Studies on lindane residues in milk when applied in dairy barns and on dairy cows


Material Information

Studies on lindane residues in milk when applied in dairy barns and on dairy cows
Physical Description:
4 p. : ; 27 cm.
Cornell University
Rutgers University
United States -- Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Administration, Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine
Place of Publication:
Washington, D.C
Publication Date:


Subjects / Keywords:
Lindane   ( lcsh )
Dairy cattle -- Diseases and pests -- Control   ( lcsh )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
federal government publication   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )


Includes bibliographical references (p. 4).
General Note:
Caption title.
General Note:
General Note:
"May 1950."
Statement of Responsibility:
prepared by Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine, Cornell University, and Rutgers University.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 030339937
oclc - 781061272
System ID:

Full Text
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United States Department of Agriculture
Agricultural Research Administration
Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine


Prepared by Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine,
Cornell University, and Rutgers University-

Lindane has been found by various investigators to be an effective
residual insecticide for the control of the house fly (Musca domestic L.),
including strains resistant to DDT. This is the common name for a
chemical containing not less than 99 percent of gamma isomer of
benzene hexachloride. It has also been demonstrated to be effective
against Sarcoptes and Choroptes mites on dairy animals, and generally
superior to other treatments. Extensive investigations with lindane and
other benzene hexachloride insecticides for the control of mange caused
by these mites in dairy cattle were carried out for several years at
Cornell University. The Federal Bureau of Animal Industry and various
other research institutions have also shown that mixed-isomer grades
of benzene hexachloride and/ or lindane are effective for mange control
of dairy and other livestock.
Technical benzene hexachloride contains several isomers, some
of which possess an undesirable odor or are hazardous from the stand-
point of chronic toxicity to man and animals. Lindane is practically
free of odor and is considered less toxic chronically than the technical

1/ These investigations were undertaken in cooperation with the
California Spray-Chemical Corporation and the Hooker Electrochemical
Corporation. The work of the Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quaran-
tine was under the immediate supervision of C. H. Condron and R. W.
Wells, Kerrville, Tex. The investigations at Cornell University were
carried out by H. H. Schwardt, D.W. Baker, and L. B. Norton, and
those at Rutgers University were conducted by Elton J. Hansens. Most
of the analytical work was done by the Hooker Electrochemical Corpora-
tion, although some analyses of milk were also made by the U.S. Food
and Drug Administration.
Studies on the effect of the lindane treatments on the flavor or odor
of milk were made by the Bureau of Dairy Industry, of the United States
Department of Agriculture, the Department of Dairy Industry, Cornell
University, and the Dairy Department, Rutgers University.

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Milk C{ rtam .naltin Re^'.- A r fr+ *r.

the ST>ray n, of laarv r

In Junr 1949 ten dairy barns v n the var('xv f KtrrvIl T1x. d
f ur near New Brunswick, N. J., wer ojrd iAth idinre at .
vI I c al( ulated drp sit of 25 mg. of dir e p r s1u1r < f fArfa e.
*\ 2;-') percentt lindaine wcettable+-po:wder fo:rrii jat;< *n ;in l ;t 2('-: "re *';-.+:
l: idaiz enrul> ion (onc entrate furnished d Iy thr ( l :f. r":a'' .'' *ray-<^h:r. :i a"
fCorporaton were used in these tests. lhe table po ,der *,a' uei a?
the rate of 8 urunds and the emulsion at the rate of 5 quarts .. r 1 I
gail, ns of water. The s:.,rays were applied w th :, 'er spriers :a:'
at pressures of approximatelyy 1''', un )- (1er -fuare 1_h.
I.<(ur barns, two each in Texas arid New Jerse, were sp y', h
the wet +tale powder, the feed trouihs her over',d. F'ur 2 thr bars
two :n ,ach location, were similarly treated with a emuls:on. The
remra:rning six barns, in Texas, were spraved W athoit -: caa :,r<,>,iu*.1 *+s
that is, the walls, ceiling, and stanch.ions n ,werr s>:rayed w thout u' '++r .
the feed troughs. U",ree Of these barns w'ere tre ated w th h w'tal-
pwder and three with the ernvulsi' spray. ('0 and o ther lir ck
were removed from all the barns before th-y 'rr s; raA.d.
C(omrposite n ilk samples for chin:ic.' an.lys- and lastl' andf
tests were taken from each dairy herd milked in thN treated a r.ns.
Check samples .were tak n 3 da'.- before and oi +he nlrr.'., before
sprays wefre .i.,IlId. In all tests- sanpls r-c ta. n 1. 3 T an 14
(la\,t aftr trwatrn rnt f als 'ak : fro two
he rds o th, atd 23th days after thri barns -A er &at1d.
1 he salnpe':i were anala zed by the Io ker i l 'o* rche ir .io C ''p any
enmployi\ng. sligh' n d fl ati Kns (f tlt V elI I de >- t:bed by I\ aw '.
).iv\ :J (1). The F Io ta nd Dl r g I: : d i tr n .1 "-* a'a ,X t I c' c r
sampo-+ u he milk. NtIt f At aaly'se Ah'd Ki dar'. 1r 'In nk.

