Citation
Climate Change, Agriculture, & Gender Dynamics: A Case Study of Campesinos in the Piedras River Watershed

Material Information

Title:
Climate Change, Agriculture, & Gender Dynamics: A Case Study of Campesinos in the Piedras River Watershed
Creator:
Marsala-Bell, Seth
Place of Publication:
Gainesville, FL
Publisher:
University of Florida
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
Project in lieu of thesis

Thesis/Dissertation Information

Degree:
Master's
Degree Grantor:
University of Florida
Committee Chair:
Deere, Carmen Diana
Committee Members:
Schmink, Marianne

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Agriculture ( jstor )
Climate change ( jstor )
Climate models ( jstor )
Crops ( jstor )
Farmers ( jstor )
Farms ( jstor )
Gender roles ( jstor )
Piedra ( jstor )
Watersheds ( jstor )
Women ( jstor )

Notes

Abstract:
Over the course of three months during the summer of 2013, two UF graduate students from the Masters in Sustainable Development Program (MDP) and one graduate student researcher from France were given an opportunity to partner with the International Center for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT) and the Climate Change and Food Security (CCAFS) program in Cali, Colombia. The research team was recruited by Dr. Jennifer Twyman from the Gender and Climate Change section of CCAFS. Our objectives were developed in consultation with CIAT and included establishing a strong relationship with local stakeholders and campesinos in the city of Popayán and in the Piedras River Watershed and collecting preliminary data on farming strategies, farmer perceptions regarding climate change, and how gendered roles play a part in their perceptions of climate change. This information was important to CIAT/ CCAFS since they had chosen the Piedras River Watershed as a new project site in Colombia and they wanted to see if it was feasible to disseminate knowledge on climate-smart agricultural practices in the region. Our research constitutes a case study of farming practices in the Piedras River Watershed. One of our main results is that 33 out of 35 participants in our study knew of and had heard about climate change. Their main understanding of climate change was with respect to climate variability. Climate variability refers to the way climate fluctuates yearly, either above or below a long-term average. One farmer notably put it this way, “before we were able to predict and prepare for winter and summer; now one day it’s winter and the next day it’s summer; the climate is crazy.” Page | 4 This report describes the qualitative research methodology employed by our research team to learn about farming strategies and how these differed among male and female-headed households, food sovereignty, and perceptions of climate change. Our research suggests that these “peasant” farmers are being resilient and adaptive in choosing agricultural practices that help with climate variability. Both men and women farmers are being proactive, and participate in household decisions on agricultural and livestock practices. The majority of the women interviewed are solely responsible for the household garden which supplies them with vegetables and fruit year round, allowing them to be self-sufficient and refrain from having to purchase certain produce from the market.
General Note:
Sustainable Development Practice (MDP) Program final field practicum report
General Note:
The MDP Program is administered jointly by the Center for Latin American Studies and the Center for African Studies.

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University of Florida Institutional Repository
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University of Florida
Rights Management:
Copyright Seth Marsala-Bell. Permission granted to the University of Florida to digitize, archive and distribute this item for non-profit research and educational purposes. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder.

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Page | 0 U? CLIMATE CHANGE, AGRICULTURE, & GENDER DYNAMICS A Case Study of Campesinos in the Piedras River Waters hed Seth Marsala Bell Field Practicum Report Seth20amb@gmail.com MDP at UF in Gainesville, FL, USA July 2014 Supervisory Committee: Dr. Carmen Diana Deere, Chair Dr. Marianne Schmink, Member

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Page | 1 Acknowledgeme nts There are many indiv id uals and or gan izations that supported me throughout my field practicum experience. I wou ld first like to acknowledge my supervisory committee in their continued support for me throughout this experience I would like to express extreme gratitude to my cha ir, Dr. Carmen Diana Deere and to my committee member Dr. Marianne Schmink for their guidance in the planning of this project I would like to conti nue my gr atitude to Dr. Jennifer Twyman and her team at the Center for International Tropical Agricult ure (CIAT) and the division of gender and climate change in Climate Change, Agriculture, and Food Security (CCAFS) W ith ou t the help of th ose organi zations and more importantly Dr. Twyman we would not have had the capability of carrying out our field practicum in the Piedras River Watershed located in Colombia. Throughout my practicum I had the pleasure of working alongside two NGO s in the city of Pop yan : the Fundacin Rio Piedras and Fundaci n Ecoh bitus. I would like to say thank you to those organization s since they were vital in the planning and execution of our field practicum report. O ne of our greatest contributors was the campesino organization ASOCAMPO. They took the time to help us rec ruit parti cipant s in our survey s as well as look after and take care of us. T hey welcomed our research team with open arms and helped us collect the data we needed. I would like to extend my gratitude to the campesinos themselves for participating in our surveys and opening their doors provid ing food and shelter to our research team. Lastly I want to extend my appreciation to the University of Florida MDP program, Director Dr. G len n Galloway and program coordinator C indy Tarter With their support and guidance throu ghout my tenure as a student led to the completion of this project and the final r eport I hope my contributions from this report help structure future climate change projects in helping peasant farmers.

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Page | 2 Table of Contents I. Introduction: ................................ ................................ ................................ ................... 3 II. Literature Review: ................................ ................................ ................................ ......... 4 2.1 Resilient Agriculture ................................ ................................ ................................ ...... 4 2.2 Peasant Household Reproduction ................................ ................................ ................. 6 2.3 Gender & Climate Change ................................ ................................ ............................ 7 2.4 Food Sovereignty and Adaptive Capacity ................................ ................................ .. 10 2.5 How Rural Households Experience Climate Change ................................ ............... 12 2.6 Participatory Methods in Collecting Qualitative Data from Farmers .................... 14 III. Context: ................................ ................................ ................................ ......................... 16 IV. Background on the Institutions: ................................ ................................ ................. 23 4.1 CIAT ................................ ................................ ................................ .............................. 23 4.2 ASOCAMPO ................................ ................................ ................................ ................. 24 4.3 Fundacin Rio Piedras ................................ ................................ ................................ 26 4.4 Fundacin Ecohbitats ................................ ................................ ................................ 27 V. Objective: ................................ ................................ ................................ ...................... 27 VI. Conceptual Framework: ................................ ................................ .............................. 30 VII. Methodology: ................................ ................................ ................................ ................ 32 7.1 Interviews with Farmers/ Pilot Survey: ................................ ................................ ..... 33 7.2 Climat e Vulnerability and Capacity Analysis ................................ ........................... 34 7.3 Farm Mapping ................................ ................................ ................................ .............. 35 7.4 Workshop ................................ ................................ ................................ ...................... 36 7.4a Seasonal Calendar ................................ ................................ ................................ ........... 36 7.4b Seasonal Food Security Calendar ................................ ................................ .................. 37 7.5 Participant Observation ................................ ................................ .............................. 37 VIII. Analysis: ................................ ................................ ................................ ........................ 38 8.1 Household Livelihoods ................................ ................................ ................................ 38 8.2 Gender Division of Labor ................................ ................................ ............................ 46 8.3 Agro Ecological Pr actices ................................ ................................ ............................ 50 8.4 Food Security ................................ ................................ ................................ ................ 52 8.5 Perceptions of Climate Change and Climate Smart Agriculture ............................ 53 IX. Limitations of the Study & Observations: ................................ ................................ 58 X. Discussion: ................................ ................................ ................................ ..................... 59 XI. Conclusion and Recommendations: ................................ ................................ ........... 63 XII. Works Cited ................................ ................................ ................................ .................. 65 XIII. Appendix ................................ ................................ ................................ ....................... 68

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Page | 3 I. Introduction: Over the course of three months during the summer of 2013, two UF graduate students from the Mast ers in Sustainable Development P rogram (MDP) and one graduate student researcher from France were given an opportunity to partner with the International Center for Tropical Agriculture ( CIAT ) and the Climate Change and Food Security ( CCAFS ) program in Cali, Colombia. The research team was recruited by Dr. Jennifer Twyman from the Gende r and Climate Change section of CCAFS. Our objective s were d eveloped in consultation with CIAT and included establish ing a strong relationship with loc al stakeholders and campesinos in the city of Popayn and in the Piedras River Watershed and collect ing p reliminary data on farming strategies, farmer perceptions regarding climate c hang e, and how gendered roles play a part in their perceptions of climate change This information was important to CIAT/ CCAFS since they had chosen the Piedras River Watershed a s a new project site i n Colombia and they wanted to see if it was feasible to disseminate knowledge on climate smart agricultural practices in the region Our research constitutes a case study of farming practices in the Piedras River Watershed. One of o ur main results is that 33 out of 35 participants in our study knew of and had heard about climate change. Their main understanding of climate change was with respect to climate variability. Climate variability refers to the way climate fluctuates yearly, either above or below a long d prepare for winter and summer; now one day it s winter and the next day it the

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Page | 4 This report describes the qualit ative research methodology employed by our research team to learn about farming strategies and how these differed among male and female headed households, food sovereignty, and perceptions of climate change. Our research suggests that rs are being resilient and adaptive in choosing agricultural practices that help with climate variability. Both men and women farmers are being proactive, and participate in household decisions on agricultural and livestock practices. The m ajority of the w omen interviewed are sole ly responsible for t he household garden which supplies them with vegetables and fruit yea r round, allowing them to be se lf sufficient and refrain from having to purchase certain produce from the market. II. Literature Review : 2.1 Resilie nt Agriculture With the end year approaching for meeting the Millennium Development Goals the international community is gearing up for the new Sustainable Development Goals conomic growth w hile addressing environmental threats through resilience and mitigation (Conway, 2012). N atural resources are under pressure by global industries, while small scale farmers who work to eke out a subsistence and earn enough income to provide for their fami lies are challenged by the task of conserving the little natural resources they have The MDG s aim to fight hunger, eradicate poverty and work towards economically stable s ocieties. It is estimated that between 90 0 million and a billion people are chronic ally hungry, and by 2050 the agricultural sector will have to cope with meeting environmental threats while feeding a growing population with changing

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Page | 5 dietary demands (Conway, 2012) This will require doubling food production, especially to compensate for climatic extremes. To do this requires sustainable intensification of production getting more from less, on a resilient basis (Conway, 2012). ability of groups or communities to cope with external stresses and disturba nces as a result of social, political, and environmental ch Adger 2000 pg. 297 ). A concern is that small scale farmers will be pushed to produce more food on less land with fewer pesticides, fertilizers, and access to water, while being expected to lower their outputs of greenhouse gases. Developing resilient agriculture will require technologies and practices that build on agro ecologic al knowledge. S mall scale farmers will need to be able to counter environmental degradati on and clima te change in order to maintain sustainable agricultural growth (Conway, 2012). E xamples of resilient agriculture include forms of mixed cropping for efficient us e and cycling of soil nutrients; conservation farming 1 integrated pest management; and p ractices that use little to no fertilizers, herbicides, and pesticides (Conway, 2012). These technologies and practices have been proven to work on ecological principles S ome even build on traditional practices used on small scale farms, as Conway ( 2012) has shown. In Zambia, an example o f conservation farming ( a system of no till agriculture with crop rotations ) has reduce d water requirements by up to 30% and with the use of new drought tolerant hybrids produce d up to five tons of maize per hectare, which is five times the average yield for Sub Saharan Africa ( Ibid. ). There is consensus among many scientists that a gro ecology and modern crop breeding 1 A concept for resource saving agricultu ral crop production that aims to achieve profits together with high and sustained production levels while concurre ntly conserving the environment (FAO 2011 )

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Page | 6 methods are not mutually exclusive; there must be a focus on improved crop varieties that fit in ecol ogical agriculture systems that can boost both productivity and resilience. Small scale farmers need enablin g environments to build resilient and sustainable agriculture. The Montpellier (Conway, 2012) report strongly recommends that the private sector, g overnments, and non governmental org anizations work alongside each other to help fight l and and water degradation (Ibid.) By forming partnerships with farmers they could possibly increase successful nutrition interventions while building diverse livelihoo d systems, especially focusing on women and young people ( Ibid. ). It is important to focus on these partnerships because the external organizations can help create the infrastructure needed for small scale farmers to reach resilient agricultural production 2.2 Peasant Household Reproduction Mapping the livelihood activities of small scale farmers is vital to understanding how they reproduce themselves and interact in the local community and market. It is important to understand the political and ec onomic logic of small scale farmers (Deere & Janvry, 1979). A re curring theme in the 21 st century is that small scale need help if they are going to feed a growing population in the next decades and thus their logic must be understood (World Bank, 2009). In order to focus on the organization of the peasant household and the class position of different groups of peasants I draw upon the Deere & de Janvry (1979) framework for the empirical analysis of peasants. It is impor tant to include the analysi s of peasant households to understand how small hol ders (peasant farmers) interact within their community and the market, their household structure, and farming practi ces The challenge in studies of

