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Articulation practices of selected privately supported four-year colleges within Florida : involving transfer students from community colleges

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Articulation practices of selected privately supported four-year colleges within Florida : involving transfer students from community colleges
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Turner, Charles Nelson, 1941-
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English
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vii, 130 leaves : ; 28 cm.

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College admission ( jstor )
College students ( jstor )
College transfer students ( jstor )
Colleges ( jstor )
Community colleges ( jstor )
Education credits ( jstor )
Equivalency tests ( jstor )
High school students ( jstor )
Transfer students ( jstor )
Universities ( jstor )
Articulation (Education) ( fast )
Dissertations, Academic -- Educational Administration and Supervision -- UF
Educational Administration and Supervision thesis Ph. D
Transfer students ( fast )
Universities and colleges -- Admission ( fast )
Florida ( fast )
City of Jacksonville ( local )
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bibliography ( marcgt )
theses ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )

Notes

Thesis:
Thesis--University of Florida.
Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references (leaves 124-128).
Additional Physical Form:
Also available online.
General Note:
Typescript.
General Note:
Vita.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Charles Nelson Turner.

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University of Florida
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University of Florida
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Copyright [name of dissertation author]. Permission granted to the University of Florida to digitize, archive and distribute this item for non-profit research and educational purposes. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder.
Resource Identifier:
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02719587 ( OCLC )
Classification:
LB2360 .T87 1975a ( lcc )

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ARTICULATION PRACTICES OF SELECTED PRIVATELY
SUPPORTED FOUR-YEAR COLLEGES WITHINII FLORIDA
INVOLVING TRANSFER STUDENTS FROM COMMUNITY COLLEGES













By

CHARLES NELSON TURNER


A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE COUNCIL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE
DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY



UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


1975















ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS


The encouragement and continued support needed to

complete this study came from many individuals. The writer

extends grateful appreciation for this assistance. However,

a special word of thanks is given to Dr. James L. Wattenbarger

for his unwavering confidence and guidance as chairman of the

doctoral supervisory committee.

Recognition is due Dr. C. Arthur Sandeen for his

assistance in the completion of this study.

Appreciation is aiso extended to Dr. Ernest H.

St. Jacques for his helpful contributions.

The writer is indebted to Dr. Norman M. Wilensky for his

unending patience and understanding throughout this study.

Thanks are also due Dr. Michael Nunnery, without whose

help this study would never have "''flown."

Finally, no words can express the gratitude and appre-

ciation for the many expressions of love and patience given

to the writer by his wife, Nancy, and children, Chuck and

Todd. Their devotion and many personal sacrifices made it

possible to complete this study.















TABLE OF CONTENTS


Page


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS . . . .

ABSTRACT . . . . . .

CHAPTER

I DESCRIPTION OF THE STUDY


Introduction . . . . . . .
The Problem
The Problem . . . . . . .
Definition of Terms . . . . . .
Procedures . . . . . . . .
Organization of the Research Report . .


11 REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND RESEARCH.

The Co.mmunity College Transfer Student .
Articulation Agreements. .. ..........


DA-iA FROM COLLEGES

College A . .....
College B. . ..
College C. ....
College D . .


IV DATA FROM COLLEGES E, F,

College E . . . .
College F . . . .
Coll ege G . . . .


V ANALYSIS OF THE DATA .

Published Data . .
Perceived Data . .


A, B, C, AND D.


* 33
* 46
* 56
S. 64


AND G .

* *


* 74
* 84
* 92


. . . . . 102

. . . . . 102
. . . . . 104


* 1
5
* 10
* 12
* 14


S16

* 17
* 29


- 33











TABLE OF CONTENTS (continued)


Page


CHAPTER

VI SUMMARY AtID CONCLUSIONS

Summary . . . .
Conclusions . .....
Implications . . .


APPENDIX: INTERVIEW GUIDE .


BIBLIOGRAPHY . . . . .


BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH . . .


. . . . . 109

. . . . . 109
. . . . . 118
. . . . . 1 19


. . . . . 122


. . . . . 124


. . . . . 129















Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate Council
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy


ARTICULATION PRACTICES OF SELECTED PRIVATELY
SUPPORTED FOUR-YEAR COLLEGES WITHIN FLORIDA
INVOLVING TRANSFER STUDENTS FROM COMMUNITY COLLEGES

by

Charles Nelson Turner

December, 1975

Chairman: Dr. James L. Wattenbarger
Major Department: Educational Administration and
Supervision

Post secondary education in the United States is

challenged with many problems, none of which have easy

solutions. The problems of the lesser-known private liberal

arts colleges and the large, private comprehensive colleges

and universities which create much of the diversity within

higher education and provide opportunity for middle-and-lower

income students are the subjects of this study. More specific-

ally, this study looks at transfer criteria of these types of

private colleges within Florida, and examines their potential

for attracting community college transfer students as a con-

structive alternative in dealing with the problems.

The purpose of this study was twofold: first, to

determine the criteria of the selected private four-year

colleges relative to: (1) the admission of the community










college transfer student: (2) the transferability of

academic credits earned at the community college; and (3)

the recognition of university parallel programs pursued by

transfer students at the community college. The second

purpose was to determine the difficulties, if any, encountered

by students who had transferred from the community college to

selected private four-year colleges and selected academic

administrators in each of the participating colleges. More

specifically, with reference to the second major thrust of

this study, answers were sought to the following questions:

(I) What were the perceptions of administrators, admissions

officials, and academic personnel in the selected private

four-year colleges cl'arding the extent to which the published

admissions criteria were followed in processing transfer

applications of st id nts from the community colleges: (2)

What were the perceptions of administrators, admissions officials,

and academic personnel in the selected private four-year colleges

as to the extent to which the published criteria for determining

the transferability of academic credits earned at the community

college were actually followed; and (3) What were the percep-

tions of administrators, admission officials, and academic

personnel in tOn selected private four-year colleges as to the

extent to which Ahc publ ihed criteria for recognizing uni-

versity parallel programs from the community colleges were

actually followed by the participating colleges?











This study provides the following conclusions:

(1) The published criteria relating to the questions

raised regarding the colleges participating in this study are

very broad and general in their scope;

(2) The general nature of the published criteria are, by

design, permitting the top echelon administrators at each

college to interpret the intent of the criteria as their

discretion deems appropriate;

(3) The perceptions and applications of the published

criteria vary extensively among the colleges participating in

the study, as well as among the administrators within a given

college.

(4) Each of the colleges participating in the study

views the community college transfer student as an asset,

and each is trying in its own way to attract the student's

attention. Some have more success than others; and

(5) Each of the colleges participating in the study is

experiencing a dilemma. On the one hand, it insists on its

independence, and on the other, it realizes thatit must give

up some of its independence to attract successfully the

community college transfer student.


vii















CHAPTER I

DESCRIPTION OF THE STUDY


Introduction

Post secondary education in the United States is

challenged with many problems, none of which have easy

solutions. The Carnegie Commission (1973) on Higher

Education recently reported:

Higher education, after a period of
20 years following World War 11 when
it attained its greatest glory through
notable achievements in scientific re-
search and through expansion to serve
huge additional numbers of students, now
faces several intense crises suddenly
and almost all at once. Sustained growth
in effort and in attainments has given way
to doubts and to difficulties. (p. 3)

The Carnegie Commission (1973) identified six areas

wherein the problems exist:

I. The political crisis. Political activity on the

part of students and faculty has increased on campuses across

the country. This activity has oftentimes been illegal and

directed toward both policies of the various institutions and

the physical facilities of the institutions. The possibility

for new confrontation in the future exists as much as it has

in the past. "The adversary culture or cultures, so well

developed on so many campuses, almost certainly will confront











the 'bedrock culture' of so much of the surrounding society

on new just as it has on old, occasions" (p. 4).

2. The financial depression. After World War I I ,

institutions of higher education enjoyed a prosperity that

has more recently begun to allude them. The new prosperity

has quickly become the new depression, and it is likely to

endure for some time to come.

3. The demographic change. Higher education enrollments

have been growing since 1636. However, the increase will not

continue (Carnegia Commission, 1973):

Enroll.ments of "traditional students" will
most likely decline on established campuses
in the 1980's, and subsequently advance more
with, than so rapidly ahead of, the growth of
the American population. This new stage of
development comes as a great shock, a great
change of life, and creates many new problems.
It makes a first descent into a strange world
whera future prospects are no longer thought
to be limitless (p. 4).

4. The adjustment to universal access. Higher education

has experienced a movement from education for the elite to mass

higher education. It is presently experiencing a shift from

mass higher education to universal-access higher education.

The next transition, if it materializes, would be from universal

attendance in college. The current shift from mass higher

education to universal access involves (Carnegie Commission,

1973) :

S. the guarantee of a place for every
high school student who wishes to enter
higher education, the introduction of
more remedial work, the adaptation to











the interests of new groups of students
regardless of age, the substantial in-
crease in total costs, and the augmen-
tation of public interest and control.
(p. 5)

5. The labor market transformation. For many years,

jobs for college graduates have been taken for granted.

However, colleges have increased their capacity to train

students at a faster rate than the economy has been able to

place the graduates at the level of their training.

O'Toole (1975a) has recently examined what he calls

"this underutilization of human resources" and concludes that

it stems most clearly from dissidence and disjunctions between

the institution of education and work. In another article,

O'Toole (1975b) warns of growing evidence that this disjunction

between educational opportunity and upper-grade jobs is develop-

ing into potentially grave social, political, and economic

problems. These problems include increasing class conflict,

job dissatisfaction and credential ism, decreasing economic

productivity, and dwindling public support of education and

its institutions. He suggests that the most constructive thing

that educators can do to improve the relationships between the

worlds of education and work is to stop implicitly and explicitly

selling education as an economic investment.

6. The expansion of p;
is approaching a "stationary Mtate,. minorityy groups, in-

cluding women, have developed high hopes for employment oppor-

tunities, at a time when the job m ra'rket is suffering a rapid

decl ine.











7. The crisis of confidence. The problems cited above

have collectively created a credibility gap between higher

education faculty members, administrators, trustees, public

officials with responsibility for higher education, and the

public at large (Carnegie Commission 1973, p. 6).

What must higher education do to deal with the problems

cited above, and begin consideration of constructive change

alternatives? The Carnegie Commission (1973) suggests:

The most universally intense pressure for
change may well turn out to be the shortage
of students, as compared with places avail-
able for them, particularly in the 1980's.
This will lead to efforts by many colleges
to enlarge their pool of potential students
by accepting more adults and more part-time
enrollees of more community college trans-
fers by four-year colleges; to greacer en-
deavors at competitive recruitment; and to
attempt to make each campus more attractive
by holding down tuition and by improving
programs from a student point of view. (p. 46)

The institutions now in the greatest financial
difficulty are: (a) the great research uni-
versities; (b) the lesser-known private liberal
arts colleges, and (c) the large, private com-
prehensive colleges and universities. Insti-
Lutions in the first group provide much of the
highest level skills and new ideas for American
society, the second create much of the di-
versity within higher education, and the third
have been major sources of opportunity for
1i1;idle-and--lower-income students in a number
of metropol itan areas. (p. 66)

The lesser-known private liberal arts colleges and the

large, private comprehensive colleges and universities which

create much of the diversity within higher education and

provide opportunity for middle-and-lower-income students are










the subject of this study. More specifically, this study

looks at transfer criteria of these types of private colleges

within Florida, and examines their potential for attracting

community college transfer students as a constructive alter-

native in dealing with the problems cited above.


The Problem

Statement of the Problem

The purpose of this study was twofold: first, to

determine the criteria of the selected private four-year

colleges relative to: (1) the admission of the community

college transfer student; (2) the transferability of academic

credits earned at the community college; and (3) thc recogni-

tion of university parallel programs pursued by tran'sFcr

students at the community college. The second purpose .,s to

determine the difficulties, if any, encountered by itud-; Mnts

who had transferred from the community college to selected

private four-year colleges, as perceived by academic arinis-

trators in each of the participating colleges. More o )-Ccific-

ally, with reference to the second major thrust of this study,

answers were sought to the following questions: (1) ,i'',aLt were

the perceptions of administrators, admission officials, and

academic personnel in the selected private four-year colleges

regarding the extent to which the published admissions criteria

were followed in processing transfer applications of stlu-Jents

from the community colleges; (2) What were the percept ions of











administrators, admission officials, and academic personnel

in the selected private four-year colleges as to the extent

to which the published criteria for determining the transfer-

ability of academic credits earned at the community college

were actually followed; and (3) What were the perceptions of

administrators, admissions officials, and academic personnel

in the selected private four-year colleges as to the extent

to which the published criteria for recognizing university

parallel programs from the community colleges were actually

followed by the participating colleges?

Delimitations

The selected private four-year colleges that participated

in this study included the seven largest in Florida, in terms

of student enrollment and were also accredited by the Southern

Association of Colleges and Schools. .

The substantive nature of the data was limited to those

criteria relative to: (1) the admission of the community

college transfer student; (2) the transferability of academic

credits earned at the community college; and (3) the recogni-

tion of university parallel programs pursued by transfer

students at the community college.

The quantitative nature oF the data was limited to that

which could be secured at each of the participating colleges

from documents and interviews. The interviewees were limited

to: (I) top echelon administrators; (2) the chief admissions

officers; (3) the chief academic officers; and (4) where










applicable, the chief officers or designated persons from each

subordinate college, department, division or school who might

have had responsibility in terms of the questions posed in

the statement of the problem.

Limitations

No relationship of cause and effect should be assumed

between the practices engaged in by the participating colleges

and the difficulties, if any, which might have been encountered

by students who transferred from the community college.

The results of this study should not be generalized be-

yond the participating colleges, and were subject to the in-

herent shortcomings of the methodology used to gather the data,

namely, the interview and the use of documents furnished by the

participating colleges.

Justification for the Study

Florida's community college student enrollment has in-

creased rapidly since the end of World War II. According to

projected figures, the increase in numbers of students attend-

ing the community colleges will continue through 1980. In

1971, 48.0 percent of the students enrolled in public colleges

within Florida attended the community college (Hale, 1971).

In 1973, that number had increased to approximately 57.5

percent of the students enrolled in public colleges in Florida

(Report for Public Community Colleges, 1973-1974, 1975).

The Division of Community Colleges, in their most recent

projected enrollment, estimates that by the Fall of 1980 the

Full Time Equivalent (FTE) will reach 223,411.










At the University of Florida, the fall 1973 enrollment

showed that over 62 percent of the junior-level or third-

year students were transfers from either community colleges

or other four-year institutions across the country (St Jacques,

1973). In spite of increases in the size of freshmen classes

at four-year schools, the number of transfer students has in-

creased at more than twice the freshman rate (Willingham and

Findikyan, 1969).

Dialogue with informed observers indicated little, if

any, information was available that addressed the questions

raised in the above statement of the problem. Therefore, the

results of this study could serve as a body of information

which would have utility to the counselors in all post high

school institutions.

In addition, a series of studies has been completed under

the auspices of the Institute of Higher Education, University

of Florida, relating to articulation and the problems en-

countered by the community college transfer student when he

roves from the two-year college to the four-year college.

More specifically, McFaddin (1971) developed a pre-

dictive model for academic success for use by counselors in

providing academic guidance to students; the data indicated

that academic success is directly related to the college

(within a university) that the student enters and that Florida

Twelfth Grade Test scores generally have the greatest effect

on the accuracy of prediction. A similar study by Sitzman










(1972) was limited in scope to predicting the academic

success of transfer students, he found that grade point

average prior to transfer was the best predictor of academic

success.

Sistrunk (1974) noted 36 transfer problems identified

at one or more of the six state universities surveyed for

his research project.

Medford (1974) determined the perception of selected

community college transfer students about the contribution

of four factors to their lack of academic success. The four

factors investigated were: the community college experience;

the student's scholastic skills; the university experience;

and the student's personal circumstances.

Schafer (1974) looked at the Articulation Counseling

Offices (ACOs) in Florida, in terms of their roles, responsi-

bil ities, and organizational structures.

Blackwell (1975) looked at the decentralization of

the baccalaureate program into a community college-university

system to see if it created problems which were disadvantageous

to the student. He concluded that the loss in efficiency from

the decentralized baccalaureate program was .1 percent. This

relatively small loss in efficiency is attributed primarily to

Florida's articulation agreement. The expenditures for the

excess credits acquired as a result of the transfer process are

approximately $13.00 per transfer student, a nominal figure for

the advantages offered by the community colleges.










Hite (1975) studied the problems of students trans-

ferring between four-year institutions. His study isolated

the problems into three areas: academic, procedural, and

extracurricular. He found that these problems translated

into inadequate academic advisement; inadequate orientation,

registration problems, and academic bureaucracy; and meeting

people and feeling at home.

In a study completed at Florida State University, Carter

(1969) focused on reverse transfer of students from university

to community colleges.

Walker (1969) reported on the academic performance of

native and transfer students in the upper division of the

University of Florida.

Nickens (1570) compared all the university native

students and community college transfer students who received

their baccalaureate degree at the end of the spring and summer

quarters, 1968, at Florida State University.

Voyles (1971) compared the academic performance of

upper division community college transfer students to that

of native students at the University of Florida.

This study, therefore, will be considered as another

contribution to this specific area of knowledge.


Definition of Terms

Admission of the community college transfer student

The process by which each of the participating colleges

approved or denied applications for admission, tendered by

students who sought to transfer from the community college.










Chief academic officer

The individual in each of the participating colleges

who had responsibility for the total academic program in

each institution.

Chief admissions officer

The individual in each of the participating colleges

who had complete responsibility for the admission of students

in each institution.

Chief officer or designated person from each subordinate
college, department, division, or school

The individual in each subordinate college, department,

division, or school of each of the participating colleges who

had direct or indirect responsibility for determining which

students would be admitted to his respective college depart-

ment, division, or school within the institution.

Community college .

Two-year post-secondary educational institutions which

offered academic university parallel programs, occupational

programs, and continuing education programs, which were pri-

marily publicly funded and publicly controlled in Florida.

Participating col leges

The seven largest institutions of higher education

within the State of Florida, in terms of student enrollment,

which were primarily privately funded, privately controlled,

offered at least the Baccalaureate degree, and were accredited

by the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools.










Transferability of academic credits earned at the
community college

The process by which each of the participating colleges

accepted or denied academic credits earned equivalent to

academic credits earned on campus' at each of the respective

participating colleges.

University parallel programs

The academic programs offered in the community college,

and designed so that students enrolled in the programs and

desiring to transfer to a four-year college, could transfer

with a minimum of difficulties, in terms of meeting program

requirements at the receiving college.


Proced u res

Basis for Selecting Participating Colleges

The colleges participating in this study were selected

on the basis of their being among the seven largest institu-

tions of higher education within the State of Florida, in

terms of student enrollment, which were primarily privately

funded, privately controlled, offered at least the Baccalaureate

degree, were accredited by the Southern Association of Colleges

and Schools, and demonstrated a willingness to be a participat-

ing college. Anonymity was maintained throughout this study.

Sources and Collection of Dal:a

The writer visited the campus of each of the participating

colleges for a period of time sufficiently long to gather data

for this study from documents and personal interviews.










Documents included catalogs, transfer admissions brochures,

transfer admissions applications, and other related documents.

All of these were published and generally available to the pub-

lic. In addition, other documents not generally available to

the public were provided. These included copies of student

transcripts and evaluations of transferred credits of community

college transfer students.

Personal interviews were conducted by the writer. An

interview guide was used to provide structure for each inter-

view, consistency among the interviews, and to solicit the

maximum of relevant data. A copy of the interview guide is

included in the appendix.

The interviewees included: (1) top echelon administrators;

(2) the chief admissions officers; (3) the chief academic

officers; and where applicable, (4) the chief officers or

designated persons from each subordinate college, department,

division, or school which had responsibility in terms of the

questions posed in the above statement of the problem. The

rationale for the selection of the interviewees was based on

the presumption that they either participated in the formulation

of policies relevant to the study, at their respective colleges,

or they participated in the practices pursued in the execution

of those policies. In either case, they were presumed to have

personal knowledge of the data to be gathered.

Analysis of Data

The primary method of data analysis for this study was

descriptive. Data related to each major question posed in the










statement of the problem, which gave direction to this study,

was examined in terms of commonalities and/or differences among

the participating colleges.


Organization of the Research Report

This research report is presented in six chapters. The

first chapter is a description of the study, including: (1)

Introduction; (2) The Problem; (3) Definition of Terms;

(4) Procedures; and (5) Organization of the Research Report.

The second chapter is a review of related literature and

research. This review is presented in three separate but

interrelated parts. The first part presents the literature

which has examined the community college transfer student's

characteristics and academic ability in terms of his relative

comparison to the native university student. The second part

presents literature relating to the problems encountered by the

transfer students as they move from one institution to another.

The third part presents literature relating to formal articu-

lation agreements which are designed to eliminate or reduce

transfer problems.

The third chapter presents the data from Colleges A,

B, C, and D. More specifically, it includes: (I) a descriptive

profile of each college; (2) the published and perceived

criteria of each college relating to the admission of community

college transfer students; (3) the published and perceived

criteria of each college relating to the transferability of

academic credits earned at the community college; and (4) the











published and perceived criteria of each college relating to

the recognition of transfer parallel programs pursued by

transfer students at the community college.

The fourth chapter presents the data from Colleges E,

F, and G. More specifically, it includes: (1) a descriptive

profile of each college; (2) the published and perceived

criteria of each college relating to the admission of community

college transfer students; (3) the published and perceived

criteria of each college relating to the transferability of

academic credits earned at the community college; and (4)

the published and perceived criteria of each college relating

to the recognition of transfer parallel programs pursued by

transfer students at the community college.

The fifth chapter provides an analysis of the data from

each of the participating colleges.

The sixth chapter summarizes the study with conclusions

and implications.














CHAPTER II

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND RESEARCH


In the 1920's, the transfer student first attracted the

attention of researchers and has been the subject of continued

investigations ever since Bird (1956) reported on a series

of studies investigating the academic performance of transfer

students in particular institutions. Further illumination is

provided by Hills (1965) with his comprehensive review of

major research that had been completed through 1964.

Perhaps, the most complete review of research and

literature regarding the community college student is pre-

sented in The Community College Student, by Koos (1970).

Not to be overlooked, however, is a study which identified

four major research projects concerned with the transfer student

which were comprehensive and had national relevance (Willingham,

1972).

This review of related literature and research is pre-

sented in three separate but interrelated parts. The first

part presents the literature which has examined the community

college transfer student's characteristics and academic ability

in terms of his relative comparison to the native university

student. The second part presents literature relating to the

problems encountered by transfer students as they move from one










institution to another. The third part presents literature

relating to formal articulation agreements which are de-

signed to eliminate or reduce transfer problems.


The Community College Transfer Student

The community college transfer student is continuing to

be the subject of extensive research. His numbers are rapidly

increasing as seen by the United States Office of Education,

whose statistics reveal that the number of students entering

the community college has increased rapidly over the past two

decades, and that estimates for the future indicate that the

number of students in the community college could rise from

1.6 million in 1970yto 4.7 million students in 1980 or a maxi-

mum of 12 million by that time (Wattenbarger and Cage, 1974).

Florida's community college student enrollment has also

increased rapidly since the end of World War II, keeping pace

with the national growth. From the campus of an upper division

campus (Proceedings of the International Conference, 1970) it

is observed that:

. some 82 percent of our student body
comes as direct graduates from an accredited
junior college in the State of Florida or the
region. At times this percentage has been
even higher. The rest of the students, for
the most part, are transfers from other in-
stitutions both within and without the state.
They are a different kind of student. One
of my colleagues commented on the fact that
they are less revolutionary, that they are
highly motivated, and that they have engaged
in self-selection process. (p. 55)










A survey of entering transfer students enrolling in

state universities in the fall of 1966, including the Uni-

versity of Florida and Florida Atlantic University, two of

every three transfer students had previously attended a Florida

community college (Office for Academic Affairs, Florida Board

of Regents, 1967).

In 1971, 48.0 percent of the students enrolled in public

colleges within Florida attended the community college (Hale,

1971). In Florida, the 1972 fall enrollment of transfer

students was over 11,000 in the State University System (SUS).

The transfer from Florida's own twenty-eight public community

colleges numbered over 8,000 students. In 1973, the number of

Florida community college students had increased to approxi-

mately 57.5 percent of the total population of students en-

rolled in public colleges (Report for Public Community Colleges,

1973-74). At the University of Florida in Gainesville, the

fall 1973 enrollment showed that over 62 percent of the junior

level or third year students were transfers from either

community colleges or other four-year institutions across the

country (St. Jacques, 1973).

Who is this community college transfer student? What

are his characteristics? Is he different from the native

university student?

Characters t i cs

Knoell and Medsker (1965) provide a description of the

community college transfer student based on data gathered in a

nationwide survey:











In many ways the junior college transfer
student resembled what is regarded as the
typical undergraduate student in public
four-year colleges and universities, ex-
cept in their social class membership.
The parents of the junior college students
were less well educated than those of the
natives, and the employment and income of
their fathers reflected this difference.
The transfer students, particularly the women,
tended to come from larger families than the
native students. They were more likely to
be self-supporting during college. Nearly
20 percent of the male transfer students re-
ported that they paid nearly all of their
college costs out of their own earnings,
compared with only 8 percent of the native
students. About 40 percent of the men in
the transfer group--as against one-third of
the men in the native group--said that their
parents contributed nothing toward paying
for their college education. About three-
fourths of the transfer men and slightly
fewer than half the women reported that
they used some portion of their own earn-
ings from part-time and summer work to pay
for the cost of their education. Incidence
of time-consuming employment after transfer
was somewhat less than expected. Apparently
the students feared that employment would
seriously interfere with their university
studies if they were to continue it at the
same level as in junior college. About
twice as many students worked while attend-
ing junior college as in the first year after
transfer; the number of hours worked per week
was also much larger in junior college. (p. 69)

A survey of 18,387 students entering Florida's community

colleges in the fall of 1971 (Florida Board of Regents, 1972)

provides a socio-economic profile of the community college

student, including those students who expressed an intention to

transfer to a senior institution. The survey indicates that

64.3 percent of the entering community college students were

age 18 or less, 73 percent of the -;tudents were Caucasian, their

parents completed high school and the annual family income was










less than $12,000.00. Of these students 49.7 percent receive

half or less than half of the money to pay college expenses

from their families. Finally, 71.6 percent of the students

planned to transfer to a senior university, and 78.1 percent

had tentatively selected a specific academic major (pp. 1-18).

In an earlier study, Medsker (1960) suggested that

community college transfer students generally reflect a diversity

of aptitudes, socio-economic background, marital status, and

sex.

Academic Ability

A study completed in the late 1950s reported that avail-

able facts indicate that the average academic aptitude level

of students entering two-year colleges is somewhat below that

of those who enter four-year colleges (Medsker, 1960). How-

ever, because of a wide range of abilities among two-year

college students, many are superior in ability to many students

in four-year institutions.

Follow-up data from a study of community college students,

who were members of a national honor society in junior college,

were analyzed and reported by Schultz (1967). A total of

2,758 students represented 72 schools in 27 states. A large

proportion of those students transferred to a senior college,

91 percent of the men and 70 percent of the women. An even

larger proportion of the students graduated, 98 percent of the

men and 90 percent of the women.

Community college students reported mean American College

Testing (ACT) composite scores which ranged from 23.3 to 8.3










with a score of 18 being mean, in a study of student character-

istics based on data gathered in 1965 (Hoyt and Munday, 1969).

Richards and Braskamp (1969) describe the abilities of

community college students as follows:

Two-year colleges attract pragmatic
students seeking vocational training;
they are less attractive to talented
students who are intellectually and
academically oriented, who plan a
degree in one of the traditional sub-
ject areas, and who expect to take
part in a wide variety of activities
in college. (p. 80)

When compared to his four-year institutional counterpart,

the community college transfer student generally has performed

less admirably academically before entering junior college.

He expresses more feelings of inferiority and shows a lower

self-esteem, but he is more practical and conventionally

oriented (Knoell and Medsker, 1965).

Monroe (1972) adds, "The possibility for enrolling even

larger numbers of 'Pragmatic' students in the years ahead is

to be expected" (p. 190).

Junior college students have a more practical orientation

to college and to life than do their more intellectually dis-

posed peers of four-year colleges. They are interested in

applied college curricula, and they expect their future satis-

factions to come from business and financial success (Cross,

1968).

The academic abilities of community college students in
V

Florida are not significantly different from their counterparts

in other states. Native students entering the upper division at











the University of Florida in 1966 had a mean score of 419

while the entering community college transfer students had a

mean score of only 317 on the Florida Twelfth Grade Placement

Test (Walker, 1969).

Nickens (1970) found that at Florida State University/

the mean Florida Twelfth Grade Placement score was 321 for

the community college transfer and 382 for the native university

students.

The academic success of community college students has

been summarized by Bird (1956):

Junior college transfers make records
approximately the same as those made by
transfers from four-year colleges and
by native students, sometimes excelling
slightly and sometimes being slightly
excelled by the other groups. They
usually show a drop in their grade
average in the first term after trans-
fer but then recover that loss (2).
Junior college transfers retain the
relative scholastic standing after
transfer that they had before trans-
fer. Those who originally have high
scholastic standing tend to retain
such relative standing. Likewise,
those with relative low standing tend
to remain in the lower groups. (p. 85)

In overall summary, community college transfer students

generally exhibit lower academic ability than native university

students. In addition, as a group they represent a much wider

range of abilities, preferring the pragmatic and applied

curricula.

Transfer Problems

A problem often identified by community college transfer

students concerns counseling or perhaps the lack of counseling.











Knoell and Medsker (1964) reported that:

The students gave much less favorable
ratings to the counseling and advising
they received in junior college, than
they did to instruction, although they
gave higher ratings to the junior colleges
than they did to counseling and advising
services offered by the four-year colleges.
Larger percentages of students said they
were not counseled either at the junior
college or after transfer; many students
reported in interviews two years after
transfer that they had not been aware
of the time they had problems of adjust-
ment, nor had they been able to obtain
satisfaction from their faculty advisors.
(p. 176)

In another study, Medsker (1960) found that the two-year

college which carelessly counsels students about course re-

quirements and the desired pattern to follow in the community

college is a problem which is difficult to correct without

loss of time and resources for the student.

The unique needs of community college transfer students

was also recognized by Sandeen and Goodale (1972). They re-

ported that:

Transfer students with everyday problems
or doubts about their motivations and
interest, seldom found help at the four-
year college and university . It is
clear that large numbers of new transfer
students are enrolled now in our four-
year institutions of higher education,
and that they encounter special educa-
tional, social, vocational and financial
problems there. Too little attention has
been focused upon these special problems
by our senior institutions and too few
programs attempt to meet these student's
needs . If the educational impact
of our colleges is to be enhanced, transfer
students cannot simply be 'left to fend
for themselves' . special efforts need










to be made to assist transfer students if
they are to gain real educational benefits
at the university. (pp. 183-184)

Another serious problem confronting the community college

transfer student is the grading differentials between the tl

community college and the senior colleges. Koos (1970)

suggests that each community college should:

. examine periodically "the grade
point differential" with each four-year
college to which a sizable number of its
students transfer . use caution in
placing dependence on the "C" grades as
the indicator of the likelihood of student
success in four-year institutions. (p. 531)

Wasson (1974) reported on the problems encountered by

the transfer student regarding the transferabi1 ity of courses

from the community college to the senior college.

Warlick (1971) explored the degree of fairness with

which the institutions of higher education in Virginia were

treating the transfer student. He concluded that these insti-

tutions were using a great number of regulations and require-

ments which were not found in any of their published materials.

In addition, these institutions were not putting into practice

what was contained in the publications about transfer student

admissions. As a result, thie transfer student's application

was being considered on the basis of criteria which were un-

known to the candidate.

Podhajski (1974) reported on a study of the impact of

transfer students on the programs and native student population

at Central Connecticut State College.










Willingham (1972) identified several nationally recognized

transfer problems in addition to those cited above:

(1) The need to maintain articulation regarding

curricula between the community college and the four-year

college. "One obvious problem is that this is no theory of

curriculum articulation" (p. 16). Differences between institu-

tions in requirements only serve to illustrate the need for this

dialog.

(2) Ambiguous or discriminatory admissions procedures

that often treat transfer students as less desirable than new

freshmen.

(3) Transfer students often suffer a loss of credits when

they transfer. He finds himself in the crossfire of the de-

bate on such items as whether "D" grades should transfer,

should vocational or technical courses transfer, and what

happens to former courses taken under a pass/fail system?

(4) Financial assistance is an ever present problem for

community college transfer students. Should freshman students

receive priority in the allocation of financial aid?

(5) A shortage of space in the four-year institutions

for transfer students must be dealt with. This is especially

a problem in certain individual programs. The upper division

colleges are seen by some as one solution.

Kintzer (1973) refers to a variety of problems for trans-

fer students that include problems caused by the community

college, the university, or the student himselF. These included:










(1) sudden changes in the upper division curricula; (2)

insisting on exact equivalence of courses; (3) refusing to

accept occupational courses; (4) putting limitations on the

amount of credit granted in certain majors; (5) refusing to

accept a course, implying that it is inferior to the university

counterpart; (6) shifting courses from lower to upper division

while holding community colleges to specific definitions of

lower and upper divisions; and (7) limiting enrollment of

transfer students in certain programs.

Kintzer (1973) also says that the community colleges have

been accused of: (1) mixing subcollege material with college

material in courses that are labeled transfer; (2) developing

transfer courses without consulting with the senior institu-

tions; (3) relying on informal communications between community

college professors and university professors rather than a

formal method of exchanging information; and (4) failing to

provide adequate transfer guidelines to students either through

the counseling staff or in print.

He concludes by pointing out the many problems caused by

the student himself by: (1) changing majors when he trans-

fers; (2) making one or more false starts in his collegiate

career; and (3) compiling a poor academic record from which it

is difficult to recover.

Sistrunk completed his study in 1974 identifying 36

transfer problems in six Florida universities. The problems

clustered into six categories: (1) articulation; (2) academic










counseling; (3) orientation; (4) oral and written communica-

tion; (5) participation in student activities, and (6) an

attitudinal problem among some university personnel.

Wattenbarger (1972) noted that "bookkeeping" problems

are often the source of problems and frustrations for the

community college transfer student. However, bookkeeping

problems may be the product of other factors surrounding the

transfer process. These factors may include: institutional

integrity, faculty, competencies, restricted admissions

policies, equivalency of courses, planning of programs, in-

dividual counseling procedures, student activities, and occu-

pational objectives.

Hertig (1973) reported that basic articulation problems

stem from three primary factors. First, is a lack of mutual

professional respect and acceptance among the two- and four-

year college faculties; second, is the failure to recognize

the necessity of attacking articulation problems on a local

or, at most, a regional scale, rather than assuming they will

be solved on a state or federal level; and third, is the absence

of mechanisms, which allow for curricular planning and encourage

cooperation between the disciplinary counterparts from the

two- and four-year colleges.

A study completed at the University of Florida recently

looked at the roles and responsibilities of the Articulation

Counseling Office located at each of Florida's public uni-

versities (Schafer, 1974). This office is responsible for











community college campus visitations, in addition it is

responsible for publishing a community college counseling

manual which is distributed throughout the Florida community

college system. This manual describes the college programs

offered at the four-year institutions and lists requirements and

recommendations for transfer students.

Blackwell (1975) looked at the decentralization of the

baccalaureate program into a community college-university

system to see if it created problems which were disadvantageous

to the student. He concluded that the loss in efficiency from

the decentralized baccalaureate program was .1 percent. This

relatively small loss in efficiency is attributed primarily to

Florida's articulation agreement. The expenditures for the

excess credits acquired as a result of the transfer process

are approximately $13.00 per transfer student, a nominal figure

for the advantages offered by the community college.

Hite (1975) studied the problem of students transferring

between four-year institutions. His study isolated the prob-

lems into three areas: academic, procedural, and extra-

curricula. He found that these problems translated into in-

adequate academic advisement; inadequate orientation, regis-

tration problems, and academic bureaucracy; and meeting people

and feeling at home.

In summary, community college transfer students are ex-

periencing a variety of problems as they move from the two-

year college to the four-year college. Some of these problems











have received the attention needed to begin progress toward

solutions. However, solutions are not easy. The next part

of the review looks at the use of formal articulation agree-

ments as a possible solution to transfer problems.


Articulation Agreements

Kintzer (1973) noted that:

Organized efforts are underway in at
least half of the fifty states to de-
velop articulation agreements to es-
tablish machinery for the smooth trans-
fer of students from the community/
junior colleges to universities and
senior colleges. (p. 37)

"In the past, articulation machinery has been inadequate

at best" (Knoell and Medsker, 1965, p. 97). However, work

is being done to develop guidelines to improve the function-

ality of articulation agreements and make the transfer process

an equitable experience for all.

Perhaps the best example of this effort is the Joint

Committee on Junior and Senior Colleges Publications (1966).

Guidelines were published by this organization whose member-

ship includes the American Association of Junior Colleges, and

the Association of American Colleges, the American Association

of Collegiate Registrars and Admissions Officers. The major

purpose of the Guidelines is:

. to provide a framework within
which junior and senior colleges,
singly and cooperatively, can develop
specific policies governing transfer
between and among institutions. The
Guidelines are not intended to be a
substitute for local and state policies,
but instead, a set of principles against











which the appropriateness of particular
policies can be tested. (p. 5)

The report is divided into five parts: (1) admissions;

(2) evaluation of transfer courses; (3) curriculum planning;

(4) advising, counseling, and other student personnel pro-

grams; and (5) articulation programs. Included in these

categories, are 27 different guidelines. Each is preceded

by a statement of the issue or problem, and followed by

recommendation and discussion.

The need for immediate progress in the area of formal-

izing articulation agreements, and expanding those presently

in existence is underlined by Wattenbarger in his forward to

Kintzer's Middleman in Higher Education (1973):

In the last quarter of this century
universal opportunity for continued
education during the total lifetime
of most individuals will likely be-
come a reality. As more students
complete two years of college, more
will want to complete four years.
But as more people transfer from
community colleges to upper divisions,
there will be more individual problems
to solve. (p. vii)

Middleman in Higher Education is based on data gathered

nationally on community college transfer articulation, and

identifies state and institutional articulation practices and

policies in the various states participating in the survey

(Kintzer, 1973) .

Since Middleman in Higher Education was published,

community colleges have been established, new universities have

begun to operate, and more students have been faced with











problems of transferring from one college to another. There-

fore, Kintzer has updated his study via a monograph published

by the University of Florida, Institute of Higher Education,

as part of its series relating to articulation (Kintzer, 1975).

As early as 1965, the University of Miami provided a

remarkable example of a private institution which was respond-

ing to the transfer needs of both local and public community

colleges and nationally known private two-year colleges. The

University first expanded its articulation program in response

to the establishment of Miami-Dade Community College and

Florida Atlantic University, both of which were located nearby.

More recently, a program of new scholarships for transfer

students from community colleges was established. Through a

private institution, Miami was attempting to serve the fast-

growing community college movement in Florida by working with

Miami-Dade Community College and others within the state in-

terested in Miami's programs (Knoell and Medsker, 1965).

Trivett (1974) concluded that the private institutions

are still responding to the transfer student, who is seen by

the private institutions as a source of new blood and much

needed money. Outreach recruiting programs to encourage trans-

Fer student enrollment have been established independently of

each other at both American University in Washington, D. C.

and Hamline University in St. Paul, Minnesota.

Summa r y

The first part of this review examined the community

college transfer student's characteristics and academic ability










in terms of his relative comparison to the native university

student. The second part looked at the vast and varied

problems encountered by transfer students as they move from

one institution to another. And finally, the review noted

some efforts which are underway to promote and expand articu-

lation agreements which are designed to eliminate or reduce

transfer problems.

If all of these studies have one thing in common, other

than that they are concerned with transfer students, it is

that they all are primarily concerned with public institutions

of higher education. However, their conclusions may be equally

applicable to the private colleges, both two-year and four-year.

Moreover, the abundance of transfer problems in the public

institutions are likewise reflected in private institutions.

Therefore, efforts to develop and expand articulation agreements

for the reasons cited above, are equally needed in the private-

institution of higher education.















CHAPTER III

DATA FROM COLLEGES A, B, C, AND D


College A

Description of the College

This college is a private, independent, coeducational

institution with a 273-acre campus located in northeast

Florida. It was chartered in the spring of 1934 by the

State of Florida:

to furnish an opportunity for citizens
to obtain a standard collegiate education
without leaving the city; to fill the need
for a center of culture and cultural back-
ground . to operate as a non-profit
institution, thereby enabling students to
obtain a good education at a minimum cost.
(Catalog, p. 6)

The college began initially as a junior college and

operated as a junior college for 22 years. In 1956, the

college was expanded to four-year status.

The Southern Association of Colleges and Schools accredited

the college in 1961. In 1963, the School of Nursing was es-

tablished and offered the Associate of Arts in Nursing degree.

However, the program was discontinued in 1968. Graduate studies

were begun in 1964, offering the Master of Arts in Teaching

Program.











The Center for Economic Education was established in 1966

to mobilize the resources of the college and the community to

help advance the citizens' level of understanding of economics

and the American economic system. The services of the center

are available to area teachers at the collegiate, secondary,

and elementary levels and to various other community groups.

In 1967, the College of Fine Arts and the College of Arts

and Sciences were approved. They were joined in 1974 by a

third college, the College of Business Administration.

The student enrollment in the fall of 1974 totaled 2,259,

representing 33 states and 25 foreign countries. (Catalog,

P. 7)

The college does not view itself as a research institution.

S. faculty members are concerned primarily with classroom

and laboratory instruction. Only after this duty has been met

entirely do they turn their attention to research or publish-

ing" (p. 7). This college falls into the category of "the

lesser-known private liberal arts colleges . which create

much of the diversity within higher education. ." (Carnegie

Commission on Higher Education, 1973, p. 66).

The academic offerings (Catalog) include:

. bachelor's degrees in more than
thirty areas of the liberal arts, the
fine arts, education, business, the
sciences, pre-medicine, pre-dentistry,
pre-law, and physical education.

distinctive programs in urban
studies and international affairs . .
The Master of Arts in Teaching Program
offers graduate concentrations in eight











major areas, and . "combined plans"
with Columbia University and Georgia
Institute of Technology in the field
of engineering. The addition of new
academic programs and the expansion of
existing programs, at both the under-
graduate and graduate levels, are in-
cluded in the University's $26 million
long-range development plan announced
in the fall of 1970. Particular emphasis
will be given to expanded offerings in
the field of business administration, urban
studies, the marine sciences, and education.
(p. 7)

The college's statement of purpose was adopted by the

Board of Trustees in 1971 and reads as follows:

. purpose is to help its students to
gain an understanding and appreciation of
the broad fields of knowledge and a rela-
tive masters of a major area of study; to
acquire the incentive and the skills for
a meaningful career and for a continuing
intellectual activity throughout life; to
develop the abilities to think creatively
and imaginatively; to make discriminating
judgements; to adopt to new circumstances;
and finally, to act responsibly. (Catalog,
p. 6)

Criteria Relating to Community College Transfer Admissions

The following criteria were gathered by the writer by

examining College A's Catalog, transfer admissions brochure,

transfer admissions application, and from personal contact

with the President, the Vice-President for Academic Affairs,

the Director of Admissions, and the Registrar.

Published criteria.

ADMISSION. [College A]. . does not make
the religious tenets, the race, the sex,
or the national origin of any person a
condition of admission, nor does it dis-
criminate in any way in respect to re-
ligion, race, sex, or national origins.











The University seeks good students ir-
respective of any such classification.

New students are eligible for admission
at the beginning of the fall and winter
semesters and the spring and summer
sessions. The application for admission
and all supporting papers should be sub-
mitted at least thirty days before the
date of registration for any term to allow
adequate time for processing.

TRANSFER ADMISSION. A candidate for ad-
mission to [College A] . who has
attended other recognized colleges or
universities must: (1) arrange for
official transcripts to be sent directly
to the Director of Admissions from the
Registrar of each institution attended,
(2) have the dean of students (at the
last college attended as a full-time
student) or other appropriate official
at his college submit a recommendation
concerning his character and general
fitness to continue university work,
(3) if at time of application, the can-
didate has not completed one full term
of academic work equal to fifteen semester
hours, also completed all requirements as
requested of a freshman candidate, and (4)
if requested, present a catalog of the in-
stitution from which he transfers. A
student must have a "C" average or better
and be in good standing and eligible to
return to the institution from which he
proposes to transfer. (Catalog, pp. 8-10)

Perceived criteria. The interviewees as a group generally

feel that those criteria regarding transfer admissions which

were published, were of general nature and provided for flexi-

bility in interpretation. The Director of Admissions, who has

complete authority to admit transfer students to the college,

also has complete authority to use his discretion in inter-

preting the appropriate application of the published criteria.










The Vice-President for Academic Affairs noted that the

published criteria include no distinction between a student who

transfers from a community college and one who transfers from

a four-year college. He feels that this is as it should be and

therefore, justifies the absence in the published criteria of

any reference to the Associate of Arts degree as being signifi-

cant to transfer process. He strongly urges no deviation from

the "C" average requirement, suggesting that to do so would be

to place in jeopardy the academic integrity of his college's

program. He maintains that letters of recommendation still

serve a useful purpose, reflecting a candid assessment of a

student's success potential. In an extension of the published

criterion requiring official transcripts, he views the transfer

student's rank in his high school class as especially significant

as a predictor of success in college.

With the regard to the community college student as a

source of new student enrollment, potential, and therefore,

also a source of new much needed money, he is not impressed.

In his view, to recruit the community college student is

costly and often unproductive. He is convinced that the reason

the student attended the community college in the first place,

which in his judgment was lack of money, would also work to

preclude an interest in transferring to a private college. He

does not feel that the community college transfer student is

at an academic disadvantage or functions below expectations at

the private college, once he is able to muster the finances.










To illustrate his point, he notes that the majority of

community college transfer students in attendance at his college

are academically successful, but are there only because they

are on full athletic scholarships.

The President at this college views the community college

transfer student as a legitimate solution to the enrollment

decline being felt at the time of this study. He views the

college's vigorous recruitment program as not only desirable,

but essential. And rationalizes the apparent lack of the

program's success as being the result of not having identified

an appropriate recruiting method. The lure of athletic glory

is an appropriate recruiting method, but unfortunately is not

universally applicable. He expresses hope that perhaps this

study might address the problem.

In still another interview, the Director of Admissions

perceives the criteria for transfer admission to be more flexible

than did the others. He feels that the reference to other

recognized colleges in the published criteria include virtually

any college that is accredited by a legitimate accrediting agency,

such as the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools. He

would not, however, define "a legitimate accrediting agency."

He feels that the published criterion requiring a "C" average or

better is the ideal and functionally, only suggestive. A "C"

average is one factor to be considered, but should not alone be

conclusive. He perceives any discipline problems in a student's

past as a negative factor, but again not conclusive. In other











words, he supports his college's published criterion requiring

a transfer student to submit a recommendation from the Dean

of Students at the student's last college attended, but notes

that while he wants to know about the student's past, a negative

recommendation would not necessarily preclude a favorable

decision on the student's application. He agrees with others

that a student in possession of an Associate of Arts degree

enjoys no special consideration. However, he has some mis-

givings about the absence of recognition of the Associate of

Arts degree indicated that he might support a policy change

making such recognition a factor in transfer admission.

Criteria Relating To The Transferability Of Academic Credits

The following criteria were gathered by the writer by

examining College A's Catalog, transfer admissions brochure,

an evaluation of credits for a community college transfer

student, and from personal contact with the President, the

Vice-PresideQt for Academic Affairs, the Director of Admissions

and the Registrar.

Published criteria.

In general, courses completed at other
institutions approved by the regional
accrediting agency are acceptable in
transfer if they are comparable to
courses offered at . [College A]
and were completed with grades of "C"
or better. Any work transferred to
. [College A] will be entered as
hours earned only, and will not be used
in the computation of the . [College
A] average. The maximum number of credits
that may be accepted in transfer from a
junior college is sixty-four semester hours.











The final sixty-four semester hours must
be completed at a senior college. The
final thirty semester hours toward a
bachelor's degree must be completed at
. . [College A].

A student who is a degree candidate at
another institution and wishes to attend
the spring or summer session at . .
[College A] for transfer credit may
arrange with his registrar to submit a
letter of good standing to . .
[College A]. This letter serves as a
substitute for the transcript required
from the other students.

TRANSFER CREDITS. A student who wishes
to take one or more courses at another
college for transfer credit to . .
[College A] and remain a degree candidate,
must obtain written permission in advance
for the specific courses from the Registrar
or College Dean at . .[College A]. No
transfer credits are allowed from junior
colleges beyond the level of sixty-four
semester hours. That is, once a student
has accumulated sixty-four semester hours
of college credit no additional hours may
be transferred to . [College A] from
a junior college. (Catalog, p. 10)

OPPORTUNITIES FOR COLLEGE CREDIT OR
EXEMPTION. Qualified students may receive
college credit, or exemption from some
course requirements, on the basis of satis-
factory performance on proficiency examina-
tions. A student may secure specific infor-
mation on proficiency examinations by inquir-
ing at the office of the division chairman
involved.

The examinations taken in the Advanced Place-
ment Program sponsored by the College Entrance
Examination Board will give college credit to
those students who have passed one or more ad-
vanced placement examinations with grades of
5, 4, or 3 [College A] . credit will
be allowed in courses most nearly equivalent to
the material covered in the Advanced Placement
Program.










The College Level Examination Program
(CLEP) makes it possible for students to
apply the results of the College Level
Examination for credit or placement.

The General Examination of CLEP can be
used to earn up to thirty semester hours
of credit. A score of 500 or the 50th
percentile is considered a passing score.
Credit will be awarded for the English
Composition portion after a series of
papers, prescribed by that division chairman
is written. All other credits will be
applied towards the satisfaction of the
general requirements for the baccalaureate
degree, but will not satisfy any specific
course requirements, (eg. HY 165, 166, or
190). Six semester hours of credit will
be awarded for the Natural Science, Humani-
ties, Mathematics, and the Social Science
Hi story.