I:ilk .

~llk (I+ *ntamr *naop' Itsi ot .. fr ll
the >;vrat :" .. of ] >.ur, (+. ,A
At (' rnet l nT1nivtrsitv se eir+al oows we re + xro:: 't tre'+ d A;h
a s"prav't :ot int ir,' 1 1.2 ;.,'u+ds of 2a-' reein1.t 'da+.+- w' p-. w+ er
(ier 1 ,i ra l'(o, .f wa e tt + r a l (i t}4'\ pirdart M 1 **aV ax 1'tr.' 4 :l+
( + or +'+it "+t r :i t + Fn{' idll +l++{ ree+++de I'v + +++: C e+rnell 'niv es-s. f. f ] +ir ..o .. ++"" **.+ **" '

Milk samples wer' taken from the sprayed cows 1, 2, 3, 5, ;' 7
days after treatment, and analyzed for lindane content. The mi lk
averaged 1.6 p. p. m. of lindane on the first day, 0. 6 p. p. m. on the
second day, and 0. 3 p. p.m. on the third day after treatment. On the
fifth and seventh days the lindane fell below 0.2 p.p.m., which is con-
sidered the limit of accuracy of the test method.
At Kerrville four cows were thoroughly treated with lindane. One
was treated with approximately 2 gallons of a 0. 03-percent lindane
spray. At the same time 100 mg. of lindane was added to the feed, the
amount that might be injested if feed were to become contaminated
when barns are sprayed. On the first day after treatment the milk
showed 0.6 p.p. m. of lindane present. By the third day no lindane
could be detected in the milk. A second cow was treated with 0. 05-
percent lindane spray. The lindane content of the milk on various days
after treatment was as follows: First day 1. 0 p. p.m., second day 0. 3
p.p.m., third day 0.4 p.p.m., fifth day 0.2 p.p.m., and seventh day
none. Since the limit of accuracy of the test method is about 0. 2 p. p.m.,
it is not certain that the milk on the fifth day contained lindane. Two
cows were also treated with a 0. 1-percent lindane spray. This is
more than twice the concentration employed for mange control. The
average lindane content of the milk after treatment was as follows:
First day 2.0 p.p.m., second day 0.6 p.p. m., third day 0.4 p.p. m.,
fifth day 0. 2 p. p.m., seventh day less than 0. 1 p. p.m.
Samples of milk from the cows treated at Cornell University were
tasted by investigators in the University's Department of Dairy Industry,
and those from the cows treated at Kerrville were tasted by specialists
in the U. S. Bureau of Dairy Industry. No unpleasant odor or flavor
attributable to lindane were detected in the milk.
Over 100, 000 dairy cattle in New York State have been treated for
mange control during the last 2 years. These treatments proved highly
successful from the standpoint of mange control. No harmful effect on
animals or on the quality of the milk was apparent.

Current Recommendations for Use of Lindane
in Dairy Barns and on Dairy Cows

On the basis of the data obtained from the investigations reported,
the Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine and many of the States
have recommended lindane for use as a residual spray for fly control
in dairy barns and milk rooms. The method of use and precautions
suggested by the Bureau were outlined in a special release dated
July 12, 1949, entitled "An Additional Residual Insecticide for Fly
Control in Dairy Barns." The U.S. Food and Drug Administration,
after considering the available data, posed no objection to the use of
lindane as outlined.

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*iva niiaxnimni f t'* trecatri nts 1 w k :art. Sin(

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ts of 1 iriad nc and c
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i (untit of Ln Itane from animals treated f r
y a small :..,rt (f all the Lk enter1-.i a mik
milk 'ntrcnr the tradt wAl .L '.'..i1i rei,, :.. Ie
reate rn h,.'a th hazard ti the (r.- umer.
1 for the cntrol of hoe on dairy cows. "Ih"*
;ir :'n wv ll at tht- samEr tim ee controll *h',...,, ,.'# '..,
of lic e o n, a sin- I"e treatm,-' .t with a -: ra'.
f 1ir dane .b rc mimrnrt:. .* V',,
indane is rot reco mmended for co ntro ll" t"

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Si.terature C( ited

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.\,,'. (Chtemn. Jour. 32

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