Citation
Human Evolution: A Project-Based Study on How to Design and Produce an Educational Game

Material Information

Title:
Human Evolution: A Project-Based Study on How to Design and Produce an Educational Game
Creator:
Li, Mingran
Place of Publication:
Gainesville, FL
Publisher:
College of Fine Arts; University of Florida
Publication Date:
Physical Description:
Project in lieu of thesis

Thesis/Dissertation Information

Degree:
Master's ( M.A.)
Degree Grantor:
University of Florida
Committee Chair:
Barmpoutis, Angelos
Committee Members:
Perkins-Buzo, Reid

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Childrens games ( jstor )
Computer games ( jstor )
Cooperative games ( jstor )
Educational games ( jstor )
Entertainment ( jstor )
Music analysis ( jstor )
Musical games ( jstor )
String figures ( jstor )
Tinder ( jstor )
Video games ( jstor )

Notes

Abstract:
With the development of networking and entertainment technology, the channel which people acquire knowledge is no longer merely books, engaging such as animations, games and social media. Based on this phenomenon, this thesis will explore which is more effective for retaining information, gaming or reading. Also due to the development of these technologies, communication and exchange between people are becoming increasingly easy. This increase communication is not only between face to face interactions, but also in other areas, such as in-game communication. Many people become friends via onling gaming. Take into account these reflections and explorations, I raised three arguments in my thesis, and designed three challenge games to support my arguments. In the meantime, my article also contains the feelings of players after playing them, the feedbacks from the players and as well as what analysis and judgment I made, which are based on information they gave out. ( en )
General Note:
Digital Arts and Sciences terminal project

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
Copyright Mingran Li. Permission granted to the University of Florida to digitize, archive and distribute this item for non-profit research and educational purposes. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder.

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1 HUMAN EVOLUTION : A PROJECT BASED STUDY ON HOW TO DESIGN AND PRODUCE AN EDUCATIONAL GAME By MINGRAN LI A PROJECT IN LIEU OF THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS IN DIGITAL ARTS AND SCIENCES UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2014

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2 2014Mingran Li

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3 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I would wish to express my sincere thanks to Prof. Barmpoutis and Prof. Reid for all of their support while creating this paper P rof. Barmpoutis helpe d me build a better structure for my thesis, such as how to make a very clear argument then how to create supporting points and critically analyze the arguments. Prof. Barmpoutis also assisted in solving many technical problems. A nd the suggestion given by Prof. Reid instructed me to strengthen the idea and concept of eac h argument and helped me to add points to expend every argument. T hank you for both of your full support. I would like to thank my parents and my boyfriend for your emotional support from the beginning to the end of this thesis Y ou have always supported me i n my efforts to study for these past two yea rs although we are very far apart I hope to be able to make you proud. I would like to thank Ruigang Fang who gave me plenty of technical supp ort I really appreciate that you helped me solve many problems while creating the game levels. I will not forget the time we spent developing this game together. Y ou are a talented programmer and concept designer. Without you I could not have finished the project Finally I would like to thank all my friends who participated in the progress of playing my game s level T hey helped me to complete the analytical part of my thesis. T hank you again for your contribution to my project.

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4 TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ................................ ................................ ............................ 3 LIST OF TABLES ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 6 LIST OF FIGURES ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 7 Abstract of Thesis Presented to the College of Fine Arts of the Universit y of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Arts in Digital Arts and Sciences ................................ ................................ ............. 9 CHAPTER 1 ................................ ................................ ................................ ............. 10 Introduction ................................ ................................ ................................ .............. 10 CHAPTER 2 ................................ ................................ ................................ ............. 20 Game System Design ................................ ................................ .............................. 20 Challenge One ................................ ................................ ................................ ......... 20 The Advantages And Disadvantages Of Reading Books ................................ ........ 20 Advantages ................................ ................................ ................................ .............. 20 Disadvantages ................................ ................................ ................................ ......... 21 The Advantages And Disadvantages Of Playing Educational Video Games .......... 23 Advantages ................................ ................................ ................................ .............. 23 ................................ ................................ ................................ ......... 25 ................................ ................................ ......... 27 ................................ 27 ................................ ................................ .................... 29 ................................ ................................ 29 ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 29 ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 31 ................................ ........... 32 ................................ ................................ ................................ ................ 34 ................................ ................................ ................................ ................ 35 Why Playing Games Are Better Than Reading Books On The Aspect O f Obtaining Deep Memory Of Knowledge ................................ ....... 36 Challenge Two ................................ ................................ ................................ ......... 36 The Advantage s And Disadvantages Of Interactive Method Of Keyboard In Games ................................ ................................ ................................ .................. 37 Advantages ................................ ................................ ................................ .............. 37 Disadvantages ................................ ................................ ................................ ......... 38 The Advantages And Disadvantages Of Interactive Method Of Wireless Controller In Games ................................ ................................ .............................. 39 Advantages ................................ ................................ ................................ .............. 39 Disadvantages ................................ ................................ ................................ ......... 40 ................................ ................................ ......... 42

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5 ................................ ......... 42 .......... 45 ................................ ................................ 45 ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 45 ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 46 ................................ ................................ ................... 46 ................................ ................................ ................................ ................ 46 ................................ ................................ ................................ ................ 47 ................................ ........................... 47 Challenge three ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 47 The Advantages And Disadvantages Of Single player Game s ............................... 48 Advantages ................................ ................................ ................................ .............. 48 Disadvantages ................................ ................................ ................................ ......... 49 The Advantages And Disadvantages Of Multiplayer Game s ................................ ... 50 Advantages ................................ ................................ ................................ .............. 50 Disadvantages ................................ ................................ ................................ ......... 51 ................................ ................................ ...... 51 ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 51 ................................ .............. 52 Interface And Background Music Design ................................ ................................ 53 Interface Design ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 53 Background Music ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 55 ................................ ........................... 56 ................................ ................................ ................................ ................ 57 ................................ ................................ ................................ ................ 58 ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 58 CHAPTER 3 ................................ ................................ ................................ ............. 60 Analysis ................................ ................................ ................................ .................... 60 CHAPTER 4 ................................ ................................ ................................ ............. 71 C onclusion ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 71 Appendix A ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 72 References ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 80

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6 LIST OF TABLES Table page Table 3 1 ................................ ................................ ................................ ........................ 60 Table 3 2 ................................ ................................ ................................ ........................ 62 Table 3 3 ................................ ................................ ................................ ........................ 64 Table 3 4 ................................ ................................ ................................ ........................ 68