One kind of credit is awarded, not by
examination, but upon completion of
certain courses in foreign languages.
A student with some knowledge of French,
German or Spanish may be able to begin
study of that language here at an advanced
level. Since the sequence 201, 202, 301,
302 in all three languages consists of
composition and conversation, should a
student complete one of these courses
above 201, he will be awarded credit for
that course and those in the sequence below
it. That is, if he completes 202, he will
be awarded six hours; if he completes 301,
he will be awarded nine hours. (Catalog,
pp. 14-17)

Perceived criteria. The Registrar has authority to use

his discretion in deciding which credits will transfer. He

enforces the 64 semester hour rule as published, and will not

transfer any credit with less than a grade of "C". However,

having a grade of "C" or better does not necessarily insure

that a credit or credits would transfer. Basically, the Di-

rector of Admissions of this college classifies credit earned











at another college into four categories: (1) credits earned

at another college in a course which is deemed equal to a

course at this college in terms of course content and quality

of instruction; (2) credits earned at another college in a

course which corresponds to a similar course at this college

in terms of content and quality of instruction, but is not a

course for which this college gives credit; (3) credits earned

at another college in a course which is not offered at this

college, but one for which this college would give credit if

it were offered at this college, and one for which this college

would not give credit if it were offered.

Credits in the first category transfer easily, and

generally include those courses classified as academic such as

English, Physics, etc. Credits in the second category do not

transfer, and for the most part include self-enrichment courses

such as typing. The third category credits transfer as do the

first category credits because like the first category, it

covers courses which are academic, but beyond what the typical

small private four-year college offers. These include special-

ized courses in language, specialized courses in nuclear science,

or specialized courses in professional fields such as law,

medicine, or dentistry. The fourth category covers credits

which do not transfer. These credits generally include voca-

tional and technical courses such as welding, automobile,

mechanics and carpentry.











Therefore, a student may present credits with a grade of

"C" or better which will not transfer because they fall into

either the second or the fourth categories.

A policy change which would drop the required grade to

transfer a course from "C" or better to a "D" is seriously

being considered by the Administration at this college. The

rationale offered by the proponents is that native students

are given credits for courses in which they receive a "D",

and to require a "C" or better for transfer students is to

discriminate against the transfer students in favor of the

native student. It is further agreed that transfer students

are being penalized for their mobility. The writer found that

had the question been called during his visit, the policy change

would have prevailed.

The Vice-President for Academic Affairs feels that

students who transfer from a community college, enter this

college with a handicap. The rationale being that this

college subscribes to an academic philosophy which provides

that a student should incorporate courses in his major field

of study into each of his four years, and that the freshman and

sophomore years should not be reserved exclusively for general

courses, leaving one's major for his junior and senior years.

Since the academic transfer programs at most community colleges

are general in their scope, the students who transfer to this

college from the community college often find it difficult to

schedule all of the necessary courses in their major field dur-

ing their last two years.











In addition to transferring credits earned through course

work at another college, transfer students could also have

transferred credits earned through the College Level Examina-

tion Program (CLEP) of the College Board. This was perceived

as a legitimate and acceptable method for advanced students to

earn credits, and was not inconsistent with this college's

ph ilosophy.

Criteria Relating to Recognition of Community College
Transfer Parallel Programs

As the writer found no published criteria relating to

community college transfer parallel programs in any of the

documents from this college, the following criteria were

gathered by the writer exclusively from personal contact with

the President, the Vice-President for Academic Affairs, the

Associate Director of Admissions, and the Registrar. These

interviews did provide some insight, through the perceptions

of the interviewees, as to what the position of the college

might be regarding community college transfer parallel programs.

Moreover, it should be noted that while the following

criteria do not represent the official published position of

the college, one should not discount the probability that the

perceptions of those interviewed do in reality represent, ex

cathedra, the official position of the college because of the

obvious influence the President, the Vice-President for Academic

Affairs, the Director of Admissions, and the Registrar have on

the policy of the college.

Perceived criteria. The administration of this college

does not recognize community college transfer parallel programs.











The Vice-President for Academic Affairs sums it up by point-

ing out that community college transfer parallel programs re-

quire students to complete all of their general education

courses during the freshman and sophomore years, as the

community college, for the most part, only offers general edu-

cation courses. This means, therefore, that community college

students have to complete their major courses during the junior

and senior years, after they have transferred to a four-year

college. He continued with an explanation that his college

requires native students to declare their major as a freshman

and pursue major courses throughout the four years of the degree

program. Therefore, he concludes, one can easily see that

community college transfer parallel programs are incompatible

with the philosophy of this college.

The Director of Admissions feels that recognition of

community college transfer parallel programs amounts to nothing

more than his college advising prospective community college

transfer students as to which courses at the community college

will readily transfer to this college. He sees no need for

cooperation between the community college and his college,

because all contact is with the students. Since it is the

student's responsibility to initiate the dialog, this pre-

counseling program is not very successful for his college

feels very little commitment to pursue it.

Another point is made by the Registrar which illustrates

the apparent lack of confidence this college has in the











judgement of the community college to determine what should

appropriately constitute a transfer student's first two

years of college study. He notes that the community college

is pursuing a different objective with its community based

concept and its open door policies.


Coll ege B

Description of the College

This college is the oldest private institution of higher

education in Florida having been established in 1883 as an

Academy and later becoming a University in 1889. Its College

of law, Florida's first law school, was established in 1900.

It is co-educational and church-related.

The campus is located in central Florida's cattle and

citrus region in a residential city of approximately 12,000.

Its 80-acre main campus contains the College of Liberal Arts,

the School of Music and the School of Business Administration.

Its College of Law is located on a separate 35-acre campus in

a large urban setting.

The President speaks of the purposes of this college:

S. a Christian university of the highest
possible standards of academic excellence,
one that encourages free and honest inquiry,
acceptance of responsibility, and student
involvement in the university affairs. It
affirms the knowledge of God and man as re-
vealed in Jesus Christ and seeks to demon-
strate that Christian faith provides an ex-
cellent foundation for the University. Our
goal is to educate young people to take their
place in the world adequately prepared in
their vocations, responsible in the fulfill-
ment of their obligations and sensitive to the











needs of the world in which they live.
We urge our students to develop their
intellectual capacities and to commit
themselves to . the search for truth
and spiritual values For God and
Truth--is the vital principle which guides
our search. (Bulletin, p. 5)

Its faculty, highly qualified and widely recognized for

significant research and publication, is primarily committed

to the idea of a teaching university (Bulletin, p. 22). This

is especially interesting in light of the fact that 70 percent

of its Ill faculty members hold a doctorate degree (Story, p. 2).

The college is fully accredited by the Southern Associa-

tion of Colleges and Schools, the American Bar, the National

Association of Schools of Music and the National Council for

the Accreditation of Teacher Education. It is a member of the

Southern University Conference, the Association of American

Colleges, the Florida Association of Colleges and Universities,

the American Council on Education, the Association of American*

Law Schools, the American Association of Colleges for Teacher

Education and is approved by the American Association of Uni-

versity Women (Bulletin, p. 23).

The student enrollment totals 1900 undergraduates,

representing 1100 men and 800 women from 42 states and 14

countries. An additional 800 students are enrolled in the

College of Law, the Graduate Division and extension programs

(Story, p. 2).

The academic offerings include:

. the Bachelor of Arts and Bachelor
of Science degrees in the College of






48



Liberal Arts; the Bachelor of Music and
Bachelor of Music in Education, as well
as the Bachelor of Business Administra-
tion and the Master of Business Adminis-
tration in the School of Business Admin-
istration.

The Graduate Division offers the Master
of Education degree . and the College
of Law offers the Juris Doctor (J.D.)
degree. (Story, p. 3)

Criteria Relating to Community College Transfer Admissions

The following criteria were gathered by the writer by

examining College B's Bulletin, transfer admissions brochure,

transfer admissions application, and from personal contact

with the President, the Vice-President for Academic Affairs,

the Assistant Director of Admissions, and the Registrar.

Published criteria.

ADMISSIONS INFORMATION . [College B]
selects its students on the basis of
academic ability and performance, character,
health, and promise of leadership. The Ad-
missions Committee gives careful considera-
tion to evidence of desirable character and
personality, and to ability and interest in
achieving a college education.

Applicants must satisfactorily complete a
college preparatory program in high school,
including a minimum of four years of English,
three years of mathematics, and seven other
academic courses. Applicants should have
taken science and social studies courses to
complete a college preparatory curriculum.
In addition, Liberal Arts students should
have at least two years of a foreign language.
The mathematics requirements may be waived
for music majors.

TRANSFER STUDENTS. An applicant from an
accredited college, who has an acceptable
academic record, may apply . if he is
in good stnading with and eligible to re-
turn to his own college. The transfer











applicant must submit a return-eligibility
statement, his transcript, a completed
secondary school record and Recommendation
Form to the . Director of Admissions.
All transfer students must submit SAT
scores of the CEEB or ACT scores. Transfer
applicants who have taken these tests earlier
may submit scores from those tests. Courses
equivalent to those at . ., graded "C" or
better, will be accepted for credit. Appli-
cants from non-accredited colleges may be
accepted provisionally, and credit must be
validated by a year of full-time academic
work (32 semester hours in residence at an
accredited college, with an average of "C").
(Bulletin, pp. 51-52)

Perceived criteria. The writer has learned that the

ambiguity found in the published criteria regarding transfer

admissions is no accident. By design the college has left its

options open and has avoided a definition of acceptable academic

record. For the same reasons, it has also failed to publish

minimum acceptable SAT and/or ACT scores. The interviewees

differ in their definition of acceptable academic record. For

the same reasons, it has also failed to publish minimum accept-

able SAT and/or ACT scores. One maintains that a "C" average

is all that is necessary. Another feels that a "B" average is

required. And still a third accepts a "C" average, but much

prefers a student with a "B" average. This is interesting in

as much as two of these interviewees have direct input into

decisions on transfer admissions.

Basically, the community college transfer student is

viewed by the Administration as an asset with varying degrees

of commitment as to what the posture of the college ought to

be toward the transfer student. One administrator favors











granting special concessions to the transfer student who has

received the Associate of Arts degree by granting an admission

with little, if any, questions. He feels that they have as

good a chance for continued college success as any native

student in the junior or senior years. However, when questioned

as to whether he would support a commitment by his college to

adhere voluntarily to the terms and conditions of the articula-

tion agreement approved in 1971 by Florida's Community College

system and the State University system, he hedged. He observed

that the articulation agreement referred to covers a great deal

more than just admissions. He suggests that its terms are too

restrictive and inconsistent with the independence of the pri-

vate college.

The Vice-President for Academic Affairs at this college

is "glad" to have community college transfer students. But

far from being willing to grant a carte blanche admittance, he'

feels that their credentials should be carefully screened. He

bases this idea on what he says is the fact that the academic

caliber of community colleges in Florida varies from campus to

campus, and such scrutiny is needed to guard against the

Associate of Arts degree that is awarded on the basis of in-

flated grading practices at some colleges.

The Assistant Director of Admissions favors transferring,

but from the private college to the public college. His

rationale is that for reasons of tradition and finances, most

private colleges have stayed with the classical liberal arts











type of education, and have left the specialization development

to public colleges. He suggests that students would be wise

to attend a private college for the freshman and sophomore

years to acquire the best liberal arts foundation. Then, on

to a publicly funded college for study in one's specialty.

In the final analysis, the Administration feels very

strongly that in reality no certain criteria exists, and in

fact, the discretion of the Admissions Committee prevails.

Criteria Relating to the Transferability of Academic Credits

The following criteria were gathered by the writer by

examining College B's Bulletin, transfer admissions brochure,

and evaluation of credits for a community college transfer

student, and from personal contact with the President, the

Vice-President for Academic Affairs, the Assistant Director of

Admissions, and the Registrar.

Published criteria.

INTRODUCTION . [College B] welcomes
qualified transfer students from accred-
ited junior colleges and four-year pro-
grams.

TRANSFER OF CREDITS. Transfer candidates
who have earned the A.A. degree from accre-
dited community colleges in Florida shall
be awarded full credit for all university
parallel work completed with "C" grades and
up to three courses of "D" credit, provided
their overall average is "C" (2.00). Trans-
fer candidates from accredited senior
colleges and universities shall be awarded
up to three courses of "D" credit, provided
they have an overall "C" average.

CLEP POLICY . [College B] accepts CLEP
scores for transfer in excess of 550 on the
general examination. We also give credit
for 14 subject areas.











American History
Analysis and Interpretation of Literature
Biology
College Algebra
Computer and Data Processing
English Composition
General Chemistry
General Psychology
Human Growth and Development
Introductory Calculus
Introductory Sociology
Tests and Measurements
Trigonometry
Western Civilization

. [College B] can only accept CLEP
credit for transfer that meets its
standards. (Transfer Information)

Perceived criteria. The perceptions of those interviewed

provides a more complete and comprehensive explanation of what

happens to the credits presented by transfer students at this

coll ege.

Transfer students are required to complete those college

requirements best suited to their classification and previous

training and must earn at least six hours of credit in their

major field at this college. In addition, transfer students

are able to transfer credit toward their physical education

activity course but are required to participate during their

first semester. All students, including transfer students, are

required to attend one winter term for each year of residence.

No student can study more than two winter terms in his major

department. The winter term is a six-week period which

separates the first and second semesters.

Basically, credits in courses which receive a grade of

"C" or better transfer without difficulty. However, an experi-











mental program is underway which permits transfer students

to transfer a maximum of three courses which received a grade

of "D" or better without difficulty. The purpose of this

program is to encourage transfer students to transfer to this

college as opposed to another which would not accept "D"

grades for transfer students. The policy does not specify

how many credit hours can be transferred, only courses.

According to one source, the policy is soon to be discarded

as ineffective andunproductive. He feels that transfer

students do not decide which college they will transfer to on

the basis of being able to transfer three courses. Instead,

he is convinced that other factors generally prevail in that

decision, some or all of which are totally unrelated to the

transfer of academic credits.

Students who plan to transfer to this college from a

community college are encouraged to do so at the end of their

freshman year. It is felt that this early transfer maximizes

the flexibility in scheduling courses in one's major field,

even though students have the option of taking their general

courses during the freshman and sophomore years or declaring

a major and taking courses therein as early as their freshman

year.

Generally, students are unable to transfer vocational

and technical courses taken at a community college. In addi-

tion, any courses taken at another college which do not have

a similar corresponding course at this college, in terms of

course content and quality of instruction, are not accepted for











transfer credit. This is true even if a "C" grade or better

was earned.

Criteria Relating to Recognition of Community College
Transfer Parallel Programs

As the writer found no published criteria relating to

community college transfer parallel programs in any of the

documents from this college, the following criteria were

gathered by the writer exclusively from personal contact with

the President, the Vice-President for Academic Affairs, the

Associate Director of Admissions, and the Registrar. These

interviews did provide some insight, through the perceptions

of the interviewees, as to what the position of the college

might be regarding community college transfer parallel programs.

Moreover, it should be noted that while the following

criteria do not represent the official published position of

the college, one should not discount the probability that the

perceptions of those interviewed do in reality represent, ex

cathedra, the official position of the college because of the

obvious influence the President, the Vice-President for Academic

Affairs, the Assistant Director of Admissions, and the Registrar

have on the policy of the college,

Perceived criteria. The Administration here do not feel

that it formally or informally recognizes any community college

transfer parallel program. But is quick to add that most any

program perceived at the community college as being parallel

will in fact transfer. The college engages in no pre-counseling

of students who expect to transfer. Instead, according to the










Assistant Director of Admissions, the college feels it is

the student's responsibility to ascertain what will be required

of him based on the program he wishes to enter.

The Administration is insistent that the college does

not want to be obligated to recognize a transfer program, the

contents of which are not subject to its approval.

This attitude is perceived by the interviewees as illus-

trative of the private college's insistence on its independence.

This college permits its students to declare their major

at any point, not later than the junior year. Therefore, the

administration does not feel that the transfer parallel program

at the community college will necessarily be incompatible with

the philosophy of this college.

The Vice-President for Academic Affairs expresses concern

about what he views as problems for which solutions should be

sought before he will support an official policy recognizing

any community college transfer parallel program. One problem is

that, as he sees it, the quality of the academic program varies

considerably among the community colleges. And he feels this

necessitates being highly selective as to which transfer parallel

program should be recognized. He expresses concern that some

community colleges have established a reputation for granting

inflated grades that are no candid measure of their students'

performance. And finally, he feels that the community colleges

simply are not parallel in some areas such as pre-med. He

thinks the community colleges are weak in the behavioral sciences,










but is satisfied that they offer parallel programs in the

humanities, English, and History.


College C

Description of the College

This college is located in northeast Florida amid a

surrounding metropolitan area of 100,000. The college is

unique with its combination of location and educational advan-

tages. On the east coast, the college has within ready access

forests, lakes, the world's most famous beaches, unique geo-

logical phenomena, ruins of the earliest Indian cultures, and

is within 100 miles of the Kennedy Space Center, Walt Disney

World, and Marineland.

The college campus and grounds consist of 40 acres of

land. The college plant is valued at over $8,000,000 (Bulletin,

p. 11 ).

The college is the result of a merger in 1923 of two

Florida institutions: an institute for boys of Jacksonville,

founded in 1872, and the Daytona Normal and Industrial Institute

for Girls of Daytona Beach, founded in 1904. Upon the merger

in 1923 the institution was taken over by the Board of Education

of the Methodist Church. The dual program of high school and

junior college work was discontinued and the entire emphasis

was placed on the two-year program. In 1941, a four-year

college degree program in liberal arts and teacher training was

instituted, and two years later in 1943 the first group of

graduates received their Bachelor of Science Degree in Elemen-

tary Education.










In 1947 the college received an "A' rating by the

Southern Association of Colleges and Schools and Florida

State Department of Education. In 1960 the college was voted

into full membership in the Southern Association of Colleges

and Schools (Bulletin, p. 10).

The college has had three presidents. The current

president speaks to the purpose of the college:

. [College C] is dedicated to some-
thing more than giving people knowledge
alone. Its program includes, spiritual
ideals, character building, health in
mind and body. It believes in life-
centered activities and urges its
students to plan for themselves back
into their local communities or to cirry
forward in the needy centers of the world.
In other words, each student should have
a sense of mission when he is well edu-
cated.

An educated person is socially responsible,
critical of his times, adventuresome in his
profession, creative in the moral and spir-
itual realm, a lover of that trinity of
values--truth, beauty, and goodness.
(Bulletin, p. 9)

The academic offerings include:

. the Bachelor of Arts degree in
English, History, Modern Languages, Music,
Religion, and Philosophy, or Sociology--
or the Bachelor of Science degree in
Biology, Business, Chemistry, Elementary
Education, Mathematics, Physical Education,
Physics, and/or Psychology. (Bulletin, p. 46)

The college's student enrollment for the academic year

1974-75 was approximately 1300 students, 15 percent of which

were non-black. The ratio of students to faculty was approxi-

mately 17:1 (Interview with the Registrar/Director of Ad-


missions).










Criteria Relating to Community College Transfer Admissions

The following criteria were gathered by the writer by

examining College C's Bulletin, admissions brochure, transfer

admissions application, and from personal contact with the

President, the Vice-President for Academic Affairs and the

Registrar/Director of Admissions.

Published criteria.

ADMISSION . [College C] seeks to enroll
those students who have demonstrated a
sincere desire to further their intellectual
and social development. Such development
should be consistent with a quest for ex-
cellence, understanding, and a sense of
responsibility to themselves, their col-
leagues, and the community.

The Admissions Committee, therefore, gives
careful consideration to evidence of de-
sirable character and personality as well
as to ability and eagerness to achieve a
college education.

TRANSFER STUDENTS. Students who are matricu-
lating at a Junior College, and/or students
who are graduates of a Junior College are
given priority for admission as transfer
students . .

Any applicant with an acceptable average
earned at an accredited college may be
considered, provided that his previous
college furnished . a statement that
he is in good standing and eligible to
return. It is the student's responsibility
to have this statement and his transcript
sent to the Office of the Registrar.
(Bulletin, pp. 14-15)

Perceived criteria. As one might suspect from reading

the published criteria of this college, one finds the inter-

viewees to be very favorably disposed toward community college

transfer students. Moreover, the interviewees generally perceive










the criteria for transfer admissions to be slanted toward the

community college student, resulting in virtually all of the

transfer students coming from the community college. One

cannot be certain as to whether the large number of transfer

students is the result of this favorable attitude or whether

the favorable attitude follows recognition of a large number

of community college transfer students. In any case, the

interviewees agree this college is voluntarily subscribing to

the articulation agreement referred to above, as it relates

to admissions. However, in all candor it should be noted that

those interviewed feel that their college is adhering to the

articulation agreement simply by granting junior status to

transfer students who present an Associate in Arts degree.

This college feels no commitment to accept all students who

present the Associate in Arts degree, nor will it accept all

credits earned at the community college. A student may be

granted junior status, but required to backtrack and take addi-

tional credits to bring his coursework in line with the native

student who has also achieved junior status.

The Vice-President for Academic Affairs feels that the

published criteria in their entirety are merely suggestive. No

one criterion gets one accepted, and no one criterion can

preclude a student's being accepted. A "C" average or better

is perceived as being consistent with what most colleges re-

quire, but less than that does not mean denial. This is es-

pecially true if the students are willing to accept financial

assistance.











The Administration sees the community college transfer

student as a source of what could be large sums of money for

the college, but not for the reasons that one might suspect.

The college does not seek the student with plenty of money.

Instead, the college wants the student who has little or no

money and who therefore, is eligible for federal financial

assistance. Massive amounts of financial assistance are avail-

able to students whose socio-economic status qualify them.

The college's experience in the past has been that the community

colleges seem to attract students with limited resources, and

who otherwise meet federal guidelines for financial assistance.

The point is vividly illustrated with the fact that 90 percent

of the total student body at this college receive some type of

financial assistance. It comes as no surprise, therefore,

that all of the interviewees actively support a rather elaborate

recruiting program aimed at the community college transfer

student.

Criteria Relating to the Transferability of Academic Credits

The following criteria were gathered by the writer by

examining College C's Bulletin, admissions brochure, and from

personal contact with the President, the Vice-President for

Academic Affairs, and the Registrar/Director of Admissions.

Published criteria.

Credit will be accepted only for courses
equivalent to those offered at . .
[College C] with a grade of "C" or better.

No transfer student will be given a de-
gree . with less than one year's











residence work at the College. Of this
minimum amount of work, the last semester
must be taken at the College. At least
thirty percent of the student's work in
his major field must be completed at .
[College C].

The amount of transferable course credit
is determined by the Registrar after the
candidate is selected. Transfer grades
are not included in computing a student's
average at . [College C]. (Bulletin,
p. 15)

Students seeking transfer of credit earned
at another institution ten or more years
prior to the date such transfer is requested
will be required to demonstrate proficiency
in the courses in question through an ex-
amination and/or, performance before the
credit will be approved. (Bulletin, p. 45)

EXTENSION AND CORRESPONDENCE . [College
C] does not offer extension or correspondence
work, but will consider, for transfer, credit
from approved institutions up to fifteen
semester hours of extension and/or corres-
pondence credits. Major area examinations
covering such transferred credit may be re-
qui red. .

CREDIT BY EXAMINATION. General examination
of the College-Level Examination Program
sponsored by College Entrance Examination
Board may be taken by students to measure
their comparative competencies in five
general education areas. Credit by ex-
amination is restricted as follows:

I. Not more than six semester hours
of credit may be earned in any
one area.

2. Not more than thirty semester
hours of credit may be earned
by examination.

3. Transfer credits based on CLEP
scores will be accepted if the
scores meet . standards.










4. The fee schedule for credit by
examination is one-half of the
fee per semester hour of credit
for special students. (Bulletin, p. 10)

Perceived criteria. The Administration here agrees that

a grade of "C" or better is required in a course taken at

another college, for it to transfer to this college. Again,

this is not absolute, as only liberal arts courses are accepted

for transfer. Vocational and technical courses do not transfer

even with a grade of "C" or better. In spite of this tough

stance on non-academic courses, this college is seriously con-

sidering the feasibility of granting transfer credit for life

experiences. When questioned about the apparent inconcistency

of granting transfer credit for life experiences but not for

vocational and technical courses, the Registrar/Director of

Admissions assured the writer that the college will either

accept all non-academic coursework or none.

The acceptance of comprehensive courses completed at a

community college is not perceived as placing the transfer

student in any particular disadvantage, because all students

at this college are required to complete their general course

during their freshman and sophomore years. Then, at the be-

ginning of their junior year, all students declare their major

and complete specialized courses in their major field during

their junior and senior years.

Criteria Relating to Recognition of Community College
Transfer Parallel Programs

The writer found no published criteria relating to

community college transfer parallel programs in any of the










documents from this college. The following criteria were

gathered by the writer exclusively from personal contact with

the President, the Vice-President for Academic Affairs, and

the Registrar/Director of Admissions. These interviews did

provide some insight, through the perceptions of the inter-

viewees, as to what the position of the college might be re-

garding community college transfer parallel programs.

Moreover, it should be noted that while the following

criteria do not represent the official published position of

the college, one should not discount the probability that the

perceptions of those interviewed do in reality represent, ex

cathedra, the official position of the college because the

obvious influence the President, the Vice-President for Academic

Affairs, and the Registrar/Director of Admissions have on the

policy of the college.

Perceived criteria. The Administration at this college

favors recognition of community college transfer parallel

programs, in spite of the absence of any formal statement to

that effect. In fact, it is in the process of negotiating with

a community college nearby to formalize what has been informal

understandings between the college and that community college.

The college does not want to forego its independence, but is

quite willing to compromise if it will be mutually beneficial.

The college has for some time been accepting the transfer

parallel programs from several community colleges, including

the one with which it is negotiating. These community colleges










have gained the confidence of this college in terms of the

integrity of their transfer parallel programs by tailoring

their programs to correspond to this college's programs.

This college's input into the decisions which determine the

content of the parallel programs is limited and informal at

best. But as one official put it, the content of the parallel

programs would not be significantly different if the college's

input were larger and more formal. And in the final analysis,

the college is not officially obligated anyway.


Coll ege D

Description of the College

This college is a residential co-educational college of

liberal arts and sciences. The college was founded in 1885

under the auspices of the Methodist Church, and still main-

tains that relationship.

. [College D's] basic objectives are
to instill in young men and women a belief
in God as a foundation for meaningful and
productive lives, and a command of the
liberal arts so the individual may gain
a greater understanding of the many facets
of our civilization. This college firmly
believes it has a responsibility to pro-
vide inspiration and direction to all its
students so they may make a maximum con-
tribution to church, home and society.
(Bulletin, p. 3)

The college is located in central Florida in a residential

and trade center of approximately 50,000. Its enrollment stands

at 1400 students, it enjoys a student/teacher ration of 17:1

providing a close personal relationship between faculty and

students, (Bulletin, p. 3).











The Academic Program . is based on
the philosophy that the liberal arts
best equips the student for the world
of today. In keeping with this basic
philosophy, students take certain
basic courses in each of the three
divisions--the Humanities, the Social
Sciences, and the Natural Sciences.
Students select a major concentration
in a single discipline. Building upon
these courses, the student develops an
academic program to prepare him for his
role in life.

. [College D] is nationally accredited
by the Southern Association of Colleges and
Schools. The College has been accredited
by this Association since 1935, and is also
fully accredited by the University Senate
of the United Methodist Church, the Board
of Regents of the University of the State
of New York, and by the State of Florida
for certification of teachers. It is a
member of the American Council on Education,
the Association of American Colleges, the
Florida Association of Colleges and Uni-
versities, the Independent Colleges and
Universities of Florida, and is approved
by the American Association of University,
Women.

Graduates are accepted by the leading
American colleges and universities as
candidates for advanced degrees. More
than 2,200 of Florida's public school
teachers and more than 200 ministers of
the Florida Methodist Conference attend-
ed . [College D]. (Bulletin, p. 4)

Criteria Relating to Community College Transfer Admissions

The following criteria were gathered by the writer by

examining College D's Bulletin, transfer admissions informa-

tion, transfer admissions application, and from personal

contact with the President, the Vice-President for Academic

Affairs, and the Registrar/Director of Admissions.







66



Published criteria.

TRANSFER STUDENTS. If now is the time
for you to make the move to . from
some other institution we say "Great!
We'd love to have you apply." Have an
official transcript sent to us from
each of the institutions you have
attended, high school through college.
The college transcripts should indi-
cate that you could return if you want
to. We'll compare your courses with
those offered here and transfer, from
an accredited college, those which fit
our curriculum. Those good grades you
have earned will come in with you (if
you have any D's or F's, of course they
come too). If you have earned an Asso-
ciate in Arts degree at an accredited
college, you can come in with Junior
standing. You should try to take courses
comparable to our core so you do not
have to pick these up after you get here.
We will be glad to give you guidance as
to the best courses to take in prepara-
tion for transfer.

If you graduate from high school more
than three years ago and have attended
college, ask two college teachers to
recommend you . (Bulletin, pp. 30-31)

Perceived criteria. According to the Vice-President for

Academic Affairs a student for transfer to this college from

a community college does not in fact have to possess a "C"

average or better. He does not even have to be in good stand-

ing and eligible to return to his previous college. For this

college has a second chance policy which permits a student to

transfer in, if he will simply wait for several academic terms

to elapse subsequent to his running afoul with his previous


coll ege.










Secondary school records are required for transfer students

in the published criteria. But interestingly enough, this

practice is judged to be worthless in the opinion of one source

on the grounds that successful completion of an Associate of

Arts degree program is surely evidence enough of the student's

ability and fitness for college work. Furthermore, even when

submitting a complete transcript of his secondary school records,

this college does not require that any test scores be included,

such as the Florida Twelfth Grade Placement Test, the Scholastic

Aptitude Test (SAT), or the American College Testing (ACT)

scores. SAT and ACT scores are required for native students

only.

One distinctly gets the impression that a student's

previous college need not have been accredited, unless he had

received the Associate of Arts degree and was seeking junior

standing. The Registrar/Director of Admissions feels that re-

quiring the Associate of Arts degree for junior standing is a

farce in as much as one's transcripts of credits is still sub-

ject to dissection by the Registrar. Therefore, rendering

one's junior standing as academic.

Generally, most perceive the published criteria to be

necessarily general and uncommitting. Most further agree that

the college needs students and feel that the Director of Ad-

missions should have maximum latitude in exercising discretion

in passing on the success potential of a transfer student.






68



Criteria Relating to the Transferability of Academic Credits

The following criteria were gathered by the writer by

examining College D's Bulletin, transfer admissions information,

transfer admissions application, and evaluation of credits

for a community college transfer student, and from personal

contact with the President, the Vice-President for Academic

Affairs, and the Registrar/Director of Admissions.

Published criteria.

TRANSFER CREDIT. Credit for each course
successfully completed at another accredited
institution will be determined on a basis
of its correlation to . [College D's]
curriculum.

A student who is admitted from an institu-
tion that is not fully accredited may have
credits accepted provisionally and must
make a "C" average during the first year of
work. . to validate the provisional credits.
Failure to make a "C" average will result in
loss of provisional credit.

The student who enters with the Associate
of Arts degree from an accredited college
will be given full Junior Class standing.
All course grades and quality points
counted toward his A.A. degree will trans-
fer and become a part of . [College
D's] record . [College D's] require-
ments for graduation must be met includ-
ing any core courses not taken or passed
at the two-year college. Not more than
64 hours completed at the two-year college
will be accepted.

For a transfer student who has not earned
an Associate in Arts degree but who has
been enrolled as a full-time degree-seeking
student for at least one regular academic
term at another accredited college, all
grades and quality points (if any earned)
will transfer, provided the course is
acceptable, and become a part of the
student's average at . [College D].
For a student whose credits are accepted










provisionally from an unaccredited college,
the policy will be effective when credits
are validated by a full year's work at
[College D] with a "C" (2.00) average.
One whose work is ten or more years old
may appeal for a waiver from transfer of
previous grades after completing a full
year's work at . [College D] with a
"C" (2.00) average.

Official evaluation of transfer credits
will be made for (1) part-time degree
students who have completed a minimum
of six semester hours at . [College
D] or (2) full-time students who have
been accepted by the College.

For the convenience of graduate schools
and employees, the College determines
the rank of students within each grad-
uating class. Students completing 64
semester hours at . [College D]
will be included in this ranking.

VALIDATION OF CREDITS. An applicant
for admission or re-admission must
validate college credits ten years old
or older. To validate these credits, a
student must obtain a 2.00 average during
the first two semesters of full-time
attendance at . [College D] or, in
the case of a part-time student, in the
first twenty-four semester hours attempt-
ed which must be taken within two aca-
demic years.

MILITARY CREDITS . [College D] allows
military personnel credit toward a degree
for several categories of validated ser-
vice experience, including military science,
health and physical education, service
schools, USAFI courses by correspondence,
and acceptable CLEP test scores. The
courses must correlate with the . .
[College D] curriculum and the student's
program.

CORRESPONDENCE AND EXTENSION . [College
D] does not offer any correspondence or ex-
tension work. A student may be enrolled
at another college for correspondence or
extension work while enrolled at . .










[College D] only with the written approval
of the Office of Academic Affairs. All
extension or correspondence work in pro-
gress at the time of the student's first
registration must be reported to the Office
of Academic Affairs. A maximum of 15 hours
in correspondence and/or extension work may
be applied toward degree credit.

SUMMER SCHOOL AT OTHER COLLEGES . .
[College D] students who wish to take courses
during the summer at other colleges including
community colleges and have three courses
transferred back to . [College D] must
have the written approval of the Office of
Academic Affairs prior to the closing of
the spring semester. Credit hours only
are transferrable from other institutions,
and no credit will be granted for grades
below C. (Bulletin, pp. 8-9)

Perceived criteria. The Administration unanimously per-

ceives that this college is in virtual accord with the

articulation agreement approved in 1971 between Florida's

community colleges and the state university system. It

suggests that perhaps the college has gone one step further

than the public colleges, as it accepts all courses taken as

part of an Associate of Arts degree program. Like the public

colleges, it awards junior status to an Associate of Arts degree

holder. But unlike the public colleges, this college transfers

all quality points of all courses attempted at all previous

colleges. According to the Vice-President for Academic Affairs,

this arrangement can work a decided advantage for or a dis-

advantage against transfer students, depending on their accumu-

lated total of quality points earned since first beginning

college work.











However, this policy, as perceived by the Administrators,

simply permits the acceptance of all prior college course

work which is part of an Associate of Arts degree program.

College coursework completed at another college which is not

part of an Associate of Arts degree program is not automatic-

ally transferable. First, each course accepted as transferable

must have a similar corresponding course in this college's

curriculum. Then, and only then, will it be transferred with

any grade and all quality points.

This college also accepts for transfer, credits which are

earned through the College Level Examination Program (CLEP)

of the College Entrance Examination Board.

Criteria Relating to Recognition of Community College
Transfer Parallel Programs

As the writer found no published criteria relating to

community college transfer parallel programs in any of the

documents from this college, the following criteria were

gathered by the writer exclusively from personal contact with

the President, the Vice-President for Academic Affairs, the

Registrar/Director of Admissions. These interviews did provide

some insight through the perceptions of the interviewees as to

what the position of the college might be regarding community

college transfer parallel programs.

Moreover, it should be noted that while the following

criteria do not represent the official published position of

the college, one should not discount the probability that the

perceptions of those interviewed do in reality represent, ex











cathedra, the official position of the college because of the

obvious influence the President, the Vice-President for

Academic Affairs, the Registrar/Director of Admissions have

on the policy of the college.

Perceived criteria. This college is also favorably dis-

posed toward the parallel programs. No formal understandings

exist with any community colleges, but students who present

an Associate of Arts degree from a community college can expect

his credits from the community college to be accepted intact

Moreover, he will be permitted to immediately declare his major

and pursue courses in his chosen field.

Officials here express a real interest in a dialog with

the community colleges which might lead to more formal agree-

ments and official recognition of their parallel programs.

This attitude is especially true with respect to one community

college which furnishes the majority of community college

transfers to this college. The college participates exten-

sively in pre-counseling students enrolled in the parallel

program at the community college referred to above. This pre-

counseling is especially helpful in the humanities.

Probably the most important reason for this cooperation,

is that this college does not view the purposes oF the community

college as counter to its own. Instead, it views the parallel

programs as complementing its own upper division programs.

This chapter has addressed the questions raised in the

statement of the problem as they relate to Colleges A, B, C,






73



and D. The next chapter will look at the same questions

raised in the statement of the problem regarding Colleges

E, F, and G.














CHAPTER IV


DATA FROM COLLEGES E, F, AND G


College E

Description of the College

Located in the Tampa Bay area, the college's thirteen

silver minarets distinguish the school as "a landmark of

learning, a Mecca for educational pilgrimages" in an other-

wise urban residential and business community of more than

300,000.

The main building now known as Henry B.
Plant Hall, was constructed in 1890 as
the luxurious Tampa Bay Hotel by rail-
road magnate Henry B. Plant who spent
$3,500,000 to build one of the most lavish
resort hotels of the era. Frequently ac-
claimed the finest example of Moorish ar-
chitecture in the nation, its minarets
represent the 13 months of the Moslem
year. The five story building is 1,200
feet long and has more than 500 rooms.
Crowned heads of Europe and romantic
figures of history, such as Colonel
Theodore Roosevelt, then commander of
the Rough Riders of the Spanish-American
War, have been guests at the Old Tampa
Bay Hotel. (p. 11)

The college was founded in 1931 to accommodate local

students unable to attend college away from home. In 1960,

it was transformed from a community to a residential institu-

tion, and today it serves more than 2,200 students from 50

states and a number of foreign countries.











The college is a private institution, non-denominational,

and is chartered under the laws of the State of Florida as a

non-profit corporation. Its governance is by a self-perpetuating

Board of Trustees elected from among leaders in business, in-

dustry, and the professors.

Men and women have access to the Bachelor's degree in

twenty-seven fields and two Master's programs which are fully

accredited:

. [College E] is fully accredited by
the Southern Association of Colleges and
Schools and for teacher education by the
Florida State Board of Education. It holds
membership in the following organizations:

The American Council on Education
The Association of American Colleges
The Association of University Evening Colleges
The Association of Urban Universities
The Florida Academy of Sciences
The Florida Association of Colleges and
Universities
Florida Independent Colleges Foundation
The Independent Colleges and Universities
of Florida, Inc.
The National Council on Education
The Southern Association of Colleges and Schools

The University is approved by the Veterans
Administration for the education of veterans
under Public Law 634 (War Orphans). Credits
earned here are accepted by the Army, the
Navy, and the Air Force for aviation cadet
or officer cadet training. (p. 13)

Pursuing a commitment that individuals must be able

freely and responsibly to demonstrate belief in human dignity

and value the college has adopted the following educational


objectives:











1. to develop habits of disciplined
thought and creative work;

2. to gain insight and competence in
a particular field of study;

3. to secure an understanding of the
relationship of the various branches
of knowledge;

4. to create a motivation to continue
constructive learning;

5. to prepare the student to apply the
skills, attitudes, experience and
knowledge thus gained to the attain-
ment of professional and other per-
sonal goals; and

6. to become an understanding and con-
structive member of society. (p. 10)

Criteria Relating to Community College Transfer Admissions

The following criteria were gathered by the writer by

examining College E's Bulletin, transfer admissions brochure,

transfer admissions application, and from personal contact with

the Director of Admissions and the Assistant Director of Ad-

missions.

Published criteria.

TRANSFER STUDENTS (UNDERGRADUATE)
Applicants who wish to transfer . .
must request that a complete transcript
of credits from each institution pre-
viously attended (even though credit
may not have been earned) be sent di-
rectly to the Director of Admissions .
Personnel Dean's Report of the last
college attended must also be filed.
Applications cannot be processed until
all of these documents have been received
S. A high school transcript will be
required only when specifically requested.

The applicant must be eligible to re-enter
the institution last attended. A '"C"
average or better is normally required,










but for mature students who do not
possess a "C" average, admission may be
considered if the experience, maturity,
and age of the applicant indicates the
ability to perform in a satisfactory
manner. (pp. 36-37)

Perceived criteria. The Director of Admissions at this

college perceives the published criterion of a "C" average or

better to be suggestive only and strongly supports the college's

policy which permits him to deviate when he deems it appro-

priate. He does insist that whatever the student's average,

it must be based on satisfactory completion of at least 12

semester hours of college work if the students are to be

processed as a transfer student. Otherwise, the student's

application will be treated as a freshman application with a

secondary school transcript being required.

The college's Personnel Dean's Report which is published

as required is in fact no longer being required. According

to the Director of Admissions, recent developments regarding

the confidentiality of student records has precluded candid

remarks by a student's previous colleges as to his suitability

for college work and his success potential.

The college's community college transfer enrollment is

not particularly large. However, it has captured the attention

of those interviewed and is perceived as worthy of their time

and financial investment. Accordingly, the college has a

rather dynamic recruiting program underway, seeking to attract

the attention of community college transfer students from across

the country.










The Assistant Director of Admissions feels that an

Associate of Arts degree from any regionally accredited

community college will satisfy the college's core requirements.

Therefore, he supports the college's policy of granting junior

status to a student with an Associate of Arts degree. However,

he feels the college has the obligation to screen a transfer

student's transcript and require further courses in the lower-

level, if needed, in spite of the presence of an Associate of

Arts degree.

Criteria Relating to the Transferability of Academic Credits

The following criteria were gathered by the writer by

examining College E's Bulletin, transfer admissions informa-

tion, an evaluation of credits for a community college transfer

student, and from personal contact with the Director of Ad-

missions and the Assistant Director of Admissions.

Published criteria.

TRANSFER CREDIT ACCEPTANCE POLICY
. [College E] recognizes that
today large numbers of students
transfer from one institution to
another and believes that such
students should not incur undue
hardships in the matter of trans-
ferring credit. It is also be-
lieved that certain collegiate
credit should be awarded for
demonstrated knowledge not obtained
directly in the college classroom.

The University therefore has estab-
lished a liberal transfer credit
acceptance policy.

A student who has paid the applica-
tion fee may request an evaluation
sheet listing all credit granted in
transfer. Such an evaluation sheet











may be secured prior to the first
semester of enrollment only if all
transcripts, score reports, and other
necessary documents have been received
by the University at least 60 days
prior to registration. (p. 35)

TRANSFER CREDIT EVALUATION POLICY.
For qualified undergraduate students,
. . [College E] accepts from other
regionally accredited institutions
credit which was earned with grades
of "D" or better. For graduate students
only transfer credit earned with grades of
"B" or better will be considered. The
acceptance of such credit, however, is
normally limited to that of a liberal
arts nature. Credit earned in vocational,
technical, or terminal type courses is
not acceptable, unless the equivalents
of such courses are offered at . .
[College El. Credit which is deemed
liberal arts is normally accepted, even if
such credit were earned in courses not
specifically offered at . [College El.

Credit may be granted for work taken at
some institutions which are not fully
accredited by regional accrediting asso-
ciations. Such credit, however, is granted
only on a provisional basis, which means
that the undergraduate student must attain
at least a "C" average ("B" average for
graduate students) on at least 12 semester
hours of work during his first semester at
the University in order to validate the
transfer credit. If this condition is not
met, such transfer credit is invalidated
and removed from the student's record.

Not more than a total of 64 semester hours
will be allowed for courses earned at a
junior or community college. Also, when
a student has a total of 64 or more semester
hours toward a . [College E] degree,
whether earned at . [College E] or else-
where, any subsequent work taken at a junior
college will be ignored and will not be
counted as a transfer credit. Further, such
junior college work will have no effect upon
the validity of any transfer or resident
credit heretofore granted to the student by
. . [College El.











No credit can be given for work taken
twenty-five years ago, or longer, with-
out subsequent successful academic ex-
per i ences.

A maximum of 60 semester hours of non-
resident credit may be granted to under-
graduate students. Non-resident credit
is defined as a-i academic credit earned
through means other than through regular
classroom courses . No credit is
granted for Extension Course Institute
(EC ) courses or other military educa-
tional sources not listed in the 1968
edition of the Guide to the Evaluation
of Educational Experiences published by
the American Council on Education.

Any student who has completed at least
one year of active military service may
receive two semester hours credit in
Health Education . .

Academic credit up to a total of 30
semester hours may be granted for the
completion of correspondence courses
taken through the correspondence divisions
or regionally accredited colleges or uni-
versities. The amount of credit allowed
for each course will be the amount granted
by the correspondence institution.

Students may receive academic credit up to
a total of 30 semester hours for the success-
ful completion of USAFI group study or corres-
pondence courses with end-of-course tests or
USAFI subject Standardized Tests.

The amount of credit granted will be that
recommended by the American Council on Edu-
cation shown in the catalog of the United
States Armed Forces Institute. Credit may
be granted for the USAFI Subject Standard-
ized Tests only if a percentile rank of 20
or better has been achieved. Credit may be
granted only for those USAF1 end-of-course
tests whose results are reported as (D),
"With Distinction," or (S), "Satisfactory."










Students may receive academic credit, up to
a total of 30 semester hours, for the success-
ful completion of courses taken at Military
Service Schools. The amounts of credit granted
will be that recommended by the American Council
on Education in its "Guide to the Evaluation of
Educational Experiences in the Armed Forces,"
1968 edition. No credit is granted for train-
ing programs designated as "technical and voca-
tional in nature." Credit recommendations on
service school training which cannot be identi-
fied in the guide may be obtained by writing
the Commission on Accreditation of Service Ex-
periences. In these cases, the student should
complete a Request for Evaluation Form which
should be sent to the commission.

Extension credit may be earned in locations
designated as Extension Centers or in any other
off-campus location where courses not carrying
"residence credit" are conducted by an institu-
tion. Total extension courses credit is limited
to 30 semester hours.

Students Mnay receive academic credit up to
a total of 30 semester hours for satisfactory
results on any or all of the College Level
Examination Program general examination (CLEP)
administered either through the College En-
trance Examination Board or through USAF1.
(pp. 70-72)

Perceived criteria. The Director of Admissions at this

college feels that it has satisfactorily come to grips with the

question of whether grades of "D" should transfer. It is felt

that the native student should not have the benefit of credits

earned with "D" grades while the transfer student is denied

the same.

The policy regarding the transfer of academic credits is

generally perceived as a liberal policy, and enjoys the support

of those interviewed. However, unlike another college pre-

viously mentioned, this college is not prepared to accept the

transfer of quality points which accumulated at another college.










In spite of the fact that transfer students who enter

with a Associate of Arts degree are granted junior standing,

providing their degree programs include a minimum of 56 semester

hours, the Registrar has the authority to require additional

courses if in his opinion the student's backgrounds are de-

ficient. Further, an Associate of Arts degree holder is still

unable to transfer courses taken at a community college which

are vocational, technical, terminal, remedial, or self-

en r i chment.

Criteria Relating to Recognition of Community College
Transfer Parallel Programs

The following criteria were gathered by the writer by

examining College E's Bulletin, transfer information, an

evaluation of credits for a community college transfer student,

and from personal contact with the Director of Admissions and

the Assistant Director of Admissions.

Published criteria.

A student qualified for admission who
possesses an Associate of Arts degree
earned in the transfer preparatory pro-
gram of a regionally accredited junior
or community college may enter the Uni-
versity with full junior status, pro-
viding at least 56 semester hours had
been earned toward the Associate Degree.
In addition, such students will not nor-
mally be required to take any further
courses toward the University's lower-
level general education requirements,
unless the student's background in
these areas is deemed insufficient.
(P. 37)

The University has Direct Transfer Agreements with a

number of junior and community colleges throughout the country.







83



College E provides a list as of November 1, 1973 (pp. 73-74):


Alexander City State Junior College
Bergen Community College
Brevard College
Bronx Community College
Catonsville Community College
Caxenovia College
Community College of Baltimore
Community College of Delaware County
Community College of Philadelphia
Corning Community College
County College of Morris
Essex Community College
Essex County College
Florida Junior College
Fulton-Montgomery Community College
Gulf Coast Community College
Herkimer County Community College
Junior College of Albany
Marymount College of Virginia
Metropolitan State Junior College
Montgomery College (Rockville)
Montgomery College (Takoma Park)
Montgomery County Community College
Morristown College
Nassau Community College
Northwestern Connecticut Community College
Ocean County College
Pierce Junior College
Rhode Island Junior College
Schenectedy County Community College
Sullivan County Community College
Ulster County Community College
Union College
Wesley College
Westchester Community College


Alabama
New Jersey
North Carolina
New York
Maryland
New York
Maryland
Delaware
Pennsylvania
New York
New Jersey
Maryland
New Jersey
Florida
New York
Florida
New York
New York
Vi rg in i'a
Minnesota
Maryland
Maryland
Pennsylvania
Tennessee
New York
Connecticut
New Jersey
Pennsylvania
Rhode Island
New York
New York
New York
New Jersey
Delaware
New York


Perceived criteria. In spite of a published interest, the

Director of Admissions and the Assistant Director of Admissions


are less than enthusiastic.


They express interest in recog-


nizing community college parallel programs but have several

reservations. First, the vast majority of community college

transfer students are from the Northeast and Midwest parts of


This distance makes it very difficult to motivate


the country.










parallel programs in terms of quality control. Second, they

are not so eager to commit themselves in advance, regarding

future transfer applicants. They still cling to the notion

that each applicant should be judged on the basis of his own

circumstances and not on the basis of a formal agreement

which would preclude discretion. And third, they are not

ready to accept the integrity of the community colleges'

academic programs. They want the right to disallow certain

courses or require additional courses if they deem this action

appropriate, although it may be made on partly subjective

judgement.

College F

Description of the College

Founded in 1958 by Dr. Jerome P. Kemper, the college was

granted a charter (as Brevard Engineering College) as a non-

profit corporation by the State of Florida. The school was

established as a co-educational, independent, privately con-

trolled and supported university. The control of the uni-

versity is vested in a self-perpetuating 17-member Board of

Trustees. Members of the Board are selected on the basis of

outstanding ability, integrity and personal interest in the

development and preservation of the institution (Catalog,

1975-1976).

Current enrollment averages approximately 3,100 students

annually, including both graduate and under-graduate. About

2,500 are full-time students. The university awards Associate,










Bachelor, Master, and Ph.D. degrees in a total of 64 programs

(Catalog, 1975-1976).

