Effect of certain solvents in DDT emulsions and solutions on plants treated in white-fringed beetle control

Material Information

Effect of certain solvents in DDT emulsions and solutions on plants treated in white-fringed beetle control
Henderson, Charles F
United States -- Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine
Place of Publication:
Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine
Publication Date:
Physical Description:
16 p. : ill. ; 27 cm.


Subjects / Keywords:
Plants -- Effect of DDT on ( lcsh )
DDT (Insecticide) -- Testing ( lcsh )
White-fringed beetles -- Control ( lcsh )
Federal Government Publication ( MARCTGM )


Includes bibliographical references (p. 16).
General Note:
Caption title.
General Note:
General Note:
"July 1950."
Statement of Responsibility:
by Chas. F. Henderson, Irving Keiser and Otelia F. Bodenstein.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
This item is a work of the U.S. federal government and not subject to copyright pursuant to 17 U.S.C. §105.
Resource Identifier:
030340145 ( ALEPH )
781093915 ( OCLC )

Full Text

iqTATL -' "*. *' ,'.:;>
July 1950 E-806

United States Department of Agriculture
Agricultural Research Administration
Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine

SBy Chas. F. Henderson, Irving Keiser, and Otelia F. Bodenstein,
Division of Domestic Plant Quarantines

After DDT was shown to be the most effective insecticide against
white-fringed beetles (Graphognathus spp.) (Young 1, 2), studies were
undertaken at Long Beach, Miss., and Atmore, Ala., to determine the
best methods for applying this insecticide under field conditions. Both
soil and foliage treatments were tested and some of these studies are
still in progress. This paper deals with the foliage treatments.
Several formulations were tested for applying the DDT spray as a
foliage treatment. The insecticide was applied as emulsions and solu-
tions to field crops grown in test plots located in two separate environ-
ments. Emulsions were also applied to ornamentals in both test-plot
and field plantings. Suspensions were not included, since they are less
adhesive and therefore not so desirable as foliage applications for control
of adult white-fringed beetles.


1945 Studies

Tests were initiated in 1945 to study the effect of DDT emulsions and
solutions on the foliage and on subsequent crop yield. Applications were
made with a concentrated-spray machine (developed by the Bureau) which
operated at 3 1/2 miles per hour, covered a swath 25 feet wide, and
delivered approximately 6 gallons of spray liquid per acre. The middle
rows of each swath received the most drastic treatments, especially
when the vegetation was tall, and the observations on foliage injury
were made particularly on these rows.

11 The writers acknowledge the assistance of C. L. Stanford,
William Breland, and R. H. Nelson, all of this Bureau; B. P. Livingston,
chief, Division of Plant Industry, State of Alabama; Clay Lyle, State .
entomologist of Mississippi; and personnel of the Alabama State Prison
Farm, Atmore, Ala.

.m .1 'mulsiUn anid two solution f rmulatirns were test'* I. I!:,'*
rl 1" 1) .

L .rl'.'. and tOr- indicated ,',.,r.tit'. of the f,,llow. :' so wvernt. wv'. -* ter

II -
Io Vak I SQ'ln of s;.ra
.S ,lv e n t : S t.,- .f:, u,', Is

Vels(coi AR-50 0.98" 444 1
P) 54-4-B .990 504 I 14
,.!ers 44-1842 1. 010 388 1
Mentor 25 .951 419 1
Emulsifiable pine oil .948 192 2 :
.\msco-Solv A .795 21", 1 1,4
Xylenei .865 253 I