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7 LIST OF FIGURES Figure page ................................ ................................ ................................ ....................... 30 2 3 ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 30 ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 31 ................................ ................................ ................................ ....................... 32 ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 33 ................................ ................................ ................................ ....................... 33 ................................ ................................ ................................ ..................... 34 ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 35 ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 43 ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 44 Figure 2 17 2 18 ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 54 Figure 2 19 ................................ ................................ ................................ ..................... 54 Figure 2 2 0 2 2 1 ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 55 Figure 2 2 2 ................................ ................................ ................................ ..................... 55 ................................ ................................ ................................ ..................... 57 ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 58 Figure 3 1 ................................ ................................ ................................ ....................... 6 2 Table 3 2 ................................ ................................ ................................ ........................ 62 Figure 3 2 ................................ ................................ ................................ ....................... 63 Figure 3 3 ................................ ................................ ................................ ....................... 64 Figure 3 4 ................................ ................................ ................................ ....................... 65 Figure 3 5 ................................ ................................ ................................ ....................... 67

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8 Figure 3 6 ................................ ................................ ................................ ....................... 68 Figure 3 7 ................................ ................................ ................................ ....................... 69 Figure 3 8 ................................ ................................ ................................ ....................... 70

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9 Abstract of Thesis Presented to the College of Fine Arts of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Arts in Digital Arts and Sciences HUMAN EVOLUTION : A PROJECT BASED STUDY ON HOW TO DESIGN AND PRODUCE AN EDUCATIONAL GAME By Mingran Li May,2014 Chair: Angelos Barmpoutis Cochair: Reid Perkins Buzo Major: Master of Arts in Digital Arts and Sciences such as and social media this thesis will explore which is more effective for retaining information, gaming or reading. between face to face interactions, but also games s.

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10 CHAPTER 1 Introduction C onsiderable attention has been spent on the use of video games for education in recent years. The reasons could be classified in two ways Firstly, the entertainment industry is under rapid development with the rise of cinematic technique and hardware exploration. Secondly, video games could easily catch children's attention and hold it for leng thy periods of time as players master the game s complexities and complete objectives. Educators want to provide be tter education for chil dren, but they first need to get their attention and introduce the study materials. If games could attract children, educators could employ video games to encourage students to accomplish their study goals. T here are two sides of every coin Although educ ational video games could be great vehicle for conveying knowledge, there are many concerns for video games the biggest being the time that is devoted to them. C hildren spend so much time on the video games that is begins to limit time spent on other social activities. When we examine the statistics related to this concern, we are able to recognize its importance S ome examples of relevant statistics on the topic include the f o llowing. More than half of Americans over the age of six play video game s and 40 percent of them are women (Pink 2006). Americans spend on average 75 hours each year playing video games (Pink 2006).

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11 The average teenage boy plays more than 13 hours of video games each week. The average teenage girl devotes more than 5 hours each week to play video games (Sax, 2007). By the age of 21, m ost young adults will have put in 10,000 hours to video games (Etuk, 2008). Approximately 70 percent of college students consider themselves avid gamers (Barlett, 2009). T he a bove mentioned research statistics were conducted several years ago, and since that time, the averages have on l y gone up with the progress and prevalence of smart phone s and smart pad s N early every student owns a smart phone now and there are many applications that exi st on these morden devices and a majority of these applications are games, such as Angry B ird and F loppy Bird We cannot remove all the video games children participate in and enjoy but we can examine the issue and improve the games to increase their utility and benefit education E ducational video games could provide a huge industry, because lots of parents always want to teach their children in childhood. One example of an application is an app that teaches identify different animals and pronounce th em. Another one displays an animal with its body parts seperated and distributed randomly, the objective being to combine these sep arated parts to one whole animal These kinds of video games teach children basic knowledge and com mon phenomenon. Because of the colorful graphic elements, the chi ldren are easily attracted and focus on these games f or long periods of time.

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12 Lot of research ha s been conducted to study the function or advantage of education al video games. Before we introduce these video games to children, we have a responsibility to ensure which video game is the best one, and which video game fits our children well. After we are transparent to these advantages or inside of a video game, we are able to choose the right one for a specific child. Based on our survey, we classify the benefits of video games into the following types. Educational Video G a mes Are I nteractive which is the pricipal characteristic distinct from traditional edutainment. For the usual edutainment, it needs the reader to r ead them for a long time and to remember something. The reader may be lost because it requires the imagination of the reader which really depends on the life experience of readers. For example, if the reader never sees an animal, such as the dragon it c an be really difficult to imagine the outline of a dragon and how it flies. Another example is the case that when you crash two woods, is impossible to get fire. As to how to get fires and what is the process it is hard to depict all the details using wor ds. However, it is not hard to post in educational video games. It is a known fact that v ideo and image contain mor e information than words. Besides these, the reader can interactively learn some knowledge, when they play educational games. Take the wood fire as an example, when user tries to crash two woods in the game system, the user can see and understand how the energy is saved to m ake fire. In one word, edutainment often fails in teaching rea ders non trivial knowledge. E ducational video games require strategist hypothesis testing, or problem solving, usually with higher order thinking rather than rote memorization or simple compreh ension.

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13 Educational Video Games Could Be A S uperior Intrinsic M otivation Considerable research has been done to study how the intrinsic motivation and extrinsic motivation affect s the study. And the experimental result has proved that intrinsic motivatio n is much better to guide the study. Intrinsic motivation pushes us to act freely, on our own. Extrinsic motivation pulls us to act due to factors that are way to the activity itself. Because children want to play video games, if we design the informative video games well, it could be a mild intrinsic motivation. For instance when we put a child to read one book and learn some skills, it could be boring. I f the child doesn't like that book or these skills. Even if he has an interest in something, and the book is hard to read or not well written, the child could also feel bored These extrinsic motivations cause children to be frustrated. However, these details of skills or books could be designed well in video games, so the children wil l like these games and have a look when they are playing video games. A nother example is w hen we ask children to do some practice on math, they may be bored by the practice and this is an extrinsic motivation. If we divide the math practice into distinct l evels in one interesting video game in which cannot achieve the higher level. U nless you finis h all the math practice on the preceding level the children will be motivated to practice math to reach the higher levels. Educational Video Games C an Be Helpful T o Students Who Have Trouble Focusing On Study M aterials Many students feel that reading or listen ing to lecture is boring. If they are reading a book, they may re read the same statement many times and still not really know what is going on For many students with a short attention spa n, educational video games may be very constructive They have fun so they are more

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14 likely to concentrate their attention there. An excellent educational game will instruct at the same time that it entertains. Educa tional Video Games C ould Contribute T o T he I mprovement O f Reading S kills Reading skills are very important to children. When children read books or lecture s they may skip boring part s and just focus ing and remember ing the appealing elements. Usually, the boring part is the intended educational content. If the children have this kind of reading habit, the y miss the most important information T he formidable approach of educational video games is to place the educational content at the heart of engaging game play, so that children employ the targeted academic skills and knowledge as an integral part of playing game s The educational video games could transform the boring content from the book into an interesting element t o the game. T he user will then pay great attention to the motivating element s and analyze them carefully. E xceptional reading skills, such as concentrating on details, could be aquired through educational video games. Educational Video Games Could Cultivate Children's Concept Of T ime When children read books or lecture s there is no urgancy push ing them for finish ing the process in a certain time, which is not apt to foster the concept of time. However there are definite rules in the video games, which are need ed for the user to process something efficiently. So the users have to arrange their time and schedule their tasks to obtain the opti mal solution Educational Video Games Could M ake The U ser s Adjust T o Different Kinds Of Rules Q uickly There are numerous rules and goals in video game s which are indispensable in order to master and enjoy the game. T here are so many rules in part

