Review of the insecticidal uses of rotenone and rotenoids from derris, lonchocarpus (cube and timbo), tephrosia, and rel...

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Material Information

Title:
Review of the insecticidal uses of rotenone and rotenoids from derris, lonchocarpus (cube and timbo), tephrosia, and related plants
Portion of title:
Diptera
Physical Description:
126 p. : ; 27 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
Roark, R. C ( Ruric Creegan )
United States -- Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine
Publisher:
United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Administration, Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine
Place of Publication:
Washington, D.C
Publication Date:

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Rotenone   ( lcsh )
Biological insecticides   ( lcsh )
Diptera -- Control   ( lcsh )
Insect pests -- Control   ( lcsh )
Genre:
federal government publication   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references (p. 86-119) and indexes.
Statement of Responsibility:
by R.C. Roark.
General Note:
Caption title.
General Note:
"E-652."
General Note:
"April 1945."

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 030290002
oclc - 499755352
System ID:
AA00025127:00001

Full Text
-B A K -- - ----
Z PLANT BOARD
April 1945 E-652
UNITED STATES DEPAB'.XENT OF AGRICULTURE
AGRICULTURAL RS'eARCU ADMINI STATION
BUREAU OF E TTOCLOG!1 AMD PLATT QUARANTINE

A REVIEW OF THE INSECTICIDAL USES OF ROTTOITOE AND ROT 'OIDS
FROM DERIS, LONCFOCAE2US .(CUB"E AND TIMIEO), TEPMP.OSIA, AIID
":Y' RELATED PLANTS

.PART IX: DIPTERA

By R. C. Roark, Division of Insecticide Investigations l_

CO;;TEIITS
02i'=_11TS

Introduction ---------- --------------------------- 2
, Diptera ----------- ---------- ----- ------ 2
-romvz idee ------ ------------------------- 2
A.r.thomyiidae --------- ----- ------- ------- ----- 3
Calliphoridae--- ------- ------------ ------- 6
C'.ironomidae ------------- ------- - --- --- 11
.hlIropidae ------------ ----- --------------- 13
Culicidae -------------------------------- --- 13
Dr o s o hilidae --- ------ ------------ ----- -- 26
Hippcbosciaae -------- ----- ---------------- -- 27
'uscid:e ------ --- -------------- ------- 31
i1yce torT i idee - - - - - - - - - - - - 49
Oestridae ---------- ---------------- ----- -- 50
Otitidae ----------------- ------------------- --70
Psilidae ----------- ------------- --- ------- --70
Scatophagidae ------------- --- ------------- 72
Syrphidae ---------- ---------- ----- ------ 73
Tabanidae ------ ------- --------------- ---- 74
Tipulidae ----- ------------------ ------------ 74
Tr. etidae ---------- ------------------- -------- 74
Unidentified species of Diptera ---- --------------- -- 83




L/ The manuscript of this publication was read in the following
research divisions of the Bureau and helpful suggestions were contrib-
uted: Fruit Insect Investigations, Cotton Insect Investigations,
Insects Affecting !Ien ahd Animals, Insect Identification, Control
Investigations, Cereal and Forage Insect Investigations, and Bee
Culture. The reviewers in theee divisions were, respectively, B. A.
o-rter, R, T. Harred, H. H. Stae, C. F. W. -uesebeck and assistants,
) L. A. Hawkins, C. I,. Packard, and J. I. Hambleton.


JUN 4 1945.





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Ir TRODU CTICK .D

This is the ninth in a series of papers designed to review all
available information on the insecticidal uses of rotenone and the
rotenoids. Parts I to VIII have revie-ed tests with derris, cube,
timbo, Tephrosia, I/Iundulea, and their constituents on members of the
Collembola, Orthoptera, Derrmpitera, Cdonata, Isoptera, Corrodentia,
MIallorha.i a, rThysenoptera, Homoptera, H=mlptera, Anoplura, Coleoptera,
Lepidopte-ra, ern.d Hymenoptera. Apparently no tests with the rotenone
plants on Thysanura, 3phemneroptera, or Plecoptera have been recorded.
Part IX, the present paper, reviews the tests that have been made on
Dipt era.

DIPTHPERA

Agromyzidae -

Agromyza phaseoli Coq. (= Melanagro-yza phaseoll Ceq.), bean fly;
French bean miner

Mathieu (201) in 1920 reported the control of this srDecies attack-
ing young beans, with derris.

A trial of tuba was made on a field of 8 beds, 66 feet
lon,!, with 1,056 seeds of lima bean (Small Sieve) on October
28, 1919. Ten ounces of tuba root ,-ere well pounded in a
wooden mortar, the juice was thoroughly expressed, an the
fiber exhausted in 20 imperial gallons of water. Taba water
was then applied to each young plant at the rate of a ciga-
rette tin full to 4 plants, morning and evening, for. 15 days,
until the plants were sufficiently established to be past all
danger, which is only present during the first stLMe of their
existence, when the stem is tender. Only 16 seeds failed to
germinate, and of the 1,040 -lar.ts that came up, not one hps
died. Today the plot is showing the most vigorous growth, a
living testimony to the potency of the tuba-root as a plant
-insect killer.

,Ven der Goot (120) in 1930 reported that sprinkling the necks of
thc roots of -plants of ketjeng djogo end kretok with a 2 percent derris
extrpct 7res valueless for control in Java.

Van der Vc-cit (30_2) of Buitenzorg, Java, in 1936 rmoorted that
derris nas ineffective.

1

*





-3-


'Iorgan (207) in 1938 reported that a contact spray consisting
of 1 pound of derris root (3.5 percent rotenone) and 3 pounds of
soft soap to 50 imperial gallons of water destroyed the adults in
laboratory tests, but in field practice, using a knapsack pump, it
was difficult to hit enough flies to give appreciable control.

Agromyza pusilla Meig.

F. F. Smith (263) in 1939 wrote that this serpentine leaf miner
on Gerbera jamesoni Bolus. was being combated by picking and destroy-
ing the infested leaves, or by spraying by derris or nicotine extracts.

(Agromyza) Liriomyza solani Macq.

A spray of derris ponder with soft soap was ineffective in pre-
venting attack by the tomato leaf miner, "Phytomyza solani (Macq.),"
according to the Experimental and Research Station, Cheshunt, Herts,
England (80), in 1938. [This species is also referred to by English
authors as "Agromyza (Liriomyza) solani. Cf. Rev. Applied Ent. (A)
25: 668.1]

Phytomyza ilicis (Curtis), the holly leaf miner

Langford and Gory (168) in 1937 reported that sprays containing
a mixture of 3 pounds of 4 percent rotenone powder and 3 pounds of
rosin emulsion per 100 gallons of water did not kill the larvae within
the mines.

Anthomyiidae

Atherigone indica Mall.

The Tanganyika Territory Department of Agriculture (270) in 1935
reported that the replication of derris preparations gave almost com-
plete control of the sorghum stem maggot at en economic cost.

Hylemya antiauua .Ieig., the onion maggot

Smith end Wadsvorth (255) in 1921 tested insecticides against
onion flies. Six applications of derris-soot mixture (2 parts soot
and 1 pert derris) at the rate of 1 ounce per square yard gave 60
percent of clean onions, whereas soot alone gavb only 16 percent.

Brittain (42) in 1925 reported that mature larvae were immersed
for 5 seconds ina suspension of derris root (3 lb. to 100 imp. gal.)
and then placed upon their food plant. The mortalities from different
treatments were as follows:




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Age of maggot :!Mortality from
{days) :1ichloride of : Derris, 3 lb.
:mercury, 1:1,000 : in 100 i-p. gal.
:solution : of -ater
Percent Percent
1 100 100

4 100 100

7 100 100

10 75. 35

15 50 25

Ready to pupate 20 0


K. I.. Smith (254) in 1925 reported on tests made -wth various in-
secticides. A mixture of 1 ounce of derris with 2 ounces of soot per
square yard did not give results promising" enough to justify further
trials.

The Ohio Agricultural Experiment Station (224) in 1936 reported
that derris powder (4 percent rotenone) in water at 4 rounds to 100
gallons permitted 18 percent of the eggs to hatch. Vercuric chloride,
1 ounce to 8 gallons of water, Fnd diphenylene oxide 1: 40 in oil, killed
all eggs.

Hylemya brassicae (Bouche), the cabbage maggot

Brittain (40) in 1921 described experiments in rhich a 50:50 mix-
ture of derris with clay and also with derris solution at t"o strengths
(1.5 and 3 lb. to 100 imp. gal.) "cre applied to cabbage for control.
The clay.-derris mixture was replied at the rate of 960 pounds per acre,
the derris solutions ct the rate of 10 and 20 pounds of derris -ith
650 imperial gallons of water per acre. All the derris treatments pro-
tected the plants. Pure derris powder applied to cabbage destroyed 4
percent of the plants in 2 tests. Derris (3 lb. to 100 impn. gal.) poured
about plants previously infested with 25 fully grown larvae of the first
brood failed to prevent any from pupating.

Brittain (41) in 1922 reported that .hen derris (3 lb. to 100 imp.
gal. of water) was applied to cabbage (CornenhPgen Market) 39 roercent
of the plants were destroyed by maggots. In another tests "ith Early
Jersey 7akefield, 2 pounds of derris to 100 imperial aellons of water
permitted about 29 percent of the plants to be destroyed. Tests "ith
3 pounds of derris to 100 imperial gallons permitted from 45 to 80
percent of the Early Jersey Wakefield to be destroyed. On radishes,
derris (3 lb. to 100 imp. gal.) permitted 71 percent of the pl-nts to




** ; : -5- *; ...

be infested. Corrosive sublimate was the oiAy treatment that gave satis-
factory control. Only one material, derris, proved very ineffective.
As it was from the same lot of material that was used the previous year
with fair results, Brittain assumed that it had deteriorated in storage.
About two-fifths of a pint of liquid and five-ninths of an ounce of dust
was applied per plant.'" In 1925 Brittain (42) reported that mature larvae
immersed for 5 seconds'in a suspension of derIris root (3 lb. to 100 imp.
gal.) and then placed upoin 'their'food plant Were unaffected, whereas a
1: 1,000 solution of mercuric "chloride killed 10 percent,

K. F. Smith (254) in 1925 reported thet a'-ixture of 1 ounce of derris
with 2 ounces of soot per square yard did not give results promising enough
to justify further trials.

Turner (277) in 1932 reported that in 1931 rotenone extracted from cube
was tested for control. Early cabbages and two series of treatments were
used in the bests." One series was treated once, on May 1; the other twice,
on Way 1 and May 15. Rotenone was used in three dilutions, and was applied
in an acetone-water suspension, 1/2 cupful being poured around the base of
each plant. Feads were harvested on July 8 and July 14, and yields were
compared with those obtained by the use of bichloride of mercury. These
figures showr'that rotenone at the rate of 1: 2,500 and 1: 5,000, even in a
single treatment, increased the yield of cabbage, as compared with the yield
of check plots. Roterionelat l: 10,000 -was not so effective. The percentage
of heads maturing in chedlk plots was 72, and on the rotenone plots from 70
to 100. Comparison #ith results obtained with bichloride of mercury shows
that rotenone was approximately as effective only when tfsed twice at a
dilution of 1: 2,500. Because of the small size of the rotenone plots these
results cannot be accepted as final; however, it is evident that rotenone
has some value in control.

Benkert and Company (25) in 1934 wrote that for 'the root maggot
attacking cabbage derris dust. should be applied around. the stalk as soon as
the eggs are found.

Pegonrye hyoscyeni' (Panz.)', the spinach leaf miner

Jancke (150) in. 1931 reported that in experiments with the beet fly,
a mortality of 8T0 percent was attained for 4 days with concentrations of
Polvotol of 1 percent and 1 p.p.m. These results suggest that the spray
would be of value against the cherry fly (Rhagoletis cerasi (L.)).

Pegomya.nigri tarsus (Fall.)
* -'* **" ..^, .. I ** ; ;*:
According toEtabl"ssiement P,.tenia in 1938, in a letter to R. C.
Roerk, this pest on begonia -as mitigated by a product containing 12 per-
cent of powdered Lonchocarnus nicou root and 88 percent of talcum.





.. Celliphoridae

Ceallirhora erythroceohala Ieig,. '-' .- ? ...

This species -as 'tested by the immersion "tchnique of..
Craufurd-Benson (64), as reported in 1938, end has given.some
interestingg end reliable information, although' the results were
not so accurate as those of -other -orkers rho abed. the spraying '
m method. '-'* ,. ; -
,method. ,

Calliihora so. .

qilbaux ( 321) in 1934 tested extracts of thc'leaves.of
Tephrosia vogelii that were 22 years old and reported that as'
a contact insecticide the leaves are about as. toxic- as nicotine.
Larvae.qf Calliphore sp. -qre, perfectly resistant, even to snrays
containing 1 prt o f- T. voei i 'to 200'-'6f dry vegetable iaetter,
Pupation 'took place more:, rapidly, but aall hTh nupe -hatched.

Co chlinnvia macellerie F., the secondary -creVf.or. *-

1arman et al. (225), ?and also. '_oerk et al. (242). In 1927
reported results of chcimitronic tests. Acomnerical derris'pow-
der repelled 95'percent of the flies visiftinira .bsit'of beefliver.
This is about the same percentage ac that obtained;'-ith pyc.re thrum
po-dcr. Thc.n diluted with 9 parts'of liaolin it repelled.38 per-
cent..

Cochlionyia americana -C. &P., the scre,"T7,orm "" ...

In 1928 Parman et al. (226) reportedd that derris poT7der (0*5
gin. plus kaolin 4.5 gm'.), spread upon 4-ouace-cubes of beef liver
in a mason jar, repelled 38.percent of the flies that approached
the meat, -

E. w. Laake, in a typewritten report to the Division of
Insects Affecting Man and Ani-tals, Bureau of Entomology and
Plant Quarantine, United States Department Qf Agriculture, in
1935, reported results of field tests by McGovran and Ellisor .
of repellents for round-infesting flies on sheep,- nd goats at
Valdosta, Ga. Rote.none, derris resin, and derris root mixed
-'ith pine-tar oil and benzene seCncd .to be the most promising
mixtures. The flto-tn- mixtures' were tested 7qith excellent
re sults:

Pine-tar oil. 75 parts, benzene 24 pMts,-.* -. -
rotenone 1 part. ;-,

Pine-tar oil 75p--rts, benaenc 24 parts,
derris resin 1 part. ..

Pine-tar oil 75 perts, benzene 20 parts,
derris root 5 arts.

The following vere found to be unsatisfactory -s repellents:
A mixture of pine-tar oil 70 parts, sulfonated castor oil






parts, and ground derris root 5 parts; ground derris root*
applied as a powder. This did not adhere well to dry parts of
the wound.

Laboratory tests of larvicides for mature larvae were made.
A mixture of benzene 95 parts and derris root 5 parts gave 100
percent control of emergence, whereas benzene alone gave 62 per-
cent control. Rotenone, pyrethrum extract, and derris resin in
benzene also gave better control than bezene alone. The follow-
ing were tried as larvicides in the laboratory:

Benzene 95 parts, derris root 5 parts.

Benzene 99 parts, rotenone 1 part.

Benzene 99 parts, derris resin 1 part.

Benzene 74 parts, carbon tetrachloride 25 parts,
rotenone 1 part.

Benzene 70 parts, carbon tetrachloride 25 parts,
derris 5 parts.

Benzene 74 parts, carbon tetrachloride 25 parts,
derris resin 1 part.

Rotenone and ground derris root -markedly increased the toxi-
city of mixtures of benzene and carbon tetrachloride. Pyrethrum
extract and derris resin also increased the toxicity of these
mixtures.

R. Melvin, in a similar typewritten report in 1935, stated
that he treated artificially wounded rabbits and guinea pigs in-
fested with Cochliomyia americana with various chemicals, 5 cc.
or 1 gm. per treatment. An acetone solution of rotenone (1 per-
cent) killed half the larvae in the wound but also killed the
guinea pig. Dry rotenone in 2 tests killed all the larvae in 2
guinea pigs without affecting the pigs. Pyrocene, a proprietary
product containing 0.73 percent of rotenone in pine oil with an
emulsifying agent, proved to be a poor larvicide but a good
repellent of the larvae. Pyrocene was tested on 13 guinea pigs
and 2 rabbits, causing the larvae to leave the wounds, but kill-
ing only a few. The animals were unaffected by Pyrocene. Of 20
grown larvae dipped in an acetone solution of rotenone (1 percent)
19 survived. In 1935 Melvin stated, in another report to the
Division, that Pyrocene added to artificially infested wounds
on guinea pigs caused larvae to leave the wounds and the animal
was unaffected. Rotenone in acetone (1 percent) killed from one-
third to one-half of the larvae. Rotenone crystals killed all
the larvae without injuring the animal. Rotenone in acetone (1
percent) also killed all eggs dipped momentarily into it. Over
1,000 eggs less than 3 hours old were used with each test chemical.
Eagleson reported that the following mixtures containing rotenone
gave promising results as a fly spray: (A) Rotenone extract, 0.25
percent; camphor byproduct, 3.3 percent; kerosene, 96.4 percent.


-7-




-8-


This spray gave 65 percent of paresis in 2-cc. dosee and 100
percent mortality in 3-cc. doses. (B) Rotenone extract, 1 per-
cent: General ITaval Stores Pine Oil No0. 2, 99 percent. T'o cc.
of this spray gave 100 percent mortality.

Laake, of the Valdosta, Ga., laboratory of the same Division,
in a typewritten report for the second quarter of 1936, reported
tests vwith derris products as larvicides applied to -ounds in
infested. goats. The following mixture killed all larvae: Benzene
40 percent, carbon tetrachloride 30 percent, acetone 25 percent,
derris resins 5 percent. The follo-ing mixtures gave excellent
control: Benzene 55 percent, carbon tetrachloride 30 percent,
acetone 12.5 percent, derris resins 2.5 percent: benzol 64 percent,
carbon tetrachloride 30 percent, acetone 5 percent, derris resins
1 percent: and soluble pine oil 85 percent, acetone 10 percent,
derris resins 5 percent.

In immersion tests in the laboratory with mature larvae
the following gave 100 percent control: Carbon tetrachloride
containing 5, 10, or 15 percent of devils-shoestrings: benzene
containing 5 or 20 percent of devil's-shoestrings; and benzene
30 percent, carbon tetrachloride 23 percent, acetone 27 percent,
derris resins 10 percent. Mixtures of furfurel 83 percent and
derris rosins 17 percent killed 96 to 98 percent of the larvae.
The following mixtures of pine-tar oil, acetone, and derris
resins, in the percentages given, respectively, when applied to
the clipped skin and wounds in goats did not cause injury: 70.0:
25: 5: 72.5: 25: 2.5: 74: 25: 1: 85: 10: 5: 87.5: 10: 2.5: 89:
10: 1: and pine-tar oil 85 percent plus devils'-shoestrings 15
percent.

Lake, in a similar report in 1936, stated that of prep-
arations tested as repellents, pine-tar oil to which had been
added ground derris root, rotenone, or derris resins seemed to
be the most promising mixtures. Of lervicides tested in the
field at Valdosta, Ga., mixtures of benzol, ecetone, carbon
tetrachloride, and 2.5 or 5.0 percent of derris resins gave good
control. A mixture of benzol and carbon tetrachloride containing
10 percent of ground derris root gave good control. In this mix-
ture most of the derris root did not go into solution but settled
to the bottom of the container. Materials found highly toxic to
flies when applied -as sprays rere Lethane, rotenone, end pyrethrum
extract.

icGovran (192) reported in 1936 that in preliminary field
tests at Valdosta a mixture of pine-tar oil 85 percent, acetone
10 percent, and derris resins 5 i percent ras more repellent to the
flies than pine-tar of0l.alone.




-9-


McGovran and Ellisor, in e typewritten report to the
Division in 1936, stated that the action of chemicals was
tested in infested articifical wounds on goats. Approxi-
mately 10 cc. of each larvicide was applied to the infested
wound and the animal was held in such a position that the
larvicide was in contact with the larvae 2 minutes. A cotton
plug was inserted in the wounds treated r,1th benzol. The
other treated and check wounds r'ere left open. The following
data were obtained from larvicide tests during January end
February. The materials thap-t killed 100 percent of the larvae
were as follows: Benzol 65 percent, carbon tetrachloride 25
percent, ground derris root 10 percent (results of 3 tests);
benzol 67.5 percent, carbon tetrechloride 25 percent, ground
derris root 7.5 percent (1 test); benzol 70 percent, carbon
tetrachloride 25 percent, ground derris root 5 percent (1 test);
clear extract of benzol 70 percent, carbon tetraehloride 25
percent, ground derris root 5 percent (1 test); end clear
extract of benzol 65 percent, carbon tetrachloride 25 percent,
ground derris root 10 percent (1 test). Mature lervae were
dipped for 30 seconds into a mixture of 90 percent of carbon
tetrachloride and 10 percent of derris root. The ground derris
root was allowed to remain in the carbon tetrachloride for 4
days, then ell the material not in solution ras filtered off.
This treatment killed two-thirds of the larvae.

Melvin, in 1936, ii a tyce-Titten report to the Division,
described additional laboratory tests on artificially infested
wounds on guinea nigs in Texas. Pyrocene and mixtures of
pyrocene and water containing 80, 60, 40, and 20 percent of
pyrocene not only killed many larvae but also caused larvae to
leave the wounds. Rotenone crystals killed all the larvae in
the wounds without affecting the guinea pig. Rotenone (0.5 or
1.0 percent) in General Naval Stores Pine Oil No. 2 was highly
effective. Pyrocene 60 percent end 80 percent rith water
killed 62 percent and 39 percent, respectively, of larvae dip-
ped into it. In a similar typerritten report later in that
year, he said that rotenone poder killed 100 percent of the
larvae in "ounds. Phenothiazine -as regarded as the most npro-
mising larvicide for application to wounds.

The United States Department of Agriculture, Bureau of
Entomology and Plant Quarantine (290), in 1936 reported that
i %he -ork of developing more effective larvicides and repel-
lents over 200 different chemicals end mixtures were tested&
Among the many materials tried as larvicides that gave pro-
mising results was a mixture of benzol end carbon tetrechloride,
containing 10 percent of ground derris root. In small-scale
tests ground derris root, rotenone, or derris resins added to
pine-tar oil appeared to be more effective as a fly repellent
than pine-tar oil alone.

Bushland (47) in 1940 reported that the minimum lethal con-
centration of rotenone to young larvae was between 0.05 and 0.08




-10-


percent of the beef medium on which they fed.

Lucilia cu-prina (Wied.).

Lennox (178) in 1940 wrote on the ectlon of stomach larvi-
cides on'this species. The toxi-city of a" number of compounds
was measured by (A) growth retardation and (B) rate of action.
Derris extract was toxic et concentrationsof 0.1 end 0.01 per-
cent,

Luoilia sericata (Meig.)

Lake et al. (165) in 1931 reported the results of ests
of materials as attractants' or repellents to this greenbottle
fly. Beef-liver bait 4 ounces, to which 5 gm. of derris powder
was added, attracted only 40 percent as many as did untreated
bait. A mixture of 1 pert of derris powder and 9 parts of
kaolin attracted 20 percent.,

Baudet and Nieschulz (23) in 1933 reported that derris
powder containing 2 percent of rotenone "-as entirely inert
toward the larvae. Four-day-old larvae cre-led around in the
-derris -nowder for 3 hours without suffering any ill effects.
A suspension of derris powder in soap and Tater was also "ith-
out effect on the mobility of larvae submitted to the influence
of this suspension for a 5-minute period. Pine oil -as found
to be toxic to the larvae. The addition cf rotenone to nine oil
in quantities of 0.1 to 10 percent did not increase the toxicity
of the pine oil. It was concluded that derris po-der and rote-
none are inactive toward the larvae.

According to Van der Laan (166) in 1936, this species is
not affected by derris.

Hoskins et al. (143) in 1940 reported that rotenone mixed
Kith a synthetic diet in which larvae of this species -ere
placed was toxic at the following concentrations:


Concentration Mortality Stage of Insect
Percent
1/128 percent 100 Second end third
insters.
1/256 percent 98 Second and third
instars: pupae.
1/512 percent 62 Second, third end
fourth instars.


Lucilia sp.

Permen et al. (2-6) in l128 reported thpt derris po-der 0.5
gmI. m lus' kaolin 4.5 gmn., spread unon 4-ounce cubes of beef liver
in a meson jar, repelled 81 percent of the flies thpt eo-ropched








-II-


the meat.

Phormid regina (eeig.)

Haag (129) in 193"1 reported that maggots of the black blow-
fly that had been given food sprinkled with rotenone crystals
developed identically rith the control maggots.

Breakeyaid Miller (38) in 1935 reported the results of tests
with rotenone sprays prepared from an extract of derris in pine
oil assaying 5 gm. of rotenone for each 100 cc. Emulsions were
made from this stock containing 1 part of rotenone, 19 arts of
pine oil, 5 parts of saponin, and 75 parts of water. Dilutions
made from these emulsions gave the desired concentrations of
rotenone. One part of rotenone in 5,000 parts of the spray killed
about 98 percent of the eggs.

Phormia sp,

Melvin, in 1936, in e typewritten report to the Division of
Insects Affecting Man and Animals, of the Bureau of Entomology
and Plant Quarantine, United States De-,artment of Agriculture,
stated that when gtown larvae of Phormia were dinped in a 1-
percent solution of rotenone in acetone, 84 percent emerged.

Chironomidae

Chironomas brachialis Coq.
C. cingulatus Meig.
C. decorus Joh.
C. lobiferus Say
C. nervous Staeg.
C. sp. near nervous Staeg.
C. sp. near paganus Meig.

See Fellton (85) under Chironomus tenuicaudatus Mall., p.11

Chironomus plumosus (L.) var. prasinus Meig.

An anonymous writer (6) in 1937 stated that derris was
ineffective.

Chironomus tenuicaudatus Mall.
C. sp. near tenuicaudatus Mall.

Fellton (85) in 1940 reported on the control of aquatic
midges. In the laboratory derris powder(5 percent rotenone)
at 12 parts per million killed only 28 percent of Procladius
larvae, whereas an emulsion of 80 parts of orthodichlorobenzene








-12-


and 20 parts of sulfonated castor oil at q.6 parts per million
"-eve a mortality of 100 percent eft-r 72 hours. For the control
of these midges in the two fresh-"acer lkes at the Ne" York
World's Fair, derris was used, starting in Arril 193q. In con-
junction with each derris application, con'er sulfete wPS dis-
solved in the lakes at the rate of 1 pert per million in order
to kill most of the algae therein, !-hich served as 2 source of
food and shelter for the larvae and to increase the potency of
the derris by reducing the alkalinity of the lake waterr Spray-
ing was started on'April 10, '--hen the water temperature reached
50 F. and the overwintering largae started to sho"- signs of
activity. Sufficient derris of 5 percent rotenor.e content ras
applied to build up a concentration of 6 parts per million (a
dilution Df 0.0r)003 percent rotenone) in 7illor Lake and a con-
centration of 10 parts per million (a dilution of 0.00005 percent
rotenone) in Fountain Lake. The res.ilts mere vert striking, narti-
cularlv in Fountain Lake. Mahy. dea'd o-r dvin_7 blood-orms '-ere
soon observed floating on the aeter, thousands of others '-ere
washed ashore, and the lPke bottom was covered rith tfe de2di and
decomosing bodies of the larvae. Thereafter the interv.?l be-
tieen treatments was based on th- life cycle of the species
involved. The control operations -ere eytremel-, effective against
Chironomus lobiferus, C._ cin 'l.-tus, and the C. tenuicaudtas
group of smell green midges. Thc-se had teen the dom'nrnt species
during the summer and fell of I21?9. The other ChirononuF species
and the Tanytarsus -ere also vr:, definitel- undcr control.

The species ,resent were: Chirononine -- Chircnomus lobi-
ferus, C. cing-alatus, C. tenuicesidpts, C. sn. near tenuiceud-tus,
C. brechielis Coo., C. nervous, C. sp. near nervosus, C. sp.
near pa-,.nus, C. decorus, Tanytarsas emninulus (Ir' 1k.), end
(Tenypodinpe) Procledius culiciformiis (L.), P. chorus (!,eie.),
and Tanypus puntipennis lFeig. Derris -'s r.ot soc toxic to Jrc-
cladius as to Chironomus larvae; however, ti-. n',enber of Pr.--
cl..dius adults that emerged v'es kept do'n Viry considerebl-y by
measures directed against the pur..e. The active p'upae tender
to congreeTte in grert numbers in rrot,'ctcd Dlaces on the lee
shore of the lekes and could be killed there by spraying "-ith
derris or 7'ith the nyrethrum-kerosEne musion that '-Ps used for
the control of mnosnuito breed 'ir.

Chironomus sp.

Buchmpnn (45) in 1932 described tests -ith finely po-dcred
derris pno-der against larvae., Str"e-' upor et;-r at the rats of
50, 25, 12, and 6 mg. per liter, it killed ell -ithin 24 hours.
A piece of derris rort put in a bre(din,7 rl'ss containing larvae
killed .them in 6 to 8 hours. An PaUouUS cxtr-ct of the root acted
similarly.




-13-


DeBussy et al. (48) in 1936 reported that derris in 7ater
at 1:1,000 (totenone 1:14,000) killed larvae.

Frocladius culiciformis (L.)
P. choreus'(Meig.)
Tenypus puntipennis Meig.
Tanvtersus eminulus (Walk.)

See also Fellton (85) 'under Chironomis tenuicrudatus Mall.,
on page 11.
Chloropidae

Chloropisca notata (Zett.) (:: circumdata (Meig.))

DeBussy et al. (48) in 1936 reported that dusting with
derris was ineffective against full-grown flies, but spraying
with derris powder suspended in water (rotenone 1:3,000) was
more successful, although not entirely satisfactory.

Uozu (221) in 1939 reported that spraying with nicotine
sulfate kills the larvae in the leaves, and derris insecticides
are also effective.