No emulsifier was added to the emulsifiable p-.:-t oil. Triton X-' -'1
was the emulsifier in all other emulsions exc, pt that cnr.:air:ng K'up.:ers
44-1842, where it was unsatisfactory Twi,.'n 85 was used a.-, he
emulsifier with this Koppers solvent. These ,uantixies wer,- u-,vd wirh
water to make 6 gallons of spray for the 1-piund-ptr-acre, ar.d Iic.
these quantities in 6 gallons for the 2-purd-per-acre, appli, ati,,r.b.
For the solutions 1 pound of DDT was dissolved in enough ker, .-ert-
to make 10 quarts of solution, or in 1 pint of xylne and t-r.ouh keri, :.s :
to make 10 quarts of solution. These solutions were appli.-d at :h,.- rate
of 2 1/2 gallons per acre for the 1-pund-per-acre applicatiin.-.. The
o lutions were also applied at the rate of 1.65 pound.- of D!)M -er acre.
. or these solutions 1.65 pounds of DDT was dissolved in er.Lugh ker, sne
to make 10 quarts or in 1 quart of xylene and er.ough kersrnre !*.n L' nke
11 quar. ,. These more conrentrated solutions were also .;,plid at the
rate of 2 1,2 gallons per acre.

Kxp.r-i'r., r'.' D ',,-ign. --()ne type of expcrrn.entai d.e.-i ; was u .d at
or ;, Beach anid another at Atmore. The I.,nIn BReach d, i n c,,..-isted ,-f
2 4 plots 18 by 137 feet, each plot conltinilng the fIllow,':; c ','s Sweet-
)>tat, es, peanuts, c rowder peas, ,o' bans, anid co ton Th. 24 po"ts
were divided into two tiers of 12 plots ea, h. ,n tier recei'i' D)T '.:
the different solvents d t the rate of 1 penu 'd p,,r acre, a: "h" ,,her
r'c eivying 1)D'T at the rate of 2 pHunds pr acre in the erw:-- ',
1 .5 pou ids in rthe -.,lutions. There w -. one ch,',k plot in each tier
.\t \tm1 ore, plots were set upi within lar.:e-acrea.:, ;'lanttr.i.- tf thb,
various crrops tested. A uniform strip of six rows thr v::' a .,en feld
A.S sc efted as the test area. Strips 25 feet :, :' were tre.t,.1 wi1th :.h
various preparations, and there w re 50-foot hb.rriers betl','," ;lo''.-. A.I
fofrtblations were .I'p1li' ,Pat the rate of 1 p,,und of liAIT ;., r a.'re. 1.',
nac of this experimental desu',, wa.,s made practicable w.:h a s\', ilally


constructed auxiliary-tank assembly which could be quickly drained
and flushed with only 1 quart of water(fig. 1). After each plot had been
treated, the tank and pipe lines were drained and flushed, before the
next spray was put into this auxiliary tank. Cotton, crowder peas,
sweetpotatoes, and sorghum were the crops tested in these experiments.
Peanut and soybean plots located at Goodway, Ala., 17 miles from the
prison farm, had the same experimental design and received identical


Figure 1. --Auxiliary spray tank mounted on concentrated-spray machine
used for applying experimental dosages with regular field equipment.

The amount of injury caused by the different formulations was
determined by observing leaf burn at various intervals after each treat-
ment. In order to evaluate the results statistically, the degree of injury
was recorded as follows: 0, none; 1, trace; 2, very light; a light; 4,
medium light; 5, medium; 6, medium heavy; 7, heavy; 8, very heavy;
9, severe; 10, very severe. The degree of injury was not correlated
with crop yield. However, a spray causing an injury rating as 4 or
higher would probably not be permitted by the farmer for use on his crops.

Long Beach Tests. --The Long Beach plots received four spray
applications from August through October 1945. The average degree of
foliage injury on the different crops 1 week after each treatment is shown
in table 1.

M co to

0 Z- --NC" J-^

Q~~~ t0 0 Ln~

-I 1







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to ^.
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tn Ln


