United States Department of Agriculture
Agricultural Research Administration
Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine
EQ 335 AND OTHER WOUND TREATMENTS FOR
Prepared by the Division of Insects Affecting Man and Animals-j
A new smear has been developed as a wound treatment for controlling
the screw-worm on livestock and fleeceworms, or wool maggots, on
sheep. This new treatment, recommended as a supplement to older
treatments known as smear 62 and EQ smear 82, is designated as
"EQ 335 screw-worm remedy." The figure "335" represents the con-
centrations of the two main active ingredients, lindane (3 percent) and
pine oil (35 percent).
EQ 335 does not stain, is not highly volatile, and has proved more
effective in preventing screw-worm infestations than either smear 62
or EQ smear 82. Most important, however, is the fact that EQ 335 will
kill screw-worm flies visiting wounds that have been treated with it.
While the EQ 335 screw-worm remedy was being developed, several
other preparations containing lindane and pine oil proved satisfactory as
screw-worm smears. The composition, methods of preparation, and
use of two of them, and also use of a liquid formula containing these
materials, are discussed briefly.
EQ 335 SCREW-WORM REMEDY
Composition and Preparation
Percent by Weight
Lindane ------------------------ 3
Pine oil ------------------------ 35
Mineral oil--------------------- 42 2
Emulsifier --------------------- 102
Silica aerogel----- -------------- 10-+2
!/ This treatment was developed by Gaines W. Eddy with the assist-
ance of W. S. McGregor, D. E. Hopkins, J. M. Dreiss, and James
Cairnes. Investigations on the toxicity of lindane preparations on live-
stock were conducted by R. D. Radeleff and W. G. Nickerson, Bureau
of Animal Industry.
\ number of fractionated pine oils have been use.d. Satisfactory
results w 're obtained with water-white or light-colored pine oils, spt .ific
gi avity 0.92-0.94, with distillation range of 198-225 C. Materials used
in developed nt of the preparation were obtained from the Hercules Powder
Company and Newport Industries.
Tlhe minr ral oil is a technical-grade white oil of 80-90 sec onds
Saybolt viscosity at 100 F.
The following emulsifiers have proved satisfactory: Trex 80 and
Tenlo 400 (Griffin Chemical Company); Petronmix #9 (L. Sonneborn Sorns,
Inc.); Ahcowet RS, anhydrous (Arnold Hoffman & Company); Petruhase 1,
grades A\, B, or C, and Petrobase 2, grades B or C (Penr-ijbylvania Refining
Company); Atlox 1045a or equal parts of Span 80 and Tween 80 (Atlas
The silica aerogel used in these tests is the product called Santocel C
(Monsanto Chemical Company). In previous releases on the EQ-335
remedy this material was erroneously called silica gel.
The lindane may be dissolved either in the pine oil or in a mixture of
the pine oil, mineral oil, and emulsifier. The use of gentle heat is re-
commended. The silica aerogel may be added to the lindane solution or
the solution added to the silica aerogel, whichever proves the most con-
venient. The mixture should be stirred until a smooth smear is obtained.
It is then ready for use.
Functions of the Various Ingredients
Lindane. --Lindane is the main active ingredient, being the essential
larvicide and wound protector in the formula.
Pine Oil. --Pine oil is used mainly as a solvent. However, it also
acts as a larvicide, and is therefore considered an active ingredient.
Alone, at the concentration used, it will cause complete mortality of
young (1- to 2-day) screw-worm larvae. It is irritating to screw-worms
and especially fleeceworms, causing them to move about, thereby coming
into more intimate contact with the lindane. Pine oil is also reputed t(
be( a good bact(ricide.
Othri ingredients. --Mineral oil is used as ai diluent, mainly because
of its fe',,m from irritati ng effects on the skin and wounds of aninm ls.
It reduces the irritating effect of the high concentration of pine oil.
Silica ac ro-,el is used as a thickini' agent. An emulsifier is used s,, that
the miat('rial will miix with the wound fluids and dilso with water for use
,ig' list '' ee((ceworrns.
How to Apply EQ 335 to Wounds
Methods of application are similar to those recommended for smear
62 and EQ smear 82. The remedy is best applied with a 1-inch brush.
Uninfested wounds caused by shear cuts, wire cuts, docking, or by any
other means should be given a light coating of the material. In treating
infested wounds work the material in well into and apply a coating com-
pletely around the wound, giving special attention to any deep pockets
made by the worms. On sheep and goats the drainage area below the wound
should also receive a light application to prevent attack by other blow flies.
Kill of Screw-Worms in Wounds
EQ 335 kills screw-worms more slowly than smear 62 or other
benzene formulations. However, its action is sufficiently rapid to
prevent further irritation of the wound by the worms. Larvae up to
about 2 days old are immobilized within about 15 minutes, but 30 to
60 minutes may be required for full-grown larvae.
When to Re-Treat
It is recommended that wounds be treated at 7-day intervals until
healed. Large or severe wounds, or those on cattle that may be bleeding
profusely, may require two treatments the first week. Frequently one
or two treatments will protect the wound from infestation until it is
Kill of Flies Visiting Treated Wounds
Screw-worm flies visit wounds of animals either to feed on the
exudate or to lay eggs. Practically all the flies visiting wounds during
the first week after treatment with EQ 335 are killed. Since unhealed
wounds should be treated weekly, a high kill of screw-worm flies should
result. This in turn should reduce the number of screw-worm cases
occurring in other animals during the year. Each wound regularly
treated with EQ 335 is a trap for screw-worm flies.
