A review of the insecticidal uses of rotenone and rotenoids from derris, lonchocarpus (cube and timbo), tephrosia, and related plants

Material Information

A review of the insecticidal uses of rotenone and rotenoids from derris, lonchocarpus (cube and timbo), tephrosia, and related plants
Portion of title:
Roark, R. C ( Ruric Creegan )
United States -- Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine
Place of Publication:
[Washington, D.C
U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine
Publication Date:
Physical Description:
63 p. : ; 27 cm.


Subjects / Keywords:
Biological insecticides ( lcsh )
Rotenone ( lcsh )
Mites -- Control ( lcsh )
Insect pests -- Control ( lcsh )
bibliography ( marcgt )
federal government publication ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )


Includes bibliographical references (p. 41-58) and indexes.
General Note:
Caption title.
General Note:
General Note:
"May 1945."
Statement of Responsibility:
by R.C. Roark.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
This item is a work of the U.S. federal government and not subject to copyright pursuant to 17 U.S.C. §105.
Resource Identifier:
030289593 ( ALEPH )
779847213 ( OCLC )

Full Text

May 1945 E-655

4^ -



By R. C. Roark, Division of Insecticide Investigations I/

Introduction----------------- ----------- ----- --------------- 2
Acarina------------------------------------------------------------ 2
Arg.asidae------------------------------------------------------- 2
SDermanyssidae -------------- ------------------------ 2
Eriophyidae----------------------------------------- 2
Gamasidae------------------------------------------------------- 3
Ixodidae----------------------------------------------------- 4
Parasitidae----------------------------------- ----------- 9
Pediculoididee------------------------------------------------- 9
Penthaleidae --------------------------------- 9
Sarcoptidae ---------------------------------------- 9
Tarsonemidae ---------------------------------- ------------- 12
1 3tranychidae ---- --------------------------------------------- 12
Tyroglyphidee------------------------------------------------ 36
Ticrs in general------------------------------------------------ 39
Liter ture cited-------------------------------------------------- 42
Junior author index-------------------------------- 59
Index of mites, ticks, and insects------------------------------ 60

4j The manuscript of this publication was resd by the following research
divisions of the Bureau and helpful suggestions -e-re contributed: Fruit
Insect Investigations, Truck Crop Pnd Garden Insect Investigations, Cotton
Insect Investigations, Insects Affecting Man and Animrls, Insect Identifi-
cation, Control Investigations, Cereal and Fo-rage Insect Investigtions,
end Bee Culture. The reviewers in these divisions "ore, respectively,
B. A. Porter, C. A. Weigel, R. W. Harned, F. C. Eishonp, C. F. 7. I[lucse-
beck and the specialists in his division, J. Franklin Yonerer, C. 1,I. Packard,
and Jas. I. Hambleton.

MAY 9 1945


This is the eleventh in a series of naners designed to revievr all
available information on the insecticidal uses of rotenone and the rotenoids,
Parts I-X have reviewed tests with derris, cube, timbo, Tephrosia, Mundulea,
and their constituents on members of the Collembola, Orthoptere, Dermaptera,
Odo'neta, Isoptera, Corrodentia, Mallophaga, Thy-sanoptere, Homoptera, Hemiptera,
Anoplura, Coleoptera, Lepidoptera, Hymenoptera, Diptera, and Siphonaptera.
Appe'rently no tests with' the rotenone plants upon Thysanura, Ephemeroptera,
or Plecoptera have been recorded. Part XI, the present paper, reviews the
tests and recommendations 'f6r use on Acarina (Class, Arachnida).



Ar e s mini tus Koch, the fowl tick

Lifttle'(93) in 1931 reported that laboratory test? on adults of the
fowl' tick showed both devil's-shoestrings and derris tp be ineffective,

Ornithodoros moubata- Murray
0. tertalcovskyi Olenev

Mi'onoff et al. (106) in 1940 reported tests with rotenone against ticks.
The of these two species were resistant to derrris powder.


Ophionyssus serpentium Hirst .
Schroeder (135) in 1934 reported that a solution of derris (acetone
extract of derris added to water) is effective as an acaricide for dipping
snakes, Such a dip does not interfere with the physiological function of
shedding, is not toxic to the snake, yet is entirely efficient in the de-
struction :of snake mites..


Epitrimnerus vitis ITal. . '(141) in 1938 recommended a pyrethrum-derris spray as a spring



treatment for the control of the mites, including this species which cause
curly-leaf disease of grapes in Germany.

-Eriophyes sheldoni t-ing

Boyce and Maxwell (13) in 1938 :reported that' oil sprays, either alone
or iwith rotenone-bearing materials, gave promising results for the control of
the citrus bud mite -in Cali-fbrnia.

Phyllocoptes oleivorus (Ashm.), the citrus rust- mite

Tin-ston (170) in 1936 reviewed information on Derrisol foi the benefit
of Florida citrus growers. If a grower who is spraying with lime-sulfur
solution for rust mites should find[ any aphids nreseht, an addition of
Derrisol 1:800 ill enable him to control this pest with one spraying.

Lenfest (91) in 1926 wrote that lime-sulfur mixed with Derrisol will kill
the rust mites, as well as the aphids, on citrus.

Phyllocoptes viticu'lus Pent.
P. vitis Nal.

Stellwaag '(141) in 1938 recommended e pyrethrum derris spray as a spring
treatment for the control of these two spTecies.


Dermanyssus gallinae (Deg.), the chicken mite

!cIndoo, Sievers, end Abbott (94) in 1919 reported that when derris powder
was freely dusted over chicken mites confined in jars all were killed within
24 hours, but when used under practical conditions in e badly infested chicken
house not ell the mites were killed.

Devidson (50) in 1924 reported the results of tests with derris powder
end derris extract against' the chicken mite. The compositionn of these materials
was not known. Four infested chicken houses inhabitedby the common chicken
red mite w-rere-dusted with the finely ground powder- of derris roots. Undiluted
dust vas efficient in one house-and temporarily so in another. In a third
house a 75-percent dust was only moderately efficient; in a fourth test a
50-percent dust'weas inefficient. Flour- 2es used'es'e diluent. Davidson con-
cluded that derris powder is a remedycf value, but apparently two or more
abnlicatiohs ere necessary and it'loses its efficiency if diluted more than
25 percent. It acts on larvae and adult mites by stupefying them, the
individuals dronping to' the ground end dying after 2 or' : days. The material
is rather unpleasant to apply. A commercial extract of derris, 16 percent,
diluted. 1:,'000 and 1':500, 'ith the' addition of whale-oil soap, arplied at the
rate of 4 pounds per 100 gallons, was inefficient,

Schmitt (134) in 1930 reported -that dustirnz with dry powder of the finely
pulverized root of Derris elliptica was effective against chicken mites.