P" tT.
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It is evident from table 1 that the spray containing Amsco-Solv A
was the least injurious, followed by sprays containing xylene and
Mentor 25. There was little difference between Koppers 44-1842,
Velsicol AR-50, and emulsifiable pine oil. PD 544-B was unsatis-
factory, as were all the emulsions and solutions containing kerosene.
Where emulsions were applied, the 2-pound dosage of DDT usually
caused about twice as much injury as the 1-pound dosage. However, the
solutions did not cause more damage at the higher concentrations. Since
twice as much solvent was used for the 2-pound dosage of emulsions as
for the 1-pound dosage, but the same amount of solvent was used in both
dosages of the kerosene solutions, it is apparent that the greater injury
with the 2-pound DDT dosage of emulsions was due to the increased
amount of solvent rather than of DDT.
Kerosene was the least satisfactory of all the solvents tested. At
the higher dosage, this solvent was unsatisfactory in both emulsions
and solutions for all crops except sweetpotatoes, and even sweet-
potatoes showed a rating of 4 with the emulsion. The xylene-kerosene
emulsion was the least injurious of the kerosene formulations, 1-pound
applications giving injury ratings under 4. The other kerosene sprays
at the 1-pound dosage gave ratings of 4 or higher in three of the five
crops tested.
Sweetpotatoes were the least affected by any of the formulations,
and peanuts were second in this respect. The former had an average
burn rating of 1.1 and the latter 2.0. The ratings of the other crops
fluctuated closely around 3.0.
To determine the effect of the various sprays on crop production,
the soybeans, crowder peas, and sweetpotatoes were harvested, and
yield records obtained. The results are summarized in table 2. It is
evident that there was no significant difference in yield between treated
and check plots when four applications of 1 or 2 pounds of DDT per
acre were made on these crops. Furthermore, no correlation existed
between the degree of foliage injury and crop yield on any of the
individual plots.

Table 2. --Average yields (pounds per plot) of crops from DDT-solvent
test plots. Long Beach, Miss., 1945

Crop I 1-pound dosage 2-pound dosage
C rop------I---------I----
Treated plots Check plots Treated plots Check plots

Soybean hay 32.7 36.0 40.7 39.0
Crowder peas 8.3 6. 3! 8.4 6.8.1/
Sweetpotatoes 30.2 33.5 38.2 36.5

.I/ Considerable injury from other insects.

In or nj 'ic t.o with the' Lu' ;' 1[' h '-tud:' a lv es were mad (if
'.hf 1)1) de. sitis Z (as 'e det rm ned ir rnm dcdiatf -'tf:'r a: *ohca'ron
r(I : u;t, (as d Iter ,jned before the )next ( :i a r. r '. p- s treat.
at 'h I rate of 1 .und of 'f!fT ". r a re to deter wr,' other ur n h:s
inz c ..'1i d showed d.ffer-ntia, adhesiveness wth ".h',' cari us so ver. s
t sted I,,r-se analyses were made on 18 (orion leaves (3 fr rre h of
ih 6 r ow s) ollected immediatelyv before and after the s cor third.
and fourth treatments. 1 ':e results are summarzed *n 'able 3. ".re
de. ,S;t If V 'A.

S s from A:nsco-Solv .A -|,ray sho we d the ".;*eate a,'. si.vemss :r.
fve anal'. es and were second in the sixth. "! 'us fa t' r was considtPred
.1 the final sel ection of the solvent to be used in t:ras , hte
fri' :jed beetles, but other factors were of S!eater *mn *nance.

Tabie 3. --DDT depos its and residues (,art- per mi ion) on cotton
fI i. ,e treated with the 1-pound dus.ige of DDT n various formulatons.
Long Beach, Miss. ,1945

Solen [ Before A after
bo~ e r
trea*.ments tr. ailments

KF. ulsions:
Amsco-Solv A 618 3,437
Emulsifiable pine oil 428 3,186
Velsicol AR-50 7.9 F 2,511
Kopjwers 44-1842 666 2,74.T
X lene 618 2.651
MNentor 25 349 2,432
I1) 544-B1 269 2,261
Kerosene 399 2.061
Xy lene kerosene 399 1 ,433
Solution -.
Kerosene 228 1 186
Xleine-kerosene 209 1, 7I'7

At'iorei (eood'av tests --Tho plots at \tp r a'i (rcod av re i d
five :ipliations at the rate of 1 pound of DDT i r acre from A.,-..:t
through ()tlober 1945. Since they wear locate, at a o ns derabe
distance from the hea quarters office at ulf:'ort, Miss. f, e, r
h b:-cr-vations were made on the effect of the several trea ments. T1,V
fol iage injury ratings are shown in t1b1le 4.
.ni scoSolv A was the most -.&tisfactorx ..lvent for all or, :'s.
, say d Ilowed h, xylene and ,-mulsifiable p ie oil. Ken,, enre w.-
.,cti rnlv unsatisfac tour. l eanuts werf least affeted bv anmy of the
s.ivr ts, and sw eo 'tItattoes were next in thrs rr .;>' ..