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Page | 7 how to emulate the effects of climate change is to unders tand how smallholders can adapt their farming methods and livelihoods while generating sufficient household income to meet their needs and aspirations. In the Deere and de Janvry (19 79) model it is posited that among peasant farmers household labor is dedicated to home production ( whet her to generate a product that is retained for household use/consumption or sold to the market ), wage labor, and the household reproduction process (domestic labor) reflecting the division of labor by sex and age. Our que stionnaire was designed to help map a framework of peasant household reproduction in the Piedras River Watershed by asking que stions in relation to the stock of means of production and how through the gender division of labor the household produces and re produces itself 2.3 Gender & Climate Change Climate Change (CC) is increasingly being recognized as a global crisis, but most responses to it have been focused on scientific and economic solutions, as opposed to human and gender dimensions (Aboud, 2011). An understanding of climate change requires an understanding of its gender dimensions because as weather variation continues and adaptation strategies are promoted to cope with it, success depends on all members of the household having access to this knowl edge and applying it Climate change (CC) term change in the statistical distribution of weather patterns, in terms of changes in average conditions (more/less rainfall, higher/lower temperatures), or in the distribution of events aroun Ibid. pg.9 ). Gender

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Page | 8 refers to qualities or characteristics that society ascribes to each sex, the idea that children learn to be women and men (FAO, 2011). Across a variety of cultures, ge nder dimensions determine the distribution of power and resources among females and males (Ibid. 2011). Taking into consideration the different needs of both women and men based on gender roles and how they will be impacted differently will contribute to a ddressing the impacts of climate change. The specific knowledge of both men and women are needed in order to contribute to creative solutions (Aboud, 2011). Climate change is a gender issue because as weather variation continues and adaptation strategies a re promoted to cope with it, success depends on all members of the household having access to this knowledge and applying it It is arg ued that polices to addre ss climate change h a ve often failed to recognize the gender specific characteristics of vulnera b ility and adaptive capacity (Pa t t et al., 2009). G ender equality is vit al to maintain limate change because it gives the opportunity to both the man and woman in the household to prepare adaptation strategie s and have access to information G ender equa lity requires a focus on rights, resourc es, and representation in climate policies. For example, w hen it comes to natural disasters related to climate change both men and women are affected and because of gende red norms these events could have different and inequitable impacts on house holds. Gender issues interact with economic, ethnic, and ot her factors, creating social conditions that can place women at greater risk when disasters unfold (Ibid. ., 2009). For ex ample a study in Bangladesh showed that women are more calorie deficient than men, so consequently when a flood occurs women cannot recover as quickly and they can be more susceptible to a deadly

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Page | 9 illness than their male counterparts because of an already weak immune system resulting in serious d etrimental effects to their health (Pat t et al., 2009). As pract itioners work to address the effects of climate change on small scale farmers it is imperative that we focus on the composition of households t o e nsure gender equality so that both the woman and man participate in making decisions on their farms. Because of the nature of the gendered division of labor on peasant farms all members of the household can better adapt their farming strategies when both m en and women have access to the information to improve their activities Pat t et al. (2009) show that women and men make different decisions based on the farming activities for which they are responsible This is important to take into account for sustaina ble development and climate chan ge adaptation. In their experiment in Africa, Pa t t et al. examine d the willingness of women and men to learn from and use outside advice. From this experiment they were able to show three gender related differences: that wom en are more likely to seek advice than men; they are more likely to listen to a dvice then men; and that women learn more from experience than men (Pa t t et al., 2009). The se findings also informed the content of our questionnaire since we wanted to understa nd how women and men interact at a household level, and how they manage natural resources to initiate climate smart agricultural practices. Some authors livelihoods (Nirmala & Venkate swarlu, 2012). Typically rural women are primary producers and cu stodians of natural resources. Their h ousehold roles and responsibilit ies range from crop cultivation and tending animals to household maintenance and caring for the children. As the impacts

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Page | 10 Venkateswarlu, 2012). Research (Ibid. WB, 2009, Baez et al., 2012) shows that in rural areas, 72% of men and women are affected by climate change because of the ir dependence on a griculture one of the most vulnerable sectors because of the shifts in weather patterns associated with severe droughts and hott er temperatures and long cold wet spells (all damaging to mass crop production) It is usually proposed that the main way to of fset climate change impacts is through mitigation and adaptation and documented evidences show that adaptation responses which have a gendered focus and are situation specific can off set loss es in productivity (Nirmala & Venkateswarlu, 2012). It is impor tant to focus on implementing climate adaptation and mitigation plans with both men and women (not implementing projects with focuses on just men or women) and accounting for the varia tions and division of household labor. Without taking such factors into account at the project site we could cr eate a time poverty trap for rural women may bear the time costs of climate change adaptations Climate change adaptation and mitigation plans also need to make sure that they provide an even playing field for men and women The resilience of the agricultural system to climate chang e can be improved over time when indi vidual roles are flexible and with l ess attachment to the existing division of labor (Ibid) 2.4 Food Sovereignty and Adaptive Capacity R ecent studies and evidence show climate change will cause increased crop losses, food and water insecurity malnourishment, and adverse health i mpacts (Nirmala & Venkateswarlu, 2012). With growing fears regarding climate change and its impacts on food production and

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Page | 11 livelihood structure, one should pay attention to gender concerns in the design of climate resilient agriculture Three out of every four poor people in developing countries live in rural areas and most of those people are directly or indirectly dependent on agriculture for their livelihoods (World Bank, 2009). Household food security is defined as round access to an adequate su pply of nutritious and safe food to meet the nutritional needs of all household Pg. 11 ). The focus on food sovereignty is important to address with the impendi ng impacts of climate change on rura l farmers. Global forces are challenging the ways developing countries feed themselves. Food sovereignt y is defined most notably by Pg. 1 ). The growing push to i ndustrial agriculture and globalization with the emphasis on export crops, GMO crops, and effects and economic, social, and ecological risks. This process has, in many cases, disrupted tradition al rural livelihoods as farmers have been encouraged to adopt modern technological practices and rely on credit to purchase inputs, which have pushed them into debt. This situation has severe impacts which, along with climat e change can destabilize crop productivity, mainly in the tropical zones of the world (Altieri, 2009). In light of global trends, the concept s of food sovereignty and ecologically based production systems have been thrown in to the spotlight. The link he re is that peasants play an tariff barriers to protect domestic production again st world market competition New approaches and technologies mixing modern agro ec ological science and indigenous knowledge

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Page | 12 have paved new adaptive strategies to climate change (Altieri, 2009). Research has shown that small farms are more productive than large farms based in yields per area and especially when the diversity of the crops they grow are taken into account. These peasant farmers are managing fewer resources more intensiv ely in order to make more income per unit of land and i n turn making more total income Pg. 1 05 ). How peasant farmers make the most pf their few resources and the intensity of their labor shows the sheer resilience and adaptive capacity of these farmers. I n certain situations they have been shown to be very productive while focu sing on ecological conservation, important considerations in desi gning climate smart agriculture and thinking about how countries may attain food sovereignty. This study focus ed on household food security and food sovereignty among the campesino farmers in Colombia. 2.5 How Rur al Households Experience Climate Change To conceptualize adaptation in r ural communities one must take into account effectively distinct phenomena variability and a rise in its frequency alon g with severity of extreme weather events. The second is gradual changes in temperature and rainfall patterns (Baez et al., 2012 Pg. 2 ). These two aspects help us think about how rural households experience climate change an d how they might prepare for fu ture events. Baez et al (2012) show that vulnerability consists of three elements: exposure (experience of climate conditions), sensitivity (how the physical environment reacts to exposure), and adaptive capacity (how household actions taken are : (a) in r esponse to varied climate conditions, and (b) maintaining or improving househ old welfare)

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Page | 13 Understanding these components can help us predict how the farmers might be able to prepare for climate variability while reducing its economic impact. As previousl y noted agricultural production is ver y sensitive to weather events that result from climate change. Figure 1 shows the average number of climate related disasters by different regions from 1970 2009. Figure 1 indicates that there has been a gradual incre ase in the total number of climate related disasters. These disasters are defined as 10 or more people dying, and hundreds being affected, and the issuance of a state of emergency. Figure 1.

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Page | 14 Source: Baez et al., 2012 Previous stud ies have shown tha t rural households have historically adapted to weather shocks in various ways However increasi ng severity and frequency of weather events due to climate change coul d produce qualitative changes in household responses. By studying the past we can u nd erst and how these farmers maintain an inherent adaptability to changing climates and/or environments (Baez et al., 2012). From past information on these conditions we can help conceptualize existing evidence of small scale farmers that have used their own capa cities in adapting to climate change to implement better suited adaptation practices on a larger scale. These increase s in weather shocks will inevitably affect the economic and phys ical factors that determine household adaptive capacity. Recording and un derstanding the constant increases of severity and frequency of weather shocks may uncover qualitative changes in how households respond to climate, particularly the behavioral and psychological factors of adaptive capacity (Baez et al., 2012). 2.6 Partic ipatory Methods in C ollecting Qualitative Data from Farmers Countless publications discuss the importance of utilizing participatory approaches in the field Engaging with people and learning about their perceptions should lead to a more successful devel opment project because of their contextual insight and their enthusiasm to learn and participate In the context of agricultural science, participant learning/ engagement

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Page | 15 can help agricultural scientists move from technology transfer to aiding rural develo pment because it focuses on in house technology (technology created from their own materials or previously purchased to aid in farming) rather than spending time and money on teaching technology adoption on foreign items at least until the farmers can bec ome wealthy enough to afford these luxuries (Caister et al., 2011). Participatory activities involving farmer s and researcher s create new avenues for le arning for both parties Researchers are better able to understand the real problems faced by small farm ers if they ask questions regarding their c apacity to generate a surplus to commercialize or at least to reach a yield sufficient to meet their subsistence requirements (Caister et al., 2011). Uncovering and interpreting the complexity of farmer relationsh ips based in the community, the household structure, and in the market is an integral part of agricultural processes; for example the relationship between labor and agricultural practice among subsistence farmers show s rural households are founded on a co mbination of social, economic, and moral religious elements (Caister et al., 2011). These relationships are hidden under layers of contextual and ancestral history U nderst anding them helps open the door to seeing how peasant farmers do certain agricultura l practices and why they focus on certain production activities for the household reproduction in terms of income, division of labor, and activities deemed important for the survival of the household. For example, what peasant farmers do in rural Colombia, will be different from the rural farmers in the U.S. which will also be different from the rural farmer s in Africa, and so on. Using participatory methods in the field help s researchers to understand the complex ity of social relationships in rural commu nit ies Participatory processes challenge scientists to reconsider their role in technology development through innovation and not just through a

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Page | 16 technical break through. Caister et al (2011) suggest that for this kind of learning to occur in the a gricult ural system, it is dependent on effective knowledge sharing an d information management among all levels, from producer to consumer. Knowledge sharing may encourage faster responses to changing markets, shorter product cycles, and lower costs. Understanding the rural household through participatory learning/ engagement is key to development, especially in agricultural research for one has the possibility of learning farming methods practiced for generations It is my aim through this research to understand the context of small holder farmers to help them achieve the adaptive capacity needed to confront the upcoming climatic events that could put their very livelihoods at risk. III. Context: There are more than 3 million people involved in small scale agricul tural activities in Colombia, including the majority of those who reside in mestizo, A fro Colombian, and indigenous communities w hose livelihood s depend on farming. These farms average about 2.9 hectares have little access to modern technology, poor tran sportation produce small amounts of crops, receive little to no state support, and account for at least 738,000 households. Despite the peasant farmers provide 67% of the fo od that can be purchased on a bas ic family budget in the capital city of Bogot (US Office on Colombia, 2009). The Piedras River Watershed located northeast of the city of Popayn (capita l of the department Cauca ) is the main focus of this project The Cauca province is located in the southwes t region of Colombia and encompasses both the Pacific and Andean region s of the