Boophilus annulatus (Say)" ie-c.U1e tick -

Kraneveld (89) in 1936 conducted t-,o types of experiments to study the
toxicity of aqueous derris-powrier suspensions to ticks of 'this sp.ecies.
1. Ticks were imfimersed in .suspensions containing various
quantities of derris f ode 'for 5 to 10 seconds and also for 15
to 20 seconds. They were then -remnoved, dried, and nlaced in
tubes containing blood-saturated cotton wads, to offer them an
opportunity to seat. The-'ticks' "ere -observed twice each -day to
determine how long they lived after this. treatment. Controls
Tiere run on ticks dipped. in' water, and on untreated ticks. The
,-results . indicate that the derris--nowder suspension must
contain more than 0.076 percent of rotenone to be effective.

2. A steer infested with ticks was sprayed 7ith a derris
.suspension containing 0.1 percent of rotenone. Several dead
ticks were found, on 'the animal 2 days after this treatment,
but living ticks could be found even 3 weeks after the treat-
ment. A second steer was washed -ith'a suspension containing
0.2 percent of rotenone. Most of the ticks ",ere dead on the
following day, and all were dead 3 weeks after the treatment.
Meitheranimal:suffered any ill effects from this treatment.
Kraneveld concluded that,- since the'Othet treatments now used
to free animals of ticks are effective and cheap, the nrice of
derris would have to be very low to be V)ractical and suggested
that derris powder containing small quantities of rotenone that
could not be used for'6ther-purnoses could be used to kill-ticks
on cattle.

,Kraneveld's work was "reported 'by D. W. Smith (138), American Trade
Commissioner at Bataevia," Java,' in1938.

Dermacentor andersoni Stiles (syn., D. venustus Banks)

S According to a release. by 'the Interdeparitmental Safety Council published
in the United States Dep-artment of Ariculture, "Agriculture Exchange (147),
if there is an animal'pet in the family, it should be searched for ticks
and. should be dusted with 'derris powder.

.Dermacentor.nigrblineatus :'(Pack.), the brown winter tick

Babcock (6) reported in 1936 thet, in some preliminary tests .4th
TenhrQsia:virginirna, examination on the third day after the"anim.l had
S been treated onoe showed that ;'ll'D. nigrolineatus infestingz a horse had
been killed;, All but one o?,4 number of ticks of this snecies -laced in a
* box. containing the powered material -ere'killed' in 31 hours.

Parish (118) in 101 rca"ortc:1 thrt s-,raying cattle infested vith the
brown ,inter tick at Menerd, TLx.', ",ith the following mixture resulted in


little or no kill: Wettable sulfur, 100 pounds; derris powder (5 percent
rotenone), 10 ounds; water, 1,000 gallons. This is the formula'found
effective Ps a dip for cpntrolling the short-nosed cattle louse.

Dermpcentor variabilis (Say), the American dog tick

.C. N. Smith, in a typewritten quarterly report to the Division of Insects
Affectin., !en and Animals, Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine, United
States Deprtment of Agriculture, for the period July-September, 1937, gave
the results of tests maie at Vineyard Haven,' Mass., on the control of the
American d->g tick. Tests were made with derris as a wash to kill .and repel
adult ticrks on dogs and horses. In general, it ap-ears that a dip made of 2
to -1 ounces -of derris (rotenone 4 percent) to the gallon will kill all flat
ticks an" most of those partially enaorged. Treatment of animals every 5 or
6 days should be sufficient to prevent enforcement of ticks, as the animals
are protected for 3 or 4 days, an- ticks attached 1 to 3 days are easily
killed.. No animals were made sick the dip, as animals" occasionally are by
breathing derris dust. Although the dip leaves the dog's hair feeling somewhat
greasy, n:. objections were made by the owners. '

The United States Derpartment of Agriculture in a Press Release dated
iiay 18, 1938, issued information on how to avoid dahnerous tick bites.
Keeping ticks from engoring themselves on the blood of dogs is a protective
measure. A pair of forceps is all that is needed to'remove ticks from dogs
if only a few have attached themselves thereto. Dusting every 5 days with
derris r-owdeT is necessary for dogs supporting a large number of ticks.

BishoDp' and Smith (10) in 1938 recommended application of a derris dip to
dogs to control the American-dog tick, or common wood tick, which is the
nrinciPal vector of the Rocky Mountain spotted fever in the Central and Eastern
States en'I is also capable of carrying rabbit fever tularemiaa). Derris dip
is made by mixing 2 ounces of fine derris powder (containing at least 3
percent rotenone), 1 ounce of neutral soap, and 1 gallon of tepid water. The
dip may be applied by putting the dog in a tub containing it, or it may be
brushed in thoroughly. The dip should be allowed to dry-on the dog or, if
necessary, the surplus liquid may be removed with a towel. The dip can be
kept for at least a week without deteriorating. If the dip cannot be used
conveniently, d.erris powder may be applied next to the skin on all infested
parts. To prevent ticks from enrr:ring, the powder must be applied every
other day. The persistence of either the dip or the dust depends on the type
of dog, and the interval between treatments can be determined best by
experience. Do not permit- the powder or diD to get into the eyes.

These authors (11) again in 1938 recommended derris for the control of the
American dog tick. The thorough application of derris as a powder or wash is
effective in destroyin,7 the ticks already attached and in preventing the
reinfestation of dogs for short periods. Application is easier when the
powdOer is used, and ticks that actually come in contact with the derris will
be killed, but "the animals are less-thbrou.-:hly covered than when the material
is used as a wash or dip. In addition' to giving a more complete treatment at

ticks th.n niirnst the f-lly
the time of appl-ication, the. derris wash. is retained on the hair and sEin_ -
longer th.?n the powder ndhas a more extended repellent action. When used
by either method,rderris is more effective against flat or slightly engorzedJ
females; therefore, in order to prevent all re-'r.ducti-,n, treatments should
be given before females become well engor~ed. The powder should be artplied
at intervals of 2 or 3 days and the wash or din at intervals of 5 or 6 days.
.The derris powder should have a rotenone content of at least 2 percent. (See
Bishop? and. Smith (l0). p. 5.)

C. N. Smith (137) in 1939 reported tests 7ith derris against the American
do- tick, Laboratory tests with..derris powder dips (see Bishonr rnd Smith (10,
p. 5) i-Aicated that none of the mixtures '-'ill kill the inactive stages of the
adult ticks; 16 percent of the females and 3- percent of the males active but
unfed in nature were killed; 92 percent of fed males and slilehtly enror:ed
and fully enioro:-ed- females were killed, as were 44 percent of the females that
were from one-eighth to one-third enogorged, and 50 percent of the females that
were half nortrorcd.

Ixodes holocyclus Newm.

SRoss (130) in 1935 reported tests with both rotenone and derris against
ticks, Ixodes holocyclus. Both derris powder and derris infusion were highly
lethal.' Infusions were made by soaking 1 percent of derris :-owder by weight
in cold Water overniht, and the follor0inr mornirn adding sufficient soa- or
soap powder to make a ,pod lather. By one arlication of such solutions, or
or the dry powder rubbed well..into the coat, newly attached ticks were found
to be (ead or dying in 4 to 8 hours, but semizorped specimens may remain alive
for 24 hours, though in almost every case they are obviously sick in this time,
then they gradually dry up and finally fall out.

An anonymous writer (3) in 1939 wrote that dogs in Queensland, Australia,
may be protected against the scrub or bottle tick if given every 6 or 7 days
either a dusting with derris powder or a wash in a derris infusion.

