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AKCH ITU RE
University of Florida Press
The University of Florida Press is a member of University Presses of Florida. UPF is the
central agency for scholarly publishing of the State of Florida's university system, producing
books selected for publication by the faculty editorial committees of Florida's nine public
universities: Florida A&M University (Tallahassee), Florida Atlantic University (Boca
Raton), Florida International University (Miami), Florida State University (Tallahassee),
University of Central Florida (Orlando), University of Florida (Gainesville), University of
North Florida (Jacksonville), University of South Florida (Tampa), University of West Florida
ORDERS for books published by all member presses should be addressed to University
Presses of Florida, 15 NW 15th Street, Gainesville, FL 32603.
Copyright @ 1989 by the Board of Regents of the State of Florida
Printed in the U.S.A.
':. ;*:*l;';:v / ^ ** ** *
A Guide to Florida's Historic Architecture
Florida Association of the Contributing Authors Eugene Pandula, AIA George Scheffer, AIA
American Institute of Architects Richard Garfinkel, AIA Sidney D. Corhern Robert Heffernan, AIA
104 East Jefferson Street Mike Kelly Gar Barkman, AIA William Bean, AIA
Post Office Box 10388 Tom Van Cleave Robert C. Broward, AIA Steve Jernigan, AIA
Tallahassee, Florida 32302 Matthew Ploucha, AIA E. Wendell Hall, AIA Rick Barnett, AIA
Compiled by: Linda Stevenson, AIA F Blair Reeves, FAIA Jeff Fuller
F. Blair Reeves, FAIA Susan Turner, AIA Diane D. Greer J.P. McNeill
Reed Black Les May, AIA George L. Chapel
Editors Keith Silas Al Dompe, AIA Patrick Hartlaub, AIA Asso.
Mary Nell Reeves Robert Ray, AIA Edward E. Crain, AIA Elizabeth H. Sims
Diane D. Greer Vincent Nicotra, AIA Peter E. Prugh, AIA Ed Butler
Art Direction Robert E. Forsythe, AIA Ronald Haase, AIA Evonne V. Cline
Peter Mitchell Associates Frederick Cale William Hunter, AIA Cauley Copeland
Printing Frank Comarati Richard H. Morse, AIA Julian Cranberry
Boyd Brothers Ivan A. Rodriguez,AIA Bertram Y. Kinzey, AIA Jo Allie Downing
Boyd Bhers Michael Maxwell, AIA Anthony J. Dasta, Architect Junius Downing
Russell Hope, AIA Rocke Hill, Architect George Griffin
Michael Gordon, AIA David E. Ferro, Architect Perry Hill
Michael Clary, AIA Walt Marder James Hurst
Jerry-Mills Tim White, AIA Sharon McCall
Sandy Johnson Charles F Morgan Kathryn Mclnnis
Bill Bauer Edward D'Avi, AIA Leon Ward
Peter Jeffersor, FAIA Eric Wiedegreen, AIA
FA/AIA Executive Committee
President Past President Vice President for Vice President for
John Ehrig, AIA John Barley, AIA Professional Society Public Relations/Communications
4625 East Bay Drive 5345 Ortega Boulevard, Suite 9 R. Jerome Filer, AIA Raymond Scott, AIA
Clearwater, Florida 34624 Jacksonville, Florida 32210 250 Catalonia Avenue, Suite 805 601 S. Lake Destiny Road, Suite 400
Vice President/President-elect Regional Directors Coral Gables, Florida 33134 Maitland, Florida 32571
H.' Dean Rowe, FAIA Mark Jaroszewicz, FAIA Vice President for
100 Madison Street 331 Architecture Building Governmental Relations
Tampa, Florida 33602 University of Florida Bruce Balk, AIA
Secretary/Treasurer Gainesville, Florida 32611 290 Coconut Avenue
Larry Schneider, AIA James Greene, FAIA Sarasota, Florida 33577
25 Seabreeze 254 Plaza Drive Vice President for
Delray Beach, Florida 33483 PO. Box 1147 Professional Development
Oviedo, Florida 32765 Rudolph Arsenicos, AIA
2560 RCA Boulevard, Suite 106
Palm Beach Gardens, Florida 33410
FA/AIA Board Of Directors
Henry C. Alexander, AIA John P. Ehrig, AIA Mark T. Jaroszewicz, FAIA Raymond L. Scott, AIA
James H. Anstis, FAIA R. Jerome Filer, AIA Robert Koger, AIA Frank Sheehy, AIA
Rudolph M. Arsenicos, AIA Alfred W. French, AIA H. Samuel Kruse, FAIA Roy D. Smith, AIA
William L. Awodey, AIA Joseph A. Garcia, AIA Mary Marsh Lasseter, AIA Ross Spiegel, AIA
Bruce Bali, AIA Richard M. Garfinkel, AIA David C. Leete, Jr., AIA Ludwig Spiessl, AIA
John M. Barley, AIA Robert B. Greenbaum, AIA Richard W. Morris, AIA Linda D. Stevenson, AIA
Richard R. Barnett, AIA James A. Greene, AIA John W. Page, AIA John W. Szerdi, AIA
Michael A. Byrd, AIA William P. Greening, AIA Harry Parkhurst, Asso. John L. Tennison, AIA
Charles E. Block, AIA Jeffrey Gross, AIA David Perez, AIA John Tice, AIA
John R. Cochran, AIA Thomas H. Gyllstrom, AIA Richard D. Pritts, AIA Terry L. Tougaw, AIA
Charles Cole, AIA Randolph C. Hansen, AIA Norman N. Robson, AIA Daniel M. Urbanus, AIA
Javier F. Cruz, AIA Troy Hawkins, AIA H. Dean Rowe, FAIA Calvin T. Weese, AIA
Thomas C. Culler, AIA Charles D. Heller, AIA Angel Saqui, AIA Kenneth H. Woolf, AIA
Don W. David, AIA Jerry L. Hicks, AIA John J. Schlitt, AIA Mitchi Yamaguchi, AIA
Samuel C. Holladay, AIA Larry M. Schneider, AIA Emilio Zeller, AIA
Financial support for this project was obtained from the Florida Association of the American Institute of Architects, the Research and Education Center
for Architectural Preservation at the University of Florida and two matching grants from the Florida Department of State, Division of Historical Research.
In addition, the following architectural firms and individuals made generous contributions to support the project.
George Bail, AIA Theodore R. Majdiak & Asso.. Alfred French & Asso.
Charles F. Harrington, AIA Hoon & White Architects Spillis Candela & Partners
Leslie Divoll, AIA McCormick Construction Co. Rowe Holmes Hammer Russell Architects
William Faust, Architect, PA Richard M. Garfinkel, AIA, Architect Frasuer Knight Asso.
Homer F. Daniel, AIA ODELL Associates Inc. Frederick Lee Vyverberg, Architect
KSD Architectural Associates James J. and Joan Jennewein E. L. Hunt
e Marion, Paluga & Associates Vickrey/Oversat/Awsumb Associates LaVerne E. Hoon
Fleischman Garcia Architects Schwab & Twitty Architects Edward D. Stone and Asso.
Dorothy A. McKenna, AIA Nichols Carter Grant Architects Daniel Perez-Zarraga, AIA
( Jerome A. Goebel, AIA Collins and Associates Cuhaci & Peterson Architects
John H. and Sue Lind H. Maxwell Parish, Architect Russell C. Chase, Architect
William Morgan Architects Kenneth Hirsch Associates Charles Sharrod Partin Architect
Bullock Tice Associates Architects C. Trent Manausa Architect Emilio Zeller III, Architect
Fullerton and Associates Architects Shepard Associates The Evans Group ADP Associates
Urban Design Center Inc. Flad & Associates Edge Group, PA
I Mark Ramaeker Architects, Inc. Digby Bridges, Marsh & Asso. Historic Ocala Preservation Society
SGottfried & Garcia Architects Robert A. Harris, Architect Mark V. and'Mary B. Barrow
This Guide to Florida's Historic Architecture was prepared
by the Florida Association of the American Institute of Archi-
tects and is dedicated to all people who find pleasure and
satisfaction in learning more about Florida's architecture and
Each county is represented with an architectural history,
examples chosen for their historic and architectural sig-
nificance, and a location map. Each example is identified by
a photograph, name, address, and brief description. Only
major and easily identifiable features are mentioned. Style
nomenclature, for instance, is used only as a means for
Because much of Florida's historic architecture incorpo-
rates innovational interpretations of academic styles and
often combines one stylistic feature with another, identifying
buildings by style alone can be confusing. In this guide, to
help the reader quickly identify each entry, academic archi- Ringling House Sarasota
tectural styles are often combined into major categories. For tectural history of each county. In several cases, where
instance: Victorian Revival style implies architecture inspired architects were unavailable or otherwise occupied, other
by building forms popular during the nineteenth century reign authorities gathered data and prepared guides. Personnel
of Queen Victoria. In Florida vernacular, this style often in- from the Division of Historical Resources of the Florida
cludes Gothic Revival, Italian Villa, Romanesque, Italianate, Department of State checked the histories and examples for
Stick Style, Eastlake, Shingle Style, English Tudor, or Queen accuracy. The guide wascoordinated and edited by F Blair
Anne elements. Buildings in clearly identifiable academic Reeves, FAIA, and Mary Nell Gibson Reeves. Diane Greer,
styles are noted with appropriate descriptions, editor of The Florida Architect, was responsible for its final
GUIDELINES design and overall production.
T his guide to the historical architecture of Florida, a
diverse assembly of buildings reflecting the rich heritage of GOOD TOURING MANNERS AND LIABILITIES
the state, is divided into zones and each zone into counties
since the geographic geometry of the state is sometimes a The privacy of people occupying the buildings listed in this
problem for the uninitiated. guide should be respected at all times. Since many of these
Each county is represented with an architectural history, a buildings are in rural areas, poison ivy, snakes, and watch-
list of historic sites, and a map locating the sites. The struc- dogs should be avoided. Occupants and owners who enjoy
tures were chosen for historic and architectural significance their privacy may become irritated by inconsiderate tourists.
to the area. Each guide entry is identified by a photograph, (There is nothing quite like the feeling of being ordered off a
name, address, and brief description. Only major and easily property by someone making his point with a double-barrel
identifiable features are mentioned. shotgun!) With this in mind, no one connected with this pro-
ject will assume liability for any sort of damage or inconveni-
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ence caused by this guide. Nor will anyone be held responsi-
ble for inaccurate information which may have inadvertently
S been included in the text. It is our sole intention to provide a
The Herculean task of researching, writing, photographing, workable guide to Florida's historic architecture.
and assembling this guide was accomplished by members of
the Florida Association of the American Institute of Archi-
Stects. Chapter preservation officers appointed architects to
Sstudy each county within their chapters' areas. This appoint- F. Blair Reeves, FAIA
I ment required a very generous donation of time and effort.
Using data prepared by graduate students in the Department
of Architecture, University of Florida, architects criss-crossed
Florida's counties and met with local authorities to identify,
locate, and photograph examples and then prepare an archi-
Good Touring Manners and Liabilities
FLORIDA: ARCHITECTURAL HISTORY AND PRESERVATION
FLORIDA NORTHWEST CHAPTER
Escam bia ....................................................................... 6
Santa Rosa ................................................................ 8
Walton ................... .... .. ................................ ....... 10
Bay .......... ............. ........ ................ 12
Washington .......................... ..................................... 14
Holm es ..................... ... .......... .......... ..................... 16
Okaloosa .................... ...... .............. .... ............18
FLORIDA NORTH CENTRAL CHAPTER
Taylor ......................... .............. ...... .... .................. 19
Jackson ......................................................... 20
Calhoun .................. ................ ....... .................. 22
Gulf ........ .... .... ... ........ ................ ... ................ 24
Franklin ............ .................... ................................26
Liberty ....................... . . . . . . . . .. . . 28
SGadsden ................. .. .............. ............................. 30
Leon ....................... ..... .......................... ........... 32
Wakulla .......... ... ..... ...... ........ ........ .... ............... 34
Jefferson ............... ..... ... ........ ....... ........... ................ 36
S Madison ............. ... ....... ... ........... ........... ... .... .. ..... 38
Dixie .............. .. .. .. ........... .. ............ ................. 40
FLORIDA NORTH CHAPTER
Ham ilton .......................... ..................... .................. ..... 42
SSuwannee ............... ............. ................................ 44
Lafayette ................ .................. ... ............................ 46
C olum bia .................. ...... .. ..... ... ....................... ............. 48
I Union .............. ... ................ .... ............................................. 50
SBradford ............ .. .. .. ....... .. ... .... ... ................ 52
| Gilchrist ........... .. ... .... ......... .. ........ 54
Alachua .......... .... ................... ....... .................... 56
SLevy ................... .......... .... ............... 58
7 Marion ......... .. ............ .................... ..... .. 60
.... Baker ........... ..... ... ....................... ........ ..... ........... 62
Putnam ............... ..................... .... ............................ 64
Nassau ....................,...................... 68
Duval ................... ..................................... ............. 71
SClay .............. .. ..................... ............................... 74
St. Johns ................................................................... 77
DAYTONA BEACH CHAPTER
Flagler ..................... ............... ... .. .... ... ...... ............. 80
Volusia ....................................... .. ........ .............. 82
Lake ............ ............. ............... .. .......... ..... ..... .... 84
Orange ............................ .. ............. ...... ............. 86
Seminole ................................................................... 88
Brevard ................... ................. ........ .... .................. 90
Osceola ....................................... ............................... 92
FLORIDA CENTRAL CHAPTER
Citrus .................... ....... .... .. .. .. ..... ...... ..... ................ 96
Sumter ........................................... ........................98
Hernando .............. ................... ............................ 100
Pasco ............... ... ..... ............. ........................... .. 102
Hillsborough .................. ........ .................................. 104
Polk ........................................... ........ .................. 108
FLORIDA GULF COAST CHAPTER
DeSoto ........................... ...................................... 110
Highlands ................................................................... 112
Hardee ............... ...... ............ ......... ........... ... ........... 114
Manatee ................................................................... 116
/ ~ Sarasota ................................................................. 118
FLORIDA SOUTHWEST CHAPTER
C harlotte .............. ..................................... 120
Lee .................. ................... .. .. ... ..... ............ 122
Hendry ........................................ ...... ................. 124
Collier ................................................................ 126
Glades ...................................................................... 128
PALM BEACH CHAPTER
St. Lucie ................ .................................................... 129
Okeechobee .................... ........................................... 130
Palm Beach ....................................................... ........... 132
Martin ............. ...................................................136
INDIAN RIVER CHAPTER
Indian River .......................................................... 138
Broward .................... ........... ................... .................. 140
Monroe ..... .................................................................. 142
Dade ...................................... ................................. 144
RECOMMENDED READING ....................... ..................... 147
catalogues of prefabrication mills. During early building
FLO IDA: booms, Sears, Roebuck, and Company expanded its mer-
HT IrOrr o 'A\cantile business to include house components. Other firms
ARCHITECTUAL HISTORY& developed prefabricated dwellings and institutional buildings.
Almost ovemight housewrights and carpenters became
pREK EVATION general contractors and speculative builders causing great
changes throughout all building trades. House plans also
changed with spaces set aside for new functions. Parlors,
pantries, and porte-cocheres became normal elements of
tum-of-the-century Florida houses.
Architects of commercial and institutional buildings were
quick to utilize the newly available materials, elements, and
techniques of building. Brick, stone, cast iron, sheet metal,
and concrete came into common use. Carrere and Hastings,
architects for Henry M. Flagler's Ponce de Leon Hotel in St.
Augustine, used cement from Belgium, terra cotta from New
Jersey, and tile setters from Italy. Henry Plant's Tampa Bay
Hotel was built of brick in a Moorish style using horseshoe
windows, domes, and minarets. Collegiate Gothic was the
Florida's architecture for over three centuries has re- style selected for Florida's universities built of brick, tile roofs,
sponded to the physical and social evolution of the and terra cotta and cast stone trim.
state. Houses, churches, forts, schools, railroad sta-
tions, courthouses, stores, hotels, spas the diversity of
buildings speak from the past in a language which can be
understood by all. The more they become known, the more
they tell about the history of this state.
While knowledge of prehistoric architecture is limited to
mystical remains of ceremonial mounds and archeological
interpretations of early sites, examples of Spanish colonial
architecture are found in the substantial construction of .
Castillo de San Marcos, Fort Matanzas, and Fort San Carlos
and in the town plans of St. Augustine and Pensacola.
Domestic architecture remaining from the second period of
Spanish occupancy is heavily influenced by British and
American building traditions. Preservation efforts, especially
those using restored and reconstructed buildings within the
Historic District in St. Augustine, present a thorough interpre-
tation of Spanish and British colonial life when coquina, tabby,
and small amounts of lumber were the basic material of the
Settlers moving into north Florida from Georgia and the
Carolinas brought their traditions of log houses with porches
on two sides and a wide hall at the center. Built of heart pine The Biltmore -
shaped with broad axes and foot adzes, raised off grade, and Coral Gables
protected by wide roof overhangs, these expedient structures Florida's architecture in the first part of the twentieth cen-
were threatened only by fire. Kitchens were soon housed in tury was stimulated by both disasters and development. The
separate structures to limit potential danger, but most houses 1901 fire in Jacksonville, while a catastrophe, caused a new
had to have one or two mud and stick fireplaces and chimneys city core to be built of Neo-Classical and Prairie School archi-
for heating. tecture. Flagler extended his railroad and hotel chain to Palm
Along the coast, builders had access to milled lumber, Beach and finally to Key West. In Palm Beach earlier wood
bricks, and hardware processed elsewhere. However, tradi- frame cottages and large Victorian Revival style hotels were
tional braced frame construction continued in use until the replaced by magnificent concrete structures when Addison
mid-nineteenth-century advent of balloon framing and wire Mizner introduced his version of Spanish Revival style. His
nails. Building styles in these coastal communities reflected use of roof tiles from Cuba, interiors salvaged from European i
the influences of New England, the Carolinas, and the Carib- palaces, and antique tile, hardware, and fumiture from Spain
bean. As railroads crossed the state from Femandina to caused a transformation of architecture of Florida's lower
Cedar Key and later from Jacksonville to Pensacola and east coast. Viscaya, designed by Hoffman and Chalfin for
Tampa, the indigenous architecture of pioneers was replaced James Deering, is Italian Baroque in style. In George Mer-
with designs reflecting the latest styles and technological rick's Coral Gables, Fink and Paist designed their version of
advantages. Even so, building styles continued to be influ- Norman and Chinese villages, African colonial dwellings, and
enced by local lifestyle and climate and a sense of rigid Venetian pools. In Sarasota, the Ringling museum and resi-
individualism. dence were built in an Italian Renaissance Revival style; and,
From the 1870s to the 1900s Floridians benefited from in- in Opalaka, a city hall was built in a decorative manner in-
expensive housing and growing home ownership stimulated spired by The Arabian Nights. This was an era of new life
by popular and technical joumals, pattem books such as The pattems, optimistic development, and flamboyant interpreta-
American Builder, The Cottage Builder's Manual, and the tion of architectural styles.
Florida architecture, especially in boom towns stimulated
by land speculation and tourism, presented interesting and
innovative adaptations of academic styles. Elsewhere in the
state, when growth was less spectacular, the bungalow
slowly replaced Victorian Revival cottages and then evolved
into other styles utilizing features inspired by Classic Revi-
vals, Art Deco, Art Moderne, Prairie School, and finally
modern. Commercial and institutional work continued to be in
conservative academic styles until after World War II when
population growth, new lifestyles, technological advance-
ments, and changing values demanded a new architecture.
Frank Lloyd Wright's designs for Florida Southern College
provided a new environment for educational processes in a
mid-Florida locale, and Paul Rudolph and Ralph Twitchell
designed Sarasota residences using new materials and sys-
tems to work within a tropical environment. While other com-
petent Florida architects provided thoughtful designs to solve
local building problems, the simultaneous availability of air-
conditioning and standard building components often led to
expedient solutions which misunderstood or ignored climate
and location. As interstate highway systems penetrated the
state and changed traditional travel patterns, some communi-
ties were isolated or divided. Commercial centers moved
from downtown to a new cluster of congestion near inter-
changes which were dominated by regional shopping centers
or ubiquitous eateries and motels. Large corporations, with
heads and hearts elsewhere, called for an architecture of
national appeal with little Florida accent, perhaps to make
newcomers or two-week vacationers feel they never left
home. Cuban Club Ybor City
In the last two decades rapid changes in the built environ-
ment, especially the thoughtless demolition of buildings and
neighborhoods once considered to be of lasting value, stim-
ulated the growth of public and private preservation efforts
throughout Florida. The state legislature established advisory
boards and guidelines to protect historic districts in St.
Augustine, Pensacola, Key West, and other locales. Stimu-
lated by federal preservation legislation and programs, the
Florida Division of Archives, History, and Records Manage-
ment was created to conduct state-wide inventories, to direct
nominations to the National Register of Historic Places, and
to assist local preservation programs. The Historic American
Building survey returned to Florida with field offices to record
buildings from Fernandina to Key West to Pensacola. Archi-
tectural students and faculty at the University of Florida and
University of Miami prepared inventories and documented
St. George Street- St Augustine buildings in their locales. In 1972 the University of Florida
established the Researchand-Education Center for Architec-
tural Preservation (RECAP) to offer multi-disciplinary pro-
grams to professionals wishing to specialize in preservation.
The Florida Trust for Historic Preservation, created in 1977,
provided a focus for preservation efforts in the private sector.
The Florida Association of the American Institute of Architects
reestablished its system of preservation officers who, in their
S latest project in cooperation with the Research and Educa-
tion Center for Architectural Preservation and the Division of
Archives, History, and Record Management, prepared this
...... guide to Florida's Historic Architecture. Diverse influences
t such as Florida's celebration of the Bicentennial with its
emphasis on the state's heritage, the nostalgic pleasures of
the streetscapes of Disney World, and the diminution of
natural resources have caused reappraisals of architectural
motives and solutions. The latter part of the 20th century may
Marjorie Kinnan Rawlings House- Cross Creek be remembered as a period of return to a Florida vernacular
architecture involving both tradition and innovation.
ROBERT HEFFERNAN, AIA, FLORIDA NORTHWEST
SEscambia County, located in the extreme north-- .. _
western part of Florida, is bordered on the north PENSACOLA
and west by Alabama, on the east by Santa Rosa
County, and on the south by the Gulf of Mexico. When -
Florida became part of the United States in 1821, the county
extended east from the Perdido River to the Suwanee River.
Because of its strategic location, this area was also consid- ..
ered a valuable acquisition by Spain, France, England and /
After Tristan De Luna's unsuccessful attempt to settle the
Escambia area in 1559, the land changed hands thirteen o
times under the dominion of five flags. Each era of occupa- s)
tion left its mark. Spain left a rich heritage of names, cus-
toms, and traditions as well as modest houses reflecting
Caribbean building traditions. The British imposed a town
plan, replaced swamps with planted gardens, and erected
additional fortifications which included Fort George and U 5,WAL
Gage's Hill. TATo I N-P
The United States began its occupancy by establishing a
Naval Yard in 1925, building coastal fortifications and a light-
house, and proposing a railroad from Pensacola to Colum-
bus, Georgia. Following the Civil War and Reconstruction,
railroads were completed to serve the north part of the
county and to bring lumber and naval stores to Pensacola's
busy waterfront of piers, warehouses, and terminals. Despite .
an 1880 fire which destroyed more than a hundred buildings- ...O.5
in the business district, Pensacola was Florida's third largest 5A.TA
city by the turn of the century. Although the Navy Yard was
closed in 1911, the facilities reopened in 1914 as the first .-L- :---:-__
naval aviation training station in the nation. This important in-
stallation continues to influence the growth and movement
of Escambia's population. During the Florida boom of the The City of Pensacola was authorized by state legislation
1920's, Pensacola experienced prosperity and municpal ex- in 1968 to establish the Pensacola Historic District, an area
pansion but not at the escalating scale of South Florida. of 36 blocks stretching from Plaza Ferdinand past Seville
After World War II, commercial, institutional, and residen- Square to Ninth Avenue on the east and from the waterfront
tial architecture moved from the waterfront towards the Naval to St. Michael's Cemetery on the north. Summer field offices
Air Station and northeast along Pensacola Bay following US of the Historic American Buildings Survey documented build-
90 and later Interstate 10. Access by US 98 across Pen- ings in this Historic District and on the Naval Air Station. In
sacola Bay and population increase stimulated rapid de- 1972, a new historic district was created in the North Hill Dis-
velopment of the beach-front communities of Gulf Beach and trict and was listed on the National Register of Historic
Pensacola Beach, and Gulf Breeze in neighboring Santa Places in 1981.
Rosa County. Since most of Escambia County is composed The Palafox Historic Business District, established in 1977
of forest uplands, agricultural wetlands, and water, Pen- by a city ordinance, placed this commercial area under an ar-
sacola and Century are the only incorporated municipalities, chitectural review board. Stimulated by governmental action,
Pensacola's concentration of significant historic architec- the business committee responded by initiating preservation
ture has attracted the attention of local and state preserva- projects involving salvage, rehabilitation, and adaptive use.
tionists. Small preservation groups were consolidated when In this partnership between the public and private sectors,
the state established the Historic Pensacola Preservation Escambia County has provided inspiration for the rest of
Board in 1967. Florida.
NW corner Garden St. F K
and Palafox St. Downtown Tarragona St.
Pensacola Pensacola Pensacola
San Carlos Hotel, built from 1909 to 1910 by C.H. Turner Plaza Ferdinand VII and Seville Square, tangible rem- L&N Marine Terminal Building, built in 1902-1903, de-
Construction Company. Good example of Mediterra- nants of Spanish Florida. Plaza Ferdinand VII, site of signed by railroad engineers and constructed by
nean Revival style with pebble dash exterior wall sur- 1821 transfer of Florida to the United States. Seville Alexander V. Clubbs. Originally located near port,
faces and cast stone building detailing over a primary Square, focus of historic district encompassing 30 moved to present location in 1969 by Pensacola Preser-
masonry building. Interior two-story central lobby with blocks of buildings in old city area. vation Board.
art glass dome and marble walls. Significant for preemi-
nent role in cultural, social, and economic life of North-
west Florida in early 1900's.
SE corner Zarragossa E. of Seville Square on
St. & Barracks St. Pensacola Bay
B Pensacola Pensacola
SW corner Garden St. Tivoli High House, built in 1805 by John Baptiste The Barkley House, east of Seville Square, built about
and Palafox St. Cazenane, Pedro Bardinave, and Rene Chandiveneau. 1835 by George Barkley, a prosperous merchant, for
Pensacola Originally High House, a small kitchen, and Tivoli ball- his wife, the former Clara Ganier. Symmetrical building
Blount Building, completed in 1907. Fine example of room. Prominent in early social life of Pensacola. Used with brick masonry walls sixteen inches thick at the
turn-of-the-century commercial architecture in Pen- as a dwelling, then barracks for Union soldiers during base tapering to twelve inches at the gable and curved
sacola. Exterior differing significantly from artists Civil War, and finally a boarding house. Demolished in plastered chimney pieces serving four fireplaces down-
rendering of 1906 but upper six floors not modified in 1930's, but documented by photographs, sketches, and stairs and two upstairs.
past 75 years. archeology. Reconstructed as a Bicentennial project.
Now housing Historic Pensacola Preservation Board.
221 E. Zarragossa St. The Desiderio Quina House, one of Pensacolas early
C Pensacola apothecaries run by Quina, a native of Genoa, Italy,
S. Palafox St. Dorothy Walton House, originally built at 137 W who came to North America as a Spanish soldier.
Pensacola Romana St. by Gabriel Hernandez or original grantee House typical of raised cottages with apron porch,
SaengerTheater, built by C. H. Turner Company in Madame Del Junco, wife of Governor Folch, who sold gable roof, double fire chimney, and ample doorways
SaengerTheater, built by C. H. Turner Company in
1925. Spanish Baroque Revival style reflecting impres- the house in 1812. Used by Dorothy Walton, wife of the and windows to provide cross ventilation.
sion of mid-20's "Grand Experience of the Theater." In- igner of the Declaration of Independence and mother
terior lobby, main auditorium, balcony, and offices, mod- of Col. George Walton, after Florida became a U.S. ter-
ified and restored in 1979 to accommodate live theater. ritory in 1821. Moved to present site in 1966.
Naval Air Station
D Fort San Carlos y Barrancas, located on waterfront in
S. Palafox St. Naval Air Station, composed of semicircular water bat-
Pensacola tery built by Spain during its second period of control
Citizens and Peoples National Bank. Classical Revival I (1783-1821) and Fort Barrancas built by the United
style structure built in 1906 as new home of Pensacola's Seville Square States (1839-1844). Of special interest, groins of brick
First National Bank. Pensacola vaults caused by irregular polygonal plan of fort.
Old Christ Church, built in 1832, oldest Protestant
church building in Florida. Constructed of local brick be-
lieved to be made at Bright Brick Plant, with ceiling
beams of heart pine. Building used as Union barracks,
hospital, and stable during Civil War and as public li-
brary from 1936 to 1960. Now Pensacola Historical
Museum directed by Pensacola Historical Society.
Plaza Ferdinand VII
Pensacola City Hall, built in 1907. Earliest example of Near Ft. San Carlos
Spanish Colonial Revival style in Escambia County. Pensacola
Unique architectural character, designed by Frederick Pensacola Lighthouse and Keepers Quarters, con-
Ausfeld and built by C.H. Turner Construction Com- structed in the 1820s to mark entrance to Pensacola Bay.
Seville Square During Civil War light apparatus removed by retreating
Pensacola Confederates and recovered only after war. Now au-
Clara Barkley Dorr House, built in early 1870's by Mrs. tomatic light, administered by United States Navy,
Clara G. Dorr, daughter of George W and Clara Louise limited access.
Garnier Barkley, for her five children. House located in
Pensacola's most prestigious residential neighborhood
of the 1870's and 1880's.
WILLIAM BEAN, AIA, FLORIDA NORTHWEST CHAPTER
Santa Rosa, established in 1842, was Florida's \
twenty-first county. The name was derived from l
Santa Rosa Viterbo, a saint of the Roman Catholic
Church and patron saint of a chapel at Viterbo, a small city IF -
near Rome. Located in the extreme northwest section of
Florida, the county is bordered by the Gulf of Mexico, L
Alabama, and Escambia and Okaloosa counties. The county '
seat, Milton, was founded on Blackwater River in 1825 as a
trading post. For many years this locale was accessible only
by riverboat or by stagecoach along the Geneva-Pensacola
road. Before the Civil War, Milton was a collecting point for
cotton and wool to be shipped down river to Pensacola and
across the Gulf to northern points. .
The area's primary resource until the 1930's was timber,
enormous stands of cypress and yellow pine. In the early ,ca bia
nineteenth century a scout for General Andrew Jackson /
erected a sawmill and brickyard on the north side of the Es a B
mouth of the Blackwater River and the area's prosperous in-
dustry began. Ships from all over the world sailed into Gulf
Coast waters for this region's lumber. Early settlers included
John Hunt, who built kilns for a brickyard on the Blackwater
River in the 1820's and planted lotus, cedar, and pecan trees
on his plantation; Joseph Forsyth, who came from New -' "
Orleans to the Hunt brickyard and then purchased land from R-of a
a Spaniard in 1827 to establish a sawmill north of Pond G" VA_
Creek at Arcadia; and the Simpson brothers from North x G o
Carolina, who joined Forsyth to create the lumber firm of For-
syth and Simpson. Because of transportation problems,
these pioneer lumbermen constructed a new mill at the U L F
mouth of Pond Creek on the northwestern tip of Blackwater
Bay. This location was the site of mill operation until 1939 did the town. The commissary catered to mill employees. Mill
and also the site of a growing community, Bagdad, which superintendents built their houses on Forsyth Street. On
claimed Forsyth as founder. Church Street, the next street over, mill foremen had their
By the 1840's Blackwater Bay shipbuilding firms and other homes. Laborers lived on School Street. Limit Street, the
lumber mills lined the shores of the river and bay from Milton farthest street out of town, was reserved for slaves. Many of
to Robinson Point. During the Civil War Union forces in the old houses, and even some of the old families, still re-
Pensacola made an expedition in October of 1864 to the main. Milton and Bagdad are served by US 90 and a rail-
Blackwater Bay and River to capture the valuable lum- road, but Interstate 10 passes through the county to the
beryards in that area. Confederate forces burned the yards south to leave this area in relatively quiet isolation.
and fled. After the war, the Bagdad mill was reconstructed. The southern portion of Santa Rosa County, lying between
Name and ownership of the mill changed several times over East Bay and the Gulf, is an active area which includes the
the years. From 1912 to 1939 when it finally closed, the busi- thriving beach resort settlements of Gulf Breeze and Oriole
ness was known as the Bagdad Land and Lumber Company. Beach. Santa Rosa Island, while sharing the county's name,
Depletion of timber resources caused the early 20th century is not part of the county area.
decline of the area's lumber industry. Reforestation has been Architectural preservation in Santa Rosa County has been
practiced since that time. mostly confined to the private sector with individuals and or-
Badgad (the ancient Mesopotamian city's name was given ganizations such as the Santa Rosa Historical Society taking
the lumber company and the town because of the location initiative. The condition of remaining structures indicates that
between the two area rivers, the Escambia and the Black- the architectural heritage of this locale could be in jeopardy.
water) played an instrumental role in shaping the history of Buildings could be lost because of vacancy, poor mainte-
this northwest Florida region. While the mills prospered, so nance, and careless development.
Thompson Street Oak Street
Milton Bagdad Milton
Saint Mary's Episcopal Church, built in 1867. The first Bagdad Post Office, built in 1894 nearer water but St. Mary's Rectory, built in 1860's by Rev. Charles E.
Episcopal Church in northwest Florida. Mentioned by moved to present location when lumber mill expanded McCougall, M.D., who served St. Mary's in Milton from
Frank Lloyd Wright in his book, The Aesthetics ofAmeri- operations. Front portion original with additions in rear. 1876 until his death in 1916. Story-and-a-half house
can Architecture, when he wrote: "Saint Mary's is a Postmaster General James A. Farley visitor in 1930's constructed of native pine, oak, and cypress, a legacy
jewel created in the purest tradition of the Gothic revi- to present Emma Joyner, retiring postmistress, an to the Episcopal Church. Basically unchanged except
val. It survives today with its pure lines intact, its muted award. Still in active use in mid 1980's. original kitchen and dining room separated from main
colors untouched. Purity, it is without a blemish." house by open porch renovated at turn of the century.
B Streets K
302 Elmira St. Badgad Limit Street
Milton Emma Fournier Forcade-Donald Youngblood House, Bagdad
Exchange Hotel, constructed in 1914 by S.F. Fulghum built in 1919 by Exie Fournier for his sister and her hus- Slave House, originally constructed as slave quarters
and Company of Pensacola to house a telephone sys- band. Curved shingled wall receding into the gable on before Civil War. Board and batten construction. One of
tem, office rooms, and bachelor apartments. After build- either side of balcony above front porch. Continuation several slave houses in area. Some still inhabited.
ing's completion, telephone exchange moved to new of shingle band below the soffit down either side of
wood frame building next door. Building converted for house. Dormer on the north end encasing chimney.
use as hotel. Rectangular in plan, building constructed Heart pine from Bagdad mill used throughout house.
of red brick with four chimneys on north wall and four Sold to present owner in 1952.
on south, high parapet arched over entranceway, and
windows with white concrete lintels. Renovated in 1983
and operated as bed and breakfast inn in mid 1980's.
G McNair House, built in 1900 by McNair family who had
a welding and machine shop in Milton. House well-
Forsyth Street maintained by owners since its construction.