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Page | 17 country. This province is named after the Cauca river system which consists of five major watersheds. This re gion has some of Colombia biological diversity and a variety of ecosystems. The eastern slope of the Andean mountain range reaches the valleys containing the rivers Cauca and Patia. These are important rivers with a high prevalence of wet lands which play an important ro le in water regulat ion. These watersheds are among the most threatened ecosystems in the country. The Popayan plateau is flanked by the central cordillera which b elow the permanent snowline) in the department (PNUD Colombia Universidad del Cauca, 2012). The Cauca department in which the province of the same name is located, is equivalent to This department consists of 42 munic ipalities which are located in five regions: t he North, Central, South, West, and East. It has a large concentration of indigenous populations, including the Misak, Na sa, Coconucos, and other groups, making up 19.7% of the population. There is a strong concentration of Afro Colombians as well maki ng up 20.2% of the population. The majorit y of the population is estizo betwee n Spaniards and indigenous), or together making up 60.2% of the population (University of Cauca, 2009). In Cauca, in 2010, 61. 1 % of the population live d in rural areas, and a similar percentage live d under the national poverty line ( PNUD Colombia Universidad del Cauca, 2012 ). The pop ulation was evenly divided between men ( 50.6 % ) and women ( 49.4 % ) About 6 0.7% of the population was less than 30 years of age (PNUD Colombia Universidad del Cauca, 2012). The high proportion of people living in the countryside gives Colombia its rural character. According

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Page | 18 to the 2005 Census, urban rural population rates in Cau ca have remained constant for the last 20 years in contrast to national trends which have a higher urban population rate as shown in Figure 2 Th e interdepartmental migration to and from Cauca according to changes of residence in the last five years sug gests a v ery low rate of attraction, ejection, migration, and immigration, with only 13% of migrants leaving their original residence because of the civil war that has raged since the 1950s The migration trend has contributed to a low population growth ra te, 1.57% from 1993 to 2005 in Cauca much lower compared to the rest of the country (PNUD Colombia Universidad del Cauca, 2012). This means that a large r share of farmers remain in the Cauca department compa red to the rest of the country. This can be see n in Figure 2 which sho ws urbanization trends in Colombia and Cauca from 1985 2012. Figure 2 Urbanization trends in Colombia and Department of Cauca, 1985 2012. Source: Census Analysis DANE (2010)

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Page | 19 s mainly based on agriculture and second biggest su gar cane producer Cattl e and pigs are the most abundant in the area, producing dairy and meat products I n terms of GDP, Cauca d between 2000 and 2010, from 3,550 million Colombian pesos to 6,070 million contribution to national GDP only increased by 0.16 percentage points from 2000 to 2010. Cauca was ranked 15th of t he 32 departments in terms of contributions to the national economy. While the national economy grew at a rate of 4.5% per year, the department of C a u ca recorded a n average growth rate of 2.8% over the p ast decade. P er capita GDP in the department is also lower than that of the national economy. In 2010 the per capita GDP gap was on the order of ne arly 5 million pesos between the departmental and national l evels, favoring the latter. Table 1 shows the sectorial composition of GDP in the department, with soc ial, community, and personal services being the largest contributor followed by agriculture, and livestock. The li mited departmental progress hinders achieving important goals su ch as poverty reduction, improving human capital, and incr easing health servic es in a timely manner to fulfill the goals set for the 2015 Millennium Development Goals (MDG) Cauca Plan (PNUD Colombia Universidad del Cauca, 2012). Table 1 Sectorial Composition of GDP in the Cauca Department. 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 200 7 2008 2009 2010 Agriculture, Livestock, Silvopastoral, and Fishing 17.2% 18.5% 19.2% 17.0% 15.8% 18.1% 17.0% 16.6% 14.6% 11.9% 17.9% Mining 1.8% 1.8% 1.5% 1.0% 1.3% 0.9% 0.9% 1.0% 1.0% 1.5% 1.1% Manufacturing Industry 17.5% 18.1% 18.1% 17.6% 21.0% 18.8 % 19.7% 17.4% 18.2% 20.7% N.D*

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Page | 20 Electricity, Gas, and Water 2.5% 2.4% 2.3% 2.3% 2.8% 3.2% 3.1% 3.1% 3.1% 3.1% 2.9% Construction 4.1% 4.0% 4.8% 6.0% 4.7% 3.4% 4.3% 4.5% 3.9% 4.5% 5.7% Trade and Repair 5.0% 4.8% 4.7% 4.7% 4.2% 4.3% 4.2% 4.1% 4.5% 4.3% 5.6% Restaurants and Hotels 5.9% 5.6% 5.3% 5.5% 5.4% 5.4% 5.6% 5.8% 5.8% 5.7% 7.2% Transportation, Storage, and Communication 5.1% 4.9% 4.7% 5.5% 5.3% 5.5% 6.3% 7.0% 7.1% 6.7% 8.3% Financial Establishments, security, Real Estate 13.9% 12.8% 14.9% 16.3% 16.3 % 17.6% 16.1% 16.6% 17.4% 17.1% 20.8% Social, Co mmunity, and Personal services 27.0% 27.0% 24.4% 24.1% 23.1% 22.9% 22.7% 24.1% 24.3% 24.4% 30.5% Total 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% No data available Sou rce: PNUD Colomb ia Un iversidad del Cauca, 2012 Turning to t he Piedras River watershed it consists of nine communities all based in different agro climatic zones related to elevation with a population of around 3,000 people. Figure 3 shows the geographical makeup of the Pie dras River watershed based on elevation and the boundaries of the different communities. The region pictured below, covers about 6,621 hectares, and is a small part of the larger Cauca Watershed. The Piedras River watershed is under the jurisdiction of th territorial division s of communities in the municipality of Popayn. Each vereda, which are situated at different elevations (ranging from 1900m to 3800m), has a unique background and hist ory of independence.

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Page | 21 Figure 3 Map of Piedras River Watershed veredas. According to the Fundacin Rio Piedras the lower region (2000m and below) of the watersh Juan, San Ignacio veredas, and the lower region of Quintana. Its elevation ranges from 2000 average 172.9mm of rainfall per year. This area is classified as cold and characterized by wet weather. The upper reg Teresa veredas, and the Pramo ecosystem. The elevations of this region range from 3000 3600m and are classified as being very cold with wet weather. The average temperatures range fro m 50

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Page | 22 Figure 4 shows the distribution of families among the veredas located in the Piedras River wate rshed. D ifferent proportions of indig enous families live in the se veredas, a s ta ble 2 illustrates This is important to take into consideration because of past land conflicts in the watershed between indigenous and campesino families. Currently the campesino and indigenous populations have a coexistence pact, the de convivencia which was vital in reducing the land and personal con flict between these two groups (Cauca Autonomous Regional Corporation, 2006; Piedras River Foundation, 2008). Figure 4 Distribution of Families Located in the Veredas of the Watershed Source : Planning and Management Plan for the Piedras River watershed (2010) Table 2 Distribution of Indigenous and Campesino population by Veredas Veredas Indigenous Population (%) Campesino Population (%) Population Total by Vereda HUACAS 4% 96% 318 LAURELES 19% 81% 78 SAN ISIDRO 88% 12% 235 CANELO 70% 30% 104 LA LAGUNA 72% 28% 225

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Page | 23 SANTA TERESA 43% 57% 14 1 SAN JUAN 77% 23% 474 SAN IGNACIO 61% 39% 234 QUINTANA 10% 90% 329 Source: Planning and Man agement Plan for Piedras River W atershed (2010) IV. Background on the Institutions : 4.1 CIAT CIAT stands for the Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical, ( Inte rnational Center for Tropical Agriculture ) and is located near Cal i, Colombia, approximately 95 miles north of the project site in Popayn. CIAT is committed to helping communities adapt to climate change and concurrently, promoting gender equ ality, among its other many objectives (CIAT, 2012). CIAT was formally established in 1967 backed by the Colombian government as well as the Rockefeller, Ford and Kellogg f and improve human health in the tro pics through research aimed at increasing th e eco efficiency of agriculture (CIAT Overview, 2013). CIAT has had a focus on the tropics because the found ers believed modern science could improve agriculture in the tropics and might contribute to reducing hunger and poverty (CIAT Overview, 2013). This organization develops technologies, methods, and knowledge that better enable small scale farmers to enhance eco efficiency in agriculture. The aim is to make food production more profitable while making small farms sustainable and resilient through economic and ecolog ical use of natural resources. CIAT is a member of the Consultative Gr oup on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR) Consortium, which is a global partnership with a focus on research for a f ood secure future. Furthermore, CIAT is the lead center for the Climate Change, Agriculture and Food Security (CCAFS), program to help small scale farmers adapt to and mitigate the effects of

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Page | 24 climate change a topic o n which it has don e previous research i n Cauca. CIAT is currently doing an assessment and identification of crops that are more vulnerable to or resistant to climate change (CIAT Overview, 2013). This institution also trains tropical farmers and strengthens capacity by stimulating learning and generating knowledge on agriculture and livestock by linking farmers to markets and by focusing on policy analysis. 4.2 ASOCAMPO ASOCAMPO is the campesino organization that operates in the Piedras River Watershed. It was organized in order for its members to be beneficiaries of land reform programs instituted in the area to resolve the conflic t over land tenure between the i ndigenous people, peasants and the state. During the 19 s in Colombia, indigenous groups formed counci ls and community organizations to protect their rights and claims to land. The Consejo Regional Indigena del Cauca (CRIC) was the first regional organization in the Cauca department. ASPROQUINTANA the local indigenous organization in the Piedras River wat ershed, was formed soon after. T he indigenous in the area would squat on land and attack campesino s in order to regain their ancestral land T hese attacks were largely due to growing population pressure on small amounts of land largely due to the concentr ation of land in large haciendas Wit h this threat the campesino s came together and formed ASOCAMPO to help protect their land from the indigenous peoples However with the Pacto de Con vivenca between the indigenous people and campesino concern now is population growth, which is resulting in smaller and smaller farms as these are divided over time. S ince the

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Page | 25 land reform movement in Colombia they have not been able to acquire any additional land for the ir members The organization starte d as a group of smallholder farmers in 1960 when they first began to hold community meetings. In 1970 the organization began working with another campesino group near the Palac River and in 1990 they were assisted by the Fundacin Rio Piedras (FRP) to obt ain recognition as a leg al entity. On March 14, 2001, ASOCAMPO was legally recognized as the Popayan Peasant Association That same year they joined the Natural Reserves project set up by the FRP and Colombian government The Natural Reserves project was f ocused on local stakeho lders who had been involved in the land tenure conflict and it was certified by the Ministry of the Environment i n 2002. The project le d to the signing of the Peace and Coexistence Pact in the Piedras River Watershed giving rise to the formulation of spatial planning and management of the Piedras R iver basin (ASOCAMPO, 2009). ASOCAMPO pursue s rs in the area ( Fundacin Rio Piedras, Ecohabitus, ASPROLGLAN, & the indigeno us organization) prioritizing farm agreements for our organization This we believe will enable sustainable, economic, social, and environmental development of the peasant communities and our future generations ensuring our sovereignty and food security, culture, as well as ensuring the school in the area allows our children and youth to acquire opportunities for technical knowledge and training of the environment that would prevent migration to the cities in search of false expectations of improved quali ty of life contributing to the achievement of peace with social ; translation by the author ).

