 8, the family/relative network density


143
Norms for the Descriptions of ParentsOn Fathers
Blatt et al.
Present
(1981)
Study
Females
Females
(n=87)
(n=
65)
Variables
M SD
M
SD
Item Scores:
Length of Descriptor
4.26 1.69
4.71
1.47
Conceptual Level
Scaled Scores:
4.83 1.71
5.13
1.20
Parent as Nurturing
__
0.32
6.35
Parent as Striving

0.24
3.13
Blatt et al.
Present
(1981)
Study
Males
Males
(n=40)
(n=52)
Variables
M SD
M SD
Item Scores:
Length af Descriptor
3.85 1.53
3.76 1.46
Conceptual Level
Scaled Scores:
4.96 1.40
5.02 1.10
Parent as Nurturing

-0.40 5.02
Parent as Striving

-0.29 2.88
Note: "" refers to unavailable data


13
Blatt and his associates have found the conceptual
level of object representations to be related to the
existence of both schizophrenia and depression. Blatt,
Brenneis, Schimek, and Glick (1976) used a precursor of the
system described in Blatt et al. (1981) to assess the object
representations portrayed in the human figure responses on
the Rorschach of normal (the Berkeley longitudinal sample)
and schizophrenic adolescents. They found, to nobody's
surprise, that when compared to the normal subjects,
schizophrenic adolescents had impaired object
representations, and that the greater the severity of the
disorder, the greater the developmental impairment observed.
A more intriguing and unexpected set of results was also
noted. For moderately disturbed adolescents in the
schizophrenic group, the level of object representations was
greater than for normal subjects at the same age when the
human figure response on the Rorschach was inaccurately
perceived (i.e., the response bore little resemblance to the
inkblot stimulus), but they scored at a lower conceptual
level of object representations when the human figure was
accurately perceived. More severely disturbed members of
the schizophrenic group showed uniformly lower conceptual
levels, regardless of the form quality of the response.
Blatt et al. (1976) speculated that the nature of the
schizophrenic person's interaction with the real,
interpersonal world had a large influence on that person's


59
network size is significantly larger (p<.0005) for the lower
density group than for the other two groups. In addition,
the DOM of the subjects' father is significantly higher
(p<.05) in the lower density group than in the higher
density group. Thus, Table 1 and Table 2 illustrate that
averaged conceptual level and total network density seem to
be unrelated to each other. This lack of relationship
between total network density and averaged conceptual level
is further substantiated by the -.05 correlation between
these two main variables (see Table 4).
Univariate Comparisons
In this section, the results pertaining to the second
hypothesis are presented. First, the intercorrelations
between the outcome measures and the major variables of
social networks and object relations, as well as life
change, are examined. Second, the influence of the control
variables, which include both the demographic variables and
the variables of length of the description (of the subjects
parents), number of items checked (NIC) and average
intensity (AIN) from the ICL, is analyzed. Additional
intercorrelations and other analyses are presented so as to
shed more light on the outcome of the central hypothesis.
It was predicted that the variables of life change,
total network size, total network density, and averaged
conceptual level would each be correlated with the four
outcome measures. Pearson product moment correlations were


OBJECT RELATIONS AND SOCIAL NETWORKS:
CORRELATES OF ADJUSTMENT DURING COLLEGE
BY
ROBERT PETER FORTNEY
A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE COUNCIL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN
PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR
THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
1984

Dedicated
to
that pursuit
which Aldous Huxley termed
a quest for grace

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
I would like to express my gratitude to my chairman,
Dr. Hugh Davis, whose ironic vision and well-timed comments
and support have guided me through this project; the members
of my supervisory committee, Dr. Louis Cohen, Dr. Jacque
Goldman, Dr. Eileen Fennell, and Dr. Otto Von Mering, who
each contributed to the ideas found in this paper and whose
object representation will remain with me throughout my
professional career; Mark Waugh and Rebecca (Cooley)
Behrends, who kept me current with the research on object
relations theory; Sandi Jacot and Kathy Toohey for their
care and precision in collecting the data; Steve
Billingsley, who was willing to barter his computer
consultation time; Wesley Seidel, who taught me the
rudiments of word processing and who furnished me with the
necessary hardware; Sigmund Freud, who cautioned that the
discipline he founded should never become a healing cult;
and Teresa, who, after providing invaluable assistance in
the most tedious phases of this study and enduring a good
deal of relative deprivation during the past seven and a
half years, still knows what will not fade away.
in

TABLE OF CONTENTS
PAGE
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS i i i
LIST OF TABLES vi
ABSTRACT x
CHAPTER
ONE INTRODUCTION 1
Overview 1
Theoretical Considerations 4
Object Relations 7
Social Networks 19
Central Thesis: An Interactionist Model 26
Hypotheses 31
1. Interactional Effects 33
2. Univariate Comparisons 33
3. Outcome Measures 34
4. Life Change 35
5. Qualitative Factors and
I CL Dimensions 35
6. ICL Quadrants 35
TWO METHOD 36
Subjects 36
Measures 36
Category A. Measures of Life Change
and Demographics 36
Category B. Primary Measures .... 40
Category C. Measures of Mental Health 46
Procedure 49
THREE RESULTS 51
Interrater Reliability
and Normative Comparisons 51
Interactional Effects 55
Univariate Comparisons 59
Outcome Measures 96
- iv -

Life Change 97
Qualitative Factors and ICL Dimensions . 98
I CL Quadrants 100
FOUR DISCUSSION 103
The Hypotheses Reviewed 103
Two Conclusions 108
The Reevaluation of Conceptual Level . 109
The Reevaluation of Network Density . 114
Closing Remarks 118
APPENDICES
A. NETWORK DENSITY SCORESAN EXAMPLE . 121
B. CONSENT FORMS 124
C. DATA COLLECTION INFORMATION 134
Instructions Used in Data Collection . 134
Questions Asked by the Subjects and
the Answers Given by the Research
Assistants 138
D. DEMOGRAPHICS QUESTIONNAIRE 139
E. RELIABILITY AND NORMATIVE DATA 141
Reliability of the Descriptions of Parents 141
Norms for the Descriptions of Parents
On Mothers 142
Norms for the Descriptions of Parents
On Fathers 143
Norms for Social Networks 144
Norms for the CSRE 145
Norms for the POMS 146
Norms for the HSCL 147
Norms for the Love Scale 148
Norms for the ICL 149
REFERENCES 151
BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH 156
v

TABLE
LIST OF TABLES
PAGE
1. Means (M) and Standard Deviations (SD) of
Selected Variables for Three Groups of
Averaged Conceptual Level (CL) of
Object Representations 56
2. Means (M) and Standard Deviations (SD) of
Selected Variables for Three Groups of
Total Network Density 58
3. Summary of the Correlations Between the Outcome
Measures and the Variables of Life Change,
Total Network Size, Total Network Density,
and Averaged Conceptual Level 60
4. Correlation Matrix for the Variables of Life
Change, Total Network Size, Total Network
Density, and Averaged Conceptual Level ... 61
5. Correlation Matrix for the Outcome Measures . 62
6. Correlations Between the Subscales of the
Outcome Measures and the Conceptual
Level Scores 63
7. Correlations Between the Subscales of the
Outcome Measures and the Variables of Life
Change, Total Network Size, and Total
Network Density 65
8. Correlations Between the Subscales of the
Outcome Measures and the Variables of
Family/Relative Network Density, Friendship
Network Density and Nuclear Family-Friendship
(NF-F) Boundary Density 68
9. Summary of the Differences on Nuclear Family-
Friendship (NF-F) Boundary Density for the
Subjects who Lived at Home versus the
Subjects who Lived Away from Home
70

10.
Correlations Between the Qualitative Factors
of "Parent as Striving" and "Parent as
Nurturant and the ICL Dimensions
(DOM and LOV) 73
11. Correlations Between the Subscales of the
Outcome Measures and the Variables of
"Parent as Striving" and "Parent
as Nurturant" 74
12. Correlations Between the Subscales of the
Outcome Measures and the ICL Dimensions
(DOM and LOV) 76
13. Correlations Between the Variables of "Parent as
Striving" and "Parent as Nurturant" and the
Variables of Life Change, Total Network Size,
Total Network Density, and Averaged Conceptual
Level 78
14. Correlations Between the ICL Dimensions (DOM and
LOV) and the Variables of Life Change, Total
Network Size, Total Network Density, and
Averaged Conceptual Level 79
15. Correlation Matrix for the Demographic Variables 81
16. Correlations Between the Demographic Variables
and the Description Length Scores .... 82
17. Correlations Between the ICL Control Variables
(Number of Items Checked, NIC, and Average
Intensity, AIN) and the Demographic and
Description Length Variables 84
18. Summary of the Correlations Between the
Demographic Variables and the Variables
of Life Change, Total Network Size, Total
Network Density, and Averaged
Conceptual Level 85
19. Correlations Between the Subscales of the
Outcome Measures and the Demographic
VariablesPart A (Age, Class, Sex,
and SES) 86
20. Correlations Between the Subscales of the
Outcome Measures and the Demographic
VariablesPart B (Employed, Credits,
and Domicile) 87
vi 1

21.
Correlations Between the Qualitative Variables
of Object Relations and the Demographic
Variables--Part A (Age, Class, Sex,
and SES) 88
22.Correlations Between the Qualitative Factors
of Object Relations and the Demographic
VariablesPart B (Employed, Credits, and
Domicile) 89
23. Correlations Between the Description
Length Scores and the Variables of
Life Change, Total Network Size, Total
Network Densiy, and Averaged
Conceptual Level 90
24. Correlations Between the Subscales of the
Outcome Measures and the Description
Length Scores 91
25. Correlations Between the Descriptions Length
Scores and the Qualitative Variables of
Object Relations 92
26.Correlations Between the ICL Control Variables
(NIC and AIN) and the Variables of Life
Change, Total Network Size, Total Network
Density, and Averaged Conceptual Level ... 93
27. Correlations Between the Subscales of the
Outcome Measures and the ICL Control
Variables (NIC and AIN) 94
28. Correlations Between the ICL Control Variables
(NIC and AIN) and the Qualitative Variables
of Object Relations 95
29. Reactivity of the Outcome Measures as Seen in
Linear Regression Models with the Independent
Variables of Life Change, Total Network
Density, and Averaged Conceptual Level of
Object Representations 97
30. Linear Regression Scores for the Variables
of "Parent as Striving" and "Parent as
Nurturant" and the ICL Dimensions
(DOM and LOV) 99
31. Relationships Between the Quadrants of the
ICL and Outcome 101
- viii

Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate Council
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy
OBJECT RELATIONS AND SOCIAL NETWORKS:
CORRELATES OF ADJUSTMENT DURING COLLEGE
By
Robert Peter Fortney
August, 1984
Chairman: Hugh Davis, Ph.D.
Major Department: Department of Clinical Psychology
The interactionist model assumes that psychological
adjustment is a funtion of the relationship between
personality and social variables. The present study
attempted to demonstrate that people with lower conceptual
levels of object representations would function best in
higher density networks, while those with higher conceptual
levels would be best adjusted in lower density networks.
Deviation from the adaptive equilibrium of this inverse
relationship was expected to result in greater subjective
distress (e.g., poorer mood, more symptoms) and impairment
in the areas of love and work.
The study involved 65 female and 52 male undergraduate
students. The subjects completed, in succession, a
demographics questionnaire, the College Schedule of Recent
Events, a 5-minute written description of their mother and

another of their father (which were scored for conceptual
level of object representations, verbal fluency, and the
qualitative factors of "parent as nurturant" and "parent as
striving"), the Interpersonal Checklist for mother and
another for father, the Social Network List and the Social
Network Map (which were scored for network density), the
Profile of Mood States, the Hopkins Symptom Checklist, and
the Scale of Feelings. Also, their grade point average
(GPA) was collected at the end of the term.
Although conceptual level was reliably rated and most
other variables were consistent with the normative data
presented in earlier studies, the central hypothesis was not
supported. The expected inverse relationship between
conceptual level and network density was not found, nor were
larger deviations from this inverse relationship associated
with poorer scores on the outcome measures. Contrary to
expectations, conceptual level was unrelated to outcome, and
higher, rather than lower, density networks were correlated
with better mood scores.
Two main conclusions are suggested. First, the
conceptual level variable used in the current study does not
adequately summarize the aspects of intrapsychic structure
which are sensitive to psychopathology. Second, the
adaptive value of network density probably varies more in
relation to the psychosocial concerns of the individual than
had previously been reported in the literature.

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
Overview
The present dissertation was a study of how the
interaction between certain personality and social variables
was related to the individual's state of psychological
adjustment. The following is an overview of this
dissertation's organization.
The main body of the introductory chapter begins with
the section entitled "Theoretical Considerations" in which
some of the theoretical assumptions underlying this study
are delineated. The argument is advanced that personality
and social variables must be examined in unison so as to
fully account for the vicissitudes of psychological
development. The section ends with a synopsis of the
study's central hypothesis.
The relevant personality and social variables, whose
interaction form the crux of the central hypothesis, are
presented in the next two sections. In the first of these
sections, entitled "Object Relations", the variables that
are derived from the subjects' descriptions of their parents
are introduced. The most important of these variables is
the conceptual level of the subjects' object representations
1

2
(i.e. the subjects image of their parents). The conceptual
level, as a developmental variable, is thought to denote the
maturational level of the subjects' ability to accurately
perceive and act on their environment. After this variable
is defined, the research that relate conceptual level to the
type and severity of psychopathology is presented. The
variables that provide a more qualitative assessment of
object representations are described at the end of this
section.
In the section entitled "Social Networks" the concept
of network density and the research relevant to it are
introduced. The total density of the subjects' social
network, which is conceptualized in this study as a
developmental variable, serves as the social variable in the
interactional paradigm.
In the next section the central hypothesis is put
forth. This section ends with a discussion of the
population, which is college students, and their suitability
for this study.
In the "Hypotheses" section, a summary is presented of
the six hypotheses tested in this study. Although the
primary focus of this study is on the central hypothesis,
five other hypotheses are proposed. These five auxiliary
hypotheses are designed to ascertain whether or not the
population behaved in a predictable manner.

3
The method section forms the second chapter of this
dissertation. In this chapter a description of the
subjects, the measures, and the procedure used in this study
is provided. The section entitled "Measures" is divided
into three categories. In Category A, the demographic and
life change measures are presented. Category B is devoted
to those measures which assess the relevant personality and
social variables. The outcome measures are introduced in
Category C.
In the third chapter the results of the data analyses
are summarized. This chapter is divided into two main
components. The first component, which encompasses the
section entitled "Interrater Reliability and Normative
Comparisons", is designed to show that the results in the
current study are reliably rated and are consistent with the
results reported in the literature. The second component
consists of six sections, with each section corresponding to
one of the six hypotheses described at the end of Chapter 1.
Thus, the findings pertaining to the first hypothesis are
summarized in the result section entitled "Interactional
Effects", and the findings for the five auxiliary hypotheses
are each summarized in one of the five succeeding sections.
The fourth chapter is a discussion of the unexpected
and somewhat challenging results of the current study and
the implications these results have for future research on
object relations and social networks. In the first section,

4
the status of each of the hypotheses is considered in light
of the results, with particular attention focused on the
central hypothesis. In the next section, the discrepancy
between the results of the central hypothesis and the five
auxiliary hypotheses are considered. Two main conclusions
are drawn. These conclusions are articulated in greater
detail in the next two sections. The first section pertains
to object representations while the other section pertains
to network density. In the last section, the implications
of this study are set forth, with suggestions given for
future research.
Theoretical Considerations
Most theories of personality ascribe to the principle
of structuralization, whereby interpersonal relationships
serve as a model and an impetus for intrapsychic
organization (Loevinger, 1976). In particular,
psychoanalytic theories articulate how patterns of
child-parent interactions during the first several years of
development serve as the foundation for intrapsychic
representations of self and other. In turn, these "object"
representations serve as a structure of expectations to be
used in organizing and directing subsequent interactions
with people. While it seems obvious that these early
patterns of interactions form the foundation for and have a
fundamental influence on later personality development, one
cannot treat the object representations formed after

5
childhood in a serendipitous fashion. Indeed, the work of
Sullivan (1953), Erikson (1950), and developmental theorists
have lengthened the "formative years" to include the
adolescent period and beyond. These theorists, however,
have concentrated on the structural characteristics and
requirements of the developing individual, without defining
the structural qualities of the person's ongoing
interpersonal relationships. In a way, the more the
internal representations of objects are specified and
delineated, the more the structural nature of the person's
social environment needs to be articulated. In sum, both
internal and external patterns of interpersonal
representations are necessary for describing the process of
structuralization, a process which continues throughout
life.
Most structural theories imply that the developing
individual perceives and processes only those interpersonal
expectations which can be organized by his or her current
level of object representations. This "selective
inattention", to use Sullivan's term, to parts of the
objective situation accounts for a certain degree of
stability or, at least, slowness of change of the
individual's personality structure. For change in object
representations to take place, the individual must come into
contact with "pacers", which are "stimulus objects of a
level of complexity" (Loevinger, 1976, p. 309) slightly

6
greater than those represented within the individual.
Hence, "as the person maintains contact with and thus
masters a pacer, his own level of complexity grows and he is
ready for a new, more complex pacer" (Loevinger, 1976,
p. 309). In other words, no interpersonal development
occurs unless the individual has access to the proper
interpersonal structure. At the same time, one cannot fully
account for the development of psychopathology in an
individual unless the strutural inadequacies of that
individual's interpersonal world are defined. Thomas and
Chess, in describing the necessity of an interactionist
model to explain the dynamics of development, have used the
terms "goodness of fit" and "poorness of fit".
Goodness of fit results when properties of the
environment and its expectations and demands are
in accord with the individual's own capacities.
When this consonance between organism and
environment is present, optimal development in a
progressive direction is possible. Conversely,
poorness of fit involves discrepancies and
dissonances between the individual's capacities
and environmental opportunities and demands, so
that distorted development and maladaptive
functioning occur. Goodness of fit is never an
abstraction, but is always formulated in terms of
the values, demands, and expectations of a given
culture or socioeconomic group. (Thomas and Chess,
1980, p. 234)
The present study used this concept of fitness as a
schema for positing a pattern of interaction between a
person's conceptual level of object representations, both
along structural and qualitative dimensions, and the
structure of that person's social network. The "fitness" of

7
this pattern of interaction was to account for the mental
health (i.e., the degree of personal distress and the
ability to love and work) of an individual during a
particular period in life, which, in this case, was during
college. This study was made possible by recent research in
the assessment of object representations and social
networks. These lines of research, which have developed in
relative independence of each other, have been integrated
within the present study in a way which seemed germane to
describing some of the developmental tasks faced by
individuals who were in college, individuals who were
essentially in a prolonged adolescence.
Object Relations
One the impediments to research on object
representations has been the lack of a reliable system for
assessing these internal structures. Blatt and his
associates at Yale have tried within the past several years
to develop such a system. A major stimulus for their
system, besides, psychoanalytic theory, has come from the
cognitive-developmental theories of Werner and Piaget, among
others. Werner has proposed "an orthogenetic principle
which states that wherever development occurs it proceeds
from a state of relative globality and lack of
differentiation to a state of increasing differentiation,
articulation, and hierarchic integration" (Werner, 1972,
p. 47). He noted that with increasing self-other

8
differentiation, the developing individual gradually becomes
less dominated by the immediate concrete situation and less
impelled by internal affective states. The person is
increasingly able to delay action and to understand the
needs and motives of other people. This increasing freedom
permits more task mastery and social competence. Similarly,
Piaget (1954) has described the sequence through which a
child passes in the development of a concept of object.
Although Piaget's work has largely been based on the study
of children's responses to inanimate objects, the process by
which the developing individual comes to relate to human
objects must be similar. After all, what was of importance
in the present study was not to uncover what personality
structure is but rather what it does; ego is not a thing but
a process (Loevinger, 1976). An important theme derived
from Piaget was how the child in each successive stage of
cognitive development has the ability to represent the
object in increasingly more abstract terms, less bound by
the stimulus properties of the object. As the
representation of the object becomes more symbolic, it
becomes more permanent and stable. Repeated contacts with
the real object are no longer necessary to maintain the
coherency of the representation. The room for merger
between the self and other representations is, with this
increase in boundaries, greatly reduced. The person is less
likely to confuse his or her own feelings and needs with

9
those of other people. Hence, as the self-system becomes
more distinct from its inner objects, it becomes better
equipped, more cohesive and more resilient, to handle the
strum und dranq of everyday life. Finally within Piagetian
theory, complete development of object representations does
not take place until adolescence, and, according to some
data (Rowe and Marcia, 1980), the completion of this
development is by no means assured for every individual.
Blatt, borrowing from Werner and Piaget, used the
notion that object representations "proceed from amorphous,
global representations, to a somewhat differentiated
emphasis on part properties, to representations which are
highly articulated and integrated, and closely correspond to
reality" (Blatt, 1974, p. 142) as the basis for describing
his conceptual levels of object representations. In
general, beginning conceptual levels are based on actions of
the (human) object that are related to the individuals need
gratification, intermediate levels are based on specific
perceptual features of the object, and later levels are
based on more symbolic and "conceptual" inner
characteristics of the object. More specifically, Blatt,
Chevron, Quinlan, and Wein (1981) have created a system for
assessing five distinct levels, or milestones, in the
development of the concept of object representations. They
place these five conceptual levels on a scale from one
through nine. The protocols to be scored are drawn from the

10
subject's description of his or her mother and father,
though the protocols could also be figures from the Thematic
Apperception Test (TAT) stories or human responses on the
Rorschach. The conceptual levels of object representations
are based on the following five categories. Note that four
of the nine conceptual level scores are substages between
one the five categories. These four transitional levels
transcend the criteria for one category but do not quite
fulfill the criteria for the next.
1. Sensorimotor-Preoperational (score 1)
The stimulus object is described in terms of his or her
actions as these activities and functions relate to the
gratification and frustration of the subject. The
description focuses on the direct value that the person has
for the subject. There is little sense of the person as a
distinct or separate individual, but rather that the person
is only an agent who makes the subject feel good or bad.
2. Concrete-Perceptual (score 3)
Here, the person is described as a separate entity but
only in literal, concrete, and global terms. Hence, the
description is often in physical terms, describing what the
person looks like. Little emphasis is placed on the part
properties or non-physical attributes of the person, but
rather the person is represented as a literal, concrete
totality.

11
3. External Iconic (score 5)
The person is described in terms of his or her
activities and functions, but, in contrast to
sensorimotor-preoperational representations, these
activities and functions are uniquely the other person's and
are described as having little or no direct reference to the
subject's gratification or frustration. External iconic
representations appear to be the normative level for college
students in the sample reported by Blatt et al. (1981), with
a scaled score standard deviation of 1.5.
4. Internal Iconic (score 7)
The person is described in terms of partial attributes
or features that are directed toward an inner dimension.
What the person does in terms of functions and activities is
not important, rather the focus is on what the person
thinks, feels, and values.
In both iconic levels the description of the person is
mostly one-sided, unidimensional, and unintegrated. There
is little or no recognition of complexity, varying levels,
subtlety, or development over time.
5. Conceptual (score 9)
The description at this level integrates all the
previous levels in a way which forms a complex synthesis of
the varying levels upon which a person can be experienced
and understood. There is often an appreciation of the
person in time and of the changes and variations which can

12
occur in that person. Inner dimensions are appreciated in
their own right and are contrasted with external qualities.
Although the description may incorporate concrete and
literal terms and reference may be made to the person's need
gratifying and frustrating impact on the subject, these
aspects are integrated to form a cohesive and
multidimensional image of the person, an image wherein
apparent contradictions are resolved in the service of a
larger synthesis.
Blatt et al. (1981) are not attempting to describe
intellectual or cognitive development (Piagets goal), but
rather they strive to describe the development of the
subject's interpersonal perception. These conceptual levels
denote the capacity the individual has to organize,
experience, and act upon the world of people. Because most
psychological disorders develop as a response to
interpersonal conflicts, the individual's conceptual level
of representing human objects is hypothesized as being
associated with the occurence of psychopathological
symptoms. This is not to say that the development of
cognitive abilities and interpersonal perception are
unrelated. It would be difficult to imagine someone having
achieved a "conceptual" level score without having also
arrived at the cognitive stage of formal operations. The
degree of horizontal decalage (or lag in abilities within a
stage) that might exist between cognitive and personality
development is for another study to determine.

