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A multivariate investigation of professed and inferred self concepts of fifth and sixth grade students

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A multivariate investigation of professed and inferred self concepts of fifth and sixth grade students
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Graves, William Heniger, 1939-
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English
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v, 58 leaves. : ; 28 cm.

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Subjects / Keywords:
Learning ( jstor )
Schools ( jstor )
Self ( jstor )
Self concept ( jstor )
Self esteem ( jstor )
Self reports ( jstor )
Sex linked differences ( jstor )
Social psychology ( jstor )
Students ( jstor )
Teachers ( jstor )
Child development ( lcsh )
Child psychology ( lcsh )
Dissertations, Academic -- Foundations of Education -- UF ( lcsh )
Foundations of Education thesis Ph. D ( lcsh )
Self-perception ( lcsh )
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bibliography ( marcgt )
theses ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )

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Thesis:
Thesis--University of Florida.
Bibliography:
Bibliography: leaves 52-57.
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Also available online.
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Typescript.
General Note:
Vita.
Statement of Responsibility:
by William H. Graves.

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University of Florida
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Copyright [name of dissertation author]. Permission granted to the University of Florida to digitize, archive and distribute this item for non-profit research and educational purposes. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder.
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A .Hulivaxiate InvestU' ,. ori of Professed and Inferred
Sellf Concepts of :'.th and S3.xth Grade Stud:nts










By

WILLIAi I. GRA',"-;, JR.









A D .:.: O,' ]':T V ''.;TD TO TE ,RDJATS, OO'UN,. OF
I-' UIvfSiTy 0op FT.,C".-; 1"P P.-,Ai ,.L-
] ..; .: OP TI F':::; '.,l,-. 71 '_ .- T'7.-
DOCO'<' OF .ilLG Y






UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
19?2


















r,-, ... cI of people who have influenced the author's thought is

long, an') 1 i o c.. i on. s with th'am are fondly remembered. The contri-

butions f ,o- Jc-n &o 3- .. as to demand xc'.clal reco-nition. The

author i1 !l',.. d to the chairman of his doctoral committee, Dr.

,', V ', for his personal warmth and for his exemplary devo-

ti5on to 1ttr:'; edue tion for children. Dr. Vynce A. Hines' initial

and conti:':.! 3r -I ort .an a catalyst which will always be deeply appre-

ciatd, l)r;, .. e and CGuillermo F. Hascaro have unveiled many

mystoeriocr -. l' o.-n the author to uork with them closely in demanding

tasks. Toe t i... ;.- of Drs. *'-,on H. Guertin and C-arlesI M. Bridges,

as roll as th ir t..:; a.nd interest, were vcry influential. The children

and ctrf of tho co.hools involved in this study are thanked for efforts

without vhic- inis study would not have been possible.

Mrco o,;.l L, Stevens, who typed this dissertation under very

trying conditi. inr, is h.;jhly commended. The author finally wishes to

thank his faii),; ,ho have borne with him throughout his studies.


A,'C,, ,, I_ -"Du .... T
















TAC11 ' IU D-T, I'- 7; 3
LTAI.. '' .J .'


Fa-ce
ACK O*'IL* *i T* ..,.. .. .9 9 49. 99.. ,, 9. 9.... 4,4* .... ..*.... ii
LIST OF' TATLrY1 .,, , . o .......,,.,.9.94449,.,9 49 9~*9 .. 999 .. iv

A Sh f R1 T ................ .................................... v

CHAPTER
I Statement of the Prob!V ........................... 1
;*-!.. ouid of tlhe . 9 . . .. 2
purposes of the Stu-iy ........................... 5

II Review of the Ltratu r ....................... ..9 7
Azpe c .'-, of Sc32f .. .. .. ..... ... .. .. . 7
Developmental Tp.ic:",>: of Sclf I .., ..... 8
Self Concept ad Sc: '> /1c;',.R.i'nt i..... .,.. 10
Measurement Thor',y .' pc'.1cptT.3. Psc '.V ,.. 13
Perceptual ,c ;:. ,:. 0 f. 0.: i .u .s ,4 .t. ff, .a 16
pde'PC:! c:!^' t-t;,.. -l.atJ 0. l so ... 22

III Design and Method .....*. .... C ,. 9,, 9. .4 ...... 25
Measures Used in th. ; *i' ....... ......... 25
Description of Chilr v: .:i Schools...,..... 27
Design and '`.Uhod. .....,,t ...,.no,., Hypotheses . ....., .... .*......4 .,. 29

IV Analysis of the D-ita ....... ,9..............,, 30
Relationships betwe.en : 1- .jues .,,,,,.,.,,.., 30
Comparisons between Schools ..... ,,,,, 34

V Summary and Conclus ions,..-, ....,,,,..,,,,.,,. 41
Summary ..... ,.,, ............. ... #. *.... . .. .. 41
Comparisons between Schools and Sexes ..,,,, 45
Conclusion .9.,.,...,.. ,.,, 9,.,.,,,,***** 46

APPENDICES
A Florida Key .............,......9..9.......... 49

B Pupil Florida Key ........ ....,,.. ,.... 50

C Self-Esteem Inventory ..........9.,............. 51

REFERENCES .......................... ,.............. 52

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH ................................ .....*... 58














LIST 0P ?ABL3


TABLE Page
1 Rotated Factor Loadin!r for Flor5.(dL. y ............ 26

2 Iten Crons-Corrslatiors of -1oria Kory, PuilT
Florida K. v, and Self"7 io, T:'c ............. 31

3 Intercorrelations of Interred p.nA }'i';;ed
Learner Self Concept and Scf2Fst:c; Scores .,,...... 33

4 Curvilinear Comiponents oZ Thr.e: 11rf hc'xoort VAziIbles
Predict:i.- Inferred Sielf Ccnrp alal!s .......... 35

5 Summary of F-Ratios and CPAll r or Afo ly:es
of Variance of FK Factors .................... 36

6 Summary of F-Ratios and Cell M;ans for An.lyI.ys
of Variance of PFK Facor; ........................ 37

7 Summary of F-Rat.ios and Cell ,.c, for Analyses
of Variance of c.:I Scores .... ........ .... ,. ... 38








Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the
Graduate Council of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment
of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy

A :IJJLTTVAIATE, I';'."T.T72ATION OF AND ;r''- i AND
SELF CC7C.UFTS OF FIFTH AND SXITIH GADE STIr. .T1

By

William H. Graves, Jr.

March, 1972

Cliairr.ar,: Dr. William Watson Purkey
;'OL Depax-tIent: Foundations of Education

Fifth and sixth grade pupils frc:i two North F.lc-'rl- elementary

schools having different practices were a:irilr:,tered the Pupil Florida

Key (PPK) and the Coopersmith Self-- st'cr- Inventory, tw-o self report

measures. Their teachers rated them on the Florida Key (FK), a learner

self concept inventory whose items paralleled those of the PFK. Cor-

relations calculated between parallel items on the FK and PFK showed

little coammonality in scoring, as did a subsequent analysis using

factor scores from these inventories./ The conclusion was drawn that

self report indices should generally be considered distinct from
/
inferred self concept measures./ i

Factorial analyses of variance using the above indices were per-

formed with school, sex, and their interaction identified as the sources

of variability. Girls tended to have higher indices, as did the more

innovative school.














CHAIT3R I

StAe;i.ent of th:- Probsien


I. ..,-r years which hav- followed th- re-emergence of erceptua

.y-hzo Py as a significant force in psycholcjy and ecucation, thr r.

has !be#rn a pliferation :'f ethod:i and appro-ches for systematic study

of the individual within a .'. eno- o'o;oi,: framework. This should

cone as no s.:rLri'e within ar a-pproach izhich has as a .ijor concern the

explorat5nr of the uniqueness of the individual's perceptions. Ya'7-t'Jr-

mor-e, percePTual psychology inherited a long histc-'y of phi1lo.ochh.Ic

concern about the problem of mind and self.

Dig-ory (19r6) traces the history of theoretical development o_'

xJK.t about self fro- Lorner through Descartes, who initiated the con-

cern of trl interacticn of two aspects of man previously considered

independent: body and mini. Serious theoretical questions about mind

were follcwei frcm Descartes through the British Rmpiricists to vnliaa

J Les, who'je work -arked the beginnln!s of systematic study of the rer-

sonar. internal world of the experiencing individual. Concern at that

pcint in history '.e an to shift to aspects of self such as the develop.-

-t. an-d differentiation of self, the I-me relationship, and the

ques.on s to whether self is divisible, and, if so, how to best

categoriz'; aspects of self.

ft.-r a lull in in terest in self theory on the part of American

--*:-.-,,-.. of a .....iy' of this cnttry, a lull eneraly 7.3$S-

. ..... ... ...... te eh.ioV L -st school he repzsen.

!








students of the self began to reappear. In this renaissance of inter-

est, there was an aspect not prevalent earlier, empirical research

aimed at validating and making practical. the theory. At least two

forces are seen to have been working in concert to foster this develop-

ment. The first force was that the experimental, cause-seekin;,

orientation of behaviorism was still valued, even if the early aims of

behaviorism were not. A second factor was the co'nuiriuir. development

of research tools for behavioral science such as desl-.ri, statistics,

and measurement theory. Field theorists such as Koffka (1935) hplprdl

link the various schools by specifying that the self, at the core of

the ego, represented acts pertinent to real needs of people, and that

the early behaviorists had been concerned with quasi-needs; thus more

global and individually determined concepts were needed to account for

behavior.

Self, or, more objectively, phenomenal self, has been defined by

Combs and Snygg (1959, p. 58) as "all those parts of the phenomenal

field which the individual experlencc as part or characteristic of

himself," where the phenomenal field is the experience of the per-

ceiver. Within the phenomenal self, they define self concept as in-

cluding "those parts of the phenomenal field which the individual has

differentiated as definite and fairly stable characteristics of himself"

(p. 112).

The usefulness of measures of self concept has been defended by

Hilgard (1949), who has stated the necessity of using self concept to

understand defense mechanisms. Hebb (1960) postulated the necessity of

using self concept measures for studying thinking. Numerous studies

(Cowen et al., 19551 Perkins, 1958a; Bruck and Bodwin, 1962t Brookover








et al., 1964; Cline et al., 19641 Purkey, 1970), which will be reviewed

later, have demonstrated relationships of self concept variables with

social achievement.

Wylie (1961) published a revlcw of the research in perceptual

psychology, in which she critically assessed the "state of the art" at

that time. In this review, -.le larnter the lack of standardization

of terminology and i, t'ua:.ntation, .d i p L-cilly critical of re-

search efforts which devise a srcl;%l instrument which is only used

that one time. Work such as that undertaken by Fiedler, -cO.fe, Jones

and Hutchins (1958), in which they develop indices of relitlh"ip

between instruments, is seen as very valuable by providing neans to re-

late findings between studies which have used different measures. This

approach could spark more intensive theoretical analysis if variables

previously considered similar were to show little or no re .t!onship

experimentally, or conversely, if attributes previously considered dis-

tinct and independent were to show correlation. The lack of widely

accepted criteria a-;ainst which to compare self concept measures is a

major difficulty.

Background of the Study

This study will explore the interrelations of the two major ap-

proaches in determining an index of self concept. One approach used is

to rely on the subject to overtly provide information about himself.

The intent of the instrument may be either obvious or disguised, global

or particular. Instruments of this nature will be referred to here-

after as self reports. The use of the self report is supported by

statements such as the following by Moustakas (1965, p. 45): "The

individual's perception of his own feelings, attitudes, and ideas is









aiorc V2.11d in*- jy _oUL;ld_ !i3..=i3 n be"T-hs ae_%,_rta:,ain

..-, the '2l r'. ~z-t ?xr that it car pro'z.de .qe6surez frcO a V -: -

n.. bi of subjects on numerous items rel.tced to ",he ,henor!,inov' under

investigation, and dro so rith 9. relatively low expenditure 'c" ns ad

tDje.

"'Te se!or.d na -" aasurlng technique is to ask for an j-otv:

ratinr- of the subject. by saaeone else, gener,-Jly a tr/aned oo.-- ,

The Indices of self concept so garnered will be referred to as i.. .

self concept scores, Advanta.es to this nethod incl..e re action of
/
ideosyncratic variation due to semantic problems of ive (i,. '"ell

adjusted" nirht- mean to one :r-on what "adjusted." ri s to T,

or intetrprtation of terms. Reliance on an observer a];io vxuce ai-

ability attributable to individual tendencies to "fAke coxi" or "fae

bad," and allows for evaluation, of characteristics which a:7e not

apparent to the individual himself, i.:.ny measures of self concept, 'by

nature of b*!r-. concerned with items of obvious pez-cn2.i neiir[, car

be characterized as "reactive" as defined by C&rapbell and Stanley

(1963). Inferred self concept scores avoid this ger-iEal]2,; undesirable

source of variation, Practical difficulties arise using this procedure

if a i.ar-e number of subjects are desired, since stable aieasures i*.-

observations require time proportional to the complexity of the attri.-

bute in its koreetua-.iattcn and occurrence. It should bo e.iphaaized

that these tio methods of collecting data about perceptual phenomena

are not opposing methods, A *elf report instrument can provide vala-

able information to an observer, as an adjunct to his observation.,,

Self -3 cr-tr, on the other hand, are suspect when vsed with people with

clinical p hopathKol~ies for reasons listed by Com-'. So'c, and

CoUrson (I1:`3) utless the deviance is considered as a se.-ait variable.









The aspects Combs et al. felt to be necessary in the individual

for self report measures to yield valid indic;es of self concept areas

1. The clarity of the individual's a,,zreness
2. Thc availability of .q'l.... .. for expression
3. The willingness of the intlividual to cooperate
4. The social expectancy
5. The individual's fecclr'i; of I". -...-
6. His fcc-lin, of freedom frci. threat.

In support of their position, Co--,J et ccrrelateud responses of stu-

dents on 18 items such as "I feel worth while I don't amount to much"

with evaluations fro-" trained observers of thote students on the same

items. Correlations were predomiii:-intl/ low ad positive; however,

there was no attempt to determine the r, ity of the self 1,:po.rt

instrument and the range of possible stwa'ii ..ronses as limited with-

in these one-item scales.

Proes of the Stul.-

There is a continued widespread s of the term ".cif concept"

in studies using both inferred self concept and saif report procedures

despite the injunctions of Wylie (1961) zd Coibz et al. (1963). In

view of this and the methcdoloL;,.: .1 limitations of the Combs et al.

study, a reexamination of the relationship between these measures was

proposed. One purpose of this study was to e::- -iDine the multiple rela-

tionships between two self report instruments and one instrument in

which specific aspects of learner self concept are infcrrcd. Two of

these instruments used very specific terminology to reduce variability

due to differences in the interpretation of the rieanings of the items,

and restricted their emphasis to areas of learner self concept. All

three instruments were comprised of numerous related items to increase

reliability (Thorndike and Hagan, 1969, p. 183). High positive








relationships between the procedures could indicate that much of what

is knoyn from research uslni one proceledre Is a-ppPcable to researx-h

using, the other pr)ced'jrf, I.ov relattc.z3h;'. in oerta'i di-nsi'n., on.

the other hand, could mean that it would bes unsa fe tc ener lize re-

suits froi one +,e-.nlque to proble-,s in which tht ocher technique would

be nor0 rtrr,-),ri.te nmtil furthBr evidence coulr support the .7:erali-

zaticn. Lz'- relaltionships on certain dimensions could also ii .icate a

basic difference between self-perceptions and teacher t-:.. pons even

on frequency of observable behaviors. In the letter cie, th- major

implication for teacher trailn:i.- would be to mace :utz-re tea.cherz a-;t.r

of tha possible lack of cnrou! :e of perceptions, so that the' ihz

become more r-srceptive, both cf tho students' behavior P.nd cf t.:e

students' self-porceptions.

The second purpose of the study was to continue the ivaftize-

tion of the effects of deliberate and intensive efforts to .%-rharce

pupil self concept (Purkey, Craves, and Zeilner, 1970) by conpari-xn two

schools with different emphases in the area of self concept develo,..-t...

Onr school had a deliberate, public and planned effor-t for this purpose,

and the ot-her school was much less systematic ir this area.














CHAPTER II

Pevkew of the Literature


The need for a rhcio onlo21zcal system of psychology was out-

lined by Snygg (1941), who emphasized that the frame of reference from

which measurements are taken is a critical aspect in any field of

science. In p'i:.irolojictl p-ycholcgy, this point of r,-for-i-ce is at

the level of the individual's perceptions and experiences, rather than

at the level of the external stimuli which surround him. T;.c most

basic perceptions in terms of their centrality and durability are those

which reflect the person's ideas about himself. Rogers (1951) main-

tained that self is central to thc individrur. and thzft cnh1acc.ent of

self is a high priority issue, perhaps takin_ precedence over or':n-

ismic concerns. This position is related to that of Conbs and S.ynr

(1959) in which the role of the self is seen as the determiner of

behavior. A summary of the important characteristics of the self was

made by Purkey (1970), who described the self as organized, dynamic, and

learned.

Aspects of Self

There have been numerous attempts to subdivide the self into

aspects which are distinct and amenable to identification and which have

differential effects within the person. One major system for categori-

zation of aspects of self has been to divide the self in two parts. One

aspect of self is seen by this system as that part or process which views

and evaluates itself, the notion of the self-as-object. The other








aspect of self within this system does not have this component of self-

awareness, but is the prime determiner of behavior, the self-as-

procecs. Cordon and Cej:rfcn (1968) outlined some implications of this

formulation of the self in the area of self-understanding. Rentz and

,,ii.te (1';7) have shown that these two concepts, both defined u;ing self

report instruni:ents, have some shared aspects as well as some unique

aspects,. It would seem, however, that the self report is more aripro-

priate whon considering the self-as-object, and the procedure of infer-

ring self concept is more related to the self-as-process.

The development of an individual self is seen by many (Snygg,

1941; Allpoi-t, 196l1 Jersild, 19SOr Lecky, 1969) to be through the

mechanis-i of l ,_:'L:n, wherein aspects of the phenomenal field are dif-

ferentiatcd which wore previously undifferentiated. In the development

of the self ">L'-.:'.-I learnin murphy (1947) and All port (1955) have

exaninci the special importance attached to the condition of striving

with -r.,--d to the differentiation of the phenomenal field, especially

in the area of self-knowledge, Combs (1952) outlined a procedure

through which i,'tCL-lli -tice could be considered dependent upon an ade-

quate self concept, showing the reciprocal nature of the internal and

external world of the individual.

Developmental Inplications of Self Concept

The role of "significant others," such as parents, in the

"learning-of-self" process is of importance to educators and psycholo-

gists in order that they might better understand human development.

Such understanding can be used when these professionals have to interact

with the "significant others" in connection with the children and,

therefore, must know the ramifications of this psychological dynamic in









order to coordinate with and advise parents to maximize the child's

development. Furthermore, teachers and other professionals become

"significant others" to children because of their roles as agents of

the society having opportunity and obligations to effect chan2-r in the

children. Thus, it is imperative that they understand the implications

of this develop.:ert.'il process. For example, when working with children,

it is Arnort.-int. to consider that new prceptions, if they Irtrr.ere

with or threaten the dynamics of the self, can be rejected even when

such rejection is both logically inconceivable to the outside observer

and unpredictable from an ex-iination of the external stimuli (Tecly,

1969, p. 117). The more central a concept is to self, the more stable

and resistant to the above change.

Some degree of stability of the self concept is a necessary con-

dition if relationships of i.,,Leno.enoloeical variables to human behaviors

are to be explored. Research in different areas at different a,;e levels

employirLT different instruments has demonstrated a fairly stable re-

lationship within those instruments and age levels (Brownfain, 1952;

Engel, 1959). On the other hand, changes in the way pupils think about

and see themselves have been investigated by Yeatts (1967), who reported

differences in spatial relationships between self report variables ob-

tained from children at different grade levels. Gergen (1968) reviewed

the literature and theory of consistency and indicated that very high

levels of psychological consistency are not desirable in humans. This

is in keeping with an organism so dependent on adaptation to a changing

environment.

In brief, if the self be viewed as the internally consistent,

dynamic determiner of behavior, dependent on a supportive environment








.cr M'.&airnaz jrwth =d ff':nezs, the rsl&ti-nzhi' cf Soif theory

tith the scc.1 it: .... ,.ion f education is s :r:nr- -.d ob'vi'.s,

"eL Conceot and School Achievement

r:iJ'-rcus studies, us1l! a rmultitude- of instrwaents anri oriez:-.a-

tionz, have shown consistent relationships bet;esn selli c..onep+t, ai

school .chiev..nt nfror- kindergarten t.ro :h college. In scme of the

earliest work in this area, Sears (1940) used a discrecancy score pro-

cedure and found that children's rc-,rels of aspiration were related to

their academic r-cifornance. Work by Combs and Soper (`163) and related

research by La.y (1965) indicated that measures of inferr.1 d self cov-

cept, *j .. o-,- th observer-as-in ,!ti-ent technique they pioneered, were

related to ac,-adeenic rerfor-.ance in kirder -arteners, Stabilt'+, tvf this

relationr.h.p ira.s established in this research by the cC.-rrsro.den.e of

predictions .iade ,-5 Com'zs a-nd Sone.r with ratin-s =a-lc rn these c&lZrisn

the next y-r by their new teachers. Sex-based differences were

checked on ?. kindergarten population by Ozehcskey and Clark (1970), in

response to work with older children (fourth and sixth grades) which

showed girls with hIgher self concepts than boys (Bledsoe, 1964). Ai-

.hocuh COzehoskey and Clark found no differences associated with sex at

this earlier aqe, they did find inmrrssive relationships between self

concept meaztunres and both the Metropolitan Readiness Test and the

childrens gr rade-point averse.

Bledsce (1964) also found significant correlations of achievement

measures with his own self report instrument (modified froia Bills' IAV,

1951) for boys but not for girls. Underachievers were found by Bruck

and ).'dw-in (l!-'.) to have lower self concept scores, -s inferred, from

the ,a-a--rson -.:, -, e ,. zot-rolin for differences in








intelligence. Fink (1962) found male lower achie';ers in the ninth grade

to be rated lower than higher -.chievinj males on ;adequacy of self con-

cept ra.tin-; ssirrei by three ex%.rierlced raters review-:.' nruerous

-sych.ilo-rlcal protocols, Females in this study vere not found to dif-

fer sr.-nifircantly on this basis. In a study encompassir.g o-'v

secondary grade levels, Brookover, 1ho:mas, and Paterson (l?64) f .und

significant correlations of self ratings of general ability and. 'lity

in specific academic areas with academic achievement, controlling for

the influence of intc liqerce. A conclusion was drawn fru7 this

research thai a feeli-- of self confidence of ability may well be a

necessary (but not sufficient) .'o- -'tion: for achievement.

The rtla-'ior~hlp of self concept with achievement sees to re-

main even in higher education. In a study by Roth (1959), college

students who attended a re:iedial rea.l.-" clinic and were successful

tended to rate themselves hi-her on reality-oriented dimensions of a

Q sort for self concept, ideal self concept and "ideal-actual" self

discrepancy than those who did not succeed or who dropped out of the

progr,. The latter group tended to rate themselves higher on some

dimensions related to ideal self. Within a women's college, Flaherty

and Rautzel (1965) found female high achievers rating themselves higher

on such California Personality Inventory categories as responsiblee,"

"self-accaptinz," "self-assurant," and "poised." Low achievers in

colle_ ge, it should be remembered, still have a history of relatively

hi,-h .achi'vezment compared to the general population, and yet their

self-:omparioons are aprarently based on their perceived peer group

(I.e., college students).








The possibility exists that social class is a factor strongly

related to both achievement and self concept, and that many of the

above findin-s could be more pa2mrimon:ou-?.y and reliably attributed to

social class differs. *:... Shares anil Scares (1969) found, however,

low socioeconomic class black children having higher self report scores

than middle class white c}Il'irern. Davidson and Lang (1960) also exam-

ined this possibility and concluded that, even though lower social

class children reported lower self concepts, when social class was held

constant statistically, a distinct relationship between self reports

and academic performance still obtained. AnoLhcor finding by Davidson

and Lang was that girls in the fourth through sixth ,Tadcs reported

higher self concept scores than boys and also saw their teachers as

being more favorable toimrdz them in comparison to boys' perceptions of

teacher favorability. Girls of th!s age were also fo .. by Perkins

(1958a) to show higher "ideal-actual" self conx..uenco than boys.

The interactive effect of teachers on the self-picture of pupils

was examined by Staines (1?53) and it was found that teachers who deli-

berately attempted to instill and maintain a realistic level of aspira-

tion seem to effect a more realistic self concept in their students.

Work in the same area by Battle (1957) and Davidson and Lang (1960)

indicated that children whose values coincided with those of their

teacher tended to achieve higher. Perkins (1958b), Purkey (1967, 1970),

and Combs, Avila, and Purkey (1971) have written extensively about

methods and attitudes conducive to the enhancement of learners' self

concept.









Measurement Theory and. percanbal Psvch ".

Allport (1955) summariz'i the or-anlzation of observato.i and

interpretation in phenomenologfical psycs'-'l.y, starter.! with tnrae

broad rate-ories of constitutZional d.ar.osis, sociolulcal tkc cl....ues

and "ych.l'"-ical techniques. The psychological technique. h
divided into personal documents, self-appraisal, conduct s -n.-1.n" ,

ratings, scales and tests, projective techniques, depth analyses, and

expressive behavior.

Two basic categories of vheionoeno)o-ical variables have been

mentioned previously, self report and inferred self concept. Although

all techniques above could conceivably be used to get an index withlr

either category, some techniques and methods are more appropriate for a

given category. ?cr exya7ie, the depth analysis would be more a!-.oo

privately used( to infer self concept, while self appraisal best yields a

self report. Some techniques, such as scales, are commonly used to give

a.n index within either category.

Other dimensions will be discussed which may be superimposed on

the universe of perceptual variables. Consideration of these dimnenions

is useful in that they illustrate sources of variability between mea-

suring devices that can cause concern about reliability and validity of

the indices thus obtained. These concerns are especially important to

perceptual measurement because of the problem of validation. Ideally,

validation is accomplished by relatlnr a measure of a construct to an

objective criterion acceptable to experts within the discipline. The

l-icl. criterion for self concept measures would seem to be the ade-

quacy ;_ni effectivene's of the individual's l.fe-style in .cco1.lisMi.-.

his piros, but this data i noot irkly to become available for









validation purposes, so validity has to be established by indirect

methods, such as expert judg-elt or the relationships of self concept

measures with partially relat+.ed, confounded criteria. The indirect

approach dictates more concern with initial Instrument conrtructibn

since inaDn'rc:rlate aspects connot be as readily eliminated.