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Page | 26 ASOCAMPO now has a presence in eight of the nine veredas and has 250 associated members. Its area of influence span s around 6,621 hectare s between the Palac and Piedras water basins, which is about 15% of the land surface of the Cauca Ri ver watershed. ASOCAMPO works with other actors such as Fundacin Rio Piedras to promote conservation of natural resources and rural development and to ge nerate proposals and strategies f or adaptation to climate change. For example, ASOCAMPO has establish ed an early warning system for crops such as potatoes, corn, and beans in the Piedras River basin record scientific data on the variati ons in crop growth to analyze 4.3 Fundacin Rio Piedras The Fundacin Rio Piedras (FRP) is a nonprofit organization in the city of Popayn and its jurisdiction includes monitoring the water supply basins of water to the city from the Piedras, Molino, Pis oj, Palac, and Cauca rivers and the micro basins of the urban sector as well as sewage systems Membership in the Fundacin Rio Piedras includes the m ayor of Popayn, University of Cauca, Cauca Government, National Parks Unit, University Foundation of P opayan, and Cauca Regional Autonomous Corporation (CRC). The FRP mission is as follows: ensure sustainability of water supply and conservation of the major watersh ed supplying the municipality of Popayn and urban micro 2012 ; translation by the author ). The FRP not only was involved in the formation of ASOCAMPO, but has spurred many of its projects, as well as th ose of other environmental movements in the m unicipality of Popayn

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Page | 27 They helped ASOCAMPO to be come formalized as a legal entity; they supported the process of the Peace and Coexistence Pact as well as the network of nature reserve s spons ored by the Colombian government ( currently 54 reservations are registered ) ; and they in the Piedras River watershed 4.4 Fundacin Ecohbitats This organization is a nonprofit that works throughout Colombia and is based in the city of Popayn. Their focus is on climate change vulnerability and their objective is to investigate the interrelations between climate conditions, population and socio environmental systems. Their purpose is to create a participative management model based on the identificati on of climate risks as well as route s to adaptation. It was due to Fundacin Ecohbitas cooperation and help that we were able to work and conduct research in the Piedras River Watershed in conjunction with Dr. Jennifer Twyman and CIAT. V. Objective: The objective of our project was to provide a pilot study of the changes in agricultural production related to climate change that CIAT could then use to monitor adaptation over time. The aim w as to gather preliminary data in one locale of Colombia, where small scale farmers are showing signs of adaptation and building resilience in their agricultural production To understand the scope of this project we have to understand the people that are b eing affected They are campesinos, peas ants or small scale farmers who live in rural areas of the municipality

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Page | 28 of Popayn O ur research in this area demonstrates that campesinos ar e being affected negatively by c limate change and a re changing their agricu ltural practice s to ensure food security but doing so differently depending on the different agro climatic zones in the watershed A specific objective of our project was to focus on the women in the region, for they are equal stake holders in small scale farming and we wanted to understand how they are being affected by climate change both economically and socially Upon our arrival in the proj ec t area our immediate objectives were a) to plan our three month stay with our local partners and develop a str ategy for interview ing farmers in the R io Piedras Watershed and b) gather preliminary qualitative data on if and how climate change has impacted local farming strategies and how the perceptions of climate change may differ by gender. In discussions with AS OCAMPO and Fundacin Rio Piedras the scope of the p roject was expanded to include mapping of the local farming systems and analyzing the level of food security of th e peasant farmers in the p roject area. This info rmation would then be shared with the loc al stakeho lders and CIAT/CCAFS in order for them determine if they could implement a future development project in the area. Figure 5 provides a map that shows the location of the Cauca D epartment within Colombia and th e location of the city of Popayn in relation to the project site of the Piedras River W atershed shown in yellow.

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Page | 29 Figure 5 Project Area Source: Fundacin Rio Piedras (2012)

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Page | 30 VI. Conceptual Framework: Framework 1 : Conceptual/ Contextual Framework The conceptual framework was developed incorporating the Kollmair & St. Gamper (2002) model, the Catholic Relief Services (CRS) (2008) framework, as well as my own contributions (Kollmair & St. Gamper, 2002; CRS, 2008). Building the conceptual framework involv ed t hree steps. They included: 1. Understand ing the scope of the project 2. Identification of the objectives 3. Identification of activities to reach the objectives

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Page | 31 The conceptual framework shows the goal of my project is to help the stakeholders (CIAT and others) become more effec tive in assisting peasant farmers to improve their overall well being through improved liv elihood outcomes The underlying factors colored green or section 1, in the diagram, follow the systems and structural norms within the context of the peasant farmers located in the Piedras Ri ver Watershed. Those factors affect the livelihoods and assets in how they can be used and who has access to the resources that can help the farmers create and implement climat e smart agricultural practices wh ich is the purple column or section 2, beside the factors This conceptual framework is based on the risk of climate change creating an impact negative or positive on small scale farming production in the area. That means taking into account the shocks, cycles, and trends that influence or change lives and livelihoods. Households develop livelihood strategies based on available assets which would be the black triangle or section 3, depicted in the framework above focusing on capacity building, adaptati on strategies, and mitigation strategies. They then use those assets within their surrounding context of systems and structures which is the institutional influences and community behavior highlighted in orange or section 4, in the middle of the triangle in the framework above. How the community uses its assets and mitigate s risk to their livelihoods depends partly on the market which plays a n important role in the development of the se farms and on maintaining the ecological importance of their farm la nd. The objective for CIAT/ CCAFS, the yellow or section 5 is to obtain preliminary qualitative data from the farmers in the Piedras River Watershed based on this household typology and the reported per ceptions of climate change. The data from the farmer interviews is an important step in understanding how small

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Page | 32 scale rural farmers are adapting their farming systems to recent trends and shocks of the changing climate. It is also important to u nderstand the household structure in the area for if CIAT/CCAFS implements a project in the area they should minimize the stress and risks of both women and men. Comparing men and women headed households could reveal certain stresses or may have dif ferent implications for adapt ation of farming practices. Hence the kno wledge generated from our questionnaires should shed some light on common trends in the community and provide feedback and suggest opportunities to the stakeholders The outcome in the light blue rectangle at the bottom of the framework or section 6 is t o contribute to a Climate Vulnerability and Capacity Analysis (CVCA) as well as a situational analysis to help CIAT/CCAFS, Fundacin Rio Piedras, EcoHabitus, and ASOCAMPO possibly devi se a development project to aid in the adoption of climate smart agricul ture. VII. Methodology : The methodologies used in this study follow the above framework in order to understand gender differences in access to climate smart agricultural practices as well as th e influence of various institutions on the local community with regard to the adaptation of CSA The aim of these methodologies is to assist in gathering data to support im proved access to information among the farmers as well as benefits to them linked to climate change relat ed interventions. The use of the se various methodologies will allow map ping of ongoing farming practices to determine how to further implement climate s mart agricultural practices and monitor food security while accounting for different gender roles

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Page | 33 7.1 Interviews with Farmers / Pilot Survey : Upon arrival at our project site in Popayn, we established that it would be most useful to utilize a questio nnaire to collect information from the local campesino farmers. The benefit of conducting interviews with a semi structured questionnaire is that it allows data to be collected in a systematic manner allowing comparison of responses to questions in order to analyze trends in the community. Our questionnaire drew upon a previous questionnaire th at was utilized in Africa by CIAT/CCAFS researcher Cait lin Peterson We used this questionnaire as a temp late and modified it to the specific context The final version can be found in the appendix of this field practicum report. During our first week at the field site we tested the questionnaire to see how the participants would react and what questions seemed the most conducive to eliciting the information we required We modified the questionnaire appropriately as a result of these preliminary interviews The questionnaire was organized in to various sectio ns following our research questions The first section collect ed general in formation, such as a household registry, the name of the farm, and its agro climatic zone in relation to elevation in the watershed The second section collect ed information on the number of institutions, groups, and programs with which these farmers engage. The next section collect ed information on the interviewee and other farm assets, as well as crop information. The following section focused on t he most important crops and other products that were produced on their farm in terms of generating their livelihoods. It also asked about who made the decisi ons regarding what was produced on the farm, including who receives the income from these products Section six of the questionnaire focused on f ood security asking which

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Page | 34 t ypes of foods they consumed, whether these were purchased, and if so, how much they purchased on average during a one month period. The last two sect ions focused on percepti ons and k nowledge of climate change and t he clima t e smart practices that they carried out on their own farms. The farmers to be interviewed were selected by the ASOCAMPO president and other leaders among their membership accessibility and availability. 2 Our sample is thus not a random sample. Also, since all t he farmers to be interviewed are associated w ith ASOCAMPO and we were not able to interview non members, we do not know whether our sample is in anyway representative of all the farming households in the watershed Given our interest in gender roles, we aimed to interview both the man and the women of the house hold if it was made up by a couple as well as households headed by a sole male or sole female head 7.2 Climat e Vulnerability and Capacity Analysis The Climate Vulnerability and Capacity Analysis (CVCA) is a method ology for analyzing vulnerability and the capacity to adapt to climate chang e at the community level ( Daz et al., 2009). This analysis is also used to understand the resources and needs of women and men (FAO, 2011; Daz et al., 2009). This methodology has two objectives : to knowledge and sci entific data to yield greater understanding about local impacts of climate 2 We were able to interview one household not affiliated wit h ASOCAMPO at the time of the pilot survey. This was made possible by our guide in the Parte Alta along with the President of ASOCAMPO and Fundacin Rio Piedras.

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Page | 35 Daz et al., 2009 P g. 2 ). This is important because allowing small scale farmers to understand and adapt to climate change at the local level is vital to preserving their livelihoods. T hree components of capacities and vulnerabilities are considered; physical and material resources, social and organizational institutions, motivational and attitudinal factors. We used this method to work alongside the participants to identi fy the climate conditions based on different gendered perceptions. The CVCA is designed to encourage and strengthen the planning process between the local community and stakeholders / researchers by providing vital, context specific information about the impacts of climate change and local vulnerability. Conducting this participatory research and validating the research promotes invaluable dialogue within commu nities, and between all the parties involved. In order to collect data and insight s from the loca l people we developed questions that would help prepare the CVCA. The questions are embedded in different sections of the questionnaire ; a majority can be found in section s 6 and 7. 7.3 Farm Mapping Creating a farming system diagram helps clarify how rural h ousehold livel ihoods are structured (FAO, 2011 ). The purpose in using this method was to record on farm acti vities, such as crop production, and off farm activities, such as marketing and collecti ng fuel wood. It helps show the flow of resources within the household and who is involved in different activities by gender. This method can depict how household livelihoods depend on certain resources and how they can be vulnerable to changes in climate. T his method assists in understand ing and women ialized knowledge that may be linked to different are n a s of the farming system. To gather this information we used questions from the FAO CCAFS Guide to Gender

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Page | 36 and Climate Change as well the Socio Economic and Gender Analysis (SEAGA) program to create a fa rming system diagr am of the individual farmers interviewed. 7.4 Workshop The workshop is a means to bring together farmers of the different veredas in the Piedras River Watershed into one large group setting. We aimed to recruit members of both sexes and f armers from the different agro climatic zones in the watershed. At the workshop we conducted the seasonal calendar activities (see below) ; my colleagues also used an institutional Venn Diagram to gather information on social network analysis. We also recor perceptions of climate change, in order to compare the data collected from our other methodologies to see if there was a consistent view among the individual farmers as well as the group as a whole or if they differed. We then conducted a n exercise for the farmers to describe their average workload on certain agricultural and livestock production activities This workshop was planned with the help of ASOCAMPO and the Fundacin Rio Piedras. 7.4a Seasonal Calendar The seasonal calendar is seasonal conditions, such as rainfall amounts and the timing of different climatic events (FAO, 2011). It should focus on an entire year to compare events over the course of the year and how they i mpact the farmer. The purpose of using this tool is to genera te a discussion of the linkages between climate variability and specific key events, and the resources that are available at different points of the year. If done over several years, it allows th e analysis of whether workloads have sh ifted throughout the year. We conduct ed this particular exercise in a

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Page | 37 workshop with both men and women of the ASOCAMPO community. In order to conduct this exercise, we explained to the farmers that we wanted to learn what they do in a normal year in regards to farm and household activities. We separated them into groups of men and women while providing large flip chart paper in order for them to draw a timeline and describe the different weather events and household ac tivities throughout a single year. We followed up by asking them to create a similar timeline for an extremely dry or wet year in order to compare how their workloads might change. 7.4b Seasonal Food Security Calendar This tool is similar to the seasonal calendar; this information is derived from learning about the typical seasonal calendar among the people in the area in order to correlate extreme and negative weather patterns to food security. The goal of using the seasonal food security calendar is to understand if there are any shifts of food security under different climatic conditions. 7.5 Participant Observation The purpose of using ethnographic methods such as participant observation, is to ). Gathering that richness comes from observing and recordi ng all the different patterns of behavior of the pa rticipants, which can be done through interviews, discussions, incidental conversations, personal observations, documents, and nonverbal communi cation. For good data collection everything observed must be recorded as field notes The purpose of conducting research in this manner is to learn about the culture and livelihoods directly by observing people Our ultimate aim was to

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Page | 38 gain ins ight into how small scale farmers can adapt farming strategies to the ir changing climatic conditions, and the division of roles and work activities among women and men in a very context specific way. VIII. Analysis : 8.1 Household Livelihoods We conducted 35 inte rviews with people from 27 different households located in multiple veredas in the Piedras River Watershed. In eight different households we were able to interview both the principal man and woman in order to gain insight on intra household relations. In a ddition, interviews were conducted with five independent male headed households and five independent women headed households. For the purpose of this case study the independent households meant the man or woman was the sole single head of household either due to divorce, separation, or death of their significant other. The remaining nine households were partnered households (consisting of an adult couple), but where we were only able to interview the man or woman; these interviews consisted of three men and six women. In order to protect the anonymity of the respondents the name of the veredas will not be mentioned in the following analysis. Rather, respondents will be categorized by locale of residence into Parte Baja, Parte Media, and Parte Alta. We inte rviewed 10 participants from the Parte Baja region, 12 participants from the Parte Media, and 1 3 from the Parte Alta. All the farmers interviewed were associated with ASOCAMPO e xcept for one household. Table 3 shows