Oscinis oryzelle Mats.

Oguro and Kimure (223) in 1932 recommended a proprietary
derris preparation 'fr control, which is very injurious to rice
in Japan.
i
Culicide

Aedes aegypti (L.), the yellof- fever mosquito

The Zanzibar Public Health Department (329) in 1917 tested
Tephrosia vogelii as en insecticide. The fresh green leaves
were pounded in a mortar and made into pulp. Six half-grown
larvae were put in a 1-percent solution of this pulp in water.
All were dead in 12 hours.

Aedes excraciens (Walk.)
A. fitchii (F. & Y.)
A. stimulans (Walk.)
A. trichurus Dyar (= A. cinereoborealis (F. & Y.))

Gibson (108) in 1929 reported further on derris for mos-
auito. control in Canada. Like pyrethrum, derris when used in
dust form is readily carried away by the wind. The field results
from the use of this material were even-r less satisfactory than
those from pyrethrum. A large semipermanent pool in open country
containing a heavy infestation of mature larvae and some pupae
of these four species was dusted with derris at the rate of 5
pounds per acre. At the end of 18 hours many larvae appeared







-14-


sluggish and lacked control of their movements.. In 48 hours
there had been a marked reduction in the numbers. At the end
of 72 hours the reduction in the infestation 8s compared -ith
check pools was notable, the visible larvae also appearing
rather inactive. In 5 days from the time of applying the der-
ris, however, many larvae and pupae were still present and
active-, -and adults were emerging. The dusting reduced the
infestation materially but not enough to comraere favorably "ith
the effect of oil.

Aedes vexans (Meig.) (= A. sylvestris (Theob.))

See Ginsburg et al. (112, 113) under Culex pipiens L., on
page 18.

Gibson (106) in 1927 reported that powdered derris root
has lethal properties when used against culicine mosquito larvae.
When dusted on the surface of water containing larvae of this
species this material, either alone or in combination with an
inert filler, destroyed the larvae in a few hours, even "hen used
at the rate of only 2 or 3 pounds of derris to the acre. Gibson
(108) in 1929 reported that pools on the edge of scrubb-, wood-
land and heavily infested "'ith mature larvae "ere dusted -ith
derris',' 8 pounds to the acre. After 18 hours the larvae appeared
to be as numerous as ever, and a considerable proportion were
puoating. In 48 hours most of them had pupated and oil was
applied to prevent a possible general emergence. The derris used
in 1928 uas not that used in 1927, but both samples worked
equally well in the laboratory.

T-inn (279) in 1927 reported on mosouito control at ntta-a,
Ontario, 7anad^. The derris -es dusted on the water surface at
the rate of approximately 3 pounds per acre. The larvae died
within periods'ranging from 45 minutes to more than 7 hours.
They became very feeble before death, lying motionless and
parallel rith the surface of the reater, moving -ith difficulty
Yrhen rudely disturbed. The pupae died more slo-ly than the
larvae, sometimes requiring mo-'e than 24 hours. Near Montreal
tests -Tere also made on shallo, pool about 200 feet souere,
with F grass-gro-n bottom, rnd containing large numbers of larvae
of Aedes vexans. A mixture of derris and French chalk (1 to 4)
was dusted just before sundown on the surface of the water by
means of a small hand dust gun, at the rate of 1.5 pounds of
derris to the acre. The materiel settled -'ell, forming a very
satisfact':r" film of dust over the entire surface. When examined
16 hours later, a considerable proportion of the larvae were deed
and mrny of the living revealed the effect of the derris in their
sluwish movements. The pool nas not examined again until 60
hours after treatment, r"hen ell the larvae were dead, many float-
ing on the surface of the water.







-15-


Aedes so.

Gibson (107) in 1928 reported.that under laboratory con-
ditions powdered derris root dusted on the surface of water in
shallo- trEys at the rate of 15 pounds to the acre of water sur-
face destroyed larvae in 6 to 22 hours and pupae in from 2 to
5 daeys. In a discussion following the reading o.f this paper
Ginsburg said: "Last summer [1927] we tested out cube root,
-hich is a very strong fish poison. It killed fish in pools
within 15 minutes but it didn't kill mosquito larvae for 24
hours, and then only a small percentage of them. The same
material killed larvae in the laboratory within a few hours."

Anopheles annularis V. d. Wulp.

Wats and Singh (308) in 1937 tested extracts of Derris
elliptica Benth., f). scandens Benth., and D. uliginosa Benth.
against mosquitoes. Various plants were extracted with alcohol,
Ether, chloroform, or kerosene, and likewise tested; the method
of Sinton and Wpts (Rec. Malaria Survey India 5 (3): 275. 1935)
was used. Anopheles annularis or A. subpictus Girassi was used for
the test insr-ct.. One cc. of the undiluted test solution was
sprayed into the test chamber ,tith a No. 15 De Vilbiss sprayer.
T-enty-five rmosouitoes were introduced into the chamber and
collected after 30 minutest exposure. These insects were then
put into e mosquito cage and placed in a dark room for 24 hours
unrier the srn-me conditions as a number of (control insects. The
results "-ere reed immediately after collection to note the
number of insects flying, and after 24 hours to record the numbers.
dead and moribund. The results in all cases rere much inferior
to those -ith the standard mosquitocide (1 cc. of 1-percent
solution of pyrocide 20 in kerosene). A crystalline substance,
m.p. 274-275-' C., isolated from Derris scandens, was also tested.
A 40-percent solution of an ethereal extract, sprayed ihto the
test chamber before and after Introduction of the mosquitoes,
gave a mortality. of only about 60 percent. The ether-soluble
parts of derris (containing 5 percent.rotenone) obtained from a
reliable Amrican firm was similarly tested but found to be no
better.

Anopheles hyrcanus var. sinensis (Wied.)

West and Russell (315) in 1932 reported experiments with
various toxic substances partially absorbed on charcoal as a
larvicide for anOpheline mosouitoes. Rotenone, adsorbed 0.4
percent on charcoal, was tested on third and fourth instars.
of this species and of Anopheles subpictus Grassi. A mortality
of 34 percent was obtained et the end of 24 hours. The authors
concluded that rotenone on charcoel does not have any greater
potency than paris green, rhich is less expensive.





-16-


Anopheles maculipennis Meig.

Roman and Netien (243) in 1939 reported tests -ith derris
powder end rotenone en mosquito larvae: Anopheles maculioennis
Meig., Culex hortensis Fic., and Culex pipiens L. The no-ders
were scattered, without moistening, over the surface of the
water containing the larvae. Rotenone is especially toxic
-hen ingested by larvae.

Anopheles nseudopunctipennis Theob.

Wille et al. (322) in 1937 reported that in preliminary
tests cube root containing 5 percent of rotenone had no effect
on the larvae after 15 hours when used at a concentration that
killed fish in 30 minutes.

Anopheles subpictus Grassi

See Wets end-Singh (308) under Anopheles annularis V. d.
Wulp. on page 15, and West and Russell (315) under A. hyrianus
ver. sinensis (Tied.) on page 15.

Anooheles sp.

Strickland (265) in 19i3 reported that derris was being
tried for killing anopheline larvae in Malaya.

West and Russell (314) in 1932 reported the results of
tests of larvicides for anopheline mosouitoes in the Philip-
pines. The action of mixtures of paris green with various
materials pertly adsorbed on charcoal" -ere tested on mosouito
larvae. Paris green, 0.2-percent concentration, -ith rotenone
hydrobromnide, 0.4-percent concentration, killed 76 percent of
the larvae at the end of -24 hours. A mixture of 0.05 percent
of paris green, 0.1 percent of arsenic trioxide, 0.1 percent
of derris root, and 0.3 p-ercent of borax killed 22 percent of
the larvae, end a mixture of 0.05 percent of paris green, 0.1
percent of arsenic trioxide, 0.2 percent of derris root, and
0.3 percent of borax killed 84 percent of the larvae, at the
end of 24 hours.

According to Van der Laan (166) in 1936, this species -as
somev'hat sensitive to derris.

Corethra sp.

Danneel (66) in 1933 rcrorted that Corethra larvae iere
uninjured after 24 hours in solutions of rotenone of 0.001-
percent concentration (10 p.p.rn.).





-17-


Culex hortensis Fic.

See Roman end Ngtien (243) under Anonheles maculipennis
on paee 16.

Culex piniens L., the northern house mosquito

See Roman and Netien (243) under Anopheles maculipennis
on pare 16.

According to Gimlette (1111.) in 1923, H. E. Durham in
England found in 1902 that larvae of Culex piniens died in less
then 16 hours (pupae in less than 24 hour) vith s olutions of
1:1,000, 1:2,000, and 1:5,000 of whole root of derris; with
1:10,000 the larvae -were killed in 20 hours and the pupae in 24
hours. A solution of 1:1,000 of the extract is enough to make
the watercloudy.

Gibson (107) in 1928 reported that in an experiment con-
ducted at Hawkesbury, Ontario, Canada, *fen the prrdered derris
root was dusted on the surface of the polluted pools of water
heavily infested, at the rate of 30 pounds per acre of water
surface, 97 percent of the larvae were destroyed in 48 hours
end 100 percent in 72.

Shepard (249) in 1931 tested the relative toxicity of
rotenone end nicotine to mosquito larvae, In these experiments
the roten9ne was first dissolved in 95-percent alcohol. This
alcoholic stock solution was made at a strength of 0.25 gin. in
100 cc. It was necessary to warm the mixture somewhat in a
water bath in order.to dissolve the rotenone entirely. On
dilution with distilled water a stable milky suspension resulted.
Both rotenone and nicotine were tested in duplicate at the same
concentration on the same day. All the tests were made as
quickly as possible. The spry mixtures were made fresh'each
day. Rotenone at 0.01 percent -"ithout soreader killed 34.5
percent of mosquito larvae immersed for 1/2 hour in the sus-
pension, as compared with a kill of 10.5 percent obtained with
nicotine under the same conditions.

Clmpbell, Sullivan, and Smith (55) in 1933 determined the
relative toxicity of nicotine, -nabasine, and other alkaloids,
and of rotenone for culicine mosquito larvae, Culex pioiens L.
and C. territans Wplk. These tests against mosquito larvae
showed that rotenone is much more toxie than nicotine. Although
Shepard also found th-t rotenone is more toxic than nicotine
for mosquito larvae, he did not do justice to rotenone, because
he compared the two compounds at only one concentration, 0.1
gin. per liter (1:10,000). As shown b:' these authors, nicotine
is hot effective at concentrEtions slightly below 0.1 gm. ner







-18-
et 0.1 grpm per liter.
-liter,whereas rotenone is as effective at 0.005 ginm. per liter as it is/

Campbell, Sullivan, Smith,and Haller ( 56) in 1934 found
that rotenone at 1:100,000 killed 46 out of 50 mosquito lrvae
(Culex pipiens, C. territaens, and C. ouinouefasciatus) in 20
hours, and et 1:200,000 it killed 47. The higher concentration
killed half the larvae in 151 minutes, as comnered with 272 min-
utes for the loner concentration.

The larvae o' Culex pipiens L. and of Aedes vexans (Meig.)
(=A. sylvestris (Theob.)) were used by Ginsburg, Schmitt, and
Granett (112, 113) in 1934 to test the insecticidal value of
various derris extracts. A fresh su-oply of larvae was collected
daily during the testing period and brought Snto the laboratory.
The very young larvae were either entirely removed or were not
counted in the final results. Only larvae of substantial size,
apparently froTn 3 to 5 days old, were used. This precaution was
taken because it had been found previously that the very young
larvae Pre more readily killed by toxic chemicals than are older
ones. Furthermore, the young larvae are rnore sensitive to sud-
den changes of either media or atmosphere, as would inevitably
be brought about by transferring from field to laboratory con-
ditions. About 50 larvae were transferred to large porcelain
dishes containing 500 cc. of mixed ditch water and tap water.
The desired amount of extract in various dilutions was then
added from a pipette and wps stirred in with e glass rod. After
24 hours the dead and living larvae were counted. Several dishes
were run for each test in order to obtain a minimum of about 200
larvae. Preliminary tests showed that acetone extracts of derris
root are very toxic to mosquito larvae. Dilutions equivalent to
1 gm. of derris root in 10,000 parts ef water or lower invariably
produced a 100-percent kill of larvae and could not be used for
comparative tests, therefore only dilutions ranging from 1:10,000
to 1:80,000 were run in this experiment.. At dilutions of 10,000
20,000, and 40,000 the kill -'as equally high for all the extracts
(except No. 7), ranging from 85 to 100 percent. At dilutions of
80,000 the water extracts proved considerably lower in toxicity
than either the alcohol or the acetone extract. Pure rotenone
proved much inferior to the extracts in toxicity to mosouito
larvae. Dilutions of 1 pert of rotenone to 1,000,000 and
2,000,000 parts of water gave 50 pnd 10 percent kills, respecti-
vely, while acetone extracts containing similar concentrations
of rotenone gave 92 and 96 percent kills, respectively. The
results of toxicity tests of various derris extracts to mos-
quito larvae were es follows:






-19-


Extract Process of Dilution in Approximate.. Totall Kill after
ITo. extrectibn gm. of root dilutions in larvae 24 hours
g.m. of rotenone
~ ~ ~ IT ,k n n-.4


Soxhiet
acetone-


Soaked in
acetone


Soaked in
alcohol


Cold water


Hot water


1: 10,000
20,000
40,000
80,000

1:10,000
S:20,000
40,000
80,000

1:20,000
40,000
80,000

1:10,000
20,000
40,000
80,000

1:10,000
20,000
40,000
80,000


1I 250,000
500,000
1,000,000
2,000,000


1: 250,000
500,000
1,000,000
2,000,000


268
290
386
205


VIJL dA U"
100
96
92
80


271
286
211

280
286
329


208
216
--4 433
290


Mixture of 1:10,000
acetone and 20,000
water 40,000
S80*000


Pure rotenone
dissolved in
acetone


1: 250,000
500,000Q
800,000
1,000,000
2,000,000


Check (average from several series of tests)


226
284
346
281

208
284
368
228

292
297
213
321
265

880


99
100
94
51

100
99
86
51

93
90
74
46


The secondary extracts from the alcohol end acetone residues
renked vel'iV lo7, in toxicity. On the other hand, the.-toxicity of
the secbndery extract from the water residue Tres practically as
high at dilutions of 20,000 end 10,000 as were the primary extracts.
The results of toxicity tests of secondary extracts of derris-root
residue to mosquito larvae were as follows:






-20-


Extratt Ex.traction. Dilution in -Total--" Kill after 24
Nilo. process ginm. of root larvae hours
Number Percent
9 Residue from 1:10,000 294 99
water reex- 20,000 220 90
traced -ith 40,000 244 70
acetone 80,000 251 27

10 Residue from 1: 200 274 92
acetone reex- 400. 292 90
trncted -ith 800 229 92
water 1,600 242 48

12 Residue from 1: 400 232 94
alcohol reex- 800 229 83
treated with 1,600 221 51
water
Check 262 0

Culex quinquefesciPtus Say, the southern house mosouito

See Wrmpbell et al. (56) under Culex pipiens on page 17.

Bedertscher end Wotherspoon (13) in 1935 comrered the stabil-
ity of treated derris and pyrethrum powders -ith that of untreated
powders. Tests were made on several insects, including fourth
insters of this species. EY-.osure to a light from a Uvierc mer-
cury vapor ln-o operating on 118 volts -ith a current of 4.8
amperes end 450 -atts for 24 hours destroyed about half the toxic-
ity of e derris po-der containing 6 percent of rotenone End 18
percent of acetone extrectives. Treated powders (treatment not
described) prolonged the life of these powders "hen Mnos-d to
light. The authors concluded "(I) 2hat derris powder reouires
at least twice as long as pyrethrum to lose most of its toxicity
-hen exposed to the action of air and sunlight in the summer time.
(2) Zhet the re-oidity of the loss of toxicity in pyrethrum pcr-der
and in derris powder is largely directly dependent on the intensity
end duration of the light, (3) Thit derris powder loses its t.xi-
city relatively much more slowly then does pyrethrum powder -hen
exposed to rir in the absence of direct light, (4) That treated
derris powder after ex-'osure to light end eir shows an efficiency
from 34 to 93 percent ar,--ter then untreated derris oo,-der
similarly exposed."

Fink and Haller (89)' in 1936 reported on the relative toxi-
city to fourth insters of culicine mosquitoes (principally this
species) of optically active end inactive rotenone derivatives.
The optically active forms r-erc more toxic then the corresrOnlding
optically inactive forms. Tht order of toxicity was active




-21-


dihydrodeguelin > rotenone > active isorotenone (= inactive
dihydrorotenone) > deguelin> inactive isorotenone. Comparisons
were mide by plotting concentration (rag. per liter) against
the reciprocal of the mepn time (minutes) to kill 50 percent
of the larvae. The authors believed that the toxicity of der-
ris extractives can be attributed partly to the optically active
deguelin known to be present.

Woke (324) in 1938 showed that the toxicity of finely
pondered rotenone to mosquito larvae is not altered to a demon-
strable extent after 18 hours of incubation in the dark at 29 C.
with the fcont,-nts of the digestive tract of the southern armyrorm.
various tissues or with the
Phillips &nd Swingle (234) in 1940 reported on the rearing
of mosciuito larvae of Culex auinquefasciatus Say at Sanford, Fla.,
and the effect of diet on their resistance to rotenone and
nicotine. The percentage of kill after 18 hours by rotenone at
5 p. p. mn. ranged from 15 to 91 percent, according to the diet.
Of larvae collected in the field, 72 percent wiere killed by 5
p. n. m. of rotenone and 78 percent by 100 p. p. m. of nicotine.

Culex territans 7alk.

See Campbell et el. (56) under Culex pipiens L. on page 17.

Culex sp.

Campbell (50) in 19,2 published a critical review, of the
recently published literature on the insecticidal value of
rotenone end of much unpublished data obtained by Federal and
Stete entomologists. The action of rotenone on Culex sp. as
determined by Davidson (67) in 1930 and by Shepard (249) in 1931
was review-ed.

Corbett, entomologist for the Federated Malay States Depart-
ment of Agriculture (82) in 1934 reported that the effect of derris
solutions on larvae of Culex sp. was tried, and comparative tests
with nicotine sulfate were also carried out.

Miller (204) in 1935 described tests on various insects,
including Culex larvae, for the evaluation of different species
of Derris. Larvae of Culex sp. in 500 cc. of water were treated
with 1 cc. of an aqueous solution of D. elliptica at a concen-
tration of 1 kg. of root to 25 liters of water, and 94 percent
of them were dead after 4 days.

Stegomyia sp.

Worsley (326) in 1934 reported that tests on mosquito larvae
(10 in each test) of this species yielded the following results:





-22-


L=rvae deed efter-
Material Dilution 1 hour 24 hours
Number Nu mber
Crude te-nhrosin 1:100,000 8 10
1:250,000 1 4
1:500,O,'0 0 0

Alcoholic extract of 1:300 8 10
Tephrosia vogelii seedsl:500 2 4
1:750 0 1

Alcoholic extract of 1:100 9 10
Tephrosie vogelii 1:250 4 5
leaves 1:500 0 0

Water extract of 1:100 4 10
Tephrosia vogeljji 1:250 0 5
leaves

Theobaldia annulata (Schrank)

According to Gimlette (ll), writing in 1923, H. E. Durhem
found in England in 1902 that larvae mere killed in a 1:40,000 sus-
pension of the dried Dowdered crude root of Derris ellirtica. A
solution of 1:10,000 killed the larvae in 29 hoars and the pupae in
from 24 hours to 3 or 4 days.

Culicidae (unidentified spp.)

Daniels (65) in 1905 wrote that a frEagment of crushed fresh
derris root can be used effectiv-ely under all circumstances under
which kerosene can be used to destro'- mosquito larvae.

Tattersfield and Roach (271) in 1923 reported work on derris
done by Durham between 1902 and 1907. He found mnosouito larvae and
pupae to be usefully susceptible test insects.

De Ong and White (71) in 1924 reported that a commercial der-
ris extract of 16-percent concentration diluted l:50n,added to
mosquito-infested weter,killed 65 percent of the larvae but hed
no effect on the pupae. The po-dered derris root (undiluted)
sprinkled on the surface of the water killed 90 rerctent of the
larvae in 2 to 4 hours.

CPstillo (59) in 1926 re-orted the results of studies on the
insecticidal pro,-crties of thrce srncies of Derris gro-ing in the
PhilipTDnes, namely, D. ool.vanth- Perk., D. TilirTinersis '.err.,
end D. elliptica Benth. Tht- roots r-ere cut into thin tr-nrv, rse
slices and dried in an oven at 40 C. until the -eight remained
fFirly constant. The dried meteripl nas then comminutcd in P
mortar and the Toowderinn finally completed in e meet grinder. The
fine prn-der "Ps separated from the fibers by sifting through fine-
meshed cloth. In nosouito Irrvoc the nmost effective c.:ncentrptions





of De-ris philippinensis in bringing about the highest percentage
of deaths in the shortest time wvas 3:1,000. Solutions either
more dilute or more concentrated than 3:1,000 were less effective.
Concentrations Df 1:1,000 killed 19 percent of the larvae in 5
days; lower concentrations showed no effect at all. A concent-
ration of 3:1,000 or higher retained its toxicity e:einst mos-
quito larvae L3 to 16 days, Against both mosquito larvae and
aphids, Derris polyanthe was more effective then eith-r of the
other two species. In aqueous solutions it showed its superiority
against both insects (1) in bringing about the highest percentage
of deaths, (2) in the short time it required to kill, and (3) in
the retention of its virulence. Derris polyantha retained its
virulence in water and was toxic to mosquito larvae for 13 to 16
days. Derris elliptica end D. rhiliprincnsis ,'ere toxic for only
1 to 2 days.

Durham (78) in 1926 gave an interesting account of his early
work with derris, '-hich he regarded as essentially a stomach
poison. Field trials started in the ,Malay States in 1902 showed
it to be a potent agent for the destruction of mosquito larvae.

Kelsall et al. (159) in 1926 reported that derris, at approxi-
mately 1 pound per 100 imperial gallonss, added to a large tank of
water very heavily, infested with mosquito larvae, killed all the
larvae in 3 or 4 days.

The Canada Experimental Farms, Division of Chemistry (57) in
1927 stated that derris had been found very effective as an agent
in mosquito-control work.

In 1929 the Imperial Institute (146) reported the results of
tests made by the Entomological Branch of the Department of Agri-
culture in Nigeria, Africa, with Tephrosip vogelii. An aqueous
extract of the leaves was tested on mosquito larvae, but the larvre
thrived even in strong solutions. Adult mosquitoes seemed t6 be
attracted to the extract for oviposition.

Davidson (67) in 1930 reported that when pure rotenone dis-
solved in acetone was added to e tub of -ater to give a rotenone
concentration of 1:1,150,000, from 98 to 99 percent of the culicine
larvae were killed within 5 d?'s, the eggs present hatched, end the
resultant larvae died -ithin 2 days. Rotenone et 1:2,300,000 killed
95 percent of the larvae in 6 days, but the remainder transformed
into pupae, the e,0-s present hatched, end 20 percent of the resultant
larvae survived. Larvae and eggs iv untreated tubs showed no ab-
normal mortality.

Fulmer (90) in 1930 wrote thpt derris destroyed mosquito lprvae
when applied at the rate of 1 pothd to each 1,000 imperial gallons
of the water in rhich the larvae a- e present..





-24-


Danneel (66) i4n 1933 reported that 7 hours was necessary to
cause loss of motion in mosquito larvae in solutions of rotenone of
0.001 percent concentration (1:0 u. x. r..).

GnFdinger (117) in 1933 cited unpublished work by Ginsburg
which indicates that the nyrethrins are more toxic then rotenone
to mosouitoes,

Jones et el. (156) in 1933 reported on the loss in toxicity
to insects of.deoosite of rotenone end related mpteriels -hen
dxoosed to light. Rotenone, dihydrorotenone, rotenone hvdro-
chloride, rotenone-bentonite (l:l), rotenone-lempbleck (l:l),
ground derris root, end powdered derris extract "-ere each made
into e paste with water end painted heavily on weighed less slides.
After the deposits had dried the slides were weighed gein. One
group of slides was exposed to direct sunlight for 10 days during
April and May, a second group to sunlight for 20 d&ys, a third
group to arc light for 240 hours, a fourth group', of the three pure
compounds only, to arc light for 480 hours, end a fifth group -eas
kept in the dark Pt room temperatures. The deposits on these
*slides -ere tested against culicine mosquito larvae and goldfish
to determine the percentage loss of toxicity resulting from
exposure to light. In all cases the exposed deposits were decidedly
less toxic then the unexoosed end, with one exception, the loss of
toxicity increased with increasing exposure.- Rctenone, rotenone-
bentonite, derris root, derris extract, and rotenone hydrochloride
lost more then half of their toxicity during 10 days? exposure to
sunlight. Their toxicity was practically destroyed by the exposure
to arc light. Since dihydrorotenone lost only One-fourth to one-
third of its toxicity during the first 10 days' exposure to sunlight
it wes distinctly more resistant to detoxicetion during this period
thsn rotenone. At the end of 20 days in sunlight, however, end afte
ex osure to arc light, it had lost toxicity to about the same extent
as rotenone-. Lampblack markedly reduced the loss of toxicity of
rotenone during .the first 10 days' exposure, to sunlight end pre-
vented further loss during the last 10 days. It also r-pve some pro-
tection to rotenone under ere lizht. Neither bentonite nor the
substances' Occurring with rotenone in po-dered derris root and derri
extract protected rotenone from loss of toxicity. The unexoosed
powdered derris extract containing about 25 Tpercent of rotenone "as
as toxic- to mosquito .lprvpe as pure rotenone. It -es sho-n thtt the
photochemical decomno-osition of. -dry rotenone, which results in loss
of its toxicity to insects and fish, does not take rlece in the
absence of oxygen..

Spoon (257) in 1933 reported tests of rotenone as en insecticid'
in Holland end stated that rotenone pneered to have no value agnins
full-grown mosquitoes.

Turner (278) in 1933 recorded tests of insecticides against
mosquito lprvee in Connecticut. Preli-ninary tests mpde in l.1
showed that the use of rotenone with fuel oil -as n't so effective




-25-


as Dyrethrum. Rotenone in susnrnsion was also lomer in toxicity
than rnticintced, Moreover, rotenone is known to be highly toxic
to fish end, therefore, ras dropped from consideration.

Worsley (326) in 1934 reported that an alcoholic extract of
tephrosin is as effective against mosouitoes &nd similar insects
es pryre thrum iTf the insect's" ere actually hit rith it.

Tischler (275) in 1935 studied the mechanism of ho-. derris
kills insects. Studies on the heart rate.ts of various insects in-
cluding mosquito larvae shored that the rate of pulsation was
markedly decreased before the insects exhibited incoordinated move-
ments. Derris inhibits oxygen utilization by the tissues ehd its
detrimental effects are general rather then specific to any or-:n.

Feytpud End Lapparent (87) in 1936 published the following
formula for P mosquito spray: Cube po...der or derris powder 10 gin.
and ,yrethrum poOder 10 gin., is macerated in 100 gmn. of a mixture
of enual parts of terpinolene and orthodichlorobenzene or carbon
tctrr-chloride for 5 days -ith frequent agitation, then the product
is filtered end P perfume is added, for example, 10 percent of
"terrenF de citronelle."

Phillips (23) in 19?P reported a study of the effect of 13
diets on t;ie resistance of mosouito larvae to nicotine, rotenone,
andThenothiezine. By, feeding various diets to different Proups of
larvae it. ,;Es possible to cause c v-riation o0..75 percent resulting
from nicotine and rotenone in the mortality 'of fourth insters. The
vrrirti'n in the results from ohenothiazine -Fs not so great,
because in most cases the concentration used was high enough to cause
complete mortality. In general, the better diets caused more rapid
gro-th -nd resulted in morr resistant larvae. The diets diA not have
the same effect, however, '-'ith ell three insecticides--in other 7ords,
the l-rvpe most resistant to rotenone 1vere not the most resistant
to nicotine or phenothiazine.

Sullivrn, Phillips, and McGovrn (268) in 1938 reported that
=n extract of the fruit of the Amur cork-tree (Phellodcniron
amurense) "e s more toxic to mosouito larvae than ras a derris
standard containing 5.2 percent of rotenone.

Thornssen end Doner (274) in 1938 revie'-ed published information
on fly c-ntrol for livestock and mentioned rotenone for the control
of mosquito larvae.

The Division of Control Investigations of the Bureau of Entomology
Pnd Plant Quarantine, UnJitcd States Deprrt'nent of Agriculture (292),
in February 1938 reported tests -ith derris as follows:


Concentration Mortality of f-irth Instprs after
o. p. a 18 hours
So Not exposed Exposed
Percent Percent
20 40 11

50 94 53





-26-


The same Division (293), in May 1l?8, re-norted results -.f tests
-ith derris and cube on fourth instars as follo-s:



Material DosaLe per sq. cm. Mortality in 18
hours
'icrograms Percent
Derris (rotenone 20 98
5.4 percent; total 100 100
extrectives 15.5 20 100
percent 100 100

Derris-talc (rotenone 20 27
1 percent) 100 91
20 28
100 100

Derris-talc (rotenone 20 0
0.5 percent) 100 67
20 39
100 100

Cube (rotenone 4.4 20 95
percent; total extractives 100 98
20.7 percent) 20 100
100 100


H. A. Jones (153) in 1939 reported the presence of alkaloids in
cube root (0.08 and 0.40 percent in t-o specimens), timbo root (0.15
percent), end derris root (0.02 percent). The alkaloidal material
wrs nontoxic to mosouito larvae at a concentration of 1:10,000.