One dimension which is a source of variability iz over4:-:.% tlt

dei-re to which the true purpose of an instrument is explicit or ob-

vious to .he person supplying the information. This dimension, althoujr

it can be varied in either self report or inferred self concept tsch-

niques, is most commonly varied in the former. In nakLr-- the decision

of how much overtness to engineer into an instrument, the InterTlqy o0

two considerations, social desirability and validity, creates a dilea-a.

The systematic variations which can he attributed to the social desir-

ability of pcssessin? an attribute, rather than the degree of that

attribute actually possessed, is an area explored in detail by Crown-

and 'Marlowe (1964). Social desirability is of particular relcvar.ce to

humanistic psycholo:-y where the attributes of concern are, virtually by

definition, mratters of genera], social and personal importance, and social

d-s-zabhlnity can be expected to influence overt self reports and even

'uar.neri.-i and behaviors from which self concept measures are inferred.

Covert measures attempt to circumvent the variability due to
social desirability by stressing items which, though apparently innocu-

ous, reflect deeper traits. Accurate use of covert measures, however,

is dependent upon the degree of relationship between the directly mea-

sured attribute and the target trait for which the first measure provides

an inj-rect irdex. As an exaapie, Y-..nrber of cigarettes smoked may be

inferred :io.,Ti yelioq stains rrn fin:ers, but the index lacks so-in









validity as yellow stains do r.cI have to coat fro. cigarette r.t oking.

Furthermoret, the stairs can bt avoided or eliminated without char.in

sTkonUr frequency. Accuracy in covert me.sures is further dependent on

the reliability of the measurement of the measured. variable, 3och of

these considerations are critical in humanistic r5:ychofjc-- as the

degree of relationship between variables is generally neither known

empirically nor agreed upon theoretically.

Although a great t deal of inference is obvious in covert measures

of self report, this inference is a priori and, therefore, these mea-

sures are not to be corf'used with inferred self concept indices. Ir

the former .rcc-.ure, two people who con-letp protocols in the same

fashion trill obtain thn szcnt scowe, whereas in the latter prcc.i,'re,

this is not necessarily tz-je, as interpretation by the scorer is indi-

viduUlised for each subject and the scorer is free to use wat 5rdifier

(195) referred to az the "nascent surplus" of information which ths

more aechanistic scoring procedure cannot tap.

Another impcrtant dimension of measurement is the generality of

the attribute being measured. If all other considerations wire equal,

the More global measures would better satisfy the criterion of p-rsimonIy,

To tha extent, however, that a more global measure lacks operational

definition end, therefore, loses interrater reliability, positive results

from replication and generalizability suffer. Wylie (1961) concluded

that the comparatively specific explorations into particular aspects of

self have proven more fruitful than research using global measures. This

would seea a l:.-;i.al conclusion if the self is conceptualized, as pre-

viousl'v ".nt.cne'-., ?s the rrT-.,-t anrA prc.c..sa cf continual differentia-

tion, ,:. ,l is thoLrht of as h:vPn nr erous independent aspects,









this could serve as a further *xr-lqraton for the general lack of suc-

cess of research using g'l.oI,) measures since a Tartic.ular part of self

could be one-atlnj- effectively on a target behavior and vet an overall.

measure could show low effectiveness.

Some degree of generality must be present if research efforts

are to extend the riomol)o-ical development of the tbeory. It should also

be remembered that the differentia'tion of the self concept Is unique to

the individual and, within that, unique to the sitt7tlo.-i, uo that sore

degree of generality must be present, or no one could kr-.ow anyort else.

Further, self knowledge would be even more difficult than it now is due

to an inability to :eneralize and categorize from others.

Perceptual "easurement Techniques

One frequently used method of obtaining a self report is the 9

technique developed by Stephenson (1953). In this technique, a number

of items (usually 70-120) descriptive of personality traits are pre..

sented to individuals, who are asked to assign each of these items to

one of several (usually 5-9) discrete categories, with a fixed number

of responses falling into each category to approximate a normal distri-

bution. One of two procedures may then be followed to determine an

index of self report. One procedure is to have the individuals score

the same items twice (or more) accr-.in1r to differing sets of instruc-

tions which represent different aspects of the self (i.e., "sort these

as you see yourself now" actual self, or "sort these as you would

like to be" ideal self). 'he correlation between the sorts is con-

sidered to be index of congruence of the two attributes. Evidence

maz-shaled by Cole, Cettin-, and Hinkle (1967) indicated that either low

or high i2ac .nc?.s between "ideal" and "actual" self repor-s i.e









associated with clinical psyvhopathologies, and that a sample of non-

clinical people tended to have moderate levels of conrgruence. This

finding cast shadows on conclusions of earlier research which assumed

that high "ideal self actual self" congruence was the most d-sirable

state.

The second procedure which may be followed in scoring the Q sort

is for the ceve.lopers to establish a priori wei.ights (,.atchiii., -to-

standard) for the items in order to determine the level of a particular

attribute. The correlation between those weights and the obtained dis-

tribution is taken to be the individual's index of that attribute.

Wylie (1961) raised the question of whether the latter procedure is in

fact pheno.L.icnolo-ical, the point beinz, that in the former procedure,

the order of selection of the variables is determined and judged within

the person, whereas in the latter procedure, an external criterion is

bein- imposed on people's selections.

The Q technique has been used with a variety of items, sorts

havirLn been made on words, phrases, and even short paragraphs. Items

have been selected from clinical protocols, exhaustive trait lists and

other sources. The type of item included and the source of items need

to be carefully considered for appropriateness to a particular research

problem. The "standard" list at present in phenomenological research,

from the frequency of use, is Butler and Halgh's (1954) list of 100

statements gleaned from clinical protocols.

A discrepancy procedure somewhat less extreme in psychological

distance than the "ideal self actual self" congruence technique has

been developed and used by Brownfain (1952). In this approach, people

are asked first to rate themselves as they think they are. Next they









are asked to rate themselves on the same scale but giving themselves the

benefit of every doubt, and on the third rating to be as self critical

as they truLhfutlly can.

Another popuilavr form of perceptual measuring device is the

raiMv':, scale which is used in both self report and inferential measure-

ment, In this technique, the individual is asked to measure the dcrce

to which he possesses or is represented by, an item prezumably related

to a more general attribute. Items can be selected which are either

lcjl:;.-1ly and/or functionally related to the attribute of concern.

Bills' Index of Adjustment of Values (IAV, 1951) is a scale of 49

traits which were selected from a longer list on the basis of their

)O:'.;Lu connection with adjustment, The Minnesota Nultlipha-ic Person-

ality Inventory ( ". i, Lathaway and McKinley, 1912) is an example of a

scale sometimnr used in pmcr:.-,.tual. research in which items were selected

for their correlation with psychological disorders or other attributes,

reardless of logical connection. Adjective or trait checklists are

subsets of rating scales and are generally dichotomous.

A variation on the theme of rating scales is the semantic differ-

ential appro-ch developed and reported by Osgood, Suci, and Tannenbaum

(1957), which is somewhat covert, and which assumes that most individ-

uals share connotative as well as denotative interpretation of numerous

adjectives which are common in the English language. In the semantic

differential procedure, an attribute is named and followed by a set

(3-20) of bipolar adjectives, each of which defines a continuum (i.e.,

hot cold). The extremities of each dimension are commonly divided by

a five-to-seven-point unlabeled scale which allows the individual to

select his own appraisal of the characteristic of the target attribute.









With the adjectives generally used, three independent characteristics

of attributes emerge froi a factor analytic procedut'e, evaluation,

potency, and activity. This indicates that people tend to categorize

attributes in terms of the perceived or, Z.-.A'tion ..d dynamics of those

attributes. It is interesting but futile to speculate whether people

tend to see the world in terms of c-L ;.;.. .-r:d dynamics because of

these characteristics of their ,clvw: or :hcthVcr olf theorists have

viewed the characteristics of self as they view the characteristics of

other phenomena.

A procedure which allows for individual selection of constructs

is the Role Construct Repertory T'e.t (Rep "'-. -t, Klly, 1955). In this

procedure a person generates his o0M category system and uses the

categories thus generated to rate r-.piTle significant to him. This al-

lows for a more individualistic analysis of the person's perceptual
field. A time-sharing, terminal-based c -ii.lLr pa orri for simplifying

the rather elaborate administration and scoring of the Rep Test was

developed by Guertin (1971) who also modified the administration to take

advantage of the Q sort methc1olo:y.

In an effort to combine individualized responses with self re-

port techniques, Bugenthal and Zelen (1950) instituted a procedure in

which they asked people to give three answers to the question of who

they thought they were. C. Gordon (1968) described his refinements of

this procedure, primarily by developing coding systems to organize the

wide-ranging responses into meaningful dimensions.

When a projective technique is administered and scored using pre-

arranged keys, a richer variety of information is available, in part

since numerous keys can be used to measure different aspects of









personality frc- one admIni.itration of the test, and in part since

grc-:.tcr flexibility in responding inherently provides the possibility

and probability of greater information. Nonetheless, projective tech-

j:.r1ues are anoii tho mor.e covert devices, and the latitude of response

is so var.'," tat valuable. information may well be lost when scoring

them "obj:ctiv')..," ". ,c as a stimulus in an observation period,

a projectivLw t..c:nque cac intensify the setting and provide some

structure and co. onai.i ty for the observer, as well as practically

i-. r,.ni..':'. sono 3{iUinru level of activity. 7zclosive use of this

technique is !': '.rally not indicated, however, due to the situation

gcn-rilly b inSr pr'-'eived as unnatural, thus allowing for situational

reactivity a.n! btc

Sor.. of tihe earliest work with use of expressive behavior as an

index in pnre<]et-v-+i e:'vch wa'; undertaken by IHuntley (1940), who had

subjects rcpond to *1.' -,,.graphs of mannerisms and gestures of body

parts. In order to counteract theoretical concerns about cross-cultural

mannerisms, or x-linked differences, Huntley provided his subjects

with unidentified cropped photographs of their own mannerisms for eval-

uation and had the subjects thus unwittingly rate themselves, providing

and index of self ideal discrepancy.

Inferences of self concept have been made from protocols such as

those already discussed and from systematic observation. The latter can

involve a prearranged formal situation, such as a situational test

(Cronbach, 1960), a less systematic but directed session, such as most

interviews, or it can be undertaken in a more natural setting, such as

the work by -qar,:'r (1968). In the work reported by Combs and Soper

(1963), all these procedures were combined to produce a technique known








as observer-a-instrument. An important consideration when accepting

inferences from one person about another is the possibility of system-

atic rater variability stcxnin'- from attributes other than those

relevant to the study. Bossom and Maslow (1957) explored this poisi-

bility with relation to raters' feelings of psycholo ira?. security.

Measuring self concept in children is a special case. It is a

truism that childhood is the period of most rapid development, psycho-

logically as well as physically. It follows, then, that self concept

is most malleable during this growth period, a conclusion vhich

Perkins' (195&-) study validated. In his chapter on "Growth of Self,"

?urlhny (1970) reviewed and expanded upon findings with implications to

early experiences and the growth of self concept. Evldencr.- of rela-

tionships between self concept measures and school achievement in the

early school years was presented by Shaw and McCuen (1960), Comibs and

Soper (1963), and Ozehoskey and Clark (1970).

Problems in measuring children's self concepts, especially self

reports, are numerous. In such a rapidly changing system, lack of

reliability can be attributed to "real" changes as well as to errors of

measurement such as faults within instrument design. Extraneous vari-

ables which could influence self report include: tendency to mimic

others' responses, inability to remember or comply with testing instruc-

tions, inability to discriminate shades of meanings within the scales,

or even inability to read with sufficient comprehension to understand

the items. These latter considerations have led to modifications such

as those found on the "I feel me feel" test (Yeatts and Bentley,

1971), in which scale points are indicated by faces which range from

very happy to very sad. Instructions and items can be read to pupils

to allow for some reading level variation.









Projective techniques, such as the Machover Draw-A-Person test

(Machover, 1949), are oc.ccwacnally used but the defense mechanisms

which the adult protective measures seek to circumvent are only devel-

oping in childhood (Sullivan, 1953) and the rationale for the use of

child protective techniques is thus "iJd. Although the individual's

suspicion and curiosity about the ulterior purpose of the test should

be less with younger groip)P, a counterbalancing consideration is that

child protective techniques arc *l:i:.p a more sul.erflcial and situa-

tionally oriented perceptual field, which may be further confounded

with motor skill development.

Relationships Betuen rprceTtu al Variables

Detailed and systematic conclusions are difficult to arrive at

in the research revio wed due, in part, to the abundance of measurement

techniques (Gordon and Co::,b, 19 Il Wylie, 1961; Diggory, 1966;discuss

this problem). Efforts to reaate different measurement techniques are

seen to be nt-ede.- to reduce the conceptual space presently in evidence

in phenomrenolog-lc.l research, to provide bases for comparing studies

which have used different instrumentation and thus to provide a feed-

back mechanism for theorists. In a study on college men, Calvin and

Holtzman (1953) obtained adjustment ratings on each man in a fraternity

from the MPI and also inferred adjustment scores from each man's com-

panions. Inference scores were taken from the companions in the form

of answers to rather global questions about the personality of the rated

person, such as his ability as a leader, and his tact and social under-

standing. Self report scores were taken in basically the same proce-

dure. The tendency to view self in an essentially negative way was

found to increase as adjustment decreased.








.'sin- adjustment techniques to arrive at a self concept index,

Storm, Child, and Frank (1956) found no relat on--hlp between Thematic

Apperception Test (TAT, Mlurray, 1943) scores and self ratir'- or child-

hood experiences. Low correlations wire found by Cowen et al. (1955)

between two standard self report instruments (Bills' IAV and Brownfain's

technique), both of which purported to measure self rc ,,... Cooper-

smith (1967) found low moderate correlaions between a self riort index

and a different, rather global, test he devised for teachers to infer

student self conrc-it-..

In a factor analytic investigation of slf r'.Ur.s; teacher

ratln-s and achievement scores which included some perceptually oriented

variables, Cline, Richards, and Needham: (1964) found internal consis-

tency within each rating technique but few high correlations of

parallel items from puTil to teacher.

Perkins (1958a) found correlations from 0.04 to 0.71 between

teachers and pupils on Q sorts of self referent statements for various

teachers ratin-; various pupils, no teacher rating the saiie student as

another teacher. Of the 50 items used, however, only five referred to

school activities, and only three of those five refr-rred to the pupil's

role as a learner, so the index could best be called a global self con-

cept rating.

In an attempt to experimentally confirm the strong theoretical

arguments in favor of the independence of self report and inferred self

concept indices, Combs, Soper, and Courson (1963) obtained indices on

59 sixth grade pupils from experienced observers on 18 items relating

to attributes of importance within perceptual psychology. The same 15

items were given to the sixth graders so that they might rate themselves.









Correlation coefficients were calculated for each item between the self

r", t'.,-' and the inferred rating:. Coefficients ranged from -0.20 to 0.34,

with an adjusted mean of 0.11 Indicating little self-other correspond-

ence withinn any one item. Single-item indices of personality are most

likely to iicli!' l.,,-e components of error variability, and means cal-

cul ted :f,-,: f correlations obt--in ed between such indices carry forward

th' error Instatd of balmancin; it out. SIelf concepLt indices obtained

fro, .-multliple unidirmensional samples of overt behavior are much less

lIl;y to include .-neo error variability.

A possible limitation to int..'cIrietation of the above results

could arisc if curvilinear relationships were to be found between in-

fe': c'i ratings and self r in's. An interaction of scores a3si-ned

by t chers and self assigned score was found to be a major source of

vaia.bidlity in a tXrnposed factor analysis of pupils when using both

self *, --. and inferred self concept measures (Graves, 1971?l). Curvi-

liirr:'.;r of these measures will be further explored in this study.














CHAPTER III

Denl-;n and Method

_______--.s Used in the Ltu,'v

The measures of self concept used in this study included the

Florida Key (FK), developed by Purkey, C.t. -., and Graves (l97?l); a form

of the sacae instrument modified for pupils (1.-7); the 25-item Cooper-

smith Self-Esteem Inventory, short for-m (SEI, 19607) and a three-item,

school-oriented subscale (SSEi) of the SIJ. Pi ?K is an instrument

developed to infer az-n:ct of leaxmer self concept (see At: ?rd.x A),

and is comprised of 18 observable behaviors rated by teachers zr.'nr3'r.n
to frequency of occurrence on a six-.point scale r..r.: r. co

(never) to five (very often). The 1T7 is sinlzr to the ... (see

AppendiJx B) except for rewording of the directions so that students can

give self reports of their perceived frequency of performing the same

18 behaviors. The S-I (see Appendix C) contains 25 statements which

the pupil is asked to evaluate as being "like me" or "unlike me," and

the 3SS; is the subset of SEI items 2, 17, and 23.

Previous work by Purkey et al, (1971) established that the FK

measured four areas of learner self concept, labeled relating, asserting,

investing, and coping (see Table 1). Interjudge and split-halves reli-

ability indices were high, averailn: 0.84 and 0.93, respectively.

Validity was judged high by a panel of educators and psychologists.











TAL2L' 1

Rotated Factor Loadings for Florida Key
values s below .400 omitted)


Item lRtinnr Assertir.2 Investing Coping


.732

.731

.712

.617

. 616


.400

.429

.500

.412

.410


.481

.464


.538


. 800

. 772

-766

.725

.604

.565

.553

. 501

. 562


.524

. 448


. 717

.617

.613

.612








Description of Children and Schools

These instruments were administered to all children (N = 249) in

the fifth and sixth grades of two elementary schools in North Florida

in the spring of 1970. One school, hereafter called the innovative

school, was locatcd in a Northeast Florida suburban town. The 97

students there were predominantly white middle class. The depio.-rathic

breakdown of the 352 pupils at the other school, located in North Cen-

tral Florida and called the conventional school, was approximately 70

percent white and 30 percent black children, ranging, from, lover -iddle

to nJlc class. Innovations at the innovative school include team

teaching, flexible scheduling and a particularly heavy emphasis on the

personal development of each child, Classes in the conventional school

were copar-jqbcntalized by subject matter and ability level in the fifth

and sixth rc-a...

Deo -.-, and Method

Administration of the self report instruments (PFK and SET) wras

undertaken by the teachers of the innovative school, usin- the instruc-

tions of the investigator, who administered these instruments himself

at the conventional school.

The data analyzed included the 18 item scores and the four fac-

tor scores of both the FK and PFK, as well as the SSEI subtest score

and total score of the SET, giving a total of 46 scores for each stu-

dent. The factor scores for the FK were generated using the procedure

described in Cuertin and Bailey (1970). Factor scores for the PFK used

the factor score coefficients of the FK to assure logical comparability

of the FK and PFK measures.










To deocz;:-ine the relationship between the Iteas on the FK and

those on the FPK, particularly between tho3e items in which the only

difference is the person reporting the score (i.e., the items which are

paallel on the two tests), a cross-correlation of the 13 7K items with

he 18 Pa' items was 7erforned, usin-.: all subjects. In this way,

students' behaviors perceived in the same way by students and teachers

(perceptually con-ruent items) were identified. Perhaps more important,

itens on which students and teachers disaTreed as to the perceived fre-

quency of occurrence (perceptually discrepant items) were identified

and analyzed.

Factor scores, as more reliable measures of general aspects of

l1arrner elf concept, were corL.ired between the FK awd the PFK. The FK

factor scores were also correlated with the S2I scores. This analysis

deter-'.ned the decree of relationship between the measures of inferred

self concept as a learner and the self report measures.

A possible contaminant in the previous procedure could be present

if peroo-.s scorin- centrally on an FK scale were to, by some psyco-log-

ical i.y:- ic such as identification with a higher status group, score

lower o: the corr',.zcn..lin.c FK than pupils scoring either high or low

on the .1 scale. This ?o-obi!.ity was checked by mrnnitn.: a curvilinear

-re'r--or a-ralysis cn the parallel factor scores of the FK and FP.K,

and or',.e eiiiht F-3 combinations.
To explore possible differences between sexes at th- ^rade levels

I i.? a. well as differences between schools such as those found by

Pur:'::e, S'taves, anid Zellner (19?0), a, t,.:o-way factorial d kL-, analysis

cf v.,rl-.nce was performed on the ten indices of self concept (four

factor scores each on both the K." and PK, plus the SEI and S..: scores).






29

Thie folw r hypotheses we-r checked for ail tVn he-a!ures.



(-) A sinifica.nt difference will be Tfound between the means
.f the two schools used in this study.

(2) A ri'nlrica-nt difference will be found between the means
of x.oys and A-7rls in this study.

(3) 7?o significant Interaction will be found between sex
within school means.














CHAPTER IV

Analysis of the Data


Relationships between Techniques

To ascertain the r;-?ree of relationship between the items of the

PK, the PFK, and the school and total S3I scores, a correlation matrix

was ccncjted. The P,! system 360/65 of the University of Florida

Co-r itinr- Center was used, in conjunction with the Education Evaluation

Library cc-nutcr programs. For interpretation of these data, the 99

percent level of confidence was chosen to afford some protection

against the commission of a Type I error (see Table 2).

Results indicated significant positive relationihlp3 on 11 of

the 18 variables of the FK and PFK. The highest relationship was

indicated by a correlation coefficient of 0.32 between teacher and pupil

ratings on variable five, pertaining to getting along with the teacher.

Seven variables, despite their common origin, had correlations which

could not be considered different from zero. In examining the correla-

tions between the school factor of the SEI with each of the FK items,

eleven coefficients were found which differed significantly from zero.

The highest of these (r = 0.29) was between the SSEI and teacher ratings

on variable 13, pertaining to speaking in front of the class. Comparing

the FK items with the total Self-Esteem Index, eight coefficients could

be considered larger than zero. The largest of these was the correlation

of the SEI.with variable seven, which asked the teacher if the student

reads in class.










TADL- 2

Item Cross-Correlations of Florida Key,
Pupil Florida Key, and Self-Esteem Indices


Item
z;,.ber .2:,iPFK ;Y,/SSEI FK/SEI PF'K/SSE! FK/T


1

2

3

h

5

6

7

8



10



12

'3
14
3.5
15






1 8
~*p .01


.25

.10

.15*

. 22*

.32*

.29*

.13

.27*

.22"



1*
.20*












.C3

.-,2*
.22*


.20*

.13

.06

.06

.01

.15*

.23*

.25*

..19*

,19*

.08

.22*

.29*

.21*

.01

.20*

,15*

S11


.06

.07

.05

S15*

.08

.15*

.20*

.19*

.10

.12

190*

.10

.16*

.11

.08

.07

S.16 -

.16"


.09

.13

.10

.16*

.14

.12

.12

.12

.11

.14

.16*

.14,

.30*

.05

.12

.01

.06

.1L


. 18"

.15*

.05

.31*

.20*

.21*

.15*

.17*

. 18"

.19w

.17

.13*



.01

.21*

.07

.06

.15*









Relationships between the PFK and the school factor of the SEI

showed only three coefficients significantly different from zero, the

largest of which was again variable 13, the only variable which had

correlation significantly 1-irgor than zero in all five categories

cxaincd, C'.i:v ':?,.-.r-.r- that this latter analysis was between two self

repu rt indices, this low ,-3,.--rme of ..-lationship could be attributed to

a fun-'l:'ental difference between classroom behaviors and self-esteem

as oc ed, with school, or it could have been due to the limited amount

of qriablity available in the three-item school subscale. In com-

p.l.:.-... the tri.h the full SSI scale, fourteen coefficients appeared

Phh '.*-`- .'-_-- icantly ];r.err than zero. The largest of these was

vri.ble fouir, getting along with other students, which had a correl.a-

tion coefficient of 0.31 with the total SEI.

Factor scores were calculated for the four factors of the FM,

and the coefficients which were thus generated were used to generate

coni --':.. factor scores for the PFK. The SEI scales were carried for-

waxdt, ;'. these ten variables were intercorrelated,

nThe corri-Ilc-i..r' between the inferred self concept factors and

the profcesed self concept factors have been presented in the principal

diagonal of the matrix in Table 3. Two of the four factors showed

coefficients which could be considered significantly different from

zero. Thio magnitude of these correlations was sufficiently low to

indicate that these measures were scored differently by the teachers

and by the students. In order to check for a possible curvilinear

relationship between the inferred scales and the self report scales, a

polynomial fit was attempted between the dependent variable (inferred

self concept) and the independent variable (self report). Twelve




















TABLE 3

intercorrelations of Inferred and Professed Learner
Self Concept and Self-Esteem Scores


Inferred Inferred Inferred Inferred
Relating Asserting Investing Coping SSEI SEI


Professed
Relatin- .22* -.02 -.02 .02 .15* .29*

Professed
Asserting -,19* .19* .08 -.03 .17* .19*

Professed
Investing -.05 -.10 -.04 -.03 -.08 -.11

Dro:fe ssed.
Copin? .09 .05 .01 .14 .05' .0

SS3I -.041 .22* .14 .08 1.00 .59*
,SFT C9 .0
SE ,09 .10 .00 ,03 .59 1.00

01









analyses were thus perfored using student scores for all variables,

four with FK variables predicted from PFK variables and four each with

the FK variables predicted by the SIT and SSEI variables. Tlr-: of the

12 analyses indicated significantly nonlinear components in the :regres-

sion model (see Table 4).

Comparison between Schools

A set of analyses of variance, two-way factorial d'. vra, :as run

on the ten variables used within this study. Sex was identified as one

source of variability, school as the second source, and the school-sex

interaction as the third source. Summaries of the results of these

analyses were listed in Table 5 for the four factors of the Florida Key,

in Table 6 for the four factors of the Pupil Flt. di Key, and in Table

7 for the results of the two Self-Esteem Inventory indices. For these

analyses, the .05 level of significance wes employed, as fewer measures

were analyzed.

On the measure of teacher-perceived rr-latin-, differences slgnif-

icant at the .05 level were found for both sex and school. On this

measure, girls tended towards hl-h,.r scores as did students in the

innovative school, with girls in the innovative school scoring the

highest. Only a slight difference separated the mean of the innovative

school boys and the somewhat higher mean of the conventional school

girls.

When determining teachers' differential perceptions of asserting

in this population, no differences were found between sexes or schools.