Ixodes ricinus (L.), the castor-bean tick

Little (93) in 1931 reported that powdered root of Tephrosia virginiana
proved to be effective in the control of the castor-bean tick.

MacLeod (95) in 1953 described tests made rith derris against the sheep
tick in Scotland. Tests, -cre made with dip solutions containing 0.2 percent
of arsenic trioxide, 0.35 percent of phenol, and 0.21 -ercent of toxic extract
of derris, respectively, on shee-n infested with the sheep tick. His con-
clusions were as follows:

"Derris at a lath-strength of 0.21 percent of toxic extract,
when mixed with a soea solution, forms a highly satisfactory tick
dip. A solution prepared from a mixture of derris and soap .owdcr
forms an equally satisfactory dip. Derris-din solution retains
to a great extent its properties in the bath for a period of et
least 4 days. The 4-day-old dip is not so efficacious as fresh
dip, but appears to be practically as destructive t: ticks as are
fresh solutions of arsenic or carbolic di-s."


MacLeod elso referred to the introduction of powdered derris root to
veterinary practice as an acaricide *by J. Russell Greig in 1924.

In 1938 MacLeod (96) discussed: the shee, tick and its control in Great
Britain. He suzested that in cases where ordinary sheer--farming methods are
not practised end the primary consideration is the removal of 'the ticks, the
sheep .should be diip'ed at short, intervals thro.i: -hout the tick season (mid-
fearch to the 6nd of Mavy) in a derris vash, or in some other prre!yration that
may he used repeatedly without harming them. On sheep farms, where it is
desirable to increase the farm profits without interfering too F-reptly -'ith
the normal sequence of farming activities, especially during the busy lambing
season, rhich coincides with the tick season,. it is suggested that the sheep
be dipped in one of the special preparations now available that will protect
them from reinfestation for 2 to 3 weeks after its application. The two main
dippings (one of which is carried out-immrcdiately. before lambing begins ,nd
the other about 3 weeks later) may be augmented by one or two supplementary
dipping. For farms where profitable farmin,- is impossible unless ticks are
eradicated, scheme combining starvation of the- ticks with serial dipping of
the sheep is recommended.

The North East of Scotland Sh~eep Tick Committee (114)in 1939 published
a report of wo.rk by Walter Moore, of the North of. Scotland College -of Agri-
culture, in 1938 to control the sheep tick. Various standard sheep dips pre-
scribed for sheep scab -ere tried but none prove -ito be completely effective.
Most of the dips killed the active feeding stages of -the tick, but all failed
to kill the ticks that hed completed feedin.,. and also failed to protect the
sheep from reinfestation for more than 1 or 2 days. Laboratory tests with
various insecticides showed that were very efficient,
and of the materials tested derris and pyrethrum gave the most promisin,-
results. In conjunction with the Cooper Technical, Bureau, a large-scale field
experiment was carried out with a derris dip and proved very successful, giving
a 100-percent kill at all stages. A 1:500 solution of Derris ellirtica root
containing 5 percent of rotenone in water -was found to be most efficient and
economical. The time of immersing thc sheep in the dip bath was found to have
an important effect on the protective period. In dipping it is not sufficient
to kill only the ticks on the sheep, as this would necessitate repeated appli-
cation every 10 days. Enou-h of the insecticide must be retained on the skin
or wool to kill all ticks that attack the animal fpr several days after dipping.
If sheepr are immersed in the dir-4ing solution for at least 30 seconds there is
a protective period of frrm 9 to 10 days during- which the animal remains tick--
-free. Immersion for 1 minute is recorw:-ended.

Cameron (39) in 1939 wrote that in Scotland dipping is used to control the
sheep tick. In recent years derris has assumed prominence as an acaricide
because of its rapid lethal action and is included in certain proprietary dips,
along with either arsenic or carbolic, or both. The percentage of derris in
the bath is about 0.014 of the total extract. Although arsenic alone as an
ingredient of dining fluids is effective as an acaricide, its efficacy is
increased when it is combined Aith carbolic acid, which by itself has only
verysight toxicity to ticks. Derris alone is quick in its action, bcut it is


not so seti!factory as is combined arsenic-carbolic, which has greater lasting
pr ,;crties.

Recent experiment. maLe. by Stewart (142) in !r>jrthumberland, En-gland,
s5-i,-est that derris powder aPrlied as a dry dust to the fleeces of youn2r lamb
is an effective tick deterrent, with obvious advantages over dips ih. that it
is less troublesome to apply and less likely to cause mis-mjthering. Stewart
(143) in 1939 reported on the control of the British sheep tick in Scotland.
DiT)s and dusts were tested. The following dips were used: A plain derris dip:
derris-carbolic din;-carris-carbolic-woolfat dip: arsenic-carbolic dip; and
arsenic-derris dip. Two methods of rendering lambs tick-free have been tried,
end the method of choice appeared to be the use of a p ordered preparation cf
derris root. The dusting is quickly and easily carried out, produces no ill
effects, anc: dusted lambs remain remarkably tick-free for more than 2 weeks.
An oily smear also p-roved useful. It checked tick infestation, and smeared
lambs were more thrifty and on the average 10 pounds heavier than the corres-
ponding unsre-ree3 lanbs. As a result of the failure of the derris dips to
protect sheer under field conditions, the derris-carbolic and the derris
-carbolic-woolfat 6ins were discarded at the second dipping on May 5 and the
plain derris and the arsenic-derris dips were subttituted. The arsenic-car-
bolic dip showed only moderate protection. The most satisfactory dip proved
to be arsenic-derris, which showed a marked deterrent effect 2 weeks after use.

Mironoff et al. (106) in 194Q0 reported that larvae of Ixodes ricinus were
killed in 1/2 to 1 hour by derris powder. The nymhs were killed in 1/2 hour,
but the mature ticks were more resistant,

Rhinicephalus sanguineus (LatrJ.-, the brown doe tick

Little (93) in 1931 reported that the pondered root of both Teohrosia
vir=.riane and derris were unsatisfactory in the control of the brown dog tick.

In 1931 Bishopp (8) recommended powdered derris root, either dry or as a
wash, for combatin- the brown dog tick on do7s.

Marney (98) in 1932 wrote that a powder containing 1 percent of rotenone,
when dusted on a do- infested with the brown 6o- tick, killed the -aresites
within 24 hours and prevented reinfestation for 10 days or more.

ThE United States Delirt-r-nt of Agriculture, Bureau of Entomology (149),
in 19.3 reported that for cor:i'reting the bro'n- drg tick, a severe -est of dogs
in Texas and Florida, the use of derris end derris derivatives on the dogs and
in their sleeping places, together with the EpDlication of insecticidal sprays
on the walls of the infested rooms, had -iven satisfactory control.