13
Blatt and his associates have found the conceptual
level of object representations to be related to the
existence of both schizophrenia and depression. Blatt,
Brenneis, Schimek, and Glick (1976) used a precursor of the
system described in Blatt et al. (1981) to assess the object
representations portrayed in the human figure responses on
the Rorschach of normal (the Berkeley longitudinal sample)
and schizophrenic adolescents. They found, to nobody's
surprise, that when compared to the normal subjects,
schizophrenic adolescents had impaired object
representations, and that the greater the severity of the
disorder, the greater the developmental impairment observed.
A more intriguing and unexpected set of results was also
noted. For moderately disturbed adolescents in the
schizophrenic group, the level of object representations was
greater than for normal subjects at the same age when the
human figure response on the Rorschach was inaccurately
perceived (i.e., the response bore little resemblance to the
inkblot stimulus), but they scored at a lower conceptual
level of object representations when the human figure was
accurately perceived. More severely disturbed members of
the schizophrenic group showed uniformly lower conceptual
levels, regardless of the form quality of the response.
Blatt et al. (1976) speculated that the nature of the
schizophrenic person's interaction with the real,
interpersonal world had a large influence on that person's

14
ability to access appropriate object relational features.
In response to an interpersonally threatening world most
schizophrenic individuals prefer to remain in what, for the
moderately disturbed, seems to be a highly articulated and
well-integrated fantasy world and to relate to the real
world on the basis of a more primitive level of object
representations. Lidz (1978) has remarked that for many
people the onset of schizophrenic symptoms occurs when they
enter into the stage of formal operations. The increase in
cognitive egocentrism, which accompanies the entrance into
every new cognitive stage, is especially great at this stage
because formal operations permit one to create hypothetical
possibilities, to imagine real outcomes without having to
test them out. Lidz suggests that "the egocentric aspects
of formal operations are overcome through increasing
socialization" (Lidz, 1978, p. 85). Without this
socialization (its absence might occur for various reasons)
predisposed individuals can develop schizophrenic symptoms.
Hence, these individuals may form higher conceptual levels
of object representations (based on advanced cognitive
ablilities) which can only be manifested in a distorted
fashion. If a stable, trusting relationshipthe main goal
in treating someone who is schizophreniccan be formed, the
patient may be able to use this higher level of object
representations in dealing with the real world. Of course,
for "poor premorbid" individuals, who never reach the stage

15
of formal operations, one can expect a more primitive form
of object representations to be used in relating to both the
fantasy and the real world. For many, however, the full
expression of any conceptual level of object representations
appears to be integrally linked to the nature of the
person's interpersonal environment. Incidentally, Blatt et
al. (1976) were also able to use their system to trace the
progressive development of object representations in normal
individuals over time.
Blatt, Wein, Chevron, and Quinlan (1979) investigated
the relationship between object representations (scored
according to the procedure of Blatt et al., 1981) and the
intensity and type of depressive experience in a normal
sample of college students. Blatt (1974) has divided
depressive episodes into two types: anaclitic and
introjective. In anaclitic depression, the person who needs
continual contact with other people in order to maintain
gratification and a sense of self becomes depressed when a
significant object loss is experienced. Introjective
depression, on the other hand, is characterized by feelings
of being unlovable rather than unloved, of having failed to
live up to the high expectations and standards of the
introjected (or partially assimilated) other. This
depression results not from abandonment or neglect, but is a
function of demanding, ambivalent, depreciatory, and hostile
child-parent interactions. Blatt (1974) reasoned that

16
introjective depression implies a higher form of object
representations than does anaclitic depression, because
guilt involves the capacity to be self-reflective, to accept
responsibility, and to have some sense of self. Blatt et
al. (1979) used the Depressive Experience Questionnaire
(DEQ) to measure the type of depression. The DEQ produced
three dimensions (dependency, self-criticism, and efficacy)
which permitted four classifications (in order of decreasing
intensity: anaclitic=high dependency, mixed=high dependency
and high self-criticism, introjective=high self-criticism,
and nondepressed=high efficacy). Incidentally, Blatt,
D'Afflitti, and Quinlan (1976) reported that the DEQ factors
are significantly correlated with independent measures of
depression (for instance, the self-criticism factor of the
DEQ correlates significantly with only those 14 items on the
Zung Depression Scale which measure the primary factor of
"Loss of Self-Esteem", while the dependency factor
correlates with the 5 Zung items that assess the more
noncognitive, somatic-vegetative signs of depression, and
the efficacy factor correlates with the 4 items which
signify hopefulness and optimism). Blatt et al. (1979)
found that the conceptual level of object representations,
based on the subjects description of mother and father, was
in a direct, inverse, relationship with type and severity of
depression, such that anaclitically depressed subjects
reflected the lowest levels and nondepressed subjects had

-li
the highest conceptual levels. Thus, lower conceptual
levels appear to be associated with an increased risk of
psychopathology.
In addition to the conceptual level of object
representations, Blatt et al. (1981) also score the
subject's view of the person for twelve qualitative
characteristics (e.g., the degree to which the person is
seen as nurturant, intellectual, punitive, constructively
involved, and so on), as well as the degree of ambivalence
the subject has toward the person. These characteristics,
when factor analyzed, load on two primary dimensions:
"parent as nurturant" (which accounts for 40 percent of the
variance) and "parent as striving" (29 percent of the
variance). These two factors bear close resemblance to the
affiliation and power dimensions proposed by Leary (1957) as
part of his interpersonal system of diagnosis.
Using Sullivan's conceptualization of personality as an
interpersonal manifestation, Leary and his associates at the
Kaiser Foundation in the 1950's constructed a system that
located behavioral interactions between people on a
two-dimensional "circumplex". Interpersonal behavior is
organized on this circumplex in 8 adjectival categories
arranged in a circular array around the orthogonal axes of
Love-Hate (LOV) and Dominance-Submission (DOM). Despite
Foa's (1961) comment that Leary's circumplex was first
formulated on a more or less intuitive basis (adjectives

18
were collected and arranged in a circular pattern) prior to
developing ways of measuring this circumplex, research has
tended to support the validity and universality of Leary's
conceptualization. Lange (1970), in attempting to validate
a measurement devicethe Interpersonal Checklist
(ICL)used to assess placement on Leary's circumplex,
obtained results which supported the notion that 2 bipolar
dimensions (DOM and LOV) are arranged according to Learys
original thesis. Other attempts to develop ways of
analyzing interpersonal behavior, such as Foa's facet
analysis, Schutz's Firo-B, or Berzins' use of the
Personality Research Form (PRF) in the Indiana Matching
Study bear a close relationship to Leary's circumplex and
can easily be reduced to it (Berzins, 1977). In short, it
was thought that the incorporation of the ICL in the present
study offered a way of obtaining concurrent validity for the
qualitative factors of object representations produced by
the system of Blatt et al. (1981). In addition, the ICL had
the ability to provide additional descriptive data as well
as providing variables which are sensitive to the socially
desirable response sets that can be given to test protocols
(LaForge, 1976).
Thus, the system devised by Blatt et al. (1981)
appeared to have adequately measured a person's degree of
structural intrapsychic organization, and both their system
and the ICL seemed able to capture the interpersonal

19 -
qualities of that organization. What was needed, however,
was a procedure for analyzing the structural characteristics
of the on-going social network within which the individual
lives.
Social Networks
The work on the structural properties of social
networks done during the past 25 years by such
anthropologists as Barnes, Bott, and Boissevain appears to
have supplied the materials for this procedure. More
recently, their work has found its way into psychological
research through two studies by Hirsch (1979a, 1979b). The
ease with which certain facets of network analysis have been
transferred across disciplines probably can be attributed to
the level of analysis employed by these anthropologists.
Namely, their analysis focuses on the individual and the
exchanges which take place between individuals, as opposed
to focusing on the attributes of the culture as a whole.
Thus, the impact of the group on the individual can be
studied without losing individual differences.
Many researchers feel that density is the most
important structural component of a network of individuals
(Hirsch, 1979a), and density was the key network variable
examined in the present study. A social network is defined
by Mitchell (1969) as "a specific set of linkages among a
defined set of persons, with the . property that the
characteristics of the linkages as a whole may be used to

20
interpret [the] social behavior of the person involved"
(p. 2). For the purposes of this study, the social network
was composed of those people who the subject felt were, at
the time of the study, a source of support, encouragement,
or guidance. Density is commonly defined as the number of
perceived relationships among members of the subject's
social network over the total number of possible
relationships among those members. Therefore, a lower
density network is one where most of the members of an
individual's network are viewed as having a relationship
with one another. All measurements are based on the
subject's perception of whether a relationship exists or not
between the members.
Hirsch (1979b) examined college students' satisfaction
with the social support they received from their social
network as a function of density. Although higher density
networks, or "extended families", were thought by many
college students to be socially desirable (many students
with lower density networks even apologized because their
associates did not know one another), lower density networks
clearly provided more satisfying support for those students
who had them. Goldstein (1978), in studying the social
networks of first year dental students, also found, contrary
to his expectations, that higher levels of support were
associated with lower network density. How can this
counter-intuitive finding be explained? Hirsch (1979a)

21
suggested that "in order to minimize the possibility of
offending individuals involved in intra-network conflict,
high density NSS [natural support system] members tend to
provide more ambiguous and superficial feedback, decreasing
its supportive value" (p. 4). In more psychodynamic terms,
such "feedback" would tend to promote the individual's
egocentricity, giving rise to interpersonal distortions, at
a time when the individual needs "consentual validation".
As a result, the individual would become more deviant in a
network (high density) which tolerates little deviation,
thus increasing the "poorness of fit".
To further examine the relationship among higher and
lower density networks, Hirsch (1979a) studied two groups of
women who were in the process of adapting to a major life
change. One group was composed of older women (mean age=37)
who were attempting to go back to college, while the other
was made up of recently widowed women (mean age=46).
Because these women had families, he especially focused on
their nuclear family-friendship (NF-F) boundary density,
that is the number of relationships reported to exist
between the subject's nuclear family members and subject's
friends, divided by the total number of possible
relationships. The influence of the density rating is
increased because shared variance is removed (nearly
everyone reports that the members of their nuclear family
have relationships with one another). Of note, the NF-F

22
boundary density was not related to the overall amount of
life change encountered by these women. Hirsch also
examined the multidimensionality (i.e., the diversity and
complexity of interpersonal exchange) of the relationships
between the subject and the people in their social networks.
He found that subjects with higher density networks, as
opposed to those with lower density ones, had fewer
multidimensional friendships and smaller total networks,
with fewer friends in their networks. This set of results
implies that higher density, "extended families", are more
homogeneous, offer less varied interactions, and are
composed of fewer individuals. The "complex", lower
density, social network seems to provide more diverse
activities and interactions with a greater number of people.
Subjects in higher density networks reported significantly
lower satisfaction with supports, more psychological and
physical symptoms, poorer overall mood, and lower
self-esteem than those in less dense networks. These
results are intriguing, considering that conventional wisdom
would seem to suggest that, in times of stress, a closely
knit unit of family and friends ought to promote mental
well-being. Why, then, does a lower density network turn
out to be more adaptive for this set of women? Hirsch
(1979a) points out that these women, in order to cope
successfully with this major change in their life (i.e., the
loss of their spouse, or re-entering college), were required

23
to reorganize their familial role in such a way as to make
the family a less important source of social support. Thus,
they needed a support system that could permit intensified
involvement outside the nuclear family. The "extended
family" provided less opportunity for change because its
lower density offered fewer outlets for alternative
interpersonal behaviors. Not only were the women more
"locked-in", but there was less temporary refuge from the
pre-existing conflicts found in commonplace familial roles
and relationships. The "complex" network, because of its
greater differentiation of friends from family, allowed the
woman the chance to see herself in a diversity of social
contexts and roles and, thus, to find the interpersonal
identity which best worked for her. The reorganization was
less costly (in terms of threats to self-esteem which arose
when she had to try new interpersonal behaviors) in the
complex network because the diversity of structure meant
that established commitments to certain activities or
functions in a relationship could be changed without the
need to establish entirely new relationships. In other
words, a person with only unidimensional relationships would
have to establish new relationships in order to engage in
new functions or activities. In addition, someone with a
history of multidimensional relationships also had a greater
repertoire of experiences and probably more knowledge that

24
alternative relationships could work and be satisfying. In
sum,
the greater diversity of interests and segregation
of different spheres of activity characterizing
low density, multidimensional NSS can be seen to
serve as an insurance policy. This policy serves
to protect individuals from having problematic
changes in particular spheres of their lives
become too encompassing, threatening, and
debilitating. The policy provides rewarding
alternative social identities and activities,
facilitating a smoother reorganization of one's
life, at less psychic cost. (Hirsch, 1979a, p. 34)
This understanding of denser or more complex social
networks facilitating successful change and coping has also
been proposed by Merton (Coser, 1975) and more recently by
Pearlin and Schooler (1978). In summarizing the literature
on coping (which they defined as "that behavior which
protects people from being psychologically harmed by
problematic social experience", p. 2), Pearlin and Schooler
(1978) concluded that a larger scope and variety of coping
behaviors increased the likelihood those behaviors would be
effective. They also observed that effective coping
behaviors are unequally distributed in American society, so
that the affluent, the educated, and the men in this society
tend to make greater use of successful coping behaviors.
Coser (1975) applied some of Merton's ideas of "role-sets"
to the process of individuation. The distinction was made
between simple, or restricted, role-sets and complex
role-sets. In a simple role-set the members were usually
equal in status and were role partners. Most interactions

25
were made with the same people. Examples of simple
role-sets could be found in family or kinship groups, or
other higher density networks. Status in a complex role-set
was unequally distributed throughout the system and the
membership of the system was subject to change. Examples of
this system could be found in most white-collar job
situations. The complex role-set allowed for increased
relativity and perspective taking, and the person within it
was exposed to more contradictory expectations, more
differential interests, more observability by others, and
more opportunity to be both an authority figure to some and
a subordinate to others. Coser made the argument that
"individuality" was enhanced by complex role-sets and
differential social structures.
These writers who extolled the virtues of lower density
social networks may have been biased in their conclusions
because of the populations they worked with. It seemed
highly plausible that a lower density network could be
effective for middle-class, well-educated, adults living in
a post-industrial society. But for others, who are less
well-developed in a material, maturational, and
psychological sense this may not be true. In traditional
farming communities, a higher density social network can be
the difference between life and death for many subsistence
farmers. Children need an intact, highly integrated family
unit on which to base the foundations of development.

26
Sokolovsky, Cohen, Berger, and Geiger (1978) suggested that
former schizophrenic patients living in single-room
occupancy (SRO) hotels had fewer rehospitalizations if they
were integrated into higher density social networks. Hirsch
(1979a) also reported that higher density "pressure groups"
can be therapeutically successful in bringing about change
in certain individuals. He suggested that, "apparently,
therefore, the adaptiveness of dense NSS may vary
considerably depending on specific person-NSS
characteristics" (Hirsch, 1979a, p. 4). Thus, the need
existed to understand the interaction between the density of
social networks and the level of object representations.
Central Thesis: An Interactionist Model
The central thesis of the present study was that an
inverse relationship between the total density of a persons
social network and his or her conceptual level of object
representations would result in a goodness of fit. In other
words, the individual at a lower conceptual level would
require a higher density network to be sustained at an
optimal level of functioning. Similarly, a person with a
higher conceptual level would function best in a lower
density network. Deviation from the equilibrium of this
expected relationship would, therefore, result in greater
subjective distress (e.g., poorer mood, more complaints) and
impairment in the areas of love and work. The emphasis of
this model was not on predicting specific symptoms or

27
categories of psychopathology. Rather, the attempt here was
to describe some of the factors that are associated with a
more general sense of adaptiveness. The importance for
clinicians, however, was that changes in a person's
adaptiveness would probably influence his or her
help-seeking behavior. Jacobs and his associates (in a
series of studies, reported in Minter and Kimball, 1980)
have found that a combination of social and personality
characteristics (in this case, unresolved role crises,
social isolation, life stress, and an angry-defiant copy
style) was influential in increasing the likelihood that a
person would seek medical attention for the same symptoms
(upper respiratory illness and asthma) that another person
might ignore. Hence, the people seen by clinicians are
probably those who have suffered a negative change in their
state of adaptiveness.
The competing hypothesis was that lower density
networks create an optimal, healthy environment, regardless
of the level of a person's object representations.
Obviously, lower levels of object representations would have
contributed to some decrement in functioning, while higher
levels would have given rise to better adaptation. But,
overall, this alternative hypothesis held that higher
density networks would be uniformly restrictive. This
hypothesis, however, seemed to have denied any orthogenetic
notions of social networks, as well as any qualitative

28
changes that might have taken place in the development of
object representations.
Werner's orthogenetic principle can be applied to
social networks, in that a network also "proceeds from a
state of relative globality and lack of differentiation to a
state of increasing differentiation, articulation, and
hierarchic integration" (Werner, 1972, p. 47). Such is the
rhythm of living systems. A child begins with a network
density close to 1.00, since almost all the significant
others in the child's life probably have a relationship with
one another (even in cases of divorce, the child would
probably perceive his or her mother and father as having a
relationship with one another). Higher network density is
adaptive for this level of personality development. In
later phases of development, as the child enters school or
forms a "chumship" with a same-sex peer (Sullivan's
pre-adolescent period), network density decreases to about
.50 or .40. These figures are still considered "higher"
network density in comparison with the norm for later
developmental periods. "Adult" density scores hover between
.33 and .25 (personal communication, Hirsch, 1982). Thus,
optimal density corresponds to the period of development.
So, it seemed reasonable to propose that an individual
whose personality development had been arrested at an early
stage would have needed a social network with a reciprocal
level of density in order to have displayed optimal

29
functioning. A lower density network for a person with a
lower conceptual level of object representations would
probably have increased the likelihood that he or she would
have experienced overwhelming levels of ambiguity and
complexity (i.e., receiving a confusing variety of complex
responses from people) as well as having an intensified
feeling of social alienation (i.e., the feeling that people
in the network are not connected in any meaningful way).
Internally, the persons fragile sense of self would have
been left less cohesive and more fragmented, which would
have resulted in a decrement in this person's adaptation to
his or her environment. Likewise, following the principle
of relative deprivation, a functionally equivalent decrement
would have been expected for someone with a higher
conceptual level who lived in a higher density social
network. Such a combination would most likely have led to
regressive behavior in that person.
College students were chosen as the group upon which
the interactionist model was to be tested. Besides the
pragmatic aspects of availability offered by using this
population, the chief advantage to choosing college students
was that they were seen as facing a relatively homogeneous
set of psychosocial tasks. Also, the viability of this
interactionist model should have been particularly
highlighted when tested with people who were engaged in
tasks that involved making significant interpersonal
adaptations.

30
To this end, college students should be seen as being
adolescents (White, 1980). Their entry into the employment
market and the more formal responsibilities of adulthood
have been postponed. Instead, they enter a prolonged
transitional period in which the traditional tasks of
adolescence, which are emancipation from parents, sexual
adjustment, and vocational choice (Bios, 1941), can be
further elaborated and worked through. Hence, it is not
surprising that people who attend college become more
autonomous, flexible, complex, and tolerant of ambiguity,
less materialistic and dogmatic, and better able to be aware
of and to express their emotions than their peers who did
not attend college (Plant, 1965; Chickering and McCormick,
1973). At the same time, most students complete Erikson's
(1950) superordinate psychosocial task of adolescence by
having achieved a well-established identity by the time they
finish college (Waterman and Goldman, 1976). College,
therefore, seems to contribute a profound set of experiences
which promote the personality development of those who
attend. To extend the rite of passage into adulthood by
four years or more, however, creates the room for these
individuals to be involved in considerable stress and
strain. Therefore, this group of adolescents seemed ideally
suited for the requirements of the current study.

- 31 -
Hypotheses
Six hypotheses, which include the central hypothesis
and five auxiliary hypotheses, have been summarized below.
The central thesis of the current study, as described in the
previous section, was encapsulated in the the first
hypothesis.
The second hypothesis had two basic parts. In the
first part, four variables were predicted to be correlated
with the outcome measures. The four variables included the
two main variables (i.e averaged conceptual level and total
network density), plus two other variables (life change and
total network size) which had been shown in the literature
to possibly be correlated with the outcome variables. (Note
that the literature review for the variable of life change
appears in the next chapter under the heading "Measures".)
In the second part of this hypothesis, predictions were made
about the non-influence of certain demographic and control
variables. These predictions were made to expose any
moderator variables that may have had an influence on the
central hypothesis.
The third hypothesis was constructed to show that the
outcome measures behaved predictably within this study.
Smith and Glass (1977), in their meta-analysis of
psychotherapy outcome studies, reported that certain outcome
variables were more likely than others to be correlated with
the independent variables. Hence, predictions were made

- 32 -
about the reactivity of the four outcome measures in the
current study.
In the fourth hypothesis, the possible effects of life
change on the main variables were considered. Although the
prediction was made in the second hypothesis that the two
main variables (i.e averaged conceptual level and total
network density) would be independent of life change, the
effects of life change, or situation stress, are often
thought of as being so powerful as to be a main variable in
other studies (see the section on life change under the
heading "Measures" in the second chapter).
The two final hypotheses concerned the qualitative
factors derived from the written descriptions of parents and
the qualitative dimensions (DOM and LOV) from the ICL. The
predictions made in these two hypotheses were not directly
related to the central hypothesis. Instead, these
predictions served as a way of assessing the internal
consistency of the responses given by the subjects and,
thereby, could lend more creedence to the other results
within the current study. The first hypothesis was an
attempt to provide concurrent validity for the qualitative
factors of the written descriptions of parents by comparing
these factors to the corresponding ICL dimensions. In the
second hypothesis, the subjects' ICL scores were placed in
one of four quadrants of Leary's (1957) circumplex on the
basis of the of their DOM and LOV coordinates. The

- 33 -
prediction was made that certain quadrants would be
correlated more favorably with the outcome measures.
Hypothesis 1. Interactional Effects
As the central hypothesis, the total network density
and the averaged conceptual level of object representations
would be linked in an inverse relationship, whereby subjects
with higher conceptual levels would have lower density
networks and subjects with lower conceptual levels would
have social networks with higher density. Thus, subjects
who had greater deviations from the equilibrium of this
inverse relationship would have higher levels of personal
distress (i.e., poorer mood and more symptoms) and greater
impairment in love and work.
So that this interaction could be observed further, the
level of object representations was split into low, medium,
and high levels. Thus, for the lower levels of object
representations (scaled score=4.0 or lower), higher density
would be significantly correlated with better scores on the
measures of mental health. In the medium range (4.5-5.5) an
average level of density would be related to better
adjustment. And, for the higher levels of object
representations (6.0 or above), a lower density network
would be most adaptive.
Hypothesis 2. Univariate Comparisons
Subjects with higher levels of life change, smaller
total network size, higher total network density, and lower

34
averaged conceptual levels would have significantly higher
levels of personal distress and significantly greater
impairment in their ability to love and work.
Ideally, the variables of averaged conceptual level,
total network size, total network density, and life change
would be independent of all demographic variables, such as
age, sex, socio-economic status (SES), and so on. Likewise,
it was hoped that verbal fluency would be unrelated to the
conceptual level of object representations, and that the
variables on the ICL which are sensitive to response sets
(i.e number of items checked, or NIC, and average intensity,
or AIN) would not be correlated with the measures of mental
health.
Hypothesis 3. Outcome Measures
As with most correlations to measures of mental health,
the present study would demonstrate the total variance
(R-squared) explained by the major independent variables
(i.e averaged conceptual level and total network density),
in association with the variable of life change, to be
greater for the multiple linear regression models which use
the measures of subjective distress (a mood scale and a
symptom checklist) as their dependent variable than for the
model which uses a role performance variable (grade point
average). The total variance (R-squared) of the model using
the relationship measure as the dependent variable would
fall within the range of the total variance (R-squared) for
the other models. All models would be significant.

35
Hypothesis 4. Life Change
The correlation between total network density and the
measures of mental health and the correlation between the
averaged conceptual level of object representations and
mental health would still be significant after the effect of
life change had been partialed out.
Hypothesis 5. Qualitative Factors and ICL Dimensions
As an expression of the concurrent validity between the
qualitative dimensions of the object representations and the
interpersonal factors of the ICL, the striving factor would
be similar to the DOM dimension of the ICL for the same sex
parent. Likewise, the nurturant factor would correspond to
that of LOV on the ICL.
Hypothesis 6. ICL Quadrants
After the ICL dimensions of LOV and DOM were reduced to
their component parts, Love (L)-Hate (H) and Dominance
(D)-Submission (S), and four quadrants (DL, DH, SL, and SH)
were formed, the quadrants from the ICL for father would be
ranked so that, in ascending order, significantly better
scores on the mental health measures would be found with SH
(worst), SL, DH, and DL (best). In a similar fashion, the
quadrants of the ICL for mother would be ranked to that, in
ascending order, significantly better scores on the mental
health measures would be found within SH (worst), DH, SL,
and DL (best).

CHAPTER TWO
METHOD
Subjects
Of the 117 undergraduates at the University of Florida
who participated in the present study, 65 were female and 52
were male. They were all single and 18 to 23 years old
(average age=19.7 years). They stated that they had
attended this university during the Spring or Summer
semester of 1983 and that they were not in psychotherapy
while participating in the study.
Measures
Category A. Measures of Life Change and Demographics
The variables assessed in Category A (life change and
demographics) could obfuscate the hypothesized relationships
between the variables in Category B (level and quality of
object representations, density and size of social networks)
and those in Category C (degree of subjective distress and
success in love and work); hence the need to control for the
effects of these "given", life event, variables.
Life ChangeCollege Schedule of Recent Events (CSRE)
Andrews and Tennant (1978), in reviewing the literature,
concluded that increases in life change, or situation
stress, seem to be related to a higher incidence of
36

37
psychological disorders and physical illness. The effects,
however, are usually modest, which is consistent with
Andrews and Tennant's (1978) contention that life change
cannot be said to be the cause for nor does it appear to be
a major determinant of physical or psychological problems.
Life change is best viewed in terms of its contribution to
the psychological and physical states that foster the
development of ill-being. Life change probably demoralizes
a person and increases a person's need for the benefits of
social interaction (be it support or professional help). Of
particular relevance to the present study, Smith (1977) and
Molen (1978) have found that increased levels of life
change, situational stress, in college freshmen, junior
college students, and graduate nursing students have been
associated with decreases in functioning on a role
perfomance variable, namely grade point average (GPA). This
positive correlation between life change and GPA is weak but
significant in all the studies.
Hirsch (1979a) reported that a person's network density
was independent of his or her experience of life change.
The relationship between the conceptual level of object
representations and life change is unknown, though it was
hypothesized that they are independent. So, while it was
thought that the major determinants of maladaptiveness were
probably the intrinsic personality and sociodemographic
attributes of the person, the level of life change needed to
be controlled in the present study.