C Benjamin W. Thompson House, believed to have been
built by Thompson sometime between 1840 and 1850
Milton (county records destroyed by 1869 fire), one of oldest
L & N Railroad Depot, built in 1907 to replace 1880's houses in Bagdad. Originally overlooked Pond Creek,
depot building which burned. William Jennings Bryan moved two blocks to present location in 1912. Con-
and President Woodrow Wilson among speech-makers structed of heart pine; windows original rolled glass;
at depot which served railroad and community until Mil- notable nineteenth century door and window trim. Bath-
ton agency closed in 1973. Building has exposed sup- rooms and kitchen additions. During restoration Union M
porting beams, intersecting hip roofs, and oak floors. Civil War graffiti discovered on parlor walls. Horseshoe Clara St. at Alice St.
prints imbedded on stairs. Milton
Mount Pilgrim Baptist Church, built in 1916. Church es-
tablished in 1866 with original building located on Canal
SStreet. The 1916 building was the only brick church
structure in Santa Rosa County at the time of its con-
struction. Bell and tower added in 1920's and stained
glass windows in 1970's.
Bagdad 302 Pine St.
Bagdad Methodist Church, established in 1832, origi- Milton
nally met in a "bush arbor" or temporary building. Exist- Ollinger-Cobbs House, built 1870. Unique in area
ing building of ship-lapped method of construction with because of tower room overlooking Pine Street which
underpinning wedged with wooden pegs, a technique gives house imposing facade. Broom-handle picket
used by shipbuilders. Altar rail originally at center of fence.
building separating men and women. Recent construc-
tion restoring cedar-shake roof and natural wood in-
terior and addition of replica of porch to enclose the
communion table behind altar.
Canal at Pike Street
Masonic Hall, Santa Rosa 16 FA.M. Lodge, built in
1855 on the site of Canal Street School which is now
site of Pensacola Junior College Milton Campus.
Moved to present location in 1915. Lodge used contin-
uously since 1855 except for the years of 1863 and
1864 when presence of Union troops inhibited public
STEVE JERNIGAN, AIA, FLORIDA NORTHWEST
Walton County, established on December 29,
A 1824, as Florida's eighth oldest county, was named
for Colonel George Walton who was Secretary of
the Territory of West Florida during Andrew Jackson's term as
governor and the son of George Walton, a signer of the
Declaration of Independence and governor of Georgia.
The county is bordered by the Gulf of Mexico, Alabama,
and the counties of Holmes, Okaloosa, Washington, and
Bay. The Choctawhatchee River and Bay and the Gulf of
Mexico are the significant natural boundaries. Much of the
west portion of the county is included in Eglin Air Force
Base. (Jimmy Doolittle's Raiders received special training at (
this base for their Tokyo mission during World War II.) The '
county is served by US highways 90, 98, 301 and Interstate ,
Both Indians and whites settled in this area because of the
abundance of fish and shellfish and because of the transpor- I
tation potentials due to ample waterways. Wild life continues
to be abundant, especially in management areas throughout
the county. DeFuniak Springs is the county seat named for
Colonel Fred DeFuniak who was an official of the Louisville
and Nashville Railroad. The spring, known in earlier days as
Open Pond, is bordered by the business district, residential I
areas, and recreational facilities.
The economy of Walton County has been based on
lumber and wood products and truck crops throughout most
of its history. Regional architecture reflects this with the most :.--
impressive buildings located in DeFuniak Springs. Recent
population increases are occurring in the southern part of i S
the county, due to the recreational facilities being developed
on the bay and the Gulf.
Preservation efforts are especially noticeable in DeFuniak c c ot ^ l^ /c
Springs where individuals and institutions are caring for their !
properties. The Chatauqua Building was restored as a proj-
ect sponsored by the American Revolution Bicentennial -
Commission. Residential properties are being preserved I ,
through careful maintenance. ----_-- "-
Live Oak Ave at F
US 331 D Circle Drive
DeFuniak Springs DeFuniak Springs DeFunlak Springs
Sidney J. Catts Residence, built between 1886 and Van Kirk-Henry House, built in 1900. Unusual square A. F Bullard House, built around 1905 by a builder
1890. Home of Florida Governor Sidney J. Catts. Two- tower set at a forty-five degree angle to the rest of the named Graves for the Bullard family. Greek Revival
story wood frame building with an octagonal tower on house. Two-story wood frame, hip roof with dormers, style home with massive porticos and simple detailing
one corner and porches at both floors, porch at first and second floor with shed roof and and an unusual red clay roof. Balconies at second floor
square columns. under porticos.
Circle Drive E
DeFuniak Springs Circle Drive
Chautauqua Building, built in 1890 for Chautauqua, an DeFuniak Springs Point Washington
organization developed in New York for adult educa- Thorpe Residence, built by D. W. Burke for the Thorpe "Eden," William Wesley Residence, Eden State Orna-
tion. Classic Revival style meeting hall with wood frame family around 1900 as DeFuniak Springs was being de- mental Gardens, on Choctawhatchee Bay. Built in 1895
construction, three classical porticos on the front veloped by the Lake DeFuniak Land Company. Queen by Wesley as the hub of a large complex which in-
facade, and each pediment supported by four Doric col- Anne style structure with delicate porch balustrades. cluded a lumber mill with docks. Exact copy of "Dun-
umns. Central rotunda cupola with dome roof and lan- leith" in Natchez, Miss. Lumber cut and seasoned on
tern. Auditorium removed following damage by 1975 site. Originally two identical homes built by the Wesley
hurricane. family. The surviving "Eden" restored by Lois Maxon
from New York and later donated to state as park.
Walton-DeFuniak Springs Library, built in 1886. Small
one-story wood frame building constructed as a library.
Said to be the oldest original library building remain-
ing in the state. Clipped gable roofs and portico at
Bay County derives its name from St. Andrews Bay.
Originally occupied by several Indian tribes, this area JEFF FULLER, FLORIDA NORTHEAST CHAPTER
around a natural harbor was inhabited at different
times by settlers from France, Spain, England, and
the American colonies. Easily accessible to the Gulf of
Mexico, St. Andrews Bay provided the potential for shipping,
trade, and industry.
The first settlement in the county after the United States
acquired Florida from Spain in 1819 was LaFayetteville, a log
cabin town. The area developed slowly because of continu-
ous skirmishes between the Indians and the white settlers.
In 1835 the town of Austerlitz was established on 80 acres
(now the town of Parker) by William Loftin, a surveyor from -- /_
North Carolina who also platted the town of St. Andrew (now AE FOREST
Panama City, the county seat). .
In 1836 James Watson built one of the area's first sawmills.. \ Y COUNTY
in the town then known as Millville. Several other sawmillsAY UNY
were constructed, and timber milling became a major industry
in Bay County. During the Civil War, the Confederacy en-
gaged in running a Union blockade and utilized the bay as an E
export center for cotton. In the town of St. Andrew, on the east
side of the bay, saltworks to supply the Confederates were
constructed. This development drew workers to the area,
especially since employees at the works were exempt from ANAMA CITY
combat duty. When Union forces blockaded the bay in 1861,
the saltworks and the town of St. Andrew were destroyed.
With the end of the Civil War and Reconstruction, Bay -. i_ .- i
County began to grow with many new inhabitants coming
from the north. The pleasant climate and availability of inex- -K .. AL
pensive land attracted Union veterans. Much of the land in the CE
St. Andrews area was platted in 1887. Many of the lots were
less than thirty feet wide and sold for $2 each. W. H. Lynn, GULF OF ME XCO MEXICO
a magazine publisher from Washington, D.C., became a land BEACH
promoter and developed the town of Lynn Haven on the east
shore of North Bay as a settlement for Union veterans. The
town was officially platted in 1911, a bank was established,
and later a branch railroad constructed.
In 1905, a town site near St. Andrews was platted by
George Mortimer West, a land promoter from Chicago, and
named Panama City in honor of the construction of the
Panama Canal. This town and adjoining communities, St.
Andrews and Millville, were merged and incorporated as
Panama City in 1909. In 1908 the railroad was linked with MUNICIPA
Panama City and the fishing industry revolutionized by the AIRPORT a
introduction of ice manufacturing plants. Between 1906 and
1909, more than five hotels were constructed in Panama City.
The Atlanta and St. Andrews Bay Line Railroad reached
Panama City in 1908. Expansion of the railroad and state PANAMA CITY
highway systems brought new growth to Panama City. By the
late 1920's, the town had developed into a sprawling, decen- ,
tralized community. J I
The economic pressures of development have taken their
toll on early structures in Bay County. In Panama City many C
surviving buildings are either not used efficiently or modified i ws
without consideration of the original design. However, the AY
downtown area still maintains a good stock of early structures
and a cohesive streetscape which offers the potential for im- \TT A \ TYND
pressive revitalization programs. There is a growing aware- AIR
ness of the need for organized preservation activities in Bay FOR E
County, particularly in Panama City. The Bay County Histori- BASE r
cal Society has initiated a listing of area historic structures
and sites and published booklets on important aspects of
county history. 12
A H N
....... Florida and 10th SW
13 Harrison Avenue 4th and McKenzie -Florida and 10th SW
Panama City Panama City Lynn Haven
Dyer building, built in 1910 on Sandy Creek and Courthouse, built in 1915 to serve as Bay County Court- Lynn Haven Bank, built in 1911. Bank first established
floated to Panama City by Joseph Dyer. First building house, burned in 1920. Renovated without original by W. H. Lynn when he founded the town for northern
constructed of brick in Panama City. domed clock cupola. Civil War veterans.
100 Harrison 1000 Beck Avenue Florida and 10thSE
Panama City Panama City ~ Lynn Haven
Bank of Panama City, built of brick from Joseph Dyer's Bank of St. Andrew, built in 1908 as first bank in Bay Lloyd's Country Store, built in 1911 as Robert's Hall to
Brickyard in 1911. Housed the first bank in Panama City, County. Only bank of original three to survive until the serve as site of civic meetings and entertainment center.
later offices of the Gulf Coast Development Company. 1940's. Used as St. Andrew Bakery. Vacant in mid
SC Ohio Ave. and 10th
101 Harrison J LynnHaven
Panama City 1134 Beck Avenue City Hall. Mediterranean Revival style building serving
First Nationa k. Painted terra coa c ercial P y as city hall and housing police and fire departments.
building of Neo-Classicaltyle. Used for F. A. Black Panama City Publishing Co., built in 1930 as the St.
Insurance office in mid 1980's. Andrews Publishing Co. Later the home of the St.
Andrews Bay News.
D K Q
200 Harrison Beach Drive and 6th NW Harvard and 12th
Panama City Panama City Panama City
Wilkerson Building, built in 1915. Housed Post Office, Bayline Depot, built in 1911. Originally serving as depot Bob Jones College Ruin. Interdenominational liberal
Panama Jewelry Co., and the telephone company. for Atlanta and St. Andrews Bayline Railroad. Important arts junior college founded by Bob Jones, evangelist, in
Large pine poles used as corner posts to support weight in early industrial growth of Panama City. 1926. College moved to Tennessee in 1931. Ruins of
of second-floor telephone equipment. one building remaining.
E L ii
E Georgia and 9th NW R
Panama City Presbyterian Church, built in 1911. Interesting architec- Panama City Beach
Commercial Bank, built in 1926. Constructed of buff- tural study in scale and massing. Palmetto Motel, built in 1921. First motel built on
colored brick, an adaptation of Sullivanesque architec- Panama City Beach. Served as catalyst for growth in
tural style. recreational development of the beach area.
409 Harrison M
Panama City 8th and Georgia SE
Ritz (Martin) Theatre, built in 1940. Art Moderne style Lynn Haven
with glass veneered facade still intact. Vacant in mid Yankee Monument, built in 1920. One of few monu-
1980's. ments to Union soldiers south of the Mason-Dixon Line.
19 E. 4th Street
Bay Humanities building, built as city hall in 1926.
Exterior finish of mixed ground glass and stucco. 13
J. R McNEILL
CHI A1 N
S.....-----------. ---- -
1 .J ... .. ..
Two forts were built by the U.S. army as protection against
the Seminoles. One on the site of the present day Moss Hill
Church served as a school, courthouse and church. In 1825
the Holmes Valley Methodist Church was established and
was named the head church for West Florida and most of the
surrounding areas. Soon after the formation of the Holmes
SValley Church, the Moss Hill Church was built. Founded by
Formed in 1825 as the state's 12th county, some of the first settlers in the area, the church was on a hill
Fo d W in t on County stretched o aaa to the under moss-covered oaks. The first county seat of Wash-
moss of the area afforded the Indians and white settlers a
until legislative acts reduced the area to its present 585
square miles. Chipley, the county seat, lies in the cehter of v
square miPaale. e county seat, lies in e ceter o the county's first industry. Although the moss industry thrived
Eary n the 1h century, the United States was nvolved for some years in West Florida, it was shortlived in Wash-
in a two-part war against the British and the Indians. General ington County.
Andrew Jackson was in the Gulf Region defending against Today Washington County residents are still turning to the
the British and preparing for the battle at New Orleans. forests for a living. Approximately 83 percent of the county
e ians a o e b at e ru consists of woodlands containing abundant stands of long-
Groups of Indians fled Alabama and Georgia to seek refuge
in the dense forest and swamps of West Florida. The in- leaf pine, live oak, cypress, poplar, magnolia, and sweet
gum. Another major industry is farming. Crops include corn
creased activity in the Panhandle caused Jackson great con-
cotton, and watermelons.
cern. Hearing of Indian activity in the Choctawhatchee Basin ashington County is realizing the historic importance of
and Holmes Valley, Jackson ordered a group under Maj. its buildings. Though the restoration of structures is minimal,
Following his defeat of the British at New Orleanscitizens are becoming aware of their presence. National
thao the Bi trwOurlea, trends to recapture the richness of the past and tours of
Jackson returned home believing toat the tennsle by a homes organized by local community groups have helped
was caused by the British. Holding to the belief by many
Americans that the U.S. would never be safe without control-
ling Florida, he armed a force to invade the state and
marched his men for eight days, crossing Holmes Creek
near the Reddick Mill. Jackson continued across Washing-
ton County and the state, killing Indians, burning villages, Condensed from The Bicentennial Guide to Florida, 1976,
and raising havoc with British subjects. On May 28, he cap- "Washington, 'Cradle of Christianity,"' by F. D. Hessey,;
tured Pensacola and two days later returned to Tennessee a published by the Florida Times-Union, Jacksonville, Florida,
controversial American hero. pp. 115 and 135.)
West Jackson Ave. 105S. Fifth St. 100 Church Ave.
Washington County Courthouse, built in 1932. Class- Old Florida Bank Building. Three-story brick masonry J. R. McAferty House, built in early 1900's. Hip roof with
ical Revival style, red brick masonry structure with commercial building. Mansard roof with dormer win- protruding dormer. Strict symmetry in plan and decora-
white trim. Flat roof with parapet and dentil cornice. dows and decorative trim. Masonic Hall originally up- tions. Delicate porch ornament including scroll-sawed
Two-story portico of six columns. Entry doorway with stairs. Once housed headquarter offices of Birming- brackets on turned and tapered columns, scroll-sawed
broken pediment. ham, Columbus, and St. Andrews Bay Railroad. cornice, and turned balusters.
B G L
West Fifth St. West Jackson Ave. West Jackson Ave.
Chipley Chipley Chipley
Chipley Presbyterian Church, built 1902. Simplified Vic- First Baptist Church of Chipley, built in 1898. Oldest Watts Residence. Originally housed telephone service
torian Revival style with brick masonry, gable roof, brick masonry church in county. Severe Victorian but then made residence of the first mayor of Chipley,
tower entry, and pointed arch windows. Buttressed Revival style with intersecting clipped gable roofs, Watts, who also was responsible for bringing telephone
walls and original stained glass. short square tower, pointed windows, and decprative service to the area. (His house next door burned and
buttresses. the telephone service had been sold and moved). Sim-
ple L-shaped, gable roof structure. In disrepair in mid
Chipley 530 S. Third St.
Old City Hall-Library-Chamber of Commerce, built in Chipley
1924. Mediterranean Revival style, two-story brick Dekle Residence. Victorian Revival style, wood frame N. Fifth St.
masonry structure with curvilinear parapet wall at construction with shingle and horizontal wood siding Chipley
round-arched entry doorway, round-arched windows, finishes. Intersecting gables roof, octagonal tower set Judge J. J. Jones Residence. Classical Revival style.
hip roof, with tower with hip roof. into roof, and shed porches. Two-story wood frame building. Horizontal wood siding,
gable roofs, two-story porches at front and side. Fron-
tispiece with central door and transom and sidelights
of beveled glass.
SD Corner S. Sixth St.
West Jackson Ave. and S. Railroad Ave.
Chipley M414 Chipley
Chipley Methodist Church, built in 1906. Unusual in- Farrior Drug Store, built in 1900 for Dr. J. R. Farrior.
terpretation of Romanesque Revival style with unequal Served as Farrior Drug Store until 1936. Asymmetrical 307 S. Sixth St.
towers, gable roofs intersecting at crossing, and onion- facade with corner entrance, corbeled brick cornice. Chipley
shaped finials on vertical elements at gable ends of Segmental arched windows. Lloyd Haycox House, built in 1902. Two-story wood
transept. frame house with a porch off the first and second floors.
Lap siding and metal roof. Decorative verge boards,
porch cornices, and balustrade.
S. Fifth St. and
E Railroad Ave.
Railroad Ave. Chipley
Chipley Calleway Building. Plain rectangular two-story brick O
Porter Building, built in 1920s. Victorian Revival style commercial building. Facade extensively reworked. CR 279
building with elaborate corbeling patterned in street Previously housed third oldest Ford dealer in the state. Vernon
facade wall. Stepped parapet with pyramid finials on Moss Hill Methodist Church, south of Vernon, built
projecting elements marking bays. Segmental arched about 1857. Reputed to be the oldest remaining build-
windows. Modern first floor facade detracts from origi- ing in Washington County and the second to have
nal design. glazed windows. Constructed with hewn timber, braced
frame, horizontal siding, stepped brick pier foundation,
and gable roof. Two entries at gable end with chancel
opposite end. No electricity or plumbing.
J. P. McNEILL
and securing them as reinfrcements. There is speculation
to the west. Choctawhatchee River and Holmes Creek are locale is modest, built at an intimate scale, in the few small
Is. .,, ... ,/
When the Spanish firstcame to Florida in the sixteenth adjacent rsecuraing them as. The Louisville and Nashville Railroad,
Chattahoochee-Apalachicola rivers was the home of the tation arterimes Coduring the county'samed in histonor of him.
Chatot Indians. In 1639, the Spanish governor, Damian de la Preservation of historic structures in Holmes County has
bors, the Apalachicola Yamassee and Apalachee Indians continued use. The history and landmarks of the area are re-
NDuring the Revolutionary War (when Florida was under the Nordedth Caroin the who settled in the mselves. As in 18most30.
control of the British), David Holmestablished in 1848Pensacola was sent small rural communities, the people arnded primarily on agthe
by Colonel John Stuart to help defer and HolmeSt. Augustine. Hare localevents and who's who of the areintimate scale, individual the few small
When the Spanish firstcame to Florida in the sixteenth adjacent rural areas. The Louisville and Nashville Railroad,
Chatot Indians. In 1639, the Spanish governor, Damian de la Preservation of historic structures in Holmes County has
During the Revolutionary War (when Florida was under the corded in the words of the citizens themselves. As in most
control of the British), David Holmes of Pensacola was sent small rural communities, the people are well versed in the
by Colonel John Stuart to help defend St. Augustine. He events and who's who of the area. The individual pride of the
started his journey at the upper end of Escambia Bay and owners themselves has preserved the important structures
traveled across West Florida, making friends with Indians ofmthescounty.
Godo adWetvle er cutyset uti Bnfa ws muites onfa one nonasth Crssoa f1ose
I .411 Tracey St. North
Residence built in early 1900's. Wood frame structure,
blue with white trim, novelty siding, and gable roof. Said
to be oldest residence in Bonifay. Recently renovated.
209 Kansas St. East
Residence built in 1920's is local interpretation of
Mediterranean Revival style. Wood frame structure with
wood siding and ceramic tile roof. Recessed porches
at first and second floors. Porch at first floor with fluted
Doric columns. Porch at second floor with round arched
803 Waukasha Ave.
Residence built in early 1900's. Bungalow style building
with hip roof, clipped gable roofs on dormers, shed roof
at porch, and paired wood columns on brick piers.
105 Waukasha Ave.
Residence built in the 1920's. Simplified Bungalow
style, one-story wood frame with hip roof and hip roof
dormer. Paired porch columns on brick piers.
and S. Waukasha St.
Commercial Buildings. Block typical of late nineteenth
and early twentieth century small-town commercial
buildings. One-and-two-story brick buildings modified
to meet stylistic and merchandising changes. Many
offer facade restoration potential.
STEVE JERNIGAN, AIA, FLORIDA NORTHWEST
Established on June 13,1915, Okaloosa is Florida's ---
fifty-second county, extending from Alabama to the '
Gulf and lying between Walton and Santa Rosa
counties. The word "Okaloosa" comes from the Choctaw In-
dian words of "Oka," meaning water, and "lusa," meaning
black. The name probably referred to the Blackwater River
which runs through part of the county.
Although Crestview is the county seat and a commercial
center, most of the county's population is in the communities
of Valparaiso, Niceville, Shalimar, Fort Walton Beach, Destin,
and other coastal sections. Eglin Air Force Base, a major em-
ployer, occupies almost half of the county's area; Blackwater
State Forest protects natural resources in the northwestern
Downtown Fort Walton Beach is located around burial and
ceremonial sites of the Choctaw tribes that inhabited the re-
gion. John L. McKinnon, in his History of Walton County de-
scribes an 1861 excavation of a large mound in which skele- ''
tons of men were found. Many of these were removed by ] a
Confederate soldiers and displayed in one of the buildings of -
the fort. Federal gunboats shelled the building, caused fires, C.O -
and destroyed the collection. Artifacts discovered in other ex-
cavations are on display in a museum on the site (illus-
trated). -. ------
Preservation activities in Okaloosa County are limited to c u L ME x I c o .
sites threatened by development, sites not included in public
lands. Concentrated efforts by both the public and private
sectors are necessary if these efforts are to be successful.
The Fort Walton Temple Mound, built by Indians occupy-
ing area until c. 1700A.D.; designated as National His-
toric Landmark; interpretive museum adjacent.
It wasn't until the Spanish American War period at the turn
of the century that the grand stands of virgin timber were
noticed by the rapidly expanding industrialists of America.
From that time to the present, trees have been the basis for
the county's economy. Nature's way of producing rosin and
ELIZABETH HAMBY turpentine was improved upon with planned slashing and
Taylor County became the home of the largest single naval
/ 15 14 7 stores industry in the world.
S356BL 55. ; With the advent of railroads, there came sawmills into the
356. area. In 1914, Burton and Schwartz Cypress Company
.. erected a mill in Perry. In time this mill was developed into the
356 __0 largest cypress mill in the world. Logging camps began to
A-B 356 spring up throughout the county to supply these mills. As was
C San- o the custom of the day, a company town included all the
27 3 29 28 necessities of life including homes, stores, schools and enter-
8 7 tainment.
I 20In 1951, Buckeye Cellulose Corp. moved into the county
P ERRYoey Y and established a pulp mill which was to grow to become one
361 .. A of the most modern industrial plants in the state. It produces
'i**A~ ^' 9 over 400,000 metric tons of pulp each year.
2 PAR 356 / For many years, Taylor County has been the focal point of
PERRY 359 2 6 Bucell F5 ey the travelling public in North Florida. Four federal highways
RDEL:R .1,I > =-- and five state roads converge at the county seat of Perry. Dur-
0Est Pp PERRYOLEY ing the post World War II years, Perry became a favorite
S 30SoAT 1 .IRPORTa stopover for north-south travelers and many motels were
27A 5 356A built to handle the tourists. Although the construction of the
SCarton 98 ins interstate highway system has siphoned off some of the traf-
enhoy- sn- 0 7 fic, Perry still enjoys the reputation as the motel center of
14 3 18 178
15o 359 north Florida.
The history of Taylor County has been colorful, to
say the least. Located in the deepest indention in
the Gulf of Mexico coastline in North Florida's Big
Bend, its 673,000 acres have been identified with forests and
forestry from its earliest known days.
The Spanish explorer de Narvaez passed through its tall
timberland in 1528 in search of gold. Historians believe that A
deSoto passed through the northern part of the county in 2 E. Green St.
1539. There were several primitive forts built during the Taylor County Post Office. Completed in 1935, this
Seminole Indians Wars including Fort Brooke near the mouth Mediterranean-style building serves an historic land-
of the Steinhatchee River. mark in the area.
Throughout the 17th and 18th centuries, pirates and
freebooters of all nationalities frequented Deadman's Bay off
the mouth of the Steinhatchee River. In 1816, the forces of
General Andrew Jackson fought the Seminoles at the Natu-
ral Bridge on the Econfina River, but it wasn't until General B
Zachary Taylor, commander of all U.S. forces in northwest Corner Main and
Florida, instituted a campaign that lasted from 1835 to 1842, Washington Streets
Fl rd ,Perry ..-........
that the land was made safe for settlers. Taylor County Historical Society Headquarters. Built in
Taylor County was formed from part of Madison County on 1903 as the Bank of Perry, this Classic Revival building
December 23, 1856 and it was named for General Zachary has housed the historical society since 1967.
Taylor who had cleared out the hostile Indians a decade
earlier. On October 2, 1857, the County Commissioners of
Taylor County purchased for $75 forty acres from the State of
Florida on which to build a town. A courthouse of rough logs
was erected and they named the town Rose Head. Common i
dwelling of the era were one-room log cabins or hipped-roof "" ;'p"" C
log homes with a kitchen built away from the house. In 1860, 204 Forest Park Drive
there was only one frame house in the community and it was Forestapita State Museum. Thisreum interprets
Forest Capital State Museum. This museum interprets
located on Rocky Creek. the history of Florida's forest industry. Hours are 9 to 5
By 1870 the population of Taylor County had risen to 1,453. except major holidays. Most interesting is the Cracker
Homestead Interpretive site which includes the house
It jumped to 2,279 by 1880 when there were two post offices and outbuildings of a typical Florida cracker farm.
in the county, one in Fenholloway and one at Rose Head. In
1879, Rose Head was changed to Perrytown in honor of
Florida Governor Starke Perry.
DIANE D. GREER
"9 ') _,__ I____
2- cn J [
7-- i o \' o,"o' ARO .'
SChp Florida observed its sesquicentennial in 1972. It is
Pensacola. The county originally stretched from the Choc- served as governor of Confederate Florida. One of the most
0 2 2 -3 224 22 20
,h-. 1 2
After a bitter and extended controversy, Marianna became from Union Headquarters in Pensacola. A battle ensued,
the permanent county seat of government in 1829. Marianna primarily in the environs of St. Luke's Episcopal Church. The
was founded in 1827 by Robert and Anna Maria Beveridge, church was burned and the community plundered.
who purchased three eighty-acre tracts of land on a bluff After a bitter Reconstruction ordeal, Jackson County
along the Chipola River. They, together with associates, do- began its return to normalcy. Recovery ushered the people
nated land and built the firstnee four andrfrom were toagie twentieth century and a return to prosperity Though
to eventually stand on the same square growth has never been spectacular, Jackson County's cor-
In the late ninetextenetury pioneers poured into the runities have been stable, the economy largely based on ag-
rich, fertile Chipola River area to establish homesites. Typical riculture.
of the deep South, cotton eventually became "King" and Some of the finest Greek Revival architecture to be found
numerous large plantations thrived on this economy Though in Florida is located in Jackson County along with an interest-
the cotton kingdom was to be crushed during the Civil War ing collection of very elaborate Victorian residences.
and the changes that it brought, wealthy families n and rich
Cr. Sir CC 2713
Est Jacko 12 MUN IC3,
a ETerritol Lhegislaturet while meein -n the Sta. Jt oh
Lafayette St. State Rd. 71
St. Luke's Episcopal Church and Cemetery. The present Great Oaks Plantation, just south of junction with
church, built in 1947, is the fourth to stand on this site. State Rd. 69. Built in 1857, and fully restored to its
The names of many distinguished Marianna families original appearance, this house is one of the finest
can be found on tombstones in the cemetery, antebellum structures in Jackson County.
B Fort Road immed.
217 E. Lafayette St. east of intersection
Holden House. This house was probably built between Erwin House. This rural residence built in the early
1849 and 1851 and it has never gone out of the Holden 1900's, is a transition colonial house with a central hall
family. The house is vernacular in style and well suited plan. The family cemetery is immediately to the north of
to the Florida climate, the house.
242 W. Lafayette St.
C Ely-Crigler House. This National Register property was
10 W. Lafayette St. built around 1840 as a Greek Revival house. Later, Vic-
Marianna torian railings and trim were added, as were the wings.
Joseph W Russ House. Constructed in 1892-96, much Francis Ely, who built the house, was one of Jackson
of the original fabric of this Stick Style house remains in- County's earliest settlers.
tact despite alterations that were made around the turn-
403 Putnam Street
Slade West House. This 1840 house, which bears
characteristics of both the Classic Revival and Victorian
periods, is associated with the life of its builder, promi-
nent physician Theophilus West.
State Rd. 71, at the
Pender's Store. This typical rural commercial structure
was built in the late 1800's and has served as a general
store ever since.
On January 26,1838, Calhoun County came into
existence. Occupying an area that began as Es-
cambia County and then became part of Fayette
County (the only Florida county to have completely disap- e.
peared), Calhoun was named in honor of John C. Calhoun, -
the senator from South Carolina. Fourteen years earlier, on ----ALW
January 2,1824, the Blount Reservation had been estab- I / i
lished here. John Blount, a Seminole chief, was a signer of ,-.... --
the treaty establishing the reservation and it was for him that
Blountstown, the county seat, is named.j
Calhoun County figured prominently in the early history of j
Florida. Before the Civil War, the Apalachicola River was a
major shipping route. Thousands of tons of cotton were sent
from Alabama and Georgia to the port of Apalachicola. On ---
route, Blountstown was an important stopover for ship's
crews on their long journey. The pilings from long forgotten [IF
wharves still dot the river bed.
The major growth in Calhoun County has been .
agricultural and crops such as tobacco and vegetables,
along with cattle and lumber, have helped the economy
flourish. Its favorable climate, coupled with its rich soil,
give it some of the finest farmland in Florida. -- ... U
At Torreya State Park, one of the most impressive antebel- .....
lum homes in Florida has been preserved and is open to the
public. The Gregory Mansion, built in 1834, was brought
across the Apalachicola River into Liberty County in the
1930's as a part of a part of a Civilian Conservation Corps .
project that helped establish the park. I ,
The first train in Calhoun County began running between '
Marianna and Blountstown in 1909. The 29-mile route was
the shortest in Florida. The railroad provided mail, freight and
passenger service until 1929, connecting with the L & N in
Marianna. During its heyday, the M & B ran special excursion
trips to the West Florida Fair, charging fifty cents for a round
Below Torreya, State Rd. 20 crosses the Apalachicola Leaving Blountstown, only the tiny village of Clarkstown to
River outside Bristol and descends into the river valley as a the west interrupts the miles of wilderness. To the north is
beautiful truss bridge which was built in 1940. Continuing on, Altha, another farming community and along the river, both
the road passes through the Blount Reservation and ap- north and south, are small towns which serve as reminders of
proaches Blountstown where the Calhoun County Court- the last century.
house, one of the finest Romanesque Revival buildings in Calhoun County remains aloof from the fast pace of a
Florida, comes into view. Built in 1904, the courthouse has growing state. In 1838, the first convention for the organiza-
recently been restored. Across the street, in the new court- tion of state government took place in Blountstown and the
house, is a small museum devoted to the Indian settlements town was even considered for state capital. Now, however,
in the area and the early history of the county. those politically important days are all but forgotten.
Torreya State Park Route 71, 1.5 miles
Calhoun County south of Altha
Jason Gregory House. Built circa 1834, this mansion Log structure. This single pen log dwelling was con-
was removed from the eroding piece of land it was built structed of pine logs with corners saddle notched. Built
on to its present site overlooking the Apalachicola River in 1880, the house was originally sited farther back from
in Torreya State Park. The building is open to the public, the road, which has since been moved several feet.
314 E. Central Ave. Along SR 20
Blountstown S. of Blountstown
Old Calhoun County Courthouse. Designed by ar- Cayson Mound and Village. Built A.D. 900-1500, this
chitects Benjamin Smith and Frank Lockwood of represents one of the best preserved temple mound-vil-
Montgomery, Alabama, this 1904 building is one of two lage complexes in Florida. The site appears to have
Romanesque Revival courthouses extant in Florida. served as the socio-political center for numerous farm-
The red brick building has recently been restored. steads along the Apalachicola River. It contains the
mound, a village site and the plaza.
Altha School. The Altha School has served this small
rural community continuously since its construction in
1922 with only modest repairs.
RICK BARNETT, AIA, FLORIDA NORTH CENTRAL
Several thousand years before Europeans planted
their standards on the Gulf Stream of Florida and
St. Joseph Bay, the area was inhabited by prehis-
toric Indians. Natural resources provided ample food supply
for a small, but well distributed, population whose economy
was based on hunting, fishing, and gathering of shellfish and
wild fruits. Evidences of long habitation by these people can'
be found in the numerous Indian mounds in Gulf County.
Early French, Spanish, and English settlers were attracted / -
by the land-locked waters of St. Joseph Bay where they built
fortresses to secure territorial control of the Gulf of Mexico. In
1819, the United States purchased Florida from the Spanish .
who relinquished control of the territory in 1821. In 1835 the
United States Supreme Court declared the Forbes Company
legal owners of about 1,250,000 acres of land in the
Apalachicola region, and many settlers were forced to give
up their holdings in that area and move northwest. This was
the beginning of the historic city of St. Joseph. -. l F C
The settlement period became a boom era in St. Joseph \\ ID-E I
as wealthy planters, merchants, and industrialists built cotton
mills, ship and brick yards, luxurious hotels, wharves, and I
businesses. Due to efforts of Peter Gautier, a newspaper-
man, Florida's 1838 Constitutional Convention was held in St.
Joseph. This important convention, which helped chart the
future of Florida, created a place for St. Joseph in state F -]
records, but, the historical city was shortlived. Economici
panic in the 1830s, epidemics of yellow fever brought
from the West Indies and a devastating hurricane in
1841 brought the development of St. Joseph to an end. wharves, saw mills, sugar cane mills, ice plants, fisheries,
After the Civil War, steamboating became the major source oyster packeries, and tobacco growing.
of transportation, not only for economic markets, but also for The present industrial expansion began in 1938 when the
passengers and livestock. During this riverboat era, many St. Joe Paper Company completed a pulp and paper mill to
Confederate veterans migrated to the Wewahitchka region, utilize the abundant supply of pulpwood. As the company
the first permanent settlement in Gulf County. The hardy, in- grew, so did the mill and the community. A box plant was
dustrious people cleared the land, planted citrus, and fur- added. Three chemical manufacturing companies moved to
nished timber for the sawmills. the county. In the 1980's, the region is gaining stature as an
With the advent of the railroads at the turn of the century, a industrial area by supporting such enterprises as timber pro-
greater influx of people moved into this Gulf Coast region. duction, cattle raising and shipping and fishing. At the same
Soon there were churches, schools, stores, and, some of the time, the natural beauty of beaches, lakes, and forests con-
early families, including those ofT. H. Stone and A. M. Jones, tinues to attract vacationers, tourists and new residents.
built handsome dwellings. The Port Inn, a large wooden In 1955, the Florida Museum at Port St. Joe was founded
building which stood where Motel St. Joe is now, was the hub to depict the brief history of Florida's constitutional city. Since
of social life. This building burned. The old Woman's Club, a 1960, St. Joe Historical Society has played a major role in
spacious log building which served as a community center, preserving the region's past as members collect old maps,
was replaced by the Garden Club. With the completion of the photos and papers to document this coastal community's
railroads, increased development brought more docks, heritage.
Hwy. 98 F
Port St. Joe Port St. Joe
St. Joe Paper Mill, built in 1938. Industrial complex of Old Beacon Hill Lighthouse, 2 miles off Hwy. 98 toward
raw materials yards, processing buildings, and stacks. Indian Pass. One of areas oldest lighthouses. Two-
Chief industry in Gulf County. story building with verandas on four sides at first and
second floors. Double exterior stairways over first floor
entrance, hip roof with cupola. Relocated and adapted
Port St. Joe
Executive Offices of St. Joe Paper Company and G
Apalachicola Northern Railroad. Three-story brick build- Pt S
ing with trim delineating bands of windows and stair- Port St. Joe
wells. Indian Pass Trading Post and Post Office. Earliest post
office and mercantile business. Wood frame, single-
story building with gable roof. Front bay providing cov-
ered service area.