An anonymous writer (8) in 1941 reported that the name "Indalone"
had been registered as the trade mark of the solvent alphr, alpha-
dimethyl-a'lha -carbobutoxy-jem,.T--dihydropyrone, -hich was developed
for use in liquid contact insecticides as a solvent for derris-root
extrpctives, 1 hen used in this way, it hos the prwfrty of increasing
the insecticidal effectiveness of the ingredients dissolved in it and
of holding deTrris extractives in solution in the ccni nly used base
oils. Indalone is a powerful insectifuge Pnd rebels the common winged
insects, to ithich it eTyreers to have an obnoxious taste. ?ecaue ;,f
this high repellency, it is especially suitable for cattle Forays end
mcs'quito lotions.

Drosophilidae

Dros-phila ipipelophila (LoeT.), a pomace fly

Patterson (227) in 1935 published the indices of toxicity of e




-27-


number of poisons when fed to adult fruitflies. Three feeding media
or baits were used, (i) apple sirup, (2) molasses, end (3) cane
sugar-glycerine. The apple sirup and molasses were of ordinary com-
mercial grade. .They 7ere diluted with tap water before the poisons
were added; the apple'sirdip'and molasses to concentrations of 12.5
percent, and the cane and sugar-glycerine to 5-percent cane sugar and
2.5 percent glycerine. Poisons were all compared at 6 concentrations,
1:200, 1:400, 1:800, 1:1,600, 1:3,200,and 1:6,400. A wad of cotton
wool was thoroughly soaked in each of the poisoned baits and the ex-
cess liquid squeezed out. Finally each wad was placed in the bottom
of a shell vial of about 20 cc. capacity and 10 flies -ere intro-
duced. After being loosely stoppered with cotton wool the vials
-ere set away. Vials with unpoisoned baits were included as con-
trols. All tests -e!r( in duplicate, so 20 flies -ere used at each
concentration for/ ~g-. medium. Dead flies '-'ere'recorded daily for
a week when the test was concluded. Derrisine gave an index of toxi-
dity'of 20.4 in apple sirup, 29.3 in molasses,and 59.2 in the cane
sugar-glycerine mixture. The-correspbiding Values for Derrisol were
0.4, 0.7, and 2.0. Rotenone in cane sugar-glycerine ave an index
oT toxicity of 7.7. The mosttoxic material was 3.5-d:initeo-orthocresol,
which gave indices of.toxicity of 99.1, 95.8, and 91.6, respectively,
in the 3 baits. Powdered derris gave a toxicity index of 6.4 in the
cane sugar-.;lyeerine mixture, whereas derris extract in glycerine
(1:5) was without toxicity.

Drosophila sp.

The adults were used by the Federated Hi'ialay States Department of
Agriculture (83) .in 1936 to test the toxic value of derris extracts.

Craufurd-Benson (64) in 1938 reported that larvae are not sus-
ceptible to a derris preparation when dipped in it.,

Hip-ooboscidae

Pseudolynchia canariensis (Macq.), the pigeon fly

Bishopp (27) in 1929 reported that derris po-der was nearly as
effective as pyrethrum powder. From one to three pinches of the
powder, depending on the siye of the bird, when scattered among the
feathers destroyed all flies present. T-o pro-onrietary extracts of
derris root used at .the rate of 1/2 ounce and 2 ounces to the gallon
also gave a complete kill. The slight staining of the feathers from
the pyrethrum extract, especially on -hite birds, might be somewhat
objectionable. The derris products do not stain.

[elophagus ovinus (L.), the sheep tick

Wille et al. (322) in 1937 reported on the use of cube in dips
against IA. ovinus in Peru. In 1935 more than 300,000 sheep were treated







-28-


rith cube dip in the Junin area, and 150,000 in thEt of Puno. The
dips were obtained either from en extract prepared b', soaking the
chopped roots in water 48 hours, or from e po-der ground so fine
thAt'85 percent passed a 0.074 mm.-mesh sieve. In 1936 J. F. Mitchell
stated thrt the po-der yielded a dip that was more seronacenus, and
therefore penetrated better, thancthat from the extract. Dips made
"ith the powder did not keep nore than. 48 hours, whereass those made
,'ith the extract kert a week. The addition of 1/2 pound of soep per
100 gallons was recommended, and also that of 1/2 pound of sodium
carbonate to counteract the hardness of the water. For com-olete con-
trol of the parasites, sheer usually required 2 dips, 7ith about a
fortni-ht interval, twice a %,eer, ex_"cpt in serious irfesta-tions, '-hen
e third pair of dips was necessary. The effective concentrations of
ground cube root containing'6.8.percent of rotenone,. and of extract
containing 5.5 percent of rotenhone were, respectively, 1:2,000 end
1:10,000. The ground root and the extract ,ere equally effective a-nd
-ere in no -Py inferior to other dips.

Edwards (79\)' in 1938, in e popular account of rotenone-containing
insecticides, stated that they are effective against the sheep ked.

Ster'art (264) in 1939 reported tests of 5 dips for the control of
ticks on sheeP in Scotland; (A) A plain derris din (solution of
derris extract), (B) derriz-cerbolic paste, (C) derris-c:rbolic--ool fal
paste, (D) arsenic-carbolic -aste, and (1) a commercial tick-dip (Hihi-
land Tick Paste containing both arsenic Pnd-deriris). Those derris dips
that did not contain arsenic possessed negligible tick-deterrent pro-
perties. It was found that such-dips are efFicient tick-killina agents,
but under the conditions of the above test the- sho-ed little .vwlue
Ps repellents. This finding is not in agreement with the results of
critical smpl1l-scale tests, Fnd MacLeod sug .sts (in a onrsonal com-
munication to R. C. Roerk) that the discrepancy lies in the difference
in immersion time. The averrae hill sheTnhErd immerses his sheep for
somethingg less than 15 seconds. The duration of the actual i'n'mersion
period appears to be more important with de:.ris thpn -ith other dips.
The most satisfactory dip renprted by Stevsrt proved to be dip E,
which showed a marked deterrent effect 2 -eeks after use. Dusting
newly born lambs ,ith a derris pnepPrption gave better results than
dipping in a diluted derris extract, or tr ating with an oily sneer
containing derris., .I

The New Zealand Department of Scientific nr4 Industrial Research
(218) in 1940 reported that sheep-dip investizetions on shece infested
"-ith keds and lice, End treated in di"s. f various co'n.)sitions, in-
dicated that ell the operations containin.z ersenites, phenols, Pnd
rotenone 17ere effective -,:pinst adult kes, but in order t? be th:-oughl
effective the toxic influence should-be nrotrpcted'l-'h .nnouch to depl
rlso with the keds that emerge from the pupae. Incomplete trials
indicated *thrt derris possesses value for giving this delayed action.










Itonididae (= Cecidomyidae)

"Cecidomia negri" l

According to the Etablissements Rotenia in 1938, in a letter to
R. C. Roark, "Cecidomia negri" [Lestremia. nigra Blanchard may be
intended] on pear trees was mitigated by a product 'containing 12 per-
c dnt of powdered Lonchocnrpus nicou root (6 percent rotenone) and
88 percent of talcum.

Contarinia nasturtii Kieffer

Luefmans (172) in 1938 reported that deformed heart of cabbage
and cauliflower due to infestation by this species has caused con-
siderable loss in northern Holland since it was first observed in
1897. 'The adults wverc found to bo sensitive to derris and pyrethrum
dusts. Headed cabbage must be sprayed twice a week, but in slight
infestation of cauliflower one application weekly may suffice. Derris
may be recommended as a dust insecticide,. but spraying with a strong
jet is more effective, as it tends to wash away both larvae and eggs.

Contarinia pyrivora (Riley), the pear midge

The University of Bristol Agricultural and Horticultural Research
Station (39) in 1936 reported that field trials to test the efficacy
of a preblossom derris spray for control were defeated by the severe
late frosts at two centers.' At the third'the results were not satis-
factory.

DeBussy et al. (48) in 1936 reported that the maggots are not
affected by derris and results against the adults were unsatisfactory.

Contcrinia tritici (IKby.)

Yuasa (328) in 1936 reported that sprays containing either nicotine
sulfate or derris were effective for control of the wheat midge.

M'uhlow and Sj6berg (2084 in 1937 reported on control of the what
gall midges. No reduction in infestation was observed when plots
were dustud heavily with'pyrethrum powder or derris or sprayed with a
solution,of rotenone.

Dasynura mali Kieffer

The Massachusetts Agricultural Experi-uint Station (199) in 1937
raportcd that for control of the leaf-curling midge on r"ppl,' derris
extr.ict, summner-oil emulsion, and lime-sulfur were about equ'illy
efficient in reducing the number of curled leaves and were more ef-
f-ctive than nicotine sulfate and a combination of soluble and in-
soluble nicotine. Three and four applications were generally more
effective tharn one or two treatments, qnd this is significant because


-29-






-30-


the trees receiving three and four snrays -ere nearer the m"st heavily
infested. unspryed trees. ST-.,rying c-used e redicticn of 55 to 85 (200)
percent in the ntunber -f infested tips. In 1928 this st ti-n/reported
that ,etteble cubbe' po-der containing 3.65 ]percent of rotenone, used
t the rpte of 6 pounds in 100 gallons, "ith the addition of 3 pounds
of "'ater-soluble dizlycol stearate 7ax es a snrender Prd sticker,
r,'rlied to McIntosh end Richard 3-ye-r-old trees -Ps the most effective
treatment. In experiments against the second generation ni-)tlne sul-
fpte 1:800 plus molass-es 3 percent w-as the most effective treatment
end reduced the infestation 48 percent on Golden Delicious. The cube-
wax mixture -es good and averaged the best for both series. It rs
concluded that spraying alone is not e practical means of c,'Trhting this
species.

DiFrthrononyvip hypozpe- (Loevr.), the chrysanthenmuam ll nid-e

Penick and Co. (230) in 19.3 reporteA that ?.lif-x-, which h con-
tains both nyrethrum and derris extracts), diluted 1:400 with water,
o-ve en average mortality of 89 percent after 48 hours.

wionerthron-el-ous buxi Lab., the box-ooa leafminer

Hamilton (131) in 1925 re-oorted tests nmde in 192? -ith Derrisine,
a commercial preparation of derris. Derrisine dilut-:d 1:5`0 ys
epplbd in e mixture of blEckstrEr molasses, 1 pert to 4 parts of
,aetcr.' Both nicotine sulfate and free nicotine gave better control,
then the Derrisine.

Turner (277) in 1932 r,).orted thrt rotenone had not been Effective
in preventing injury.

Mycodinlosis alternate Felt

Felt Pnd Bromley (86) in 1939 reported on the life history and
control of the dogmood club-gall midge. In 19P8 a spray of 4 pounds
of rosin-residue emulsion and 4 pounds 'of cube po-der to 100 7rllons
of r'ater -es used, the applications being made lMay 14, 18, end 28,
and June 14, and a badly infested tree in tV: tree g-rden sh--cd no
ncr galls on July 7, Pnd only eight on October 10, indicating material
reduction -'ith this treatmecnt.

Th'ecodiplosis nosellene (Gehin), the "heat -iidgc

Yuesa (328) in 1936 reported that sprays containing nicotine
sulfpAte or ferris 'ere effective for the control of --.,Ilts ~f
(Sitodi-nlosis) Thccodiplosis rmosellane (Gchir.).

>iIho-" and Sj7ber. (208) in 1937 renortd on the control of the
-,hert -;rll mid-s. ...o reduction *in infestation 'ns observed "hen
plots -rere dusted heavily -ith pyr-thrun uo-'dcr or derris, :r spraved
"'ith F solution of rotenone a.-rinst (Clin:diplosis) T'.-;-iinlosis
mosellane (Gehin).






-31-


Hiuscidae

Siphoned irritens (L.), the hornfly

The Louispian Agricilturl1 Exocri-.ent Station (183) in 1925
reported that Derrisine in a fish-oil-so&p emulsioh of red-pine oill
',es effective in controlling or repelling hornflies on cattle.

E. W. Lake, of the Dallas, Tex., laboratory of the Bureau of
Entomology end Plant Quarantine, United States Department of Agri-
culture, in a tyne-ritten report to the Division of Insects Affecting
-in end animals in 1936, reported that po--dered cube r-ot, rotenone
concentrate, aid man T other mteriels -"ere ineffective as repellents.

Bruce (43,44) in 1940 reported results of tests on the medication
",f cattle for the control of larvae in the droppings. The general
idea was to feed the cattle certain chemicals, which would pass out
in the droppings and render them toxic to the larvae. The most
effective material tested vas rotenone. Doeses of 0.4 gin. per
hundredweight killed all larvae in the drop-oings for approximately
30 hours.

lusca domestic L., the housefly

See Doty (76) undei Stomoxrys calcitrans (L.) on -age 49

Mclndoo, Sievers, and Abbott (193) in 1919 reported the results
of tests of derris powder. In cage terts, where flies 1ere dusted
in ordinary flytraps about 10 inches high, all 17ere dead or inactive
'"i thin 24 hours. In room tests, where the powder wps freely blown
into the air and all parts of the room Tith a small hand dust gun,
all the flies 7ere deed at the end of 16 hours. In one test several
hundred flies -ere liberated in a room thct had' been thoroughly dusted
7 days before. Very fe,- active flies -ere to be seen 24 hours later
-nd on the second day only 3 or 4v'ere living.

Kelsall et el.. (159) in 1926. re-orted thc results of tests in
which derris at the rpte of 5 pounds per 100 imperial gallons of
-" ter was sprayed on the flies. The .,rcr-v w7s shot at them both
'"-hile they were resting and ,-hile they were on the ,-ring. Such flies
became restless almost immediately and began cleern.n- themselves
vigorously. Most flies were deed withinn 24 hours urd all a1i'cred
to be dead within 48 hours. Derris ras also dusted on flies but its
action -as much slo'-'er and after 1 day none were deed, so" it was not
considered effective. Had these flies been kept under observation
lon-er, a subsequent mortality miTint hrve been noted. Derris spray
'-'s also observed to kill several other flies of undetermined species.

Fulmer (90) in 1930 reported that houseflies -ere -'mnenble to
derris.





-32-

Laake et el. (165) in 1921 reported the results of tests of
materials as attractents or repellents. Be.- f-liver bait, 4 ounces,
tc -hich 5 n. of derris powder -as adiled, attracted only 10.8 per-
cent es many flies as did untreated bait. A mixture of 1 part of
derris powder and 9 parts of kaolin attracted 6.3 percent.

Little (182) in 1931 compared the insecticidal properties of
Tenhrosia vir-iniena end derris. The pnodered root ,f the d:vil's-
shoestrings suspended in -eter at 1:8:'0 end sprayed upon flies, with
no spreader, killed from 3.6 to 74.3 percent (adcordinz to thc origin
and treatment of the root). Derris in similar tests at l:8-i0 killed
78.2 to 85.3 percent of the flies.

Campbell (50) in 1932 revieNed unpublishr'd 7-ork by Davidson,
7ho made 15 tests of rotenone as e stomach poison against flies.
Eight tests were made in screen cages in a greenhouse and 7 in a
room of 500 cubic feet. Rotenone mes dissolved in acetone and eAled
to diluted condensed milk ar to a dilute solution of molasses. Cot-
ton -as soaked in the mixtures and exposed in petri dishes to the
flies. The food was not ren?--ed during a test. Each test was paired
with a check, in which flies -ere given unTpoisoned food. The flies
used in most of the tests were between 1 day and 2 days old. The
numbers of flies used per test ranged between 18 end 118. In 6 tests
all flies were killed in 28 to 72 hours. In 5 other tests more than
90 percent were killed'in 24 to 48 hours. The quantities of rotenone
in the cotton r?n-ed from 10 to 100 r:. In one test only 0.8 m.;. cf
rotenone was used, but a mortality of 84 percent was obtained in 94
hours. Except in one case, little or no mortality occurred in the
checks. It was concluded that rotenone will kill flies by '-a:- of
the alimentary tract but that its toxic action is slow. In a few
additional experiments with-rotenone as a stomach poison, Davidson
gave the flies a choice of poisoned and unpoisoned milk. As vo'uld
be expected, the mortality was lo-er than in earlier exr,:riments, when
the flies had access to poisoned food only. A satisfactjr- kill did
not result after exposure for 2 days. As comparisons were not made
at the same time between poisoned foods only end poisoned food -it.
unpoisoned food, it is not certain that rotenone had a deterrent effect
on the flies, although such an effect is probable.

CF-r.bell (50o) in 1932 reviewed all work done un to that ti-ime '-ith
rotenone against the housefly. Cam)bell and S-.l1livan founO that
this fly weas among the species most resistant to aqueous susp-nsions
of rotenone. Suspensions of 1:5,000 npearently hed to affect on house-
flies, although rhen the flies were examined under the microscor e
after the treatment, crystals of rotenone cold be seen distributed
over the integument. Against the housefly, rotenone need not be
applied in suspension in rater, but mnay be trnliee in solution in an
organic solvent. Kerosene, so largely used as e solvent and carrier
for the pyr-thrins in household sprays, is not a azecd solvent for
rotenone; hor-evcr, the effectiveness of a saturated solution in kerosene
hzs nmt yet been determined. It seemed more pronisin-:- to nix kerosene
with v solution of rotenone in an or.gnic liquid that is miscible -'ith






-3'-


kerosene, the. mixed solvents carrying P higher percentage of rotenone
in solution then would kerosene alone. Davidson tested a 1:2,000
solution of t-;otenqne in kerosene-ethylene dichloride in a standard
fly chamber ((6 ft. by 6 ft. by 6 ft..) at te-ioer.?tures ranging from
69 to 880 F. Five tests -rere run and etch test -as paired v-ith
a check of the mixed solvent without rotenone. From 11 to 33 cc.
of the liquid was sprayed into the chamber, half of it thr:u'h a
hole in one side end half through a hole in the opposite side. The
mixed solvents alqne had little or no effect qn the flies, but the
rotenone solutions paralyzed from 29 to 84 percent of them in 10
minutes, depending on the volume of the soluti.-on sprayed into the
chamber. Com'-i-idel pyrethrum fly sprays, vhen tested in the same way,
paralyzed a larger percentage, but rotenone si-rnys may kill a greater
percentage of those affected. In Davidson's test with 33 cc. of the
rotenone solution, 43 out of 51 flies were brought down and 42 of these
died.

Campbell and Sullivan compared the effects on houseflies of
1:10,000 solutions of the pyrethrins and of rotenone in absolute
alcohol. A very marked difference in the initial and final effects
of the sprays was observed. At first ll the flies were paralyzed
by the pyrethrins, whereas none were visibly affected by rotenone.
Then, as the flies treated with thepyrethrins began to recover, those
treated "-ith rotenone began to be affected. After 24 hours practi-
cally ell the flies treated ..ith thepyrethrins had recovered, whereas
a considerable number o7ere dead or dying from the effects of rotenone.
The final 48-hour count showed 2-percent mortality for the pyrethrins
and 22-percent mortality for rotenone. It might be advantageous to
apply the pyrethrins and rotenone together in order to utilize
simultaneously the rapid paralyzing action of the one and the slow
killing po-er of the other. 'From a toxicological point of viel" it
would be desirable to test the pyrethrins end rotenone together and
separately in order to determine to what extent their combined effect
is additive.

Houseflies were being used by Cpnbell end Sullivan as test
insects for the determination of the relative toxicity of rotenone
and related compounds. The spraying chamber consisted of a glass
cylinder 8-1/2 inches in diameter and 17 inches high, and a bell
jar of the same diameter and 13 inches hi;h, rTich rested on top
of the cylinder. The cylinder stood on a shellow copper trey in
which the flies were confined. The top of the tray could be opened
or closed at "ill by a sliding co-,per plate. A spray gun '-as mounted
in the hole at the top of the bell jar and connected with a com-
pressed-air line. The flies in the tray at the bottom of the cylinder
could be sprayed directly, or by manipulation of the copper plate
could be exposed for any desired period to a settling fog of the
spray. Trectmtents could be made in ft,.e cold or ct room temperature.
When the treatments were made in t cold room zt 32 F., 50 immobile
flies were placed on their backs on a circle of filter na)er on the
bottom of the tray. After the. tr:.-tment the flies were transferred
to cages placed immediately in a high-ternp-reture room et 83 to







-34-


84 F. Here they regained their mobility in about 5 minutes end the
poison took effect. Counts of deed and dying flies were made et
the cnd of 46 to 48 hours. Under these conditions an ecetone solution
of rotenone (1:5,000) killed tout 40 ner'ent M*f the flies. Then
active caged flies were treated in the same way at room temperature,
the 1:5,000 solution killed about 90 percent.

Tests in the cold room led to one significant result thpt could
not have been obtained at higher temperEture. "'ith immobile flies
it was shown that the effect of the 1:5,000C treatment depend-s on the
position end exposure of the insect's body with respect to the set-
tling fog. When the flies w-ere paieced on their feet so that the fog
settled on the wings and dorsum, they "',ere not affected. When they
were placed on their backs so that the fo.- fell on the venter and
oleural aree many were killed. Tnen th:y were -placed on their backs
end the heeds or abdomens were covered the mortality was -reatly re-
duced, indicating that the poison probably enters eli three regions
of the body when the flies on their backs ere fully exoosei. Although
the treatments in the cold were of the greatest possible uniformity,
the results from day to day varied as- much as those obteinel at higher
temperatures. Later tests were therefore made at 83 to 8-t0 F. -ith
the apparatus described above. For each test 50 chilled flies 2 dcws
old were counted out into large petri dish, which was then covered
-"ith wire screen. 7hen the flies had resumed their normal activity,
the dish wrs placed in the bottom of the c.n'er tray and the spraying
chamber 7F-s assembled above it. Absolute ethyl alcohol ,es -ised as
the solvent for rotenone and related compounds because it hhs nod.
permnc-nent effect on the flies. Alcohol vas prefcrrtd to acetone for
1-ork at high temrioeratures because it does not evaporate so rEpidly.
At 20 pounds' pressure bout 10 cc. of the alcohol solution -as
spr yed into the chamber --ith the flies exposed. The spraying operation
took about 10 seconds, after whichh the flies were exposed to the set-
tling fog for 3 minutes, and -ere' then transferred to a, cage with focd.
Final counts of deed end moribund flies were made at.the end of 4'6 to
48 hours. Results ere expressed as percentage of effect, each dead
fly equeallinz 2 percent and each moribund fly 1 percent. The rearing,
spraying, Pnd observation of treated flies were ell done in the same
constent-temrerpture room. The following average results were obtained
in terms of percentf-ie of effect of 1:5,000 solutions: Rotenone 86.4
percent (10 tests), dihydrorotenone 65.5 -nercent (10 tests), rotenone
hydrochloride 30 percent (10 tests), acetyl rotenone 25 percent (7
tests). The following compounds produced less then a IC-,crccnt effect,
hence cannot be clessified in order of vtlue until tested et hi.-~.er
concentrations: Isorotenone, des x,.'rotenone, dehyd-orotenone, roter.onic
acid, dihv.-drorotenonic acid, acetyl rotcnolone,.cnd ecetv.l di:n-yiro-
rotenolone. .

Gn:1in.-er end Corl (118) in 1932 reported on the relative toxicity
of pyrethrins and rotenone Es fl.i-sprpy in-:rodients. Mixd :.-, -thrins
(56.8 recent pyrethrin I and ?7..2 percent pyrethrin II) in a hiz-hln
refined Pennsylvnnia mineral oil, "D ocene" (3.4 m-. n-r 100 cc.),
c-used an -vcrne-e knock-dorm of q4 -'c'rcent end en ever- -e kill of 46






-35-


ncrcent when tested on houseflies by the Peet-Gtredy method.
Rtcnone et the same concentration gave an aver-ae knock-dovm
of 76 percent and. an average 1'ill. of 30 percent. A mixture
of 31.7 mg. of pyrethrins rith 31.7 mg. of rotenone gave an
average knock-dow-n of 85 percent and an avcr?,-e kill of 42 per-
cent. Because of the lo- solubility of'rotenone in the oil, 5
percent of acetone wes added to the solution. Allowance was
Plso made for the petroleum ether introduced when the stock
solution of pyrethrins was diluted with the mineral oil. All
the solutions tested, therefore, contained 5 percent of acetone
arnd 7.2 percent of petroleum ether, by volume. Neither acetone
Cr petroleum ether was toxic to flies in these concentrations.
The mineral oil gpve P kill of less than 6 percent by the Peet-
Grady method. The authors concluded that the addition of smell
amounts of rotenone to oil solutions of nyrethr'ns does not
increase the toxicity as much as does the addition of the same
amount of pyrethrins.

The United Stptes Department of Agriculture, Bureau of
Entomology (287), in 1932 renortced that tests of alcoholic
solutions of rotenone and 13 derivatives of it against houseflies
showed that rotenone wvs more toxic than these derivatives, that
dihydrorotenone ras nearly as toxic es rotenone, followed by
rotenone hydrochloride end acetyl rotenone, end that the other
10 derivatives were relatively nontoxic. Tests against the house-
fly of dusts of derris root and of rotenone 'showed that this
species is killed by extremely smell quantities of both. Com-
parative tests of powdered derris root and of the same root from
-*'hich rotenone had been extracted showed th-t thoroughly extracted
rc.t was not toxic to houseflies. Comparative -tests of alcoholic
solutions of the pyrethrins and rotenone showed thpt the former
has a more rapid effect on houseflies, but that the insecticidal
value of the latter is greater. R6tenone when sprayed in alcoholic
zulition on houseflies acted as a contact poison. It had no effect
on flies when administered in suspension by mouth, nor did it have
any effect in the vapor phase at room temperature.

Bedertscher (10) in 1933 reported the results of fly tests
-'ith solutions containing both pyrethrum extract and rotenone.
SEmples representing four brands of commercial fly sprays vere
diluted "-ith an eoual volume of a base solvent (Deobase) contain-
in2 0.1 percent of rotenone, These mixtures were com-nered b, the
FPet-Gredy method with the ori:inKl samples and also -ith the
original samples diluted with en equal volume of base solvent.
In ell-' eases the addition of rotenone increased the killing po-er
of the sprays to flies. Badertscher concluded that 0.05 percent
of rotenone in a housefly spray has value, but that the intelligent
use of rotenone in this field requires e knowledge of the amount
of Active principles of pyrethrum -ith -hich it is to be incorporated.

Campbell and Sullivan (51, 52) in 1933 reported the results
,f 13 series of tests, showing that a kerosene extract of a good




-6b-


sample of derris was more effective as a housefly snra-r than a
similar keorsene extract of a good sample of jpyrethrum. Pyrethruim
was speedier in its initial action. Theoretically, mixtures of
derris and pyrethrum extracts should combine the advantages of
both. The same authors reported later in the year that only 1 of
9 seamples of Tephrosia native to the United States (T. latidens
from Florida) had shown any promise when tested as a kerosene
extract against houseflies. It was not so effective as a sample
of derris.

Campbell, Sullivan, and Smith (55) in 1933 determinned the
relative toxicity of nicotine, anabasine, and other alkaloids,
and of rotenone for control of houseflies. Rotenone, 0.1 gm. per
liter of absolute ethyl alcohol, sprayed on flies in a screen-
covered petri dish at the bottom of a cylindrical glass spraying
chamber, usually killed more- than 50 percent of the flies. l.one
of the alkaloids affected them.

Gstirner and HMinerbein (127) in 1933 tested samples of bar-
basco root and bark, thought to be Tephrosia piscatoria, against
houseflies. With the ether extract of the root, a significant
insecticidal effect was obtained, but this was very much less
than the effect of pyrethrum flowers. The bark had no toxic
effect against houseflies.

H. H. Richardson (239) in 1933 tested kerosene extracts of
derris, both alone and mixed with kerosene extracts of pyrethrum,.
against flies. Kerosene extracts of derris powder (2.9 percent
rotenone) were prepared by first macerating the powder for several
hours with kerosene in a glass percolator end then allowing per-
colation to proceed slowly. Extrcts were prepared on the basis
of 23.8 gm. of opcder to 100 cc. of "--rosene (approximately 2 lb.
to 1 gal.). Pyrethrum extracts were prepared by the same meth':d
in the proportion of 11.9 gm. of pyrethrum powder (0.26 percent
pyrethrin I) to 100 cc. of kerosene (rrrroximatel- 1 lb. to 1
gal.). The combination of derris extract with ry:'-ethrin extract
was prepared by -ddin. 16.6 cc. of the derris extract, orer:.rel
as above, to 83.3 cc. of the pyrethrum extract. -his was tested
in comparison "with another sampile of the same'pyrethrum extract,
diluted with 16.6 cc. of kerosene to 83.3 cc. of the extract.
The results of the insecticidal tests were as follows:


M
Test solution Tests Flies. Average time mortality
: required to after 24
___ ______ ___ paralyze hours
Ilumner Number Seconds Percent
Kerosene 2 94 405 18

Kerosene extract of
derris 2 110 2

Extract of pyrethrum 4 197 197 46

Eytract of oyrethrumn plus
derris extract 4 lqp 190 59





-37-


Kerosene extracts of derris were much more toxic then kerosene
alone. The addition of small quantitiess of derris extract to
pyrethrum extract apparently geve'ea significant increase in toxicity.
'Whether the toxicity of the kerosene extract of derris was due to
rotenone is a question. Certainly rotenone was present. Jones and
Smith (157) report that the solubility of rotenone in kerosene at
200 C. is less than one-tenth of 1 percent. Possibly extractives
.of. derris. other then rotenone contributed to the toxicity of the
kerosene extract. Derris apparently contains some kerosene-soluble
compounds,. which add considerably to the toxicity of the kerosene
to'-ard houseflies.

SB.ock,-(35). ir 1934 reported that en aqueous. e-xtrect of derris,
made into asirup with sugar, proved lethal to flies that fed on it.
-* The active constituents of this extract were soluble in ether. The
marc from the aqueous extract gave even more effective extracts pith
alcohol and ether. Large dosages caused regurgitation.