38
All of the above studies used the Holmes and Rahe
(1967) Schedule of Recent Events (SRE) or a reasonable
facimile thereof. Each event on this schedule was reduced
to a score (expressed in "life change units"LCU), which
was thought to represent that amount of disruption in a
person's life that resulted from the particular event. Some
of the 43 events on the SRE, however, were not appropriate
for most college students (e.g., "son or daughter leaving
home"). Anderson (1972) has developed the College Schedule
of Recent Events (CSRE) in response to this deficiency of
the SRE. The selection of these events and the LCU assigned
to each event was obtained by consensus from the opinions of
284 students, using a procedure which was identical to that
employed by Holmes and Rahe (1967). The results show high
agreement among all groups within the sample, with the
highest agreement being between college juniors and seniors
(.97) and the lowest between freshmen and graduate students
(.87). For males and females the agreement was .94. Two
studies (Marx, Garrity, and Bowers, 1975; Liao, 1977) have
used the CSRE to find the expected small but significant
relationship between higher levels of LCU and increased
incidence of health problems for college freshmen and second
year pharmacy students.
For purposes of this study the CSRE was modified
slightly; all items (a total of seven) which pertained to
being married were deleted because no subject in the present

39
study was married. Also, the subjects were asked to check
the number of times during the last nine months that any of
the events occurred to them. This time interval was
comparable with the interval Hirsch (1979a) had instructed
his subjects to use on the SRE.
Demographic Variables
Age. Only subjects between the ages of 18 and 23,
inclusive, were used in the study because students within
this range should have been concerned with the same
psychosocial tasks, as opposed to older or younger students.
Class. Subjects were asked if they were classified as
freshmen, sophomores, juniors, or seniors.
Sex. Note was made of the subjects sex. Edwards and
Thacker (1979) reported that the females in their study
obtained a higher GPA than the males.
Socioeconomic Status (SES). Hollingshead's Two Factor
Index of Social PositionThe ubiquitous effects of social
class differences are well known in the social sciences.
SES was measured in the traditional method, using
Hollingshead's Two Factor Index of Social Position
(Hollingshead, 1957). This instrument combines the
educational and occupational status of the "head of the
household" of the subject's family as a basis for placing
the subject in one of five classes of SES. People in Class
I were considered "upper class", those in Class II were
"upper-middle class", Class III represented "middle class",

40
Class IV indicated "lower-middle class", and the people in
Class V formed the "lower class".
Employed. Of interest here was whether or not the
subject was, at the time of the study, employed to help
finance his or her education. This financial necessity
could have produced an additional source of stress above and
beyond that tapped by the CSRE.
Credits. The amount of credits the subjects were
enrolled for during the semester of the study could have
varied widely. Those subjects taking an unusually heavy
load could have suffered as a result.
Domicile. Of concern here was whether or not the
subject lived with his or her parents while attending
college. It was thought that living at home could have
restricted the subjects' identity formation by inhibiting
their separation from their parents, which may have resulted
in a general decrease in psychological well-being.
Category B. Primary Measures
Object Representations
Procedure. The subjects were given a blank piece of
paper and asked to "describe your mother", with five minutes
allotted for the description. They were given another five
minutes to "describe your father". These descriptions were
then scored for the conceptual level and the qualitative
characteristics of the object representations. Verbal
fluency was also scored.

41
Conceptual Level. Each description was given a scale
score of 1-9 to denote the five conceptual levels. These
levels are sensorimotor-preoperational (scaled score=l),
concrete-perceptual (3), external iconic (5), internal
iconic (7), and "conceptual" (9), and a description of these
levels is provided on pages 10 through 12. The interrater
reliability given by Blatt et al. (1981) for scoring the
level of object representations ranged from .88 (between
expert rater and trained rater) to .70 (between expert rater
and untrained rater) to .85 (for all three raters).
Qualitative Characteristics. A written description of
parent was rated on each of 13 characteristics according to
the degree to which the subject was seen as attributing that
characteristic to his or her parent. Each characteristic
was rated on a scale from 1-7, with a score of 4 given when
the characteristic was not relevant or was too vaguely
described to be scored accurately. The 13 characteristics
were as follows.
(1.) Affectionatelittle affection=l, much affection=7
(2.) Ambitious-Drivingrelatively non-ambitious and
driving=l, strongly ambitious and driving of self and
others=7
(3.) Malevolent-Benevolentmalevolent=l, benevolent=7
(4.) Cold-Warmcold=l, warm=7
(5.) Degree of Constructive Involvement distinctive or
destructive, intrusive involvement=l, positive and

42
constructive involvement with encouragement of
autonomy and individuality=7
(6.) Intellectualnot at all=l, highly intellectual=7
(7.) Judgementalnon-judgemental=l, highly judgemental=7
(8.) Negative-Positive Idealnegative ideal=l, positive
ideal=7
(9.) Nurturantlow nurturance=l, high nurturance=7
(10.) Punitivenon-punitive=l, highly punitive=7
(11.) Successfulfailure=l, success=7
(12.) Weak-Strongextremely weak=l, extremely strong=7
(13.) Degree of Ambivalencelittle ambivalence=l, marked
ambivalence=3 (note this characteristic is only scored
1-3)
A more thorough description of each characteristic is found
in Blatt et al. (1981). The interrater reliability (alpha
coefficient) for all three raters ranged from .68 for
"affectionate" to .93 for "successful".
Blatt et al. (1981) found that these 13 characteristics
loaded on two factors. The first factor, parent as
nurturant, was composed of nurturance (factor loading=.90),
positive ideal (.90), benevolence (.88), warmth (.87),
constructive involvement (.84), affectionate (.80), strength
(.67), and successful (.65). The second factor, parent as
striving, was made up of judgemental (.90), ambitious (.89),
punitive (.88), intellectual (.82), ambivalence (.60),
successful (.48), and strength (.48). The scale scores for

43
parent as nurturant and parent as striving were formed by
summating the scale scores of the characteristics which
loaded on that factor. Overall, the nurturant factor and
striving factor had a reliability of .95 and .93,
respectively, for all three raters.
Verbal Fluency. This variable was arrived at by coding
the length of the typed description (e.g., 1-4 lines=l, 5-7
lines=2, 8-10 lines=3, . more than 19 lines=7). When
factor analyzed along with the 13 other characteristics,
verbal fluency formed a third, single-variable, factor. It
accounted for 8 percent of the total variance (Blatt et al.,
1981).
Interpersonal Checklist (ICL)
Description. The ICL has been found to be an efficient
means for measuring salient interpersonal dimensions, and it
has significantly outperformed several S-R scales in
predicting to criterion variables which measure
interpersonal behavior (Knudson and Golding, 1974). On the
ICL, a 134-item adjective checklist, the subject was asked
to circle those items which described the stimulus person
(in this case, mother or father). One-hundred and
twenty-eight of the items can either produce 16
interpersonal scores or be loaded on the 2 dimensions of
Love-Hate (LOV) and Dominance-Submission (DOM). The present
study used Form 4 of the ICL. The data were reduced to the
LOV and DOM scores so each subject could be sorted into one
of four quadrants.

- 44 -
Average Intensity (AIN) and Number of Items Checked
(NIC). These variables were used to check for response
sets. Each adjective was ranked (1-4) according to its
"intensity" of affective charge. For instance, "can be
obedient" had an intensity of 1, while "spineless" had an
intensity of 4 within the same category. The AIN consisted
of the weighed number of adjectives over the total number
checked. According to LaForge (1976), an AIN well above
2.00 represented a willingness to criticize the stimulus
person; whereas, an intensity well below 2.00 suggested a
tendency to idealize the person. AIN correlated -.74 with
social desirability (LaForge, 1976). NIC was simply a total
of the number of items endorsed by the subject. A very low
NIC usually indicated that the subject had only a
superficial engagement in the task or was describing someone
who was not well known to the subject.
Social Networks
Social Network List. This instrument was used to
obtain the size of the social network. The subjects were
asked to list up to 20 significant others in their life with
whom they had had contact with (in person, by phone or
letter) at least once in the prior 4-6 week period. These
significant others were to be listed in the three categories
of family members or relatives, friends, and professionals.
The instructions requested that the subjects list only those
people who were important sources of support, encouragement,

- 45 -
or guidance. In Hirsch (1979a) the average size of the
network was 14 people (family and relatives=6, friends=7,
and professional=l).
Support System Map. This instrument was used to
compute the density scores. The subjects were presented
with a blank piece of paper, except for the word "map" at
the top. They were instructed to put their name in the
middle. They were then to put those individuals they
mentioned on the Social Network List onto the map, putting
nearest to their own name those individuals whom they felt
"closest" to. For convenience sake, they were to put
friends on one side of the page, family members and
relatives on the other side, and professionals on the
bottom. The subjects were then asked to draw lines between
themselves and each person on the map. Next, they were
asked to draw a line between those individuals whom they
considered to have relationships with each other. The
formula for computing the density of the family and
relatives network, the friendship network, and the total
network was as follows.
density=X/(N(N-l)/2)
where X=the number of actual relationships
between members of the
subject's network
N=number of people in the subject's
network.

46
The formula for nuclear family-friendship (NF-F) boundary
density was as follows.
NF-F boundary density=X/(NF)(F)
where NF=number of nuclear family members
F=number of friends
X=number of relationships existing
between the nuclear family
members and the friends.
An example of how these two formulas can be used for
computing the density scores of a hypothetical subject is
presented in Appendix A.
Category C. Measures of Mental Health
Subjective Distress
Profile of Mood States (POMS). The construct validity
of this 65-item instrument has been demonstrated in numerous
studies with both clinical and normal populations and across
levels of SES (McNair, Lorr, and Droppleman, 1971). Six
factors have been derived from the POMS: tension-anxiety,
depression-dejection, anger-hostility, vigor-activity,
fatigue-inertia, and confusion-bewilderment. A total mood
score was computed by subtracting scores on the
vigor-activity scale from the combined score on the other
five scales (equal weighting is given to all scales).
Subjects were asked to fill out the POMS according to "how
you usually feel".
Hopkins Symptom Checklist (HSCL). This instrument was
a 58-item scale which had been shown in many studies to have

47
construct validity for both clinical and normal populations
and across levels of SES (Derogatis, Lipman, Rickels,
Uhlenhuth, and Covi, 1974). Five factors have been
extracted from the HSCL: somatization, obsessive-compulsive
rumination, interpersonal sensitivity, depression, and
anxiety. A total symptom score was computed by combining
the scores on all five scales (each receiving equal
weighting).
Love (interpersonal exchange of positive affect)
Scale of Feelings and the Behavior of Love (Love
Scale). This instrument was a 120-item scale devised by
Swensen (1978) which can be used to rate the quality of any
relationship (e.g., with spouse, mother, father, or closest
friend of same or opposite sex). Six factors were produced
by the Love Scale: verbal expression of affection,
self-disclosure, toleration of the loved one, non-material
evidence, unexpressed feelings, and material evidence. A
total Love Scale score was computed by adding up the scores
on all six factors (equal weightings). Subjects in the
current experiment were asked to fill out the Love Scale on
the person whom they felt closest to.
The Love Scale was thought to have been especially well
suited for the current study. Grumper (1976) has found that
juvenile offenders at the post-conformist stages of ego
development have a higher score on the Love Scale for their
best friend than do juveniles at the pre-conformist levels

48
of ego development. Kohlhepp (1976) also found that whereas
the quality of the relationship as measured by the Love
Scale tends to decrease over the course of marriage for
spouses at the pre-conformist levels, the amount of "love"
expressed by spouses at the post-conformist levels increases
over the course of their marriage. Because ego development
was thought to be independent of psychopathology (Waugh and
McCaulley, 1981) and level of object representations was
related to psychopathology, the level of object
representations was proposed to have shown a similar, if not
stronger, relationship to the Love Scale than that reported
for ego development. Nickerson (1977) found that increased
expression of love was a function of Bales personality
factors of assertiveness (DOM) and positiveness (LOV), with
more assertive and positive spouses tending to express more
love to their spouses. Hence, subjects whose parents are in
the high DOM-high LOV quadrant were hypothesized to have a
tendency to score higher on the Love Scale. In addition,
Swensen (1978) reported that the expression of love (as
measured by the Love Scale) and marriage problems (as
measured by the Marriage Problem Scale) are two separate
orthogonal factors for normal couples. The POMS usually
correlated highly with lists of (marriage) problems. Hence,
the dimensions tapped by the POMS (and perhaps the HSCL) and
the Love Scale were thought to be different.

49
Work (role performance variable)
Grade Point Average (GPA). The most parsimonious means
of measuring the subjects' role performance as college
students was chosen to be their GPA for the semester.
Procedure
The subjects were solicited for the study from the
Introductory Psychology courses offered during the Fall
semester of 1982. They received research credit for their
participation, which was applied toward their final grade.
A copy of the consent forms are found in Appendix A.
Because no interview data was required, the subjects were
run in groups with up to five members in each. First, the
demographic data were collected. A copy of the demographic
questionnaire constructed for this study can be found in
Appendix B. Next, the subjects filled out, in sequence, the
College Schedule of Recent Events, description of mother,
description of father, ICL for mother, ICL for father,
Social Network List, Social System Map, POMS, HSCL, and Love
Scale. The total time for administering these instruments,
with breaks, was approximately 2 hours. The GPA was
obtained from the Registrar at the end of the semester.
Results were mailed to those who requested them. The data
were collected by two research assistants, who were trained
by the experimenter. The set of instructions used by the
assistants while conducting the data collection protocol can
be found in Appendix C. A record of the questions they were

50
asked by the subjects and the answers the assistants gave to
them are also found in Appendix C.
The descriptions of mother and father were scored
blindly by the experimenter. Fifty descriptions were
randomly selected and scored by an independent rater to
confirm the reliability of the scoring procedure. The 27
examples given by Blatt et al. (1981) were used as training
exercises. Special effort was paid to scoring the
conceptual level because of its importance in this study.
After the 50 descriptions were scored in the reliability
check, the experimenter and the independent rater reviewed
those descriptions on which they disagreed. An attempt was
made to achieve consensus on these differences. In
addition, the experimenter and the independent rater also
reviewed the conceptual level of the other dozen cases on
which the experimenter had some question.
A FORTRAN program was provided by LaForge (1976) for
reducing the raw data collected by the ICL. The subsequent
data analysis was handled by the the computerized
statistical analysis system (SAS, 1982) on an IBM 3081 at
the Center for Information Technologies of Stanford
University.

CHAPTER THREE
RESULTS
In the first section, the reliability correlations for
the written descriptions of parents are presented, followed
by a comparison of the mean scores of the measures used in
the current study with scores reported in previous studies.
In the last six sections, the results pertaining to the six
hypotheses are set forth.
Interrater Reliability And Normative Comparisons
The interrater reliability correlations for the 13
qualitative descriptors, the length of description, and the
conceptual level of the object representations in the
reliability sample (n=50) compared favorably with the
reliability intercorrelations reported in Blatt et
al. (1981). When the 13 qualitative descriptors were
reduced to the 2 main qualitative factors of "parent as
nurturant" and "parent as striving", the Pearson
product-moment correlations between the ratings of the
experimenter and those of the independent rater were .82 and
.71, respectively, for these 2 factors. The
intercorrelations for the length of descriptor was .98. On
the crucial ratings of conceptual level, the scores of the
experimenter and the independent rater correlated .88 with
51

52
each other, which was identical with the intercorrelation
that Blatt et al. (1981) found between the scores of their
"expert rater" and "trained rater". These results are
summarized in Appendix D.
In the present study, the scores derived from the
descriptions of parents, the social network scales, the
CSRE, the POMS, the HSCL, the Love Scale, and the ICL were
fairly similar to the scores expected from the normative
data provided by other authors. Very few significant
differences were found when these measures were compared
with the same measures in the previous studies.
Despite the exclusion of the items pertaining to
marriage, the average CSRE score was still significantly
higher in the current study than in Marx et al. (1975). The
distribution of scores in the two studies, however, was
almost identical, with 15 percent of the subjects being in
higher change group (i.e., they had scores which were one
standard deviation above the mean), as compared to 14
percent in Marx et al. (1975) and 10 percent in the lower
change group, as compared to 11 percent in the earlier
study.
Although the mean total symptom score on the HSCL was
higher for the present group of subjects (mean=68) than for
those in the normative sample (m=51) reported by Derogatis
et al. (1974), the HSCL scores in the present study were
closer to those found in Hirsch's (1979a) sample of recent

53
widows and women returning to college (m=72). Both samples
were significantly less than the mean score for the groups
of anxious neurotics (m=90) or depressed neurotics (m=103)
reported by Derogatis et al. (1974).
On the surface, the Love Scale scores, especially for
females, appeared to be quite different in the present
sample than in the norms provided by Swensen (1978). The
main difference seemed to have been that subjects in the
present study had far fewer "unexpressed feelings" (which
counted negatively toward the total score) than in the
earlier study. Perhaps, this difference was a reflection of
the relationships which were being rated by the subjects.
In the norms found in Swensen (1978), the subjects were
asked to rate their relationship with their closest opposite
sex friend, whereas in the present study they were
instructed to rate their relationship with the person to
whom they felt the closest. That females had higher scores
than males in the current study was not surprising
considering that 43 percent of the females chose to rate
their relationships with their fiance or boyfriend whereas
only 23 percent of the males had made this choice of
relationships.
Many of the scores derived from the ICL were
significantly different in the present study from the norms
offered by LaForge (1976). In particular, the number of
items checked (NIC) were 8-11 items fewer than expected.

54
The average intensity (AIN) of the adjectives checked was,
however, almost identical with the normative data. Although
the scores for the present study were sometimes different on
the LOV and DOM for mother and for father, the general
direction of the LOV and DOM scores and their relationships
with one another in the normative sample were maintained in
the current study.
The the scores derived from the descriptions of parents
were not significantly different in the present study than
from what had been given as norms in Blatt et al. (1981).
On the surface, the means for social networks appeared
to be very similar in the present study to those in Hirsch
(1979a). The size of the social network was 13.7 in the
present study, whereas, it was 13.9 in Hirsch (1979a). The
total network density was .26 in the current study, compared
to .27 in the earlier study. But, the density of the
nuclear family/relatives network was higher in the present
study (.85) than in Hirsch's (1979a) sample (.59). And, in
a similar fashion, the network of friends had slightly
higher density (.29) in Hirsch (1979a) than in the present
study (.23).
The normative comparisons mentioned above can be found
in Appendix D.
Next, the results pertaining to each of the hypotheses
are reported. Each of the following six sections
corresponds to one of these hypotheses.

55
Interactional Effects
It was proposed, as the central hypothesis of the
current study, that greater deviations from the equilibrium
of an inverse relationship between total network density and
the averaged conceptual level would result in poorer scores
on the outcome measures. Greater deviations from this
equilibrium, however, were not significantly correlated with
any of the four outcome measures. To obtain these results,
the total network density and the averaged conceptual level
scores were standardized in the form of z-scores. Then for
each subject, the z-score for the conceptual level was
subtracted from the z-score for network density. The
absolute value of this difference created an inverse
relationship between the scores, such that a final score of
zero would indicate a perfect fit between network density
and conceptual level (e.g., higher network density with
lower conceptual level) while a larger final score would
represent a more divergent interaction (e.g., lower network
density with lower conceptual level). This final score
correlated -.07 with the POMS, -.13 with the HSCL, .03 with
the Love Scale, and -.07 with GPA. Only the correlation
with GPA was in the expected direction. The final score was
not significantly correlated with any of the subscales on
the POMS, the HSCL, or the Love Scale.
To further elucidate this pattern of results, the
conceptual level scores were divided into three groups. The

56
subjects with an averaged conceptual level of 4.0 or less
were placed in the low group (n=27), while those subjects
with a conceptual level of 6.0 or more were placed in the
high group (n=27). The remaining subjects, whose averaged
scores ranged from 4.5 to 5.5, were placed in the medium
Table 1
Means (M) and Standard Deviations (SD) of Selected
Variables for Three Groups of Averaged Conceptual
Level (CL) of Object Representations
lower
medium
higher
CL
CL
CL
(n=27)
(n=63)
(n=27)
Variables
M (SD)
M (SD)
M (SD)
Network Density
0.28(0.18)
0.27(0.13)
0.26(0.12)
Network Size
13.85(3.81)
13.62(4.24)
13.63(3.99)
NurturantMother
0.65(5.70)
-0.55(6.09)
0.64(5.49)
NurturantFather
-0.55(6.27)
0.27(5.75)
-0.08(5.59)
StrivingMother
-0.03(2.26)
-0.13(3.35)
0.34(2.77)
StrivingFather*
-1.52(3.03)
0.12(2.73)
1.24(3.11)
DOM--Mother*
6.95(5.26)
3.93(6.43)
1.57(7.14)
DOMFather
8.97(5.43)
10.32(5.13)
9.81(5.29)
LOVMother
3.83(7.52)
3.96(7.78)
6.22(8.15)
LOVFather
2.77(9.93)
-0.28(7.50)
-0.99(7.49)
GPA
2.77(0.82)
2.61(0.68)
2.89(0.84)
POMS
43(19)
42(25)
43(20)
HSCL
71(18)
66(15)
68(12)
Love Scale
191(25)
189(30)
193(26)
CSRE
1248(574)
1018(569)
1053(611)
*=difference in means between low CL and high CL
are significant at p<.05
Note. Network Size and Network Density are both
Total scores.
group (n=63). In Table 1, the means and standard deviations
within each of the three groups are summarized with respect

57
to certain selected variables, variables which were chosen
for their overall importance in the study. As can be seen
in Table 1, the most striking result is the "flatness" of
the distribution of network density scores across the three
groups; the mean for network density varies from .28 to .27
to .26 across the three groups. Only the means for the
qualitative factor of striving factor from the description
of father and the DOM dimension on mother are significantly
different across the three groups. Subjects tended to
represent their father as more striving and to describe
their mothers as less dominant as the conceptual level of
the subjects' group increased. Thus, Table 1 illustrates
that the differences between the three groups of conceptual
level scores existed only for two of the qualitative
dimensions and not for network density or for any of the
outcome measures.
The scores for total network density were also divided
into three groups. Subjects with total network density
scores of .16 or less were placed in the lower density group
(n=29), while subjects with total network density scores of
.33 or greater were assigned to the higher density group
(n=30). The remainder (n=58) fell into the medium density
group. The cutting scores for the higher and lower groups
were chosen so that approximately 30 subjects would be
placed in each of these two groups. Though no direct
predictions had been made about these three groups, it was

58
assumed that subjects in the higher density group would have
lower averaged conceptual level scores while those in the
lower density group would have higher averaged conceptual
Table 2
Means (M) and Standard Deviations (SD) of Selected
Variables for Three Groups of Total Network Density
lower
medium
higher
total
total
total
(n=29)
(n=58)
(n=30)
Variables
M (SD)
M (SD)
M (SD)
Conceptual Level
4.97(1.14)
4.96(1.11)
4.90(1.17)
Network Size*
16.83(3.84)
12.72(3.72)
12.47(3.35)
NurturantMother
0.70(5.78)
-0.45(6.17)
0.20(5.36)
NurturantFather
-1.18(6.90)
0.33(5.39)
0.49(5.44)
Striving--Mother
0.01(2.86)
-0.01(3.20)
0.00(2.75)
StrivingFather
0.01(2.98)
-0.03(3.25)
0.05(2.65)
DOM--Mother
4.95(6.55)
2.97(6.65)
5.38(6.26)
DOM--Father*
11.62(4.07)
9.49(5.36)
9.00(5.70)
LOVMother
5.18(8.39)
3.14(7.21)
6.28(8.11)
LOVFather
0.72(8.84)
-0.86(7.49)
3.36(8.23)
GPA
2.65(0.77)
2.75(0.74)
2.68(0.79)
POMS
48(29)
42(19)
39(22)
HSCL
71(16)
68(16)
65(13)
Love Scale
193(24)
188(30)
193(27)
CSRE
1196(538)
1042(635)
1038(516)
*=difference in means between low CL and high CL
are significant at p<.05
Note. Network Size is a Total score and Conceptual
Level is an Averaged score.
level scores. As can be seen in Table 2, the means for the
conceptual level scores are nearly flat across all three
groups, just as the means for the total network density
scores had been evenly distributed across the three groups
of conceptual level scores in Table 1. In Table 2, total

59
network size is significantly larger (p<.0005) for the lower
density group than for the other two groups. In addition,
the DOM of the subjects' father is significantly higher
(p<.05) in the lower density group than in the higher
density group. Thus, Table 1 and Table 2 illustrate that
averaged conceptual level and total network density seem to
be unrelated to each other. This lack of relationship
between total network density and averaged conceptual level
is further substantiated by the -.05 correlation between
these two main variables (see Table 4).
Univariate Comparisons
In this section, the results pertaining to the second
hypothesis are presented. First, the intercorrelations
between the outcome measures and the major variables of
social networks and object relations, as well as life
change, are examined. Second, the influence of the control
variables, which include both the demographic variables and
the variables of length of the description (of the subjects
parents), number of items checked (NIC) and average
intensity (AIN) from the ICL, is analyzed. Additional
intercorrelations and other analyses are presented so as to
shed more light on the outcome of the central hypothesis.
It was predicted that the variables of life change,
total network size, total network density, and averaged
conceptual level would each be correlated with the four
outcome measures. Pearson product moment correlations were