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('rdo,, the r pa,'~us I, ,'* 18. 5.u h '
.... art*s.7 h' ,' e ~ a (..*J tr
A :: *
r.+ h

Ssomns and I. I fruits ;' ,r plant, s a omparad w.h a spread a f
i. nche ,, and 4. 2 blossom ms and 3. 6 fruts .. plant on 4 pa ts rr e t :
Smus cins containing other sOlven-.

S le'tion of DI)T Solvent -- he I," 1 a h ," '-Goo d'a
test plts were lo cated approximately" 150 mles ,. arf n A. I .. r ni .,I t>
, ith different soil t;.; 's and rlimatic or(,ndit ns. Vorev,-r d r:
t,',t irneita designs were ,.ed. Neverthfss: there was a > iv
(o rrelation between the results fr, :n the two test areas Iin tarf."
.'iims o-SoIv .A was the most satisfactory solvent, followed hy xyle.- at
lcntg Beach and xvlene or Lmuis. "iable p.: e oil at Atmore. Mentor 25
was third in desirability at Lo' B t' eah and .ur' a Wo. K r

Jac -rid at rne at o \m r
44-S842 fo urth at Lon y '.eac h and fifth at .tmore. Vtlsicol \!..-5 ffh
al I.n g He}ac h a;d sixth at A0n ire x, xene-kerosene emulsion s.v.e.
at I*on'g I-a hand f i .''.th a;t .Atmore. PD 544-}- eighth at o... leach and
seve nth at A2tXi r ,f ana1 Ke rosene emulsion. xlenrte-kero-sene sol.::
and kero- sene s. lutio n in ninth tentkh and ele, enth plat es, re-", **t xely.
sn both a e'as. I "~e orlv m~ajo" nisc : .,nci s in the c' rela'O e wete t
r n*suits w th e u s .:able pine (*il w~hi h held sixth plact a: Lon< }'. ac h
ut tied for'nd at -tnic re. I# n general, te solve s Aih lo
bloim1 poets caused lss dait akg .
In bith arat a- s2,2 e ; .dtait and anuts ,tere th cr ast
affe tf by a'. (if~ tht u< *r ial. ir -. \ 1. Pto 'ach s eAtpori.o
si ho Ud the l 'ehtn nii' tind pt.anuts wert se cond *n ih.s reUp ct. wh:.c
at A\tm oft the IeAr w'as reversed. There was no adeIrse. ,*ff., t or the
S o:'ld o t .u \ p inv r So c to btt'i d e-': a ,eads.
It. huoh .t'Osis '.1! ms'o -Sov A atnd xylene wotre ot satv ;s~ tacr

st a xx ei v t tesedI i o.
So' as~ x ln e 2 s r t 'ured. hto dis olv an niae' ica an' ur.' .'' v 11'

l -'iirt en'r i 1''. i 'i.:-1* sc il f i Id Ate ~ 1A U* Uln d s.i ? ;' x 'I


formulations containing xylene gave satisfactory results. It was there-
fore decided to use this solvent in emulsion sprays for applying DDT
up to 2 pounds per acre in the 1946 control season and to continue tests
with this solvent in emulsion sprays at higher dosages.