In all of its programs . [College F]
believes in helping well-motivated stu-
dents to use every opportunity to learn
self-reliance in developing their skills
and knowledge to the highest individual
potential. The academic programs . .
provide a vigorous challenge to those in
quest of answers to, as yet, unsolved
questions. (Catalog, p. 29)

The college is organized into three basic units: The

School of Science and Engineering, the School of Aeronautics,

and the School of Marine and Environmental Technology. The

School of Science and Engineering is composed of eight major

departments: Biological Sciences, Electrical Engineering,

Mechanical Engineering, Management, Science, Mathematical

Sciences, Oceanography and Ocean Engineering, Physics and

Space Sciences, and Science Education. These departments offer

the undergraduate student a choice of 16 bachelor degree pro-

grams. Many of these programs extend into the Graduate School's

degree program leading to M.S. and Ph.D. degrees.

The School of Aeronautics prepares its students for

careers in the general field of commerce and transportation

with specific job qualifications in aviation. Four associate

programs and three baccalaureate programs provide a variety

of opportunities (Catalog).

The campus is located on Florida's east coast in the

shadow of the rockets at nearby Kennedy Space Center where it

first offered science and engineering courses to specialists

who were flocking to the area to become a part of the nation's

space effort.










The college is accredited by the Southern Association

of Colleges and Schools. It is a member of the Florida

Association of Colleges and Universities, the Independent

Colleges and Universities of Florida, the American Council

on Education, and the College Entrance Examination Board.

The undergraduate curriculum in Electrical Engineering, the

graduate program in Electrical Engineering and the under-

graduate program in Mechanical Engineering are accredited

by the Engineers' Council for Professional Development.

Selected courses are approved by the State of Florida, Depart-

ment of Education, for credit toward recency-of-credit ex-

tension, reissuance, or reinstatement of certificates. And

in addition, the college is approved by the State of Florida

Department of Education for Teacher Education in Science at

the bachelor's and master's degree level in the areas of

junior high school science, biology, chemistry and physics

(Catalog).

The purpose of the college as adopted by the Board of

Trustees reads as follows:

The purpose . shall be to provide
educational and research programs of
distinction in the physical and life
sciences, engineering and the engineer-
ing sciences, management and technology . .
and to provide specialized courses, ser-
vices and seminars related to those programs.
(Catalog, p. 1)

Criteria Relating to Community College Transfer Admissions

The following criteria were gathered by the writer by

examining College F's Catalog, transfer admissions informa-

tion, transfer admissions application, and from personal










contact with the Vice-President for Academic Affairs and the

Dean of Admissions.

Published criteria.

Transfer students should request that
copies of their high school transcripts,
SAT scores, and transcripts of all pre-
vious college work be sent directly to
the Dean of Admissions . .

A minimum of 45 quarter hours, however,
must be taken at . [College F] in
the appropriate program to satisfy any of
the undergraduate degree requirements.
(Catalog, pp. 40-41)

Perceived criteria. The Dean of Admissions feels that

his role is not to deny a community college transfer student's

application, but rather to examine diagnostically his trans-

cripts and test scores and suggest alternatives, all of which

included admission to the college. Therefore, all students

are accepted. Perhaps not into the degree program for which

they apply, but in a program deemed more appropriate by the

Dean of Admissions.

A "C" average or better is perceived as commendable, but

not necessary. Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT) scores are

required, but according to the Dean of Admissions are not

used as a factor in acceptance of a student. Instead, they

are used to determine the proper program to be suggested to

the student. American College Testing (ACT) scores are not

perceived as being especially useful.

The writer learned that good standing at one's previous

college with eligibility to return is not perceived to be

important. The student's past record is not perceived as the










only predictor of success potential,

In spite of what appears to be a very favorable atti-

tude toward the community college transfer students, the

college engages in no recruiting of community college students.

And the Vice-President for Academic Affairs was careful to

have the writer understand that he believes most community

college academic programs are operating miserably below par.

This is consistent with and might explain why a community

college transfer student's past academic record is not per-

ceived as having any particular significance in terms of being

accepted for admission at this college.

It is also interesting to note that in spite of what

appears to be a favorable attitude toward the community

college transfer student, the transfer student enrollment at

this college is relatively very small.

Criteria Relating to the Transferability of Academic Credits

The following criteria were gathered by the writer by

examining College F's Catalog, transfer admissions information,

and evaluation of credits for a community college transfer

student, and from personal contact with the Vice-President for

Academic Affairs and the Dean of Admissions.

Published criteria.

CREDIT TRANSFER. All accredited colleges
and universities accept credits earned at
. [College F] on the same basis as any
other accredited school. Conversely .
[College F] will consider transfer of
credits from other accredited schools.










Flight credit is transferable subject to
Federal Avaiation Admission rules for
transferability between schools.

Credit for work completed with a grade of
"C" or above at another accredited insti-
tution may be granted if on official trans-
cript is presented and if it is determined
that the work is equivalent to that given
at . [College F] in courses content
and hours. In doubtful cases credit may
be granted by written examination.

CREDIT BY EXAMINATION. Students . .
may obtain university credit for specific
courses through equivalency examination. .
Degree credit will be awarded for those
courses successfully completed by the
examination. No grade will be assigned
to equivalency examination credits.

COLLEGE LEVEL EXAMINATION PROGRAM. .
[College F] grants academic credit for
examination taken under the CLEP program
provided the score obtained is above the
50th percentile (60th percentile for
English) on the National Sophomore CLEP
norms.

ADVANCEMENT PLACEMENT PROGRAM (A.P.)
Students who have participated in the
A.P. in high school and received satis-
factory scores on the national examination
will receive college credit in each of
the appropriate subject areas previously
taken. No grade will be assigned to
these credits.

ADVANCED STANDING. All requests for
advance standing including credit by
examination must be submitted to the
Vice-President for Student Affairs not
later than 45 days after initial regis-
tration. (Catalog, pp. 40-41)

Perceived criteria. The officials at this college are

firm in their support of the college's policy not to transfer

courses earned with a grade of "D". Likewise, they are dis-

mayed that some colleges feel it appropriate to transfer










quality points that students accumulate elsewhere. However,

this college offers an unusually large number of technical

courses, and therefore, will transfer technical courses taken

elsewhere as being equivalent. In fact, while liberal arts

courses will transfer, it is really the technical courses

that attract this college's attention.

An Associate of Arts degree means very little if anything,

and certainly does not preclude a dissection of one's trans-

cript and possible additional course work if the student's

background is deemed insufficient. An Associate of Arts

degree is perceived as a handicap because it means that the

holder has completed approximately 60 semester hours of liberal

arts courses and this college only requires a total of 21

quarter hours during the entire four years of degree program.

This amounts to only 14 semester hours of liberal arts in a

four-year program.

Criteria Relating to Recognition of Community College
Transfer Parallel Programs

As the writer found no published criteria relating to

cobilmunity college transfer parallel programs in any of the

documents from the college, the following criteria were

gathered by the writer exclusively from personal contact with

the Vice-President for Academic Affairs and the Dean of

Admissions. These interviews do provide some insight, through

the perceptions of the interviewees, as to what the position

olI the college miight be regarding community college transfer

parallel programs.










Moreover, it should be noted that while the following

criteria do not represent the official published position of

the college, one should not discount the probability that the

perceptions of those interviewed do in reality represent, ex

cathedra, the official position of the college because of the

obvious influence the Vice-President for Academic Affairs

and the Dean of Admissions have on the policy of the college.

Perceived criteria. The officials interviewed at this

college are by far the most negative in their recognition of

parallel programs at the community college. They not only do

not recognize any parallel programs, but cannot imagine any

circumstance under which they might. In the first place,

according to the Vice-President for Academic Affairs, the

community colleges are populated with former secondary school

teachers looking for more money and less teaching hours. And

to suggest that the quality of instruction in the community

college approaches that at this college is to deceive oneself.

In the second place, community college parallel programs are

liberal arts programs and this college only requires an equiv-

alent of 14 semester hours of liberal arts in a four-year

program. Therefore, to suggest that a community college could

parallel the technical nature of this community college is

again to deceive oneself. And finally, this college perceives

that one of its greatest assets is its independence and its

right to use its discretion in individual situations. Accord-

ingly, it is very much opposed to formal restrictions which

might limit its alternatives in any given situation.










College G

Description of the College

A student enrollment approaching 20,000 obviously makes

this the largest of the colleges participating in the study.

Its main campus is located in extreme south Florida on a 260

acre tract originally donated to the college when it was

founded in 1925 by a group of citizens who felt that an in-

stitution of higher learning was a major need for the develop-

ment of the then relatively new community. They felt also

that the institution might take advantage of unique oppor-

tunities offered by the area to develop inter-American studies.

In addition, its location was conducive to teaching and research

programs in the scientific and technical problems of the tropics

(Bulletin).

The current statement of objectives still reflects this

thinking of the founders more than four decades ago:

The University intends to give to its
undergraduate students a broad basic
education, using the most advanced and
effective methods of instruction; and
to its graduate and professional students
curricula that open up new frontiers and
yet are broad enough in scope to offer
a second basis for the advancement of
learning. The University is particularly
interested in interdisciplinary programs
which use new points of view and new
techniques in the solution of new as well
1s age-old problems.

In subject . I [College G] places emphasis
LRpon what is appropriate to its location and
its relative youth, as exemplified by the
biological and environmental sciences and
international studies with reference es-
pecially to the Hispanic areas, and upon











programs of potential service to the
metropolitan area around it insofar as
this is appropriate to an independent
institution. (Bulletin, pp. 63-64)

The college is a private, independent, international and

nonsectarian institution. It receives an annual appropriation

for its medical school from public funds, but otherwise vir-

tually all of its support comes from individuals and groups

interested in its educational and research programs (Bulletin).

The college is fully accredited:

. [College G] holds active membership
in the Southern Association of Colleges
and Schools and is thereby accredited for
the Southern region and by reciprocity,
for the country. It is also an active
member of the Association of American
Colleges, Association of Caribbean Uni-
versities and Research Institutes,
Association of Urban Universities,
Florida Association of Colleges and
Universities, Gulf Universities Re-
search Corporation, Independent Colleges
and Universities of Florida, Inc.,
National Center for Atmospheric Research
and Oak Ridge Associated Universities.
(Bulletin, p. 63)

The college is chartered in the State of Florida as a

non-profit institution and is governed by a self-perpetuating

board of trustees.

Criteria Relating to Community College Transfer Admissions

The following criteria were gathered by the writer by

examining College G's Bulletin, transfer admissions brochure,

transfer admissions application, and from personal contact

with the President, the Vice-President for Academic Affairs,

an Assistant Director of Admissions, the Transfer Admissions

Officer, and the Registrar.




Full Text
56
but is satisfied that they offer parallel programs in the
humanities, English, and History.
College C
Description of the College
This college is located in northeast Florida amid a
surrounding metropolitan area of 100,000. The college is
unique with its combination of location and educational advan
tages. On the east coast, the college has within ready access
forests, lakes, the world's most famous beaches, unique geo
logical phenomena, ruins of the earliest Indian cultures, and
is within 100 miles of the Kennedy Space Center, Walt Disney
World, and Marineland.
The college campus and grounds consist of 40 acres of
land. The college plant is valued at over $8,000,000 (Bul 1etin,
p. ID.
The college is the result of a merger in 1923 of two
Florida institutions: an institute for boys of Jacksonville,
founded in 1872, and the Daytona Normal and Industrial Institute
for Girls of Daytona Beach, founded in 1904. Upon the merger
in 1923 the institution was taken over by the Board of Education
of the Methodist Church. The dual program of high school and
junior college work was discontinued and the entire emphasis
was placed on the two-year program. In 1941, a four-year
college degree program in liberal arts and teacher training was
instituted, and two years later in 1943 the first group of
graduates received their Bachelor of Science Degree in Elemen
tary Education.


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
The encouragement and continued support needed to
complete this study came from many individuals. The writer
extends grateful appreciation for this assistance. However,
a special word of thanks is given to Dr. James L. Wattenbarger
for his unwavering confidence and guidance as chairman of the
doctoral supervisory committee.
Recognition is due Dr. C. Arthur Sandeen for his
assistance in the completion of this study.
Appreciation is also extended to Dr. Ernest H.
St. Jacques for his helpful contributions.
The writer is indebted to Dr. Norman M. Wilensky for his
unending patience and understanding throughout this study.
Thanks are also due Dr. Michael Nunnery, without whose
help this study would never have "flown."
Finally, no words can express the gratitude and appre
ciation for the many expressions of love and patience given
to the writer by his wife, Nancy, and children, Chuck and
Todd. Their devotion and many personal sacrifices made it
possible to complete this study.


68
Criteria Relating to the Transferability of Academic Credits
The following criteria were gathered by the writer by
examining College D's Bul 1e t i n transfer admissions information,
transfer admissions application, and evaluation of credits
for a community college transfer student, and from personal
contact with the President, the Vice-President for Academic
Affairs, and the Reg istrar/Director of Admissions.
Published criteria.
TRANSFER CREDIT. Credit for each course
successfully completed at another accredited
institution will be determined on a basis
of its correlation to . [College D's]
curriculum.
A student who is admitted from an institu
tion that is not fully accredited may have
credits accepted provisionally and must
make a "C" average during the first year of
work. . to validate the provisional credits.
Failure to make a "C" average will result in
loss of provisional credit.
The student who enters with the Associate
of Arts degree from an accredited college
will be given full Junior Class standing.
All course grades and quality points
counted toward his A.A. degree will trans
fer and become a part of . [College
D's] record . [College D's] require
ments for graduation must be met includ
ing any core courses not taken or passed
at the two-year college. Not more than
64 hours completed at the two-year college
will be accepted.
For a transfer student who has not earned
an Associate in Arts degree but who has
been enrolled as a full-time degree-seeking
student for at least one regular academic
term at another accredited college, all
grades and quality points (if any earned)
will transfer, provided the course is
acceptable, and become a part of the
student's average at . [College D].
For a student whose credits are accepted


4
7. The crisis of confidence. The problems c
have collectively created a credibility gap between
education faculty members, administrators, trustees
officials with responsibility for higher education,
public at large (Carnegie Commission 1973, p. 6) .
V/hat must higher education do to deal with the
ted above
higher
pub 1ic
and the
p rob 1ems
cited above, and begin consideration of constructive change
alternatives? The Carnegie Commission (1973) suggests:
The most universally intense pressure for
change may well turn out to be the shortage
of students, as compared with places avail
able for them, particularly in the 19 8 0 1 s .
This will lead to efforts by many colleges
to enlarge their pool of potential students
by accepting more adults and more part-time
enrol lees of more community college trans
fers by four-year colleges; to greater en
deavors at competitive recruitment; and to
attempt to make each campus more attractive
by holding down tuition and by improving
programs from a student point of view. (p. 46)
The institutions now in the greatest financial
difficulty are: (a) the great research uni
versities; (b) the lesser-known private liberal
arts colleges, and (c) the large, private com
prehensive colleges and universities. Insti
tutions in the first group provide much of the
highest level skills and new ideas for American
society, the second create much of the di
versity within higher education, and the third
have been major sources of opportunity for
midd1e-and- 1ower-income students in a number
of metropolitan areas. (p. 66)
The lesser-known private liberal arts colleges and the
large, private comprehensive colleges and universities which
create much of the diversity within higher education and
provide opportunity for midd1e-and-1ower-income students are


49
applicant must submit a return-e1 i g i bi 1 i ty
statement, his transcript, a completed
secondary school record and Recommendation
Form to the . Director of Admissions.
All transfer students must submit SAT
scores of the CEE8 or ACT scores. Transfer
applicants who have taken these tests earlier
may submit scores from those tests. Courses
equivalent to those at . ., graded "C" or
better, will be accepted for credit. Appli
cants from non accredited colleges may be
accepted provisionally, and credit must be
validated by a year of full-time academic
work (32 semester hours in residence at an
accredited college, with an average of "C").
(Bul 1etin pp. 51-52)
Pe rcei ved c ri te ria. The writer has learned that the
ambiguity found in the published criteria regarding transfer
admissions is no accident. By design the college has left its
options open and has avoided a definition of acceptable academ
record. For the same reasons, it has also failed to publish
minimum acceptable SAT and/or ACT scores. The interviewees
differ in their definition of acceptable academic record. For
the same reasons, it has also failed to publish minimum accept
able SAT and/or ACT scores. One maintains that a average
is all that is necessary. Another feels that a *1B11 average is
required. And still a third accepts a "C" average, but much
prefers a student with a "B" average. This is interesting in
as much as two of these interviewees have direct input into
decisions on transfer admissions.
Basically, the community college transfer student is
viewed by the Administration as an asset with varying degrees
of commitment as to what the posture of the college ought to
be toward the transfer student. One administrator favors


CHAPTER V
ANALYSIS OF THE DATA
Published Data
Criteria Relating to Community College Transfer Admissions
Grade average. All of the participating colleges in
clude in their published criteria the requirement that each
transfer applicant present a "C" average or better, except
for Colleges B, C, and D. College B and College D do not
refer to a required average at all.
Good standing. All of the colleges participating in the
study require that each transfer applicant be in good stand
ing and eligible to return to the college last attended.
Recommendation. The transfer applicant finds that he is
asked at each of the participating colleges to furnish letters
or statements of recommendations. College E requires that
recommendations be submitted on a special form entitled "Dean
of Personnel Report."
Criteria Relating to the Transferability of Academic Credits
Liberal arts credits. Only credits earned in courses of
a liberal arts nature are acceptable at each of the colleges
participating in the study, according to the published criteria.
One important exception, is found at College F where voca
tional or technical courses are readily transferable. In
fact, in most cases they are preferred.


36
The University seeks good students ir
respective of any such classification.
New students are eligible for admission
at the beginning of the fall and winter
semesters and the spring and summer
sessions. The application for admission
and all supporting papers should be sub
mitted at least thirty days before the
date of registration for any term to allow
adequate time for processing.
TRANSFER ADMISSION. A candidate for ad
mission to [College A] . who has
attended other recognized colleges or
universities must: (l) arrange for
official transcripts to be sent directly
to the Director of Admissions from the
Registrar of each institution attended,
(2) have the dean of students (at the
last college attended as a full-time
student) or other appropriate official
at his college submit a recommendation
concerning his character and general
fitness to continue university work,
(3) if at time of application, the can
didate has not completed one full term
of academic work equal to fifteen semester
hours, also completed all requirements as
requested of a freshman candidate, and (4)
if requested, present a
stitution from which he
1 n
student must have a "C"
good standing
catalog of the
transfers. A
average or better
and eligible to
and be in
return to the institution from which he
proposes to transfer. (Catalog, pp. 8-10)
Perceived criteria. The interviewees as a group generally
feel that those criteria regarding transfer admissions which
were published, were of general nature and provided for flexi
bility in interpretation. The Director of Admissions, who has
complete authority to admit transfer students to the college,
also has complete authority to use his discretion in inter
preting the appropriate application of the published criteria.


80
No credit can be given for work taken
twenty-five years ago, or longer, with
out subsequent successful academic ex
periences.
A maximum of 60 semester hours of non
resident credit may be granted to under
graduate students. Non-resident credit
is defined as a-1 academic credit earned
through means other than through regular
classroom courses .... No credit is
granted for Extension Course Institute
(ECl) courses or other military educa
tional sources not listed in the 1968
edition of the Guide to the Evaluation
of Educational Experiences published by
the American Council on Education.
Any student who has completed at least
one year of active military service may
receive two semester hours credit in
Health Education ....
Academic credit up to a total of 30
semester hours may be granted for the
completion of correspondence courses
taken through the correspondence divisions
or regionally accredited colleges or uni
versities. The amount of credit allowed
for each course will be the amount granted
by the correspondence institution.
Students may receive academic credit up to
a total of 30 semester hours for the success
ful completion of USAF1 group study or corres
pondence courses with end-of-course tests or
USAF1 subject Standardized Tests.
The amount of credit granted will be that
recommended by the American Council on Edu
cation shown in the catalog of the United
States Armed Forces Institute. Credit may
be granted for the USAF1 Subject Standard
ized Tests only if a percentile rank of 20
or better has been achieved. Credit may be
granted only for those USAF1 end-of-course
tests whose results are reported as (D),
"With Distinction," or (S), "Satisfactory."


76
1. to develop habits of disciplined
thought and creative work;
2. to gain insight and competence in
a particular field of study;
3. to secure an understanding of the
relationship of the various branches
of knowledge;
k. to create a motivation to continue
constructive learning;
5. to prepare the student to apply the
skills, attitudes, experience and
knowledge thus gained to the attain
ment of professional and other per
sonal goaIs; and
6. to become an understanding and con
structive member of society. (p. 10)
Criteria Relating to Community College Transfer Admissions
The following criteria were gathered by the writer by
examining College E's Bul 1 e t i n, transfer admissions brochure,
transfer admissions application, and from personal contact with
the Director of Admissions and the Assistant Director of Ad
missions.
Pub 1 i shed criteria.
TRANSFER STUDENTS (UNDERGRADUATE)
Applicants who wish to transfer . .
must request that a complete transcript
of credits from each institution pre
viously attended (even though credit
may not have been earned) be sent di
rectly to the Director of Admissions . .,
Personnel Dean's Report of the last
college attended must also be filed.
Applications cannot be processed until
all of these documents have been received
. . A high school transcript will be
required only when specifically requested.
The applicant must be eligible to re-enter
the institution last attended. A nC"
average or better is normally required,


66
Published criteria.
TRANSFER STUDENTS. If now is the time
for you to make the move to . from
some other institution we say "Great!
We'd love to have you apply." Have an
official transcript sent to us from
each of the institutions you have
attended, high school through college.
The college transcripts should indi
cate that you could return if you want
to. We'll compare your courses with
those offered here and transfer, from
an accredited college, those which fit
our curriculum. Those good grades you
have earned will come in with you (if
you have any D's or F's, of course they
come too). If you have earned an Asso
ciate in Arts degree at an accredited
college, you can come in with Junior
standing. You should try to take courses
comparable to our core so you do not
have to pick these up after you get here.
We will be glad to give you guidance as
to the best courses to take in prepara
tion for transfer.
If you graduate from high school more
than three years ago and have attended
college, ask two college teachers to
recommend you . (Bul 1et i n pp. 30-31)
Perceived criteria. According to the Vice-President for
Academic Affairs a student for transfer to this college from
a community college does not in fact have to possess a "C"
average or better. He does not even have to be in good stand
ing and eligible to return to his previous college. For this
college has a second chance policy which permits a student to
transfer in, if he will simply wait for several academic terms
to elapse subsequent to his running afoul with his previous
col lege.


47
needs of the world in which they live.
We urge our students to develop their
intellectual capacities and to commit
themselves to . the search for truth
and spiritual values . For God and
Truth--is the vital principle which guides
our search. (Bul 1 e t i n p. 5)
Its faculty, highly qualified and widely recognized for
significant research and publication, is primarily committed
to the idea of a teaching university (Bul 1 e t ? n p. 22). This
is especially interesting in light of the fact that 70 percent
of its 111 faculty members hold a doctorate degree (Story, p. 2)
The college is fully accredited by the Southern Associa
tion of Colleges and Schools, the American Bar, the National
Association of Schools of Music and the National Council for
the Accreditation of Teacher Education. It is a member of the
Southern University Conference, the Association of American
Colleges, the Florida Association of Colleges and Universities,
the American Council on Education, the Association of American'
Law Schools, the American Association of Colleges for Teacher
Education and is approved by the American Association of Uni
versity Women (Bul 1e t i n p. 23).
The student enrollment totals 1900 undergraduates,
representing 1100 men and 800 women from 42 states and 14
countries. An additional 800 students are enrolled in the
College of Law, the Graduate Division and extension programs
(Story, p. 2).
The academic offerings include:
. . the Bachelor of Arts and Bachelor
of Science degrees in the College of


99
and which might be the product of inflated grading practices.
The discrimination comes into play in the area of financial
assistance. For loans, work study, scholarships, and grants
are awarded on the basis of the student's grade point average.
Loans and work study were available to students who earn a
"C" average, and scholarships and grants are available to
students who earn a "B" average. Therefore, a student can
transfer to this college with a grade point average based on
easy grading practices, and prevail over a native student whose
grade point average is based on what the interviewees see as
tough grading practices.
Another area of perceived discrimination is actually an
inhouse discrimination. Transfer students entering the School
of Education with physical education credits earned at another
college will have those credits accepted, and also the accom
panying grade points. Since most physical education grades
tend to be high grades, according to the interviewees, transfer
students entering the School of Education enter with a de
cided average in terms of competing for financial assistance
and other honors related to one's grade point average. No
other school or department will accept credits or grade points
for physical education courses earned at another college.
Because of the fact that credits earned with a grade of
D" transfer and grade points transfer, the Vice-President for
Academic Affairs feels that any course taken at an accredited
college should transfer, including technical, vocational, and
terminal. However, as he perceives it, this college's policy


BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH
Charles Nelson Turner was born July 1 A 1941, in
Panama City, Florida. He attended elementary and secondary
schools in and around Panama City, graduating from Bay
County High School in June, 1959- He attended Gulf Coast
Community College in Panama City as a freshman and
Jacksonville University as a sophomore, before transferring
to the University of Florida in June, 1965.
He received the degree of Bachelor of Arts in
Education from the University of Florida in April, 1967,
with a major in social studies education.
He received the degree of Master of Education from
the University of Florida in August, 1970, with a major
in educational administration.
He has taught and administered elementary and
secondary programs in both public and private schools.
In August, 1974, he received the degree of Specialist
in Education from the University of Florida, with a
major in higher education administration.
In the early stages of his doctoral studies, he was
awarded a graduate ass i stantsh i p with the Needs Assessment
Project of the Institute of Higher Education at the University
of Florida.
He is married to the former Nancy Allen Cassedy of
129


CHAPTER VI
SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS
Summa ry
The purpose of this study was to answer the questions
posed in the statement of the problem. What are the
published and perceived criteria of the participating
colleges relating to community college transfer, admissions?
To what extent did they differ, if any?
Criteria Relating To Community College Transfer Admissions
College A. The published criteria provides for an
average of "C" or better on all previous college work and
good standing with eligibility to return to the college
last attended.
The perceived criteria are not consistent with the
published criteria, but provide for more flexibility. They
suggest that the published criteria are ideal and are not
conclusive.
College B. The published criteria require the applicant
to present credentials from an accredited college, have an
acceptable academic record, and be in good standing with
eligibility to return to his own college.
The perceived criteria include only a "C" average or
better on all previous college work. Otherwise, the criteria
109


58
Criteria Relating to Community College Transfer Admissions
The following criteria were gathered by the writer by
examining College C's Bul 1e tin admissions brochure, transfer
admissions application, and from personal contact with the
President, the Vice-President for Academic Affairs and the
Registrar/Director of Admissions.
Published criteria.
ADMISSION . [College C] seeks to enroll
those students who have demonstrated a
sincere desire to further their intellectual
and social development. Such development
should be consistent with a quest for ex
cellence, understanding, and a sense of
responsibility to themselves, their col
leagues, and the community.
The Admissions Committee, therefore, gives
careful consideration to evidence of de
sirable character and personality as well
as to ability and eagerness to achieve a
college education.
TRANSFER STUDENTS. Students who are matricu
lating at a Junior College, and/or students
who are graduates of a Junior College are
given priority for admission as transfer
students . .
Any applicant with an acceptable average
earned at an accredited college may be
considered, provided that his previous
college furnished ... a statement that
he is in good standing and eligible to
return. It is the student's responsibility
to have this statement and his transcript
sent to the Office of the Registrar.
(Bul 1e tin, pp. 14-15)
Perceived criteria. As one might suspect from reading
the published criteria of this college, one finds the inter
viewees to be very favorably disposed toward community college
transfer students. Moreover, the interviewees generally perceive


57
In 19^7 the college received an "Au rating by the
Southern Association of Colleges and Schools and Florida
State Department of Education. In 19&0 the college was voted
into full membership in the Southern Association of Colleges
and Schools ( Bul 1e t i n p. 10).
The college has had three presidents. The current
president speaks to the purpose of the college:
. . [College C] is dedicated to some
thing more than giving people knowledge
alone. Its program includes, spiritual
ideals, character building, health in
mind and body. It believes in life-
centered activities and urges its
students to plan for themselves back
into their local communities or to carry
forward in the needy centers of the world.
In other words, each student should hi ave
a sense of mission when he is well edu
cated .
An educated person is socially responsible,
critical of his times, adventuresome in his
profession, creative in the moral and spir
itual realm, a lover of that trinity of
va 1 ues--truth, beauty, and goodness.
(Bul 1e t i n p. 9)
The academic offerings include:
. . the Bachelor of Arts degree in
English, History, Modern Languages, Music,
Religion, and Philosophy, or Sociology--
or the Bachelor of Science degree in
Biology, Business, Chemistry, Elementary
Education, Mathematics, Physical Education,
Physics, and/or Psychology. (Bui 1 e t i n p. bG)
The college's student enrollment for the academic year
197^-75 was approximately 1300 students, 15 percent of which
were non-black. The ratio of students to faculty was approxi
mately 17:1 (interview with the Reg istrar/Director of Ad
missions).


126
McFaddin, R. W. A predictive model for academic success
at the University of Florida (Doctoral dissertation,
University of Florida, 1971) -
Medford, R. L. Community college transfer student percep
tions of factors contributing to their lack of success
in the State University System of Florida (Doctoral
dissertation, University of Florida, 1974).
Med s ke r L. L.
New York:
The junio r college: progress and prospect.
McG raw-Hill, I960.
Monroe, C. R. Profile of the community college. San
Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1972.
The Muezzin. Tampa, Florida: University of Tampa, 197 4.
Nickens, J. M. The effect of attendance at Florida junior
colleges on final degree candidates in selected majors
at the Florida State University. College and University,
1 970, 4_5 ( 3 ) 281-288 .
v-
Office for Academic Affairs, Florida Board of Regents.
Research notes (11), February, 1967-
O'Toole,
the
J The reserve
wo rid of wor k.
army of the underemployed: part
Change, 1975 (a), 7.(4), 26-33; 63
1 -
O'Toole, J. The reserve army of the underemployed: part li
the role of education. Change, 1975 (b), 7_(5), 26-33 ;
60-63.
Podhajski, D. A. The impact of community college transfer
students on Central Connecticut State College (Doctoral
dissertation, Columbia University, 1974). Dissertation
Abstracts International, 1974, 7006A. (University Micro
films No. 74-11, 308~n
Proceedings of the international conference on the upper-
level university/junior college partnership. Pensacola,
Florida: University of West Florida, 1970.
Report for public community colleges, 19 7 3 ~ 7 4 Tallahassee,
Florida: Department of Education, 1975-
Richards, J. W., Jr., & Braskamp, L. A. Who goes to college.
In Two-year college and its students. Iowa City:
American College Testing Program, 1969-
Sandeen, A., & Goodale, T. Student personnel programs and the
transfer student. National Association of Student Per
sonnel Administrators Journal 1 972, 9_( 3 ) 1 7 9 2 0 0 .


ARTICULATION PRACTICES OF SELECTED PRIVATELY
SUPPORTED FOUR-YEAR COLLEGES WITHIN FLORIDA
INVOLVING TRANSFER STUDENTS FROM COMMUNITY COLLEGES
By
CHARLES NELSON TURNER
A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE COUNCIL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE
DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY
UNIVERSITY OF FLOR I DA
1975


published criteria rather carefully, but favors acceptance
of "D" grades since native students are given credit for "D's".
College B. The published criteria require transfer
students to complete requirements at this college best suited
to their classification and previous training and they must
earn at least six hours of credit in their major field at
this college.
The perceived criteria are a bit more comprehensive and
require a MC" or better except for three courses of "D" which
can be transferred under an experimental program. No vocational
or technical courses are accepted.
College C. The published criteria allow credit for
courses equivalent to those offered at this college with a
grade of "C" or better. The amount of transferable course
credit is determined by the Registrar after the student is
selected.
The perceived criteria are consistent with the published
criteria.
College D. The published criteria allow credit for any
course taken at another college provided the course is a
liberal arts course and equivalent to one at this college.
Students who present Associate of Arts degrees are permitted
to transfer vocational and technical courses if they are a
part of the degree program. All grades transfer. All
quality points transfer.
The perceived criteria are consistent with the published


9
(1972) was limited in scope to predicting the academic
success of transfer students, he found that grade point
average prior to transfer was the best predictor of academic
success.
Sistrunk (197*0 noted 36 transfer problems identified
at one or more of the six state universities surveyed for
his research project.
Medford (197*0 determined the perception of selected
community college transfer students about the contribution
of four factors to their lack of academic success. The four
factors investigated were: the community college experience;
the student's scholastic skills; the university experience;
and the student's personal circumstances.
Schafer (1970 looked at the Articulation Counseling
Offices (ACOs) in Florida, in terms of their roles, responsi
bilities, and organizational structures.
Blackvell (1975) looked at the decentralization of
the baccalaureate program into a community co1 1ege-un i versity
system to see if it created problems which were disadvantageous
to the student. He concluded that the loss in efficiency from
the decentralized baccalaureate program was .1 percent. This
relatively small loss in efficiency is attributed primarily to
Florida's articulation agreement. The expenditures for the
excess credits acquired as a result of the transfer process are
approximately $13-00 per transfer student, a nominal figure for
the advantages offered by the community colleges.


77
but for mature students who do not
possess a "C" average, admission may be
considered if the experience, maturity,
and age of the applicant indicates the
ability to perform in a satisfactory
manner. (pp. 3 637)
Perceived criteria. The Director of Admissions at this
college perceives the published criterion of a "C" average or
better to be suggestive only and strongly supports the college's
policy which permits him to deviate when he deems it appro
priate. He does insist that whatever the student's average,
it must be based on satisfactory completion of at least 12
semester hours of college work if the students are to be
processed as a transfer student. Otherwise, the student's
application will be treated as a freshman application with a
secondary school transcript being required.
The college's Personnel Dean's Report which is published
as required is in fact no longer being required. According
to the Director of Admissions, recent developments regarding
the confidentiality of student records has precluded candid
remarks by a student's previous colleges as to his suitability
for college work and his success potential.
The college's community college transfer enrollment is
not particularly large. However, it has captured the attention
of those interviewed and is perceived as worthy of their time
and financial investment. Accordingly, the college has a
rather dynamic recruiting program underway, seeking to attract
the attention of community college transfer students from across
the coun try.


APPEND I X


127
Schafer, S. H. S. The roles and responsibilities of the
articulation counseling office in Florida's public
universities (Doctoral dissertation, University of
Florida, 1 9 7 *0
Schultz, R. E. A follow-up on honor students. Junior College
Journal 1967, 3j3(*Oi 9"15-
Sistrunk, A. W. A study of transfer problems among four-year
and two-year universities in Florida (Doctoral disserta
tion, University of Florida, 197*0-
Sitzman, M. J. The prediction of academic success for trans
fer students from Florida public community colleges to
the University of Florida (Doctoral dissertation, Uni
versity of Florida, 1972).
Stetson University. Bulletin, 1 97 *< ~ 1 97 6. Deland, Florida:
Author 1 97*t
The Stetson story. Deland, Florida: Stetson University,
no date.
St. Jacques, E. H. Articulation in Florida. Paper presented
at the ACPA Convention, Cleveland, Ohio, April, 1973-
Transfer information. Deland, Florida: Stetson University,
no date.
Trivett, D. A. New developments in college transfer.
Washington, D. C.: American Association for Higher
Education, 197**-
University of Miami. Bulletin. Miami, Florida: Author,
97**
Voyles, L. V. Academic data on native and Florida junior
college transfer students entering the University of
Florida upper division, Fall 1968. From Florida
community College Inter- 1 nstitut i ona1 Research Council,
Septembe r, 1971 -
Walker, J. E. Academic performance of native and transfer
students in the upper division of the University of
Florida, 1 966- 1 96Gainesville, Florida: Office of
Academic Affairs, University of Florida, 1969-
Warlick, H. C. A study of admission policies and practices
for transfer students in Virginia (Doctoral dissertation,
University of Virginia, 1971)- Dissertation Abstracts
International 1971 *13 6 4 A (University Microfilms No.
72-7133)-


are perceived to be whatever the discretion of the Admissions
Committee might generate at any given instance.
College C. The published criteria indicate only an
acceptable average earned at an accredited college, good
standing with an eligibility to return to one's previous
college.
The perceived criteria indicate a "C" average is desired,
but less than that does not mean denial especially if the
student is willing to accept financial assistance. In addition,
community college transfer students who presented an Associate
of Arts degree are treated with priority.
College D. The published criteria call for a "C" average
and evidence of good standing at the last college attended.
A transfer student who presented an Associate of Arts degree
is admitted with junior standing.
The perceived criteria call for no average, no good
standing, and no need for one's previous college to have
been accredited unless the transfer student presents an
Associate of Arts degree and requests junior standing.
College E. The published criteria require an applicant
to be eligible to re-enter the college last attended. A
"C" average or better is normally required, but for native
students who did not possess a "C" average, admission is
considered if the experience, maturity, and age of the
applicant indicated the ability to perform in a satisfactory
manner. In addition, junior standing is granted to holders
of the Associate of Arts degree.


H5
College F. Community college transfer parallel
programs are felt to be totally incompatible with this
college's purposes. This college is primarily a
technical college, requiring only semester hours
of liberal arts courses in four years, and most
community college transfer parallel programs require
at least 56 semester hours of liberal arts courses in
just two years.
College G. This college engages in a rather
elaborate program which advises a local community
college as to which courses at the community college are
e>
acceptable for transfer, but stops short of recognizing
formally or informally, any transfer parallel programs.
This study has addressed the general topic of articu
lation by specifically looking at the criteria which
affect the transfer process of community college students
who transfer to selected private four-year colleges within
Florida. Similar studies have also addressed the general
topic of articulation by specifically looking at selected
areas of concern.
Carter (19 69) completed a study at Florida State
University which focused on reverse transfer of students
from universities to community colleges.
Walker (1969) reported on the academic performance of
native and transfer students in the upper division of the
University of Florida.


95
less than a MC" average. Normally, a transcript of one's
secondary school record is not required for transfer appli
cants .
In spite of the published criterion concerning good
standing at the applicant's last college attended, in
practice, good standing and eligibility to return to one's
previous college is not required. An applicant who has been
suspended or placed on probation for academic reasons from a
previous college need only wait six months and this college
will then ignore such suspension or probation. In fact, the
Transfer Admissions Officer feels that even the six month
waiting period is not adhered to. He says any transfer appli
cant who is not in good standing and eligible to return to his
previous college is processed by this college without regard
to the applicant's lack of good standing.
The Transfer Admissions Officer and an Assistant Director
of Admissions find no fault with the lack of published criteria
concerning test scores. They feel that an applicant should
be evaluated on the basis of completed college work and not
on test results.
The Associate of Arts degree is not perceived as being
especially helpful to a transfer applicant. Junior status
is av/arded on the basis of having achieved 5 6 transferable
hours, the Associate of Arts degree notwithstanding.
The responses of the interviewees suggest that the
college is not particularly interested in participating in


18
A survey of entering transfer students enrolling in
state universities in the fall of 1966, including the Uni
versity of Florida and Florida Atlantic University, two of
every three transfer students had previously attended a Florida
community college (Office for Academic Affairs, Florida Board
of Regents 1967) .
In 1971, 48.0 percent of the students enrolled in public
colleges within Florida attended the community college (Hale,
1971). In Florida, the 1972 fall enrollment of transfer
students was over 11,000 in the State University System (SUS).
The transfer from Florida's own twenty-eight public community
colleges numbered over 8,000 students. In 1973, the number of
Florida community college students had increased to approxi
mately 57.5 percent of the total population of students en
rolled in public colleges (Report for Public Community Colleges,
1973-74). At the University of Florida in Gainesville, the
fall 1973 enrollment showed that over 62 percent of the junior
level or third year students were transfers from either
community colleges or other four-year institutions across the
country (St. Jacques, 1973)-
Who is this community college transfer student? What
are his characteristics? Is he different from the native
university student?
Characteristics
Knoell and Medsker (1965) provide a description of the
community college transfer student based on data gathered in a
nationwide survey:


43
Therefore, a student may present credits with a grade of
"C" or better which will not transfer because they fall into
either the second or the fourth categories.
A policy change which would drop the required grade to
transfer a course from "C" or better to a "D" is seriously
being considered by the Administration at this college. The
rationale offered by the proponents is that native students
are given credits for courses in which they receive a "D",
and to require a "C" or better for transfer students is to
discriminate against the transfer students in favor of the
native student. It is further agreed that transfer students
are being penalized for their mobility. The writer found that
had the question been called during his visit, the policy change
would have prevailed.
The Vice-President for Academic Affairs feels that
students who transfer from a community college, enter this
college with a handicap. The rationale being that this
college subscribes to an academic philosophy which provides
that a student should incorporate courses in his major field
of study into each of his four years, and that the freshman and
sophomore years should not be reserved exclusively for general
courses, leaving one's major for his junior and senior years.
Since the academic transfer programs at most community colleges
are general in their scope, the students who transfer to this
college from the community college often find it difficult to
schedule all of the necessary courses in their major field dur
ing their last two years.


Chief academic officer
The individual in each of the participating colleges
who had responsibility for the total academic program in
each institution.
Chief admissions officer
The individual in each of the participating colleges
who had complete responsibility for the admission of students
in each institution.
Chief officer or designated person from each subordinate
college, department, division, or school
The individual in each subordinate college, department,
division, or school of each of the participating colleges who
had direct or indirect responsibility for determining which
students would be admitted to his respective college depart
ment, division, or school within the institution.
Commun i ty college .
Two-year post-secondary educational institutions which
offered academic university parallel programs, occupational
programs, and continuing educaton programs, which were pri
marily publicly funded and publicly controlled in Florida.
Participating colleges
The seven largest institutions of higher education
within the State of Florida, in terms of student enrollment,
which were primarily privately funded, privately controlled,
offered at least the Baccalaureate degree, and were accredited
by the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools.


provisionally from an unaccredited college,
the policy will be effective when credits
are validated by a full year's work at .
[College D] with a "C" (2.00) average.
One whose work is ten or more years old
may appeal for a waiver from transfer of
previous grades after completing a full
year's work at . [College D] with a
"C" (2.00) average.
Official evaluation of transfer credits
will be made for (l) part-time degree
students who have completed a minimum
of six semester hours at . [College
D] or (2) full-time students who have
been accepted by the College.
For the convenience of graduate schools
and employees, the College determines
the rank of students within each grad
uating class. Students completing 6k
semester hours at . [College D]
will be included in this ranking.
VALIDATION OF CREDITS. An applicant
for admission or re-admission must
validate college credits ten years old
or older. To validate these credits, a
student must obtain a 2.00 average during
the first two semesters of full-time
attendance at . [College D] or, in
the case of a part-time student, in the
first twenty-four semester hours attempt
ed which must be taken within two aca
demic years.
MILITARY CREDITS . [College D] allows
military personnel credit toward a degree
for several categories of validated ser
vice experience, including military science
health and physical educaton, service
schools, USAFI courses by correspondence,
and acceptable CLEP test scores. The
courses must correlate with the . .
[College D] curriculum and the student's
program.
CORRESPONDENCE AND EXTENSION . [College
D] does not offer any correspondence or ex
tension work. A student may be enrolled
at another college for correspondence or
extension work while enrolled at . .


94
Published criteria.
ADMISSION OF TRANSFER STUDENTS
Requirements for admissions as a
transfer student are the same for
all those transferring from accredited
institutions, including junior colleges
and four-year institutions. (Bul 1e tin,
p. 70)
Most students applying for admission
. . on the basis of previous college
work are expected to present a comulative
grade point average of 2.00 "C" or better
on a four-point system in all previous
college work. Architecture and Nursing
applicants must have at least a 2.5
average.
They must also be in good social and
academic standing at the last institution
attended. Students from two-year colleges
may transfer before completing an Associate
degree. (Transferring to . [College G]
ADMISSIONS OF CHILDREN OF ALUMNI. In
recognition of their special relationship to
the University, children of . alumni are
granted priority in admission, providing they
meet in full the subject requirements, submit
the results of the Scholastic Aptitude Test,
and meet in every respect the level of competi
tion. (Bul 1et i n p. 71)
Perceived criteria.
The published criteria at
this
college are perceived to
be flexible and consistent with the
various interpretations imposed upon
them by the interviewees.
The first interpretation is concerned with the transfer
student's prior academic grade point average. A 11C" average
or better is expected, and even a "C + is expected for such
programs as architecture and nursing because of limited space
availability. However, if the transfer student presents less
than 30 hours of completed college work and includes a trans
cript of his secondary school records, he can be accepted with


64
have gained the confidence of this college in terms of the
integrity of their transfer parallel programs by tailoring
their programs to correspond to this college's programs.
This college's input into the decisions which determine the
content of the parallel programs is limited and informal at
best. But as one official put it, the content of the parallel
programs would not be significantly different if the college's
input were larger and more formal. And in the final analysis,
the college is not officially obligated anyway.
College D
Description of the College
This college is a residential co-educationa1 college of
liberal arts and sciences. The college was founded in 1885
under the auspices of the Methodist Church, and still main
tains that relationship.
. . [College D's] basic objectives are
to instill in young men and women a belief
in God as a foundation for meaningful and
productive lives, and a command of the
liberal arts so the individual may gain
a greater understanding of the many facets
of our civilization. This college firmly
believes It has a responsibility to pro
vide inspiration and direction to all its
students so they may make a maximum con
tribution to church, home and society.
(Bul 1e t i n p. 3)
The college
is located in central Florida
in a residential
and trade center of approximately 50,000. Its enrollment stands
at 1 4 0 0 students, it enjoys a student/teacher ration of 17:1
providing a close personal relationship between faculty and
students, (Bul 1e tin p. 3).


published and perceived criteria of each college relating to
the recognition of transfer parallel programs pursued by
transfer students at the community college.
The fourth chapter presents the data from Colleges E,
F, and G. More specifically, it includes: (1) a descriptive
profile of each college; (2) the published and perceived
criteria of each college relating to the admission of communi
college transfer students; (3) the published and perceived
criteria of each college relating to the transferability of
academic credits earned at the community college; and (4)
the published and perceived criteria of each college relating
to the recognition of transfer parallel programs pursued by
transfer students at the community college.
The fifth chapter provides an analysis of the data from
each of the participating colleges.
The sixth chapter summarizes the study with conclusions
and implications.


Nickens (1970) compared all the university native students
and community college transfer students who received their
baccalaureate degree at the end of the spring and summer
quarters, 1968, at Florida State University.
Voyles (1971) compared the academic performance of
upper division community college transfer students to that
of native students at the University of Florida.
McFaddin (1971) developed a predictive model for academic
success for use by counselors in providing academic guidance
to students; the data indicated that academic success is
directly related to the college (within a university) that
the student enters and that Florida Twelfth Grade Test scores
generally have the greatest effect on the accuracy of prediction.
A similar study by Sitzman (1972) was limited in scopetto
predicting the academic success of transfer students; he
found that grade point average prior to transfer was the best
predictor of academic success.
Sistrunk (197*0 noted 36 transfer problems identified at
one or more of the six state universities surveyed for his
research project.
Medford (197**) determined the perception of selected
community college transfer students about the contribution
of four factors to their lack of academic success. The four
factors investigated were: the community college experience;
the student's scholastic skills; the university experience;
and the student's personal circumstances.


72
cathedra, the official position of the college because of the
obvious influence the President, the Vice-President for
Academic Affairs, the Reg istrar/Director of Admissions have
on the policy of the college.
Perceived criteria. This college is also favorably dis
posed toward the parallel programs. No formal understandings
exist with any community colleges, but students who present
an Associate of Arts degree from a community college can expect
his credits from the community college to be accepted intact
Moreover, he will be permitted to immediately declare his major
and pursue courses in his chosen field.
Officials here express a real interest in a dialog with
the community colleges which might lead to more formal agree
ments and official recognition of their parallel programs.
This attitude is especially true with respect to one community
college which furnishes the majority of community college
transfers to this college. The college participates exten
sively in pre-counseling students enrolled in the parallel
program at the community college referred to above. This pre
counseling is especially helpful in the humanities.
Probably the most important reason for this cooperation,
is that this college does not view the purposes of the community
college as counter to its own. Instead, it views the parallel
programs as complementing its own upper division programs.
This chapter has addressed the questions raised in the
statement of the problem as they relate to Colleges A, B, C,


A6
judgement of the community college to determine what should
appropriately constitute a transfer students first two
years of college study. He notes that the community college
is pursuing a different objective with its community based
concept and its open door policies.
College B
Description of the Col lege
This college is the oldest private institution of higher
education in Florida having been established in 1883 as an
Academy and later becoming a University in 1889. Its College
of law, Florida's first law school, was established in 1900.
It is co-educationa1 and church-re1 ated.
The campus is located in central Florida's cattle and
citrus region in a residential city of approximately 12,000.
Its 80-acre main campus contains the College of Liberal Arts,
the School of Music and the School of Business Administration.
Its College of Law is located on a separate 35-acre campus in
a large urban setting.
The President speaks of the purposes of this college:
. . a Christian university of the highest
possible standards of academic excellence,
one that encourages free and honest inquiry,
acceptance of responsibility, and student
involvement in the university affairs. It
affirms the knowledge of God and man as re
vealed in Jesus Christ and seeks to demon
strate that Christian faith provides an ex
cellent foundation for the University. Our
goal is to educate young people to take their
place in the world adequately prepared in
their vocations, responsible in the fulfill
ment of their obligations and sensitive to the


71
However, this policy, as perceived by the Administrators,
simply permits the acceptance of all prior college course
work which is part of an Associate of Arts degree program.
College coursework completed at another college which is not
part of an Associate of Arts degree program is not automatic
ally transferable. First, each course accepted as transferable
must have a similar corresponding course in this college's
curriculum. Then, and only then, will it be transferred with
any grade and all quality points.
This college also accepts for transfer, credits which are
earned through the College Level Examination Program (CLEP)
of the College Entrance Examination Board.
Criteria Relating to Recognition of Community College
Transfer Parallel Programs
As the writer found no published criteria relating to
community college transfer parallel programs in any of the
documents from this college, the following criteria were
gathered by the writer exclusively from personal contact with
the President, the Vice-President for Academic Affairs, the
Reg ist rar/Director of Admissions. These interviews did provide
some insight through the perceptions of the interviewees as to
what the position of the college might be regarding community
college transfer parallel programs.
Moreover, it should be noted that while the following
criteria do not represent the official published position of
the college, one should not discount the probability that the
perceptions of those interviewed do in reality represent, ex


Criteria relating to recognition of community college transfer
parallel programs
The writer found that no published data existed at any
of the participating colleges relating to recognition of
community college transfer parallel programs. Therefore, the
data in this area is entirely perceived criteria.
College A. This college does not recognize any community
college transfer parallel program. The rationale is that
transfer parallel programs concentrate on general education
courses which are not compatible with this college's require
ment that students begin work on their major as a freshman.
College B. Community College transfer parallel programs
are not recognized by this college. A basic lack of confidence
in the quality of most community college programs, especially
pre-med and the behaviorial sciences, gives rise to this policy.
College C. Community college transfer parallel programs
are informally recognized at this college, especially from
one particular community college which is nearby. Negotiations
are underway to formalize these understandings.
College D. This college also informally recognizes com
munity college transfer parallel programs. However, it is
not considering formalizing that recognition, but is receptive
to the idea.
College E. This college has formal agreements in the
form of Direct Transfer Agreements with several community
colleges which provide for recognition of transfer parallel
programs. It is receptive to enlarging the number of
community college participants.