On the dimension of perceived investing, however, a distinct difference

between the schools emerged, with the students in the innovative school

rated as having a stronger tendency to invest of themselves
























TABLE 4

Curvilinear Components of Threec Self Report Variables
Predicting Inferred Self Concept Variables


df SS


Teacher -e'.-tI-7 from Pupil
Linear Term
Quadratic Term

.a.' -r A -:rtir- from SEI
Lir,- ir .ern
Quadratic Term

Teacher >.ve-tinez from SEI
,:a'ecatr Ter-
Qi:adtcatic Term


Relating


12.114
4.253


2,671
4.058


,000
8.502


eta = .26


eta .16



eta = .19


T'otAl deviation for all above analyses = ,


21.9, df = 248
















TABLE 5

Summary of F-Ratios and Cell Means
for Analyses of Variance of FK Factors


Source df Relatirn'- Asserting Investing Coping


F-Rat os

Sex 1 4.209* 0.870 0.689 12.045**
School 1 4.461* 0.001 9.519** 0.312
Sex X School 1 0.092 0.700 1.798 0.426

Error 245



Means

G.C. 0.035 0.004 -0.121 0.272
G.I. 0.268 0.112 0.104 0.118
B.C. -0.269 -0.008 -0.186 -0.254
B.I. -0.043 -0.120 0.382 -0.242

Fchoo. Code: Conventional (C); Innovative (I)
Sex Code: Girls (c), Boys (B)

*p < .05
**p < .01

















TABLE 6

Summary of F-Ratios and Cell Means
for Analyses of Variance of PFK Factors


Relating


A-sertinZ


Investing


F-Ratios


Sex
School
Sex X School

Error





G.C.
C.I.
B.C.
B.I.

School Code:
Sex Code:


9.330**
5.365*
9.020**


0.152
0.173
0.301


245


Means


-0.118
0.552
-0.125
-0.211


0.032
-0.094
0.011
0.029


Conventional (C); Innovative (1)
Girls (G); Boys (B)


*p < .05
**p < .01


Source


Coping


4.832*
0.125
0.649


10. 346**
8.092**
0.021


-0.064
-0.214
0.117
0.176


0.319
-0.022
-0.069
-0.447
















TABLE 7

Summary of F-Rt.Uos and Cell Means
for Analyses of Variance of SEI Scores


Source df School Total
SEI SEI


F-Ratlos
Sex 1 0.061 0.058
School 1 0.551 2.279
Sex X School 1 0.043 5.401*

Error 245



Means
G.C. -0.066 -0.206
G.I. 0.059 0.289
B.C. -0.006 0.063
B.I. 0.064 -0. 042

School Code: Conventional (C); Innovative (I)
Sex Code: Girls (G); Boys (B)

*p < .05
df (1,245)









psychologically. :oys in the innovative school were the highest

scorers on this variable, but boys in the conventional school were the

lowest scorers, so no sex-linked differenc-cs were found.

SOn the question of how well the individual is perceived to cope

with his school environment, a strong sex-linked difference was found,

with girls perceived to be more efficient co-.^;. than ii,y-.

When asking the students to rate themselves on these measures,

girls in both schools rated themselves higher on ro?-.tir behaviors

than either group of boys, with girls in the innovative school showing

the highest self rating. A significant school-sex interaction was

found because the girls in the innovative school scored highecst cz-ao the

boys in the same school rated themselves lowest on this dimension.

With the dimension of asserting, no significant differences were

found between the sexes or between the schools, nor s a differential

effect found anong sexes between the schools. With self-perceived

investlir-, a sex-linked difference was found with boys scoring them-

selves higher on this dimension than girls.

In reporting on tendency to cope, students hoe.. a strong tend-

ency to differentiate on the basis of both sex and school, with girls

showing higher scores than boys and the pupils at the conventional

school perceiving themselves as more effective copers than those in the

innovative school. Girls in the conventional school scored highest,

followed by girls in the innovative school, who differed only slightly

from boys in the conventional school, with boys in the innovative

school indicating the lowest scores on this dimension.

In self-esteem measures, no differences were found on the school

factor of the SEI in any of the sources of variability examined. On








the total self-esteem index, a significant interaction term was found,

which resulted from the girls in the innovative school scoring highest,

while girls in the conve rtonal school scored lowest, and boys in the

innovative school scored somewhat lower than their counterparts in the

conventional school. There was a slirht, nor'-Ainificant tendency

towalds higher total self-esteem scores in the innovative school.

The first hypothesis, predicting significant differences in

scoring between the sexes, was accepted five times, with the means

favoring the girls four of the five tieos. The second !iypoth^cis, pre-

dicting significant differences of scores between the schools, was

accepted four times, with the mearns favoring the innovative school three

of the four times. The third hypothesis, predicting no siilfli'arit in-

teraction of scores due to sex within school considerations, was

accepted eight times.















CHAPTER V

Sunnarv and Conclusions




In examining the cross-correlations of inferred self concept

items and self report items taken respectively from the FK and the

?FK, eleven of 18 variables showed correlations between measurement

techniques significp.ntly different from zero (range: r = 0.15 to 0.32)

at the 99 percent confidence level (see Table 2). AS this far

exceeded chance probability of occurrence, common perceptions of pupil

actions by teachers and pupils seemed the most probable explanation,

The ,. t sE of these correlations, however, were so low &a to indi-

ate that, at best, only about ten percent of the variability in a

cr obtain Usn, one method could be accounteJ for b.- the score

_*--:v- t'-' oth methodl. L'his distinction between statistical siznifi-

cance z.n :;-nitude was of ilnortancp hezi: du o to wo factors, '7hS

;irst f'-cItcr ;as s at the itens answ.ered were essentially the same for

fstud .t teacher.', The second consideration -,as that the relative

,.becT=ivi., n.! overt classrooms behavior orientation of the scale would

e-. x;;ae 3es roon for viriatlon due to !ti- aibhguity. More

si't pt:, te indication is that tere was a 'Jtti,. s1.:nlarity and a

......... i. fference between the -,ay fifth aLd sixth trado children

: thls st s,; them salvos jn .c'hol-relatc.'ctivities a-id the way

theirr: t-. % [' L ;.-.'-;t:-a.. the-., 7-.,'- reofer- 'jtions of Co~ri Solor, and Courson








(1963) as to the lack of similarity of self report and inferred self

concept seem to have been well borne out by this study.

An internal examination of the seven ite;.s which did not corre-

late between techniques c .lio.ied two items ech in the areas of relating,

asserting, and cor,.,, and one item in the arcm of inwv
most con.'-ru rce in terms of the number of iter:i associaLed with a fac-

tor which show statistically significant c,:orla Lions between techni-

ques was within asserntir, where six of -even ite.s were correlated.

This would seem to imply that the area o.f a r'.i: is one in which

pupils and teachers can be aost i.- rf .i, an libpli-ton which will be

discussed later when factor indices are coae :;io The least congruence

in these terms was within the factor of ;s .. weve ner either item

correlated between techniques.

Eleven of the 18 items on the PlY e '.+', ;,',icar.tly with

the school self-esteem measure (. ), ;iti.h corelation coefficients

ranging from 0.15 to 0.29. No items within the factor of teacher-

perceived relating were correlated with the S5,2' Among the 11 items

which did correlate were items six t:.c.. "r. nin uhich relate to dis-

cussion within class. One of the three items of the W,'2 was "I find

it very hard to talk in front of the class," thus the correlations

could be seen to relate in part to the in-class verbalizations of the

student. It is interesting to note, however, that on the PFK, these

verbalization items did not correlate significantly with the SSEI.

Eight items of the FK correlated with the total self-esteem

score (SEI), with a much narrower range (r 0.15 to 0.20) and at a

lower level. No pattern could be discerned for the correlating or non-

correlating items, which was in keeping with the results of the factor

score correlations in this area to be discussed later.









'ithln the PFK, only three items showed any association with

the school factor of the self-esteem inventory (SSEI). The absence of

correlzaion of certain PK- items with the 3SEI factor, namely the

veralvisation items mentioned earlier, gave an indication of the lack

of reliability of self-reported single-item or limited-item indices.

A sizable increase in the number of correlations (14) between the PFK

iten a nd. ,thc total S21 score hinted at the increased stability of the

lo '. SI calo, Two of the four items which did not correlate signi-

ficantly with this scale were the items associated with invcstinr.

The conclution should not necessarily be drawn, however, that invest-

ment cf slf is unrelated to self-esteem, but rather that behaviors

seen V: teachers as indicative of self-investient may not be seen in
the eaao 1' ";'L \r', zF.n l ..

'actor "'orre ere calculated for all students on the basis of

the PK factor analv;-:'. Such scores were based on responses to all

itens m-ithin the test, but were most heavily weighted for those items

which .ecre most rQt'rr',ly associated with corresponding factors. This

was unlerthkcn both to increase reliability and to reduce dimensionality

while increasing cenccality. Cross-correlations of scores for the four

factors between the two techniques of measurement (self report and

inferred self concept) indicated that two of the factors, relating and

asserting, had statistically significant relationships (see Table 3).

The factor of relating, when subjected to a polynomial analysis to

determine whether pupil responses were curvilinearly related to teacher

responses, showed a significant quadratic effect, raising the correla-

tion index (eta = 0.26, Table 4). Further, the factor of coping,

although not meeting the stated criterion for significance, showed a

correlation coefficient of 0.14, significant at the 0.02 level.









In connection with the earlier discussion of item correlations,

althoug-h n-ore a-. '_- variables were correlated across techniques

than variables of the other three factors, the relating factor had the

highest correlation (r 0,22) across techniques. The factor of

az^tir_,, however, with a correlation coefficient of 0.19, was in the
same general ra as relt It was considered likely that these

two areas were seen as less central to self than the areas of coping

and irn-eetin:., and were, therefore, less susceptible to perceptual

distortion.

The lack of correlation between teacher-perceived investing and

self-professed inv^stin- was indicative of either lower rellabi4ty due

to the number and relative loadin-s of the items w4ich ccirinitd' to

this factor or sone differentiation between teachers' and pupils' per-

ceptions of pupils' investing.

The relationship of teacher-inferred re!l. :-- to self-professed

azs3rti_ -howed a statistically significant -.&-ative correlation of

9,1), fi .ia-inz that those seen as high in relating behaviors by

weathers ndced, to a small extent, to see themselves as less a.sserting,

a... vice versa. trowever, when teachers evaluated assertion this was

>rs.l ated to pupils' self-oerceptions of rclatir--.

-: factor scores -'ere correlated with the S31I and the SSl,

only one correlation was found to be s-Latistically si-nificant, that of

te..c:-cr-inf ered a;.eti]n- and the SSEI (r 0.22). This indicated that

uc- :-.-tvit.es as offer.n- to answer questions in claz-s, and joining inr

'-1 ;l activities, were related to items such as beinm discouraged with

scol, an ire unset while there. Had -this correlation been sub-

-Luiallv >hi~~ier, or ija6 several factors correlated with this index, it









could have given a further indication of the dimension'ality of the

school self-esteem index (SSEIL). Curvilinear analyses of these data

showed the 371 to have significant quadratic components when used to

predict scores on the inferred asserting and investing factors of the

FK. The most plausible explanation of that finding was considered to

be that after a certain low in teacher opinion is reached, the influ-

ence of that teacher's opinion is discounted by the child, who seeks

other sources for maintenance and enhancement of self. The potential

for such a dynamic to generalize and transfer to other teachers or to

th- sch-c.ol should be obvious,

The self report factors of relating and acsertirn: froa the PFK

w-re s.-nificantly correlated with both the SSEI and the SEI (r 0.15

toc2. ? ,, 3), but professed i:..-estin- and coing_ were not. This

quite possibly reflects the absence of accomplish:-ent-criented items

in the :sI.

-air!, ma-nitudes of the correlation coefficients were only

.. 'u to account for, at most, five percent o the variability

of scores t.aken by one technique by considering scores from the other

* ::.-"-ue, w:.ch further confirmed the opinion that self r"p-ort aea-

suras do not measuree the sa.ne attributes that inferences of seif by

oba-'/exzi.p.ea~ure.

>'o~ iscs_ between Schcols ana. Sexes

T:. ,etei'n '.he difference.; between sexes, girls were per-

eid o-,bIy teachers and by themselves as higher in the areas of

IeloM[ : (see .r? ,l 5, 1, and ?). -1e nore advanced matu-

r ....l.... :ils at Itis a"-- level and th social expectancy fcr

; :t,, 'to of ",*iore social iv ox. ntpn. nobab?.l v'r-tr-b;ited. n i r oduc. .nz








this result, which was in concert with the findiln's of Perkins (1958a),

Davidson and Lan, (1960), and Bledsoe (1964). rc.- by school inter-

actions found in the areas of self-professed r',,1 -. lr', and on the SEI

indicated that factors associated with the innovative school were in

turn associated with higher scores for girls in that school as compared

to girls in the conventional school. Boys' scorc5 in the two schools

differed only slightly on these two variables, with theec in the con-

ventional school scoring hls;her by about onc-tenth of a standard score

in both cases.

Differences between schools were found in teacher-perceived

relating and investing and on pupil ratings of ),I t-' and c n'"

The innovative school teachers sa'r their puIpil. a1 po A ... ing. a higher

fzcji.c'!icy of csociallzin-1 behaviors, as measured by the T.'..-1i,-, index,

which perceptions were mirrored by the pupil; tIe'... el'., relative to

the conventional school. Pupils in the conventional school rated them-
selves higher on cping activities than the innovative school c'lldrc:n.

The present investigator felt that this probably reflected the lack

of a standard reference point more than any-tr,li- else, as he observed

more coping behaviors in the innovative school, albeit ".i :couJh informal

observation.

Conclusion

The absence of a high level of conformity between teachers' and

pupils' perceptions of the frequency of occurrence of overt, school-

based pupil activities can be attributed to distortions of the percep-

tions of these activities by teachers or pupils or both, or to pupils

playing different roles in different classrooms and the related situa-

tion of their responding to the questionnaire on the basis of an









.v.ri azsessnient of their school behavior, not necessarily repre-

-:-:3t oft their behavior within any one classroom. Another

interpretation could be differential interpretations of the scale

LitervI1s by different children, but the use of frequency assessment

wa!s chosen for its relative specificity.

If the explanation lies within the distortions of teachers'

ercc.ptiois:, the necessity for increased training, for sensitivity virthin

teacher education and in-service training. programs, such as that called

for by CoimbS, Avila, and Purkey (1971), is obvious. If, on the other

har.i, th distortions lie predominantly u-ithin the childrens' self-

percentionrs, then the sane conclusion nay be drawn, even though less

ob:i'iorly. The reasons for the later conclusion are twofold. More

accuraT.e- and effective self-awareness on the part of the pupil is

likely to cone only throu-h the intervention of the teachers, and thus

the teachers nust be cognizant of the fact of distortion, the factors

whichh a.re acscciated with the distortion, and effective attitudes and

e-thors to core with children's distortions of se]f-perception,

'ut-oire research will include a study to determine the extent of

ta.s:a*;s' -._-.ltivity to perceptual distortions of pupils, using a

..i .c..tio nf 7rownfain's technique (1952). Also to be examined is

.e o.:,st3cn of how well teacher .perceptions of pupils Qre related to

t*! z-pece-.L-onzs of trained observers, and whether these results hold at

(U'fers'.t 'ride levels and smith measures of different apects of the

self, r',e--.il,li;abiilty of these results to other populations of pui.'1.il

rc .cfi b- co: rciiser. by differences in "Ihe factors influencirg-

c'.i -:i'.rt pThaona.:.uities, Iotn school and, non-school, as well as factors

;-:1:2 : i; en? ...-"'.ls and teacht.r2' ocrceptions of school and scnool-

-' .":, d A hr /.V.oi s.








The value of the more relaxed and child-oriented atmoshpere of

the innovative school was strongly indicated here, although the design

of the study did not allow for conclusive statements on this point due

to the confo-nUr,-' of raters within schools. Since investing behavior

'., be seen as of a hi,.hnr order in terms of Maslow's (1943) hierarchy,

the large difference in inferred Jnvestlnr, behavior in favor of the

innovative school indicated a very pro-iisin- payoff for the emphasis

placed on efforts to enable the students of that school to inte-rnally

motivate and individualize their own learning.







APPENDIX A

Florida Key



This scale is to assist the teacher in evaluating how the
student perceives his or her "learner" self. Please select one
of the following answers and record the number in the blank space.

ONCE IN OCCASION- FAIRLY VERY
".". _0 [ .;"', A'"T.: 2 ALLY: 3 OFTEN: 4 (T'F: 5


Iaicf of ctu;.c.At to to cva.uxted'

Compared with other students his age, does this students

1. get along with other studc-nts? ____

2. get nio"-. ;ith the teacher?

3. keep cali when tVin-s go ironr?

4. say good things about his school?

5. tell the truth about his school work? ____

6. speak up for his own idea? _____

7. offer to speak in front of the class? ____

8. offer to answer qiurztions in class? ____

90 ask Trvrn-ful questions in class? _____

10. look Cpeople in the eye? ____

11. talk to others about his school work? ____

12. join in school activities? ____

13. seek out new things to do in school on his own? ____

14. offer to do extra work in school? ____

15. finish his school work? ____

16. pay attention to class activities? ____

17. do his school work carefully? ____

18. read in class?


TOTAL SCORE:









AT'ENDIX B

,:!' Florida Key


This scale is to help you in thinking about yourself. Please
select one of the following answers and record the number in the
blank spaces.

VERY ONCE IN OCCASION- FAIRLY -VERY
1". 7 0 "r^':: 1 AWHILE: 2 ALLY: 3 O.FT'": 4 OFTEN, 5


Your :ui~e

.;--. d with other students my age, do I:

1. get along with other students?

2. get (.".r,- with the teacher?

3. keep calh when things go wrong?

4. say good things about my school?

5. tell the truth about my school work?

6. spe-ak up for my own ideas?

7. offer to speak in front of the class? __

8. '. :r to answer questions in class?

9. a3k meaningful questions in class?

10. look people in the ey-?

11, talk to others about my school work?

312. join in school activities?

13. seek out new things to do in school on my own?

14. offer to do extra work in school?

15. finish my school work?

16. pay attention to class activities?

17. do my school work carefully?

18. read in class?


TOTAL SCOREs









A-?;NDIX T

Self-Est+. inventory (:.,)
Stanley Coopersmlth
University of Califorrjia, Davis


Please r.ark each statement in the following way:
If the statement descril'-es hw you usually
v-) in the colnn "LIKE 1 ..
If 'e statement dops not describe how you
a ceck (v) in the column "UNLIKE ME."
There are no r'.-',t. or wrong answers.
Ex .y T'rm a hard worker.


feel, put a check

usually feel, put

L -E E -7[ !j9


1. ~. cft

(7? i a t v'ery, hard to talk in front of the
class.
3. There r- lot-s of thinn-s about myself I'd
a:.' if I could.
-- ca.":a.": v u 7y nind .-ithout too mUCn trouble.
S 'r lo- of fur. to be with.
SI-'t. *et easily at hone.
it taes .e a long time to iet used to anything

(. -.;*:T o-Is-- W'th' kis :riy own age,

C,,i.- In .er.' as!i .y,
] ...... s extec t oo n;uch cf me.
-. " -..... ._ !r. my -e,
Se s.al: follow -y ideas,





... -. ..I- .. ... ... ... / ..I... S' .V

S'; o', like than I an.

(-r '-r p-^eo


'III"-

f___








I __________________________
*----1- --




----1---
-----I-
-----F----














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BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH


William H. Craves, Jr. was born in Dalton, Ceor,:la, on November

14, 1939. He moved to Daytona Bernch, Florida, where he attended elemen-

tary and secondary school. He attended Southern Methodist University,

Dallas, T'7.' in 1957-1958 and the University of the Americas, Mexico

City, Mexico, in 1958-1960, before enlisting in the United States Air

Force in 1950. During military service, he attended Indiana University

for one year. After discharge, he returned to the University of the

Americas, being c-ra-fted the Bachelor of Arts degree in secondary educa-

tion in 1965.

He taught mathematics for three years at Mainland Junior High

School in Daytona Beach and conversational Spanish at Daytona bLeach

Junior College during two of those years. In 1968, he enrolled in

Craduate work in psychological foundations of education in the Colle:e

of Education, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida. He earned

the Master of Education degree in 1970.

He married the former Joan Lynn Dugand of Mexico City in 1966,

and they have two children. Professional affiliations include membership

in the American Educational Research Association, the Florida Educational

Research Association, and Phi Delta Kappa.

He is presently employed as Assistant Professor of Education,

University of Oklahoma, Norman, Oklahoma.












I certify that I have read ttis study and that in rmy opinion
it coanforrs to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is
fully adequate, in scope and quality, as a dissertation for the degree
of Doctor of Philosophy.




-illia.-7W. VFrey, Chairman ~
Professor of Education






I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion
it conforms to a"cer.ta.-ile standards of scholarly presentation and is
fully adequate, in scope and quality, as a dissertation for the degree
of Doctor of Philosonhy.


T certify that 1 have read this study and that in ny opinion
It c" r-'.s to acce-ptable standards of scholarly presentation and is
f -' elqc>ate, in scope and quality, as a dissertation fcr the 1e-re?.
of Docto-o' cf 'hilosophy.





.rofzor A o education
Frofs-':or of Education








I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion
it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is
fully adlequato, in scope and quality, as a dissertation for the degree
of Doctor of Philosophy.


uillerno P. ascaro
Assistant Professor of


FSycholO-.Y


Thi; Ob L:,:;-"ion was submitted to the DT),an of the ClIr-ce of Fducatii',
1J t*cr. *;:'rdurfc Council, and was accepted as partial fulfillment of
IUe recm si< ts for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.

Ki.ri h, 39??


Dean, Collegef education
Dea Y


Dean, Graduate School





































~a',.. oF
if
Is,'
K;




N. I




Full Text
51
APPENDIX C
Self-Esteem Inventory (SET;
Stanley Coopersmith
University of California, Davis
Please nark each statement in the following ways
If the statement describes how you usually feel, put a check
(v) in the column "LIKE ME."
If the statement does not describe how you usually feel, put
a check (v) in the column "UNLIKE ME."
There are no right or wrong answers.
Example! Im a hard worker.
LIKE ME
UNLIKE ME
-
r

! h
22.
23.
I often wish I were someone else.
I find .it very hard to talk in front of the
class.
There are lots of things about myself I'd
change if I could.
I car. males up my mind without too muen trouble.
I'm a lot of fun to be with.
I get upset easily at home.
It takes me a long time to get used to anything
new.
Im popular with kids my own age.
My parents usually consider my feelings.
I give in very easily.
My parents expect too much of me.
Its pretty tough to be me,
things are all mixed un in my life.
Kids usually follow my ideas.
I have 3. low opinion of myself.
There arc many times when Id like to leave
home,
I often feel upset in school.
I'm not as nice looking as most people.
If I have something tc say, I usually say it.
K; parents understand me.
Most people are better liked than I an,
I usually feo?, as if my parents are pushing me.
I often get discouraged in school.
Things usually dont bother me.
T cant be depended on.