304 Monument Ave.
Port St. Joe
Florida National Bank. Commercial building with dec-
orative panels emphasizing street entry.
Cape San Bias
Cape San Bias Lighthouse, 14 miles east of Port St.
Joe, built in 1847. Relocated. Space-frame construction
supporting circulation cylinder from second floor level
to deck and room with light housing above.
Port St. Joe
A. M. Jones Home. One of the earliest homes in Port St.
Joe. Typical wood-frame, single-story, late nineteenth
century style house with front porch wrapping around
part of side elevations and pyramid roof with dormer.
Cape San Bias
Cape San Bias Coast Guard Housing, Cape San Bias.
Two-story, wood frame building with gable roof. Shed-
roof porch on four sides of first floor.
Port St. Joe
St. Joseph Catholic Mission Church, built in 1925. Old-
est church in city. Simple wood-frame, single-story
building with gable roof, masonry piers, square tower J
with pyramid roof and louvered openings, and an entry Wewahitchka
porch with gable roof. Used by St. Joe Garden Club in Old Gulf County Courthouse, built in 1927 by H. H.
ate 1980s. Taylor. Neo-Classical Revival style, two-story building
with attic and flat roof. Portico with four columns and
GEORGE L. CHAPEL
Franklin County was established February 8,
1832. It was named after Benjamin Franklin. Its 1-'
two principal communities are Apalachicola,
which is the county seat, and Carrabelle.
The name Apalachicola come from a Hitichi Indian word
"Apalachi," meaning roughly "land of the People Beyond."To
the Creek Indian nation the Apalachicola River flowed into ....
the "land Beyond," currently called Apalachicola Bay.
At one time the area supported Indians of various tribes. In 3 =
1527 Panfilo de Narvaez became the first European to view o -
that part of Florida. In 1705 the French set up Fort Covocer
on St. Joseph's Bay, but were ousted from there by the
Spanish who established San Marcos de Apalache a year
later. A trading post was built in 1790 and in 1803, John
Forbes and Company received a 1,250,000 acre land grant .E
from the Seminole Indian chief Hopoeithle Micco. The
"Forbes Purchase" included the site of the present city of :6
Apalachicola. ;; .
With Andrew Jackson's acceptance of the transfer of West A LACHIOLA
Florida from the Spanish in 1821 came economic change. A
Shipment of cotton began on the Apalachicola River in 1828, G-M
and within a few years, steamers were cruising daily. In that .
period, Apalachicola became the second largest American \
port on the Gulf. Aalachicola
In 1832, Franklin County was inaugurated as the name of p a
the territory. A post office was built and the first postmaster
was William D. Price. Dr. John Gorrie followed as second Bay \
postmaster in 1834, and George F. Baltzell became the third --
in 1837. In the 1840s, Dr. John Gorrie discovered an artificial
method for freezing water and built the first ice machine. Dr. 'o.~
Gorrie's statue is one the two from the state of Florida in the
Hall of Fame in Washington, D.C. ....
At the outbreak of the War Between the States, Franklin F
County supplied men for the Confederacy. Apalachicola was
fortified in preparation for war, and was bombarded once by
Apalachicola, and, by implication, Franklin County,
achieved its heyday in the days of King Cotton. During the
1860s, Apalachicola's importance as a port declined after rail-
roads were built, but in the 1870s, it became a saw mill center
for the Apalachicola River basin. After all the timber was
logged (around the early 1930s) the seafood and oyster in-
dustry rose to its present importance.
Historic District Water Street
This district includes most of the 1836 town plan and a E Cotton Warehouse. In 1838, the Apalachicola Land
remarkable concentration of 19th and 20th century resi- City Park on Hwy 98 Company built 43 cotton warehouses, each 30 feet in
dential and commercial buildings. Most of the pre-1860 Carrabelle width and three stories tall. Only two remain today.
buildings are concentrated along 5th and 6th Streets. Crooked River or Carrabelle Lighthouse. This wrought
Most of the commercial area along Market and Com- iron skeleton tower was built in 1895. The increase in
merce Streets dates from the early 20th century. The the lumber trade necessitated the light. The light is still
district is on the National Register of Historic Places. active today and visible from seventeen miles.
St Avenue B
B j Hoffman House. This Gulf Coast Cottage was moved
SW corner Market & 6 miles sw of Sumatra from St. Joseph by boat in the 1840's.
Avenue F Franklin County
Apalachicola The Negro Fort and
David G. Raney House. A Greek Revival, two-story, Fort Gadsden were both situated on the east bank of
wood frame house built by a leading merchant at the the Apalachicola River where they could control water
height of Apalachicolas prosperity as a leading cotton traffic. Fort Gadsden was decribed by an aide toAndrew
port. Jackson as "a temporary work, hastily erected of perish-
able materials." Today the site of the forts is operated
by the Florida Department of Recreation and Parks.
Whiteside House. An 1878 example of Gothic Revival
Avenue D & Sixth St.
Trinity Episcopal Church. This structure was prefabri- Avenue B
cated in New York and shipped to Apalachicola by ship Apalachicola
where it was assembled in 1841. It is Greek Revival Richard G. Porter House. Built in the early 1900's, this
style and one of the oldest Episcopal churches in is a well-maintained example of local Victoriana, com-
Florida. plete with rounded porch and turret. M
George Ruge House. An 1896 example of Queen Anne
Corner Broad St. &
D Chapman House. The home of Dr. Alvin W. Chapman,
West end of a botanist and author of international importance, the
St. George Island Greek Revival house was built c. 1840. Historic District
Cape St. George Light at southernmost point of Little Apalachicola
St. George Island. The present tower, built in 1852, re- Norvell Cottages. Built in 1886, these are rehabilitated
places two which preceded it and were destroyed by Gulf Coast Millworker's cottages.
storms. Although damaged during the Civil War, the
light was repaired and continues to serve today as an Other sites of significance in Apalachicola include the
operative light, completely restored Gibson Hotel, the Gorrie Museum
and grave onGorrie Square, the Sponge Exchange and
Chapman Elementary School, the only known example
i of Egyptian Revival architecture in Florida.
Chestnut Street Cemetery. Dating from 1832, many
local Confederate soldiers are buried here.
TIM WHITE, AIA, FLORIDA NORTH CENTRAL
Liberty County was chartered on Dec. 15, 1855, after The oldest city in the county was Rock Bluff where a rela-
a Gadsden County citizen, with the last name of Dis- tive of Andrew Jackson lived. (Unfortunately all that is left of
mukes, proposed a bill for its creation. The county Dr. Jackson's home is a chimney). One of the battles in
was formed from territory included in the Forbes Grant, a county history involved the Indian massacre of a Scottish-im-
Spanish grant given in 1803 to an Englishman as compensa- migrant family, the Laslies, on June 20, 1838. During the Civil
tion for destruction of his trading post by Indians under
Spanish rule. This grant to Forbes included approximately all
of what is now Liberty, Franklin and Wakulla counties. Early IA
Indian inhabitation of the area remained evident in the many GADSDEN COUNTY
Indian names used and the number of Indian mounds found. ...---
After the United States purchased Florida from Spain,
pioneers bought homesteads from the government and set-
tied in Liberty County. However, according to the purchase
treaty, all Spanish grants before 1821 were to be honored.
Heirs to the Forbes Grant, then living in Scotland, claimed L.-
the land. The settlers were forced to buy their land again or to C-F
leave. Among those making the claim were members of the
Bruce family, descendents of a former king of Scotland. The
old Bruce home, where three bachelor brothers lived, is on
Road Number One outside the city limits of Quincy.
Rich soil, a fine range for stock, and wild animal game C
brought settlers to Liberty County from Georgia and South
Carolina. First cultivated by the Indians, the farmland was
some of the best in Florida. Crops included corn, cotton,
beans, forage, peaches, figs, pecans, blueberries, peanuts,
sugar cane, and sweet potatoes. Principal industries de-
veloped by those moving to the area were turpentine distil-
leries, naval store plants, sawmills, and shingle mills. The
rich forest resource was reflected in the twentieth century
when a large portion of the county was included in the
Apalachicola National Forest.
The county seat is Bristol, originally called Riddeysville but
renamed in 1858. The town had few of the services normally
available at such a location, according to a 1914 speech
made by Mrs. V. O. Carson when she was remembering Lib-
erty County sixty years before that time. She recalled that the
county seat had one hewed log dwelling, one store building,
one courthouse, one church building that belonged to every-
body but was not deeded to any particular denomination, no "
post office, no doctor, no jail, so little county business that
county officers spent most of their time away from the court-
house, and no store with goods (the population traded in
Quincy or ordered goods from Apalachicola and Columbus, IBl .
Ga.). There were few frame buildings. Most dwellings were FRANKUN COUNTY
double-hewn log houses with stick and clay chimneys.
Liberty County's first post office, established in 1918, was War, Confederates built two half-moon trenches with cannon
located at Coe's Mill which was built by Emanuel Sikes to emplacements north of Bristol on palisades along the
grind grits, clean rice,and saw lumber. Coe's Mill became a Apalachicola River to halt the advance of the Union Army.
social center and eventually was renamed Hosford in 1907 to In the late 1930's, the building of the bridge across the
honor Senator R. F. Hosford who promoted the building of the Apalachicola River had a major effect on economic and so-
county railroad. The Apalachicola Northern Railroad con- cial development in the county real estate sales and architec-
nected Liberty County with the rest of the southeastern tural growth increased dramatically. Development in Liberty
states and encouraged the growth of population, towns, and County is guided by the Liberty County Planning Board and
industry, the Apalachicola Planning Council.
SR 271 Central Street
SBristol Bristol Hosford
Jason Gregory House, 13 miles northeast of Bristol, Stockade, built in 1930's as stockade with iron bars Graves Lumber Company, built in 1900's and closed in
built in 1849 at Ocheesee Landing on Apalachicola within some walls. Adapted by Liberty County as office 1927. Known for constructing railroad to haul products.
River. Pine and cypress house on five-foot brick piers, space. Brick vault remaining.
constructed by slave labor. Moved to Torreya State Park
in 1930's and restored.
B Bristol Free Press, built in late 1800's. Wood-frame struc- Telogia
Hwy.65 ture with sheet metal roof and unique light source in Bass Store, intersection of Roads 65 and 67, built in 1927
Sumatra roof. First newspaper office in Bristol, original printing as country store. Wood-frame structure with sheet metal
Dr. Spence House, built in 1906. Two-story Neo-Class- press. roof.
ical style, house of cypress and pine with 5,000 sq. ft.,
sheet metal roof, and layer of sand between floor and
ceiling as fire retardant.
Highway 20 Blue Creek Rd.
.. Bristol/Blountstown Liberty County
C Apalachicola River Bridge, between Bristol and Blue Creek Church, off Hwy. 20, built in late nineteenth
Highway 20 Blountstown. Constructed of steel and concrete piers in century by Daniel Stoutamire. Wood-frame building on
Bristol 1937-38 by Wisconsin Iron and Bridge Cp. cypress log posts. One of earliest churches in county.
Liberty County Courthouse, built in 1940 with Jack
Cullpepper as architect. Brick Neo-Classical style.
Central at Main Westlian Church, built about 1900. Primitive Victorian Re-
Bristol vival style building with wood frame. First meeting held
Bristol State Bank, built in early 1900's. Survived 1930 in 1913.
fire which destroyed most of Bristol. Commercial use
DIANE D. GREER
f i- R
.. .... .
linas. Lured by the possibility for successful cotton and to- prosperity. By the 1850's, although still a small town, Quincy's
bacco cultivation, these early settlers established plantations future looked bright. The Civil War, however, abruptly ended
throughout the region. Although most plantations in the the region's progress. The loss of slave labor and capital crip-
county were small, there emerged an influential planter class pled the tobacco plantations and recovery did not take place
that attempted to transplant the culture of their former tide- until the mid-1880's. During the Civil War, Quincy served as
water region to Florida's frontier, the Confederate military headquarters for the Middle Florida
On June 24,1823, just two years after Spain ceded Florida District. The town also served as a commissary depot and
to the United States, the Legislative Council approved the hospital station with the Episcopal Church, Courthouse and
creation of Gadsden County. In 1825, Quincy was estab- Quincy Academy used as makeshift medical centers.
lished as the seat of county government and the first court- By the 1890's, however, Northern tobacco leaf dealers and
house on the public square was erected in 1827. Since then cigar manufacturers had begun investing in tobacco planta-
at least two other courthouses have been built on the same tions in the county. Overproduction and the nationwide panic
site and have visually symbolized the continuity of public life in 1893 ended the short-lived economic boom. During the
in the county, next few years experiments to find a more marketable to-
Quincy in 1830 was a small village inhabited by some mer- bacco leaf led to the development of a new artificial shade to-
chants, doctors and a dozen or so citizens living in frame and bacco process. Shade tobacco brought great wealth to the
log houses. But, the town soon became the site of the region as speculation produced inflated land values and sen-
county's early social clubs, schools and churches, sational wage increases. Two and three-story brick tobacco
Gadsden county's planters had concentrated on cotton packing and storage warehouses were built in Quincy be-
production, but in the late 1820's some Virginia planters tween the late 1890's and 1920.
brought with them the knowledge and skill of tobacco culture. By 1907, due to overproduction, the instability of tobacco
One settler, John "Virginia" Smith, who owned a plantation a cultivation temporarily caused major financial problems in
few miles south of Quincy, brought with him some Virginia to- the county. Left without working capital, both large and small
bacco seeds. When the Virginia plant was cross-pollinated tobacco companies were forced to merge into one corpora-
with a Cuban tobacco, which had previously been cultivated tion called the American Sumatra Tobacco Corporation. The
in the county, the resulting hybrid became known as "Florida period between the merger and 1920 were profitable years
wrapper leaf."The new tobacco plant was used in the man- for the county and a new courthouse was built in 1913 on the
ufacturing of cigars and produced a small local cigar industry public square in Quincy. This building, along with many
in the area. others dating from as early as the 1840's, survive in the
Quincy Historic District.
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few ilessout of uinc, brughtwithhim ome irgiia t- the coun_~ttyL.;iI-5 Let itou wrkn caitabt ag nml
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in thecount, the esultng hybid beame knwn as"Floria perod beteen te mergr and1920 wre prfitabl year
wrappe leaf" The ew toacco lant ws use in th man- for te couny anda newcouthue asbil n 91 n h
ritoral priod y plnter who igraed wihQuincyo tHisoi Dim s trict.hdbe ul alirrcie l
Gfmiis ndsavs rm iriiaan heCao Casi Rvia adiinswhc rflcedth ow'30own
A E J
Historic District 205 N. Madison 212 N. Madison St.
Quincy Quincy Quincy
The Quincy Historic District, which lies within the E.B. Shelfer House. This is a transitional building that Methodist Parsonage/White House. Built in 1843, this
bounds of the original township plat, is a 16-block area retains Victorian articulation in combination with Neo- building is an excellent example of Classic Revival
around the historic public square. It contains 145 struc- classical decoration. Built in 1903. architecture.
tures which are visual links to Quincy's past.
B 300 N. Calhoun 305 E. King St.
Hwy 90, nw of Quincy Quincy
Mt. Pleasant Quincy Woman's Club, Old Washington Lodge No. 2. John Lee McFarlin House. This 1895 house served as
Joshua Davis House, northwest of Mt. Pleasant on Hwy Built in 1852-53, this Classic Revival building is typical a residence to J.L. McFarlin, who was one of the largest
90 at a point 2/4 miles west of the junction of County of the work of Charles Waller, a builder of local impor- independent tobacco producers in the Florida-Georgia
Road 379. Built in 1827 byThomas Dawsey, the prop- tance. Originally built as a Masonic hall, the building shade district. The house is the most exuberant piece
erty was later owned by Joshua Davis and used as a has been in continuous use since it was constructed. of Victoriana remaining in the county.
stagecoach station. The house gains its significance
from the fact that the log portion of the building is the
oldest documented structure in Gadsden County.
219 N. Jackson
C E.C. Love House. Built c. 1850, the Love House is sig-
North of Hwy 90 nificant as the extant example of a type of house that
Mt. Pleasant was common in the Quincy vicinity prior to the Civil War.
Malachi Martin House, one mile northwest of the Mt. The house is Georgian in plan and decoration.
Pleasant Methodist Church, 1/4 mile north of U.S. Hwy
90. Built between 1870and 1884, the Martin House is
an unusual and unique example of a vernacular copy of
the Octogon Mode which was popularized in the mid-
19th century. This house is one of only two period octa-
gons in Florida.
303 N. Adams St.
Quincy Academy. Built in 1850, this building is basically
utilitiarian and strongly influenced by the Georgian and
Federal styles. The present structure retains most of the
D original architectural elements and the devices used to
US Hwy. 90 keep the sexes separate in school provide a glimpse
Chattahoochee into the attitudes of the period.
United States Arsenal & Florida State Hospital. Com-
pleted in 1839, the arsenal was used for mustering the
Confederate troops into service at the beginning of the
Civil War. In the Spring of 1862, the Florida Infantry was
organized here. In 1876, the buildings were taken over
by the Florida State Hospital for the mentally ill.
121 N. Duval St.
Stockton-Curry House. This 1845 house is a surviving
example of antebellum Classic Revival architecture.
DAVID E. FERRO, ARCHITECT
S 63s ALFRED 6 ACLAY
O L. 5TATE EiAb y
JACK0N CENTER .
63 L.J CKJ 'T
ARC EO. T
T LA C
5AW LUI! DT [)TARCHAEO4t
^ARCMEI A c' IL. LAFAYETTE
Long before recorded history, Leon County was D-Q j
occupied by Indians, predecessors of the Chero- 261 EE 2TREETMAP
kee and Seminole. Fertile lands, numerous
streams and lake and a temperate climate led the Apalachee
to establish a village and, in time, cultivate a wide variety of
crops. Initial Spanish contact occurred in 1528. Eleven years
later, explorer Hernando de Soto wintered in the region on his 3 1 .
way to discovery of the Mississippi. By the middle of the 17th WOODVILLE_
century, the Spanish had established a string of missions and
forts in the Apalachee country of northwest Florida. San Luis, By the early 20th century, it was clear that the future pros-
founded in 1633, was the largest, with a population eventu- perity of the area would not be built on agriculture. By mid-
ally reaching 1,400. British invaders eventually drove the In- century, the state government and two institutions of higher
dians out of the area and with the burning of San Luis the learning, Florida State University and Florida Agricultural and
Spanish era in Leon County ended. Soon the land was con- Mechanical University, had become central to Tallahassee's
sumed by wilderness, a province of abandoned villages, the economy and purpose. FSU, which has its roots in the West
meaning of the word "Tallahassee" in the Apalachee lan- Florida Seminary, began as a college for women. It has a
guage. nucleus of fine Collegiate Gothic style buildings constructed
Soon after the American acquisition of Florida in 1821, a between 1907 and 1950. The legislature established the Tal-
site near the old Indian village of Tallahassee was chosen as lahassee State Normal School for Colored Students in 1887.
the new capital of the Territory. In the Spring of 1824, settlers This institution, now FAMU, occupies a commanding site
began moving in and the town was laid out with Capitol south of the Capitol and continues to grow in size and promi-
Square at its center. Leon County was established in 1825. nence.
Named for Juan Ponce de Leon, it originally extended from Tallahassee remained a small, agriculturally-oriented com-
the Gulf of Mexico to Georgia and from the Suwannee River munity until well into the 20th century. The Florida boom of
to the Ocklocknee. By 1842, with the creation of Jefferson the 1920's had little material effect on the character of Tal-
and Wakulla counties, it was reduced to its present 696 lahassee and there are few of the Mediterranean Revival
square mile area. style buildings which are so dominant throughout the rest of
The area soon developed as an important addition to the the state.
Cotton South and the undisputed political and social center As Florida has grown, so has state government. By the late
of Territorial Florida. A plantation economy developed and Tal- 1890's, the state had outgrown its Capitol. In 1978, a 22-story
lahassee immediately became a center for trade in the re- tower designed by New York architect Edward Durrell Stone
gion, with St. Marks as its port. In 1837, a railroad line was was built as Florida's new Capitol. The Old Capitol, restored
completed from Tallahassee to St. Marks. This was the state's to its 1902 form in 1982, provides an important architectural
first successful rail line, in continuous service until its aban- and historical complement to the new houses of state.
donment in 1984.
Florida's first permanent Capitol building was begun in (The author gratefully acknowledges the assistance of Kevin
1839, but not completed until 1845. This 3-story Greek McGorty and Larry Paarlberg of the Historic Tallahassee
Revival building forms the core of the recently restored Preservation Board and Michael Zimny of the Bureau of His-
Old Capitol. Several other territorial buildings survive in toric Preservation, Florida Department of State, in the prepa-
Tallahassee. ration of this guide.)
State Road 151 and College Ave. &
Moccasin Gap Road Copeland Street
Bradley Country Store Complex. The store and sixteen GWestcott Building. Built 1910-11 with Edwards and Wal-
farm buildings built between 1893 and 1927 reflect the 102 North Adams St. ter of Columbia, S.C. as architects, the Collegiate
development of the small cottage industry in this area. Tallahassee Gothic style building is the administration building for
Architecture is rural vernacular. First Presbyterian Church. Built 1835-38, the original Florida State University.
design influenced by classical architecture. An earlier
steeple was replaced by the present 3-tiered tower and
spire in 1932.
B Apalachee Parkway
SR 151 and Monroe Street
Pisgah United Methodist Church, 1.6 miles north of H Old Capitol. Built 1839-45, design of the original 3-story
State Road 154. Built in 1859, this Classic Revival 110W. ParkAve. building is assigned to Cary Butt of Mobile, Alabama.
frame building has served as a social, cultural and reli- Tallahassee 1902 enlargement by South Carolina architect Frank
gious center for the Centerville community for 150 years. U.S. Post Office and Courthouse. Designed by architect Milburn. Building was vacated in 1978 and restored to
Eric Kebbon and built in 1935, this was the most signifi- its 1902 appearance by Florida architect Herschel
cant Works Progress Administration project in the Tal- Shepard, FAIA.
lahassee area. Neoclassical Revival style structure.
1513 Cristobal Drive N
Tallahassee SE corner Apalachee
Woman's Club of Tallahassee. Edward D. Fitchner was I Pkwy and Monroe St.
the architect on this 1927 building, one of only two 301 East Park Ave. Tallahassee
Mediterranean Revival structures in the Los Robles Tallahassee Union Bank. Constructed in 1841 at 106 S. Adams St.,
subdivision built on 37 acres of the original Lafayette Knott House Museum .This two-story residence with this antebellum building was moved to its present site
Grant. classical details was built between 1843 and 1928, hav- in 1971 to save it from demolition.
ing been enlarged a number of times. Built by William V.
Knott, State Treasurer and Comptroller of Florida, the
house is now owned by the State and will soon operate
as a museum.
Duval St at First Ave.
The Grove. Florida Territorial Governor Richard Keith E. Gaines Street &
Call built this as his home in 1836. Adjacent to Florida's South Gadsden St.
Governor's Mansion, the house is architecturally distin- Tallahassee
guished as a provincial adaptation of the Greek Revival Old City Waterworks. This utilitarian structure was built
style. J c. 1909 and is a designated civil engineering landmark
201 South Monroe St. by the American Society of Civil Engineers.
Exchange Bank Building. Designed by architects Ed-
wards and Sayward of Atlanta and built in 1927, this six-
story Commercial style building features ornament
which includes Egyptian papyrus columns and Clas-
sical swags and eagles.
329 N. Meridian St. Near the intersection
Tallahassee Gamble & Boulevard
Brokaw-McDougall House. Built 1856-60 by a success- Tallahassee
ful Tallahassee businessman, this well-crafted Classic Carnegie Library. This Classic Revival building was
Revival house has Italianate features. The property is completed in 1907 with funds provided by Andrew Car-
now owned by the State of Florida and it serves as the negie. It is on the campus of FloridaA & M University
headquarters for the Historic Tallahassee Preservation K
Board. 100-102 E. Jefferson
Gallie's Hall/Munro Opera House. Part of a complex of
three historic buildings constructed between 1873 and
1920 as Masonry Vernacular style commercial build-
ings. Completely restored in 1983. 104 E. Jefferson now
houses the headquarters of the Florida Association of
the American Institute of Architects. Q
3945 Museum Drive
211 North Monroe St Bellevue, Tallahassee Junior Museum. Frame vernacu-
Tallahassee lar style plantation residence of Catherine Murat, widow
St. John's Episcopal Church. Built 1881-87, this church of Prince Archille Murat, nephew of Napoleon
is one of few brick Gothic Revival style structures in Bonaparte. Built before 1847, it was moved in 1967 and
Florida. restored in 1971.
DAVID E. FERRO, ARCHITECT
TO TALLAhAT EE
At the time of Spanish contact in Florida,
Apalachee Indian villages and hamlets were well
established in area now known as Wakulla 6 ---U
County. As a chain of missions was developed in the region, WAKULLA 6 A'b
Spanish authorities soon realized that a coastal port was PR /
needed to maintain communication with St. Augustine and / / -
handle waterborne commerce. To protect their interests, the AG
Spanish first built a log fort at the confluence of the St. Marks /1 /RI IN
and Wakulla Rivers in 1679. A stone fortress, San Marco de CRAFORDVLL T ARK
Apalache, begun by the Spanish in 1739, was only about half CR AWFOIL 1
finished when Florida was transferred to the British in 1763. TEO
The British maintained a garrison at the Fort until Florida was 61 0 '
ceded to Spain in 1783. In the same year, the first British trad- / X
ing post, Panton, Leslie and Company, was established
above the fort on the Wakulla River. 3 1
By 1824, the Americans had abandoned the fort. Tradition 7 5,15
has it that the nearby St. Marks Lighthouse (1829-31) was O E
constructed of stone quarried from the abandoned fort. A fed- 7'9 J
eral marine hospital for yellow fever victims was constructed LS o/
on the site from limestone salvaged from the fort. The hospi- G O
tal was completed in 1858, three years before Confederate
forces occupied San Marco, renaming it Fort Ward. Today
the earthworks thrown up during this occupation are clearly _
Shortly after American occupation, the Spanish seaport vil- Today, approximately 65% of the county's 600 square
lage of St. Marks was resurrected as the main shipping point acres is under Federal stewardship. St. Marks National
for this vast agricultural area. During the early 1830's the mer- Wildlife Refuge established in 1931, encompasses 65,000
chants of St. Marks petitioned the Territorial legislature for a acres of uplands and protects 32,000 acres of Apalachee
railroad charter as a means of capturing a larger share of the Bay. In 1938, over half of Wakulla County's land area was
lucrative cotton trade. The rail line connecting Tallahassee added to the Apalachee National Forest. Wakulla Springs, a
and Port Leon, a community near St. Marks, was chartered in spectacular natural wonder with a depth of 250 feet and a
1834 and not abandoned until 1984. Today, through the State rate of flow of over 600,000 gallons per minute, is said to be
of Florida's "Rails to Trails" program, its historic roadbed pro- the deepest and largest spring in the world, and is desig-
vides a recreational link between Tallahassee and St. Marks. nated a National Natural Landmark. In the mid-1930's Ed-
Various communities were established in Wakulla County ward Ball, a financier conservationist, developed the Springs
for reasons of commerce, politics and eventually even as a retreat. He built a clubhouse and hotel and established
tourism. The first of these was Magnolia in 1827. Port Leon a 55-acre park within a 4,000 acre wildlife sanctuary. In 1986,
and Newport followed and although each had a period of the State purchased 2,900 acres of the sanctuary, including
prosperity, little or nothing remains of the towns today. Craw- the Spring and hotel property, for development of the Edward
fordville, named for John L. Crawford, a State Legislator and Ball Wakulla Springs State Park.
Secretary of State, did prosper and survive to become the The early history of Wakulla County is marked by conflict,
county seat. prosperity, tragedy and depression. It is an area of great sig-
During the last years of the 19th century, communities nificance to the early development of the state, and is equally
along the Gulf coast became centers for commercial fishing important today for the unsurpassed natural beauty of its
and seafood production. Tourism also began to mature as an savannas, salt marshes and hammocks, the outstanding rec-
industry in the region. However, lumber and naval stores pro- reational opportunities it provides and the vital industries it
duction ranked as the chief economic influence in Wakulla supports. The fact that few historic properties are included in
County in the post-Reconstruction years. Curtis Mills and the following guide is more a reflection of our limited knowl-
Smith Creek on the Ocklockonee River were important mill edge of the cultural resources of the county than of its offer-
towns. Sopchoppy housed several large turpentine opera- ings. To date, there has been no systematic survey of the his-
tions, one alone employing over 100 workers. Panacea was toric and archeological resources of the county. With the
known as Smith Springs until renamed by Northern investors area's increasing growth, both as a bedroom community to
who purchased the land surrounding the area's five springs in Tallahassee, and as a tourist destination and recreation area,
1893. Their Panacea Hotel soon became a popular retreat for it is imperative that these resources be identified and
Tallahasseans. evaluated to ensure their preservation for future use.
South of Arran Road
(SR 386) at Towles Rd.
W. of SR 363 Crawfordville Elementary School. Constructed under
Tallahassee WPA in 1933-34. Vernacular style classroom building.
to St. Marks Still in use.
St. Marks Trail. Roadbed of the original 24-mile narrow
gauge rail line constructed 1834-37 by the Tallahassee
Railroad Company from Tallahassee to Port Leon over
the drawbridge on the St. Marks River. Acquired by the
State of Florida in 1986 and developed as 22-mile linear
park through the "Rails to Trails" program.
S. end of Canal St.
San Marcos de Apalache Archeological Site and
Museum. Site of Spanish log fort built in 1679, stone fort
B built in 1739. Marine hospital built within ruins of the fort
SE of intersection of in 1857-58. Hospital abandoned after Civil War. Present
SR 267 and SR 61 Museum building constructed on foundations of marine
Wakulla Springs hospital in 1966.
Wakulla Springs Hotel. Two-story Mission Revival style
retreat and resort hotel on the south bank of the Wakulla
Spring. Designed by Jacksonville architects Marsh and
Saxelbye and completed in 1937. Owned by State of
Florida and operated as park and conference center.
Intersection SR 363
and Old Fort Drive
Posey's Oyster Bar. Two-story frame vernacular build-
ing typical of 1920's-30's commercial development in
1 blk. w of Church St.
& U.S. Highway 319
Old Wakulla County Courthouse. Designed by sur-
veyor-builder G.W. Tully and constructed in 1893-94, the
Wakulla County Library is housed in the first floor of-
fices. Second floor courtroom remains intact. Moved G
approximately one block in 1948 to permit construction One half blk. north of
of a new courthouse and restored during the Bicenten- Rose St. on First Ave.
Abandoned commercial buildings among many, mostly
wood frame, reflecting town's prominence as a center
for naval stores production in the early 20th century.
St. Marks Lighthouse, at termination of County Road
59, north side of Apalachee Bay. Constructed in 1829-
31 by Winslow Lewis from brick and local limestone.
Keeper's house constructed in 1853. Masonry vernacu-
lar style structure. Light automated in 1960.
(The author gratefully acknowledges the assistance of Mr
Larry S. Paarlberg of the Historic Tallahassee Preservation
Board and Mr. Michael Zimny and Dr William Thurston of the
Bureau of Historic Preservation of the Florida Department of
State, in the preparation of this guide.)
PATRICK HARTLA UB, ASSOCIATEAIA
During the early part of the 16th century, the fa- The severe deflation of farm prices in 1920 coupled with
mous Spanish explorers de Narvaez and DeSoto the economic depression of the 1930's seriously damaged
made their way through what is now Jefferson the county's economy. Even after World War II when Florida
County. Here they found fierce resistance from the experienced explosive growth, Jefferson County's population
Apalachee Indians who inhabited the region. All attempts at decreased.
establishing a mission ended in failure. Half-a-century later, Jefferson County has an exceptional collection of architec-
the Spanish were back in Florida, at the request of the In- ture from the 19th and early 20th centuries. The Jefferson
dians, to prevent the French from expanding into the region County Historical Society has played a role in preserving
and to establish a permanent colony for Spain. Throughout many of the significant buildings. At the core of the town is
the 17th century, the Spanish maintained numerous missions the Monticello Historic District which is listed on the National
in North Florida, several of which were in Jefferson County. Register of Historic Places.
By the end of the 18th century, the relatively calm exis-
tence between the Spanish and the Indians began to break
down. The War between Spain and England, and later the
British possession of Florida in 1763, caused increased ten-
sion between the Indians and the white settlers. By the begin-
ning of the Seminole War, a continuous border war was in
Once Florida became a territory of the U.S. in 1821, a large .
influx of settlers arrived. In 1827, Jefferson County was es-
tablished after having been situated through the years in both
East and West Florida and in the counties of Escambia,
Jackson, Gadsden and Leon. The county was named in
honor of Thomas Jefferson and its county seat, Monticello, in/ T'_
honor of the former president's home in Virginia. In 1828, the -
town of Monticello was laid out with two main streets and a
central courthouse square. While there were a few frontier
homesteads around Waukeenah and Lloyd at this time, the I
majority of the people resided in Monticello. During the ter-
ritorial and early period of Florida's statehood, Monticello
gave political, economic and social leadership. Florida's first
governor, William D. Mosely, was from Jefferson County.
The end of the Seminole Wars brought many more settlers
into Florida and many of them took up residence in the north-
ern counties where the cotton plantation system prospered
during the years before the Civil War. There were a number of
large plantations in Jefferson County at this time and the
homes the planters built displayed high levels of architectural
The years following the Civil War saw economic and social
change in the county. Other agricultural products began to )
take the place of cotton as important cash crops. Among
these were pecans, tobacco, citrus, watermelon, lumber and
later, sawmills sprung up. New railroads were built, wooden
stores were replaced with brick buildings and in 1890, an
opera house was built making Monticello the social center of
the county. The first telephone system was installed in 1901.
While many civic and commercial buildings were con- /
structed during the late 19th century, this era also produced
some of the best examples of domestic architecture to be
found in Florida. With a diverse and flourishing economy,
houses were built in Italianate, Queen Anne and Stick styles
that were popular at the time.
A Washington Street at Washington and
US Hwy. 19 Courthouse Square Waukeenah Streets
Near Capps Monticello Monticello
Asa May Plantation, 9 miles south of Monticello. Built c. Monticello Opera House (formerly the Perkins Opera Dilworth-Turnbull-Anderson House. This Classic Revi-
1840, this simple Greek Revival farmhouse is in nearly House). This Romanesque Revival-style building was val house is one of the earliest surviving residences in
original condition, constructed in 1890 and has been completely restored Monticello. It was built in 1853 for a prominent Mon-
for use as a 250- seat opera house and theatre. ticello attorney.
State Road 146 Washington and N
Near Ashville Jefferson Streets 555 Palmer Mill Road
Lyndhurst Plantation, 15 miles northeast of Monticello. Monticello Monticello
This 1850 structure is one of only two remaining two- Jefferson County Courthouse. Architect E.C. Hosford Denham-Lacy House. Built c. 1873, the house is a two-
and-a- half story brick Classic Revival structures in the designed the courthouse in 1909. It is a Neo-Classical story wood frame Italianate style. It has bracketed
state. structure which still houses the main functions of county eaves and an octagonal lantern atop the roof.
Wirick-Simmons House. C. 1833, This Greek Revival I Turnbull-Evans House. 1880, Italianate style house.
house was built by Adam Wirick, one of the first Dogwood and
Methodist circuit riders in Florida. Now serves as head- Waukeenah Streets
quarters and museum for the Jefferson County Histori- Monticello
cal Society. First Presbyterian Church. Built in 1841, and rebuilt in
1867, this is one of the few surviving Greek Revival re-
ligious structures dating from the mid-nineteenth cen-
tury in Florida.