90
quality points that students accumulate elsewhere. However,
this college offers an unusually large number of technical
courses, and therefore, will transfer technical courses taken
elsewhere as being equivalent. In fact, while liberal arts
courses will transfer, it is really the technical courses
that attract this college's attention.
An Associate of Arts degree means very little if anything,
and certainly does not preclude a dissection of one's trans
cript and possible additional course work if the student's
background is deemed insufficient. An Associate of Arts
degree is perceived as a handicap because it means that the
holder has completed approximately 60 semester hours of liberal
arts courses and this college only requires a total of 21
quarter hours during the entire four years of degree program.
This amounts to only 14 semester hours of liberal arts in a
four-year program.
Criteria Relating to Recognition of Community College
Transfer Parallel Programs
As the writer found no published criteria relating to
community college transfer parallel programs in any of the
documents from the college, the following criteria were
gathered by the writer exclusively from personal contact with
the Vice-President for Academic Affairs and the Dean of
Admissions. These interviews do provide some insight, through
the perceptions of the interviewees, as to what the position
of the college might be regarding community college transfer
parallel programs.


32
in terms of his relative comparison to the native university
student. The second part looked at the vast and varied
problems encountered by transfer students as they move from
one institution to another. And finally, the review noted
some efforts which are underway to promote and expand articu
lation agreements which are designed to eliminate or reduce
transfer prob1ems.
If all of these studies have one thing in common, other
than that they are concerned with transfer students, it is
that they all are primarily concerned with public institutions
of higher education. However, their conclusions may be equally
applicable to the private colleges, both two-year and four-year.
Moreover, the abundance of transfer problems in the public
institutions are likewise reflected in private institutions.
Therefore, efforts to develop and expand articulation agreements
for the reasons cited above, are equally needed in the private-
institution' of higher education.


25
Willingham (1972) identified several nationally recognized
transfer problems in addition to those cited above:
(1) The need to maintain articulation regarding
curricula between the community college and the four-year
college. "One obvious problem is that this is no theory of
curriculum articulation" (p. 16). Differences between institu
tions in requirements only serve to illustrate the need for this
dialog.
(2) Ambiguous or discriminatory admissions procedures
that often treat transfer students as less desirable than new
freshmen.
(3)Transfer students often suffer a loss of credits when
they transfer. He finds himself in the crossfire of the de
bate on such items as whether "D" grades should transfer,
should vocational or technical courses transfer, and what
?
happens to former courses taken under a pass/fail system?
(A) Financial assistance is an ever present problem for
community college transfer students. Should freshman students
receive priority in the allocation of financial aid?
(5) A shortage of space in the four-year institutions
for transfer students must be dealt with. This is especially
a problem in certain individual programs. The upper division
colleges are seen by some as one solution.
Kintzer (1973) refers to a variety of problems for trans
fer students that include problems caused by the community
college, the university, or the student himself. These included


TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ii
ABSTRACT v
CHAPTER
1 DESCRIPTION OF THE STUDY 1
Introduction 1
The Problem 5
Definition of Terms 10
Procedures 12
Organization of the Research Report I 4
11 REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND RESEARCH. . 16
The Community College Transfer Student .... 17
Articulation Agreements 29
ill DATA FROM COLLEGES A, B, C, AND D 33
Co 1 1 ege A 33
Co 1 1 ege B 46
Col 1 ege C 56
Col lege 0 64
IV DATA FROM COLLEGES E, F, AND G 74
Col lege E 74
College F 84
College G 92
V ANALYSIS OF THE DATA 102
Published Data 102
Perceived Data 1 0 4
i i i


83
only predictor of success potential.
In spite of what appears to be a very favorable atti
tude toward the community college transfer students, the
college engages in no recruiting of community college students
And the Vice-President for Academic Affairs was careful to
have the writer understand that he believes most community
college academic programs are operating miserably below par.
This is consistent with and might explain why a community
college transfer student's past academic record is not per
ceived as having any particular significance in terms of being
accepted for admission at this college.
It is also interesting to note that in spite of what
appears to be a favorable attitude toward the community
college transfer student, the transfer student enrollment at
this college is relatively very small. o
Criteria Relating to the Transferability of Academic Credits
The following criteria were gathered by the writer by
examining College F's Catalog, transfer admissions information
and evaluation of credits for a community college transfer
student, and from personal contact with the Vice-President for
Academic Affairs and the Dean of Admissions.
Published criteria.
CREDIT TRANSFER. All accredited colleges
and universities accept credits earned at
. . [College F] on the same basis as any
other accredited school. Conversely . .
[College F] will consider transfer of
credits from other accredited schools.


85
Bachelor, Master, and Ph.D. degrees in a total of 64 programs
(Catalog, 1975-1976).
In all of Its programs . [College F]
believes in helping we 11-motivated stu
dents to use every opportunity to learn
self-reliance in developing their skills
and knowledge to the highest individual
potential. The academic programs . .
provide a vigorous challenge to those in
quest of answers to, as yet, unsolved
questions. (Catalog, p. 29)
The college is organized into three basic units: The
School of Science and Engineering, the School of Aeronautics,
and the School of Marine and Environmental Technology. The
School of Science and Engineering is composed of eight major
departments: Biological Sciences, Electrical Engineering,
Mechanical Engineering, Management, Science, Mathematical
Sciences, Oceanography and Ocean Engineering, Physics and
Space Sciences, and Science Education. These departments offer
the undergraduate student a choice of 16 bachelor degree pro
grams. Many of these programs extend into the Graduate School's
degree program leading to M.S. and Ph.D. degrees.
The School of Aeronautics prepares its students for
careers in the general field of commerce and transportation
with specific job qualifications in aviation. Four associate
programs and three baccalaureate programs provide a variety
of opportunities (Catalog) .
The campus is located on Florida's east coast in the
shadow of the rockets at nearby Kennedy Space Center v/here it
first offered science and engineering courses to specialists
who were flocking to the area to become a part of the nation's
space effort.


CHAPTER I
DESCR I PTI ON OF THE STUDY
Introduction
Post secondary education in the United States is
challenged with many problems, none of which have easy
solutions. The Carnegie Commission (1973) on Higher
Education recently reported:
Higher education, after a period of
20 years following V/orld War !1 when
it attained its greatest glory through
notable achievements in schentific re
search and through expansion to serve
huge additional numbers of students, now
faces several intense crises suddenly
and almost all at once. Sustained growth
in effort and in attainments has given way
to doubts and to difficu1 ties. (p. 3)
The Carnegie Commission (1973) identified six areas
wherein the problems exist:
1 The political crisis Political activity on the
part of students and faculty has increased on campuses across
the country. This activity has oftentimes been illegal and
directed toward both policies of the various institutions and
the physical facilities of the institutions. The possibility
for new confrontation in the future exists as much as it has
in the past. "The adversary culture or cultures, so well
developed on so many campuses, almost certainly will confront


13
Documents included catalogs, transfer admissions brochures,
transfer admissions applications, and other related documents.
All of these were published and generally available to the pub
lic. In addition, other documents not generally available to
the public were provided. These included copies of student
transcripts and evaluations of transferred credits of community
college transfer students.
Personal interviews were conducted by the writer. An
interview guide was used to provide structure for each inter
view, consistency among the interviews, and to solicit the
maximum of relevant data. A copy of the interview guide is
included in the appendix.
The interviewees included: (l) top echelon administrators;
(2) the chief admissions officers; (3) the chief academic
officers; and where applicable, (I) the chief officers or
designated persons from each subordinate college, department,
division, or school which had responsibility in terms of the
questions posed in. the above statement of the problem. The
rationale for the selection of the interviewees was based on
the presumption that they either participated in the formulation
of policies relevant to the study, at their respective colleges,
or they participated in the practices pursued in the execution
of those policies. In either case, they were presumed to have
personal knowledge of the data to be gathered.
Analysis of Data
The primary method of data analysis for this study was
descriptive. Data related to each major question posed in the


50
granting special concessions to the transfer student who has
received the Associate of Arts degree by granting an admission
with little, if any, questions. He feels that they have as
good a chance for continued college success as any native
student in the junior or senior years. However, when questioned
as to whether he would support a commitment by his college to
adhere voluntarily to the terms and conditions of the articula
tion agreement approved in 1971 by Florida's Community College
system and the State University system, he hedged. He observed
that the articulation agreement referred to covers a great deal
more than just admissions. He suggests that its terms are too
restrictive and inconsistent with the independence of the pri
vate college.
The Vice-President for Academic Affairs at this college
is "glad" to have community college transfer students. But
far from being willing to grant a carte blanche admittance, he
feels that their credentials should be carefully screened. He
bases this idea on what he says is the fact that the academic
caliber of community colleges in Florida varies from campus to
campus, and such scrutiny is needed to guard against the
Associate of Arts degree that is awarded on the basis of in
flated grading practices at some colleges.
The Assistant Director of Admissions favors transferring,
but from the private college to the public college. His
rationale is that for reasons of tradition and finances, most
private colleges have stayed with the classical liberal arts


105
College C's Vice-President for Academic Affairs feels
that a "C" average or better is consistent with what most
colleges requires, but less than that does not mean denial.
The Vice-President for Academic Affairs at College D
feels that the school's second chance policy precludes the
need for a minimum grade point average.
Students transferring to College E and G find the per
ceived minimum grade average to be consistent with the pub
lished average. However, College F1s Dean of Admissions will
not reject any student, regardless of his average.
Good standing. Generally, it is felt that good standing
is important at all of the participating colleges except from
Colleges D, F, and G. Again, the Vice-President for Academic
Affairs at College D feels that his school's second chance
policy negates a good standing requirement. It is interesting
that the Reg istrar/Director of Admissions does not agree.
College F will take anyone, but will not publish this fact in
writing. College G's Transfer Admissions Officer feels that
any student who is not in good standing at his previous
school can get into College G if he will simply let several
terms go by between leaving his previous school and his appli
cation to College G.
Recommend at ion. Recommendations are perceived to be im
portant at all of the participating colleges except College
E, where they are no longer required. The Director of Admissions
at College E feels that recent federal legislation permitting


3
the interests of new groups of students
regardless of age, the substantial in
crease in total costs, and the augmen
tation of public interest and control.
(p. 5)

5 The labor market transformation. For many years,
jobs for college graduates have been taken for granted.
However, colleges have increased their capacity to train
students at a faster rate than the economy has been able to
place the graduates at the level of their training.
O'Toole (1975a) has recently examined what he calls
"this underutilization of human resources" and concludes that
it stems most clearly from dissidence and disjunctions between
the institution of education and work. In another article,
O'Toole (1975b) warns of growing evidence that this disjunction
between educational opportunity and upper-grade jobs is develop
ing into potentially grave social, political, and economic
problems. These problems include increasing class conflict,
job dissatisfaction and credentialism, decreasing economic
productivity, and dwindling public support of education and
its institutions. He suggests that the most constructive thing
that educators can do to improve the relationships between the
worlds of education and work is to stop implicitly and explicitly
selling education as an economic investment.
6. The expansion of expectations when higher education
is approaching a "stationary state." Minority groups, in
cluding women, have developed high hopes for employment oppor
tunities, at a time when the job market is suffering a rapid
dec 1 ine.


21
with a score of 18 being mean, in a study of student character
istics based on data gathered in 1965 (Hoyt and Munday, 1969)
Richards and Braskamp (1969) describe the abilities of
community college students as follows:
Two-year colleges attract pragmatic
students seeking vocational training;
they are less attractive to talented
students who are intellectually and
academically oriented, who plan a
degree in one of the traditional sub
ject areas, and who expect to take
part in a wide variety of activities
in college. (p. 80)
When compared to his four-year institutional counterpart,
the community college transfer student generally has performed
less admirably academically before entering junior college.
He expresses more feelings of inferiority and shows a lower
self-esteem, but he is more practical and conventionally
oriented (Knoell and Medsker, 1965)-
Monroe (1972) adds, "The possibility for enrolling even
larger numbers of 'Pragmatic' students in the years ahead is
to be expected" (p. 190).
Junior college students have a more practical orientation
to college and to life than do their more intellectually dis
posed peers of four-year colleges. They are interested in
applied college curricula, and they expect their future satis
factions to come from business and financial success (Cross,
1968).
J The academic abilities of community college students in
Florida are not significantly different from their counterparts
in other states. Native students entering the upper division at


The perceived criteria are simply whatever the
Director of Admissions wants to enforce. He has
complete discretion in admissions.
College F. The published criteria include only a
secondary school transcript, Scholastic Aptitude Test
(SAT) scores, and transcripts of all previous college
work attempted.
The perceived criteria include only the discretion
of the Director of admissions. He rejects no one.
College G. The published criteria provide for a
"C" average earned at accredited colleges and good
standing at the last college attended.
The perceived criteria provide only for a "C"
average if the applicant had earned 30 hours or more.
Otherwise, a "C" average is not necessary. Good standing
is not perceived as being enforced.
What are the published and perceived criteria of the
participating colleges relating to the transferability of
academic credits? To what extent do they differ, if any?
Criteria Relating To The Transferability of Academic Credits
College A. The published criteria indicate that
courses completed at other accredited colleges are
acceptable if they are comparable to courses offered
at this college and are completed with grades of "C"
or better.
The perceived criteria are a product of the Director
of Admissions who has complete discretion. He follows the


55
Assistant Director of Admissions, the college feels it is
the student's responsibility to ascertain what will be required
of him based on the program he wishes to enter.
The Administration is insistent that the college does
not want to be obligated to recognize a transfer program, the
contents of which are not subject to its approval.
This attitude is perceived by the interviewees as illus
trative of the private college's insistence on its independence.
This college permits its students to declare their major
at any point, not later than the junior year. Therefore, the
administration does not feel that the transfer parallel program
at the community college will necessarily be incompatible with
the philosophy of this college.
The Vice-President for Academic Affairs expresses concern
about what he views as problems for which solutions should be
sought before he will support an official policy recognizing
any community college transfer parallel program. One problem is
that, as he sees it, the quality of the academic program varies
considerably among the community colleges. And he feels this
necessitates being highly selective as to which transfer parallel
program should be recognized. He expresses concern that some
community colleges have established a reputation for granting
inflated grades that are no candid measure of their students'
performance. And finally, he feels that the community colleges
simply are not parallel in some areas such as pre-med. He
thinks the community colleges are weak in the behavioral sciences,


101
of Arts degree as having any significance in the transfer
process. It does participate in one program wherein a
dismantled copy of the catalog from a local community college
is distributed to the various schools and departments for the
purpose of classifying each course listed in the community
college catalog as being: (l) transferable; (2) not trans
ferable; or (3) provisionally transferable. The annotated
catalog is then reproduced. A copy is returned to the
community college to assist prospective transfer students
there in scheduling courses which will transfer to this
college. This practice really amounts to a pre-counse1 i ng
c*
program without any student contact. The Transfer Admissions
Officer suggests that recognition of transfer parallel programs
is really unnecessary in as much as students from community
colleges which are recognized as being outstanding academically,
in most cases, have their credits accepted intact and are not
assessed additional courses to bring them in line with this
college's requirements.


Criteria Relating to Recognition of Community College
Transfer Parallel Programs
Junior standing. Transfer applicants can expect to re
ceive junior standing after having earned the Associate of
Arts degree if they transfer to Colleges C, D, and E. Colleges
A, B, F, and G refuse to recognize the Associate of Arts de
gree as having any significance in the transfer process.
Required additional courses. Obviously, the participat
ing colleges which do not recognize the Associate of Arts
degree do not hesitate to add an additional course for the
transfer student.
Perceived Data
Criteria Relating to Community College Transfer Admissions
Grade average. The Vice-President for Academic Affairs
at College A strongly favors strict enforcement of the "C"
minimum average for transfer. However, the Director of Ad
missions feels that the published criterion requiring a "C"
average or better is the ideal and functionally, only sugges
tive. He suggests a "C" average is one factor to be considered,
but should not alone be conclusive.
College B requires an "acceptable academic record."
The administrators at this college differ greatly in their
interpretation of acceptable academic record. One maintains
that a "C" average is all that is necessary. Another feels
that a "B" average is required, and still a third accepts a
"C" average, but much prefers a student with a "B" average.


83
College E provides a
list as of Novembe r
1373 (pp- 73-74):
of Baltimore
of Delaware County
of Philadelphia
Col lege
Morris
Alexander City State Junior College
Bergen Community College
Brevard College
Bronx Community College
Catonsville Community College
Caxenovia College
Community College
Community College
Community Col l ege
Corning Community
County College of
Essex Community College
Essex County College
Florida Junior College
Fu1ton Montgornery Community College
Gulf Coast Community College
Herkimer County Community College
Junior College of Albany
Marymount College of Virginia
Metropolitan State Junior College
Montgomery College (Rockville)
Montgomery College (Takoma Park)
Montgomery County Community College
Morristown College
Nassau Community College
Northwestern Connecticut Community Col
Ocean County College
Pierce Junior College
Rhode Island Junior College
Schenectedy County Community College
Sullivan County Community College
Ulster County Community College
Union College
Wesley College
Westchester Community College
ege
Alabama
New Jersey
North Carolina
New York
Ma ry1 and
New York
Maryland
De 1awa re
Pennsylvania
New York
New Jersey
Maryland
New Jersey
Florida
New York
Florida
New York
New York
Vi r g i n ¡a
Mi nnesota
Maryland
Maryland
Pennsylvania
Tennessee
New York
Connecticut
New Jersey
Pennsy1 vania
Rhode Island
New York
New York
New York
New Jersey
De 1awa r e
New York
Perceived criteria. In spite of a published interest, the
Director of Admissions and the Assistant Director of Admissions
are less than enthusiastic. They express interest in recog
nizing community college parallel programs but have several
reservations. First, the vast majority of community college
transfer students are from the Northeast and Midwest parts of
the country. This distance makes it very difficult to motivate


CHAPTER I I I
DATA FROM COLLEGES A, B, C, AND D
College A
Description of the College
This college is a private, independent, coeducational
institution with a 273_acre campus located in northeast
Florida. It was chartered in the spring of 193* by the
State of Florida:
to furnish an opportunity for citizens . .
to obtain a standard collegiate education
without leaving the city; to fill the need
for a center of culture and cultural back
ground ... to operate as a non-profit
institution, thereby enabling students to
obtain a good education at a minimum cost.
(Catalog, p. 6)
The college began initially as a junior college and
operated as a junior college for 22 years. In 1956, the
college was expanded to four-year status.
The Southern Association of Colleges and Schools accredited
the college in 1961. In 1963, the School of Nursing was es
tablished and offered the Associate of Arts in Nursing degree.
However, the program was discontinued in 1963. Graduate studies
were begun in 1964, offering the Master of Arts in Teaching
Program.
33


54
transfer credit. This is true even if a UC" grade or better
was earned.
Criteria Relating to Recognition of Community College
Transfer Parallel Programs
As the writer found no published criteria relating to
community college transfer parallel programs in any of the
documents from this college, the following criteria were
gathered by the writer exclusively from personal contact with
the President, the Vice-President for Academic Affairs, the
Associate Director of Admissions, and the Registrar. These
interviews did provide some insight, through the perceptions
of the interviewees, as to what the position of the college
might be regarding community college transfer parallel programs.
Moreover, it should be noted that while the following
criteria do not represent the official published position of
the college, one should not discount the probability that the
perceptions of those interviewed do in reality represent, ex
cathedra, the official position of the college because of the
obvious influence the President, the Vice-President for Academic
Affairs, the Assistant Director of Admissions, and the Registrar
have on the policy of the college.
Perceived criteria. The Administration here do not feel
that it formally or informally recognizes any community college
transfer parallel program. But is quick to add that most any
program perceived at the community college as being parallel
will in fact transfer. The college engages in no pre-counseling
of students who expect to transfer. Instead, according to the


will only permit transfer of technical courses where this
college offers an equivalent course, such as surveying, which
is a course required for a particular engineering degree.
Criteria Relating to the Recognition of Community College
Transfer Parallel Programs
As the writer found no published criteria relating to
community college transfer parallel programs in any of the
documents from this college, the following criteria were
gathered by the writer exclusively from personal contact
with the President, the Vice-President for Academic Affairs,
the Assistant Director of Admissions, the Transfer Admissions
Officer, and the Registrar. These interviews do provide some
insight, through the perceptions of the interviewees, as to
what the position of the college might be regarding community
college transfer parallel programs.
Moreover, it should be noted that while the following
criteria do not represent the official published position
of this college, one should not discount the probability
that the perceptions of those interviewed do in reality repre
sent, ex cathedra, the official position of the college be
cause of the obvious influence the President, the Vice-
President for Academic Affairs, the Assistant Director of
Admissions, the Transfer Admissions Officer, and the Registrar
have on the policy of the college.
Perceived criteria. The administration here does not
recognize any transfer parallel programs from any community
colleges. In fact, it does not even recognize the Associate


the Articulation Counseling
Schafer (197M looked at
Offices (ACOs) in Florida, in terms of their roles,
responsibilities, and organization a 1 structures.
Blackwell ( 1375) looked at the decentralization of the
baccalaureate program into a community college-university
system to see if it created problems which were disadvantageous
to the student. He concluded that the loss in efficiency from
the decentralized baccalaureate program was .1%. This
relatively small loss in efficiency is attributed primarily
to Florida's articulation agreement. The expenditures for
the excess credits acquired as a result of the transfer process
are approximately $13-00 per transfer student, a nominal
figure for the advantages offered by the community college.
Hite (1975) studied the problems of students tranferring
between four-year institutions. His study isolated the
problems into three areas: academic, procedural, and
/
extracurricular. He found that these problems translated
into inadequate academic advisement; inadequate orientation,
registration problems, and academic bu rearucracy; and meeting
people and feeling at home.
This study has dealt at length with perceptions of
individual top echelon administrators. The study shows that
the criteria which are actually implemented at each of the
participating colleges are in fact the perceptions of these
administrators, as opposed to published criteria. Benton
(1970) maintains in his discussion of the theory of perception


22
the University of Florida in 1966 had a mean score of 419
while the entering community college transfer students had a
mean score of only 317 on the Florida Twelfth Grade Placement
Test (Walker, 1969)-
Nickens (1970) found that at Florida State University/"
the mean Florida Twelfth Grade Placement score was 321 for
the community college transfer and 382 for the native university
students.
The academic success of community college students has
been summarized by Bird (1956):
Junior college transfers make records
approximately the same as those made by
transfers from four-year colleges and
by native students, sometimes excelling
slightly and sometimes being slightly
excelled by the other groups. They
usually show a drop in their grade /
average in the first term after trans*
fer but then recover that loss (2).
Junior college transfers retain the
relative scholastic standing after
transfer that they had before trans
fer. Those who originally have high
scholastic standing tend to retain
such relative standing. Likewise,
those with relative low standing tend
to remain in the lower groups. (p. 85)
In overall summary, community college transfer students
generally exhibit lower academic ability than native university
students. In addition, as a group they represent a much wider
range of abilities, preferring the pragmatic and applied
curricula.
Transfer Problems
A problem often identified by community college transfer
students concerns counseling or perhaps the lack of counseling.


53
mental program is underway which permits transfer students
to transfer a maximum of three courses which received a grade
of MD" or better without difficulty. The purpose of this
program is to encourage transfer students to transfer to this
college as opposed to another which would not accept "D"
grades for transfer students, The policy does not specify
how many credit hours can be transferred, only courses.
According to one source, the policy is soon to be discarded
as ineffective andunproductive. He feels that transfer
students do not decide which college they will transfer to on
the basis of being able to transfer three courses. Instead,
he is convinced that other factors generally prevail in that
decision, some or all of which are totally unrelated to the
transfer of academic credits.
Students who plan to transfer to this college from a
community college are encouraged to do so at the end of their
freshman year. It is felt that this early transfer maximizes
the flexibility in scheduling courses in one's major field,
even though students have the option of taking their general
courses during the freshman and sophomore years or declaring
a major and taking courses therein as early as their freshman
year.
Generally, students are unable to transfer vocational
and technical courses taken at a community college. In addi
tion, any courses taken at another college which do not have
a similar corresponding course at this college, in terms of
course content and quality of instruction, are not accepted for


19
In many ways the junior college transfer
student resembled what is regarded as the
typical undergraduate student in public
four-year colleges and universities, ex
cept in their social class membership.
The parents of the junior college students
were less well educated than those of the
natives, and the employment and income of
their fathers reflected this difference.
The transfer students, particularly the women,
tended to come from larger families than the
native students. They were more likely to
be self-supporting during college. Nearly
20 percent of the male transfer students re
ported that they paid nearly all of their
college costs out of their own earnings,
compared with only 8 percent of the native
students. About 40 percent of the men in
the transfer group--as against one-third of
the men in the native group--said that their
parents contributed nothing toward paying
for their college education. About three-
fourths of the transfer men and s 1 i gh 11y
fewer than half the women reported that
they used some portion of their own earn
ings from part-time and summer work to pay
for the cost of their education. Incidence
of time-consuming employment after transfer
was somewhat less than expected. Apparently
the students feared that employment would
seriously interfere with their university
studies if they were to continue it at the
same level as in junior college. About
twice as many students worked while attend
ing junior college as in the first year after
transfer; the number of hours worked per week
was also much larger in junior college. (p. 69)
A survey of 18,387 students entering Florida's community
col leges
p rovides
student,
transfer
in the fall of 1971 (Florida Board of Regents, 1972)
a socio-economic profile of the community college
including those students who expressed an intention to
to a senior institution. The survey indicates that
64.3 percent of the entering community college students were
age 18 or less, 73 percent of the students we re Caucasian, their
parents completed high school and the annual family income was


I
1 4
statement of the problem, which gave direction to this study,
was examined in terms of commonalities and/or differences among
the participating colleges.
Organization of the Research Report
This research report is presented in six chapters. The
first chapter is a description of the study, including: (l)
Introduction; (2) The Problem; (3) Definition of Terms;
(4) Procedures; and (5) Organization of the Research Report.
The second chapter is a review of related literature and
research. This review is presented in three separate but
interrelated parts. The first part presents the literature
which has examined the community college transfer student's
characteristics and academic ability in terms of his relative
comparison to the native university student. The second part
presents 1 iterature, relating to the problems encountered by the
transfer students as they move from one institution to another.
The third part presents literature relating to formal articu
lation agreements which are designed to eliminate or reduce
transfer problems.
The third chapter presents the data from Colleges A,
3, C, and D. More specifically, it includes: (l) a descriptive
profile of each college; (2) the published and perceived
criteria of each college relating to the admission of community
college transfer students; (3) the published and perceived
criteria of each college relating to the transferability of
academic credits earned at the community college; and (4) the


75
The college is a private institution, non-denoninational,
and is chartered under the laws of the State of Florida as a
non-profit corporation. Its governance is by a self-perpetuating
Board of Trustees elected from among leaders in business, in
dustry, and the professors.
Men and women have access to the Bachelor's degree in
twenty-seven fields and two Master's programs which are fully
accredited:
. . [College E] is fully accredited by
the Southern Association of Colleges and
Schools and for teacher education by the
Florida State Board of Education. It holds
membership in the following organizations:
The American Council on Education
The Association of American Colleges
The Association of University Evening Colleges
The Association of Urban Universities
The Florida Academy of Sciences
The Florida Association of Colleges and
Un i vers i t i es a.
Florida Independent Colleges Foundation
The Independent Colleges and Universities
of Florida, Inc.
The National Council on Education
The Southern Association of Colleges and Schools
The University is approved by the Veterans
Administration for the education of veterans
under Public Law 634 (War Orphans). Credits
earned here are accepted by the Army, the
Navy, and the Air Force for aviation cadet
or officer cadet
training.
(P
13)
Pu rs u
i n g a commitmen t
that i n d i v
i d ua 1
s must
be able
freely and
responsibly to
demons trate
be 1 i
e f in
human dignity
and value
the college has
adopted the
fol 1
ow i n g
educational
objectives:


106
a student to examine their own files has precluded candid
recommendations .
Colleges C and D place special emphasis on recommenda
tions from members of the clergy.
Criteria Relating to the Transferabil ity of Academic Credits
Liberal arts credits. The administration interviewed at
all of the participating colleges favor acceptance of liberal
arts credits. Only the Vice-President for Academic Affairs
at College F had reservations about the integrity of liberal
arts credits earned at community colleges, which are staffed
by "former secondary school teachers who are seeking more
money and less teaching hours."
Vocational, technica1, terminal, self-enrichment, and
life experiences credits. With the exception of only one
college all of the participating colleges in the study are
libera] arts in character. Therefore, it is not surprising
that vocational, technical, terminal, self-enrichment, and
life experience credits are not generally perceived as worthy
of transfer. As noted above, the exceptions are College F
for vocational and technical, and Colleges E and G for life
exper i enees .
Transfer of grade points Generally, the administration
of colleges which do not transfer grade points are very much
opposed to the notion. And the two colleges, Colleges D and
G, which do transfer grade points, have administrators who very
much favor the practices. The one exception is at College G.


37
The Vice-President for Academic Affairs noted that the
published criteria include no distinction between a student who
transfers from a community college and one who transfers from
a four-year college. He feels that this is as it should be and
therefore, justifies the absence in the published criteria of
any reference to the Associate of Arts degree as being signifi
cant to transfer process. He strongly urges no deviation from
the nC" average requirement, suggesting that to do so would be
to place in jeopardy the academic integrity of his college's
program. He maintains that letters of recommendation still
serve a useful purpose, reflecting a candid assessment of a
student's success potential. In an extension of the published
criterion requiring official transcripts, he views the transfer
student's rank in his high school class as especially significant
as a predictor of success in college.
With the regard to the community college student as a
source of new student enrollment, potential, and therefore,
also a source of new much needed money, he is not impressed.
In his view, to recruit the community college student is
costly and often unproductive. He is convinced that the reason
the student attended the community college in the first place,
which in his judgment was lack of money, would also work to
preclude an interest in transferring to a private college. He
does not feel that the community college transfer student is
at an academic disadvantage or functions below expectations at
the private college, once he is able to muster the finances.


92
College G
Description of the College
A student enrollment approaching 20,000 obviously makes
this the largest of the colleges participating in the study.
Its main campus is located in extreme south Florida on a 260
acre tract originally donated to the college when it was
founded in 1925 by a group of citizens who felt that an in
stitution of higher learning was a major need for the develop
ment of the then relatively new community. They felt also
that the institution might take advantage of unique oppor
tunities offered by the area to develop inter-American studies.
In addition, its location was conducive to teaching and research
programs in the scientific and technical problems of the tropics
(Bul 1e t i n ) .
The current statement of objectives still reflects this
thinking of the founders more than four decades ago:
The University intends to give to its
undergraduate students a broad basic
education, using the most advanced and
effective methods of instruction; and
to its graduate and professional students
curricula that open up new frontiers and
yet are broad enough in scope to offer
a second basis for the advancement of
learning. The University is particularly
interested in interdisciplinary programs
which use new points of view and new
techniques in the solution of new as well
as age-old problems.
In subject . 1 [College G] places emphasis
upon what is appropriate to its location and
its relative youth, as exemplified by the
biological and environmental sciences and
international studies with reference es
pecially to the Hispanic areas, and upon


I certify that I have read this study and that in
my opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of
scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in scope
and quality, as a dissertation for the degree of
Doctor of Philosophy.
I certify that I have read this study and that in
my opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of
scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in scope
and quality, as a dissertation for the degree of
Doctor of Philosophy.
C. Arthur Sandeen
Associate Professor of Education
I certify that I have read this study and that ir.
my opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of
scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in scope
and quality, as a dissertation for the degree of
Doctor of Philosophy.
S t,. /j a cTj u e s
Professor of Social
Ernest H.
Associate
Sciences
I certify that I have read this study and that in
my opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of
scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in scope
and quality, as a dissertation for the degree of
Doctor of Philosophy.
Norman M. Wilensky
Associate Professor of History


61
residence work at the College, Of this
minimum amount of work, the last semester
must be taken at the College. At least
thirty percent of the student's work in
his major field must be completed at . .
[College C].
The amount of transferable course credit
is determined by the Registrar after the
candidate is selected. Transfer grades
are not included in computing a student's
average at . [College C]. (Bulletin,
p. 15)
Students seeking transfer of credit earned
at another institution ten or more years
prior to the date such transfer is requested
will be required to demonstrate proficiency
in the courses in question through an ex
amination and/or, performance before the
credit will be approved. (Bul 1etin, p. 4 5)
EXTENSION AND CORRESPONDENCE . [College
C] does not offer extension or correspondence
work, but will consider, for transfer, credit
from approved institutions up to fifteen
semester hours of extension and/or corres
pondence credits. Major area examinations
covering such transferred credit may be re
quired. .
CREDIT BY EXAMINATION. General examination
of the Co 11ege-Leve 1 Examination Program
sponsored by College Entrance Examination
Board may be taken by students to measure
their comparative competencies in five
general education areas. Credit by ex
amination is restricted as follows:
1. Not more than six semester hours
of credit may be earned in any
one area.
2. Not more than thirty semester
hours of credit may be earned
by examination.
3- Transfer credits based on CLEP
scores will be accepted if the
scores meet . standards.


40
The final sixty-four semester hours must
be completed at a senior college. The
final thirty semester hours toward a
bachelor's degree must be completed at
. . [College A].
A student who is a degree candidate at
another institution and wishes to attend
the spring or summer session at . .
[College A] for transfer credit may
arrange with his registrar to submit a
letter of good standing to . .
[College A]. This letter serves as a
substitute for the transcript required
from the other students.
TRANSFER CREDITS. A student who wishes
to take one or more courses at another
college for transfer credit to . .
[College A] and remain a degree candidate,
must obtain written permission in advance
for the specific courses from the Registrar
or College Dean at . .[College A]. No
transfer credits are allowed from junior
colleges beyond the level of sixty-four
semester hours. That is, once a student
has accumulated sixty-four semester hours
of college credit no additional hours may
be transferred to . [College A] from
a junior college. (Catalog, p. 10)
OPPORTUNITIES FOR COLLEGE CREDIT OR
EXEMPTION. Qualified students may receive
college credit, or exemption from some
course requirements, on the basis of satis
factory performance on proficiency examina
tions. A student may secure specific infor
mation on proficiency examinations by inquir
ing at the office of the division chairman
involved.
The examinations taken in the Advanced Place
ment Program sponsored by the College Entrance
Examination Board will give college credit to
those students who have passed one or more ad
vanced placement examinations with grades of
5, 4, or 3 [College A] . credit will
be allowed in courses most nearly equivalent to
the material covered in the Advanced Placement
P rog ram.


5
the subject of this study. More specifically, this study
looks at transfer criteria of these types of private colleges
within Florida, and examines their potential for attracting
community
CO 1
lege
transfer
s tudent s
as a constructive alter
native in
dealing
with the
p rob1ems
cited above.
The
Problem
Statement
o f
the
P rob1em
The purpose of this study was twofold: first, to
determine the criteria of the selected private four-year
colleges relative to: (l) the admission of the community
college transfer student; (2) the transferability of academic
credits earned at the community college; and (3) the recogni
tion of university parallel programs pursued by transfer
students at the community college. The second purpose was to
determine the difficulties, if any, encountered by students
who had transferred from the community college to selected
private four-year colleges, as perceived by academic adminis
trators in each of the participating colleges. More specific
ally, with reference to the second major thrust of this study,
answers were sought to the following questions: (1) What were
the perceptions of administrators, admission officials, and
academic personnel in the selected private four-year colleges
regarding the extent to which the published admissions criteria
were followed in processing transfer applications of students
from the community colleges; (2) What were the perceptions of


119
2. The general nature of the published criteria are
by design, permitting the top echelon administrators at
each college to interpret the intent of the criteria as
their discretion deems appropriate.
3. The perceptions of the appropriate application
of the published criteria vary extensively among the
colleges participating in the study, as well as, among
the administrators within a given college.
A. Each of the colleges participating in the study
views the community college transfer student as an asset,
and each is trying in its own way to attract the student's
attention. Some have more success than others.
5< Each of the colleges participating in the study
is experiencing a dilemma. On the one hand, it insists
on its independence, and on the other, it realizes that
it must give up some of its independence to attract
successfully the community college transfer student.
Implications
The conclusions of this study imply that the criteria
which govern the transfer process through which students
move from one institution to another are not institutional
policies, but are rather individual attitudes, interests,
and prejudices of those charged with the responsibility
of administering the transfer process.


This study provides the following conclusions:
(1) The published criteria relating to the questions
raised regarding the colleges participating in this study are
very broad and general in their scope;
(2) The general nature of the published criteria are, by
design, permitting the top echelon administrators at each
college to interpret the intent of the criteria as their
discretion deems appropriate;
(3) The perceptions and applications of the published
criteria vary extensively among the colleges participating in
the study, as well as among the administrators within a given
college.
(t) Each of the colleges participating in the study
views the community college transfer student as an asset,
and each is trying in its own way to attract the student's
attention. Some have more success than others; and
(5) Each of the colleges participating in the study is
experiencing a dilemma. On the one hand, it insists on its
independence, and on the other, it realizes thatit must give
up some of its independence to attract successfully the
community college transfer student.
v 1 1


B I B L I OGRAPHY
Benton, L. R. The many faces of conflict: how differences
in perception cause differences of opinion. Supervisory
Ha nagemen t 1970, JJ5(3), 7-10.
Bethune-Cookman Col lege. Bulletin, 1973-1975 Daytona
Beach, Florida: Author, 1973-
Bird, G. V. Preparation for advanced study. In Fifty-fifth
yearbook of the National Society for the Study of
Educa t i on. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1956.
Blackwell, B. B. The efficiency of transfer from community
colleges to universities within a state system of higher
education (Doctoral dissertation, University of Florida,
1975)
Carnegie Commission on Higher Education. Priorities for
Action: Final Report of the Carnegie Commission on
Higher Education. Mew York: McGraw-Hill, 1973-
Carter, J. A., 111. The role of Florida community junior
colleges in the academic rehabilitation of former
Florida State University students (Doctoral disserta
tion, Florida State University, 1969).
Cross, P. K. Higher education's newest student. Junior
College Journal, 0968, 3j9_( I ) 38-42.
Florida Board of Regents and the Division of Community
Colleges. Characteristics of college students, enter
ing freshmen, and transfer undergraduates: junior
college survey, Fall, 1971- Tallahassee, Florida:
State Department of Education, 1972.
Florida Institute of Technology. Catalog, 1975-197 6.
Melbourne, Florida: Author, 1975-
Florida Southern College. Bul 1e tin 1974-1976 Lakeland,
Florida: Author, 1973-
Florida Southern College. Bulletin, 1976-1978 Lakeland,
Florida: Author, 1975-
124


67
Secondary school records are required for transfer students
In the published criteria. But interestingly enough, this
practice is judged to be worthless in the opinion of one source
on the grounds that successful completion of an Associate of
Arts degree program is surely evidence enough of the student's
ability and fitness for college work. Furthermore, even when
submitting a complete transcript of his secondary school records,
this college does not require that any test scores be included,
such as the Florida Twelfth Grade Placement Test, the Scholastic
Aptitude Test (SAT), or the American College Testing (ACT)
scores. SAT and ACT scores are required for native students
only.
One distinctly gets the impression that a student's
previous college need not have been accredited, unless he had
received the Associate of Arts degree and was seeking junior
standing. The Registrar/Director of Admissions feels that re
quiring the Associate of Arts degree for junior standing is a
farce in as much as one's transcripts of credits is still sub
ject to dissection by the Registrar. Therefore, rendering
one's junior standing as academic.
Generally, most perceive the published criteria to be
necessarily general and uncommitting. Most further agree that
the college needs students and feel that the Director of Ad
missions should have maximum latitude in exercising discretion
in passing on the success potential of a transfer student.


CHAPTER I I
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AMD RESEARCH
In the 1920's, the transfer student first attracted the
attention of researchers and has been the subject of continued
investigations ever since Bird (1956) reported on a series
of studies investigating the academic performance of transfer
students in particular institutions. Further illumination is
provided by Hills (1965) with his comprehensive review of
major research that had been completed through 1964.
Perhaps, the most complete review of research and
literature regarding the community college student is pre
sented in The Community College Student, by Koos (1970).
Not to be overlooked, however, is a study which identified
four major research projects concerned with the transfer student
which were comprehensive and had national relevance (Willingham,
1972) .
This review of related literature and research is pre
sented in three separate but interrelated parts. The first
part presents the literature which has examined the community
college transfer student's characteristics and academic ability
in terms of his relative comparison to the native university
student. The second part presents literature relating to the
problems encountered by transfer students as they move from one


that published criteria
that this impossibility
implement the published
can never be implemented. He feels
exists because an individual must
criteria, and to so do is to subject
the published criteria to the perceptions of the individual.
He continues by suggesting that the perceptions of the
individual charged with implementing the published criteria
are affected by three processes:
1. Selectivity. An individual sees only
certain aspects of an event or situation
because of his attitudes and interests,
and therefore blocks out the others.
2. Filtration. An individual's perceptions
will differ from others because each
fact in a situation is filtered through
an individual's build-in prejudices and
attitudes.
3.Project ion. Projection occurs when an
individual assumes that someone else has
the same attitudes, desires, or
characteristics that he does. (pp. 7-10)
It is this theory of perception, which suggests the
impossibility of implementing published criteria, that
forms the basis for the conclusions of this study.
Conclus ions
This study provides the following conclusions:
1. The published criteria relating to the questions
raised in the statement of the problem regarding the colleges
participating in this study are very broad and general in
their scope.


98
CLEP Subject Examination require the
approval of the . department for
which equivalent course credits are
given. (Bul 1 e t i n p. 76)
CREDIT FOR SERVICE EXPERIENCE
Veterans of the military services may
make application for academic credit
for schooling received while in the
armed forces. Credit may be awarded
for work which the American Council
on Education Guide regards as college
level.
Credit for military service and experience
is usually in the elective area and may
not take the place of subjects required for
graduation. Such work is not assigned
quality point commutations. (Bulletin,
p. 109)
Perceived criteria. This college operates on a lower/
upper division concept with most general education courses
being taken during the freshman and sophomore years, or in
the lower division. This is not absolute in that a student is
permitted to declare his major as a freshman and pursue courses
in his major as a freshman. Because this college subscribes
to this concept, those interviewed did not feel that transfer
students from the community college enter with any particular
disadvantage. While at the community college, they are com
pleting their general education requirement.
For the first time noted in this study, the interviewees
feel that the native students are being discriminated against
by the college's transfer policy.
Since this college transfers grade points, it is possible
for transfer students to enter this college with high grade
point averages based on grades that are earned at other colleges,


51
type of education, and have left the specialization development
to public colleges. He suggests that students would be wise
to attend a private college for the freshman and sophomore
years to acquire the best liberal arts foundation. Then, on
to a publicly funded college for study in one's specialty.
In the final analysis, the Administration feels very
strongly that in reality no certain criteria exists, and in
fact, the discretion of the Admissions Committee prevails.
Criteria Relating to the Transferability of Academic Credits
The following criteria were gathered by the writer by
examining College B's Bul 1e tin transfer admissions brochure,
and evaluation of credits for a community college transfer
student, and from personal contact with the President, the
Vice-President for Academic Affairs, the Assistant Director of
Admissions, and the Registrar. *
Pub 1 i shed criteria.
INTRODUCTION . [College B] welcomes
qualified transfer students from accred
ited junior colleges and four-year pro
grams.
TRANSFER OF CREDITS. Transfer candidates
who have earned the A.A. degree from accre
dited community colleges in Florida shall
be awarded full credit for all university
parallel work completed with "C" grades and
up to three courses of "D" credit, provided
their overall average is "C" (2.00). Trans
fer candidates from accredited senior
colleges and universities shall be awarded
up to three courses of "D" credit, provided
they have an overall "C" average.
CLEP POLICY . [College B] accepts CLEP
scores for transfer in excess of 550 on the
general examination. V/e also give credit
for 14 subject areas.


8
At the University of Florida, the fall 1973 enrollment
showed that over 62 percent of the junior-level or third- ^
year students were transfers from either community colleges
or other four-year institutions across the country (St Jacques,
1973). In spite of increases in the size of freshmen classes
at four-year schools, the number of transfer students has in
creased at more than twice the freshman rate (Willingham and
Findikyan, 1 9&9)
Dialogue with informed observers indicated little, if
any, information was available that addressed the questions
raised in the above statement of the problem. Therefore, the
results of this study could serve as a body of information
which would have utility to the counselors in all post high
school institutions.
In addition, a series of studies has been completed under
the auspices of the Institute of Higher Education, University
of Florida, relating to articulation and the problems en
countered by the community college transfer student when he
moves from the two-year college to the four-year college.
More specifically, McFaddin (1971) developed a pre
dictive model for academic success for use by counselors in
providing academic guidance to students; the data indicated
that academic success is directly related to the college
(within a university) that the student enters and that Florida
Twelfth Grade Test scores generally have the greatest effect
on the accuracy of prediction. A similar study by Sitzman


42
at another college into four categories: (1) credits earned
at another college in a course which is deemed equal to a
course at this college in terms of course content and quality
of instruction; (2) credits earned at another college in a
course which corresponds to a similar course at this college
in terms of content and quality of instruction, but is not a
course for which this college gives credit; (3) credits earned
at another college in a course which is not offered at this
college, but one for which this college would give credit if
it were offered at this college, and one for which this college
would not give credit if it were offered.
Credits in the first category transfer easily, and
generally include those courses classified as academic such as
English, Physics, etc. Credits in the second category do not
transfer, and for the most part include self-enrichment courses
3
such as typing. The third category credits transfer as do the
first category credits because like the first category, it
covers courses which are academic, but beyond what the typical
small private four-year college offers. These include special
ized courses in language, specialized courses in nuclear science,
or specialized courses in professional fields such as law,
medicine, or dentistry. The fourth category covers credits
which do not transfer. These credits generally include voca
tional and technical courses such as welding, automobile,
mechanics and carpentry.


91
Moreover, it should be noted that while the following
criteria do not represent the official published position of
the college, one should not discount the probability that the
perceptions of those interviewed do in reality represent, ex
cathedra, the official position of the college because of the
obvious influence the Vice-President for Academic Affairs
and the Dean of Admissions have on the policy of the college.
Perceived criteria. The officials interviewed at this
college are by far the most negative in their recognition of
parallel programs at the community college. They not only do
not recognize any parallel programs, but cannot imagine any
circumstance under which they might. In the first place,
according to the Vice-President for Academic Affairs, the
community colleges are populated with former secondary school
teachers looking for more money and less teaching hours. And
to suggest that the quality of instruction in the community
college approaches that at this college is to deceive oneself.
In the second place, community college parallel programs are
liberal arts programs and this college only requires an equiv
alent of 14 semester hours of liberal arts in a four-year
program. Therefore, to suggest that a community college could
parallel the technical nature of this community college is
again to deceive oneself. And finally, this college perceives
that one of its greatest assets is its independence and its
right to use its discretion in individual situations. Accord
ingly, it is very much opposed to formal restrictions which
might limit its alternatives in any given situation.


Vocational technical, terminal, se1f-enr i chment and
life experiences credits Credits received for vocational,
technical, terminal, self-enrichment, and life experiences
activities generally are not transferable to any of the par
ticipating colleges. College F will accept vocational and
technical courses. College E and G will accept credits for
certain life experiences activities.
Transfer of grade points Grade points earned and
accumulated for college level courses prior to transfer are
acceptable at only two of the participating colleges, College
D and G. Otherwise, all other participating colleges transfer
c*
only credits and begin computing the transfer student's grade
point average based on courses taken at the participating
col lege.
Transfer of "D" grades. College B transfer grades of
"D" up to a maximum of three courses. No limit is placed on
the number of credits the three course maximum might represent.
College D also transfers "D" grades. In fact, College D also
transfers "F" grades. The remaining colleges participating in
the study transfer only "C" grades.
Transfer of credit by examination. Credits earned by
examination through the Advanced Placement Program or the
Co 11ege-Leve 1 Examination Program are readily transferable to
all the participating colleges. Generally, a limit of 30
credits is imposed on each program. In addition, grades are
not usually assigned for credit earned by examination.