Use Against Fleeceworms
For use against fleeoceworms it is recommended that EQ 335 be
diluted 1 part to 9 parts of water. For the preparation of 1 pint
place 3 tablespoonfuls (about 10 teaspoonfuls) in approximately that
amount of water, mix thoroughly, and then add the remainder of the
water and shake well before using. Do not prepare emulsions too far
in advance of their use.
C(jmpletely encircle the infestation with the mate rial, covering an
a(1a extending about 2 or 3 inches outside the infestation. The infest,-d
area need not be sheared.
Requirements for Products I.;Labeled "EQ 335 Screw-Vorm Remed."
The term "i'EQ 335 screw-worm remedy. has been record- in the
Trade Mark Division of the U.S. Patent Office to protect its use for a
specifi insecticidal composition useful for wound treatment of livestock
to control screw-worms and fleeceworms. Products designated by this
e'(1r(Ided term should have the composition given on page 1. General
approval is given for its use for products that comply with the prescribed
composition and are marketed in compliance with Federal and State
r'c-, nationss relating to insecticides.
The stability and shelf life of the composition have been appraised
only when it was in glass containers. Until adequate tests demonstrate
that oth( er types of containers can be used without affecting the continued
effectiveness of the composition, products labeled "EQ 335 screw-worm
remedy" should be packaged and marketed in glass container, only.
OTHER SMEARS CONTAINING LINDANE AND PINE OIL
Laboratory and field tests have been made with numerous variations
of EQ 335, and it appears that other formulas containing 3 percent of
liindane and 35 percent of pine oil with a bland diluent and proper thickenin.
agents perform about as well. However, field experiments with these
other formulas were not so thorough as those required to establish the
merit of LQ 335. Therefore, although they can be registered as screw-
wormr treatments for sale in interstate commerce, they should not be
designated as EQ 335 if the other ingredients differ from those outlirit d
o)n p):,g" *1 .
Two formulas that cannot be labeled as IEQ 335 but r;>;ear to be
sat isfa tory screw-worm treatments are given below (fi jur, in percent
Formula .\ Formula B
L:i(ndanr e 3 3
1)111e oil 35 35
V1 j r, Il oil 23 20
I%' Iis I 's I nii c;p as for VQ 3 5 I0
V le i~ ~ t kp! ii ii- -
i .o o! ( th.) 2 3
I iI~ t C
Preparation and Use of Formula A. --This formula is prepared and
used essentially as described for EQ 335. The kaolin may be handled with
or independently of the silica gel.
Preparation and Use of Formula B. --Dissolve lindane and stearic
acid in previously mixed pine oil-mineral oil-triethanolamine by use of
gentle heat. Dissolve the Veegum in water slowly with continuous agitation
until a smooth texture is obtained. Combine the two solutions at approx-
imately 65 C., with agitation, and continue to stir until cool. Directions
for use are the same as for EQ 335.
Formula B can be varied. Triethanolamine stearate can be used
instead of triethanolamine and stearic acid, or these materials may be
used in a 2:4 instead of a 3:6 ratio. It also appears that sodium alginate
(Kelgin, produced by the Kelco Company) may be used instead of Veegum.
Since the formula contains water, it should be protected from freezing.
Any water-base formula is subject to separation when exposed to high or
to low temperatures. Formula B can be returned to its original con-
sistency and texture with agitation when the temperature rises above
LIQUID PREPARATIONS CONTAINING LINDANE AND PINE OIL
Some stockmen prefer a liquid screw-worm remedy to smears.
Preparations containing a thickening agent usually provide a longer period
of residual protection than do the liquids containing the same percentage
of lindane, because more of the applied material remains in and around
the wound. However, a liquid remedy may be prepared by omitting the
thickening agent, silca aerogel, used in EQ 335 and increasing the percentage
of mineral oil proportionally. This preparation should not be designated
as an EQ 335 remedy.
The liquid treatment merely poured on or squirted into wounds some-
times fails to kill deeply pocked larvae. It should be worked into the
deepest parts of an infested wound. It is suggested that labels on liquid
remedies containing 3 percent of lindane and 35 percent of pine oil direct
that the treatment be applied to the wound twice weekly until the wound
PRECAUTIONS IN USING SCREW-WORM PREPARATIONS
1. Use the minimum amount of material necessary to treat the
2. Baby calves are very susceptible to lindane. Navels or other
wounds on new-born calves can be treated with complete safety if no
more than 2 or 3 teaspoonfuls of EQ 335 or other lindane preparation
are applied at one time. When applied once or twice a week as directed,
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CONTINUED RECOM(.IENDATION OF SMEARS 62 A-D 82
SnmAear 62 was first recommended in 1941. During and immediately
after World ', ar II turkey r(ed oil was in short supply so EQ -m-iear 82
was recommended as an alternate formula. The composition of those
two smears is as follows (figures in percent by weight).
Turkey red oil
Triton X-300 (sodium salt of an
nLlkvlated aryl polyether sulfate)
Smear 62 Smear 82
Should a shori,-e of any ingredients limit the production of EQ 335,
either of these for hulas mnay be used. For details of their prepara-
tion and use see the following publications of this Bureau:
E-540. A new remedy for the prevention and treatment of screw-
worm infestations of livestock. Ray Melvin, C. L. Smith,
H. E. Parish, and W. L. Barrett, Jr.
E-708. rev. A new treatment for screwworms in livestock.
C. S. Rude and 0. H. Graham.