1946 Studies

Field Tests. --Field tests were conducted at Atmore, Ala., during
1946 to determine the effect of DDT and/or xylene in emulsion sprays
on foliage and subsequent crop yield, when applied as single applications
at the rate of 5 or 10 pounds of DDT (5 or 10 quarts of xylene) per acre.
Applications were made with the concentrated-spray machine at the rate
of 6 gallons of spray per acre. Plots equivalent to 150 feet of row-crop
were treated with swaths 25 feet in width. An extra swath was applied
on the windward side of each test area to include drift spray as in
actual field control. The crops tested when the plants were small
(approximately 2 inches above ground) were butter beans, snap beans,
cabbage, sugarcane, corn, cotton, cucumbers, lettuce, English peas,
field peas, tomatoes, and turnips. Those tested when the plants were
large (4 to 6 inches above ground or maturing) were butter beans,
snap beans, corn, cotton, onions, and potatoes.
Observations were made 6 days after treatment. The large butter
beans, snap beans, cotton, and corn, and the small butter beans and
cucumbers showed no burning except on a few leaves where the spray
had collected in spots. These crops had an injury rating of 2 and the
other crops a rating of 0. When observed approximately 2 months after
treatment, all crops that had shown slight burning had completely
recovered. It may therefore be concluded that applications of DDT on
these crops and under the conditions of these experiments may be
safely made up to 10 pounds of DDT (10 quarts of xylene) per acre.
To determine the effect of the 5- or 10-pound dosages on crop
production, the snap beans and tomatoes were harvested and yield
records taken. The plots treated with 5 pounds of DDT per acre gave
slightly higher yields than the untreated checks--18. 0 pounds of snap
beans and 42.9 pounds of tomatoes as compared with 17.6 and 41. 6
pounds from the respective checks. At the 10-pound dosage, however,
the yield was slightly lower on the treated plots--18. 6 pounds of snap
beans and 49.9 pounds of tomatoes as compared with 20.2 and 51.3 on
the check plots. At neither dosage, however, were the differences
between treated and untreated plots significant.

Control Operations. --In 1946 DDT-xylene emulsion sprays were
applied in the course of regular white-fringed beetle control operations
in five States. The dosages ranged from 1 to 10 pounds of DDT per
acre, and the sprays were applied to both crop and noncrop farm land.


NS burn r ulhbr amae w r
** :* r-vis ~r~s

4:.d va

f '.*- c- r.'rol-area ; ra'.

1 St i) d

The xylene us. ,* in .all ld i.sts r I ir. i .;,eratior.s in 194 ,
I946 and l147 was a al-tar l' dat:,. h re ws a sh rage of
coal tar xylene in the spr. ., '9 4"-' wh i r *ceam xylene as r'-ad.'
.. X Woeu yen a S.,.a d.y
available. Studied wer e ther f rt undertaken to 1ite.rnine whether or
not the petroleuS derI\at I'd be as saisfactor' for t ur u r;s sk s
as the ( initiated, or,. with ;. tted str.,'. bean plants r.dr the other with sr.rn.6
beans anrid crowder peas :' ow. in the field

Potted-Plant ests. -- A s.r ie a :liation cwas made to 10 p- 'ted
plants in each test series at the rate of 1 5, or 10 o...uds of DDT (1, 5,
or 10 quarts of xylene) :,fr acre The treatments were applied with a
knapsack-type spra.,er ,-.L:pp i with a'. ssed air char.ber and a reguLator valve (fig. 2) Th. spra-. er was previously cali-
brated to apply 24 ga'.or..s of' total spray ,-r acre. Eight c. a:-'. -and
two petroleum xylen#s were used in th., test.


Il'i:',,r! 2 Knnpl k s r ,
K .
;i 1Kmnl( of .pra'

I .; I n presse I air ?~.e h~ r
~ ~h I~ ~ a

-11 -

Treatments were applied from 6 to 9 a. m. on a cool day in April.
Observations made 24 and 48 hours after treatment showed no damage
to the bean cotyledons or true leaves from any of the sprays containing
the xylenes tested, at the 1-, 5-, and 10-pound dosages employed.

Field Tests. --The field tests were made on beans and peas planted
especially for this purpose. The first treatment was applied in May
on a hot afternoon, with the same knapsack sprayer used in the potted-
plant tests. Observations were made in 48 hours, and the results are
shown in table 5.