52
American History
Analysis and Interpretation of Literature
Biology
College Algebra
Computer and Data Processing
English Composition
General Chemistry
General Psychology
Hugian Growth and Development
Introductory Calculus
Introductory Sociology
Tests and Measurements
T r i gonome t ry
Western Civilization
. . [College B] can only accept CLEP
credit for transfer that meets its
standards. (Transfer Information)
Pe rce i ved criteria. The perceptions of those interviewed
provides a more complete and comprehensive explanation of what
happens to the credits presented by transfer students at this
college.
Transfer students are required to complete those college
requirements best suited to their classification and previous
training and must earn at least six hours of credit in their
major field at this college. In addition, transfer students
are able to transfer credit toward their physical education
activity course but are required to participate during their
first semester. All students, including transfer students, are
required to attend one winter term for each year of residence.
No student can study more than two winter terms in his major
department. The winter term is a six-week period which
separates the first and second semesters.
Basically, credits in courses which receive a grade of
"C" or better transfer without difficulty. However, an experi-


41
The College Level Examination Program
(CLEP) makes it possible for students to
apply the results of the College Level
Examination for credit or placement.
The General Examination of CLEP can be
used to earn up to thirty semester hours
of credit. A score of 500 or the 50th
percentile is considered a passing score.
Credit will be awarded for the English
Composition portion after a series of
papers, prescribed by that division chairman
is written. All other credits will be
applied towards the satisfaction of the
general requirements for the bacca1 aureate
degree, but will not satisfy any specific
course requirements, (eg. HY 16 5 166, or
190). Six semester hours of credit will
be awarded for the Natural Science, Humani
ties, Mathematics, and the Social Science
History.
One kind of credit is awarded, not by
examination, but upon completion of
certain courses in foreign languages.
A student with some knowledge of French,
German or Spanish may be able to begin
study of that language here at an advanced
level. Since the sequence 201, 202, 301,
302 in all three languages consists of
composition and conversation, should a
student complete one of these courses
above 201, he will be awarded credit for
that course and those in the sequence below
it. That is, if he completes 202, he will
be awarded six hours; if he completes 301,
he will be awarded nine hours. (Catalog,
PP. 14-17)
Perceived criteria The Registrar has authority to use
his discretion in deciding which credits will transfer. He
enforces the 64 semester hour rule as published, and will not
transfer any credit with less than a grade of "C". However,
having a grade of "C" or better does not necessarily insure
that a credit or credits would transfer. Basically, the Di
rector of Admissions of this college classifies credit earned


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1 08
Criteria Relating to Recognition of Community College
Transfer Parallel Program
Junior standing. College A enjoyed in the recent past
a rather handsome enrollment of community college transfer
students. Then the State of Florida opened a new two-year
upper division college nearby and virtually drained all of
College A's community college transfer student enrollment.
College A vigorously opposed the opening of this new campus,
and in some respects is still smarting from its defeat.
This is reflected in the negative attitude of the Vice-President
for Academic Affairs toward the community college transfer
student. This is also reflected in the lack of a recruiting
program, the absence of any recognition of the Associate of
Arts degree, and a philosophy which makes recognition of
community college transfer parallel programs virtually impossible.
The Vice-President for Academic Affairs at College B
and F share a distrust of the community college and the
integrity of its program. College B's Vice-President is con
cerned about the community colleges' weakness in the natural
sciences, while his counterpart at College F has written off
the academic efforts of the community colleges as miserable
failures.
Required additional courses All of the administration
interviewed at this participating college favor additional
courses for transfer students if it is deemed approprite to
meet the students of the receiving college.


24
to be made to assist transfer students if
they are to gain real educational benefits
at the university. (pp. I83"l84)
Another serious problem confronting the community college
transfer student is the grading differentials between the [y
community college and the senior colleges. Koos (1970)
suggests that each community college should:
. . examine periodically "the grade
point differential" with each four-year
college to which a sizable number of its
students transfer . use caution in
placing dependence on the "C" grades as
the indicator of the likelihood of student
success in four-year institutions. (p. 531)
Wasson (1974) reported on the problems encountered by
the transfer student regarding the transferability of courses
from the community college to the senior college.
Warlick (1971) explored the degree of fairness with
which the institutions of higher education in Virginia were
treating the transfer student. He concluded that these insti
tutions were using a great number of regulations and require
ments which were not found in any of their published materials.
In addition, these institutions were not putting into practice
what was contained in the publications about transfer student
admissions. As a result, the transfer student's application
was being considered on the basis of criteria which were un
known to the candidate.
Podhajski (1974) reported on a study of the impact of
transfer students on the programs and native student population
at Central Connecticut State College.


73
and D. The next chapter will look at the same questions
raised in the statement of the problem regarding Colleges
E F, and G.


60
The Administration sees the community college transfer
student as a source of what could be large sums of money for
the college, but not for the reasons that one might suspect.
The college does not seek the student with plenty of money.
Instead, the college wants the student who has little or no
money and who therefore, is eligible for federal financial
assistance. Massive amounts of financial assistance are avail
able to students whose socio-economic status qualify them.
The college's experience in the past has been that the community
colleges seem to attract students with limited resources, and
who otherwise meet federal guidelines for financial assistance.
The point is vividly illustrated with the fact that 90 percent
of the total student body at this college receive some type of
financial assistance. It comes as no surprise, therefore,
that all of the interviewees actively support a rather elaborate
recruiting program aimed at the community college transfer
student.
Criteria Relating to the Transferability of Academic Credits
The following criteria were gathered by the writer by
examining College C's Bul 1e t i n admissions brochure, and from
personal contact with the President, the Vice-President for
Academic Affairs, and the Registrar/0 i rector of Admissions.
Published criteria.
Credit will be accepted only for courses
equivalent to those offered at . .
[College C] with a grade of "C" or better.
No transfer student will be given a de
gree . with less than one year's


Wa11enbarger J. L. Articulation with high school, colleges
and universities. In Student development programs in
the community junior co1 lege. Englewood Cliffs, New
Jersey: Prentice-Hall, 1972.
Wattenbarger, J. L., & Cage, B. N. More money for more
opportunity. San Francisco: Jossey-Oass, 197^*
Willingham, W. W. The no. 2 access problem: transfer to
the upper division. Washington, D. C.: American
Association for Higher Education, 1972.
Willingham, W. W., & Findikyan, N. Transfer students: who's
moving from where and what determines who's admitted.
College Board Review, 19o9, (72).


93
programs of potential service to the
metropolitan area around it insofar as
this is appropriate to an independent
institution. (Bul 1e tin, pp. 6 3 6 A)
The college is a private, independent, international and
nonsectarian institution. It receives an annual appropriation
for its medical school from public funds, but otherwise vir-
t ua11y all
0 f
i t s
support
comes from indiv
¡duals and
groups
interes ted
i n
i ts
ed u ca t i
onal and research
programs
(Bul 1et i n)
The co
1 1
ege
is fully
accredited:
. . [College G] holds active membership
in the Southern Association of Colleges
and Schools and is thereby accredited for
the Southern region and by reciprocity,
for the country. It is also an active
member of the Association of American
Colleges, Association of Caribbean Uni
versities and Research Institutes,
Association of Urban Universities,
Florida Association of Colleges and
Universities, Gulf Universities Re
search Corporation, Independent Colleges
and Universities of Florida, Inc.,
National Center for Atmospheric Research
and Oak Ridge Associated Universities.
(Bul 1e t i n p. 63)
The college is chartered in the State of Florida as a
non-profit institution and is governed by a self-perpetuating
board of trustees.
Criteria Relating to Community College Transfer Admissions
The following criteria were gathered by the writer by
examining College G's Bul 1e t i n transfer admissions brochure,
transfer admissions application, and from personal contact
with the President, the Vice-President for Academic Affairs,
an Assistant Director of Admissions, the Transfer Admissions
Officer, and the Registrar.


73
The Assistant Director of Admissions feels that an
Associate of Arts degree from any regionally accredited
community college will satisfy the college's core requirements.
Therefore, he supports the college's policy of granting junior
status to a student with an Associate of Arts degree. However,
he feels the college has the obligation to screen a transfer
student's transcript and require further courses in the lower-
level, if needed, in spite of the presence of an Associate of
Arts degree.
Criteria Relating to the Transferability of Academic Credits
The following criteria were gathered by the writer by
examining College E's Bui 1etin transfer admissions informa
tion, an evaluation of credits for a community college transfer
student, and from personal contact with the Director of Ad
missions and the Assistant Director of Admissions.
Published criteria.
TRANSFER CREDIT ACCEPTANCE POLICY
. . [College E] recognizes that
today large numbers of students
transfer from one institution to
another and believes that such
students should not incur undue
hardships in the matter of trans
ferring credit. It is also be
lieved that certain collegiate
credit should be awarded for
demonstrated knowledge not obtained
directly in the college classroom.
The University therefore has estab
lished a liberal transfer credit
acceptance policy.
A student who has paid the applica
tion fee may request an evaluation
sheet listing all credit granted in
transfer. Such an evaluation sheet


20
less than $12,000.00. Of these students A9-7 percent receive
half or less than half of the money to pay college expenses
from their families. Finally, 71.6 percent of the students
planned to transfer to a senior university, and 78.1 percent
had tentatively selected a specific academic major (pp. 1 -18).
In an earlier study, Medsker (I960) suggested that
community college transfer students generally reflect a diversity
of aptitudes, socio-economic background, marital status, and
s ex.
Academic Ability
A study completed in the late 1950s reported that avail
able facts indicate that the average academic aptitude level
of students entering two-year colleges is somewhat below that
of those who enter four-year colleges (Medsker, i960). How
ever, because of a wide range of abilities among two-year
college students, many are superior in ability to many students
in four-year institutions.
Follow-up data from a study of community college students,
who were members of a national honor society in junior college,
were analyzed and reported by Schultz (1967). A total of
2,753 students represented 72 schools in 27 states. A large
proportion of those students transferred to a senior college,
91 percent of the men and 70 percent of the women. An even
larger proportion of the students graduated, 98 percent of the
men and 90 percent of the women.
Community college students reported mean American College
Testing (ACT) composite scores which ranged from 23.3 to 8.3


30
which the appropriateness of particular
policies can be tested. (p. 5)
The report is divided into five parts: (1) admissions;
(2) evaluation of transfer courses; (3) curriculum planning;
(A) advising, counseling, and other student personnel pro
grams; and (5) articulation programs. Included in these
categories, are 27 different guidelines. Each is preceded
by a statement of the issue or problem, and followed by
recommendation and discussion.
The need for immediate progress in the area of formal
izing articulation agreements, and expanding those presently
in existence is underlined by Wattenbarger in his forward to
Kin t z e r1s Middleman in Higher Education (197 3):
In the last quarter of this century
universal opportunity for continued
education during the total lifetime
of most individuals will likely be
come a reality. As more students
complete two years of college, more
will want to complete four years.
But as more people transfer from
community colleges to upper divisions,
there will be more individual problems
to solve. (p. vii)
Middleman in Higher Education is based on data gathered
nationally on community college transfer articulation, and
identifies state and institutional articulation practices and
policies in the various states participating in the survey
(Kintzer, 1973)-
Since Middleman in Higher Education was published,
community colleges have been established, new universities have
begun to operate, and more students have been faced with


2
the 'bedrock culture* of so much of the surrounding society
on new just as it has on old, occasions" (p. 4).
2. The financial depression. After World War II,
institutions of higher education enjoyed a prosperity that
has more recently begun to allude them. The new prosperity
has quickly become the new depression, and it is likely to
endure for some time to come.
3- The demographic change. Higher education enrollments
have been growing since 16 3 6. However, the increase will not
continue (Carnegia Commission, 1973):
Enrollments of "traditional students" will
most likely decline on established campuses
in the 19801s and subsequently advance more
with, than so rapidly ahead of, the growth of
the American population. This new stage of
development comes as a great shock, a great
change of life, and creates many new problems.
It makes a first descent into a strange world
where future prospects are no longer thought
to be limitless (p. k) .
k The adjustment to universal access. Higher education
has experienced a movement from education for the elite to mass
higher education. It is presently experiencing a shift from
mass higher education to universal-access higher education.
The next transition, if it materializes, would be from universal
attendance in college. The current shift from mass higher
education to universal access involves (Carnegie Commission,
1973) :
. . the guarantee of a place for every
high school student who wishes to enter
higher education, the introduction of
more remedial work, the adaptation to


34
The Center for Economic Education was established in 1966
to mobilize the resources of the college and the community to
help advance the citizens' level of understanding of economics
and the American economic system. The services of the center
are available to area teachers at the collegiate, secondary,
and elementary levels and to various other community groups.
In 1967, the College of Fine Arts and the College of Arts
and Sciences were approved. They were joined in 1974 by a
third college, the College of Business Administration.
The student enrollment in the fall of 1974 totaled 2,259
representing 33 states and 25 foreign countries. (Catalog,
p. 7)
The college does not view itself as a research institution.
". . faculty members are concerned primarily with classroom
and laboratory instruction. Only after this duty has been met
entirely do they turn their attention to research or publish-
ing" (p. 7)- This college falls into the category of "the
lesser-known private liberal arts colleges . which create
much of the diversity within higher education . ." (Carnegie
Commission on Higher Education, 1973, p. 66).
The academic offerings (Catalog) include:
. . bachelor's degrees in more than
thirty areas of the liberal arts, the
fine arts, education, business, the
sciences, pre-medicine, pre-dentistry,
pre-law, and physical education.
. . distinctive programs in urban
studies and international affairs . .
The Master of Arts in Teaching Program
offers graduate concentrations in eight


ARTICULATION PRACTICES OF SELECTED PRIVATELY
SUPPORTED FOUR-YEAR COLLEGES WITHIN FLORIDA
INVOLVING TRANSFER STUDENTS FROM COMMUNITY COLLEGES
By
CHARLES NELSON TURNER
A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE COUNCIL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE
DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY
UNIVERSITY OF FLOR I DA
1975

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
The encouragement and continued support needed to
complete this study came from many individuals. The writer
extends grateful appreciation for this assistance. However,
a special word of thanks is given to Dr. James L. Wattenbarger
for his unwavering confidence and guidance as chairman of the
doctoral supervisory committee.
Recognition is due Dr. C. Arthur Sandeen for his
assistance in the completion of this study.
Appreciation is also extended to Dr. Ernest H.
St. Jacques for his helpful contributions.
The writer is indebted to Dr. Norman M. Wilensky for his
unending patience and understanding throughout this study.
Thanks are also due Dr. Michael Nunnery, without whose
help this study would never have "flown."
Finally, no words can express the gratitude and appre
ciation for the many expressions of love and patience given
to the writer by his wife, Nancy, and children, Chuck and
Todd. Their devotion and many personal sacrifices made it
possible to complete this study.

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ii
ABSTRACT v
CHAPTER
1 DESCRIPTION OF THE STUDY 1
Introduction 1
The Problem 5
Definition of Terms 10
Procedures 12
Organization of the Research Report I 4
11 REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND RESEARCH. . 16
The Community College Transfer Student .... 17
Articulation Agreements 29
ill DATA FROM COLLEGES A, B, C, AND D 33
Co 1 1 ege A 33
Co 1 1 ege B 46
Col 1 ege C 56
Col lege 0 64
IV DATA FROM COLLEGES E, F, AND G 74
Col lege E 74
College F 84
College G 92
V ANALYSIS OF THE DATA 102
Published Data 102
Perceived Data 1 0 4
i i i

TABLE OF CONTENTS (continued)
Page
CHAPTER
VI SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS 109
S umma ry 109
Cone 1 us i ons 1 1 8
Implications 119
APPENDIX: INTERVIEW GUIDE 122
BIBLIOGRAPHY 124
BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH
129

Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate Council
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy
ARTICULATION PRACTICES OF SELECTED PRIVATELY
SUPPORTED FOUR-YEAR COLLEGES WITHIN FLORIDA
INVOLVING TRANSFER STUDENTS FROM COMMUNITY COLLEGES
by
Charles Nelson Turner
December, 1975
Chairman: Dr. James L. V/a ttenba rger
Major Department: Educational Administration and
Supervision
Post secondary education in the United States is
challenged with many problems, none of which have easy
solutions. The problems of the 1 es ser-known private liberal
arts colleges and the large, private comprehensive colleges
and universities which create much of the diversity within
higher education and provide opportunity for middle-and-lower
income students are the subjects of this study. More specific
ally, this study looks at transfer criteria of these types of
private colleges within Florida, and examines their potential
for attracting community college transfer students as a con
structive alternative in dealing with the problems.
The purpose of this study was twofold: first, to
determine the criteria of the selected private four-year
colleges relative to: (1) the admission of the community
v

college transfer student: (2) the transferability of
academic credits earned at the community college; and (3)
the recognition of university parallel programs pursued by
transfer students at the community college. The second
purpose was to determine the difficulties, if any, encountered
by students who had transferred from the community college to
selected private four-year colleges and selected academic
administrators in each of the participating colleges. More
specifically, with reference to the second major thrust of
this study, answers were sought to the following questions:
(1 ) W h a t viere the perceptions of administrators, admissions
officials, and academic personnel in the selected private
four-year colleges regarding the extent to which the published
admissions criteria were followed in processing transfer
applications of students from the community colleges: (2)
What were the perceptions of administrators, admissions officials,
and academic personnel in the selected private four-year colleges
as to the extent to which the published criteria for determining
the transferability of academic credits earned at the community
college were actually followed; and (3) What were the percep
tions of administrators, admission officials, and academic
personnel in the selected private four-year colleges as to the
extent to which the published criteria for recognizing uni
versity parallel programs from the community colleges were
actually followed by the participating colleges?

This study provides the following conclusions:
(1) The published criteria relating to the questions
raised regarding the colleges participating in this study are
very broad and general in their scope;
(2) The general nature of the published criteria are, by
design, permitting the top echelon administrators at each
college to interpret the intent of the criteria as their
discretion deems appropriate;
(3) The perceptions and applications of the published
criteria vary extensively among the colleges participating in
the study, as well as among the administrators within a given
college.
(t) Each of the colleges participating in the study
views the community college transfer student as an asset,
and each is trying in its own way to attract the student's
attention. Some have more success than others; and
(5) Each of the colleges participating in the study is
experiencing a dilemma. On the one hand, it insists on its
independence, and on the other, it realizes thatit must give
up some of its independence to attract successfully the
community college transfer student.
v 1 1

CHAPTER I
DESCR I PTI ON OF THE STUDY
Introduction
Post secondary education in the United States is
challenged with many problems, none of which have easy
solutions. The Carnegie Commission (1973) on Higher
Education recently reported:
Higher education, after a period of
20 years following V/orld War !1 when
it attained its greatest glory through
notable achievements in schentific re
search and through expansion to serve
huge additional numbers of students, now
faces several intense crises suddenly
and almost all at once. Sustained growth
in effort and in attainments has given way
to doubts and to difficu1 ties. (p. 3)
The Carnegie Commission (1973) identified six areas
wherein the problems exist:
1 The political crisis Political activity on the
part of students and faculty has increased on campuses across
the country. This activity has oftentimes been illegal and
directed toward both policies of the various institutions and
the physical facilities of the institutions. The possibility
for new confrontation in the future exists as much as it has
in the past. "The adversary culture or cultures, so well
developed on so many campuses, almost certainly will confront

2
the 'bedrock culture* of so much of the surrounding society
on new just as it has on old, occasions" (p. 4).
2. The financial depression. After World War II,
institutions of higher education enjoyed a prosperity that
has more recently begun to allude them. The new prosperity
has quickly become the new depression, and it is likely to
endure for some time to come.
3- The demographic change. Higher education enrollments
have been growing since 16 3 6. However, the increase will not
continue (Carnegia Commission, 1973):
Enrollments of "traditional students" will
most likely decline on established campuses
in the 19801s and subsequently advance more
with, than so rapidly ahead of, the growth of
the American population. This new stage of
development comes as a great shock, a great
change of life, and creates many new problems.
It makes a first descent into a strange world
where future prospects are no longer thought
to be limitless (p. k) .
k The adjustment to universal access. Higher education
has experienced a movement from education for the elite to mass
higher education. It is presently experiencing a shift from
mass higher education to universal-access higher education.
The next transition, if it materializes, would be from universal
attendance in college. The current shift from mass higher
education to universal access involves (Carnegie Commission,
1973) :
. . the guarantee of a place for every
high school student who wishes to enter
higher education, the introduction of
more remedial work, the adaptation to

3
the interests of new groups of students
regardless of age, the substantial in
crease in total costs, and the augmen
tation of public interest and control.
(p. 5)

5 The labor market transformation. For many years,
jobs for college graduates have been taken for granted.
However, colleges have increased their capacity to train
students at a faster rate than the economy has been able to
place the graduates at the level of their training.
O'Toole (1975a) has recently examined what he calls
"this underutilization of human resources" and concludes that
it stems most clearly from dissidence and disjunctions between
the institution of education and work. In another article,
O'Toole (1975b) warns of growing evidence that this disjunction
between educational opportunity and upper-grade jobs is develop
ing into potentially grave social, political, and economic
problems. These problems include increasing class conflict,
job dissatisfaction and credentialism, decreasing economic
productivity, and dwindling public support of education and
its institutions. He suggests that the most constructive thing
that educators can do to improve the relationships between the
worlds of education and work is to stop implicitly and explicitly
selling education as an economic investment.
6. The expansion of expectations when higher education
is approaching a "stationary state." Minority groups, in
cluding women, have developed high hopes for employment oppor
tunities, at a time when the job market is suffering a rapid
dec 1 ine.

4
7. The crisis of confidence. The problems c
have collectively created a credibility gap between
education faculty members, administrators, trustees
officials with responsibility for higher education,
public at large (Carnegie Commission 1973, p. 6) .
V/hat must higher education do to deal with the
ted above
higher
pub 1ic
and the
p rob 1ems
cited above, and begin consideration of constructive change
alternatives? The Carnegie Commission (1973) suggests:
The most universally intense pressure for
change may well turn out to be the shortage
of students, as compared with places avail
able for them, particularly in the 19 8 0 1 s .
This will lead to efforts by many colleges
to enlarge their pool of potential students
by accepting more adults and more part-time
enrol lees of more community college trans
fers by four-year colleges; to greater en
deavors at competitive recruitment; and to
attempt to make each campus more attractive
by holding down tuition and by improving
programs from a student point of view. (p. 46)
The institutions now in the greatest financial
difficulty are: (a) the great research uni
versities; (b) the lesser-known private liberal
arts colleges, and (c) the large, private com
prehensive colleges and universities. Insti
tutions in the first group provide much of the
highest level skills and new ideas for American
society, the second create much of the di
versity within higher education, and the third
have been major sources of opportunity for
midd1e-and- 1ower-income students in a number
of metropolitan areas. (p. 66)
The lesser-known private liberal arts colleges and the
large, private comprehensive colleges and universities which
create much of the diversity within higher education and
provide opportunity for midd1e-and-1ower-income students are

5
the subject of this study. More specifically, this study
looks at transfer criteria of these types of private colleges
within Florida, and examines their potential for attracting
community
CO 1
lege
transfer
s tudent s
as a constructive alter
native in
dealing
with the
p rob1ems
cited above.
The
Problem
Statement
o f
the
P rob1em
The purpose of this study was twofold: first, to
determine the criteria of the selected private four-year
colleges relative to: (l) the admission of the community
college transfer student; (2) the transferability of academic
credits earned at the community college; and (3) the recogni
tion of university parallel programs pursued by transfer
students at the community college. The second purpose was to
determine the difficulties, if any, encountered by students
who had transferred from the community college to selected
private four-year colleges, as perceived by academic adminis
trators in each of the participating colleges. More specific
ally, with reference to the second major thrust of this study,
answers were sought to the following questions: (1) What were
the perceptions of administrators, admission officials, and
academic personnel in the selected private four-year colleges
regarding the extent to which the published admissions criteria
were followed in processing transfer applications of students
from the community colleges; (2) What were the perceptions of

6
administrators, admission officials, and academic personnel
in the selected private four-year colleges as to the extent
to which the published criteria for determining the transfer-
ability of academic credits earned at the community college
were actually followed; and (3) What were the perceptions of
administrators, admissions officials, and academic personnel
in the selected private four-year colleges as to the extent
to which the published criteria for recognizing university
parallel programs from the community colleges were actually
followed by the participating colleges?
Del imitations
The selected private four-year colleges that participated
in this study included the seven largest in Florida, in terms
of student enrollment and were also accredited by the Southern
Association of Colleges and Schools.
The substantive nature of the data was limited to those
criteria relative to: (l) the admission of the community
college transfer student; (2) the transferability of academic
credits earned at the community college; and (3) the recogni
tion of university parallel programs pursued by transfer
students at the community college.
The quantitative nature of the data was limited to that
which could be secured at each of the participating colleges
from documents and interviews. The interviewees viere limited
to: (1) top echelon administrators; (2) the chief admissions
officers; (3) the chief academic officers; and (A) where

7
applicable, the chief officers or designated persons from each
subordinate college, department, division or school who might
have had responsibility in terms of the questions posed in
the statement of the problem.
Limitatlons
No relationship of cause and effect should be assumed
between the practices engaged in by the participating colleges
and the difficulties, if any, which might have been encountered
by students who transferred from the community college.
The results of this study should not be generalized be
yond the participating colleges, and were subject to the in
herent shortcomings of the methodology used to gather the data,
namely, the interview and the use of documents furnished by the
participating colleges.
Justification for the Study
Florida's community college student enrollment has in
creased rapidly since the end of World War II. According to
projected figures, the increase in numbers of students attend
ing the community colleges will continue through 1930. In
1971, ^8.0 percent of the students enrolled in public colleges
within Florida attended the community college (Hale, 1971).
In 1973, that number had increased to approximately 57-5
percent of the students enrolled in public colleges in Florida
(Report for Public Community Colleges, 1973~197^ 137 5) -
The Division of Community Colleges, in their most recent
projected enrollment, estimates that by the Fall of 1930 the
Full Time Equivalent (FTE) will reach 223,^11.

8
At the University of Florida, the fall 1973 enrollment
showed that over 62 percent of the junior-level or third- ^
year students were transfers from either community colleges
or other four-year institutions across the country (St Jacques,
1973). In spite of increases in the size of freshmen classes
at four-year schools, the number of transfer students has in
creased at more than twice the freshman rate (Willingham and
Findikyan, 1 9&9)
Dialogue with informed observers indicated little, if
any, information was available that addressed the questions
raised in the above statement of the problem. Therefore, the
results of this study could serve as a body of information
which would have utility to the counselors in all post high
school institutions.
In addition, a series of studies has been completed under
the auspices of the Institute of Higher Education, University
of Florida, relating to articulation and the problems en
countered by the community college transfer student when he
moves from the two-year college to the four-year college.
More specifically, McFaddin (1971) developed a pre
dictive model for academic success for use by counselors in
providing academic guidance to students; the data indicated
that academic success is directly related to the college
(within a university) that the student enters and that Florida
Twelfth Grade Test scores generally have the greatest effect
on the accuracy of prediction. A similar study by Sitzman

9
(1972) was limited in scope to predicting the academic
success of transfer students, he found that grade point
average prior to transfer was the best predictor of academic
success.
Sistrunk (197*0 noted 36 transfer problems identified
at one or more of the six state universities surveyed for
his research project.
Medford (197*0 determined the perception of selected
community college transfer students about the contribution
of four factors to their lack of academic success. The four
factors investigated were: the community college experience;
the student's scholastic skills; the university experience;
and the student's personal circumstances.
Schafer (1970 looked at the Articulation Counseling
Offices (ACOs) in Florida, in terms of their roles, responsi
bilities, and organizational structures.
Blackvell (1975) looked at the decentralization of
the baccalaureate program into a community co1 1ege-un i versity
system to see if it created problems which were disadvantageous
to the student. He concluded that the loss in efficiency from
the decentralized baccalaureate program was .1 percent. This
relatively small loss in efficiency is attributed primarily to
Florida's articulation agreement. The expenditures for the
excess credits acquired as a result of the transfer process are
approximately $13-00 per transfer student, a nominal figure for
the advantages offered by the community colleges.

Hite (1975) studied the problems of students trans
ferring between four-year institutions. His study isolated
the problems into three areas: academic, procedural, and
extracurricular. He found that these problems translated
into inadequate academic advisement; inadequate orientation,
registration problems, and academic bureaucracy; and meeting
people and feeling at home.
In a study completed at Florida State University, Carter
(1969) focused on reverse transfer of students from university
to community colleges.
Walker (1969) reported on the academic performance of
native and transfer students in the upper division of the
University of Florida.
Nickens (1970) compared all the university native
students and community college transfer students who received
their baccalaureate degree at the end of the spring and summer
quarters, 1968, at Florida State University.
Voyles (1971) compared the academic performance of
upper division community college transfer students to that
of native students at the University of Florida.
This study, therefore, will be considered as another
contribution to this specific area of knowledge.
Definition of Terms
Admission of the community college transfer student
The process by which each of the participating colleges
approved or denied applications for admission, tendered by
students who sought to transfer from the community college.

Chief academic officer
The individual in each of the participating colleges
who had responsibility for the total academic program in
each institution.
Chief admissions officer
The individual in each of the participating colleges
who had complete responsibility for the admission of students
in each institution.
Chief officer or designated person from each subordinate
college, department, division, or school
The individual in each subordinate college, department,
division, or school of each of the participating colleges who
had direct or indirect responsibility for determining which
students would be admitted to his respective college depart
ment, division, or school within the institution.
Commun i ty college .
Two-year post-secondary educational institutions which
offered academic university parallel programs, occupational
programs, and continuing educaton programs, which were pri
marily publicly funded and publicly controlled in Florida.
Participating colleges
The seven largest institutions of higher education
within the State of Florida, in terms of student enrollment,
which were primarily privately funded, privately controlled,
offered at least the Baccalaureate degree, and were accredited
by the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools.

Transferability of academic credits earned at the
community college
The process by which each of the participating colleges
accepted or denied academic credits earned equivalent to
academic credits earned on campus' at each of the respective
participating colleges.
University parallel programs
The academic programs offered in the community college,
and designed so that students enrolled in the programs and
desiring to transfer to a four-year college, could transfer
with a minimum of difficulties, in terms of meeting program
requirements at the receiving college.
Procedures
Basis for Selecting Participating Colleges
The colleges participating in this study were selected
on the basis of their being among the seven largest institu
tions of higher education within the State of Florida, in
terms of student enrollment, which were primarily privately
funded, privately controlled, offered at least the Baccalaureate
degree, were accredited by the Southern Association of Colleges
and Schools, and demonstrated a willingness to be a participat
ing college. Anonymity was maintained throughout this study.
Sources and Collection of Pat a
The writer visited the campus of each of the participating
colleges for a period of time sufficiently long to gather data
for this study from documents and personal interviews.

13
Documents included catalogs, transfer admissions brochures,
transfer admissions applications, and other related documents.
All of these were published and generally available to the pub
lic. In addition, other documents not generally available to
the public were provided. These included copies of student
transcripts and evaluations of transferred credits of community
college transfer students.
Personal interviews were conducted by the writer. An
interview guide was used to provide structure for each inter
view, consistency among the interviews, and to solicit the
maximum of relevant data. A copy of the interview guide is
included in the appendix.
The interviewees included: (l) top echelon administrators;
(2) the chief admissions officers; (3) the chief academic
officers; and where applicable, (I) the chief officers or
designated persons from each subordinate college, department,
division, or school which had responsibility in terms of the
questions posed in. the above statement of the problem. The
rationale for the selection of the interviewees was based on
the presumption that they either participated in the formulation
of policies relevant to the study, at their respective colleges,
or they participated in the practices pursued in the execution
of those policies. In either case, they were presumed to have
personal knowledge of the data to be gathered.
Analysis of Data
The primary method of data analysis for this study was
descriptive. Data related to each major question posed in the

I
1 4
statement of the problem, which gave direction to this study,
was examined in terms of commonalities and/or differences among
the participating colleges.
Organization of the Research Report
This research report is presented in six chapters. The
first chapter is a description of the study, including: (l)
Introduction; (2) The Problem; (3) Definition of Terms;
(4) Procedures; and (5) Organization of the Research Report.
The second chapter is a review of related literature and
research. This review is presented in three separate but
interrelated parts. The first part presents the literature
which has examined the community college transfer student's
characteristics and academic ability in terms of his relative
comparison to the native university student. The second part
presents 1 iterature, relating to the problems encountered by the
transfer students as they move from one institution to another.
The third part presents literature relating to formal articu
lation agreements which are designed to eliminate or reduce
transfer problems.
The third chapter presents the data from Colleges A,
3, C, and D. More specifically, it includes: (l) a descriptive
profile of each college; (2) the published and perceived
criteria of each college relating to the admission of community
college transfer students; (3) the published and perceived
criteria of each college relating to the transferability of
academic credits earned at the community college; and (4) the

published and perceived criteria of each college relating to
the recognition of transfer parallel programs pursued by
transfer students at the community college.
The fourth chapter presents the data from Colleges E,
F, and G. More specifically, it includes: (1) a descriptive
profile of each college; (2) the published and perceived
criteria of each college relating to the admission of communi
college transfer students; (3) the published and perceived
criteria of each college relating to the transferability of
academic credits earned at the community college; and (4)
the published and perceived criteria of each college relating
to the recognition of transfer parallel programs pursued by
transfer students at the community college.
The fifth chapter provides an analysis of the data from
each of the participating colleges.
The sixth chapter summarizes the study with conclusions
and implications.

CHAPTER I I
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AMD RESEARCH
In the 1920's, the transfer student first attracted the
attention of researchers and has been the subject of continued
investigations ever since Bird (1956) reported on a series
of studies investigating the academic performance of transfer
students in particular institutions. Further illumination is
provided by Hills (1965) with his comprehensive review of
major research that had been completed through 1964.
Perhaps, the most complete review of research and
literature regarding the community college student is pre
sented in The Community College Student, by Koos (1970).
Not to be overlooked, however, is a study which identified
four major research projects concerned with the transfer student
which were comprehensive and had national relevance (Willingham,
1972) .
This review of related literature and research is pre
sented in three separate but interrelated parts. The first
part presents the literature which has examined the community
college transfer student's characteristics and academic ability
in terms of his relative comparison to the native university
student. The second part presents literature relating to the
problems encountered by transfer students as they move from one

17
institution to another. The third part presents literature
relating to formal articulation agreements which are de
signed to eliminate or reduce transfer problems.
The Community College Transfer Student
The community college transfer student is continuing to
be the subject of extensive research. His numbers are rapidly
increasing as seen by the United States Office of Education,
whose statistics reveal that the number of students entering
the community college has increased rapidly over the past two
decades, and that estimates for the future indicate that the
number of students in the community college could rise from
1.6 million in 1970yto 4.7 million students in 1980 or a maxi
mum of 12 million by that time (Wattenbarger and Cage, 1974).
Florida's community college student enrollment has also
increased rapidly since the end of World War II, keeping pace
with the national growth. From the campus of an upper division
campus (Proceedings of the International Conference, 1970) it
i s observed that:
. . some 82 percent of our student body
comes as direct graduates from an accredited
junior college in the State of Florida or the
region. At times this percentage has been
even higher. The rest of the students, for
the most part, are transfers from other in
stitutions both within and without the state.
They are a different kind of student. One
of my col leagues commented on the fact that
they are less revolutionary, that they are
highly motivated, and that they have engaged
in self-se!ection process. (p. 55)

18
A survey of entering transfer students enrolling in
state universities in the fall of 1966, including the Uni
versity of Florida and Florida Atlantic University, two of
every three transfer students had previously attended a Florida
community college (Office for Academic Affairs, Florida Board
of Regents 1967) .
In 1971, 48.0 percent of the students enrolled in public
colleges within Florida attended the community college (Hale,
1971). In Florida, the 1972 fall enrollment of transfer
students was over 11,000 in the State University System (SUS).
The transfer from Florida's own twenty-eight public community
colleges numbered over 8,000 students. In 1973, the number of
Florida community college students had increased to approxi
mately 57.5 percent of the total population of students en
rolled in public colleges (Report for Public Community Colleges,
1973-74). At the University of Florida in Gainesville, the
fall 1973 enrollment showed that over 62 percent of the junior
level or third year students were transfers from either
community colleges or other four-year institutions across the
country (St. Jacques, 1973)-
Who is this community college transfer student? What
are his characteristics? Is he different from the native
university student?
Characteristics
Knoell and Medsker (1965) provide a description of the
community college transfer student based on data gathered in a
nationwide survey:

19
In many ways the junior college transfer
student resembled what is regarded as the
typical undergraduate student in public
four-year colleges and universities, ex
cept in their social class membership.
The parents of the junior college students
were less well educated than those of the
natives, and the employment and income of
their fathers reflected this difference.
The transfer students, particularly the women,
tended to come from larger families than the
native students. They were more likely to
be self-supporting during college. Nearly
20 percent of the male transfer students re
ported that they paid nearly all of their
college costs out of their own earnings,
compared with only 8 percent of the native
students. About 40 percent of the men in
the transfer group--as against one-third of
the men in the native group--said that their
parents contributed nothing toward paying
for their college education. About three-
fourths of the transfer men and s 1 i gh 11y
fewer than half the women reported that
they used some portion of their own earn
ings from part-time and summer work to pay
for the cost of their education. Incidence
of time-consuming employment after transfer
was somewhat less than expected. Apparently
the students feared that employment would
seriously interfere with their university
studies if they were to continue it at the
same level as in junior college. About
twice as many students worked while attend
ing junior college as in the first year after
transfer; the number of hours worked per week
was also much larger in junior college. (p. 69)
A survey of 18,387 students entering Florida's community
col leges
p rovides
student,
transfer
in the fall of 1971 (Florida Board of Regents, 1972)
a socio-economic profile of the community college
including those students who expressed an intention to
to a senior institution. The survey indicates that
64.3 percent of the entering community college students were
age 18 or less, 73 percent of the students we re Caucasian, their
parents completed high school and the annual family income was

20
less than $12,000.00. Of these students A9-7 percent receive
half or less than half of the money to pay college expenses
from their families. Finally, 71.6 percent of the students
planned to transfer to a senior university, and 78.1 percent
had tentatively selected a specific academic major (pp. 1 -18).
In an earlier study, Medsker (I960) suggested that
community college transfer students generally reflect a diversity
of aptitudes, socio-economic background, marital status, and
s ex.
Academic Ability
A study completed in the late 1950s reported that avail
able facts indicate that the average academic aptitude level
of students entering two-year colleges is somewhat below that
of those who enter four-year colleges (Medsker, i960). How
ever, because of a wide range of abilities among two-year
college students, many are superior in ability to many students
in four-year institutions.
Follow-up data from a study of community college students,
who were members of a national honor society in junior college,
were analyzed and reported by Schultz (1967). A total of
2,753 students represented 72 schools in 27 states. A large
proportion of those students transferred to a senior college,
91 percent of the men and 70 percent of the women. An even
larger proportion of the students graduated, 98 percent of the
men and 90 percent of the women.
Community college students reported mean American College
Testing (ACT) composite scores which ranged from 23.3 to 8.3

21
with a score of 18 being mean, in a study of student character
istics based on data gathered in 1965 (Hoyt and Munday, 1969)
Richards and Braskamp (1969) describe the abilities of
community college students as follows:
Two-year colleges attract pragmatic
students seeking vocational training;
they are less attractive to talented
students who are intellectually and
academically oriented, who plan a
degree in one of the traditional sub
ject areas, and who expect to take
part in a wide variety of activities
in college. (p. 80)
When compared to his four-year institutional counterpart,
the community college transfer student generally has performed
less admirably academically before entering junior college.
He expresses more feelings of inferiority and shows a lower
self-esteem, but he is more practical and conventionally
oriented (Knoell and Medsker, 1965)-
Monroe (1972) adds, "The possibility for enrolling even
larger numbers of 'Pragmatic' students in the years ahead is
to be expected" (p. 190).
Junior college students have a more practical orientation
to college and to life than do their more intellectually dis
posed peers of four-year colleges. They are interested in
applied college curricula, and they expect their future satis
factions to come from business and financial success (Cross,
1968).
J The academic abilities of community college students in
Florida are not significantly different from their counterparts
in other states. Native students entering the upper division at

22
the University of Florida in 1966 had a mean score of 419
while the entering community college transfer students had a
mean score of only 317 on the Florida Twelfth Grade Placement
Test (Walker, 1969)-
Nickens (1970) found that at Florida State University/"
the mean Florida Twelfth Grade Placement score was 321 for
the community college transfer and 382 for the native university
students.
The academic success of community college students has
been summarized by Bird (1956):
Junior college transfers make records
approximately the same as those made by
transfers from four-year colleges and
by native students, sometimes excelling
slightly and sometimes being slightly
excelled by the other groups. They
usually show a drop in their grade /
average in the first term after trans*
fer but then recover that loss (2).
Junior college transfers retain the
relative scholastic standing after
transfer that they had before trans
fer. Those who originally have high
scholastic standing tend to retain
such relative standing. Likewise,
those with relative low standing tend
to remain in the lower groups. (p. 85)
In overall summary, community college transfer students
generally exhibit lower academic ability than native university
students. In addition, as a group they represent a much wider
range of abilities, preferring the pragmatic and applied
curricula.
Transfer Problems
A problem often identified by community college transfer
students concerns counseling or perhaps the lack of counseling.

23
Knoell and Medsker (1964) reported that:
The students gave much less favorable
ratings to the counseling and advising
they received in junior college, than
they did to instruction, although they
gave higher ratings to the junior colleges
than they did to counseling and advising
services offered by the four-year colleges.
Larger percentages of students said they
were not counseled either at the junior
college or after transfer; many students
reported in interviews two years after
transfer that they had not been aware
of the time they had problems of adjust
ment, nor had they been able to obtain
satisfaction from their faculty advisors,
(p. 176)
In another study, Medsker (1960) found that the two-year
college which carelessly counsels students about course re
quirements and the desired pattern to follow in the community
college is a problem which is difficult to correct without
loss of time and resources for the student.
*7
The unique needs of community college transfer students
was also recognized by Sandeen and Goodale (1972). They re
ported that:
Transfer students with everyday problems
or doubts about their motivations and
interest, seldom found help at the four-
year college and university ... It is
clear that large numbers of new transfer
students are enrolled now in our four-
year institutions of higher education,
and that they encounter special educa
tional, social, vocational and financial
problems there. Too little attention has
been focused upon these special problems
by our senior institutions and too few
programs attempt to meet these student's
needs ... If the educational impact
of our colleges is to be enhanced, transfer
students cannot simply be 'left to fend
for themselves' . special efforts need

24
to be made to assist transfer students if
they are to gain real educational benefits
at the university. (pp. I83"l84)
Another serious problem confronting the community college
transfer student is the grading differentials between the [y
community college and the senior colleges. Koos (1970)
suggests that each community college should:
. . examine periodically "the grade
point differential" with each four-year
college to which a sizable number of its
students transfer . use caution in
placing dependence on the "C" grades as
the indicator of the likelihood of student
success in four-year institutions. (p. 531)
Wasson (1974) reported on the problems encountered by
the transfer student regarding the transferability of courses
from the community college to the senior college.
Warlick (1971) explored the degree of fairness with
which the institutions of higher education in Virginia were
treating the transfer student. He concluded that these insti
tutions were using a great number of regulations and require
ments which were not found in any of their published materials.
In addition, these institutions were not putting into practice
what was contained in the publications about transfer student
admissions. As a result, the transfer student's application
was being considered on the basis of criteria which were un
known to the candidate.
Podhajski (1974) reported on a study of the impact of
transfer students on the programs and native student population
at Central Connecticut State College.

25
Willingham (1972) identified several nationally recognized
transfer problems in addition to those cited above:
(1) The need to maintain articulation regarding
curricula between the community college and the four-year
college. "One obvious problem is that this is no theory of
curriculum articulation" (p. 16). Differences between institu
tions in requirements only serve to illustrate the need for this
dialog.
(2) Ambiguous or discriminatory admissions procedures
that often treat transfer students as less desirable than new
freshmen.
(3)Transfer students often suffer a loss of credits when
they transfer. He finds himself in the crossfire of the de
bate on such items as whether "D" grades should transfer,
should vocational or technical courses transfer, and what
?
happens to former courses taken under a pass/fail system?
(A) Financial assistance is an ever present problem for
community college transfer students. Should freshman students
receive priority in the allocation of financial aid?
(5) A shortage of space in the four-year institutions
for transfer students must be dealt with. This is especially
a problem in certain individual programs. The upper division
colleges are seen by some as one solution.
Kintzer (1973) refers to a variety of problems for trans
fer students that include problems caused by the community
college, the university, or the student himself. These included

26
(1) sudden changes in the upper division curricula; (2)
insisting on exact equivalence of courses; (3) refusing to
accept occupational courses; (4) putting limitations on the
amount of credit granted in certain majors; (5) refusing to
accept a course, implying that it is inferior to the university
counterpart; (6) shifting courses from lower to upper division
while holding community colleges to specific definitions of
lower and upper divisions; and (7) limiting enrollment of
transfer students in certain programs.
Kintzer (1973) also says that the community colleges have
been accused of: (l) mixing subcollege material with college
material in courses that are labeled transfer; (2) developing
transfer courses without consulting with the senior institu
tions; (3) relying on informal communications between community
college professors and university professors rather than a
formal method of exchanging information; and (4) failing to
provide adequate transfer guidelines to students either through
the counseling staff or in print.
He concludes by pointing out the many problems caused by
the student himself by: (l) changing majors when he trans
fers; (2) making one or more false starts in his collegiate
career;, and (3) compiling a poor academic record from which it
is difficult to recover.
Sistrunk completed his study in 1974 identifying 36
transfer problems in six Florida universities. The problems
clustered into six categories: (l) articulation; (2) academic

27
counseling; (3) orientation; (4) oral and written communica
tion; (5) participation in student activities, and (6) an
attitudinal problem among some university personnel.
Wattenbarger (1972) noted that "bookkeeping" problems
are often the source of problems and frustrations for the
community college transfer student. However, bookkeeping
problems may be the product of other factors surrounding the
transfer process. These factors may include: institutional
integrity, faculty, competencies, restricted admissions
policies, equivalency of courses, planning of programs, in
dividual counseling procedures, student activities, and occu
pational objectives.
Hertig (1973) reported that basic articulation problems
stem from three primary factors. First, is a lack of mutual
professional respect and acceptance among the two- and four-
a
year college faculties; second, is the failure to recognize
the necessity of attacking articulation problems on a local
or, at most, a regional scale, rather than assuming they will
be solved on a state or federal level; and third, is the absence
of mechanisms, which allow for curricular planning and encourage
cooperation between the disciplinary counterparts from the
two- and four-year colleges.
A study completed at the University of Florida recently
looked at the roles and responsibilities of the Articulation
Counseling Office located at each of Florida's public uni
versities (Schafer, 1974). This office is responsible for

28
community college campus visitations, in addition it is
responsible for publishing a community college counseling
manual which is distributed throughout the Florida community
college system. This manual describes the college programs
offered at the four-year institutions and lists requirements and
recommendations for transfer students.
Blackwell (1975) looked at the decentralization of the
baccalaureate program into a community co11 ege-un i versity
system to see if it created problems which were disadvantageous
to the student. He concluded that the loss in efficiency from
the decentralized baccalaureate program was .1 percent. This
relatively small loss in efficiency is attributed primarily to
Florida's articulation agreement. The expenditures for the
excess credits acquired as a result of the transfer process
are approximately $ 13-00 per transfer student, a nominal figure
for the advantages offered by the community college.
Hite (1975) studied the problem of students transferring
between four-year institutions. His study isolated the prob
lems into three areas: academic, procedural, and extra
curricula. He found that these problems translated into in
adequate academic advisement; inadequate orientation, regis
tration problems, and academic bureaucracy; and meeting people
and feeling at home.
In summary, community college transfer students are ex
periencing a variety of problems as they move from the two-
year college to the four-year college. Some of these problems

29
have received the attention needed to begin progress toward
solutions. However, solutions are not easy. The next part
of the review looks at the use of formal articulation agree
ments as a possible solution to transfer problems.
Articulation Agreements
Kintzer (1973) noted that:
Organized efforts are underway in at
least half of the fifty states to de
velop articulation agreements to es
tablish machinery for the smooth trans
fer of students from the community/
junior colleges to universities and
senior colleges. (p. 37)
"In the past, articulation machinery has been inadequate
at best"
is being
(Knoell and Medsker, 1965,
done to develop guidelines
p. 97). However, work
to improve the function
ality of articulation agreements
an equitable experience for all.
and make the transfer process
Perhaps
Commit tee on
the best example of this effort is the Joint
Junior and Senior Colleges Publications (1966).
Guidelines were published by this organization whose member
ship includes the American Association of Junior Colleges, and
the Association of American Colleges, the American Association
of Collegiate Registrars and Admissions Officers. The major
purpose of the Gui de 1 ? nes is:
. . to provide a framework with.in
which junior and senior colleges,
singly and cooperatively, can develop
specific policies governing transfer
between and among institutions. The
Gui de 1 ine s are not intended to be a
substitute for local and state policies,
but instead, a set of principles against

30
which the appropriateness of particular
policies can be tested. (p. 5)
The report is divided into five parts: (1) admissions;
(2) evaluation of transfer courses; (3) curriculum planning;
(A) advising, counseling, and other student personnel pro
grams; and (5) articulation programs. Included in these
categories, are 27 different guidelines. Each is preceded
by a statement of the issue or problem, and followed by
recommendation and discussion.
The need for immediate progress in the area of formal
izing articulation agreements, and expanding those presently
in existence is underlined by Wattenbarger in his forward to
Kin t z e r1s Middleman in Higher Education (197 3):
In the last quarter of this century
universal opportunity for continued
education during the total lifetime
of most individuals will likely be
come a reality. As more students
complete two years of college, more
will want to complete four years.
But as more people transfer from
community colleges to upper divisions,
there will be more individual problems
to solve. (p. vii)
Middleman in Higher Education is based on data gathered
nationally on community college transfer articulation, and
identifies state and institutional articulation practices and
policies in the various states participating in the survey
(Kintzer, 1973)-
Since Middleman in Higher Education was published,
community colleges have been established, new universities have
begun to operate, and more students have been faced with

31
problems of transferring from one college to another. There
fore, Kintzer has updated his study via a monograph published
by the University of Florida, Institute of Higher Education,
as part of its series relating to articulation (Kintzer, 1975)
As early as 1965, the University of Miami provided a
remarkable example of a private institution which was respond
ing to the transfer needs of both local and public community
colleges and nationally known private two-year colleges. The
University first expanded its articulation program in response
to the establishment of Miami-Dade Community College and
Florida Atlantic University, both of which were located nearby.
More recently, a program of new scholarships for transfer
students from community colleges was established. Through a
private institution, Miami was attempting to serve the fast
growing community college movement in Florida by working with
Miami-Dade Community College and others within the state in
terested in Miami's programs (Knoell and Medsker, 1965).
Trivett (197*0 concluded that the private institutions
are still responding to the transfer student, who is seen by
the private institutions as a source of new blood and much
needed money. Outreach recruiting programs to encourage trans
fer student enrollment have been established independently of
each other at both American University in Washington, D. C.
and Hamline University in St. Paul, Minnesota.
Summary
The first part of this review examined the community
college transfer student's characteristics and academic ability

32
in terms of his relative comparison to the native university
student. The second part looked at the vast and varied
problems encountered by transfer students as they move from
one institution to another. And finally, the review noted
some efforts which are underway to promote and expand articu
lation agreements which are designed to eliminate or reduce
transfer prob1ems.
If all of these studies have one thing in common, other
than that they are concerned with transfer students, it is
that they all are primarily concerned with public institutions
of higher education. However, their conclusions may be equally
applicable to the private colleges, both two-year and four-year.
Moreover, the abundance of transfer problems in the public
institutions are likewise reflected in private institutions.
Therefore, efforts to develop and expand articulation agreements
for the reasons cited above, are equally needed in the private-
institution' of higher education.