34
analyses were thus performed using student scores for all variables,
four with FK variables predicted from PFK variables and four each with
the FK variables predicted by the SEI and SSEI variables. Three of the
12 analyses indicated significantly nonlinear components in the regres
sion model (see Table 4).
Comparison betvreen Schools
A set of analyses of variance, two-way factorial design, was run
on the ten variables used within this study. Sex was identified as one
source of variability, school as the second source, and the school-sex
interaction as the third source. Summaries of the results of these
analyses were listed in Table 5 for the four factors of the Florida Key,
in Table 6 for the four factors of the Pupil Florida Key, and in Table
7 for the results of the two Self-Esteem Inventory indices. For these
analyses, the .05 level of significance was employed, as fewer measures
were analyzed.
if' On the measure of teacher-perceived relating, differences signif
icant at the .05 level were found for both sex and school. On this
measure, girls tended towards higher scores as did students in the
innovative school, with girls in the innovative school scoring the
highest. Only a slight difference separated the mean of the innovative
school boys and the somewhat higher mean of the conventional school
girls.
When determining teachers differential perceptions of asserting
in this population, no differences were found between sexes or schools.
On the dimension of perceived investing, however, a distinct difference
between the schools emerged, with the students in the innovative school
rated as having a stronger tendency to invest of themselves


CHAPTER I
Statement of the problem
In the years which have followed the re-emergence of perceptual
psycho) ogy as a significant force in psychology and education, there
has been a proliferation of methods and approaches for systematic study
of the individual within a phenomenological framework. This should
cone .as no surprise within an approach which has as a major concern the
exploration of the uniqueness of the individual's perceptions, further
more, perceptual psychology inherited a long history of philosophical
concern about the problem of mind and self.
Biggory (1966) traces the history of theoretical development of
thought about seif from Homer through Descartes, who initiated the con
cern of the interaction of two aspects of man previously considered
independent: body and mind. Serious theoretical questions about mind
were followed from Descartes through the British empiricists to William
James, whose work marked the beginnings of systematic study of the per
sonal internal world of the experiencing individual. Concern a.t that
point in history began to shift to aspects of self such as the develop
ment and differentiation of self, the I-me relationship, and the
question as to whether seif is divisible, and, if so, how to best
categorize aspects of self.
After a lull in interest in self theory on the part of American
psychologists of
- ** -4. O J
the early part of this century, a lull generally asso-
Watson and the behaviorist school he represented,
1


CHAPTER IV
Analysis of the Data
Relationships "between Techniques
To ascertain the degree of relationship between the items of the
I'TC, the PFK, and the school and total SSI scores, a correlation matrix
was generated. The IBM system 360/65 of the University of Florida
Computing Center was used, in conjunction with the Education El valuation
Library computer programs. For interpretation of these data, the 99
percent level of confidence was chosen to afford some protection
against the commission of a Type I error (see Table 2).
Results indicated significant positive relationships on 11 of
the 18 variables of the FK and PFK. The highest relationship was
indicated by a correlation coefficient of 0.32 'between teacher and pupil
ratings on variable five, pertaining to getting along with the teacher.
Seven variables, despite their common origin, had correlations which
could not be considered different from zero. In examining the correla
tions between the school factor of the SEI with each of the FK items,
eleven coefficients were found which differed significantly from zero.
The highest of these (r = 0.29) was between the SSEI and teacher ratings
on variable 13, pertaining to speaking in front of the class. Comparing
the FK items with the total Self-Esteem Index, eight coefficients could
be considered larger than zero. The largest of these was the correlation
of the SEI with variable seven, which asked the teacher if the student
rea.ds in class.
30


39
psychologically. Boys in the innovative school were the highest
scorers on this variable, but boys in the conventional school were the
lowest scorers, so no sex-linked differences were found.
On the question of how well the individual is perceived to cope
with his school environment, a strong sex-linked difference was found,
with girls perceived to be more efficient copers than boys.
When asking the students to rate themselves on these measures,
girls in both schools rated themselves higher on relating behaviors
than either group of boys, with girls in the innovative school showing
the highest self rating. A significant school-sex interaction was
found because the girls in the innovative school scored highest and the
boys in the same school rated themselves lowest on this dimension.
With the dimension of asserting, no significant differences were
found between the sexes or between the schools, nor was a differentia],
effect found among sexes between the schools. With self-perceived
investing, a sex-linked difference was found with boys scoring them
selves higher on this dimension than girls.
In reporting on tendency to cope, students showed a strong tend
ency to differentiate on the basis of both sex and school, with girls
showing higher scores than boys and the pupils at the conventional
school perceiving themselves as more effective copers than those in the
innovative school. Girls in the conventional school scored highest,
followed by girls in the innovative school, who differed only slightly
from boys in the conventional school, with boys in the innovative
school indicating the lowest scores on this dimension.
In self-esteem measures, no differences were found on the school
factor of the SEI in any of the sources of variability examined. On


3
ct al., 1964; Cline et al., 1964; Purkey, 1970)* which will be reviewed
later, have demonstrated relationships of self concept variables with
social achievement.
Wylie (1961) published a review of the research in perceptual
psychology, in which she critically assessed the "state of the art" at
that time. In this review, Wylie lamented the lack of standardisation
of terminology and instrumentation, and is especially critical of re
search efforts which devise a special instrument which is only used
that one time. Work such as that undertaken by Fiedler, Dodge, Jones
and Hutchins (1958)* in which they develop indices of relationship
between instruments, is seen as very valuable by providing means to re
late findings between studies which have used different measures. This
approach could spark more intensive theoretical analysis if variables
previously considered similar were to show little or no relationship
experimentally, or conversely, if attributes previously considered dis
tinct and independent were to show correlation. The lack of widely
accepted criteria against which to compare self concept measures is a
major difficulty.
Background of the Study
This study will explore the interrelations of the two major ap
proaches in determining an index of self concept. One approach used is
to rely on the subject to overtly provide information about himself.
The Intent of the instrument may be either obvious or disguised, global
or particular. Instruments of this nature will be referred to here
after as self reports. The use of the self report is supported by
statements such as the following by Moustakas (1965, p. 45): "The
individual's perception of his own feelings, attitudes, and ideas is


A Multivariate Investigation of Professed and Inferred
Self Concepts of Fifth and Sixth Grade Students
By
WILLIAM H. GRAVES, JR.
A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE COUNCIL OF
THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL
FULFILLMENT OF TIE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF
DOCTOR OF FHIL030FHY
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
1972


32
Relationships between the PFK and the school factor of the SEI
showed only three coefficients significantly different from zero, the
largest of which was again variable 13, the only variable which had
correlation significantly larger than zero in all five categories
examined. Considering that this latter analysis was between two self
report indices, this low degree of relationship could be attributed to
a fundamental difference between classroom behaviors and self-esteem
associated with school, or it could have been due to the limited amount
of variability available in the three-item school subscale. In com
paring the PFK with the full SEI scale, fourteen coefficients appeared
which were significantly larger than zero. The largest of these was
variable four, getting along with other students, which had a correla
tion coefficient of 0,31 with the total SEI,
Factor scores were calculated for the four factors of the FK,
and the coefficients which were thus generated were used to generate
comparable factor scores for the PFK. The SEI scales were carried for
ward, and these ten variables were intercorrelated.
The correlations between the inferred self concept factors and
the professed self concept factors have been presented in the principal
diagonal of the matrix in Table 3* Two of the four factors showed
coefficients which could be considered significantly different from
zero. The magnitude of these correlations was sufficiently low to
indicate that these measures were scored differently by the teachers
and by the students. In order to check for a possible curvilinear
relationship between the inferred scales and the self report scales, a
polynomial fit was attempted between the dependent variable (inferred
self concept) and the independent variable (self report). Twelve


20
personality from one administration of the test, and in part since
greater flexibility in responding inherently provides the possibility
and probability of greater Information. Nonetheless, projective tech
niques are among the more covert devices, and the latitude of response
is so varied that valuable information may well be lost when scoring
them objectively." When used as a stimulus in an observation period,
a projective technique can intensify the setting and provide some
structure, and commonality for the observer, as well as practically
guaranteeing some minimum level of activity. Exclusive use of this
technique is generally not indicated, however, due to the situation
generally being perceived as unnatural, thus allowing for situational
reactivity and bias.
Some ox the earliest work with use of expressive behavior as am
index in perceptual research was undertaken by Huntley (1940), who had
t
subjects repond to photographs of mannerisms and gestures of body
parts. In order to counteract theoretical concerns about cross-cultural
mannerisms, or sex-linked differences, Huntley provided his subjects
with unidentified cropped photographs of their own mannerisms for eval
uation and had the subjects thus unwittingly rate themselves, providing
and index of self ideal discrepancy.
Inferences of self concept have been made from protocols such as
those already discussed and from systematic observation. The latter can
involve a prearranged formal situation, such as a situational test
(Cronbach, I960), a less systematic but directed session, such as most
interviews, or it can be undertaken in a more natural setting, such as
the work by Barker (1968), In the work reported by Combs and Soper
(1963), all these procedures were combined to produce a technique known


2
TABLE 1
Rotated Factor Loadings for Florida Key
(Values oelow .400 omitted)
Item Relating Asserting Investing Coping
4
.732
5
.731
11
.712
2
.617
.538
15
.616
9
.800
13
.772
12
.766
1
.400
.725
10
.429
.604
o
A
.500
.565
3
.412
.553
16
.410
.501
.524
14
.562
.448
6
.717
18
.481
.617
I?
.464
.613
n
f
.481
.612


ore valid than any outside diagnosis can be." The advantages ir.
using the self report are that it can provide measures from a large
number of subjects on numerous items related to the phenomenon under
investigation, and do so with a relatively low expenditure of money and
time.
The second major measuring technique is to ask for an objective
rating of the subject by someone else, generally a trained observer,
The indices of self concept so garnered will be referred to as inferred
self concept scores. Advantages to this nethed include reduction of
/
ideosyncratic variation due to semantic problems of level ( ie,, "well
adjusted" night mean tc one person what "adjusted" means zo another),
or interpretation of terms. Reliance on an observer also reduces vari
ability attributable to individual tendencies to "fake good" or "fake
bad," and allows for evaluation of characteristics which are not
apparent to the individual, himself. Many measures of self concept, by
nature of being concerned with items of obvious personal meaning, can
be characterized as "reactive" as defined by Campbell and Stanley
(1963) Inferred self concept scores avoid thin generally undesirable
source of variation. Practical difficulties arise using this procedure
if a iarve number of subjects are desired, since stable measures from
observations require time proportional to the complexity of the attri
bute in its conceptualization and occurrence. It souid be emphasized
that these two methods of collecting data about perceptual phenomena
are not opposing methods. A self report instrument can provide valu
able information to an observer, as an adjunct, tc his observations,
Self1 reports, on the other hand, are suspect when used with people with
clinical psychopathologies for reasons listed by Combs, Soper, and
Courson (1963) unless the deviance is considered as a separate variable.


CHAPTER II
Review of the_ Literature
The need for a phenomenological system of psychology was out
lined by Snygg (l$&l), who emphasized that the frame of reference from
which measurements are taken is a critical aspect in any field of
science. In phenomenological psychology, this point of reference is at
the level of the individual's perceptions and experiences, rather than
at the level of the external stimuli which surround him. The most
basic perceptions in terms of their centrality and durability are those
which reflect the person's ideas about himself. Roger's (1951) main
tained that self is central to the individual and that enhancement of
self is a high priority issue, perhaps taking precedence over organ-
israic concerns. This position is related to that of Combs and Syngg
(1959\ in which the role of the self is seen as the determiner of
behavior. A summary of the important character!sties of the self was
made by Purkev (1970), who described the self as organized, dynamic, and
learned.
Aspects of Self
There have been numerous attempts to subdivide the self into
aspects which are distinct and amenable to identification and which have
differential effects within the person. One major system for categori
zation of aspects of self has been to divide the self in two parts. One
aspect of self is seen by this system as that part or process which views
and evaluates itself, the notion of the self-as-object. The other
7


55
Hebb, D. 0, The American revolution. The American Psychologist, i960
, 735-745.
Hilgard, E. R. Human motives and the concept of the self. The American
Psychologist, 1949, 4, 374-332.
Huntley, C. W. Judgment of self based on records of expressive behavior.
Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 1940, 35 393-427.
Jersild, A. T. Child psychology. Englewood Cliffs, New Jerseys Pren
tice-Hall, 1960.
Kelly, G. A. The psychology of personal constructs, Vol, 1. A theory
of personality. New Yorks Norton, 1955
Koffka, K. Principles of gestalt psychology. New Yorks Harcourt, 1935
Lamy, M. W. Relationship of self-perceptions of early primary children
to achievement in reading. In I. J. Gordon (Ed.), Homan
Development. Chicagot Scott, Eoresraan, 1965.
Lecky, P. Self-consistency (rev, ed.). Garden City, Mew Yorks Double
day Anchor, 19&9.
Mach over, K. Personality projection in the drawing of the human figure.
Springfield, Illinoiss Charles Thomas, 1949
Maslow, A. H. A theory of human motivation. Psychological Review,
1943, 50, 370-396.
Mercnda, p. F. and Clarke, W, B. Differences in results of inferential
self-measurement in self concept analysis, perceptual and Motor
Skills, 1967, 25, 317-322.
Moustakas, C. E. True experience and the self. In D. E. Hamachek (Ed.),
The self in growth, teaching, and learning. Englewood Cliffs, New
Murphy, G. Personality, a biosocial interpretation of origins and
structure. New Yorks Harper, 1947.
Murray, H. A. Thematic apperception test manual. Cambridge, Massachu
setts s Harvard University Press, 1943.
Neurlnger, C. and Wandke, L. Interpersonal conflicts in persons of high
self concept and low self concept. Journal of Social Psychology,
1966, 68, 313-322.
Osgood, C. E., Sucl, G. J.t and Tannenbaum, P, The measurement of
meaning. Urbana, Illinoiss University of Illinois press, 1957.
Ozehoskey, R. J, and Clark, E. J. Children's self concepts and kinder
garten. The Journal of Psychology, 1970, I85-I92.


47
overall assessment of their school behavior, not necessarily repre
sentative of their behavior within any one classroom. Another
interpretation could be differential interpretations of the scale
intervals by different children, but the use of frequency assessment
was chosen for its relative specificity.
If the explanation lies within the distortions of teachers'
perceptions, the necessity for increased training for sensitivity id thin
teacher education and in-service training programs, such as that called
for by Combs, Avila, and Purkey (1971) is obvious. If, on the other
hand, the distortions lie predominantly within the childrens' self-
perceptions, then the same conclusion nay be drawn, even though less
obviously. The reasons for the later conclusion are twofold. More
accurate and effective self-awareness on the part of the pupil is
likely to cone only through the intervention of the teachers, and thus
the teachers must be cognizant of the fact of distortion, the factors
which are associated with the distortion, and effective attitudes and
methods to cope with children's distortions of self-perception.
Future research will include a study to determine the extent of
teachers' sensitivity to perceptual distortions of pupils, using a
modification of Brownfain's technique (1952). Also to be examined is
the question of how well teacher perceptions of pupils ere related to
the perceptions of trained observers, and whether these results hold at
different grade levels arid 'with measures of different aspects of the
self. Ceneralizability of these results to other populations of pupils
could be compromised by differences in the factors influencing
children's personalities, both school
which influence pupils and teachers'
and non-school, as well as factors
perceptions of school and school-
related behaviors.


*5
could have given a further indication of the dimensionality of the
school self-esteem index (SSEl). Curvilinear analyses of these data
showed the SEI to have significant quadratic components when used to
predict scores on the inferred asserting and investing factors of the
EX. The most plausible explanation of that finding was considered to
be that after a certain low in teacher opinion is reached, the influ
ence of that teacher's opinion is discounted by the child, who seeks
other sources for maintenance and enhancement of self. The potential
for such a dynamic to generalize and transfer to other teachers or to
the school should be obvious,
The self report factors of relating and asserting from the PFX
were significantly correlated with both the SSEI arid the 3EI (r = 0,15
to 0,29, Table 3) but professed investing and coping were not. This
quite possibly reflects the absence of accomplishment-oriented items
in the SSI.
Again, magnitudes of the correlation coefficients were only
large enough to account fox*, at most, five percent of the variability
of scores taken by one technique by considering scores from the other
technique, which further confirmed the opinion that self report mea
sures do not measure the same attributes that inferences of seif by
observers measure.
Comparisons between Schools and Sexes
In determining the differences between sexes, girls were per
ceived both by teachers and by themselves as higher in the area.s of
relating and coping (see Tables 5 6, and ?), The more advanced matu
rity 1 *.'c of girls at this age level and the social expectancy fcr
girls to oe more socially oriented probably contributed in producing


29
The following hypotheses were checked for all ten measures.
(1) significe.nt difference will he found between the means
of the two schools used in this study.
(2) A significant difference will be found between the means
of boys and girls in this study.
(3) Kg significant interaction will be found between sex
within school means.


ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
The list of people vrho have influenced the author's thought is
long, and the interactions with them are fondly remembered. The contri-
buttons of sor.c loom so large as to demand special recognition. The
author is indebted to the chairman of his doctoral committee, Dr.
William W, Purkcy, for his personal warmth and for his exemplary devo
tion to bettering education for children. Dr. Vynce A. Hines' initial
and continued support was a catalyst which will always be deeply appre
ciated. Dr3. Hob N. Cage and Guillermo F. Mascaro have unveiled many
mysteries by allowing the author to work with them closely in demanding
tasks. The teachings of Drs. Wilson H. Guertin and Charles M. Bridges,
as well as their time and interest, were very influential. The children
and staff of the schools involved in this study are thanked for efforts
without which this study would not ha.ve been possible,
Mrs, Robert L, Stevens, who typed this dissertation under very
trying conditions, is highly commended. The author finally wishes to
thank his family who have borne with him throughout his studies.
ii


I certify that I have read this study ana that in my opinion
it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is
fully adequate, in scope and quality, as a dissertation for the degree
of Doctor of Fhilosophy.
I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion
it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is
fully adequate, in scope and quality, as a dissertation for the degree
of Doctor of Philosophy,
Bob N. cage
Assistant Frofessor of Sdiation
T certify that I have read this study and that in ny opinion
it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is
fully adequate, in scope and quality, as a dissertation for the degree
of Doctor of Fhilosophy,
Vyhce A, Hines
Professor of Education


relationships between the procedures could indicate that much of what
is known from research using one procedure is applicable to research
using the other procedure, Low relationships in certain dimensions, on
the other hand, could mean that It would be unsafe ic generalize re
sults from one technique to problems in which the ether technique would
be more appropriate until further evidence could support the generali
sation, Low relationships on certain dimensions could also indicate a
basic difference between seif-perceptions and teacher perceptions even
on frequency of observable behaviors. In the latter case, the major
implication for teacher training would be to malee future teachers aware
of the possible lack of congruence of perceptions, so that they might
become moro perceptive, both of the students' behavior and of the
students' self-perceptions.
The second purpose of the study was to continue the investiga
tion of the effects of deliberate and intensive efforts to enhance
pupil self concept (Purkey, Graves, and Zellner, 1970) by comparing two
schools with different emphases in the area of self concept development
One school had a deliberate, public and planned effort for this purpose
and the other school was much less systematic ir this area.


19
With the adjectives generally used, three Independent characteristics
of attributes emerge from a factor analytic procedure, evaluation,
potency, and activity. This indicates that people tend to categorize
attributes in terms of the perceived organization and dynamics of those
attributes. It is interesting but futile to speculate whether people
tend to see the world in terms of organization and dynamics because of
these characteristics of their selves, or whether self theorists have
viewed the characteristics of self as they view the characteristics of
other phenomena,
A procedure which allows for individual selection of constructs
is the Role Construct Repertory Test (Rep Test, Kelly, 1955) In this
procedure a person generates his own category system and uses the
categories thus generated to rate people significant to him. This al
lows for a more individualistic analysis of the person's perceptual
field, A time-sharing, terminal-based computer program for simplifying
the rather elaborate administration and scoring of the Rep Test was
developed by Guertin (I9?l) who also modified the administration to take
advantage of the Q sort methodology.
In an effort to combine individualized responses with self re
port techniques, 3ugenthal and Zelen (1950) instituted a procedure in
which they asked people to give three answers to the question of who
they thought they were, C. Gordon (1968) described his refinements of
this procedure, primarily by developing coding systems to organize the
wide-ranging responses into meaningful dimensions.
When a projective technique is administered and scored using pre-
arranged keys, a richer variety of information is available, in part
since numerous keys can be used to measure different aspects of


TABLE OP CONTENTS
Page
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
LTST OP TABLES iv
ABSTRACT
v
CHAPTER
I Statement of the Problem..
Background of the Study
Furposes of the Study .
II Review of the Literature 7
Aspects of Self 7
Developmental Implications of Self Concept ..... 8
Self Concept and School Achievement ............. 10
Measurement Theory and perceptual Psychology .... 13
Perceptual Measurement Techniques ............... 16
Relationships 'creepvUc*l ...... 22
III Design and Method 25
Measures Used in ths Study 25
Description of Children and Schools..,.,,...,..,. 27
Design and Method ............................... 27
Hypotheses 29
IV Analysis of the Data 30
Relationships between Techniques ................ 30
Comparisons between Schools 34
V Summary and Conclusions 41
Summary 41
Comparisons between Schools and Sexes ........... 45
Conclusion ........................ 46
APPENDICES
A Florida Key
49
B Pupil Florida Key 50
C Self-Esteem Inventory 51
REFERENCES 52
BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH
53
iii


31
TABLE 2
Item Cross-Correlations of Florida Key,
Pupil Florida. Key, and Self-Esteem Indices
Item
Number K/PFK FK/SSEI FK/SEI
pfk/ssei
PFK/3EI
1
.25*
,20*
.06
.09
.18*
2
.10
.13
.07
.13
.15*
3
.15*
.06
.05
.10
.05
4
.22*
.06
.15*
.16*
.31*
5
.32*
.01
.08
.14
.20*
6
.29*
.15*
ol5*
.12
.21*
7
.13
.23*
.20*
.12
.15*
8
.27*
.25*
.19*
.12
.17*
9
99*
* ~
.19*
.10
.11
.18*
10
.19*
.19*
.12
.14
.19*
ii
.20*
.08
.19*
.16*
.17*
12
.14
.22*
.10
.14
.13*
13
.20*
.29*
.10*
.30*
.15*
14
.04
.21*
.11
*05
.01
15
.08
.01
.08
.12
.21*
16
i
. .ia
.20*
.07
.01
.07
17
-.03
.15*
. 16*
.06
.06
18
.22*
.11
,10*
,14
.15*
*D < .01


17
associated with clinical psychopathologies, and that a sample of non-
clinical people tended to have moderate levels of congruence. This
finding cast shadows on conclusions of earlier research which assumed
that high "ideal self actual self" congruence was the most desirable
state,
The second procedure which may be followed in scoring the Q sort
is for the developers to establish a priori weights (matching-to-
standard) for the items in order to determine the level of ?. particular
attribute. The correlation between those weights and the obtained dis
tribution is taken to be the individual's index of that attribute,
Wylie (1961) raised the question of whether the latter procedure is in
fact phenomenological, the point being that in the former procedure,
the order of selection of the variables is determined and judged within
the person, whereas in the latter procedure, an external criterion is
being imposed on people's selections.
The Q technique has been used with a variety of items, sorts
having been made on words, phrases, and even short paragraphs. Items
have been selected from clinical protocols, exhaustive trait lists and
other sources. The type of item included and the source of items need
to be carefully considered for appropriateness to a particular research
problem. The "standard" list at present in phenomenological research,
from the frequency of use, is Butler and Haigh's (1954) list of 100
statements gleaned from clinical protocols.
A discrepancy procedure somewhat less extreme in psychological
distance than the "ideal self actual self" congruence technique has
been developed and used by Brownfain (1952). In this approach, people
are asked first to rate themselves as they think they are. Next they


In connection with the earlier discussion of item correlations,
although more asserting variables were correlated across techniques
than variables of the other three factors, the relating factor had the
highest correlation (r =* 0.22) across techniques. The factor of
assarting, however, with a correlation coefficient of 0.19, 'was in the
same general ranga as relating. It was considered likely that these
two areas were seen as less central to self than the areas of coping
and investing, and were, therefore, less susceptible to perceptual
distortion.
The lack of correlation between teacher-perceived investing and
self-professed investing was indicative of either lower reliability due
to the number and relative loadings of the items which contributed to
this factor or some differentiation between teachers' and pupils' per
ceptions of pupils' Investing.
The relationship of teacher-inferred relating to self-professed
asserting showed a statistically significant negative correlation of
0.19, indicating that those seen as high in relating behaviors by
teachers tended, to a small extent, to see themselves as less asserting,
and vice versa. However, when teachers evaluated asserting, this vas
unrelated to pupils' self-perceptions of relating.
i/hen ?K factor scores were correlated with the S33I and the SSI,
only one correlation was found to be statistically significant, that of
teacner-inferred asserting and the SSEI (r = 0.22). This indicated that
such activities as offering to answer questions in class, and joining in
school activities, were related to items such as being discouraged with
school, and being unset while there, Had this correlation been sub
stantially higher, or had several factors correlated with this index, it


18
arc asked to rate themselves on the same scale hut giving themselves the
benefit of every doubt, and on the third rating to be as self critical
as they truthfully can.
Another popular form of perceptual measuring device is the
rating scale which is used in both self report and inferential measure
ment. In this technique, the individual is asked to measure the degree
to which he possesses or is represented by, an item presumably related
to a more general attributo. Items can be selected which are either
logically and/or functionally related to the attribute cf concern.
Bills* Index of Adjustment of Values (IAV, 1951) is a scale of 49
traits which were selected from a longer list on the basis of their
logical, connection Tilth adjustment. The Minnesota Multiphasic Person
ality Inventory (MMPI, Hathaway and McKinley, 1942) is an example of a
scale sometimes used in perceptual research in which items were selected
for their correlation with psychological disorders or other attributes,
regardless of logical connection. Adjective or trait checklists are
subsets of rating scales and are generally dichotomous.
A variation on the theme of rating scales is the semantic differ
ential approach developed and reported by Osgood, Suci, and Tannenbaum
(1957) which is somewhat covert, and which assumes that most individ
uals share connotative as well as denotative interpretation of numerous
adjectives which are common in the English language. In the semantic
differential procedure, an attribute is named and followed by a set
(3-20) of bipolar adjectives, each of which defines a continuum (i.e.,
hot cold). The extremities of each dimension are commonly divided by
a five-to-seven-point unlabeled scale which allows the individual to
select his own appraisal of the characteristic of the target attribute.


43
Viithin the PFK, only three items showed any association with
the school factor of the self-esteem inventory (SSEl). The absence of
correlation of certain PFK items with the SSEI factor, namely the
verbalization items mentioned earlier, gave an indication of the lack
of reliability of self-reported single-item or limited-item indices.
A sizable increase in the number of correlations (14) between the PFK
items and the total SSI score hinted at the increased stability of the
longer SEI scale. Two of the four items which did not correlate signi
ficantly with this scale were the items associated with investing.
The conclusion should not necessarily be drawn, however, that invest
ment cf self Is unrelated to self-esteem, but rather that behaviors
seen by teachers as indicative of self-investment may not be seen in
the same light by pupils.
Factor scores were calculated for all students on the basis of
the FK factor analysis. Such scores were based on responses to all
items within the test, but were most hea.vily weighted for those items
which were most strongly associated with corresponding factors. This
was undertaken both to increase reliability and to reduce dimensionality
while increasing generality. Cross-correlations of scores for the four
factors between the two techniques of measurement (self report and
Inferred self concept) indicated that two of the factors, relating and
asserting, had statistically significant relationships (see Table 3)*
The factor of relating, when subjected to a polynomial analysis to
determine whether pupil responses were curvilinearly related to teacher
responses, showed a significant quadratic effect, raising the correla
tion index (eta = 0.26, Table 4), Further, the factor of coping,
although not meeting the stated criterion for significance, showed a
correlation coefficient of 0.14, significant at the 0.02 level.


CHAPTER III
Design and Method
Measures Used in the Study
The measures of self concept used in this study included the
Florida Key (FK), developed by Purkey, Cage, and Graves (1971); a form
of the same instrument modified for pupils (FFK)j the 25-item Cooper-
smith Self-Esteem Inventory, short form (SEI, 19o7)f and a three-item,
school-oriented subscale (SSEl) of the SSI, The FK is an instrument
developed to infer aspects of learner self concept (see Appendix A),
and is comprised of 18 observable behaviors rated by teachers according
to frequency of occurrence on a six-point scale ranging from zero
(never) to five (very often). The PFK is similar to the FK (see
Appendix B) except for rewording of the directions so that students car
give self reports of their perceived frequency of performing the same
18 behaviors. The SEI (see Appendix C) contains 25 statements which
the pupil is asked to evaluate as being "like me" or "unlike me," and
the SSEI is the subset of SEI items 2, 1?, and 23*
Previous work by Purkey et ale (1971) established that the FK
measured four areas of learner self concept, labeled relating, asserting,
investing, and coping (see Table 1), Interjudge and split-halves reli
ability indices were high, averaging 0.84 and 0,93 respectively.
Validity was judged high by a panel of educators and psychologists.
25


The value of the more relaxed and child-oriented atmoshpere of
the innovative school was strongly indicated here, although the design
of the study did not allow for conclusive statements on this point due
to the confounding of raters within schools. Since investing behavior
may be seen as of a higher order in terms of Maslow's (l$&3) hierarchy,
the large difference in inferred investing behavior in favor of the
Innovative school indicated a very promising payoff for the emphasis
placed on efforts to enable the students of that school to internally
motivate and individualize their own learning.


22
Projective techniques, such as the Hachover Draw-A-Person test
(Machover, 194-9), are occasionally used "but the defense mechanisms
which the adult projective measures seek to circumvent are only devel
oping in childhood (Sullivan, 1953) 2-nd the rationale for the use of
child projective techniques is thus weakened. Although the individual's
suspicion and curiosity about the ulterior purpose of the test should
be less with younger groups, a counterbalancing consideration is that
child projective techniques are tapping a more superficial and situa-
tionally oriented perceptual field, which may be further confounded
with motor skill development.
Relationships Between porcentual Variables
Detailed and systematic conclusions are difficult to arrive at
in the research reviewed due, in part, to the abundance of measurement
techniques (Gordon and Combs, 19Wylie, 1961; Diggory, 1966}discuss
this problem). Efforts to relate different measurement techniques are
seen to be needed to reduce the conceptual space presently in evidence
in phenomenological research, to provide bases for comparing studies
which have used different instrumentation and thus to provide a feed
back mechanism for theorists. In a study on college men, Calvin and
Holtzman (1953) obtained adjustment ratings on each man in a fraternity
from the MMPI and also inferred adjustment scores from each man's com
panions. Inference scores were taken from the companions in the form
of answers to rather global questions about the personality of the rated
person, such as his ability as a leader, and his tact and social under
standing. Self report scores were taken in basically the same proce
dure, The tendency to view self in an essentially negative way was
found to increase as adjustment decreased.