: CamDbell, Sullivan, and Jones (53,54) in 1934 reported the
Results. of. a. comprehensive study of kerosene extracts of derris
* root as housefly sprays. Kerosene extracts of four samples of
derris root, three of cube root, end one of haiari stems were tested
Against houseflies by a modified laboratory method. All were ef-
fective. The extracts of 'derris rere on the whole more effective
than those of cube. The extract of haiari ste-s was the least
effective. Rotenone is not the only toxio -co-pbnent of kerosene
extracts of these plant materials, but it appears to be an i-noLortant
one. LIethoxyl content may be a better chemical index of the insecti-
cidal value of rtenone-bearing plants then rotenone content.
Deguelin, tephrosin, and toxicarol were tested in alcoholic solution
in comparison with rotenone. ieauelin 'Was nearly as effective as
rotenone, tenhrosin slightly effective, end toxicarol ineffective.
.These investigators also made comparative tests of extracts of der-
ris and of pyrethrum against houseflies. Com-oareble kerosene ex-
... -tracts of. good samples of derris root end of pyrethrum flowers
j"rere tested. against houseflies in a small glass chamber, in Peet-
.Gredy chambers, -nd .in rooms, 'The pyrethrum extracts were more
effective in paralyzing flies, the derris -extracts were more
effective in killing them. It was believed that kerosene extracts
of derris have practical possibilities as hbusefly snrays.

Dibble (73) in 1934 recom-'iended e cattle stray made by soaking
S1/2 pound of ground pyrethrum flowers in 1 gallon of mineral spirits
for 48 hours. Water solutions containing pyrethrum and derris were
tried but "ith indifferent success. They -orked more slowly and
probably killed fewer flies.

The -United States Department of Aericulture,- Bureau of Entomolojy
S(289), in 1934 reported'that kerosene extracts of Toots of derris,
cube, and Tephrosie virginina, end Of haieri stems, tested against
houseflies, led-to the following conclusions: Rotenone is not the
only toxic component of kerosene extracts of rotenone-beering i-lnts,
but it appears to be an important one. A given weight of derris root





-38-


is likely-to yield a larger volume of effective kerosene extract
than the same weight of py;ethrum flowers. Pyrethruld extracts are
more effective in paralyzing flies, derris extracts more effective
in killing them. Kerosene extracts of the samples of Tephrosia
at hand 1ere not so promising as -ere those of derris and cube.
Both kerosene extracts and acetone extracts of rotenone-Deering
plants were tested to find out the relations between chemical com-
position of the roots and effectiveness of the extracts against
houseflies. Rotenone content -as usually a good index of insecti-
cidal value, but in some samples of derris their extracts -ere
more effective than their rotenone content indicated. The value
of these aberrant samples was indicated by the percentage of total
acetone extractives or methoxyl content. In the samples of derris
and cube studied, effectiveness was correlated on the hole better
with methoxyl content than with any other single chemical deter-
minstion.

Jones, Ceampbell, and Sullivan (155) in 1935 reported tests
on 32 samples of both kerosene and acetone extracts of Terhro.ia,
collected in different parts of the United States, against houseflies.
The relative effectiveness of the kerosene extracts 7es similar to
that of the acetone extracts, and the latter -as well correlated
,with the degree of blue or blue-green color given by the Durham test,
which the effectiveness of a sample of TErphr sia can be roughly
predicted. The insecticidal results were not -ell correlated '-ith
other chemical determinations. A c)mn Erison of kerosene extracts
of a sample of derris root (rotenone, 1 percent) -ith those of a
sample of T. latidens (rotenone, 0.4 percent) from Florida showed
that 1 part by weight of the derris was equivalent in effect against
houseflies to more then 8 parts by weight of the Tephrosia. Tests
Tith acetone extracts against houseflies showed that average commer-
cial samples of derris and cube are about 10 times as toxic as a
sample of T. virginiane root (rotenone, 0.3 percent).

The same authors (154) in 1935 compared results of toxicity to
houseflies of extracts of six spmules of derris root, five samples
of cube root, one sample of halari stem, and one sp'mle of Tcohrosia
virgini;na root rith the values obtained on these samples by certain
chemical determinations. The quantities of rotenone present in the
sprriles were too lo'. to account for all the toxicity. In more than
half the samples the figures by the Gross-Smith test, considered
as representing the sum of rotenone and dczuclin, agreed with the
toxicity value, but in other samples they rere lower. Total-
extractive values -ere higher than toxicit:y, and values based on the
methoxyl content of the extract "ere some hat closer but -ere also
too high. When an approximate value for toxicarol was subtracted
from the methoxyl figures, the results agreed more closely '-ith the
toxicity figures in general than did the results of other determination.
It was impossible, however, on the basjis of the present results, to
recommend unreservedly any, one of these chemical determinations as a
measure of the insecticidal effectiveness of roteno.ne-bepring plants.




-39-


Jones end Smith (157 in 1936-proposed formulas for cal-
culeting from the rotenone end total extractive contents the
eoproximete toxic value to houseflies of samples of derris and
cube roots. .The toxic value of derris root eouals rotenone
content plus.0.5 of the rotenoid content; th&t of cube root
is the same except that a factor of 0.4 instead of 0.5 is used.
The rotenoid content is the total-extractive content obtained
-ith carbon tetrachloride, benzene, or acetone, minus the
rotenone content.

Bedertscher (IlI) in 1936 compared results by the Peet-Gredy
method and the Campbell turntable method. One sc-le tested con-
sisted of 90 percent of Deobase end 10 percent of oil of sassafras
end carried 1I gm. of rotenone per liter. Results by the two
methods (50 tests each) on this .sample were as follows:



Method Plies used Flies down in Flies deed in Flies deed
... .......10 minutes 24 hours 'in 48 hours
I-amber Percent Percent Percent

Peet-Grady 4,785 94 64- 91

Campbell 4,859 88 59 89


Badertscher concluded that the Peet-Grady-method yielded higher
kills on pyrethrum sprays and thiocyenate sprays than did the
Cemnbell turntable method, but the turntable method yielded higher
kills on sprays that contained rotenone than it did with straight
pyrethrum sprays.

DeBussy et el. (48) in 1936 reported that the housefly was
controlled by dusting with derris '(rbtenone 7 percent, but sprays
of derris mixtures containing 0.5 and 1.0 percent of rotenone killed
only about half the flies arid many -'ere only temporarily incapacitated

Cory, Harns, and Anderson (63) in 1936 reported that pyrethrum
,nd derris dusts had little or no repellent action against the
housefly under conditions of forceful tropism. The housefly was
less susceptible to the toxic action of pyrethrum &nd derris dusts
than was the steblefly.

According to Van der Laan (166) in 1936, the housefly is some-
,'hat sensitive to derris.

LIePelley end Sullivan (179) in 1936 reported a study of the
toxicity of rotenone and pyrethrins, alone and in combination, to
houseflies, when tested by the turntable Iethod. Rotenone was from




y' Ak[ '





-40-


five to six times as ,effective as pyrethrins containing pyrethrins
I and II in ecual proportions, when mortality counts were manede
at the end of 3 days after treatment. 'Jo striking synergistic
effect was produced by 50:50 mixtures of these solutions but they
appeared to be significantly more effective than had been expected.
It was doubtful whether the 25 (rotenone): 75 (nyrethrins) mixtures
17ere more effective than expected. As the results showed that
mixtures of rotenone and pyrethrins are compatible, attention was
given to sources of rotenonelike insecticides for mixing mith
pyrethrum extracts for the control of coffee insects in Kenya. A
few tests were made of acetone extracts of the leaves, roots, and
stems of a sample of Tephrosia vogelii received from Kenya. The
effectiveness of these parts decreased in the order named. The
extract of the leaves,w-hich contain the largest proportion of
toxic materials, ex,-rted en effect equivalent to a rotenone con-
tent in the plant materiel of about 2 percent. The tested sample
of T. fogelii foliage was, therefore, about one-fifth as effective
as commercial samples of derris and cube.

Murphy and Vandenberg (209) in 1936 compared the action on
houseflies of sprays containing rotenone, pyrethrins, and Iethane
384, which contains 50 percent by volume of beta-butoxy-beta'-thio-
cyanodiethyl-ether. Butyl cellosolve acetate -as used to make
the chemically pure rotenone soluble in petroleum distillate. The
knockdo-n by the standard Peet-Grady test was determined for
solutions containing 1, 2, 3, and 4 percent Lethane 384; 1/4, 1/2,
3/4, and 1 pound of pyrethrum r-cr gallon; end 0.02, 0.05, end 0.1
percent of rotenone. The results were as follows:



Solution Knockdown in 10 Deed in 24
minutes hours
Percent Percent
1 percent Lethane 384 98 35

Pyrethrum 1/4 pound per gallon 69 29

Pyrethrum 1/2 pound per gallon 85 45

Pyrethrum 3/4 pound per gallon 89 56

Pyrethrum 1 pound per gallon 92 67

Rotenone 0.02 percent 74 47(48 h-urs)

Rotenone 0.05 percent 96 56 (-o.)

Rotenone 0.1 percent 98 61 (do.)





-41-


STwo percent of Lethane 384 caused a knock-dorm of 100 percent
in 4.minutes; 3 percent, 100 percent'in 3 minutes; end 4 pcrcgnt,
100 percent in less than 3 minutes. 'A combination of 2 percent of
Lethene 384 end 0.5 pound of pyrethrum yielded knock-down of 100
percent in.3 minutes, that is, slightly fester than the 2-percent
solution of Lethane, 384 alone, and much faster then 1 pound of
pyrethrum alone. T-'o-percent Lethane 3P4 plus 0.05 percent chemi-
cally pure rotenone makes a spray causing 100-percent knock-dornm
in..hss thpn 4 minutes, or is practically equal to 2-percent
Lehsnc 384, and much faster than any of the rotenone solutions
used alone. The data on the killing po-er of these sprays show
that. the. substitution of pert of the pyrethrum or of the rotenone
-ith relatively smell percentages of the Lethane 384'notonly greatly
increases the knockdovmwn power but also increases the killing rower.
The mixture of Lethane 384 and rotenone gave a kill of 83 percent
in 48 hours.

The United States Department of Agriculture, Bureru of
En-tomology and Plant Quarantine (290) in 71936 reported that sus-
pensions of the po-dered roots of certain rotenone-beprin'7 plants
and extracts of these plants were outstanding in their effectiveness
against the eggs of the Housefly.

.H..E. Whitmire, of the Whitmire Research Cor'noretior,, in a
letter to R. C. Roark, dated February 24, 1936, said that a series
of rotenone derivatives ranging in melting point from 120 to well
over 200 C. had been prepared. The one melting at 178 is called '
Rotoxlene. Rotoxlene in concentrations ranging from 15 to 100 mg.
per 100 cc. in a mixture of ethylene dichloride 5 percent, pine oil
5 percent, end .kerosene 90 percent gave kn6ck-do-ns according, to '
the standard Peet-Gredy method ranging from 27 i6 96 .percent in
10 minutes and final kiiis ranging from 27 tb 95 percent at'the end
of 48 hours. A screen painted with e solution of 1 p6und of'Rotoxlene.
in 100 gallons of oil (0.12 percent) killed every fly thet came in
contact'. with it. In I letter dated Aioril 14, 1936%; hitmire reported
that at a concentretiot of 50 m.', per 100 cc. of a 50:50 by'volume
mixture of ethylene dichloride and pine oil, Rotoxlene gave a
knock-down of 92 percent in 10 minutes according to the standard
Peet-Gredy fly spray test; also 92 percent dead at the end of 48
hours. "

S. 7.orslev (327) in 1936 dusted the powdered bark of Miundulea upon
houseflies.. The' flies were deed after 10 to 12 hours, whereas
p'-rethrum killed in 8 hours. Derris containing 5.4 percent of
rotenone acted' similarly, Kerosene extracts (10 percent) :of. Mundulea
bark. hpd a strong. repellent action' on houseflies. Several hours
later dead flies could 'bde picked' up.

Badertscher (12) in .1937 reported that in'ordcr to ascertain
the true value of a semiconcentrete or -'high-kill spray the material
should be diluted to such'a concentration thet its killing po'er
rrill fall som.e-here near the 50-percent kill mark or rt least should
closely Pnrroximcte that of the 0. C. I. (Official Control Insecti-
cide) of the national Association of Insecticide end Disinfectant
,i manufacturers. The 0. C. I. contains about 90 mg. of pyrethrins








per 100 cc. and gives a kill of 50 to 60 percent by the Peet-Grady method.
High-kill sprays were prepared in accordance "ith formulas published in
conjunction with an invitation for bids from the insecticide industry. These
samples were prepared in accordance with specifications Y. Y. G. D. No. 334-B,
November 20, 1935. Under Section V, No. 2, there were set forth specifications
for three different combination sprays as follows:

1. Not less than 0.3 percent of pyrethrins and 0.1 percent of
rotenone. Derris extractives were permissive if the insecti-
cide thereby contained not less than 0.1 percent of rotenone.

2. Not less than 0.3 percent of pyrethrins and aliphatic thio-
cyanates corresponding to a content of not less than 0.78
percent of thiocyanoacetic acid (approximately 2.5 percent
Lethane.)

3. Aliphatic thiocyanates corresponding to a content of not less
than 2.34 percent of thiocyanoacetic acid (approximately 7.5
percent Lethane) plus 0.1 percent of rotenone. Derris extrac-
tives were permissive if the insecticide thereby contained
not less than 0.1 percent of rotenone.

These sprays all gave better than 90-percent kill of houseflies, which
places them in the class of sprays containing 400 mg. of pyrethrins per 100
cc. Rotenone was added as a 1 ginm, per 100 cc. solution in camphor-oil sassa-
frassy.

The Dow Chemical Company (77) in 1937 announced that it had prepared
beta-(p-tertiary-butyl-phenoxy)ethanol, called Fly Toxic K-58. A 3-percent
solution of this in oil gave a knock-dorn of 91 percent in 10 minutes and a
kill of 45.5 percent in 48 hours by the Peet-Grady method. When 0.075 per-
cent of rotenone is added to this the knock-dorwn is raised to 99 percent and
the mortality in 72 hours to 92.2 percent. Para tertiary butyl phenoxy ethanol
is stated to be an excellent solvent for rotenone. Solutions in the base oil
show no tendency for the rotenone to crystallize. This compound is also a
stabilizer for rotenone.

Simanton (252) in United States Patent 2,089,766 issued in 1937, claims
an improved insecticide comprising in stable admixture a petroleum fraction,
a substance chosen from the class consisting of ethylene glycol monethyl ether
acetate and diethylene glycol monoethyl ether acetate, pyrethrins, and at least
one of the active toxic ingredients of derris and cube. Among the solvents
that have been employed as blending agents in combination with petroleum
naphthas are: Ethylene dichloride, carbon tetrachloride, acetone, carhor
-sassafras oil, benzol, and chloroform. These solvents all objectionable for
a variety of reasons, chief of which is that their odor is distinct' disagree-
able. Ethylene glycol monoethyl ether acetate and diethylene glycol monocthyl.
ether acetate are'each completely miscible ,rith the petroleum fractions known
as naphthas, and are also miscible to a more limited extent with higher
-boiling petroleum fractions.







Simenton seid:

In one actu ..emb.odi7ent of the invention I
nrepered such a solution. 'by first formin; e 5-pT)ercent
solution of crystalline rotenone in dicthylene
glycol mpnethyl. ethEr acetate and then adding 1
pert bf this solution to 100 parts of a oettoleum
naphtha extract of pyrethrum flowers prepared by
extracting 1.2 pounds of pyre thrum flowers -Tith a
deodorized petroleum naphtha. TVie resulting .product
-"as.a stable, nonvolatile, substantially odorless
solution of excellent insecticidal properties.
When tested according to. the E.eet-Grady method,
the solution repeatedly gave a knock-dorn value
of 98 end a kill of 85.

Sullivan (266) in 1937 reported that an increase in con-
centration of pvrethrins in semiconcentrete fly sprays of
Tyrothrum at first brought ebout.a' corresponding increase in
toxicity to houseflies,.but et higher concentrations the mortality
curve leveled off. When sanroles.of pyrethrum of different
ryrethrin concentration were diluted to the same concentration,
the mortality of the flies was nearly the sme in ell cases.
Semi concentrate fly snrays containing paired combinations of
rotenone, en aliphatic thiccyenate, and pyrethrins,rhen undiluted
cave almost equally high mortalities in 3 days, but when diluted
-ith 2 parts of kerosene there .was a -ide range in kill. A com-
parison of the mortalities at the end 1, 2, and 3 days shortcd the
desirability of a 3-day observation period when the spray contains
rotenone. It seems, therefore, that the best method for the bio-
logical testing of semiconcentrete fly sprays is to dilute them
and compare them with a standard. Pyrethrins (0.3 percent) plus
rotcn ne (0.1 percent) gave a higher kill thnn tyrothrlns (0.3 per-
cent) plus en aliphatic thiocyanrte (2.5 percent)-'jr than rotenone
(0.1 percent) plus an aliphetic thiocyenate (7.5 percent). The
Pcti.)n of the pyrethrins and the eliphatic thiocyanate, 9hen used
alone, -'as complete over a 24-hour period, producinC death or a
complete recovery of the flies, whereas rotenone is s slor-cting
r-oison requiring a 3-day observation period. For this reason
mortality counts rere made at the. end of the first, second, and
third days.

Ro~rk (241) in 1938, in a review of the comparative insecti-
cidal value of derris end cube of equal rotenone content, referred
t-D the work of Jones and Smith (157) and of Cemarbell, Sullivan,
and Jones (53), '-ho tested extracts upon the housefly and re-oorted
derris to be superior to cube.

Salliven, Phillips, *nd McGuvren (268) in 1938 reported thpt
an extract of the fruit- of the Amur cork tree (Phellicndr-n
Fmurense) shoa'ed considerable toxicity rhen tested against the
housefly, being about as toxic as derris containin, 5.2 nercrnt of
rotenone.


,* .-43-





-44-


The United States Department ;f A-riculture, '-; e.u of Enr.tomolog-y
end Plant Quarantine, Division of Control Investigetions (294)in Iq38
reported thet a petroleum ether extract of derris (I. Z. U:. 3007)
dissolved in kerosene applied as a s ray to adult houseflies killed
90 percent after 72 hours. Another petroleum extract of derris
(I. D. No. 3354) in kerosene killed 86 percent after 72 hours.

Bliss (34) in 1939 published a discussion of the toxicity of insect
cides r.F-lied jointly. From a study of the dosage-ncrtality curves for
several mixtures containing fixed proonrtionsof the ihzrrefients, pre-
ferably in c'mrierison 7ith equivalent curves for the isolated active
in-redients, most cases of combined action can be classified into one
of the follo-Inf three tyoes: (1) That in 7hich the constituents
act independently and diversely, so that the toxicity of Pn:; combination
can be predicted from that of the isolated components and from the
association of susceptibilities to the tro comrnonents. (2) That in
which the constituents act independently but similarly, so tht one
ingredient can be substituted at a constant ratio for any pro-oortion
of a second without altering the toxicity of the mixture. 7ith homo-
geneous populations, dosage-mortality curves for the separate ingredient.
and for all mixtures should be parallel. Mixtures in this category
are more toxic then in the preceding class where association may range
from 0 to 1. (3) Synergism forms the third type of joint action,
characterized by P toxicity gre-ter then that predicted from studies
on the isolated constituents. The log LD50 of ether extract for six
samples of derris root w"as related to the percentage composition of
two components in the extract, rotenone (A) End dehydro mixture (T).
Since the toxicity of extract could be expressed almost entirely i'.
terms of these tiro constituents they were then related to each other
by the second method. Yone of the samples contained a very small uro-
portion o-f one ingredient, so that several eouctions were eouplly
applicable, one of them being (1+0.714A) B=56.1, from v'hich the
intensity of synergism '"-as 40.

Kilgore (160) in United States Patent 2,149,917 issued in 1939,
claims a process -hich comprises the extraction of rotenone and other
compounds having insecticidal properties from rotenone-bearin: plants
by means of an ester belonging to the class of organic compounds kno--n
as delta-e-psilon-unseturated-alpha-gamma-diketo cerb.:'xylic esters of
the general formula:
R4
R 1 ....
SC= C-CC- CH2- C0- C CR3
R2g.

-,herein RI and R2 are the same or different Drganic radicals or
respectively one or-Pnic radical and one hydrogen atom, R4 is an
alkyl radical or a hydrogen atom, ond R, is anr organic radical for'-
ing en ester of the cerboxyl rour. Not only do these esters effectively
extract rotenone from such plants but they carr. the extrectcd rotEn-ne
into solution in sorayable vehicles, -such as h.vdrocerbjn solvents, thus
effecting a direct transfer of the rotenone from the plant to the final
insecticide solution. Tests ae,:ainst houseflies -erE made with extracts





-45-


prepared by forming a paste or heavy dispersion of po-,dered derris
root in the ester wherein 10 parts of the root were admixed -'ith 25
pprts by weight of the ester. This mixture was then heated at 100 C.
for 1 hour. Tbe extract was removed by filtration, yielding in most
cases extracts having strae-yellow to brown-red color. Four-percent
solutions of each of the extracts were then made using a deodorized
kerosene solvent suitable for insecticidal tests and filtered when-
ever necessary. The insecticidal effects of these solutions were
then compared to that of similar concentrations of the esters alone
by bio-asseys, using houseflies under identical controlled conditions.
The results of these tests are shown in the following table.



Esters used as extractants Pure ester only Ester and
Extracted
rotenone
A. Derris root extractions Percent Percent

iMesityl oxide oxalate, ethyl ester 9 100

iesityl oxide oxalate, n-butyl ester 30 100

!Aesityl oxelate, iso-butyl ester 16 100

Mesityl oxelate, seo-amyl- ester 53 100

Mesityl oxide oxalate, cyclohexyl ester 17 100

Mesityl oxide oxalete, tetrahydrofurfuryl
ester 4 85

Acetalacetone exalate, n-butyl ester 80 100

n-Butyralacetone oxalate, ethyl ester 6 95

3-Methyl-3-pentene-2-one oxalate ethyl
ester 45 85

3-Methyl-3-hoptene-2-one-oxalate, ethyl
ester 2 100

T-trahydroecetophenone oxalate, ethyl
ester 4 98

B. TIephrosie- virginiana root extraction

-Mesityl oxide oxalate, n-butyl ester 30 67

C. Cube root extraction

Mesityl oxide oxalate, n-butyl ester 30 62


s"f-. PLI.ANT U ARDk
STArrK. PLANT J3nA1HD





-46-


The bio-assa-;s "ere made rith 5-day-old houseflies, caged in
5-inch by 5-inch, cylindrical, all-wire cres,zsing apt-roximately
100 flies to the caee. Each cage ras serfretely exposed to the
same amount of finely atomized sreay or fog from whibh the larger
droplets had been removed, by using en L-shaped pine, 6 inccs in
diameter and 1 foot lone on each side of the elbow, mounted -ith
one side of the L in a vertical position. The cage of flies -Ps
then sutispended in the top of the unright pipe eand the atomizer -as
placed at the other end of the L. Five cubic centimeters of the
diluted ester of the extract was then atomized into the pine at the
bottom end, producing a highly dispersed, smokelike fog, -hich 'as
driven evenly throughout the cage. The cage -as then removed and
set aside.for 24 hours, vihe i thejvime.r. of.".ded.' "-as .determined-
the term "dead" including flies th:t were paralyzed end unable to
feed after 24 hours.
Pierpont (235) in 1939 reported that the insecticidal action
of solutions containing 50 end 100 gig. of rotenone, resDectively,
per 100 cc. and 7.5 percent of safrol in a petroleum-oil base ras
increased by the addition of 2.5, 5.0, 7.5,-and 10.0 percent of
D. H. S. Activator (ethylene glycol ether of pinene). The increases
were less then with pyrethrum fly sprays, a'orroximetir.ng 5 percent
for each 2.5 percent of activator added'. The 24-hour mortality for
rotenone fly sprays was increased by the addition of D. H. S. Acti-
vator, without any significant reduction in the 24-to 48-hour
mortality characteristic of them. As 'ith pyrethrum fly sprays
D. H. S. Activator reduced the knock-down time of the rotenone
-sefrol combinations in relation to the amount added: that is, the
more Activator, the quicker the knock-down. Fly sprays cf roten-ne
(100 rmag. per 100 cc.) and safrol (7.5 percent) in a petrcleu.'-)il
base and these same sprays containing various amounts of D. H. S.
Activator were stored in airtight tin cans at room temperatures
ren.ing from 70o-80 F. and likewise exposed to heat '(a cDnst~nt
temp-erature of from 100-105) for 8-1/2 months without any signi-
ficant loss in toxicity or reduction in the activation effect.

The loss in the toxicity of fly str.rays conteinin,- rotenone,
safrol, and D. H. S. Activator, -hen exposed to sunlight end lizht
in flint- lass bottles, is correlated rith color change-s Pnd pre-
cipitation. Although disintegration apparently takes lace more
rapidly than with the rotenone and safrol alone, the Activpt-'r
functions in maintaining such sprays at a relatively hi .-:h t.xic
level. Ethylene gl.,c:l ether of pinene ( -. H. S. Activat-r) is rn
effective activator for both pyrethrum and rotenone and c?n be
safely and economically included in commercial fly ipr ys.

Sievers and Sullivan (251) reported in lqO9 thpt they used the
housefly in the turntable method for evelueting different extracts
of the root of devil' s-shoestrin.', (Tephr -ie virji-inr.:na). Acetone
and chloroform were eouelly effective in extrcctin: the active rrinci-
ples, and hcatini the extracts did not de':mose them.

Sullivan, .'I-G.vren, F-l-s, and Go-J!hue (21?) in 199 reported
that the smoke formed by sprpyin- solution of rotenone in safr'l






-47-


or acetone against a hot plate (400 C.) ,as very toxic to house-
flies. An oleo-resin containing 25 percent of pyrethrins, alone
and in combination with rotenone, also gave very -ood results.
This method of application of rotenone has many advarttages over
other methods: (1) The smoke containing rotenone is very stable;
(2) it is not readily adsorbed on surfaces such as walls or floors;
(3) it has high efficiency in respect to amount of material used
and amount of solvent required; (4) it is probably less dangerous
to the health of plants; and (5) it is easily confined, as compared
with most other fumigants.

Allen and Brooks (9) in 1940 reported the results of a detailed
study of the effect of alkalinity on rotenone-bearin; dusts made
by testing kerosene extracts of the dust mixtures on houseflies. The
diluents tested ranged in pH from 4.23 for calcium sulfate to 12.5
for hydrated lime. Powdered derris, timbo, and barbasco were mixed
"!ith the diluents in the ratio of 1:9. It 'es concluded that rotenone
-bearing dusts prepared from highly alkaline diluents, and kept in
damn storage without light for 7 days, exhibited little or no chanrL-e
in pH, but showed considerable loss in toxicity -hen used in kerosene
extracts in tests with houseflies. Parallel samples of acid dust,
kept under identical storage conditions, retained their toxicity.
Dry or unmoistened alkaline and acid samples remained unchagge4. The
addition of sulfur to the alkaline dust mixtures prevented deterior-
ation of the rotenone-bearing dust mixtures under the conditions of
this experiment.

Goodhue and Sullivan (119) in 1940 reported on toxicities to the
housefly of smoke from derris and pyrethrum. The effect of the smoke
from a burning mixture consisting of 50 percent. of derris, 30 percent
of cornstalks, and 20 percent of sodium nitrate -as tested against
the housefly. The tests were made by exposing the flies in cages in
a Peet-Grady chamber for 1 hour at 25 to 29 C. Derris smoke ras
more than 10 times as toxic as the smoke from pyrethrum burned in
the same way. The presence of rotenone in the smoke, even after 1
hour, 7as demonstrated by the Goodhue red-color test. The derris
mixture at 4 ounces per 1,000 cubic feet killed 95 1.7 percent of
the flies in 72 hours.

Mironoff et al. (206) in 1940 reported tests vith derris against
the housefly. The mortality -as about 97.6 percent I-hen pyrethrurm
,-as used in dosages of 2 gm. in 1 cubic meter, irhereas derris gave
97.8 percent kill under the same conditions, -ith only one-t,-entieth
of the dosage used for pyrethrum. The action of derris is slo,-er
than that of pyrethrum. The paralysis caused by derris is fetal
to the fly, whereas the paralysis caused "by pyrethrum does not
always result in a kill.
Sievers et al. (250) in 1940 reported on the changes in the
insecticidal value of the roots of cultivated devil's.-shoestrin--s
at 4 seasonal growth periods. For the toxicity tests made on the
housefly by the methods of Ca-mpbell and Sullivan, acetone extracts




-48-


mere made by shaking the s-mrle with acetone for 7 hours, using euch
noronortions that each' cubic centimeter of the filtered extract renre-
sented 0.2 gin.m, of the plant material. Only one determination was
made of each sample each day. The materials were applied as an
acetone spra.y at a c-.nc,ntration of 8 mng. of plant materiel ner cubic
centimeter of solvent. Six tests were made, each on 38 samples.
Each set of 38 consisted of composite samples from several nroo-enies
of each of the 10 parent plants fr:=m eech of the 4 gro'-th stages,
except that in 2 cases materiel was not available. Clonal progenies
of 10 parent -iants of Te nhrosie virginiana were grown under culti-
vation in northeastern Texas to study the changes in the amount of
rotenone and chloroform extractive -oresent in the roots of such -_r?-
'gcnles and their toxicity to houseflies at 4 seasonal stages of
growth. The roots were dried and ground, the amount of chloroform
extractive end ro.ten'one determined, and the toxicit-', of acetone
extracts tested on houseflies. The results indicated that at the
full-bloom stage -the roots were significantly more toxic to house-
flies than ;at the dormant and emerzencestages, but their suaneriority
over those at the mature-seed stage was lees pronounced. The chljro-
form extractive and rotenone content was also highest at tne full
-bloom stage. The toxicity of the roots of the several clonal pro-
genies of the same parent did not vary significantly, but signifi-
cant differences were found in this. respect between the nrd:enies of
different parents ,

The United States ODnartment of A4riculture, Bureau of Ent-mol:,gy (2
and Plant Quarantine, Division of Control Investi{rtions,/ in 19-0
reported that rotenone in ser'rol (20 mn-. per cubic centimeter, dis-
persed by dropping on a hot plate, caused 15-percent kncck-do.-n :f
houseflies in 10 minutes, and killed 65 -crccnt in 2 days en: 83
percent in 3 days.,

The W"hitmire Research Corporation (q9) in 19.4 published an
accob-nt of repellenc.v tests against houseflies. A series of rerel-
lent ralk tests developed by Whitmire and Dennw, at Sta Louis, M .,
has demonstrated the effectiveness of this method in checkin- the
toxic and repellent values of contact insecticide 'sprays. -lie test
w,,s conducted by painting 125 m.-. of spray on 8.75- sourt? inches
around the toi.) of the arc of a circular screen roach icae. The btsc
of the ce--e 7ws a funnel which extends into the observEtion cee.E.
Flies so affected vrith 1,- paralysis that they cannot fly ~r -alk
fell through" the small opening at the bottom of .the funnel int the
observation r7:--e, ,here they had ar.cdss to food and water. 'Thc fuin-
nel openirn- could be kept closed by a c-rk st:=jper in cricr t-:
record the percentpaes of knock-down at d,:finite time intcrvsls.
The livestock spray used ,ias a 10-percent solution of e mixture :1f
tephrosin, de-uelin, sumptrol, toxicarol, ani other hi,7hlv t:xic
unidentified substances -xtrpcted from dcrrls reins. Th- eac rwas
painted 1 hour before the flies -ere introduced anJ t'nc fcllo-ing
average results were recorded: Aft,,r 10 minutes 6 pT, rcer.t -, r"
down; after 30 minutes 74 percent -ere down, at :'nt hour 98 percent
-ere down, Fnd at the end of 'i h urs 99 percent '-ere dead.