CHAPTER I I I
DATA FROM COLLEGES A, B, C, AND D
College A
Description of the College
This college is a private, independent, coeducational
institution with a 273_acre campus located in northeast
Florida. It was chartered in the spring of 193* by the
State of Florida:
to furnish an opportunity for citizens . .
to obtain a standard collegiate education
without leaving the city; to fill the need
for a center of culture and cultural back
ground ... to operate as a non-profit
institution, thereby enabling students to
obtain a good education at a minimum cost.
(Catalog, p. 6)
The college began initially as a junior college and
operated as a junior college for 22 years. In 1956, the
college was expanded to four-year status.
The Southern Association of Colleges and Schools accredited
the college in 1961. In 1963, the School of Nursing was es
tablished and offered the Associate of Arts in Nursing degree.
However, the program was discontinued in 1963. Graduate studies
were begun in 1964, offering the Master of Arts in Teaching
Program.
33

34
The Center for Economic Education was established in 1966
to mobilize the resources of the college and the community to
help advance the citizens' level of understanding of economics
and the American economic system. The services of the center
are available to area teachers at the collegiate, secondary,
and elementary levels and to various other community groups.
In 1967, the College of Fine Arts and the College of Arts
and Sciences were approved. They were joined in 1974 by a
third college, the College of Business Administration.
The student enrollment in the fall of 1974 totaled 2,259
representing 33 states and 25 foreign countries. (Catalog,
p. 7)
The college does not view itself as a research institution.
". . faculty members are concerned primarily with classroom
and laboratory instruction. Only after this duty has been met
entirely do they turn their attention to research or publish-
ing" (p. 7)- This college falls into the category of "the
lesser-known private liberal arts colleges . which create
much of the diversity within higher education . ." (Carnegie
Commission on Higher Education, 1973, p. 66).
The academic offerings (Catalog) include:
. . bachelor's degrees in more than
thirty areas of the liberal arts, the
fine arts, education, business, the
sciences, pre-medicine, pre-dentistry,
pre-law, and physical education.
. . distinctive programs in urban
studies and international affairs . .
The Master of Arts in Teaching Program
offers graduate concentrations in eight

35
major areas, and . "combined plans"
with Columbia University and Georgia
Institute of Technology in the field
of engineering. The addition of new
academic programs and the expansion of
existing programs, at both the under
graduate and graduate levels, are in
cluded in the University's $26 million
long-range development plan announced
in the fall of 1970. Particular emphasis
will be given to expanded offerings in
the field of business administration, urban
studies, the marine sciences, and education.
(p. 7)
The college's statement of purpose was adopted by the
Board of Trustees in 1971 and reads as follows:
. . purpose is to help its students to
gain an understanding and appreciation of
the broad fields of knowledge and a rela
tive masters of a major area of study; to
acquire the incentive and the skills for
a meaningful career and for a continuing
intellectual activity throughout life; to
develop the abilities to think creatively
and imaginatively; to make discriminating
judgements; to adopt to new circumstances;
and finally, to act responsibly. (Catalog ,
p. 6)
Criteria Relating to Community College Transfer Admissions
The following criteria were gathered by the writer by
examining College A's Catalog, transfer admissions brochure,
transfer admissions application, and from personal contact
with the President, the Vice-President for Academic Affairs,
the Director of Admissions, and the Registrar.
Published criteria.
ADMISSION. [College A]. . does not make
the religious tenets, the race, the sex,
or the national origin of any person a
condition of admission, nor does it dis
criminate in any way in respect to re
ligion, race, sex, or national origins.

36
The University seeks good students ir
respective of any such classification.
New students are eligible for admission
at the beginning of the fall and winter
semesters and the spring and summer
sessions. The application for admission
and all supporting papers should be sub
mitted at least thirty days before the
date of registration for any term to allow
adequate time for processing.
TRANSFER ADMISSION. A candidate for ad
mission to [College A] . who has
attended other recognized colleges or
universities must: (l) arrange for
official transcripts to be sent directly
to the Director of Admissions from the
Registrar of each institution attended,
(2) have the dean of students (at the
last college attended as a full-time
student) or other appropriate official
at his college submit a recommendation
concerning his character and general
fitness to continue university work,
(3) if at time of application, the can
didate has not completed one full term
of academic work equal to fifteen semester
hours, also completed all requirements as
requested of a freshman candidate, and (4)
if requested, present a
stitution from which he
1 n
student must have a "C"
good standing
catalog of the
transfers. A
average or better
and eligible to
and be in
return to the institution from which he
proposes to transfer. (Catalog, pp. 8-10)
Perceived criteria. The interviewees as a group generally
feel that those criteria regarding transfer admissions which
were published, were of general nature and provided for flexi
bility in interpretation. The Director of Admissions, who has
complete authority to admit transfer students to the college,
also has complete authority to use his discretion in inter
preting the appropriate application of the published criteria.

37
The Vice-President for Academic Affairs noted that the
published criteria include no distinction between a student who
transfers from a community college and one who transfers from
a four-year college. He feels that this is as it should be and
therefore, justifies the absence in the published criteria of
any reference to the Associate of Arts degree as being signifi
cant to transfer process. He strongly urges no deviation from
the nC" average requirement, suggesting that to do so would be
to place in jeopardy the academic integrity of his college's
program. He maintains that letters of recommendation still
serve a useful purpose, reflecting a candid assessment of a
student's success potential. In an extension of the published
criterion requiring official transcripts, he views the transfer
student's rank in his high school class as especially significant
as a predictor of success in college.
With the regard to the community college student as a
source of new student enrollment, potential, and therefore,
also a source of new much needed money, he is not impressed.
In his view, to recruit the community college student is
costly and often unproductive. He is convinced that the reason
the student attended the community college in the first place,
which in his judgment was lack of money, would also work to
preclude an interest in transferring to a private college. He
does not feel that the community college transfer student is
at an academic disadvantage or functions below expectations at
the private college, once he is able to muster the finances.

38
To illustrate his point, he notes that the majority of
community college transfer students in attendance at his college
are academically successful, but are there only because they
are on full athletic scholarships.
The President at this college views the community college
transfer student as a legitimate solution to the enrollment
decline being felt at the time of this study. He views the
college's vigorous recruitment program as not only desirable,
but essential. And rationalizes the apparent lack of the
program's success as being the result of not having identified
an appropriate recruiting method. The lure of athletic glory
is an appropriate recruiting method, but unfortunately is not
universally applicable. He expresses hope that perhaps this
study might address the problem.
In still another interview, the Director of Admissions
perceives the criteria for transfer admission to be more flexible
than did the others. He feels that the reference to other
recognized colleges in the published criteria include virtually
any college that is accredited by a legitimate accrediting agency,
such as the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools. He
would not, however, define "a legitimate accrediting agency."
He feels that the published criterion requiring a "C" average or
better is the ideal and functionally, only suggestive. A "C"
average is one factor to be considered, but should not alone be
conclusive. He perceives any discipline problems in a student's
past as a negative factor, but again not conclusive. In other

39
words, he supports his college's published criterion requiring
a transfer student to submit a recommendation from the Dean
of Students at the student's last college attended, but notes
that while he wants to know about the student's past, a negative
recommendation would not necessarily preclude a favorable
decision on the student's application. He agrees with others
that a student in possession of an Associate of Arts degree
enjoys no special consideration. However, he has some mis
givings about the absence of recognition of the Associate of
Arts degree indicated that he might support a policy change
making such recognition a factor in transfer admission.
Criteria Relating To The Transferability Of Academic Credits
The following criteria were gathered by the writer by
examining College A's Catalog, transfer admissions brochure,
an evaluation of credits for a community college transfer
student, and from personal con.tact with the President, the
Vice-Presideqt for Academic Affairs, the Director of Admissions
and the Registrar.
Published criteria.
In general, courses completed at other
institutions approved by the regional
accrediting agency are acceptable in
transfer if they are comparable to
courses offered at . [College A]
and were completed with grades of "C"
or better. Any work transferred to
. . [College A] will be entered as
hours earned only, and will not be used
in the computation of the . [College
A] average. The maximum number of credits
that may be accepted in transfer from a
junior collegeis sixty-four semester hours.

40
The final sixty-four semester hours must
be completed at a senior college. The
final thirty semester hours toward a
bachelor's degree must be completed at
. . [College A].
A student who is a degree candidate at
another institution and wishes to attend
the spring or summer session at . .
[College A] for transfer credit may
arrange with his registrar to submit a
letter of good standing to . .
[College A]. This letter serves as a
substitute for the transcript required
from the other students.
TRANSFER CREDITS. A student who wishes
to take one or more courses at another
college for transfer credit to . .
[College A] and remain a degree candidate,
must obtain written permission in advance
for the specific courses from the Registrar
or College Dean at . .[College A]. No
transfer credits are allowed from junior
colleges beyond the level of sixty-four
semester hours. That is, once a student
has accumulated sixty-four semester hours
of college credit no additional hours may
be transferred to . [College A] from
a junior college. (Catalog, p. 10)
OPPORTUNITIES FOR COLLEGE CREDIT OR
EXEMPTION. Qualified students may receive
college credit, or exemption from some
course requirements, on the basis of satis
factory performance on proficiency examina
tions. A student may secure specific infor
mation on proficiency examinations by inquir
ing at the office of the division chairman
involved.
The examinations taken in the Advanced Place
ment Program sponsored by the College Entrance
Examination Board will give college credit to
those students who have passed one or more ad
vanced placement examinations with grades of
5, 4, or 3 [College A] . credit will
be allowed in courses most nearly equivalent to
the material covered in the Advanced Placement
P rog ram.

41
The College Level Examination Program
(CLEP) makes it possible for students to
apply the results of the College Level
Examination for credit or placement.
The General Examination of CLEP can be
used to earn up to thirty semester hours
of credit. A score of 500 or the 50th
percentile is considered a passing score.
Credit will be awarded for the English
Composition portion after a series of
papers, prescribed by that division chairman
is written. All other credits will be
applied towards the satisfaction of the
general requirements for the bacca1 aureate
degree, but will not satisfy any specific
course requirements, (eg. HY 16 5 166, or
190). Six semester hours of credit will
be awarded for the Natural Science, Humani
ties, Mathematics, and the Social Science
History.
One kind of credit is awarded, not by
examination, but upon completion of
certain courses in foreign languages.
A student with some knowledge of French,
German or Spanish may be able to begin
study of that language here at an advanced
level. Since the sequence 201, 202, 301,
302 in all three languages consists of
composition and conversation, should a
student complete one of these courses
above 201, he will be awarded credit for
that course and those in the sequence below
it. That is, if he completes 202, he will
be awarded six hours; if he completes 301,
he will be awarded nine hours. (Catalog,
PP. 14-17)
Perceived criteria The Registrar has authority to use
his discretion in deciding which credits will transfer. He
enforces the 64 semester hour rule as published, and will not
transfer any credit with less than a grade of "C". However,
having a grade of "C" or better does not necessarily insure
that a credit or credits would transfer. Basically, the Di
rector of Admissions of this college classifies credit earned

42
at another college into four categories: (1) credits earned
at another college in a course which is deemed equal to a
course at this college in terms of course content and quality
of instruction; (2) credits earned at another college in a
course which corresponds to a similar course at this college
in terms of content and quality of instruction, but is not a
course for which this college gives credit; (3) credits earned
at another college in a course which is not offered at this
college, but one for which this college would give credit if
it were offered at this college, and one for which this college
would not give credit if it were offered.
Credits in the first category transfer easily, and
generally include those courses classified as academic such as
English, Physics, etc. Credits in the second category do not
transfer, and for the most part include self-enrichment courses
3
such as typing. The third category credits transfer as do the
first category credits because like the first category, it
covers courses which are academic, but beyond what the typical
small private four-year college offers. These include special
ized courses in language, specialized courses in nuclear science,
or specialized courses in professional fields such as law,
medicine, or dentistry. The fourth category covers credits
which do not transfer. These credits generally include voca
tional and technical courses such as welding, automobile,
mechanics and carpentry.

43
Therefore, a student may present credits with a grade of
"C" or better which will not transfer because they fall into
either the second or the fourth categories.
A policy change which would drop the required grade to
transfer a course from "C" or better to a "D" is seriously
being considered by the Administration at this college. The
rationale offered by the proponents is that native students
are given credits for courses in which they receive a "D",
and to require a "C" or better for transfer students is to
discriminate against the transfer students in favor of the
native student. It is further agreed that transfer students
are being penalized for their mobility. The writer found that
had the question been called during his visit, the policy change
would have prevailed.
The Vice-President for Academic Affairs feels that
students who transfer from a community college, enter this
college with a handicap. The rationale being that this
college subscribes to an academic philosophy which provides
that a student should incorporate courses in his major field
of study into each of his four years, and that the freshman and
sophomore years should not be reserved exclusively for general
courses, leaving one's major for his junior and senior years.
Since the academic transfer programs at most community colleges
are general in their scope, the students who transfer to this
college from the community college often find it difficult to
schedule all of the necessary courses in their major field dur
ing their last two years.

In addition to transferring credits earned through course
work at another college, transfer students could also have
transferred credits earned through the College Level Examina
tion Program (CLEP) of the College Board. This was perceived
as a legitimate and acceptable method for advanced students to
earn credits, and was not inconsistent with this college's
phi losophy.
Criteria Relating to Recognition of Community College
Transfer Parallel Programs
As the writer found no published criteria relating to
community college transfer parallel programs in any of the
documents from this college, the following criteria were
gathered by the writer exclusively from personal contact with
the President, the Vice-President for Academic Affairs, the
Associate Director of Admissions, and the Registrar. These
interviews did provide some insight, through the perceptions
of the interviewees, as to what the position of the college
might be regarding community college transfer parallel programs
Moreover, it should be noted that while the following
criteria do not represent the official published position of
the college, one should not discount the probability that the
perceptions of those interviewed do in reality represent, ex
cathedra, the official position of the college because of the
obvious influence the President, the Vice-President for Academi
Affairs, the Director of Admissions, and the Registrar have on
the policy of the college.
Perceived criteria. The administration of this college
does not recognize community college transfer parallel programs

^5
The Vice-President for Academic Affairs sums it up by point
ing out that community college transfer parallel programs re
quire students to complete all of their general education
courses during the freshman and sophomore years, as the
community college, for the most part, only offers general edu
cation courses. This means, therefore, that community college
students have to complete their major courses during the junior
and senior years, after they have transferred to a four-year
college. He continued with an explanation that his college
requires native students to declare their major as a freshman
and pursue major courses throughout the four years of the degree
program. Therefore, he concludes, one can easily see that
community college transfer parallel programs are incompatible
with the philosophy of this college.
The Director of Admissions feels that recognition of
community college transfer parallel programs amounts to nothing
more than his college advising prospective community college
transfer students as to which courses at the community college
will readily transfer to this college. He sees no need for
cooperation between the community college and his college,
because all contact is with the students. Since it is the
student's responsibility to initiate the dialog, this pre
counseling program is not very successful for his college
feels very little commitment to pursue it.
Another point is made by the Registrar which illustrates
the apparent lack of confidence this college has in the

A6
judgement of the community college to determine what should
appropriately constitute a transfer students first two
years of college study. He notes that the community college
is pursuing a different objective with its community based
concept and its open door policies.
College B
Description of the Col lege
This college is the oldest private institution of higher
education in Florida having been established in 1883 as an
Academy and later becoming a University in 1889. Its College
of law, Florida's first law school, was established in 1900.
It is co-educationa1 and church-re1 ated.
The campus is located in central Florida's cattle and
citrus region in a residential city of approximately 12,000.
Its 80-acre main campus contains the College of Liberal Arts,
the School of Music and the School of Business Administration.
Its College of Law is located on a separate 35-acre campus in
a large urban setting.
The President speaks of the purposes of this college:
. . a Christian university of the highest
possible standards of academic excellence,
one that encourages free and honest inquiry,
acceptance of responsibility, and student
involvement in the university affairs. It
affirms the knowledge of God and man as re
vealed in Jesus Christ and seeks to demon
strate that Christian faith provides an ex
cellent foundation for the University. Our
goal is to educate young people to take their
place in the world adequately prepared in
their vocations, responsible in the fulfill
ment of their obligations and sensitive to the

47
needs of the world in which they live.
We urge our students to develop their
intellectual capacities and to commit
themselves to . the search for truth
and spiritual values . For God and
Truth--is the vital principle which guides
our search. (Bul 1 e t i n p. 5)
Its faculty, highly qualified and widely recognized for
significant research and publication, is primarily committed
to the idea of a teaching university (Bul 1 e t ? n p. 22). This
is especially interesting in light of the fact that 70 percent
of its 111 faculty members hold a doctorate degree (Story, p. 2)
The college is fully accredited by the Southern Associa
tion of Colleges and Schools, the American Bar, the National
Association of Schools of Music and the National Council for
the Accreditation of Teacher Education. It is a member of the
Southern University Conference, the Association of American
Colleges, the Florida Association of Colleges and Universities,
the American Council on Education, the Association of American'
Law Schools, the American Association of Colleges for Teacher
Education and is approved by the American Association of Uni
versity Women (Bul 1e t i n p. 23).
The student enrollment totals 1900 undergraduates,
representing 1100 men and 800 women from 42 states and 14
countries. An additional 800 students are enrolled in the
College of Law, the Graduate Division and extension programs
(Story, p. 2).
The academic offerings include:
. . the Bachelor of Arts and Bachelor
of Science degrees in the College of

Liberal Arts; the Bachelor of Music and
Bachelor of Music in Education, as well
as the Bachelor of Business Administra
tion and the Master of Business Adminis
tration in the School of Business Admin
istration.
The Graduate Division offers the Master
of Education degree . and the College
of Law offers the Juris Doctor (J.D.)
degree. (Story, p. 3)
Criteria Relating to Community College Transfer Admissions
The following criteria were gathered by the writer by
examining College B's Bul 1etin, transfer admissions brochure,
transfer admissions application, and from personal contact
with the President, the Vice-President for Academic Affairs,
the Assistant Director of Admissions, and the Registrar.
Published criteria.
ADMISSIONS INFORMATION . [College B]
selects its students on the basis of
academic ability and performance, character,
health, and promise of leadership. The Ad
missions Committee gives careful considera
tion to evidence of desirable character and
personality, and to ability and interest in
achieving a college education.
Applicants must satisfactorily complete a
college preparatory program in high school,
including a minimum of four years of English,
three years of mathematics, and seven other
academic courses. Applicants should have
taken science and social studies courses to
complete a college preparatory curriculum.
In addition, Liberal Arts students should
have at least two years of a foreign language.
The mathematics requirements may be waived
for music majors.
TRANSFER STUDENTS. An applicant from an
accredited college, who has an acceptable
academic record, may apply . if he is
in good stnading with and eligible to re
turn to his own college. The transfer

49
applicant must submit a return-e1 i g i bi 1 i ty
statement, his transcript, a completed
secondary school record and Recommendation
Form to the . Director of Admissions.
All transfer students must submit SAT
scores of the CEE8 or ACT scores. Transfer
applicants who have taken these tests earlier
may submit scores from those tests. Courses
equivalent to those at . ., graded "C" or
better, will be accepted for credit. Appli
cants from non accredited colleges may be
accepted provisionally, and credit must be
validated by a year of full-time academic
work (32 semester hours in residence at an
accredited college, with an average of "C").
(Bul 1etin pp. 51-52)
Pe rcei ved c ri te ria. The writer has learned that the
ambiguity found in the published criteria regarding transfer
admissions is no accident. By design the college has left its
options open and has avoided a definition of acceptable academ
record. For the same reasons, it has also failed to publish
minimum acceptable SAT and/or ACT scores. The interviewees
differ in their definition of acceptable academic record. For
the same reasons, it has also failed to publish minimum accept
able SAT and/or ACT scores. One maintains that a average
is all that is necessary. Another feels that a *1B11 average is
required. And still a third accepts a "C" average, but much
prefers a student with a "B" average. This is interesting in
as much as two of these interviewees have direct input into
decisions on transfer admissions.
Basically, the community college transfer student is
viewed by the Administration as an asset with varying degrees
of commitment as to what the posture of the college ought to
be toward the transfer student. One administrator favors

50
granting special concessions to the transfer student who has
received the Associate of Arts degree by granting an admission
with little, if any, questions. He feels that they have as
good a chance for continued college success as any native
student in the junior or senior years. However, when questioned
as to whether he would support a commitment by his college to
adhere voluntarily to the terms and conditions of the articula
tion agreement approved in 1971 by Florida's Community College
system and the State University system, he hedged. He observed
that the articulation agreement referred to covers a great deal
more than just admissions. He suggests that its terms are too
restrictive and inconsistent with the independence of the pri
vate college.
The Vice-President for Academic Affairs at this college
is "glad" to have community college transfer students. But
far from being willing to grant a carte blanche admittance, he
feels that their credentials should be carefully screened. He
bases this idea on what he says is the fact that the academic
caliber of community colleges in Florida varies from campus to
campus, and such scrutiny is needed to guard against the
Associate of Arts degree that is awarded on the basis of in
flated grading practices at some colleges.
The Assistant Director of Admissions favors transferring,
but from the private college to the public college. His
rationale is that for reasons of tradition and finances, most
private colleges have stayed with the classical liberal arts

51
type of education, and have left the specialization development
to public colleges. He suggests that students would be wise
to attend a private college for the freshman and sophomore
years to acquire the best liberal arts foundation. Then, on
to a publicly funded college for study in one's specialty.
In the final analysis, the Administration feels very
strongly that in reality no certain criteria exists, and in
fact, the discretion of the Admissions Committee prevails.
Criteria Relating to the Transferability of Academic Credits
The following criteria were gathered by the writer by
examining College B's Bul 1e tin transfer admissions brochure,
and evaluation of credits for a community college transfer
student, and from personal contact with the President, the
Vice-President for Academic Affairs, the Assistant Director of
Admissions, and the Registrar. *
Pub 1 i shed criteria.
INTRODUCTION . [College B] welcomes
qualified transfer students from accred
ited junior colleges and four-year pro
grams.
TRANSFER OF CREDITS. Transfer candidates
who have earned the A.A. degree from accre
dited community colleges in Florida shall
be awarded full credit for all university
parallel work completed with "C" grades and
up to three courses of "D" credit, provided
their overall average is "C" (2.00). Trans
fer candidates from accredited senior
colleges and universities shall be awarded
up to three courses of "D" credit, provided
they have an overall "C" average.
CLEP POLICY . [College B] accepts CLEP
scores for transfer in excess of 550 on the
general examination. V/e also give credit
for 14 subject areas.

52
American History
Analysis and Interpretation of Literature
Biology
College Algebra
Computer and Data Processing
English Composition
General Chemistry
General Psychology
Hugian Growth and Development
Introductory Calculus
Introductory Sociology
Tests and Measurements
T r i gonome t ry
Western Civilization
. . [College B] can only accept CLEP
credit for transfer that meets its
standards. (Transfer Information)
Pe rce i ved criteria. The perceptions of those interviewed
provides a more complete and comprehensive explanation of what
happens to the credits presented by transfer students at this
college.
Transfer students are required to complete those college
requirements best suited to their classification and previous
training and must earn at least six hours of credit in their
major field at this college. In addition, transfer students
are able to transfer credit toward their physical education
activity course but are required to participate during their
first semester. All students, including transfer students, are
required to attend one winter term for each year of residence.
No student can study more than two winter terms in his major
department. The winter term is a six-week period which
separates the first and second semesters.
Basically, credits in courses which receive a grade of
"C" or better transfer without difficulty. However, an experi-

53
mental program is underway which permits transfer students
to transfer a maximum of three courses which received a grade
of MD" or better without difficulty. The purpose of this
program is to encourage transfer students to transfer to this
college as opposed to another which would not accept "D"
grades for transfer students, The policy does not specify
how many credit hours can be transferred, only courses.
According to one source, the policy is soon to be discarded
as ineffective andunproductive. He feels that transfer
students do not decide which college they will transfer to on
the basis of being able to transfer three courses. Instead,
he is convinced that other factors generally prevail in that
decision, some or all of which are totally unrelated to the
transfer of academic credits.
Students who plan to transfer to this college from a
community college are encouraged to do so at the end of their
freshman year. It is felt that this early transfer maximizes
the flexibility in scheduling courses in one's major field,
even though students have the option of taking their general
courses during the freshman and sophomore years or declaring
a major and taking courses therein as early as their freshman
year.
Generally, students are unable to transfer vocational
and technical courses taken at a community college. In addi
tion, any courses taken at another college which do not have
a similar corresponding course at this college, in terms of
course content and quality of instruction, are not accepted for

54
transfer credit. This is true even if a UC" grade or better
was earned.
Criteria Relating to Recognition of Community College
Transfer Parallel Programs
As the writer found no published criteria relating to
community college transfer parallel programs in any of the
documents from this college, the following criteria were
gathered by the writer exclusively from personal contact with
the President, the Vice-President for Academic Affairs, the
Associate Director of Admissions, and the Registrar. These
interviews did provide some insight, through the perceptions
of the interviewees, as to what the position of the college
might be regarding community college transfer parallel programs.
Moreover, it should be noted that while the following
criteria do not represent the official published position of
the college, one should not discount the probability that the
perceptions of those interviewed do in reality represent, ex
cathedra, the official position of the college because of the
obvious influence the President, the Vice-President for Academic
Affairs, the Assistant Director of Admissions, and the Registrar
have on the policy of the college.
Perceived criteria. The Administration here do not feel
that it formally or informally recognizes any community college
transfer parallel program. But is quick to add that most any
program perceived at the community college as being parallel
will in fact transfer. The college engages in no pre-counseling
of students who expect to transfer. Instead, according to the

55
Assistant Director of Admissions, the college feels it is
the student's responsibility to ascertain what will be required
of him based on the program he wishes to enter.
The Administration is insistent that the college does
not want to be obligated to recognize a transfer program, the
contents of which are not subject to its approval.
This attitude is perceived by the interviewees as illus
trative of the private college's insistence on its independence.
This college permits its students to declare their major
at any point, not later than the junior year. Therefore, the
administration does not feel that the transfer parallel program
at the community college will necessarily be incompatible with
the philosophy of this college.
The Vice-President for Academic Affairs expresses concern
about what he views as problems for which solutions should be
sought before he will support an official policy recognizing
any community college transfer parallel program. One problem is
that, as he sees it, the quality of the academic program varies
considerably among the community colleges. And he feels this
necessitates being highly selective as to which transfer parallel
program should be recognized. He expresses concern that some
community colleges have established a reputation for granting
inflated grades that are no candid measure of their students'
performance. And finally, he feels that the community colleges
simply are not parallel in some areas such as pre-med. He
thinks the community colleges are weak in the behavioral sciences,

56
but is satisfied that they offer parallel programs in the
humanities, English, and History.
College C
Description of the College
This college is located in northeast Florida amid a
surrounding metropolitan area of 100,000. The college is
unique with its combination of location and educational advan
tages. On the east coast, the college has within ready access
forests, lakes, the world's most famous beaches, unique geo
logical phenomena, ruins of the earliest Indian cultures, and
is within 100 miles of the Kennedy Space Center, Walt Disney
World, and Marineland.
The college campus and grounds consist of 40 acres of
land. The college plant is valued at over $8,000,000 (Bul 1etin,
p. ID.
The college is the result of a merger in 1923 of two
Florida institutions: an institute for boys of Jacksonville,
founded in 1872, and the Daytona Normal and Industrial Institute
for Girls of Daytona Beach, founded in 1904. Upon the merger
in 1923 the institution was taken over by the Board of Education
of the Methodist Church. The dual program of high school and
junior college work was discontinued and the entire emphasis
was placed on the two-year program. In 1941, a four-year
college degree program in liberal arts and teacher training was
instituted, and two years later in 1943 the first group of
graduates received their Bachelor of Science Degree in Elemen
tary Education.

57
In 19^7 the college received an "Au rating by the
Southern Association of Colleges and Schools and Florida
State Department of Education. In 19&0 the college was voted
into full membership in the Southern Association of Colleges
and Schools ( Bul 1e t i n p. 10).
The college has had three presidents. The current
president speaks to the purpose of the college:
. . [College C] is dedicated to some
thing more than giving people knowledge
alone. Its program includes, spiritual
ideals, character building, health in
mind and body. It believes in life-
centered activities and urges its
students to plan for themselves back
into their local communities or to carry
forward in the needy centers of the world.
In other words, each student should hi ave
a sense of mission when he is well edu
cated .
An educated person is socially responsible,
critical of his times, adventuresome in his
profession, creative in the moral and spir
itual realm, a lover of that trinity of
va 1 ues--truth, beauty, and goodness.
(Bul 1e t i n p. 9)
The academic offerings include:
. . the Bachelor of Arts degree in
English, History, Modern Languages, Music,
Religion, and Philosophy, or Sociology--
or the Bachelor of Science degree in
Biology, Business, Chemistry, Elementary
Education, Mathematics, Physical Education,
Physics, and/or Psychology. (Bui 1 e t i n p. bG)
The college's student enrollment for the academic year
197^-75 was approximately 1300 students, 15 percent of which
were non-black. The ratio of students to faculty was approxi
mately 17:1 (interview with the Reg istrar/Director of Ad
missions).

58
Criteria Relating to Community College Transfer Admissions
The following criteria were gathered by the writer by
examining College C's Bul 1e tin admissions brochure, transfer
admissions application, and from personal contact with the
President, the Vice-President for Academic Affairs and the
Registrar/Director of Admissions.
Published criteria.
ADMISSION . [College C] seeks to enroll
those students who have demonstrated a
sincere desire to further their intellectual
and social development. Such development
should be consistent with a quest for ex
cellence, understanding, and a sense of
responsibility to themselves, their col
leagues, and the community.
The Admissions Committee, therefore, gives
careful consideration to evidence of de
sirable character and personality as well
as to ability and eagerness to achieve a
college education.
TRANSFER STUDENTS. Students who are matricu
lating at a Junior College, and/or students
who are graduates of a Junior College are
given priority for admission as transfer
students . .
Any applicant with an acceptable average
earned at an accredited college may be
considered, provided that his previous
college furnished ... a statement that
he is in good standing and eligible to
return. It is the student's responsibility
to have this statement and his transcript
sent to the Office of the Registrar.
(Bul 1e tin, pp. 14-15)
Perceived criteria. As one might suspect from reading
the published criteria of this college, one finds the inter
viewees to be very favorably disposed toward community college
transfer students. Moreover, the interviewees generally perceive

59
the criteria for transfer admissions to be slanted toward the
community college student, resulting in virtually all of the
transfer students coming from the community college. One
cannot be certain as to whether the large number of transfer
students is the result of this favorable attitude or whether
the favorable attitude follows recognition of a large number
of community college transfer students. In any case, the
interviewees agree this college is voluntarily subscribing to
the articulation agreement referred to above, as it relates
to admissions. However, in all candor it should be noted that
those interviewed feel that their college is adhering to the
articulation agreement simply by granting junior status to
transfer students who present an Associate in Arts degree.
This college feels no commitment to accept all students who
present the Associate in Arts degree, nor will it accept all
credits earned at the community college. A student may be
granted junior status, but required to backtrack and take addi
tional credits to bring his coursework in line with the native
student who has also achieved junior status.
The Vice-President for Academic Affairs feels that the
published criteria in their entirety are merely suggestive. No
one criterion gets one accepted, and no one criterion can
preclude a student's being accepted. A "C" average or better
is perceived as being consistent with what most colleges re
quire, but less than that does not mean denial. This is es
pecially true if the students are willing to accept financial
assistance.

60
The Administration sees the community college transfer
student as a source of what could be large sums of money for
the college, but not for the reasons that one might suspect.
The college does not seek the student with plenty of money.
Instead, the college wants the student who has little or no
money and who therefore, is eligible for federal financial
assistance. Massive amounts of financial assistance are avail
able to students whose socio-economic status qualify them.
The college's experience in the past has been that the community
colleges seem to attract students with limited resources, and
who otherwise meet federal guidelines for financial assistance.
The point is vividly illustrated with the fact that 90 percent
of the total student body at this college receive some type of
financial assistance. It comes as no surprise, therefore,
that all of the interviewees actively support a rather elaborate
recruiting program aimed at the community college transfer
student.
Criteria Relating to the Transferability of Academic Credits
The following criteria were gathered by the writer by
examining College C's Bul 1e t i n admissions brochure, and from
personal contact with the President, the Vice-President for
Academic Affairs, and the Registrar/0 i rector of Admissions.
Published criteria.
Credit will be accepted only for courses
equivalent to those offered at . .
[College C] with a grade of "C" or better.
No transfer student will be given a de
gree . with less than one year's

61
residence work at the College, Of this
minimum amount of work, the last semester
must be taken at the College. At least
thirty percent of the student's work in
his major field must be completed at . .
[College C].
The amount of transferable course credit
is determined by the Registrar after the
candidate is selected. Transfer grades
are not included in computing a student's
average at . [College C]. (Bulletin,
p. 15)
Students seeking transfer of credit earned
at another institution ten or more years
prior to the date such transfer is requested
will be required to demonstrate proficiency
in the courses in question through an ex
amination and/or, performance before the
credit will be approved. (Bul 1etin, p. 4 5)
EXTENSION AND CORRESPONDENCE . [College
C] does not offer extension or correspondence
work, but will consider, for transfer, credit
from approved institutions up to fifteen
semester hours of extension and/or corres
pondence credits. Major area examinations
covering such transferred credit may be re
quired. .
CREDIT BY EXAMINATION. General examination
of the Co 11ege-Leve 1 Examination Program
sponsored by College Entrance Examination
Board may be taken by students to measure
their comparative competencies in five
general education areas. Credit by ex
amination is restricted as follows:
1. Not more than six semester hours
of credit may be earned in any
one area.
2. Not more than thirty semester
hours of credit may be earned
by examination.
3- Transfer credits based on CLEP
scores will be accepted if the
scores meet . standards.

62
4. The fee schedule for credit by
examination is one-half of the
fee per semester hour of credit
for special students. (Bul 1etin p. 10)
Perceived criteria. The Administration here agrees that
a grade of "C" or better is required in a course taken at
another college, for it to transfer to this college. Again,
this is not absolute, as only liberal arts courses are accepted
for transfer. Vocational and technical courses do not transfer
even with a grade of "C" or better. In spite of this tough
stance on non-academic courses, this college is seriously con
sidering the feasibility of granting transfer credit for life
experiences. When questioned about the apparent inconcistency
of granting transfer credit for life experiences but not for
vocational and technical courses, the Reg istrar/Director of
Admissions assured the writer that the college will either
accept all non-academic coursework or none.
The acceptance of comprehensive courses completed at a
community college is not perceived as placing the transfer
student in any particular disadvantage, because all students
at this college are required to complete their general course
during their freshman and sophomore years. Then, at the be
ginning of their junior year, all students declare their major
and complete specialized courses in their major field during
their junior and senior years.
Criteria Relating to Recognition of Community College
Transfer Parallel Programs
The writer found no published criteria relating to
community college transfer parallel programs in any of the

63
documents from this college. The following criteria were
gathered by the writer exclusively from personal contact with
the President, the Vice-President for Academic Affairs, and
the Reg istrar/Director of Admissions. These interviews did
provide some insight, through the perceptions of the inter
viewees, as to what the position of the college might be re
garding community college transfer parallel programs.
Moreover, it should be noted that while the following
criteria do not represent the official published position of
the college, one should not discount the probability that the
perceptions of those interviewed do in reality represent, ex
cathedra, the official position of the college because the
obvious influence the President, the Vice-President for Academic
Affairs, and the Reg istrar/Director of Admissions have on the
policy of the college.
Perceived criteria. The Administration at this college
favors recognition of community college transfer parallel
programs, in spite of the absence of any formal statement to
that effect. In fact, it is in the process of negotiating with
a community college nearby to formalize what has been informal
understandings between the college and that community college.
The college does not want to forego its independence, but is
quite willing to compromise if it will be mutually beneficial.
The college has for some time been accepting the transfer
parallel programs from several community colleges, including
the one with which it is negotiating. These community colleges

64
have gained the confidence of this college in terms of the
integrity of their transfer parallel programs by tailoring
their programs to correspond to this college's programs.
This college's input into the decisions which determine the
content of the parallel programs is limited and informal at
best. But as one official put it, the content of the parallel
programs would not be significantly different if the college's
input were larger and more formal. And in the final analysis,
the college is not officially obligated anyway.
College D
Description of the College
This college is a residential co-educationa1 college of
liberal arts and sciences. The college was founded in 1885
under the auspices of the Methodist Church, and still main
tains that relationship.
. . [College D's] basic objectives are
to instill in young men and women a belief
in God as a foundation for meaningful and
productive lives, and a command of the
liberal arts so the individual may gain
a greater understanding of the many facets
of our civilization. This college firmly
believes It has a responsibility to pro
vide inspiration and direction to all its
students so they may make a maximum con
tribution to church, home and society.
(Bul 1e t i n p. 3)
The college
is located in central Florida
in a residential
and trade center of approximately 50,000. Its enrollment stands
at 1 4 0 0 students, it enjoys a student/teacher ration of 17:1
providing a close personal relationship between faculty and
students, (Bul 1e tin p. 3).

65
The Academic Program ... is based on
the philosophy that the liberal arts
best equips the student for the world
of today. In keeping with this basic
philosophy, students take certain
basic courses in each of the three
d i visions--the Humanities, the Social
Sciences, and the Natural Sciences.
Students select a major concentration
in a single discipline. Building upon
these courses, the student develops an
academic program to prepare him for his
role in life.
. . [College D] is nationally accredited
by the Southern Association of Colleges and
Schools. The College has been accredited
by this Association since 1935, and is also
fully accredited by the University Senate
of the United Methodist Church, the Board
of Regents of the University of the State
of New York, and by the State of Florida
for certification of teachers. It is a
member of the American Council on Education,
the Association of American Colleges, the
Florida Association of Colleges and Uni
versities, the Independent Colleges and
Universities of Florida, and is approved
by the American Association of University^
Women.
Graduates are accepted by the leading
American colleges and universities as
candidates for advanced degrees. More
than 2,200 of Florida's public school
teachers and more than 200 ministers of
the Florida Methodist Conference attend
ed .. [College D]. (Bui 1 e t i n p. 4)
Criteria Relating to Community College Transfer Admissions
The following criteria were gathered by the writer by
examining College D's Bul 1e t i n transfer admissions informa
tion, transfer admissions application, and from personal
contact with the President, the Vice-President for Academic
Affairs, and the Reg i strar/D i rector of Admissions.

66
Published criteria.
TRANSFER STUDENTS. If now is the time
for you to make the move to . from
some other institution we say "Great!
We'd love to have you apply." Have an
official transcript sent to us from
each of the institutions you have
attended, high school through college.
The college transcripts should indi
cate that you could return if you want
to. We'll compare your courses with
those offered here and transfer, from
an accredited college, those which fit
our curriculum. Those good grades you
have earned will come in with you (if
you have any D's or F's, of course they
come too). If you have earned an Asso
ciate in Arts degree at an accredited
college, you can come in with Junior
standing. You should try to take courses
comparable to our core so you do not
have to pick these up after you get here.
We will be glad to give you guidance as
to the best courses to take in prepara
tion for transfer.
If you graduate from high school more
than three years ago and have attended
college, ask two college teachers to
recommend you . (Bul 1et i n pp. 30-31)
Perceived criteria. According to the Vice-President for
Academic Affairs a student for transfer to this college from
a community college does not in fact have to possess a "C"
average or better. He does not even have to be in good stand
ing and eligible to return to his previous college. For this
college has a second chance policy which permits a student to
transfer in, if he will simply wait for several academic terms
to elapse subsequent to his running afoul with his previous
col lege.

67
Secondary school records are required for transfer students
In the published criteria. But interestingly enough, this
practice is judged to be worthless in the opinion of one source
on the grounds that successful completion of an Associate of
Arts degree program is surely evidence enough of the student's
ability and fitness for college work. Furthermore, even when
submitting a complete transcript of his secondary school records,
this college does not require that any test scores be included,
such as the Florida Twelfth Grade Placement Test, the Scholastic
Aptitude Test (SAT), or the American College Testing (ACT)
scores. SAT and ACT scores are required for native students
only.
One distinctly gets the impression that a student's
previous college need not have been accredited, unless he had
received the Associate of Arts degree and was seeking junior
standing. The Registrar/Director of Admissions feels that re
quiring the Associate of Arts degree for junior standing is a
farce in as much as one's transcripts of credits is still sub
ject to dissection by the Registrar. Therefore, rendering
one's junior standing as academic.
Generally, most perceive the published criteria to be
necessarily general and uncommitting. Most further agree that
the college needs students and feel that the Director of Ad
missions should have maximum latitude in exercising discretion
in passing on the success potential of a transfer student.

68
Criteria Relating to the Transferability of Academic Credits
The following criteria were gathered by the writer by
examining College D's Bul 1e t i n transfer admissions information,
transfer admissions application, and evaluation of credits
for a community college transfer student, and from personal
contact with the President, the Vice-President for Academic
Affairs, and the Reg istrar/Director of Admissions.
Published criteria.
TRANSFER CREDIT. Credit for each course
successfully completed at another accredited
institution will be determined on a basis
of its correlation to . [College D's]
curriculum.
A student who is admitted from an institu
tion that is not fully accredited may have
credits accepted provisionally and must
make a "C" average during the first year of
work. . to validate the provisional credits.
Failure to make a "C" average will result in
loss of provisional credit.
The student who enters with the Associate
of Arts degree from an accredited college
will be given full Junior Class standing.
All course grades and quality points
counted toward his A.A. degree will trans
fer and become a part of . [College
D's] record . [College D's] require
ments for graduation must be met includ
ing any core courses not taken or passed
at the two-year college. Not more than
64 hours completed at the two-year college
will be accepted.
For a transfer student who has not earned
an Associate in Arts degree but who has
been enrolled as a full-time degree-seeking
student for at least one regular academic
term at another accredited college, all
grades and quality points (if any earned)
will transfer, provided the course is
acceptable, and become a part of the
student's average at . [College D].
For a student whose credits are accepted

provisionally from an unaccredited college,
the policy will be effective when credits
are validated by a full year's work at .
[College D] with a "C" (2.00) average.
One whose work is ten or more years old
may appeal for a waiver from transfer of
previous grades after completing a full
year's work at . [College D] with a
"C" (2.00) average.
Official evaluation of transfer credits
will be made for (l) part-time degree
students who have completed a minimum
of six semester hours at . [College
D] or (2) full-time students who have
been accepted by the College.
For the convenience of graduate schools
and employees, the College determines
the rank of students within each grad
uating class. Students completing 6k
semester hours at . [College D]
will be included in this ranking.
VALIDATION OF CREDITS. An applicant
for admission or re-admission must
validate college credits ten years old
or older. To validate these credits, a
student must obtain a 2.00 average during
the first two semesters of full-time
attendance at . [College D] or, in
the case of a part-time student, in the
first twenty-four semester hours attempt
ed which must be taken within two aca
demic years.
MILITARY CREDITS . [College D] allows
military personnel credit toward a degree
for several categories of validated ser
vice experience, including military science
health and physical educaton, service
schools, USAFI courses by correspondence,
and acceptable CLEP test scores. The
courses must correlate with the . .
[College D] curriculum and the student's
program.
CORRESPONDENCE AND EXTENSION . [College
D] does not offer any correspondence or ex
tension work. A student may be enrolled
at another college for correspondence or
extension work while enrolled at . .

70
[College D] only with the written approval
of the Office of Academic Affairs. All
extension or correspondence work in pro
gress at the time of the student's first
registration must be reported to the Office
of Academic Affairs. A maximum of 15 hours
in correspondence and/or extension work may
be applied toward degree credit.
SUMMER SCHOOL AT OTHER COLLEGES . .
[College D] students who wish to take courses
during the summer at other colleges including
community colleges and have three courses
transferred back to . [College D] must
have the written approval of the Office of
Academic Affairs prior to the closing of
the spring semester. Credit hours only
are transferrab1e from other institutions,
and no credit will be granted for grades
below C. (Bul 1e t i n pp. 8~9)
Pe rce i ved criteria. The Administration unanimously per
ceives that this college is in virtual accord with the
articulation agreement approved in 1971 between Florida's
community colleges and the state university system. It
suggests that perhaps the college has gone one step further
than the public colleges, as it accepts all courses taken as
part of an Associate of Arts degree program. Like the public
colleges, it awards junior status to an Associate of Arts degree
holder. But unlike the public colleges, this college transfers
all quality points of all courses attempted at all previous
colleges. According to the Vice-President for Academic Affairs/'
this arrangement can work a decided advantage for or a dis
advantage against transfer students, depending on their accumu
lated total of quality points earned since first beginning
college work.

71
However, this policy, as perceived by the Administrators,
simply permits the acceptance of all prior college course
work which is part of an Associate of Arts degree program.
College coursework completed at another college which is not
part of an Associate of Arts degree program is not automatic
ally transferable. First, each course accepted as transferable
must have a similar corresponding course in this college's
curriculum. Then, and only then, will it be transferred with
any grade and all quality points.
This college also accepts for transfer, credits which are
earned through the College Level Examination Program (CLEP)
of the College Entrance Examination Board.
Criteria Relating to Recognition of Community College
Transfer Parallel Programs
As the writer found no published criteria relating to
community college transfer parallel programs in any of the
documents from this college, the following criteria were
gathered by the writer exclusively from personal contact with
the President, the Vice-President for Academic Affairs, the
Reg ist rar/Director of Admissions. These interviews did provide
some insight through the perceptions of the interviewees as to
what the position of the college might be regarding community
college transfer parallel programs.
Moreover, it should be noted that while the following
criteria do not represent the official published position of
the college, one should not discount the probability that the
perceptions of those interviewed do in reality represent, ex

72
cathedra, the official position of the college because of the
obvious influence the President, the Vice-President for
Academic Affairs, the Reg istrar/Director of Admissions have
on the policy of the college.
Perceived criteria. This college is also favorably dis
posed toward the parallel programs. No formal understandings
exist with any community colleges, but students who present
an Associate of Arts degree from a community college can expect
his credits from the community college to be accepted intact
Moreover, he will be permitted to immediately declare his major
and pursue courses in his chosen field.
Officials here express a real interest in a dialog with
the community colleges which might lead to more formal agree
ments and official recognition of their parallel programs.
This attitude is especially true with respect to one community
college which furnishes the majority of community college
transfers to this college. The college participates exten
sively in pre-counseling students enrolled in the parallel
program at the community college referred to above. This pre
counseling is especially helpful in the humanities.
Probably the most important reason for this cooperation,
is that this college does not view the purposes of the community
college as counter to its own. Instead, it views the parallel
programs as complementing its own upper division programs.
This chapter has addressed the questions raised in the
statement of the problem as they relate to Colleges A, B, C,

73
and D. The next chapter will look at the same questions
raised in the statement of the problem regarding Colleges
E F, and G.

CHAPTER IV
DATA FROM COLLEGES E, F, AND G
College E
Description of the College
Located in the Tampa Bay area, the college's thirteen
silver minarets distinguish the school as "a landmark of
learning, a Mecca for educational pilgrimages" in an other
wise urban residential and business community of more than
300,000.
The main building now known as Henry B.
Plant Hall, was constructed in 1830 as
the luxurious Tampa Bay Hotel by rail
road magnate Henry B. Plant who spent
$3,500,000 to build one of the most lavish
resort hotels of the era. Frequently ac
claimed the finest example of Moorish ar
chitecture in the nation, its minarets
represent the 13 months of the Moslem
year. The five story building is 1,200
feet long and has more than 500 rooms.
Crowned heads of Europe and romantic
figures of history, such as Colonel
Theodore Roosevelt, then commander of
the Rough Riders of the Spanish-American
War, have been guests at the Old Tampa
Bay Hotel. (p. 11)
The college was founded in 1931 to accommodate local
students unable to attend college away from home. In I960,
it was transformed from a community to a residential institu
tion, and today it serves more than 2,200 students from 50
states and a number of foreign countries.