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Page | 39 the breakdown by type of household i nter viewed in relation to the different agro climatic zones. Table 3 Distribution by Household Type and Zone In relation to peasant household production and reproduction, the 27 households depend on a variety of sources to generate their incom e. Livelihoo ds of the se peasant farmer s are centered on crop and livestock production. The mixture of crop and livestock activities v aried b ased on the agro climatic zone b ecause of differences in temperature and elevation Among the consistencies maize was almost al ways produced along with beans, potatoes, yucca, and a variety of vegetables see table 4 The zones will be described individually below since this is important to address the future impacts of climate change. Given their heterogeneity there is no one solu tion that fits all zones

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Page | 40 Table 4. Distribution of Important Farming Activities ACTIVITIES MOST IMPORTNANT FOR PARTE MEDIA CROPS LIVESTOCK B eans Cattle Maize Chickens Vegetables Potatoes The Parte Baja, or lower region, is a densely populated area where farmers have relative ly small plots of land. The average land size of the nine households was about two hectares. Eight of the se households owned their land, of which seven had acquired it through inheritance. Seven of the nine landowning households had a legal land title, whi le one rented and the other was in the process of legalizing the title. The importance of land ownership is that it encourages farmers to invest more in their land and crop production. T he Parte Baja is ideal in terms of elevation and temp erature to grow c offee. This is the only region where a majority of the households interviewed (7/9) grow coffee. This region is also the only locale in the watershed where large quantities of yucca, bananas and plantains a re grown In our workshop each group collectivel y named all the crops that were grown in their respective agro climatic zones and they were then asked to rank the four most important crop activities and two livestock activities, as table 4 shows For the P arte Baja the four most important are coffee, co rn, beans and yucca. T hese crops are important both for consumption (mainly corn, beans, and yucca) as well as for sale. In the survey the two most important crop/ ACTIVITIES MOST IMPORTANT FOR PARTE BAJA CROPS LIVESTOCK Coffee Chickens Maize Cattle Beans Yucca ACTIVITIES MOST IMPORTANT FOR PARTE ALTA CROPS LIVESTOCK Vegetables Cattle Potatoes Trout Maize Beans

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Page | 41 farm products that were sold were reported as follows: yucca (2HH), coffee (4HH), bulls (3HH ), potatoes (1HH), eggs (1HH), corn (2HH), b eans (2HH), and vegetables (1HH). The Parte Media has a unique history and diversity of crops. The average farm size of the nine households was 4 hectares. Of these nine households seven were the property of th e interviewees, but only three had a legal land title. Six of these households stated that they acquired their land through inheritance. T he likely cause of such few land titles is due to the history of conflict between the haciendas and the indigenous in the area. A fter the haciendas were divided due to over grazing, the indigenous squatted on the land to get the pro perty back. W e uncovered that a majority of the campesinos in this area were onc e a part of the indigenous group However, their parents and e ven some of the interviewees had wanted to own plots of land individually to give to their children instead of working the land collectively. These individuals went through the process of turning the plots of land that they worked into their own property. This, of course, caused a conflict with the indigenous group and the members who wanted to own the land individually began to identify as campesinos rather than indigenous Due to the conflict there has not been a strong legalization of land titles in th e area. Unlike the lower region, few in this area grow coffee and when they do so it is more for consumpt ion than for sale. T ropical fruit s like bananas and plantains, cannot be grown because of the cool temperatures given the altitude C ommonly grown he re was pumpkins, feijoa (pineapple guava), tomato, tomate de rbol (tamarillo), and blackberries T he most important crops reported by participants were beans, corn, vegetables, and potatoes. I n our survey these crops were also the ones reported as import ant for househo ld consumption. T he survey responses as to w hat two crops/ farm products were most important for selling was quite

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Page | 42 different from consumption. The crops/ products that were sold include the following: milk (3HH), trout (2HH), eggs (3HH), chee se (2HH), blackberries (2HH), beans (1HH), green beans (1HH), tomate de rbol (3HH), and vegetables (2HH). From this data I started to understand that the farmers are more concerned about farm production that leads to consumption/ food security rather tha n sale s In the Parte Alta, due to its high elevation, there is less variety of crops Most crops grown are for household consumption L ivestock production, mainly cattle and trout are the most important for generating cash income The average farm size among the nine households interviewed here is 14 hectares. Eight of the households owned their land; the ninth was rented by a partnered household Of the nine households, three inherited the land while five bought the land and all possessed a legal title. This region also has a different history and mode of farming Due to the high elevation a lot more tuber s (potatoes and ullucus) are grown than in the other regions, both for sale and household consumption. A variety of vegetables are grown throughout th e year, along with fruit s such as apples, peaches, blackberries, and curuba (banana passionfruit). Since the land holdings are larger than in the other regions, they focus primarily on cattle production. The list of important crops provided by the farmers includes: vegetables potatoes, corn, and beans. The survey responses in terms of important crops/ farm products to sell are milk (4HH), trout (4HH), cheese (4HH), bulls (2HH), potatoes (2HH), and blackberries (1HH). Once again the data suggests that farm ers tend to emphasize the crops grown for food security rather than for sale.

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Page | 43 Livestock raising is o ne of the most important activities both for household consumption and sale Overall, 20 households in our survey raised cattle, which was imp ortant for generating household income an d household consumption of meat, milk, and milk by products such as cheese and yogurt. Of those households 17 had bulls and cows while 3 just had cows Bulls were sold both for meat and as breeders. C ows were impor tant as a source of fresh milk, which would be used to make by products that could also be sold on the market. In terms of headship, four unpartnered male households maintained both bulls and cows; unpartnered female households were engaged in cattle produ ction, but one of those focused solely on cows. Six partnered households with female respondents engage in cattle production with just two focusing only on cows. Lastly, seven of the partnered households with two respondents maintain cattle production of b oth bulls and cows. In cattle production there is generally a clear ly defined gender division of labor In partnered households (and sole male heads), m en tend to be in charge of the bulls caring for them and selling them This of course was in relation to households with either solely the man or if in a partnered household. In the t wo unpartnered female headed households the women would actually handle the work associated with the bulls and sell them in the market. Generally w omen tended to be in charge of the cows feeding and milking them and caring for the calves. The women would also churn the milk into cheese and yogurt and sell the s e byproducts to neighbors and in the market. In our workshop in the Parte Media, of the women participating, four of the six were widows, one was recently divorced, and one woman was married. The majority were thus

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Page | 44 managing and working on their own farms. Because they had no partners they did the work that was traditionally assigned to men, for example ra ising and mai ntaining cattle. Twe nty two households depended on selling the products produced on thei r farm as their primary source of income The pilot survey data suggests that households with a couple (16) are more able to rely on income generated from agricul ture & cattle sales compared to unpartnered males (4) or unpartnered females (4). This could be because in partnered households there are two mature adults that can split and share the workload. The second most frequent ly mentioned primary source of incom e in our survey was laborer, which was reported by eight households. Thre e of those households are unpartnered female headed households who work to help pay off their land and to invest in their farming activities Other sources of monetary income that were mentioned include pensions (6), remi ttances (7), and ecotourism (3). Some households reported multiple sources of income, such as one of the above with income from farming activities. Although only th ree households focused on ecotourism, these households ar e being suggested as examples of what can perhaps be achieved by others to diversify their income sources One particular farmer in the lower region of the watershed owns 34 hectares and dedicates 30 or so to a local ecosystem preserve; he provides eco tours to tourists and community members earning income from this activity He has become an outspoken advocate for preserving the ecosystem and showing other farmers how to follow his model In fact w hile we were there a group of Bolivian farmers came to tour his farm and gain insight on how to replicate the experience back in Bolivia.

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Page | 45 The household where I was able to spend a couple of days in the Parte Alta dedicated a 2 hectare area to preserving b iological diversity of the Parte Alta. They charge $2 C olombian pesos for entrance. They also serve as an example of how bio indicators of the land such as butterflies, certain birds, plants, trees, and bees can be preserved within the community. Although this is a great way to earn a source of income, it is not a viable option for every peasant farmer. In order to partake in an activity like this it is beneficial if they have enough land available at least 3 hectares and more. In the survey we asked if th ey have access to credit, if they had savings, and if they could obtain a loan from family or friends. O nly four rep orted they had access to credit when asked about a hypothetical situation such as an emergency What was surprising as well, was that only two households reported that they had savings, money put aside. Some of the farmers however noted that their savings are their livestock. In times of emergency they can sell a cow, chicken, rabbit, or guinea pig for extra money. Despite the hardship of s aving or acquiring loans, nine households stated they could borrow money from family and/or friends in time s of a crisis. We defined crisis as t he occurrence of an emergency such as a crop failure, which resulted in them not having anything to consume or s ell for their own sustenance. But if crop failure due to drought or too much rain, it will be likely family or fr iends suffering from same shock and it would be hard to borrow money. During our interviews, it became apparent that the farmers suffered from a lack of funds to buy fencing material or other inputs. For example after the compost project was introduced by ASOCAMPO and the Fundacin Rio Piedras not everyone could afford to buy the needed worms Being members of ASOCAMPO allows these farmers dire ct access to projects that are

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Page | 46 offered and coordinated by the Fundacin Rio Piedras. The projects that are imp lemented in the community by these organizations often provide the m aterials needed to commence the project For example the supplies use d to con struct compost holdings, shown in the picture to the right are all provided to the farmers ; the farmers themselves construct the holdings with the FRP representative so that they know how to build or repair these in the future. 8.2 Gender Division of Labor With respect to the gender division of labor, I observed that women who are partnered are mainly in charge of maintaining the household garden, responsible for domestic work, milking the cows, making the cheese, attending to small livestock such as chick ens, guinea pigs, rabbits, and trout; they also help their spouse in agricultural production in the fields when needed. One major responsibility is that the women are the main ones that sell at the markets. maintain many of the household gardens, which provide food for everyday consumption. and repellent to control pest infestat ions for the crops.

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Page | 47 in partnered households include being responsible for maintaining the farm infr astructure in regards to fixing fences and other construction work. They are the owners of the bulls and carry out the manual labor associated w ith cattle production. Men seemed dominant in coffee production as well; women and children only helped during the collection of the coffee beans and cleaning of the trees, which refers to cutting bac k branches and cleaning the leaves. In terms of farming production, men, depending on the household structure, would handle all the preparation on the terrain, tilling the beds for planting. This was stated by a man in our workshop as follows round because the work is hard an translated by the author ) Of course in the unpartnered woman households, they did the tilling of the land in order to plant their crops. In terms of partnered couples, the men would traditionally sell the bulls in the market. If it was an un partnerned woman who headed the household, she would then sell the bulls to the market. C orn, which is grown in all 27 households, was the responsibility of the entire family. In our workshop, when we did the calendar exercise s, the men and women stated maize production in partnered households is equal between the man and the woman. For instance, the men would prepare the land for planting and the women would plant the maize; then all family members would harvest the mature corn at the end of growth toget her. T his is primarily due to the During my two day stay with a household in the Parte Alta I was able to observe the daily activities of the wife and eldest daughter (the husband was away a t the time working in ities included milking the cows and then making cheese from the fresh milk. She then worked in the household garden and subsequently

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Page | 48 carried out domestic tasks for the rest of the d ay, including cooking dinner. I worked with the eldest daughter ( age 30 ) who along with her cousin, are responsible for collecting trout from their ponds, gutting the fish and pr eparing them for the market. The daughter collects around 65 70 pounds every W ednesday and Thursday to sell in the market every Thursday and Friday respectively, when the fish are in season. Partaking in these interactions opened up the world of the small scale farmer in the Piedras River Watershed to me at a more personal level. I was able to see how household members work together to ensure a sustainable living. In order to gain insight on the gender division of labor, and specifically on idealized gender roles we carried out an activity with community members at the workshop. It involved dividing all the men and women into two separate groups each of which met in a separate room t o ensure more free flowing responses The activity was to see how they perceived gender roles in their community in relation to who w as responsible for each activity. T he response options included i) women dominated or associated; ii) men dominated or associated and iii) both if men and women were responsible. We provided the participants blue and red index cards for them to use when responding to o ur questions, blue was associated with men and red with women. At the beginning we had 14 women involved the activity and 13 men. After we proceeded with the activity one of the females had to leave so at the end we had a total of 13 women and 13 men Tabl e 5 compare s the responses of the men and women groups