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15 companies, college s social network s and you have to obey these rules to get yourself comfortable there. Sometimes, you just have to adjust yourself to certain rules quickly, when you change your environment E ducational video games could provide these opportunities in order to practice the se skills. Educational Video G ames C ould Improve The Ability Of Visual And Spatial P rocessing Because most complex video games are located in 2D or 3D environments, when users play more games, they have better spatial progress Take the famous Counter S trike as an example, there are very different kind s of maps and each map has lots of path s objects, and obstacle s There are two gro ups fighting with each other. For mak ing game, all members of each group are not supported by enemies and protect themselves. Therefore, all players have to be familiar with the maps, objects, and obstacles. These game environments are supportive to players cultivating their 3D shape imagination. Educational Video Games Could Improve The Ability Of Deduc tion And H yp othesis T esting A variety of studies conducted by researchers have proved that video games and game like environments are conducive to deductive reasoning and hypothesis testing. This capability of video games is understandable, because there are plenty of video games that need players to predict the resulting status ba sed on current situations. M ost of these games simulate some aspect of a real social network or scenario, so the deduction generated in the video games could occur in our actual life. The practice conducted in the games will build the players ability to make decision in the future for the analogous situation.

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16 Educational Video Games Could Cultivate P layers 21st Century S kills There are lots of studies that have been done in favor of the argument that many video games are conductive to the development of specific skills; such as attention, spatial concentration, problem solving, decision making, collaborative work, creativity, and, of course, ICT skills. Many of these skil ls are earmarked as necessary to successfully take part in the global knowledge based economy of the 21 st century. In video games, players need to take into account all kinds of situations to avoid the damage and achieve the largest benefit. The skill of c hoosing the optimal solution under dense conditions could be well taught in some video games. As stated, every coin has two sides. Despite the fact that video games seem to have a lot of potential benefits for education, they also come with lots of disadvantage s We have introduced its most significant one that video games potentially waste user s time. Besides that, the protracted period of time playing can be harmful to users eyes and the physical body. A nother concern is that users have less time for definite social activities. The benefits of video games are so attractive for schooling that if we want to employ them, we have to find solutions to avoid their weakness es The best way to prevent the drawback of video games is tantamount to decrease the playing time and convey more informative content in the video games. In other words, we have to increase the teaching efficiency of video games and explore the best game interactive method and playing m ode. To understand video games better, we need to find the reasons why users like video games more than customary didactic method for learning something. After w e understand the difference between video games and traditional

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17 educational method s, we can exp lore the best way s to design video games for education. To find the difference between informative video games and traditional educational method s we design a contrast experiment in our work. In our experiment, we choose reading a book presenting the tra ditional scholastic method, and ask the reader to read the process of starting a fire using just two stones and a piece of wood. We also do a survey to analyze the advantages and disadvantages for reading a book and educational video games respectively. For the informative video game part, we design a video game, which has the parallel con tent related to the book We organize students into two groups, one to view the book and one to play the video games. W e then ask the two groups of stude nts a series of questions that are linked to our research goal. Based on the result of our first experiment, we conclude that educational video games are a much better method to educate users as long as the audiovisual game s are designed well. There are many different k inds of interactive approach es for video games, such as a keyboard a mouse or a handle With the development of wireless and sensor technology, there are lots of new interactive ways springing out for video games, such as imitated objects in Xbox. O n average most people find modern generation interactive methods to be more fun. However, we still don't know whether they are suitable for educational video games. Given this consideration, we design a contrast experiment between the habitual interactive method and a new generation interactive method. The goal of this contrast experiment is to determine which one is better for educational games. In this experiment,

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18 we still employ the idea of human evolutionary history. For the habitual interactive method we use the space key of the keyboard to simulate the crash of two stones. Whenever the space key is pressed, the crash flash motion of two stones will be simulated on the computer. For the contemporary generation interactive method, we create two imita ted stones outside of the computer and build a wireless communication system. Whenever the two stones touch each other, the signal of touch will be generated and sent to the computer using a wireless transmission system. When the computer receives the touch signal, the crash flash motion of two stones will be simulated in the computer. We will ask the two groups of students to play these two contrast video games with the same game contents but differe nt interactive methods. After the method is discussed for educational video games, we explore what the best game mode is Based on our survey, we classify the exi sting game mode into two categories : single player mode and multiplayers mode. The single pla yer mode means there is only one player, such as Angry Bird or F loppy B ird. I n multiplay mode, t here could be countless players coope rating with others for one goal E xa m ples include Dota2 and LOL. I n this mode the collective ability of users is very important. I t provides a sound platform to practice their collective ability, be cause users need to communicate; cooperate with teammates ; and make final decision s To determine better mode for educational video games, we design a contras t experiment again. In th is experiment, we use the game from the original experiment as the single p layer mode. For the multiplayer mode, we design a unique video game, which still employs the idea of human evolutionary history, players are required to col laborate with each other to construct a group and each members assignment is to

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19 kee p the group going. In our game, we divide the group into two parts; one part strives to protect their home from attack of animals; another part tries to find food for the group in order to to keep the group going, members have to protect their home well and have enough food to sustain their lives. I f e ither part of these two fails t he game is over. T his designe d video game needs two players, one for protection, one for hu nting. The s creen is divided into two parts for two players, one for each plater. P layer one controls the game by using keyboard, and player two controls the game by using mouse After the experiment is conducted, we will ask various questions related to t he game playing mode. In this work, three questions are discussed: 1) C ould the game be a better schooling method compared to the traditional scholastic method? 2) What is the best interactive method for educational video games? 3) What is the best game playing mode for educational video games? For each question, we build a contrast experiment and design a related video game. Through our contrast experiments and the analysis of our results, we reach our conclusion. T he final conclusion is based on three main studies. F irst, we do a survey on the strength of e ducational video games. Second we examine the pros and cons of reading books versus those of educational video games. Finally, we designed three video games related to interactive method and ga me mode.