75
The college is a private institution, non-denoninational,
and is chartered under the laws of the State of Florida as a
non-profit corporation. Its governance is by a self-perpetuating
Board of Trustees elected from among leaders in business, in
dustry, and the professors.
Men and women have access to the Bachelor's degree in
twenty-seven fields and two Master's programs which are fully
accredited:
. . [College E] is fully accredited by
the Southern Association of Colleges and
Schools and for teacher education by the
Florida State Board of Education. It holds
membership in the following organizations:
The American Council on Education
The Association of American Colleges
The Association of University Evening Colleges
The Association of Urban Universities
The Florida Academy of Sciences
The Florida Association of Colleges and
Un i vers i t i es a.
Florida Independent Colleges Foundation
The Independent Colleges and Universities
of Florida, Inc.
The National Council on Education
The Southern Association of Colleges and Schools
The University is approved by the Veterans
Administration for the education of veterans
under Public Law 634 (War Orphans). Credits
earned here are accepted by the Army, the
Navy, and the Air Force for aviation cadet
or officer cadet
training.
(P
13)
Pu rs u
i n g a commitmen t
that i n d i v
i d ua 1
s must
be able
freely and
responsibly to
demons trate
be 1 i
e f in
human dignity
and value
the college has
adopted the
fol 1
ow i n g
educational
objectives:

76
1. to develop habits of disciplined
thought and creative work;
2. to gain insight and competence in
a particular field of study;
3. to secure an understanding of the
relationship of the various branches
of knowledge;
k. to create a motivation to continue
constructive learning;
5. to prepare the student to apply the
skills, attitudes, experience and
knowledge thus gained to the attain
ment of professional and other per
sonal goaIs; and
6. to become an understanding and con
structive member of society. (p. 10)
Criteria Relating to Community College Transfer Admissions
The following criteria were gathered by the writer by
examining College E's Bul 1 e t i n, transfer admissions brochure,
transfer admissions application, and from personal contact with
the Director of Admissions and the Assistant Director of Ad
missions.
Pub 1 i shed criteria.
TRANSFER STUDENTS (UNDERGRADUATE)
Applicants who wish to transfer . .
must request that a complete transcript
of credits from each institution pre
viously attended (even though credit
may not have been earned) be sent di
rectly to the Director of Admissions . .,
Personnel Dean's Report of the last
college attended must also be filed.
Applications cannot be processed until
all of these documents have been received
. . A high school transcript will be
required only when specifically requested.
The applicant must be eligible to re-enter
the institution last attended. A nC"
average or better is normally required,

77
but for mature students who do not
possess a "C" average, admission may be
considered if the experience, maturity,
and age of the applicant indicates the
ability to perform in a satisfactory
manner. (pp. 3 637)
Perceived criteria. The Director of Admissions at this
college perceives the published criterion of a "C" average or
better to be suggestive only and strongly supports the college's
policy which permits him to deviate when he deems it appro
priate. He does insist that whatever the student's average,
it must be based on satisfactory completion of at least 12
semester hours of college work if the students are to be
processed as a transfer student. Otherwise, the student's
application will be treated as a freshman application with a
secondary school transcript being required.
The college's Personnel Dean's Report which is published
as required is in fact no longer being required. According
to the Director of Admissions, recent developments regarding
the confidentiality of student records has precluded candid
remarks by a student's previous colleges as to his suitability
for college work and his success potential.
The college's community college transfer enrollment is
not particularly large. However, it has captured the attention
of those interviewed and is perceived as worthy of their time
and financial investment. Accordingly, the college has a
rather dynamic recruiting program underway, seeking to attract
the attention of community college transfer students from across
the coun try.

73
The Assistant Director of Admissions feels that an
Associate of Arts degree from any regionally accredited
community college will satisfy the college's core requirements.
Therefore, he supports the college's policy of granting junior
status to a student with an Associate of Arts degree. However,
he feels the college has the obligation to screen a transfer
student's transcript and require further courses in the lower-
level, if needed, in spite of the presence of an Associate of
Arts degree.
Criteria Relating to the Transferability of Academic Credits
The following criteria were gathered by the writer by
examining College E's Bui 1etin transfer admissions informa
tion, an evaluation of credits for a community college transfer
student, and from personal contact with the Director of Ad
missions and the Assistant Director of Admissions.
Published criteria.
TRANSFER CREDIT ACCEPTANCE POLICY
. . [College E] recognizes that
today large numbers of students
transfer from one institution to
another and believes that such
students should not incur undue
hardships in the matter of trans
ferring credit. It is also be
lieved that certain collegiate
credit should be awarded for
demonstrated knowledge not obtained
directly in the college classroom.
The University therefore has estab
lished a liberal transfer credit
acceptance policy.
A student who has paid the applica
tion fee may request an evaluation
sheet listing all credit granted in
transfer. Such an evaluation sheet

may be secured prior to the first
semester of enrollment only if all
transcripts, score reports, and other
necessary documents have been received
by the University at least 60 days
prior to registration. (p. 35)
TRANSFER CREDIT EVALUATION POLICY.
For qualified undergraduate students,
. . [College E] accepts from other
regionally accredited institutions
credit which was earned with grades
of "DM or better. For graduate students
only transfer credit earned with grades of
"B" or better will be considered. The
acceptance of such credit, however, is
normally limited to that of a liberal
arts nature. Credit earned in vocational,
technical, or terminal type courses is
not acceptable, unless the equivalents
of such courses are offered at . .
[College E]. Credit which is deemed
liberal arts is normally accepted, even if
such credit were earned in courses not
specifically offered at . [College E],
Credit may be granted for work taken at
some institutions which are not fully
accredited by regional accrediting asso
ciations. Such credit, however, is granted
only on a provisional basis, which means
that the undergraduate student must attain
at least a "C" average ("B" average for
graduate students) on at least 12 semester
hours of work during his first semester at
the University in order to validate the
transfer credit. If this condition is not
met, such transfer credit is invalidated
and removed from the student's record.
Not more than a total of 64 semester hours
will be allowed for courses earned at a
junior or community college. Also, when
a student has a total of 64 or more semester
hours toward a . [College E] degree,
whether earned at . [College E] or else
where, any subsequent work taken at a junior
college will be ignored and will not be
counted as a transfer credit. Further, such
junior college work will have no effect upon
the validity of any transfer or resident
credit heretofore granted to the student by
. . [College E].

80
No credit can be given for work taken
twenty-five years ago, or longer, with
out subsequent successful academic ex
periences.
A maximum of 60 semester hours of non
resident credit may be granted to under
graduate students. Non-resident credit
is defined as a-1 academic credit earned
through means other than through regular
classroom courses .... No credit is
granted for Extension Course Institute
(ECl) courses or other military educa
tional sources not listed in the 1968
edition of the Guide to the Evaluation
of Educational Experiences published by
the American Council on Education.
Any student who has completed at least
one year of active military service may
receive two semester hours credit in
Health Education ....
Academic credit up to a total of 30
semester hours may be granted for the
completion of correspondence courses
taken through the correspondence divisions
or regionally accredited colleges or uni
versities. The amount of credit allowed
for each course will be the amount granted
by the correspondence institution.
Students may receive academic credit up to
a total of 30 semester hours for the success
ful completion of USAF1 group study or corres
pondence courses with end-of-course tests or
USAF1 subject Standardized Tests.
The amount of credit granted will be that
recommended by the American Council on Edu
cation shown in the catalog of the United
States Armed Forces Institute. Credit may
be granted for the USAF1 Subject Standard
ized Tests only if a percentile rank of 20
or better has been achieved. Credit may be
granted only for those USAF1 end-of-course
tests whose results are reported as (D),
"With Distinction," or (S), "Satisfactory."

81
Students may receive academic credit, up to
a total of 30 semester hours, for the success
ful completion of courses taken at Military
Service Schools. The amounts of credit granted
will be that recommended by the American Council
on Education in its "Guide to the Evaluation of
Educational Experiences in the Armed Forces,"
1968 edition. No credit is granted for train
ing programs designated as "technical and voca
tional in nature." Credit recommendations on
service school training which cannot be identi
fied in the guide may be obtained by writing
the Commission on Accreditation of Service Ex
periences. In these cases, the student should
complete a Request for Evaluation Form which
should be sent to the commission.
Extension credit may be earned in locations
designated as Extension Centers or in any other
off-campus location where courses not carrying
"residence credit" are conducted by an institu
tion. Total extension courses credit is limited
to 30 semester hours.
Students ¡nay receive academic credit up to
a total of 30 semester hours for satisfactory
results on any or all of the College Level
Examination Program general examination (CLEP)
administered either through the College En
trance Examination Board or through USAF1.
(pp. 70-72)
Perceived criteria. The Director of Admissions at this
college feels that it has satisfactorily come to grips with the
question of whether grades of "D" should transfer. It is felt
that the native student should not have the benefit of credits
earned with "D" grades while the transfer student is denied
the same.
The policy regarding the transfer of academic credits is
generally perceived as a liberal policy, and enjoys the support
of those interviewed. However, unlike another college pre
viously mentioned, this college is not prepared to accept the
transfer of quality points which accumulated at another college.

82
In spite of the fact that transfer students who enter
with a Associate of Arts degree are granted junior standing,
providing their degree programs include a minimum of 56 semester
hours, the Registrar has the authority to require additional
courses if in his opinion the student's backgrounds are de
ficient. Further, an Associate of Arts degree holder is still
unable to transfer courses taken at a community college which
are vocational, technical, terminal, remedial, or self
enrichment.
Criteria Relating to Recognition of Community College
Transfer Parallel Programs
The following criteria were gathered by the writer by
examining College E's Bul 1e t i n transfer information, an
evaluation of credits for a community college transfer student,
and from personal contact with the Director of Admissions and
the Assistant Director of Admissions.
Published criteria.
A student qualified for admission who
possesses an Associate of Arts degree
earned in the transfer preparatory pro
gram of a regionally accredited junior
or community college may enter the Uni
versity with full junior status, pro
viding at least 56 semester hours had
been earned toward the Associate Degree
In addition, such students will not nor
ma11y be required to take any further
courses toward the University's lower-
level general education requirements,
unless the student's background in
these areas is deemed insufficient.
(p. 37)
The University has Direct Transfer Agreements with a
number of junior and community colleges throughout the country.

83
College E provides a
list as of Novembe r
1373 (pp- 73-74):
of Baltimore
of Delaware County
of Philadelphia
Col lege
Morris
Alexander City State Junior College
Bergen Community College
Brevard College
Bronx Community College
Catonsville Community College
Caxenovia College
Community College
Community College
Community Col l ege
Corning Community
County College of
Essex Community College
Essex County College
Florida Junior College
Fu1ton Montgornery Community College
Gulf Coast Community College
Herkimer County Community College
Junior College of Albany
Marymount College of Virginia
Metropolitan State Junior College
Montgomery College (Rockville)
Montgomery College (Takoma Park)
Montgomery County Community College
Morristown College
Nassau Community College
Northwestern Connecticut Community Col
Ocean County College
Pierce Junior College
Rhode Island Junior College
Schenectedy County Community College
Sullivan County Community College
Ulster County Community College
Union College
Wesley College
Westchester Community College
ege
Alabama
New Jersey
North Carolina
New York
Ma ry1 and
New York
Maryland
De 1awa re
Pennsylvania
New York
New Jersey
Maryland
New Jersey
Florida
New York
Florida
New York
New York
Vi r g i n ¡a
Mi nnesota
Maryland
Maryland
Pennsylvania
Tennessee
New York
Connecticut
New Jersey
Pennsy1 vania
Rhode Island
New York
New York
New York
New Jersey
De 1awa r e
New York
Perceived criteria. In spite of a published interest, the
Director of Admissions and the Assistant Director of Admissions
are less than enthusiastic. They express interest in recog
nizing community college parallel programs but have several
reservations. First, the vast majority of community college
transfer students are from the Northeast and Midwest parts of
the country. This distance makes it very difficult to motivate

84
parallel programs in terms of quality control. Second, they
are not so eager to commit themselves in advance, regarding
future transfer applicants. They still cling to the notion
that each applicant should be judged on the basis of his own
circumstances and not on the basis of a formal agreement
which would preclude discretion. And third, they are not
ready to accept the integrity of the community colleges'
academic programs. They want the right to disallow certain
courses or require additional courses if they deem this action
appropriate, although it may be made on partly subjective
judgement.
College F
Description of the College
Founded in 1958 by Dr. Jerome P. Kemper, the college was
granted a charter (as Brevard Engineering College) as a non
profit corporation by the State of Florida. The school was
established as a co-educat i ona 1 independent, privately con
trolled and supported university. The control of the uni^
versity is vested in a self-perpetuating 17member Board of
Trustees. Members of the Board are selected on the basis of
outstanding ability, integrity and personal interest in the
development and preservation of the institution (Catalog,
1975-1976).
Current enrollment averages approximately 3,100 students
annually, including both graduate and under-graduate About
2,500 are full-time students. The university awards Associate,

85
Bachelor, Master, and Ph.D. degrees in a total of 64 programs
(Catalog, 1975-1976).
In all of Its programs . [College F]
believes in helping we 11-motivated stu
dents to use every opportunity to learn
self-reliance in developing their skills
and knowledge to the highest individual
potential. The academic programs . .
provide a vigorous challenge to those in
quest of answers to, as yet, unsolved
questions. (Catalog, p. 29)
The college is organized into three basic units: The
School of Science and Engineering, the School of Aeronautics,
and the School of Marine and Environmental Technology. The
School of Science and Engineering is composed of eight major
departments: Biological Sciences, Electrical Engineering,
Mechanical Engineering, Management, Science, Mathematical
Sciences, Oceanography and Ocean Engineering, Physics and
Space Sciences, and Science Education. These departments offer
the undergraduate student a choice of 16 bachelor degree pro
grams. Many of these programs extend into the Graduate School's
degree program leading to M.S. and Ph.D. degrees.
The School of Aeronautics prepares its students for
careers in the general field of commerce and transportation
with specific job qualifications in aviation. Four associate
programs and three baccalaureate programs provide a variety
of opportunities (Catalog) .
The campus is located on Florida's east coast in the
shadow of the rockets at nearby Kennedy Space Center v/here it
first offered science and engineering courses to specialists
who were flocking to the area to become a part of the nation's
space effort.

86
The college is accredited by the Southern Association
of Colleges and Schools. It is a member of the Florida
Association of Colleges and Universities, the Independent
Colleges and Universities of Florida, the American Council
on Education, and the College Entrance Examination Board.
The undergraduate curriculum in Electrical Engineering, the
graduate program in Electrical Engineering and the under
graduate program in Mechanical Engineering are accredited
by the Engineers' Council for Professional Development.
Selected courses are approved by the State of Florida, Depart
ment of Education, for credit toward recency-of-credit ex
tension, reissuance, or reinstatement of certificates. And
in addition, the college is approved by the State of Florida
Department of Education for Teacher Education in Science at
the bachelor's and master's degree level in the areas of
junior high school science, biology, chemistry and physics
(Catalog).
The purpose of the college as adopted by the Board of
Trustees reads as follows:
The purpose . shall be to provide
educational and research programs of
distinction in the physical and life
sciences, engineering and the engineer
ing sciences, management and technology . .
and to provide specialized courses, ser
vices and seminars related to those programs.
(Catalog, p. 1)
Criteria Relating to Community College Transfer Admissions
The following criteria were gathered by the writer by
examining College F's Catalog, transfer admissions informa
tion, transfer admissions application, and from personal

87
contact with the Vice-President for Academic Affairs and the
Dean of Admissions.
Published criteria.
Transfer students should request that
copies of their high school transcripts,
SAT scores, and transcripts of all pre
vious college work be sent directly to
the Dean of Admissions . .
A minimum of 45 quarter hours, however,
must be taken at . [College F] in
the appropriate program to satisfy any of
the undergraduate degree requirements.
(Catalog, pp. 40-41)
Perceived criteria. The Dean of Admissions feels that
his role is not to deny a community college transfer student's
application, but rather to examine diagnostically his trans
cripts and test scores and suggest alternatives, all of which
included admission to the college. Therefore, all students
are accepted. Perhaps not into the degree program for which
they apply, but in a program deemed more appropriate by the
Dean of Admissions.
A "C" average or better is perceived as commendable, but
not necessary. Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT) scores are
required, but according to the Dean of Admissions are not
used as a factor in acceptance of a student. Instead, they
are used to determine the proper program to be suggested to
the student. American College Testing (ACT) scores are not
perceived as being especially useful.
The writer learned that good standing at one's previous
college with eligibility to return is not perceived to be
important. The student's past record is not perceived as the

83
only predictor of success potential.
In spite of what appears to be a very favorable atti
tude toward the community college transfer students, the
college engages in no recruiting of community college students
And the Vice-President for Academic Affairs was careful to
have the writer understand that he believes most community
college academic programs are operating miserably below par.
This is consistent with and might explain why a community
college transfer student's past academic record is not per
ceived as having any particular significance in terms of being
accepted for admission at this college.
It is also interesting to note that in spite of what
appears to be a favorable attitude toward the community
college transfer student, the transfer student enrollment at
this college is relatively very small. o
Criteria Relating to the Transferability of Academic Credits
The following criteria were gathered by the writer by
examining College F's Catalog, transfer admissions information
and evaluation of credits for a community college transfer
student, and from personal contact with the Vice-President for
Academic Affairs and the Dean of Admissions.
Published criteria.
CREDIT TRANSFER. All accredited colleges
and universities accept credits earned at
. . [College F] on the same basis as any
other accredited school. Conversely . .
[College F] will consider transfer of
credits from other accredited schools.

89
Flight credit is transferable subject to
Federal Avaiation Admission rules for
transferability between schools.
Credit for work completed with a grade of
"C" or above at another accredited insti
tution may be granted if on official trans
cript is presented and if it is determined
that the work is equivalent to that given
at . [College F] in courses content
and hours. In doubtful cases credit may
be granted by written examination.
CREDIT BY EXAMINATION. Students . .
may obtain unversity credit for specific
courses through equivalency examination. .
Degree credit will be awarded for those
courses successfully completed by the
examination. No grade will be assigned
to equivalency examination credits.
COLLEGE LEVEL EXAMINATION PROGRAM. .
[College F] grants academic credit for
examination taken under the CLEP program
provided the score obtained is above the
50th percentile (60th percentile for
English) on the National Sophomore CLEP
norms.
ADVANCEMENT PLACEMENT PROGRAM (A.P.)
Students who have participated in the
A.P. in high school and received satis
factory scores on the national examination
will receive college credit in each of
the appropriate subject areas previously
taken. No grade will be assigned to
these c red its.
ADVANCED STANDING. All requests for
advance standing including credit by
examination must be submitted to the
Vice-President for Student Affairs not
later than kS days after initial regis
tration. ( Catalog p p 0 A 1 )
Perce i ved c ri te ria. The officials at this college are
firm in their support of the college's policy not to transfer
courses earned with a grade of "D". Likewise, they are dis
mayed that some colleges feel it appropriate to transfer

90
quality points that students accumulate elsewhere. However,
this college offers an unusually large number of technical
courses, and therefore, will transfer technical courses taken
elsewhere as being equivalent. In fact, while liberal arts
courses will transfer, it is really the technical courses
that attract this college's attention.
An Associate of Arts degree means very little if anything,
and certainly does not preclude a dissection of one's trans
cript and possible additional course work if the student's
background is deemed insufficient. An Associate of Arts
degree is perceived as a handicap because it means that the
holder has completed approximately 60 semester hours of liberal
arts courses and this college only requires a total of 21
quarter hours during the entire four years of degree program.
This amounts to only 14 semester hours of liberal arts in a
four-year program.
Criteria Relating to Recognition of Community College
Transfer Parallel Programs
As the writer found no published criteria relating to
community college transfer parallel programs in any of the
documents from the college, the following criteria were
gathered by the writer exclusively from personal contact with
the Vice-President for Academic Affairs and the Dean of
Admissions. These interviews do provide some insight, through
the perceptions of the interviewees, as to what the position
of the college might be regarding community college transfer
parallel programs.

91
Moreover, it should be noted that while the following
criteria do not represent the official published position of
the college, one should not discount the probability that the
perceptions of those interviewed do in reality represent, ex
cathedra, the official position of the college because of the
obvious influence the Vice-President for Academic Affairs
and the Dean of Admissions have on the policy of the college.
Perceived criteria. The officials interviewed at this
college are by far the most negative in their recognition of
parallel programs at the community college. They not only do
not recognize any parallel programs, but cannot imagine any
circumstance under which they might. In the first place,
according to the Vice-President for Academic Affairs, the
community colleges are populated with former secondary school
teachers looking for more money and less teaching hours. And
to suggest that the quality of instruction in the community
college approaches that at this college is to deceive oneself.
In the second place, community college parallel programs are
liberal arts programs and this college only requires an equiv
alent of 14 semester hours of liberal arts in a four-year
program. Therefore, to suggest that a community college could
parallel the technical nature of this community college is
again to deceive oneself. And finally, this college perceives
that one of its greatest assets is its independence and its
right to use its discretion in individual situations. Accord
ingly, it is very much opposed to formal restrictions which
might limit its alternatives in any given situation.

92
College G
Description of the College
A student enrollment approaching 20,000 obviously makes
this the largest of the colleges participating in the study.
Its main campus is located in extreme south Florida on a 260
acre tract originally donated to the college when it was
founded in 1925 by a group of citizens who felt that an in
stitution of higher learning was a major need for the develop
ment of the then relatively new community. They felt also
that the institution might take advantage of unique oppor
tunities offered by the area to develop inter-American studies.
In addition, its location was conducive to teaching and research
programs in the scientific and technical problems of the tropics
(Bul 1e t i n ) .
The current statement of objectives still reflects this
thinking of the founders more than four decades ago:
The University intends to give to its
undergraduate students a broad basic
education, using the most advanced and
effective methods of instruction; and
to its graduate and professional students
curricula that open up new frontiers and
yet are broad enough in scope to offer
a second basis for the advancement of
learning. The University is particularly
interested in interdisciplinary programs
which use new points of view and new
techniques in the solution of new as well
as age-old problems.
In subject . 1 [College G] places emphasis
upon what is appropriate to its location and
its relative youth, as exemplified by the
biological and environmental sciences and
international studies with reference es
pecially to the Hispanic areas, and upon

93
programs of potential service to the
metropolitan area around it insofar as
this is appropriate to an independent
institution. (Bul 1e tin, pp. 6 3 6 A)
The college is a private, independent, international and
nonsectarian institution. It receives an annual appropriation
for its medical school from public funds, but otherwise vir-
t ua11y all
0 f
i t s
support
comes from indiv
¡duals and
groups
interes ted
i n
i ts
ed u ca t i
onal and research
programs
(Bul 1et i n)
The co
1 1
ege
is fully
accredited:
. . [College G] holds active membership
in the Southern Association of Colleges
and Schools and is thereby accredited for
the Southern region and by reciprocity,
for the country. It is also an active
member of the Association of American
Colleges, Association of Caribbean Uni
versities and Research Institutes,
Association of Urban Universities,
Florida Association of Colleges and
Universities, Gulf Universities Re
search Corporation, Independent Colleges
and Universities of Florida, Inc.,
National Center for Atmospheric Research
and Oak Ridge Associated Universities.
(Bul 1e t i n p. 63)
The college is chartered in the State of Florida as a
non-profit institution and is governed by a self-perpetuating
board of trustees.
Criteria Relating to Community College Transfer Admissions
The following criteria were gathered by the writer by
examining College G's Bul 1e t i n transfer admissions brochure,
transfer admissions application, and from personal contact
with the President, the Vice-President for Academic Affairs,
an Assistant Director of Admissions, the Transfer Admissions
Officer, and the Registrar.

94
Published criteria.
ADMISSION OF TRANSFER STUDENTS
Requirements for admissions as a
transfer student are the same for
all those transferring from accredited
institutions, including junior colleges
and four-year institutions. (Bul 1e tin,
p. 70)
Most students applying for admission
. . on the basis of previous college
work are expected to present a comulative
grade point average of 2.00 "C" or better
on a four-point system in all previous
college work. Architecture and Nursing
applicants must have at least a 2.5
average.
They must also be in good social and
academic standing at the last institution
attended. Students from two-year colleges
may transfer before completing an Associate
degree. (Transferring to . [College G]
ADMISSIONS OF CHILDREN OF ALUMNI. In
recognition of their special relationship to
the University, children of . alumni are
granted priority in admission, providing they
meet in full the subject requirements, submit
the results of the Scholastic Aptitude Test,
and meet in every respect the level of competi
tion. (Bul 1et i n p. 71)
Perceived criteria.
The published criteria at
this
college are perceived to
be flexible and consistent with the
various interpretations imposed upon
them by the interviewees.
The first interpretation is concerned with the transfer
student's prior academic grade point average. A 11C" average
or better is expected, and even a "C + is expected for such
programs as architecture and nursing because of limited space
availability. However, if the transfer student presents less
than 30 hours of completed college work and includes a trans
cript of his secondary school records, he can be accepted with

95
less than a MC" average. Normally, a transcript of one's
secondary school record is not required for transfer appli
cants .
In spite of the published criterion concerning good
standing at the applicant's last college attended, in
practice, good standing and eligibility to return to one's
previous college is not required. An applicant who has been
suspended or placed on probation for academic reasons from a
previous college need only wait six months and this college
will then ignore such suspension or probation. In fact, the
Transfer Admissions Officer feels that even the six month
waiting period is not adhered to. He says any transfer appli
cant who is not in good standing and eligible to return to his
previous college is processed by this college without regard
to the applicant's lack of good standing.
The Transfer Admissions Officer and an Assistant Director
of Admissions find no fault with the lack of published criteria
concerning test scores. They feel that an applicant should
be evaluated on the basis of completed college work and not
on test results.
The Associate of Arts degree is not perceived as being
especially helpful to a transfer applicant. Junior status
is av/arded on the basis of having achieved 5 6 transferable
hours, the Associate of Arts degree notwithstanding.
The responses of the interviewees suggest that the
college is not particularly interested in participating in

36
any type of articulation agreement concerning community
college transfer students. As one might have expected,
therefore, the college participates in little, if any,
recruiting of community college students. In spite of this,
however, approximately 10 percent of the student body are
community college transfer students.
Criteria Relating to the Transferability of Academic Credits
The following criteria were gathered by the writer by
examining College G1s Bul 1e t ? n transfer admissions brochure,
an evaluation of credits for a community college transfer
student, and from personal contact with the President, the
Vice-President for Academic Affairs, an Assistant Director
of Admissions, the Transfer Admissions Officer, and the
Registrar.
Published criteria.
ADMISSION OF TRANSFER STUDENTS . .
courses completed with passing grades at
other colleges and universities and
acceptable for academic credit . .
will be verified, will be translated
where appropriate into . equiva
lents by the Office of Admissions,
and included in his academic record . .
However, the dean of the college or
school from which the student plans
to graduate determines which transferred
courses may be counted toward meeting
graduation requirements.
In the computation of student's quality
point average, credits attempted, and
credits earned, all previous work trans
ferred. . and creditable towards a
degree will be included.

Credits taken at a junior college may
be transferred only if they are included
in the first 64 credits of college work
taken at a senior institution. This
number may be increased for a few degree
programs which normally require more
than 120 credits, as in the school of
Engineering and Environmental Design.
Upper divison course requirements (300
level or above) at the University may
not be satisfied with junior college
courses .
Credits transferred from institutions not
in existence long enough to attain re
gional accreditation must be validated
by the attainment of a "C" average or
better in the first 12 credits of course
work taken . .
The last 30 credits applicable to meeting
graduation requirements must be taken in
residence. (Bul 1e t i n p p. 70-71)
If 11 college semester hours or less are
being transferred, applicants must also
ask their former secondary school prin
cipal or counselor to send a transcript
of the secondary school record (Trans
ferring to College G).
ADVANCED STNADING AMD PLACEMENT (CREDIT
GRANTED). A maximum of 60 credits awarded
through extended examination (credit by
examination) programs allowable as credits
towards a [College G] degree. The Advanced
Placement Examinations of the College En
trance Examination Board will be used in
all areas where such examinations are avail
able. Grades of three, four, or five in
these examinations qualify for appropriate
credit. Another program of the College
Entrance Examination Board in the College-
Level Examination Program. (Bul 1e tin p. 69)
COLLEGE-LEVEL EXAMINATION PROGRAM
Students are permitted to earn up to 30
credits from the CLEP General Examination.
These credits count towards the University's
General Education requirements.

98
CLEP Subject Examination require the
approval of the . department for
which equivalent course credits are
given. (Bul 1 e t i n p. 76)
CREDIT FOR SERVICE EXPERIENCE
Veterans of the military services may
make application for academic credit
for schooling received while in the
armed forces. Credit may be awarded
for work which the American Council
on Education Guide regards as college
level.
Credit for military service and experience
is usually in the elective area and may
not take the place of subjects required for
graduation. Such work is not assigned
quality point commutations. (Bulletin,
p. 109)
Perceived criteria. This college operates on a lower/
upper division concept with most general education courses
being taken during the freshman and sophomore years, or in
the lower division. This is not absolute in that a student is
permitted to declare his major as a freshman and pursue courses
in his major as a freshman. Because this college subscribes
to this concept, those interviewed did not feel that transfer
students from the community college enter with any particular
disadvantage. While at the community college, they are com
pleting their general education requirement.
For the first time noted in this study, the interviewees
feel that the native students are being discriminated against
by the college's transfer policy.
Since this college transfers grade points, it is possible
for transfer students to enter this college with high grade
point averages based on grades that are earned at other colleges,

99
and which might be the product of inflated grading practices.
The discrimination comes into play in the area of financial
assistance. For loans, work study, scholarships, and grants
are awarded on the basis of the student's grade point average.
Loans and work study were available to students who earn a
"C" average, and scholarships and grants are available to
students who earn a "B" average. Therefore, a student can
transfer to this college with a grade point average based on
easy grading practices, and prevail over a native student whose
grade point average is based on what the interviewees see as
tough grading practices.
Another area of perceived discrimination is actually an
inhouse discrimination. Transfer students entering the School
of Education with physical education credits earned at another
college will have those credits accepted, and also the accom
panying grade points. Since most physical education grades
tend to be high grades, according to the interviewees, transfer
students entering the School of Education enter with a de
cided average in terms of competing for financial assistance
and other honors related to one's grade point average. No
other school or department will accept credits or grade points
for physical education courses earned at another college.
Because of the fact that credits earned with a grade of
D" transfer and grade points transfer, the Vice-President for
Academic Affairs feels that any course taken at an accredited
college should transfer, including technical, vocational, and
terminal. However, as he perceives it, this college's policy

will only permit transfer of technical courses where this
college offers an equivalent course, such as surveying, which
is a course required for a particular engineering degree.
Criteria Relating to the Recognition of Community College
Transfer Parallel Programs
As the writer found no published criteria relating to
community college transfer parallel programs in any of the
documents from this college, the following criteria were
gathered by the writer exclusively from personal contact
with the President, the Vice-President for Academic Affairs,
the Assistant Director of Admissions, the Transfer Admissions
Officer, and the Registrar. These interviews do provide some
insight, through the perceptions of the interviewees, as to
what the position of the college might be regarding community
college transfer parallel programs.
Moreover, it should be noted that while the following
criteria do not represent the official published position
of this college, one should not discount the probability
that the perceptions of those interviewed do in reality repre
sent, ex cathedra, the official position of the college be
cause of the obvious influence the President, the Vice-
President for Academic Affairs, the Assistant Director of
Admissions, the Transfer Admissions Officer, and the Registrar
have on the policy of the college.
Perceived criteria. The administration here does not
recognize any transfer parallel programs from any community
colleges. In fact, it does not even recognize the Associate

101
of Arts degree as having any significance in the transfer
process. It does participate in one program wherein a
dismantled copy of the catalog from a local community college
is distributed to the various schools and departments for the
purpose of classifying each course listed in the community
college catalog as being: (l) transferable; (2) not trans
ferable; or (3) provisionally transferable. The annotated
catalog is then reproduced. A copy is returned to the
community college to assist prospective transfer students
there in scheduling courses which will transfer to this
college. This practice really amounts to a pre-counse1 i ng
c*
program without any student contact. The Transfer Admissions
Officer suggests that recognition of transfer parallel programs
is really unnecessary in as much as students from community
colleges which are recognized as being outstanding academically,
in most cases, have their credits accepted intact and are not
assessed additional courses to bring them in line with this
college's requirements.

CHAPTER V
ANALYSIS OF THE DATA
Published Data
Criteria Relating to Community College Transfer Admissions
Grade average. All of the participating colleges in
clude in their published criteria the requirement that each
transfer applicant present a "C" average or better, except
for Colleges B, C, and D. College B and College D do not
refer to a required average at all.
Good standing. All of the colleges participating in the
study require that each transfer applicant be in good stand
ing and eligible to return to the college last attended.
Recommendation. The transfer applicant finds that he is
asked at each of the participating colleges to furnish letters
or statements of recommendations. College E requires that
recommendations be submitted on a special form entitled "Dean
of Personnel Report."
Criteria Relating to the Transferability of Academic Credits
Liberal arts credits. Only credits earned in courses of
a liberal arts nature are acceptable at each of the colleges
participating in the study, according to the published criteria.
One important exception, is found at College F where voca
tional or technical courses are readily transferable. In
fact, in most cases they are preferred.

Vocational technical, terminal, se1f-enr i chment and
life experiences credits Credits received for vocational,
technical, terminal, self-enrichment, and life experiences
activities generally are not transferable to any of the par
ticipating colleges. College F will accept vocational and
technical courses. College E and G will accept credits for
certain life experiences activities.
Transfer of grade points Grade points earned and
accumulated for college level courses prior to transfer are
acceptable at only two of the participating colleges, College
D and G. Otherwise, all other participating colleges transfer
c*
only credits and begin computing the transfer student's grade
point average based on courses taken at the participating
col lege.
Transfer of "D" grades. College B transfer grades of
"D" up to a maximum of three courses. No limit is placed on
the number of credits the three course maximum might represent.
College D also transfers "D" grades. In fact, College D also
transfers "F" grades. The remaining colleges participating in
the study transfer only "C" grades.
Transfer of credit by examination. Credits earned by
examination through the Advanced Placement Program or the
Co 11ege-Leve 1 Examination Program are readily transferable to
all the participating colleges. Generally, a limit of 30
credits is imposed on each program. In addition, grades are
not usually assigned for credit earned by examination.

Criteria Relating to Recognition of Community College
Transfer Parallel Programs
Junior standing. Transfer applicants can expect to re
ceive junior standing after having earned the Associate of
Arts degree if they transfer to Colleges C, D, and E. Colleges
A, B, F, and G refuse to recognize the Associate of Arts de
gree as having any significance in the transfer process.
Required additional courses. Obviously, the participat
ing colleges which do not recognize the Associate of Arts
degree do not hesitate to add an additional course for the
transfer student.
Perceived Data
Criteria Relating to Community College Transfer Admissions
Grade average. The Vice-President for Academic Affairs
at College A strongly favors strict enforcement of the "C"
minimum average for transfer. However, the Director of Ad
missions feels that the published criterion requiring a "C"
average or better is the ideal and functionally, only sugges
tive. He suggests a "C" average is one factor to be considered,
but should not alone be conclusive.
College B requires an "acceptable academic record."
The administrators at this college differ greatly in their
interpretation of acceptable academic record. One maintains
that a "C" average is all that is necessary. Another feels
that a "B" average is required, and still a third accepts a
"C" average, but much prefers a student with a "B" average.

105
College C's Vice-President for Academic Affairs feels
that a "C" average or better is consistent with what most
colleges requires, but less than that does not mean denial.
The Vice-President for Academic Affairs at College D
feels that the school's second chance policy precludes the
need for a minimum grade point average.
Students transferring to College E and G find the per
ceived minimum grade average to be consistent with the pub
lished average. However, College F1s Dean of Admissions will
not reject any student, regardless of his average.
Good standing. Generally, it is felt that good standing
is important at all of the participating colleges except from
Colleges D, F, and G. Again, the Vice-President for Academic
Affairs at College D feels that his school's second chance
policy negates a good standing requirement. It is interesting
that the Reg istrar/Director of Admissions does not agree.
College F will take anyone, but will not publish this fact in
writing. College G's Transfer Admissions Officer feels that
any student who is not in good standing at his previous
school can get into College G if he will simply let several
terms go by between leaving his previous school and his appli
cation to College G.
Recommend at ion. Recommendations are perceived to be im
portant at all of the participating colleges except College
E, where they are no longer required. The Director of Admissions
at College E feels that recent federal legislation permitting

106
a student to examine their own files has precluded candid
recommendations .
Colleges C and D place special emphasis on recommenda
tions from members of the clergy.
Criteria Relating to the Transferabil ity of Academic Credits
Liberal arts credits. The administration interviewed at
all of the participating colleges favor acceptance of liberal
arts credits. Only the Vice-President for Academic Affairs
at College F had reservations about the integrity of liberal
arts credits earned at community colleges, which are staffed
by "former secondary school teachers who are seeking more
money and less teaching hours."
Vocational, technica1, terminal, self-enrichment, and
life experiences credits. With the exception of only one
college all of the participating colleges in the study are
libera] arts in character. Therefore, it is not surprising
that vocational, technical, terminal, self-enrichment, and
life experience credits are not generally perceived as worthy
of transfer. As noted above, the exceptions are College F
for vocational and technical, and Colleges E and G for life
exper i enees .
Transfer of grade points Generally, the administration
of colleges which do not transfer grade points are very much
opposed to the notion. And the two colleges, Colleges D and
G, which do transfer grade points, have administrators who very
much favor the practices. The one exception is at College G.

Even though College G does transfer grade points, the Assistant
Director of Admissions and the Transfer Admissions Officer,
feel that the practice discriminates against the native
student. As grade point averages are used for awarding
financial aid and other honors, the transfer student can possibly
transfer grade points earned under a rather liberal grading
institution and prevail as against the native Col lege G student
who labors under a "tough grading institution."
Transfer of "D" grades. The Vice-President for Academic
Affairs at College A "sees red" when confronted with the idea
of transferring grades of "D", although the Director of Ad
missions at the College feels that to accept "D" grades for
graduation requirements from native students and not from
transfer students is to obviously discriminate against the
transfer student.
The practice of accepting "D" grades at College B is
about to end according to the Vice-President for Academic
Affairs. He suggests it was only experimental to see if
additional students could be attracted to the college. In
his opinion, the practice has not proved worthwhile, as
students use other criteria in selecting a college.
Transfer of credit by examination. None of the
officials interviewed at any of the participating colleges
in the study had any problem or strong feelings one way or
the other regarding credit by examination. All were favorable.

1 08
Criteria Relating to Recognition of Community College
Transfer Parallel Program
Junior standing. College A enjoyed in the recent past
a rather handsome enrollment of community college transfer
students. Then the State of Florida opened a new two-year
upper division college nearby and virtually drained all of
College A's community college transfer student enrollment.
College A vigorously opposed the opening of this new campus,
and in some respects is still smarting from its defeat.
This is reflected in the negative attitude of the Vice-President
for Academic Affairs toward the community college transfer
student. This is also reflected in the lack of a recruiting
program, the absence of any recognition of the Associate of
Arts degree, and a philosophy which makes recognition of
community college transfer parallel programs virtually impossible.
The Vice-President for Academic Affairs at College B
and F share a distrust of the community college and the
integrity of its program. College B's Vice-President is con
cerned about the community colleges' weakness in the natural
sciences, while his counterpart at College F has written off
the academic efforts of the community colleges as miserable
failures.
Required additional courses All of the administration
interviewed at this participating college favor additional
courses for transfer students if it is deemed approprite to
meet the students of the receiving college.

CHAPTER VI
SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS
Summa ry
The purpose of this study was to answer the questions
posed in the statement of the problem. What are the
published and perceived criteria of the participating
colleges relating to community college transfer, admissions?
To what extent did they differ, if any?
Criteria Relating To Community College Transfer Admissions
College A. The published criteria provides for an
average of "C" or better on all previous college work and
good standing with eligibility to return to the college
last attended.
The perceived criteria are not consistent with the
published criteria, but provide for more flexibility. They
suggest that the published criteria are ideal and are not
conclusive.
College B. The published criteria require the applicant
to present credentials from an accredited college, have an
acceptable academic record, and be in good standing with
eligibility to return to his own college.
The perceived criteria include only a "C" average or
better on all previous college work. Otherwise, the criteria
109

are perceived to be whatever the discretion of the Admissions
Committee might generate at any given instance.
College C. The published criteria indicate only an
acceptable average earned at an accredited college, good
standing with an eligibility to return to one's previous
college.
The perceived criteria indicate a "C" average is desired,
but less than that does not mean denial especially if the
student is willing to accept financial assistance. In addition,
community college transfer students who presented an Associate
of Arts degree are treated with priority.
College D. The published criteria call for a "C" average
and evidence of good standing at the last college attended.
A transfer student who presented an Associate of Arts degree
is admitted with junior standing.
The perceived criteria call for no average, no good
standing, and no need for one's previous college to have
been accredited unless the transfer student presents an
Associate of Arts degree and requests junior standing.
College E. The published criteria require an applicant
to be eligible to re-enter the college last attended. A
"C" average or better is normally required, but for native
students who did not possess a "C" average, admission is
considered if the experience, maturity, and age of the
applicant indicated the ability to perform in a satisfactory
manner. In addition, junior standing is granted to holders
of the Associate of Arts degree.

The perceived criteria are simply whatever the
Director of Admissions wants to enforce. He has
complete discretion in admissions.
College F. The published criteria include only a
secondary school transcript, Scholastic Aptitude Test
(SAT) scores, and transcripts of all previous college
work attempted.
The perceived criteria include only the discretion
of the Director of admissions. He rejects no one.
College G. The published criteria provide for a
"C" average earned at accredited colleges and good
standing at the last college attended.
The perceived criteria provide only for a "C"
average if the applicant had earned 30 hours or more.
Otherwise, a "C" average is not necessary. Good standing
is not perceived as being enforced.
What are the published and perceived criteria of the
participating colleges relating to the transferability of
academic credits? To what extent do they differ, if any?
Criteria Relating To The Transferability of Academic Credits
College A. The published criteria indicate that
courses completed at other accredited colleges are
acceptable if they are comparable to courses offered
at this college and are completed with grades of "C"
or better.
The perceived criteria are a product of the Director
of Admissions who has complete discretion. He follows the

published criteria rather carefully, but favors acceptance
of "D" grades since native students are given credit for "D's".
College B. The published criteria require transfer
students to complete requirements at this college best suited
to their classification and previous training and they must
earn at least six hours of credit in their major field at
this college.
The perceived criteria are a bit more comprehensive and
require a MC" or better except for three courses of "D" which
can be transferred under an experimental program. No vocational
or technical courses are accepted.
College C. The published criteria allow credit for
courses equivalent to those offered at this college with a
grade of "C" or better. The amount of transferable course
credit is determined by the Registrar after the student is
selected.
The perceived criteria are consistent with the published
criteria.
College D. The published criteria allow credit for any
course taken at another college provided the course is a
liberal arts course and equivalent to one at this college.
Students who present Associate of Arts degrees are permitted
to transfer vocational and technical courses if they are a
part of the degree program. All grades transfer. All
quality points transfer.
The perceived criteria are consistent with the published

1 13
College E. According to the published criteria, this
college accepts from other accredited colleges credit which
is earned with grades of "D" or better. The acceptance of
such credit is normally limited to liberal arts courses,
unless an equivalent is offered at this college. Liberal
arts courses do not require an equivalent at this college.
College F. Published criteria permit credit for work
completed with a "C" or better if the course is equivalent
to a course at this college in terms of course content,
quality of instruction, and credit hours. In doubtful cases,
credit by examination is permitted. Flight credit is
transferable subject to Federal Aviation Administration rules
for transferability between schools.
The perceived criteria favor technical courses, allowing
virtually all such courses. Liberal arts courses often run
afoul in transfer.
College G. Published criteria require for transfer,
courses completed with passing grades at other accredited
colleges. In addition, all quality points transfer.
Virtually any course completed at an accredited college
with a "DM or better is perceived as transferable to this
college. However, acceptance by this college of a course
taken at another accredited college is not perceived as an
approval of the course into a degree program.
What are the published and perceived criteria of
the participating colleges relating to recognition of
community college transfer parallel programs? To what
extent do they differ, if any?

Criteria relating to recognition of community college transfer
parallel programs
The writer found that no published data existed at any
of the participating colleges relating to recognition of
community college transfer parallel programs. Therefore, the
data in this area is entirely perceived criteria.
College A. This college does not recognize any community
college transfer parallel program. The rationale is that
transfer parallel programs concentrate on general education
courses which are not compatible with this college's require
ment that students begin work on their major as a freshman.
College B. Community College transfer parallel programs
are not recognized by this college. A basic lack of confidence
in the quality of most community college programs, especially
pre-med and the behaviorial sciences, gives rise to this policy.
College C. Community college transfer parallel programs
are informally recognized at this college, especially from
one particular community college which is nearby. Negotiations
are underway to formalize these understandings.
College D. This college also informally recognizes com
munity college transfer parallel programs. However, it is
not considering formalizing that recognition, but is receptive
to the idea.
College E. This college has formal agreements in the
form of Direct Transfer Agreements with several community
colleges which provide for recognition of transfer parallel
programs. It is receptive to enlarging the number of
community college participants.

H5
College F. Community college transfer parallel
programs are felt to be totally incompatible with this
college's purposes. This college is primarily a
technical college, requiring only semester hours
of liberal arts courses in four years, and most
community college transfer parallel programs require
at least 56 semester hours of liberal arts courses in
just two years.
College G. This college engages in a rather
elaborate program which advises a local community
college as to which courses at the community college are
e>
acceptable for transfer, but stops short of recognizing
formally or informally, any transfer parallel programs.
This study has addressed the general topic of articu
lation by specifically looking at the criteria which
affect the transfer process of community college students
who transfer to selected private four-year colleges within
Florida. Similar studies have also addressed the general
topic of articulation by specifically looking at selected
areas of concern.
Carter (19 69) completed a study at Florida State
University which focused on reverse transfer of students
from universities to community colleges.
Walker (1969) reported on the academic performance of
native and transfer students in the upper division of the
University of Florida.

Nickens (1970) compared all the university native students
and community college transfer students who received their
baccalaureate degree at the end of the spring and summer
quarters, 1968, at Florida State University.
Voyles (1971) compared the academic performance of
upper division community college transfer students to that
of native students at the University of Florida.
McFaddin (1971) developed a predictive model for academic
success for use by counselors in providing academic guidance
to students; the data indicated that academic success is
directly related to the college (within a university) that
the student enters and that Florida Twelfth Grade Test scores
generally have the greatest effect on the accuracy of prediction.
A similar study by Sitzman (1972) was limited in scopetto
predicting the academic success of transfer students; he
found that grade point average prior to transfer was the best
predictor of academic success.
Sistrunk (197*0 noted 36 transfer problems identified at
one or more of the six state universities surveyed for his
research project.
Medford (197**) determined the perception of selected
community college transfer students about the contribution
of four factors to their lack of academic success. The four
factors investigated were: the community college experience;
the student's scholastic skills; the university experience;
and the student's personal circumstances.

the Articulation Counseling
Schafer (197M looked at
Offices (ACOs) in Florida, in terms of their roles,
responsibilities, and organization a 1 structures.
Blackwell ( 1375) looked at the decentralization of the
baccalaureate program into a community college-university
system to see if it created problems which were disadvantageous
to the student. He concluded that the loss in efficiency from
the decentralized baccalaureate program was .1%. This
relatively small loss in efficiency is attributed primarily
to Florida's articulation agreement. The expenditures for
the excess credits acquired as a result of the transfer process
are approximately $13-00 per transfer student, a nominal
figure for the advantages offered by the community college.
Hite (1975) studied the problems of students tranferring
between four-year institutions. His study isolated the
problems into three areas: academic, procedural, and
/
extracurricular. He found that these problems translated
into inadequate academic advisement; inadequate orientation,
registration problems, and academic bu rearucracy; and meeting
people and feeling at home.
This study has dealt at length with perceptions of
individual top echelon administrators. The study shows that
the criteria which are actually implemented at each of the
participating colleges are in fact the perceptions of these
administrators, as opposed to published criteria. Benton
(1970) maintains in his discussion of the theory of perception

that published criteria
that this impossibility
implement the published
can never be implemented. He feels
exists because an individual must
criteria, and to so do is to subject
the published criteria to the perceptions of the individual.
He continues by suggesting that the perceptions of the
individual charged with implementing the published criteria
are affected by three processes:
1. Selectivity. An individual sees only
certain aspects of an event or situation
because of his attitudes and interests,
and therefore blocks out the others.
2. Filtration. An individual's perceptions
will differ from others because each
fact in a situation is filtered through
an individual's build-in prejudices and
attitudes.
3.Project ion. Projection occurs when an
individual assumes that someone else has
the same attitudes, desires, or
characteristics that he does. (pp. 7-10)
It is this theory of perception, which suggests the
impossibility of implementing published criteria, that
forms the basis for the conclusions of this study.
Conclus ions
This study provides the following conclusions:
1. The published criteria relating to the questions
raised in the statement of the problem regarding the colleges
participating in this study are very broad and general in
their scope.

119
2. The general nature of the published criteria are
by design, permitting the top echelon administrators at
each college to interpret the intent of the criteria as
their discretion deems appropriate.
3. The perceptions of the appropriate application
of the published criteria vary extensively among the
colleges participating in the study, as well as, among
the administrators within a given college.
A. Each of the colleges participating in the study
views the community college transfer student as an asset,
and each is trying in its own way to attract the student's
attention. Some have more success than others.
5< Each of the colleges participating in the study
is experiencing a dilemma. On the one hand, it insists
on its independence, and on the other, it realizes that
it must give up some of its independence to attract
successfully the community college transfer student.
Implications
The conclusions of this study imply that the criteria
which govern the transfer process through which students
move from one institution to another are not institutional
policies, but are rather individual attitudes, interests,
and prejudices of those charged with the responsibility
of administering the transfer process.

Moreover, the conclusions imply that the
participating in this study are aware of this
col leges
inconsistency
as evidenced by the general nature of their published
criteria relating to the transfer process, which permits
flexibility in interpretation and implementation.

APPEND I X

INTERVIEW GUIDE
What do you perceive to be the criteria, if any, used
by your college in approving or denying transfer appli
cations submitted by community college students?
Is your response to question number one consistent with
your college's published criteria? If not, please explain
What difficulties, if any, do you perceive are encountered
by students who transfer from the community college, in
terms of being admitted to your college?
What do you perceive to be the criteria, if any, used
by your college in determining the transferability of
academic credits earned at the community college?
Is your response to question number four consistent with
your college's published criteria? If not, please explain
What difficulties, if any, do you perceive are encountered
by students who transfer from the community college, in
terms of the transferability of academic credits earned
at the community college?
What do you perceive to be the criteria, if any, used by
your college in recognizing university parallel programs
pursued at the community college by students who transfer
to your college?
Is your response to question number seven consistent with
your college's published criteria?
1 22
If not, please explain

What difficulties, if any, do you perceive a
by students who transfer from the community
terms of recognition of university parallel
pursued by them at the community college?
re encountered
college, in
programs

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125
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Florida: The University of Florida, 1970.