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Page | 49 Table 5 Wo rkshop Responses Regarding Perception s of Gender Roles From the data above we clearly see some similarities and differences. For example both the women and men ed the impo rtance of maintaining conservation areas and reported that both men and women carried out such activities S elling in the mar ket was an activity generally associated with women rather than men. The work of maintaining cabuya (a plant that produces fibers) is mainly asso ciated with men. In the discussion with all the men it was reported that the whole family performed the member of the family tries to help with differe nt tasks and get involved, we try to divide the

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Page | 50 work so the workload can be bal anced between the family so that one person is not Looking at the responses from the workshop along with the survey data suggest s that rences between men and women There a re clear views that women do certain activities on the farm and men do others. This division of labor supports households in which both parties con tribute to the success of the farms In terms of recogn ition, a majority of the men interviewed and who participated at the workshop knew their wives contributed to household production. But the extent that they valued the w varied between the men. For some, it seemed th at they knew their appreciation of their wife and valued the work that she did. For example one man stated in an hat my wife can be happy and have a good home for she is the one who provides for me; all that we have would not be possible 8.3 Agro Ecological Practices Of the 35 participants interviewed, all stated they knew about natural compost and were actively using i t to enrich the soil nutrients. They all also responded that they knew how to enrich the soil and were doing so in order to rejuvenate land which had been overgrazed in the past when held by the haciendas They have all learned these tech nique s and constructed their compost holdings with the help of ASOCAMPO. Thes are being implemented show their interest in learning smart agricultural practices and the

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Page | 51 impact of the social and organizational institutio ns in the area. Table 6 shows the most commonly conducted climate smart/ best practices related to crop and livestock production throughout the 27 households. Table 6. Commonly Practiced Agricultural Climate Smart Practices Related to Crops Related to Livestock Silvopastoral systems Improvement of forage systems Integrated (household) pest management Improved livestock breeds Intercropping Rotation of grass Crop residue/ foliage Manure management Reintroduction of native seeds Terraces Delayed planting Manure management Compost Windbreakers In terms of gender dynamics, both men and women when question ed on their involvement with ASOCAMPO and implementing new agricultural practi ces or acquiring knowledge, stated they were very active and participated in weekly meetings Based on the responses to our survey, when it came to implementing new agricultural practices, men and women would generally come to an agreement together before implementing the new strategy. A majority of the campesinos belong to multiple groups and organizations. Women they track and save indigenous seed varieties as well as other seeds. Because the men and women are busy between multiple organizations and groups, the majority of their tim e is consumed. This was a noted problem for some of the farmers who stated they ha ve less time to take care of their land and do household activities due to their active involvement.

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Page | 52 Table 7 shows the number of survey respondents that were associated with ASOCAMPO and who made the decision to join the association In the majority of c ases the individual made the decision themselves There are two fema le respondents who were recruited as a member of ASOCAMPO by their husband s but then reportedly made the decision to join themselves Table 7 Decision to Join ASOCAMPO 8.4 Food Security The discussions in the community workshop suggest, common to all the agro climatic zones that they cultivate different crops year round in order to attain food security because When asked what their four most important crops and two imp ort ant livestock pr oducts were, the participants from the Parte Baja responded coffee, maize, beans, and yucca chickens and cattle. P articipants from the Parte Media stated that beans, maize, vegetables, potatoes, cattle and chickens are vital to their ho usehold consumption and marketing The participants from the Parte Alta reported their most important crops for household consumption and sale as vegetables, potatoes, maize, and beans. At this elevation, c attle and trout cultivation represent the two mo st important sources of livestock income. The data collected from our questionnaire and observation also suggest that these farming households do not suffer from a lack of food security. Roughly 20 out of the 27

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Page | 53 households do not have to buy vegetables t hroughout the entire ye ar. Household consumption was m et by the production from their own home gardens as well as cultivated cropland. Foo d security was found to be a re curring theme among the campesino farmers in the P iedras River Watershed. They ta k e it very seriously and aim to be self sufficient in meeting basic household consumption requirements. P romoting ho useholds to plant native varieties of crop seeds and maintain ing a level of production solely for household consumption is playing a role in food security The importance of native seed varieties is because these crops have been cultivated for centuries in the terrain and therefore have built up genetic codes to better thrive in the native weather conditions in the area. It also helps the farmers ma intain their status quo by avoiding having to buy seed from an outside supplier and from buying the same seed every year without being able to reuse foreign seeds because of patents. 8.5 Perceptions of Climate Change and Climate Smart Agriculture In our com munity workshop we also collected information on women perceptions of the seasonal calendar. A total of 27 participants attended our community workshop held in Las Huacas, the base of ASOCAMPO and the Piedras River Watershed. T he participants w ere divided into separate groups of men and women and by which agro climatic zone they lived 3 Of the 27 participants that attended, 21 heard or were informed of our workshop by ASOCAMPO. Of the re m ain ing six, two were notified of our workshop by their fam ily, one was notified by their neighbors, two were notified by our research team, and the 3 Twelve participants were from the Parte Baja, which consisted of six women and six men For the Parte Media we had nine individuals of which six were women and three were men. For the Parte Alta six individuals represented the area, two were women and four were men.

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Page | 54 last one learned about the activity in a previous workshop held in the area. This is important to note because of the complexity of social relations and the amount of informational workshops being held within the watershed. We created a timeline on large paper i n order for the farmers to note weather events in a normal year each month depict ing winter and summer, and climatic events such as dry or wet periods, or when it is particularly windy. The cards also had the agricultural activities corresponding to the three most important crops and the two important livestock activities Through this activity, we were able to determine that in the watershed, there are typically only two seasons. The winter is characterized by being cold, wet, and rainy, while the summer is characterized by being dry, hot, windy, and humid. This characterization genera lly corresponds to the region being close to the equator, reducing the variability in the climate. The men Baja stated winter begins in September and lasts for nine months, while summer begins in June and lasts only three months. The windy period is in July and August. Women in the Parte Media had identical responses regarding the length of the two seasons. For the women in the Parte Alta, winter started in September and lasted unt il May;

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Page | 55 however from January through March the weather ranges between winter and summer conditions, with the windy period being from July to August. Women from all of the three agro climatic zones reported that their farming season begins at the end of A ugust, when they start planting in preparation for the new rains of September. This pattern has been consistent since they were children. The women in the three groups also reported 4 that farming pr actices are changing due to climate change. One farmer no and used the moon for planting; now the weather is crazy and changing so that I try to plant corn now in The seasonal calendar responses from the men a lso varied according to locale. Men from the Parte Baja stated that winter starts in October and lasts until December, while summer starts in January and lasts until September. However during April until May the seasons change back to winter, changing fr om winter to 4 Responses from our workshop and our pilot survey coincide with the same re spons es and patterns, lessening the possibility of mixed or conflicting responses to this question.

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Page | 56 summer during May until June. Men from the Parte Media stated, winter would start in the middle of September and last until December, then two months of summer from January to February, and then winter again from March until May. Summer for th em starts in June and lasts until the beginning of September. For the men in the Parte Alta, winter starts in the middle of September u ntil May, and then summer consists of the months June, July, and August. The cold, rainy season seems to last longer in t he higher elevations of the watershed. The results on are more likely to be affected during extreme wet/ dry climatic conditions is quite interesting. Fifteen out of 35 individuals s tated that in a very dry year grazing grass is affected, presenting a problem for livestock production. When the grazing grass is exposed to extreme heat it will wilt and cattle will not graze on it. Farmers who depend upon cattle production for income an d for their own consumption then suffer the consequences. Ten of the 35 participants also reported that vegetables are heavily affected durin g extreme dry conditions. R ecall that in two out of the three sub regions vegetables are an important source of in come and for household consumption. Some 21 out of the 35 participants noted that the number of dry years along with rising temperatures have increased over the past decade. With regard to the question of the impact on farm production of an abnormal dry ye ar, 11 out the 35 partic ipants stated that under extremely dry conditions a chemical process called

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Page | 57 the process of the plant burning as a result of the hot sun drying up the moisture on the plants; its effects can be seen in the picture to the right In order to understand the believe to be better suited for an intense summer or winter, in the survey we asked them to name a couple of crops they believe best suited for those situatio ns. For an intense summer, six participants stated that maize was a viable option and six mentioned that green beans are suited for the dry conditions. The rest of the answers varied considerably. With respect to extreme winters, 11 participants both male and female felt that maize was also a viable option for wet conditions, more than those who considered maize a viable option in dry conditions. Another six participants believed tubers, such as potatoes and yucca to be a strong crop in times of very wet cond itions. Both the men and women provided these suggestions Assum ing these factors due to household labor, constant communication through the majority of partnered households, informational workshops and years of experience, both women and men were abl e to describe what crops are most suitable under extreme conditions. These perceptions suggest that if a climate smart agricultural practice was to be introduced by CIAT/CCAFS, there might be particular interes t among these peasant resilient varie ties of maize, gra ss, beans, and tuber crops.

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Page | 58 IX. Limitation s of the Study & Observations : O ur study in the Piedras River Watershed has certain limitations since we were only in the field for three months, a short period to collect conclusive data We would have liked to have carried out a representative sample survey of farmers in the watershed. However, we were only able to carry out interviews with a purposive sample of ASOCAMPO members. During the nine weeks available for this portion of the study we wer e only able to interview people from 27 households with 26 being a part of ASOCAMPO, for a total of 35 individuals Since ASOCAMPO leaders arranged the interviews, we were dependent on them t o ensure the dates and times when these could take place It prov ed time consuming for them to arrange our visits to the different agro climatic zones in the watershed and ensure that there were multiple farmers available to participate in the interviews, which limited the total number of interviews. Other limitations i nclude t he fact that the leaders of ASOCAMPO chose our participants so they may not be the representative of the general membership. W e also were not able to carry out interviews with non ASOCAMPO members to serve as a potential con trol group to measure t he real impact of being an ASOCAMPO member regarding awareness of climate change or smart agricultural practices My interactions with the campesinos in the Piedras River Watershed and the behaviors I observed over my nine week stay in Popayn suggest the following observations. Regarding our pilot survey, although we administered the same questionnaire to men and women, women seemed to respond to our questions much more quickly than the men. They also stayed on subject, and gave us concrete examples of sc enarios related to our questions. The men, who were often older than their woman counterparts, when asked questions would sometimes go

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Page | 59 off on a tangent and get into a lengthy story about an incident. In some cases it was good because it provided a fuller h istory and unique facts about the area, like the indigenous conflict and campesino identity in the Parte Media. However their prolonged responses delayed our surveys and they would often more times than not provide a wrong or incomplete answer which would prompt us to ask questions several times until they understood the concept. I would say it might have been because of the difficulty of language in the questions; however, when women were asked the same questions they would answer it in its entirety. If th ey were in a partnered household where we interviewed both the man and the woman, the female would help her husband in his responses when he could not remember or did not know X. Discussion : I f an extreme natural disaster due to climate change hit the Pied ras River Watershed it w ould severely hurt the production and income generating possibilities of these small scale farmers. As Baez et al. (2012) suggest climate change is expected to pose two distinct sets of challenges for poor rural households: the fir st, is the increasing frequency and severity of weather shocks, which will leave rural households unable to create or maintain resilient agricultural production. Second are the challenges related to long term shifts in temperature, rainfall patterns, water availability, and other env ironmental factors, which will e ffect agricultural production and food security Our case study suggests that farmers in this watershed are aware of climate change and are already implementing some climate smart agricultural pra ctices. However what they are aware of is climate variability instead of climate change. They do not seem to have a clear understanding of the larger, lon g term implications of

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Page | 60 global climate change. At the same time, these small scale farmers are more or less The Piedras River Watershed provides a relatively unique site for this field study since it is divided into three agro climatic zones. Each has a unique set of challenges relate d to different farming strategies as well as a different history. This watershed is also unique because of the presence of so many different external organizations and groups working in the area, which combined with the organizational role of ASOCAMPO has produced a process of intense s ocialization of information among the campesino s B ecause the farmers are actively involved in their community and implementing sustainable and resilient agricultural production practices with ASOCAMPO, Fundacin Rio Piedras and others, they are able to learn and ada pt quicker to climate change than those who do not have access to the same resources. Observing these farmers and looking at the data suggests that these small scale farmers are highly motivated and care for their environment, land, and learning about farming adaptation strategies. With respect to gender, our study suggests that there is no str ong disparity between men and women with respect to access to information B oth women and men are taking proactive measur es in order to prepare for climate change. In certa in household types women were the main contributor s of cash income as well as helping the men with their daily activities. The significance of this could mean the family unit can work together and make jo int decisions in regards to adopting climate smart agricultural practices. Most women interviewed were participating documenting and preserving the native crop seed varieties in order to safeguard this kno wledge for future generations From my understanding FRP and ASOCAMPO came up with this program and targeted women because