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20 CHAPTER 2 Game System D esign Challenge O ne In challeng e one, I will make comparative tests between reading books and playing games. when a user learns in a uniformed structure, they will get more in depth memories after reading book s or playing games ? The Advantages And Disadvantages Of R eading B ooks Advantages T he first advantages of reading is a fundamental skill builder people gain a dee per understanding and discuss of every good course after classroom discussions Every valuable material on the planet has a book associated with it. Why? B ooks help clarify complicated subjects. We can also learn from the whole description, get a comprehensive understandin g and grasp more details of intricate items which may not be not available in the classroom discussion. A nother advantage is reading book s gives you something to speak about if you do not have much to talk about with your best friend, your wife or your husband. If you are just uncomfrotable talking to people, reading will help you have a lot of relevant information to contribute to conversations. W hen having discussions, you can have endless topics to and share your with companions, if you read. Third, reading is a very effective way to retain know l edge le a rned lots of studies or researches show that if you don't use your memory, you will lose it H owever, a fter

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21 considerable reading, you can get a full grasp of specific topics including mor e detail, such as the facts, figures and literature, plo t lines, themes and characters. Forth, reading the book expands your horizons If you want to travel or reside in a n unfamiliar location, r eading book s like the introductions of environment, culture and som e other materi als, can help you a lot. Finally reading the book could make peaceful thinking. After you got a pleasant reading, you would have an interest in the several contents of the book and make a thinking on the next step, which makes you get knowledge and trans fer into their own stuff to store in your mind. Disadvantages First of all in many cases, the form of the text is too monotonous and there is no further interaction with the readers, which can easily lead readers to feel tired after read ing a lot and generating disgust.

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22 I t is more likely that they will think about something extra after completing the book. players must overcome mind barriers to develop from the

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23 readers perspective. T his can cause the reader s perspective to be the same as the authors. O n the contrary, playing games is different, players often accept the The Advantages And D isad vantages Of P laying E ducational Video G ames Advantages which is the principal distinct characteristic from t raditional edutainment. For usual edutainment, reader s need to study for a n extended period of time and recall details. T his could cause confusion because reading requires imagination, which depends on his or her experiences. For instance when describing t he pro cess of creating fire, it may be hard to depict all the details using words. However, it is less difficult to conv ey in educational video games. It is a know fact that v ideo s and image s can contain more information than words alone I n this case, for example, when user s try to crash two woods in the game system, the y can see and understand how the energy is s tored in the fire making process through the interactive process of the game Furthermore, educational video games require strate gizing hypothesis testing, and problem solving, skills, usually with higher order thinking rather than rote memorization or simple comp rehension.

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24

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25 I engage in a fundamentally goal driven activity meanwhile Furthermore, productive game goals are clearly isolated wholes tha t may be rewarding to work towards. T his metho d has not always

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26 been available. W e now have another means of learning skills that may be applied to the phenomenon of life in the future.

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30 Figure 2 3

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36 W hy Playing Games Are Better Than Reading Books On T he A spect Of O btaining D eep Memory Of K nowledge I make the challenge one, which the aim is to assist my point of view as one of the arguments. That can be seen as the aspect of bringing me mory and impression whatever new or old knowledge, playing games would be a better way than reading the book according to the feedback of after playing. To sum up, the most important reasons are the case that the following three points. Challenge T wo In level t w o I will make comparative tests between keyboard of traditional interaction and wireless controller of new generational interaction in games. T here are numerous kinds of interactive methods in games. G ame developers wish to create lots of characteristic and divers ity for game play such as dragging and clicking the object on screen directly, sliding the objects on the screen, shaking the screen, virtual systems, virtual reality, etc These are the new interactive ways that can be widely accepted by majority of the game players with the continuous advances in electronic technology. H owever, in this thesis, I will conduct a c omparative test between the two game

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37 interactions that are keyboards and wireless controllers which are the analysis built on the same challenge t w o T he question is which kind of interactive method you prefer, the keyboard or wireless controller ? The Advantages And Disadvantages O f Interactive Method O f Keyboard In G ames Advantages Firstly players c an feel the motions of objects, such as walking forward a nd backward of characters and actions of running and jumping through the operations of the keyboard Keyboard is used for object tracking, lens pushing and pulling which will be very intuitive and straightforward experience for players. For example, plenty of types of racing games require players to use the keyboard to operate and complete. The purpose of this kind of design is for players to control the forwarding, backsliding turning left and turning right of cars through a n intuitive switching on keyboard, which are the most basic actions in driving the cars. I t is another interactive way for players to obtain a real life experience. The maximum obtainment in the game is nothing more than to get ting a simulate real situation and experienc ing the ex citement and stimulation that is not often happened in real life. Second ly players will toggle buttons constantly to finish different operations to obtain entertainment and pleasure if there are numerous operational keys in a game. Presumably, if a game is right on the rate of a lot of buttons to control various objects, each button should bind to have its own characteristic from others. For those players who w ant to explore new things, this kind of operation setting will become a favorable space for them. Multiple keys setting is also a useful tool for rich game content.

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38 Third ly the continual conversing and switching between different keys can help players to exercise their flexible thinking. Like play ing some social game : an order to allow more players to participate in one game, many of the features of the game may have to be finished by setting different buttons. If players want to get a better participation experience they need to master these fundamental operations. It is a process that exe rcis es their unique and flexible thinking by constantly switching these keys. Finally, the keys on the keyboard can be simulated into musical keys for making music games. In the past few years, I have already played several kind s of mus ic games, which are ma nufactured by simulating the keys on a computer into musical keys as the uncomplicated operation. For instance, game developers f or a type of classic piano game can imitate the keys on computer into musical pronunciation keys according to the temperamen t and basic principles even though developers cannot control all the keys to become mutual keys T he reason is that a pi ano has eighty eight keys, which will let player s to play beautiful music when they press the keys on keyboard s For some people who do n o t have any expertise in instrument training this kind of music games can truly bring plenty of pleasure and judgment of exploring for players. Disadvantages Firstly, for the situation of using keyboard games, it is easy to understand this kind of phenomenon that the player cannot control the movements and actions on roles or objects through a compliant switching on a computer keyboard. T hus, the operating speed of a player should slow down so that it could become the accelerator of game. T he racing game is another example I f players cannot master the skills to switch up,

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39 down, left and right keys on keyboard to control the car's movement and speed, it is not benefi cial for player s to win the game. Players cannot control the keys on a keybo ard that is on behalf of cars will be off tracking, deviating crash occurring and so on Secondly, plenty of keyboard operations means that many of designs should be simulated into display on screen, which increases the difficulty for game design and gam e developers. Specifically, every object in games needs to invoke by clicking keyboard, so that game developers need to see a lot of keys to be allocated to each object in the game that will make an increasing of development testing for game designers. Finally, the active area on the keyboard is very small. If the actions of the human body are concentrated on the computer keyboard over time, its bod y will not be involved in activities but be all on arthritis and some other illnesses. According to the sci entific basis for analysis, sedentary workers who always sat in front of the computer would be easy to get arthritis, spinal disease and some other illness. It is more detrimental to body health that turns on your fingers to focus on the tiny keyboard and set such a long time to play games. The Advantages And Disadvantages Of Interactive Method O f Wireless C ontroller In G ames Advantages

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40 Disadvantages where the controller w ill

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41 be made by the players. which is ou need to the role , the role s T the wireless controllers all ,

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44 how to use weapons and methods of combating, and they will obtain the entertainment in a real environment that cause the best means of learning

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45 computer games eye protection of

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46 I just as long as players could participate in the game towards the way my guide to, which is also significant.