D Madison and
North Jefferson and Hickory Streets
High Streets Monticello
Monticello J Bailey-Brinson House. Businessman and State Senator
Christ Episcopal Church. Architect J.W. Ferguson de- Washington and Edward Bailey built this Italianate-style house in 1885.
signed this Stick Style church in 1885. The corner tower Hickory Streets
rises one-and-a-half stories above the church proper Monticello
and facade has quadrupled lancet windows filled with Finlayson-Kelly House. Though built fairly late in the
stained glass. Victorian period, 1909, this is a fine example of Queen
N. Jefferson and Budd-Braswell-Pafford House. This Classic Revival cot-
Madieson Streets tage-style clapboard house was built in 1833. Its style
Monticello East Dogwood and is sometimes called "Gulf Coast Vernacular."
Bailey-Eppes House. This highly embellished Stick Monticello
Style house was built in 1889. Girardeau Walker House. John H. Girardeau was Jef-
ferson county's first game warden and he built this
Queen Anne-style house in 1890.
SR 49 & 158
Lloyd Railroad Depot. Built in 1856, this one story brick
Dogwood Street L building has a heavy timber gable roof and brick pilaster
Monticello 885S. Waukeenah St. with segmented arches over windows and doors. Cur-
Jackson Drugs and Harris Grocery, between North Jef- Monticello rently houses the local post office and volunteer fire
ferson and Cherry Streets. This 1878 building is a good Girardeau Durst House. Atwo-story wood frame department.
example of commercial Classic Revival architecture Italianate-style house built in 1882.
with 3-bay gable ends and pediments facing the street.
BYELIZABETH H. SIMS
Madison County contains evidence of habitation
dating back ten thousand years, as shown by arti-
facts recovered by the State Department of Archives ,
and History from the Hutto Pond site. The Timucuan Indians .
inhabited the area at the time of early Spanish exploration. In
the middle 1600's, three Spanish missions were established.
One of these, San Pedro de Protohiriba, was excavated by -
the state in 1972; and, charred remains of three buildings
were uncovered with evidence of the site being burned by the
British in 1704.
With the establishment of the territory of Florida in 1821,
settlers particularly from Georgia and South Carolina, began
to migrate to the area. In December, 1827, Madison County Madison County has been noted for its educational institu-
was established with borders including the area between the tions. The St. Johns Seminary of Learning, founded in 1850,
Aucilla and Withlacoochee and Suwannee Rivers from the evolved into the Madison High School. Established in 1907,
Georgia border to the Gulf of Mexico. The land was par- the Florida Normal Institute became an outstanding teacher-
titioned from Jefferson County which had in turn been di- training institution for a large region until its closing in 1927.
vided from Leon County less than a year before. In 1856, North Florida Junior College, one of the six original state-
when Taylor and Lafayette counties were created, Madison sponsored junior colleges, was founded in 1958.
County was reduced to its present size. Religion has also played an important part in the life of the
The first county courthouse, built of logs with a huge end county with a Baptist Church being established in 1835, and
fireplace, was constructed in San Pedro on the Bellamy other churches founded soon after. The Florida Baptist Con-
Road, the military route from St. Augustine to Pensacola. vention was organized at Concord Baptist Church in 1854.
Only an historical marker, sponsored by the San Pedro Bay When the town of Madison was plotted, lots on Meeting
Sportsmen Club, marks that courthouse site. The town no Street were designated for churches.
longer exists. In 1838, the county seat was moved to what is During the 1930's, the years of national economic depres-
now the city of Madison, and Adoniram Vann constructed a sion, the county was the site of a federal rehabilitation proj-
wooden courthouse in 1840 which burned in 1876. A new ect. Cherry Lake Rural Industrial Community was designed
brick courthouse, built in 1880, burned in 1912. The present to involve up to 500 families in living and working on a com-
courthouse was constructed on the same site. munity farm of 15,000 acres which was to include craft proj-
Madison County and its residents played an important part ects. Homes were built by participants' labor. Water and tele-
in Florida's early political history. The president of the Florida phone systems, a sugar mill, and a community center were
Secession Convention, John C. McGehee, built a mansion constructed. The social experiment did not succeed. Only the
between San Pedro and Moseley Hall; but, as happened to houses remained, and these were sold to whomever would
many of the early rural residences, the building was de- buy them. Many were moved to other areas in the county.
stroyed. In 1860, area construction of the railroad marked a At present there are three incorporated areas in the county
period of prosperity and growth for residents. During the War Lee, Greenville, and the county seat of Madison. County
Between the States, Madison served as a refugee destina- population has remained around 15,000 for a number of
tion and a supply point with farms providing needed food and years. The Chamber of Commerce is working to attract new
a shoe factory producing thousands of pairs of shoes. The industries to the county. The City of Madison, through its re-
first post-Reconstruction "home-rule" governor was George F. vitalization committee, is making an effort to preserve the
Drew of Ellaville whose sawmill at the junction of the With- turn-of-the-century downtown heritage while encouraging
lacoochee and Suwannee rivers shipped lumber all over the business growth. The Madison County Historical Society has
country. His mansion also was destroyed by neglect, van- published a county history and is planning to establish a
dalism, and finally fire. museum to preserve historical artifacts.
W. Base St. (US 90) F S. Range St. at
& N. Washington St. 405W. Pinckney St. Railroad
Madison Madison Madison
Wardlaw-Smith House, built for Benjamin F Wardlaw Old Jail, built about 1900. In 1953 adapted for public li- Warehouse, Florida Manufacturing Co., built about
about 1860 with William Hammerly as architect. Greek brary. In 1988 assigned to Madison County Historical 1890. Surviving structure of what was world's largest
Revival style house remodeled by C.H. Smith in 1902; Society for museum and meeting place. long-staple cotton processing plant acquired by J&P
restored by William Goza in 1978; owned by University Coats in 1890's. Ceased operation in 1916. Used as
of Florida in 1980's. feed store in 1980's.
501 W. Base St.
(U.S. 90) L
B Madison CornerW. Base and
105 E. Marion St. G. Whitlock Home, built about 1990 for Mrs. Ida Whit- N. Harry Streets
Madison lock. Bought in 1987 by Madison County Farm Bureau Madison
Dial-Goza House (Magnolia Hall), built about 1880 as for adaptive use as offices. Madison Guest House, constructed about 1900 and re-
town house of Major William M. Dial and restored in the built in 1922 after fire. Building used as Dr. D. H. Yates'
1970's by William Goza. Residence of Mr. and Mrs. sanitarium which pioneered in use of electrical treat-
Charles Bassett in 1980's. ment. Used later as hotel, bus station, restaurant, and
then retirement home in 1980's.
202 N. Duval St.
Tri-County Building, constructed about 1910 by city as
dormitory for Florida Normal Institute students and later M
C used as school building. In 1950 purchased and 212-214 S. Range St.
CornerW. Pinckney & adapted for office use byTri-County Rural Electric Madison
S. Orange Streets Cooperative, Inc. W.T. Davis Building, built about 1890 byW.T. Davis with
Madison opera house on second floor. Converted to law offices.
Old First Baptist Church, constructed in 1898 with
Stephen Crockett as architect and W. T Davis as builder.
Queen Anne style building moved from original location
on opposite side of block in 1956.
111 N. Range St. N
Madison off CR150
Manor House, constructed about 1905 byW. T Davis as Madison
Merchants Hotel. Served briefly as social center for Concord Baptist Church, about 14 miles northwest of
D North Florida Junior College. Converted into offices and Madison, constructed in 1887 to replace log building
304W. Marion St. apartments by new owner, Mrs. Virginia Rowell, in dating from church founding in 1841. Typical of rural
Madison 1978. church architecture in county.
King Home, constructed in 1849 probably for Nathan P
Willard who established second cotton factory in
Florida. Oldest house in city, restored by Mr. and Mrs.
E. Base St. (US 90) Post Rd. off Hwy. 53
Courthouse, built in 1913 to replace earlier building de- Cherry Lake Project House, 9 miles north of Madison,
E stroyed by fire. Standpipe in background erected in built in 1936. Typical board and batten house built by
302 N. Range St. 1894 for city water system. Cherry Lake Resettlement Project. Remodeled at one
Madison time but unoccupied in 1986.
S. A. Smith Home, built in 1894 byW. T Davis for Dr and
Mrs. Chandler H. Smith. Late Victorian style private resi-
dence which has remained in the same family.
ED BUTLER, EVONNE V CLINE, CAULEYCOPELAND, JULIAN CRANBERRY JOALLIE DOWNING, JUNIUS DOWNING,
GEORGE GRIFFIN, PERRYHILL, JAMES HURST, SHARON McCALL, KATHRYN MclNNIS, LEON WARD
Dixie County's first known inhabitants were Indians r6 /
who lived on Shired Island from about 1,000 B.C.
until 500 A.D. After that time migratory Indians ,
often visited the area. When European explorers arrived in
the sixteenth century, Timucuan Indians were the region's
inhabitants. Coastal Indian sites are marked by mounds of '
shells, especially oyster shells, left by these prehistoric -- --
General Andrew Jackson came through the area in 1819 '-
while pursuing Chief Billy Bowlegs who had been attacking r
Georgia settlers. It is believed that Jackson and his troops
crossed at Steinhatchee Falls and camped at the future site
of Hitchcock. From there Jackson went to Old Town, the
home of Bowlegs. No Indians were found, but a British trader
was arrested and sentenced to death at St. Marks for aiding
the Indians. Jackson's route became a main thoroughfare to
the coast. In the 1820's George Miller, a settler from North
Carolina, met the father of Suwannee and Bowlegs, Chief
Tigertail, near present-day Tallahassee. The chief gave him a
track of land around Old Town. Miller was buried in 1833 be- "
hind the Old Town Elementary School.
In 1828, the first post office in the area was built at Jena
with Silas Overstreet as postmaster. In the early 1840's, Col- -
onel J. L. F Cottreal bought all the land in and around Old
Town and built a large plantation, In 1854, James McQueen, issue for roads and the location of transportation facilities.
brother of Mrs. Cottreal, moved to the area and also bought There was also a bitter political battle over the location of the
extensive acreage. By the late 1850's, Old Town Methodist county seat which was first temporarily located in Cross City.
Church was constructed under the leadership of Robert Bar- Cross City, Eugene, Old Town and the Chavous homesite
nett, a church circuit rider. were on the first ballot. Cross City was the permanent desig-
During the Civil War, salt furnaces were operated along the nation in a run-off with Eugene. Other settled communities in
Gulf Coast. The product, sold to the Confederates, was con- the county, besides those competing for county seat, in-
sidered so important that southern workers were exempt cluded Shamrock, Rocky Creek, and the fishing villages of
from military duty and Union soldiers attempted to destroy Salt Creek, Jena, and Horseshoe.
the salt works. (In 1947, an estimated 100 salt wells could still Education has always been important to Dixie residents.
be found on the coast between the Suwannee and Stein- Included in the many early schools were Pine Hill School,
hatchee Rivers.) First District (still standing); Cross Road School (Fletcher
Following the war, Jim Johnson brought thelirsLcattle from School) near Adolphus Currie Home; and Summerville
South Carolina to an area which began to attract settlers and School (located at site of New Prospect Baptist Church
was later called Hitchcock. The period 1865 to 1900 was a where thelunchroom is still standing). Black students had
time of growth with many pioneer families moving to the their own schools at Hines, Shamrock, and Old Town.
county, including Tom Peter Chaires, who married In the 1920's Putnam Lumber Company moved to Sham-
McQueen's daughter and built on the McQueen estate, and rock and built what was said to be the world's largest sawmill
the Chavous family. The first Masonic Lodge, located in Sum- with a full camp which had a hotel, homes, dairy, ice house,
merville near Old Town, surrendered its charter in 1880. The and commissary. Little conservation was practiced. Putnam
second, Joppa Lodge number 4 at Governor Hill chartered Lumber left the county in the late 1940's when its holdings
Jan. 19, 1882, is still in existence. were sold at $14 an acre to Hudson Pulp and Paper Com-
In 1900, lumber and naval-store industries began to boom pany. The late 1940's were economically difficult for county
with resin hauled to markets in Georgia and South Carolina. residents. Two-thousand people left the area during this
The Atlantic Coast Line Railroad line was constructed period.
through Cross City from 1905 to 1907 (Cross City had been Since 1950, the county has been growing gradually. The
known as Cross Roads until this time since the town was at 1980's population was 9,521. Principal regional products in-
the intersection of two salt traffic roads during the Civil War.) clude pine and cypress lumber, mulch and pulpwood chips,
The area led the southeast in production of lumber and naval seafood, farm crops, livestock, and Great Bear Clothing Fac-
stores from 1928 to 1938. tory merchandise. Employing many county residents are gov-
Dixie County had been created in 1921 from land that had ernmental institutions which include the Cross City Correc-
been part of Lafayette County after a dispute over a bond tional Institute.
A G M
d Town Old Town Horseshoe Beach
Francis Cambridge Robinson House, Black Jack Com- Old Town Methodist Church. Built in 1890 by Ed and Charlie Polk Home. Built in 1920's from lumber used in
munity. Built of pine lumber. Charlie Hill. Church used as annex in late 1980's. original hotel commissary.
B SR 349 N
Old Town Old Town Horseshoe Beach
W. D. Finlayson House, half mile south of Old Town First District Community Building, 10 miles north of Old James D. Butler Homestead, approximately six miles
Elementary School. Pine Construction. Town. Built in 1931-32 with WPA money. Used for polit- north of Horseshoe Beach. Built over 140 years ago of
ical rallies, a voting precinct, 4-H meetings, and commu- virgin pine. Shingle board roof. No nails used in building
nity social events, home. Blocks under house original. Chimney built of
stone and lime mortar made by Butler from burning
oyster shells to obtain lime.
Thomas Peter Chaires House, adjacent to Old Town Off SR 349
Elementary School. Still occupied by a member of the Old Town
Chaires family. Milas Bush Homestead, 12 miles north of Old Town. O
Built by Milas and Rosa Gornto Bush. Constructed of Shamrock-
pine lumber without knots. Wooden shingle roof sealed Putnam Lodge (part of Putnam Lumber Company mill
inside with tongue and groove yellow pine siding. camp). Complex once included homes, dairy, ice house
McQueen Chaires Homestead, half mile south of Old J
Town Elementary School. Pine construction. CR 340
Old Town P
Pine Hill School Lunchroom, one mile off SR 349. Built Cross City
in early 1920's. Original Eugene School Bell, marking site of old school,
five miles south of Cross City. Bell turned upside down
in cement. Site now occupied by New Prospect Baptist
E CR 340
Old Town Old Town
George Miller Grave. Marble grave commemorating the Pine Hill School, one mile off SR 349, built in early
son of Colonel Stephen and Winifred Miller who was 1900's.
born in 1801 in North Carolina and died in 1833 in Old
F uiji lHorseshoe Beach
SR 349 Jack Locklear Homestead. Built over a hundred years
Old Town ago of cypress lumber. Wooden shutters with no
Old Town Elementary School, one mile south of U.S. screens.
19. Built in 1910 on land donated by McQueen and Ruby
Chaires. Auditorium constructed by George Levingston.
School still in operation with 381 students in late 1980's. (Information for this history was gathered by Dixie County
residents: Ed Butler, Evonne V. Cline, Cauley Copeland, Ju-
lian Cranberry, Cauley Copeland, Julian Cranberry, Jo Allie
Downing, Junius Downing, George Griffin, Perry Hill, James
Hurst, Sharon McCall, secretary and photographer, Kathyrn
Mclnnis, chairman and photographer, and Leon Ward.)
EDWARD E. CRAIN, AIA, FLORIDA NORTH CHAPTER
Hamilton County, named for Alexander Hamilton, wood and brick, was a center for shipping of turpentine,
was established as Florida's fifteenth county in lumber and cotton.
1827. The Alapaha River runs through the center of White Springs developed as a resort town in the southern
the county which has as its boundaries the Georgia part of the county. The spring had been praised for its
state line on the north, the Suwannee River on the south and medicinal properties by Indians and early settlers. By the
east, and the Withlacoochee River on the west. early twentieth century seven luxury hotels had been built to
In the early nineteenth century, missionaries visited the accommodate the tourists who came to enjoy the spring
Indians in this area. Daniel Bell, the first settler, did not arrive waters. In 1911 fire swept through White Springs destroying
until 1824 when he and his family were guided by Indians to most of the buildings. This fire, coupled with the declining
land near Micco, an old Indian village on the Alapaha River. timber industry, caused many people to leave. Today one of
Inexpensive land sales and governmental land grants in- the major attractions is the Stephen Foster Memorial which
creased the number of settlers. Transportation depended honors the composer of the state song and hosts folk arts and
primarily on rivers and paths following Indian trails. Early crafts festivals.
records mention ferries crossing major rivers. In 1865 the Sea Island cotton was raised by most of the settlers until
Pensacola and Georgia Railroad (now the Seaboard Air Line) the boll weevil destroyed the crop. Later, short grain cotton
was extended from Live Oak, Florida, through Hamilton was introduced, revitalizing many farms. Sawmills and tur-
County to Dupont, Georgia. The Georgia, Southern and pentine distilleries flourished until 1915 when the timber
Florida Railroad was built in 1889-90. A paved road (now supply was depleted. Today Hamilton County's flue-cured
highway US 41), constructed in 1917, served as a main north- tobacco crop is second to none in the region as are the cotton
south traffic artery and stimulated commercial development and tree farming industries. Even more important to the
until highway 1-75 by-passed county towns in the 1970s. county are Occidental Chemical Company's phosphate
Hamilton County's governmental center, Jasper, was in- mines and chemical plants near White Springs.
corporated in 1840 and named for Sgt. William Jasper, a Hamilton County's history is depicted by many buildings of
Revolutionary War hero. In the late nineteenth century, local architectural and historical significance which have not
Jasper was a thriving community. Today, only one cotton gin been demolished or severely altered, often because of few
remains. However, many of the large homes built by mer- growth pressures. The Bath House at White Springs was doc-
chants and politicians survive. In 1890 Hamilton County built umented in drawings and photographs for the Historic Ameri-
a large brick courthouse and jail which are still standing. can Buildings Survey before it was razed. The United Metho-
Jennings, in the northern part of the county, was founded dist Church of Jasper is listed on the National Register of
by George Jennings in the mid-nineteenth century and incor- Historic Places.
porated in 1900. The town's business district, constructed of
A Comer of Central
Comer of Bridge St. and SE Fifth St.
and River St. G Ave.
White Springs Throughout county Jasper
Adams-Saunders House, built in 1865 by R. W. Adams, Tobacco Barns of Hamilton County, built throughout United Methodist Church, built in 1878. Small rectangu-
Confederate captain who established mercantile store county with similar design to allow tobacco to dry by lar church with bell tower centered on entrance facade.
afterwar. Two-story Victorian home, closely massed "L" natural means or gas burners for acceleration of curing Later trancepts added to create Latin cross plan and in
shape with two-story verandas and projecting bay process, early 1930's a small country church moved and attached
window in front. to northeast comer of church building.
B H N
River Street 501 NE First Ave. 208 First Avenue SW
White Springs Jasper Jasper
Telford House (Jackson House), hotel built in 1902 of Hamilton County Jail, built in 1893 by Peter and John Kirby L. Sandlin House, built 1895, basically unaltered
local limestone with brick trim, originally two-story Pauly. Originally two-story "T" shaped building with Fine example of house with typical Victorian Revival
verandas on all sides. Featuring acetylene-powered one-story additions added later. Romanesque Revival omamentation such as arched brackets and scroll
lighting, only hotel to survive fire of 1911. features of massive brick walls, arched windows, cor- sawed palings at second floorveranda.
belling along eaves, and three story hanging tower.
Comer of Highway 41
and Bridge Street O
White Springs 408 NE Central Ave. Highway 141
Adams Store, built in 1890. Typical example of rural Jasper Jennings
commercial structure with false facade built before the Jasper Ginning Co. Warehouse, built in 1906. Housed Jennings Post Office, built 1910 as bank. Beaux-Arts
turn of the century. eight long and short staple cotton gins before boll weevil Classicism example with concrete Ionic columns sup-
invasion destroyed cotton crops. Converted to grind porting metal comice and balustrade.
meal and rice.
White Springs J
Bath House Site, a poured concrete wall, the only re- 102 Hattey Street Highway 141
mains of a three-level wood frame bath house which Jasper Jennings
was designed in 1900 by McClure and Holmes, archi- Commercial Bank, built in 1904, typical of brick com- Mercantile Stores, built at tum of century. Unique be-
tects, to surround the spring. Wide walkways, dressing mercial buildings in small southem towns. Character- cause of pressed metal facades which still bear nameof
rooms, and medical examination and treatment rooms ized by plain brick walls with arched or pedimented manufacturer, G. L. Mesker and Company.
in original structure. windows placed symmetrically and corbelled brick
Comer Highway 41 K Q
and Camp Street Comer of SE 1st St. S-150
White Springs and Central Ave. Jennings
Camp House, built in 1898 by B. F. Camp, owner of Jasper McCall Bates House, built in 1860, by Ben McCall. Orna-
lumber company. Queen Anne derivative with wide W. Y. Sandlin House, built in 1899 as designed by mented two-story veranda, scroll-sawed brackets con-
porch, octagonal tower, and wrought iron fence sur- George A. Davis. Brick house with original veranda and necting column and cornice and tumed balusters.
rounding yard. Still occupied by Camp descendants, balustrade details and etched glass, marble sills, and Double door entry with sidelights. Two small gables at
cherry woodwork, north gable roof. Wood frame with flush siding.
Highway 41I R
White Springs 306 Central Avenueroad off 141
Stephen Foster Memorial and Museum (on bank of Jasper Dirt road off 141
Suwannee River), museum complex honoring Stephen W. R. Drury House, built in the mid-nineteenth century
Collins Foster. Building in Classical Revival style with frame construction on brick piers. entral hall with Apalahoochee Bridge, built in 1911 by Roanoke Bridge
Collinsg antique musical in Cl assical Revival style two roomson both sides and regularly spacedwindows. Company, second oldest steel truss bridge in Florida.
200 foousing antique musicalrFront porch possible addition. Span of 75 feet. Channel bars braced with cap and stay
plates, angle bars, and steel rods and supported by lally
PETER E. PRUGH, AIA, FLORIDA NORTH CHAPTER
In 1539, when Hernando DeSoto's party of Spanish I
adventurers came to the area now known as Suwan- '-
nee County, the region was inhabited by the N l- F "
Timucuan Indians. The Spanish named the river bordering
the north, west, and south of the county Rio San deGuacara, _
a name later corrupted to Suwannee and made famous by 5- /,
Stephen Foster's popular song, Old Folks At Home. \ ,
The Spanish established three missions in Suwannee -
County along the old Spanish trail connecting St. Augustine
and Pensacola, but, by the beginning of the eighteenth cen-_ J -
tury, attacks by the English had destroyed these. A hundred
years later Georgia settlers followed the old salt road to the
Gulf of Mexico where boiled sea water could provide a source MA
for essential salt. After the War of 1812 and the acquisition of
Florida by the United States from Spain in 1821, American
settlers began to move into north Florida. Conflicts with the
Seminole Indians led the U.S. Congress to construct a mili-
tary road which followed the old Spanish trail across north -- _
Florida. In 1824, the first permanent settlers, the Ruben \
Charles family, came to Suwannee County and began the
operation of a ferry and trading post at the junction of the new
Bellamy Road and the Suwannee River about five miles
south of today's Dowling Park.
To protect the new settlers from Indian raids, forts were
built in the area. Steamboats opened the river to commerce in
1837. With the conclusion of the Second Seminole Indian Z7
War in 1842, settlers flooded into North Florida, and new
counties were formed with Suwannee County established in
1858. The 1860 federal census listed the county population
as 2,303. Frontier architecture, a response to a rigorous life- commercial structures were built in Luraville, Wellborn,
style, used indigenous materials and expedient building and Live Oak. In 1897 a new water plant replaced mosquito-
methods. infested individual home cisterns in Live Oak, and streets
While Suwannee River steamboats brought commerce to were paved in 1906.
the county by carrying cargo and passengers and operating Highway construction after World War II, especially the
as floating general stores, the building of railroads changed completion of 1-10 in the 1970's, changed social and eco-
the area by moving development away from the river. In 1861, nomic structures that had shaped the county for a century.
the Florida and Atlantic and Gulf Central Railroad linked While still a major agricultural center, Suwannee County
Jacksonville and Pensacola. During the Civil War, the Con- expanded and diversified the industrial sector as highway
federacy constructed a north-south rail line through the systems allowed construction of new plants throughout the
county to DuPont, Georgia. The station at the intersection of county. The Suwannee River gained influence as a major
these railroads became the site for the new community of recreation and tourist resource.
Live Oak which was made the county seat in 1868. With rail- Renewed interest in preserving the architectural heritage
road transportation available, sawmills, turpentine stills, of the county was evident in Live Oak as many of the homes
cotton gins, and manufacturing brought booming commerce, with Victorian Revival features were saved. The turn-of-the-
Lumber and wood products were a major part of the county's century courthouse was restored, many downtown commer-
growth, and cotton was the main agricultural product until the cial structures were renovated, and the old train station was
boll weevil disaster of 1915. moved in 1985 to save it from being demolished. However,
Regional architecture changed with the growth of the area. valuable examples of early regional architecture in the rural
Wood frame buildings such as the 1866 Hull-Hawkins House areas deteriorated, and Wellborn had residences and com-
(the hub of a 1,580-acre plantation ten miles south of Live Oak mercial buildings in need of preservation. Collectively these
on Highway 49) were constructed. Reflecting the popularity structures offer an accurate record of late nineteenth and
of the Victorian Revival style of the late nineteenth century, early twentieth century architecture in north Florida.
A G M
Comer of Ohio Ave.
105 North Houston South Ohio Avenue and Duval Street
Avenue and Parshley Street Live Oak
Live Oak Live Oak
Mayor Broome House, built at turn of century by former Live Oak Post Office, built 1915. Neo-Classic Revival Masonic Lodge #43, built 1922. Example of classical
mayor. Featuring Victorian Revival decorative ele- features of low hip tile roof, elaborate brick details, and influence on institutional architecture of odest scale
ments, one of few remaining houses in town area pri- belt courses. Palladian-inspired windows on two sides th els, and ntricately ilasters, sne belt curse,
marily inhabited by railroad workers arranged in formal facade with central entry. ann intricately detiled pedimented entry with
flanking Corinthian pilasters'
B H N
Ohio Avenue 110 Parshley Street North of railroad
Live Oak Live Oak Wellbom
Old Live Oak City Hall-Police Department and Suwan- Blackwell-Airth House, built 1886-89 by B.B. Blackwell, McLeran Stores, financed by trading cotton for lumber
nee County Museum, built 1908 with square plan, tower, banker and state legislator. Masonry structure with 1897 by A. W. McLeran. Now vacant, one of few sur-
and central hall. Decorative elements in Italianate style, pronounced segmental drips over windows, moved to viving wood frame nineteenth century commercial
present site in 1910 to make way for new post office. buildings. Pitched roof behind a parapet wall and two
bay windows projecting into front porch.
202 East Duval Street I
Live Oak 626 South Ohio Ave. 0
Dr. White House, constructed 1904 with Hildreath as Uve Oak County Road S-137
architect and builder, a wedding gift from Judge White to Wellborn
sonWilliams House, built by Thomas Dowling for a daughter
son. Four square plan with porch on two sides Quen n in 1900. Typical north Florida wood frame structure with Brick Commercial Structure, south of railroad. Example
Anne style, attic story bedrooms and back addition brick piers, foursquare plan, central entry, and porch on of brick masonry commercial architecture with arched
a d in .two sides. openings on side walls, iron frame with wooden infill on
main facade, and center entry flanked by two iron
406 East Duval Street
Live Oak 704 South Ohio Ave. p
Dowling House-Senior Citizen's Home, built 1904 by Kirby House, buit by Thomas Dow fo daughter in Southofrailroa
Thomas Dowling, lumber and railroad entrepreneur. Kirby House, buiitbyTomasDowlingforadaughter, in Wellbom
Thomas Dowling, lumber and railroad entrepreneur. 1900. Wood frame structure with projecting front bay,
Wood frame building with double gables and Greek ood Waters House, built in late nineteenth century, several
Revival characteristics of massive wood columns on balusters in connecting balustrade additions. Originally four square plan with central entry,
three sides supporting prominent cornice. Victorian Revival ornamentation with modified Chinese
chippendale balustrades on porches at both levels.
OhHaines Street 702 Pine Street Q
Live Oak Live Oak Highway 49
Live Oak Station, designed by the Office of the Chief McDowell House, built before 1900. Constructed of Uve Oak
Engineer of the Seaboard Airline Railroad and built for masonry to base of gables with flush siding in pediment, Hull-Hawkins House (10 miles south of Live Oak on west
$13,129 in 1909. Relocated in 1985to avoid demolition. colonets supporting porch roof, hexagonal turret at side of Highway49),7Qilt 1866 as hub of 1,580 acre
corner with bell cap roof with flaired eaves. plantation by Noble A. Hull, state legislator when Ordi-
nance of Secession passed. Two story wood frame
structure, porches recently enclosed.
South Ohio Avenue Comrner of Suwannee
Live Oak Ave. and Highway 51 R
Suwannee County Courthouse, built about 1900 of Live Oak Comer of Hwy. 51
yellow brick with stone quoins and detailing. Recently Rogers House, built 1900. Projecting bay windows, and Luraville Road
restored, Queen Anne style featuring elaborately de- polygonal turret topped by flattened bell-shaped cupola, Luraville
tailed ornamentation, entrance ways, and fenestration and porch surrounding two sides supported by square Dr. Mclntosh House, built late nineteenth century by
and clock tower with metal dome. Doric columns in brick piers. physician as home with office in one-story wing con-
nected by porch. L-shaped frame two-story Neo-Classic
structure with intricate scroll-sawn wood palings and
brackets on porches.
WILLIAM HUNTER, AIA, FLORIDA NORTH CHAPTER
One of Florida's smallest counties in size and During the early 1800's, settlers from Alabama, Georgia,
population, Lafayette County was created by an and the Carolinas moved to northern Florida to become
act of the General Assembly of Florida on De- traders or plantation owners, many with slaves. In 1818,
cember 23,1856, from an area which had been General Andrew Jackson led a military group of American
part of Madison County and was named in honor of the regulars, Creek Indian allies, and Tennessee volunteers to
Marquis de Lafayette, an American Revolutionary War hero. drive out the Seminole Indians along the Spanish Florida
Dixie County was created from the lower part of Lafayette in border. In 1826, five years after Florida was ceded to the
1921. The county's inhabitable area is a narrow strip of land United States by Spain, land was surveyed and could be
between the Suwannee River, which is the county's east- bought cheaply. However, by 1835 the Seminole Indians had
northeast border, and Mallory Swamp, which extends into moved back to Mallory Swamp, and palisade forts were built
neighboring Dixie and Taylor counties. The county seat was in the Lafayette County region to provide protection so that
first located in Mclntosh and then Troy and moved to Mayo settlement of the area was not discouraged during the
in 1893. 1835-42 Seminole Wars. Before the Civil War, Suwannee
The Spanish explorer Narvaez crossed the Suwannee River trade had provided opportunities for prosperous settlers
River on May 17, 1528, near Oldtown. In 1539, Hernando to exchange livestock for tools and dry goods; but during the
DeSoto searched for gold in the region, and the Spanish Civil War, many homesteads were destroyed by freed slaves
established missions north of Lafayette in 1637 to make and Confederate and Union soldiers.
Christians of the area's inhabitants, the Timucuan Indians. After the Civil War, in 1885, a freeze influenced farmers to
Later British invasions destroyed many of the Spanish and switch from citrus to other crops. The Suwannee River pro-
Indian settlements. vided shipment of cotton and vegetables by steamboat. The
;l lumber industry was spurred on by the building of a railroad
-- .3 from Live Oak to Luraville. By 1910, steel bridges spanned
the Suwannee so the railroads could better serve the area.
More recently tobacco, livestock, dairy and poultry, pine
-. timber, pulp and hardwood products have become vital to the
,_ ? county's economy. Outdoor recreational opportunities are
provided by the river, lakes, and springs. The Steinhatchee
3- it Wildlife Management Area protects wildlife in 100,000 acres.
r' In the mid-1980's preservation in Mayo and Lafayette
J --1 County was limited to efforts of individual property owners.
/ The structures that remain in the county were saved more by
f- minimum area growth than organized preservation activity.
'r ? Many buildings suffered from lack of maintenance.
I'- I j
A D F
Corer of Fletcher & Comer of Fletcher Corner San Padre
Main Streets, N.W. and Bloxham Streets and Main Streets NW
Mayo Mayo Mayo
New Lafayette County Courthouse was built in 1908 by Old Lafayette County Courthouse, built in 1893-94 as Brick Office Building, built in 1916 as drug store, later
Mutual Construction Company of Louisville, Ky., with courthouse for Lafayette County, moved to present site housed Mayo Free Press, now unoccupied. Decorative
E. C. Hasford Company of Atlanta, Ga., as architects. in 1909 when commissioners voted to build fire-proof brick and arched windows.
Two-story structure of Neo-Classical style with inter- courthouse. One of most massive buildings in Mayo with
secting central halls. Significant architectural features later addition of large two-story verandas extending
of balustrades, porticos (two one-story porticos and one around three sides.
two-story portico), and clock tower. Built of Indiana lime-
stone for fire-proofing with cast-iron and wood interior.
Materials sent by rail to O'Brien, then by wagon to Mayo,
crossing at Grant Ferry North of Troy Springs.
S .tate Road 51
E North of Mayo
Comer of Clark and Hal W. Adams Bridge at the Suwannee River, built in
Bloxham Streets NW 1947 to span the Suwannee River and to connect
Mayo Suwannee and Lafayette counties. A four-hundred and
B House of the Seven Gables, designed by James twenty-three foot span, first suspension bridge in
Mitchell after reading Nathanial Hawthorne's House Florida
Comer of Monroe and of Seven Gables and built in 1880's by Mack Koon,
Main Streets N.W. builder. Octagonal-shaped main section with seven
Mayo free standing gables, eighth side extending into rear
M. Pico Building was built in 1915 on site of lodge build- wing which originally contained kitchen and dining
ing destroyed by fire. Focal point for central business ros Rest of house divided into four pie-shaped
district. Structure decorated with brickwork coice, rooms, one living room and three bedrooms. Originally
three feet high, formed by vari-colored as well as pro- porches surrounding seven of eight sides of house,
truding brickwork. exterior decoration of diagonally cut wood shingles in H
herringbone pattern, and eves of each of gables deco- State Road 51
rated with small sawn teeth placed along edges. South of Mayo
Drew Bridge at Suwannee River (left at first paved road,
travel four to five miles, tum left at sharp curve onto dirt
road, left at "T, next right to river), built in 1907 as swing
bridge, first bridge to connect Lafayette and Suwannee
C counties, not used in mid 1980's.
Old Mayo Free Press Building, next to old courthouse,
built in 1888 to house Mayo Free Press (Lafayette
County's oldest continuous business, now a weekly
newspaper housed in brick building off Main Street).
Granny's Country Store, mid 1980's occupant of this
twenty-by-forty-feet, wood frame building.
RONALD W. HAASE, AIA, FLORIDA NORTH CHAPTER
Modern history of Columbia County dates back to
the sixteenth century with evidence of an early
Spanish mission located on the shores of Lake
Alligator. Significant inland populations did not
develop until the eighteenth century when the British made
positive efforts to settle families in Florida. By the time of
the American Revolution, several prosperous plantations
were established in what is now Columbia County.
As late as 1817, the present site of Lake City was an Indian
village named Alligator after a Seminole chief. By 1824, after
Andrew Jackon's First Seminole War, several white families
were known to live in the area. When Columbia County was N'
officially established in 1832, the town of Alligator was desig-
nated as the county seat. Fresh water lakes, forests, and Z
fertile land led to rapid growth and development during the [ + d
county's early history. In 1859, residents became dissatisfied -
with the name Alligator and officially incorporated the town as
About this same time the extension of the Florida, Atlantic,
and Gulf Central Railroad to Lake City encouraged further "
economic growth in the area and allowed the use of mass-
produced building materials and mill work. Cotton was the 4
main attraction to permanent settlers in this part of Florida;
but tobacco, lumber, naval stores, and citrus production (until NS D 05
the freeze of 1895) made Columbia County a growing and
prosperous place at the turn of the century. Most of Columbia TO
County's significant architecture dates from this era. The
structures reflect the effect of mass production, standardiza-
tion of building materials, and response to commercial and
institutional development. ,1 .