23
Using adjustment techniques to arrive at a self concept index,
Storm, Child, and Frank (1956) found no relationship between Thematic
Apperception Test (TAT, Hurray, 1943) scores and self ratings or child
hood experiences. Low correlations were found by Cowen et. al. (1955)
between two standard self report instruments (Bills' IAV and Brownfains
technique), both of which purported to measure self regard. Cooper-
smith (1967) found low moderate correlations between a self report index
and a different, rather global, test he devised for teachers to infer
student self concepts.
In a factor analytic investigation of self ratings, teacher
ratings and achievement scores which included some perceptually oriented
variables, Cline, Richards, and Needham (1964) found internal consis
tency within each rating technique but few high correlations of
parallel items from pupil to teacher.
Perkins (1959a) found correlations from 0.04 to 0.71 between
teachers and pupils on Q sorts of self referent statements for various
teachers rating various pupils, no teacher rating the same student as
another teacher. Of the 50 items used, however, only five referred to
school activities, and only three of those five referred to the pupil's
role as a learner, so the index could best be called a global self con
cept rating.
In an attempt to experimentally confirm the strong theoretical
arguments in favor of the independence of self report and inferred self
concept indices, Combs, Soper, and Courson (1963) obtained indices on
59 sixth grade pupils from experienced observers on 18 items relating
to attributes of importance within perceptual psychology. The same 15
items were given to the sixth graders so that they might rate themselves.


CHAPTER V
Summary and Conclusions
Summary
In examining the cross-correlations of inferred self concept
items and self report items taken respectively from the FK and the
PFK, eleven of 18 variables showed correlations between measurement
techniques significantly different from zero (range: r = 0.15 to 0.32)
at the 99 percent confidence level (see Table 2). as this far
exceeded chance probability of occurrence, common perceptions of pupil
actions by teachers and pupils seemed the most probable explanation.
The magnitudes of these correlations, however, were so low as to indi
cate that, at best, only about ten percent of the variability in a
score obtained using one method could be accounted for by the score
from the other method. //This distinction between statistical signifi
cance and magnitude was of Importance here due to two factors. The
first factor was that the items answered were essentially the same for
students arid teachers. The second consideration was that the relative
objectivity and overt classroom behavior orientation of the scale would
seem to leave less room for variation due to Item ambiguity. More
simply put, tne indication is that there was a little similarity and a
considerable difference between the way fifth and sixth grado children
In this study saw themselves in school-related activities and the way

their teachers saw the The reservations of Cornos, Soper, and Courson
41


56
Perkins, H. V. Factors influencing charge in children's self concepts.
Chili Development, 1953, 29, 221-230 (a).
Perkins, H, V. Teachers' and peers' perceptions of children's self
concepts. Child Development, 1958, 29 203-220 (b).
Purkey, W. W. An independent study project for gifted underachievers t
"Project self discovery." 'Jashington, D. C.: U. S, Department
of Health, Education and Welfare, Office of Education oroject no.
6-1334, 1967.
Purkey, W. W. The search for self. FERDC Bulletin 4 (2), Cainesville,
Florida. FloridaNEducational Research and Development Council,
1968.
Purkey, V,r. V,T, Self concent and school achievement. Englewood Cliffs,
New Jersey; Prentice-Hall, 19?0.
Purkey, W. Vi., Cage, B. N,, and Graves, U. The development of a pupil
behavior inventory to infer learner self concent. Facer pre
sented at annual convention of American Educational Research
Association, Hew York, 1971.
purkey, W. Craves, 7. H., and Zellner, K. Self perceptions of
runils in an experimental elementary school. Elementary School
Journal. 1970, 71, 166-171.
Rents, ?., ?., and '..bite, W. ?. Congruence of the dimensions of self as
object and self as process. The Journal of Psychology, 196?, 6?,
277-285,
Rogers, C. R, Client-centered therapy. Boston; Houghton-iifflln, 1951.
Both, R, The role of self concept in achievement. Jcnrnal of
Experimental Education, 1959, 2?, 265-281.
Sears, ?. S. Ie/els of aspiration in academically successful and unsuc
cessful children, Jouma.1 of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 1940,
35, 498-536,
Shaw, H, C., and HcCuen, J, T. The onset of academic underachievement in
bright children. Journal of Educational Psychoiogv. i960, 51.
103-108. ~
Snygg, D, The need for a phenomenological system of psychology.
Psychological Review, 1941, 48, 404-424.
A. T., and Soares, L. M, Self perceptions of socially disad
vantaged children. American Educational Research Journal. I960.
6, 31-45. '
9


28
To determine the relationship between the items on the FK and
those on the FFK, particularly between those items in which the only
difference is the person reporting the score (i.e., the iteas which are
parallel on the two tests), a cross-correlation of the 13 7K items with
the 18 P7K items was performed, using all subjects. In this way,
students' behaviors perceived in the same way by students arid teachers
(perceptually congruent items) were identified. Perhaps more important,
items on which students and teachers disagreed a.s to the perceived fre
quency of occurrence (perceptually discrepant items) were identified
and analyzed,
Factor scores, as more reliable measures of general aspects of
learner self concept, were compared between the FK and the ?FK. Die FK
factor scores were also correlated with the SSI scores. This analysis
determined the degree of relationship between the measures of inferred
self concept as a learner and the self report measures.
A possible contaminant in the previous procedure could be present
if persons scoring centrally on an FK scale were to, by some psycholog
ical dynamic such as identification with a higher status group, score
lower on the corresponding FFK than pupils scoring either high or low
on the FK scale. This possibility was checked by running a curvilinear
regression analysis on the parallel factor scores of the FK and FFK,
and on the eight FK-SSI combinations.
To explore possible differences between sexes at the grade levels
examined as well as differences between schools such as those found by
Furkey, Graves, and Zellner (1970), a two-way factorial design analysis
cf variance was performed on the ten indices of self concept (four
factor scores each on both the FK and PFK, plus the SSI and SS3I scores).


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40
the total self-esteem index, a significant interaction term was found,
which resulted from the girls in the innovative school scoring highest,
while girls in the conventional school scored lowest, and boys in the
innovative school scored somewhat lower than their counterparts in the
conventional school. There was a slight, nonsignificant tendency
towards higher total self-esteem scores in the innovative school.
The first hypothesis, predicting significant differences in
scoring betvreen the sexes, was accepted five times, with the means
favoring the girls four of the five times. The second hypothesis, pre
dicting significant differences of scores betvreen the schools, was
accepted four times, with the means favoring the innovative school three
of the four times. The third hypothesis, predicting no significant in
teraction of scores due to sox within school considerations, was
accepted eight times.


APPENDIX A
Florida Key
This scale is to assist the teacher in evaluating how the
student perceives his or her "learner" self. Please select one
of the following answers and record the number in the blank space.
VERY ONCE IN OCCASION- FAIRLY VERY
NEVER: 0 SELDOM; 1 AWHILE: 2 ALLY: 3 OFTEN: 4 OFTEN: 5
Name of student to be evaluated
Compared with other students his age, does this student?
1. get along with other students? _______
2. get along with the teacher?
3. keep calm when things go wrong?
4. say good things about his school?
5. tell the truth about his school work?
6. speak up for his own ideas?
7. offer to speak in front of the class?
8. offer to answer questions in class?
9. ask meaningful questions in class?
10. look people in the eye?
11. talk to others about his school work?
12. join in school activities?
13. seek out new things to do in school on his own?
14. offer to do extra work in school?
15. finish his school work?
16. pay attention to class activities?
1?. do his school work carefully?
18. read in class?
TOTAL SCORE:


24
Correlation coefficients were calculated for each item between the self
rating and the inferred rating. Coefficients ranged from -0.20 to 0.34,
with an adjusted mean of 0,11 indicating little self-other correspond
ence within any one item. Single-item indices of personality are most
likely to include large components of error variability, and means cal
culated from correlations obtained between such indices carry forward
the error instead of balancing it out. Self concept indices obtained
from multiple unidimensional samples of overt behavior are much less
likely to include large error variability.
A possible limitation to interpretation of the above results
could arise if curvilinear relationships were to be found between in
ference ratings and self ratings. An interaction of scores assigned
by teachers and self assigned score was found to be a major source of
variability in a transposed factor analysis of pupils when using both
self report and inferred self concept measures (Graves, 19?1). Curvi-
linearity of these measures will be further explored in this study.


57
Staines, J, V. The self-picture- as a factor in the classroom. British
Journal of Educational ~ srchology, 1953* 23* 97-111
Stephenson, W. W. The study of behavior. Chicago: University of
Chicago tress, 1953*
Sullivan, H. S. The interpersonal theory of psychiatry. New York:
Norton, 1953* '
Thorndike, R, L., and Hagan, E. Measurement and evaluation in psychol
ogy and education (3rd. ed.). New York: Wiley, 19o9.
Wylie, R. C. The self concept. Lincoln, Nebraska: University of
Nebraska. Press, 19olT*~
Yeatts, P. F. Developmental changes in the self report of Negro and
white children, grades 3-12 FERDC Bulletin 3 (277 Gainesville,
Florida: Florida Educational Research and Development Council,
1967.
Yeatts, P. P., and Bentley, E. L. The development of a non-verbal
measure to assess the self concept of young and non-verbal
children. Paper presented at annual convention of American
Educational Research Association, ev York, 1971


54
Crome, D. P., and Marlowe, D. The approval motive; Studies in
evaluative dependence. New Yorks V/iley, 1964.
Davidson, H. H., and Lang, G. Children's perceptions of their
teachers' feelings towards them related to self perception,
school achievement and behavior. Journal of Experimental
Education, i960, 29, 107-118.
Diggory, J. C. Self-evaluation: Concents and studies. New Yorks Wiley,
1966.
Engel, M. The stability of the self concept in adolescence. Journal
of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 1959, 58, 211-215.
Fiedler, F. E,, Dodge, J,, Jones, R,, and Hutchins, E. Interrelations
among measures of personality adjustment in nonclinlcal popula
tions. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 1958, $6,
345-351.
Fink, M. E. Self concept as it relates to academic underachievement.
California Journal of Educational Research, 1962, 13, 57-62.
Flaherty, M. R., and Reutzel, E. Personality traits of high and low
achievers in college. Journal of Educational Research, 1965
58, 409-411.
Gergen, K. J. Personal consistency and the presentation of self. In
C, Gordon and K. J. Gergen (Eds.), The self in social interaction.
Vol. 1. New York: Wiley, 1968.
Gordon, C. Self-conceptions: Configurations of content. In C. Gordon
and K. J. Gergen (Eds.), The self in social Interaction. Vol. 1.
New York: Wiley, 1968.
Gordon, I. J,, and Combs, A. W. The learner: Self and perceptions.
Review of Educational Research, 1958, 28, 433-444.
Graves, V/, H, A transpose factor analysis of a learner self-referent
behavior inventory. Paper presented at annual convention of
Southeast Psychological Association, Miami, 1971.
Guertin, W. H, Transposed analysis of Kelly's personal construct pro
ductions, Paper presented at annual convention of Southeast
Psychological Association, Miami, 1971.
Guertin, W, H., and Bailey, J, Introduction to modem factor analysis.
Ann Arbor, Michigan: Edwards, 1970.
Hathaway, S. R., and McKinley, J. C. A multiphasic personality schedule.
Journal of Psychology. 1942, 10, 249-254.


2
students of the self began to reappear. In this renaissance of inter
est, there was an aspect not prevalent earlier, empirical research
aimed at validating and making practical the theory. At least, two
forces are seen to have been working in concert to foster this develop
ment. The first force was that the experimental, cause-seeking
orientation of behaviorism was still valued, even if the early aims of
behaviorism were not. A second factor vas the continuing development
of research tools for behavioral science such as design, statistics,
and measurement theory. Fiold theorists such as Koffka (1935) helped
link the various schools by specifying that the self, at the core of
the ego, represented acts pertinent to real needs of people, and that
the early behaviorists had been concerned with quasi-needs; thus more
global and individually determined concepts were needed to account for
behavior.
Self, or, more objectively, phenomenal self, has been defined by
Combs and Snygg (1959* p. 58) as "all those parts of the phenomenal
field which the individual experiences as part or characteristic of
himself," where the phenomenal field is the experience of the per-
ceiver. Within the phenomenal self, they define self concept as in
cluding "those parts of the phenomenal field which the individual has
differentiated as definite and fairly stable characteristics of himself"
(p. 112).
The usefulness of measures of self concept has been defended by
Hilgard (1949), who has stated the necessity of using self concept to
understand defense mechanisms. Hebb (i960) postulated the necessity of
using self concept measures for studying thinking. Numerous studies
(Cowen et al., 1955J Perkins, 1958a- 3ruck and 3odwin, 1962; Brookover


A Multivariate Investigation of Professed and Inferred
Self Concepts of Fifth and Sixth Grade Students
By
WILLIAM H. GRAVES, JR.
A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE COUNCIL OF
THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL
FULFILLMENT OF TIE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF
DOCTOR OF FHIL030FHY
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
1972

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
The list of people vrho have influenced the author's thought is
long, and the interactions with them are fondly remembered. The contri-
buttons of sor.c loom so large as to demand special recognition. The
author is indebted to the chairman of his doctoral committee, Dr.
William W, Purkcy, for his personal warmth and for his exemplary devo
tion to bettering education for children. Dr. Vynce A. Hines' initial
and continued support was a catalyst which will always be deeply appre
ciated. Dr3. Hob N. Cage and Guillermo F. Mascaro have unveiled many
mysteries by allowing the author to work with them closely in demanding
tasks. The teachings of Drs. Wilson H. Guertin and Charles M. Bridges,
as well as their time and interest, were very influential. The children
and staff of the schools involved in this study are thanked for efforts
without which this study would not ha.ve been possible,
Mrs, Robert L, Stevens, who typed this dissertation under very
trying conditions, is highly commended. The author finally wishes to
thank his family who have borne with him throughout his studies.
ii

TABLE OP CONTENTS
Page
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
LTST OP TABLES iv
ABSTRACT
v
CHAPTER
I Statement of the Problem..
Background of the Study
Furposes of the Study .
II Review of the Literature 7
Aspects of Self 7
Developmental Implications of Self Concept ..... 8
Self Concept and School Achievement ............. 10
Measurement Theory and perceptual Psychology .... 13
Perceptual Measurement Techniques ............... 16
Relationships 'creepvUc*l ...... 22
III Design and Method 25
Measures Used in ths Study 25
Description of Children and Schools..,.,,...,..,. 27
Design and Method ............................... 27
Hypotheses 29
IV Analysis of the Data 30
Relationships between Techniques ................ 30
Comparisons between Schools 34
V Summary and Conclusions 41
Summary 41
Comparisons between Schools and Sexes ........... 45
Conclusion ........................ 46
APPENDICES
A Florida Key
49
B Pupil Florida Key 50
C Self-Esteem Inventory 51
REFERENCES 52
BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH
53
iii

LIST OF TABLES
TABLE Pa^e
.1 Rotated Factor Loadings for Florida Key 26
2 Item Cross-Correlations of Florida Key, Pupil
Florida Key, and Self-Esteem Indices ................ 31
3 Intercorrelations of Inferred and Professed
Learner Self Concept and Self-Esteem Scores .......... 33
4 Curvilinear Components of Three Self Report Variables
Predicting Inferred Self Concept Variables 35
5 Summary of F-Ratios and Coll l eans for Analyses
of Variance of FK Factors .......................... 3&
6 Summary of F-Ratios and Cell Means for Analyses
of Variance of PFK Factors 3?
7 Summary of F-Ratios and Cell Means for Analyses
of Variance of SEI Scores 38
iv

Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the
Graduate Council of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment
of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy
A MULTIVARIATE INVESTIGATION OF PROFESSED AND INFERRED
SELF CONCEPTS OF FIFTH AMD SXITH GRADS STUDENTS
By
William H. Graves, Jr.
March, 19?2
Chairman: Dr. William Watson Purkey
Major Department: Foundations of Education
Fifth and sixth grade pupils from two North Florida elementary
schools having different practices were administered the Pupil Florida
Key (PFK) and the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory, two self report
measures. Their teachers rated them on the Florida Key (FK), a learner
self concept inventory whose items paralleled those of the PFK. Cor
relations calculated between parallel items on the FK and PFK showed
little commonality in scoring, as did a subsequent analysis using
factor scores from these inventories. The conclusion was drawn that
self report indices should generally be considered distinct from
inferred self concept measures.
Factorial analyses of variance using the above indices were per
formed with school, sex, and their interaction identified as the sources
of variability. Girls tended to have higher indices, as did the more
innovative school.
v

CHAPTER I
Statement of the problem
In the years which have followed the re-emergence of perceptual
psycho) ogy as a significant force in psychology and education, there
has been a proliferation of methods and approaches for systematic study
of the individual within a phenomenological framework. This should
cone .as no surprise within an approach which has as a major concern the
exploration of the uniqueness of the individual's perceptions, further
more, perceptual psychology inherited a long history of philosophical
concern about the problem of mind and self.
Biggory (1966) traces the history of theoretical development of
thought about seif from Homer through Descartes, who initiated the con
cern of the interaction of two aspects of man previously considered
independent: body and mind. Serious theoretical questions about mind
were followed from Descartes through the British empiricists to William
James, whose work marked the beginnings of systematic study of the per
sonal internal world of the experiencing individual. Concern a.t that
point in history began to shift to aspects of self such as the develop
ment and differentiation of self, the I-me relationship, and the
question as to whether seif is divisible, and, if so, how to best
categorize aspects of self.
After a lull in interest in self theory on the part of American
psychologists of
- ** -4. O J
the early part of this century, a lull generally asso-
Watson and the behaviorist school he represented,
1

2
students of the self began to reappear. In this renaissance of inter
est, there was an aspect not prevalent earlier, empirical research
aimed at validating and making practical the theory. At least, two
forces are seen to have been working in concert to foster this develop
ment. The first force was that the experimental, cause-seeking
orientation of behaviorism was still valued, even if the early aims of
behaviorism were not. A second factor vas the continuing development
of research tools for behavioral science such as design, statistics,
and measurement theory. Fiold theorists such as Koffka (1935) helped
link the various schools by specifying that the self, at the core of
the ego, represented acts pertinent to real needs of people, and that
the early behaviorists had been concerned with quasi-needs; thus more
global and individually determined concepts were needed to account for
behavior.
Self, or, more objectively, phenomenal self, has been defined by
Combs and Snygg (1959* p. 58) as "all those parts of the phenomenal
field which the individual experiences as part or characteristic of
himself," where the phenomenal field is the experience of the per-
ceiver. Within the phenomenal self, they define self concept as in
cluding "those parts of the phenomenal field which the individual has
differentiated as definite and fairly stable characteristics of himself"
(p. 112).
The usefulness of measures of self concept has been defended by
Hilgard (1949), who has stated the necessity of using self concept to
understand defense mechanisms. Hebb (i960) postulated the necessity of
using self concept measures for studying thinking. Numerous studies
(Cowen et al., 1955J Perkins, 1958a- 3ruck and 3odwin, 1962; Brookover

3
ct al., 1964; Cline et al., 1964; Purkey, 1970)* which will be reviewed
later, have demonstrated relationships of self concept variables with
social achievement.
Wylie (1961) published a review of the research in perceptual
psychology, in which she critically assessed the "state of the art" at
that time. In this review, Wylie lamented the lack of standardisation
of terminology and instrumentation, and is especially critical of re
search efforts which devise a special instrument which is only used
that one time. Work such as that undertaken by Fiedler, Dodge, Jones
and Hutchins (1958)* in which they develop indices of relationship
between instruments, is seen as very valuable by providing means to re
late findings between studies which have used different measures. This
approach could spark more intensive theoretical analysis if variables
previously considered similar were to show little or no relationship
experimentally, or conversely, if attributes previously considered dis
tinct and independent were to show correlation. The lack of widely
accepted criteria against which to compare self concept measures is a
major difficulty.
Background of the Study
This study will explore the interrelations of the two major ap
proaches in determining an index of self concept. One approach used is
to rely on the subject to overtly provide information about himself.
The Intent of the instrument may be either obvious or disguised, global
or particular. Instruments of this nature will be referred to here
after as self reports. The use of the self report is supported by
statements such as the following by Moustakas (1965, p. 45): "The
individual's perception of his own feelings, attitudes, and ideas is

ore valid than any outside diagnosis can be." The advantages ir.
using the self report are that it can provide measures from a large
number of subjects on numerous items related to the phenomenon under
investigation, and do so with a relatively low expenditure of money and
time.
The second major measuring technique is to ask for an objective
rating of the subject by someone else, generally a trained observer,
The indices of self concept so garnered will be referred to as inferred
self concept scores. Advantages to this nethed include reduction of
/
ideosyncratic variation due to semantic problems of level ( ie,, "well
adjusted" night mean tc one person what "adjusted" means zo another),
or interpretation of terms. Reliance on an observer also reduces vari
ability attributable to individual tendencies to "fake good" or "fake
bad," and allows for evaluation of characteristics which are not
apparent to the individual, himself. Many measures of self concept, by
nature of being concerned with items of obvious personal meaning, can
be characterized as "reactive" as defined by Campbell and Stanley
(1963) Inferred self concept scores avoid thin generally undesirable
source of variation. Practical difficulties arise using this procedure
if a iarve number of subjects are desired, since stable measures from
observations require time proportional to the complexity of the attri
bute in its conceptualization and occurrence. It souid be emphasized
that these two methods of collecting data about perceptual phenomena
are not opposing methods. A self report instrument can provide valu
able information to an observer, as an adjunct, tc his observations,
Self1 reports, on the other hand, are suspect when used with people with
clinical psychopathologies for reasons listed by Combs, Soper, and
Courson (1963) unless the deviance is considered as a separate variable.

5
The aspects Combs et al. felt to be necessary in the individual
for self report measures to yield valid indices of self concept are
1. The clarity of the individual's awareness
2. The availability of adequate symbols for expression
3. The willingness of the individual to cooperate
4. The social expectancy
5. The individual's feelings of personal adequacy
6. His feeling of freedom from threat.
In support of their position, Combs et al. correlated responses of stu
dents on 18 items such as "I feel worthwhile I dont amount to much"
with evaluations from trained observers of those students on the same
items. Correlations were predominantly low and positive; however,
there ras no attempt to determine the reliability of the self report
instrument and the range of possible student responses was limited with
in these one-item scales.
Purposes of the Study
There is a continued widespread use of the term "self concept"
in studies using both inferred self concept and self report procedures
despite the injunctions of Wylie (1961) and Combs et al. (1963). In
view of this and the methodological limitations of the Combs et al.
study, a reexamination of the relationship between these measures was
proposed. One purpose of this study was to examine the multiple rela
tionships between two self report instruments and one instrument in
which specific aspects of learner self concept are iaferred. Two of
these instruments used very specific terminology to reduce variability
due to differences in the interpretation of the meanings of the items,
and restricted their emphasis to areas of learner self concept. All
three instruments were comprised of numerous related items to increase
reliability (Thorndike and Hagan, 1969, p. 183). High positive

relationships between the procedures could indicate that much of what
is known from research using one procedure is applicable to research
using the other procedure, Low relationships in certain dimensions, on
the other hand, could mean that It would be unsafe ic generalize re
sults from one technique to problems in which the ether technique would
be more appropriate until further evidence could support the generali
sation, Low relationships on certain dimensions could also indicate a
basic difference between seif-perceptions and teacher perceptions even
on frequency of observable behaviors. In the latter case, the major
implication for teacher training would be to malee future teachers aware
of the possible lack of congruence of perceptions, so that they might
become moro perceptive, both of the students' behavior and of the
students' self-perceptions.
The second purpose of the study was to continue the investiga
tion of the effects of deliberate and intensive efforts to enhance
pupil self concept (Purkey, Graves, and Zellner, 1970) by comparing two
schools with different emphases in the area of self concept development
One school had a deliberate, public and planned effort for this purpose
and the other school was much less systematic ir this area.