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47 I make the challenge t w o which aim s to assist my point of view as one of the arguments. That can be viewed as the aspect of a more bitter experience means more learning. Actual experience would get a better way than the total virtual experience. Challenge three T here are two besic types of games single player and mulitiplayer. In this challenge, I create d one l evel that is multiplayer with two challenges. T his challenge

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48 game significantly supports my third argument. E ach kind of game has its peculiar featu res, characteristics and player groups, w hich allows everyone to derive their own personal pleasure and entertainment. F or this portion of my thesis I look to understand which type of game most players prefer, single player mode or multiplayer mode. In another word s which method would allow the player obtain more knowledge, entertainment and pleasure? I n recent years, games are an important parts of most young people's daily life. T his is due to the fact that they find them not only entertaining, but also offer learning experiences, includi ng how to socialize with others, how to cooperate with a team, how to share with friends, how to complete objects while working together, and more. W hich games allow for proper acquisition of these abilities will be explored thoroghly in the next section. The A dvanta ges And Disadvantages Of S ingle player G ame s Advantages A single player game is typically solitary. P layers start and finish the game at any time dependent purely on their own discretion. If players select to stop playing, they simply save the game and quit. W hen playing on han d held systems like a phone or ipad, single player is often the best choice. T hese games can be played by indi viduals while on the road or any time they have a break as the player can start and stop again at their leisure. F or example, with the game Angry Bir d, the user has the ability to complete a quick level or two at any ime, espicially since the game is set up so that each level can be completed relatively quickly.

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49 F urthermore, the win or loss in single player games depends solely on players' own abilities or performance Players in this kind of game can make whatever decisions they desire; t hey don't need to take notice of the opinions of other players. T herefore, e ach player has the opportunity to demonstrate their own great potential. I n addition, these game are generally very small and simple T hey are usually stalled in personal phones, ipads, computers and some handheld gaming systems easily and do not occupy much space. P layers can go thr ough simple set up and install, which is a very useful aspect for some busy indivisuals who lack time neces sary to invest in massive multiplayer game. Disadvantages The main disadvantage single player games is they tend lack of team thinking. Team thinking is a critical ability for most people in their daily working lives. Countless times, it has been found that more than one mind working on something provides better re sults and the power of a group i s more significant than a single indivisual. T his highlights a lar ge drawback of solo play, being that playing in a group can allow one memer s mistakes to be overcome by fo llow teammates. T here is su pport and comraderie that preven ts silly mis steps and allows for a greater chance of success than a solo player has. The second shortcoming of single player game r is they have a smaller audience. T he atmospheres of solo game is for only one player so it is not a social environment that forces players to be interactive. T here is no one there to help your challenges as there is only one active i ndividual at all times. For instance, if you die in a com promising position, there will be no team membeers around to help and you will not survive.

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50 The final weakness of single player game s is that the antagonist is always a computer. T his demonsterate a lack of real feeling betwee n actual people and environme nt The rhythm is reality show with the comparison of multi player game. An acute resists being part of the very crucial points in any games for player to be interested, entertained, feel satisfied and feel stimulated. H owever most solo games cannot prov ide these benefits. The Advantages And Disadvantages Of Multiplayer G ame s Advantages

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51 Disadvantages

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52

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53 I believe we can all agree that in order to have a successful team. Everyone must think like a team, everyone in the group must think like a team. E ven an average group of players can conquer an all star team, if they help each other and communicate effectively. A professional game production team, Blizzard, demonstr ates real world siginificant of teamwork skills. E ach memb er is responsible for the d uties associated with their position to ensure integrit y and certaining of projects be ing produce on time. If one of the members doesn t work well, other members will end up with the extra workload. T he aim of my design in this challenge is it lets players understand the importance of teamwork. It is essential to make every team a successful combination if one wants to achieve victory. I nterface And Background Music D esig n I nterface D esign GUI elements are meaningful for composing the entire game in a design style. The interface design style in the initial challenge, which continues throughout. I n this challenge, I made two characters, an ancient boy and an ancient girl. T he boy is charged with hunting and picking up food to store energy and the girl is responsible for de fe ating the monsters to save their tribe. T hese two characters are prehistoric people so they have some features of ancient people, such as very simple clothes, no shoes and holding rough tools, etc. T he reference images are displayed below Figure 2 17 and 2 18

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54 Figure 2 17 Figure 2 18 T he river in this interface can be treated as the dividing line between the two elements of the game. O n the left side of the river, the boy is responsible for collecting energy for their tribe by hunting foods O n the right side of the river, the girl is responsible for def eat ing the monsters and protecting their home. T he reference image is showed below Figure 2 19 Figure 2 19 On the right side of the river, I des igned a tribe with multiple singular features of houses. When the game starts monsters will gather on all sides and converge toward the m iddle of the game to attack the tribe. T here is only one kind of monster, a giant

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55 blue green monster. With lots of food tomatoes mushrooms, and vegetables for the boy to collect. T hese items will spawn randomly and disappear after three seconds. T he reference images are displayed in Figure 2 2 0 and 2 2 1 Figure 2 2 0 Figure 2 2 1 I designed two health b ars on the top of this interface, which w ere u tilized to display the game development and helpful hints for the two player s to understand how to control the game. T he reference image is shown in Figure 2 2 2 Figure 2 2 2 B ackground M usic I add ed an integral background music and approproate sound effect for this challenge. I put in sounds effect for the sound of movements from monsters and sounds of picking up plants. I do not like to add more sound effects that conf use the normal state of game play.

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56

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58 I created the challenge three to assist my point of view that multiplayer games are more benefiical than solo player. P leasures and excitements of At the same time, players experience more benefits from

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59 multiplayer games, which should be considered a noteworthy point if you live in modern day society.