-49-


Stomoxys calcitrans (L.), the stablefly

The Maryland Agricultural Experiment Station (19@) in 1935
reported that progress had been made on the general insecticidal
project in the study of pine oils, pyrethrum, and rotenone as repel-
lents.

Cory, Harns, end Anderson (63) in 1936 reported that pyrethrumn
enO derris dusts had little or no repellent action under conditions
of forceful tropism, and that the protection given cattle by
pyrethrum and derris dusts ras'obteindd through the toxic action of
the materials. The stablefly vas more susceptible to toxic action
of pyrethrum and derris dusts than the housefly. Pine oil increased
the toxic action of the derris-dusts, -hich have a relatively low
initial toxic rating. Pyrethrum-impregnated dusts afforded more
protection per unit cost, than the derris-impregnated dusts, but the
derris-iimpregnated dusts mere more toxic per unit.

E. W. Laake, of the Dallas, Tex., laboratory of the Bureau
of Entomology and Plant Quarantine, United States Depar'tment of
Agriculture, in a typewritten reTort in 1936 to the bDivision of
Insects Affecting Man and Animals, stated that powdered cube root,
rotenone concentrate, aid m7n-f other materials were ineffective as
repellents.

Doty (76) in 1937 reported on insecticidal tests conducted on 'both
wild and reared Stomoxys flies-by the Peet-Grady method, using 2li-
* phatic thiocyanate Lethene 384), pyrethrum, and rotenone sprays.
These flies were found to be considerably less resistant than house-
flies. Field and laboratory repellency tests showed that Stomoxys
flies were repelled by these sprays to about the same extent as are
houseflies; therefore, data obtained from repellency tests on house-
flies with these materials are. also ap-oplicable to the Stomoxys.

Mycetophilidae

Lycoria pusilla (Meig.)

An anonymous (6) writer in 1937 stated that derris was inef-
fective.

Lycoria praecox Meig.

Symes (269) in 1921 reported that pure derris powder applied ti
a bed of mushrooms infested with the mushroom fly cleared the bed of
insects in 2 or 3 days, but had no effect on Hynomyces fungi. It
was concluded that mushrooms rill not stand treatment -?ith Dpoder
insecticides (such as pyrethrum, derris, and 1-percent )areadichloro-
benzene). -hen not checked in their growth by these powders, the
mushrooms were rendered absolutely unfit for market.

Lycoria sp.

Thomas (272) in 1934 tested derris ae.-inst mushroom insects.





-50-


Rotenone dusts killed some sciarid flies but. seemed to be much slower
in action than pyrethrum dusts, and heavy doseges of proprietary
rotenone compounds placed in the manure were ineffective against
insects there, perhaps because these compounds were affected by the
alkalinity of the manure.

Miles ahd Miles (203) in 1935, in discussing the use of derrie
for combating greenhouse pests, said that soil or manure infested
with eggs or maggots of fungus gnats, Sciara sp., should be treated/beiL
with some insecticide such as derris or'pyrethrum before/taken into
the house.

The United States Department of Agriculture, Bureau of Entomology
and Plant Quarantine (291) in 1938 stated that tests made against
various species of mushroom-flies, Sciara sp., in the mushroom houses
at Beltsville, Md., with a number of drenches and with derris powder
demonstrated that the drenches containing free nicotine or the alco-
holic extract of pyrethrum. gave the best results as judged by crop
yield.

Hamilton (132) 'ini 1939 recommended derris or cube extract sprays
as contact poisons for'the control of white maggots in the soil
around house plants.

-Oestridae

Hypoderma bovis (Deg.), the northern cattle grub

See Bishopp et al. (29,32) Case (58), MacDougall (188), De Bussy
et al. (48), Wells and Schrodder (313T7, the United States Department
of Agriculture, Bureau of- Animal Industry (281), Bureau of Entomology
and Plant Quarantine (297), and Wells (311) under Hypoderma linestum
(De Vill.).

Hypoderma cross Patton, a goat warble fly

See Bhatia (26) under Hypoderna lineatum (De Vill.), :n page 51.

Hypoderma lineatum (De Vill.), the common cattle grub

Bishop et al. (29) in 1926 reported that a proprietary derris
extract, 1 part, plus 10 parts of water (containing 4 oz. of soap
per. gal.), killed 100 percent of cattle grubs -hen injected Tith an
oil can directly into the grub holes in the backs of the cattle.
Derris powder, 8 ounces, plus soap, 4 ounces, ner gallon Df water,
applied twice as a wash on the back, also killed 100CO percent of the
grubs. Tests with dry derris powder, derris powder rith paraffin
oil, derris powder with petrolatum, derris rovder "-ith s:-ap end
water, and derris powder "ith water only are recorded. The percentage,
mortality of Hypodernma bovis Deg. !as not so high as thptof H.
lineatum. The authors concluded that tests )f the puolication of
1-ashes, ro-ders, end ointments to the backs :f the cattle and also






-51-


the injection of substances into the cysts containing the larvae
show that each of these methods of treatment is effective if
certain materials are used. Derris used as a wash, as an ointment,
or as a powder is r-mong the most effective of these.

Walton (305)in 1927 reported on the control of warble flies in
North Wales. The killing properties of derris appeared to be
excellent. The ointment (1 part of derris powder plus 2 parts of
...... soft paraffin) is odorless, and the cost is low. On the other
hand, the ointment was found to be much more difficult to apply
and olive oil was utilized, the ointment then consisting of 1 part
of powdered derris, 1 part of soft paraffin, and 1 part of olive
oil. This improved the texture and rendered application easier.
Hypoderma lineatum is the predominant species in North Wales.

Case (58) in 1929 reported that six 3-year-old steers in Burkes
Garden, Va., infested with ox warbles (Hypoderma lineatum and H.
bois) were treated in March 1927 'ith derris powder. One animal
was treated by removing each scab, then sprinkling on the powder
and rubbing it 'ith the finger tips. At the time of the examination,
3 days later, this treatment had killed all 5 larvae in the animal.
The other 5 animals "r-ere curried over the back, ribs,and loin 1-ith
a round, spring, stock comb; the powder was sprinkled on by means
of a shaker can and rubbed. in quickly but thoroughly. This method
of application caused a mortality of 24 out of a total of 50 larvae.

ManDougall (188) in 1930 rernorted details of experiments carried
out in Scotland with 5 propnrietary dressings for the control of
Hypoderme bovis end H. lineetum in cattle. A wash of derris powder
and soft soap gave very satisfactory results, killing 2,785 of the
3,035 larvae treated. In mixing the wash, care should be taken that
the boiling "-ater in which the soap is dissolved is cooled to blood
heat at least before being poured on the derris powder, or the active
principle of the latter may be affected.

Little (181) in 1931 reported on the insecticidal properties of
the devilts-shoestrings (Tephrosie virginiana). The roots dug from
several localities at various times of the year were dried by different
methods end then finely ground in en herb mill. Encouraging results
were obtained on common cattle grubs.

Later Little (182) retorted in 1931 that the powdered root of
Tephrosia virginiana dusted on cattle grubs in the backs of cattle
'killed about 90 percent within 10 deys.

Bhatia (26) in 1934 re-norted that the goat warble fly (Hyooderma
cross PattonTand the cattle warble fly (H. lineatum (De Vtul.)) do
'greet damage to goat skins in India. Reference is made to the
successful use of derris and Polvo against warble grubs in England.





-52-


DeBassy et al. (48) in 1936 reported that HKrjoderma tovis end
H. lirnetjirm can best be controlled by washinF the animals with a
s-ispension of derris in water.

Wells (309) in 1927 submitted the following table showing results
of rreliminrry tests et 'clcreaio Snrins, Colo., in which rotenone,
derrick DOTder, and devil's-shcestrinas were used against larvae of
HycLderma lineatum encysted in the bac-s of cattle.


Hethod of
treatment

External

Injection


Do.
oC, .

Do.


Do.


: Comnosition of solution :Animals Larvae Larvae
Oil I Cresol Benzol P.otenone treated treated. !surviving
Cc. C ac. 4m. Number Number ..mber Percent
45 5 50 3.0 14 217 10 3.15


5 50

5 25

5 25

5 25


70 5 2
Cresol com-
iound
45 5 5i
Cresol com-
pound


1.0

1.5

0.5

.1.0

0.5


0.5


4 115


9 211

20 234

7 135


10 202


7 6.08

4 7.67

11 5.21

17 7.26

15 11.11


31 15.34


Four animals were treated externally -ith undiluted devil's-
shoestrings (1.72 percent rotenone) at the rate of 3 ounces ier animal,
with the result that of the 288 encysted larvae 250, or 86.8 percent,
survived. On one animal, given an external applicEtion of 3 ounces
of undiluted derris powder (3 percent rotencne), 51.11 percent of the
90 encysted larvae survived.

R. W. ellss, in a typewritten renort to the Division of Insects
Affecting Man and Animals, Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine,
United States Department of Agriculture, in March 19"7 on the c,-ntrol
of Hypoderma lineeturn larvae in the backs of cattl- in Colorado, Mis-
souri, ?nl Iowa, stated that in 1934 it was found that a treatment
with a solution made up with 70 cc. of paraffin oil, 5 cc. of cresol,
25 cc. of benzol, and carrvin. 1 -m, of rotenone to each 100 cc. of
the c-mposite solvent, ,vas survived by only 5.59 percent of the larvae
treated (by'injection into the cyst), whereas s the same solvent "dthout
rotenone was survived by 75.47 pJLrcent of the larvae treated. Numerous
tests led to the conclusion that 1 gn. of rotenone per 100 cc. of






-53-


solvent is about the minimum advisable dilution for, external treatment;
the external treatment is -fully as efficient as the injection; and the
inclusion of the other derris resins, in addition to the rotenone,
docs not add significantly to the efficiency of the preparation. As
"-ould be expected, more of the solution was used in the external appli-
cation than '"as required for injection. Approximately 400 cc. of the
solution was used in treating externally the backs of 14 cattle carry-
ing a total of 317 grubs.

Wells (311) in 1940 published directions for the use of derris and
cube washes in the control of cattle grubs. The powder, soap, and
waterr are mixed in the following proportions: Water, 1 gallon; cube
or derris powder (5 percent rotenone), 12 ounces; soap, 2 ounces. One
gallon of the wash is sufficient to treat the backs of 12 to 16 adult
cattle, depending on how long and how thick the hair is.

Wells and Schroc-der (313) in 1939 reported on the effectiveness
of derris washes on cattle grubs. Washes consisting of 8 and 12
ounces of derris per gallon of water, plus 4 ounces of soap, applied
at the rate of 1/3 quart per animal, are less toxic to Hypoderma bovis
than to H. lineatum. In the former species the third instars were
more resistant to the washes than -ere the second instars -hile with
the letter species the reverse was true. Hand rubbin- of the backs
of the animals after a-oplication of the insecticide was more effective
in killing H. lineatum larvae than was brush rubbing, but in treating
animals infested with H. bovis the latter method was just as effective
as the former.

The United: States Department of Agriculture, Bureau of Animal
Industry (281) in 1940 stated thEt experimental work was continued with
-ashes containing derris powder and cube powder to determine their
value and relative effectiveness as larvicides for 'the common species
of ox w-rrbles (Hynoderma lineatum). The washes were -nrepared just before
Fprlicetion and consisted of -arm water, soap, and derris or cube powder,
'he soap, usually in flake form, was added to the r"arm after r in the
proportion of 4 ounces to a gallon, and the derris or cube powder in 12
or 16 ounces per gallon. About 1 pint of wash was applied along the
back of each animal treated. The liquid *"as then spread evenly over
the back and sides and into the hair coat with an ordinary scrub brush.
The experimental cattle were located in Texas, He"- Mexico, Colorado,
and Missouri. They -ere infested with grubs of H. lineatum. Grubs of
H. bovis Deg. were not found in any of the cattle. The cattle were
treated when grub openings began to appear in their skins. Derris and
cube po-ders were equally effective as larvicides for battle grubs.
The powders contapining 4 percent of rotenone, used in the proportion of
12 ounces to gallon, w-ere as effective in killing grubs in situ as
those containing 5 percent, "-hen used in the proportion of 16 ounces to
a gallon,' -but the former was not so effective as the latter in killing
grubs that came upl after treatment was applied. In most cases more than
one treatment -as necessary to eradicate the grubs. Some treatments





-54-


were applied when the outside te-mperature was as low Es 20 F., but,
although the cattle were exposed to cold, inclement -either, no injury
,as detectable.

The United States Department of Agriculture, Bureau of Entomology
and Plant Quarantine (297) in 1941 called attention to the' presence of
both the common and the northern cattle grubs in northern Color-do end
across 'Iyoning, Pnd to a demonstration of their control -rith cube -ash
at a ranch near Parkman, Wyo. It "es planned to treat about 15,000 head
of range cattle for cattle-grub control.

'Hynoderi.a sp.

In December 1916, Lemmens and Fryer auolied for certain British (17?,')
end-German '(176, 17'7) patents covering the use as"Insecticides of po-rder
and extract of Tephrosia, particularly mentioning T. vogelii. The
patentees stated that the purpose of the invention wes to provide
improved means for the destruction of insects, vermin, and similar para-
-sites of various animals and plants, such means being suitable for ready
use as an insecticide powder or '-'ash for spraying upon r.lants, trees, end
other vegetable growth, and upon soil, and as a shoe-D dip, a cattle
dressing, or a wash for animals, whereby the parasitic pest could be
destroyed withoutt injury to the plant or animal life. In 1917 Lemmens
and Fryer (174, 175) applied for tnd were- granted United States patents
covering the same invention.'

Bishop, Laeke, and Wells (30)in 1922 stasted that a single apnli-
cation of derris in soap-y water applied with a brush to the backs of
infested animals killed almost 100 percent of, Hypoder-e larvae.

Wells, Bishopp. anO Laake (312)-.in 1922 reported that en ointment
consisting of 1 part of derris to 2 parts of vaseline, epoolied to
warble holes in the backs of cattle, rwas as effective as anv other
material used in this -ay. Five da:'s after treetmcent Eli gr-bs "ere
found to have been killed end the condition of the cysts -as very satis-
factory. A '-ash consisting of 1 pound of derris, 4 ounces of soap, and
1 gallon of w-ater, applied once 'ith'e brush to the backs of infested
cattle, killed practically ell. grubs.

Had,-e-n(130) in 1983 referred to the killing of Tiyooder-e larvae
by the application of derris to the warble-1oles.

Bishopp, TLake, and wells (31) in 1929 reported thr't fDr the c.n-
trol of cattle: rubs in the backs of battle an pintment consisting :f
powdered derris root, 1 part, and petroleum, 10 parts, gave excellent
results. Fifne derris powder r-as very effective. As a -ash, derris
p'-der 1 pound, w-ater 1 .-:allon, erA soan 2 oiances briskly rubbed in
rith a brush gave a 100-percent kill in meny cases. A pound of derris
powder is sufficient for a general aPrplication to thc becks of 20 to
25 heed of cattle.






-55-


Bishopp, Laake, Wells and Peters (32) in 1930 reported that ex-
cellent results were obtained in tests made against Hypoderma larvae
in the backs of cattle by the use of powdered cube root, powdered
derris root, derris extract in kaolin, derris resins in petrolatum,
and a proprietary derris-extract ointment. No toxic effects on the
cattle are to be expected from derris products end they do not seem
to injure the skin. Derris powder front which the rotenone had been
partially extracted with ether killed 33 percent of the grubs, in-
dicating that the other constituents have insecticidal value. Kaolin
containing not less than 2 percent of rotenone gave almost a cominlete
kill.

Bishop (28) in 1941 reported that, for killing cattle grubs,
derris powder should obtain at least 1 percent of rotenone and
should be ground fine enough to allow 90 percent of it to pass through
a 200-mesh sieve. Although apparentlyT not so effective as ground derris
root, certain powders to which from 1 to 2 percent of rotenone or a
proportionate amount of derris extract had been properly added were
satisfactory. A wash consisting of derris powder 1 pound, water 1
gallon, and soaj 2 ounces, briskly rubbed in with a brush, gave a
100-percent kill in many cases.

'he uInited States Department of Agriculture, Bureau of Entomology
(282) in 1923 reported the -ork of Bishopp et al. Over 98 percent of
the grubs can be killed -with a general aonlication of poTdered derris
root to the backs of cattle. A wash consisting of 1 pound of derris,
4 ounces of soap, and 1 gallon of water also gave a kill above 96
percent. An ointment consisting of 1 part of derris and 5 parts of
vaseline gave almost 100-percent kill when the material was pressed (283)
into each hole. The same Bureau/in 1927 reported that tests with
insecticides against cattle gfubs in Virginia indicated that powdered
derris root -'ill give a high percentage of kill if applied and brushed
in at intervals of about 20 days. The Bureau (284) in 1929 referred
to experimental -'ork done with insecticides applied to the backs of
cattle, special attention being given to rotenone and other materials
extracted from derris root. The report stated that these insecti-
cides shoT high toxicity to cattle grubs end can undoubtedly be
developed to a point where they can be extensively used in control
-ork. In 1930 the Bureau reported that 2 or more ounces of derris
powder per animal are necessary if the entire back of each animal is
to be treated. The Bureau (286) in 1931 stated that derris end its
derivatives appeared to be the most promising insecticides for the
control of cattle grubs, particularly as there is no danger of (288)
Poisoning livestock 1-ith them. In 1933 the Bureaui/re.'orted that
various insecticides for killing the grubs in the backs of cattle
by hand application had. been tested. Rotenone, in combination with
benzol, rwas found to be highly efficient. One-half gin. of rotenone
,"es dissolved in 100 cc. of benzol, end approximately 1 cc. of the
mixture was injected into the opening of each cyst. This method of
treatment is relatively fast, as c,;moipred with any other treatment
erplied to grubs individually.

7errdle and Buckle (307) in 1923 referred to thc derris -a.sh
recommended by Wells, Bishonp, and Lack,- in 1922 for killing HynodErma





-56-


larvae in the backs of cattle.

lAecDougell (185,186) in 1924 reported tests .-itl e prr-nrietpry
preparation of derris. Any scab and Ietted hair obscuring the exit
hole of the larva in the skin -as cleared away before the dressing
wps applied. One ounce of derris to 1 imperial nuert of -ater killed
86 percent, and 1 ounce to 1 pint killed 94 percent of the -artles.
No injurious effects attended an,. of the cattle dressed with derris
and there aes no disc'-nfort to the hands of the dresser. ISacD3ugell
(187) in 1928 reported that two dressings of'service eoaeinst Hypo-
derma larvae, tested in Scotland in 1927, averaged Ecocd results. The
first vwas one in zr Lt favor in Denm--rk, viz., Hypoderme oil." This
costs 5 pounds per gallon, but a little goes a .long way. It res
injected by means of a syringe at the opening into the 'arble, the su
hole being first cleared. Three or 4 days later the treated '-rbl,-:s
were examined end the larvae -ere/out. While ,rypoderma oil >iid not
do all the advertisements claimed for it, it can 'e rec:rnmended. It
was most successful against the younrlearvae, Last-stage larvae
were much more difficult to kill. Tre?ted cattle did not suffer in
health, Pnd there was no falling out of hair. IEacDougrll, (188)
in 1930 reported that Kur-IMne- at 1 ounce per imperial auart of
water killed 86 percent of H.T-rodc-re larvae in the backs of cattle,
and at twice this concentration killed 95 percent.

MacDougall (189) in 1931 reported on the camr-ain against ox-
warble flies in Scotland in 1930. The follo7in-z derris Oreparations
-ere effective against the larvae: Polvo powder 1 -oound, so'ft s'2ap
1/4 pound, vpter 1 imperial gallon; wnrble Fly Po-dr 1 outnd pnd (190)
water 1 imperial gallon. In 1932 hefrir.orted that in Scotlandi in
1931 three different kinds of dressirin Were tested, viz.: PF-,lv: s)ft
soap as in 1930; Warble Fly Powder (-ith the soar alre!d.:. inc)rr, rpted
and needing only the addition of rater)" pnd a liouid derris preperetion.
The first t-o 'Tere very successful. iMacDoucrll (191) in 1934 reported
tests on control -ork in Scotlpn.i -'ith the following pronrietarv derris
products: Bovidere oil, Co.rer's 7hrtle Fly Ointment, Co-jTper's Ferble
Fly Povder, Cooper's Cattle z-h, and P -lvo. 1:inety-three percent
of the 1rarbles rere killed 8 dPys after the prT location of Folvo '-wder
soap -ash containing derris o-,'der 1 pound, soft sorTp 1/4 aound, end
weter 1 imperial :c.-llon, at the rate of 3/4 g'llcon per animal. The
cost of material wTas about 2 cents per Fnimeal rer eprli-rti-n, and the
totpl cost r'as about 25 cents per animal for 4 -rlrrlicetions. TEsts
wrcre also made "'ith cube powder. Usin,- the proportions 1/-4 ro-md of
the powder to 1 imperial gallon of wter, 43 marbles were dressed and
on ex-minrtion, 25 larvae were de'd, 5 "-'r<- alive, end 13 burst in
being soucezed out. Using 1/2 pound of the r),-der to 1 i-cericl .-l-
lon of reter, 42 larvae -ere treatEd and on reexamination 30 larvae
-ere deed, 1 was alive, end 11 burst in bein sautcctd. out.

Wealt-n (304) in 19:.'- reported tht -r-liminpry trials of derris
ointment prcpr-r'L ecc-riin.- to the formula of 7ells, BPsh.-pr,. .-n-' Lapke
had ', en made for t0 control f farble plies in '-,rth Wales. !he
results obtained -ith 91 --ttle -ere most vromisin-.








Field (88) in 1926 reported that the derrls product Kurmnnge,
1, ounce to, an imperial quart of water, killed 86 percent of Hypo-
derma larvae,, and at 2 ounces per quart it killed 95 percent. Cat-
tle dressed with Kurmance suffered no injuirious effect.

Blieck and Beudet (33) in 1927 reviewed the rork of Bishopp et
Pl. (29) on derris against ox t-rbles.

Leynen (180) in 1928 reported that the "Commission Hollandaise
du Varron" recommended the use. of derris powder for destroying
jypoderma larvae, as recommended by Bishopp et al. (29) in 1926.

Metcalf and Flint (202) in 1928 recommended derris as a wash
for killing ox warbles in the backs of cattle.

C. H. Richardson (238) in 1928,in a review- of isecticides,
stated that derris had given excellent results in the control of
cattle grubs.

Warburton (306) in 1929 referred to the action of the Leather-
sellers' Company in appointing a committee to consider the whole
question of the warble fly on cattle, and this committee's recom-
mendation of a derris soap wash, consisting of 1 pound of pondered
derris root, 1/4 pound of soft soap, and 1 imperial gallon of water.

Gaut (99) in 1929 outlined a plan to kill all warbles in cattle
within a given area of Torcestershire County, England, by the use"
of a wash made according to the following formula: Standardized
derris powder, 1 pound; soft soap, 1/4 pound: and rater, 1 imperial
gallon.

Gaut and Walton (103, 104) in 1929 re-norted that the use of a
derris-sopp wash made according -to-a formula recommended by Bishoppl/gave
et al./pronounced success against ox wvrbles and -as, moreover, a
fool-proof remedy. It was made up as follows: Polvo (derris powder)
1 pound, soft soap 1/4 pound, rater 1 imperial gallon. The soft.
soap was boiled in about 1 ouart of water. After cooling somewhat
it was -redually poured on the dry powder that had been previously
placed in a small bucket or can, and mixed by means of a 1-ooden
stirrer into the consistency of mud: enough cold water was then
added to make up 1 gallon of -rash. It -ras ap-nlied mith a soft
cloth, wetting the warble lumps thoroughly. The rash should be
frequently agitated to prevent sedimentation. TThrble Fly Ointment,
a derris product made by Cooper, McDougall, and Robertson, Berkhemsted,
England, gave a 100-percent kill when forced into ever'- warble hole.

C-Gaut (100) in 1930 reportedly on experiments with derris against
the ox warble fly in 17-rcestershire County, England. The insecticide
was standardized derris powder (Polvo), used according: to the formula
of Bish:,p-'s et al. (70). Replies to a questionnaire indicated that
232 out of 244 farmers considered that the derris-soap r'ash had been
satisfactory for killing wrerbles. Tests in 1930 indicated that a half-
strength wash gave 100-percent kill of warbles et each of the 4 appli-
cations. Experiments have proved that both the full-str(n'th and
hElf-strength washes, used 28 days and 56 days after preparation, are
just as effective as freshly made material.


-57-






-58-


Geut (101) in 1931 reviewed the results of tests in 1928-31 in
the ame county. The derris-soap -,ash (Polvo 1/2 lb., soft soar 1/4
lb., End water 1 imp. gal.) was used successfully in 15 areas, on
more then 10,000 head of cattle on nearly 500 farms. He (102) in
1936 called attention to his previous (101) report on derris wash
and recommended its application "'ith a 1-gallon' short-spouted vatering
can.

Davies (68) in 1930 described tests with four derris ponders and
two derris solutions for the control, of Hypoderma larvae in North
Wales. hen it was used as a wash,' derris po-der from three of the
sources -oroved highly toxic to w-arble fly larvae under critical,
general, and ordinary farm conditions. The poder was applied, accord-
ing to the formula of Bishopp et al. ( )Q The wash evidently -ill
not retain its toxicity if kept more than a day or so after it is
prepared. Four monthly dressings were proved to be necessary. It
was estimated that 1 nound of derris pno"der is sufficient to provide
a wash for 4 monthly dressings for 20 to 25 infested cattle.

Fulmer (90) in 1930 reported .that larvae of the warble fly were
amenable to derris.

Hollstein (141, 142) in 1930 described tests with Kur-Mange, a
powder containing dried sode soap, borax, unknown constituents, Pnd
rotenone extracted from Derris elliptica. Tnen used at the rate of
10 gin. per 200 cc. it was useful for combating warble fly larvae
-'hen applied by injection. Kur-'.en.e at 31 gin. to 550 cc. of water
killed 95 percent of the larvae in tests made in Enr.elend. Cooper's
marble Fly Salve (Dasselfliegensalbe) is useful for combating marble
fly larvae when applied by injection.

Jensen (152) in 1930 mentioned derris extract as one Df the
preferred preparations for the treatment of cattle grubs in Jutland.

The University College of North Wales, Department of Agriculture
(219), in 1930 stated that in Great Britain the annual loss caused by
warble holes in hides is estimated to be more then 500,000 pounds
sterling. A derris wash made according to the formula of Bish-,rv
et el. (29) is recommended..

Schverdt (248). in 1930 reported that Kur-1,nge and C:.--per' Warble
Salve (derris preparations) were found to be inconvenient in the treat-
ment of marbles, although in the hands of an experienced man, especially
a veterinarian, they could be used with favorable results.

The United States Department of Agriculture in e release t: the
press on I4-.y 25, 1930, reported that cube is atrl t1 cattle grubs.
The derris and cube root po-7ders hed no unfavorable effect Dn the skin
end heir of the enimdls tested end are not particularly poison:.us,
hence are safe to ue. Applications of these r-ders at 15-da.y interval





-59-


killed most of the grubs. From tvwo to four treatments were required.

An anonymous (1) writer in 1931 reviewed P report in the York-
shire Post by R. C. Gaut, Agricultural 0roanizer for Worcestershire,
England, on the value of derris in combating ox warbles. About 10,0C10
head of cF.ttle were dressed 4 times with a preparation made according
to the Bisho-op et el. (29) formula. The fine particles carried in the
soapy wash during dressing effectively plug the breathing holes of the
grubs, causing death by suffocation. There is thus a duel action,
lhich makes a 100-percent kill possible. The wash should therefore be
kept rrell agitated by means of the cloth and hand so that little or no
"mud" remains at the bottom of the vessel when the liquid has been used
up.

An anonymous (2) writer reported in 1931 thet tests made on one
animal with the "Derrifluid" of Tropper showed good effect on Hypoodermr
larvae rhen the material was injected, but poor results from external
aprlication.' The injection was easy and without harmful after effects.

Compton (60) in 1931 gave an account of an eradicetinn cam-oaign
carried on in Illinois, with Gusanol, a proprietary derris extract
ointment. The treatment w-s started about February 20 end was given
at 30-day intervals until about the first of July. It is estimated
that ihis treatment reduced the ox warble population 66 percent.