The State Agricultural and Mechanical College was estab- cc 0
lished in Lake City in 1893. After the college was elevated to A oER
the status of the University of Florida in 1905, the location was" 1 0 R
moved to Gainesville. On the original Lake City college site, a
Veterans Administration Hospital now functions and provides
employment for many area residents. I o ..
Columbia County is bordered by the Suwannee River to the i 25 t
northwest and the Olustee and Santa Fe rivers to the south. ---, I
A major portion of the county lies in Sandlin Bay Pinhook '
Swamp and Osceola National Forest. Farming and phos- "".o 2 cu o ac0 t'.
phate mining dominate the remaining open landscape. Only 20 .,' .
two metropolitan areas are incorporated: Lake City with a / 20 I-
population over 12,000 and Fort White, a small community o
named after a Seminole War fort. The 1980 census listed
Columbia County's population at 35,399. U.S. highways 90
and 41-441 provided major east-west and north-south traffic
routes until interstate highways 10 and 75 were constructed
north and west of Lake City. 1-75 stimulated growth along
U.S. 90 west of Lake City but removed highway traffic from
Both the Columbia County Historical Society and the His-
toric Preservation Board of Lake City and Columbia County
take an active role in preserving the area's past. The History
of Columbia County and A Century in the Sun: Lake City
1859-1959 document the story of this county.
A G M
North Hemando St. 105 South Heando US 27 at US 47
Lake City Lake City Fort White
Columbia County Courthouse, built in 1905 with Frank May Vinzant Perkins House, built in 1865, bumed and Fort White Bank, built in 1860's as primary bank in area
P. Milbum as architect. Classic Revival style with cupola rebuilt in 1890. Two-story wood frame house, four- but closed during 1930's depression. Currently real es-
and dome removed and parapet modified at later date. square plan with verandas on three sides. Building tate office.
being restored by Historic Preservation Board as Civil
Lake City Fort White
Old Post Office, built as 1932 Works Progress Adminis- 202 West Duval Old Post Office, one block east of US 47, built in 1850's
tration project. Mediterranean Revival style civic build- Lake City and used as post office until 1964. Now a gift shop.
ing now used as courthouse annex. Architect: James A. Duncan-Herlog House, begun in 1907 for Horace A.
Wetmore. Duncan. Queen Anne style residence of brick and stone
masonry which initially also served as funeral parlor.
Recently restored and converted to offices.
200 North Marion St. J. R. Terry Grocery, one block westCUi4 bult in
Ol.Pstfieui Lake City J. R. Old oce, one block west of US 47, buit in
Hotel Blanche, bult in 1902, named after owner's U.S. 90 (3 mi. west 1890's by grandfather of Senator Lawton Chiles, origi-
daughter. Social centerfor Lake City and populartourist of 1-75) nal commercial buildings known as The Chiles Store
stopping place registering Goveor Fred Cone as resi- Lake Cty one of three remaining.
dent and, at onetime, Al Capone as guest. Bri BireyGray Plantation, buit in 1898 by Henry R. Biriey.
masonry building with three stories, three bays, quoins, Second floioradded in 1917, several early out-buildings.
and bracketed comrice. Now converted to business and'
/.J J. T GNorth ByronStreet
Heriong Road Fort White
(west of US 47) Stevenson House, built in 1870's by McKinney, local
D Lake City designer-builder of other structures still standing in Fort
502 North Marion St. Watkins Estate (Penwood), built before Civil War as White.
Lake Cty plantation house, acquired by Watkins family in 1909.
Old Columbia County Bank, well-maintained Neo- Classical Revival portico added by Isaac Watkins.
Classic building. Governor Fred Cone, one of founders Edgar Watkins said to have shot Bele Starr.
K Fort White
Corinth Road Fort White School, built in 1915 by A J. Greene with
E (north of US 47) W. J. Sneil as architect. Italianate style, closed in 1967
203 West Desoto Lake City when consolidation led to centralized high school in
Lake City Corinth Methodist Church, estimated construction, Lake City.
Old Courthouse, built in 1874-75 and moved from its 1860, built on foundations of old house.
location on Olustee Square in 1902. Now a rooming
house. Porch added later.
US 131 (12 miles
207 South Marion Falling Creek Church and Cemetery, built in 1899,
2Lae C rty o gable-ended wood clapboard church with metal roof.
Marcello-Henderson House, built at tum of the century. Interesting 1910 decorative wood fence surrounding
Elaborate Victorian Revival style with a Moorish motif grave in cemetery.
expressed in omramentation, especially on second-floor
RICHARD H. MORSE, AIA, FLORIDA NORTH CHAPTER
Union County, the smallest county in Florida, has an
area of 248 square miles and a 1980 population of
10,532. Its natural boundaries are the Olustee, New
and Santa Fe rivers. In the one hundred years before
formal designation as a county, the area had been part of
St. Johns, Duval, Alachua, New River, and Bradford counties. 21 O
When this area was part of Bradford County, the county seat K
drifted back and forth between Lake Butler and Starke without 231 A
resolution. To avoid the problem of county seat location, area 100o
leaders decided to divide Bradford County; and, in 1921, the 121
state legislature established Union County with Lake Butler ak Butler
as the county seat. 2.
Located in the crown section of north central Florida, Union Providence 2
County's flat terrain has an abundance of pine woodland 41
which promoted turpentine and lumber as major industries in
early area history. Even today the lumber industry is a major ,A21
economic factor with the Owens-Illinois Corporation owning or
74,707 acres of pine forest, almost half the area of the county. NOTr
The land was suitable for growing Sea Island cotton. At the
turn of the century, cotton was a booming industry in the
county with one cotton gin reporting a quarter of a million
dollars in business in the Lake Butler area. When the boll L
weevil moved into the county in 1919, the cotton industry wasL k e Butler
halted. Growers turned to lumber, cattle, poultry, and food
In the developing years of the region before the turn of the
century, the railroad's passing through a town was a guaran-
tee of growth and prosperity. In 1880, the Georgia Southern
and Florida track was laid across Union County on its way J
west from Jacksonville and passed through Lake Butler.
Some years later the Atlantic Coastline Railroad was also
routed through Lake Butler. Passenger service declined after / N 2 nd
World War II, but railroad freight business still has an activeI
role in the economy of the region. Important highway systems --'J
bypassed Lake Butler. 1 --
As the area developed in the latter half of the 19th century,I J ^( )lJ1 z
the architecture changed from simple structures built of DI I J7 -- K--
indigenous materials to compositions of spindel columns,
brackets, and jigsaw traceries which were possible because -- R3 ----- 5
of accessible sawmills, turning lathes, and mass-production
of windows, doors, and decorative elements.
Today, major economic forces in Union County include the 8 i
prison and correctional facilities near Raiford (Lake Butler F_ 1
Reception and Medical Center, Union Correctional Institu- I
tion, and Florida State Prison) where many county residents
work. Others commute to larger cities such as Jacksonville or
Lake Butler, the largest town in this small county, has the
greatest number of historic buildings in the area.
A F 'I
SR 121 ............ 340 West Main Street 10 East Main Street
Worthington Spring Lake Butler Lake Butler
First United Methodist Church, built in 1893. Vemacular Strickland House, built in 1912 by M. L. McKinney, Bank of Lake Butler, built in 1906, now barber shop with
Victorian Revival church architecture, single-hung sash ownership assumed by Strickland family in late 1920's. chairs of leather and white porcelain appropriate to sur-
replaced arched windows usually associated with this Two-story wood frame with gable roof and two project- roundings even though not a part of original building.
style. ing gables on front, porch roof supported by plain round Interesting architectural features: arched window, brick
columns on brick pedestals. Porch on three sides of detail at cornice, and original metal ceiling.
house with projecting gazebo at north-east comer,
steep sheet metal conical roof emphasizing gazebo,
projecting gable defining entry. Renovated in late
1970's for day care center, now vacant.
283 Northeast L
Third St. 180 South Lake Ave.
Lake Butler ae tl
Lake Butler Women's Club, building constructed in 1923 York House, built in 1872 by Capt. Henry F. York.
as county's first courthouse on present courthouse site, Moderate late Victorian Revival house, typical of tun-of-
moved to present location in 1936, and later given to there aes in r al at wto of t
club. Wood-frame construction with porch addition, 324 West Main St. the-century houses in North oridawith wood frame on
original embossed metal siding still in place on old build- Lake Butler masonry piers, large prches on both first and second
ing which has been renovated and remodeled. Old School House, built in early 1890's. First public floors, sheet metal roof with standing seams, and brick
building, used as school until 1908, now the Masonic chimney aeaed
York Pottery made.
Hall. Metal hipped roof, two double-hung windows at Poter e
second level blocked up.
Between West Fourth
& Fifth Avenues and
North First & Second
Lake Butler H 235 South Lake Ave.
1910 Jail on private property, two cells with iron grate 190 West Main St. Lake Butler
doors and small barred windows on north, brick-vault Lake Butler Boarding house (now single family rental residence),
roof with three iron tie rods at spring line and stucco Fowler Brothers Building, built in 1907. Typical tum-of- built by a Mr. Futch of Hampton, Florida, in 1892. Late
finish inside and out. the-century commercial building, brick arched window Victorian Revival house with little omamentation. Origi-
openings with double-hung sash. Original cast-iron nally, there was a circular gazebo at left of entry,
work at front entry replaced with aluminum store-front matching one at right.
410 West Main St. N
Lake Butler 105 Southeast
Commercial Building, built as drugstore in 1890's by First Ave.
J.W. Townsend, used as drugstore until 1950's then as 55 West Main St Lake Butler
restaurant, upper level bumed in 1983, currently vacant. Lake Butler King House, built in 1892 by John A. King around small
Brick arches over curvilinear wood sash windows on Lake Butler King House, built in 1892 by John A. King around small
eastBrick arches over curvilojectinear wood sash window metal vase- on Union County Courthouse, built in 1936 by Work building on site which became kitchen of main house.
like ofacade, ments on east side and north front, present Projects Administration (WPA funds: $32,000, county L-shaped gable roof with Mansard form at intersection
canopy not original, cast iron details at entrance. Origi- funds: $7,000). Monumental brick structure with con- and projecting gable covering second floor porch,
nally eastemmost building in a block of two-story build- crete quoins and concrete bands at window sill lines.
ings with continuous sidewalk metal canopy for entire First architect: John Pearson, Gainesville; additions in
block, other buildings demolished. 1967 by architect Harry E. Bums, Jr., Quincy, and
Vinson T. Forrester, Jr., builder.
210 North Lake Ave.
E odum House, built by W. L Odum in 1895, one of finest
345 East Main Street J residences still in existence in county. Queen Anne style
Lake Butler 30 West Main St. with irregular roof massing, basically hip roof with three
First United Methodist Church, built in 1920, oldest Lake Butler large cross gables and a separate roof beneath to cover
church building in town, Victorian Revival style with bat- Permenter Brothers Building, built in 1896 as retail porch, small projecting gable defining entry. Porches on
tlements on parapet of entrance tower, stucco on brick. store, now used for storage by Rivers Hardware Store. east and south intersecting at gazebo, omamental bal-
Brick structure with entry recessed at center arch, cast ustrade on porch repeated at porch roof, windows in
iron step with original owner's name still in place. pairs, double-hung, without shutters.
BERTRAM Y. KINZEY, AIA, FLORIDA NORTH CHAPTER
Early settlers in Bradford County, primarily farmers
from Georgia and South Carolina, arrived about the
time of the Second Seminole War, 1835-1842. Their
principal crops were corn and cotton with some cattle produc-
tion. Basically, the architecture consisted of survival struc- 1/
tures made from on-site materials. Log houses with mud and i
stick chimneys were common. Fort Crabbe on the New River, L' KA T# E
Fort Hardee on the Santa Fe River, and Fort Van Cortlandt,
southeast of Kingsley Lake, were built to provide protection
from Indian attacks. New River Baptist Church, the oldest
Baptist church in Florida, was founded in 1831. ..
With the coming of rail transportation through the county in /
1858, linking the area with Jacksonville and Cedar Key, the
agrarian economy was augmented by lumber and turpentine
industries. The new prosperity and growth were interrupted
by the Civil War. When post-war conditions stabilized and /
building resumed, standardized materials and hardware were
available and buildings were decorated with the latest fancy \ .: I 'h t
millwork. t 2
Bradford County, which included Union County until 1921, / ]-
was named for the first Confederate officer from Florida who
died in action, Captain Richard Bradford. There was much
controversy over the location of the county seat. Starke,. \
which was incorporated in 1876, wanted the seat moved from-- ---.
Lake Butler. With the formation of Union County in 1921, both] '\- I-
Lake Butler and Starke became county seats. Four incor- -
porated municipalities exist in Bradford County today -
Starke, Brooker, Lawtey, and Hampton.
Freezing weather in 1894-1895 eliminated the orange
groves developed in the county, and by 1920 the boll weevil o
destroyed cotton crops. To replace these agricultural
products, strawberries were cultivated. Now Bradford County
claims the title, "Berry Capital of the World." Farming is
diversified with truck crops, watermelons, and pecans among
During World War II, the location of Camp Blanding east of I
Starke brought a surge in population to the area. The camp
remains as a National Guard center. Also influencing popu-
lation is the location of the Florida State Prison at Raiford
The most significant architecture in the county is in Starke
where there is increasing interest in the rehabilitation of older
buildings with a major contribution by the private sector. In
1970, a Board of Historic Trustees was formed to purchase
buildings for restoration or renovation. One of the board's
projects, the old courthouse, has been adapted to serve as a
regional center for Santa Fe Junior College. The Bradford
County Historical Society also fosters interest in the archi-
Madison St. at orth side of 400 Church St. and
S. Pine St. block of W. Call St. Jackson St.
Lawtey Starke StaRke
Grace Methodist church, built 1889, excellent example Commercial Block, late nineteenth century buildings. St. Mark's Episcopal Church, built 1880 in Fairbanks
of Victorian revival architecture. Addition in same style From east to west: first-floor stable with second floor and moved to Starke in 1905, typical example Florida
constructed within decade of original. opera house and armory; 1890 building, originally Victorian Revival church architecture. Rectory,
housing law offices upstairs and post office on ground originally social hall at Camp Blanding; parish house,
level, now drug store; and 1870 building on west comer, originally cotton gin at NE comer of Madison St. and
served as courthouse until 1902. Thompson St.
N. Grove St. at
W. Lake St.
Kaiser Residence, built at tum of century, typical two- H N
story wood frame residence with original clapboard 305 N. Walnut St. 400 S. Water St.
siding and windows. Later addition in rear. Starke Starke
E. M. Johns Residence, built 1920, state senator's George Pace House, built 1880 for local merchant.
house. Victorian Revival details simulating brick infill of Early Victorian Revival house which had surrounding
timber frame and random brick pattems. Incongruous first floor porch. Second-floor porch, siding, and
white columns supporting entry gable and porch added shutters to north added later.
32 S.R. 18 across
Home Homestead, Roland Residence, built about
1830. Large frame dwelling with original bam on site, at O
one time a railroad boarding house. Original finishes 304-308 S. Water St.
replaced with asbestos cement siding and metal roof 315 N. Walnut St. starke
and large porch reduced by 1965 den addition.Starke Dr. J. O. Haynes Residence, built 1890 as dentist's
Sanders House, built about 1870 by Lawrence Wall. one-story Victorian Revival house. Delicately spaced
Strong asymmetrical facade with entry to right empha- porch columns contrasting with heavy, incompatible
sized by large second-story bay and porch roof pedi- posts of airport addition.
ment, full-width porch balancing entry.
W. Call St. and
N. Temple St.
Old Bradford County Courthouse, built 1902. Fine Bessent Road and
example of Victorian Romanesque Revival brick public 319 N. Walnut StSt.a
building, on National Register of Historic Places. Starke First Presbyterian Church, built 1886, Victorian
Builders: Smith and Blackbu and F. Dobson. Adapted R. A. Green House, built 1922 by at Steberg. example, comer entry comatible with original location
for use by Santa Fee Community College, 1985. Victorian Revival with details simulating stucco infill of at SE coerof N. Cherry St. and Bridges St. Historic
second story timber work, brick first story, casements, Jardine organ sold before building move.
entry arch, and steep gables.
Church St. and
Comer L Peek Residence, built at tum of century for a 324-326N. Walnut St.
professor at Starke Institute. Classical Revival house on Starke
high foundation with imposing two-story hexagonal N. B. Hull House, built 1882 forgeneral store ownerwho
portico, originally located at 211 W. Madison St. Behind served as postmaster several terms. Unusual features:
house, facing Call St., Peek's realty business office. two-story porch and clipped gables.
SE comer W. Call St. L
and S. Walnut St.5
Starke 556 N. Chery St.
Bradford County Bank, built 1914 at cost of $12,500. Stance
Typical Neo-Classical bank building of early twentieth Stemberg House, built 1885 by early merchant, Sidney
century. Brick structure with limestone Ionic columns, Stemberg of Truby and Stemburg General Store. Vir-
pedimented entry, comices, and base, now used as a tually unaltered example of large two-story frame house
jewelry store, with full attic, high foundation, and continuous verandas
at each floor on three sides.
ANTHONYJ. DASTA AND ROCKE HILL, ARCHITECTS
When the commission would not yield to their request, the .
state legislature was petitioned to create a new county, and dispu
nce a part of Alachua County, Florida's newe gov- as part of a network of North Florida forts used for defense
ernmental seat of the new county. Rated duher than build a disputnew against hostile Indians during the 1835 Seminole War. It is
between area residents and the Alachua County 9
Commission. In the mid 1920' area citizens requested that believed this particular site was chosen because of the high
a road to be built fA nm the Suwannee River at Fanning Springs located nearby. Later, during the Civil War,
to Gainesville to help promote economic development.
When the commission would not yield to their request, the it was used to store cotton.
courthouse. Unfortunately this old building burned in 1932 Tyler, located in a phosphate belt, is a prosperous agricul-
state legislature was petitioned to create a new county, and tural community, the first town in the county to have electric
Thea resolution waa's development beganovember andbout 1840 when John B. farmers started planting watermelons and raising hogs
December, 1925, by Governor John W. Martin. It contained
one change. The name Gilchrist was substituted as the Located a short distance west of the Suwannee River and
county name in honor of Abert H. Gilchrist, an ex-governor, approximately 200 yards north pur- Hart Springs, one of four major springs in the present Highcounty, was
instead of the name Melon for one of the area's abundant an open field which was the site of Fort Fanning. trips and was
crops. Major A.C.W. Fanning, this log fort was built about 1842 after the
An election determined that Trenton would be the gov- as part of a network of North Florida forts used forest on the
ernmental seat of the new county Rather than build a new against hostile Indians during the 1835 Seminole War. Suwannee River.is
courthouse, officials decided new schools and roads were believed this particular site was chosen because of the high
more important. A new school was built in Trenton, and the bluff and springs located nearby. Later, during the Cross the
old two-story frame school building was converted into the it was used to store cotton.
courthouse. Unfortunately this old building burned in 1932 Tyler, located in a phosphate belt, is a prosperoue, and danc.
destroying nearly all of the county's records. A new court- tural community, the lder settlements on the is seeking to attract industrial town in thdevelopment to the region.
house, completed in 1933, continues in use. Alachua lights. After bell weevils wiped out cotworkof quiet ton crops in 1907-1908,
The area's development began about 1840 when John B. farmers started planting watermelons and raisin though
Stanley, one of the area's first settlers, moved into the region Today, watermelon, corn, and soybeans are Gilchrist's majoruse
and purchased a large tract of land from the government, money crops.
William FP Smith arrived in 1870 from Levy County, pur- Hart Springs, one of four major springs in the county, was
Trchased land from Stanleyton and Wilcoxbuilt the Joppa Church and crossed by the Creekriver north of Fannduring huntingthey remain in constant usetrips and receive the maintenance
Springlroads whichmeant success or failure to early town ofns in the Suwannee River. and repair necessary to preserve them.
E. Wade St at N. Main St. at N. Main St. at
NE Second St. NE FirstAve. NE Lancaster St.
Trenton Trenton Trenton
First Baptist Church. Congregation established before Trenton City Hall, built in late 1930s. Two-story red brick Warehouse. Probably one of the oldest commercial
1890. Building constructed during 1920's. One story facade. Side and back walls of yellow concrete block, buildings in Gilchrist County. One-story wood frame
red brick masonry with projecting entry porch and gable Brick quoin decorations at front corners and window structure, gable roof, dormer, and roof sheathed in
roof. Two story additions at rear. openings. Roof sheathed in metal shingles, open metal. Large sliding door faces railroad tracks.
E. Wade St. at H N. Main St.
NE First St. N. Main St. at at NW Fifth Ave.
Trenton NW Fourth Ave. Trenton
Residence, built in 1917. Two-story wood frame, simple Trenton Coca Cola Building. Once a Coca-Cola bottling and dis-
Bungalow style with masonry piers and paired wood Trenton Depot, built in 1904. One-story wood frame tribution center, later Gilchrist County Chamber of Com-
columns. Gable roof with bracketed wide overhangs, building with vertical siding, gable roof with wide over- merce, then in disrepair and not in use. One-story red
hangs, and an open truss ceiling. Trusses supported brick structure with hip roof, tower, cast stone details.
on wood braced columns. Several additions to the rear. Several additions to the rear of the structure.
Not in use in mid 1980's and in disrepair.
E. Wade St. at
S. Main St.
Gilchrist County Courthouse, built in 1933 and de- N. Main St.
signed by Smith, Holborn, and Dozier of Jacksonville NWThird Ave. Trenton
and constructed as part of Works Progress Administra- Trenton Trenton High School, built in 1924. Designed by
tion. Two-story red brick with decorative corbeled Mother's Soup Kitchen, behind commercial buildings Newblod L. Goin. Trenton's only high school and Gil-
courses, arched window openings with drip courses, on N. Main St., built in 1914. In use during economic christ County's first high school. Two-story red brick
triple arched entry porch, and 1965 additions, ordeals of the early twentieth century. One-room wood building with flat roof, cast stone details, and arched
frame building with horizontal wood siding, wood piers, from entry porch.
and a roof sheathed in metal.
S. Main St. at
SE First Ave. J
Trenton NW Second Ave. at State Highway 49
Trenton Church of Christ, built in 1920. One-story, NW Second St. Bell
Florida field limestone rubble masonry structure, brick Trenton Bell High School, constructed in 1928. Two-story light
quoins at openings, arched windows, triple-arched Residence, formerly Gilchrist County Jail. Two-story colored brick building with flat roof, cast stone coping
entry porch, gable roof. Additions to rear. masonry building with stucco exterior finish. Flat roof, at parapet, corbeled brick courses form panels in span-
triple-arched front porch. Upper level windows retaining drels. Front porch and other additions.
SW Fifth Ave. at
SW First St. K
Trenton NE Fourth Ave. at
Residence. One of the oldest residences in Trenton, an NE First St.
example of "Florida Cracker" vernacular style. One- Trenton
story wood frame, horizontal siding, masonry piers, Residence. One-and-one-half story wood frame build-
central brick chimney, gable roof, and wide porches. ing with horizontal siding. Gable roof with shed at the
rear. Masonry piers, wide porch the length of the
facade, bracketed wood columns.
NW First Ave.
at NW First St.
Trenton Hotel, built in 1920's. Wood frame building with
horizontal wood siding, hip roof with intersecting ga-
bles, sheet metal roofing. Entry porch with brick piers
and wood columns. Varied occupants.
CHARLES F MORGAN
Spanish explorers traveled through the area of
Alachua County as early as 1529. After the estab-
lishment of St. Augustine in 1565, several missions -
were built in the northern part of the county. The wood, red "
clay, and thatch missions did not survive in the Florida cli-
mate. Local Indians did not readily convert to Christianity IL
and revolted in 1656. In 1702, Creek Indians attacked and -L .
burned one mission, Santa Fe de Toloca.
The British acquired Florida in 1763 and governed until
1783. During that period, botanist William Bartram traveled |
in the county and studied the area south of present Gaines- /
ville, including the Indians near Micanopy and Payne's
Prairie. He wrote vivid descriptions in his 1791 book, Travels .
of William Bartram. (Payne's Prairie, now one of Florida's I
largest state preserves, was once a lake. In the nineteenth
century steamboats carried produce from the south edge of
the lake to Gainesville for rail shipments.)
Spain reoccupied Florida in 1783. An 1817 land grant from
the King of Spain, the Arredondo Grant, included much of
present day Alachua County. The United States acquired I
Florida in 1821. Settlers had moved into the Alachua area in
spite of intermittent resistance of the Seminole Indians which
continued into the 1840s.
Alachua County was created on December 29,1824, with
territory stretching from the Georgia border to Charlotte
Harbor. Subsequent land divisions, which only concluded a o k -
hundred years later, reduced Alachua to an interior county "
whose development was determined by land transportation. o ,
Newnansville, settled between 1823 and 1826 at the cross-
ing of early trails, was declared Alachua's county seat in
1828. Later the community was served by the Bellamy Road,
a road proposed at the first Florida Territorial Convention in in the replacement of the wood-frame commercial buildings
1832 to connect St. Augustine and Pensacola and built by with masonry structures.
John Bellamy. Education has been the chief business in Gainesville
Newnansville grew, even during the Seminole Wars since the Buckman Act of 1905 created the University of
period, but declined when the town was bypassed by rail- Florida in Gainesville. The University of Florida replaced
roads constructed in central Florida. In the 1850s settlers, East Florida Seminary, an earlier state college, and became
particularly those some distance from Newnansville, wanted co-educational in 1947. In addition, Santa Fe Community
a county seat on the proposed railroad between Fernandina College, opening in 1965, and Sunland Training Center, a
and Cedar Key. A small town near Payne's Prairie, Gaines- state institution for the mentally handicapped, contributed to
ville (named for Seminole War hero General Edmund P. the area's reputation as an educational center. Gainesville
Gaines and located on the railroad route), was designated has also evolved into a nationally known medical center with
as the new county seat in 1853. In 1860 the town had a popu- four major hospitals, including a teaching hospital, and the
lation of 300 and eight or nine small businesses and three university's health science center which trains future doctors,
hotels, all clustered around the courthouse square and the nurses, pharmacists, dentists, veterinarians, and other
1856 two-story frame courthouse. In 1884 the Savannah, health related professionals as well as conducting extensive
Florida, and Western Railroad reached Gainesville. research programs.
Gainesville became the region's agricultural center and The oldest permanent settlement in the county is
the state's fourth largest city despite the end of the local cit- Micanopy, established in 1821. Micanopy, Waldo, and Mel-
rus industry after several hard winters late in the last century, rose had populations in excess of 500 during the 1880s but
Cotton and lumber were major regional industries focused in failed to maintain growth after the turn of the century. Other
Gainesville. During this same period, the architectural nature incorporated towns in the county include Alachua, Newberry,
of Gainesville changed as several downtown fires resulted High Springs, LaCrosse and Hawthorne.
A F K
University of Florida 25 SE 2nd Place SW7th Way
Gainesville Gainesville Waldo
Library East, built in 1925. Designed by architect Wil- U.S. Post Office, designed by federal architect Thayer George Granger House. Elaborate Victorian Revival
liam A. Edwards, who also designed most of the univer- Ryerson and completed in 1911. Beau-Arts Classicism style, wood frame structure. Built in 1894 for George
sity's early buildings. This building with Peabody, Ander- style with modern innovations of the time, an elevator Granger, railroad engineer, when Waldo served as an
son, Floyd, Flint, and the University Auditorium, all in and steam heat. Interior significantly altered in 1980 for exchange point for goods and passengers on railroads
collegiate styles, define the Plaza of the Americas. use as a state theater, the Hippodrome Theatre. and canal to Lake Santa Fe and Melrose.
Library East remodeled and expanded in 1949.
University of Florida Windsor
Gainesville R. W. Kelly House, built in 1884 for Kelly when Windsor
University Auditorium, built in 1924. Auditorium served i was an active citrus center. Town in decline after major
for all university assemblies, including chapel. Origi- 408 W University Ave. 1890's freezes with many buildings lost to fires and
nally intended to receive addition for university adminis- Gainesville neglect.
trative functions to face the plaza. 1970 addition of John F Seagle Building, designed by F Lloyd Preacher
reception areas. and Rudolph Weaver as a hotel for W. McKee Kelley.
1926 construction interrupted by ten years of economic
depression. Completed in 1937 with Works Progress
Administration and Georgia Seagle contributions.
Structure donated to State of Florida and used as uni-
versity offices and museum. Adapted in mid-1980's as
condominiums, social club, and office and retail M
aces. SE of SR 234
1121 NW 6th St. Rochelle School, quarter of a mile southeast of SR 234
Gainesville and SCL tracks. Built in 1885 as Martha Perry Institute.
Major James Bailey House, built in 1848 to 1854 as
plantation house by Major Bailey who sold portion of
plantation land to county for the courthouse site. One-
and-a-half story, braced frame structure built in native
materials. Classical Revival style. Restored and H
adapted as housing for the elderly. 120 S. Main St.
Commercial Hotel, built in 1885 as Alachua Hotel.
Faced Main Street and Savannah, Florida, and West-
ern Railroad track. After 1900 housed printing com- Micanopy
panies, then Commercial Hotel in 1924. Donated to Feaster Building. Built in 1903 as general store and
Alachua County in late 1970's. Rehabilitated in 1981 as drug store on first floor, town council and dentist office
county office building, on second floor, and theatrical productions on third
D floor. Adapted for use as art gallery and residences.
NE 6th Ave at 2nd St.
Hotel Thomas, begun in 1906 as a residence for C. W
Chace and completed in 1910 as residence for Major ..
William Reuben Thomas. Additions in 1928 adapted
structure to serve as a hotel. Purchased by City of.
Gainesville in 1974. Restored and adapted in 1979 as a
cultural center and city offices, a major American Revo- 617 E. University Ave. O
lution Bicentennial Celebrations project. Gainesville State Road 325
McKenzie House, one of Gainesvilles most elaborate Cross Creek
...Queen Anne residences. Two-arnd-a-half-story struc- Rawlings House, quarter mile south of Cross Creek,
ture with shingle and horizontal siding, polygonal tower, built in the late 19th century. Typical "Cracker" style farm
projecting gable at entry, and attached one-story gaze- house with open porches, cross ventilation, board and
bo. Stabilized and adapted as tourist agency in 1980. batten construction, brick foundation piers. Purchased
in 1928 by Marjorie Kinnan Rawlings, famous writer of
The Yearling (Pulitzer Price 1939), Cross Creek, and
E other books based on Cross Creek locale.
2W. University Ave.
Endel Brothers building, built in 1884. Site originally oc-
cupied by the Arlington Hotel which burned in the J
1880's with several other wood-frame buildings located SW 2nd Way and
around the courthouse square. Endel Brothers Building W Blvd.
occupied by variety of businesses including F.W. Wool- Waldo
worth's, a bank, and furniture, clothing and fruit stores. Schenk Hardware, built in 1913. Brick masonry building NW 1stAve &
Rehabilitated in 1980 as Chesnuts Office Supply. occupied and maintained since construction. Inlaid tile NW2nd Ave.
stoop left from long-time bank occupancy. Second floor Hawthorne
served as meeting hall for the city council and commu- First United Methodist Church. Cornerstone of church
nity organizations. laid in 1891, a year after Hawthorne incorporated. Build
ing lot purchased for $55 from town founder, James
Hawthorne. Simple Victorian Revival style, well-main-
tained, wood frame structure.
GEORGE SCHEFFER, AIA, FLORIDA NORTH
Timucuan Indians lived in what is now Levy County
for hundreds of years before Europeans arrived in
Florida. In 1539-1540 Hernando de Soto passed
through one of their villages, probably in the area of Long I
Pond near present day Chiefland. As the Timucuan popula- E on
tion decreased almost to the point of extinction during I AB
Spanish rule, a few were absorbed into the Seminole groups
that took their place. During the Spanish and British periods
this portion of Florida was isolated. Spanish pirates are said Ott rce
to have visited the area, and the Louisiana pirate Jean Lafitte
is supposed to have stopped briefly on one of the coastal
keys at the beginning of the nineteenth century. Gul Ham, \
In 1821 Spain ceded Florida to the United States. On \[
March 19,1822, Florida was organized as one territory with
two counties, Escambia and St. Johns. Part of St. Johns be-
came Alachua County in 1824 and then part of Alachua
County became Levy County on March 10, 1845. (Bronson,
incorporated in 1884, is the present county seat.) G-P
Before Florida became a part of the United States, Gen- s
eral Andrew Jackson had invaded Spanish territory to fight
the Seminole Indians. As conflict between the increasing set-
tlements and Seminole Indians escalated, the U.S. Army
built forts in Florida. During the Second Seminole War, which
began in 1835, a military hospital and supply base were built
on Atsena Otie or Depot Key across from Way Key. In the During the Civil War, the port of Cedar Key was blockaded.
1840's a small resort for planters developed on the same key. Union landing parties destroyed a Confederate artillery bat-
As the Seminole War drew to a close, both the military post tery, the railroad depot, wharf, shops, and salt and turpentine
and civilian buildings were destroyed by an 1842 hurricane, factories.
Further development of this area occurred on Way Key, the After the Civil War, growth began again. In addition to its
site of the town of Cedar Key. prewar enterprises, Cedar Key developed a shipbuilding in-
Fishing and timber soon became the economic base. dustry, and the federal custom office was moved from St.
Resin was extracted from the extensive forests in Levy Marks to Cedar Key to handle increased shipping. Twenty
County as the production of turpentine became an important years after the war, the Cedar Key area had five lumber mills
industry. Pine and cypress were cut to meet the growing na- and two cedar mills owned by Faber and the Eagle Pencil
tional demand for lumber and other forest products. The companies, a successful fishing industry, newspapers,
deep water port at Cedar Key encouraged the development banks, and three hotels. Depletion of cedar, pine, and cy-
of a major shipping industry for fish, wood products, and press stands and the oyster and fish beds brought an end to
cotton, the successful industries which had supported the area. A
Levy County and its first county seat, Levyville, were powerful hurricane ih 1896 destroyed many commercial and
named in honor of Florida's first senator, David Levy Yulee, residential buildings. Population decreased from 5,000 in
who was influential in attaining statehood for Florida in 1845. 1885 to 864 in 1900.
Yulee (David Levy added Yulee to his name by state legisla- Financial depression and natural destruction paralyzed
tive act) was a leading promoter of a cross-Florida railroad to the town. Although minor developments occurred in the
link the Gulf with the state's eastern seaports. In the mid area, a paved road from Archer, built in 1923, provided ac-
1850's he began construction of the Atlantic, Gulf and West cess to other regions and improved the economy. The 1930's
Indies Transit Company Railroad and completed this tie be- depression and the discontinuation of railroad service to
tween Fernandina and Cedar Key in 1860. Cedar Key stalled progress again.
In 1855, at the same time Yulee was beginning to build his Post-World-War-II tourism, attracted by fishing oppor-
railroad, Eberhard Faber purchased vast tracts of timber in tunities and the village quality of Cedar Key, has caused
Levy County and built a saw mill on Atsena Otie Key to cut major changes in the economy and architecture of the town.
cedar into slats for shipment to his pencil factory in New Jer- Restaurants, hotels, condominiums, and shops have been
sey. Faber's Cedar Key operation, which expanded its pro- built or housed in renovated structures. The character of the
duction capacity, provided a growth stimulant to the area for community has been maintained, and visitors still find the ex-
the next thirty years. perience of retreat.
A NW 13th St. at L
Court St. NW 16th Ave. 2nd Street
Bronson Chiefland Cedar Key
Levy County Courthouse, built in 1927 by O.R. Wood- Old Hardeetown Hotel, built in 1910 as hotel to house John Lutterloh Residence-Cedar Key Historical Society
cock and designed by Henry L. Taylor using some ma- railroad workers laying track for Seaboard Railway in Museum, built in 1871 for Lutterloh, Cedar Key agent
terial salvaged from 1906 courthouse. Classical Revival 1913. Rehabilitation in 1982 as single family residence. for the Florida Railroad. Later used as restaurant,
style featuring arched entry with fan light, keystone lin- Simple wood frame bulding, hip roof with projecting Women's Club, public library, service station, and shop.
tels above double hung windows, and cupola with cop- polygonal bay with gable roof. Historical Society's museum in mid 1980's.