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60 CHAPTER 3 Analysis I n my lieu of thesis, I want to do the research and explore three arguments that are which one makes users to obtain more memories of knowledge between reading books and playing games, which interactive method is players favorite between keyboard of traditional interaction and wireless controller of new generational interaction, and which kind of game makes players to get more entertainments and improve their capabilities between single player game and multiplayer game. F or each argument, I designed a contrast video game experiment to verify each argument and processed the game as one of the i mportant supporting points. B esides that, the contrast experiment, detail, experimental result and related analysis will be addressed within this section as well. 1 T o verify the argument one, I ask 12 friends to adopt the experiment and the detailed experimental process is displayed and analysis as follows. I propose separating the 12 friends into two groups randomly and each group has 6 friends. A. I ask the group 1 to read the book and group 2 to play the game, whic h is built on obtaining the same knowledge, then, respond to the question I proposed. T he questions and the consequence are showed as follows. T able 3 1

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61 As noted in Table 3 1, players could get more information from an educational video game, because the results from group 2 are larger than it's from group 1 for most situations and the value is how many test ers could answer the question correctly. The reason why the result of question 4 is different from others is that this question is not considered as in the video game. B I ask them to switch their roles to do something unusual that is making group 2 to read the book and group 1 to play the game

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62 Figure 3 1 Table 3 2 P reference C ount 0.2 0.3 2 0.4 0.5 2 0.6 0.8 6 0.9 1.0 3 After this process, we do a survey to ask them which method they prefer to get information between reading books and play if the information from the book is designed well in video games. And the result is posted on Figure 3 1 where the y axis is the pre ference for video game, and the range of it is from 0 to 1. The preference for reading books is one minus the preference for video game. As observed from the above figure, most testers like video game more. A lso, we can count the median value, which the result is showed in the Table 3 2 above. W e have 9 testers who stay at the value from 0.6 to 1.0 that are the very high

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63 positions on the diagram. I t is very clear to show that most of testers like obtaining knowledg e through playing video games. T hrough calculating the standard deviation, we get the number of it is 0.2316, which is showed that the data of preference is spread out so much because the aim of calculating the deviaion means to see how the data far from the normal. C I n this part, I will do some analysis of properties of the game Figure 3 2 We record how much time users need to g et fire, as displayed in F igure 3 2 As indicated in the above figure, the average time to get the fire is 17 seconds. 2. T o prove the argument tw o I still ask 11 friends to take the experiment and the thorough experimental process is displayed and analysis as follows. I want all the friends as one group to participate into the game.

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64 Figure 3 3 Table 3 3 P reference Count 0.2 0.3 0 0.4 0.5 2 0.6 0.8 2 0.9 1.0 7 A. Preference for interactive methods. In this experiment, I do a survey on all testers about which interactive methods they prefer to play between a keyboard and a wireless controller. The experimental result shows that most testers prefer the new interactive method, wireless controller, as showed in F igure 3 3 A s the same situation above we can count the median value, which the r esult is showed in the Table 3 3 above. W e have 7 testers who stay at the value from 0.9 to 1.0 on the diagram. W e can clearly see that more than half of the testers who prefer to

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65 choose new interactive system to play video game. P eople like to rub the wireless controller more. T hrough calculati ng the standard deviation, we get the number of it is 0. 22074 which is showed that the data of preference is very spread out. B. Analysis on video game using the wireless controller. 1) The first property of video game to be analyzed is still how much time the testers need to go on fire As displayed in Figure 3 4 the average time for this game is 24 .5 seconds to get fire. The average time is much longer than it in the original video gam e, because I employed wireless controller here, which is not so stable as the keyboard Figure 3 4 W e also can see that here are two images at following that talks about the comparison of time to get fire of using keyboard and wireless controller. I t is very clear show the result that is mentioned above.

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66 2) After the time is analyzed, I tested the probability of success of a wireless controller, because the wire is not so durable so I have to test the system stability, which is very important for video game system. As observed in Figure 3 5 the probability of success of the wireless controller is 0.79. Although the system does not be too durable as 100%, it brings more interest into this game, because we cannot get success every time in real l ife.

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67 Figure 3 5 3. T o demonstrate the argument t h ree there still need 12 friends to play the game and give out all the feedback, which should be seen as points to reach the result. I need every friend to experience the challenge three based on playing the first two games. S imilarly, the thorough experimental process is showed and analysis as follows. A. Preference for multiplayer video game. In this part, we always want to explore which video game mode is more popular for users between single player mode and multiplayer mode. I asked 12 testers which one they want to play between my first game and my third video game, belonging to single player mode and multiplayer mode, respective ly. The experimental result is posted on Figure 3 6 that most testers prefer to play my third video game, which is the multiplayer mode. Despite the fact that the two games are different video background, they could give some inside hints on which mode is more popular.

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68 Figure 3 6 Table 3 4 P reference Count 0.2 0.3 3 0.4 0.5 1 0.6 0.8 6 0.9 1.0 2 T hrough calculating the valus of the preference, it shows that we have 8 testers who stay at the position of 0.6 10. T he preference result is displayed on the Table 3 4 very clear that is players prefer to choose multiplayer game to play. T hrough calculating the standard deviation, we get the number of it is 0.2 7579 which is showed that the data of preference is very sp read out. B. I analyzed my third video game here and the meticulous analysis is outlined below 1). The probability of success.

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69 In this game, we divide my 12 friends into 6 groups and each group consists of two testers. Each group played my third video game once and the result was accounted for There are just two groups who succeeded in the test, and the probability of success is 33%. A s showed in Figure 3 7 Figure 3 7 2). The cause of failure. After the probability of success is calculated, I want to find the reason why four groups failed in this video game. Because this game needs two players, one for hunting food, one for tribe protection, if one group failed in this game, there should be one player failed first. As obtained in Figure 3 8 the main cause failure is from tribe protection. Maybe we need in order to adjust the gain parameters of tribe protection to make it a balanced video game.

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70 Figure 3 8

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71 CHAPTER 4 C onclusion With the development of video games, educational video games become one very important member of the video game s family. The distinctive characteristics of educational video games catch the attention of educators, such as visual skills, language skills, ma thematics skills, social skills. In this paper, we did a survey on the existing works on the difference between educational video games and traditional educational methods. T ake into account this survey, we proposed three questions related to educational video games. The questions are discussed here which one could make users remember more information between traditional educational methods and educational video games, which one is more popular between traditional interaction and new generational interaction, which game mode is much better for educational video games between single player mode and multiplayer mode. For each question, we designed a contrast experiment, for which we designed a video game related. Then we ask 12 friends to do the experiment, and the experimental result is collected and analyzed. Besides the experi mental result, we also gave detailed video game properties for each educational video game designed by myself. Based on our thre e contrast experiments, we get the conclusion that if the educational video games are designed well, it could convey more information to users than traditional educational methods, and users like new generational interaction methods and multiplayer mode th an traditional interaction methods and single player mode, respectively.