The Ministry of Agriculture end Fisheries of Greet Britain (124)
in 1931 estimated the annual loss in Greet Britain from hides d-maged
by '-erbles et more than 500,000 pounds sterling. Preparations of derris
root ',-ere very effective in destroying -arble larvae. T',o proprietary
derris preparation were used--(l) en ointment, end (2) a -ash prepared
from a powder sold as an insecticide. It ras claimed that both the
ointment end the -ash, when carefully applied, would kill-practically
?11 the mature or maturing warbles at a cost in materials of about 1
penny per heed for the four applications. No harmful effects to the
cattle were recorded. When the ointment is used each "erble hole must
be located and treated after being freed from hair. The wash is more
convenient to apply, as it is only necessary to locate the swellings
end then liberally -et each one "-ith a soft cloth steeped in the
Preparation.

Zeubzer (330) in 931 reported on warble fly control in Bavaria.
lMechanical removal has given better results than any other method,
including Hypodermol, a largely used salve containing praedichloro-
benzene, derris, and laurel oil.

The University College of North Wales, Department of Agriculture
(220) in 1931 repeated its recommendations of 1930 for warble fly
control by means of derris.

Reisinger (236) in 1931 recommended the follo-ng proprietary
derris products for -arble control: Cooper's Salve, Derrifluid,






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Hynodermol, end Kur-Mange.

An anonymous (_) writer in 1932 Teve en account of an exhibit
Pt the Royal Dublin Show by the Educational Section of the Irish
Free State Department of Agriculture, showing the Oariage to hides
caused by r,,rbles. Smonles of derris root, derris pn:-der, end the
derris wash reedy for use against ox warbles were shown by the Irish
representatives of Coor-r, 1,acDougall end Co., "ith the slogan "PCttle
dread the warble fly. The warble dreads derris p)-der. PEib it into
him."

Campbell (50) in 1932 reviewed unpublished 'ork of ellss, -'h-
tested rotenone for the control of the common cattle grub. ar-lied
to the becks of infested cattle dusts containing 0.5 to 2.0 percent
of rotenone and cottonseed oil containing 0.5 percent of roten-,ne.
Best results 'ere obtained with the letter mixture, 94 percent of
the grubs being killed in a week. The dusts killed about 75-percent.
7ells concluded tht thoroughness of a-oplication is mzrE imp~rtent
than the percentage of rotenone in the mixture.

Davies and Jones (69) in 1932 compared the effectiveness of derris
wash (1 lb. derris powder, 1/4 lb. soft soap, 1 imp. gel. -eter) end
cube wvash for the control of ox warbles. In critical tests '-here a
',rash of cube-root powder w7as used at the strength of 1 pound of cube
root per gallon a 100-percent kill was obtained. At 1/4 bound per
gallon a few w'arbles remained alive. Dry derris po-der gave a kill
of 95.1 percent and the derris wash a kill of 100 percent.

G'otze (122) in 1932 recommended sasuensions of derris in soap
.solution as by far the most suitable mcens of trectini- w--rble fly
larvae. One kg. of finel' ground root of Derris malaccensis '-as
steeped in 9 liters of cold water 'qor 24 hours, with frequent shaking.
Just before use, a solution of 250 rm.' of soft 'oea in'l 1 liter .-,f
water was added. The mixture -&F not filtered. ecomrposition tok
place aft-r about a week. This mixture was .rubbed thoroughly on
the enimalts back and repeated ,-fter 2 or 3 dEa,. Each rp,-lication
required about 250 cc. of the solution. no harmful effects on the
Animals -,ere noted. Th, control ms said to be 95 r,':rcent.

The De-oartment of Agriculture of the Iris'i Free State (147) in
1932 described experiments m."de in Irelan, in 1930 tnd 1131 "ith Polvo
(ordinary pc-'.ered derris root) for the control of ox wrarbl.-:s. It
was recommended in preference to Atakille mhd Coper's 7,rble Fly I
Powder, but soft soan must be used along with it. Tests are elso
described with Ketekilla, Parp:read, C)r.cr's Werble Fly Fo-i-der,
Cooper's Cattle and Warble VFsh, nn,3 C-'rer's Warble Fly Mintmcnt.

The Isle of 1'1n Board of Agriculture (149) inlQ?7 reoD:rt1c -n
the control of the ox warble fly. Reference is nede to the `-rccst-r-
shire Exreriments on the control '*f this insect. The best drEsping
-as considered to be Polvo no,-der 1 pound, soft soep 1/2 pound, -'ater
2 i-m)erirl gallons.





-61-


KUrschner (164) in 1931 reported the.'proce-rdings of the sixth
meeting on warble fly control held .st the German Ministry of Agri-
c1l1ture. It was stated th't infestations occurred only in certain
rgicons of Germany, that various larvicidal substances, including
derris, were available, enr that mechanic--l removal could also be
resorted to'

The United States Department of Commerce, Bureau of Foreign
and Domestic Commerce (298) in 1932 published information on marble
fly extermination in Germany transmitted by the American commercial
attache in Berlin, as follows:

t A ni method of combating warble fly was su, -ested
at the'-lst -conference held in the Federal Ministry for
Foodstuffs.. A veterinary journal has now .ap-oroved this
ner, method which has proved highly efficient and -,hich
is c-j.nsider.ed .t-o be easier to handle than-the treatment
7ith "Ler.fug" ointment,- 'with 'grub sticks, and by various
other methods. :The new method consists of -repeated; 7ash-
ing, with a .solution oftuba tand derris roots. '
*Th ,solution .was prepared. as follows: One thousand
g.rerans. of derr'i s, -obder -gas soaked' in 9000 cc. of water
for 24.hours during which time 'the water was stirred
repeatedlyy. The' water, soon assumed a. milky appearance.
A so-luti.oA of 250 gmn.. of soft soap in l-,000 cc. of water
wa-s added so that a -total'ouantity of 10 liters of wash-
ing solution were obtained from one kilogram derris po,-
der. -Th'e.powder is retained, in the solution, -hich has
to be shaken up- pfor use. The solution o.f derris and
soap disintegrates afterabout 1 week so that supplies
can be, prepared only for this period. The treatment
of cattle is very simple and requires only a few minutes.
The infected parts of the back are rubbed with the hand
while the solution is applied in small quantities. It
is not necessary to remove the hair. The individual
boils are freed from crusts and the boils are washed
carefully. Animals that are only slightly afflicted
nill require 150-200 cc. of the solution, while more
serious cases will require 300-400 *cc. The -ashing
is.-repeated after 2 or,3 days. On the average,.
a-DroQximately 500 cc. of solution will be required
for eacl animal for 2 treatments, so that about 20
head of cattle can be treated "ith 1 kg. of derris
powder, at a cost of about-20 pfennigs per head.

S'.. This treatment ,turned out to be more efficient
than that of any other chemical preparation tested for
this purpose. Both young and old grubs vwere killed.




I
I

-62-
it,
The destruction of old grubs could be ascertained beyond
doubt by their soft condition after about 3 days. The
appearance of fresh grubs 7as not noticed until about
4 weeks after the treatment. This effect ,as obtained
only after 'a double treatment at'en interval-of 1 to
3 days and only -hen very finely ground dcrris roots
-ere used, but more than 90 percent control -as obtained
with only one thorough treatment. The results obtained
with solutions made from coarsely chopped root -ere not
neerl, so good.

The same Bureau (299) in 1932 stated that the Warble Fly Com-
mittee of the Leathersellers' Company (170, 171), London, reported
that experiments with derris preparations had been consricuously
successful.

According to the Warble Fly Committee (170) in 1930, more than
10,000 cattle in Worcestershire, England, -ere treated -ith the
Polvo wash. In 1932 the Leathersel.lers' Company (171) published
information on tests carried out at various oleces in EnzlEnd, Ire-
land, and Scotland during 1931. Derris was tried in the following
forms: Dry derris powder, derris-soap wash, Polvo, Katakilla,
Cooper's Warble Wash, and Cooper's Warble Powder. In northern Ire-
lend tests on 805 cattle showed that 99.5 percent of the -arbles
were killed by four applications of the derris-soan wash (l lb.
Polvo, 1/4 lb. soft soap, 1 imp. gal. water). In tests in
Ceernarvonshire dry derris powder killed 98 percent of the warbles.

Burton (46) in 1934, in a lecture on the warblc fly, referred
to the conclusion of the Leathersellers' Warble Fly Committee that
a derris-soan wash, applied to the warble lumps with e firly stiff
brush weas an economical, efficient, and practical 'ay of killing
the grubs in the animal's back.

Pettit (232) in 1932 described the method of aoplying GusEnol
(a proprietary derris product) to cattle for the control of Hryoderma
larvae.

Townsend (276) in 1932 gave directions for the use Df derris
poder against warbles as follows: Derris 1/2 pound, soft soap 1/4
pound, water I imperial gallon, Fpplied by hand -ith a cloth or brush-
or with a squirt can. Its action is due to the mild poison it contains
and to the fine particles stopping up the breathing h-les of the grubs,

Baudot (18) in 1933 reviewed the results of tests by G'5tze "ith '
derris-soap wash and by Peter to control ox '-Tarb1es. Peter did not
obtain so good results from the use of Cooper's 7arble Fo-der as
English authors described.

Baudet and DeBoer (20) in 1933 reported on the contr.-'l of Dx
warbles with a water extract of derris made b, soEking I k'. of derris;
powder containing 2 percent of rotenone in q liters of '--?tcr f-,r 24





-63-


hours, after: which 250 gin. of soft soap dissolved in 1 liter of rater
"as added. .;he extract was prepared just prior to use. As e rule
one application -,as sufficient, but a second mnde aP fer days later
ensured the death of ell the larvae. The mixture was .ell brushed
onto the backs of the animals, 5 to 14 fluid ounces 'beihg required
for each. An ointment of vaseline containing 2 percent of rotenone
also gave excellent results, the, hair around the warble hPving been
cut before. its application. Rotenone dissolved in the oil killed the
larvae, but the resultant irritation makes it unsatisfactory in
practice, iMixtures of rotenone "ith turpentine also caused. irritation
and were not so effective.

Gbtze (123) in 1933 reported on the value of a number of pro-
prietary derris -oroducts for the control of ox -arbles. Products
tested -ere: Derrothen-emulsion, Lud-ig Meyer's 6ily preparations
Nod. 2068 end 2069, end three rotenone or derris solutions sold by
the Chemische Fabrik Marienfelde and designated India-sine-rotenone-
*L'sung, India-rotenone-L'dsung, and India-gese.mtextrekt-L-isn:. T-'o
applications of a product containing 8 percent of rotenone diluted
1:50 killed 96.4 percent of the w'arbles.

SGusanol, a proprietary derris ointment, "as recommended for the
control of ox -arbles by the Illinois Agricultural Ex-ieriment Station
(145) in,.1933.

SPeters (231) in 1933 reported on warble control in Germany. One
kg; of fine derris powder -,as soaked in 9 liters of cold -7ater for 24
Hours. To this was added 2.5 kg. of soap in 1 liter of rater. T'-o
apnlicetions of this mixture killed all marbles in the backs of cattle,

2Remien (237) in 1933 reported on the value of some proprietary
derris products, including Derrothen-emulsion," Indie-rotenone-L7sun-,
India- eseamtextral-t-Losian and India-sine-rotenone-Losun,!, for
controlling Hypoderrma larvae in the backs of cattle. All ,arbles on
animals washed twice -ith an aqueous solution of 0.68 percent of
rotenone and 2.5 percent of soap vere killed.

Spoon (257) in 1933 reported that rotenone was of great value
in the control of cattle grubs.

The United- States Department of A.riculture, Bureau of Animal
Industry (280) in 1933 recommended'the use of derris PgPinst cattle
grubs, stating that animals infested can be effectively end safely
treated by the owner with small medicated rods inserted in the warble
holes. This method Eppelrs to be the most effective, rapid, end safe
so far devised for use by the oattle owner. Of a lerze number of
formulas tested, the one that gave the best results eas: Gum arabic
6 drams, glue 2 drams, tannic acid powder 2 drams, derris roder 1
ounce, end enough water to make a stiff paste. This paste is then
rolled into the form of rods. When properly used, the rods are 100-
percent effective in killing grubs. The ingredients are harmless to
cattle, and the preparation is easily standardized. There aen- -rs to
-be little danger of spread in- infection from one lesion or enimal to
another, a thing which often occurs -,hen infected instruments are ufCd.






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An anonymous (4) -Triter in 1934 outlined plants for CntcriD
farmers to combat arbles in cattle ,ith-Ahe derris-soan ash.
In 1932 Stevenson on Psrrie Island treated cattle h1v'ne an average
of 15 grubs per enimel, and as a result of this treatment th:3
aver.-e number of grubs per animal fell to three in 133.

According to Pertels (14) a derris suitEble for treatin= cattle
grubs should contain at least 8 percent of rotenone. Gc-od results
"-ere reported in 1934 by the use of Delicie-Dassel61, P prruriet-ry
derris product.

Helmig (139) in 1934 reported the results of tests of the fol-
lo--ing pro-orietary derris products against ox warbles: Dcrrisol,
Derris-Viehnaschoulver, Abdassol, Rufus Nos. 99, 114, 214, 228, 314,
Lianol, end Garepatox-Fautan. Abdassol and Derrisol in 10-percent
solution gave the best control, namely, 93 to 94 percent.

Baudet (19) in 1934 reviewed the '-ork of several -orkers on the
control of cattle grubs. Peters found that excellent control was
obtained by the use of a derris suspension prepercd br soaking 1 kg.
of finely ground derris in 9 liters of water for 24 hours and then
aiding 250 gm. of green soap in 1 liter of rater. He recommended
one rznlication before the animals are placed in pasture in the
scoring and a second apolication in May or June. The first ennlicatior
killed 97.6 percent of the larvae. Remien ca-ried out cxnfrriments
with several oroorietary rotenone-c-ntainin; preparations. One,
containing Fll the derris constituents except rotenone, kill, d 31
percent of the larvae; 96 to 97-percent control 7as obtained. "hen
the 10 -percent of the nonrotenone derris constituents rere repent.
Derris sus-Dpnsions prepared the same as those used b, Peters k-illed
98.6 to 100 percent of the larvae. A rotenone suspension described
as a "sort of colloidal solution" w-aes prepared by dissolving 3 oizrts
of rotenone in 20 parts of oyridine, eddin.: 80 parts of alcohol,
end thcn adding this solution to 280 Darts of a 2.5 -percent soar
solution. The rotenone eid not settle rapidly frm this suspension
-hen distilled rater 7,as used to pre'T:re the solution. This Pre-
raretion killed 92 percent of the Irrvae on cattle shedhd -ith it.
Subcutaneous injection of derris extract in a cclf infested -ith
larvec 7vas without effect. This ras to be exnectcd, a- the l'rvre
are not dependent on the b-:dy fluids of the host. U1tze Cobtaine-
satisfactor'- control of the cattle grub -ith a solution of r)tcn'ne
in soy'bean oil and also -ith a suspension of derris in nrwrrietarv
oils rrepp-red by Scherin:-Kahlbauin.

Beudet and DeBoer (21, 22) in 1934 obtained .od results aP-inst
ox '-.arbles with derris' p7ovder (8 percent rotenone) mixc4 -ith --'ny
"ater 1:30. Rotenone dissolved in acetone and mnixie -itl,' c-' v ,'-Fetcr
also yielded good results. Cere must be tmkEn th-t Fll Irrv'-- c.-.c
into contact with the medicament used.






-65-

-A writer signing as G. .B. 0. (222) in 1934 gave the following
formula for warble control: Derris 1 pound., soft soap 1 pound,
in water 1 imperial gallon.

Vogel (303) in ,19-34 reported that three derris extracts diluted
1:50 caused 90.8, 56.8, and- 58.1 percent respectively, of the
warbles in, the backs of catle to heal,. An extract diluted to
contain 0.24 percent of rotenone caused 95.6 percent to heal and gave
the best control of any material tested. Derrilavol, Derri-Tox, Derro-
em-ulsio n, Deumos, -Dasselfliegeribeke.mpfungsmittel, Panderran I and II,
'and C1'bpbr1's-,.Wrble. Fly Powder were other derris.Iproducts tested.

ZunkTeri (*31_) -2 in 1934 reported tests of proprietary; derris pro-
dulcts against Hypoderna larvae in the backs of cattle.. Abdassol (also
"called D8) killed 63 to 95 percent; D7, 67 percent; D4q, 90 Dercent; and
Polvo,plus boap:, 74 percent. .. :

An anonymous (5) Dutch writer in 1935, recorded results against
'*c.c.tUe grubs "with two lpots of .derris, one containing 2 percent of
rottnone and percent of ether extract,, used at the. rate of 1 kg. to
S9 lters of, water, plus 250 gin. of green soep in I liter of water;
Sthezother containing 8, percent ,of rotenone and 21 percent of ether
Extract used at the rate of 1 kg. to 40 liters of water. Soap is
no t necessary; neither is soaking .the powder, in water. Satisfactory
control of the cattle grub we.s also .obtained with rot enone, 10 gin.
in 250 cc. of acetone added to 4 liters of water.

'' DeBussy et al..*(49) in 1935 wrote th, t derris was en established
remedy for the control of warble flies. .

Spoon (258, 259) in,]935- 'rTOte that for use against Hypoderma,
derris powder containing 2 percent of rotenone and 8 percent of
ether extract was agitated in 10 parts of water for 24 hours, end
to the mixture was added 0,.25 part of green soap in 1 pert of water.
The suspension was rubbed into the back of the animal .'-rith a small
brush, an average 250 cc. being used for e&.ch animal. Then derris
powder containing 8 percent of rotenone and 21 percent .of ether
extract was used, 1 pert of derris was suspended in 40 parts of water.
The edition of soap vas found to be unnecessary. Satisfactory con-
trol "nas also* obtained' -by suspending 1 part of derris (8 percent
rotenone, 21 percent'ether extract) in 10 parts of water, end apply-
ing the suspension immediately. It was not known whether lo.er con-
centrations would be effective without a longer period of extraction.
Later that year Spoon reported on the-use of derris po-der in Holland.
In the Wieringermeer.district, 65 kg. of derris. powder containingi 8
percent of rotenone was used for the treatment of 4,000 yearlin.-s,
2,000 of which received a second application. On the il)nd of
Amelend, 20 kg. of derris (same spple) was used for the treetnent
of 1,635 cattle. The cost of derris poder for a single treatment
amoumted to about 2 cents in American currency. The method of aroli-
cation was as follows: 400 gm. of derris powder wes suspended in.





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9 liters of water, end the suspension was freouentlv agitated during
a 24-hour period. To this suspension was added 1 liter of green-soap
solution containing 250 gin, of green soap. This suspension -es
shaken just before use and was brushed into the earinml's hide. The
considered results were satisfactory. The addition of the green-soau solution
eas/unnecessary. Satisfactory results "'ere also obtained by brushing
the cattle '-ith a liquid containing 10 gin. of rotenone dissolved in
250 cc. of acetone, added to 4 liters of "ater, end by auolication
of a salve containing 2 percent of rotenone in vaseline.

Stefanski and Obitz (261) in 1935 reported that in. Poland a wsh
of powdered derris root aeind soft soap, applied at the rate of 4 gin.
of po-der, 2 gm. of soap, and 40 gin. of water per animal, and one made
vith a poder in which derris was incorporated -ith soap, -ere tested
and each killed an average of 90 percent of the larvae. As the young
larvae are easier to kill, it is important to apply the treatment
in the first half of April, before the animals are put out to pasture,
repeating it at the end of eay,

Bartels (15, 16) in 1936 called attention to the finding of
mummified Hypoderma larvae in the backs of cattle that had been treated
with derris preparations such as Derrilevol, Derrisol, and Derriphen.
Later in the year he recommended standardized derris preparations for
the control of larvae in the backs of cattle. Derris root should con-
tain at least 8 -oercent of rotenone and 25 percent of total extractives,
Mention-was made of the proprietary derris products Derrilevol, Derriso'
Derrophen, end PEnderren.

Gibson and T"inn (109) in 1936 reported that losses from all
causes attributable to --'rble flies in Cpnade h-d been estimated
at from 7 to 14 million dollars annually. The standard treatment
wps to a-oply derris rwaesh: Standardized derris powder 1 round, soft
soap 1/4 pound, and water 1 imperial gallon.

The Ministry of Agri. culture of GreaFt Britain (125) in 1936 called
attention to its T-rble Fly order of that year, requiring that infested
cattle be treated by mechanical means to remove the maggots, or else
treated with a rash containing either 1.5 ounces of derris resins
or 0.5 ounce of rotenone olus 4 ounces of socp per zallon. Treatment
mu;t be;in between March 15 end 22, or es sc:n as th- -nr-rots appear
or under the skin, end must be repeated at int--rva1s of not less than 27
days/more then 32 days, as long as they continue to Ppueer. The
dressing must be applied so that it shell come in contact "ith the
larvae through the breathing holes made b- thtm in the skin. The
Governments of Northern Ir-lcnd and the Irish Free Stete nead rdo-nted
similar measures in their countries,

Handed (135) in 1936 reviewed work on the i-arblc fly. in India end
referred to the use in Englnd of the dcrris-soD "'-rsh.






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Hocni,' (140) in 1936 tested feox derris preparations for wprble
control on cattle. One washing 'ith e 4-oercent solution of Pen-
derrp_-,.Ierck killed 83 pcrc-nt of the larvae. A single -ashing -'ith
e.5-percent Abdassol solution resulted in the death of S8.8 percent,
whereas one washing with P 10-percent solution produced 95.6 percent
,.of healihg. Abdessol was the most satisfactory Fgent because of its
ease of apliction (foaming readily), its che:-pners, great effective-
ness, and complete harmlessness to the Pnimals. Single washin- -ith
1 --10-riercent Derrisol-BengBn solution gave a kill of 91.5 percent.
On'e washing 'ith a 4-percent Derrilevol solution resulted in P 75.8
percent kill of the larvae, which the authorr did not consider
sufficiently good,

.'The DepFrtment of Agriculture of the Irish Fr.':' State (148) in
1936 reported experiments made in Ireland for the control of H'moderma
larvae -ith Polvo end Paregrad, Polvo reouires the addition of
spreader for successful application. The spreader.,(soft sorp) is dis-
Ssolved--in hot 1aeter end mixed -ith the Polvo to form a pstt, -hich
is then reduced to the required strength by the audition of "'ter.
:.Pragred has a srrder'incorporated in it, end all that is necessary
is .t-o. miy the powder Tith 1-ater to form a paste and redue it to the
required strength by the addition of 1ater. The preparation is then
reae7- for use. The dressings were used at the follo-ing strnr.-ths:
Polvo 1/2 pound, soft soap 1/4 pound, "-ater 1 imp~riFl gallon; Paragrad
1/2 pound, water 1 imperial gallon. The detes, of ti"e. first e-nplicption
varied at the different centers, depending on. the maturity of the F:rabs
but, generellv spc'akin, the first dressing' was Pr'lied about the lest
w7eek of March end repeated at intervals of a I.onth. Three a-olications,
and in some cases only two, were generally sufficient for the complete
destruction of all. grubs. Tnt number of ?nimals treated--'s 965. The
total number of grubs that appeared during the tests wrs 13,891, an
*average of 14.4 per animal. On the cattle treated -ith Polvo a total
*of'6,805 warbles developed, end 6,701 or 98 percent were killed. On
the cattle dressed with Peraerad 7,086 -arbles appeared end 6,868,
*or 97 percent, -cre killed. From the above results, there is -poerently
little choice between Polvo end Earagred. Most of the instructors
in these trials favo-red Paraered because it 1! easier to prepare,
needing only the addition of cold water, whereas 17ith Polvo both soft
":soap and hot -ater are required.

The 'Koloniaal Instituut'of Amsterdp.n (162) in 1976 retorted that,
in gc-neral, the various stages of Di-ntre are but little sensitive to
derris. The larvae of the warble fly is a.favorable exception. Finely
ground derris root seems to be a powerful, control measure against this
pest and is not injurious to domestic animals or mpn.

o* According to Van der Lean (166) in q19?6, the larvae -ere sensitive
to derris.

Maheux (194) in 1936 published directions for the treatment of
wearbly cattle in Quebec ,vith pr priet'ry rotenone preparations.







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Pedretti (229) in 1936 re-orted on the' control of H.y'oderma
larvae -"ith derris prEp-rp*ions. .ests were .rrade with Atdas!-l,
Der'rilavoQl- DerArisol, Derrophen, and Leurus-Desselpulver.

Bertels (17) in 1937 reported that derris prep-retions p've a
high percentage of control of HyDoderma larvae.

Hardtmann(137) in 1937 stated that for combeti-- ,-7rble fly
larvae in the skins of cattle, oil sprays containing 0.05 percent
of rotenone ,rere employed.

The Louisiana Agricultural Experiment Station (184) in 1937
reported that derris nodder dusted into the warble holes killed a
high percentage of grubs.

Natvig (210) in 1937 revie-ed -rork on ox warble flies in Nsr-ay
and stated that various -ashes, including derris, were used.

The Ruhderhorzel-Bestrijdings-Commissie (245) of Holland, in 1937
recommended aqueous suspensions of derris root for control of cattle
grubs.

An anonymous (7) writerr in 1938 reported on the -2errble fly pest
in England. The percentage of hides 'ith open rarbles handled by
the Hide Improvement Society during the first 9 months of 1938 -es
slightly greater than in 1937, but less than in 1936. Derris sales
in 1937 and. 1938 wT7ere much less than in 1936. The Ministry of Agri-
culture held that rigid enforcement of the Nrble Fly (Dressing jf
Cattle) Order -"ould only antagonize farmers genersliy P-.i defeat its
own object. ZEiforcement should be tightened up gr-dually, bat at
the present the Order should be the background for an c1-ucti.nal
and propaganda campaign, bringing home to farmers tUe r obligations
under the Order and the advnntae to themselves o .'": rvi.," its
provisions. The number )f prosecutions reported tM -'.c Linistry
during 1938 was 94, aewinst 51 in 1 937, end 8 ix '* ;-5.

The United States Department of Commerce, ? ir-u of Fo'eign end
Domestic Commerce (301) in 19"40 called attention to an order of the
British Ministry of Agriculture mekine- the use of derr'is prcrartions
for cattle dressing obligatory. This is a mcdificati n of the
"Warble Fly (Dressing of Cattle) 'rder of 1936." 7h-e original order
permitted the removal of nczgots from the skins of affected cattle
by mechanical means. This alternative was later wit.-.,ra-n and it
wad required that all visibly infested animals be treated during
the current season by the application at monthly inte-vels of a
derris dressin-, prepared eccordinc to specifications in the :,rder.

Edwards (79) in1938, in a p ,pular account of rotenone-containing
insecticides, stated that they -ere effective against vwrbles on cpttli






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Hearle (138) .in 1938 published directions for preparing derris
-ash (derris r1--der 1 lb,, soft soap 1/4 Ib, water 1 imp, gal.) for
use against cattle grubs.,

Thomssen and Doner (274) in 1938 revie-ed published information
on fly control for livestock end mentioned rotenone for killing
Hypoderma larvae.

Dinulesco andFoisoreano (75) in 1939 reported that in the labora-
tory extracted grubs placed in contact with derris extract st the
temperature of the host were killed after 5-1/2 hours.

1/i. P. Jones (158) in 1939 recommended derris or cube for the
control of cattle grubs.

'L. G. Smith (256) in 1939 called attention to the control
demonstration of cattle grubs carried out on e herd of 150 head of
beef cattle in GEarfield County, Wash, Excellent results were obtained
from 4 treatments beginning in December 1938 and applied every 20
days, The -,ash consisted of 1 round of 5 percent cube root and 2
ounces of soeo in 1 gallon of --eter, applied to the backs of the
animals at the rate of 8 ounces per animal, and thoroughly scrubbed
in "ith a brush.

Wells (310) in 1939 reported the results of a series of tests
on the use of derris and cube asehes on the backs of cattle for con-
trol of cattle grubp In Colorado and Iow7a. By using derris and cube
mashes (14.42, 6, and 4 oz. plus 4. oz. soap -per gallon of -'arm
water) on the backs of cattle, it was found that 1 quart of the
solution -as sufficient to treat only 3 animals -ith such winter coats
as are found in Colerrio end Iora. After distributing the -o-dery
-ash over the ick it r"as necessary to devote 2 man-minutes of rub-
bing the wash into-the hair 17ith the hands. Rubbing 'ith a brush
was less efficient. With en enuel amount of rubbing, 12 ounces of
the ponder per gallon of 'ash 'as as efficient as 16 ounces.
Eight ounces of powder per gallon -ith the 2 man-minutes of :-d
rubbing was survived by approximately 9 percent 'f tK grubs, -'hereas
with 16 ounces oer gallon the best result Pq f. s, .rvivel of 3.15
percent. The Tporders contained roten'nme anr elxtrcctives as follo-'s:
Derris 6.2 percent of rotenie and 15.5 percent of total extractives,
cube 4.7 percent of rotenone and 21.1 percent of total extractives.
In all, 186 cattle were used, each being handled t-'icc, first for
application cxf the wash and second for extraction of the grubs, which h
totaled 4,708. The cube powder gave better res.ilts than the derris.

The Idaho University, College of A;ricalture (144) in 1940
recommended ground derris or cubE root (rotenone 3 to 5 percent) 12
ounces., and neutral soap 2 ounces per gallon of -Prter for control of
cattle grubs. The material should 7' ,- J b prior to ech treat-
ment and replied -ith & stiff brush with sufficient force to enter





-:.- -70-


the holes cut in the skin fby the grubs. Treetmnent should begin atout
SDecember 26-25 and should 'be repeated at 25-30-day intervals until
no more grubs anpear on the backs opf. the animals.