S.horseB St. at 2nd St.
Cedar Key Cedar Key
B Seahorse Key Lighthouse and Keepers Dwelling, built Masonic Lodge, built in 1910. Served as store on first
in 1855 under the direction of Lt. George Meade, Corps floor with meeting space above. Wood frame, hip roof
235 Court St. of Engineering, US Army. Marked entrance to Cedar with bracketed eaves, recessed corner entrance, and
Bronson Key Harbor. Lens removed by US Marines from the fed- display window at street elevation.
United Methodist Church, built in 1866 and moved in eral gunboat Hatteras during the Civil War after skir-
1920 from lot east of Bronson High School. Victorian mish with Confederate defenders. Lighthouse and
Revival style with bell-tower clad with metal shingles quarters used as marine laboratory by University of
and verge board trim. Florida.
W. R. Hodges Residence, built in 1910 for Hodges, a
C H wholesale fish exporter. Duplicate of house in Inglis.
112 SE 1st Ave. B St. at 2nd St. Victorian Revival style with two gables at street eleva-
Williston Cedar Key tion, shed roof porch with gable at entrance, verge
L.C. Hester House, built in 1906 by Hester. Hip roof, Parson and Hale Store-Island Hotel, built in 1850 as boards in gables, and bracketed porch columns.
two gable dormers at street elevation, shed roof porch general store. Fragments of earlier building in rear por-
with angled entry, and corbeled chimney decorations. tion of building. Parapet walls and flat roof under sheet
metal hip roof. Veranda on principal elevations. Tabby
U.S.19 First Baptist Church, built in 1923 with James Taylor as
Gulf Hammock ...... builder. Wood frame Classical Revival style building
Old "No. 3" Locomotive, Gulf Hammock Village, con- D Street with gable roof, four square columns at gable end,
structed in 1915 with parts from 1897, 1915, and 1919. Cedar Key frame portico. Projecting bay behind columns at first
This locomotive known as '"hree-spot," one of five that Edward Champlin-Reynolds House, built in 1884. Victo-
hauled timber to Pac and Mac Sawmill near Gulf Ham- Edward Champlin-Reynolds House, built in 1884. Victo-
mock. In use until World War II. rian Revival style, wood frame house with bay window
and porches, verge board.
F St. at 4th St.
E J Cedar Key
City Hall Square D St. at 5th St. W. H. Hale-A. W. Johnson House, built in 1880's as resi-
Chlefland Cedar Key dence for Hale of Parsons and Hale. One-story wood
Chiefland Public Library, built in 1923 as bandstand, United Methodist Church, built in 1889. SimpleVicto- frame cottage with hip roof, recessed porch with pairs
closed in and used as first town hall until 1938. Moved rian Revival style, wood frame building with L plan. of bracketed columns, turned balusters, and a front
in 1959 to cemetery and used as Boy Scout meeting Tower-entry at intersection of gable roof. Damaged in doorway with sidelights and transom.
place. Moved in 1974 by Chiefland Women's Club for 1896 hurricane and rebuilt.
use as library.
Old School Building, built in 1880. Two-story wood
frame building. Verandas at north and east elevations.
EDWARD D'AVI, AIA & ERIC WIEDEGREEN, AIA, FLORIDA NORTH
__I- -, L--K
I/ \i yirllrvicw
The combination of the cultivation of oranges begin- ___ __ \ _
ning in 1870, the coming of the railroad in 1879, and i
the introduction of the phosphate industry encouraged / l
rapid growtn in the county. Typical of the development from
this era are the towns of Citra, Anthony, Orange Springs, and locale and to stimulate real estate development between the
Mclntosh. Springs and Ocala.) Because of its proximity to the Springs
Mclntosh was platted along the Florida Southern Railroad and to the Oklawaha River, Ocala became a distribution
line in 1885 in a strict grid pattern. As with other citrus boom point, and, with the advent of the railroad, a citrus and pro-
towns, Mclntosh grew rapidly with most of the town struc- duce shipping center. In 1935, when work began on the Gulf-
tures dating between 1885 and 1910. The 1895 freeze ended Atlantic Ship Canal, Ocala enjoyed a real estate boom until
Mclntosh's most dramatic development, and vegetable pro- work was suspended in 1936. Eureka Dam and Locks are
duction took over from citrus as the economic base until the surviving elements of the project.
1960's. Most of the houses in Mclntosh share many architec- Cattle breeding (1870-1895), real estate (1890-1920's),
tural features. The structures are two-story wood frame build- phosphate mining (1889-1914), and tourism (after 1880)
ings with steep roof pitches, lap siding, simple ornamenta- have all contributed to the city's growth. On November 29,
tion, and the ever present porches. The old depot and pack- 1883, a fire destroyed a major portion of Ocala, forcing many
ing houses bear witness to the strong link to the land, and to rebuild in brick for permanence and fire protection. The
the four period churches underscore the importance of the number of structures dating from this era testifies to the pros-
church in small town life. Because of the concentration of perity of Ocala at the time. A majority of the residences con-
significant structures, Mclntosh was listed on the National structed then by prominent citizens were located in the
Register of Historic Places as an Historic District in Caldwell's Addition, now known as the Fort King Historic
November 1983. District.
Citra, settled in the early 1800's, was a citrus town until the The county's natural beauty has always attracted tourism.
1980 freezes. Several buildings remain from the early his- With the railroad and the Dixie Highway (now US 441) and
tory. The Baptist Church is a Victorian Revival style building later Interstate 75, Marion County is located in a major north-
with a gridded rose window and open bell tower. The oldest, south corridor. Since 1956 an important economic boost has
most completely documented building in Marion County is been the horse farming industry. Marion County horses have
the Orange Springs Community Church which was built in gained international recognition and established the area as
1852 as an Episcopal Church and restored in 1972. a leader in the sport with Ocala Breeders' Sales Company at
The 1889 discovery of limestone near Dunnellon by its pinnacle.
Albertus Vogt brought prosperity to that community. The min- Preservation efforts in Marion County have risen from
ing and shipping of phosphate and limestone rock was a crisis situations. The Friends of Mclntosh, Inc., were or-
leading industry in the area until 1914. "Rosebank," Vogt's ganized in 1974 in response to the proposed demolition of
house, is at Vogt Springs on SR 40. Goethe Mill, also on SR the Mclntosh Depot. The organization sponsors an annual
40, is one of the few remaining steam-powered saw mills in 1890 Festival in the fall to generate funds for preservation. A
Florida. proposed public works road project which involved the dem-
Ocala's history is associated with Fort King and the 1835 olition of nine significant structures in Ocala helped bring
beginning of the Second Seminole Indian War. Following the the Historic Ocala Preservation Society (HOPS) into being.
Seminole wars, varieties of citrus were introduced to the HOPS has been instrumental in the passage of a city preser-
area. In 1852, the first state-supported school, East Florida vation ordinance (1982) and an historic district designation
Seminary, opened classes in Ocala. East of Ocala, Silver (1984). In 1985, Ocala was chosen for the national "Main
Springs was developed as a resort by Col. W. M. Davidson Street Program" which focuses efforts for the revitalization of
and Carl Ray. (The attraction continues to draw visitors to the the downtown area in the context of historic preservation.
Ave. G and Third S. 943SE Ft. King Ave.
Mclntosh Railroad Depot, built in 1890. Wood frame R. A. Burford House, built in 1893 for Burford, promi- M
building constructed by the Florida Southern Railroad nent lawyer and counsel to the railroad. Two-story 623 S. Magnolia Ave.
as a produce shipping point. Restored to 1913 appear- frame Victorian Revival style house with porches and Ocala
ance in 1974 by the Friends of Mclntosh. tower. Iron fence around the lot from the old Ocala Mt. Zion A.M.E. Church, built in 1891. Six-hundred seat
courthouse. Renovated in 1975 as law offices. church, simplifed Victorian Revival style. Designed by
Levi Alexander, Sr., architect. Congregation founded
East Ave. G H
Mclntosh 808 SE Ft. King Ave. N
Mclntosh Hotel, built in 1895 to service railroad passen- Ocala
gers with food and lodging. Two-story wood frame build- W. S. Bullock House, built in 1891 for Bullock who was 503 SE Broadway
ing with double porch and nineteen rooms including judge of the Fifth Circuit Court and mayor of Ocala at Ocala
dining room. the turn of the century. Two-story Victorian Revival style Grace Episcopal Church. Congregation started in
frame building with gazebo porch. 1853. Original sanctuary built in 1875, moved to pre-
sent site in 1905. Major additions in 1906.
Ave. F & Seventh St. O
Mclntosh 416 SE Ft. King Ave. 729 NE Second St.
William Gist-W. A. Norsworthy House, built in 1890, for Ocala Ocala
Gist who was one of the town's founders. Two-story, Vic- John E. Dunn House, built in 1888 for Dunn who was United Hebrews of Ocala, Temple B'Nai Daron, built in
torian Revival style, wood frame building. Restored in early Ocala entrepreneur and founder of the First Bank 1888. Wood frame Victorian Revival style structure with
1975. of Ocala in 1882. Two-story Victorian Revival style art glass windows.
wood frame structure with delicate porches and tower.
531 NE First Ave.
D cala P
Ave. F & Seventh St. Union Station, built in 1917 to replace Union Station of 108 N. MagnoliaAve.
Mclntosh 1881. Brick and shingles. Now an AMTRAK station. Ocala
Mclntosh Presbyterian Church, built in 1907. Victorian Francis Marion Hotel, built in 1927. Seven-story com-
Revival style, wood frame building with corner entry, plex of hotel fucntions and street level retail function.
bell tower, and art glass windows. Mediterranean Revival style. Adapted for use as offices
in 1983-1984 as The Sovereign Building.
SE First St. and
E Marion Block Building, built in 1885. Three-story brick Q
850 SE Ft. King Ave. commercial structure, one of the first buildings con- 1205 Silver Springs
Ocala structed after the 1883 fire. Incorporated opera house. Blvd.
Jewett House, built in 1890. One-story Victorian Revi- Renovated in 1983 as offices and restaurant. Ocala
val style frame vernacular building with an unusual The Ritz Apartments, built in 1925. Complex of four
Y-shaped plan and entry. Renovated into offices in two-story buildings of stucco over hollow clay tiles.
1979. Spanish Colonial Revival style. Introduced apartment
living to Ocala.
Corner Magnolia &
798 SE Ft. King Ave. Commercial Bank of Ocala, built in 1890. Three-story R
Ocala brick commercial building with corner entry, typical 939 N. Magnolia Ave.
Edward Holder House, built in 1906 for Holder, one of of many downtown commercial buildings erected Ocala
Florida's first phosphate miners and owner of the after the fire of 1883. Main commercial area centered Coca-Cola Bottling Plant, built in 1939 with Courtney
Marion Block. Two-and-a-half story wood frame Victo- on Courthouse Square (now a public space with a Stewart as architect. Cast cement and concrete block
rian Revival style. fountain.) Mediterranean Revival style. Adapted as a warehouse
61 and office supply in 1978.
LES MAY AIA, FLORIDA NORTH CHAPTER
Baker County, Florida's twenty-eighth county, was ---
established at the beginning of the Civil War and.
named for James McNair Baker, a circuit judge and
later a senator in the Confederate Congress.
Early settlement in this locale was slow. Rivers were not
deep enough for commercial travel. The area had large acre-
ages of wet and swampy land. A boundary dispute be-
tween Florida and Georgia left the land south of the o
Okeefenokee Swamp with little law enforcement until after the 1 --
Civil War. The offical end of the Second Seminole War and 125
the Armed Occupation Act of 1842, which gave land grants ___
to settlers, encouraged those willing to run the risks of
pioneering to come to Florida. Construction of the Main Post oSI/
Road from Jacksonville to Lake City in 1857 caused some FOR S rF
population increases. J 1
Efficient transportation and communication between in-
land areas and the Florida East Coast developed when rail-
road construction began in 1857 with the Florida, Atlanta,
and Gulf Coast Railroad. By 1858 rails reached from the east I c ...E .
to the Gulf of Mexico.
Early architecture in Baker County reflected the basic '-
problems of survival in a hostile environment. The James M. o"
Burnsed Blockhouse, constructed of squared logs in the 2
1830's, was built with cut gun ports (apparently unused) for o0BE
protection from "Coweeter" Creek Indians. Log construction,
especially in isolated areas, continued until saw mills permit-
ted milled wood construction.
During the Civil War, Baker County was the site of the 1864
Battle of Olustee which was won by Confederate forces to
save vital interior agricultural resources. A monument was The completion of US 90 in 1924 provided the first paved
placed at the site in 1912 to commemorate the victory, east-west road across Baker County. Transportation was
Growth following the war was nearly halted by an 1888 yel- further enhanced with the building of the Southern Coastline
low fever epidemic. Almost ninety percent of the population Railroad Station in 1928. The 1931 Olustee Naval Stores and
of major settlements was lost. Darbyville, the county seat, Experimental Station and the new courthouse, begun in
became a ghost town until 1890. At that time a revival of de- 1941 and finished in 1948, were in Neo-Classical Revival
velopment began, and the town was renamed Macclenny for styles. Interstate 10, paralleling old US 90, has stimulated
Capt. Carr Bowers MacClenny, a Virginian who had moved the local economy through real estate action and the attrac-
south to cut timber for the post-war building boom in north- tion of new businesses and modest population increases.
ern states. Baker County remains primarily an agricultural area depen-
Late nineteenth century residential building in this area dent on forest products, tobacco, poultry, and landscape
used mill construction as evidenced by the 1865 Shuey-Ses- nurseries.
sions house. The popular Victorian Revival styles are re- Preservation in Baker County has occurred when eco-
flected in carved verge boards and pendants found in the nomic conditions dictate continued use rather than demoli-
Charles F. Barber house built in Macclenny in 1881 and in the tion. The Koon-Lyle house near Taylor was moved in 1973 to
gingerbread porch columns of the Taber House built in 1893. the Jacksonville Museum of Arts and Sciences. The 1908
During a spurt of building between 1905 and severe flu courthouse and adjacent jail were adapted for use by the
epidemics in 1918-1919, the Dykes Building was constructed Public Library and the Baker County Historical Society.
in 1910; a Neo-Classical Revival County Courthouse built in Macclenny's Downtown Revitalization Committee was or-
1908; and many residences completed in the Bungalow ganized in 1979 to encourage private investment in commer-
style. David Griffin established the Griffin All-State Nursery cial rehabilitation projects. In the mid 1980's there is tangible
in 1905 which later became the Southern States Nursery, a concern for the preservation of Baker County's architectural
major economic resource for the area. heritage.
A F K
339 E. Macclenny Av. 228 S. Fifth St. US 90
Macclenny Macclenny Olustee
Baker County Courthouse, construction started with Merritt-Herndon House, built in 1885 for James C. Mer- Olustee Battlefield State Memorial, (2.45 miles east of
Works Progress Administration funds in 1941, com- ritt, one of northern investors recruited by Carr CR 231). Battle of Olustee/Ocean Pond fought Feb. 20,
pleted in 1948. Neo-Classical Revival style typical of McClenny's "Florida Investment and Colonialization 1864, in open forest with no fortifications. Site pur-
governmental-encouraged municipal improvements Society." House purchased in 1886 by Judge John chased by State in 1909. Monument erected in Roman-
1930-1940. Portico with four Ionic columns, corner Herndon. esque Revival style in 1912. Interpretation site and self
pilasters, pediment bas relief of clock and scales of guided tour in 1980's.
N. Sixth St. L
Macclenny US 90
S. Fourth St. Edgar Turner-Duncan Rhoden House, built from 1903- Olustee
Macclenny 1905. Victorian Revival style, one-and-a-half story Olustee Naval Stores and Experimental Station/SCM
Charles F. Barber House, built in 1881. Oldest existing wood frame house with gable root, projecting central Corporation, built in 1931. Part of the forest manage-
house in Macclenny, referred to as "fever house" imply- bay and dormer, and board and batten siding. ment complex serving Osceola National Forest (estab-
ing construction before 1888 yellow fever epidemic. Ex- lished in 1929. Reflects importance of timber industry
tensively modified. in the county.) Office in Georgian Revival style with side
wings added. Laboratories dating from the 1920s.
George Hodges Rd.
Railroad Road Williams-Shuey House (west of CR 121 and south of M
Macclenny Macclenny) built in 1865 by Rep. Samuel Neil Williams, CR 229, n. of US 90
Southern Coastline Railroad Station, built in 1928. A merchant and timber buyer for Eppinger and Russell, Sanderson
version of H. H. Richardson's architectural style of rail- N.Y In 1880's purchased by Dr. George Shuey. Served James "Jim" Rhoden Sr. House, built in 1864. Log
road stations. Low dormer, hip roof, and wide over- as first hospital in county and used in yellow fever house sheathed with original milled siding, cypresslog
hang. epidemic of 1888. Possibly oldest example of mill con- piers, early brick chimney. Typical isolated mid-1800's
struction residence in county, residence.
212 Mclver I N
Macclenny George Hodges Rd. CR 250
"Suits Us," Dorman House. Designed and named by Macclenny Taylor
Mrs. Dorman. Built in 1910 for her by her husband with David Griffin House (west of CR 121, south of John Taylor House, built in 1888 on part of plantation
Jess Rowe as builder:Queen Anne style structure with Macclenny) built in 1905 for Griffin, founder of the All- established by Gordon Stewart Taylor, Methodist minis-
multiple dormers, north chimney penetrating dormer State Nursery (Southern States Nursery). Classical Re- ter. Two-pen with central open hall (dog trot). Original
roof, and porch with shed and conical roofs, vival style, two-story wood frame structure with gable detached dining room and kitchen removed.
roof and center bay portico. Exotic plants on site.
Fifth St. & Mclver J South of CR 120
Macclenny Dick Mann Road
Old Courthouse-Baker County Public Library, built in Macclenny James M. Burnsed-Carl Brown House, on private
1908 by Arthur Lowe. Neo-Classical Revival style two- George Lindley Taber House, Glen Saint Mary Nursery, graded road, inaccessible. Built in 1837 by Burnsed as
story brick building with octagonal rooms at four cor- built in 1893 for Taber who in 1892 established a 900- blockhouse-residence. Probably oldest structure in
ners and central portion with portico and cupola. Cast- acre nursery for trees and shrubs with H. Harold Hume, Baker County. Squared hewn logs with half-dovetail
iron fireplaces and mantles and pressed metal ceilings, horticulturist of Florida Experiment Station and Univer- joints, logs partly cut through to permit knock-out sec-
sity of Florida as company's vice-president. Hume's tions to serve as gun ports, holes drilled to provide
house, built in 1920, and barns and outbuildings still on dowels for weaving warp. Trapezoidal wood piers on
site. sleepers. Two rooms, first floor with ladder to loft.
Porches front and back, connecting dining space and
kitchen. Brown family in house after Civil War to 1950's.
AL DOMPE, AIA, FLORIDA NORTH CHAPTER
Putnam County, named for General Benjamin L C ^
Putnam who was an attorney from St. Augustine ~ o
and a commander during the Second Seminole War CRESCENT CITY
(1835-1842), was incorporated January 13,1849, from _[_]
parcels of surrounding counties. Located north of Lake .
George and crossed north to south by the St. Johns River, rc n
with many lakes in the west portion, the county provided *--
bountiful fishing and hunting resources. Exploring Spanish
soldiers and missionaries and later William Bartram found In-
dians living along the river. One settlement at an elbow bend began immediately. Sidewalks, brick streets, and utilities
on the St. Johns River was once known as Pilotaikata, a were in place by 1894. However, hard freezes in 1894-1895,
Seminole Creek term meaning "crossing." Palatka continues diminution of rail and river traffic, and depletion of timber re-
to serve as one of the few points at which to cross the river, sources brought development to a standstill.
Although some attempts were made to establish settle- The twentieth century saw improvements in highway con-
ments in this area during the first half of the nineteenth cen- struction, the erection of the Putnam County Memorial
tury, the Seminole Wars prevented much development ex- Bridge across the St. Johns River, renewed citrus and other
cept for the maintenance of Fort Shannon and military agricultural production, and trucking industries development.
warehouses at Palatka. As stability returned, settlers began Unfortunately architectural preservation had several set-
to arrive. Until 1860 the area prospered through lumbering backs during this period. Many buildings were lost to
and freight transport with steamship service playing a thoughtless demolition, fires, and neglect.
dominant role. Development stopped during the Civil War, A statewide historical survey was conducted in 1939, but
but post-war years witnessed the county's most productive no historical or architecturally significant sites were noted in
era. Putnam County. As preservation efforts increased in the
From 1865-1890 the area prospered as a transportation 1960s and 1970s, a few buildings and sites were nominated
hub. By the 1880's five railroads served the area and steam- to the National Register of Historic Places. The Bronson-
boats plied the river. Many small towns were created. Cres- Mulholland House, St. Mark's Episcopal Church, the Hub-
cent City, known for its citrus, was founded in 1876. Inter- bard House, and Mount Royal are among other sites regis-
lachen was incorporated in 1886 after the Charlotte Harbor tered in the county.
Railroad connected Palatka and Gainesville. Victorian Revi- The Office of Community Development, which opened in
val styles were predominately popular. Abundant lumber and 1975, has increased preservation efforts in the county. Local
mills encouraged production and use of palings, brackets, historians have helped the cause by increasing awareness.
vergeboards, and other elements for houses, churches, Commercial and residential preservation projects have been
schools, and workplaces. Although the business district of initiated throughout the region and have fostered revived
Palatka was consumed by a fire in 1884, reconstruction business districts and revitalized neighborhoods.
Putnam County, named for General Benjamin L..
Putnam who was an attorney from St. Augustine FO
and a commander during the Second Seminole War iN
(1835-1842), was incorporated January 13, 1849, from I N-QI 17
parcels of surrounding counties. Located north of Lake ..
George and crossed north to south by the St. Johns River,. D
with many lakes in the west portion, the county provided Io,.L
bountiful fishing and hunting resources. Exploring Spanish
soldiers and missionaries and later William Bartram found In-
dians living along the river. One settlement at an elbow bend began immediately. Sidewalks, brick streets, and utilities
on the St. Johns River was once known as Pilotaikata, a were in place by 1894. However, hard freezes in 1894-1895,
Seminole Creek term meaning "crossing." Palatka continues diminution of rail and river traffic, and depletion of timber re-
to serve as one of the few points at which to cross the river. sources brought development to a standstill.
Although some attempts were made to establish settle- The twentieth century saw improvements in highway con-
Commonwealth at F K
Boylston 121 S. Second St. 603 Emmett St.
Interlachen Palatka Palatka
Brush General Store, built in 1890. Typical of late First Presbyterian Church, constructed 1886 after the Conant House, built in 1886 for Sherman Conant, gen-
nineteenth century small-town general store. Porch on fire of 1884. Romanesque Revival style in brick eral manager of Florida Southern Railroad and vice-
first and second floors at street elevation. Entrance with masonry. Prominent landmark notable for copper- president of Palatka National Bank. Queen Anne style
large glass display windows on either side of recessed covered semi-circular portico with Doric columns, pro- house with dormers, gable roofs and polygonal turret
doorway, transoms above. jecting tower, hipped roof, and stained glass windows, with a tent roof. Encircling veranda with ornamental
woodwork, turned posts, and balusters, lattice frieze
work and curvilinear brackets.
SR 20 at Grand Ave. 260 Reid St.
Interlachen Palatka L
Interlachen Community School, built in 1880's. Oldest Larimer Library, designed by Henry Klutho, well-known 1122 South 15th St.
remaining wood frame schoolhouse in use in Florida. Jacksonville architect, and constructed in 1930. Palatka
Classical Revival style. Restoration planned for late Exhibits characteristics of Prairie School and Art Deco Residence, built in 1890. One of the oldest extant resi-
1980's. styles. Donated by James R. Mellon, Pittsburgh banker dences in Palatka Heights residential area near Ravine
and seasonal resident of Palatka, as memorial to his Gardens. Victorian Revival style with ornate half-timber-
wife, Rachel Hughes Larimer Mellon. ing on front and side gable areas and applied wood
ornament round the ten bay veranda.
Corner of Main and
North Twelfth St. H
Palatka Corner of N. Second
Union Depot, built in 1909, owned by CSX Transporta- & Main St. M
tion Corp. Richardsonian style railroad depot with hip Palatka 407 N. First St.
roof and bracketed eaves and hexagonal dormers. St. Marks Episcopal Church, designed by Richard Up- Palatka
Brick masonry walls painted white. Rusticated course john, architect, and built in 1854. Victorian Revival style Herbert F Wilson House, built in 1916 for Herbert Wil-
at water table and trim at openings. wood frame building. Latin Cross plan with elongated son, executive officer of Palatka bank, lumber com-
pointed openings glazed with stained glass, a central pany, and wood processing companies. Combination
rose window, and elaborately detailed bell tower (not of Prairie School and Bungalow styles with wide over-
original). Used during the Civil War as a meeting house hangs, narrow paired windows, porches, and ornamen-
and barracks. tal wood columns.
Palatka Waterworks, constructed in 1887 by investors
from Boston with Wheeler and Parks of Boston as
builders when Palatka Waterworks established. Vic- 807 St. John's Ave. Central & ProspectsSt
torian Revival style with hip roof, louvered cupola, and Palatka Crescent City
pressed metal shingles. Brick masonry with corbeled St. Mary's, constructed in 1883-1884. Small Victorian Bank of Crescent City, built in 1909. Served as a bank
cornice and drip course. Revival style wood frame structure. Only surviving until 1952 and later housed city hall and fire department.
black church of the pre-1885 period in Palatka. Vertical Romanesque Revival stylewith rounded arch openings
board and batten siding, lancet windows, and curvi- and barrel-vaulted comner entrance accentuated by large
linear trim. Important landmark. marble column.
319 St John's Ave.
Palatka J O
East Florida Savings and Trust Company Bank-Putnam Madison St. between Central St. between
County Courthouse Annex, built 1924. Classical Revi- First & Second Sts. Cedar & M
val bank building with stone veneer with granite stylo- Palatka Crescent City
bate. Symmetrical facade with six fluted Ionic columns, Bronson-Mulholland House. Classical Revival house Preston's Store, built from 1900-1920. Mediterranean
small pediment at entrance. Paired Ionic pilasters at built in 1845. Home of Judge Isaac Hopkins Bronson Revivalstyle commercial building with arched col-
side elevation. who was one of the first four circuit judges appointed lonade, stucco finish, masonry quoins, and hip roof.
after Florida was made a state and who also served as Early grocery store in building sold everything from
a district federal judge. Estate sold after his death in shirt buttons to buggy whips.
1855. Mary Mulholland, well-known subsequent owner.
House restoration begun in 1969 by the Putnam
County Historical Society. Opened to the public eight
years later as Palatka's historic museum.
600 N. Park St. Park & Central R
Crescent City Crescent City Fort Gates
Henry Hubbard House, built in 1880. Hubbard, noted Morrow-Sprague House, built in 1880's. Guilford "Palmetto", built in 1880's. Flamboyant Victorian Revival
entomologist who conducted independent research Sprague, city's first mayor and also state legislator, style house, the focal point of a building complex which
(particularly on citrus diseases) on property. Queen Bicameral plan, large central hallway with spacious din- includes Coolidge House, G.B. Plant house, and "Pal-
Anne style structure with traces of the later Shingle ing room opposite two separate parlors. Two tiered metto" estate with house (illustrated), six-bedroom
style. First story sheathed with clapboards and second veranda. House once served as tourist hotel. guest house over two-lane bowling alley, bridal cottage,
story shingled. Large covered piazza extending entire and boat house. After the 1894 freeze, many of the
length of south side of house. Turret in northeast corner houses abandoned. Private residence not accessible
next to polygonal dormer. Scrollwork and bracketing to public in mid 1980's.
used. Hubbard botanical garden and park, once sur-
rounding house, now gone.
GAR BARKMAN, AIA
/ A4 \1
/ .. .!
/I (, F '- .NANP1,A
SNassau County was established on December 29, by Spain, and Nassau county was established three years
1824, as one of Florida's early counties, located on later. The United States flag has flown since 1821 except in
the northeast coast of Florida, directly south of the 1862 during the temporary control of the Confederacy.
Georgia border. The St. Mary's River forms the north and A major influence in the development of Nassau County
west borders of the county. Historians differ as to the origin was the construction of the first cross-Florida railroad which
of the county's name. Some feel it was derived from the city was begun in 1853. Land was purchased by the railroad
in the Bahamas; others feel it was named after the Duchy of company and a new town platted, a community that is now
Nassau, a former state in the western part of Germany. Fernandina Beach. The railroad, completed in 1861, con-
The county seat is Fernandina Beach, consolidated with nected Fernandina to Cedar Key on the west coast of
Fernandina in the 1950's. The local boast is that Fernandina Florida. After the Civil War, the railroad provided access to
Beach is the only city in the United States to have served the interior of the state and moved goods and passengers
under eight flags. across the peninsula.
Recorded history of Nassau County began on May 8, With its natural harbor and climate, Fernandina soon at-
1562, when Jean Ribaut, leader of a French expedition, tracted visitors from the north. The first tourist hotel in
landed at the mouth of the St. Mary's River and named the Florida, the Egmont, was built in 1877 by the Florida Railroad
island Isle De Mai. Spain claimed the island in 1567; and, Company. It was later torn down and part of its lumber was
approximately 100 years later, built Fort San Fernandina. A used to build four houses on the hotel's site. Another hotel,
settlement, Old Town, grew around the fort. the Strathmore, was built in 1881 on the beach but later de-
The area changed hands again in 1735 when Governor stroyed by a hurricane.
Oglethorpe of Georgia claimed the island for England and re- With its deep harbor, Fernandina became a busy port. A
named it Amelia Island after Princess Amelia, the younger steamship line made weekly trips between New York and
sister of King George II of England. Amelia Island was con- Fernandina. Many of the commercial structures, ware-
tested by England and Spain until Spain finally gained con- houses, and homes along Centre Street and the side streets
trol in 1783. from the waterfront to Tenth Street were built during this time.
During the patriot revolution on March 17, 1812, Amelia Is- Port activity was increased by the Spanish-American War
land was taken and claimed as the Republic of Florida. The when lumber, cotton, and phosphate were shipped all over
following day, the patriots ceded the island to the United the world.
States. In 1817 Amelia Island briefly existed under two flags. Fernandina's tourist industry declined when Flagler built
First Gregor MacGregor flew the Green Cross of Florida. hotels in St. Augustine and extended rail service further
Then shortly afterwards, a French privateer Luis Aury be- south where tourists could find a sub-tropical climate. The
came the Supreme Commander of Amelia Island and, with- extension of rail lines also stimulated the development of in-
out authority, displayed the Mexican Flag. land towns where mills were constructed as forests became
On July 10, 1821, Florida was ceded to the United States accessible. Yulee and Callahan are located where highways
and railroads intersect. Much of the population of the county
was directly or indirectly involved with the timber industry.
The eventual depletion of natural resources contributed to
the dwindling number of mills; and the county turned to
shrimping, phosphate, and paper industries in the early E
1900's. centre Street at 5th t.
The shift of the tourist industry and extensive land de- Fernandina Beach
velopment to central and south Florida resulted in a period Nassau County Courthouse, built in 1891. Red brick
Victorian Revival style structure with cast-iron Corin-
of decreased construction in Fernandina and surrounding thian columns and an iron balcony and steeple. Central
areas. Victorian Revival style structures remained in use with tower dominating the main facade.
little modification. Agricultural production of poultry and cat-
tle increased. The fishing industry, especially shrimping, be-
came important to Fernandina, as well as fish factories pro-
ducing fish oil for soap, cosmetics and tempering steel and
fish meal for fertilizer and stock feed. In 1937 Rayonier and
Container Corporation constructed multi-million dollar F
plants. World War II brought the large military installations NE corner 7th atAsh
between Fernandina and Jacksonville. Fernandina Beach
Post-World War II development included the opening of Bailey House, built in 1895 by Effingham W. Bailey, a
steamship agent, with George W. Barber of Knoxville,
the beach highway Al A which connected by ferry with Tenn., as architect. Queen Anne style. Adapted as bed
Mayport and Jacksonville. US 1 and US 17 served Nassau and breakfast in 1980's.
County as north-south routes and SR 200 as the east-west
road from Callahan to Fernandina Beach by way ofYulee. In-
terstate 95 increased the convenience of travel and made
the county more accessible to visiting tourists.
The development of Amelia Island Plantation and other re-
sort communities along the Atlantic Coast in Nassau County G
created population increases and demands for new ser- 27 S. 7th St.
vices. As these growth patterns emerged, preservation of blFernandina Beach
Fernandina's high concentration of Victorian Revival style ar- The Tabby House, built in 1885 for Charles W. Lewis
Fernandina's high concentration of Victorian Revival style ar- with Robert S. Schuyler as architect. Only house in Fer-
chitecture became a priority of many residents, nandina with tabby construction using Portland cement
Centre Street was redeveloped in the 1970's as part of a during this era.
planned project to restore the historic character of the down-
town building core. In 1974 a summer field office of the His-
toric American Buildings Survey prepared drawings of sev-
eral significant buildings. Centre Street Historic District, a
thirty block area, was listed on the National Register of His- H
toric Places. An ordinance establishing the formation of the 119, 123, 127 and 131
Historic District Council to oversee construction and altera- s. 7th St.
tions to historic buildings was adopted in 1975, and The Egmont Houses. Four houses builro
Amelia Island-Fernandina Restoration Foundation was or- mont Hotel on hotel site. Gable roofs with two-story gal-
ganized to ensure that the character of the district would be leries on east side.
C 227 S. 7th St.
A Fernandina Beach
Centr NE corner Centre St. George Fairbanks House. Designed in Italianate style
enthe waterfroneeatFernandina Beach t. by architect Robert S. Schuyler for George Fairbanks,
the waterfront Fernandina Beach historian, citrus industry pioneer, and editor of the
Fernandina Beach Post Office and Custom House, built in 1910. Mediterra- Florida Mirrorfrom 1879 to 1885.
Fernandina Depot, built in 1899. Rectangular brick nean Revival style. Constructed and maintained by the
structure with gable roof, wide overhang on ornate federal government.
wooden brackets. Both gables have elaborately
pierced bargeboards. In mid 1980's housed Chamber
D 317 S. 7th St.
415 Centre St. Waas Home. Original structure, one of the oldest
BFernandina Beach Bhouses in the city, built in 1856. Purchased in 1901 by
Dr. John F. Lesesne-Judge John Friend Residence, Dr. W.T. Waas and remodeled extensively in Queen
20 & 23 S. 3rd St. built in 1857 by Lesesne. One of oldest houes in the dis- Anne style.
Fernandina Beach trict. Constructed of hewn timber and wooden peg fas-
Florida House. Two structures constructed for use as teners. Purchased by Friend after the Civil War and
tourist accommodations. Building to south built from passed down on female side of family to present
1857-1859. Addition closer to Cenre St. built in 1882. owners.
SE corner 8th St. at N Q
Atlantic Ave. 304 Alachua St. Brandies Ave.
Fernandina Beach Fernandina Beach Callahan
Hoyt House, built in 1905 by John R. Mann for Fred W Villas Las Palmas. Elaborate mansion, built in 1910, for Farmers Cooperative. Built in 1915 as a farmer's
Hoyt, merchant and owner of the local bank. Said to be Nathaniel B. Borden. Heroically scaled wood frame, cooperative. Later a general store, then a garage with
modeled after the Rockefeller Cottage on Jekyl Island. shingle-clad structure with clay tile roof, wide porch with a silent movie house upstairs. In 1980's a hardware
Adapted as attorney's office in 1970's. masonry piers, and semi-circular parapet wall at store.
L O R
8th St. at Atlantic Ave. SW corner Alachua 301 at 3rd St.