SRoss (130) in 19,5 reported that, from dog owners' reports, derris
preparations epncarr.l. to be effective against Rhiicephelus sanruineus, the
do. tick of central Oueensland, and that weekly. appliceti-n, either of derris
powder in dry form or of a 1-rercent soar-y cold-water infusion, shoal'. confer
a high ncpsure -f -protection P-:inr.t tick infestpti-'n. Derris must be L-aplied

cautiously to Persian cats anH lona'-haired toy breeds of dogs. Because of
the excessive quantities sometimes applied to such ,pnirna.l, Pnd the likelihood
of some of it tein- swallowed,- sjnpt,'mns of 'gastric irritation have been :-b-
served. At times, *iso',-the eyes may becoife-'inf1'rmcd, and care should ,bc
exercised in preventing the waslh cr the'powder'frbmo enterirc them.' Pcrsona
apnlyin;, t.e order, should also guard aceizist inhrlin0 it. Infusions, were
also found, i. ; practically every instance, to ill all ticks theat- attP.ched
themselves during the- first 72 hours after the do' was bathed, and in most
coses killed" ll of those attaching within 96 hours, or sometimes longer. The
rotenor.e used was extracted from samples of. Derins species from -*-,., Guinea,
-hich were found to contain 5 percent of rotenone.

In 19.39 Pishopp (9) &gain recor-nmended derris wash containing at least 3
percent of rotenone as the most satisfactory insecticide for combating tho brcrn
cdog tick on ros. -(See Pishopp and Smi-th (10, 11) p. 5.) Derris powder-
scattered behind baseboards and other hiding places is advised when residences
become infested.

Parasitidae '

Lasioseiuc poni (Parrot)

Garnan ani Townsend (64) in 1938 reui..ed that the effect of rotenone
extracts alone on (Suilus-l]asioseius /(DT-t) or related species was not so
great as mijht have oeen expected, as many ticks were seen alive after an
anplication. :


Pigmaeopfonis sp. .

The Pennsylvania Agriculturel Experiment Station (120) in 1938 reported
that these mites were not controlled by pyrethrum and derris dusts and sprays.

", ~Penthaleide e .

Halotydeus destructor (Tucker).

Swpn (144) in 1934 reported that pyrethrum dusts had been tested and thpt
they killed quickly. The dust used had ,been diluted 1:5 with sulfur. Derris
dust also'killed well, but d4d. not seen quite so effective as.pyrethrunm,
although its killing power probably lasts lo,


Choriotes bovis (Geri.) .

Gotze (6E) in 1933, reported thet :Derrilcvol, India-Rotenon-Lbsun, and
India-Gesamntoxtrekt-Lo'sunj, both at the rate of 20 cc. to 1 liter of cold 2.5
-percent-soap solution, and the India-sine-Rotenone-Losung containing thlc

extracted substances from derris root, with the exception of rotenone, and
used at the rate of 20 cc. and 60 cc. per liter of soap solution, nr)ved to
be very successful in curing : mnir,-e of cattle caused by this mite,

Scheiner (133) in 1934 found that Derrisol (3 percent rotenone) made by
Been & Co., Hannover, Germany, was more effective than Penderran (5 percent
rotenone) made by E. Mc-rck, Darmstadt, Germany, used in water solutions in
simple washes to control chorioptic mange of cattle caused b'y this mite. Tro
washes were sufficient for 100-percent control of chcriontic manec, if used
in sufficiently strong solution (up to 10 percent in water).

Demodex folliculorum bovis Stiles

The United States Department of Agriculture, Bureau of Animal Industry
(l48), in 1940 reported tests to control demodectic mange. External appli-
cations used on cattle infected with demodectic mange, in the form. of dips
or sprays, included arsenical dip, fused-bentonite-sulfur dip, and a saturated
solution of borax. The treatments as applied failed to prevent the develor-
ment of, or to eradicate, denodectic mane caused by this mite. The same
statement applies to rotenone in oil and acetone, and to proprietary prepa-
rations that had been reported to control the disease, when these materials
were applied direct to the lesions.

Demodex canis Leydig, the dog follicle mite

Crane (46) in 1933 reported on tests with rotenone against follicular
mange, caused by D. folliculorum canis, on ds at the Small Animal Clinic
of the New York State Veterinary College at Cornell University. In 11 of the
13 cases in which it was used, an unusually rapid recovery followed the
application of rotenone. The rc-maininz- two cases recovered in the time usually
necessary for the standard remedies. These cases included several that had
not responded to the citrine-ointment dressing, which is the standard treat-
ment in the Small Animal Clinic. Rotenone has the additional advantages of
being entirely nontoxic and is not greasy or dirty to arnly.

Eastman (56) in 1935 and Morris (109) in 1936 reported control of
follicular mange on dogs by the use of a special oil solution containing
rotenone. The preparation, called Solution 34 AR ?48, is manufactured by
Merck and Conrany, Rahway, N. J. It is thoroughly applied by hand, either
into and around the infested arcas or over the entire body. Thorough and
almost rough message appears to hasten improvement. The preparation should
not be permitted to reach the conjunctival membrane or the cornea. Ei7hty-six
cases in 12 States were treated by 24 veterinarians- who reported 84 cases as
complete recoveries.

The United States Department of A.riculture, Food and Dru- Administration
(151), in 1936 reported that during 1935 many preparations derris
extracts and rotenone earqeared on the market labeled as a specific'm.cnt
for demodectic mange of dc(s and other Pnimpls. Preliminary tests of such
preparations have not confirmed the claims madefor their efficacy.


Psoroptes sF.
Serco,-tes sr -.

Will et Pi. (167), of the Agricultural Experimenft Station at Lime, Peru,
in 1937 published an account of the use of cube in dips against Sarcoptes sp.
on sheey end against a secies of Psoroptes on alpaca in Peru. The effective
concentrations of around root (85 percent passed a sieve of 0.074 mm. mesh)
containing 6.8 percent of rotenone, and of extract containing 5.5 percent of
rotenone, were 1:1,000 an' 1:5,000, respectively, for Sarcoptes sp. and'
Psoroptes sp. The ground root and the extract were equally effective and were
in noH inferior to other dips.

Sarcoptes scebiei (Deg.), the itch mite

Gotze (68) in 1933 reported that Derrilavol, India-Rotenon-Losung and
Indi?-Gesantextrakt-L'6sung, both at the rate of -20 cc. to 1 liter of cold
2.5-percent-s-ap solution, and India-sine-Rotenone-Losung containing the
extracted substances fr-om derris root, with the excep)tion.of rotenone, and
useO at 20 cc. an( 60 cc. rer liter of soap solution.,, proved very successful
in curing mmn-e of cattle caused by the mite (Acarus bubalus) Sercoptes scabiei

Scheiner (133) in 1934 found that Derrisol (3 percent rotenone) was more
effective then Panderran (5 percent rotenone), when used in water solutions
in simple rashes to control sarcoptic nen.-e of cattle caused by "Acarus bubalus."
Both were 100 r.ercent effective if used in sufficiently strong solution (up to
10 percent in rather although as many as eight washes were required for
stubborn cases of sarcoptic mange.

De~ussy et al. (18) in 1936 reported that this mite was effectively con-
trolled by derris preparations.