Ot I' tidee e

Euxesta stigmetias Loer -

B. -A. App in 1936, in a type'-ri-tten report to the Division of
Cereal andFore :e Insect Investigations, Bureau of Entomology and
Plant Qu;rantine, Unitea States Tepertmennt of Agricult-are, stated that
a derris-taelc dust containing 1 percent of rotenone sho6'ed a control
of 3.9 percent of mPg3ots, es comnrered -ith 19 percent by the lead
arsenate dust.

Psilidae

Psile rose (F.), -the carrot rust fly

Smith and 7adsworth (255) in 1921 tested insecticides against
the carrot rust fly. Four e-plications of a powder composed of s-.t
and derris at the rate of 1 ounce of derris plus 2 ounces of sc3t
per square ycrd resulted in 95 percent of clecn carrots. The control
plot fielded, only 20 percent of carrots free f.om infestation. This
derris mixt.r-o ,-ave the best control of any of the materials tried.

K. I. W,,wiith (254) in 1925 reported that tests were made -ith
various inse( ticides. A mixture of 1 ounce of derris with 2 ounces
of soot per square yerd did not give results pr-jising cnlugh to
justify further trials 'ith it.

S Kelsell et al. (159) in 1926 reported that derris in either
dust or liquid form gave a considerable nmepsure of control, the
materiel being ep-Dlied to the soil surface ab'.ut the time ez: laying
was in progress. The control '-Ps apnoarcntly ecc,'nr.rnied by plant
stimulrtion elso.

The Massachusetts Agricultural Ex'eriment Station (197) in 1929
stated thpt derris products had given very encn.-araging results against
the first generation in 1927 and 1928 but -ere ineffective against
the second icnerstion.

Glasgow (114)and Glasgow end Gaines (116)in 1929 renort-i that
five epplicrtins of derris dust at weekly intervals were ineffective
in combating imm-ture stages in soil. Miercurous chloride was 100
percent effective.

Whitcomb' (31.6) in 1929 renortcd 1,romisin'>'results 'ith derris
compounds for control in 4escOchuscetts In 'the lbor-tory 1ll flies
confined with Dotted cerr ts dusted with po-'dered derris root diEd






.A





-71-


in less than 24 hoixrs. The insecticide wes as effective 3 days after
it iras applied as when fresh, and when diluted 1:4 and 1:2 -ith gypsum
killed the flies 4s readily as in pure-dust form. In tie field the
rure powdered derris root gave 87-percent protection after treatments -
-ith a hand duster on June 16 and 23 and July 2. The untreated plot
suffered 78-percent injury. Derris-gypsum dust, Derrisol spray,
sodium fluosilicate spray, and corrosive sublimete solution gave
70 percent or more protection under the same conditions. Similar
treatments on August 21 and 29, applied under less favorable con-
ditions, -ere not so effective against the late brood of maggots.

The Massachusetts Agricultural Experiment Station (198) in
J.931 stated that in laboratory tests, derris dust, both -oure and
diluted- 1:2 -ith gypsum, was very effective in killing adults and
prevented ;ovinosition, whereas eight .other materials -ere much less
effective.

Gorham (121) in 1934 reported on control ti Quebec. Derris powder
in suspension in rater and Derrisol in solution -,ere amohg the most
effective insecticides. Derris dust gave re-sults equal to the liquid
preparations, but all other dusts tried -ere somewhat less effective
than liquids. The critical time for insecticidal action is just after
the larva emerges and -hile it is still close to, the soil surface.
The average results obtained during the last four years "-ith the four
most efficient materials ere shown in the following table:



Material Average injury by larvae
Spring Autumn.
Percent P; percent
Mercury bichloride, 15 pounds per
acre, 18 plots- 0.64 12.65

Derris,-15 pounds per acre, 20 plots 2.20 31.05

Derrisol, 5 pounds per acre, 16 plots' 4.36rD 28.71

Sodium silicofluoride, 400 pounds per
acre, 12 plots 4.04 25.52

Checks, 48 plots 34.03 51.12


.The Massachusetts Agricultural Experiment Station (200).in 1938
renorted- that four applications made on June 5, 12, 19, and 26, of
cube-clay Oust to carrots from seed so'-n May 4 gave complete protection
and can be recommended.

Thitcomb (317) in 1938 revie-ed laboratory tests of insecticides.
In 1929 eggs wnere placed on moist blotting raper in petri dishes and





-72-


carefully but thoroughly sprayed or dusted. The materials used rere
corrosive sublimate solution 1:1,000, Derrisol spray 1:250, bordeaux-
oil emulsion (1-percent oil), 4-percent calomel-lime dust, and un-
diluted ground derris root (5 percent rotenone). !o larvae hatched
from eggs exposed to any of these treatments, but about 20 percer.t
hatched from the untreated eggs. During 1928, 1929, and 1930 about
300 nerly.emerged flies were confined in groups of 10 in lantern
-globe cages over potted carrots that had been sprayed or dusted -ith
various insecticides. Where dusts were used, the flies were confined
with the treated plants immediately after application, except in special
experiments; but the liquid sprays were allowed to dry on the plants
before the flies -ere caged with thea. Derris killed the flies with
unusual speed and consistency. Applied as a dust, derris mixtures
killed all flies within 2 days. Another series of tests indicated that
undiluted derris dust killed all the flaes in 24 hours when they were
confined with the plants 4 days after the dust was aunlied, but it was
only partially effective 5 or 6 days after application. Derris-gypsum
dusts containing 75 and 50 percent of derris killed all the flies with-
in 3 days after application, but a dust containing 33 percent of derris
killed only 70 percent of the flies exposed to it immediately. In
field experiments derris and cube have been the most consistently
effective materials, especially to control the first-generation flies
on early carrots. Good results with derris were also obtained b,, Gorham
(reported by correspondence) in New Brunswick, Canada.

In the first work with derris, the undiluted derris root was superior
to any mixture of it with gypsum. In fact, the greatest commercial
damage by the flies where this treatment was used was 13.2 percent in
1928, which represented a gain of 64.4 percent over the check; and the
average loss in 3 years was only 7.73 percent. However, ground derris
root costs at least 40 cents a pound and, undiluted, is much too expensive
for commercial use on carrots. Since 1933, derris and cube po'-ders have
been improved by careful grinding and handling. In 1937 four applications
of a oube-clay dust containing 0.6 percent of rotenone gave complete pro-
tection from a 14-percent infestation in an adjacent check; and in 1932
and 1933 a similar commercial dust containing 0.55 percent of rotenone
permitted an average damage of only 3.5 percent, rhich represented the
greatest gain from any treatment with a contact insecticide against the
second generation. This dust is now readily available for about 13 cents
a pound, and used at the rate of 50 to 75 pounds per acre it would cost
from $6.50 to $10 for each application. This expense has not been
justified in the last fe-r years; but with a heavier infestation and a
yield of 500 bushels or more per aere, it might be practical on early
carrots. On small plantings and home gardens it can be recommended.
Sorays containing rotenone have been effective but in most cases are
more difficult to apply. Pyrethrum as a dust or spray vas less effective
than derris or cube.

Scptorha.-idae

Scatophagea stercora-ria L.

According to De Bussy et al. (48) the full-zr-..n flies ere much more






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susceptible then houseflies. Dmsting rith a debris mixture containing
0.5 percent of rotenone and 1.2 percent of ether extract killed ell the
flies within 24 hours;

Syrphidae

Allograpta oblicua.Say

Little (182) reported in 1931 that the larvae wrre not affected by the
powdered root of Tephrosia virginiana in laboratory tests.

Lampetia equestris F., the narcissus bulb fly

According to a letter from Etablissements Rotenia to R. C. Roarl-in
1938, (Merodoz) LaMpetia equestris on tulips was mitigated by e product
containing 12 percent of powdered Lonchocarrus nicou root (6 percent rotenone)
end 88 percent of talcum.

Schopp and Bide (247) in 1939 reported- the results of experiments 4th
insecticides .at Sumner, Wash., in 1938. Better than 50 percent control
was obtained with a cube-root dust mixture containing 0.5 percent of
rotenone. This dust mixture wes applied at the base of the narcissus
plant, where the bulb flies ordinarily ovi-oosit. The first application of
the insecticides were made on May 6, coinciding 7ith the time of emergence
of the first adults, and, since heavy showers occurred soon after the
first applications, they -ere repeated on May 23.

Merodon geniculatus Strobl.
in laboratory tests
Delassus (70) in 1931 reported that/steeping bulbs of ornamentalh
(Amaryllidaceae-y in a decoction of derris was ineffective against larvae
of this syrphid.

Syrphus americanus Wied.

Little (i82) in 1931 reported that the larvae were not affected by the
powdered root of Tephrosia virginiana.

Syrphus sop.

* Wilbaux (321) in 1934 tested extracts of 22-year-old leaves of Te-phrosia
vogelil and.renorted that as a contact insecticide the leaves are about
as toxic as nicotine. Larvae of Syrphus were resistant to sprays containing
1 iert to 200 of the dry vegetable matter.

Kelsall et al. (159) in 1926 reported that derris, 1.5 pounds per 100
gallons of eter, tith so, w was used against aphids on a cutleaf birch.
Larvae of'syrphid flies were killed and dropped in P feir hours, but the
aphids did not. appear to be affected during the first 12 hours. T'-o days
later the tree was found to be completely free from ephlds.

Kuijper (163) in 1929 reported that syrohid flies were resistant to a
spray containing an aqueous extract of derrls root.





-74-


The Ner? Jersey Agricultural Experiment Station (212) in 1938 stated.
thet in studies on pea aphid control derris dusts destroyed e large
number of syrphid fly larvae, whichh predator enemies of the rea aphid.
I a~rE
Tabenidee

The United States Department of Conmerce, Bureau of Foreign end
Domestic Commerce (300) in 1938 published information received from
the American Cohsulate General at Frankfort-on--Main, Germany, that
rotenone-containing preparations had been found to be most effective
in Germany for combating the horsefly pest.

Tipulidae

Tipula spp.

Thompson (273) in 1928 tried derris in poison bait against leatherjacket,
in South Wales and found that, although it did not give as good results as
the paris green bait (1 lb. paris green, 20 lb. bran, moistened with 1/2
imp. gal. water), it is obviously of definite insecticidal value '-'en used
in this way. On the derris-treated plot numerous earthworms, and also some
slugs, were found lying dead on the surface. Derris powder clearly does
not render the bait distasteful to the pests named, as appeared to be the
case with sodium fluosilicate. The derris bait was composed of 10 pounds
of bran and half a pound of derris po-der distributed over half an acre
of oats. Thompson concluded that derris po-der gives moderately good
results.

An anonymous (6) writer in 1937 stated that derris -as ineffective
against craneflies.

Trypetidae

Ceratitis capitata (Wied), the Mediterranean fruitfly

Miller and McBride (205) in 1931 recorded tests of various materials
used in a solution of 50rfunds of sugar, 10 gallons of sirup, Fnd 190
gallons of water, against the Hejiterranean fruitfly in Florida. he
sirup was a very cheap grade of black-streo molasses, and the sugar was
a coarse brow-n grade. The addition of 1 pint of a proprietary product
called "Derris Emulsion 5 percent derris resin" to 200 gallons of this
sugar solution caused a mortality of 80 percent of the flies in 9 days,
as compared with a 12-percent icrtality in the check test.

BPwAhftier and Foury (36) in 1936 reported that molasses plus lerris
(14 kg. of molasses, 1 liter of commercial insecticide containing 50 2.
of rotenone, and 100 liters of water) killed 50 percent in 7 days.
Arsenicals and fluorine compounds gave much better results.

Rothe (244) in 1937, in discussing' means of combating this species







-75-


ir Srrv ny, referred to a special contact poison that apparently continue&
derris'and mes used in admixture with summer oil spray.

Ceratitis (Pterendrus) rosa (Karsch)

Ripley and Hepburn (240) in 1931 reported tests to determine the
comnerative toxicity to the Natal fruitfly of fluorine compounds, lead
arsenate, copper carbonate, Derrisol, and Pulvex. The tests were made
by suspending a cylindrical roll of absorbent cotton wool, 8 inches long
"and 1-1/2 inches i4 diameter, from the center of a cage 1 foot square
and containing 50 flies, 25 of each sex. The cotton hed been soaked in
a solution containing 62.5 ginm. of white sugar per liter, plus the poison
being tested. Derrisol diluted 1 part to 500 parts of sweetened water
acted neither as aa olfactory nor a gustatory repellent and showed a
high toxicity considerably greater than that of lead arsenate at 0.23
percent.- It appeared. to be somewhat too volatile, however, always filing
to kill 10 percent or more of the flies, these having fed presumably
after the rotenone had largely volatilized. Pulvex was far less toxic
than Derrisol, dilutions of 1 part to 300 of sweetened water ranking con-
siderably below ally bait in toxicity.

Dacus cucurbitae (Coa.), the nelon fly

The Feder'atetMalay Stptes Department of Agriculture (84) in 1937
reported on tests made in 1936. Spraying end immersion tests r-ith adults
as subjects, -ere carried out -ith aoueous solutions of Derris elliptica,
rotenone, lime precipitate of derris, deguelin, rotenone-free resin
solution, and solutions of the new solid and liquid derivatives of derris.
Rotenone'and deguelin were dissolved ini acetone to which a small amount
of Agrpl was added end the new solid was tested in solution in ethylene
glycol monoethyl ether. In some tests this species weas anaesthetized with
ether before being sprayed.

1Dacus (Chaetodacus) sp.

The adults were used by the Federated Malay States Department of
Agriculture (83) in 1936 to test the toxic value'bf derris extracts.

Epochra canadensis Loew, the currant fruitfly.

Wood (325) in 1912, in describing the Use of derris as en insecticide
in Malaya, stated that its use against the gooseberry maggot in English
orchards would be well worth a trial.

Hanson end Webster (136) in 1938 recommended derris dust (0.5 percent
rotenone) or spray (0.02 percent rotenone) for the control of the yellow
.current fly.






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Plaetyoerea sp.

According to a letter from Eteblissements Rotenie in 1938 to R. C.
Roerk, this pest on asparagus was mitigated by a product containing 12
percent of powdered LonchocErpus nicou root (6 percent rotenone) end 88
percent of talcum.

Rhagoletis ceresi (L.)

See Jencke (160) under Pegomya hyoscvam_ Penz., on Tege 5.

Sprengel (260) in 1932 reported tests to control the cherry fruitfly
in Germany. The proprietary derris products Polvo end Polvosol have been
used as contact poisons in combating this insect. A dosage of 1/4 kg.
of Polvo per tree -as sufficient, whereas 1/2 kg. of pyrethrum was needed

According to Deutscher Pflanzenschutzdienst (72) in 1933, when cherries
are so ripe as to be susceptible to damage by sodium fluoride snrays, it
i.s recommended that the entirely harmless derris be used, even though it
is considerably more expensive.

Jancke and B'khmel (151) in 1973 reported tests made in Germany for
the control of the cherry fly, A derris extract made from derris ponder
and acetone in the ratio of 1:2 was tested. A 100-percent kill was
obtained with a 1:250 dilution in 4-percent of molasses and with a 1:500
dilution in a 2-percent sugar solution. The 1:500 dilution caused 55-,
70-, and 90-percent mortality, according to whether it was made with
1-percent glycerin, 4-percent molasses, or e combtinetion of the t-,:. In
comparison, e 1:500 mixture of pyrethrum with 4-percent molasses caused
only 15 percent mortality. The acetone extract of derris is said to be
very stable, and can be conveniently diluted with water.

Lang (167) in 1933, reported that the derris-containing proprietary
insecticidal materials Polvo and Polvosol were pliedd four times within
3 weezs to young cherry trees for the control of the cherry fruitfly, but
failed to give favorable results. There was some sound fruit, not exceed-
ing one-third of the crop, from the treated trees, whereas every fruit from
the untreated check trees was infested.

Stellwaag. (262, 263) in 1933 reported a review by the Biclogische
Reichsanstelt of experiments relating to the control of the cherry fruitfly.
Derris was tried in dust form, but because of the unsatisfactory conditions
of many of the experiments no definite statement was made as to the results
with this or any of the other materials used. In the same year Stellweag
also mentioned the fact that derris had been used es a dust ih the control
of the cherry fruitfly.

Wiesmann (320) in 1934 reported that Priox, Polvo (contains rotenone),
end Herkosol were applied as dusts egeainst newly emerged flies, but rain






-77?-


prevented their being effective. Dry dust gave good results in the
laboratory.

According to a letter from Tteblissenments Rotenia in 1938, to R. C.
Roerk, this pest on cherry trees was mitigated by e product containing
12 percent of powdered Lonchocar-us nicou root ( 6 percent rotenone)
and 88 percent of talcum.

Rhegoletis cingulata (Loew), the cherry fruitfly: the cherry meg-ot

The Ner York Agricultural Exneriment Station (214) in 1935 stated
that derris plus an adhesive, such as gum arabic, applied as a stray
reduced the number of cherry fruitflies appreciably.

Glasgow (115) in 1935 reported trials of substitutes for lead arse-
nate in control,

Three applications of derris powder ( 4 percent rotenone), ,hen
pliedd at a rate of 2 pounds to 100 gallons, reduced the fly infestation
in one large sour-cherry orchard from approximately 30 percent in 1933 to
less than 1 percent in 1934.

SThe Ne- York State Agricultural Exneriment Station (215) in 1937
reported that derris ras being tested for control of the cherry maggot.
The sa-ne station (217)' in 1939 reported that tests on the use of rotenone
spreys indicated that they are efficient substitutes for arsenicals on
cherries to be sold as fresh fruit.

Hamilton end Pearce (134) in 1938 reported that preliminary experiments
ere carried out in Ner York in 1937 on the relation between prcgr-s
for spraying with arsenicals and the residue on cherries at harvest time.
Sprays of cube root (5.3 percent rotenone), flotation-sulfur past e nd
soybean flour (2.5, 6.0,: and 0.5 pounds pFr 100 gallons of spray), applied
on June 5, 15, and 24 following a shuck-fall spray of lead arsenate ( 1
lb.), were tested on trees that had al15-percent infestation by Rhagoletis
cin-ul-ta end R. fausta 0. S. during the previous season. Of over 10,000
cherries from 2 trees, only 0.35 percent mere injured by Rhegoletis, but
the lightness of-infestation during.the preceding year precludes definite
conclusions.

SThe Nevw York County Agents' Training School (213) held at Ithaca on
December'19, 1938, heard reports that cherry fruitfly control tests con-
ducted in'plantingsknorn to have been infested in 1937 gave the following
results in 1938:.





-78-

-.~~~~~1~~ -------_ ... _ ----
S-nray material : -plicetions 'orrny fru-it
Number Percent
Cube root 2 lb., soybean flour 1 lb.
in 100 gal. of water 3 1.38

Do. 4 1.13

Phcnothiazine 2 lb. in 100 gel. of rater 2 4.56

Do. 4 .31

Light arsenicals follo-ing the grower's
shuck spray 2 3.21


Hamilton (133) in 1940 reported that in field tests both cube root
and phenothiazine reduced heavy populations of fruitflies (RLhagoletis
cingulata and R. fausta) satisfactorily when at least three.applications
rere made at the rate of 2 pounds per 100 gallons of spray. In one test
a 15-percent-phenothiazine dust app-oeared to be nearly as effective as
these sprays. Basic zinc arsenate only partially controlled cnerry fruit-
flies rhen t-ro light applications -ere made. Cube containing 4.4, 4.7,
or 5.3 percent of rotenone was used Ft the rate of 2 or 2-1/2 pounds per
100 gallons. Soybean flour (1/2 lb.) or r conmercial'spreader ( 1 pt.)
was used in most tests,also flotation sulfurpeste ( 6 lb.) -as a fungicide.

Rhegoletis fausta 0. S., the black cherry fruitfly

See Hamilton and Pearce (134) and Hamilton (133) under Rhagoletis
cinguleta, on pp.77and 78, respectively.

Ahagoletis pomonella (Wealsh), the apple mwgzot: the .blueberry maggot

The Maine Agricultural Exoeriment Station (195) in 1935 reported that
pyrethrum-derris insecticide -'Ps tested for control of the epple fruitfly,
being aerolied at the rate of 1:400 in the fourth cover spray. It is not
feasible to drew1 conclusions froi this preliiinarv test. Experiments '-ith
pyrethrum end derris -ill be continued.

Garman (91, 92) in 1936 reported that his first field experiment
".ith derris was conducted that year and gave unfavorable results, but
more ,ork was needed to establish whether derris has enou-h action in
the field to be considered. In 1976 he reported that in laborttcry tests
derris showed considerable toxicity to apprle mpgot flies: in field tests
it rs much inferior to either cryolite or lead arsenete but trees sorapyed
'vith it shored considerable improvement over unspryed trees. A summary
of laboratory control experiments to kill adult flies of the Prnle maggot
is given in the following table:




-7-.


** :. Average
Materiel end, Solution Tests Flies ,Egr punctures rnctures
: ____ ,er fly
.Number Number Number Number
Lead ersenpte 2 gm./100 cc. 5 101 0 0.0

N. tural cryolite 2 gm../100 cc. 6 112 1 .'.008

Derris (ground root) 2 gm./l0O cc.
"ith skim-milk powder 5 118 8 .06

Phenothiazine 2 gmIlOO cc.
Tith skim-milk poder 2 45 6 .13

Checks ( no spray) 8 8170 530 .3.11

Procedure: MAtorii-Is nere diluted es indicated end sprayed uniformly
on green, immature epples, rhich were then hune in the cepges. Food vies
supplied but the only water provided was sprinkled deily on the apples.
All tests ,ere run for 20 deys, Efter w-hich they rere discontinued end
the apples were examined -ith a binoculrr for eg.g punctures. The temper-
ature-renged from 75 to 78 F. end the relative humidity res bout 60
percent. Flies .were introduced shortly efter emergence.,

The results of field experiments to control the apple mazeot et
Experiment Station Farm, Mount- Carmel,!ere as follows:

", ... : Ve i t

Meterials Infestetion in fruits Varieties
Percent
*Lead Prsenate-flotation sulfur .4.9 Hurlburt

Lead -rsente-lime -11.8 Greening

Cryolite-flotetion sulfur 8.2 Mother, Stark

* Cryolite-ta lc 11.1 Greening

Derris spray 28.1 Greening

Check (no maggot spray) 71.9 GrrnE-n


Sprays of derris 4 pounds, skim-milk Dowder 1 pound, bentonite 2
pounds, to 100 gallons of water wre epplied on June 27, July 10, end
July 25; end sprays of derris 4 pounds, skim-milk powder 2 rounds, end
water 100 gallon were applied on August 14. ThE derris po-der contained
4 percent of rotenone.

'Beck-ith and Doehlert (24) in 1937 reported on the control of this
species in cultivated blueberry fields "-ith t".o nonpoisonous insecticides,






-80-

derris (. 5 percent rotenone) an. pyrethrum' (0.9 percent pyrethrins). Flies
were obtained in Miarc-:-,. end Anril fiom uupae in en incubator end. rere dusted
,-ith definite quantities of insecticide in a cpfe of measured size, in an
attempt to determine -hich ras the more effective dust and to anr:.rcximate
the lethal dose needed in the field. The temperature ranged from 65 to
70 F. Pyrethrum used at the rate of 90 mg. per cage ( 1/3 cu. ft.) killed
the flies in 20 hours. Derris at the rate of -30 rmg. per c8.?e ( 1/3 cu. ft.)
killed the flies in 3-1/2 hojrs, end in tests rith smaller ouantitiEs it
'-as found that 5 mg. to a page -oAid inceapacitate flies -ithin 2 hcur- and
they -ould die without regaining motive power. Yo smaller' doss^es -ere
tried. Five mg. to 1/3 cubic foot "-ould be eouel to 4-1/3 pounds pcr acre,
treating a space 3 feet high, or 8-2/3 potuids per. acre for e space 6 fe.: t
high. The treatment finally recommended r-'as 10 pounds per acre for sma l
plants end 15 pounds per acre for larger ones. Commercial treatments -ere
made on 225 acres representing plantings of 10 different gro-ers. Some
operators used a monoplane and others an autogiro. The dosage "as limited
to 10 to 15 -pounds per acre. T-o smell cages, 4 by 0ID by 2 inches, of
folded-"ire mos.ouito screening, rere used to hold flies in -the center of
large bushes in fields that were being dusted by Putogiro. Six flies rere
used in a cage, and all 'ere deed within 2 hours after treatment. Adults
of RhE.oletis pomnonella can be killed in cultivated blueberry plantations
by dusting, from an airplane or autogiro with 10 to 15 pounds of derris
dust (5 percent rotenone) to the acre. 1he time for treatments in Ne"'
Jersey is apcroximately June 27 to 30, and July 7 to 10.

The Connecticut State Agriculturpl Experiment Station (61) in 1937
reported that results of tests -'ith various substitutes for lea5 arsenate
in orchard sprays indicated that the best control of the arnle maggot -as
obtained on the trees in the cryolite-derris plot sprayed -ith Dhenothiezine.
Continued work with these materials appears to be desirable.

G&rman (93) in 1937 reported thpt in general, the results obtained
that year indicated that derris is ea very good insecticide for killing
apple maggot flies and that it kills much more rapidly than lead arsenate.
This rapid kill pas also reflected. in a reduction in egg punctures amour.ting
to 99 percent 'hen the material weas used as a soray at the same rate as
lead arsenate. S3all quantities of derris or allied materiel in the form
of a dust containing' 0.75 percent of rotenone, applied so as to cover the
fruit surface in a very light layer, -ere elso effective in killing the
flies and preventing. oviposition. Fhcnothiazine continued to shoe repel-
lent action but in killing effect was not coual to either derris or lead
arsenate. 7h:Ft flour '-as used as a carrier in all tests except that -ith.
the rotenone dust, the sprays beinp applied at the rate of 3 -i. of poison
and 3 gm. of flour in 800 cc. of water.

The New Jersey Agricultural Ex-ncriment Station (211) in 1977 r-r.rted
that tests were npde against this fruitfly infesting blueberries. DErris
dust et the rate of 10 *mg. or more killed the flies in 3 hours. Five mg.
of derris disabled the flies in 7 hours so th" t they eventually died.









.4 '.
The- Connecticut Aricu.turelExneriment Station (62) in 1938 reported
thrt derris dusit .were rtpplie.dam July to control arple magcots. Regular
snr?ys '7er' discontinued after. ,jupe 5, end three Ppr)lications of a dust
containing 0.5 percent Of- rotgnone, 7vere made in July end August. At the
station' farm the results r-ere better then for several years past.. At
West roods, fhere. asilr shede S f allowed, the reduction in
injury amounted. to- :pnroximet-eiy, 3ZB percent.

GErmen (94):-iAn 1,38 reported .ih.t c dust containing 0.5 percent of
rotenone applied with a. po-er .dA4ster, seemed to have considerable toxicity
for the apple maggot fly. In-laborztoty tests 'mLtcrials thvt proved to
be effective, rhen used as dusts ,erc ineffective'after being -et dorn and
Pnrlied as a spray, even though., considerable amounts -ere used inithe
Ssnray. Apples heavily dusted rere left for e *fov days in e greenhouse
exposed to moisture and light. In these tests freshly applied dusts
shoved much greeter' effectiveness than similar, dsts that had been exposed
in a greenhouse for 5 days.

German and Townsend (97) in ]938 reported further studies on aeple
mpgzot control. In both laboratory and field tests a 0.5-oercent-rotenone
dust, with clay as a carrier, was shown to be more effective then lead
arsenate in killing the flies. Exposure to light under greenhouse con-
'ditions destroyed.the insecticidal action of rotenone dust completely in
,5 days. Using the' dust as a s'nrav also destroyed its efficiency.

'The Ne,'-Jersey Agricultural Experiment St!tion (212) in'1938 stated
that cage tests of insecticidal dusts against the adult fiy were con-
tinued in that year with a total of 621 individuals in 34 lots. It was
found that, in equal amounts, powdered bprbasco and derris were equally
toxic, each' resulting 'in a practically complete. kill here 2.5 rg. of
4-percent material was used in cages of l/3-cubic-foot capacity. The
Same quantity of 6.7-percent timbo 'produced only a '50-percent kill. The
substation's recommendation of 2 applications of 10 pounds of powdered
derris per acre spread by aircraft' on June 27-30 and July 7-10 was continued.

The"New York Agricultural Experiment Station (216)in 1938 reported
on insecticides, includinr- phenothiazine, powdered cube root, end hydrated
. lime, -hich'rere tested under orchard conditions against the apDnle maggot
in'1936. Six small orchards -'ere trreted, all the trees in each block
receiving a'single tept. material.. little or no control ras obtained where
hydrated lime "alone was used, but the results from cube root and rheno-
thiawine.-7erc sufficiently nromising to' warrant additional testing.
'"' 'A *
The- Ne" York County Agents Training School (213) held at Ithaca in
1938 heard a report that furtht-r tests "ith rotcn6ne in the form of
powdered derris and cube root re6sulted4in' vr.:,' poor control of the apple
meg-0ot. Apparently this material is "out" as an insecticide against this
pest.







-e2-


German (95) in 1939 reported that in field experiments in Cn-
necticu-t, dusts containing 0.5 percent of rotenone, elthou-h succcssfal
in 1937, fPildd to eoual that o.--rformnnce in- 1938, ,oartly because cf the
heavy J-utly rainfall. High temperatures and humidities destroyed the
rotenone r-ridly, and flies r'ere able to lay lhr~e numbers of c-s des-
1ite the 30-day interval of application, hich theoretically should be
emrole considering tac material and the nature of. the insect. The
addition of sulfur to the dust did not improve it. In 1939 German (9_6)
.renortcd that in the hottest pert of July 1938, ap-les -ere dusted -Jith
rotenone dust end exposed to sunlight 1/2 day. By the end of thpt ocricd,
the killing porer of the dust had disappeared, indicetin.n a very rapid
dissi-etion of its toxicity. About the only place for dusts of the kind
mentioned (0.5 percent rotenone) is in late enpli-crtions after the first
of A---.ist, -hen flies need to be destroyed on early ripening varieties
such Ps Gravenstein or Wealthy, and excessive residues should be avoided.