Fernandina Beach at 2nd St. Hilliard
St. Peter's Episcopal Church. Complete in 1884 and Fernandina Beach First School. Built in 1882 as first school in Hilliard.
rebuilt after a fire in 1893. Gothic Revival building de- Seydel Building. Constructed in 1877 to contain a gen- One-story wood frame structure. Porch addition later.
signed by Robert S. Schuyler. Basilica plan with a eral store and millinery store downstairs and apart-
steeple at the entrance. ments for the owners, the Seydel brothers, upstairs.
Mid-block 5th St. AlA
Fernandina Beach Fernandina Beach
Fernandez Reserve. Burial ground for the heirs of Don Fort Clinch. Construction beginning in 1847. Pen-
Domingo Fernandez who sold the land for the new tagonal brick fort. Never completed. Named after Gen-
town. Chapel and Convent of the Sisters of Saint eral Duncan Lamont Clinch who was famous for activity
Joseph, built in 1882, nearby, in Second Seminole War. Restored by Florida Park
Service from 1962-1971.
ROBERTC. BROWARD, AIA, JACKSONVILLE CHAPTER
Duval County, which today forms the boundaries of
the consolidated City of Jacksonville, was created
on August 12,1822, by the First Legislative Council /
of the Territory of Florida. o ,
Its human history, however, reaches back approximately
5,000 years to the first known native inhabitants. This north- "
east section of Florida contains the largest and most impor- c
tant river in Florida, today bearing the English name of St.
John's. Abundant oysters, fish, and game along the banks of O
the beautiful river made human habitation possible without
extensive agriculture. / .L '
On May 1, 1562, the French explorer, Jean Ribault, landed N 1.
at the mouth of the St. John's and named it Reviere de la /T/, N""H"
Mai, in honor of the month discovered. Two years later a < < JA CONViLLE
French Huguenot colony, the first settlement by Protestants ""
in America, was established approximately four miles up the
river on a high bluff and named Fort Caroline. Spanish
settlers from St. Augustine destroyed the colony two years o -
later and the Jacksonville-Duval County area remained
under Spanish rule for the next 200 years. In 1763, Great i
Britain acquired Florida from Spain and constructed the
King's Road to connect St. Augustine and British com-
munities in Georgia. This early road, much of which is still in i
use known as St. Augustine Road, passed through the
center of present day Jacksonville. On May 3, 1901, all but a small portion of Jacksonville's
During British rule, a village developed at a narrow bend downtown was destroyed by the most destructive fire ever to
in the St. John's River and was called "the Cowford." In 1783, hit a southern city. In less than eight hours 10,000 people
Britain ceded Florida back to Spain and in 1821 the United were left homeless, and the once-beautiful city was a mem-
States acquired the territory from Spain. In 1822, Cowford ory except for its outlying residential districts and a few
was chartered as the city of Jacksonville. Before this, how- blocks of its pre-1901 downtown. Because of this tragedy,
ever, Cowford was part of one of the shortest-lived nations in Jacksonville's downtown architectural heritage dates primar-
history. During the four years between 1812-1816, the provi- ily from 1901 when a legion of architects and builders from
sional government of the "Republic of Florida" existed with other cities and states descended upon the city to profit from
its "Patriots" organized against Spanish rule, its own presi- its reconstruction.
dent, and an army of disgruntled planters. The Republic's From 1901 through 1920, Jacksonville grew at an unpre-
boundaries were the St. Mary's River on the north and the cedented rate and boasted "the newest downtown in the
St. John's River on the south. It ended when the Spanish United States." During this period, many talented architects
agreed to a more representative rule within the Republic's contributed to the city's architectural fabric. The most impor-
boundaries. tant of these architects was Henry John Klutho from New
Jacksonville grew from this chaotic era of backwoods York City who was known as the creator of the early skyline.
anarchy into a rather prosperous seaport at the commence- Deeply influenced by Louis Sullivan and Frank Lloyd Wright,
ment of the Civil War. The city was occupied four times dur- Klutho designed so many Prairie School buildings in his
ing the war and burned by Federal troops, adopted city that by 1920 Jacksonville contained more build-
From the postwar period until the late nineteenth century ings influenced by Wright and Sullivan in its downtown than
Jacksonville continued to prosper not only as a seaport, ex- any other city outside of the Midwest. Fortunately, a few of
porting local timber, naval stores, and citrus fruit, but as the the important ones still stand.
center of tourism in Florida. However, when Henry Flagler Because of its excellent rail transportation and climate dur-
extended his Florida East Coast Railway down the state's ing the period preceding World War I, Jacksonville was the
coastline, the city was by-passed for the warmer climate to motion-picture capital of the U.S., losing out to Hollywood in
the south, the early twenties. The city never grew at a strong pace
By the 1890's well-developed Jacksonville was Florida's again until recently when it entered a new period of redis-
largest city.The downtown boasted many large hotels, busi- covery of its riverfront and an expansive downtown revitaliza-
ness buildings, churches, an opera house, and a recently- tion. It experienced modest growth in the twenties' boom
completed city hall and market. The waterfront was busy with period ending with the depression era. During the post World
ships from along the east coast and Europe, and the streets War II period, the outlying suburbs grew as the downtown
were lined with beautiful live oak trees, exodus began in the manner typical of most American cities.
Jacksonville's present expansive growth was helped in
part by its consolidation with Duval County in 1968 to make
it the largest land area in the United States under a single
city government nearly 800 square miles. As the other
urban areas of the state become overly-dense in population E
with dwindling water supplies and other natural amenities, Downtown
Jacksonville is undoubtedly facing its greatest period of ex- Thomas V Porter House, designed
pansion as it approaches the third millennia with its natural Klutho and constructed in 1902. Three-story residence
environment still relatively intact, moved around the corner from original site and shorn of
The foundation of the Jacksonville Historic Landmarks a wrap-around veranda. House adapted for use as office
for architects. Corinthian-columned entrance portico. Indi-
Commission in 1971 has awakened the city to its architec- cation of how downtown lined with important residences
tural heritage but only after many major examples of both after 1901 fire.
Classical Revival and Prairie School work were demolished.
The neighborhood preservation groups, Riverside-Avondale
Preservation (RAP), Springfield Preservation and Restora-
tion (SPAR), and San Marco Preservation have been instru-
mental in the prevention of re-zoning which threatened the F
integrity of these neighborhoods as well as in the actual pres- NE corner Duval
ervation of certain historic buildings. and Laura Streets
Jacksonville's downtown has a number of historic build- Jacksonville
ings that have been restored and placed into adaptive use. FormerYMCA Building, built in 1907. Desined by ar-
ings t v rchitect H. J. Klutho. Seven-story reinforced concrete
Among these are the 1919 Union Passenger Terminal with a building, first reinforced concrete mid-rise commercial
portion of the 1895 Flagler Terminal now used as part of the structure in Florida. Amazing structural concept for its
time with ten-foot cantilevered running track encircling
recently completed Prime Osborn Convention Center, the partially clear-spanned second floor with six-foot deep
Florida Theatre now used as the performance hall for the reinforced concrete girders carrying the five levels
Jacksonville Symphony Orchestra, and the original 1904 above it. Building empty in mid 1980's, awaiting rehabili-
Carnegie Library in current use as law offices. Further resto-
ration of other historic buildings will help create an ambiance
in the downtown area which will afford creative contrast with'
the current glass skyscapers rising along the riverfront.
30 W 9th Street
. .... North Jacksonville-
SKlutho Residence, built in 1908. Designed byH. J. Klutho
as personal residence. First Florida house designed in
the manner of Frank Lloyd Wrights Prairie School style.
Two-story house with broad overhangs and "Tree of Life"
leaded glass windows, two-story vertical mullions, and
A belt-course at second floor sills. In process of restoration
Ft. George Island as private residence in mid 1980's.
Kingsley Plantation, built in the early 1800's. One of
Florida's oldest existing plantation houses. Related 317 Florida Ave.
buildings, once center of a working plantation, including Jacksonville
brick and tabby barn, a tabby house, and tabby ruins of St. Andrews Episcopal Church, built in 1887. Bridck Gothic
24 slave cabins. State historic site, guided tours. Revival style church designed by architect R. B. Schuyler
of Fernandina. Characterized by asymetrically-placed
bell tower, polychrome slate roof with clerestory, hammer-
beam wood trusses, and tabby foundations. In mid 1980's
abandoned and in state of decay.
B 51W. Forsyth Street
9953 Heckscher Drive Bisbee Building, built in 1908 with H. J. Klutho as ar-
Ft. George Island chitect. Jacksonville's first "skyscraper," a ten-story rein-
Napoleon Bonaparte Broward House, built for Dr. J. Gil- forced concrete high-rise. Designed as a single-loaded
bert in 1878. Sold to Napoleon Bonaparte Broward, corridor office building only twenty-five feet wide with
nineteenth governor of Florida, in 1897 and still owned 513 W Bay Street clear span reinforced concrete. Identical tower attached
by Broward family. Two-story wood frame buildings with Jacksonville making it a double-loaded corridor office building.
two-tier veranda and widow's walk looking out to sea. El Modelo Block, built in 1888. One of the oldest commer-
cial structures in Jacksonville. Three-story, brick bearing
wall structure which originally housed a drugstore and
cabinet shop. In 1889 occupied by the El Modelo Cigar
Co. Site of Cuban patriot Jose Marti's visit and speech
before Spanish-American war. Housed hotels between
1915-1965. Renovated into law and insurance offices in
Downtown 2030 Main Street
Jacksonville Springfield 0
Morocco Temple, built in 1910 with J. H. Klutho as ar- Klutho Apartments, designed and built by H. J. Klutho in San Jose Residential
chitect. Egyptian Revival style reinforced concrete build- 1913 adjacent to his 1908 residence. Cantilevered bal- Section
ing influenced by Frank Lloyd Wrights 1906 Unity Temple conies with outdoor street overviews. Further Prairie Jacksonville
in Oak Park. Twelve-foot-high cartouches on either side School techniques including third-story belt-course, pro- Alfred I. DuPont Residence (Epping Forest), built in 1925.
of entrance, Klutho's first use of Sullivanesque ornament jecting prow-roof, and gold-leaded windows. Mediterranean Revival style structure designed by Harold
re-interpreted in his own manner. F Saxelbye. Richly detailed residence with formal garden
overlooking St. Johns River. Concrete dock encircling
yacht basin. DuPont haven during Florida boom days and
following depression. Currently renovated as clubhouse
for residential enclave using grounds for single-family and
2821 Riverside Ave.
Jacksonville L. T Smith Residence, built in 1913. Architect unkown but
The St. James building, entire block immediately north of design indicating knowledge of Prairie School style.
Hemming Plaza, built from 1910 to 1912 with H.J. Klutho House completely restored in 1976.
as designer and builder. (He subcontracted all work on
a fast-track basis with an office on site.) His Prairie R
School masterpiece; a mixed-use building including 128-134 E. Forsyth St.
Cohen Brothers Department Store and professional of- Jacksonville
fices. Largest reinforced concrete mercantile building in The FloridaTheatre, built from 1926-1927 with R. E.
the south, originally featuring a seventy-five-foot-wide Hall and Company as architects and Roy Benjamin as
octagonal glass skylight associate architect. Mediterranean Revival style thea-
Ster planned as mixed-use building with office floors and
O roof top dancing pavilion. One of first air-conditioned
Downtown buildings in Jacksonville. Recently restored as center
Jacksonville for the performing arts, home of the Jacksonville Sym-
Jacksonville Terminal, built in 1919 with Kenneth M. Mur- phony Owned by the City of Jacksonville and adminis-
chison of New York City as architect. Built at the height of tered by the Arts Assembly of Jacksonville.
Jacksonville's role as a major railroad transportation
center near an earlier terminal (built from 1897-1898)
which was destroyed by fire several years ago. Classic
Revival building recently restored as part of Prime F Os-
K borne Convention Center.
Florida Life Building, center of block between Forsyth
and Adams Streets, build in 1911 with H.J. Klutho as
architect. Only twenty-eight feet wide, eleven stories
high, with broad Chicago windows, and bursts of
Sullivanesque terra-cotta ornament as capitals of pilas-
ters rising the full eleven stories. Built of reinforced con-
crete with the first caisson poured concrete piling in
Florida. Design related to the Chicago School and the
Prairie School. P
2650 Park Street
Riverside Baptist Church, built in 1925 with Addison
Mizner as architect. Romanesque style in details but
Byzantine in plan. Only church Mizner designed (it is said
that he designed spaces for relics within this church).
Masonic Temple for the Most Worshipful Union Grand
Lodge and Belize, C.A., built from 1912 to 1916 with the
firm of Mark and Sheftall as architects. Both principals
had trained with H. J. Klutho and were well versed in
the work of Wright and Sullivan. Temple still in use.
E. WENDELL HALL, AIA
The land which is now Clay County was originally After the Civil War, the tourist trade had a major impact
inhabited by various Indian tribes. One of the ear- on the eastern part of the county. Steamboats from Charles-
lier tribes was the Timucuans. The first intrusion of ton, Savannah and Jacksonville came down the St. Johns
Europeans was prior to 1560. Ft. St. Francis de Pupo, which River from before 1850 until the early 1900's. The rail-
was built by the Spanish, was begun in 1717 and later de- roads, constructed in the 1880's, gradually replaced most all
stroyed by Oglethorpe's British forces in 1740. The fort, steamboat travel and continued to bring tourists until the
whose only remains are earthen mounds, was located south 1940's.
of present day Green Cove Springs on the St. Johns River. Building styles changed with these industries. Initially, log
Its purpose was to protect the route from St. Augustine to the cabins were common with some post and beam construction
Spanish missions in western Florida. in the more substantial residences. Wire nails made rough
Spain lost Florida to Britain by the Treaty of Paris in 1763; sawn board and batten characteristic of this area. The tourist
and for the next twenty years English settlers received trade of the late 19th century brought wealth to the area and
grants, including at least four plantations in the Doctors Lake introduced frivolous, large and ornately detailed buildings.
and Black Creek areas of Clay County. Loyalists escaping The next major impact on the county was World War II.
from the American Revolution also came into the area, Camp Blanding, which occupies some 70,000 acres in the
mostly as squatters, prior to the Treaty of Paris in 1783 which, western part of the county, was developed during this period.
recognized American independence and returned Florida to
The next permanent settlement of this area occurred dur- [. ,-
ing the second Spanish period, after 1783. Huge land grants i
were given to individuals and squatters laying claims to HUGH
Following the short-lived Patriots' Rebellion (1812-14) of
landowners against Spain, the First Seminole Indian War IHIGHLAND 21
and Andrew Jackson's resultant raids into Florida brought I I E O
about Spain's ceding the territory to the United States in I O lI
1821. I rj p
The Second Seminole War was the catalyst for the building RUSSELL
of Ft. Heileman in 1836. It was located near the forks of
Black Creek (present day Middleburg) and acted as the
Quartermaster depot for the U.S. Army of the South, as well
as a major military post, arsenal, hospital, rest camp, and I NGSLEY E-
haven for refugees until mid-1841. The end of the war in 1842 j 16r
brought additional population growth to the Florida Territory
and statehood by early 1845. Life in frontier Florida was se- 1
vere. Illness, weather and Indians plagued early settlers and a
In 1858, Clay County was officially created out of Duval I lr
County. The first county seat was in Webster, a town that is I
near Middleburg. This part of the county was flourishing as a i
supplier of the interior of Florida. Black Creek was navigable j-
to the forks, so ships could bring supplies this far inland and ,,-,. ,..
wagon-loaded goods from the interior could be shipped out.
The county seat changed to Green Cove Springs in 1872 as .i _./.
settlement grew in that part of the county., so -"
Sawmills appeared in the area as early as 1816. There r-EIGH /. i
were several throughout the county by the Civil War. In the /
latter part of the 19th century the emphasis changed from I .
lumbering industry to the naval stores industry. Brickworks, "..
phosphate mining and camphor farming were other early in-
dustries in the county. Agriculture was also important in the ,.,
Military restrictions still prohibit development of any other When it has been possible to build, much of the old building
nature on this property. The Navy built an auxiliary air station was torn down. Fire destroyed countless old buildings espe-
just south of Green Cove Springs during World War II. In the cially many hotels in the Green Cove Springs area. The
1950s it became the home of the Atlantic Reserve Fleet, Florida climate quickly deteriorates buildings left untended.
some 600 ships and 5000 men, the largest gathering of Present day architectural preservation efforts are not well
ships in Navy history. Closed in 1961, the eleven huge docks organized in the county. There are some individual interests
and the two air strips of the naval station are barely utilized and efforts. The Clay County Historical Society is the only
today. avenue for group preservation efforts at this time. The
Economic hardship in the county has acted as a preserva- Society operates a small, but interesting museum on the old
tion tool. New construction has not often been feasible. Clay County Courthouse. It is open Sundays from 2 p.m. to
A E I
230 Kingsley Road St. Johns Avenue MagnoliaAvenue
Orange Park Green Cove Springs Green Cove Springs
Grace Episcopal Church. This "river" church was de- St. Mary's Episcopal Church. This church, which is on Qui-Si-Sana Hotel. This hotel, built in 1906 by Louis
signed by Robert S. Schuyler and completed in 1881. It the National Register, was designed by Lewis, Law- McKee of New Jersey, replaced an older hotel, the
was, supposedly, built in Jacksonville and brought rence and Adams in 1878. It is a highly developed exam- Clarendon, which was destroyed by fire in 1901. This
down the St. Johns River on a barge. The well-main- pie of the Carpenter Gothic style as it was applied to Spanish-Mission style structure was constructed
tained church retains most of its original fabric, many churches in North Florida. around an indoor court and built completely of coquina
concrete with a red tile roof in an attempt to be fire-
proof. Workers had to be imported from the North as no
..one was familiar with this type of construction.
2061 Astor Street F
Orange Park 401 MagnoliaAvenue
'"Winterbourne." Originally a small house on the river, Green Cove Springs J
this structure was extensively expanded and remod- First Presbyterian Church. This is one of the finest Spring Street
eled when it was purchased by Mr. B.J. Johnson in Presbyterian churches in the State with its intricate ex- Green Cove Springs
1878. The house, with its delicate roof railing and terior detailing. This well proportioned church which is Oakland Hotel. Originally the Oakland House, this
Queen Anne type arched window lites, remains basi- Latin-cross in plan was supposedly designed by J.A. structure was built as a "Swiss cottage"for Lucas
cally as it was when Mr. Johnson renovated it for his Wood in 1884. Muhoberaz in 1880. In 1883 it was enlarged and
family, changed into a hotel by Mr. Muhoberaz. It is con-
structed as a series of connected wooden structures
averaging 2V2 stories each and is one of the few hotels
which remain. Other than missing verandas on the
front, it remains basically unchanged and is used as a
West Walnut &
C Gratio Place
2223 Astor Street Green Cove Springs
Orange Park Clay County Courthouse. This is one of the few pre-
Club Continental. The son of B.J. Johnson, Caleb E. 1900(1889) courthouses still standing in the State and
Johnson, built this residence in 1923. As president of is on the National Register. Wide bracketed eaves, en-
the Palmolive Soap Company, Mr. Johnson wanted an trances recessed behind arcades, pedimented gables K
impressive "Italian villa."This Palm Beach-style home and decorative brickwork shows this to be one of the
now serves as the clubhouse for a condominium com- highlights of the career of architect A.E. McClure of 502 Magnolia Avenue
plex built on the grounds of the old estate called "Mira Jacksonville, The brickwork has since been covered Green Cove Springs
Rio. with concrete and additions made on each side of the Borden House. This house was called "Villa Cottage"
main building. The home of the Clay County Historical when it was built by John C. Borden, son of the inventor
Museum was added in 1911 for the Clerk of Courts of condensed milk, around 1880. The tower was sup-
office. posedly for judging the horse races which occurred on
Magnolia Avenue. It was later the first home of the
Women's Club and, therefore a gathering place with
concerts, and a library.
Old Church Road
St. Margaret's Episcopal Church. This small but lovely
board and batten chapel is located on what was once Magnolia Avenue
part of the Fleming plantation, "Hibernia," one of the Green Cove Springs
earliest settlements in the county. Margaret Seton Flem- The Boil. Legend has it that this boil attracted pirates
ing founded the church, which met in her home until the down the St. Johns to fill their casks. From before 1850
chapel was built in 1875. The chapel is known locally until 1930, the alleged medicinal qualities of these
because of the books Margaret's Storyby Eugenia springs made the town a tourist center attracting people
Price and Hibernia: The Unreturning Tide by Margaret from all over the county.
Seton Biddle. It is listed on the National Register of His-
Corner St. Johns Ave. Main Street, between
& Center St. Thompson & Harvard
Green Cove Springs Middleburgh
W.M. Hoyt House (St. Johns Terrace Apt.). Mr. Hoyt, a Copp-Clark-Chalker House. This house was built by the
Chicago grocery chain magnate, was one of several Army in 1835. The original second story veranda has
wealthy Northerners to invest in real estate in Green been removed, but part of the exterior siding is the original
Cove Springs in the late 19th century. This pseudo- hand-worked tongue and groove pine. The star found in
Mediterranean style home was built some time be- either eave may have been to designate that it was the
tween 1906 and 1912. Mr. Hoyt built an earlier home headquarters of Generals W Scott and T Jesup in the
which is located diagonally across the street. Seminole War.
700 Walnut Street Lawrence Boulevard
Green Cove Springs Keystone Heights
Kirkpatrick-Wilcox House. This Victorian house dating Keystone Inn. This inn attracted Northerners and Flor-
from the late 1800's displays both quality and quantity idians to hear arts, musicians and authors from the
of exterior detail. There is evidence that this was the Chatauqua Circuit in the 1920s and 30s. Afire in 1954 de-
home of J.L. Kirkpatrick, a dry goods dealer, a salonn stroyed much of this building and it has not been
keeper and one of the early merchants in the area. reopened since.
OTHER SITES TO SEE:
U.S. 17 Green Cove Springs
just past S.R. 16 Ferris-Jensen-Pratt House
Green Cove Springs 101 Palmetto Avenue
Farmhouse (c. 1850) known as the Hankins orTalbott (Corner of Spring & Palmetto St.)
House though not built by either. This '"ever" house is an
unusual milled log construction with a slate roof and only Amara House
mortise and tenon joinery. A "fever" house would be built 115 St. Johns Avenue
high off the ground to avoid the malaria fumes they (This was originally the Hoyt House, It has been com-
thought came from the earth. This house is, also, al- pletely remodeled and very little of the original house
legedly haunted and even inspired one owner to remove is visible.)
the second story veranda some years ago.
Padgett House (Bentley)
627 Spring Street
Hallock Hotel (Schultz House)
15 St. Johns Avenue
W. J. Wilson House
303 North Magnolia Street
O (Mr. Wilson was a merchant and politician)
Green Cove Springs Applegate House
Penney Farms Memorial Home Community This retire- Corner of Spring & Magnolia St.
ment complex for ministers was founded by J.C. Penney, 10 S. Magnolia
the founder of the department store chain, in 1926. It was Built as a "cottage" for the Clarendon Hotel in 1871.
designed by Alan B. Mills and Arthur E. Davis, Jr. in the
Normandy style requested by Mr. Penney. Lumber was Green Cove Springs Naval Air Station
milled at Mr. Penney's nearby sawmill and then hand- U.S. 16
hewn on the site.
Mary Chalker House
106 Thompson Street
Main Street Camp Blanding
Middleburgh S.R. 16
Middleburg United Methodist Church. This building has
been used for worship continuously since 1847 with the
congregation dating from 1823. It remains basically as it
was, both inside and out.
F BLAIR REEVES, FAIA
St. Johns County, established in 1821 as Florida's
first county and named for the St. Johns River, was
the governmental center for all of Florida east of :
the Suwannee River. Presently occupying only 387,000 -
acres, its principal communities include Hastings, the center -4
of a rich agricultural area which was named for the horticul-
turalist, Thomas Horace Hastings; Moultrie, named for a ST'ASTIA-
lieutenant governor of Florida during the British occupation;
and St: Augustine, the first permanent European colonial set-
tlement in the continental United States.
St. Augustine began in 1565 as a Spanish military base
and continued to serve that function for nearly 250 years.
This fragile outpost was established by Don Pedro I!"t A m
Menendes de Aviles partly in response to the French con- -...
struction of Fort Caroline on the St. Johns River, a direct
threat to Spanish trade routes following the Gulf Stream from
Central and South America. In the end France lost; their .
colony was destroyed. Drake of England burned St. Augus- TA "".. z
tine in 1586; pirates sacked it in 1668; South Carolinians .
beseiged and burned it in 1702; and then in 1740 James
Oglethorpe took all the outerworks but failed to capture the
Its role as a small military outpost in a wilderness frontier
did not justify significant architecture. Early houses were of
wood and thatch, and forts were palisaded of wood. After the A i
English established Charleston in 1670, Spain in 1672 began
the construction of a masonry fort, built of coquina stone VI -
quarried on Anastasia Island. The labor force consisted of a- -
few skilled workers, common laborers, convicts (including P -
British prisoners), Indians paid about 20 cents a day plus \. ARb *AN
corn rations, and slaves from Havana. The fort was ready for I -
the 1740 Oglethorpe siege and was able to withstand a bom-
bardment of twenty-seven days. Work continued on the fort
after this engagement. The masonry tower-battery defense c
at Matanzas inlet was built in 1742 to protect the backdoor to A E R
St. Augustine. Spain's work on the forts ended in 1762 when
the news arrived that Spain would give Florida to Great Bri- Albert Manucy, the acknowledged-expert of that period, and
tain. On July 21, 1763, the transfer was made. Spanish his beautiful history of Castilo de San Marcos written with
troops and St. Augustine's entire population departed leaving Luis Rafael Arana.
the English with an empty town. When Florida became a United States territory, there was
Under British rule, St. Augustine, as the capitol of East no great exodus of Spanish subjects. Many new settlers
Florida, enjoyed prosperity. Spanish buildings were modified soon arrived and prospered in spite of yellow fever
to accommodate British living patterns and new construction epidemics and relative isolation. While never threated by the
used British building techniques. Plantations were estab- Seminole Indian Wars from 1835-1842, the city figured in na-
lished and a highway constructed to Georgia. During the tional news and attracted visitors and refugees from interior
American Revolution, the city became a depot for British mili- settlements.
tary operations, a prison for prominent dissenters and a ref- While the Civil War wreaked its havoc throughout the
uge for Tories. When, in 1783, St. Augustine received word South, St. Augustine played an unwilling and uncontested
that Spain would regain control, the British evacuated. In host to Union troops from 1862 until the end of the war. There
spite of unsettled conditions between 1783 and 1821 during was no battle destruction of town buildings.
the second Spanish period, several substantial houses, St. Augustine continued to be isolated from the rest of
churches, and public buildings were constructed. Florida except for coastal traffic until the arrival of the first
Excellent references for study of St. Augustine's colonial railroad in 1874. Until then, river boats reached Picolata on
architecture are The Houses of St. Augustine 1565-1821 by the St. Johns, and passengers and freight moved overland
forty-eight miles by stage, later in mule-drawn rail cars.
With improved transportation, St. Augustine soon at-
tracted tourists. The most influential of these was Henry
Flagler who established St. Augustine as a winter resort. His
presence, from an architectural viewpoint at least, is more E
obvious than most colonial work since disastrous fires, mod- King Street
ern improvements, and even preservation efforts all but St. Augustine
Ponce de Leon Hotel-Flagler College, built from 1887-
erased evidence of earlier habitations. Flagler's hotels, 1888 for Henry M. Flagler Designed by Carrere and
churches, and railroad created a new St. Augustine. How- Hastings. Constructed of coquina shell aggregate and
ever, wars, depressions, epidemics, and climatic disasters Portland cement poured-in-place concrete. Spanish
Renaissance Revival style. After 1967 9losing of the
continued to take their toll. The Ponce de Leon Hotel began hotel, structures adapted for use as Fldgler College. In
to run at a loss in 1924, was occupied by the US Coast 1980's in process of careful restoration and adaptive
Guard from 1942-1945, reopened in 1946, but finally closed use. Publicareasaccessible.
its doors in 1967. The Alcazar was purchased in 1947 by
O.C. Lightner of Chicago for use as a museum, but only a
few rooms were used and maintenance was poor. The Cor-
dova Hotel had only a few shops on the ground floor.
When architectural landmarks begn to deteriorate, many
of St. Augustine's citizens and its friends elsewhere began ef- F
forts to save the city's treasures. The Castillo de San Marcos King Street
and the Matanzas Blockhouse were declared national monu- Hot. Augistin
Hotel Alcazar and Hotel cordova. Alcazar built p1887-
ments in 1924 and were preserved by the National Park 1888 for Henry Flagler, designed by Carrere and Hast-
Service. Local concern resulted in 1949 state action to estab- ings. In 1980's housed Lightner Museum and St. Augus-
lish St. Augustine's historic district. In 1961 the St. Johns tine City Hall (illustrated). Cordova built in 1887 as the
lish St. Augustine historic district. In 1961 theSt. Johns Casa Monica for Franklin W. Smith, purchased in 1888
County Commission began turning the Cordova Hotel into a by Flagler. Adapted as St. Johns County Court-
court house, and the City Commission remodeled part of the house in 1961.
Alcazar as a city building in 1974. In 1968 the Ponce de Leon
Hotel became home to Flagler College.
To visitors in St. Augustine the most obvious evidences of
preservation interest are around the plaza and north to the
fort. St. George Street has been developed to portray the dif-
ferent colonial periods of the city's history and has become,
with the Castillo, a major tourist attraction. St. Augustine con- 102 King Street
tinues to be preserved through the efforts of many individu- St. Augustine
Villa Zorayda, built in 1885 by Franklin W. Smith in a
als and organizations, public and private, at local, state, and Spanish-Moorish Revival style using poured-in-place
national levels. As in all creative processes based on inde- concrete mix, iron rods, and railroad track iron for
pendent thought (St. Augustine has a reputation for that), reinforcement.
there are and have been many differences of opinion about
preservation policy and technique. What is vital to contempo-
rary St. Augustine is that preservation has become an inte-
gral element in the city's architectural heritage.
"Markland" (part of Flagler College campus), built in
1839. Classical Revival style residence of Dr. Andrew
Anderson who persuaded Flagler to build his hotels.
St. George Street
A Main street of the restored historic area which dates
St. Augustine from 1740. Collection of eighteenth and nineteenth
Castillo de San Marco, built from 1672 to 1756. Con- century colonial architecture. Restoration begun in
structed of coquina stone. Derived from sixteenth-cen- 1959.
tury Italian-Spanish military designs with a symmetrical
plan of four bastions. Preserved by the National Park
8 Carrera St.
Grace Methodist Church, built in 1887, designed by
Carrere and Hastings. Renaissance Revival style struc-
ture of coquina shell and Portland cement poured-in-
D place concrete with terra cotta decorative elements.
The Plaza, laid out in 1598 by the Spanish governor,
B Mendez de Canzo. Bordered by Cathedral Place, King
St. Augustine Street, Cordova Street, and Charlotte Street and featur-
City Gate, built in 1806. Two piers, sentry box, and a ing the Monument to the Spanish Constitution of 1812,
short segment of covered way built into the city wall the Public Market, and memorials to heroes of U.S
west of the Castillo. wars.
14 St. Francis St. Anastasia Island
J St Augustine St. Augustine
Valencia St. at "Oldest House," built in 1700's. Purchased by St. Octagon House, Lighthouse Park. Built in 1900 for
Sevilla St. Augustine Historical Society and operated as house Rollin N. Clapp. Part of first residential subdivision on
St. Augustine museum. Anastasia Island.
Flagler Memorial Presbyterian Church. Built by
McGuire and McDonald in 1890 for Henry Flagler as a
memorial to his daughter, Jennie Louise Bennedict.
Venetian Renaissance Revival style with elaborate
terra cotta decoration, Tiffany glass, mahogany screens
and paneling, and an Aeolian-Skinner organ.
90-96 Marine St. Old Beach Road
St. Augustine St. Augustine
Dade Monument, U.S. National Cemetery. Three stone St. Augustine Light. Built in 1847 to replace a Spanish
pyramids marking tombs of Major Francis Dade and lighthouse and watchtower. Now in adaptive reuse.
104 men massacred in 1835 by Seminole Indians.
Florida East Coast Railroad Office (at Sebastian
River), built from 1923-1924. Office complex located in
westernmost section of Henry Flagler Model Land Com-
pany Subdivision. R
Near Matanzas Inlet
Matanzas National Monument. Fort Matanzas built in
1742 to protect backdoor entry to St. Augustine. Re-
O stored by National Park Service. Visitor's Center built
Cathedral Place by Works Progress Administration in January, 1937 (li-
St. Augustine lustrated).
First National Bank of Florida, built in 1927. Designed
by F. A. Hollingsworth, architect, and constructed by
20 Aviles St. San Marco Construction Co. Rehabilitated in 1986 as
St. Augustine offices and residential condominium.
Ximenez-Fatio House, built in 1798 for Andres
Ximenez. Modified from 1834-1840. Occupied from
1855-1875 by Louise Fatio. Bought in 1939 by the Na-
tional Society of the Colonial Dames of America in the
State of Florida and restored as house museum.
SIDNEYD. CORHERN, AIA
Flagler County was established in 1917, having
been taken from part of St. John's and Volusia
counties. The county was named for Henry Morri-
son Flagler, founder of the Florida East Coast Railroad and \
the major developer of Florida's East Coast between 1880
and 1920. Bunnell, the county seat and main population
center, was named for Alvah A. Bunnell, the city's first settler.
Flagler County's earliest settlers lived on plantations lo- @
cated along the main transportation routes, the King's Road, _
built in the 1770's, and the Matansas River. John Bulow, Or- -- -
lando Rees and Joseph Hernandez owned the three major 00 o W'NE LL 'l
plantations in Flagler county producing sugar cane, indigo, \
cotton and oranges. Hernandez gave one of his plantations, (O ,
Mala Compra, to his daughter Luisa. Luisa later married
George Washington, a relative of the president. Washington
Oaks State Park on Highway A 1 A is the site of Mala Compra
In the 1880's, Henry Cutting, a wealthy New England
sportsman, built a large hunting camp in the northeast corner
of the county near the Matansas Inlet. Cutting built a pool,
stables and tennis courts and created a resort center for
Northern and Mid-western tourists. After his death, Cutting's g
wife married an exiled Russian prince and inspired the re- -- OMOM
naming of the camp, the Princess Estate. The building is still
standing and is considered the most architecturally signifi- -T WILPLIDU
cant building in Flagler county.
In the 1880's and 1890's, the introduction of the railroad by 0
U. J. White and Henry Flagler and the connecting of the i M>NA^NT
Halifax and Matansas Rivers improved transportation in the i
county. In November, 1886, White routed a rail line through
Bunnell. Henry Flagler brought his railroad to Daytona Beach
in 1892, providing an additional catalyst for population and
economic growth. Railroad spurs from White's lines on the county's early railroads helped create the new communities
west side of the county created the communities of Haw of Flagler City, Espanola and Korona, which was settled by
Creek, Tipparary, St. John's Park and Dead Lake. Polish immigrants and is famous for its shrine to St. Chris-
Alvah A. Bunnell established a cypress shingle mill along topher, the traveler's patron saint. In 1938, on the East coast
White's rail line in what is now Bunnell. In 1898, Issac I. near Matansas Inlet, Marineland was built as the first under-
Moody moved to Bunnell, and along with J. F. Lambert water motion picture studio and oceanarium.
bought 30,000 acres and formed the Bunnell Development In the late 1960's, ITT Corporation bought large tracts of
Company. Many of the early residential and commercial land along the East coast and the central part of Flagler
buildings in Bunnell were built by Moody's company, and in county, and 1-95 was completed from Jacksonville to Vero
1913 Bunnell was incorporated. Beach. 1-95 has become the main traffic artery used by
The Dixie Highway, built in 1913, connected Bunnell to tourists from the north. In the early 1970's, ITT started to
Hastings. By 1915, it linked Bunnell to Jacksonville, St. Au- develop Palm Coast, a major housing and commercial de-
gustine and Flagler Beach. An original section of this brick velopment in Flagler county, making it the prime economic
highway still exists between Espanola and Hastings. Flagler base for the county.