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72 Appendix A This was the text that the subjects of the experiment for argument one read. It was compared to the game as a learning tool. See page 72 for details. This was taken from the website Two Stones Fire Starting ", URL: http://wildwoodsurvival.com/survival/fire/twostones/abbww/index.html Two Stone Fire Starting B y Allan "Bow" Beauchamp This article has been written with the intent of allowing the reader to have the best information to successfully develop the art of starting a fire in the wilderness. This is a skill which can be learned once the individual understands what is needed to accomp lish this task. I have currently used twelve combinations of starting fires. I will explain three of the combinations in this article. I remembered a time when I felt that starting a fire by friction was the greatest gift to man from the creator. I had don e many fires with friction, and did not wish to get too complacent, as many do, once they have a primitive skill that seems to make many sit up and notice. My preference is to learn the first exercise; then move on. I have found by doing this, each lesson learned has something to offer to the next. This was the case with this fire starting lesson. The answer I sought did not come from the stones for fire starting, but rather, another idea I was working on at the time. At

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73 that time, it seemed a very unimport ant skill. Now I know without it, I would not have found the answer about what I had been seeking for from the stone fire starting method. I had tried for many years to make the "two stone" fire method work, but it had always failed! I could never seem to sort out the actual technique that was needed. Any time I had heard of someone actually seeing this method work, I would ask them what they had seen. But, it always seemed that some other variable was involved with this fire starting method. No one I had heard of knew of using just two stones and natural uncharred tinder. Anyone I had spoken to, who seemed to know of this skill, had always me ntioned some kinds of stones, but when I tried these combinations it never seemed to happen the way I had expected. Some of the ideas that people had mentioned to me in passing (looking back at it now) were really short on the real skills to develop this s ystem. Not one person, that seemed to have an idea about it, ever showed this to me. It always seemed to be, "use two pieces of pyrite and birch tinder and strike the stones together. Then you will have fire!" Boy! That sounded easy. I can assure you, this was not the case. Starting a fire with stones takes much more understanding than by just striking two stones together. It was like the time someone had told me about starting a fire with two sticks. "You just rub them together!" After learning the fire by friction methods, I now know that person was "short" on skills, also. But, I always give credit where credit is due. If these people had been right, I might not have tried so hard to develop these methods!

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74 Photo 1 will show that when I decided to figure t his "two stone" fire method out, I tried to find as many different types of stones from around the area that I could. I remember going to great lengths to find what I thought would be just the right ones. Thinking, perhaps, it was a specific type, I would find another piece identical to it. Even though the shading would be different, I would collect it anyway and try it. I tried all sorts of stones; I'd look for a piece buried in the ground thinking that perhaps it was a better sample than the piece I had c ollected on the surface. Then I expanded on the idea that each location offered different characteristics. I remember thinking that perhaps the weather had a profound effect on the texture or even the hardness of the stones. I tried taking into account jus t about every factor I could think of. After trying many variations, samples and combinations, I actually started to believe that it couldn't actually be done. I had, from time to time, gotten lots of "flash," but nothing of a really hot spark. Figuring my skills were hopeless in finding an answer, I had moved on to other projects for a while. Then one afternoon while sitting in the bush, I was working on something totally unimportant, (I thought so anyway). I had put together something that made me stop an d think. I remembered some of the problems I had in trying to develop my "two stone" fire starter. My stones would always flash, but with no real spark, and the dirt that accumulated on the tinder was so heavy that the tinder would not accept a spark, let alone allow it to turn into a coal. Hopefully, with this new idea, I now had a new avenue to explore, and it would solve my problem. In Photo 2 we see another pile of stones that I had collected from anyone I could find who had different stones than I had originally found in my travels. I

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75 was thinking I could put it all together with these combinations of stones. My next challenge was that I needed the right tinder to catch a small spark. I had. been doing some experiments with tinders for a long time. My p reference is to use my knife as a fire starting tool. But if this was going to work, I needed the absolutely best tinder I could find. Photo 3 shows the tinder from a birch tree. I had done some experiments with birch tinder over the years, and had conclud ed that this particular type of tinder will depend on where and when you harvest it. What I needed was tender with the best possible characteristics if the "two stone" technique was going to work. Photo 4 shows a close up of a fungus found on the birch tr ee. In the photo we see the exterior side of this fungus. Photo 5 shows the interior side of the same fungus (note the interior colors). In Photo 6, we can see that, with any spark at all, this particular fungus is a great fire tinder. Photo 7 shows what i t would look like if it was left to glow for awhile (30 minutes). It is still a good sustaining tinder bundle. So, with a couple of years of experimenting with tinders and techniques, and then finding the right place and time to harvest tinder fungus, I fe lt that now my "two stone" method might work. It was time to put all of my components together and make this method work. The handstone I had found that had worked the best for me initially was a stone named pentlandite from the pyrite family. Photo 8 show s this stone. The second stone I had used in combination with the handstone "the striker" is identified as quartz rock. Photo 9 shows the "striker" (quartz) and "handstone" (pentlandite) together. Understanding the many mistakes I had made and learned from in the past and using these new techniques, I now believed it would work. So, I tried it. To my

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76 amazement, it worked! It had almost seemed too easy. Then, I tried it again. The same results happened. Why was it so hard for me to accomplish this befor e? I was excited, and kept trying it again and again. Each time was a great success, It worked every time and it seemed that I could do no wrong. Let me tell you, that the first fire I started with two stones was very humbling. I realized at that moment ho w little I actually knew about fire starting. I kept trying it, over and over, for fear of forgetting it. I called a close friend of mine to come and see this new skill of starting a fire with two stones. Just before he got there, I tried it again, but it would not work. Nothing I did would give any results. I was persistent. I tried so many times I wore through the stone before I gave up. The two pieces of stone in my hand broke from being hit so hard. I began to believe that I would be the only one to hav e seen this skill work. That put me back to the drawing board. I had made it work at first, but now I could not! Why? That question kept me up for many nights. Photo 10 shows my first results. When I struck the stones together initially, I had gotten flash but no sustainable spark. The photo shows that with this particular handstone, I had made a groove that would allow the striker section, when hit, to focus its intensity in one specific area all the time. The potential spark was also sheltered from the w ind, thus allowing it time to develop before it actually got hit by the elements a major advantage. Then the spark, (from being directed down the channel within the grove of the handstone) could be steered directly to my waiting tinder. This would produc e the best results. It had indeed worked initially, but why had it stopped working? I focused on all of the mistakes I had made in the past and thought about what had worked and what had