60
performed between each of these variables. As can be seen
Table 3
Summary of the Correlations Between the Outcome Measures
and the Variables of Life Change, Total Network Size,
Total Network Density, and Averaged Conceptual Level
Total
Total
Averaged
Outcome
Life
Network
Network
Conceptual
Measures
Chanqe
Size
Density
Level
POMS
.26**
-.07
-.19*
.04
HSCL
.32***
-.03
-.18
-.001
Love Scale
.21*
.06
-.01
.04
GPA
-.10
-.08
-.04
.07
*=p<.
05. **=p<.005
***=p<
.0005.
i Table 3,
the variables
of total
network size
and averaged
conceptual level are not significantly correlated with any
of the four outcome measures. Total network density is
significantly correlated (p<.05) with the POMS (a mood
scale), but in a direction which was opposite to what had
been predicted. This finding was also visible in Table 2.
Although the differences between the measures were not
significant, the distribution of means of the POMS scores
across the three groups of density became smaller as the
density of the group became larger. Now, Table 3 shows
that, overall, as density of the network increases, the
scores on the POMS become significantly lower (i.e.,
better). There was also a tendency (p<.06) for subjects in
higher density networks to also produce better scores on the

61
HSCL (a symptom checklist). Thus, the results found in
Table 3 suggest that higher density networks are correlated
with lower levels of subjective distress. The variable of
life change is also significantly with the POMS and the
HSCL. As seen in Table 3, subjects who reported higher
levels of life change in the nine months prior to the study
had significantly (p<.005) better mood scores and
significantly (p<.005) fewer symptoms. Unexpectedly, higher
life change scores are significantly correlated (p<.05) with
better Love Scale scores. Table 3 also shows that the role
performance variable, GPA, is not correlated with any of
these key variables.
Tables 4 through 9 present a more detailed analysis of
the above results. In Table 4, the intercorrelations
Table 4
Correlation Matrix for the Variables of Life Change,
Total Network Size, Total Network Density, and Averaged
Conceptual Level
Total
Total
Life
Network
Network
Variables
Chanqe
Size
Density
Total Network Size
.11


Total Network Density
-.08
-.31**

Averaged Conceptual Level
-.07
-.01
-.05
*=p<.05. **=p<.005.
***=p<.0005

between each of the independent variables are reported. As
expected, total network size and total network density are

62
correlated -.31 (p<.005) with each other. As can be
observed in Table 4, total network size, total network
density, and averaged conceptual level appear to be
independent of the life change variable. As mentioned in
the previous section, total network density and averaged
conceptual level are only correlated -.05 with each other.
Table 5 is a summary of the intercorrelations between
Table 5
Correlation
Matrix for the
Outcome
Measures
Outcome
Love
Measures
POMS
HSCL
Scale
HSCL
.66***


Love Scale
-.20*
-.12

GPA
-.25*
-.09
in
o

*=p<.05. **
=p<.005. ***=p<
.0005.
each of the outcome measures. This Table shows that the
POMS is significantly correlated with all the other outcome
measures. The POMS is, not surprisingly, strongly
correlated with the other measure of subjective distress,
the HSCL. Table 5 shows, though, that the HSCL is not
related to the other two outcome measures. On the other
hand, lower (i.e better) POMS scores are related to higher
Love Scale scores and higher GPAs. Table 5 also indicates
that although all the other intercorrelations were in the
expected direction none were significant. Thus, Table 5

63
seems to suggest that the POMS shares a significant amount
of variance with the other three outcome measures.
In Table 6, the variable of conceptual level is
Table 6
Correlations Between the Subscales of the Outcome
Measures and the Conceptual Level Scores
Outcome
Measures
POMSTotal
Tension-Anxiety
Depression-Dejection
Anger-Hostility
Vigor
Fatigue
Confusion-Bewilderment
HSCLTotal
Somatization
Obsession
Interpersonal
Depression
Anxiety
Love Scale Index
Verbal Expression
Self-Disclosure
Toleration
Non-Material Evidence
Unexpressed Feelings
Material Evidence
GPA
*=p<.05. **=p<.005.
Conceptual Level Scores
Mother Father Averaged
06
.14
.04
02
.11
.07
08
.04
-.03
03
.09
.06
08
-.24*
-.17
15
.07
-.04
17
.02
-.08
06
.06
-.001
07
-.01
-.05
08
.11
.02
07
.06
-.004
10
.03
-.04
04
.08
.07
02
.08
.04
05
.05
.00001
01
.12
.07
07
.08
.08
13
-.09
-.12
08
-.15
-.13
09
-.06
-.08
06
.07
.07
***=p<.0005.
examined in greater detail with respect to the subscales of
the outcome measures. The conceptual level scores are
reported in three ways: the conceptual level of the written

64
description of the mother, the conceptual level of the
written description of father, and the averaged conceptual
level of both descriptions. The conceptual level of the
description of mother correlates .70 (p<.0005) with the
conceptual level of father. Averaged conceptual level is
correlated .93 (p<.0005) with the conceptual level of mother
and .91 (p<.0005) with the conceptual level of father. The
POMS has six subscales (tension-anxiety, which correlates
.74 with the total POMS score; depression-dejection, .84;
anger-hostility, .62; vigor, -.64; fatigue, .75;
confusion-bewilderment, .83), the HSCL has five
(somatization, which correlates .81 with the total HSCL
score; obsession, .84; interpersonal, .75; depression, .79;
anxiety, .89), and the Love Scale has six (verbal
expression, which correlates .86 with the Love Scale Index,
self-disclosure, .72; toleration, .70; non-material
evidence, .54; unexpressed feelings, -.69; material
evidence, .45). As can be seen in Table 6, only one of the
51 possible correlations between the three types of
conceptual level scores and the 17 subscales is significant.
Evidently, subjects with higher conceptual levels on their
descriptions of father had significantly (p<.05) less
vigorous moods (note that the vigor subscale of the POMS
counts negatively toward the total POMS score). The
otherwise general lack of significant correlations in Table
6 suggests that the results presented in Table 3 and the

65
means shown in Table 1 are correct; conceptual level appears
to be generally unrelated to the outcome measures.
In Table 7, total network size, total network density,
Table 7
Correlations Between the Subscales of the Outcome
Measures and the Variables of Life Change, Total
Network Size, and Total Network Density
Outcome
Measures
POMSTotal
Tension-Anxiety
Depression-Dejection
Anger-Hostility
Vigor
Fatigue
Confusion-Bewilderment
HSCLTotal
Somatization
Obsession
Interpersonal
Depression
Anxiety
Love Scale Index
Verbal Expression
Self-Disclosure
Toleration
Non-Material Evidence
Unexpressed Feelings
Material Evidence
GPA
*=p<.05. **=p<.005.
Total
Total
Life
Network
Network
Chanqe
Size
Density
.26**
-.07
-.19*
.36***
-.11
-.13
.22*
-.03
-.18*
.26*
-.01
-.22*
.03
.08
.01
.15
-.03
-.11
.31**
.05
-.22*
.32***
-.03
-.18
.37***
-.003
-.12
.25*
-.06
-.15
.22*
.04
-.14
.25*
-.07
-.16
.17
-.03
-.12
.21*
.06
-.01
.15
.05
-.0004
.33***
.06
-.15
.31**
.01
.04
-.12
.12
.08
.05
.05
.10
.08
.08
.20*
-.10
co
o

i
O

1
***=p<.0005.
and the variable of life change are correlated with each of
the 17 subscales, with strikingly different results. As

66
indicated by Table 7, life change is significantly
correlated with four of the six POMS subscales, with five of
six of the HSCL subscales, and with two of the six Love
Scale subscales. Subjects who reported greater degrees of
life change in the nine months before the study appeared to
have greater levels of tension-anxiety,
depression-dejection, anger-hostility, and
confusion-bewilderment. The mood subscale which are
sensitive to activity level (i.e., vigor and fatigue) are
not significantly correlated to life change. Subjects with
higher life change also had symptoms of somatization,
obsession, interpersonal difficulties, and depression. The
positive correlation between higher levels of life change
and the love scale appears to have been largely due to these
subjects feeling as if they had more self-disclosing and
tolerant relationships with their significant other.
Table 7 also supports some of the other results that
were summarized in Table 3. As can be seen in Table 7,
total network size is not only unrelated to any of the total
socres of the outcome measures it is also unrelated to any
of the subscales of the outcome measures. On the other
hand, Table 7 permits a more careful analysis of the
significant negative correlation between total network
density and the POMS. A constellation of three subscales
seems to have produced this result. As seen in Table 7,
subjects with lower density networks were more likely to

67
have moods characterized by feelings of
depression-dejection, anger-hostility, and
confusion-bewilderment. Although none of the correlations
between total network density and the five HSCL subscales
approach significance, a remarkable consistency exists among
these correlations. This consistency is reflected by the
correlation of total network density with the total HSCL
score being larger than any of the correlations between this
density score and the HSCL subscales. Table 7 also shows a
significant (p<.05) correlation between total network
density and the material evidence of love as expressed on
the Love Scale. The lack of even remotely significant
correlations between total network density and the Love
Scale subscales makes the one significant correlation appear
to be an isolated phenomenon. Overall, the results
presented in Table 7 appear to offer further substantiation
of the findings seen in Table 3.
In Table 8, the subscales of the outcome measures are
correlated with three other types of network density scores
in an attempt to shed some further light on the unexpected
correlations between total network density and subjective
distress. Total network density is correlated .25 (p<.05)
with family/relative network density, .67 (p<.0005) with
friendship network density, and .55 (p<.0005) with nuclear
family-friendship (NF-F) boundary density. Family/relative
network density was not significantly correlated with either

68
Table 8
Correlations Between the Subscales of the Outcome
Measures and the Variables of Family/Relative Network
Density, Friendship Network Density, and Nuclear
Family-Friendship (NF-F) Boundary Density
Density Scores
Outcome
Family/
Relative
Friend
ship
NF-F
Measures
Network
Network
Boundary
POMSTotal
-.20*
-.09
-.05
Tension-Anxiety
-.13
-.05
-.01
Depression-Dejection
-.23*
-.12
-.03
Anger-Hostility
-.17
-.08
-.03
Vigor
.08
-.01
.02
Fatigue
-.11
-.07
.04
Confusion-Bewilderment
-.18
-.08
-.18
HSCLTotal
-.13
-.12
-.09
Somatization
-.10
-.16
.0001
Obsession
-.12
-.08
-.10
Interpersonal
-.08
-.02
-.07
Depression
-.13
-.14
-.05
Anxiety
-.07
-.09
-.10
Love Scale Index
.13
.02
-.04
Verbal Expression
.12
-.01
-.01
Self-Disclosure
.06
-.04
-.13
Toleration
.01
.04
.02
Non-Material Evidence
.11
.08
-.01
Unexpressed Feelings
-.07
.06
.07
Material Evidence
.14
.16
.06
GPA
.03
-.10
.11
*=p<.05. **=p<.005.
***=p<.0005
i.
friendship network density (.14) or with NF-F boundary
density (-.03). Friendship network density was correlated
.24 (p<.05) with NF-F boundary density. As can be seen in
Table 7 and Table 8, the family/relative network density

69
scores appeared to have behaved, with respect to the POMS
subscales, in much the same manner as the total network
density scores. Subjects in higher density family/relative
networks had significantly (p<.05) lower (i.e., better)
total POMS scores. As was the case with total network
density, a three subscale constellation
(depression-dejection, anger-hostility, and
confusion-bewilderment) tended to be negatively associated
with family/relative network density, although only the
depression-dejection subscale was significant (p<.05).
Table 8 also indicates that friendship network density was
not significantly correlated with any of the outcome
measures or their subscales. Thus, Table 8 seems to suggest
that the family/relative network density scores is the most
influential of the three subtypes of density scores in the
current study.
As reported in Table 8, nuclear family-friendship
(NF-F) boundary density was not significantly correlated
with any of the outcome measures or their subscales. Hirsch
(1979a) had found NF-F boundary density to be the most
influential of the various density scores. One factor that
may have lessened the influence of NF-F boundary density in
the current study is that only 49 percent of the subjects in
the current study had a NF-F boundary density score higher
than .00. In other words, only about one half of the
subjects had any relationships between their family/relative

70
network and their friendship network. In Hirsch (1979a), 85
percent of the subjects reported at least one relationship
between a friend and a family member. A possible mediator
of this lack of boundary density in the current study could
have been that, because many of the subjects were college
students who lived away from home, they had little
opportunity for their family and friends to meet.
The possibility that proximity influenced the NF-F
boundary density scores is examined in Table 9. One of the
Table 9
Summary of the Differences on Nuclear Family-Friendship
(NF-F) Boundary Density for the Subjects who Lived at
Home versus the Subjects who Lived Away from Home
Live At
Live Away
Home
From Home
Conditions
(n=21)
(n=96)
Percent with NF-F
Boundary Density
Density > .00
48
49
Mean NF-F Boundary
DensityAll Subjects
.07
.07
Mean NF-F Boundary
DensitySubjects
with Density > .00
.15
.14
demographic variables, domicile, was defined by whether or
not the subject lived with his or her parents while
attending the university. In Table 9, comparisons are made,
for the variable of NF-F boundary density, between those

71
subjects who lived at home (n=21) versus those who lived
away from home (n=96). As revealed in Table 9, the numbers
between the two groups are remarkably similar, despite the
difference in sample sizes. The percentage of subjects who
had a NF-F boundary density greater than .00 (i.e., who had
a relationship between their family and friends) was 48 for
the subjects who lived at home and 49 for those who lived
away from home. Of those subjects who had a NF-F boundary
density score above .00, the mean density score was .15
(n=10) for those who lived at home and .14 (n=47) for those
who lived away from home. The mean NF-F boundary density
for all subjects was .07 for each of the two domicile
groups. Thus, Table 9 appears to suggest that whether the
subjects lived at home or not had little influence on their
NF-F boundary density scores.
In Tables 10 through 14 the qualitative variables of
object relations are compared first to each other, then to
the outcome measures (and their subscales), and finally to
the variables of life change, total network size, total
network density, and averaged conceptual level.
Each of the qualitative factors derived from the
subjects' written description of their parents cannot be
combined and averaged in the same fashion as the conceptual
level scores. The striving factor derived from the
description of mother is only correlated .10 with the
striving factor derived from the description of father. The

72
correlation on the nurturant factor between the description
of father and the description of mother is .31 (p<.0005).
This correlation, although significant, is still well under
the .70 correlation between conceptual level for mother and
the conceptual level for father. Of the four
intercorrelations between striving (on mother and father)
and nurturant (on mother and father), only the correlation
between striving on mother and nurturant on father is
significant (r=.29, p<.005). Thus, it seems that the
qualitative factors of parent as striving on (mother and
father) and parent as nurturant (on mother and father)
should not be reduced to summary scores. Similarly, DOM and
LOV from the subjects' completion of the ICL on their mother
cannot be combined with the DOM and LOV from the ICL on
their father because too much information would be lost.
The subjects used the ICL to describe their mother and their
father. The adjectives they used were then reduced to
scores on two dimensions, the dominance-love dimension (DOM)
and the love-hate dimension (LOV). Neither the correlation
between DOM for mother and DOM for father (r=.02) or LOV for
mother and LOV for father (r=.09) were significant. Only
LOV for father and DOM for father were significantly
correlated (r=.35, p<.0005). The other three
intercorrelations, LOV for father and DOM for mother
(r=-.03), LOV for mother and DOM for mother (r=-.07), and
DOM for father and LOV for mother (r=.03), were not

- 73 -
significant. Thus, with only one exception, these
dimensions appear to be independent of each other.
In Table 10, the qualitative factors of "parent as
Table 10
Correlations Between the Qualitative Factors of
"Parent as Striving" and "Parent as Nurturant"
and the ICL Dimensions (DOM and LOV)
DOM LOV
Variables
Mother
Father
Mother
Father
StrivingMother
.28**
.04
-.04
.12
StrivingFather
.04
.35***
.08
-.29**
NurturantMother
.25**
-.01
.46***
.11
NurturantFather
.09
-.02
.08
.52***
*=p<.05. **=p<.005. ***=p<.0005.
striving" and "parent as nurturant" are compared to the ICL
dimensions, LOV and DOM. As expected, the striving factor
and DOM and, likewise, the nurturant factor and LOV are
significantly correlated. These correlations, as
represented by the diagonal axis (top left to bottom right)
of Table 10, are significant when the mother-mother and
father-father comparisons are made. This set of
intercorrelations is examined further in Table 30. None of
the mother-father correlations were significant. Two other
significant correlations are seen in Table 10. Striving on
father is correlated -.29 (p<.005) with LOV for father,
which might possibly be associated with DOM for father. The
.25 (p<.05) correlation between nurturant on mother and DOM
for mother is readily explanable.

74
Tables 11 and 12 report on the intercorrelations
between the outcome measures (and their subscales) and the
qualitative variables of object relations. In Table 11, the
Table 11
Correlations Between the Subscales of the Outcome
Measures and the Variables of Parent As Striving
and Parent As Nurturant
Parent As Parent As
Striving Nurturant
Outcome
Measures
Mother
Father
Mother
Father
POMSTotal
-.15
-.003
-.24*
-.21*
Tension-Anxiety
-.09
-.03
-.28**
-.15
Depression-Dejection
-.17
-.09
-.21*
-.14
Anger-Hostility
-.05
.12
-.22*
-.10
Vigor
.10
-.11
.06
.14
Fatigue
-.05
-.02
-.09
-.13
Confusion-Bewilderment
-.20*
-.08
-.28**
-.29**
HSCLTotal
-.05
-.11
-.14
-.23*
Somatization
-.01
-.22
-.11
-.15
Obsession
-.05
-.04
-.15
-.26**
Interpersonal
.03
-.04
-.05
-.11
Depression
-.12
-.13
-.16
-.21*
Anxiety
-.03
-.04
-.08
-.16
Love Scale Index
-.04
.01
-.04
.01
Verbal Expression
.03
-.002
.02
.05
Self-Disclosure
-.05
.08
-.16
-.16
Toleration
-.02
-.04
-.17
.05
Non-Material Evidence
-.07
-.16
.14
.17
Unexpressed Feelings
.05
-.12
.08
.11
Material Evidence
.01
-.08
.10
.17
GPA
*=p<.05. **=p<.005
-.17
*** =

.002
:p<.0005.
.02
-.001
qualitative factors derived from
the descriptions
of parent
(i.e., parents as striving and parents as nurturant) are

75
correlated with the subscales of the outcome measures. As
can be observed in Table 11, only one correlation is
significant (p<.05) for "striving". Evidently, subjects
whose description of their mother was high on the striving
factor are less likely to report a confused and bewildered
mood. The "nurturant" factor is more often significantly
correlated with the outcome measures.
Table 11 illustrates that subjects whose description of
their mother is high on the nurturant factor reported
feeling less tension-anxiety, depression-dejection,
anger-hostility, and confusion-bewilderment. As can be seen
in Table 11, the nurturant factor derived from the
description of the subjects' father is also significantly
(p<.05) correlated with the measures of subjective distress
(i.e., the POMS and the HSCL). Although all the subscales
on the POMS are in the proper direction (i.e., suggesting
that higher nurturant scores are related to better mood
scores) only the confusion-bewilderment subscale is
significantly (p<.005) correlated with the nurturant factor
on father. The HSCL, and in particular the subscales that
represent interpersonal difficulties and depression, is also
significantly correlated with the nurturant factor on
father. Thus, Table 11 seems to suggest that higher scores
on the qualitative factor of "parent as nurturant" tend to
correlate with reports of better mood and, in some cases,
fewer symptoms. The scores for the qualitative factor of
"parent as striving" seem less influential.

76
In Table 12, the correlations between the two
Table 12
Correlations Between the Subscales of the Outcome
Measures and the ICL Dimensions (DOM and LOV)
Outcome
DOM
LOV
Measures
Mother
Father
Mother
Father
POMSTotal
-.34***
.06
-.09
-.14
Tension-Anxiety
-.20*
.04
-.02
-.09
Depression-Dejection
-.26**
.02
-.03
-.03
Anger-Hostility
-.19*
.15
-.09
-.27**
Vigor
.36***
.07
.07
.07
Fatigue
-.18
.10
-.12
-.13
Confusion-Bewilderment
-.31**
.02
-.10
-.08
HSCLTotal
-.26**
.02
.08
-.01
Somatization
-.21*
.04
.06
.01
Obsession
-.14
-.04
.05
-.03
Interpersonal
-.16
.01
.05
.07
Depression
-.31**
.01
.02
-.05
Anxiety
-.25*
.002
.17
-.05
Love Scale Index
.06
-.04
.09
.18*
Verbal Expression
.09
-.04
.04
.12
Self-Disclosure
-.10
-.02
.04
.04
Toleration
-.02
-.06
-.04
.18*
Non-Material Evidence
.14
-.03
.20*
.31**
Unexpressed Feelings
-.01
-.10
.01
.06
Material Evidence
.14
-.20*
.21*
.33***
GPA
-.03
-.13
.03
-.02
*=p<.05. **=p<.005. ***=p<.0005.
dimensions of the ICL and the subscales of the outcome
measures are presented. As seen in Table 12, DOM for mother
and LOV for father seemed to each have a stronger
relationship with the outcome measures than did DOM for
father or LOV for mother. All but one of the subscales of

77
the POMS, with the exception of fatigue (p<.06), and three
of the five subscales on the HSCL are significantly
correlated with DOM for mother. With the exception of the
anger-hostility subscale, DOM for father, LOV for mother,
and LOV for father are not correlated with the measures of
subjective distress. LOV for father is significantly
correlated (p<.05) with the Love Scale Index. Subjects who
described their fathers as high on the Love dimension tended
to report relationships which were more tolerant and allowed
for more material and nonmaterial expression of love. LOV
for mother is also positively correlated (p<.05) with
material and nonmaterial expression on the Love Scale, but
not with the total Love Scale score. The significant
negative correlation between the material expression
subscale of the Love Scale and DOM for father and between
the anger-hostility subscale of the POMS and LOV for father
seem to be isolated phenomenon. Thus, Table 11 appears to
suggest that DOM for mother and LOV for father are the most
sensitive dimensions of the ICL when related to the outcome
measures.
In Table 13 the qualitative factors from the written
descriptions of parents is compared to the variables of life
change, total network size, total network density, and
averaged conceptual level. Only two correlations were
significant. Table 13 confirms that, as also reported in
Table 1, striving for father is significantly correlated

78
Table 13
Correlations Between the Variables of "Parent as
Striving" and "Parent as Nurturant" and the Variables
of Life Change, Total Network Size, Total Network
Density and Averaged Conceptual Level
Parent As Parent As
Striving Nurturant
Variables Mother Father Mother Father
Life Change
.03
-.07
-.31**
-.16
Total Network Size
.08
-.06
.14
.10
Total Network Density
.05
.03
-.01
.12
Conceptual Level
.06
.34***
-.04
.08
*=p<.05. **=p<.005. ***=p<.0005.
Note. Conceptual Level is an Averaged score.
(p<.0005) with conceptual level. The nurturant factor on
mother is correlated -.31 (p<.005) with the variable of life
change. Subjects who described their mothers as high on
nurturance tended to report less life change. This finding
forces one to reconsider the results presented in Table 11.
A comparison of Table 7 and Table 11 reveals that the
variable of life change was correlated with the same
subscales of the POMS as the nurturant factor on mother. At
the same time, however, life change was significantly
(p<.0005) correlated with the HSCL while the nurturant
factor was not. Thus, while life change may have had some
bearing on the interaction between the nurturant factor and
the POMS, it is difficult to delineate a clear causative
relationship.