Thomas end Miller (145) in 1940 reported that rotenone in the form of
1- or 2- recent t lotions with a base similar to that of many hand lotions (quince
seed, Irish m:ss) produced d prompt cure of scabies in 24 unselected cases
encountered in clinic and institutional practice. At the time treatments were
begun, 6 of these patients presented most severe secondary pustular and
dermetitic complications. The n reparation is nonobjectionable from the stand-
noint of odor, is nonirritetina-, even to sensitive skins, does not stain bed-
clothes or underwear, and the patient is not conscious of its presence on the
body. The lotion was made as follows: Rotenone dissolved in chloroform (l gmn.
to 3 cc.) wes added with vigorous shaking to the quince seed.and Irish moss
mucilage in the proportion desired to make either a 1- or a 2-percent lotion.
The mucilagze contains 0.1 percent of sodium benzoate as a preservative. Perfume
may be added.

Serccptcs spp.

See Wille et al. (167) under Psoroptes sp. on page 11.-

Weinrich (166) in 19z3 reported that derris.preTarations mpde by the


Chemische Febrik karienfelde are effective e.-ainst mane mites on cattle. The
rotenone contpineH in the derris ro't is very effective against mites, although
the other in,:rc-ients of the root als have a. certain but considerably inferior
effect; therefore, the manufacture of the preparations should be standardized
to -u.erentee a certain percentage of rotenone. In the control of insects on
animals covered with a more or less dense coat of hair, the eaT-lication of
aqueous solutions with an addition of 2.5 percent of screen soan is preferred,. human medicine oily solutions appear to be more favorable'. In slight
infestations a single application is sufficient. On the other hand, in severe
infestations several applications, made at 8-'id.ay intervals, will be required,
accordin- to the severity of the case.

Lesser (92) in 1940 wrote that in Japan a 2.5-percent emulsion of bromo-
rotenmne vas nrenared, using gum arcric, end was arplied to the entire body,
except the heed and neck, of 20 patients with scabies. After 3 or 4 aprlicetiors
10 patients were completely cured althlouh some of them had been unrelieved
by various sulfur treatments. .Of the others, 9 7ere relieved and 1 failed to
complete the treatments. One patented dermal narasiticide contains rotenone as
the active agent.


Hemitarsonemus latus (Banks), the broadd mite

Gonz2-rijp (66) in 1929 reported ccom-jErative tests with sulfur, ekar toeba
extract prepared by the Dell Proefsteation te Medan, Sumatra, and Neoton against
mites, (Tersonemus translucens) Hemitrsonemus latus (Banks), on young rubber
trees in a nursery. The Yeoton was used et the rate of 22.5 gin., added to a
solution of 45 gm. of soft soai dissolved in 700 cc. of water at 60 C. This
was stirred to a homogeneous emulsion end then diluted to 18 liters for spraying
upon the trees. The derris preparations appeared to kill mites only by actual
contact, out the effect of sulfur is attributed to the formation of volatile
sulfur compounds. Sulfur gave the best and quickest results at one-third to
one-fourth of the cost of the other materials.

Tarsonemus pallidus Banks, the cycla-ien mite

The Ohio Ak.-ricultural Experiment Station (116) in 1934 reported that
Rotecide used at the rete of 1:400 on begonia nlants gave good results in the
control- of the cyciemcn mite. Flower production was increased more than 100
percent on the treated plots, as. ccmpered with the checks.

Tarsonemus sp.

The Pennsylvania A-zicultural Experiment Station (120) in 1938 reported
that these mites mere not controlled. by pyrethrum and derris dusts and sprays.


Bryobia praetiosa Koch, the clover mite

Andries (5) in 1972 rec'mmcnded Perrisol at 1:300 es a summer spray against

the "briobie mite."

Hanilton (69) in 1934,; after describinT the d.nampe donor b:. the clover
mite, (Bryobip rretrnsin 'Garmaf)- B. pr-eticF?, K -ch, st&tecl thet sere:vs conte-riinr
the active principal' of acerrit'srot are effective. The diluted snr?:. should
contain 0.0025 percent of roten ne plus the othEr constituents of derz is root,
If the spray contains little or no rettin; a.-ent it m 'v ,e pcvisatle t- add.:
sufficient soap to make eaoiout' 0.5 ncrccnt- of scr., i.n the Iiluted rp;
Ordinarll/y 1 ounce, of -no-dered or 2.5 ,-,uncc2 of a 40--n'orcent liquid., soap.
to..2 P-allbns. Qf the diluted spray 'ill iv e .'ro'd results.

Neotetranychuis buxi Garman

Aies (127) in 1935 *-reported that Flack Arr.,, Dust, Red Arr,., Cub.'Tr, end
Cubor Dust had no effect on boxwood plants enr that 'these duFts kill,-'-I this
mite as follows:

Material Rortalitv
'eial__________ ___ Adults (2-1 ho.,urs)i E2-s (10 des)
Fcrcent Percent
Black- Arrow *38.4 28

Red Arrc.' (1:100) 93.3 19

u or *. 06.0 27

Cubor rDust 97 25

Paretetrenvchus imnlex Banks, the date mite

Douscn (54) in 1935 reported the results of trials of sulfur, lime-sulfur,
petroleum, derris, derris + sulfur, -yrethrum,'.nicot ine, and other materials
against datpe mites (eprerently (011i,:,nychus) Parptetranychus simlex Banrkts).
From 5 tQ 10 8-yeLr-old palm's of the Hallawi. variety were either dusted. (1/2 to
8 oz. pnr -yel) or sprpayed (1 gal. per palm). Only dusting, sulfur killed all
mites with one application, Derris dnes not control the mite. .,

P-aratetrenychus bi color banks' ,

SSee H milton (6?) under rVyobi preetiosae on page -13.

P a ratetranychus citri (McG.), the citrus red mi-te .

See Bo.yce enrl Prendergast (14) under Tptranychus bimaculatus Marv., on We-'.o

Boyce (12) in 1935 reported the results of tests of various insecticides


against the citrus red mite in California. Various concentrations and
combinations of rotenone finely powdered derris, finely powdered cube root,
n-.Trethrum extract, finely powdered pyrethrum flowers, free. nicotine, and
nicotine sulfate were tested under field 'conditions. None of these products
as used, even at concentrations that are commercially prohibitive, showed
sufficient toxicity to the citrus red mite or its eggs to be considered promi-
sin- in control.

Parretetrsnychus ilicis McG., the southern red mite

The :Iichigan Akrtcultural Experiment Station (103) in 1931 reported that
Derrisol at 1:800 plus 2 pounds of Ivory soap per 100 gallons killed the active
ras-,-cerr-.' mites that were fairly hit by the srray. In 1932 this station (104)
re-orted that for the control of raspberry mites many sprays were tried, among
them slue, oils, nicotine, pyrethrum, derris soap, end as many combinations as
time permitted. It was finally denc'nstrated that summer oils used at the rate
of 1 percent, either alone or in c-,rAination with bordeaux, controlled this nest.

Paratetranychus pilosus C. & F., (syn. Olir.nychus ulmi Koch), the European
.red mite

See Moore et al. (107) under Tetranychus pacificus ilcG. on Paf 33.

See Hamilton (69) under Bryobia praetiosa on na-e 13.