CHAPTER II
Review of the_ Literature
The need for a phenomenological system of psychology was out
lined by Snygg (l$&l), who emphasized that the frame of reference from
which measurements are taken is a critical aspect in any field of
science. In phenomenological psychology, this point of reference is at
the level of the individual's perceptions and experiences, rather than
at the level of the external stimuli which surround him. The most
basic perceptions in terms of their centrality and durability are those
which reflect the person's ideas about himself. Roger's (1951) main
tained that self is central to the individual and that enhancement of
self is a high priority issue, perhaps taking precedence over organ-
israic concerns. This position is related to that of Combs and Syngg
(1959\ in which the role of the self is seen as the determiner of
behavior. A summary of the important character!sties of the self was
made by Purkev (1970), who described the self as organized, dynamic, and
learned.
Aspects of Self
There have been numerous attempts to subdivide the self into
aspects which are distinct and amenable to identification and which have
differential effects within the person. One major system for categori
zation of aspects of self has been to divide the self in two parts. One
aspect of self is seen by this system as that part or process which views
and evaluates itself, the notion of the self-as-object. The other
7

8
aspect of self within this system does not have this component of self-
awareness, but is the prime determiner of behavior, the self-as-
procoss. Gordon and C-ergen (1968) outlined some implications of this
formulation of the self in the area of self-understanding. Rentz and
White (1967) have shown that these two concepts, both defined using self
report instruments, have some shared aspects as well as some unique
aspects. It would seem, however, that the self report is more appro
priate when considering the solf-as-object, and the procedure of infer
ring self concept is more related to the self-as-process.
The development of an individual self is seen by many (Snygg,
19^1; Allport, 1961 Jersild, I960 Lecky, 1969) to be through the
mechanism of learning, wherein aspects of the phenomenal field are dif
ferentiated which were previously undifferentiated. In the development
of the self through learning, Murphy (19^7) and Allport (1955) have
examined the special importance attached to the condition of striving
with regard to the differentiation of the phenomenal field, especially
in the area of self-knowledge. Combs (1952) outlined a procedure
through which intelligence could be considered dependent upon an ade
quate self concept, showing the reciprocal nature of the internal and
external world of the individual.
Developmental Implications of Self Concept
The rolo of "significant others," such as parents, in the
"leaming-of-self" process is of importance to educators and psycholo
gists in order that they might better understand human development.
Such understanding can be used when these professionals have to interact
with the "significant others" in connection with the children and,
therefore, must know the ramifications of this psychological dynamic in

9
order to coordinate with and advise parents to maximize the child's
development. Furthermore, teachers and other professionals become
"significant others" to children because of their roles as agents of
the society having opportunity and obligations to effect changes in the
children. Thus, it is imperative that they understand the implications
of this developmental process. For example, when working with children,
it is important to consider that new perceptions, if they interfere
with or threaten the dynamics of the self, can be rejected even when
such rejection is both logically inconceivable to the outside observer
and unpredictable from an examination of the external stimuli (Lecky,
19&9t p. 117). The more central a concept is to self, the more stable
and resistant to the above change.
Some degree of stability of the self concept is a necessary con
dition if relationships of phenomenological variables to human behaviors
are to be explored. Research in different areas at different age levels
employing different instruments has demonstrated a fairly stable re
lationship within those instruments and age levels (Brownfain, 1952?
PJngel, 1959). On the other hand, changes in the way pupils think about
and see themselves have been investigated by Yeatts (1967), who reported
differences in spatial relationships between self report variables ob
tained from children at different grade levels, Gergen (1968) reviewed
the literature and theory of consistency and indicated that very high
levels of psychological consistency are not desirable in humans. This
is in keeping with an organism so dependent on adaptation to a changing
environment.
In brief, if the self be viewed as the internally consistent,
dynamic determiner of behavior, dependent on a supportive environment

for maximum growth and effectiveness, the relationship of self theory
t:ith the social institution of education is strong and obvious,
Self Concept and School Achievement
Numerous studies, using a multitude of instruments and orienta
tions, have shown consistent relationships between self concept and
school achievement from kindergarten through college. In some of the
earliest work in this area, Sears (1940) used a discrepancy score pro
cedure and found that childrens levels of aspiration ware related to
their academic performance. Work by Combs and Soper (l$63) and related
research by Lamy (1965) indicated that measures of inferred self con
cept, using the observer-as-instrunent technique they pioneered, were
related to academic performance in kindergarteners, Stability of this
relationship was established in this research by the correspondence of
predictions made by Combs and Soper
with ratings made r>n these children
the next year by their new teachers. Sex-based differences were
checked on a kindergarten population by Ozehoskey and Clark (1970), in
response to work with older children (fourth and sixth grades) which
showed girls with higher seif concepts than boys (Bledsoe, 1964), Al
though Ovsehoskey and Clark found no differences associated with sex at
this earlier age, they did find impressive relationships between self
concept measures and both the Metropolitan Readiness Test and the
childrens grade-point average.
Bledsoe (1964) also found significant correlations of achievement
measures with his own self report instrument (modified frora Bills' IAV,
1954/ for boys but not for girls. Underachievers were found by Bruck
and Bod win (1962) to have lower self concept scores, ?s infen-ed from
the draw-a-person technique, even after controlling for differences in

il
intelligence. Fink (1962) found made lower achievers in the ninth grade
to be rated lower than higher achieving males on adequacy of self con
cept ratings assigned by three experienced raters reviewing numerous
psychological protocols. Females in this study vrere not found to dif
fer significantly on this basis. In a study encompassing several
secondary grade levels, Brookover, Thomas, and Paterson (1964) found
significant correlations of self ratings of general ability and ability
in specific academic areas with academic achievement, controlling for
the influence of intelligence. A conclusion was drawn from this
research that a feeling of self confidence of ability may well be a
necessary' (but not sufficient) condition for achievement.
The relationship of self concept with achievement seems to re
main even in higher education. In a study by Roth (1959), college
students who attended a remedial reading clinic and were successful
tended to rate themselves higher on reality-oriented dimensions of a
Q sort for self concept, ideal self concept and "ideal-actual" self
discrepancy than those who did not succeed or who dropped out of the
program. The latter group tended to rate themselves higher on some
dimensions related to ideal self. Within a women's college, Flaherty
and Reutzel (1965) found female high achievers rating themselves higher
on such California Personality Inventory categories as "responsible,"
"self-accepting, "self-assurant," and "poised." Low achievers in
college, it should be remembered, still have a history of relatively
high achievement compared to the general population, and yet their
self-comparisons are apparently based on their perceived peer group
(i.e,, college students).

12
The possibility exists that social class is a factor strongly
related to both achievement and self concept, and that many of the
above findings could be more parsimoniously and reliably attributed to
social class differences. Soares and Soares (1969) found, however,
low socioeconomic class black children having higher self report scores
than middle class white children. Davidson a.nd Lang (i960) also exam
ined this possibility and concluded that, even though lower social
class children reported lower self concepts, when social class was held
constant statistically, a distinct relationship between self reports
and academic performance still obtained. Another finding by Davidson
and Lang was that girls in the fourth through sixth grades reported
higher self concept scores than boys and also saw their teachers as
being more favorable towards them in comparison to boys' perceptions of
teacher favorability. Girls of this age were also found by Perkins
(1958a) to show higher "ideal -actual" self congruence than boys.
The interactive effect of teachers on the self-picture of pupils
was examined by Staines (1958) and it was found that teachers who deli
berately attempted to instill and maintain a realistic level of aspira
tion seem to effect a more realistic self concept in their students.
Work in the same area by Battle (1957) and Davidson and Lang (i960)
indicated that children whose values coincided with those of their
teacher tended to achieve higher. Perkins (1958b), Purkey (1967, 1970),
and Combs, Avila, and Purkey (1971) have written extensively about
methods and attitudes conducive to the enhancement of learners' self
concept.

Measurement Theory and Perceptual Psychology
Allport (1955) summarized the organization of observation and
interpretation in phenomenological psychology, starting with throe
bread, categories of constitutional diagnosis, sociological techniques
and psychological techniques. The psychological techniques he sub
divided into personal documents, self-appraisal, conduct sampling,
ratings, scales arid tests, projective techniques, depth analyses, and
expressive behavior.
Two basic categories of phenomenological variables have been
mentioned previously, self report and inferred self concept. Although
all techniques above could conceivably be used to get an index within
either category, some techniques and methods are more appropriate for a
given category. ?cr example, the depth ans-lysis would be more appro
priately used to infer self concept, while self appraisal best yields a
self report, Some techniques, such as scales, are commonly used to give
an index within either category.
Other dimensions will be discussed which may be superimposed on
the universe of perceptual variables. Consideration of these dimensions
is useful in that they illustrate sources of variability between mea
suring devices that can causa concern about reliability and validity of
the indices thus obtained. These concerns are especially important to
perceptual measurement because of the problem of validation. Ideally,
validation is accomplished by relating a measure of a construct to an
objective criterion acceptable to experts within the discipline. The
logical criterion for self concept measures would seem to be the ade
quacy and effectiveness of the individual's life-style in accomplishing
his purposes, but this data is not likely to become available for

validation purposes, so validity has to be established by indirect
methods, such as expert judgment or the relationships of self concept
measures with partially related, confounded criteria. The Indirect
approach dictates more concern with initial instrument construction,
since inappropriate aspects connot be as readily eliminated.
Ore dimension which is a source of variability Is overtness, the
degree to which the true purpose of an instrument is explicit or ob
vious to the person supplying the information. This dimension, although
It can be varied in either self report or inferred self concept tech
niques, is most commonly varied in the former. In making the decision
of how much overtness to engineer into an instrument, the interplay of
two considerations, social desirability and validity, creates a dilemma.
The systematic variations which can be attributed to the social desir
ability of possessing an attribute, rather than the degree of that
attribute actually possessed, is an area explored in detail by Crcwr.e
and Marlowe (1964), Social desirability is of particular relevance to
humanistic psychology where the attributes of concern are, virtually by
definition, matters of general, social and personal importance, and social
desirability can be expected to Influence overt self reports and even
mannerisms and behaviors from which self concept measures are inferred.
Covert measures attempt to circumvent the variability due to
social desirability by stressing items which, though apparently innocu
ous, reflect deeper traits. Accurate use of covert measures, however,
is dependent upon the degree of relationship between the directly mea
sured attribute and the target trait for which the first measure provides
an in i tract index. As an example, number of cigarettes smoked may be
inferred from yellow soains on fingers, but the index lacks some

15
validity as yellow 3tains do net have to ectae fro* cigarette smoking.
Furthermore, the stains can be avoided or eliminated without changing
smoking frequency. Accuracy in covert measures is further dependent on
the reliability of the measurement of the measured variable, doth of
these considerations are critical, in humanistic psychology, as the
degree of relationship between variables is generally neither known
empirically nor agreed upon theoretically.
Although a great deal of Inference is obvious in covert measures
of self report, this inference is a priori and, therefore, these mea
sures axe not to be confused with inferred self concept Indices. In
the former procedure, two people who complete protocols in the same
fashion will obtain the same score, whereas in the latter procedure,
this is not necessarily true, as interpretation by the scorer is indi
vidualised for each subject and the scorer is free to use what Bruner
(1953) referred to as the "nascent surplus" of information which the
more mechanistic scoring procedure cannot tap.
Another important dimension of measurement is the generality of
the attribute being measured. If all other considerations were equal,
the more global measures would better satisfy the criterion of parsimony,
To the extent, however, that a more global measure lacks operational
definition and, therefore, loses interrater reliability, positive results
from replication and general!zability suffer. Wylie (196l) concluded
that the comparatively specific explorations inte particular aspects ox
self have proven more fruitful than research using global measures. This
would seem a logical conclusion if the self is conceptualized, as pre
viously mentioned, ?s the product and process cf continual differentia
tion, ir
w-

this could serve as a further explar.atior. for the general lack of sue-
cess of research using global neasures since a particular part of self
could be operating effectively on a target behavior and vet an overall
measure could show low effectiveness.
Some degree of generality must be present if research efforts
are to extend the noraological development of the theory. It should also
be remembered that the differentiation of the self concept is unique to
the individual and, within that, unique to the situation, so that some
degree of generality must be present, or no one could know anyone else.
Further, self knowledge would be even more difficult than it now is due
to an inability to generalize and categorize from others.
Perceptual Measurement Techniques
One frequently used method of obtaining a self report is the Q
technique developed by Stephenson (1953). In this technique, a number
of items (usually 70-120) descriptive of personality traits are pre
sented to individuals, who are asked to assign each of these items to
one of several (usually 5-9) discrete categories, with a fixed number
of responses falling into each category to approximate a normal distri
bution. One of two procedures may then be followed to determine an
index of self report. One procedure is to have the individuals score
the same items twice (or more) according to differiag sets of instruc
tions which represent different aspects of the self (i.e., "sort these
as you see yourself now" actual self, or "sort these as you would
like to be" ideal, self). The correlation between the sorts is con
sidered to be index of congruence of the two attributes, Evidence
marshaled by Cole, Getting, and Hinkle (196?) indicated that either low
or high discrepancies between "ideal" and "actual" self reports were

17
associated with clinical psychopathologies, and that a sample of non-
clinical people tended to have moderate levels of congruence. This
finding cast shadows on conclusions of earlier research which assumed
that high "ideal self actual self" congruence was the most desirable
state,
The second procedure which may be followed in scoring the Q sort
is for the developers to establish a priori weights (matching-to-
standard) for the items in order to determine the level of ?. particular
attribute. The correlation between those weights and the obtained dis
tribution is taken to be the individual's index of that attribute,
Wylie (1961) raised the question of whether the latter procedure is in
fact phenomenological, the point being that in the former procedure,
the order of selection of the variables is determined and judged within
the person, whereas in the latter procedure, an external criterion is
being imposed on people's selections.
The Q technique has been used with a variety of items, sorts
having been made on words, phrases, and even short paragraphs. Items
have been selected from clinical protocols, exhaustive trait lists and
other sources. The type of item included and the source of items need
to be carefully considered for appropriateness to a particular research
problem. The "standard" list at present in phenomenological research,
from the frequency of use, is Butler and Haigh's (1954) list of 100
statements gleaned from clinical protocols.
A discrepancy procedure somewhat less extreme in psychological
distance than the "ideal self actual self" congruence technique has
been developed and used by Brownfain (1952). In this approach, people
are asked first to rate themselves as they think they are. Next they

18
arc asked to rate themselves on the same scale hut giving themselves the
benefit of every doubt, and on the third rating to be as self critical
as they truthfully can.
Another popular form of perceptual measuring device is the
rating scale which is used in both self report and inferential measure
ment. In this technique, the individual is asked to measure the degree
to which he possesses or is represented by, an item presumably related
to a more general attributo. Items can be selected which are either
logically and/or functionally related to the attribute cf concern.
Bills* Index of Adjustment of Values (IAV, 1951) is a scale of 49
traits which were selected from a longer list on the basis of their
logical, connection Tilth adjustment. The Minnesota Multiphasic Person
ality Inventory (MMPI, Hathaway and McKinley, 1942) is an example of a
scale sometimes used in perceptual research in which items were selected
for their correlation with psychological disorders or other attributes,
regardless of logical connection. Adjective or trait checklists are
subsets of rating scales and are generally dichotomous.
A variation on the theme of rating scales is the semantic differ
ential approach developed and reported by Osgood, Suci, and Tannenbaum
(1957) which is somewhat covert, and which assumes that most individ
uals share connotative as well as denotative interpretation of numerous
adjectives which are common in the English language. In the semantic
differential procedure, an attribute is named and followed by a set
(3-20) of bipolar adjectives, each of which defines a continuum (i.e.,
hot cold). The extremities of each dimension are commonly divided by
a five-to-seven-point unlabeled scale which allows the individual to
select his own appraisal of the characteristic of the target attribute.

19
With the adjectives generally used, three Independent characteristics
of attributes emerge from a factor analytic procedure, evaluation,
potency, and activity. This indicates that people tend to categorize
attributes in terms of the perceived organization and dynamics of those
attributes. It is interesting but futile to speculate whether people
tend to see the world in terms of organization and dynamics because of
these characteristics of their selves, or whether self theorists have
viewed the characteristics of self as they view the characteristics of
other phenomena,
A procedure which allows for individual selection of constructs
is the Role Construct Repertory Test (Rep Test, Kelly, 1955) In this
procedure a person generates his own category system and uses the
categories thus generated to rate people significant to him. This al
lows for a more individualistic analysis of the person's perceptual
field, A time-sharing, terminal-based computer program for simplifying
the rather elaborate administration and scoring of the Rep Test was
developed by Guertin (I9?l) who also modified the administration to take
advantage of the Q sort methodology.
In an effort to combine individualized responses with self re
port techniques, 3ugenthal and Zelen (1950) instituted a procedure in
which they asked people to give three answers to the question of who
they thought they were, C. Gordon (1968) described his refinements of
this procedure, primarily by developing coding systems to organize the
wide-ranging responses into meaningful dimensions.
When a projective technique is administered and scored using pre-
arranged keys, a richer variety of information is available, in part
since numerous keys can be used to measure different aspects of

20
personality from one administration of the test, and in part since
greater flexibility in responding inherently provides the possibility
and probability of greater Information. Nonetheless, projective tech
niques are among the more covert devices, and the latitude of response
is so varied that valuable information may well be lost when scoring
them objectively." When used as a stimulus in an observation period,
a projective technique can intensify the setting and provide some
structure, and commonality for the observer, as well as practically
guaranteeing some minimum level of activity. Exclusive use of this
technique is generally not indicated, however, due to the situation
generally being perceived as unnatural, thus allowing for situational
reactivity and bias.
Some ox the earliest work with use of expressive behavior as am
index in perceptual research was undertaken by Huntley (1940), who had
t
subjects repond to photographs of mannerisms and gestures of body
parts. In order to counteract theoretical concerns about cross-cultural
mannerisms, or sex-linked differences, Huntley provided his subjects
with unidentified cropped photographs of their own mannerisms for eval
uation and had the subjects thus unwittingly rate themselves, providing
and index of self ideal discrepancy.
Inferences of self concept have been made from protocols such as
those already discussed and from systematic observation. The latter can
involve a prearranged formal situation, such as a situational test
(Cronbach, I960), a less systematic but directed session, such as most
interviews, or it can be undertaken in a more natural setting, such as
the work by Barker (1968), In the work reported by Combs and Soper
(1963), all these procedures were combined to produce a technique known

21
as observer-a-instruraent. An important consideration when accepting
inferences from one person about another is the possibility of system
atic rater variability stemming from attributes other than those
relevant to the study. Bossom and Maslow (1957) explored this possi
bility with relation to raters' feelings of psychological security.
Measuring self concept in children is a special case. It is a
truism that childhood is the period of most rapid development, psycho
logically as well as physically. It follows, then, that self concept
is most malleable during this growth period, a conclusion which
Ferkins' (1958a-) study validated. In his chapter on "Growth of Self,"
Furkey (1970) reviewed and expanded upon findings with implications to
early experiences and the growth of self concept. Evidence of rela
tionships between self concept measures and school achievement in the
early school years was presented by Shaw and McCuen (i960), Combs and
Soper (1963), and Ozehoskey and Clark (1970).
Problems in measuring children's self concepts, especially self
reports, are numerous. In such a rapidly changing system, lack of
reliability can be attributed to "real" changes as well as to errors of
measurement such as faults within instrument design. Extraneous vari
ables which could influence self report include: tendency to mimic
others' responses, inability to remember or comply with testing instruc
tions, inability to discriminate shades of meanings within the scales,
or even inability to read with sufficient comprehension to understand
the items. These latter considerations have led to modifications such
as those found on the "I feel me feel" test (Yeatts and Bentley,
1971), in which scale points are indicated by faces which range from
very happy to very sad. Instructions and items can be read to pupils
to allow for some reading level variation.

22
Projective techniques, such as the Hachover Draw-A-Person test
(Machover, 194-9), are occasionally used "but the defense mechanisms
which the adult projective measures seek to circumvent are only devel
oping in childhood (Sullivan, 1953) 2-nd the rationale for the use of
child projective techniques is thus weakened. Although the individual's
suspicion and curiosity about the ulterior purpose of the test should
be less with younger groups, a counterbalancing consideration is that
child projective techniques are tapping a more superficial and situa-
tionally oriented perceptual field, which may be further confounded
with motor skill development.
Relationships Between porcentual Variables
Detailed and systematic conclusions are difficult to arrive at
in the research reviewed due, in part, to the abundance of measurement
techniques (Gordon and Combs, 19Wylie, 1961; Diggory, 1966}discuss
this problem). Efforts to relate different measurement techniques are
seen to be needed to reduce the conceptual space presently in evidence
in phenomenological research, to provide bases for comparing studies
which have used different instrumentation and thus to provide a feed
back mechanism for theorists. In a study on college men, Calvin and
Holtzman (1953) obtained adjustment ratings on each man in a fraternity
from the MMPI and also inferred adjustment scores from each man's com
panions. Inference scores were taken from the companions in the form
of answers to rather global questions about the personality of the rated
person, such as his ability as a leader, and his tact and social under
standing. Self report scores were taken in basically the same proce
dure, The tendency to view self in an essentially negative way was
found to increase as adjustment decreased.

23
Using adjustment techniques to arrive at a self concept index,
Storm, Child, and Frank (1956) found no relationship between Thematic
Apperception Test (TAT, Hurray, 1943) scores and self ratings or child
hood experiences. Low correlations were found by Cowen et. al. (1955)
between two standard self report instruments (Bills' IAV and Brownfains
technique), both of which purported to measure self regard. Cooper-
smith (1967) found low moderate correlations between a self report index
and a different, rather global, test he devised for teachers to infer
student self concepts.
In a factor analytic investigation of self ratings, teacher
ratings and achievement scores which included some perceptually oriented
variables, Cline, Richards, and Needham (1964) found internal consis
tency within each rating technique but few high correlations of
parallel items from pupil to teacher.
Perkins (1959a) found correlations from 0.04 to 0.71 between
teachers and pupils on Q sorts of self referent statements for various
teachers rating various pupils, no teacher rating the same student as
another teacher. Of the 50 items used, however, only five referred to
school activities, and only three of those five referred to the pupil's
role as a learner, so the index could best be called a global self con
cept rating.
In an attempt to experimentally confirm the strong theoretical
arguments in favor of the independence of self report and inferred self
concept indices, Combs, Soper, and Courson (1963) obtained indices on
59 sixth grade pupils from experienced observers on 18 items relating
to attributes of importance within perceptual psychology. The same 15
items were given to the sixth graders so that they might rate themselves.

24
Correlation coefficients were calculated for each item between the self
rating and the inferred rating. Coefficients ranged from -0.20 to 0.34,
with an adjusted mean of 0,11 indicating little self-other correspond
ence within any one item. Single-item indices of personality are most
likely to include large components of error variability, and means cal
culated from correlations obtained between such indices carry forward
the error instead of balancing it out. Self concept indices obtained
from multiple unidimensional samples of overt behavior are much less
likely to include large error variability.
A possible limitation to interpretation of the above results
could arise if curvilinear relationships were to be found between in
ference ratings and self ratings. An interaction of scores assigned
by teachers and self assigned score was found to be a major source of
variability in a transposed factor analysis of pupils when using both
self report and inferred self concept measures (Graves, 19?1). Curvi-
linearity of these measures will be further explored in this study.

CHAPTER III
Design and Method
Measures Used in the Study
The measures of self concept used in this study included the
Florida Key (FK), developed by Purkey, Cage, and Graves (1971); a form
of the same instrument modified for pupils (FFK)j the 25-item Cooper-
smith Self-Esteem Inventory, short form (SEI, 19o7)f and a three-item,
school-oriented subscale (SSEl) of the SSI, The FK is an instrument
developed to infer aspects of learner self concept (see Appendix A),
and is comprised of 18 observable behaviors rated by teachers according
to frequency of occurrence on a six-point scale ranging from zero
(never) to five (very often). The PFK is similar to the FK (see
Appendix B) except for rewording of the directions so that students car
give self reports of their perceived frequency of performing the same
18 behaviors. The SEI (see Appendix C) contains 25 statements which
the pupil is asked to evaluate as being "like me" or "unlike me," and
the SSEI is the subset of SEI items 2, 1?, and 23*
Previous work by Purkey et ale (1971) established that the FK
measured four areas of learner self concept, labeled relating, asserting,
investing, and coping (see Table 1), Interjudge and split-halves reli
ability indices were high, averaging 0.84 and 0,93 respectively.
Validity was judged high by a panel of educators and psychologists.
25

2
TABLE 1
Rotated Factor Loadings for Florida Key
(Values oelow .400 omitted)
Item Relating Asserting Investing Coping
4
.732
5
.731
11
.712
2
.617
.538
15
.616
9
.800
13
.772
12
.766
1
.400
.725
10
.429
.604
o
A
.500
.565
3
.412
.553
16
.410
.501
.524
14
.562
.448
6
.717
18
.481
.617
I?
.464
.613
n
f
.481
.612

27
Description of Children and Schools
These instruments were administered to all children (N ** 249) in
the fifth and sixth shades of two elementary schools in North Florida
in the spring of 1970. One school, hereafter called the innovative
school, was located in a Northeast Florida suburban town. The 97
students there were predominantly white middle class. The demographic
breakdown of the 152 pupils at the other school, located in North Cen
tral Florida and called the conventional school, was approximately ?0
percent white and 30 percent black children, ranging from lower middle
to middle class. Innovations at the innovative school include team
teaching, flexible scheduling and a particularly heavy emphasis on the
personal development of each child. Classes in the conventional school
were compartmentalized by subject matter and ability level in the fifth
and sixth grades.
Design and Method
Administration of the self report instruments (PFK and SEl) was
undertaken by the teachers of the innovative school, using the instruc
tions of the investigator, who administered these instruments himself
at the conventional school.
The data analyzed included the 18 item scores and the four fac
tor scores of both the FK and PFK, as well as the SSEI subtest score
and total score of the SEI, giving a total of 46 scores for each stu
dent. The factor scores for the FK were generated using the procedure
described in Guertin and 3ailey (1970). Factor scores for the PFK used
the factor score coefficients of the FK to assure logical comparability
of the FK and PFK measures.

28
To determine the relationship between the items on the FK and
those on the FFK, particularly between those items in which the only
difference is the person reporting the score (i.e., the iteas which are
parallel on the two tests), a cross-correlation of the 13 7K items with
the 18 P7K items was performed, using all subjects. In this way,
students' behaviors perceived in the same way by students arid teachers
(perceptually congruent items) were identified. Perhaps more important,
items on which students and teachers disagreed a.s to the perceived fre
quency of occurrence (perceptually discrepant items) were identified
and analyzed,
Factor scores, as more reliable measures of general aspects of
learner self concept, were compared between the FK and the ?FK. Die FK
factor scores were also correlated with the SSI scores. This analysis
determined the degree of relationship between the measures of inferred
self concept as a learner and the self report measures.
A possible contaminant in the previous procedure could be present
if persons scoring centrally on an FK scale were to, by some psycholog
ical dynamic such as identification with a higher status group, score
lower on the corresponding FFK than pupils scoring either high or low
on the FK scale. This possibility was checked by running a curvilinear
regression analysis on the parallel factor scores of the FK and FFK,
and on the eight FK-SSI combinations.
To explore possible differences between sexes at the grade levels
examined as well as differences between schools such as those found by
Furkey, Graves, and Zellner (1970), a two-way factorial design analysis
cf variance was performed on the ten indices of self concept (four
factor scores each on both the FK and PFK, plus the SSI and SS3I scores).

29
The following hypotheses were checked for all ten measures.
(1) significe.nt difference will he found between the means
of the two schools used in this study.
(2) A significant difference will be found between the means
of boys and girls in this study.
(3) Kg significant interaction will be found between sex
within school means.