79
In Table 14 the ICL dimensions are compared to the same
Table 14
Correlations Between the ICL Dimensions (DOM and LOV)
and the Variables of Life Change, Total Network Size,
Total Network Density, and Averaged Conceptual Level
DOM LOV
Variables
Mother
Father
Mother
Father
Life Change
.002
.19*
-.10
-.02
Total Network Size
.18
.15
.10
.07
Total Network Density
.12
-.11
.05
.22*
Conceptual Level
-.27**
.03
.14
-.12
*=p<.05. **=p<.005. ***=p<.0005.
Note. Conceptual Level is an Averaged score.
four variables as above. Again, the relationship seen in
Table 1 between DOM for mother and conceptual level is
confirmed in Table 14. The relationship between the ICL
dimensions and total network density that was seen in Table
2 is not, however, supported by Table 14. In Table 2 the
means of DOM for father had been significantly different in
the lower density group as compared to the higher density
group. As shown in Table 14, DOM for father and total
network density are correlated only -.11 with each other.
On the other hand, LOV for father is correlated .22 (p<.05)
with total network density. Table 14 also indicates that
DOM for father is significantly correlated (p<.05) with life
change. While the nurturant factor and life change were
significantly correlated and shared a similar pattern on the

80
POMS, DOM for father appeared to be quite dissimilar from
life change on the POMS. Thus, the impact of life change on
the qualitative variables of object relations appears to be
difficult to interpret.
Tables 15 through 28 are concerned with the control
variables, which consist of three separate groups of
variables. First, in Tables 15, 16, and 17 the variables in
each of these three groups are compared within each group
and then across the groups. Next, the variables in the
first of these groups, the demographic variables, are
compared in Table 18 to the variables of life change, total
network size, total network density, and averaged conceptual
level. Next, in Tables 19 and 20 the demographic variables
are compared to the subscales of the outcome measures. In
Tables 21 and 22 the demographic variables are correlated
with the qualitative variables of object relations. In
Tables 23, 24, and 25 a similar set of comparisons is made
for the second group of control variables, the description
length scores. In the final three tables of this section,
Tables 26, 27, and 28, another three part comparison is made
for the ICL control variables.
The first set of control variables are the demographic
variables, which include the subjects' age, academic
classification (or "class"), sex, SES, employment status (or
"employed"), total number of semester credits (or
"credits"), and domicile (i.e., whether the subjects lived

81
at home or not). These variables are described in the
second chapter (pages 39 to 40). The significant
intercorrelations among the variables that are presented in
Table 15
Correlation Matrix for the Demographic Variables
Variables
Age
Class
Sex
SES
Employed
Credits
Class
.71***





Sex
-.18*
-.11




SES
.02
-.13
-.03



Employed
.31**
.30**
-.03
.08


Credits
.25*
-.05
.01
.02
-.21*

Domic ile
-.03
.04
.14
-.01
.10
cn
o

i
*
ii
XJ
A

05. **
=p<.005.
***=p<.
0005.
Note.
For Class, 1=
sophomore
and
3=senior;
for
Sex, 0=males and
1= females; for SES, 1
=highest
and
5=lowest; for employed, 0=no and l=yes; for domicile,
0=live away from home and l=live at home.
Table 15 are not unexpected. Subjects who were older tended
to be in the upper academic classes (r=.71, p<.0005), to be
employed (r=.31, p<.005), and to be registered for more
credits (r=.25, p<.05). Those in the upper academic classes
were more likely to be employed (r=.30, p<.005). And, the
subjects who were employed had registered for fewer semester
credits (r=.21, p<.05).
The description length scores represented the second
group of control variables. These scores were suggested by
Blatt et al. (1981) to be a rough estimate of verbal
fluency. The length of the subjects written description of

82
their mother was correlated .75 (p<.0005) with the length of
their description of their father. Thus, these variables
were combined and averaged. Both the length of the
description of mother and the length of the description of
father were correlated .93 (p<.0005) with this averaged
score.
In Table 16 the demographic variables are correlated
Table 16
Correlations Between the Demographic Variables
and the Description Length Scores
Variables
Description Length
Mother Father
Scores
Averaqed
Age
.001
.10
.05
Class
.002
.05
.03
Sex
.41***
.29**
.38***
SES
-.18
-.13
-.17
Employed
.06
.05
.06
Credits
.13
.05
.09
Domicile
.11
.04
.08
*=p<.05. **=p<.005. ***=p<.0005.
Note. For Class, l = sophomore and 3 = senior; for
Sex, 0=males and 1= females; for SES, l=highest and
5=lowest; for employed, 0=no and l=yes; for domicile,
0=live away from home and l=live at home.
with the description length scores. As seen in Table 16
only the variable of sex was significant. Women tended to
write lengthier descriptions of their parents than did men.
This finding was consistent with the norms presented by
Blatt et al. (1981). A slight but nonsignificant trend was

83
seen in Table 16 between SES and length. This trend
suggests that subjects in the higher social classes tended
to produce longer descriptions.
The third group of control variables were derived from
the ICL. These variables are the number of adjectives the
subjects checked to describe their parents ("number of items
checked", or NIC) and the average intensity (AIN) of the
adjectives the subjects used in the description. While the
subjects seemed to have a highly similar NIC score for both
mother and father (r=.75, p<.0005), the AIN scores were not
significant between the ICL on mother and the ICL on father.
NIC and AIN were significantly correlated with each other
both within (NIC for mother-AIN for mother, r=.29, p<.005;
NIC for father-AIN for father, r=.25, p<.05) and across (NIC
for father-AIN for father, r=.24, p<.05; NIC for father-AIN
for mother, r=.21, p<.05) the sex of the parents.
In Table 17 the ICL control variables are correlated
with the other two groups of control variables. As seen in
Table 17 only two correlations were significant. Subjects
in lower academic classes and in lower socio-economic
classes used significantly more intense adjectives to
describe their mother. None of the correlations between the
ICL control variables and the description length scores were
significant. Thus, Tables 16 and 17 seem to suggest that
each group of control variables accounts for a separate
portion of the overall variance.

84
Table 17
Correlations Between the ICL Control Variables
(Number of Items Checked, NIC, and Average
Intensity, AIN) and the Demographic and
Description Length Variables
NIC
AIN
Variables
Mother Father
Mother
Father
Demoqraphic
Age
.11
.05
-.12
-.08
Class
.03
.01
-.18*
-.07
Sex
.04
.05
.07
-.01
SES
.12
.07
.23*
-.08
Employed
.05
.05
-.08
-.01
Credits
-.03
.02
-.01
-.05
Domicile
-.14
.16
-.15
-.06
Description Lenqth
Mother
.05
.11
-.01
-.05
Father
.14
.06
.04
.02
Averaged
.10
.02
.02
-.02
*=p<.05. **=p<.005. ***=p<
.0005.
Note. For Class,
l=sophomore and 3
=senior;
for
Sex, 0=males and 1= females; for
SES, 1=
highest and
5=lowest; for employed,
0=no and
l=yes;
for domicile,
Olive away from home and l=live
at home

Table 18 reports on the correlations between the
demographic variables and the variables of life change,
total network size, total network density, and averaged
conceptual level. Only one correlation was significant in
Table 18. It appears that subjects in the lower academic
classes report more life change. Otherwise, these four
variables appear to be independent of the demographic
variables.

85
Table 18
Summary of the Correlations Between the Demographic
Variables and the Variables of Life Change, Total
Network Size, Total Network Density, and Averaged
Conceptual Level
Total
Total
Averaged
Outcome
Life
Network
Network
Conceptual
Measures
Chanqe
Size
Density
Level
Age
-.12
-.03
.04
-.04
Class
-.23*
.06
.11
-.07
Sex
-.05
-.08
-.005
.07
SES
.12
-.12
.10
.03
Employed
-.01
-.13
.09
-.01
Credits
-.02
-.01
.11
.08
Domicile
-.15
.09
.08
.05
*=p<.
05. **=p<.
005. ***=p<.
0005.
Note.
For Class
, l=sophomore
and 3=senior; for
Sex, 0=males and 1= females; for SES, l=highest and
5=lowest; for employed, 0=no and l=yes; for domicile,
0=live away from home and l=live at home.
In Tables 19 and 20 the demographic variables are
compared with the subscales of the outcome measures. Three
of the demographic variables, class, sex, and credits,
appear in Tables 19 and 20 to have produced some interesting
results. As seen in Table 19 subjects in the upper academic
classes appear to report less dysphoric moods. More
specifically, the upper academic class subjects, as with the
older students, report significantly (p<.05) less fatigue.
The subjects in the upper academic classes also tend, though
not significantly, to attain better grades. Table 20 shows
that subjects who had registered for more credits also have

86
Table 19
Correlations Between the Subscales of the Outcome
Measures and the Demographic Variables--
Part A (Age, Class, Sex, and SES)
Outcome
Measures
Age
Class
Sex
SES
POMSTotal
-.08
-.20*
-.17
-.08
Tension-Anxiety
.004
-.16
-.18
.12
Depression-Dejection
.03
-.09
-.22*
-.06
Anger-Hostility
.01
-.07
-.25*
.06
Vigor
.14
.16
-.01
.24*
Fatigue
-.25*
-.25*
-.02
-.12
Confusion-Bewilderment
.06
-.07
-.20*
.02
HSCLTotal
.06
-.09
-.06
.01
Somatization
.04
-.05
-.03
.01
Obsession
.18*
-.01
-.15
.11
Interpersonal
.02
-.10
.05
-.04
Depression
-.01
-.14
-.07
-.04
Anxiety
.06
-.02
-.02
.02
Love Scale Index
-.16
-.15
.36***
.07
Verbal Expression
-.18
-.15
.27***
.12
Self-Disclosure
-.10
-.14
.31**
-.06
Toleration
-.03
-.05
.22*
.07
Non-Material Evidence
-.10
-.07
.29**
.02
Unexpressed Feelings
.17
.12
-.19*
-.02
Material Evidence
.02
-.02
.19*
.14
GPA
-.06
.17
.08
i

o
VO
*=p<.05. **=p<.005. ***=p<.0005.
Note. For Class, l = sophomore and 3=senior; for
Sex, 0=males and 1= females; for SES, l=highest and
5=lowest.
significantly (p<.0005) higher GPA's. Table 19 reports
that, as previously mentioned in the section on normative
comparisons, female students had significantly (p<.0005)
higher Love Scale scores, a finding which was true for every

87
Table 20
Correlations Between the Subscales of the Outcome
Measures and the Demographic Variables
Part B (Employed, Credits, and Domicile)
Outcome
Measures
POMSTotal
Tension-Anxiety
Depression-Dejection
Anger-Hostility
Vigor
Fatigue
Confusion-Bewilderment
HSCLTotal
Somatization
Obsession
Interpersonal
Depression
Anxiety
Love Scale Index
Verbal Expression
Self-Disclosure
Toleration
Non-Material Evidence
Unexpressed Feelings
Material Evidence
GPA
Employed
Credits
Domicile
.01
.06
-.14
.02
.15
-.12
-.02
-.02
-.20*
.14
.02
-.06
-.02
.01
-.01
-.06
.11
-.06
-.03
.03
-.17
.06
-.04
-.16
.05
-.03
-.15
.03
-.07
-.11
.08
-.03
-.04
.05
-.05
-.16
-.003
.05
-.13
-.02
.03
.17
-.01
-.02
.24*
.06
-.06
.12
.07
-.06
.08
-.11
.11
.10
.08
-.15
-.03
-.001
-.04
.10
-.02
.34***
.07
*=p<.05. **=p<.005. ***=p<.0005.
Note. For employed, 0=no and l=yes; for domicile,
0=live away from home and l=live at home.
subscale (note that "unexpressed feelings" counts negatively
toward the total score). As seen in Table 19, women also
appeared to report on the POMS that they felt significantly
(p<.05) less depression-dejection, anger-hostility, and

88
confusion-bewilderment. Tables 19 and 20 also report five
other significant correlations; however, these correlations
do not appear to represent any coherent pattern of
relationships among the variables. Thus, Tables 18, 19, and
20 appear to suggest that several of the demographic
variables, while being of little influence on the main
variables of the current study, do have a significant
influence on some of the outcome measures.
Tables 21 and 22 show that some of the demographic
Table 21
Correlations Between the Qualitative Factors of
Object Relations and the Demographic Variables
Part A (Age, Class, Sex, and SES)
Variables
Age
Class
Sex
SES
StrivingMother
-.04
-.09
.002
-.02
StrivingFather
-.05
-.004
.05
-.16
NurturantMother
.15
.23*
.11
-.20*
NurturantFather
.11
.09
.07
-.12
DOMMother
-.03
.07
-.01
-.04
DOMFather
-.21*
-.08
.01
-.05
LOVMother
.19*
.23*
.16
-.08
LOVFather
.14
.04
.27**
.03
*=p<.05. **=p<.005. ***=p<.0005.
Note. For Class, l=sophomore and 3=senior; for
Sex, 0=males and 1= females; for SES, l=highest and
5=lowest.
variables can influence the qualitative variables of object
relations. Table 21 suggests that the most consistent
interaction (r=.27, p<.005) is found between women and LOV

89 -
from the ICL for father. Tables 12 and 19 have indicated
that each of these variables is related to the Love Scale.
When these results are combined, it appears that women tend
to describe their fathers higher on LOV and to report on the
Love Scale a better rapport and liason with a significant
other. Though six other significant correlations are
Table 22
Correlations Between the Qualitative Factors of
Object Relations and the Demographic Variables
Part B (Employed, Credits, and Domicile)
Variables
StrivingMother
StrivingFather
NurturantMother
NurturantFather
DOM--Mother
DOMFather
LOVMother
LOVFather
*=p<.05. **=p<.005.
Note. For employed,
0=live away from home and
Employed
Credits
Domicile
-.05
-.06
.02
.004
-.01
-.09
.03
-.16
.09
-.19*
-.06
.09
.03
-.10
.09
-.13
.04
-.18
.15
-.12
.10
-.11
-.07
.05
***=p<.0005.
=no and l=yes; for domicile,
=live at home.
reported in Tables 21 and 22, the impact of the other
demographic variables on the qualitative variables does not
appear to be related to a larger schema.
The description length scores, as control variables,
appear to be less influential than the demographic
variables. Table 23 indicates that the variables of life
change, total network size, total network density, and

90
Table 23
Correlations Between the Description Length Scores
and the Variables of Life Change, Total Network Size,
Total Network Density, and Averaged Conceptual Level
Variables
Description Length Scores
Mother Father Averaged
Life Change
Total Network Size
Total Network Density
Averaged Conceptual Level
01
-.002
-.01
15
.09
.13
05
-.03
-.04
05
.01
-.05
averaged conceptual level are not significantly correlated
with the description length scores. Thus, as predicted, the
conceptual level of the written description appears to be
independent of the length of that description.
In Table 24 only two of the the subscales of the
outcome measures are related to the length of the written
descriptions of parents. As seen in Table 24, subjects who
wrote lengthier descriptions appeared to report
significantly (p<.05) less confused and bewildered moods.
And, subjects who had longer descriptions after 5 minutes of
describing their mother and father also tended to report
fewer symptoms of obsession. (Of course one wonders how
this last correlation may have been different if the
obsessive subjects were given unlimited amounts of time to
describe their parents.) Thus, Table 24 suggests that,
although the description length scores were related to the
outcome measures in ways that are easily understood, the

91
Table 24
Correlations Between the Subscales of the Outcome
Measures and the Description Length Scores
Outcome
Measures
POMSTotal
Tension-Anxiety
Depression-Dejection
Anger-Hostility
Vigor
Fatigue
Confusion-Bewilderment
HSCLTotal
Somatization
Obsession
Interpersonal
Depression
Anxiety
Love Scale Index
Verbal Expression
Self-Disclosure
Toleration
Non-Material Evidence
Unexpressed Feelings
Material Evidence
GPA
*=p<.05. **=p<.005.
Description Length
Scores
Mother
Father
Averaqed
-.14
-.17
-.17
-.17
-.09
-.14
-.14
-.17
-.17
-.15
-.13
-.15
.08
.15
.12
.06
-.05
.002
-.19*
-.19*
-.20*
-.08
-.13
-.11
-.09
-.10
-.10
-.21*
-.21*
-.23*
.15
.003
.08
-.08
-.13
-.11
-.05
-.03
-.05
.15
.02
.09
.09
.01
.05
.13
-.05
.04
.08
-.01
.04
.15
.07
.11
-.10
-.03
-.07
.05
.05
.05
.14
.003

o
GO
***=p<.0005.
overall relationship between these scores and the outcome
measures appears to be limited.
As seen in Table 25, the description length scores were
not significantly correlated with any of the qualitative
variables of object relations.

92
Table 25
Correlations Between the Description Length Scores
and the Qualitative Variables of Object Relations
Variables
Description Length
Mother Father
Scores
Averaqed
StrivingMother
.08
.13
.11
StrivingFather
.11
.15
.14
NurturantMother
.14
.07
.11
NurturantFather
.06
.16
.12
DOMMother
.10
.12
.12
DOMFather
-.06
.07
.01
LOVMother
.15
.10
.13
LOVFather
.16
.15
.17
In Tables 26, 27, and 28 the same comparisons as were
made for the other control variables are made for the ICL
control variables. First, NIC and AIN are correlated with
the variables of life change, total network size, total
network density, and averaged conceptual level. As seen in
Table 26 AIN from both the ICL on mother and the ICL on
father is significantly correlated (p<.005) with life
change. None of the other correlations were significant.
Thus, it appears tht subjects who used adjectives of greater
itensity to describe their parents also reported higher
levels of life change.
The relationship between the ICL control variables and
the outcome measures was smaller than expected, especially
for the relationship between AIN and the measures of
subjective distress. It could have been anticipated that

93
Table 26
Correlations Between the ICL Control Variables
(NIC and AIN) and the Variables of Life Change,
Total Network Size, Total Network Density, and
Averaged Conceptual Level
Variables
NIC
Mother
Father
AIN
Mother
Father
Life Change
.12
.17
.28**
.26**
Total Network Size
.15
.18
-.01
.03
Total Network Density
.04
-.02
.07
.01
Conceptual Level
-.02
-.04
.06
-.04
*=p<.05. **p<.005. ***p<.0005.
Note. NIC=Number of Items Checked; AIN=Average
Intensity; Conceptual Level is an Averaged score.
subjects who used more intense adjectives to describe their
parents would also tend to report more intense moods and
symptoms. As seen in Table 27, subjects who were high on
AIN for father reported significantly (p<.05) greater
feelings of anger-hostility and symptoms of somatization and
interpersonal difficulties. At the same time, the subjects
who checked more items had significantly (p<.05) more
symptoms of somatization and interpersonal difficulties.
The AIN scores for mother in Table 27 are not significantly
correlated with subjective distress. On the other hand,
Table 27 indicates that the NIC scores were both
significantly correlated (for mother, p<.005; for father,
p<.05) with the vigor subscale. It appears that those
subjects who checked more items appeared to feel more

94
Correlations Between
Measures and the ICL
Table 27
the Subscales of
Control Variables
the Outcome
(NIC and AIN)
NIC
AIN
Variables
Mother
Father
Mother
Father
POMSTotal
-.11
-.05
.02
.15
Tension-Anxiety
.08
.10
.10
.17
Depression-Dejection
-.05
-.02
.03
.10
Anger-Hostility
-.02
.06
.02
.23*
Vigor
.28**
.20*
.07
-.02
Fatigue
-.08
-.07
-.02
.13
Confusion-Bewilderment
-.09
-.02
.05
.12
HSCLTotal
.13
.18
.12
.17
Somatization
.17
.21*
.12
.23*
Obsession
.09
.11
.03
.07
Interpersonal
.11
.19*
.07
.19*
Depression
.02
.09
.15
.18
Anxiety
.15
.13
.14
.05
Love Scale Index
.15
.05
.11
-.01
Verbal Expression
.16
.08
.06
.03
Self-Disclosure
.03
-.04
.14
-.001
Toleration
.04
.09
.25*
.05
Non-Material Evidence
.15
.06
-.11
-.15
Unexpressed Feelings
-.12
-.05
-.09
.03
Material Evidence
.07
-.04
-.02
.03
GPA
-.11
-.23*
-.10
-.12
*=p<.05. **=p<.005. ***=p<.0005.
Note. NIC=Number
of Items
Checked;
AIN=Average
Intensity.
vigorous. As also seen in Table 27, the subjects who
checked more items on father had significantly (p<.05)
poorer grades. Thus, while some correlations existed
between the ICL dimensions and outcome, the correlations
were not as numerous, especially for the AIN variables, as
had been anticipated.

95
The relationship between the ICL control variables and
the qualitative variables, while it appears larger, seems to
be somewhat more difficult to interpret. As seen in Table
Table 28
Correlations Between the ICL Control Variables
(NIC and AIN) and the Qualitative Variables of
Object Relations
NIC AIN
Variables
Mother
Father
Mother
Father
StrivingMother
.27**
.25*
.004
-.05
StrivingFather
.08
.08
-.05
.23*
NurturantMother
.12
.05
-.41***
.05
NurturantFather
.15
.24*
-.04
-.27**
DOMMother
.24*
.18
-.24*
.04
DOMFather
.28**
.49***
.06
.26**
LOVMother
.25*
.08
-.05
.10
LOVFather
.14
.16
.10
.30**
*=p<.05. **=p<.005. ***=p<.0005.
Note. NIC=Number of Items Checked; AIN=Average
Intensity.
28, subjects who had larger NIC scores appeared to have
generally more positive scores on the qualitative factors,
especially on striving for mother and DOM for father. Table
28 suggests that the AIN scores are selectively sensitive to
the sex of the parent that each score represents. For
instance, AIN for mother is significantly correlated with
nurturant on mother (p<.0005) and DOM on mother (p<.05)
while AIN for father is significantly correlated with all of
the qualitative variables pertaining to father. Thus,

96
although more of the correlations are significant, the
relationships between these variables do not lend themselves
to interpretations beyond what is observable.
Outcome Measures
In the third hypothesis it was predicted that the
measures of subjective distress (i.e., the POMS and HSCL)
would be more reactive than GPA. The Love Scale was
predicted to be less reactive than the POMS and HSCL but
more reactive than GPA. In other words, it was expected
that a self-report mood scale and symptom checklist would be
more reactive than a role performance variable, while a
scale which the subjects filled out about their relationship
with a significant other would have an intermediate level of
reactivity. To test this hypothesis multiple linear
regression models were constructed with each of the four
outcome measures as the dependent variable and the measures
of life change (CSRE), total network density, and the
averaged conceptual level of object representations as the
independent variables. The results found in Table 29 show
that, as expected, the models with the measures of
subjective distress, (the POMS and the HSCL), as the
dependent variable had greater degrees of total variance
(R-squared equalled .10 and .12, respectively) explained in
them, than the model with GPA as the dependent variable
(R-squared=.02). The model with the Love Scale as the
dependent variable had .05 of its total variance (R-squared)

97
Table 29
Reactivity of the Outcome Measures as Seen in Linear
Regression Models with the Independent Variables of
Life Change, Total Network Density, and Averaged
Conceptual Level of Object Representations
Dependent
Variables
F-Value
P>F
R-Squared
HSCL
5.24
.002
.12
POMS
4.04
.009
.10
Love Scale
1.92
.13
.05
GPA
.62
.61
.02
explained. While it was initially predicted that all models
would be significant, a look at the "p>f" values in Table 29
reveals that only the models with the measures of subjective
distress as the dependent variables were significant. Thus,
Table 29 suggests that the predicted order of the reactivity
of the measures was substantiated.
Life Change
The original intent of the fourth hypothesis was to
partial out the influence of life change, as measured by the
CSRE, from the correlation between the outcome measures and
the total network density. The correlation between the
averaged conceptual level of the object and the outcome
measures was also to have had the effect of life change
partialed out. It was predicted that even after the effects
of life change were removed that each of these correlations
would still be significant. For the most part, this

98
hypothesis was rendered meaningless because only one of
these correlations was significant (see Table 3). In the
only significant relationship, that is, between network
density and the POMS, the removal of the effect of life
change from each of these variables resulted in a
correlation of -.18 between network density and the POMS, a
correlation which was just out of the range of significance
(p<.06). The nonsignificant correlation between network
density and the HSCL was also slightly reduced (-.18 to
-.17), when the effect of life change was partialed out.
The reduction in these correlations was slight because life
change and overall network density were only correlated -.08
with each other.
Qualitative Factors And ICL Dimensions
The fifth hypothesis predicted that the two qualitative
factors from the written descriptions of parents should be
concurrently valid with the two ICL dimensions. More
specifically, it was predicted that "parent as striving"
should be significantly similar to the dominance-submission
dimension (DOM) of the ICL and "parent as nurturant" to the
love-hate dimension (LOV). To test this hypothesis, linear
regression models were constructed between the qualitative
factors of object representations and the dimensions of the
ICL. These findings are encapsulated in Table 30. For each
parent, "striving" was paired with DOM and "nurturant" with
LOV. As shown in Table 30, striving and DOM were

99
Table 30
Linear Regression Scores for the Variables of "Parent
as Striving" and "Parent as Nurturant" and the ICL
Dimensions (DOM and LOV)
Variables
F-Value
P>F R-Squared
For Mother:
Striving/DOM
9.61
.002 .08
Nurturant/LOV
30.11
.0001 .21
For Father:
Striving/DOM
15.65
.0001 .12
Nurturant/LOV
42.37
.0001 .27
Note: DOM=
Dominance-Submission,
LOV=Love-Hate.
significantly similar for the models which used scores that
had been derived from the subjects' descriptions of their
mother. Eight percent of the total variance was explained
by this interaction. As indicated in Table 30, the
relationship between nurturant and LOV was stronger, with 21
percent of the variance explained. Similar relationships
were found when the models incorporated the scores from the
subjects' descriptions of their father. In the striving/DOM
model 12 percent of the total variance was accounted for,
while in the nurturant/LOV model 27 percent of the variance
was explained. Thus, the results in Table 30 seem to
suggest that, as predicted, nurturant corresponds to LOV and
striving to DOM.