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77 not. Then, I realized the answer! In photo 11, the depth of the grov e in the handstone had been dug deeper, and by doing so, had been made to focus more of the spark in one specific place. The smaller angled, but more defined channel, seemed to give me the best results. I found that this method took less effort to get a sp ark without striking the stone as many times. It allowed for more life of the handstone as well as longevity of the striker. Also, with less impact on the stones, there is less debris being transferred to my tinder. Remember, this was a major concern in th e past, as my tinder was so dirty that even a match would hardly light it. With making these changes to my handstone, I now had a cleaner surface area to accept the sparks, and by having the deeper channel, it directed more of the sparks to the waiting tin der. The deeper channel had an advantage. It allowed for more wind protection after striking the stones, thus sheltering the spark, giving the maximum opportunity for the spark to get hotter. Photo 12 shows the striker, a crafted piece of quartz, I had use d to do these tests. The fashioning of it has a lot to do with the longevity of the striker and the amount of times you had to have to use it in mak-ing a fire, before you must recraft another striker. Photo 13 shows an-other striker I have had success wit h. This is a piece of iron rock. Photo 14 shows the last striker we will discuss for this article. It is a piece of granite rock. Both of these rocks are found in this area, too. If you look closely at the three strikers, you will see a common design. The tips of the strikers are crafted the same. I have found, through trial and error, that this crafted design was one that offered the best characteristics (not only for longevity before recrafting, but for focusing the striker and handstone sparking togethe r). This allowed for the best possible sparks. Photo 15 shows the final products of the handstone, the

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78 tinder, and the striker for the first of these combinations. Photo 16 shows the final product of the second handstone striker combination with tinder. Lastly, Photo 17 shows the third handstone, tinder, and striker combination. If you view these photos, the same handstone is used, but the strikers are different. There is a reason for this. These three work so well together, because the strikers are harde r than this handstone. Now we can understand the reasons why I had never gotten any sparks before with the earlier tests I had tried. My idea of striking two of the same stones together was not practical. True, I had gotten a "flash," but nothing that woul d be hot enough to make a spark. By using a striker that is a greater hardness than the handstone, the percussion of the two stones impacting together will send a spark from the stones to the tinder. The makeup within the quartz (striker) has a characteris tic that pulls everything together. The content within this particular handstone that allows this to happen, (if all the variables are considered and are just right) is "sulfur." When you use the quartz (striker), and hit the piece of pentlandite (hand st one), a spark is produced. The quartz is harder than the pentlandite. Our grove must be deep enough to allow the spark we have made to be sheltered from the elements, giving it maximum opportunity to survive. That is why this spark, (if sheltered from the elements), stays hot enough to make it to the tinder. Then the tinder will do the rest. Photo 18 shows my success with the "two stone" strikers! In photo 19, I have used the quartz (striker) with the pentlandite (handstone) with my finest tinder, and I hav e indeed, gotten the spark to stay on the tinder. Photo 20 shows that I am letting the coal grow, and using my hand as a fan as opposed to my breath. The moisture from your breath, would work against you at this point. Photo 21 shows I am using my trusty k nife to transfer the

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79 coal to the waiting tinder. This coal as you can see is growing nicely. Photo 22 (left) shows that I have placed this coal into my tinder bowl; then, I have placed it in dried swamp leaves (cattail leaves). This photo also shows that t he coal is still active and spreading well. Photos 23 (left) and 24 (below) show the complete system I have used. I have displayed that with a little patience and perseverance, you can have the same results I have achieved. Photo 24 (left)You have been sh own three combinations for starting a fire with two stones and natural uncharred tinder. With this knowledge and using other combinations, you c an develop a system of your own. I have since moved on with my little journey to understand primitive fire start ing methods. If we take the time to stop and listen, we will find the keys to unlock Mother Earth's secrets. I am truly amazed at natures bounty. I hope I have answered some of your questions to more primitive fire starting. I have tried to keep this arti cle as informative and factual as I could, focusing on the insights you can get to develop your own system. After you learn this skill, we can expand on it more. If I gave the readers all of the answers, it would not allow them to have any excitement from their own findings.

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80 References 1. Aguilera, M. D., & Mendiz, A. (2003). Video games and education: (education in the face of a "parallel school"). ACM Computers in Entertainment, 1 (1), 10 10. 2. Amory, A., Naicker, K., Vincent, J., & Adams, C. (1999). The use of computer games as an educational tool: Identification of appropriate game types and game elements. British Journal of Educational Technology,30 (4), 311 321. 3. Carr, D. (2005). Contexts, gaming pleasures, and gendered prefere nces. Simulation & Gaming, 36 (4), 464 482. 4. Denis, G., & Jouvelot, P. (2005). Motivation driven educational game design: applying best practices to music education. Paper presented at the 2005 ACM SIGCHI International Conference on Advances in computer entertainment technology, Valencia, Spain. 5. Dickey, M. D. (2005). Three dimensional virtual worlds and distance learning: Two case studies of Active Worlds as a medium for distance education. British Journal of Educational Technology, 36 (3), 439 451. 6 Heeter, C., Winn, B. M., & Greene, D. D. (2005). Theories meet realities: Designing a learning game for girls. Paper presented at the 2005 conference on Designing for User eXperience, San Francisco.

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81 7. Jenkins, H., Klopfer, E., Squire, K., & Tan, P. (20 03). Entering the education arcade. Computers in Entertainment, 1 (1), 17. 8. Kelly, H. (2005). Games, cookies, and the future of education. Issues in Science & Technology, 21 (4), 33 40. 9. Klopfer, E., & Yoon, S. (2005). Developing games and simulations for today and tomorrow's tech savvy youth. Tech Trends, 49 (3), 33 41. 10. Robertson, J., & Good, J. (2005). Story creation in virtual game worlds. Communications of the ACM, 48 (1), 61 65. 11. Robertson, J., Good, J., Keeker, K., Pagulayan, R., Sykes, J. & Lazzaro, N. (2004). Children's narrative development through computer game authoring: The untapped world of video games. Paper presented at the 2004 Conference on Interaction Design and Children: Building a Community, Vienna, Austria. 12. Salzman M. C., Loftin, R. B., Dede, C., & McGlynn, D. (1996). ScienceSpace: Lessons for designing immersive virtual realities. Paper presented at the Conference Companion on Human Factors in Computing Systems: Common Ground, Vancouver, BC.

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82 13. Schrier, K. (2006 ). Using augmented reality games to teach 21st century skills. Paper presented at the ACM SIGGRAPH 2006 Conference, Boston. 14. Steiner, B., Kaplan, N., & Moulthrop, S. (2006). When play works: Turning game playing into learning. Paper presented at the 2006 Conference on Interaction Design and Children, Tampere, Finland. 15. Swartout, W., & van Lent, M. (2003). Making a game of system design. Communications of the ACM, 46 (7), 32 39. 16. Zagal, J. P., Nussbaum, M., & Rosas, R. (2000). A model to support the design of multiplayer games. Presence, 9 (5), 448 462. 17. Ziemek, T. R. (2006). Two D or not Two D: Gender implications of visual cognition in electronic games. Paper presented at the 2006 Symposium on Interactive 3D Graphics and Games, Redwood City, CA. 18. Wiki Answers http://wiki.answers.com/Q/Disadvantages_of_reading_books?#slide=1 19. Digital Play http://www.digitalplay.info/blog/2009/11/06

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83 20. Two Stone F ire Starting http://wildwoodsurvival.com/survival/fire/twostones/abbww/index.html

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