Table 5. --Foliage-injury ratings from coal-tar and petroleum xylenes
and from Ansco A-80-' /in DDT-emulsion sprays at different strengths
on the cotyledons of beans and peas. Long Beach, Miss., 1948
j qt. of xylene with each pound of DDT per acrej

Coal-tar xylenes

Petroleum xylenes

Amsco A-80

1/ A proprietary solvent.

2/ The xylene of manufacturer A was amber in color. All other
coal-tar and petroleum xylenes listed above were water white.

I'', r frr '.ath e 5rue l the eav s f e h ..r oh e n a r .
I ~ r 'r~ -a. ur!
*x;. I**. 11ma e th' ,' :tl d~~ ofa L eand <,r .s a* .he x-r St- .') _;

;"* *'1AY ^"' t fron t sge Iere. ohfse atr atir }et At ere I, d

: L lffrent bean and t,, a plarits on .\pril 16, I14 but .' :,. r:s *aere
;;..df 'nVh early ur r. ing uf a tool., lo -*1 da'.. .-rvations ~ni:49
u~~~ r ir

*ur. iatt hhowed no darn, 'e to ether the bean cr ,.a cly d, or
e foliage from any of the xylenes tested and at any f the do- .e
Ieels nmplo\yed SinIe emulsion spra'., .,,ainst adult white-fr "
bee r ar-e applied at rates of 1,2 or 1 pound of ;)i)T ;*r acre, xTlene
( cr:vcd frm h either coal-tar or petroleum would be -.a*..'factorW f r

sco A..\80, a proprietary solvent caused no damage to the 0:tve-
in s of beans or peas at any of the do!,ai es test, d In the 145 t:sts a*
P,-L Beach, Miss., and Atmore, .Aa., An.sco-Solv A, another r- r:-
tar,, solvent prepared by the .-,ane manufacturer, caused the lea.t am nt
.f fliage burn on the several crops tested.


Since white-fringed beetle infestations oten occur in or adjacent o
S' r'is, foliage treatments are applied to ornamentals i these ar eas.
Stud5 es W ,I re therefore conducted to tdetermir,.' the effect of !)I)T-xlene
n ulin sprays (n this type of vegetation.

1945 Studi.s

.ring the summer of 1945 tests were conduct ted at !erkmst, Vss.
f dhtrmine th e't ect of I)DT -xy lene emulsion ,>iplt ,! with the ,;lncet-
Cated spray machine on the foliage of nursery' stock. I" test area s
Stung o>rchard already dpiv ided into 1-acre plots for study.: the effht
r f th, se sprays on white-frir .:,. beetle pi'pulitions. ( )ne s;', imen oi f eac
oranam ntal was plurnged into the soil around the t:.: ;' tree cntral'l locat
i ,,a h plot. Tlhe follow in,' ornamentals were tested: A Iz ale i L' umn
(V ,inr oo a). bt.x ,od. C(an me lia .,',on ica (both l'rc f e's- '- S az !
at ar,.rttt 1 Pink). (amrn Iliaa jsa an qua, __-_1:t"a:r -.-, (lardenia,. tleander.

- 13-

and Pittosporum (two varieties). The following treatments were applied
to the various test plots:

Pounds of DDT Number of Pounds of DDT Number of
per acre applications per acre applications

1 7 5 2
21/2 4 10 1
6 3

The dosage of'coal-tar xylene in each emulsion was equivalent in
quarts to the pounds of DDT.
Applications were made from June to September at intervals of 5 to
20 days. After the last application the plants were removed and placed
in pots for further observations. There was no evidence of foliage burn
and no indication that bud formation or new growth had been affected by
any of the treatments.