100
I CL Quadrants
In this section the results pertaining to the sixth
hypothesis are considered. It was hypothesized that certain
quadrants of Leary's (1957) circumplex would be more
favorably related to the outcome measures. Because the ICL
was developed to measure the circumplex, the scores derived
from the ICL can be easily reduced to one of four quadrants.
The two dimensions of the ICL, namely LOV and DOM, are
orthogonal to each other and, hence, form a two dimensional
array, or circumplex. With Dominance (D) and Submission (S)
as the poles of one axis, and Love (L) and Hate (H) as the
other poles, four quadrants may be formed: DL, DH, SL, and
SH. In this manner the DOM and LOV scores were reduced to a
single point in one of these four quadrants. On the ICL for
mothers, 58 subjects were in DL, 25 in DH, 26 in SL, and
only 8 in SH. On the ICL for fathers, the distribution was
even less uniform because only one DOM score was negative.
Hence, 63 subjects were in DL, 53 were in DH, none in SL,
and only one in SH. Linear regression models were
constructed for each of the four measures of mental health
with the quadrants as the independent variables. These
findings are reported in Table 31. As can be seen in Table
31, only in the POMS model were the quadrants significantly
different when the ICL was filled out on the subjects'
mother. Twenty percent of the total variance (R-squared)
was explained by the POMS model. A Duncan multiple range

101
Table 31
Relationship Between the Quadrants
of the ICL and Outcome
Variables
F-Value
P>F R-Squared
Order
For Mother:
POMS
9.83
.0001 .20
DL-DH-SL-SH*
HSCL
1.39
.25 .04
DL-DH-SL-SH
Love Scale
.19
.90 .005
DL-SH-SL-DH
GPA
.92
.44 .02
DL-SL-DH-SH
*=SH was
different
from DL-DH-SL, p<
.05 (Duncan
Multiple Range
Test)
Note: DL
=Dominance
-Love (n=58), DH=
Dominance-Hate
(n=25), SL=Submission-Love (n=26), SH=Submission-Hate
(n=8)
Variables
F-Value
P>F
R-Squared
Order
For Father:
POMS
.87
.42
.02
DL-DH
HSCL
.82
.44
.01
DL-DH
Love Scale
8.26
.0004
.13
DL-DH
GPA
.00
.99
.00
DH-DL
Note: DL=Dominance-Love (n=63), DH=Dominance-Hate
(n=53"n SL=Submission-Love (n=0), SH=Submission-Hate
(n=l)
test was used to examine the difference in the means across
the quadrants. Table 31 indicates that, as predicted, the
SH quadrant had a significantly poorer (i.e., higher) mean
POMS score. The other quadrants, although not
significantly, were ranked such that DL was the best and DH
and SL were second and third, respectively. Although none
of the other outcome models were significant, the DL

102
quadrant consistently had the best scores. And, except for
the negligible difference in the results for the Love Scale
model, subjects in SH consistently had the poorest scores.
The results for the ICL for father were less revealing
because of the skewed distribution. Table 31 shows that the
model for the Love Scale was significant, with 13 percent of
the total variance (R-squared) accounted for by this model.
Note that only two quadrants were used as independent
variables in this model because SH only had one score and DH
had none. Although, the other models were not significant,
and except for the GPA model where the F-value was so small
as to be .00, subjects in DL consistently had better scores
than those in DH. Hence, while the evidence was not
overwhelming, the DL quadrant does tend to be favorably
correlated with outcome.

CHAPTER FOUR
DISCUSSION
The Hypotheses Reviewed
The central hypothesis of the current study, that
larger deviations from the suggested structural harmony
between lower density social networks and higher conceptual
levels of object representations (or, vice versa, higher
density social networks and lower conceptual levels of
object representations) would result in greater subjective
distress and impairement in love and work, was not supported
by the findings. Total network density and averaged
conceptual level were not linked in an inverse relationship.
In fact, these two main variables appeared to be independent
of one another. The means of the total network density
scores were virtually identical across the high, medium, and
low ranges of averaged conceptual level.
The results pertaining to the second hypothesis tended
to confirm the lack of support for the central hypothesis.
When considered individually, higher total network density
and lower averaged conceptual levels were not significantly
correlated with poorer scores on the outcome measures.
Instead, higher total network density and higher
family/relative density were each correlated with better
103

104
(i.e., lower) scores on the mood scale. These density
findings are exactly opposite of the results reported in
Hirsch (1979a). And, whereas larger sized total networks
were suggested by Hirsch (1979a) to be correlated with
better mood and symptom scores, the current study found that
total network size was unrelated to outcome.
The predictions in the second hypothesis that did not
refer directly to the social network or conceptual level
scores were, for the most part, supported. Higher levels of
life change did indeed correlate significantly with higher
levels of personal distress. In a somewhat paradoxical
finding, subjects with higher levels of life change also had
better scores on the Love Scale. This finding seemed to
have resulted from these subjects tending to rate their
relationship with a significant other as being given to
higher levels of tolerance and self-disclosure. Perhaps
subjects who are under higher levels of situational stress
seek to construct relationships with other people which are
more tolerant and self-disclosing.
The predictions made in the second hypothesis about the
influence of the control variables on certain main variables
were generally substantiated. With the exception of a
significant relationship between academic class and life
change, none of the demographic variables were significantly
correlated with life change, total network size, total
network density, and averaged conceptual level. That

105
subjects in the upper academic classes tended to report less
life change tends to support one's suspicion that the last
year or two of college is more routine and settled than the
earlier years. As predicted, the variable which represented
verbal fluency, the description length scores, was not
significantly correlated with the conceptual level scores.
And, except for a negative correlation between NIC on the
ICL for father and GPA, the ICL control variables were not
significantly correlated with any of the overall scores on
the outcome measures. The subjects who checked fewer items
on the ICL when they described their fathers also perceived
their fathers as being lower on the nurturant factor and on
the dominance-submission ICL dimension. Thus, their lower
grades may have reflected their disinterest toward their
fathers.
Two other results which surfaced during the analyses of
the second hypothesis are worth reviewing. First, female
subjects, who also tended to see their fathers as being high
on the love-hate ICL dimension, had better relationship
scores on the Love Scale. This finding was also reported by
Nickerson (1977). Second, subjects who registered for more
course credits produced higher GPAs, a finding which
suggests that these students were fairly good judges of
their own abilities. Both of these findings, while not
initially predicted, seem to adhere to the tenets of common
sense.

106
The third hypothesis, which concerned the varying
degrees of reactivity of the outcome measures, was generally
corroborated. The self-report measures of subjective
distress (POMS and Love Scale) were more reactive than the
relationship measure (Love Scale) or the role performance
variable (GPA), which was the least reactive. Thus, it
appears that the outcome measures behaved in a predictable
fashion. Although the POMS was highly reactive, it was also
significantly correlated with the other three outcome
measures. Hence, the importance of the results relating to
this self-report mood scale cannot be discounted.
The fourth hypothesis was upheld; however, the
importance of this hypothesis was diminished by the lack of
significance between conceptual level and the outcome
measures. Life change, although significantly related to
three of the outcome measures, was sufficiently independent
of averaged conceptual level and total network density as to
make unnecessary the removal of the effects of life change
from the subsequent analyses of the main variables.
The predictions made in the fifth hypothesis were meant
to establish concurrent validity for the two qualitative
factors (i.e., "parent as striving" and "parent as
nurturant") that were derived from the subjects written
descriptions of their mother and father. The ICL dimensions
of DOM and LOV were found to be significantly similar to the
qualitative factors. The striving factor seemed to

107
correspond to the dominance-submission ICL dimension and the
nurturant factor to the love-hate dimension. As an
appropriate test of concurrent validity (Wiggins, 1973), the
correlations between the qualitative factors and the ICL
dimensions were neither too high nor too low. Both
qualitative measures appear to be assessing the same
interpersonal dimensions, which is not surprising because
the two dimensions of Leary's (1957) circumplex, power and
affiliation, have been repeatedly discovered (Berzins,
1977). Each measure, however, approaches power and
affiliation from different methodological premises. For
instance, higher scores on the striving and nurturant
factors are "better" and lower scores are "worse". On the
other hand, LOV and DOM scores as measured by the ICL are
better if they are closer to the center of the circumplex
(which is zero) and worse if they are farther out on the
axes (though positive scores are commonly thought to be
better than negative scores, a notion which was generally
supported in the sixth hypothesis of the current study). In
sum, the qualitative factors of object representations and
the ICL dimensions appear to measure the same constructs but
tend to assess these constructs from different psychometric
perspectives.
To the extent that the skewed distribution of scores
permitted the sixth hypothesis to be appropriately tested,
this hypothesis was supported. The uneven distribution of

108
the I CL scores across the four quadrants meant that the
quadrants with negative LOV and, especially, with negative
DOM scores were not as well represented as the quadrants
with positive LOV and DOM scores. Nevertheless, those
subjects with positive scores on both DOM and LOV had better
scores on the POMS (on the ICL for mother) and Love Scale
(on the ICL for father). At the same time, subjects who
represented their parents, especially their father, as being
high on the nurturant factor tended to report better moods
and fewer symptoms. Thus, the available results seem to
indicate that subjects who described their parents in
positive terms tended to report a more favorable
psychological adjustment for themselves.
Two Conclusions
In sum, only the predictions pertaining to the
conceptual level of object representations and to the social
network scores were called into question by the results of
the current study. Sometimes a significant relationship
between two variables is not observable when a considerable
amount of measurement error increases the randomness of the
data. The validity of this explanation seems questionable
because conceptual level was reliably rated and network
density was derived from an easily coded mathematical
relationship. The other variables in this sample of
students appear to have been normatively distributed. The
results related to the five auxiliary hypotheses suggest

109 -
that the control variables, the outcome variables, the life
change variable, and the qualitative variables behaved in a
predictable and readily explainable fashion.
Therefore, if the results of this study were not a
product of chance, the unexpected and challenging nature of
the conceptual level and network density results leads
inexorably to two conclusions. First, conceptual level is
not the robust, global correlate of mental health that it
was envisioned to be at the onset of the study. Not only
have the authors (Geller, Cooley, and Hartley, 1981-82) of
another study also argued that a single score is inadequate
to encapsulate the complexity of object representations, but
Blatt has recently revised his theory of intrapsychic
development and its impact on psychopathology. Second, and
in accordance with the impetus behind the central
hypothesis, lower density social networks are not
intrinsically conducive of better psychological adaptation.
Instead, network density must be viewed within a
developmental framework; the adaptive value of higher versus
lower density probably varies according to the psychosocial
needs of the individual.
The Reevaluation of Conceptual Level
The results of the current study have shown in a normal
population of college students that the conceptual level of
the students' object representations was unrelated to their
psychological adjustment. The variable of conceptual level

110
of object representations, as used in the current study,
appears to be more circumscribed and finite than had been
originally anticipated. The authors of two recent additions
to the literature on object representations have attempted
to cope with the limitations of the conceptual level
variable by broadening the way in which object
representations are measured and conceptualized.
Although it was initially hoped that the dimension of
intrapsychic structure which is sensitive to psychological
adjustment would be extracted by the variable of conceptual
level, one can now conclude only that a single score cannot
summarize this sense of object representations. Geller,
Cooley, and Hartley, who used the scoring system of Blatt et
al. (1981) as one way of studying patients' object
representations of their therapists, arrived at a similar
conclusion:
Blatt et al.'s conceptual level scale implies that
the developmental level of an object
representation can be quantified in a single
rating, despite their awareness of the
multi-dimensional, multi-leveled, multi-modal
nature of representation [Blatt et al., 1976],
Our own data indicated that participants within a
given level differed markedly in terms of both the
organization and the thematic content of their
descriptions, and thus a single score could not
adequately capture the complexity of their
representations. (Geller, Cooley, and Hartley,
1981-82, p. 134).
The results of the present study suggest that the
qualitative factors of "parent as nurturant" and "parent as
striving", as well as the ICL dimensions of LOV and DOM, may

Ill
be, with respect to outcome, more salient measures of object
representations than was conceptual level. Higher nurturant
scores seemed to have contributed to better mood and fewer
symptoms. The striving factor (for father) was relevant
because it varied significantly across the different
conceptual levels of object representations. LOV and DOM
from the ICL also had a modest relationship with the outcome
measures. DOM, from the ICL on mothers, was significantly
correlated with the measures of subjective distress.
Although LOV was unrelated to these outcome measures, LOV
from the ICL for father was significantly correlated with
the Love Scale. And, in general, subjects in the
Dominance-Love quadrant had better scores on the outcome
measures. Thus, the qualitative variables of object
relations, as opposed to the conceptual level variable,
appeared to have had a stronger relationship with the
outcome measures.
In this spirit, Geller et al. (1981-82) proposed that
an object representation be measured not only with respect
to its stylistic properties (which they have broadened to
include thematic and structural aspects beyond that which is
understood by conceptual level) but its formal and
functional properties as well. They devised the Therapist
Representation Inventory to measure these properties of
patients' object representations of their therapist, and
they found that certain formal and functional properties of

112
the representations were significantly correlated with the
patients' perception of therapeutic improvement. Although
this instrument is too specific to be generalized to other
studies of object representations, its theoretical and
methodological advancements can be incorporated into future
studies.
In the past few years, Blatt has made a substantial
change in his theory of intrapsychic development. Instead
of trying to explain conceptual level on the basis of one
dimension, Blatt has developed a more dialectical, two
dimensional model. As recently as their 1979 study, Blatt
and his colleagues thought that the anaclitic concerns of
object loss, which revolve around the need to maintain
direct physical contact with others, were more prominent in
the lower levels of object representations. And they
thought that the introjective concerns, which involve issues
of self-criticism and of maintaining an adequate concept of
self, were more salient during the next higher levels of
object representations. They believed that people who had
mastered these issues were at the highest levels of object
representations. Blatt and his colleagues now propose the
presence of two distinct developmental tasks which delineate
two primary pathways of development:
the establishment of stable and meaningful
interpersonal relatedness defines the anaclitic
developmental line, the development of a
consolidated and differentiated identity and
self-concept defines an introjective developmental
line. In normal development, the two processes of
establishing interpersonal relations and a

113
personal identity develop in an interdependent
dialectical process. The quality of interpersonal
relations and self-definition develop in mutually
facilitating, complex interaction. . .
Individuals cope with developmental disruptions by
exagerrated attempts to achieve equilibrium either
in interpersonal relatedness or in a consolidated
concept of self. In the extreme the two
developmental lines define two primary
configurations of psychopathology. The
determination of which developmental line (the
concept of the self or the mode of interpersonal
relatedness) becomes the primary focus of
compensatory maneuvers and symptomatic expression
in psychopathology is influenced by a host of
possible parameters. (Blatt and Shichman, 1983,
pp. 193-194).
Note that Thomas and Chess' (1980) notions of goodness of
fit and poorness of fit between the organism and the
environment are preserved in Blatt and Shichman's (1983)
concept of "equilibrium".
Blatt and Shichman (1983) propose that each line of
development is more prominent at certain periods in the life
span. Using Erikson's (1950) psychosocial stages, with the
addition of another stage (mutuality versus competition)
during the Oedipal period, they suggest a one stage-two
stage interchange between anaclitic and introjective
preoccupations. The first stage of trust versus mistrust
accents anaclitic concerns, while the next two stages of
autonomy versus shame and initiative versus guilt are
predominated by introjective issues. The subsequent stage
of mutuality versus competition marks the return to
anaclitic themes. Again, introjective concerns are
heightened during the next two stages of industry versus

114
inferiority and identity versus role confusion. The one
stage-two stage symmetry finishes with intimacy versus
isolation (anaclitic), generativity versus stagnation and
integrity versus despair (both introjective). Thus, a
person who has difficulty with one stage, and the
developmental issues involved therein, may find those issues
re-awakened and the developmental arrests of that earlier
stage highlighted during a later stage of development which
stresses the earlier developmental themes. Although each
line of development has a proactive affect on the other line
of development (e.g., someone will have difficulty
establishing good interpersonal relationships without a good
concept of self, and vice versa), someone can, within
reason, refine one line of development with reasonable
success while still being restricted in the opposite line.
More overall decolage, or disparities between common
abilities, is allowed in this theoretical system.
The Reevaluation of Network Density
In the current study, network density was significantly
correlated with subjective distress, especially as it was
measured by the POMS, but in a pattern opposite to the one
expected. These results appear, on the surface, to stand in
direct contradiction to the results reported by Hirsch
(1979a). In this reevaluation of the network density
results, however, it is proposed that this set of
contradictory results was found because the subjects in

115
Hirsch's (1979a) study faced a different set of
psychological issues than the subjects in the current study.
The subjects in the two studies were selected so that,
within each sample, they faced the same set of issues. But,
this homogeniety of issues within each sample produced an
unintended difference in the issues faced between the
samples. The idea that the effects of network density would
vary according to the subjects' intrapsychic issues was a
the heart of the interactional hypothesis of the current
study.
Hirsch (1979a) had found that the total network density
was not significantly correlated with the POMS or the HSCL,
but the trend was for subjects in lower density networks to
obtain lower, hence better, scores. This trend was
significant when Hirsch used the nuclear family to
friendship (NF-F) boundary density in place of total network
density in the correlations. Subjects in Hirsch's study who
had lower NF-F boundary density (i.e., fewer contacts
between their network of family and relatives and their
network of friends) tended to obtain better mood and symptom
scores than those who had higher density NF-F boundary
density, or more contacts across this boundary between
networks. But in the current study nearly half of the
students had no NF-F boundary density, a finding which was
unaffected by any of the demographic variables.

116
The selection criteria for the current study and for
Hirsch's (1979a) study tended to produce rather homogeneous
samples within each study. Hirsch's (1979a) sample
consisted of 20 recent widows and 14 women who had recently
returned to college. Their mean ages were 46 and 37 years
old, respectively. On the other hand, the sample in the
present study was composed of college students between the
ages of 18 and 23 years old. Each sample was chosen with
the hope that the subjects within that sample would be
facing similar stressors. The women in Hirsch's (1979a)
study were facing major life changes; only two widows and
three students were not in some degree of life crisis as
measured by the Schedule of Recent Events. Stated residency
of one semester was a prerequisite for being in the study.
Although the young college students in the current study had
not faced the same caliber of major life change, such as
losing spouses or changing lifestyles, they had a higher
than average amount of stress during the previous 9 months
of their lives. Note that the differences in the results
produced by the two samples cannot be attributed simply to a
difference in the degree of stress experienced by the
subjects in each sample; it was not a case of where one
sample produced significantly better outcome scores than the
other sample, but instead, each sample produced a reversal
of the effects of density on the outcome scores.

117
The subjects in Hirsch's (1979a) study, however, can be
seen as living at different psychosocial stages than those
in the present study. The women in Hirsch's study are
almost a full generation older than the average college
student. Indeed, the widows in Hirsch's sample had children
whose average age was older than the mean for college
students in the present study. All but one of the 34 women
in Hirsch's study had been married at one time; whereas, no
married people were accepted into the current study. The
widows in Hirsch's study were probably beginning to face
issues of integrity versus despair, given that their spouses
were dead and their children grown. The older women who
were returning to college were likely to be in the
psychosocial stage of generativity versus stagnation. On
the other hand, the younger college students of the present
study were presumed to still be in the stage of identity
versus role diffusion. Hence, the subjects in each of these
psychosocial stages were involved with introjective
concerns. But one crucial difference existed in that an
anaclitic stage (i.e., intimacy versus isolation) separated
the subjects in these two studies.
The hypothesis can be advanced that network density
reflects a different form of structural organization within
the total network before and after this anaclitic stage.
Although the total density score was nearly identical in
both studies, the density of the nuclear family and

118
relatives network and the friendship network, as well as the
boundary density between the two networks, were different in
the two studies. And, the meaning, in terms of its
influence on outcome, should be different within each
subgroup of total density over time. For instance, younger
college students are still the children within their nuclear
family and relative networks. The norm would be for these
networks (and these networks are only composed of people who
have a relationship with the subject) to have more
relationships among members, with a more restricted
generational span. For the woman in Hirsch's sample, whose
family/relative network may include her own children,
nieces, and nephews, the relationships among members are
expected to be more diffuse, given the span of the
generations. Whereas, the norm seems to be for younger
college students to have higher density family/relative
networks, older students and widows appear to live in family
networks whose norm is lower density. Deviations from these
norms may produce greater subjective distress. A NF-F
boundary density which was non-existent or very low would be
expected for younger college students, for whom a major
psychosocial task is to separate from their nuclear families
and to establish friendship networks which are more
autonomous, at least initially, from family ties. For older
women, the opportunity for interaction between their
families and friends seems greater, and the density of these

119
interactions more influential. Thus, it appears that the
importance of the density of a person's social networks is a
function of the psychosocial issues faced by that person.
Closing Remarks
Despite the lack of supporting results, the central
hypothesis remains, at least in principle, viable. An
optimal relationship, or goodness of fit, between certain
personality and social variables should be associated with
psychological well-being. Conversely, greater deviations
from the structural harmony of this ideal relationship,
deviations which represent a poorness of fit between
personality and social variables, should be related to
psychopathology. Before any lasting conlusions can be made
about the central hypothesis more work needs to be done on
the relevant personality and social variables.
The theory and measurement of object representations is
still evolving. Although no single variable appears to be
able to encapsulate the complexity of an object
representation, variables are needed that can capture the
maturational level of an object representation, variables
which are also sensitive to abnormal development. The body
of research on measuring object representations is still too
young to offer a clear picture of what form these variables
will take. The qualitative factors appear in the current
study to have tapped two dimensions of object
representations. One dimension, that of nurturance or

120
affiliation, should be more sensitive to dysphoric moods and
symptoms. The other dimension, that of striving or power,
should be more sensitive to paranoid or obsessional problem
behaviors.
The network density scores need to be assessed across a
number of psychosocial stages. Even two groups of college
students, one younger and one much older, produced quite
different scores. Care should be taken when selecting
samples from different stages of the life cycle to choose
subjects who are in periods of transition so as to
accentuate the effects of social networks. For instance,
people who have recently retired should have greater need
for their social networks than a same-aged group who was
still working.
In the final analysis, a form of the interactional
hypothesis was supported in the current study; lower density
social networks were less adaptive, with respect to
subjective distress, than they were in an earlier study.
The intervening variable, while not being an internal
structural variable, was suspected to be at least partially
internally mediated. Thus, the results of this study
support the contention that social and personality variables
need to be studied in unison.

APPENDIX A.
NETWORK DENSITY SCORESAN EXAMPLE
Below is an example of how the density scores of a
hypothetical subject would have been computed. The formulas
presented on page 46 are used to calculate family/relative
network density, friendship network density, total network
density, and NF-F boundary density.
A subject could have had a Social Network List as
follows.
1. Father
2. Mother
3. Grandmother (father's mother)
4. Jane (sister)
5. Karen (friend)
6. Steve (friend)
7. John (friend)
8. Nancy (friend)
9. Brian (friend)
The first four people on this list would constitute the
subjects family/relative network. The next five people
would form the subject's friendship network.
The subject could have drawn a Support System Map as
follows. Note that for the sake of clarity the lines
connecting the members of the social network with the
subject have been not drawn.
121

122
Family Friends
To compute the density of the family/relative network,
the friendship network, and the total network the following
formula is employed.
density=X/(N(N-l)/2)
where X=the number of actual relationships
between members of the
subject's network
N=number of people in the subject's
network.
Therefore, the subject's family/relative network density
would be calculated as follows.
family/relative network size(N)=4
number of relationships(X)=5
family/relative network density=X/(N(N-l)/2)
=5/(4(4-1)/2)
= .83
And, friendship network density would be calculated as
follows.
friendship network size(N)=5
number of relationships(X)=3
friendship network density=X/(N(N-l)/2)
=3/(5(5-1)/2)
= .30

123
And, total network density would be calculated as follows.
total network size(N)=9
number of relationships(x)=9
total network density=X/(N(N-l)/2)
=9/(9(9-l)/2)
= .25
The following formula was used to compute the NF-F boundary
density.
NF-F boundary density=X/(NF)(F)
where NF=number of nuclear family members
F=number of friends
X=number of relationships existing
between the nuclear family
members and the friends.
Therefore, the subject's NF-F boundary density was
calculated as follows.
size of family network(NF)=4
friendship network size(F)=5
number of relationships(X)=1
NF-F boundary density=X/(NF)(F)
=1/(5)(4)
=. 05

APPENDIX B.
CONSENT FORMS
Consent To Participate In Research Study
Title of Project: Object Relations and Social Networks:
Correlates of Adjustment During College
Investigator: R. Peter Fortney, M.S., Doctoral
Candidate, Department of Clinical
Psychology
Co-Investigators: Hugh C. Davis, Ph.D., Professor,
Doctoral Chair, Department of
Clinical Psychology
Sandi Jacot, B.S., Research Assistant
Kathleen Toohey, Research Assistant
Name of Volunteer Date Age
Being in college is thought to be a time during which
people change a great deal. The tensions associated with
this change, combined with the other typical pressures of
college life (e.g., grades, finances, extracurricular
activities), produce high levels of stress in many college
students. Researchers have found that the nature of a
persons relationships with other people effects the way
that person copes with the demands and stresses of everyday
life. The study you are being asked to participate in seeks
to further clarify how certain characteristics of your
social relationships influence the manner in which you cope
with being in college.
124

- 125 -
Your task will be to complete several scales and
questionnaires. One of the purposes of this study is to
measure, and examine the interactions among, some of the
stresses you have recently experienced, some of the
characteristics of your relationships with important people
in your life (especially your relationship with your mother
and father), and some aspects of the adjustment you have
made to being in college. Each instrument is designed to
assess a specific variable; hence a variety of instruments
is needed. In addition, these instruments attempt to
measure the relevant variables in a straightforward and open
fashion.
The following is a brief description of what you will
be required to do on each instrument:
Demographic Questionnaire. You fill out a
brief questionnaire which asks for such background
information as your age, sex, college
classification, financial status (i.e., what is
your single greatest source of income), and the
occupation and educational level of your parents
or guardians. This questionnaire should take
approximately five minutes or less to complete.
College Schedule of Recent Events. You will
fill out an inventory on which you are asked to
indicate how many times you have experienced each
of 40 events in the past nine months. These

126
events are thought to represent instances of life
change commonly faced by college students. This
inventory should take about 10 minutes to
complete.
Descriptor of Parents. You write a five
minute description of your mother and a five
minute description of your father.
Interpersonal Checklist. You are presented
with a list of 134 words or phrases, and you
circle those items which describe your mother.
You complete the same checklist on your father.
Each form should take approximately 10 minutes to
fill out.
Social Network List. You list up to 20
significant people in your life with whom you have
had contact with at least once during the past 4
to 6 weeks ("contact with" includes in person, by
phone or letter). You list only those people who
are an important source of support, guidance, or
encouragement. This list should take about 5
minutes to complete.
Support System Map. You use this form to map
out your social network. You put your name in the
middle of the page. Next, you put those
individuals you listed on the Social Network List
onto the page, such that you put nearest to your

127
name those individuals you feel "closest" to. You
then draw a line between those individuals who you
consider to have a relationship with each other.
This map should take about 10 minutes to
construct.
Profile of Mood States. You indicate to what
extent, if any, you have recently been bothered by
each of the common, possible problems listed on
this scale. It takes approximately 10 minutes to
complete this checklist.
Scale of Feelings. You answer 120 items on
this questionnaire that describe some of the ways
in which you express your feelings toward another
person. You choose, and specify, a person in your
life to whom you feel "closest" (e.g., same or
opposite sex friend, brother, sister, father,
mother) and fill out the questionnaire with that
person in mind. This last instrument should take
about 20 minutes to complete.
These instruments are of sufficient variety and
shortness (note that no scale should take more than 20
minutes to complete) that they should be able to maintain
your interest during the experimental procedure. You will
also be given a short rest period during the experiment.
The entire experimental procedure should last approximately
two hours, and you will receive appropriate course credit
for your participation. No follow-up testing is required.