CHAPTER IV
Analysis of the Data
Relationships "between Techniques
To ascertain the degree of relationship between the items of the
I'TC, the PFK, and the school and total SSI scores, a correlation matrix
was generated. The IBM system 360/65 of the University of Florida
Computing Center was used, in conjunction with the Education El valuation
Library computer programs. For interpretation of these data, the 99
percent level of confidence was chosen to afford some protection
against the commission of a Type I error (see Table 2).
Results indicated significant positive relationships on 11 of
the 18 variables of the FK and PFK. The highest relationship was
indicated by a correlation coefficient of 0.32 'between teacher and pupil
ratings on variable five, pertaining to getting along with the teacher.
Seven variables, despite their common origin, had correlations which
could not be considered different from zero. In examining the correla
tions between the school factor of the SEI with each of the FK items,
eleven coefficients were found which differed significantly from zero.
The highest of these (r = 0.29) was between the SSEI and teacher ratings
on variable 13, pertaining to speaking in front of the class. Comparing
the FK items with the total Self-Esteem Index, eight coefficients could
be considered larger than zero. The largest of these was the correlation
of the SEI with variable seven, which asked the teacher if the student
rea.ds in class.
30

31
TABLE 2
Item Cross-Correlations of Florida Key,
Pupil Florida. Key, and Self-Esteem Indices
Item
Number K/PFK FK/SSEI FK/SEI
pfk/ssei
PFK/3EI
1
.25*
,20*
.06
.09
.18*
2
.10
.13
.07
.13
.15*
3
.15*
.06
.05
.10
.05
4
.22*
.06
.15*
.16*
.31*
5
.32*
.01
.08
.14
.20*
6
.29*
.15*
ol5*
.12
.21*
7
.13
.23*
.20*
.12
.15*
8
.27*
.25*
.19*
.12
.17*
9
99*
* ~
.19*
.10
.11
.18*
10
.19*
.19*
.12
.14
.19*
ii
.20*
.08
.19*
.16*
.17*
12
.14
.22*
.10
.14
.13*
13
.20*
.29*
.10*
.30*
.15*
14
.04
.21*
.11
*05
.01
15
.08
.01
.08
.12
.21*
16
i
. .ia
.20*
.07
.01
.07
17
-.03
.15*
. 16*
.06
.06
18
.22*
.11
,10*
,14
.15*
*D < .01

32
Relationships between the PFK and the school factor of the SEI
showed only three coefficients significantly different from zero, the
largest of which was again variable 13, the only variable which had
correlation significantly larger than zero in all five categories
examined. Considering that this latter analysis was between two self
report indices, this low degree of relationship could be attributed to
a fundamental difference between classroom behaviors and self-esteem
associated with school, or it could have been due to the limited amount
of variability available in the three-item school subscale. In com
paring the PFK with the full SEI scale, fourteen coefficients appeared
which were significantly larger than zero. The largest of these was
variable four, getting along with other students, which had a correla
tion coefficient of 0,31 with the total SEI,
Factor scores were calculated for the four factors of the FK,
and the coefficients which were thus generated were used to generate
comparable factor scores for the PFK. The SEI scales were carried for
ward, and these ten variables were intercorrelated.
The correlations between the inferred self concept factors and
the professed self concept factors have been presented in the principal
diagonal of the matrix in Table 3* Two of the four factors showed
coefficients which could be considered significantly different from
zero. The magnitude of these correlations was sufficiently low to
indicate that these measures were scored differently by the teachers
and by the students. In order to check for a possible curvilinear
relationship between the inferred scales and the self report scales, a
polynomial fit was attempted between the dependent variable (inferred
self concept) and the independent variable (self report). Twelve

33
TABLE 3
Intercorrelations of Inferred and Professed Learner
Self Concept and Self-Esteen Scores
Inferred
Relating
Inferred
Asserting
Inferred
Investing
Inferred
Coping
SSEI
SEI
Professed
Relating
.22*
-.02
-.02
.02
.15*
.29*
Professed
Asserting
-.19*
.19*
.08
-.03
.17*
.19*
Professed
Investing
-.05
-.10
-.04
-.03
-.08
-.11
Professed
Coping
.09
.05
.01
.14
.05
.06
SSSI
-.04
.22*
.14
.08
1.00
.59*
SEI
.09
.10

o
o
,03
.59
1.00
*P < 4 01

34
analyses were thus performed using student scores for all variables,
four with FK variables predicted from PFK variables and four each with
the FK variables predicted by the SEI and SSEI variables. Three of the
12 analyses indicated significantly nonlinear components in the regres
sion model (see Table 4).
Comparison betvreen Schools
A set of analyses of variance, two-way factorial design, was run
on the ten variables used within this study. Sex was identified as one
source of variability, school as the second source, and the school-sex
interaction as the third source. Summaries of the results of these
analyses were listed in Table 5 for the four factors of the Florida Key,
in Table 6 for the four factors of the Pupil Florida Key, and in Table
7 for the results of the two Self-Esteem Inventory indices. For these
analyses, the .05 level of significance was employed, as fewer measures
were analyzed.
if' On the measure of teacher-perceived relating, differences signif
icant at the .05 level were found for both sex and school. On this
measure, girls tended towards higher scores as did students in the
innovative school, with girls in the innovative school scoring the
highest. Only a slight difference separated the mean of the innovative
school boys and the somewhat higher mean of the conventional school
girls.
When determining teachers differential perceptions of asserting
in this population, no differences were found between sexes or schools.
On the dimension of perceived investing, however, a distinct difference
between the schools emerged, with the students in the innovative school
rated as having a stronger tendency to invest of themselves

35
TABLE 4
Curvilinear Components ox Three Self Report Variables
Predicting Inferred Self Concept Variables
df
SS
Teacher Relating from FudI Relating
Linear Tern
1
12.114
Quadratic Term
1
4.253
eta = .26
Teacher Asserting from SEI
Linear Term
1
2.671
Quadratic Terra
1
4.058
eta = ,16
Teacher Investing from SEI
Linear Term
1
,000
Quadratic Terra
1
8,502
eta = .19
Total deviation for all above analyses
- 249,
df = 246

36
TABLE 5
Summary of F-Ratios and Cell Means
for Analyses of Variance of FK Factors
Source
df
Relating
Asserting
Investing
Coping
F-Ratios
Sex
1
4.209*
0.870
0.689
12.045**
School
1
4.461*
0.001
9.519**
0.312
Sex X School
1
0.092
0.700
1.798
0,426
Error
245
Means
G.C.
0.035
0.004
-0.121
0.272
G.I.
0.268
0.112
0.104
0.118
B.C.
-O.269
-0.008
-0.186
-O.254
B.I.
-0.043
-0.120
0.382
-0.242
School Code¡ Conventional (C); Innovative (l)
Sex Codes Girls (g)j Boys (b)
*p < .05
**p < .01

3?
TABLE 6
Summary of F-Ratios and Cell Keans
for Analyses of Variance of PFK Factors
Source
df
Relating
Asserting
Investing
Coping
F-Ratios
Sex
1
9.330**
0.152
4.832*
10,346**
School
1
5.365*
0.173
0.125
8.092**
Sex X School
1
9,020**
0.301
0.649
0.021
Error
245
G.C.
Means
-0.118 0.032
-0.064
0.319
G.I.
0.552 -O.O94
-0.214
-0.022
B.C.
-0.125 0.011
0.117
-O.O69
B.I.
-0.211 0.029
0.176
-O.447
Schoo'. Code:
Sex Code:
*p < .05
**p < .01
Conventional (c)j Innovative (l)
Girls (G); Boys (b)

38
TABLE 7
Summary of F-Ratios and Cell Means
for Analyses of Variance of SEI Scores
Source
df
School
Total
SEI
SEI
F-Ratios
Sex
1
0.061
0.058
School
1
0.551
2.279
Sex X School
1
0.043
5.401*
Error
245
G.C.
Means
-0.066
-0.206
G.I.
0.059
0,289
B.C.
-0.006
0.063
B. I.
0.064
-0,042
School Code:
Conventional (C'h Innovative (i)
Sex Code:
*p < .05
df (1,245)
Girls (G)} Boys (b)

39
psychologically. Boys in the innovative school were the highest
scorers on this variable, but boys in the conventional school were the
lowest scorers, so no sex-linked differences were found.
On the question of how well the individual is perceived to cope
with his school environment, a strong sex-linked difference was found,
with girls perceived to be more efficient copers than boys.
When asking the students to rate themselves on these measures,
girls in both schools rated themselves higher on relating behaviors
than either group of boys, with girls in the innovative school showing
the highest self rating. A significant school-sex interaction was
found because the girls in the innovative school scored highest and the
boys in the same school rated themselves lowest on this dimension.
With the dimension of asserting, no significant differences were
found between the sexes or between the schools, nor was a differentia],
effect found among sexes between the schools. With self-perceived
investing, a sex-linked difference was found with boys scoring them
selves higher on this dimension than girls.
In reporting on tendency to cope, students showed a strong tend
ency to differentiate on the basis of both sex and school, with girls
showing higher scores than boys and the pupils at the conventional
school perceiving themselves as more effective copers than those in the
innovative school. Girls in the conventional school scored highest,
followed by girls in the innovative school, who differed only slightly
from boys in the conventional school, with boys in the innovative
school indicating the lowest scores on this dimension.
In self-esteem measures, no differences were found on the school
factor of the SEI in any of the sources of variability examined. On

40
the total self-esteem index, a significant interaction term was found,
which resulted from the girls in the innovative school scoring highest,
while girls in the conventional school scored lowest, and boys in the
innovative school scored somewhat lower than their counterparts in the
conventional school. There was a slight, nonsignificant tendency
towards higher total self-esteem scores in the innovative school.
The first hypothesis, predicting significant differences in
scoring betvreen the sexes, was accepted five times, with the means
favoring the girls four of the five times. The second hypothesis, pre
dicting significant differences of scores betvreen the schools, was
accepted four times, with the means favoring the innovative school three
of the four times. The third hypothesis, predicting no significant in
teraction of scores due to sox within school considerations, was
accepted eight times.

CHAPTER V
Summary and Conclusions
Summary
In examining the cross-correlations of inferred self concept
items and self report items taken respectively from the FK and the
PFK, eleven of 18 variables showed correlations between measurement
techniques significantly different from zero (range: r = 0.15 to 0.32)
at the 99 percent confidence level (see Table 2). as this far
exceeded chance probability of occurrence, common perceptions of pupil
actions by teachers and pupils seemed the most probable explanation.
The magnitudes of these correlations, however, were so low as to indi
cate that, at best, only about ten percent of the variability in a
score obtained using one method could be accounted for by the score
from the other method. //This distinction between statistical signifi
cance and magnitude was of Importance here due to two factors. The
first factor was that the items answered were essentially the same for
students arid teachers. The second consideration was that the relative
objectivity and overt classroom behavior orientation of the scale would
seem to leave less room for variation due to Item ambiguity. More
simply put, tne indication is that there was a little similarity and a
considerable difference between the way fifth and sixth grado children
In this study saw themselves in school-related activities and the way

their teachers saw the The reservations of Cornos, Soper, and Courson
41

42
(1963) as to the lack of similarity of self report and Inferred self
concept seem to have been well borne out by this study.
An internal examination of the seven items which did nob corre
late between techniques showed two items each in the areas of relating,
asserting, and coping, and one item in the area of investing. The
most congruence in terms of the number of items associated with a fac
tor which show statistically significant correlations between techni
ques was viithin asserting, where six of seven items were correlated.
This would seen to imply that the area of asserting is one in which
pupils and teachers can be most congruent, an implication v.-hich will be
discussed later when factor indices are compared. The least congruence
in these tenas was within the factor of investing, where neither item
correlated between techniques.
Eleven of the 18 items on the FK correlated significantly with
the school self-esteem measure (SSEI), with correlation coefficients
ranging from 0.15 to 0.29. No items within the factor of teacher-
perceived relating were correlated with the SSEI. Among the 11 items
which did correlate were items six through nine, which relate to dis
cussion within class. One of the three items of the SSEI was "I find
it very hard to talk in front of the class," thus the correlations
could be seen to relate in part to the in-class verbalizations of the
student. It is Interesting to note, however, that on the FFK, these
verbalization items did not correlate significantly with the SSEI.
Eight items of the FK correlated with the total self-esteem
score (SEl), with a much narrower range (r 0.15 to 0.20) and at a
lower level. No pattern could be discerned for the correlating or non-
correlating items, which was in keeping with the results of the factor
score correlations in this area to be discussed later.

43
Viithin the PFK, only three items showed any association with
the school factor of the self-esteem inventory (SSEl). The absence of
correlation of certain PFK items with the SSEI factor, namely the
verbalization items mentioned earlier, gave an indication of the lack
of reliability of self-reported single-item or limited-item indices.
A sizable increase in the number of correlations (14) between the PFK
items and the total SSI score hinted at the increased stability of the
longer SEI scale. Two of the four items which did not correlate signi
ficantly with this scale were the items associated with investing.
The conclusion should not necessarily be drawn, however, that invest
ment cf self Is unrelated to self-esteem, but rather that behaviors
seen by teachers as indicative of self-investment may not be seen in
the same light by pupils.
Factor scores were calculated for all students on the basis of
the FK factor analysis. Such scores were based on responses to all
items within the test, but were most hea.vily weighted for those items
which were most strongly associated with corresponding factors. This
was undertaken both to increase reliability and to reduce dimensionality
while increasing generality. Cross-correlations of scores for the four
factors between the two techniques of measurement (self report and
Inferred self concept) indicated that two of the factors, relating and
asserting, had statistically significant relationships (see Table 3)*
The factor of relating, when subjected to a polynomial analysis to
determine whether pupil responses were curvilinearly related to teacher
responses, showed a significant quadratic effect, raising the correla
tion index (eta = 0.26, Table 4), Further, the factor of coping,
although not meeting the stated criterion for significance, showed a
correlation coefficient of 0.14, significant at the 0.02 level.

In connection with the earlier discussion of item correlations,
although more asserting variables were correlated across techniques
than variables of the other three factors, the relating factor had the
highest correlation (r =* 0.22) across techniques. The factor of
assarting, however, with a correlation coefficient of 0.19, 'was in the
same general ranga as relating. It was considered likely that these
two areas were seen as less central to self than the areas of coping
and investing, and were, therefore, less susceptible to perceptual
distortion.
The lack of correlation between teacher-perceived investing and
self-professed investing was indicative of either lower reliability due
to the number and relative loadings of the items which contributed to
this factor or some differentiation between teachers' and pupils' per
ceptions of pupils' Investing.
The relationship of teacher-inferred relating to self-professed
asserting showed a statistically significant negative correlation of
0.19, indicating that those seen as high in relating behaviors by
teachers tended, to a small extent, to see themselves as less asserting,
and vice versa. However, when teachers evaluated asserting, this vas
unrelated to pupils' self-perceptions of relating.
i/hen ?K factor scores were correlated with the S33I and the SSI,
only one correlation was found to be statistically significant, that of
teacner-inferred asserting and the SSEI (r = 0.22). This indicated that
such activities as offering to answer questions in class, and joining in
school activities, were related to items such as being discouraged with
school, and being unset while there, Had this correlation been sub
stantially higher, or had several factors correlated with this index, it

*5
could have given a further indication of the dimensionality of the
school self-esteem index (SSEl). Curvilinear analyses of these data
showed the SEI to have significant quadratic components when used to
predict scores on the inferred asserting and investing factors of the
EX. The most plausible explanation of that finding was considered to
be that after a certain low in teacher opinion is reached, the influ
ence of that teacher's opinion is discounted by the child, who seeks
other sources for maintenance and enhancement of self. The potential
for such a dynamic to generalize and transfer to other teachers or to
the school should be obvious,
The self report factors of relating and asserting from the PFX
were significantly correlated with both the SSEI arid the 3EI (r = 0,15
to 0,29, Table 3) but professed investing and coping were not. This
quite possibly reflects the absence of accomplishment-oriented items
in the SSI.
Again, magnitudes of the correlation coefficients were only
large enough to account fox*, at most, five percent of the variability
of scores taken by one technique by considering scores from the other
technique, which further confirmed the opinion that self report mea
sures do not measure the same attributes that inferences of seif by
observers measure.
Comparisons between Schools and Sexes
In determining the differences between sexes, girls were per
ceived both by teachers and by themselves as higher in the area.s of
relating and coping (see Tables 5 6, and ?), The more advanced matu
rity 1 *.'c of girls at this age level and the social expectancy fcr
girls to oe more socially oriented probably contributed in producing

46
this result, which was in concert with the findings of Perkins (1958a)*
Davidson and Lang (I960), and 31edsoe (1964). Sex by school inter
actions found in the areas of self-professed relating and on the SEI
indicated that factors associated with the innovative school were in
turn associated with higher scores for girls in that school as compared
to girls in the conventional school. Boys' scores in the two schools
differed only slightly on these two variables, with those in the con
ventional school scoring higher by about one-tenth of a standard score
in both cases.
Differences between schools were found in teacher-perceived
relating and investing and on pupil ratings of relating and coping.
The innovative school teachers saw their pupils as possessing a higher
frequency of socializing behaviors, as measured by the relating index,
which perceptions were mirrored by the pupils themselves, relative to
the conventional school. Pupils in the conventional school rated them
selves higher on coping activities than the innovative school children.
The present investigator felt that this probably reflected the lack
of a standard reference point more than anything else, as he observed
more coping behaviors in the innovative school, albeit through informal
observation.
Conclusion
Tiie absence of a high level of conformity between teachers' and
pupils' perceptions of the frequency of occurrence of overt, school-
based pupil activities can be attributed to distortions of the percep
tions of these activities by teachers or pupils or both, or to pupils
playing different roles in different classrooms and the related situa
tion of their responding to the questionnaire on the basis of an

47
overall assessment of their school behavior, not necessarily repre
sentative of their behavior within any one classroom. Another
interpretation could be differential interpretations of the scale
intervals by different children, but the use of frequency assessment
was chosen for its relative specificity.
If the explanation lies within the distortions of teachers'
perceptions, the necessity for increased training for sensitivity id thin
teacher education and in-service training programs, such as that called
for by Combs, Avila, and Purkey (1971) is obvious. If, on the other
hand, the distortions lie predominantly within the childrens' self-
perceptions, then the same conclusion nay be drawn, even though less
obviously. The reasons for the later conclusion are twofold. More
accurate and effective self-awareness on the part of the pupil is
likely to cone only through the intervention of the teachers, and thus
the teachers must be cognizant of the fact of distortion, the factors
which are associated with the distortion, and effective attitudes and
methods to cope with children's distortions of self-perception.
Future research will include a study to determine the extent of
teachers' sensitivity to perceptual distortions of pupils, using a
modification of Brownfain's technique (1952). Also to be examined is
the question of how well teacher perceptions of pupils ere related to
the perceptions of trained observers, and whether these results hold at
different grade levels arid 'with measures of different aspects of the
self. Ceneralizability of these results to other populations of pupils
could be compromised by differences in the factors influencing
children's personalities, both school
which influence pupils and teachers'
and non-school, as well as factors
perceptions of school and school-
related behaviors.

The value of the more relaxed and child-oriented atmoshpere of
the innovative school was strongly indicated here, although the design
of the study did not allow for conclusive statements on this point due
to the confounding of raters within schools. Since investing behavior
may be seen as of a higher order in terms of Maslow's (l$&3) hierarchy,
the large difference in inferred investing behavior in favor of the
Innovative school indicated a very promising payoff for the emphasis
placed on efforts to enable the students of that school to internally
motivate and individualize their own learning.

APPENDIX A
Florida Key
This scale is to assist the teacher in evaluating how the
student perceives his or her "learner" self. Please select one
of the following answers and record the number in the blank space.
VERY ONCE IN OCCASION- FAIRLY VERY
NEVER: 0 SELDOM; 1 AWHILE: 2 ALLY: 3 OFTEN: 4 OFTEN: 5
Name of student to be evaluated
Compared with other students his age, does this student?
1. get along with other students? _______
2. get along with the teacher?
3. keep calm when things go wrong?
4. say good things about his school?
5. tell the truth about his school work?
6. speak up for his own ideas?
7. offer to speak in front of the class?
8. offer to answer questions in class?
9. ask meaningful questions in class?
10. look people in the eye?
11. talk to others about his school work?
12. join in school activities?
13. seek out new things to do in school on his own?
14. offer to do extra work in school?
15. finish his school work?
16. pay attention to class activities?
1?. do his school work carefully?
18. read in class?
TOTAL SCORE:

50
APPENDIX B
Pupil Florida Key
This scale is to help you in thinking about yourself. Please
select one of the following answers and record the number in the
blank spaces.
VERY ONCE IN OCCASION- FAIRLY VERY
NEVER: 0 SELDOM: 1 AWHILE: 2 ALLY: 3 OFTEN: 4 OFTEN: 5
Your Name
Compared with other students my age, do I:
1. get along with other students?
2. get along with the teacher?
3. keep calm when things go wrong?
4. sa,y good things about my school?
5. tell the truth about my school work?
6. speak up for my own ideas?
V. offer to speak in front of the class?
8. offer to answer questions in class?
9. ask meaningful questions in class?
10. look people in the eye?
11. talk to others about my school work?
12. join in school activities?
13. seek out new things to do in school on my own?
14. offer to do extra work in school?
15. finish my school work?
16. pay attention to class activities?
17. do my school work carefully?
18. read in class?
TOTAL SCORE:

51
APPENDIX C
Self-Esteem Inventory (SET;
Stanley Coopersmith
University of California, Davis
Please nark each statement in the following ways
If the statement describes how you usually feel, put a check
(v) in the column "LIKE ME."
If the statement does not describe how you usually feel, put
a check (v) in the column "UNLIKE ME."
There are no right or wrong answers.
Example! Im a hard worker.
LIKE ME
UNLIKE ME
-
r

! h
22.
23.
I often wish I were someone else.
I find .it very hard to talk in front of the
class.
There are lots of things about myself I'd
change if I could.
I car. males up my mind without too muen trouble.
I'm a lot of fun to be with.
I get upset easily at home.
It takes me a long time to get used to anything
new.
Im popular with kids my own age.
My parents usually consider my feelings.
I give in very easily.
My parents expect too much of me.
Its pretty tough to be me,
things are all mixed un in my life.
Kids usually follow my ideas.
I have 3. low opinion of myself.
There arc many times when Id like to leave
home,
I often feel upset in school.
I'm not as nice looking as most people.
If I have something tc say, I usually say it.
K; parents understand me.
Most people are better liked than I an,
I usually feo?, as if my parents are pushing me.
I often get discouraged in school.
Things usually dont bother me.
T cant be depended on.

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BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH
William H. Craves, Jr. was born in Dalton, Georgia, on November
14, 1939. He moved to Daytona Beach, Florida, where he attended elemen
tary and secondary school, He attended Southern Methodist University,
Dallas, Texas, in 1957-1958 and the University of the Americas, Mexico
City, Mexico, in 1958-1960, before enlisting in the United States Air
Force in i960. During military service, he attended Indiana University
for one year. After discharge, he returned to the University of the
Americas, being granted the Bachelor of Arts degree in secondary educa
tion in 1965.
He taught mathematics for three years at Mainland Junior High
School in Daytona Beach and conversational Spanish at Daytona Beach
Junior College during two of those years. In 1968, he enrolled in
graduate work in psychological foundations of education in the College
of Education, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida. He earned
the Master of Education degree in 1970.
He married the former Joan Lynn Dugand of Mexico City in 1966,
and they have two children. Professional affiliations include membership
in the American Educational Research Association, the Florida Educational
Research Association, and Phi Delta Kappa.
He is presently employed as Assistant professor of Education,
University of Oklahoma, Norman, Oklahoma.
58

I certify that I have read this study ana that in my opinion
it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is
fully adequate, in scope and quality, as a dissertation for the degree
of Doctor of Fhilosophy.
I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion
it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is
fully adequate, in scope and quality, as a dissertation for the degree
of Doctor of Philosophy,
Bob N. cage
Assistant Frofessor of Sdiation
T certify that I have read this study and that in ny opinion
it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is
fully adequate, in scope and quality, as a dissertation for the degree
of Doctor of Fhilosophy,
Vyhce A, Hines
Professor of Education

I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion
it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is
fully adequate, in scope and quality, an a dissertation for the degree
of Doctor of Philosophy,
Guillermo E. Masearo
Assistant Professor of Psychology
This dissertation was submitted to the Dean of the College of Education
and to the Graduate Council, and was accepted as partial fulfillment of
the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.
March, 1972
Dean, Graduate School




LIST OF TABLES
TABLE Pa^e
.1 Rotated Factor Loadings for Florida Key 26
2 Item Cross-Correlations of Florida Key, Pupil
Florida Key, and Self-Esteem Indices ................ 31
3 Intercorrelations of Inferred and Professed
Learner Self Concept and Self-Esteem Scores .......... 33
4 Curvilinear Components of Three Self Report Variables
Predicting Inferred Self Concept Variables 35
5 Summary of F-Ratios and Coll l eans for Analyses
of Variance of FK Factors .......................... 3&
6 Summary of F-Ratios and Cell Means for Analyses
of Variance of PFK Factors 3?
7 Summary of F-Ratios and Cell Means for Analyses
of Variance of SEI Scores 38
iv




53
Butler, J. M., and Haigh, G. V. Changes in the relation between self
concepts and ideal concepts. In C, R. Rogers and R, F. Dymond
(lids.), Psychotherapy and personality change, Chicago*
University of Chicago Press, i"95^*
Calvin, A. D., and Holtzman, W. H. Adjustment and the discrepancy
between self concept and inferred self. Journal of Consulting
Psychology, 1953* 17 39-^
Campbell, D. T., and Stanley, J. C. Experimental and quasi-experimental
designs for research in teaching. In N. L. Gage (Ed.), Handbook
of research in teaching. Chicago: Rand McNally, 1963
Cline, V. B., Richards, J. M., and Needham, U. Factor analysis of self
ratings, teacher ratings and indices of achievement in high
school science. Journal of Educational Research, 1964, 58, 10-
15.
Cole, C. W., Oetting, E. R,, and Hinkle, J, Nonlinearity of self con
cept discrepancy; the value dimension. Psychological Reports,
1967, 21, 58-60.
Combs, A. W. Intelligence from a perceptual point of view. Journal of
Abnormal and Social Psychology, 1952, 47, 662-673*
Combs, A. W., Avila, I),, and Purkey, W. Helping relat ionships: Basic
concepts for the helping professions. Boston: Allyn and Bacon,
1971.
Combs, A. W,, and Snygg, D. Individual behavior (rev. ed.). New York:
Harper, 1959.
Combs, A. W., and Soper, D. W, The relationship of child perceptions
to achievement and behavior in the early school years.
Washington, D. C.: U. S. Department of Health, Education and
Welfare, Office of Education, Cooperative Research project no,
812, 1963.
Combs, A. W., Soper, D. W., and Courson, C. Measurement of self concept
and self report. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 1963,
23, 493-500. '
Coopersmith, S. A. The antecedents of self-esteem. San rancisco: W.
H. Freeman, 1967.
Cowsn, E. L., Heilizer, F., and Axelrod, H. Self concept conflict
indicators and learning. Journal of Abnormal, and Social Psychol-
31* !955, 51, 242-245.
Cronbach, L. J. Essentials of psychological testing (rev. ed.). New
York: Harper, 19o0.