Turner (146) in 1932 reported that cube extract 1:25,000, emulsified in
2 percent of oil with a sulfonat'e emulsifier, killed 86.9 percent of Euronean
red mite e-s, "here.s the check oil killed 89,6 percent.

Heal (73) in 1936 reported field tests made in Ne- Jersey for the control
of the Europeen red mite on aprnles. Derris was supplied in three forms, a dust
containing 1 percent of rotenone, a dust containing 0.75& percent, and a finely
ground roct containing 4 percent. Aresket, Arcsker, Aresklene, skim milk, end
soe- were used as wetting a-ents. -Tie most satisfactory comb-n'tion consisted
of 1.25 to 2 pounds of derris root (4 percent.rotenone) and 10 ounces of Aresket
or Arpskp-i to 100'gallons of spray. The outstanding feature of this spray,
be-ond its toxicity to the pest, was its cw-mpatibility ith sulfur and lead
arsenate deposits on the foliage, the presence of the firmer precluding the use
of any oil spray, and the presence of the latter estop;ing the use of any spray
containing soap. Two applications spaced from 1 to 2 weeks anart were necessary
to effect control. A dust made from derris and containing 1 percent .of rotenone
was valueless. Clay residues on apples at pickin- time were objectionable.
vncn used so as to give equal rotenone content per unit of s1ray, derris root
of 4 percent rotenone content geve better kill than did the 1 percent derris
dust. As wettin7 eZerts, Aresket at 10 ounces per 100 zellons and seep at 0.2
percent *-rre eauel, and both were superior to skim milk at 2 pounds -ter 100lO


In 1937 Heal's work was referred to by C. L. Smith (136), who stated that
the control obtained by Mr. Heal in these tests after two applications amounted
to 99 percent.
PEtVerbridge and Thomas (121) An 1937 recommended the following spray for /
control of the fruit-tree red spider (Paratetranychus pilo-sus):

Mineral oil emulsion 3-1/5 pints (85 percent oil
by weight)

Derris 13 ounces

Water 40 imperial gallons

Garmnian'and Townsend (64) in 193W reported that derris or cube sprays gave
fair kills of the European red mite. These sprays do not affect the eggs and
within a week are probably lost as killing agents for young, recently hatched.
mites. Some growers have reported successful control with derris or cube
extracts combined with the regular sprays. Partial"success was observed at
Lebanon in 1936 with powdered root, and somewhat better results were obtained
at Cheshire a year or two previous, on prrunos. When combined with the usual
spray ingredients, rotenone extracts were not especially successful in the
experiments of 1938. The 1938 experience indicated that through. applications
of summer oil alone give good clean-up without additional materials.

Potenone extract 1:800, applied on July 25 to a single apple tree., per-
mitted an increase in the number of adult females per 100 leaves from 143
before spraying (July 19) to 180 on July 28 and 230 on August 3. Rotenone
extract 1:800 applied at the same time to another apple tree caused the number
of adult females per 100 leaves to range from ll4 on July 19 to 50 on July 28
and 130 on August 3. A test was also made with rotenone extract 1.5:800 # dry
lime-sulfur 3 pounds per 100 gallons + manganese sulfate 1/4 pound per 100
gallons + lead trenate 2 pounds per 100 gallons. Results were as follows:

SMites per 100 leaves
Time cf examination. Eggs ~ Adults
Number Number
July 28, before spray--- 3,320 980
August 2, after.- spray--- .4,390 190
Augist 12, after spray-- 2,490 6g80

Derris powder (4 percent rotenone) at 4 pounds per 100 gallons, killed
90 percent of the European r.ed mites present.

Jary and Austin (81) in 1938 reported that during 1937 derris-petroleum
-oil sprays gave a high degree of control of the fruit-tree red spider, which
was otherwise vwy severe on plums.

Kearns and Martin (96) in 1939 discussed the use. of postdormant combined
sprays on fruit crops in England. 'otenone-containing sprays, excluding those
containing high-boiling petroleum oil, give somewhat erratic resuJrts in red
spider control at the petal-fall stag. Eggs are not killed. If most of the
spiders are active at the time of the application, control is satisfactory; but
should a large number of them be molting, the control is frequently unsatid-
factory. The following spray is recommended for the control of.the plum saw-
fly and fruit-tree red spider: 1 gallon of petroleum-oil emulsion (67 percent
oil) enough rotenone-containing material to give 0.004 percent of crystalline
rotenone in the wash, and enough water to make 100 gallons of spray.

Robertson (129) in 1939 reported that Rotox with Stantex oil at 1:1CO
was tried against the European red mite on Yellow ITewtown apple trees, but
was less effective, than "Cosmic sulfur" at 1:200. and equally as effective as
10-percent commercial summer oil.

Paratetranychus yothersi M6cG., the avocado red mite

See iicmniltpon (69J under Bryobia'praetiosa, on page 13.

Paratetranrc hus sp.,

Pettit and Hutson (122) In 1951 reported that the red spider mite (belonging
to the same,group as the Paratetranychus that was feeding on the Michigan holly,
but distinct from it) infestinig raspberry plants was finally controlled through
the use of a Derrisol-soap solution (Derrisol about 1:S00 with Ivory soap
, pounds to 100 gallons o'f water). As earlier tests in controlling this mite
had apparently failed because of inadequate pressure, this application was made
at a pressure of 200 pounds.

Te.tranychus bimaculatus Harv.

See Hamilton (69)under Bryobia praetiosa, on page 13.

Mclndoo, Sievers and Abbott (94) in 1919 reported that derris applied as a
dust was of no value against red spiers.

'The California Agricultural Experiment Station (20) in 1923 stated that
Derrisine (an extract of derris) was found to be inefficient against the red

PDe Ong and White (53) in 1924 reported the results of tests with derris in
which a commercial derris extract of 16-percent concentration, diluted 1:300,
gave a maximum control of 25 percent of the red spider.

S.Lenfest (91). in 1926 reported that lime-sulfur mixed with Derrisol will
kill red spiders on citrus,


The Florida Agricultural Experiment Station (61) in 1929 reported that on
Asparagus plumosus Derrisol spray gave better control of red spiders than
did ordinary flowers of sulfur. .

Garlick (63) in 1929 reported- experiments made in Ontario for 'the control
of the red spider on raspberries and black currants. Derrisol was tried at
1:800 plus 1 pound of flsh-oil soap per 4o imperial gallons. This had
practically no effect on the red spider. Finely powdered derris at the rate
of 2 pounds per 40 gallons of water plus 1. pound of soap gave some' results,
but 'he mites very soon oame back. The derris left on the leaves apparently
had no toxic effect on the mites. Often the mites actually preferred parts
of the leaf where particles of derris were thickest. Eggs laid under -uch.
conditions hatched normally, and the immature forms were able to develop,.
This was true even when the dry derris particles were so thick as almost to
obscure the leaf tissue. The fish-oil soap was used as a spreader. In order
to find out whether it ha any effect on the spiders, a spray composed of 5
pounds of the soap in 40 gallons of water was tried. It had little or no
effect on the mites.