128
We are also interested in your grade point average
(GPA) because GPA is the most direct and pragmatic means of
measuring the role performance of a college student. At the
end of the semester, we will ask the Office of the Registrar
in Tigert Hall to provide us with your GPA for the current
semester and your overall GPA.
As you have noticed, we will be asking you questions
and requesting information about personal topics. We have
taken all possible precautions to assure the confidentiality
of your responses, in the hope that you are able to feel
comfortable and be candid in providing this information.
The possibility exists that, despite these precautions, you
may find yourself at times somewhat distressed as a result
of thinking about the matters found on these instruments.
At all times, you retain the right to decline to answer any
question, at your discretion. We believe that the results
will be more accurate and hence of more benefit, if you are
able to feel in control of the information you provide us.
As a student, your most direct benefits of
participating in this study are experiential and
educational. You will obtain first-hand experience with a
number of psychological scales and questionnaires, an
experience which many people find to be interesting and
informative. Those participants who request a written
abstract of the results of this study will gain some insight
into how various facets of interpersonal behavior can

129
influence their life. In a broader sense, the results of
this study could be applied in programs to help students
cope more effectively with the stresses and demands of being
in college. In addition, the knowledge gained from this
study can be used to help other groups of people who face
stressful changes in their lives.
If you agree to participate, you will be assigned a
code number. This number, rather than your name, will be
used to identify your data. A record of your name, social
security number, and code number will be kept in a locked
file until the end of the current semester. Once grade
point averages have been received from the Office of the
Registrar, all identifying information will be destroyed.
Any data collected will be held strickly confidential.
Only those persons directly involved in conducting this
study will have access to the data. Analysis of the data
will be done in reference to groups, and thus the individual
characteristics of any subject will be concealed. Of
course, all presentation and publication of the data will
not contain information that would allow someone to guess
the identity of any individual.
Your participation in this study is greatly
appreciated. Even though you agree to participate, you are
free to terminate your participation and to withdraw your
consent at any time without jeopardy to your earned credit.

130
Please feel free to ask any questions you have at this
point.

In the event of sustaining a physical injury which is
proximally caused by this experiment, no professional
medical care will be provided without charge.
I, have read, and I
understand, the procedures and descriptions outlined above.
I have been given the opportunity to ask questions relevant
to my decision to participate, and all such questions have
been answered to my satisfaction. I understand that I may
withdraw my consent and terminate my participation at any
time without jeopardy to the credits earned up to that
point. I hereby agree to participate in this study, and I
have received a copy of this consent form.
Date Signature of Volunteer
Date
Signature of Witness

Consent to Release Grade Point Averages
Name of Volunteer
Social Security Number
Current Semester
I, having read and signed
the Informed Consent Form, hereby authorize the Office of
the Registrar at the University of Florida to release at the
end of the current semester to the investigators my grade
point average for the current semester and my overall grade
point average.
Date
Signature of Volunteer
Date
Signature of Witness

133
Optional Feedback
If you would like a written abstract of the results to
be mailed to you upon completion of this study, please fill
in the following information:
Name
Street
City & State
Zip Code

APPENDIX C.
DATA COLLECTION INFORMATION
Instruction Used in Data Collection
(Note: The following is the set of instructions used by the
research assistants during the data collection phase of this
study. Hence, the "you" refers to the assistants, except
when the "you" appears within the quotation marks. The
sections within the quotation marks represent the parts
which were read aloud to the subjects.)
Have the subjects read the consent form.
Ask if they have any questions.
Get them to sign both consent forms (you sign as the
witness).
The third consent form is optional (i.e., if they want
to receive a written abstract of the results, they should
sign it). Incidentally, they should expect at least nine
months before they receive the results in the mail.
Starting instructions:
as you read in the consent form, your task in this
study is to complete a series of scales and
questionnaires.
There are no right and wrong answers to these
instruments; each person has his or her own style
of responding. It is this uniqueness that we are
interested in.
134

- 135 -
You may find some of these instruments easy to
fill out, while others may be more difficult.
Just try to do your best.
If you have any questions when you are filling
them out, please raise your hand.
We will take a short rest period before completing
the last scale.
Any questions? . .
Okay, let's get started. First, you'll do the
demographics questionnaire. Just answer the
following questions. When you are finished with
this page, stop and look up. . .
Okay, turn the page. This next instrument is the
College Schedule of Recent Events. Please read
the instructions as I read them aloud. [When you
finish with the 'last nine months part, you may
want to inform them that nine months is the period
from, for instance for those who do it in
September, 'January until now']. This
questionnaire is three pages long. When you
finish with it, stop and look up.
Do the same (i.e., reading the instructions, providing
them with structure) for each form.
Time the Description of Mother and Description of
Father. Be matter-of-fact about the timing, neither hiding
the fact that they are being timed nor giving them the
impression they are being rushed.
Stop them after each of the Interpersonal Checklists so
that stragglers do not get too far behind. The instructions
in between the two Interpersonal Checklists can simply be,
"now do the samething to describe your father".
On the Support System Map, it may be helpful if you
have them do parts of it before finishing the instructions.
For instance, read to them, "you are to put your name in the

136
middle of the page. . now go ahead and do that". Then
read, "then, put those individuals you listed on the Social
Network List on the page, such that you put nearest to your
name those individuals to whom you feel the 'closest'. For
convenience's sake, please put your family members and
relatives on the left-hand side of your name and your
friends on the right-hand side of your name, with
professionals at the bottom . now go ahead and do that".
Then, read, "next, draw a circle around each name on the
page", pause, and allow them to do that. Then, read, "now,
draw a line between yourself and each individual on the
page", and let them do that. Then, read the rest and let
them finish.
After they finish the Hopkins Symptom Checklists, give
them a break. Tell them that you would prefer if they did
not talk with each other about what they had just done until
after they finish the last scale. Collect their first
instrument packet. During the break check over their
Support System Maps to make sure that they filled them out
legibly.
Tell them that the Scale of Feelings is the last thing
they have to fill out. When they hand them in, make sure
that they specified not a person's name, but what
relationship that person is to them (like, mother, father,
brother, sister, and so on).

137
Ask them when they finish if they have any questions.
Tell them how many credits they will receive.
Some general pointers:
Questions may be seen as often being request for
structure or a form of resistance. Usually it is
sufficient to answer the question factually,
second, to reflect the subject's feeling if
necessary, and, third, (if appropriate) to
reinterpret the test situation for the subject.
You should try to avoid giving them too much
information, especially on the Description of
Mother and the Description of Father. Stay as
close as possible to the "describe you mother
(father)" instructions. Some may ask you, "what
do you want to know about her (him)?". A standard
response would be, "it's up to you". Just let
them know that anything they say is okay. The
idea is to support production rather than
supporting performance. Anything they give you is
okay and will not be judged.
If they should ask about receiving the results of
their individual performance, tell them that only
group data will be made available. Try to
reassure them that they did fine.

138
Questions Asked by the Subjects and the Answers Given
by the Research Assistants
(Note: The following is a sample of the questions that the
assistants recorded during the course of the data collection
phase and the answers they gave in return.)
Q: What is "peeved"?
A: Bothered or irritated.
Q: Is "going home" a vacation?
A: If it was for a holiday or weekend (e.g., not for
the dentist, and so on).
Q: What if I'm a freshman, but this is my second year?
A: Okay.
Q: Does "changed your residence" mean moving from home?
A: Yes.
Q: What do you want me to describe [about mom/dad]?
A: Whatever you want.
Q: Does this mean right now, while I'm taking the test
(POMS)?
A: Yes.
Q: What if I've been sick for the last two days? Does
nausea count [on the HSCL]?
A: Yes.
Q: What if I'm better friends with Joe than my boss?
A: All lines mean the same thing; proximity of names
signifies "closeness".

APPENDIX D.
DEMOGRAPHICS QUESTIONNAIRE
Please answer the following questions:
1. What is your age?
2. Sex:
[ ] male [ ] female
3. What year of college are you in officially?
[ ] freshmen [ ] sophomore [ ] junior
[ ] senior [ ] graduate
4. What is your major, or your intended major?
5. How many credits are you enrolled for this semester?
6. What is your single, greatest source of income?
7. Are you currently employed while attending college?
7a. If so, how many hours, average, do you work each week?
8. Do you live with your parents of guardians?
9. What is your fathers occupation (be precise)?
10. What is your mother's occupation (be precise)?
139

Mark the
appopriate box
11. Fathers level of education:
140
[ ] post-graduate training
[ ] graduated from college
] some college training
[ ] graduated from high school
[ ] completed 10th or 11th grade
] completed 7th, 8th, or 9th grade
[ ] completed 6th grade or less
12. Mother's level of education:
[ ] post-graduate training
[ ] graduated from college
[ ] some college training
[ ] graduated from high school
[ ] completed 10th or 11th grade
[ ] completed 7th, 8th, or 9th grade
[ ] completed 6th grade or less

APPENDIX E.
RELIABILITY AND NORMATIVE DATA
Reliability of the Descriptions of Parents
Blatt et al. (1981)
Variables
Expert Rater
and
Trained Rater
(n=28)
Expert Rater
and
Untrained Rater
(n=28)
Item Scores:
Length of Description
Conceptual Level
Scaled Scores:
Parent as Nurturing
Parent as Striving
81
.74
88
.70
92
.83
83
.78
Present Study
Experimenter
and
Independent Rater
Variables (n=50)
Item Scores:
Length of Description .98
Conceptual Level .88
Scaled Scores:
Parent as Nurturing .82
Parent as Striving .71
Note: all values represent pearson product moment
correlations
141

142
Norms for the Descriptions of ParentsOn Mothers
Blatt et al.
Present
(1981)
Study
Females
Females
(n=87)
(n=
65)
Variables
M SD
M
SD
Item Scores:
Length of Descriptor
4.38 1.59
4.43
1.40
Conceptual Level
Scaled Scores:
4.84 1.64
4.89
1.37
Parent as Nurturing
__
0.67
5.93
Parent as Striving

0.01
3.08
Blatt et al.
Present
(1981)
Study
Males
Males
(n=40)
(n=
52)
Variables
M SD
M
SD
Item Scores:
Length of Descriptor
3.38 1.22
3.25
1.09
Conceptual Level
Scaled Scores:
4.82 1.37
4.72
1.15
Parent as Nurturing

-0.84
5.72
Parent as Striving

-0.02
2.89
Note: "" refers to unavailable data

143
Norms for the Descriptions of ParentsOn Fathers
Blatt et al.
Present
(1981)
Study
Females
Females
(n=87)
(n=
65)
Variables
M SD
M
SD
Item Scores:
Length of Descriptor
4.26 1.69
4.71
1.47
Conceptual Level
Scaled Scores:
4.83 1.71
5.13
1.20
Parent as Nurturing
__
0.32
6.35
Parent as Striving

0.24
3.13
Blatt et al.
Present
(1981)
Study
Males
Males
(n=40)
(n=52)
Variables
M SD
M SD
Item Scores:
Length af Descriptor
3.85 1.53
3.76 1.46
Conceptual Level
Scaled Scores:
4.96 1.40
5.02 1.10
Parent as Nurturing

-0.40 5.02
Parent as Striving

-0.29 2.88
Note: "" refers to unavailable data

Norms for Social Networks
Hirsch
Present
(1979a)
Study
(n=34)
(n-117)
Network
Size
Size
Family/Relative
6.0
5.6
Friends
6.9
7.8
Pro
1.0
0.4
Overall
13.9
13.7
Hirsch
Present
(1979a)
Study
(n=34)
(n=117)
Network
Density
Density
Family/Relative
0.59
0.85
Friends
0.23
0.29
Pro
--
--
Overall
0.26
0.27
Note
TT V
refers to unavailable data

145
Norms for the CSRE
Marx
et al.
(1975)
Present Study
(n=1840)
(n=117)
Variable
M
SD
M
SD
Total Score
891
544
1079
582
Marx
et al.
(1975)
Present Study
(n=1840)
(n=117)
Levels
percent
percent
High Change
(greater than 1 SD)
15
14
Medium Change
(plus or minus 1 SD)
75
75
Lower Change
(less than 1 SD)
10
11

146
Norms for the POMS
Scales
College
Students
(n=856)
Present
Study
(n=117)
Tension-Anxiety
13.5
9.5
Depression-Dejection
14.1
20.4
Anger-Hostility
9.6
14.6
Vigor
-15.6
-22.5
Fatigue
10.6
13.9
Confusion-Bewilderment
11.1
6.8
Total
43.2
42.7
Scales
Depressive
Sample
(n=106)
Anxious
Sample
(n=26)
Personality
Sample
(n=228)
Tension-Anxiety
22.0
20.1
20.9
Depression-Dejection
30.2
23.5
27.8
Anger-Hostility
17.3
13.5
16.2
Vigor
-8.6
-10.9
-10.2
Fatigue
14.7
13.1
11.6
Confusion-Bewilderment
13.3
14.3
13.6
Total
88.9
73.6
79.9
Note: all samples, except for the present study are
from McNair et al. (1971)

Norms for the HSCL
Scales
Somatization
Obsession
Interpersonal
Depression
Anxiety
Total
Scales
Somatization
Obsession
Interpersonal
Depression
Anxiety
Total
Note: "
Anxious
Depressed
Normal
eurotics
Neurotics
Sample
(n=1435)
(n=367)
(n=735)
22.9
22.7
13.8
15.6
18.4
9.3
14.0
16.3
7.8
22.4
28.3
12.6
15.5
17.2
7.9
90.5
103.4
51.4
Present
Hirsch
Study
(1979a)
(n=117)
(n=34)
15.8

13.6

10.9

17.1

10.3

67.6
72
" refers to unavailable data

148
Norms
Scales
Verbal Expression
Self-Disclosure
Toleration
Non-Material Evidence
Unexpressed Feelings
Material Evidence
Love Scale Index
Scales
Verbal Expression
Self-Disclosure
Toleration
Non-Material Evidence
Unexpressed Feelings
Material Evidence
Love Scale Index
for the Love Scale
On Females
Swensen
Present
(1978)
Study
(n=95)
(n=65)
46.50
43.15
49.62
48.38
38.33
38.20
64.27
64.21
-52.74
-27.24
32.08
33.57
178.06 200.30
On
Males
Swensen
Present
(1978)
Study
(n=84)
(n=52)
44.32
37.73
47.88
43.75
39.00
35.73
62.45
60.90
-50.31
-31.04
30.24
31.13
173.58
178.33
Note: scores on females and males in Swensen (1978)
are for relationship with closest friend, oppositite sex;
scores on females in the present study are for relationship
with fiance (8 percent), boyfriend (35 percent), same sex
friend (22 percent), parent (28 percent), cibling (6
percent); scores on males in the present study are for
relationship with fiance (2 percent), girlfriend (21
percent), same sex friend (27 percent), parent (33 percent),
cibling (17 percent)

149
Norms for the ICL
Variables
For
M
LaForge (1976)
Males
(n=117)
Mother For
SD M
Father
SD
NIC
49.15
13.01 44.92
12.20
AIN
1.99
0.19 1.95
0.19
DOM
3.53
6.14 8.32
5.85
LOV
8.28
8.05 -0.78
7.69
Variables
For
M
Present Study
Males
(n=52)
Mother For
SD M
Father
SD
NIC
37.49
12.34 38.00
14.09
AIN
1.96
0.20 2.01
0.20
DOM
4.16
6.10 9.86
5.33
LOV
3.04
7.43 -2.24
7.22
LaForge
(1976)
Females
(n=92)
For
Mother
For
Father
Variables
M
SD
M
SD
NIC
48.74
13.27
45.68
13.02
AIN
1.99
0.21
1.98
0.22
DOM
5.29
6.45
8.78
7.78
LOV
7.29
7.79
1.10
9.95
Present
Study
Females
For
(n =
Mother
65)
For
Father
Variables
M
SD
M
SD
NIC
38.61
13.77
36.65
12.31
AIN
1.99
0.23
2.01
0.22
DOM
4.01
6.96
9.92
5.17
LOV
5.54
7.95
2.18
8.39

150
Norms for the ICL--Continued
LaForge (1976)
Overall
(n=209)
Variables
For
M
Mother
SD
For
M
Father
SD
NIC
49.20
13.12
45.25
12.56
AIN
1.99
0.20
1.96
0.20
DOM
4.30
6.28
8.52
6.70
LOV
7.84
7.94
0.05
8.68
Present Study
Overall
(n =
117)
For
Mother
For
Father
Variables
M
SD
M
SD
NIC
38.12
13.12
37.24
13.07
AIN
1.98
0.22
2.01
0.21
DOM
4.08
6.57
9.89
5.22
LOV
4.45
7.80
0.26
8.17

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Piaget, J. The Construction of Reality in the Child. New
York: Basic Books, Inc., 1954.
Plant, W.T. Longitudinal changes in tolerance and
authoritarianism for subjects with differing amount of
college education over four years. Genetic Psychology
Monographs, 1965, 12, 247-287.
Rowe, I., and Marcia, J.E. Ego identity status, formal
operations, and moral development. Journal of
Youth and Adolescence,
1980, 9, 87-99.
Smith, M.L., and Glass, G.V. Meta-analysis of psychotherapy
outcome studies. American Psychologist, 1977, 32,
752-760.
Smith, P.E. The relationship of life change, neuroticism,
and academic performance among junior college adults.
Dissertation Abstracts International, 1977, 37, 7475A.
Sokolovsky, J., Cohen, C., Berger, D., and Geiger, J.
Personal networks of ex-mental patients in a Manhattan
S.R.O. hotel. Human Organization, 1978, 31_, 5-15.
Statistical Analysis System (SAS) Institute. SAS Users
Guide: Statistics. Cary, NC: SAS Institute, Inc.,
1982.
Sullivan, H.S. The Interpersonal Theory of Psychiatry. New
York: W.W. Norton, Inc., 1953.
Swensen, C.H. Manual and Test Booklet for the Scale of
Feelings and Behavior of Love! Gary, I1 Author,
1978.
Thomas, A., and Chess, S. The Dynamics of Psycological
Development. New York! Brunner/Mazel, Pub., 1980.
Waterman, A.S., and Goldman, J.A. A longitudinal study of
ego identity development at a liberal arts college.
Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 1976, 5, 361-369.

155
Waugh, M.H., and McCaulley, M.H. Relation of level of ego
development to type and severity of psychopathology.
Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 1981,
49, 295-296.
Werner, H. The concept of development from a comparative
and organismic point of view. In C.S. Lavatelli and
F. Stendler (eds.), Readings in Child Behavior and
Development. New York: Hartcourt, Brace, and
Jovanovich, Inc., 1972.
White, K.M. Problems and characteristics of college
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Pub. Co., 1973.

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH
Peter Fortney graduated from the College of William and
Mary in 1976, with high honors in psychology and a minor in
anthropology. His honors thesis examined ego modalities in
manifest dream content. During the next year he assisted in
psychophysiological research at Eastern State Hospital,
which is near Williamsburg, Virginia.
He entered the clinical psychology graduate program at
the University of Florida in 1977. He received his Master
of Science degree in the spring of 1981. His thesis was a
study of dropouts from psychotherapy at a community mental
health center. He entered doctoral candidacy in the fall of
1981. The areas of special study for his qualifying exam
included theories of schizophrenia, psychotherapy research,
and interpersonal theory in psychotherapy.
Mr. Fortney completed his internship at the Palo Alto
Veterans Administration Medical Center. His rotations
included the Day Hospital, the Family Study Unit, the
Psychological Assesment Unit, and the Coed Intensive
Treatment Unit. Since finishing his internship in 1983, Mr.
Fortney has been working on his dissertation and assisting
in research at the Stanford Sleep Disorders Center.
156

- 157
Mr. Fortney, who is 30 years old, lives in Portola
Valley, California, with his wife, Teresa, and their cat,
Yggdrasill.

I certify that I have read this study and that in my
opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly
presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality,
as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.
Hugh C.
Professor
ivis Ph. D. ,
of Clinical
Chairman
Psychology
I certify that I have read this study and that in my
opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly
presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality,
as a dissertation for the degree/crf^Doctor of Philosophy.
ULC
Louis D. Cohen, Ph.D.
Professor Emeritus of Clinical
Psychology
I certify that I have read this study and that in my
opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly
presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality,
as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.
imfin, Ph.D.
Clinical Psychology

I certify that I have read this study and that in my
opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly
presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality,
as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.
CkisKj (3
Eileen Fennell, Ph.D.
Associate Professor of Clinical
Psychology
I certify that I have read this study and that in my
opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly
presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality,
as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.
Otto Von Mering, PJ
Professor of Anthropology
This thesis was submitted to the Graduate Faculty of the
College of Health Related Professions and to the Graduate
Council, and was accepted as partial fulfillment of the
requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.
Dean, College of Health Related
Professions
Dean for Graduate Studies and
Research
August, 198 4



2
(i.e. the subjects image of their parents). The conceptual
level, as a developmental variable, is thought to denote the
maturational level of the subjects' ability to accurately
perceive and act on their environment. After this variable
is defined, the research that relate conceptual level to the
type and severity of psychopathology is presented. The
variables that provide a more qualitative assessment of
object representations are described at the end of this
section.
In the section entitled "Social Networks" the concept
of network density and the research relevant to it are
introduced. The total density of the subjects' social
network, which is conceptualized in this study as a
developmental variable, serves as the social variable in the
interactional paradigm.
In the next section the central hypothesis is put
forth. This section ends with a discussion of the
population, which is college students, and their suitability
for this study.
In the "Hypotheses" section, a summary is presented of
the six hypotheses tested in this study. Although the
primary focus of this study is on the central hypothesis,
five other hypotheses are proposed. These five auxiliary
hypotheses are designed to ascertain whether or not the
population behaved in a predictable manner.


CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
Overview
The present dissertation was a study of how the
interaction between certain personality and social variables
was related to the individual's state of psychological
adjustment. The following is an overview of this
dissertation's organization.
The main body of the introductory chapter begins with
the section entitled "Theoretical Considerations" in which
some of the theoretical assumptions underlying this study
are delineated. The argument is advanced that personality
and social variables must be examined in unison so as to
fully account for the vicissitudes of psychological
development. The section ends with a synopsis of the
study's central hypothesis.
The relevant personality and social variables, whose
interaction form the crux of the central hypothesis, are
presented in the next two sections. In the first of these
sections, entitled "Object Relations", the variables that
are derived from the subjects' descriptions of their parents
are introduced. The most important of these variables is
the conceptual level of the subjects' object representations
1


116
The selection criteria for the current study and for
Hirsch's (1979a) study tended to produce rather homogeneous
samples within each study. Hirsch's (1979a) sample
consisted of 20 recent widows and 14 women who had recently
returned to college. Their mean ages were 46 and 37 years
old, respectively. On the other hand, the sample in the
present study was composed of college students between the
ages of 18 and 23 years old. Each sample was chosen with
the hope that the subjects within that sample would be
facing similar stressors. The women in Hirsch's (1979a)
study were facing major life changes; only two widows and
three students were not in some degree of life crisis as
measured by the Schedule of Recent Events. Stated residency
of one semester was a prerequisite for being in the study.
Although the young college students in the current study had
not faced the same caliber of major life change, such as
losing spouses or changing lifestyles, they had a higher
than average amount of stress during the previous 9 months
of their lives. Note that the differences in the results
produced by the two samples cannot be attributed simply to a
difference in the degree of stress experienced by the
subjects in each sample; it was not a case of where one
sample produced significantly better outcome scores than the
other sample, but instead, each sample produced a reversal
of the effects of density on the outcome scores.