27
Description of Children and Schools
These instruments were administered to all children (N ** 249) in
the fifth and sixth shades of two elementary schools in North Florida
in the spring of 1970. One school, hereafter called the innovative
school, was located in a Northeast Florida suburban town. The 97
students there were predominantly white middle class. The demographic
breakdown of the 152 pupils at the other school, located in North Cen
tral Florida and called the conventional school, was approximately ?0
percent white and 30 percent black children, ranging from lower middle
to middle class. Innovations at the innovative school include team
teaching, flexible scheduling and a particularly heavy emphasis on the
personal development of each child. Classes in the conventional school
were compartmentalized by subject matter and ability level in the fifth
and sixth grades.
Design and Method
Administration of the self report instruments (PFK and SEl) was
undertaken by the teachers of the innovative school, using the instruc
tions of the investigator, who administered these instruments himself
at the conventional school.
The data analyzed included the 18 item scores and the four fac
tor scores of both the FK and PFK, as well as the SSEI subtest score
and total score of the SEI, giving a total of 46 scores for each stu
dent. The factor scores for the FK were generated using the procedure
described in Guertin and 3ailey (1970). Factor scores for the PFK used
the factor score coefficients of the FK to assure logical comparability
of the FK and PFK measures.


38
TABLE 7
Summary of F-Ratios and Cell Means
for Analyses of Variance of SEI Scores
Source
df
School
Total
SEI
SEI
F-Ratios
Sex
1
0.061
0.058
School
1
0.551
2.279
Sex X School
1
0.043
5.401*
Error
245
G.C.
Means
-0.066
-0.206
G.I.
0.059
0,289
B.C.
-0.006
0.063
B. I.
0.064
-0,042
School Code:
Conventional (C'h Innovative (i)
Sex Code:
*p < .05
df (1,245)
Girls (G)} Boys (b)


8
aspect of self within this system does not have this component of self-
awareness, but is the prime determiner of behavior, the self-as-
procoss. Gordon and C-ergen (1968) outlined some implications of this
formulation of the self in the area of self-understanding. Rentz and
White (1967) have shown that these two concepts, both defined using self
report instruments, have some shared aspects as well as some unique
aspects. It would seem, however, that the self report is more appro
priate when considering the solf-as-object, and the procedure of infer
ring self concept is more related to the self-as-process.
The development of an individual self is seen by many (Snygg,
19^1; Allport, 1961 Jersild, I960 Lecky, 1969) to be through the
mechanism of learning, wherein aspects of the phenomenal field are dif
ferentiated which were previously undifferentiated. In the development
of the self through learning, Murphy (19^7) and Allport (1955) have
examined the special importance attached to the condition of striving
with regard to the differentiation of the phenomenal field, especially
in the area of self-knowledge. Combs (1952) outlined a procedure
through which intelligence could be considered dependent upon an ade
quate self concept, showing the reciprocal nature of the internal and
external world of the individual.
Developmental Implications of Self Concept
The rolo of "significant others," such as parents, in the
"leaming-of-self" process is of importance to educators and psycholo
gists in order that they might better understand human development.
Such understanding can be used when these professionals have to interact
with the "significant others" in connection with the children and,
therefore, must know the ramifications of this psychological dynamic in


for maximum growth and effectiveness, the relationship of self theory
t:ith the social institution of education is strong and obvious,
Self Concept and School Achievement
Numerous studies, using a multitude of instruments and orienta
tions, have shown consistent relationships between self concept and
school achievement from kindergarten through college. In some of the
earliest work in this area, Sears (1940) used a discrepancy score pro
cedure and found that childrens levels of aspiration ware related to
their academic performance. Work by Combs and Soper (l$63) and related
research by Lamy (1965) indicated that measures of inferred self con
cept, using the observer-as-instrunent technique they pioneered, were
related to academic performance in kindergarteners, Stability of this
relationship was established in this research by the correspondence of
predictions made by Combs and Soper
with ratings made r>n these children
the next year by their new teachers. Sex-based differences were
checked on a kindergarten population by Ozehoskey and Clark (1970), in
response to work with older children (fourth and sixth grades) which
showed girls with higher seif concepts than boys (Bledsoe, 1964), Al
though Ovsehoskey and Clark found no differences associated with sex at
this earlier age, they did find impressive relationships between self
concept measures and both the Metropolitan Readiness Test and the
childrens grade-point average.
Bledsoe (1964) also found significant correlations of achievement
measures with his own self report instrument (modified frora Bills' IAV,
1954/ for boys but not for girls. Underachievers were found by Bruck
and Bod win (1962) to have lower self concept scores, ?s infen-ed from
the draw-a-person technique, even after controlling for differences in


3?
TABLE 6
Summary of F-Ratios and Cell Keans
for Analyses of Variance of PFK Factors
Source
df
Relating
Asserting
Investing
Coping
F-Ratios
Sex
1
9.330**
0.152
4.832*
10,346**
School
1
5.365*
0.173
0.125
8.092**
Sex X School
1
9,020**
0.301
0.649
0.021
Error
245
G.C.
Means
-0.118 0.032
-0.064
0.319
G.I.
0.552 -O.O94
-0.214
-0.022
B.C.
-0.125 0.011
0.117
-O.O69
B.I.
-0.211 0.029
0.176
-O.447
Schoo'. Code:
Sex Code:
*p < .05
**p < .01
Conventional (c)j Innovative (l)
Girls (G); Boys (b)


42
(1963) as to the lack of similarity of self report and Inferred self
concept seem to have been well borne out by this study.
An internal examination of the seven items which did nob corre
late between techniques showed two items each in the areas of relating,
asserting, and coping, and one item in the area of investing. The
most congruence in terms of the number of items associated with a fac
tor which show statistically significant correlations between techni
ques was viithin asserting, where six of seven items were correlated.
This would seen to imply that the area of asserting is one in which
pupils and teachers can be most congruent, an implication v.-hich will be
discussed later when factor indices are compared. The least congruence
in these tenas was within the factor of investing, where neither item
correlated between techniques.
Eleven of the 18 items on the FK correlated significantly with
the school self-esteem measure (SSEI), with correlation coefficients
ranging from 0.15 to 0.29. No items within the factor of teacher-
perceived relating were correlated with the SSEI. Among the 11 items
which did correlate were items six through nine, which relate to dis
cussion within class. One of the three items of the SSEI was "I find
it very hard to talk in front of the class," thus the correlations
could be seen to relate in part to the in-class verbalizations of the
student. It is Interesting to note, however, that on the FFK, these
verbalization items did not correlate significantly with the SSEI.
Eight items of the FK correlated with the total self-esteem
score (SEl), with a much narrower range (r 0.15 to 0.20) and at a
lower level. No pattern could be discerned for the correlating or non-
correlating items, which was in keeping with the results of the factor
score correlations in this area to be discussed later.


this could serve as a further explar.atior. for the general lack of sue-
cess of research using global neasures since a particular part of self
could be operating effectively on a target behavior and vet an overall
measure could show low effectiveness.
Some degree of generality must be present if research efforts
are to extend the noraological development of the theory. It should also
be remembered that the differentiation of the self concept is unique to
the individual and, within that, unique to the situation, so that some
degree of generality must be present, or no one could know anyone else.
Further, self knowledge would be even more difficult than it now is due
to an inability to generalize and categorize from others.
Perceptual Measurement Techniques
One frequently used method of obtaining a self report is the Q
technique developed by Stephenson (1953). In this technique, a number
of items (usually 70-120) descriptive of personality traits are pre
sented to individuals, who are asked to assign each of these items to
one of several (usually 5-9) discrete categories, with a fixed number
of responses falling into each category to approximate a normal distri
bution. One of two procedures may then be followed to determine an
index of self report. One procedure is to have the individuals score
the same items twice (or more) according to differiag sets of instruc
tions which represent different aspects of the self (i.e., "sort these
as you see yourself now" actual self, or "sort these as you would
like to be" ideal, self). The correlation between the sorts is con
sidered to be index of congruence of the two attributes, Evidence
marshaled by Cole, Getting, and Hinkle (196?) indicated that either low
or high discrepancies between "ideal" and "actual" self reports were


35
TABLE 4
Curvilinear Components ox Three Self Report Variables
Predicting Inferred Self Concept Variables
df
SS
Teacher Relating from FudI Relating
Linear Tern
1
12.114
Quadratic Term
1
4.253
eta = .26
Teacher Asserting from SEI
Linear Term
1
2.671
Quadratic Terra
1
4.058
eta = ,16
Teacher Investing from SEI
Linear Term
1
,000
Quadratic Terra
1
8,502
eta = .19
Total deviation for all above analyses
- 249,
df = 246


il
intelligence. Fink (1962) found made lower achievers in the ninth grade
to be rated lower than higher achieving males on adequacy of self con
cept ratings assigned by three experienced raters reviewing numerous
psychological protocols. Females in this study vrere not found to dif
fer significantly on this basis. In a study encompassing several
secondary grade levels, Brookover, Thomas, and Paterson (1964) found
significant correlations of self ratings of general ability and ability
in specific academic areas with academic achievement, controlling for
the influence of intelligence. A conclusion was drawn from this
research that a feeling of self confidence of ability may well be a
necessary' (but not sufficient) condition for achievement.
The relationship of self concept with achievement seems to re
main even in higher education. In a study by Roth (1959), college
students who attended a remedial reading clinic and were successful
tended to rate themselves higher on reality-oriented dimensions of a
Q sort for self concept, ideal self concept and "ideal-actual" self
discrepancy than those who did not succeed or who dropped out of the
program. The latter group tended to rate themselves higher on some
dimensions related to ideal self. Within a women's college, Flaherty
and Reutzel (1965) found female high achievers rating themselves higher
on such California Personality Inventory categories as "responsible,"
"self-accepting, "self-assurant," and "poised." Low achievers in
college, it should be remembered, still have a history of relatively
high achievement compared to the general population, and yet their
self-comparisons are apparently based on their perceived peer group
(i.e,, college students).


46
this result, which was in concert with the findings of Perkins (1958a)*
Davidson and Lang (I960), and 31edsoe (1964). Sex by school inter
actions found in the areas of self-professed relating and on the SEI
indicated that factors associated with the innovative school were in
turn associated with higher scores for girls in that school as compared
to girls in the conventional school. Boys' scores in the two schools
differed only slightly on these two variables, with those in the con
ventional school scoring higher by about one-tenth of a standard score
in both cases.
Differences between schools were found in teacher-perceived
relating and investing and on pupil ratings of relating and coping.
The innovative school teachers saw their pupils as possessing a higher
frequency of socializing behaviors, as measured by the relating index,
which perceptions were mirrored by the pupils themselves, relative to
the conventional school. Pupils in the conventional school rated them
selves higher on coping activities than the innovative school children.
The present investigator felt that this probably reflected the lack
of a standard reference point more than anything else, as he observed
more coping behaviors in the innovative school, albeit through informal
observation.
Conclusion
Tiie absence of a high level of conformity between teachers' and
pupils' perceptions of the frequency of occurrence of overt, school-
based pupil activities can be attributed to distortions of the percep
tions of these activities by teachers or pupils or both, or to pupils
playing different roles in different classrooms and the related situa
tion of their responding to the questionnaire on the basis of an


12
The possibility exists that social class is a factor strongly
related to both achievement and self concept, and that many of the
above findings could be more parsimoniously and reliably attributed to
social class differences. Soares and Soares (1969) found, however,
low socioeconomic class black children having higher self report scores
than middle class white children. Davidson a.nd Lang (i960) also exam
ined this possibility and concluded that, even though lower social
class children reported lower self concepts, when social class was held
constant statistically, a distinct relationship between self reports
and academic performance still obtained. Another finding by Davidson
and Lang was that girls in the fourth through sixth grades reported
higher self concept scores than boys and also saw their teachers as
being more favorable towards them in comparison to boys' perceptions of
teacher favorability. Girls of this age were also found by Perkins
(1958a) to show higher "ideal -actual" self congruence than boys.
The interactive effect of teachers on the self-picture of pupils
was examined by Staines (1958) and it was found that teachers who deli
berately attempted to instill and maintain a realistic level of aspira
tion seem to effect a more realistic self concept in their students.
Work in the same area by Battle (1957) and Davidson and Lang (i960)
indicated that children whose values coincided with those of their
teacher tended to achieve higher. Perkins (1958b), Purkey (1967, 1970),
and Combs, Avila, and Purkey (1971) have written extensively about
methods and attitudes conducive to the enhancement of learners' self
concept.


50
APPENDIX B
Pupil Florida Key
This scale is to help you in thinking about yourself. Please
select one of the following answers and record the number in the
blank spaces.
VERY ONCE IN OCCASION- FAIRLY VERY
NEVER: 0 SELDOM: 1 AWHILE: 2 ALLY: 3 OFTEN: 4 OFTEN: 5
Your Name
Compared with other students my age, do I:
1. get along with other students?
2. get along with the teacher?
3. keep calm when things go wrong?
4. sa,y good things about my school?
5. tell the truth about my school work?
6. speak up for my own ideas?
V. offer to speak in front of the class?
8. offer to answer questions in class?
9. ask meaningful questions in class?
10. look people in the eye?
11. talk to others about my school work?
12. join in school activities?
13. seek out new things to do in school on my own?
14. offer to do extra work in school?
15. finish my school work?
16. pay attention to class activities?
17. do my school work carefully?
18. read in class?
TOTAL SCORE:


21
as observer-a-instruraent. An important consideration when accepting
inferences from one person about another is the possibility of system
atic rater variability stemming from attributes other than those
relevant to the study. Bossom and Maslow (1957) explored this possi
bility with relation to raters' feelings of psychological security.
Measuring self concept in children is a special case. It is a
truism that childhood is the period of most rapid development, psycho
logically as well as physically. It follows, then, that self concept
is most malleable during this growth period, a conclusion which
Ferkins' (1958a-) study validated. In his chapter on "Growth of Self,"
Furkey (1970) reviewed and expanded upon findings with implications to
early experiences and the growth of self concept. Evidence of rela
tionships between self concept measures and school achievement in the
early school years was presented by Shaw and McCuen (i960), Combs and
Soper (1963), and Ozehoskey and Clark (1970).
Problems in measuring children's self concepts, especially self
reports, are numerous. In such a rapidly changing system, lack of
reliability can be attributed to "real" changes as well as to errors of
measurement such as faults within instrument design. Extraneous vari
ables which could influence self report include: tendency to mimic
others' responses, inability to remember or comply with testing instruc
tions, inability to discriminate shades of meanings within the scales,
or even inability to read with sufficient comprehension to understand
the items. These latter considerations have led to modifications such
as those found on the "I feel me feel" test (Yeatts and Bentley,
1971), in which scale points are indicated by faces which range from
very happy to very sad. Instructions and items can be read to pupils
to allow for some reading level variation.


REFERENCES
Allportj G. W. Pattern and growth in personality. New York: Holt,
1961.
Barker, _R. G, Environmental psychology. Stanford, California:
Stanford University press, 198.
Battle, H. J. Relation between personal values and scholastic achieve
ment. Joumal of Experimental Education, 195? 26, 2?-4l.
3ills, R, E., Vance, E. L., and McLean, 0. S. An index of adjustment
and values. Journal of Consulting Psychology, 1951 15 257-
26l.
Bledsoe, J. C. Self concepts of children and their intelligence,
achievement, interests, and anxiety. J oumal of Individual
Psychology, 1964, 20, 55-58.
Block, J, and Thomas, H. Is satisfaction with self a measure of adjust
ment0 J oumal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 1955 1, 254-
Bossom, J, and aslow, A. H. Security of judges as a factor in impres
sions of warmth in others. Journal, of Abnormal and Social
Psychology, 195?, 5, 147-1437
Brookover, V. 3., Thomas, S. E.t and Paterson, A. Self concept of
ability and school achievement. Sociology of Education, 1964,
26, 271-2?8. '
Brownfain, J. J. Stability of the self concept as a dimension of
personality. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 1952,
7, 597-606.
3ruck, and Bedwin, R, The relationship between self concept and the
presence or absence of scholastic underachievement. Journal of
Clinical Psychology, 1962, 18, 181-182.
Bruner, J. 3. Social psychologv and perception, In E. 2. Maccoby, T.
!:. Newcomb, and E. ?'. Hartley (Eds.), Readings in social
psychology, New Yorks Holt, 1958, ^
BugsnthaJ., J, F. T. and Zelen, S, L. Investigations into the self
concept. Journal of Personality, 1959 18, 433-498.


36
TABLE 5
Summary of F-Ratios and Cell Means
for Analyses of Variance of FK Factors
Source
df
Relating
Asserting
Investing
Coping
F-Ratios
Sex
1
4.209*
0.870
0.689
12.045**
School
1
4.461*
0.001
9.519**
0.312
Sex X School
1
0.092
0.700
1.798
0,426
Error
245
Means
G.C.
0.035
0.004
-0.121
0.272
G.I.
0.268
0.112
0.104
0.118
B.C.
-O.269
-0.008
-0.186
-O.254
B.I.
-0.043
-0.120
0.382
-0.242
School Code¡ Conventional (C); Innovative (l)
Sex Codes Girls (g)j Boys (b)
*p < .05
**p < .01


15
validity as yellow 3tains do net have to ectae fro* cigarette smoking.
Furthermore, the stains can be avoided or eliminated without changing
smoking frequency. Accuracy in covert measures is further dependent on
the reliability of the measurement of the measured variable, doth of
these considerations are critical, in humanistic psychology, as the
degree of relationship between variables is generally neither known
empirically nor agreed upon theoretically.
Although a great deal of Inference is obvious in covert measures
of self report, this inference is a priori and, therefore, these mea
sures axe not to be confused with inferred self concept Indices. In
the former procedure, two people who complete protocols in the same
fashion will obtain the same score, whereas in the latter procedure,
this is not necessarily true, as interpretation by the scorer is indi
vidualised for each subject and the scorer is free to use what Bruner
(1953) referred to as the "nascent surplus" of information which the
more mechanistic scoring procedure cannot tap.
Another important dimension of measurement is the generality of
the attribute being measured. If all other considerations were equal,
the more global measures would better satisfy the criterion of parsimony,
To the extent, however, that a more global measure lacks operational
definition and, therefore, loses interrater reliability, positive results
from replication and general!zability suffer. Wylie (196l) concluded
that the comparatively specific explorations inte particular aspects ox
self have proven more fruitful than research using global measures. This
would seem a logical conclusion if the self is conceptualized, as pre
viously mentioned, ?s the product and process cf continual differentia
tion, ir
w-


I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion
it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is
fully adequate, in scope and quality, an a dissertation for the degree
of Doctor of Philosophy,
Guillermo E. Masearo
Assistant Professor of Psychology
This dissertation was submitted to the Dean of the College of Education
and to the Graduate Council, and was accepted as partial fulfillment of
the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.
March, 1972
Dean, Graduate School


9
order to coordinate with and advise parents to maximize the child's
development. Furthermore, teachers and other professionals become
"significant others" to children because of their roles as agents of
the society having opportunity and obligations to effect changes in the
children. Thus, it is imperative that they understand the implications
of this developmental process. For example, when working with children,
it is important to consider that new perceptions, if they interfere
with or threaten the dynamics of the self, can be rejected even when
such rejection is both logically inconceivable to the outside observer
and unpredictable from an examination of the external stimuli (Lecky,
19&9t p. 117). The more central a concept is to self, the more stable
and resistant to the above change.
Some degree of stability of the self concept is a necessary con
dition if relationships of phenomenological variables to human behaviors
are to be explored. Research in different areas at different age levels
employing different instruments has demonstrated a fairly stable re
lationship within those instruments and age levels (Brownfain, 1952?
PJngel, 1959). On the other hand, changes in the way pupils think about
and see themselves have been investigated by Yeatts (1967), who reported
differences in spatial relationships between self report variables ob
tained from children at different grade levels, Gergen (1968) reviewed
the literature and theory of consistency and indicated that very high
levels of psychological consistency are not desirable in humans. This
is in keeping with an organism so dependent on adaptation to a changing
environment.
In brief, if the self be viewed as the internally consistent,
dynamic determiner of behavior, dependent on a supportive environment


33
TABLE 3
Intercorrelations of Inferred and Professed Learner
Self Concept and Self-Esteen Scores
Inferred
Relating
Inferred
Asserting
Inferred
Investing
Inferred
Coping
SSEI
SEI
Professed
Relating
.22*
-.02
-.02
.02
.15*
.29*
Professed
Asserting
-.19*
.19*
.08
-.03
.17*
.19*
Professed
Investing
-.05
-.10
-.04
-.03
-.08
-.11
Professed
Coping
.09
.05
.01
.14
.05
.06
SSSI
-.04
.22*
.14
.08
1.00
.59*
SEI
.09
.10

o
o
,03
.59
1.00
*P < 4 01


validation purposes, so validity has to be established by indirect
methods, such as expert judgment or the relationships of self concept
measures with partially related, confounded criteria. The Indirect
approach dictates more concern with initial instrument construction,
since inappropriate aspects connot be as readily eliminated.
Ore dimension which is a source of variability Is overtness, the
degree to which the true purpose of an instrument is explicit or ob
vious to the person supplying the information. This dimension, although
It can be varied in either self report or inferred self concept tech
niques, is most commonly varied in the former. In making the decision
of how much overtness to engineer into an instrument, the interplay of
two considerations, social desirability and validity, creates a dilemma.
The systematic variations which can be attributed to the social desir
ability of possessing an attribute, rather than the degree of that
attribute actually possessed, is an area explored in detail by Crcwr.e
and Marlowe (1964), Social desirability is of particular relevance to
humanistic psychology where the attributes of concern are, virtually by
definition, matters of general, social and personal importance, and social
desirability can be expected to Influence overt self reports and even
mannerisms and behaviors from which self concept measures are inferred.
Covert measures attempt to circumvent the variability due to
social desirability by stressing items which, though apparently innocu
ous, reflect deeper traits. Accurate use of covert measures, however,
is dependent upon the degree of relationship between the directly mea
sured attribute and the target trait for which the first measure provides
an in i tract index. As an example, number of cigarettes smoked may be
inferred from yellow soains on fingers, but the index lacks some


5
The aspects Combs et al. felt to be necessary in the individual
for self report measures to yield valid indices of self concept are
1. The clarity of the individual's awareness
2. The availability of adequate symbols for expression
3. The willingness of the individual to cooperate
4. The social expectancy
5. The individual's feelings of personal adequacy
6. His feeling of freedom from threat.
In support of their position, Combs et al. correlated responses of stu
dents on 18 items such as "I feel worthwhile I dont amount to much"
with evaluations from trained observers of those students on the same
items. Correlations were predominantly low and positive; however,
there ras no attempt to determine the reliability of the self report
instrument and the range of possible student responses was limited with
in these one-item scales.
Purposes of the Study
There is a continued widespread use of the term "self concept"
in studies using both inferred self concept and self report procedures
despite the injunctions of Wylie (1961) and Combs et al. (1963). In
view of this and the methodological limitations of the Combs et al.
study, a reexamination of the relationship between these measures was
proposed. One purpose of this study was to examine the multiple rela
tionships between two self report instruments and one instrument in
which specific aspects of learner self concept are iaferred. Two of
these instruments used very specific terminology to reduce variability
due to differences in the interpretation of the meanings of the items,
and restricted their emphasis to areas of learner self concept. All
three instruments were comprised of numerous related items to increase
reliability (Thorndike and Hagan, 1969, p. 183). High positive


BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH
William H. Craves, Jr. was born in Dalton, Georgia, on November
14, 1939. He moved to Daytona Beach, Florida, where he attended elemen
tary and secondary school, He attended Southern Methodist University,
Dallas, Texas, in 1957-1958 and the University of the Americas, Mexico
City, Mexico, in 1958-1960, before enlisting in the United States Air
Force in i960. During military service, he attended Indiana University
for one year. After discharge, he returned to the University of the
Americas, being granted the Bachelor of Arts degree in secondary educa
tion in 1965.
He taught mathematics for three years at Mainland Junior High
School in Daytona Beach and conversational Spanish at Daytona Beach
Junior College during two of those years. In 1968, he enrolled in
graduate work in psychological foundations of education in the College
of Education, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida. He earned
the Master of Education degree in 1970.
He married the former Joan Lynn Dugand of Mexico City in 1966,
and they have two children. Professional affiliations include membership
in the American Educational Research Association, the Florida Educational
Research Association, and Phi Delta Kappa.
He is presently employed as Assistant professor of Education,
University of Oklahoma, Norman, Oklahoma.
58


Measurement Theory and Perceptual Psychology
Allport (1955) summarized the organization of observation and
interpretation in phenomenological psychology, starting with throe
bread, categories of constitutional diagnosis, sociological techniques
and psychological techniques. The psychological techniques he sub
divided into personal documents, self-appraisal, conduct sampling,
ratings, scales arid tests, projective techniques, depth analyses, and
expressive behavior.
Two basic categories of phenomenological variables have been
mentioned previously, self report and inferred self concept. Although
all techniques above could conceivably be used to get an index within
either category, some techniques and methods are more appropriate for a
given category. ?cr example, the depth ans-lysis would be more appro
priately used to infer self concept, while self appraisal best yields a
self report, Some techniques, such as scales, are commonly used to give
an index within either category.
Other dimensions will be discussed which may be superimposed on
the universe of perceptual variables. Consideration of these dimensions
is useful in that they illustrate sources of variability between mea
suring devices that can causa concern about reliability and validity of
the indices thus obtained. These concerns are especially important to
perceptual measurement because of the problem of validation. Ideally,
validation is accomplished by relating a measure of a construct to an
objective criterion acceptable to experts within the discipline. The
logical criterion for self concept measures would seem to be the ade
quacy and effectiveness of the individual's life-style in accomplishing
his purposes, but this data is not likely to become available for


Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the
Graduate Council of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment
of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy
A MULTIVARIATE INVESTIGATION OF PROFESSED AND INFERRED
SELF CONCEPTS OF FIFTH AMD SXITH GRADS STUDENTS
By
William H. Graves, Jr.
March, 19?2
Chairman: Dr. William Watson Purkey
Major Department: Foundations of Education
Fifth and sixth grade pupils from two North Florida elementary
schools having different practices were administered the Pupil Florida
Key (PFK) and the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory, two self report
measures. Their teachers rated them on the Florida Key (FK), a learner
self concept inventory whose items paralleled those of the PFK. Cor
relations calculated between parallel items on the FK and PFK showed
little commonality in scoring, as did a subsequent analysis using
factor scores from these inventories. The conclusion was drawn that
self report indices should generally be considered distinct from
inferred self concept measures.
Factorial analyses of variance using the above indices were per
formed with school, sex, and their interaction identified as the sources
of variability. Girls tended to have higher indices, as did the more
innovative school.
v