According to an anonymous writer (1) in 1930, the milky colloidal solution
of resins and other compounds obtained by extracting the roots and stems of
Derris elliptica with water ha8 been found effective against red spiders.
The powdered material may be applied as a dust with equal effect.

Compton (43) -in 1930 recommended Derrisol for the control of the red spider
on acacia, achyranthes, ageratum, alternanthera, cineraria, gerbera, hydrangea,
lace fl,.iwer, lantana, larkspur, lupine, petunia, primrose, rose, salvia, and
schizanthus in greenhouses. Compton stated that Derrisol may be used with
safety on all greenhouseplants-at the dilutions recommended by theimanu- i. w

Davidson (51) in 1930 reported the results of spraying and dusting tests
with rotenone on a variety of insects. Pure rotenone, recrystallized from
alcohol, was tested in the form of (1) suspensions produced by adding an
acetone solution of rotenone to water, and (2) diatomaceous-earth povders
containing 1 or 2 percent of very finely divided. rotenone. Aqueous suspensions
were not effective aeaihpt -red spiders on bcrns. This inefficiency against
the red spider appeared to be due more to lack of penetrating power in the
suspensions used than to absence of intrinsic toxicity, and would pro-'bly be
remedied by incorporating rotenone in a penetrating carrier, such as an oil.
of rocbroi'e
The contact insecticidal action/on active red spiders on beans growing
in a greenhouse, applied'as a,suspension in water, was as follows:

Concentration (gm.i/cc.), Net mortality (pc-rcent)

1:90 7g.6

1:1,000 64.5

1:2,000 60.7

1:20,000 15 .A Y


A dust containing 2 percent of rotenone killed none of the active red
spiders on beans growing in a P'r-cnhouse.

Davidson (52) in 1930 compared the value of aqueous suspensions of rotenone,
deruelin, tephrosin, and toxicarol when used against insects livir.g on potted
plants in a greenhouse. .Their relative contact insecticidal value was in the
order given, rotenone being the most potcr.t. An aqueous suspEnsion of rotenone
(1:2POO) killed 60.7 percent of the red spiders on beans. Deguelln and
toxicarol at the same concentration.killed 10 and 18 percent, respectively,
and Tcphrosin at 1:5,000 killed 10 percent.

The Florida Agricultural Experiment Station (62) in 1931 reported that
Derrisol has been found to be an effective spray for the green mite in
Asparagus plumosus.

Others and Keck (172) in 1930 reported that sprays containing 5 percent
of derris extract were more effective th;in those containing nicotine sulfate,
kerosene emulsion, lubricatinz-oil emulsion, or pvrethrum extract in controlling
the red spider on a.sp-.raeUs bli.- uS in Florida ferneries. Derris spray kills
very slowly and very little mortality is obtained in 4 or 5 hours. In some
cases it is greater in 48 hours than in 24.

Compton (44) in 1931 recorded tests with Derrisol and rotenone against the
red spider in greenhouses. Derrisol in a concentration of 1:400 killed from
72 to 81 percent of red spiders on greenhouse plants. When Penetrol in a
concentration of 1:200 was added tc this solution from 98 to 100 percent of
the red spiders were killed. Penetrol containing QG.1 gm. of rotenone per 100
cubic centimeters at a dilution of 1:100 (equivalent to 1:100,000'of rotenone
killed from 58 to 64 percent. Derrisol at 1:400 combined with Penetrol at
1:200 killed from 87 to 93 percent of the eggs of the red spider. Mixtures
of Der!-s il and Penetrol in other proportions were less effective. The
mortality figures are based on the number that were dead at the end of 24 hours,
as no appreciable increase in percentage of kill was observed after this
period. Commercial tests with this mixture were made in eight greenhouses in
Cook County, Ill., and excellent control of red spiders was obtained with two
applications made 8 days apart.

Darley (49) in 1931 reported comparative tests with rotenone, nicotine,
and pyrethrum on the common red spider. Rotenone was used in the form of a
solution consisting of.0.2 gm. of rotenone, 5 cubic centimeters of benzol,
and 95 cubic centimeters of Penetrol. Rotenone at 1:50,000 killed 89.8
percent of the common red spider. The check mortality was 6.4 percent.

Jones and Davidsoni'(82) in 1931 reported that rotenone and derris extracts
prepared with fish oil have a high toxicity to red spiders.

Little (93) in 1931 gave a detailed account of the insecticidal properties
of devil's-shoestrinr-s. .Dried and powdered (100-mesh) roots were suspended


in water and tested against many kinds of insects in the laboratory.
Observa-tions showed that, with, the dosage used, ,the red spider suffered
only a light mortality.

Wils bn (169) in 1951. reported tests with' sulfur dusts, nicotine,
pyrethrum extract, d.erris extract,, soap-and-white-oil emulsions, and
miscible oils against, the two-spotted mite on Asparagus plumosus in Florida.
White-oil emulsion (1:100),, thoroughly applied at 7-day intervals, was the.
safest and cheapest insecticide. The sulfonated-oill derivative [Penetrol?]
was used as a spreader with a .compound of derris, but after a few days the
plants showed severe burning. Sprays in which the derris compound (1:4600)
was used gave good controls and no burning effects. When the derris. compound
was used at a dilution of 1:600,- percent of the mites were killed.

Brooks, Watson, and Mowry (17) in 1932 stated that in Florida dusting
strawberry plants with:-flowers of sulfur is the quickest and most economical
way of combating red spiders. Nicotine sulfate, pyrethrum, and derris-
compounds are also good insecticides.for. red spiders.

Campbell (40) in 1932 reviewed work by H. H. Richardson, of the Division
of Truck Crop and Garden Insect Investigations, Bureau of Entomology and
Plant Quarantine, United States Department of Agriculture, and others, with
rotenone as an acaricide. ..Richardson proved that wetting, and spreading
agents greatly increased the effectiveness of rotenpne-suspensions against
the common red spider on a .kudzu vine in a greenhouse. The experiments were
carefully controlled and mortality counts were made after- 24 hours. Rotenone
at 1:5,000 killed 12 percent of the adult mites; at 1:5,000 + potassium
oleate (1: 400), from 54 to 78 percent. -Th soap solution alone killed from
9 to 11 percent, a mortality not much greater than that the untreated
checks.. The increased .effectiveness .of the rotenorpesoap mixtures was there-
fore due to rotenone, aided in some chemical or physical way by potassium
oleate. Rotenone at 1:1,000 with potassium oleate (l:400) killed only 67
and 83 percent of the mites, fa fivefold increase in concentration producing
very little increase tn mortali-ty. W. M. Davidson, of the Food and Drug
Administration, United States Department of Agriculture, killed 64.5 percent
of the mites with rotenone at 1:1,000 without a wetting and spreading agent
but, since his methods are not described, his result does not necessarily
contradict those of Richardson. By adding Penetrol to rotenone suspensions,
Darley killed 75 percent of the-mites in 24 hours with rotenone at 1:100,000
and 90 percent at 1:50,000--much greater dilutions than those used by
Richardsonr. Whether Penetrol increases the effectiveness of rotenone sus-
pensions more than does potassium Qleate can be determined only by paired
experiments. Richardson also tested stijlfonated: castor oil as a wetting and
spreading agent for rotenone .-suspensions, and found it less effective than
potassium oleate. Both Richardson and M. M. Darley, d6 the Division of
Cereal and Forage Insect Investigations, found that rotenone with wetting
and spreading agents,-was more effective -against the common red -spider than
.were the pyrethrins -or nicotine with the same agents.