122
Family Friends
To compute the density of the family/relative network,
the friendship network, and the total network the following
formula is employed.
density=X/(N(N-l)/2)
where X=the number of actual relationships
between members of the
subject's network
N=number of people in the subject's
network.
Therefore, the subject's family/relative network density
would be calculated as follows.
family/relative network size(N)=4
number of relationships(X)=5
family/relative network density=X/(N(N-l)/2)
=5/(4(4-1)/2)
= .83
And, friendship network density would be calculated as
follows.
friendship network size(N)=5
number of relationships(X)=3
friendship network density=X/(N(N-l)/2)
=3/(5(5-1)/2)
= .30


109 -
that the control variables, the outcome variables, the life
change variable, and the qualitative variables behaved in a
predictable and readily explainable fashion.
Therefore, if the results of this study were not a
product of chance, the unexpected and challenging nature of
the conceptual level and network density results leads
inexorably to two conclusions. First, conceptual level is
not the robust, global correlate of mental health that it
was envisioned to be at the onset of the study. Not only
have the authors (Geller, Cooley, and Hartley, 1981-82) of
another study also argued that a single score is inadequate
to encapsulate the complexity of object representations, but
Blatt has recently revised his theory of intrapsychic
development and its impact on psychopathology. Second, and
in accordance with the impetus behind the central
hypothesis, lower density social networks are not
intrinsically conducive of better psychological adaptation.
Instead, network density must be viewed within a
developmental framework; the adaptive value of higher versus
lower density probably varies according to the psychosocial
needs of the individual.
The Reevaluation of Conceptual Level
The results of the current study have shown in a normal
population of college students that the conceptual level of
the students' object representations was unrelated to their
psychological adjustment. The variable of conceptual level


83
seen in Table 16 between SES and length. This trend
suggests that subjects in the higher social classes tended
to produce longer descriptions.
The third group of control variables were derived from
the ICL. These variables are the number of adjectives the
subjects checked to describe their parents ("number of items
checked", or NIC) and the average intensity (AIN) of the
adjectives the subjects used in the description. While the
subjects seemed to have a highly similar NIC score for both
mother and father (r=.75, p<.0005), the AIN scores were not
significant between the ICL on mother and the ICL on father.
NIC and AIN were significantly correlated with each other
both within (NIC for mother-AIN for mother, r=.29, p<.005;
NIC for father-AIN for father, r=.25, p<.05) and across (NIC
for father-AIN for father, r=.24, p<.05; NIC for father-AIN
for mother, r=.21, p<.05) the sex of the parents.
In Table 17 the ICL control variables are correlated
with the other two groups of control variables. As seen in
Table 17 only two correlations were significant. Subjects
in lower academic classes and in lower socio-economic
classes used significantly more intense adjectives to
describe their mother. None of the correlations between the
ICL control variables and the description length scores were
significant. Thus, Tables 16 and 17 seem to suggest that
each group of control variables accounts for a separate
portion of the overall variance.


- 31 -
Hypotheses
Six hypotheses, which include the central hypothesis
and five auxiliary hypotheses, have been summarized below.
The central thesis of the current study, as described in the
previous section, was encapsulated in the the first
hypothesis.
The second hypothesis had two basic parts. In the
first part, four variables were predicted to be correlated
with the outcome measures. The four variables included the
two main variables (i.e averaged conceptual level and total
network density), plus two other variables (life change and
total network size) which had been shown in the literature
to possibly be correlated with the outcome variables. (Note
that the literature review for the variable of life change
appears in the next chapter under the heading "Measures".)
In the second part of this hypothesis, predictions were made
about the non-influence of certain demographic and control
variables. These predictions were made to expose any
moderator variables that may have had an influence on the
central hypothesis.
The third hypothesis was constructed to show that the
outcome measures behaved predictably within this study.
Smith and Glass (1977), in their meta-analysis of
psychotherapy outcome studies, reported that certain outcome
variables were more likely than others to be correlated with
the independent variables. Hence, predictions were made


58
assumed that subjects in the higher density group would have
lower averaged conceptual level scores while those in the
lower density group would have higher averaged conceptual
Table 2
Means (M) and Standard Deviations (SD) of Selected
Variables for Three Groups of Total Network Density
lower
medium
higher
total
total
total
(n=29)
(n=58)
(n=30)
Variables
M (SD)
M (SD)
M (SD)
Conceptual Level
4.97(1.14)
4.96(1.11)
4.90(1.17)
Network Size*
16.83(3.84)
12.72(3.72)
12.47(3.35)
NurturantMother
0.70(5.78)
-0.45(6.17)
0.20(5.36)
NurturantFather
-1.18(6.90)
0.33(5.39)
0.49(5.44)
Striving--Mother
0.01(2.86)
-0.01(3.20)
0.00(2.75)
StrivingFather
0.01(2.98)
-0.03(3.25)
0.05(2.65)
DOM--Mother
4.95(6.55)
2.97(6.65)
5.38(6.26)
DOM--Father*
11.62(4.07)
9.49(5.36)
9.00(5.70)
LOVMother
5.18(8.39)
3.14(7.21)
6.28(8.11)
LOVFather
0.72(8.84)
-0.86(7.49)
3.36(8.23)
GPA
2.65(0.77)
2.75(0.74)
2.68(0.79)
POMS
48(29)
42(19)
39(22)
HSCL
71(16)
68(16)
65(13)
Love Scale
193(24)
188(30)
193(27)
CSRE
1196(538)
1042(635)
1038(516)
*=difference in means between low CL and high CL
are significant at p<.05
Note. Network Size is a Total score and Conceptual
Level is an Averaged score.
level scores. As can be seen in Table 2, the means for the
conceptual level scores are nearly flat across all three
groups, just as the means for the total network density
scores had been evenly distributed across the three groups
of conceptual level scores in Table 1. In Table 2, total


-li
the highest conceptual levels. Thus, lower conceptual
levels appear to be associated with an increased risk of
psychopathology.
In addition to the conceptual level of object
representations, Blatt et al. (1981) also score the
subject's view of the person for twelve qualitative
characteristics (e.g., the degree to which the person is
seen as nurturant, intellectual, punitive, constructively
involved, and so on), as well as the degree of ambivalence
the subject has toward the person. These characteristics,
when factor analyzed, load on two primary dimensions:
"parent as nurturant" (which accounts for 40 percent of the
variance) and "parent as striving" (29 percent of the
variance). These two factors bear close resemblance to the
affiliation and power dimensions proposed by Leary (1957) as
part of his interpersonal system of diagnosis.
Using Sullivan's conceptualization of personality as an
interpersonal manifestation, Leary and his associates at the
Kaiser Foundation in the 1950's constructed a system that
located behavioral interactions between people on a
two-dimensional "circumplex". Interpersonal behavior is
organized on this circumplex in 8 adjectival categories
arranged in a circular array around the orthogonal axes of
Love-Hate (LOV) and Dominance-Submission (DOM). Despite
Foa's (1961) comment that Leary's circumplex was first
formulated on a more or less intuitive basis (adjectives


16
introjective depression implies a higher form of object
representations than does anaclitic depression, because
guilt involves the capacity to be self-reflective, to accept
responsibility, and to have some sense of self. Blatt et
al. (1979) used the Depressive Experience Questionnaire
(DEQ) to measure the type of depression. The DEQ produced
three dimensions (dependency, self-criticism, and efficacy)
which permitted four classifications (in order of decreasing
intensity: anaclitic=high dependency, mixed=high dependency
and high self-criticism, introjective=high self-criticism,
and nondepressed=high efficacy). Incidentally, Blatt,
D'Afflitti, and Quinlan (1976) reported that the DEQ factors
are significantly correlated with independent measures of
depression (for instance, the self-criticism factor of the
DEQ correlates significantly with only those 14 items on the
Zung Depression Scale which measure the primary factor of
"Loss of Self-Esteem", while the dependency factor
correlates with the 5 Zung items that assess the more
noncognitive, somatic-vegetative signs of depression, and
the efficacy factor correlates with the 4 items which
signify hopefulness and optimism). Blatt et al. (1979)
found that the conceptual level of object representations,
based on the subjects description of mother and father, was
in a direct, inverse, relationship with type and severity of
depression, such that anaclitically depressed subjects
reflected the lowest levels and nondepressed subjects had


5
childhood in a serendipitous fashion. Indeed, the work of
Sullivan (1953), Erikson (1950), and developmental theorists
have lengthened the "formative years" to include the
adolescent period and beyond. These theorists, however,
have concentrated on the structural characteristics and
requirements of the developing individual, without defining
the structural qualities of the person's ongoing
interpersonal relationships. In a way, the more the
internal representations of objects are specified and
delineated, the more the structural nature of the person's
social environment needs to be articulated. In sum, both
internal and external patterns of interpersonal
representations are necessary for describing the process of
structuralization, a process which continues throughout
life.
Most structural theories imply that the developing
individual perceives and processes only those interpersonal
expectations which can be organized by his or her current
level of object representations. This "selective
inattention", to use Sullivan's term, to parts of the
objective situation accounts for a certain degree of
stability or, at least, slowness of change of the
individual's personality structure. For change in object
representations to take place, the individual must come into
contact with "pacers", which are "stimulus objects of a
level of complexity" (Loevinger, 1976, p. 309) slightly


52
each other, which was identical with the intercorrelation
that Blatt et al. (1981) found between the scores of their
"expert rater" and "trained rater". These results are
summarized in Appendix D.
In the present study, the scores derived from the
descriptions of parents, the social network scales, the
CSRE, the POMS, the HSCL, the Love Scale, and the ICL were
fairly similar to the scores expected from the normative
data provided by other authors. Very few significant
differences were found when these measures were compared
with the same measures in the previous studies.
Despite the exclusion of the items pertaining to
marriage, the average CSRE score was still significantly
higher in the current study than in Marx et al. (1975). The
distribution of scores in the two studies, however, was
almost identical, with 15 percent of the subjects being in
higher change group (i.e., they had scores which were one
standard deviation above the mean), as compared to 14
percent in Marx et al. (1975) and 10 percent in the lower
change group, as compared to 11 percent in the earlier
study.
Although the mean total symptom score on the HSCL was
higher for the present group of subjects (mean=68) than for
those in the normative sample (m=51) reported by Derogatis
et al. (1974), the HSCL scores in the present study were
closer to those found in Hirsch's (1979a) sample of recent


145
Norms for the CSRE
Marx
et al.
(1975)
Present Study
(n=1840)
(n=117)
Variable
M
SD
M
SD
Total Score
891
544
1079
582
Marx
et al.
(1975)
Present Study
(n=1840)
(n=117)
Levels
percent
percent
High Change
(greater than 1 SD)
15
14
Medium Change
(plus or minus 1 SD)
75
75
Lower Change
(less than 1 SD)
10
11


APPENDIX E.
RELIABILITY AND NORMATIVE DATA
Reliability of the Descriptions of Parents
Blatt et al. (1981)
Variables
Expert Rater
and
Trained Rater
(n=28)
Expert Rater
and
Untrained Rater
(n=28)
Item Scores:
Length of Description
Conceptual Level
Scaled Scores:
Parent as Nurturing
Parent as Striving
81
.74
88
.70
92
.83
83
.78
Present Study
Experimenter
and
Independent Rater
Variables (n=50)
Item Scores:
Length of Description .98
Conceptual Level .88
Scaled Scores:
Parent as Nurturing .82
Parent as Striving .71
Note: all values represent pearson product moment
correlations
141


137
Ask them when they finish if they have any questions.
Tell them how many credits they will receive.
Some general pointers:
Questions may be seen as often being request for
structure or a form of resistance. Usually it is
sufficient to answer the question factually,
second, to reflect the subject's feeling if
necessary, and, third, (if appropriate) to
reinterpret the test situation for the subject.
You should try to avoid giving them too much
information, especially on the Description of
Mother and the Description of Father. Stay as
close as possible to the "describe you mother
(father)" instructions. Some may ask you, "what
do you want to know about her (him)?". A standard
response would be, "it's up to you". Just let
them know that anything they say is okay. The
idea is to support production rather than
supporting performance. Anything they give you is
okay and will not be judged.
If they should ask about receiving the results of
their individual performance, tell them that only
group data will be made available. Try to
reassure them that they did fine.


101
Table 31
Relationship Between the Quadrants
of the ICL and Outcome
Variables
F-Value
P>F R-Squared
Order
For Mother:
POMS
9.83
.0001 .20
DL-DH-SL-SH*
HSCL
1.39
.25 .04
DL-DH-SL-SH
Love Scale
.19
.90 .005
DL-SH-SL-DH
GPA
.92
.44 .02
DL-SL-DH-SH
*=SH was
different
from DL-DH-SL, p<
.05 (Duncan
Multiple Range
Test)
Note: DL
=Dominance
-Love (n=58), DH=
Dominance-Hate
(n=25), SL=Submission-Love (n=26), SH=Submission-Hate
(n=8)
Variables
F-Value
P>F
R-Squared
Order
For Father:
POMS
.87
.42
.02
DL-DH
HSCL
.82
.44
.01
DL-DH
Love Scale
8.26
.0004
.13
DL-DH
GPA
.00
.99
.00
DH-DL
Note: DL=Dominance-Love (n=63), DH=Dominance-Hate
(n=53"n SL=Submission-Love (n=0), SH=Submission-Hate
(n=l)
test was used to examine the difference in the means across
the quadrants. Table 31 indicates that, as predicted, the
SH quadrant had a significantly poorer (i.e., higher) mean
POMS score. The other quadrants, although not
significantly, were ranked such that DL was the best and DH
and SL were second and third, respectively. Although none
of the other outcome models were significant, the DL


- 125 -
Your task will be to complete several scales and
questionnaires. One of the purposes of this study is to
measure, and examine the interactions among, some of the
stresses you have recently experienced, some of the
characteristics of your relationships with important people
in your life (especially your relationship with your mother
and father), and some aspects of the adjustment you have
made to being in college. Each instrument is designed to
assess a specific variable; hence a variety of instruments
is needed. In addition, these instruments attempt to
measure the relevant variables in a straightforward and open
fashion.
The following is a brief description of what you will
be required to do on each instrument:
Demographic Questionnaire. You fill out a
brief questionnaire which asks for such background
information as your age, sex, college
classification, financial status (i.e., what is
your single greatest source of income), and the
occupation and educational level of your parents
or guardians. This questionnaire should take
approximately five minutes or less to complete.
College Schedule of Recent Events. You will
fill out an inventory on which you are asked to
indicate how many times you have experienced each
of 40 events in the past nine months. These


142
Norms for the Descriptions of ParentsOn Mothers
Blatt et al.
Present
(1981)
Study
Females
Females
(n=87)
(n=
65)
Variables
M SD
M
SD
Item Scores:
Length of Descriptor
4.38 1.59
4.43
1.40
Conceptual Level
Scaled Scores:
4.84 1.64
4.89
1.37
Parent as Nurturing
__
0.67
5.93
Parent as Striving

0.01
3.08
Blatt et al.
Present
(1981)
Study
Males
Males
(n=40)
(n=
52)
Variables
M SD
M
SD
Item Scores:
Length of Descriptor
3.38 1.22
3.25
1.09
Conceptual Level
Scaled Scores:
4.82 1.37
4.72
1.15
Parent as Nurturing

-0.84
5.72
Parent as Striving

-0.02
2.89
Note: "" refers to unavailable data


61
HSCL (a symptom checklist). Thus, the results found in
Table 3 suggest that higher density networks are correlated
with lower levels of subjective distress. The variable of
life change is also significantly with the POMS and the
HSCL. As seen in Table 3, subjects who reported higher
levels of life change in the nine months prior to the study
had significantly (p<.005) better mood scores and
significantly (p<.005) fewer symptoms. Unexpectedly, higher
life change scores are significantly correlated (p<.05) with
better Love Scale scores. Table 3 also shows that the role
performance variable, GPA, is not correlated with any of
these key variables.
Tables 4 through 9 present a more detailed analysis of
the above results. In Table 4, the intercorrelations
Table 4
Correlation Matrix for the Variables of Life Change,
Total Network Size, Total Network Density, and Averaged
Conceptual Level
Total
Total
Life
Network
Network
Variables
Chanqe
Size
Density
Total Network Size
.11


Total Network Density
-.08
-.31**

Averaged Conceptual Level
-.07
-.01
-.05
*=p<.05. **=p<.005.
***=p<.0005

between each of the independent variables are reported. As
expected, total network size and total network density are


34
averaged conceptual levels would have significantly higher
levels of personal distress and significantly greater
impairment in their ability to love and work.
Ideally, the variables of averaged conceptual level,
total network size, total network density, and life change
would be independent of all demographic variables, such as
age, sex, socio-economic status (SES), and so on. Likewise,
it was hoped that verbal fluency would be unrelated to the
conceptual level of object representations, and that the
variables on the ICL which are sensitive to response sets
(i.e number of items checked, or NIC, and average intensity,
or AIN) would not be correlated with the measures of mental
health.
Hypothesis 3. Outcome Measures
As with most correlations to measures of mental health,
the present study would demonstrate the total variance
(R-squared) explained by the major independent variables
(i.e averaged conceptual level and total network density),
in association with the variable of life change, to be
greater for the multiple linear regression models which use
the measures of subjective distress (a mood scale and a
symptom checklist) as their dependent variable than for the
model which uses a role performance variable (grade point
average). The total variance (R-squared) of the model using
the relationship measure as the dependent variable would
fall within the range of the total variance (R-squared) for
the other models. All models would be significant.


105
subjects in the upper academic classes tended to report less
life change tends to support one's suspicion that the last
year or two of college is more routine and settled than the
earlier years. As predicted, the variable which represented
verbal fluency, the description length scores, was not
significantly correlated with the conceptual level scores.
And, except for a negative correlation between NIC on the
ICL for father and GPA, the ICL control variables were not
significantly correlated with any of the overall scores on
the outcome measures. The subjects who checked fewer items
on the ICL when they described their fathers also perceived
their fathers as being lower on the nurturant factor and on
the dominance-submission ICL dimension. Thus, their lower
grades may have reflected their disinterest toward their
fathers.
Two other results which surfaced during the analyses of
the second hypothesis are worth reviewing. First, female
subjects, who also tended to see their fathers as being high
on the love-hate ICL dimension, had better relationship
scores on the Love Scale. This finding was also reported by
Nickerson (1977). Second, subjects who registered for more
course credits produced higher GPAs, a finding which
suggests that these students were fairly good judges of
their own abilities. Both of these findings, while not
initially predicted, seem to adhere to the tenets of common
sense.


- 33 -
prediction was made that certain quadrants would be
correlated more favorably with the outcome measures.
Hypothesis 1. Interactional Effects
As the central hypothesis, the total network density
and the averaged conceptual level of object representations
would be linked in an inverse relationship, whereby subjects
with higher conceptual levels would have lower density
networks and subjects with lower conceptual levels would
have social networks with higher density. Thus, subjects
who had greater deviations from the equilibrium of this
inverse relationship would have higher levels of personal
distress (i.e., poorer mood and more symptoms) and greater
impairment in love and work.
So that this interaction could be observed further, the
level of object representations was split into low, medium,
and high levels. Thus, for the lower levels of object
representations (scaled score=4.0 or lower), higher density
would be significantly correlated with better scores on the
measures of mental health. In the medium range (4.5-5.5) an
average level of density would be related to better
adjustment. And, for the higher levels of object
representations (6.0 or above), a lower density network
would be most adaptive.
Hypothesis 2. Univariate Comparisons
Subjects with higher levels of life change, smaller
total network size, higher total network density, and lower


149
Norms for the ICL
Variables
For
M
LaForge (1976)
Males
(n=117)
Mother For
SD M
Father
SD
NIC
49.15
13.01 44.92
12.20
AIN
1.99
0.19 1.95
0.19
DOM
3.53
6.14 8.32
5.85
LOV
8.28
8.05 -0.78
7.69
Variables
For
M
Present Study
Males
(n=52)
Mother For
SD M
Father
SD
NIC
37.49
12.34 38.00
14.09
AIN
1.96
0.20 2.01
0.20
DOM
4.16
6.10 9.86
5.33
LOV
3.04
7.43 -2.24
7.22
LaForge
(1976)
Females
(n=92)
For
Mother
For
Father
Variables
M
SD
M
SD
NIC
48.74
13.27
45.68
13.02
AIN
1.99
0.21
1.98
0.22
DOM
5.29
6.45
8.78
7.78
LOV
7.29
7.79
1.10
9.95
Present
Study
Females
For
(n =
Mother
65)
For
Father
Variables
M
SD
M
SD
NIC
38.61
13.77
36.65
12.31
AIN
1.99
0.23
2.01
0.22
DOM
4.01
6.96
9.92
5.17
LOV
5.54
7.95
2.18
8.39


67
have moods characterized by feelings of
depression-dejection, anger-hostility, and
confusion-bewilderment. Although none of the correlations
between total network density and the five HSCL subscales
approach significance, a remarkable consistency exists among
these correlations. This consistency is reflected by the
correlation of total network density with the total HSCL
score being larger than any of the correlations between this
density score and the HSCL subscales. Table 7 also shows a
significant (p<.05) correlation between total network
density and the material evidence of love as expressed on
the Love Scale. The lack of even remotely significant
correlations between total network density and the Love
Scale subscales makes the one significant correlation appear
to be an isolated phenomenon. Overall, the results
presented in Table 7 appear to offer further substantiation
of the findings seen in Table 3.
In Table 8, the subscales of the outcome measures are
correlated with three other types of network density scores
in an attempt to shed some further light on the unexpected
correlations between total network density and subjective
distress. Total network density is correlated .25 (p<.05)
with family/relative network density, .67 (p<.0005) with
friendship network density, and .55 (p<.0005) with nuclear
family-friendship (NF-F) boundary density. Family/relative
network density was not significantly correlated with either


86
Table 19
Correlations Between the Subscales of the Outcome
Measures and the Demographic Variables--
Part A (Age, Class, Sex, and SES)
Outcome
Measures
Age
Class
Sex
SES
POMSTotal
-.08
-.20*
-.17
-.08
Tension-Anxiety
.004
-.16
-.18
.12
Depression-Dejection
.03
-.09
-.22*
-.06
Anger-Hostility
.01
-.07
-.25*
.06
Vigor
.14
.16
-.01
.24*
Fatigue
-.25*
-.25*
-.02
-.12
Confusion-Bewilderment
.06
-.07
-.20*
.02
HSCLTotal
.06
-.09
-.06
.01
Somatization
.04
-.05
-.03
.01
Obsession
.18*
-.01
-.15
.11
Interpersonal
.02
-.10
.05
-.04
Depression
-.01
-.14
-.07
-.04
Anxiety
.06
-.02
-.02
.02
Love Scale Index
-.16
-.15
.36***
.07
Verbal Expression
-.18
-.15
.27***
.12
Self-Disclosure
-.10
-.14
.31**
-.06
Toleration
-.03
-.05
.22*
.07
Non-Material Evidence
-.10
-.07
.29**
.02
Unexpressed Feelings
.17
.12
-.19*
-.02
Material Evidence
.02
-.02
.19*
.14
GPA
-.06
.17
.08
i

o
VO
*=p<.05. **=p<.005. ***=p<.0005.
Note. For Class, l = sophomore and 3=senior; for
Sex, 0=males and 1= females; for SES, l=highest and
5=lowest.
significantly (p<.0005) higher GPA's. Table 19 reports
that, as previously mentioned in the section on normative
comparisons, female students had significantly (p<.0005)
higher Love Scale scores, a finding which was true for every


Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate Council
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy
OBJECT RELATIONS AND SOCIAL NETWORKS:
CORRELATES OF ADJUSTMENT DURING COLLEGE
By
Robert Peter Fortney
August, 1984
Chairman: Hugh Davis, Ph.D.
Major Department: Department of Clinical Psychology
The interactionist model assumes that psychological
adjustment is a funtion of the relationship between
personality and social variables. The present study
attempted to demonstrate that people with lower conceptual
levels of object representations would function best in
higher density networks, while those with higher conceptual
levels would be best adjusted in lower density networks.
Deviation from the adaptive equilibrium of this inverse
relationship was expected to result in greater subjective
distress (e.g., poorer mood, more symptoms) and impairment
in the areas of love and work.
The study involved 65 female and 52 male undergraduate
students. The subjects completed, in succession, a
demographics questionnaire, the College Schedule of Recent
Events, a 5-minute written description of their mother and


76
In Table 12, the correlations between the two
Table 12
Correlations Between the Subscales of the Outcome
Measures and the ICL Dimensions (DOM and LOV)
Outcome
DOM
LOV
Measures
Mother
Father
Mother
Father
POMSTotal
-.34***
.06
-.09
-.14
Tension-Anxiety
-.20*
.04
-.02
-.09
Depression-Dejection
-.26**
.02
-.03
-.03
Anger-Hostility
-.19*
.15
-.09
-.27**
Vigor
.36***
.07
.07
.07
Fatigue
-.18
.10
-.12
-.13
Confusion-Bewilderment
-.31**
.02
-.10
-.08
HSCLTotal
-.26**
.02
.08
-.01
Somatization
-.21*
.04
.06
.01
Obsession
-.14
-.04
.05
-.03
Interpersonal
-.16
.01
.05
.07
Depression
-.31**
.01
.02
-.05
Anxiety
-.25*
.002
.17
-.05
Love Scale Index
.06
-.04
.09
.18*
Verbal Expression
.09
-.04
.04
.12
Self-Disclosure
-.10
-.02
.04
.04
Toleration
-.02
-.06
-.04
.18*
Non-Material Evidence
.14
-.03
.20*
.31**
Unexpressed Feelings
-.01
-.10
.01
.06
Material Evidence
.14
-.20*
.21*
.33***
GPA
-.03
-.13
.03
-.02
*=p<.05. **=p<.005. ***=p<.0005.
dimensions of the ICL and the subscales of the outcome
measures are presented. As seen in Table 12, DOM for mother
and LOV for father seemed to each have a stronger
relationship with the outcome measures than did DOM for
father or LOV for mother. All but one of the subscales of