East Moody Blvd. 201 Bay Street 805 Moody Blvd.
Bunnell Bunnell Bunnell
Flagler County Courthouse, built in 1924, Wilbur Talley Hardesty House, built 1909, one-story frame vernacular Dr. W. H. Deen House, built in 1918, is a two story,
architect and O.P Woodcock builder. Neo-classical residence, was the third house built in Bunnell after the Neo-Classical style residence. Dr. Deen was the Depart-
style, two-story brick building, town was laid out in 1909. ment of Agriculture & Farm Demonstrator for Flagler
204 East Moody Blvd. 202 N. Railroad M
Bunnell Bunnell 802 Moody Bivd.
Holden House, built in 1918, by S.M. Bortree for his Cochran House, built in 1909, is a massive two story, Bunnell
daughter and son-in-law. Thomas Holden was the town frame vernacular residence. W. H. Cochran was one of Hendricks House, built in 1918, by the Bunnell Develop-
pharmacist. Bungalow style house with coquina pedes- the first members of the Bunnell City Council. ment Company. Bungalow style, one-and-one-half story
tals and piers was part of the planned housing en- wood building.
visioned by the Bunnell Development Company.
200 N. Railroad N
C Bunnell 220 State 11
106 Bay Street Lambert House, built in 1909, is a two story frame ver- Haw Creek
Bunnell nacular, and the oldest existing building in Bunnell. Cody House, built in 1909, by V. J. White. Carpenter Gothic
Tribune building, built in 1914, two-story Masonry Ver- Home of J.F Lambert, who with Isaac Moody started Style, 2-story frame residence.
nacular style. The Tribune Building housed the St. Johns the Bunnell Development Company.
Tribune which became the Flagler Tribune in 1917.
D E. Lambert
101-107 Bay Street Bunnell Princess Estate, built in 1887, frame vernacular style,
Bunnell George Moody House, built in 1916, two story frame modeled on an Adirondack Hunting Lodge by original
Bunnell State Bank, built in 1918, two-story Masonry vernacular building. George Moody was prominent in owner, Henry Cutting. The estate is considered to be most
Vernacular. One of the best examples of commercial the development of Flagler Beach where he was the architecturally and historically significant building in
architecture in Flagler County. first mayor. Flagler County.
102 Railroad Church Street
Moody Residence was built in 1909 for Isaac Moody, Bunnell City Hall, built in 1937, by Z.D. Holland. One-
the president of the Bunnell Development Company. story governmental building, Masonry Vernacular style
One of the best examples of frame vernacular architec- with coquina exterior. A federal works projects com-
ture in Flagler County. pleted the Works Progress Administration (W.P.A.).
1000 Moody Blvd.
George Moody House, built in 1917, is George Moody's
second house in Bunnell. A one-and-one-half story Bun-
galow style residence.
SIDNEYD. CORHERN, AIA
Volusia County's first inhabitants were the Timu- -
cuan Indians who lived in the area eight to ten r '
thousand years ago. The only remaining evidences .
of their culture are the large refuse mounds containing
shells, broken pottery, and bones along the waterways on -
both county borders. This area contains an old Indian mound
called Turtle Mound, said to be the first Florida land sighted -
by Ponce de Leon. Early attempts to explore the locale were
unsuccessful, but Franciscan friars established missions on
the east coast of Volusia in 1587. r
After the British gained control of Florida, Dr. Andrew _
Turnbull established a settlement at New Smyrna in 1767
and named it after his wife's hometown, Smyrna, Turkey. \(
Turnbull's dream of producing cash crops, especially indigo,
was hindered by adverse living conditions. When granted
permission to leave New Smyrna after the American Revolu- ,.
tion, many of the settlers moved to St. Augustine in 1777. K-
From 1763 to 1783 British sugar plantations developed along
the Kings Highway from New Smyrna north to Bulow Planta-
tion in what is now Flagler County. The plantations, whose US Highway 1, built along the old Kings Highway, and A1 A,
buildings were constructed of coquina stone, thrived until the built near the coast, brought the first automobiles to east
Seminole Wars when parties of Indians raided and burned Volusia. Interstate 4, built in the late 1950's, connected cen-
the mills. All that remains of the plantations today are tral Florida to Daytona. In the late 1960's, Interstate 95, con-
coquina block walls and some machinery parts. "Dun-Law- structed through Volusia County, provided access to north-
ton" at Port Orange, "Mount Oswald" in Tomoka State Park, ern states and south Florida.
and "Carrick Fergus" on the west bank of the Tomoka River State highways 44 and 17-92 intersect in downtown De-
are a few of the plantation sites. Land. Location of the highways, the citrus industry, Stetson
During the 1800's, the rivers and ocean were the main University, and the county seat has allowed steady growth
transportation routes. Enterprise and Volusia Landing be- for DeLand while other west Volusia communities have stag-
came early steamboat landings on the St. John's River for nated since the steamboat era.
west Volusia. Enterprise became a winter resort and later the Auto racing was introduced to the Daytona Beach area in
first county seat when Volusia County was established in 1903. The earliest races were held on the beaches, first in
1854. Mathias Day, a developer from Mansfield, Ohio, settled Ormond Beach then later on Daytona Beach. Beach racing
thirteen families on 2,142 acres to begin the creation of Day- continued until the 1950's when Bill France moved to Day-
tona. Bridges were built in 1887 and 1899 across the Halifax tona Beach and built the Daytona International Speedway.
River. DeLand (named after Henry DeLand, a retired man- The opening of Disney World and an improved highway
ufacturer from New York) became the permanent county system increased tourism along the east coast of Volusia in
seatin 1888. the 1970's. Steady growth throughout the county turned into
Railroads were introduced to Volusia County in the 1880's. a surge of development for coastal communities such as
The St. Johns and Halifax River Railroad served the east New Smyrna, Daytona Beach, and Ormond Beach and
side of the county and the Jacksonville, Tampa, Key West caused a major planning problem.
Railroad the west. Ormond Beach became a winter resort During the 1980's, residents and government officials have
area for the wealthy when Henry Flagler brought his pas- become inccreasingly aware of the need to preserve historic
senger train service to the area. Mild weather, wide sandy architecture in Volusia County and of the development pres-
beaches, and passenger trains helped Daytona Beach and sures that threaten. Both public and private individuals and
Ormond Beach develop a tourist trade that is still one of the groups have begun to take appropriate measures to pre-
main sources of economy for the area. John D. Rockefeller serve the tangible record of Volusia County's long and di-
was a frequent visitor, verse history.
Granada Avenue 140 S. Beach St. Mission Drive
Ormond Beach Daytona Beach New Smyrna Beach
Ormond Hotel, built in 1887 for John Anderson and S&H Kress Building, built in 1933. Art Deco building New Smyrna Sugar Mill Ruins, southernmost sugar
Joseph D. Price, purchased by Henry Flagler in 1890. with ornate facade, built on a series of pilings, plantation built along the old Kings Highway. Destroyed
Frame vernacular hotel enlarged and landscaped by in 1830's by Seminole Indians. Walls of native coquina
Flagler. Mecca for tourists and early automobile racing stone and some mill machinery fragments remaining.
South Beach St.
Daytona Beach N
Granada Avenue and Merchant Bank Building, built in 1910 with Barn and Downtown Area
John Anderson Drive Hall as contractors and W B. Talley as architect. Beaux DeLand
Ormond Beach Arts style. DeLand Downtown Area, one of the best collections of
The Casements, built in 1890's by Dr. Harwood Hun- late nineteenth century buildings in Florida. In 1984 be-
tington and purchased by John D. Rockefeller for a came states first Main Street Project. Since then many
winter residence in 1918. Architectural style representa- existing brick buildings restored.
tive of resort cottages at turn of the century.
Ponce de Leon Inlet Lighthouse, constructed in 1887 0
C under the direction of General Orville Babcock, a friend Woodland Blvd.
501 N. Wild Olive Av. of Ulysses S. Grant, activated in 1888. Originally fueled DeLand
Daytona Beach by kerosene until the 1920's when lighthouse converted DeLand Hall, Stetson Unversty Campus, built in 1884.
Seabreeze United Church, built in 1895 with Harry Grif- to electric power. Small museum located on the light- Oldest building in continuous use for higher education
fin as architect. Unusual example of Spanish Mission house grounds. in Florida. First building at Stetson University. Victorian
style with the typical features of red clay tile roofs, dor- Revival style structure which originally housed library,
mers and roof parapets. Wall of field stone or bag rock. chapel, classrooms, gyms, and offices.
4110 Ridgewood Ave.
Port Orange P
D Grace Episcopal Chruch, built in 1895. Victorian Revi- 1031 Camphor Lane
Daytona Beach val style with original stained glass by Tiffany Studio DeLand
Daytona Beach Bandshell, built in 1936 asa Works and Willet Studio glass installed in early 1970's. Stetson Mansion, built in 1886. Designed by GeorgeT.
Progress Administration project that included the Pearson as the winter residence of John B. Stetson,
boardwalk along the ocean. Moorish style structure of hat manufacturer, who wintered in DeLand for 20 years
coquina stone. Served as outdoor entertainment center and became involved with the community and the uni-
for beauty pageants, plays, and concerts since its con- versity named for him.
Riverside Drive and
New Smyrna Beach
Turnbull Ruins. Coquina rock foundation for incomplete
E house intended for Dr. AndrewTurnbull, British founder Q
Bethune-Cookman of New Smyrna. Hotel and home built by the pioneer Debary Av. & Clark St.
College Campus; Sheldon family on the foundation. Union ships bombed Enterprise
Daytona Beach and burned the building during Civil War. All Saints Episcopal Church, built in 1883, one of the
Mary McLeod Bethune House, built in the 1920's as oldest original Episcopal missions in Central Florida.
home of the founder of Bethune-Cookman College and One of finer examples of small Victorian Revival style
the National Council for Negro Women who advised churches. At time of construction, Enterprise was the
presidents and spoke for the black American community county seat.
103 Flagler Ave.
New Smyrna Beach
Riverview Hotel, built in 1896 on Indian River as hunt- R
F ing and fishing lodge. Originally two-story structure DeBary Mansion
220 N. Beach St. called Barber House after the builder, S.T. Barber, who State Park
Daytona Beach was also the bridge-tender at the time of construction. DeBary
Daytona Beach Post Office, built in 1933 with Harry Frame vernacular building with many additions. Name DeBary Hall, built in 1871 as winter residence of Baron
Griffin as architect. Design inspired by Havana hotel. changed to Riverview Hotel in 1936. Frederick DeBary, a prominent wine importer. House
Red clay roof tiles imported from Cuba and wall made remained in DeBaryfamily until 1959 when it became
of coral shipped from Key Largo. property of the state.
MICHAEL GORDON, AIA, MID-FLORIDA
Lake County was established May 27,1887, from
portions of Sumter and Orange counties. Named
county is bordered by Marion, Sumter, Polk, Orange, (...
Seminole, Volusia, and Putnam counties. .l
Settlers first came to the area in the 1840's, but the princi- FN
pal county communities (with the exception of Leesburg) n:. :
developed in the last quarter of the past century. Leesburg, 4 -
largest and oldest town in the county, was founded in 1856
by the Lee family from New York. The favorable climate, M-_
abundant lakes, and soil conditions of the Leesburg area T -. -..-L rA1
and other Lake County regions encouraged the develop- "
ment of extensive citrus groves, commercial nurseries, Lk F. '.Ak .-
watermelon farms, and even vineyards. The lake environ-
ment also attracted seasonal residents and drew those in- LAH N E
terested in recreational activities. Citrus and truck crop pro- [j
duction and mineral and lake resources influenced the
county's population growth.
Tavares, the county seat, was established in 1875 by Alex- :
ander St. Clair Abrams who named the town for a Spanish
ancestor and planned development first as a tourist commu- /
nity and then as an industrial and governmental center. /
Abrams spent more than $500,000 in building stores, lumber
mills, a hotel, and the first courthouse. An 1888 fire, followed
by destructive freezes, almost destroyed the town; but de-
velopment and growth returned to the area. ^
Eustis and Lake Eustis were named for General Abram u -.
Eustis of Seminole War fame. The town, first known as Pen- r -
1, J, K l .#I
dryville, honored A. S. Pendry who homesteaded the area in i
1876, planted an orange grove, and established the Okla-
waha Hotel. Before railroads arrived, the town was a port for "
lake steamers. Mount Dora on Lake Dora, founded in 1882,
has the appearance of a New England village, even though ,
a southern accent can be discerned. The town was a ren-
dezvous for boat enthusiasts and had one of Florida's first
Howey-in-the-Hills was founded in 1916 as a center of a
vast citrus industry occupying over 60,000 acres and provid- \ I
ing harvesting, shipping, and marketing services. Devas-\
tated by freezes in the 1980's, the area presently caters to
the tourist trade.
Lake County, once a center for the citrus industry, is now
in transition because of climatic and population changes.
Recreation facilities are important to the economy. Tourists,
delighted with watersports, are also finding pleasure in the
Victorian Revival buildings and early twentieth century busi-
Preservation and conservation are active ingredients in
contemporary Lake County. A portion of Ocala National
Forest, dotted with various springs and streams, is located
in the northeast portion of the county. Mount Dora's Lakeside
Inn, which opened in 1893 as the Alexander House, was re-
stored and began operating again in the mid 1980's. Royel-
lou Museum, sponsored by the Mount Dora Historical Soci-
ety, features Mount Dora memorabilia to educate the visitor.
Walking tours are available for those interested in architec-
NO PHOTO AVAILABLE
Lake Shore Drive Mineola at Fifth St.
A Andrew Jackson Phares House (Howey-in-the-Hills 'The Gables," built in 1885 for M. E. Wilson who estab-
Spring Lake Road vicinity). Built in 1874 for Phares, founder of Yalaha who lished the Baptist congregation and built Grace Baptist
Fruitland Park worked with early mining and citrus industries. Charac- Church in 1884. House extensively modified and used
Holy Trinity Church. Designed by J. J. Nevitt and built in ters in Will Allen Dromgade's Three Little Crackers from for commercial functions.
1888 for $12,150 by E. Thompson. Victorian Revival Down in Dixie said to be based on Phares family. Build-
style wood frame structure with gable roof, three entry ing extensively modified.
porches with clustered columns, decorated pediments,
and verge boards. Minor modifications.
G Mount Dora
Citrus Street John Phillip Donnelly House, built in 1893 for Donnelly,
Howey-in-the-Hills the early developer and two-term mayor of Mount Dora,
William J. Howey House, designed by Katherine originally from Pittsburgh. Possibly designed by
Cotheal Budd and built in 1926 for W. J. Howey, founder George F Barber of Knoxville, Tenn. Flamboyant combi-
B of Howey-in-the-Hills who served two terms as mayor nation of Victorian Revival styles. Masonic Temple
1021 N. Main St. and was an unsuccessful candidate for governor. Lodge since 1930.
Leesburg Mediterranean Revival style, two-story stucco structure
E. H. Mote House. Built in 1892 for $9,000 for E. H. with arched windows, hip roof with wide bracketed
Mote, pioneer developer of Leesburg who served eight eaves, and clay roof tiles. Projecting entry bay with
terms as mayor and one in the Florida House of Repre- elaborate frontispiece of spiraled engaged columns,
sentatives. Victorian Revival style. Projecting bays, bal- bas relief panels, and heraldic devices. Low crenellated
conies, and tower with intersecting gable roof. tower at northeast corner.
C ~i 8ga~Community Congregational Church. Congregation or-
536 North Bay St. ganized in 1883. Church built in 1887 with additions in
Eustis 1916-1917 and 1935. Victorian Revival style, wood
G. D. Clifford House, built in 1910 by L. N. Herrick for H frame, entry tower, octagonal bell cupola with elon-
Guilford D. Clifford, who arrived in area in 1875 as first Alfred St. at St. Clair gated steeple.
merchant in Eustis. Designed by New York firm sixteen Tavares
years before construction which was delayed by 1894- Union Congregational Church. First church in Tavares
1895 freezes. Classic Revival style house with project- built in 1885 to house Methodist and Baptist congrega-
ing two-story porch and bays. tions until early 1900's when each group built their own
churches. Victorian Revival style with gable roof with
verge board, bell cupola, and unusual front porch with
347 S. Clayton
Gilbert House. Built in 1883 as the home of Dr. Gilbert
D who operated the first steamboat on Lake Dora, one of
Ferran Park the few early means of transportation in Lake County
Eustis to Jacksonville via the Oklawaha River.
McClelland Open AirTheater, built in 1926 to celebrate
city's pride in local music. Moved and modified to im- I
prove acoustics in 1935. Style modified to reflect Clermont
Mediterranean Revival style with stucco decorations, Lakeview Hotel, built in 1884 for L. H. Todd associated
towers, arches, and clay tile roof. with the Clermont Improvement Company. Marked be-
ginning of towns development.
100 N. Alexander
Lakeside Inn. Opened in 1893 as The Alexander
House, a resort hotel for fishing, birding, and snake
E hunting. Purchased in 1924 by a group of investors and
305 S. Mary St. Charles Edgerton whose son Dick managed the hotel
Eustis g during many winter seasons. Additions constructed in
St. Thomas Episcopal Church, built in 1882 as first Clermont 1930. Continuous operation except for 1985. Rehabili-
church building in Eustis. Enlarged in 1921 by sawing Orange Belt Railroad Depot, built in 1887 and moved tated by new owners and reopened as full-service hotel
building in two and adding six feet to chancel allowing from original site. In 1885 the Orange Belt Railroad and in 1986.
organ installation. Extensive modifications. the Tavares-Apopka and Gulf Railroad, later the
Tavares and Gulf (T&G known as "Tug and Grunt") pto-
vided rapid and safe local transportation.
MICHAEL CLARY, AIA, MID FLORIDA CHAPTER
EAT VILL LE
/A-N i/ i
Originally part of Mosquito County, Orange
County was founded in 1845. The settling of /
Orange County, like that of the neighboring x
counties of Seminole, Brevard, Osceola, Lake, and Polk,
was an aftermath of the Seminole Wars. Under protection of Another surge of development came to Orange County
military garrisons, settlers drifted into the area to establish during the 1920's Florida land boom with real estate specu-
towns near the forts. One of the first settlers was Aaron Jerni- lations, building of thousands of residences, and the intro-
gan, a cattleman from Georgia who moved into the Orlando duction of new architectural styles. Downtown areas were
area in 1842. A stockade which he built and the community first composed of two-story brick commercial buildings with
which settled around it on the shores of Lake Holden be- corbeled cornices, cast stone window and door surrounds,
came the seat of Orange County in 1856. First known as Jer- and sometimes clad with sheet metal simulating carved
nigan, the town was renamed Orlando either to recognize a stone. Canopies above sidewalks protected pedestrians
Shakespearean hero or to honor Orlando Reeves, a night against rain and sun. Residential areas presented Victorian
sentry killed by raiding Indians, or to remember Orlando Revival, Classical Revival, and Mediterranean Revival styles
Rees, a wealthy planter who was plagued and finally killed and examples of bungalow and Prairie School designs.
by Indians stealing his slaves. The financial crash of 1929, a depression lasting until the
The numerous lakes and favorable climate encouraged late 1930's, and then World War II slowed commercial and re-
development of commercial citrus groves in the county. One sidential building. The post-war years included a new na-
of the first was planted in 1865-1866 by W. H. Holden. Trans- tional phenomenon, a mobile population which revitalized
portation problems prompted rail service which was provided the tourist industry. The perennial tourist of the late
by an 1880 extension of the South Florida Railroad from Mel- nineteenth and early twentieth century who arrived by train
lonville to Orlando. Growth of the citrus industry drove cattle became the two-week vacationer driving his own au-
ranges further south. Maitland, a settlement on the site of tomobile. Middle-aged and retired families arrived in mobile
Fort Maitland, attracted a group of Union veterans who incor- homes and set up housekeeping. Orlando, with its 47 city
porated the town in 1884. Nearby Eatonville was established parks and recreation areas and 54 lakes within the city limits,
in 1886, one of the first towns incorporated by blacks in the became the tourist hub of Central Florida. The 1967 arrival
United States. Winter Park, first known as Lakeview and of the Walt Disney enterprises to the area caused rapid and
later Osceola, was incorporated in 1881 when a town site of extensive changes in both the natural and man-made
600 acres was laid out. Rollins College, established in 1885 environments.
by the General Congregational Association was named to Fortunately criteria and procedures for architectural pres-
honor Alonzo W. Rollins of Chicago. Apopka, Winter Garden, ervation have become part of planning decisions shaping
and Oakland in the western part of the county were settled the future of this dynamic locale. In 1976 the City of Orlando
in the 1950's. Lake Apopka, one of Florida's largest lakes, created an ordinance specifying a citizen advisory board to
was surrounded by citrus groves and resort facilities. Oak- protect the architectural history of the city. There are now
land, settled by South Carolinians, was an early industrial three historic districts in Orlando and nearly one thousand
center with saw mills, cotton gins, and sugar mills. buildings noted for their value to the community. A 1984 pub-
With state and railroad interests offering land at a dollar an lication, sponsored by the advisory board, Orlando, History
acre to English buyers, large numbers of Englishmen immi- in Architecture, presents an excellent record of the communi-
grated to Orange County in the 1890s. The Rogers Building ty's architectural heritage. Preservation efforts in other parts
was club headquarters for Orlando's early British settlers. of Orange County have been less spectacular but through in-
Development continued until the winter of 1894-1985 when dividual and group preservation efforts, there is a future for
citrus groves were frozen to the ground. the county's most significant architecture.
A F K
100-102 W. Church St. 36W. Pine St. 1400 Sligh Blvd.
Orlando Orlando Orlando
Bumby Block, built in 1884 for Joseph Bumby, Sr. as Carey Hand Funeral Home, built in 1919 with F.H. Trim- Seaboard Coast Line Station, built in 1926. Spanish
hardware store, one of the oldest commercial struc- ble as architect. Carey Hand Funeral Home in continu- Mission Revival style with arcade curvilinear parapet
tures in Orlando and a major business enterprise ous operation at this location since 1920. Renaissance and flanking bell towers, three arches at porch, and tile
through 1966. Two story brick masonry construction Revival style featuring eight arches in street facade roof.
with segmental arched display windows at first floor, (one as automobile entrance, three in recessed entry,
corbeled cornice. Victorian Revival style features. and others in wall screening parking area).
24 N. Rosalind Ave.
37-39 S. Magnolia Av. First Church of Christ Scientist-St. George Orthodox
Orlando 'Church, built in 1928 with George Foote Dunham as
Rogers Building-English Club, built in 1886-1887. Im- G architect. Neo-Classical Revival style structure with
portant social gathering place for the English colony. Orange Avenue Greek cross plan, intersecting gable roofs with dome
Commercial Victorian Revival style building clad in Orlando at intersection. Two-story portico at street entrance.
sheet metal with polygonal window at second floor, Angebilt Hotel, designed by Murray S. King and opened
bracketed cornice with triangular insert bearing build- in 1923 as Orlando's largest leading commercial hotel.
ing name and decoration. Decorative belt courses on Simplified Renaissance Revival style. Cut stone finish
side elevation, at ground and mezzanine levels; pairs of windows in
brick masonry wall expressing rental room; and three-
part rectangular and circular arched windows at top
floors below heavy bracketed cornice.
578 N. OrangeAve.
Firestone Tire and Rubber Building, built in 1930 for
C Firestone Tire and Rubber Co. Anchored northern
76-78 W. Church St. limits of Orlando's commercial development. One of
Orlando few commercial structures constructed in the 1930's.
Old Orlando Railroad Depot (Southern and Coastal H Brick and concrete masonry building with covered ser-
Railroad), built in 1889. Unique example of Victorian 239 E. Copeland Dr. vice area, two-story sales and office area, decorative
Revival style railroad architecture similar to designs of Orlando tower with lantern.
H. H. Richardson; brick masonry construction, decora- S. J. Sligh House, built in 1925 for citrus magnate S. J.
tive shingle hip roof, eyebrow dormers, cylindrical tower Sligh at cost of $25,000. Colonial Revival style, two-
with conical roof. Complex of three structures: office story brick building with gable roof and gable roof
and baggage building, passenger station, and dormers, two-story portico with pairs of Corinthian col-
warehouse, connected by means of a covered loading umns, and fan light in pediment.
platform. Constructed with load-bearing brick walls, a
wood frame roof.
15-17 W. Church St
Kress Building, built in 1935 with Edward F Siebart of
D New York as architect. One of few Art Deco style struc-
135 Lucerne Cir. NE I tures in Orange County. Stone veneer over reinforced
Orlando 18 W Pine St. concrete, granite veneer, and polychromatic terra cotta
Peleg Peckman House-Dr. P Phillips House. Designed Orlando ornament.
by L. Percival Hutton of Philadelphia and built in 1893 Tinker Building, built in 1925 by H. C. Construction Co.
by L. N. Boykin for Col. Peleg Peckman, prominent sea- for Joe Tinker of baseball fame. Two-story masonry
sonal resident. Bought in 1912 by Dr. P Phillips, one of commercial building. Street facade featuring glazed
Central Floridas most successful citrus producers. Vic- tiles, cut and pressed stone, stained glass, and wood
torian Revival style, wood frame, two-story shingled trim. Projecting trim at first and second floor ceiling
residence with cylindrical tower and other Queen Anne lines.
features. Extensively modified with Classical Revival
portico with lonic columns. ern Shore of
The Palms, built in 1899 as winter cottage for Edward
Hill Brewer. Remodeled in 1924 to duplicate Brewer's
residence in Cortland, N.Y. Originally clapboard ex-
J terior with wood shingle roof and spindle balustraded
525 S. Eola Ave. veranda. Colonial Revival style facade with lonic
E Orlando pedimented portico and paired columns.
15-17W. Pine St. Cherokee School, built in 1926. Mediterranean Revival
Orlando style, two-story masonry building with stucco finish, two
Elijah liand Building, built in 1905 as a furniture store, square towers with pyramid clay tile roofs flanking entry
Later used for undertaking establishment and office porch. Polychromatic glazed tile inserts on window sur-
building. Victorian Revival style, two-story brick building rounds, decorative bas reliefs.
with corbeled belt course between first and second
floor, two-tiered corbeled denticular cornice and
parapet wall with raised central portion. 87
JERRY MILLS, FLORIDA CENTRAL CHAPTER
One of Florida's smaller counties, Seminole
County is defined by the St. Johns River and
Volusia County to the north and east and by O
Orange County to the south. During the area's early history,
when the British occupied Florida (1763-1783), land near
Mosquito Inlet was developed into sugar cane and indigo- ,- -
plantations. These fell into ruins following British withdrawal,
and settlements were limited to coastal locations.
After Florida was transferred to the United States, East "
Florida was subdivided into several counties. One of these
was Mosquito County, established in December 29, 1824,
with New Smyma as the county seat. Due to Indian hostilitiesLA
around Lake Munroe during the Second Seminole War, Fort
Mellon was erected on the lake's south shore in 1837. Roads
were constructed to provide communication with other forts
including Fort Brook (Tampa), Fort Gatlin (Orlando), and Fort "---
Meade. During a period of relative calm, the settlement A ---
around Fort Mellon became known as Mellonville. In 1843 the ... O
county seat was moved from New Smyma to Enterprise on -
the north shore of Lake Munroe. Then, on January 30, 1845,
a law was enacted to change the name of Mosquito County to
that of Orange County with Mellonville as the county seat.
Because of its location at the headwaters of the St. Johns _.
River, Mellonville was the natural gateway for supplies to the
growing population of South Florida. In 1854 Volusia County
was formed from the north end of Orange County. In 1856
Orlando became the new county seat for Orange County. a fire destroyed four blocks of Sanford's commercial district,
By 1866 new settlers began to arrive in this locale to estab- after which buildings in this area had to be of masonry con-
lish wharves, packing houses, and groves. Gen. Henry S. struction. In 1913 the northeastem third of Orange County
Sanford purchased 12,535 acres of the Levy Grant at Lake became Seminole County with Sanford as the county seat.
Monroe on the St. Johns River. The town of Sanford was After severe freezes of 1895, some business interests turned
incorporated seven years later and gradually grew to absorb from fragile citrus to the security of vegetable production,
Mellonville. In 1871 Sanford settled a colony of immigrants food processing, and fertilizer and crate manufacture.
from Sweden on a tract of land west of Sanford which he Rapid population growth in neighboring Orange County
named St. Gertrude. The 1870's were years of building com- and the construction of Interstate Highway 4 made Seminole
mercial, institutional, and residential structures. In 1879 a County attractive to modem land speculators, especially in
charter established the South Florida Railroad from Sanford the Altamonte Springs locale. Several historic buildings,
to Tampa, and in 1884 the J.T. and K.W. Railroad came into threatened by changes in land use, were moved to Longwood
Sanford from Jacksonville. The South Florida Railroad was in 1973 to provide a focus for local preservation efforts. To
purchased by Henry B. Plant in 1883, and Sanford served as protect its heritage of late nineteenth century architecture,
headquarters for his company and the railroad. Longwood, a Sanford has established an architectural district including
community southwest of Sanford, developed as a railroad twenty-six buildings. Preservation organizations include the
stop. Mellonville, by-passed by the railroads and eclipsed by Central Florida Society for Historic Preservation, Inc., and the
Sanford, disappeared by the late 1880's. On Sept. 20, 1887, Seminole County Historical Society.
130 Warren Ave. Silver Lake 301 West Seventh St.
Longwood Sanford Sanford
Bradlee-Mclntyre House, built in 1885 in Altamonte Phelps-Burton House, built in 1898. Wood frame, Sanford High School-Grammar School-The Margaret
Springs and moved to Longwood in 1973. Queen Anne two-and-a-half-story building with basement, omate K. Reynolds Building. Main structure built in 1902, wings
style building which Ulysses S. Grant's widow and chil- verge boards, and engaged four-story tower with steep added in 1916 with E. J. Moughton as architect. Adapted
dren visited shortly after his death. hip roof. as Seminole County School Board's Student Museum.
B 11 j B G M
141 West Church Ave. 1719 S. Sanford Ave. 500 South Oak Ave.
Longwood Sanford Sanford
"Inside-Outside" House. Fabricated in Boston for a Ginn Brothers House (Jarvis Farm), built from 1904- George Femald House-Femald-Laughton Memorial
ship's captain, transported in disassembled state by 1908. Raised cottage, wood frame, two and a half story Hospital-Florida Hotel, built in 1910. Additions con-
steamer to Sanford and by mules to Altamonte Springs, with full basement, rough-cut cypress siding, engaged structed in 1919 when house converted to hospital.
reassembled in 1883. Unusual vertical stud framing hexagonal turret. Victorian Revival style.
exposed on exterior with plaster over tongue and
groove, horizontal siding on interior Recorded by
Historic American Building Survey, moved to Longwood
701 West Third St.
1201 Magnolia Wilton Miller-George Femald House, built in 1887.
Sanford Omate wood Victorian Revival building in Sanford.
Dyson House, built before 1924 with Elton Moughton as Restored as bed and breakfast inn in mid 1980's.
C architect. Probably the best example of Arts and Crafts
150 Lake St. Bungalow style in Seminole County. Wood frame
Longwood sheathed with sawn cypress shingles.
Longwood Hotel, built in 1883. Wood frame, three
stories, once known as "The Orange and Black," one of
Central Florida's finest gambling establishments.
Adapted in 1985 as restaurant and retail office spaces.
209 North Oak Ave.
918 South Magnolia Sanford
W. J. Thigpen House, built in 1910. Cross plan with PICO (Plant Investment Company) building, built in
D w.J. Thigpen House, built in 1910. Cross plan with 1886 with H.M. Papworth as builder and William T.
6297 Lake Charm Palladian windows in each gable. Sheathed with Cotter as architect. Ornate brick building in Roma
Circle aluminum siding in 1978, lightning rods and pressed esque Revival style. Originay designed as hotel to
Oviedo metal roof shingles remain.
eaccommodate rail and steamship passengers. Adapted
Calvin Whitney-Wyatt House, built in 1886- 87 in 1966 as attomeys' offices.
for Whitney who owned the Chase Piano Co. of Ohio.
Victorian Revival style with west elevation porch at both
floors extending half bay beyond width of house to north.
801 ParkAvenue p
Sanford 301 East First St.
Thigpen House, built in 1905. Queen Anne style building Sanford
E with omrnamental shingle pattem in gables, a cylindrical Bishop Block, built immediately after the 1887 fire by
South Sanford Ave. turret on northwest comer sheathed in vertical tongue Capt. J.O. Northesag for J.N. Bishop. Romanesque
Sanford and groove beaded boards, and curved sash and Revival style using brick and pressed metal.
James E. Ingraham House, built for Ingraham who was glazing.
agent for Gen. Henry S. Sanford when the new town of
Sanford was developed (Ingraham also president of
South Florida Railway in 1881 and president of Henry
Flagler's Model Land Company which supervised con-
struction of West Palm Beach in 1983.) Two-story wood
shingle Victorian Revival style structure.
Cypress at Ninth St.
St. James African Methodist Episcopal Church, built in
mid 1880's. Oldest black ecclesiastic structure in
Sanford. Brick exterior, wood frame, and pressed metal
JOHN F KENNEDY
The history of Brevard County is remarkably di- ^
verse, encompassing periods from prehistoric CAPE CANAVE
times to European colonization and finally to the IL.
most technologically advanced achievements of space
The Colonial Period began in Brevard County in 1513 whenCA CANAVRAL
Ponce de Leon landed just south of Cape Canaveral. The COCO
Cape was a landmark for Spanish explorers using the Gulf I
Stream as the principal return route to Spain. The Spanish in- COCOA
itiated the cultivation of citrus in Florida which was to have a JCKL EACH
significant impact on the landscape and economy of the
Aside from early exploration, little settlement occurred for R F' ORCE BASE
the next 300 years. The outbreak of the Seminole Indian War S,
in 1835 stimulated the first significant development. Land i SATELLITE
was cleared, trails were built and a fortification was con- i BEA \ CH
structed on Merritt Island. The Armed Occupation Act 'H "
brought soldier-settlers, such as Captain Douglas Dummitt -
and Captain John Houston, to the area. Dummitt chose a site MEL BUNE BOUR NDIAANT
on Merritt Island and planted a citrus grove which was pro- VILE ST MELBOURNE
ducing 60,000 barrels of fruit of year by 1859. Dummitt be- RLBOUR
came known as the Father of the now-famous Indian River
citrus. Brevard County continued to produce enormous
amounts of citrus until the disastrous freeze of 1895 which
devastated the industry statewide.
In 1892, work was begun on the Cape Canaveral Light-
house. Settlers continued to trickle in, but it was not until the
last half of the 19th century that a real influx of settlers oc-
curred. This was a direct result of the Homestead Act of 1862
offering free land for farmers and speculators. The Indian
River and its environs offered fish, game and an easy means
of local transportation for the settlers. The first homes in the Improvements in transportation continued to be important
county were palmetto shacks which were later replaced by to the development of Brevard County. The Dixie Highway,
rustic log cabins. Simple frame construction did not appear winding along the length of the Indian River, brought travelers
until the early 1880's. The hardwood hammocks along the and tourists by automobile to discover Brevard's climate and
shore of the Indian River and the groves of pinewood on Mer- beaches. Florida's land boom of the 1920's also stimulated
ritt Island were used in this early construction. The lumber growth and the stylistic models for the architecture of this
was milled in Titusville, the county seat, and rafted up and period, the Mediterranean Revival and Spanish Colonial, can
down the river for construction of homes in the communities be seen throughout the county. Building construction was ac-
situated on the banks such as Cocoa, Eau Gallie and companied by a lot of subdivision development at this same
The railroad had an immediate impact on the economy of After World War II, rapid growth was stimulated by the Fed-
the county. It allowed for the rapid entry of both tourists and eral Space Complex at Cape Canaveral and its main support
permanent settlers, while facilitating the export of products, system at Patrick Air Force Base. As a direct result of the
particularly fish and fruit, to northern markets. The businesses building of these two facilities, Brevard County became a
associated with these two products, such as ice plants, pack- tourist center in the 1960s, as thousands of visitors wit-
ing houses and canneries, developed at this time. nessed the space launches.