Lathrop (169) in 1939 reviewed the 10 years of -arfere against the
blueberry me-:z-ot. Under the headipn "Tarther Investigation Needed", he
states that studies of rotenone insecticides are of interest to the. blueberry
producers,

The United States Denrrtment of Aariculture, r'-'reu of Ento-olozy and
Plant Quarantine (295), in 1939 reported -ork done in !938 tv F. J. Chap-
men on the control of the apple mrkgot in the vicinity of Fou^.nkeepsie,
N. Y. Cube ponder (4.4 percent rotenone end 22.9 nrcent total extractives):
at the rate of 3 pounds per 100 .-allons plus 1 pound or soyl;?n flour T7s
applied five times, but permitted an infestation rnc:in- fror 34.3 to 93.4
percent. Lead arsenete follo-ed by zinc arsenpte eand t'-o aPlic-rtions .-f
rhenothiaeine r-ave the best control.

Gormen and T.- send (98) in 1940 re.,orted on th.- control of tVi apple
*mpn:.?ot in Connecticut. A dcrris-pyrophyllite dust (0.5 p-crcent rotenone)
plus 4 percent of white lubricating oil applied as a dust --s effective.

Although it appears too early to make specific rccor'-mendetions con-
cerning the use of rotenone insecticides for control of the :nlie mafgot,
it seems tha-t such materials may have a. r'lacc late in the season '-hen it
is desirable to avoid poisonous residues. They .-ill ouibtless be more
succ-ssful in dry than in -ct season, aend it should bt kent in mind that
combinations so far rDnre ,r I lose their notency, evcn in dr'. -eathi'er.
They are not kno-n to last more than 4 or 5 d.,vs on the tries. The extreme
rapiditv of killin-: action is in frvor of rotenone dusts, as sho-n by
ce-c- tests, -hich frequently ysve 100-pcercent knock-do'ns in 24 hours.
Field observations indicate the sr-mc rr-,id destruction of flies ir. the
orchard. Flies co.in.- from unsoreyei trt-s outside the orchard still
remain a problem, but there is rcson to believe t'hrt tne chance of
elmin'-tin,- late comers -rith rotenone dusts is very 7o0d. i











Unidentified. species of Diptera,

See Kelsall et al. (159) under Musca domesticac, on n. 31.

Geoffroy (105) in 1895 described the following test made -ith nicouline
(rotenone) extracted from the root of Lonchocarous nicou: Flies were placed
inder a bell -ith a piece of sugar dried in en own after bein: dipped into
an alcoholic solution saturated with nicouline. The flies that crme to the
sugar did not take long to fall; they became lifeless,, unable to fly, and
manifested their vitality-only by an intermittent trembling of feet and
vings.

Daniels (65) in 1905 wrote that the effects of derris on dipterous
larvae in cesspits filled -ith senisolid material ere local only.

Gilmer (110O) in 1923 reported that derris powder -,hen blown into the
air is not effective against flies.

The Handelsmuseum of the Koloniaal Instituut (161) of Amsterdam in
1930 stated that flies and fly larvae appeared to be immune to derris
emulsion,

Schmitt (246) in 1930 reviewed the use of Derris ellintica as an
insecticde. DuTsting -ith the finely pulverized root -as effective against
fli es.

Campbell and Sullivan (52),in 1933 reported Te-ohrosia lptidens from
Florida to be less effective than a sample of derris when tested as a
kerosene extract against flies.

Gnedinger (117) in 1933 reviewed the literature on rotenone in fly
snrays and cited unpublished rork by Ginsburg, rhich indicates that the
pyrethrins are more toxic than rotenone to flies.

A writer called "0. H." (128) in 1933 stated thet it -as possible
to use a derris root extract in -olace of arsenic in the preparation of
fly paper.

Spoon (257) in 1933 reported tests of rotenone as an insecticide
in Helland and stated that rotenone anpepred to have no value P.-Pinst
full-grown flies.

forsley (326) in 1934 reported that ae:ainst flies teahrosin had been
found to be as effective as pyrethrurm -rovided the insects were actually
Shit with it; pyrethrun, however, had a tempor-rv repellent effect for a
short time after snrayinc,, a property which ter.hrosin does not possess.

Pearson (228) in 1935 reported on the role of pine oil in cattle-fly
sprays. Tests were made with a commercial pine-oil extract of derris


-83-







-84-


containing 5 percent of rotenone and with "Yermor" Line oil containing
2 percent of pure rotenone. Both the knock-down and the mortality
produced by derris extract are increased by nine oil. The rate of
activation is greater than withhpyrethtum. Combinations of derris
end pine oil exhibit the same rate of kill as derris alone, signif-
icant'mortality Qccurtn' after 24 hours. "hen combined with derris
extract, high-trade pine oils are more effective than those of lor
grade. The differences are not so distinct, however, as -ith
pyrethrum. The effect of pine oil on the toxicity of rotenone and
of derris extract is similar. Pine oil increases the repellence
of derris extract in'relation to the quantity added, but not at so
great a rate as that of nyrethrum extract.

Feytaud and Lapparent (87) in 1936 published the following
formula for e fly spray: Cube powder or derris powder 10 gm. -ani
pyrethrum powder 10 'm. is macerated in 100 gM. of a mixture of .eoual
parts of terpinolene and orthodichlorobenzene or carbon tetrachloride
for 5 days with frequent aEitetjon, then filtered anda perfume added,
for example, 10 percent of "teroene de citronelle."

R. J. Prentiss end Company, in advertising literature published
in 1936, discussed laboratory end field methods of evaluating stock
sprays. The following factors were considered: Physical, T-hysiological,
and toxic properties by the Peet-Gredy test, and repellent'properties.
This company manufactures "Frentox Stock Spray Concentrate No. 20" and
"Prentox L. S. Concentrate,' both of which contain derris extractives.
A proper combination of derris resins 'ith e safe and effective repel-
lent of the fumigant type dissolved in a prooerl.v chosen base oil will
make a stock s-oray that will fully meet the most exactin! specifications.

Boyd (37) in 1937 reviewed the use of rotenone in control of
household insects. Rotenone as a fly spre.ay and combinations of rotenone
-'ith pyrethrum and with thiocysnates were referred to.

Greenup (126), American Commercial Attache at Lima, Peru, in 1937
advised that Cubex; a proprietary insecticide mede from Cube, was used
only as a general household insecticide for killing flies and other
insects.

Hardtmenn (137) in 1937 reco-mended oil-rotenonc sPras fof
combating flies and gnats. (See Herdtmerx under Hyoodermp, uepe 68 .)

Dibble and Muncie (74) in 1938 recommended derrIis in control
p-oreparations and fly killers for livestock pests. "Derris is slower
acting than nyrethrum but does not deterlorpte so reolidly in sun and
air. Dusts should contain from 0.5 to 1.0 percent of rotenone.

Thomssen qnd Doner (274) in 1938 reviewed published information !
on fly control for livestock und mentiont-d rotenone sprays for killing
adult flies.









The Wisconsin Agricultural Exmeriment Station (323) in 1938
reported that the best spray for protecting cattle against flies
contained 5 percent of pyrethrum extract in a highly refined mineral
-seal oil of viscosity 40 to 50. Among the materials that proved
ineffective as a fly sprayp-inseeticide in these tests "were rotenone
and other derris extractives, sulfur compounds, and.a number of
synthetic insecticides. Several antioxidants, tEsted to learn whether
they would prolong the effectiveness of insecticides, failed to improve
cattle-fly sprays.

According to the manufacturers, Dodge and Olcott Company, New York,
N. Y., *in advertising literature published in 1939,. Rotopyressenol No. 20
is a combination -7hich "embodies in scientifically correct proportions
the quick knock-dbwn value of pyrethrum and the high moribund kill and
leg paralysis of dihydrorotenone, both enhanced by the activative
penetration of Essenol." D. and 0. Essenol is said to be an insectici-
dally active combination of essential oils, end it is stated that the
effective killing power'of'pyrethrum and rotenone sprays is substan-
tially increased by its addition.

Whitmire (318) in 1939 defined moribund flies as "those that can
move some part of their bodies, but cannot fly or walk to an extent to
enable them to get 'off the observation paper." He described an apparatus
and method for determining moribund kill. Rotenone end certain deriv-
atives of it (e.g., dihydrorotenone) in fly sprays do not kill flies
immediately but act slowly, producing moribund flies.

In 1940 the Experimental and Research Station, Cheshunt, Herts,
England (81), reported that applications of pyrethrum powder to mushroom"
beds had given results [against Diptera] as good as those obtained by
atomization of pyrethrum and derris extracts with apparatus employed
in the treatment of warehouses.

An anonymous writer (8) in 1941 reported that the name "Indalone"
had been registered by U. S. Industrial Chemicals, Inc., New York, N. Y.,
as the trade-mark of the solvent aloha, alpha-dimethyl-alpha'-carbobutoxy
-gamrne-dihydropyrone. Indalone, formerly marketed under the name "dihydro
-pyrone," was developed for use in liquid contact insecticides eas a
solvent for derris-root extractives.. When used in this way it has the
property of increasing the insecticides effectiveness of the ingredients
dissolved in it andof holding derris extractives in solution in the
commonly used base oils. Indalone is a powerful insectifuge and repels
,the common winged insects, to rhich it appears to have en obnoxious taste.
Because of this high repellency, it is especially suitable for cattle
sprays and mosquito lotions.







-86-


Literature cited

1. ANONYMOUS

1931. Derris root insecticides. Value agEinst the Tprtle
fly. Che'. Trade Jour. end Cherm. Enzin. 88: 32.
Repr. in Mele:,Fn Agr. Jour. 19: 301.

2. -----

1931. Dasselbekamipfungsversuche an der ticrerztlich-n Hchschule
in Wien. Amtlichen Nachrichten der niedcrosterreichLis-
chen Landesregierun 11ii: 12-13. [Abstract in Deut.
Landw. Rundschau. 8: 70-71.]

3.

1932. The wprble fly. Successful demonstration in Dublin.
Leather Trades Rev. 65: 589.

4. ------

1934. Ontario farmers orenize a raid on warbles. FTrmFrts
Advocate and Home Mag. 69 (2085): 115, 139.

5. -----

1935. Derrispoeder tegen de Runderhorzel. Alg. Landb. Weckbl.
v. Ilederl. Indie 19 (38): 712-714.

6. -------

1937. llcderlandsche insecten en derris in 1936. Tijdschr.
over Plantcnziekten. 43: 251-265.

7.-----

1938. Warble fly Dest. Dcputatlon from the Hide Improvcnent
Society'to the Ministry of Agriculture. Leather
World 30.(49): 1244-1245.

8. -------

1941. Indalone. Amer. Chem. Soc. Jour., News Ed., 19 (5): 277.

9. ALLEN, T. C., and BRCfOKS, J. w.

1940. The effect of alkalinee dust diluents on toxicity of
rotenone-boprinc- roots es determined by tests '-ith
houseflies. Jour. A1r. Res. 60 (12): R3s-545.







-87-


10. BADERTSCHER, A. E.

1933. Rotenone in fly sprays. Raising the quality of
pyrethrum fly sprays *by .the addition of a constant
amount of rotenone. ..SoaB 9 (8): 86, 87.

11.

1936. Insecticide tests compared. A brief study of comparative(
results using the Peet-Gred:: method and the Carmpbell
turntable method. Soap 12 (9); 96-97, 101.

12. -----

1937.. High kill insect sprays. Soap 13 (8): 93, 95, 97, 99,
101, 103, 105, 107, 109.

13. ---------- and WOT{ERSPOON, R. .

1935. Derris and pyrethrum powders, e study of their protection
from injurious ?ction of light and air. Soap 11 (4):
87-89, 111, 113.

14. BAP.TELS, E.

1934. Bektmpfuhg der dasselplage. Er7cbnisse der im Bezirk
Schlesrig imn Jahre 1933 angestellten Versuche. Deut.
Tierarztl. Wchnschr. 42 (1): 1-6.

15. .,. .

1936. -[Derris.. ]: Bildericht..No. 8, Abgestorbcne mumifizierte
Dassellarven unter der Haut eines Rindes. Tiererztl.
Rundschau. 42 (8); 152.

1-. -----

1936. Was muss der Tiererzt von der Dasselfliege und ihrer
Bekampfung -.'issen? Tierar,7tl. Rundschau. 42 (19):
355-359; (20): 384-387.

17. ------

1937. 'Velche Erfolge hat dae Dasselgesetz vom Jahrc 1933 bis
jetzt 7-ezeitigt? Tiorprztl. Bundschau. 43 (13):
211-213.

18. BAUDET, E. A. R. F.

1933. Runderhorzelbestrijding. Tijdschr. v. Dicr.---n,:'sk.
60:. 145-147.









19. -----

1934. 1Runderhorzel-bestri.jing. Wet ter bestrijing ven de
runderhorzel in Daitschlend. Tijdschr. v. fit rzeneesk.!
61: 303-310.

20. --------- end P E2, E. de

1933. Over het gebruik van derrispoeder, rotenon, tecroreparaten
en teroentijn bij de bestriijding van ic rinderhorzEl-
lerve. Tijdschr. v. Dier-,Tncr:sk. 60: 629-647.

21 --------- and POER, E. de

1934. De bestrijding van runderhorzellerven met derris-extraeten,
Tijdschr. v. Diergeneesk. 61: 974-983.
4
22. --------- and BOER, E. de.

1934. De bestrijding ven runderhorzel larven met derris-extracten
Tijdschr. v. Diergeneesk. 61: 1078.

23. -------- and TIE3CCHULZ, 0.

1933. Over myiasis bij schapen veroorzaakt door lerven van
Lucilia sericata. Tijdschr. v. Diercrnc sk. 60:
648-658.

24. BECKWITT4, C. S., end DOE'-%7ERT, C. A.

1937. Control of Phegoletis pomonella (Walsh) in cultivEtcd
blueberry fields. Jour. Econ. Ent. 30: 294-297.

25. BENKERT, T. end COCOFANYY

1934. Derris dusts as agricultural insecticides. _crris
Developments, 1, 4 pp.

26. BHATIA, H. L.

1934. The bet flies of &7oFts -nd shcep. Agr. and Livestock
in Indie 4: 516-623.

27. BI5HCTP, F. C.

1929. The pi, ,:.:on fly--an important pest of 1itcons in the
United Stetes. Jour. Econ. Ent. 22: 974-990.

28. ---------

1941. Derris for cattle grubs. Agr. ieders' Di-cst 22 (3):
30-31. |


-58-






-89-


29. LAKE, W1, BRINDPRETT, H. M., and WELLS, R. W.
/
1926 The cattle grubs or ox warbles, their' biologies and
suggestior'for control. U. S. Dept. Agr. Bul. 1369,
120 PP.
I
30. -- LAAKE, E. -., and "TELLS, R. W.

1922; Important biological facts on the ox-warble control.
Jour. Econ. Ent. 15:'264-265.

31. ------ LAAKE, E. W., and WELLS, R. W.
(f
1929. Cattle grubs .or heel flies with suggestions for their
control. U. S. Dent. Agr. Fer-rers1 Bul. 1596, 22 pp.

32. ---- LAAKE, E. T., WELLS, R. W., and PETERS, H. S.

1930. Experiments wTith insecticides against cattle grubs,
Hypoderma species. Jour. Econ. Ent'. 23: 852-863.

33. BLIECK, ,L.. de, end BAUDET, E. A. R. F.

1927. Bestrijding der Hypoderma. .Tijdschr. v. Diergeneesk.
54: 454-457.

34. BLISS, C. I.

1939. The toxicity of poisons applied jointly. -knn. Appl. Biol,
26' (3) 58'5-615.

35. BOCK, C.

1934. Derris elliptica. Deut. Apoth. Ztg. 2: 588-589.

36. BOU-ELIER, R., and "FLURY, A.

1936. Contribution e 1 etude des' appats dans la lutte centre
la ceratite, Certtitis cenitete Mied. Rev. de Zool.
Agr, et App 1. 35": 4-63. .

'37. BOYD, 'W. fA.

1937. Rotenone in household insect control. Soap 13 (6):
125, 129..

38. BRFAKEY, E. P., end !KILLER, A. C.

1935. Hplowex es an ovicide. Jour. Econ. Ent. 28: 358-365.






-90-


39. BRISTOL [EE.3LAIID] ULIrVE-SITY .

1936. Report on advisory -'ojrk 1934-35. _ristol Univ. Agr. end
ITJ^. 4 D. C! k P.-^ 1 4- 107 n'r --- nI I


40. BRI


TTAIN, 7. H.

1921. Experiments in th'e control of the c'ebbage mnagget
(Chortoohile bressicae Bouche) in 1920., _Znt. Soc. Iove
Scotia. Proc. 6: 54-73.


41.


1922. Further eyrecriments in the control of the cat'bege neggot
(Chortophila brpssicae ]Eouche) in 1921. Acad. Ern.t. Soc.
Proc. 7: 49-71.


42.


1925. Some miscellaneous insecticide tests. Acad. Ent. Soc.
Proc. '10: 23-42.

43. BRUCE, 7. G.

1940. The medication of cattle for the control df hornflies.
Kans. Ent. Soc.' Jour. 13 (Z): 41-43.


44.


1940. The hornflyand-its control. U. S. Dept. Agr., Bur. Ent.
and Plant Quar. Leeflet 205: 5, illus.

45. "-UCT AA 1 "

1932. Chirionomidenschadeneh bei de Belcbt-schlamm-verfahren und
ihre VerhItung und ocb'inr: mit chemischcn. !AittEln.
Ztschr. Gesundhbitstedhnik St-dtehygiene 24: 31-38,
83-102.

46. BURTON, D.

1934. 1he iwrble fly. Leather Tredes R>v. 4": 147-1479.

47. BUSHLAIU, R. C.

1940. The toxicity of somergnic connounds to :oung scre-vTormns.
Jour. Econ. Ent. 53: '669-676,






-91-


48. UJSSY, L. P. de, LAAN, P. A. van der, and DIAKUC'iFF, A.

1936. Bestrijdinr van nederlandsche incecten met derris.
Tijdschr. over PlEntenziekten. 42: 77-100, illus.

49. -------- LAAT, P. A. van der, and JACOI, E. F.

1935. Resultaten van proven met derrispoeder en rotenone
op nederlandsche insecten. Tijdschr. over Pl:ntenziekte
41: 33-50, illus; Amsterdam Kolon. Inst., Afd. Handels-
museum. Ber. 91, 25 pp., illss; and Indische iercuur
58: 103-104, 119, 121.

50. CALTBELL, F. L.

1932. Review of information on the insecticidal value of
rotenone. U. S. Dept. A-r., Bur. Ent. 2-298, 28 pp.
[Processed.]

51.-- ----- .--and SULLIVAHN W.N.

1933. fDerris excels pyrethrumn (in kerosene extracts) against
:house flies. U. S. Dept. Agr., Bur. Ent. Monthly Let.
230: 11. [Processed.].

52. ---- and SULLIVXI, W. N.

1933. Insecticidal value of a kerosene extract of the roots
of Cracca latidens. U. S. Dept. Agr.,- Bur. Ent.
S .Monthly. Let. 234: 33. [Processed.]

53. -------- SULLIVAN, W. N., and'JONES, H. A.

1934. Derris in fly sprays. Soap 10 (3): 8]-83, 85, 87, 103,
105, 107..

54. ------- SULLIVAN, 7. N., end JO'.7ES, H. A.
85
1934. Derris in fly sprays. Soap 10 (4): 83,7T103, 105.

S55.- ------- SULLIVAN, W. N., and SL.;iITH, C. R.

1933. The relative toxicity of nicotine, anabasine, methyl
anaebFsine, and luifiine for culicine mosquito larvae.
Jour. Econ. Ent. 26: 500-509.

56. ------SLLIVAN,. 7. N., SMITH, L. E., End H-.L H.L.

1934. Insecticidal tests of synthetic organic comrnounds -
chiefly tests of sulfur compounds ri-pinst culicine
mosquito larvae. Jour. Econ. -nt. 27: 1176-1185.






-92-

57. CANADA EXPERI; TTAL FARMS
I

1927. Derris.] Div. Chem. Rpt. 1926-27: 69, 71-73.

58. CASE, L. I.

1929. Studies on the ox werble flies, Hyioder-le linetumn and
Hypoderme bovis, with special reference to economic "
importance and control. Va.Azr. Exmt. Stp. Tech. Bul.
39, 12 pp.

59. CASTILLO, N.

1926. Preliminary studies on the insecticidal properties of
three species of derris in the Philiprines. Philip-
pine Agr. 15: 257-275.

60. COMPTON, C. C.

1931. Extension work in ox warble control. Jour. Econ. Ent. 24::
643-646.

61. CONNECT CUT (STATE) AGRICULTURAL EXPERI:'TENT STATIOC"W

1937. Substitutes for lead arseriate in orchard sprays. Conn.
(State) Agr. Expt. Sta. Bul. 393: 185.

6?. -----

1938. [Derris.] Conn. (State)- Arr. Expt. Ste. Ann. Rpt. 1937,
Bul. 409: 296, 298, 299.
I *.
63. CORY, E. N., HARNS, H. G., rend AIDERSCIT, W. H.

1936. Dusts for control of flies on cattle' Jour. Econ. Ent.
29: 331-335.

64. CRAUFURD-PEI1S301, H. J.

1938. The selection of a standard insect for the laboratory
testing of insecticides. Bul. Ent. Res. 2- (2): 119-123|

65. DANIELS, C. .

1905. A plea for the scientific study of nptivc 6rugs and
poisons. Malaye ?rrnc," Brit. Med. Assoc. Jour.
[Si-.n,--pore] (n.s.) 2: 3-5. [Rcvie-ed in 3rit. !ed.
Jour. 2373: 1475.1






-9,3-


66. DANFEEL, R. ....

1933. Die giftwirkung des-xrotenoneas and seiner derivate auf
Sfischet II. ,Der. ngr.if-fspunk-t der gifte. Ztschr. f.
Verglei'ch.'Physiol. 18: 524-535.

67. DAVIDSON, M.

1930.6 Rotenone as contact insecticide, Jour. Econ. Ent. 23:
"; .868-874. ''

S68. DAVIES, W.. M4

1930. The control of warble flies in North Wales. [Gt. Brit.]
Min. Agr. end Fisheries Jour. 37 (9): 862-870.

69. ------ and JONES, E.

1932. Extension -ork on the control of warble f'ics. [Gt. Brit.]
Mi i. Min Ag erd Fisheries Jour. 39 (9): 805-813.

70. DELASSUS .. -

1931. Algeria: The -prcsence of rMer.don geniculTatus in the
S vicinity "of Algiers. Inte.npt-. Bul. Plant Protect.
5 (12): 213.

71. DE ONG, E. R., and TrHITE, L. T. W.

1924. Further studies of derris as an insecticide. Jour. Econ.
Ent. 17: 499-501.

72. DEUTSCHER PMFIIZE1TS$?'T-JTZrIIEIJST

1933. Spritzschedcn tn Kirschcn durch Verwendung von Fluornatrium
zur Bek'enpfung-der Kirschflic-;e. Deut. Pflanzenschutz-
dienst. Niachrichtenbl. 13 (8): 63-64.

'3. DIBBLE, C. B.

1934. Home-made cattle sprays. Mich. Agr. Expt. Sta. Quart.
Bul. 16 (4); 243-244.

74. ------- end 14LIICIE, J. H.

1938. Condensed information on insecticides and funicides,
for field end grden crops, (Rev.-1938) Mich. State
Col. Ext. Bul. 8 pp. [Processed.]

75. DIIIULESCO, G., and FOISOREAUO, D.

1939. Rechcrcncs sur quolques substances larvicides pDur les
hyoodermes. Ann. Inst. Natl. Zootech. [Rumanie]
7: 205-224, illus. [Abstract in Biol. Abs. 14 (9):
1486.]








76. DOTY, A. E.


1937. Convenient method of rearing the steblefly. Jour.
Econ. Ent. 30: 367-369.

77, DOW CHEMICAL COMPANY

1937. Beta (p-tertiary-butyl-phenoxy) ethanol (Fly Toxic K-58).
Toxicity to three day old house flies (Muscr doncstica
L.) by the Peet-Gredy method. 4 pp. [Processed.]

78. DURHAMI, H. E.

1926. Non-arsenical preparations for garden use. Gard. Chron.
(ser. 3) 79 (.2047): 213-214.

79.. EDWARDS, K. B.

1938. Rotenone-containing insecticides. Fruit Grower
85 (2206): 460.-

80. EXPERIMENTAL AND RESEARCH STATION, CHESHUNT, HETS

1939. [Derris.] [Cheshunt] Expt. end Res. Sta. Ann. Rpt.
(1938) 24, 108 pp.

81. -----

1940. [Derris.] [Cheshur.t] Expt. and Res. Ste. Ann. Rpt.
(1939) 25: 11, 40.

82. FEDERATED MALAY STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

1934, Division of Entomology. Fed. ].'ilav States Dept. Air.
[Bul.] Gen. Ser. 19: 36-54.

83.
1936. VDerris elliptiea.] Fed. IMrly Strtes Dcpt. ;gr. [Bul] .
Gen. Ser. 19: 38-54.

84. --

1)37. [Derris.] Fed. Malay States Dept. Agr. [Nul.1 Gen.
Ser. 26, 97 pp.

85. FELLTON, H. L.

1940. Control of rauatic midge-s -'ith notes on the biology of
certain species. Jour. Econ. Ent. 33: 262-264.




-95-


86. FELT, E. P., and. BROMLEY,- S W.

1939. Mcgwood club gall.- Bartlett Tree Res. Lab. Bul. 3: 30-33.

87. FEYTAUD, J., and APPARENT, P. de

1936. A propos de l'uti-lisation de4s derives terpeniques en
agriculture. Inst. du Pin. Bul. (3) 19: 166-158.

88. FIELD6 W., end others

1926i Report of th Depaertmental Committee on warble fly pest.
[ Gt. Brit.j' Min; Agr. and Fisheries 4-48.

891 FINK4 D, E., and HALLER, H. L.

1936.. The relative toxi'city 6f sboie optically active and
inactive rotenbne derivatives to culicine mosquito
larvae. Jour. Econh, Ent. 29: 594-598.

90. FULMER, H. L.

1930. Insecticides, fungicides, and herbicides. Ontario Dept.
.Agr.fBul. 351, 75 pp. [Abstract in Malayan Agr. Jour.
18: 462. ]

91. GARPMAN, P.

1936. Notes on- the apple maggot. Jour. Econ. Ent. 29: 542.

92. -----

1936. Studies in breeding end control of the apple maggot.
Conn. State Ent. Rpt. 35 (1935).

93. -----

1937. Further studies in control 5f the apple maggot. Conn.
(State) Agr. Expt. Ste. Bul. 396: 378-379. Conn. State
Ent. Rpt.36 (1936).

94.

1938. Some important apple insects and control investigations
in 1937. Conn. Pomol. Soc. Proc. 47,': 26-31.

95. ------

1939. Field experiments in control of the arple mpgyot, 1938.
Conn. (State) Agr. Expt. Sta. Bul. 428: 72-73. Conn.
State Ent. Rpt. 38 (1938).

96. ----- --

1939. Important insects of the apple orchard and methods of
control. Conn. Pomol. Soc. Proc. 48: 81-88.






-96-


97. ----- and TOT7!SEID, J. F.

1938. Further studies on apple mnagot control. Conn. (State)
Agr. Expt. Sta. Bul. 408: 230-232. Conn. State Ent.
Rpt. 37 (1937).

98. ---------- and TO7NSENDl, J, F.

1940. Continued experiments on control of the apple maggot.
Conn. (State) Agr. Expt. Ste. Bul. 434: 264-269. Conn.
State Ent. Rpt. 39 (1939).

99. GAUT, . C.

1929. Worcestershire warble fly demonstration scheme. Worces-
tershire County Council Agr. Ed. Suprilemnentery Notes,
3 pp. [Processed.]

100. -----

1930. Ox warble fly. Worcestershire County Council Agr. Ed.
Sub-Com. Rpt. on demonstrations and experiments, 1930.
47 pp.

101. -----

1931. Ox warble fly. Worcestershire County Council Agr. Ed.
Sub-Com.*Rpt. on demonstrations and experiments, 1928
-1931. 32 pp.

102. -----

1936. The actual dressing. Farmer -nd Stock-Breeder 50 (2418):
338.

103. -------- and WALTON, C. L.

1929. Report on ox warble flies end their control. Bristol
Univ., Agr. and Hort, Res. Sta. Ann. Rnt. 1929: 220-225,
illus.

104. ----- and T7ALTON, C. L.

1929. Ox tarble'fly. Worcestershire County Council Agr. Ed.
Sub-Com. Rpt. on demonstration end experiments, 1928-29.
26 pp.

105. GEOFFROY, E.

1895. Contribution a 1'etude du Robinip nicou Aublet. Marseille
Inst. Colon. 2: 1-86, illus.





S-97-


106. GIBSON, A.

1927. Mosquito investigations in Canada in 1926. N. J.
Mosquito Extermnin.. Assoc. Proc. 14: 110-115.

107. .--- ..
1928. Mosquito suppression in Canada in 1927'. N. J. Mosquito
'Extermin. Assoc. Proc. 15:, 136-146.

108. ---

1929. Mosquito'supiression-in Canada in 1928. N. J. Mosquito
Extermin* Assoc. Proc. 16: 102-108.

109. -------- and T7INN, C. R.

1936. Warble fly control in Canada. Sci. Agr. 17 (4): 179-198,

110. GILMER, P. M.

1923. Derris as a parasiticide. Miinn. State Ent. Rpt. (1922)
19: 41-49.

111. GIMLETTE, J. D.

1923. Maelay poisons, and charm cures. Ed. 2, 260 pp., illus.
London.

S112. GINSBURG, J.-IA., SC_.ITT, J. B., and GRANETT, P.

1934. Derris insecticides. I. Toxicity of various extracts
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