Preliminary tests of synthetic organic compounds as insecticides

MISSING IMAGE

Material Information

Title:
Preliminary tests of synthetic organic compounds as insecticides
Physical Description:
14 p. : ; 27 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
Bottger, G. T
Levin, Clemence
United States -- Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine
Publisher:
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Administration, Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine
Place of Publication:
Washington, D.C
Publication Date:

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Insecticides -- Testing   ( lcsh )
Organic compounds -- Synthesis   ( lcsh )
Genre:
federal government publication   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

General Note:
Caption title.
General Note:
"E-738."
General Note:
"December 1947."
Statement of Responsibility:
by G.T. Bottger and Clemence Levin.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 030294732
oclc - 780177779
System ID:
AA00025183:00001

Full Text

'D. . OARD
December 1947 E-7;8

United States Department of Agriculture
Agricultural Reasearch Administration
Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine


PRELIMINARY TESTS OF SYNTHETIC ORGAI C COMPOUNDS
AS INSECTICIDES. PART IV.

By G. T. Bottger and Clemence Levin I/
Division of Control Investigations


This is the fourth report on preliminary tests with synthetic or-
ganic compounds, which were conducted at the insecticide-testing labor-
atories of this Bureau at Sanford, Fla., and Anaheim, Calif. The pre-
vious reports were published in E-621 (1944), E-654 (1945), and E-729
(1917).
Twenty-six compounds were tested against three or more species of
leaf-feeding insects. The materials were supplied by the Division of
Insecticide Investigations, most of them being received and tested dur-
ing the first half of 1945. Equipment and certain methods employed have
been described by Swingle, Phillips, and Gahan. L/ The experimental
procedures were the same as those followed in Part III (E-729).

The following insects were employed in testing these compounds and
the standards:

American cockroach (Periplaneta americana (L.))
Aknyworm (Cirphis unipunota (Haw.3)
Bean leaf roi ler (Urbanus proteus (L.))
Celery leaf tier ytaenia rubigalis (Guen.))
Cotton aphid Ahis gossypii Glover)
Cowpea weevil Ca oanhyiohus maculatus (F.))
Cross-striped oa ageworm vrgestis rimosalis (Guan.))
HIavriian beet webwom (yalonIa recurvalis (F.))
Large milkweed bug oopelu fasoiatus (Dall.))
Melomwors Diaphana inata L))
Rieo. w i itophius oza L))
Southern anrmywo (Prodenia eridania (Oram.))


JMost of the materials tested were furnished by the Divisio-.i of
Insecticide Investigations. Technical assistance was given by r .
c MoGovran, formerly of the Division of Control Investigations.

Y/ Swingle, M. C., Phillips, A. M., and Gahan, J. B. Laboratory
testing of natural r.-id synthetic organic substances as insecticides.
Jour. Econ. Ent. 31'. 95-99. 1941.







-2-


Southern beet webworm (Pachyzancla bipunctalis (F.))
Squash bug (Anasa tristis (Deg.))
Sweetpotato weevil (Cylas formlcarius elegantulus (Sum.))
Termites (Reticultermes sp.)
Three-striped blister beetle (Epicauta lemniscata (F.))
Variegated cutworm (Peridroma margaritQsa (Haw.))
Yellow-striped armyworm (Prodenj oQrnithogalli Guen.)


Thirteen of these species were reared in the laboratory in order
to insure uniformity of population and continuous availability through-
out the year. The cotton aphids, bean leaf rollers, three-striped blis-
ter beetles, and squash bugs were collected in the field.

Table 1 shows the effectiveness of nine common insecticides, in-
cluding DDT, tested against various species of insects fed dusted
foliage, to be used as standards for comparing results obtained with
new compounds.

Table 2 presents the results of dust tests with 15 compounds that
were found to be toxic to one or more species of insects.

The following compounds killed 85 to 100 percent of the insects in:

All species against which they were tested-
l-Benzoyl-2-phenylhydrazine
l-(m-Nitrobenzoyl)-2-phenylhydrazine
l-Phenyl-2-phenylsulfonylhydrazine
l-Phenyl-2- (-tolylsulfonyl)hydrazine

At least 60 percent of the species tested-
1-Acetyl-2-phenylhydrazine
Bis (p-bromophenyl) methane
Bis (p-chlorophenyl) methanol
N,N -diisopropyl-m-nitrobenzamide
1-I sovaleryl-2-phenylhydrazine
l-Phenyl-2-valerylhydrazine

One or more species, but less than 60 percent of the species tested--
Benzylphenylni tro soamine
l-Butyryl-2-phenylhydrazine
Chloro-bis (p-chlorophen, l) methane
1-Isocapropyl-2-phenylhydrazine
4-(alpha-Thiotoluyl)piperidine







-3-


Of the second group only l-acetyl-2-phenylhydrazine and N,;;-diisopropyl-
m-nitrobenzamide were effective when used as sprays. l-Acetyl-2-phenryl-
hydrazine caused severe foliage injury to five out of six varieties of
plants treated, and bis(p-bromophenyl)met'iane caused moderate injury to
Swiss chard leaves. Of the last-named group treat -.ents of '--ci-i.lphenyl-
nitrosoamine and l-butyryl-2-phenylhydrazine caused over 50 prcrcent mor-
tality against all species tested. l-Isocapropyl-2-phenylhl. uzinrie showed
some toxicity against five species, and appreciable mortalities against
three species. Contact treatments with benzylphtn lnitrc, i.-:ie a.--.int
the squash bug and termites caused mortalities of 81 and 89 percent, re-
spectively. Mortality of 97 percent of the cotton aphids r.-ulted from a
treatment with l-butyryl-2-per.lLjd r iiie.