1946 Studies

Special Tests. --In 1946 special tests were conducted in flower
gardens and city parkways in Gulfport, Miss., to determine the effect
of a single application of DDT emulsion on annual and perennial flowers
and shrubs. In these tests, which were conducted in May, the emulsion
was applied both as a dilute and as a concentrated spray. The dilute
spray consisted of 5 pounds of technical DDT, 5 quarts of coal-tar
xylene, 7 1/2 ounces of Triton X-100, and water to make 100 gallons of
emulsion. The concentrated spray was the same formulation except that
sufficient water was added to make 6 gallons of emulsion. In both cases
these were the quantities applied per acre.
The plants treated with dilute spray were as follows: Nasturtium,
Verbena, Zinnia, Shasta daisy, larkspur, Caladium, sweet pea, stock,
snapdragon, Ligustrum, Camellia, Azalea, Pittosporum, Nandina,
Spiraea, Hibiscus, Petunia, Calendula, pansy, babysbreath, and St.
Augustine grass. Observations made at various intervals up to 1 month
after treatment indicated no visible injury to the plant foliage or flowers
resulting from the spray applications. In addition, pansy plants re-
ceived a dosage of 10 pounds of DDT (10 quarts of xylene) per acre with
no visible injury.
The plants treated with concentrated spray were Petunia, stock,
larkspur, rose, Calendula, Ligustrum, and Abelia. There was no injury
from any of these treatments.

I t. ,I',
A ( rI v a *i
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I. A~ rl VP
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x4' f '

.' New Ihi'ria, l~a. nurs, rv ar<-a>i1fv n~ 24 a{ r,'-: "* r*: '.r ; .
*.' oh d ut,. and r o entratd spas. ar e *f z a a :

zn icll s 1 were f..vK n .ne 5-. urd and five und .1: 5>l cat n f
t I '..ons per a-re) an c rentrat 2 6 L'., lns r a re p a s
. 'r 60 azalea 'varieties trea'ed ,,th c rncentrated spray, w. r, r ... .
, ^r ', a( rantha Pink, ,)uc l ,-rohan, Indica alba. Kinnozai, an

.- ,*ral Kurume. "Ihe camellia varieties
fmulsi'1n were .1 1 follows

ROSe Emorv
John Lanr.
Napoleon D'Italie
Montironi Rosea

sprayed with crrr. rated

A on. a

Stard :-t
.-;. ,leblos.... 'n

e some very tender 1-year-old 0.:"'-, of Virgin's Blush ., .olx
leDavis. The follow r._ camellia .r.ers received; c.,os o
;ue emulsion spray:

-d !iph Aud' .,-, ,,n
" kehbno
"* .a IIlena Imbro.
Sihati ".ora

A ; ste ,'"fosse
n i Korako
SHi of China
( i'eri le r.s

Ch(iy ita Nishiki
(C i trse Nie'-port
( nnsUjiiua
i!) 'f lBeauty
1 Nika .ra
I)< lutante (Sara C.

I) iO. 1*-
i) {( 1dw .) I haver
,V' 'Kr nsev

Errico Bettoni
I.tiere !t Bore
6 C t i v a
Florer.,'e Stratton
F1 rer'jplena
-red Sind~er
Gi.,.: tea Alba
Gloire ,ir Nantes
(H. A.) i), wr,,'.^

Haku- rakuten
(Spt. M orn)

Jarvis Red
(Rlev.) John B,.er niet
Jul a 'i rayvton

Ka ; ii
Rasi. l, no <

N..-h iu-' u a sa


Latr eaf
L:r ,. H"..,rr'y
Lurne's t-avorite

Mary '.. M.
NM athot ;,: .1~ Hubra


Mrs, A. \. Hove-,
M rs.{; n-.J : l,.,,'ps .r:
Ne us
N o hi i i a
t ido)n o nish~ki
('ao:;', r ^uic ..rd -

!'ink 1; I.


Pink Perfection
Pink Star
Princessa Bacciochi
Prof. (C. S) Sargent

Red Gold
Reine des Fleurs
Roi Leopold
Sarah Frost

Tricolor Special
Wakenoura Rex
White Ball
White Perfection

In addition to these plants, the following ornamentals were sprayed
with one 5-pound and five 1-pound applications of the concentrated

Chinese holly
Mahonia japonica
Magnolia grandiflora
Prince Rupert Jasmine
Flowering quince

Buffordii holly
Palms (several genera)
Ferns(several genera)