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Page | 61 they were seen to be better in categorizing, cataloging, and labeling the seeds from their community. In regards to unpartnered house holds there is the stress of balancing providing an income and maintaining multiple farming activities. This should be taken into account when implementing projects within these households. Women play a vital r ole in household maintenance among the farm e r s in the Piedr as River Watershed. Their main agricultural activity is maintaining the household garden along with smaller farm animals. They play a large role in maintaining food s ecurity by allowing the ir household s to be self sufficient in many foodstuf fs As mentioned earlier, roughly 80% of households do not ever h ave to buy vegetables during a normal year ( i.e., normal weather conditions). Another activity in which both men and women participate is protecting the land through conservation efforts suc h as planting trees and protectin g their natural water sources. For example, d uring our workshop, both the women and men that women and men participate equally in conservation efforts together. There was no gender defined role here as c on servation was considered the responsibility of everyone It is important to note here why women are so knowledgeable and have equal access to information in this watershed. It is because of the multiple projects held in this area, multiple organizations have conducted gendered focused projects promoting the importance of men and women working and sharing information together. This can be looked at as a success to gendered focused projects. In order to analyze community based adaptation in the CVCA fram ework guideline s on how to determine if a community can adapt The way a community can show progress and address their climate vulnerability and adaptation scenarios is based on resource allocation related to national level policies, local g overnment and c ommunity organizations,

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Page | 62 and the household level (Daz et al., 2009) L ocal institutions in the watershed have access to climate related information. They have and are initiating additional plans to support climate resilient livelihoods. The local government as well as NGO extension workers understand the climate risks and are promoting adaptation strategies, to ensure climate resilient livelihoods. In order to reduce disaster risk, the local institutions are implementing an early warning syst em. In terms of capacity development, the local organizations have the capacity and resources to plan and implement short term adaptation activities. In addressing the underlying causes of vulnerability, the local institutions are actively engaging the loc al planning process in a participatory manner. They are also allowing women and other marginalized groups to have a voice in local planning processes. I n order to create climate resilient livelihoods, farmers are generating and using climate information given by the FRP, Ecohabitas and local community workshops in order to plan their resilient agricultural practices F armers have acquired the knowledge and skills to employ adaptat ion strategies In order to address certain underlying c auses of vulnerability, farmers -both women and men -are working together to address climate change and women and other groups have equal access to information, skills and services. Taken together, these factors suggest that the community is work ing towards a full community -based adaptation plan to climate change. Nonetheless, there are also problems at both the household and local institutional level s for this community to fully adapt to climate change. At the local government/ institutional level, they do not have a long term disaster risk management plan ; moreover the local government does not currently have the capacity to respond to disasters. They are also not addressing the

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Page | 63 vulnerabilities o f households and their livelihoods by not providing the farmers access and in order for them to respond to climate risks For instance certain farmers, including the ones at the base of the watershed do not h ave enough land to cope with future environmental degradation and loss to intense climate variability in the future. Another example is that the water is controlled by the municipality of Popayan where they have not established any irrigation systems in t he area. Only certain farmers have created their own. A t the household level, most do not have sufficiently diversified livelihoods that would allow them to be climate resilient in the face of future change H ouseholds do not have food reserves nor suffi cient agricultural inputs Some do not have a secure shelter in the face of extreme climatic events. They also do not have access to early warnings for climate hazards in order to reduce disaster risk. In terms of capacity people do not have access to sea sonal forecasts and other projected climate information that shows the change of rainfall patterns or the projections of severe storms That information could prove vital in the years to come in p lanning agricultural production XI. Conclusion and Recommendat ions : In conclusion the peasant farmers of the Piedras River Watershed are preparing and adapting to climate variability T hey are not planning for extensive climate change Climate variability relates to weather fluctuations that are above or belo w a l ong term average. Climate change relates to long term continuous change including increases in natural disasters. Given t heir current economic situation and their level of adaptation

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Page | 64 to withstand strong weather shocks th at could disrupt their entire farming system and hence, their liv elihoods. The good news from this study however is that these farmers are taking proactive measures to initiate and maintain climate smart agricultural practices that are preparing them bet ter for future changes than other c ommunities. This is in part because of the collaboration with other institutions. Also it seems that women a nd men are working together to improve their livelihoods and promot e conservation on their farms and the land that surrounds their watershed. I n order to better prepare for climate change attention should be given to appropriate irrigation systems. A majority o f the farmers interviewed do not have access to irrigation S ince th e temperature is rising and dry seasons are becoming prevalent irrigation could prove vital in maintain ing crop production. It will be important to do solutions based on the different agro ecological zones. As noted earlier each has specific chal lenges because of their heterogeneity and they will need to be the focus for future projects. I also recommend that to help these farmers better prepare for climate change, additional workshops and information sessions need to be focused on the true meanin g of long term climate change and its implications for farm production Providing this information to th es e small scale farmers would help further promote and strengthen community based adaptation practices. CIAT/CCAFS could play a potentially important ro le in diffusi ng information and skills related to long term climate smart agricultural practices and their implement ation. Lastly with this increased assistance, the farmers (women and men) of the Piedras River Watershed have the ability to become good ex ample s of peasant farmers adapting to long term change that could serve as a model for global climate change adaptation and conservation efforts.

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Page | 65 XII. Works Cited Aboud, G. (2011). Bridge: Gender and Climate Change : Supporting Resources Collection Institute of Development Studies. Monthly Review : An Independent Socialist Magazine, 61(3), 102 113 Baez J. E., Kronick, D., & limate. T he World Bank Research Observer 28 (2 ), 267 289. Action Research 10 (1), 22 39. doi: 10.1177/1476750311414737 Chung, Y. B., et. al., (2011 ). Wha t Works for Women: Proven approaches for empowering women smallholders and achieving food security ? table discussion on food security and gender, London. Ca mpesina's Rights The Journal of Peasant Studies Retrieved from http://www.yale.edu/agrarianstudies/foodsovereignty/pprs/24_C laeys_2013 1.pdf Conway, G. (2012). Appropriate Technology 39 (2 ), 12 14. Daz, A., Ambrose, K., & Ehrhart, C. (2009). Climate Vulnerability and Capacity Analysis Handbook. (1st Ed.). CARE International de Snoo, G. R., et. al., (2012). farmers matter. Conservation Letters 6 (2013 ), 66 72. doi: 10.1111/j.1755 263X.2012.00296.x. Deere, C. D. & de Janvry, A. (1979). Analysis of American Journal of Agricultural Economics 61 (4), 601 611. ch. Systems Research and Extension. In H. Feldstein & S. Poats (Eds.), Working Together: Gender Analysis in Agriculture (Vol. 1). Kumarian Press.

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Page | 66 Fundacin Procuenca Rio Piedras (FRP). (2014). Retrieved from http://www.acueductopopayan.com.co/gestion ambiental/fundacion procuenca rio las piedras/ Fundacin Rio P Global Environmental Change 16 293 303. Godoy, R., et. al., (2009 Human Ecology 37 613 628. Retrieved from http://ciat.cgiar.org /about us/ Martinez, A. (2011 ). Department of Cauca. Retrieved March 2013, from http://www.todacolombia.com/departamentos/cauca.html#1. Meinzen World Development 25 (8 ), 1 303 1315. AMBIO 2012 (41), 823 840. doi: 10.1007/s13280 012 0287 0 t Agriculture: an overview of issues. Current Science 103 (9). Patt, A., Daze, A., & Suarez, P. (2009). Distributional Impacts of Climate Change and Disasters Gender and Climate Change Vulnerability: What's the Problem, What's the Solution? Edward Elg ar Publishing. Building Research in Journal of Construction Engineering and Management doi: 10.1061/(ASCE)CO.1943 7862.0000104 PNUD Colombia, U. D. C. (2012). Cauca: F rente a los Obje ctivos de Desarrollo del M ilenio Retrieved from http://www.pnud.org.co/2012/odm2012/odm_cauca.pdf i Journal of Environmental Planning and Management 52 (5), 631 647. doi: 10.1080/09640560902958172

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Page | 67 U.S. Office on Colombia. ( 2009 ) for Small Farmers, Expansion of Illicit Oxfam America http://www.usofficeoncolombia.org/uploads/application pdf/2009_March_FTA_rural_sector_hill_drop.pdf White, J. W., Field Crops Research 124 357 368. Wilde, V. (2001). SEAGA: Socio economic and gender analysis programme Rome: FAO Williamson, T., Hesseln, H., & Johnston, M Forest Policy and Economics 15 (2012 ), 160 166. World Bank. (2009). Gender in agriculture: Sourcebook Washington, DC: The World B ank

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Page | 68 XIII. Appendix A. Distribution by Household Type and Zone Household Type (total) Respondents Baja Media Alta Unpartnered, Sole Head (n=10) n=5 Male n=1 n=2 n=2 n=5 Female n=2 n=2 n=1 Partnered (n=17) n=3 Only Male n=3 n=0 n=0 n=6 Only Female n=2 n=2 n=2 n=8 Two Respondents n=1 n=3 n=4 Male 1 3 4 Female 1 3 4 Total (n=27) HH=9 HH=9 HH=9 Total (n=35) n=10 n=12 n=13

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Page | 69 B. Pilot Survey Cuestionario sobre prcticas agrcolas, adopc in de nuevas prcticas agrcolas, seguridad alimentaria y flujos de informacin 0. INTRODUCION Primero que todo queramos darle las gracias por su tiempo y por haber accedido a colaborar con nuestro trabajo. Nosotros somos tres estudiantes de maestra y estamos en la Cuenca Rio Las Piedras realizando el trabajo de campo para poder llevar a cabo la tesis de maestra. Nuestro principal objetivo es poder conocer la regin, conocer sus actividades diarias y prcticas agrcolas as como su relacin con las di stintas organizaciones y proyectos de la zona. ue no hay ninguna compensacin econmica, su participacin es voluntaria y no hay riesgos asociados a su colaboracin con esta encuesta. 1. INFOMACION GENERAL 1.1 Informacin del hogar 1.1.1 Nombre Vereda 1.1.2 Nombre Fin ca 1.1.3 Nombre Familia 1.1.4 Situacin en la Cuenca 1.1.5 Quin o quienes en este hogar son miembros de Asocampo? 1.1.6 Desde cundo esta/n afiliados con Asocampo? 1.1.7 Quien tom la decisin de afiliarse a Asocampo? 1.1.8 Cul fue su motivacin para formar parte de Asocampo? (solo si es miembro de Asocampo) 1.1.9 Quien asiste a las reuniones/talleres? 1.1.10 Tiene usted reas protegidas en alguna de sus parcelas? 1.1.11 Por qu decidi ceder una parte de su tierra para proteccin natural? (Si procede) 1.1.12 Quien tom la decisin de ceder estas tierras para protec cin (Si procede) 1.1.13 Ha recibido algun tipo de ayuda para establecer/mantener esta rea protegida? Qu tipo de ayudas? De quin? (Si procede) 1.2 Informacin del encuestado/a 1.2.1 Nombre 1.2.2 Sexo (M=Mujer, H=Hombre, A= ambos) 1.2.3 Rol en la familia (hija, madre, padre,..)

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Page | 70 1.2.4 Quien toma la mayora de las decisiones para el hogar? 1.2.5 Cuantos aos hace q ue vive en el rea? Desde qu ao? 1.2.6. Contrata mano de obra agrcola o todas las actividades son realizadas por la familia? 1.2.7 (Solo si contrata mano de obra agrcola) Para qu actividades contrata mano de obra? 1.2 .8 (Solo si contrata mano de obra agrcola) Con qu frecuencia contrata usted mano de obra? = Cuantas veces por semana, mes? 1.3 INFORMACION DE LA FAMILIA 1.3.1 Listado familiar Nos gustara ahora poder tener una informacin detallada de los mi embros de su familia (solo los que viven en el hogar ). ID Nombre Relacin familiar (Padre, Madre, Edad Nivel estudios (Sin estudios, n aos primaria, n aos bachiller, tecnolgico, universidad) Trabajo principal 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1.3.2 Fuentes de ingreso crdito 1.3.2.1 Cules son las principales fuentes de ingreso del hogar?