126
McFaddin, R. W. A predictive model for academic success
at the University of Florida (Doctoral dissertation,
University of Florida, 1971) -
Medford, R. L. Community college transfer student percep
tions of factors contributing to their lack of success
in the State University System of Florida (Doctoral
dissertation, University of Florida, 1974).
Med s ke r L. L.
New York:
The junio r college: progress and prospect.
McG raw-Hill, I960.
Monroe, C. R. Profile of the community college. San
Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1972.
The Muezzin. Tampa, Florida: University of Tampa, 197 4.
Nickens, J. M. The effect of attendance at Florida junior
colleges on final degree candidates in selected majors
at the Florida State University. College and University,
1 970, 4_5 ( 3 ) 281-288 .
v-
Office for Academic Affairs, Florida Board of Regents.
Research notes (11), February, 1967-
O'Toole,
the
J The reserve
wo rid of wor k.
army of the underemployed: part
Change, 1975 (a), 7.(4), 26-33; 63
1 -
O'Toole, J. The reserve army of the underemployed: part li
the role of education. Change, 1975 (b), 7_(5), 26-33 ;
60-63.
Podhajski, D. A. The impact of community college transfer
students on Central Connecticut State College (Doctoral
dissertation, Columbia University, 1974). Dissertation
Abstracts International, 1974, 7006A. (University Micro
films No. 74-11, 308~n
Proceedings of the international conference on the upper-
level university/junior college partnership. Pensacola,
Florida: University of West Florida, 1970.
Report for public community colleges, 19 7 3 ~ 7 4 Tallahassee,
Florida: Department of Education, 1975-
Richards, J. W., Jr., & Braskamp, L. A. Who goes to college.
In Two-year college and its students. Iowa City:
American College Testing Program, 1969-
Sandeen, A., & Goodale, T. Student personnel programs and the
transfer student. National Association of Student Per
sonnel Administrators Journal 1 972, 9_( 3 ) 1 7 9 2 0 0 .

127
Schafer, S. H. S. The roles and responsibilities of the
articulation counseling office in Florida's public
universities (Doctoral dissertation, University of
Florida, 1 9 7 *0
Schultz, R. E. A follow-up on honor students. Junior College
Journal 1967, 3j3(*Oi 9"15-
Sistrunk, A. W. A study of transfer problems among four-year
and two-year universities in Florida (Doctoral disserta
tion, University of Florida, 197*0-
Sitzman, M. J. The prediction of academic success for trans
fer students from Florida public community colleges to
the University of Florida (Doctoral dissertation, Uni
versity of Florida, 1972).
Stetson University. Bulletin, 1 97 *< ~ 1 97 6. Deland, Florida:
Author 1 97*t
The Stetson story. Deland, Florida: Stetson University,
no date.
St. Jacques, E. H. Articulation in Florida. Paper presented
at the ACPA Convention, Cleveland, Ohio, April, 1973-
Transfer information. Deland, Florida: Stetson University,
no date.
Trivett, D. A. New developments in college transfer.
Washington, D. C.: American Association for Higher
Education, 197**-
University of Miami. Bulletin. Miami, Florida: Author,
97**
Voyles, L. V. Academic data on native and Florida junior
college transfer students entering the University of
Florida upper division, Fall 1968. From Florida
community College Inter- 1 nstitut i ona1 Research Council,
Septembe r, 1971 -
Walker, J. E. Academic performance of native and transfer
students in the upper division of the University of
Florida, 1 966- 1 96Gainesville, Florida: Office of
Academic Affairs, University of Florida, 1969-
Warlick, H. C. A study of admission policies and practices
for transfer students in Virginia (Doctoral dissertation,
University of Virginia, 1971)- Dissertation Abstracts
International 1971 *13 6 4 A (University Microfilms No.
72-7133)-

Wa11enbarger J. L. Articulation with high school, colleges
and universities. In Student development programs in
the community junior co1 lege. Englewood Cliffs, New
Jersey: Prentice-Hall, 1972.
Wattenbarger, J. L., & Cage, B. N. More money for more
opportunity. San Francisco: Jossey-Oass, 197^*
Willingham, W. W. The no. 2 access problem: transfer to
the upper division. Washington, D. C.: American
Association for Higher Education, 1972.
Willingham, W. W., & Findikyan, N. Transfer students: who's
moving from where and what determines who's admitted.
College Board Review, 19o9, (72).

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH
Charles Nelson Turner was born July 1 A 1941, in
Panama City, Florida. He attended elementary and secondary
schools in and around Panama City, graduating from Bay
County High School in June, 1959- He attended Gulf Coast
Community College in Panama City as a freshman and
Jacksonville University as a sophomore, before transferring
to the University of Florida in June, 1965.
He received the degree of Bachelor of Arts in
Education from the University of Florida in April, 1967,
with a major in social studies education.
He received the degree of Master of Education from
the University of Florida in August, 1970, with a major
in educational administration.
He has taught and administered elementary and
secondary programs in both public and private schools.
In August, 1974, he received the degree of Specialist
in Education from the University of Florida, with a
major in higher education administration.
In the early stages of his doctoral studies, he was
awarded a graduate ass i stantsh i p with the Needs Assessment
Project of the Institute of Higher Education at the University
of Florida.
He is married to the former Nancy Allen Cassedy of
129

130
Jacksonville, Florida. They have two children,
Nelson, Jr. and Todd Allen.
Charles

I certify that I have read this study and that in
my opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of
scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in scope
and quality, as a dissertation for the degree of
Doctor of Philosophy.
I certify that I have read this study and that in
my opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of
scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in scope
and quality, as a dissertation for the degree of
Doctor of Philosophy.
C. Arthur Sandeen
Associate Professor of Education
I certify that I have read this study and that ir.
my opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of
scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in scope
and quality, as a dissertation for the degree of
Doctor of Philosophy.
S t,. /j a cTj u e s
Professor of Social
Ernest H.
Associate
Sciences
I certify that I have read this study and that in
my opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of
scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in scope
and quality, as a dissertation for the degree of
Doctor of Philosophy.
Norman M. Wilensky
Associate Professor of History

This dissertation was submitted to the Graduate Faculty
of the College of Education and to the Graduate Council,
and was accepted as partial fulfillment of the require
ments for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.
December, 1975
Dean, College of Education
Dean, Graduate School




29
have received the attention needed to begin progress toward
solutions. However, solutions are not easy. The next part
of the review looks at the use of formal articulation agree
ments as a possible solution to transfer problems.
Articulation Agreements
Kintzer (1973) noted that:
Organized efforts are underway in at
least half of the fifty states to de
velop articulation agreements to es
tablish machinery for the smooth trans
fer of students from the community/
junior colleges to universities and
senior colleges. (p. 37)
"In the past, articulation machinery has been inadequate
at best"
is being
(Knoell and Medsker, 1965,
done to develop guidelines
p. 97). However, work
to improve the function
ality of articulation agreements
an equitable experience for all.
and make the transfer process
Perhaps
Commit tee on
the best example of this effort is the Joint
Junior and Senior Colleges Publications (1966).
Guidelines were published by this organization whose member
ship includes the American Association of Junior Colleges, and
the Association of American Colleges, the American Association
of Collegiate Registrars and Admissions Officers. The major
purpose of the Gui de 1 ? nes is:
. . to provide a framework with.in
which junior and senior colleges,
singly and cooperatively, can develop
specific policies governing transfer
between and among institutions. The
Gui de 1 ine s are not intended to be a
substitute for local and state policies,
but instead, a set of principles against


^5
The Vice-President for Academic Affairs sums it up by point
ing out that community college transfer parallel programs re
quire students to complete all of their general education
courses during the freshman and sophomore years, as the
community college, for the most part, only offers general edu
cation courses. This means, therefore, that community college
students have to complete their major courses during the junior
and senior years, after they have transferred to a four-year
college. He continued with an explanation that his college
requires native students to declare their major as a freshman
and pursue major courses throughout the four years of the degree
program. Therefore, he concludes, one can easily see that
community college transfer parallel programs are incompatible
with the philosophy of this college.
The Director of Admissions feels that recognition of
community college transfer parallel programs amounts to nothing
more than his college advising prospective community college
transfer students as to which courses at the community college
will readily transfer to this college. He sees no need for
cooperation between the community college and his college,
because all contact is with the students. Since it is the
student's responsibility to initiate the dialog, this pre
counseling program is not very successful for his college
feels very little commitment to pursue it.
Another point is made by the Registrar which illustrates
the apparent lack of confidence this college has in the


Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate Council
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy
ARTICULATION PRACTICES OF SELECTED PRIVATELY
SUPPORTED FOUR-YEAR COLLEGES WITHIN FLORIDA
INVOLVING TRANSFER STUDENTS FROM COMMUNITY COLLEGES
by
Charles Nelson Turner
December, 1975
Chairman: Dr. James L. V/a ttenba rger
Major Department: Educational Administration and
Supervision
Post secondary education in the United States is
challenged with many problems, none of which have easy
solutions. The problems of the 1 es ser-known private liberal
arts colleges and the large, private comprehensive colleges
and universities which create much of the diversity within
higher education and provide opportunity for middle-and-lower
income students are the subjects of this study. More specific
ally, this study looks at transfer criteria of these types of
private colleges within Florida, and examines their potential
for attracting community college transfer students as a con
structive alternative in dealing with the problems.
The purpose of this study was twofold: first, to
determine the criteria of the selected private four-year
colleges relative to: (1) the admission of the community
v


Hite (1975) studied the problems of students trans
ferring between four-year institutions. His study isolated
the problems into three areas: academic, procedural, and
extracurricular. He found that these problems translated
into inadequate academic advisement; inadequate orientation,
registration problems, and academic bureaucracy; and meeting
people and feeling at home.
In a study completed at Florida State University, Carter
(1969) focused on reverse transfer of students from university
to community colleges.
Walker (1969) reported on the academic performance of
native and transfer students in the upper division of the
University of Florida.
Nickens (1970) compared all the university native
students and community college transfer students who received
their baccalaureate degree at the end of the spring and summer
quarters, 1968, at Florida State University.
Voyles (1971) compared the academic performance of
upper division community college transfer students to that
of native students at the University of Florida.
This study, therefore, will be considered as another
contribution to this specific area of knowledge.
Definition of Terms
Admission of the community college transfer student
The process by which each of the participating colleges
approved or denied applications for admission, tendered by
students who sought to transfer from the community college.


125
Hale, R. H. A study of articulation practices within
Florida of selected four-year institutions of higher
education involving transfer students from junior
colleges (Doctoral dissertation, Northwestern Uni
versity, 1971). Dissertation Abstracts International,
1971 29^7A-2948a: (~Un i versity Microfilms No. 7 I~ 3 0,
818) .
Hertig, W. H., Jr. A model for improving articulation.
C ommu nity and Junior College Journal, 1973 4 3 (6) 40- A 2 .
Hills, J. R. Transfer shock: the academic performance of
the junior college transfer. The Journal of Experimental
Education, 1985, 3_3_ (3 ) 264.
Hite, C. M. A study of problems encountered by students
transferring from baccalaureate degree-grant i ng institu
tions with implications for the University of Florida
(Doctoral dissertation, University of Florida, 1975) -
Hoyt, D. P., 6 Munday, L. A. Academic description and pre
diction in junior colleges. In jT he_ two-year college and
its students. Iowa City: American College Testing Pro
gram, 1 965 .
Jacksonville University. Catalog, 1975-1976. Jacksonville,
Florida: Author, 1975.
Joint Committee on Junior and Senior Colleges. Gui de 1 ines
for improving articulation between junior and senior
col leges (2nd printing). Tal lahassee, Florida: Author,
1 966.
Kintzer, F. C. Middleman in higher education. San Francisco:
Jossey-Bass, 1973*
Kintzer, F. C. Updating statewide articulation practices .
Gainesville, Florida: Institute of Higher Education,
University of Florida, 1975.
Knoell, D. M., & Medsker, L. L. Articulation between two-
year and four-year colleges. Washington, D. C.: United
States Office of Education, 1964. (USOE CRP No. 2167)-
Knoell, D. M., & Medsker, L. L. From junior to senior college:
a national study of the transfer student. Berkeley,
California: Center for the Study of Higher Education,
1965 .
Koos, L. V. The Community college student. Gainesville,
Florida: The University of Florida, 1970.


Moreover, the conclusions imply that the
participating in this study are aware of this
col leges
inconsistency
as evidenced by the general nature of their published
criteria relating to the transfer process, which permits
flexibility in interpretation and implementation.


Transferability of academic credits earned at the
community college
The process by which each of the participating colleges
accepted or denied academic credits earned equivalent to
academic credits earned on campus' at each of the respective
participating colleges.
University parallel programs
The academic programs offered in the community college,
and designed so that students enrolled in the programs and
desiring to transfer to a four-year college, could transfer
with a minimum of difficulties, in terms of meeting program
requirements at the receiving college.
Procedures
Basis for Selecting Participating Colleges
The colleges participating in this study were selected
on the basis of their being among the seven largest institu
tions of higher education within the State of Florida, in
terms of student enrollment, which were primarily privately
funded, privately controlled, offered at least the Baccalaureate
degree, were accredited by the Southern Association of Colleges
and Schools, and demonstrated a willingness to be a participat
ing college. Anonymity was maintained throughout this study.
Sources and Collection of Pat a
The writer visited the campus of each of the participating
colleges for a period of time sufficiently long to gather data
for this study from documents and personal interviews.


Liberal Arts; the Bachelor of Music and
Bachelor of Music in Education, as well
as the Bachelor of Business Administra
tion and the Master of Business Adminis
tration in the School of Business Admin
istration.
The Graduate Division offers the Master
of Education degree . and the College
of Law offers the Juris Doctor (J.D.)
degree. (Story, p. 3)
Criteria Relating to Community College Transfer Admissions
The following criteria were gathered by the writer by
examining College B's Bul 1etin, transfer admissions brochure,
transfer admissions application, and from personal contact
with the President, the Vice-President for Academic Affairs,
the Assistant Director of Admissions, and the Registrar.
Published criteria.
ADMISSIONS INFORMATION . [College B]
selects its students on the basis of
academic ability and performance, character,
health, and promise of leadership. The Ad
missions Committee gives careful considera
tion to evidence of desirable character and
personality, and to ability and interest in
achieving a college education.
Applicants must satisfactorily complete a
college preparatory program in high school,
including a minimum of four years of English,
three years of mathematics, and seven other
academic courses. Applicants should have
taken science and social studies courses to
complete a college preparatory curriculum.
In addition, Liberal Arts students should
have at least two years of a foreign language.
The mathematics requirements may be waived
for music majors.
TRANSFER STUDENTS. An applicant from an
accredited college, who has an acceptable
academic record, may apply . if he is
in good stnading with and eligible to re
turn to his own college. The transfer


17
institution to another. The third part presents literature
relating to formal articulation agreements which are de
signed to eliminate or reduce transfer problems.
The Community College Transfer Student
The community college transfer student is continuing to
be the subject of extensive research. His numbers are rapidly
increasing as seen by the United States Office of Education,
whose statistics reveal that the number of students entering
the community college has increased rapidly over the past two
decades, and that estimates for the future indicate that the
number of students in the community college could rise from
1.6 million in 1970yto 4.7 million students in 1980 or a maxi
mum of 12 million by that time (Wattenbarger and Cage, 1974).
Florida's community college student enrollment has also
increased rapidly since the end of World War II, keeping pace
with the national growth. From the campus of an upper division
campus (Proceedings of the International Conference, 1970) it
i s observed that:
. . some 82 percent of our student body
comes as direct graduates from an accredited
junior college in the State of Florida or the
region. At times this percentage has been
even higher. The rest of the students, for
the most part, are transfers from other in
stitutions both within and without the state.
They are a different kind of student. One
of my col leagues commented on the fact that
they are less revolutionary, that they are
highly motivated, and that they have engaged
in self-se!ection process. (p. 55)


38
To illustrate his point, he notes that the majority of
community college transfer students in attendance at his college
are academically successful, but are there only because they
are on full athletic scholarships.
The President at this college views the community college
transfer student as a legitimate solution to the enrollment
decline being felt at the time of this study. He views the
college's vigorous recruitment program as not only desirable,
but essential. And rationalizes the apparent lack of the
program's success as being the result of not having identified
an appropriate recruiting method. The lure of athletic glory
is an appropriate recruiting method, but unfortunately is not
universally applicable. He expresses hope that perhaps this
study might address the problem.
In still another interview, the Director of Admissions
perceives the criteria for transfer admission to be more flexible
than did the others. He feels that the reference to other
recognized colleges in the published criteria include virtually
any college that is accredited by a legitimate accrediting agency,
such as the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools. He
would not, however, define "a legitimate accrediting agency."
He feels that the published criterion requiring a "C" average or
better is the ideal and functionally, only suggestive. A "C"
average is one factor to be considered, but should not alone be
conclusive. He perceives any discipline problems in a student's
past as a negative factor, but again not conclusive. In other


35
major areas, and . "combined plans"
with Columbia University and Georgia
Institute of Technology in the field
of engineering. The addition of new
academic programs and the expansion of
existing programs, at both the under
graduate and graduate levels, are in
cluded in the University's $26 million
long-range development plan announced
in the fall of 1970. Particular emphasis
will be given to expanded offerings in
the field of business administration, urban
studies, the marine sciences, and education.
(p. 7)
The college's statement of purpose was adopted by the
Board of Trustees in 1971 and reads as follows:
. . purpose is to help its students to
gain an understanding and appreciation of
the broad fields of knowledge and a rela
tive masters of a major area of study; to
acquire the incentive and the skills for
a meaningful career and for a continuing
intellectual activity throughout life; to
develop the abilities to think creatively
and imaginatively; to make discriminating
judgements; to adopt to new circumstances;
and finally, to act responsibly. (Catalog ,
p. 6)
Criteria Relating to Community College Transfer Admissions
The following criteria were gathered by the writer by
examining College A's Catalog, transfer admissions brochure,
transfer admissions application, and from personal contact
with the President, the Vice-President for Academic Affairs,
the Director of Admissions, and the Registrar.
Published criteria.
ADMISSION. [College A]. . does not make
the religious tenets, the race, the sex,
or the national origin of any person a
condition of admission, nor does it dis
criminate in any way in respect to re
ligion, race, sex, or national origins.


62
4. The fee schedule for credit by
examination is one-half of the
fee per semester hour of credit
for special students. (Bul 1etin p. 10)
Perceived criteria. The Administration here agrees that
a grade of "C" or better is required in a course taken at
another college, for it to transfer to this college. Again,
this is not absolute, as only liberal arts courses are accepted
for transfer. Vocational and technical courses do not transfer
even with a grade of "C" or better. In spite of this tough
stance on non-academic courses, this college is seriously con
sidering the feasibility of granting transfer credit for life
experiences. When questioned about the apparent inconcistency
of granting transfer credit for life experiences but not for
vocational and technical courses, the Reg istrar/Director of
Admissions assured the writer that the college will either
accept all non-academic coursework or none.
The acceptance of comprehensive courses completed at a
community college is not perceived as placing the transfer
student in any particular disadvantage, because all students
at this college are required to complete their general course
during their freshman and sophomore years. Then, at the be
ginning of their junior year, all students declare their major
and complete specialized courses in their major field during
their junior and senior years.
Criteria Relating to Recognition of Community College
Transfer Parallel Programs
The writer found no published criteria relating to
community college transfer parallel programs in any of the


Even though College G does transfer grade points, the Assistant
Director of Admissions and the Transfer Admissions Officer,
feel that the practice discriminates against the native
student. As grade point averages are used for awarding
financial aid and other honors, the transfer student can possibly
transfer grade points earned under a rather liberal grading
institution and prevail as against the native Col lege G student
who labors under a "tough grading institution."
Transfer of "D" grades. The Vice-President for Academic
Affairs at College A "sees red" when confronted with the idea
of transferring grades of "D", although the Director of Ad
missions at the College feels that to accept "D" grades for
graduation requirements from native students and not from
transfer students is to obviously discriminate against the
transfer student.
The practice of accepting "D" grades at College B is
about to end according to the Vice-President for Academic
Affairs. He suggests it was only experimental to see if
additional students could be attracted to the college. In
his opinion, the practice has not proved worthwhile, as
students use other criteria in selecting a college.
Transfer of credit by examination. None of the
officials interviewed at any of the participating colleges
in the study had any problem or strong feelings one way or
the other regarding credit by examination. All were favorable.


This dissertation was submitted to the Graduate Faculty
of the College of Education and to the Graduate Council,
and was accepted as partial fulfillment of the require
ments for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.
December, 1975
Dean, College of Education
Dean, Graduate School


college transfer student: (2) the transferability of
academic credits earned at the community college; and (3)
the recognition of university parallel programs pursued by
transfer students at the community college. The second
purpose was to determine the difficulties, if any, encountered
by students who had transferred from the community college to
selected private four-year colleges and selected academic
administrators in each of the participating colleges. More
specifically, with reference to the second major thrust of
this study, answers were sought to the following questions:
(1 ) W h a t viere the perceptions of administrators, admissions
officials, and academic personnel in the selected private
four-year colleges regarding the extent to which the published
admissions criteria were followed in processing transfer
applications of students from the community colleges: (2)
What were the perceptions of administrators, admissions officials,
and academic personnel in the selected private four-year colleges
as to the extent to which the published criteria for determining
the transferability of academic credits earned at the community
college were actually followed; and (3) What were the percep
tions of administrators, admission officials, and academic
personnel in the selected private four-year colleges as to the
extent to which the published criteria for recognizing uni
versity parallel programs from the community colleges were
actually followed by the participating colleges?


1 13
College E. According to the published criteria, this
college accepts from other accredited colleges credit which
is earned with grades of "D" or better. The acceptance of
such credit is normally limited to liberal arts courses,
unless an equivalent is offered at this college. Liberal
arts courses do not require an equivalent at this college.
College F. Published criteria permit credit for work
completed with a "C" or better if the course is equivalent
to a course at this college in terms of course content,
quality of instruction, and credit hours. In doubtful cases,
credit by examination is permitted. Flight credit is
transferable subject to Federal Aviation Administration rules
for transferability between schools.
The perceived criteria favor technical courses, allowing
virtually all such courses. Liberal arts courses often run
afoul in transfer.
College G. Published criteria require for transfer,
courses completed with passing grades at other accredited
colleges. In addition, all quality points transfer.
Virtually any course completed at an accredited college
with a "DM or better is perceived as transferable to this
college. However, acceptance by this college of a course
taken at another accredited college is not perceived as an
approval of the course into a degree program.
What are the published and perceived criteria of
the participating colleges relating to recognition of
community college transfer parallel programs? To what
extent do they differ, if any?


65
The Academic Program ... is based on
the philosophy that the liberal arts
best equips the student for the world
of today. In keeping with this basic
philosophy, students take certain
basic courses in each of the three
d i visions--the Humanities, the Social
Sciences, and the Natural Sciences.
Students select a major concentration
in a single discipline. Building upon
these courses, the student develops an
academic program to prepare him for his
role in life.
. . [College D] is nationally accredited
by the Southern Association of Colleges and
Schools. The College has been accredited
by this Association since 1935, and is also
fully accredited by the University Senate
of the United Methodist Church, the Board
of Regents of the University of the State
of New York, and by the State of Florida
for certification of teachers. It is a
member of the American Council on Education,
the Association of American Colleges, the
Florida Association of Colleges and Uni
versities, the Independent Colleges and
Universities of Florida, and is approved
by the American Association of University^
Women.
Graduates are accepted by the leading
American colleges and universities as
candidates for advanced degrees. More
than 2,200 of Florida's public school
teachers and more than 200 ministers of
the Florida Methodist Conference attend
ed .. [College D]. (Bui 1 e t i n p. 4)
Criteria Relating to Community College Transfer Admissions
The following criteria were gathered by the writer by
examining College D's Bul 1e t i n transfer admissions informa
tion, transfer admissions application, and from personal
contact with the President, the Vice-President for Academic
Affairs, and the Reg i strar/D i rector of Admissions.


130
Jacksonville, Florida. They have two children,
Nelson, Jr. and Todd Allen.
Charles


82
In spite of the fact that transfer students who enter
with a Associate of Arts degree are granted junior standing,
providing their degree programs include a minimum of 56 semester
hours, the Registrar has the authority to require additional
courses if in his opinion the student's backgrounds are de
ficient. Further, an Associate of Arts degree holder is still
unable to transfer courses taken at a community college which
are vocational, technical, terminal, remedial, or self
enrichment.
Criteria Relating to Recognition of Community College
Transfer Parallel Programs
The following criteria were gathered by the writer by
examining College E's Bul 1e t i n transfer information, an
evaluation of credits for a community college transfer student,
and from personal contact with the Director of Admissions and
the Assistant Director of Admissions.
Published criteria.
A student qualified for admission who
possesses an Associate of Arts degree
earned in the transfer preparatory pro
gram of a regionally accredited junior
or community college may enter the Uni
versity with full junior status, pro
viding at least 56 semester hours had
been earned toward the Associate Degree
In addition, such students will not nor
ma11y be required to take any further
courses toward the University's lower-
level general education requirements,
unless the student's background in
these areas is deemed insufficient.
(p. 37)
The University has Direct Transfer Agreements with a
number of junior and community colleges throughout the country.


87
contact with the Vice-President for Academic Affairs and the
Dean of Admissions.
Published criteria.
Transfer students should request that
copies of their high school transcripts,
SAT scores, and transcripts of all pre
vious college work be sent directly to
the Dean of Admissions . .
A minimum of 45 quarter hours, however,
must be taken at . [College F] in
the appropriate program to satisfy any of
the undergraduate degree requirements.
(Catalog, pp. 40-41)
Perceived criteria. The Dean of Admissions feels that
his role is not to deny a community college transfer student's
application, but rather to examine diagnostically his trans
cripts and test scores and suggest alternatives, all of which
included admission to the college. Therefore, all students
are accepted. Perhaps not into the degree program for which
they apply, but in a program deemed more appropriate by the
Dean of Admissions.
A "C" average or better is perceived as commendable, but
not necessary. Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT) scores are
required, but according to the Dean of Admissions are not
used as a factor in acceptance of a student. Instead, they
are used to determine the proper program to be suggested to
the student. American College Testing (ACT) scores are not
perceived as being especially useful.
The writer learned that good standing at one's previous
college with eligibility to return is not perceived to be
important. The student's past record is not perceived as the


Credits taken at a junior college may
be transferred only if they are included
in the first 64 credits of college work
taken at a senior institution. This
number may be increased for a few degree
programs which normally require more
than 120 credits, as in the school of
Engineering and Environmental Design.
Upper divison course requirements (300
level or above) at the University may
not be satisfied with junior college
courses .
Credits transferred from institutions not
in existence long enough to attain re
gional accreditation must be validated
by the attainment of a "C" average or
better in the first 12 credits of course
work taken . .
The last 30 credits applicable to meeting
graduation requirements must be taken in
residence. (Bul 1e t i n p p. 70-71)
If 11 college semester hours or less are
being transferred, applicants must also
ask their former secondary school prin
cipal or counselor to send a transcript
of the secondary school record (Trans
ferring to College G).
ADVANCED STNADING AMD PLACEMENT (CREDIT
GRANTED). A maximum of 60 credits awarded
through extended examination (credit by
examination) programs allowable as credits
towards a [College G] degree. The Advanced
Placement Examinations of the College En
trance Examination Board will be used in
all areas where such examinations are avail
able. Grades of three, four, or five in
these examinations qualify for appropriate
credit. Another program of the College
Entrance Examination Board in the College-
Level Examination Program. (Bul 1e tin p. 69)
COLLEGE-LEVEL EXAMINATION PROGRAM
Students are permitted to earn up to 30
credits from the CLEP General Examination.
These credits count towards the University's
General Education requirements.


31
problems of transferring from one college to another. There
fore, Kintzer has updated his study via a monograph published
by the University of Florida, Institute of Higher Education,
as part of its series relating to articulation (Kintzer, 1975)
As early as 1965, the University of Miami provided a
remarkable example of a private institution which was respond
ing to the transfer needs of both local and public community
colleges and nationally known private two-year colleges. The
University first expanded its articulation program in response
to the establishment of Miami-Dade Community College and
Florida Atlantic University, both of which were located nearby.
More recently, a program of new scholarships for transfer
students from community colleges was established. Through a
private institution, Miami was attempting to serve the fast
growing community college movement in Florida by working with
Miami-Dade Community College and others within the state in
terested in Miami's programs (Knoell and Medsker, 1965).
Trivett (197*0 concluded that the private institutions
are still responding to the transfer student, who is seen by
the private institutions as a source of new blood and much
needed money. Outreach recruiting programs to encourage trans
fer student enrollment have been established independently of
each other at both American University in Washington, D. C.
and Hamline University in St. Paul, Minnesota.
Summary
The first part of this review examined the community
college transfer student's characteristics and academic ability


7
applicable, the chief officers or designated persons from each
subordinate college, department, division or school who might
have had responsibility in terms of the questions posed in
the statement of the problem.
Limitatlons
No relationship of cause and effect should be assumed
between the practices engaged in by the participating colleges
and the difficulties, if any, which might have been encountered
by students who transferred from the community college.
The results of this study should not be generalized be
yond the participating colleges, and were subject to the in
herent shortcomings of the methodology used to gather the data,
namely, the interview and the use of documents furnished by the
participating colleges.
Justification for the Study
Florida's community college student enrollment has in
creased rapidly since the end of World War II. According to
projected figures, the increase in numbers of students attend
ing the community colleges will continue through 1930. In
1971, ^8.0 percent of the students enrolled in public colleges
within Florida attended the community college (Hale, 1971).
In 1973, that number had increased to approximately 57-5
percent of the students enrolled in public colleges in Florida
(Report for Public Community Colleges, 1973~197^ 137 5) -
The Division of Community Colleges, in their most recent
projected enrollment, estimates that by the Fall of 1930 the
Full Time Equivalent (FTE) will reach 223,^11.


86
The college is accredited by the Southern Association
of Colleges and Schools. It is a member of the Florida
Association of Colleges and Universities, the Independent
Colleges and Universities of Florida, the American Council
on Education, and the College Entrance Examination Board.
The undergraduate curriculum in Electrical Engineering, the
graduate program in Electrical Engineering and the under
graduate program in Mechanical Engineering are accredited
by the Engineers' Council for Professional Development.
Selected courses are approved by the State of Florida, Depart
ment of Education, for credit toward recency-of-credit ex
tension, reissuance, or reinstatement of certificates. And
in addition, the college is approved by the State of Florida
Department of Education for Teacher Education in Science at
the bachelor's and master's degree level in the areas of
junior high school science, biology, chemistry and physics
(Catalog).
The purpose of the college as adopted by the Board of
Trustees reads as follows:
The purpose . shall be to provide
educational and research programs of
distinction in the physical and life
sciences, engineering and the engineer
ing sciences, management and technology . .
and to provide specialized courses, ser
vices and seminars related to those programs.
(Catalog, p. 1)
Criteria Relating to Community College Transfer Admissions
The following criteria were gathered by the writer by
examining College F's Catalog, transfer admissions informa
tion, transfer admissions application, and from personal


59
the criteria for transfer admissions to be slanted toward the
community college student, resulting in virtually all of the
transfer students coming from the community college. One
cannot be certain as to whether the large number of transfer
students is the result of this favorable attitude or whether
the favorable attitude follows recognition of a large number
of community college transfer students. In any case, the
interviewees agree this college is voluntarily subscribing to
the articulation agreement referred to above, as it relates
to admissions. However, in all candor it should be noted that
those interviewed feel that their college is adhering to the
articulation agreement simply by granting junior status to
transfer students who present an Associate in Arts degree.
This college feels no commitment to accept all students who
present the Associate in Arts degree, nor will it accept all
credits earned at the community college. A student may be
granted junior status, but required to backtrack and take addi
tional credits to bring his coursework in line with the native
student who has also achieved junior status.
The Vice-President for Academic Affairs feels that the
published criteria in their entirety are merely suggestive. No
one criterion gets one accepted, and no one criterion can
preclude a student's being accepted. A "C" average or better
is perceived as being consistent with what most colleges re
quire, but less than that does not mean denial. This is es
pecially true if the students are willing to accept financial
assistance.


63
documents from this college. The following criteria were
gathered by the writer exclusively from personal contact with
the President, the Vice-President for Academic Affairs, and
the Reg istrar/Director of Admissions. These interviews did
provide some insight, through the perceptions of the inter
viewees, as to what the position of the college might be re
garding community college transfer parallel programs.
Moreover, it should be noted that while the following
criteria do not represent the official published position of
the college, one should not discount the probability that the
perceptions of those interviewed do in reality represent, ex
cathedra, the official position of the college because the
obvious influence the President, the Vice-President for Academic
Affairs, and the Reg istrar/Director of Admissions have on the
policy of the college.
Perceived criteria. The Administration at this college
favors recognition of community college transfer parallel
programs, in spite of the absence of any formal statement to
that effect. In fact, it is in the process of negotiating with
a community college nearby to formalize what has been informal
understandings between the college and that community college.
The college does not want to forego its independence, but is
quite willing to compromise if it will be mutually beneficial.
The college has for some time been accepting the transfer
parallel programs from several community colleges, including
the one with which it is negotiating. These community colleges




36
any type of articulation agreement concerning community
college transfer students. As one might have expected,
therefore, the college participates in little, if any,
recruiting of community college students. In spite of this,
however, approximately 10 percent of the student body are
community college transfer students.
Criteria Relating to the Transferability of Academic Credits
The following criteria were gathered by the writer by
examining College G1s Bul 1e t ? n transfer admissions brochure,
an evaluation of credits for a community college transfer
student, and from personal contact with the President, the
Vice-President for Academic Affairs, an Assistant Director
of Admissions, the Transfer Admissions Officer, and the
Registrar.
Published criteria.
ADMISSION OF TRANSFER STUDENTS . .
courses completed with passing grades at
other colleges and universities and
acceptable for academic credit . .
will be verified, will be translated
where appropriate into . equiva
lents by the Office of Admissions,
and included in his academic record . .
However, the dean of the college or
school from which the student plans
to graduate determines which transferred
courses may be counted toward meeting
graduation requirements.
In the computation of student's quality
point average, credits attempted, and
credits earned, all previous work trans
ferred. . and creditable towards a
degree will be included.


23
Knoell and Medsker (1964) reported that:
The students gave much less favorable
ratings to the counseling and advising
they received in junior college, than
they did to instruction, although they
gave higher ratings to the junior colleges
than they did to counseling and advising
services offered by the four-year colleges.
Larger percentages of students said they
were not counseled either at the junior
college or after transfer; many students
reported in interviews two years after
transfer that they had not been aware
of the time they had problems of adjust
ment, nor had they been able to obtain
satisfaction from their faculty advisors,
(p. 176)
In another study, Medsker (1960) found that the two-year
college which carelessly counsels students about course re
quirements and the desired pattern to follow in the community
college is a problem which is difficult to correct without
loss of time and resources for the student.
*7
The unique needs of community college transfer students
was also recognized by Sandeen and Goodale (1972). They re
ported that:
Transfer students with everyday problems
or doubts about their motivations and
interest, seldom found help at the four-
year college and university ... It is
clear that large numbers of new transfer
students are enrolled now in our four-
year institutions of higher education,
and that they encounter special educa
tional, social, vocational and financial
problems there. Too little attention has
been focused upon these special problems
by our senior institutions and too few
programs attempt to meet these student's
needs ... If the educational impact
of our colleges is to be enhanced, transfer
students cannot simply be 'left to fend
for themselves' . special efforts need


In addition to transferring credits earned through course
work at another college, transfer students could also have
transferred credits earned through the College Level Examina
tion Program (CLEP) of the College Board. This was perceived
as a legitimate and acceptable method for advanced students to
earn credits, and was not inconsistent with this college's
phi losophy.
Criteria Relating to Recognition of Community College
Transfer Parallel Programs
As the writer found no published criteria relating to
community college transfer parallel programs in any of the
documents from this college, the following criteria were
gathered by the writer exclusively from personal contact with
the President, the Vice-President for Academic Affairs, the
Associate Director of Admissions, and the Registrar. These
interviews did provide some insight, through the perceptions
of the interviewees, as to what the position of the college
might be regarding community college transfer parallel programs
Moreover, it should be noted that while the following
criteria do not represent the official published position of
the college, one should not discount the probability that the
perceptions of those interviewed do in reality represent, ex
cathedra, the official position of the college because of the
obvious influence the President, the Vice-President for Academi
Affairs, the Director of Admissions, and the Registrar have on
the policy of the college.
Perceived criteria. The administration of this college
does not recognize community college transfer parallel programs


TABLE OF CONTENTS (continued)
Page
CHAPTER
VI SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS 109
S umma ry 109
Cone 1 us i ons 1 1 8
Implications 119
APPENDIX: INTERVIEW GUIDE 122
BIBLIOGRAPHY 124
BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH
129


may be secured prior to the first
semester of enrollment only if all
transcripts, score reports, and other
necessary documents have been received
by the University at least 60 days
prior to registration. (p. 35)
TRANSFER CREDIT EVALUATION POLICY.
For qualified undergraduate students,
. . [College E] accepts from other
regionally accredited institutions
credit which was earned with grades
of "DM or better. For graduate students
only transfer credit earned with grades of
"B" or better will be considered. The
acceptance of such credit, however, is
normally limited to that of a liberal
arts nature. Credit earned in vocational,
technical, or terminal type courses is
not acceptable, unless the equivalents
of such courses are offered at . .
[College E]. Credit which is deemed
liberal arts is normally accepted, even if
such credit were earned in courses not
specifically offered at . [College E],
Credit may be granted for work taken at
some institutions which are not fully
accredited by regional accrediting asso
ciations. Such credit, however, is granted
only on a provisional basis, which means
that the undergraduate student must attain
at least a "C" average ("B" average for
graduate students) on at least 12 semester
hours of work during his first semester at
the University in order to validate the
transfer credit. If this condition is not
met, such transfer credit is invalidated
and removed from the student's record.
Not more than a total of 64 semester hours
will be allowed for courses earned at a
junior or community college. Also, when
a student has a total of 64 or more semester
hours toward a . [College E] degree,
whether earned at . [College E] or else
where, any subsequent work taken at a junior
college will be ignored and will not be
counted as a transfer credit. Further, such
junior college work will have no effect upon
the validity of any transfer or resident
credit heretofore granted to the student by
. . [College E].


39
words, he supports his college's published criterion requiring
a transfer student to submit a recommendation from the Dean
of Students at the student's last college attended, but notes
that while he wants to know about the student's past, a negative
recommendation would not necessarily preclude a favorable
decision on the student's application. He agrees with others
that a student in possession of an Associate of Arts degree
enjoys no special consideration. However, he has some mis
givings about the absence of recognition of the Associate of
Arts degree indicated that he might support a policy change
making such recognition a factor in transfer admission.
Criteria Relating To The Transferability Of Academic Credits
The following criteria were gathered by the writer by
examining College A's Catalog, transfer admissions brochure,
an evaluation of credits for a community college transfer
student, and from personal con.tact with the President, the
Vice-Presideqt for Academic Affairs, the Director of Admissions
and the Registrar.
Published criteria.
In general, courses completed at other
institutions approved by the regional
accrediting agency are acceptable in
transfer if they are comparable to
courses offered at . [College A]
and were completed with grades of "C"
or better. Any work transferred to
. . [College A] will be entered as
hours earned only, and will not be used
in the computation of the . [College
A] average. The maximum number of credits
that may be accepted in transfer from a
junior collegeis sixty-four semester hours.


89
Flight credit is transferable subject to
Federal Avaiation Admission rules for
transferability between schools.
Credit for work completed with a grade of
"C" or above at another accredited insti
tution may be granted if on official trans
cript is presented and if it is determined
that the work is equivalent to that given
at . [College F] in courses content
and hours. In doubtful cases credit may
be granted by written examination.
CREDIT BY EXAMINATION. Students . .
may obtain unversity credit for specific
courses through equivalency examination. .
Degree credit will be awarded for those
courses successfully completed by the
examination. No grade will be assigned
to equivalency examination credits.
COLLEGE LEVEL EXAMINATION PROGRAM. .
[College F] grants academic credit for
examination taken under the CLEP program
provided the score obtained is above the
50th percentile (60th percentile for
English) on the National Sophomore CLEP
norms.
ADVANCEMENT PLACEMENT PROGRAM (A.P.)
Students who have participated in the
A.P. in high school and received satis
factory scores on the national examination
will receive college credit in each of
the appropriate subject areas previously
taken. No grade will be assigned to
these c red its.
ADVANCED STANDING. All requests for
advance standing including credit by
examination must be submitted to the
Vice-President for Student Affairs not
later than kS days after initial regis
tration. ( Catalog p p 0 A 1 )
Perce i ved c ri te ria. The officials at this college are
firm in their support of the college's policy not to transfer
courses earned with a grade of "D". Likewise, they are dis
mayed that some colleges feel it appropriate to transfer


81
Students may receive academic credit, up to
a total of 30 semester hours, for the success
ful completion of courses taken at Military
Service Schools. The amounts of credit granted
will be that recommended by the American Council
on Education in its "Guide to the Evaluation of
Educational Experiences in the Armed Forces,"
1968 edition. No credit is granted for train
ing programs designated as "technical and voca
tional in nature." Credit recommendations on
service school training which cannot be identi
fied in the guide may be obtained by writing
the Commission on Accreditation of Service Ex
periences. In these cases, the student should
complete a Request for Evaluation Form which
should be sent to the commission.
Extension credit may be earned in locations
designated as Extension Centers or in any other
off-campus location where courses not carrying
"residence credit" are conducted by an institu
tion. Total extension courses credit is limited
to 30 semester hours.
Students ¡nay receive academic credit up to
a total of 30 semester hours for satisfactory
results on any or all of the College Level
Examination Program general examination (CLEP)
administered either through the College En
trance Examination Board or through USAF1.
(pp. 70-72)
Perceived criteria. The Director of Admissions at this
college feels that it has satisfactorily come to grips with the
question of whether grades of "D" should transfer. It is felt
that the native student should not have the benefit of credits
earned with "D" grades while the transfer student is denied
the same.
The policy regarding the transfer of academic credits is
generally perceived as a liberal policy, and enjoys the support
of those interviewed. However, unlike another college pre
viously mentioned, this college is not prepared to accept the
transfer of quality points which accumulated at another college.


26
(1) sudden changes in the upper division curricula; (2)
insisting on exact equivalence of courses; (3) refusing to
accept occupational courses; (4) putting limitations on the
amount of credit granted in certain majors; (5) refusing to
accept a course, implying that it is inferior to the university
counterpart; (6) shifting courses from lower to upper division
while holding community colleges to specific definitions of
lower and upper divisions; and (7) limiting enrollment of
transfer students in certain programs.
Kintzer (1973) also says that the community colleges have
been accused of: (l) mixing subcollege material with college
material in courses that are labeled transfer; (2) developing
transfer courses without consulting with the senior institu
tions; (3) relying on informal communications between community
college professors and university professors rather than a
formal method of exchanging information; and (4) failing to
provide adequate transfer guidelines to students either through
the counseling staff or in print.
He concludes by pointing out the many problems caused by
the student himself by: (l) changing majors when he trans
fers; (2) making one or more false starts in his collegiate
career;, and (3) compiling a poor academic record from which it
is difficult to recover.
Sistrunk completed his study in 1974 identifying 36
transfer problems in six Florida universities. The problems
clustered into six categories: (l) articulation; (2) academic


CHAPTER IV
DATA FROM COLLEGES E, F, AND G
College E
Description of the College
Located in the Tampa Bay area, the college's thirteen
silver minarets distinguish the school as "a landmark of
learning, a Mecca for educational pilgrimages" in an other
wise urban residential and business community of more than
300,000.
The main building now known as Henry B.
Plant Hall, was constructed in 1830 as
the luxurious Tampa Bay Hotel by rail
road magnate Henry B. Plant who spent
$3,500,000 to build one of the most lavish
resort hotels of the era. Frequently ac
claimed the finest example of Moorish ar
chitecture in the nation, its minarets
represent the 13 months of the Moslem
year. The five story building is 1,200
feet long and has more than 500 rooms.
Crowned heads of Europe and romantic
figures of history, such as Colonel
Theodore Roosevelt, then commander of
the Rough Riders of the Spanish-American
War, have been guests at the Old Tampa
Bay Hotel. (p. 11)
The college was founded in 1931 to accommodate local
students unable to attend college away from home. In I960,
it was transformed from a community to a residential institu
tion, and today it serves more than 2,200 students from 50
states and a number of foreign countries.


What difficulties, if any, do you perceive a
by students who transfer from the community
terms of recognition of university parallel
pursued by them at the community college?
re encountered
college, in
programs


6
administrators, admission officials, and academic personnel
in the selected private four-year colleges as to the extent
to which the published criteria for determining the transfer-
ability of academic credits earned at the community college
were actually followed; and (3) What were the perceptions of
administrators, admissions officials, and academic personnel
in the selected private four-year colleges as to the extent
to which the published criteria for recognizing university
parallel programs from the community colleges were actually
followed by the participating colleges?
Del imitations
The selected private four-year colleges that participated
in this study included the seven largest in Florida, in terms
of student enrollment and were also accredited by the Southern
Association of Colleges and Schools.
The substantive nature of the data was limited to those
criteria relative to: (l) the admission of the community
college transfer student; (2) the transferability of academic
credits earned at the community college; and (3) the recogni
tion of university parallel programs pursued by transfer
students at the community college.
The quantitative nature of the data was limited to that
which could be secured at each of the participating colleges
from documents and interviews. The interviewees viere limited
to: (1) top echelon administrators; (2) the chief admissions
officers; (3) the chief academic officers; and (A) where


70
[College D] only with the written approval
of the Office of Academic Affairs. All
extension or correspondence work in pro
gress at the time of the student's first
registration must be reported to the Office
of Academic Affairs. A maximum of 15 hours
in correspondence and/or extension work may
be applied toward degree credit.
SUMMER SCHOOL AT OTHER COLLEGES . .
[College D] students who wish to take courses
during the summer at other colleges including
community colleges and have three courses
transferred back to . [College D] must
have the written approval of the Office of
Academic Affairs prior to the closing of
the spring semester. Credit hours only
are transferrab1e from other institutions,
and no credit will be granted for grades
below C. (Bul 1e t i n pp. 8~9)
Pe rce i ved criteria. The Administration unanimously per
ceives that this college is in virtual accord with the
articulation agreement approved in 1971 between Florida's
community colleges and the state university system. It
suggests that perhaps the college has gone one step further
than the public colleges, as it accepts all courses taken as
part of an Associate of Arts degree program. Like the public
colleges, it awards junior status to an Associate of Arts degree
holder. But unlike the public colleges, this college transfers
all quality points of all courses attempted at all previous
colleges. According to the Vice-President for Academic Affairs/'
this arrangement can work a decided advantage for or a dis
advantage against transfer students, depending on their accumu
lated total of quality points earned since first beginning
college work.


84
parallel programs in terms of quality control. Second, they
are not so eager to commit themselves in advance, regarding
future transfer applicants. They still cling to the notion
that each applicant should be judged on the basis of his own
circumstances and not on the basis of a formal agreement
which would preclude discretion. And third, they are not
ready to accept the integrity of the community colleges'
academic programs. They want the right to disallow certain
courses or require additional courses if they deem this action
appropriate, although it may be made on partly subjective
judgement.
College F
Description of the College
Founded in 1958 by Dr. Jerome P. Kemper, the college was
granted a charter (as Brevard Engineering College) as a non
profit corporation by the State of Florida. The school was
established as a co-educat i ona 1 independent, privately con
trolled and supported university. The control of the uni^
versity is vested in a self-perpetuating 17member Board of
Trustees. Members of the Board are selected on the basis of
outstanding ability, integrity and personal interest in the
development and preservation of the institution (Catalog,
1975-1976).
Current enrollment averages approximately 3,100 students
annually, including both graduate and under-graduate About
2,500 are full-time students. The university awards Associate,


28
community college campus visitations, in addition it is
responsible for publishing a community college counseling
manual which is distributed throughout the Florida community
college system. This manual describes the college programs
offered at the four-year institutions and lists requirements and
recommendations for transfer students.
Blackwell (1975) looked at the decentralization of the
baccalaureate program into a community co11 ege-un i versity
system to see if it created problems which were disadvantageous
to the student. He concluded that the loss in efficiency from
the decentralized baccalaureate program was .1 percent. This
relatively small loss in efficiency is attributed primarily to
Florida's articulation agreement. The expenditures for the
excess credits acquired as a result of the transfer process
are approximately $ 13-00 per transfer student, a nominal figure
for the advantages offered by the community college.
Hite (1975) studied the problem of students transferring
between four-year institutions. His study isolated the prob
lems into three areas: academic, procedural, and extra
curricula. He found that these problems translated into in
adequate academic advisement; inadequate orientation, regis
tration problems, and academic bureaucracy; and meeting people
and feeling at home.
In summary, community college transfer students are ex
periencing a variety of problems as they move from the two-
year college to the four-year college. Some of these problems


INTERVIEW GUIDE
What do you perceive to be the criteria, if any, used
by your college in approving or denying transfer appli
cations submitted by community college students?
Is your response to question number one consistent with
your college's published criteria? If not, please explain
What difficulties, if any, do you perceive are encountered
by students who transfer from the community college, in
terms of being admitted to your college?
What do you perceive to be the criteria, if any, used
by your college in determining the transferability of
academic credits earned at the community college?
Is your response to question number four consistent with
your college's published criteria? If not, please explain
What difficulties, if any, do you perceive are encountered
by students who transfer from the community college, in
terms of the transferability of academic credits earned
at the community college?
What do you perceive to be the criteria, if any, used by
your college in recognizing university parallel programs
pursued at the community college by students who transfer
to your college?
Is your response to question number seven consistent with
your college's published criteria?
1 22
If not, please explain


27
counseling; (3) orientation; (4) oral and written communica
tion; (5) participation in student activities, and (6) an
attitudinal problem among some university personnel.
Wattenbarger (1972) noted that "bookkeeping" problems
are often the source of problems and frustrations for the
community college transfer student. However, bookkeeping
problems may be the product of other factors surrounding the
transfer process. These factors may include: institutional
integrity, faculty, competencies, restricted admissions
policies, equivalency of courses, planning of programs, in
dividual counseling procedures, student activities, and occu
pational objectives.
Hertig (1973) reported that basic articulation problems
stem from three primary factors. First, is a lack of mutual
professional respect and acceptance among the two- and four-
a
year college faculties; second, is the failure to recognize
the necessity of attacking articulation problems on a local
or, at most, a regional scale, rather than assuming they will
be solved on a state or federal level; and third, is the absence
of mechanisms, which allow for curricular planning and encourage
cooperation between the disciplinary counterparts from the
two- and four-year colleges.
A study completed at the University of Florida recently
looked at the roles and responsibilities of the Articulation
Counseling Office located at each of Florida's public uni
versities (Schafer, 1974). This office is responsible for