Chinese border grass
Myrtle tree

None of these plants showed any ill effects from the sprays.
Special observations were made on Nandina plants, since this ornamental
is particularly sensitive. Approximately 25 of these plants were sprayed
and no foliage burn or other injury was noted.
At Covington, La., 60 acres of azalea and camellia plants and a
large number of Pittosporum plants were sprayed without any injury.
The spray schedule was the same as the New Iberia.
At Ocean Springs, Miss., hundreds of camellia (japonica and
sasanqua) and azalea plants, and also Japanese holly, Japanese magnolia,
juniper, Mimosa, sweet olive, dogwood, Pyracantha, Pittosporum,
Japanese quince, Elaeagnus, and boxwood over an area of 5 acres were
sprayed once at the 5-pound rate. No injury was observed.
At Mobile, Ala., numerous varieties of camellias were intensively
inspected at a nursery covering 2 acres, which had received one applica-
tion of emulsion at the 10-pound dosage. No injury to the foliage could
be attributed to the treatment even though some plants received the full
blast of the spray.
These observations substantiate those made in the spring tests at
Gulfport--namely, that there was no injury to ornamentals attributable
to any of the DDT treatments.

I 12 111iii 111
3 1262 09239 5788

-, ". .., Y

S t Il Bea h, Mi., \a d .tmzore .. a. Fo ;r

i *t '.- of ] to 2 ;,,undjs of ')./[ .,r acre were m .". t
: saictory solA v t or in whi -fr. :ed r
fi t used. An. -SoA A w 0-. the osts
f,.:: ed by x'lene. in general, :the ke .. -ene frmuau
ard -,olutions, (. caused excessive fol.i,,e burn. 1The f>!
t .roes and ;,. anuts were eas: .,:'.ectt d. No(ne of the
*J >iini emplho ed, affected the yield of s:..,:, heans r

I ~I r
~ :~ ~ e
~ 12r (' )f


* er..- were .idications that formulati ru s con'F, r,.r kerosene w .!d
.-n-.-fscly' .,."."ect the yield of s ;ua-;.
Tf ts were ,; .o conducted in 194, to deteD- inz: :h- e" ect of DI -
:',e emrulsion on the fol:ae of nurSery p a: ts. Fri "" one to> seven
...:s;ations were made during the summer with 1 to 10 u .. f :iij
quarts of xylene) .; r acre-aj.,;.l' ctti o,., or a : ota1 f 7 t, -.
:.* ;.i- of D;JI (7 to ,' qua-r.-, of xylene) p.'r acre-se,-.- n. h.-re w:,i, ,-
'. : : ir;e o>f fo .i,,e burn or indication that bud fo rmatioi-n or ., w w2h
n~~l!een a.'.'c ted.
Ir i4-,, because of its availability and c*'n.;,a'.,tive ow cost, xVl. .*
*a s the only solvent used in D'; fo:'n ulatior.- for aid.: a.a:
*" '*s and for f.eld control ., Lainst adult white-fri: .ed beetle, I. V., i on
s-,'axs were applied at rates up to 10 p. .n', -. of ')iT (10 ;..a'-:., of xvl. -,
per acre-sea-,,n to the fol'agr, of field cr, ps ar-d o:':an-.enta.:, ,:.d the
"***Mlts wet.e entirely satisfactor-.
In 1948, tes -. conducted on potte-I bean plant ..i eld-J-'An k,..,,-
and ,., sho-'wed that either coal-tar or petroleum xvl, *-, ,,tisfa.-to--.
*'" .se in wL.te-fr:T,:ed beetle control.


u H. C.
'P44. DDT 1> a .r..-,t the white-fr. .dr i beetle and the v elve',' .'-
c,, terpt llar. (SJ. ;..ite) aour. Econ. EnI. 3 : 145-147

(2j _______________
1945. Insecta' field-cni ,, t,'-. w- h :)I)" .,. hite-
frirted beetle .I d'. .. conducted .,t orala .... .".:,
1944. '. S. Bu. i-:r't and I".e:. s ur E-662, 14 .p.
,tTr e,..e

. i IV

at the
* S0 but


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