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Page | 71 crditos ahorro prstamos familiares/ de amigos 2. PERFILES INSTITUCIONALES / AFILIACION DE GRUPOS Nos gustara ahora poder tener una informacin detallada sobre los tipos de organizaciones locales que existen en esta regin, y de las cuales es usted u otras personas en el hogar miembro. Tamb in, queremos saber si usted u otras personas en el hogar se ven o se han visto beneficiados/as de algn programa. Lista de Ejemplos de Grupos : ASOCAMPO; La Fundacin de Rio Piedras; El Acueducto; Asprolgan (La Ganadera); La Junta de Accin Comunal; SEN A; EcoHabitas; Grupo de Seguridad; etc. Lista de Ejemplos de Programas : Familias en Accin; Madres de Familia; Programa Resa; Programa conjunto; Programa alertas agroclimticas; etc. Grupo Afiliacin / Participacion Miembro(s) de Hogar Se siente cmod o participando/h ablando en este grupo? Cules son los beneficios de pertenecer a este grupo? Programa 3. DIFUSION DE LA INFORMACION Nos gustara ahora poder tener una informacin detallada sobre el tipo de noticias que escucha, y como las recibe. 3.1 Fuentes de Noticias

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Page | 72 3.1.1 En su vida personal, de quin recibe usted noticias? e.g. Los Hijos/Las Hijas 3.1.2 Tiene usted acceso 3.1.3 Cul es su fuente preferida de noticias? En cul confa ms? La Familia El Radio Los Vecinos La Televisin Los Amigos Un telfono celular Los lderes en la comunidad El Internet 3.2.1 Asiste usted algunos talleres, capacitaciones o reuniones, y cules son? 3.2.2 As iste usted estos talleres solo/a, o con otro miembro de su familia? Quin/es? 3.2.3 Con que frecuencia asiste usted y/o los otros miembros de la familia a los talleres? 3.2.4 Qu tipo de informacin de los talleres, capacitaciones y/o reuniones es ms i mportante/beneficiosa para usted? Ejemplos de tipo de informacin: Informes meteorolgicos; Prximos eventos; Acontecimientos de la comunidad; Asistencia Tcnica; Practicas Nuevas / Informas; Eventos Nacionales; etc. 4. TENENCIA DE BIENES Y PRCTICAS AGROPECUARIAS Ahora pasaremos a intentar conocer mejor su finca, sus cultivos y las actividades que realiza diariamente. 3.2 Los Talleres / Las Reuniones 4.1 TENENCIA DE LA TIERRA 4.1.1 Cul es el rea/superficie total de su finca? rea total: ____ _____________ (ha)

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Page | 73 4.1.2 Cuantas parcelas tiene su familia? Cul es el uso de cada parcela? (e.g. en produccin, en descanso, alquilada a otra persona, etc) 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 4.1.3 Cul es el rea de cada parcela? 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 4.1.4 Son estas parcelas alquiladas o de propiedad? 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 4.1.5 Cmo se adquiri esa parcela? (e.g. heredada, de compra, etc.) 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 4.1.6 Quin es el propietario de estas parcelas? 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 4.1.7 Hay un ttulo legal para estas parcelas? 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 4.1.8 A nombre de quien estn estos ttulos? (e.g. solo a nombre del marido/solo mujer/ambos/a nombre de los hijos/as) 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 4.1.9 Quin o quienes toma/n la mayora de las decisiones agrcolas en la parcela? 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 4.2. TENENCIA DE OTROS BIENES 4.2.1 Tiene usted algn vehculo en casa? Quin lo utiliza? Quin es el propietario?

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Page | 74 4.3 ACTIVIDADES PECUARIAS 4.3.1 Podra nombrarnos TODOS los tipos de animales (ganado y especies menores) que tiene en su finca? 4.3.2 Qu cantidad de animales tiene? 4.3.3 Quin es el propietario? 4.3.4 Quin se encarga del manejo de los animales? 4.3.5 Son para autoconsumo, para venta de carne o para venta de leche/ productos lcteos? 4.2.2 Tiene usted algn tipo de maquinaria agrcola? Quin la utiliza? Quin es el propietario? 4.4. ACTIVIDADES AGRCOLAS 4.4.1 Qu cultivos cultivaba usted/ o sus padres (dependiendo de la edad de la persona encuestada) hace 25 aos? 4.4.2 Se cultivan los mismos cultivos ahora? Si no, Cules han cambiado? 4.4.3 Por qu razones ya no se cultiva/n? 4.4.4 Podr a nombrarnos TODOS los cultivos que tiene en su finca? 4.4.5. Qu superficie est dedicada a este cultivo? Cuantas plantas/rboles tiene? 4.4.6 Vende este producto o es para autoconsumo o ambos?

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Page | 75 5. ACTIVIDADES PARA CADA CULTIVO Nos gustara ahora poder tener una informacin detallada de las diferentes actividades que realiza en su da a da. 4.5. OTRAS ACTIVIDAD farm activities) 4.5.1 Qu otras actividades realiza fuera de su finca? (e.g. venta en el mercado, jornaleo, etc.) 4.5.2. Cuntas horas a la semana dedica usted a estas actividades? 4.5.3 Hay alguna poca del ao en que realice ms estas actividades? 5.1 PRODUCTOS DE MS IMPORTANCIA 5.1.1 De los productos que cultiva/produce en la finca Cules son los 2 productos que considera ms importante para el autoconsumo? 1) 2) 5.1.2 Qu actividades son necesarias para producir este producto? (autoconsumo) Quin realiza ca da actividad? Maiz: Preparacin del terreno, Siembra, Deshierbe y aporque, Abonono?, Deshoje, Cosecha Frijol: Preparacin del terreno, Abonado, Siembra, Aporque, Cosecha Papa: Preparacin del terreno, Siembra, Deshierbe, Aporque, Abonado 1) 2)

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Page | 76 5.2 TOMA DE DECISIONES Para cada una de los productos de 5.1, p 6. SEGURIDAD ALIMENTARI A Arverja: Prepa racin del tereno, Abonado, Siembra, Cosecha 5.1.3 De todos los productos que ha mencionado antes Cules son los 2 productos que considera ms importante para la venta? 1) 2) 5.1.4 Qu actividades son nec esarias para producir este producto?(venta) Quin realiza cada actividad? Mora: se pica, se repica, siembra, poda, cosecha Caf: se desyerba y abono cada 6 meses 1) 2) PRODUCTO (cultivos y ganado) Cuando sembrar Cuando y cuanto abonar Cuando recolectar Tipo de alimentacin animal Uso (venta, consumo propio, trueque) Uso del beneficio econmico (dinero) obtenido con la venta

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Page | 77 6.1 Los alimentos para el consumo Qu productos normalmente compra? En promedio, cunto compran en un mes? 6.1.1 Consume Cereales (Arroz, maz, el trigo, o algn producto elaborado con estos granos : pan, la galleta) 6.1.2 Consume Races Y Tubrculos Y Pltano (Papas, camote, yuca, mandioca o cualquier otro alimento proveniente de races o tubrculos? 6.1.3 Consume Verduras (Acelga, aj, ajo, apio, lechuga, alcachofa, albahaca) 6.1.4 Con sume Frutas (Naranja, Guanbana, Pina, Manzana, Mora, Lulo, Coco, Banano, Chirimoya, etc.) 6.1.5 Consume Carne, Pollo, Despojos 6.1.6 Consume Huevos (Huevos de gallina, o de otros animales) 6 .1.7 Consume Pescado y Mariscos 6.1.8 Consume Legumbres/ Leguminosas/ Frutos secos (Frjoles, arvejas, lentejas, garbanzo, guaba, haba, man) 6.1.9 Consume Leche y Productos Lcteos (Queso, yogurt, leche, etc.) 6.1.10 Consume Aceites/ Gras as (aceite, grasa, mantequilla o manteca) 6.1.11 Consume Azcar/ Miel (Azcar o miel o ambos) 6.1.12 Consume Alimentos Diversos (Otros alimentos, como condimentos, caf, t, gaseosa?)

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Page | 78 6.2 Hay alguna poca del ao donde usted debe comprar ms comida del exterior? Alguna poca del ao donde no le quede maz propio y lo tenga que comprar? 6.3 Puede recordar un ao que fue muy seco? Cmo fue que afectan a su seguridad alimentaria? 6.4 Puede recordar un ao que fue muy mojado? Cmo fue que afectan a su seguridad alimentaria? 6.5 Cules son los cultivos que pueden crecer en verano intenso? 6.6 Cules son los cultivos que pueden crecer en invierno intenso? 6.7 Tiene acceso a agua potable? 6.8 Cmo se tiene acceso al agu a? (de pozo, de las 6.9 Bebe usted directamente el agua o la hierve primero? 6.10 Hay alguna poca del ao en la que se tenga que ir a recoger el agua (ya sea para los cultivos o para el hogar)? Quin es el encargado de ir a recoger el agua? (preguntar esto solo en caso afirmativo) 6.11 Cocina con lea? 6.12 De dnde recogen la lea? Qu tipo de lea utilizan? 6.13 Quin se encarga normalmente de recoger la lea? 7. CAMBIO CLIMATICO, PERCEPCIONES Y EVENTOS PASADOS Nos gu stara ahora poder tener una informacin detallada sobre sus percepciones del cambio climtico. 7.1 Ha odo hablar del Cambio Climtico? 7.2 Para usted, que es el Cambio Climtico? 7.3 Cuando escuch por primera vez sobre el Cambio Climtico? A travs de quin? 7.4 Aparte de la primera vez, donde escucha normalmente noticias/informacin sobre Cambio Climtico?

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Page | 79 7.5 Ha notado algn cambio en el clima a lo largo de su vida? Desde cundo ha notado este cambio? 7.6 De qu manera ha notado que cambia el clima? 7.7 Considera que la temperatura promedio de los ltimos 10 aos ha aumentado o disminuido? 7.8 Qu partes de la produccin/de su finca son o han sido afectados por estos eventos? Cmo? 7.9 Han cambiado sus act ividades (cotidianas o agrcolas) debido a estos cambios en el Clima? De qu manera han cambiado? 7.10 Tiene acceso a un tipo de servicio o informacin sobre el Cambio Climtico? (e.g. un grupo o una organizacin) 7.11 Qu recurso o tipo de info rmacin le sera til para prepararse contra la variabilidad climtica? Qu le gustara conocer del Cambio Climtico? 8. ADOPCI"N DE PRCTICAS CLIMTICAMENTE INTELIGENTES 8.1 Listado de prcticas 8.1.1 8.1.2 8.1.2b 8.1.3 8.1.4 Prctica Conoce usted la prctica? Est usted usando la prctica actualmente o la ha estado usando en los pasados 12 meses? Cules de estas prcticas considera ms beneficiosas? Marque hasta 3 prcticas Usaba antes esta prctica aunque ahora ya no lo est haciendo ? Si pudiera, implementara esta prctica? Volvera a reintroducir esta prctica? Por qu//Por qu no? Sistemas agroforestales Fertilizantes qumicos Pesticidas qumicos Cultivo en invernadero Compostaje, biofbricas, produccin de abono orgnico Rotacin de cultivos Mejoramiento de forrajes Mejoramiento razas de ganado Uso de variedades mejoradas Manejo integral de plagas

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Page | 80 Cultivos intercalados/asociados Irrigacin Manejo de estircol Labranza mnima Rastrojos en campo Barreras vivas/barreras multipropsito Recuperacin semillas autctonas Barreras cortavientos Escalonamiento de siembras Terrazas, zanjas, diques en cur vas de nivel Pastoreo rotacional Almacenaje de aqua 8.2 Beneficios y dificultades de cada practica De las practicas que usted utiliza en su finca, cules son los beneficios y posibles inconvenientes que encuentra para cada una de ella s? (de las marcadas como si en 8.1.2) Practica Beneficios Dificultades para implentacin o manejo de esta prctica

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Page | 81 8.3.1 8.3.2 8.3.3 Prctica Por qu decidi dejar de utilizar la prctica? Qu debera de cambiar, para que volviera a usar esta prctica? Qu es lo que necesitara para volver a implementar la prctica? Por qu no usa o no est int eresado en usar esta prctica? 8.4 Fuente informacin para la introduccin de nuevas practicas De las 3 prcticas que usted considera ms importantes (8.1.2b): 8.4.1 8.4.2 8.4.3 8.4.4 Prctica (de 8.2b) Por qu decidi empezar a utilizar la prctica? Cul es la principal fuente de informacin para esta prctica? Quin tom la decisin de empezar a implementar esta prctica? Quin es responsable de llevar a cabo/mantener esta prctica? 8.3. Barreras para la implementacin de practicas De las practicas que usted ya no usa o nunca ha usado ( 8.1.3; 8.1.4):