The following compounds caused less than 85 percent mortality of
the species against which they were tested:


Compound

4(y-Bromo-slpha-thiotoluyl)morpholine
SBr6H4CH2CSN(CH12) 20


Bromobis (- cblorophenyl)methane
(c iC4 2CEBr


5-Butyl-l-phenylsemioxamazide
C6 H5NMMOCONHC4H9


1-C innmaaoyl- 2-phenylhydraz ine
C NH5NHCOCH-CHC 611


p-(1,2-Dibroeothyl)toluene
CH%4CHBrCHgBr


sa-Di-o-tolylthiourea
(cH30c 4 z cS


Insect /

Melonworm
Southern arnnyworm
Southern beet webwom

Melonworm
Southern anrmywona
Southern beet webworm

Melonwom
Southern armyworm


Melonworm
Southern anrmywo rm
Yellow-striped armywom

Melonwornm
Southern armywom
Southern beet webworm

American cockroach (3/4 grown)
Bean leaf roller (fifth instar)
Blister beetle (adult)
Hawaiian beet webworm (fifth
insftar)
Kelonworm
Southern ar-yworm (fifth instar)
Southern beet webywon (fifth
instar)


I/ All fourth instars unless otherris" indicated.












Compound


alpha, alpha, alpha', alpha'-
4,4' -Hexachlorobibensyl
ClOC4cl2CCleCeH4Cl

5-Isobutyl-l-phenylsemioxamazide
C 65*HECOCOVHCH2CH(CH3)


l-Phenyl-2-phenylacetylhydrazine
C 6Ha5na"C0oc2 65


l-Phenyl-5-p ropylsemioxamazide
C 0H5NECOCOMC3H7


Tetrakis C- chlorophenyl)ethylene
(c IC4) 2C-C (c6H4c 1) 2


Melonworm
Southern anayworm
Southern beet webwom

Meloxworma
Southern armyworm
Yellow-striped armyworm

Melonwomn
Southern armyworm
Yellow-striped armywozm

Melonvorm
Southern armyworm
Yellow-striped anayworm

Melonworm
Southern armyworm
Southern beet webworm


The results of spray tests on 15 compounds are presented in
table 3. Of these compounds 13 were reported in the dust tests. Of
the 4 most effective compounds in the dust tests, l-phenyl-2-phenyl-
sulfonylhydrazine and l-phenyl-2- (-tolylsulfonyl)hydrazine, when
tested as sprays, were effective against at least two-thirds of the
species to which they were toxic as ducits. l-Lm-Nitrobenzoyl)-2-phenyl-
hydrazine was effective as a spray only against the southern beet web-
worm. Mortalities of less than 60 percent resulted against the melon-
worm and the southern armyworm from spray treatments of this material.
Spray treatments of l-benzoyl-2-phenylLydrazine caused appreciably low-
er mortalities than dusts against all species tested, and this was the
only one of the 4 most toxic compounds which caused more than very
slight injury to tender foliage. Swiss chard leaves showed moderate
injury from spray treatments. l-Phenyl-2- -tolylsulfonyl)hydrazine
lost 56 percent of its weight during 7 c.ays exposure to warm air. The
other 3 materials lost less than 50 percent of their weight during simi-
lar exposure. None of the 4 materials showed any appreciable toxicity
when tested as fumigants against the southern armyworm. Negative re-
sults of contact tests of 3 of the oomlcunds indicate further that these
materials act as stomach poisons. l-Berzoyl-2-phenylhydrazine was not
tested as a contact insecticide,


Insect







-5-


SUUxRY

The results of preliminary tests to determine the toxicity to in-
sects of 26 synthetic organic compounds are reported.

Dust treatments of 4 of the 26 materials tested caused mortalities
of 85 to IU00 percent of all leaf-feeding insects against which they were
tested. Alphabetically arranged these four most toxic compounds, all
phenylnydrazines, were l-b-enzoyl-2-phenylhydrazine, l-(_a-nitrobonzoyl)-
2-phenylhydrazine, l-phenyl-2-phenylsulfonylhydrazine, and l-p Lenyl-2-
(y-tolylsulfonyl)hydrazine. Only the first compound caused more than
very slight injury to tender foliage. Sesults of contact and f'imi-a-
tion tests indicated that these materials acted as stomach poisons.
The last two compounds were effective as sprays as well as dusts.

Two compounds, l-aoetyl-2-phenylhydrazine and N,N-diisopropyl-
m-nitrobenzamido, were effective against most species of insects tasted
Toth as dusts and sprays, but caused moderate to severe injury to tender
green foliage.










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