Richardson (124) in 1932 compared the insecticidal value of rotenone,
the -,yrethrin', and- nicotine against the greenhouse red snider mite. Without
he addition of some wetting agent, the nyrethrins, rotenone, end nicotine,
even at high concentrations, have little toxicity to the greenhouse red spider
mite. With the addition of 0.25 percent of potassium oleate soap, rotenone at
0.02 percent is slightly more tj7-ic then the -ryrethrins (0.02 percent); nicotine
is much less toxic than either of these to;, approximately 0.66 p-rcent being
necessary to Iroducea& mortality equivalent to that produced 'by the above
-menti:ned concentrations of the other two poisons; 'Tith sulfonated castor oil
.s the"tetting agent," the-!yrethrins and rotenone at 0.02 percent are about
equivalent in toxicity: nicotine again is'much less toxic, about 0.2 percent
being necessary to equal the Insecticidal efficiency of the r,ther two et'the
concentrations given above 'Potassiaum'o1eate soae at 0.25 -ercent and 0.5
percent is approximatel- equivalent in toxicityy to sulf6npted cester oil at 0.5
percent and 1.0 percent, respectively. Soap is more efficient than sulfcnated
castor oil as a wetting agent for rctenone and the nyrethrins. With nicotine,
however, the reverse appears to be true.- 'Nicotine (1:500) makes distinctly"
akaline-the almost neutral 0.5 percent od'suifonated castor oil, "b'at has a
relatively slight effect-on the already alkaline soen solution. Alcoholic
extracts of the pyrethrins have an acidic effect when added to either sulfcnatec
castor:oil or soap solution.. Acetone solutions of rotenone have very little
effect on the pH.of either of these'wetting agents.

Hutson (76) in 1932 reported thp' t'sumner oils used at 1-percent strength,
alone or in combination with bordeaux, applied 2 or 3 times et intervals of 5
days, controlled the greenhouse red spider in southwestern Michigan. Nicotine
and PenetrQl,: Derrisol.and soap, end. :li.e were three other successful sprays.

Webster (158) in 1932 reported that freedom from red slider injury was
conspicuous during, the 1931 season on blocks' of trees in'the Wenatchee, Wash.,
experimental orchard, which had been sprayedd with' rotenone, oil-nicotine, 'or
the oil-pyrethrum combination. ,

?Turner (146) in 1932 reported that cube extract 1:12,500, emulsified in
1 percent of oil with po-derecd milk, killed 70 percent of the red s-iders in
greenhouses., whereas the chehk oil killed 14 rercen't,.'

Gne'inger (65) in the' first edition of his "Pyrethrum Flo-ers,I published
in. 1933, oited unpublished 'ork by v'Ginsburc- -hich indicates thEt rotenone is
more .toxic to red snider' -than are the pyrethrins.

According to a statement mpde by its manufacturers, Penick end. Com-an:y
(119) in, 1936, Foliafume is a balanced pyr.ethrum-dcrris plent spray --ith
s-)reader.: The use of' Foliafume at. 1:400 is recommended for insects of "nter-
medipte: resistance, such'- s the red spider. At this concentration the b-.-err:e
mortality was 87 percent-after 48 hours., ..

Richardson (125) in 1934 reported tests -ith an acetone extrPact ofoderris
containing 5.7 gm. of rotpnone and 18.1 gm.- of total extrectivei- .er 100- rc.
In greenhouse and small field tests derris extract with snlfonr'.Fl cast.'r oil


showed promise iia control of red sniderf mites on roses' anf othe-r plants.

Richardson (126) in 1935 reported on the control of the red spider on
greenhouse plants. Sprays made from commercial avetone extracts of derris
(see Jour. Econ.:Et. 26' 995. 1933) and sulfonated ncstor oil (turkey-red
oil) have been found toxic to the common red spider in small-scale
tests Onri infested tomato plants in the greenhouse. Dilutions giving rotenone
contents, respectively, of 1:15,000, 1:25,000, 1:50,000 by weight and total
extractives of approximately 1:4,000, 1:6,250, end 1l12,500 in water containing
0.25 percent (1:400) by'v6lume of sulfonated castor M1, 15-pereent product,
gave 100.0-, 98.3-, and 93.7-percent mortality. Considerable trouble has been
experiencedwith commercial acetone extracts that haVe deteriorated duringg
storage. They are not only much less effective in insecticidal and acaricidal
action, when added to the spray, but they produce larte quantities of resinous
precipitates, even though first diluted with an equal volume of acetone. These
precipitates tend to clog -the sprayer and pump valves, making such extracts
unsuitable for practical use. Unideteriorated derris extracts are much more
toxic to the red snider than are equivalent quantities of pure rotenone. A
dust containing derris extract in diatomaceous earth, prepared to give 0.5
percent of rotenone or 1.8 percent of toial derris extractives, had little effect
against the red spider on hollYyhocks in the greenhouse (2 percent kill of 321

Suspensions of finely ground derris root (2.9 percent of rotenone and 16.7
percent of total carbon tetrachloride extractives) at a concentration of 0.25
percent by weight (rotenone approximately 1:14,000) in cm-.bination with 0.25
percent by volume of sulfonated castor oil (1:400) were found to give very high
kills of the red spider on cucumber plants.' Two series of small-scale' tests,
5 replications eech, killed averages of 92.4 and 99.2 percent of'the adults and
86.2 and 97.6 percent of the nymphs. More sulfonated castor oil (0.5 percent)
was used in the second series. These sprays also killed the onion thrips*.T- ..
cucumber. Suspensions of powdered cube- root (5.3 percent of rotenone and 17.3
percent of total carbon tetrachloride extractives) at the rate of 0.25 percent
(rotenone approximately 1:8,000), in combination with 0.25 percent by volume of
sulfonated eastor oil, also gave high mortality.

Oube killed 97.2 percent of the adults and 96.6 percent of the nymphs, as
compared with 99.2 end 99.5 percent kill, respectively, for adults and nymphs
by the same Concentration of derris with 0.5 percent of sulfonated castor 6il.
The derris-root powder suspensions (0.5 percent by weight) with sulfonated castor
oil (0.25 percent) seemed to be stable, as they were just as toxic to the mites
6 days after preparation as when freshly prepared. There appeared to be no
advantage in soaking the powder in cold -ater before spraying, or in boiling
the suspension (in 1/8 the final volume of sprey) for a few minutes and then
diluting it in the spray. The suspension was much less effective when used
without a wetting agent. In a heavily infested cucumber greenhouse, the seme
derris at .a concentration of 0.12 percent (rotenone = 0.0034 percent) plus
7sulfonated castor oil at 1:300 killed 98.4 percent of the adults and 96.4
percent of the nymphs. This work by Richardson '-,s reviewed by Roark (128) in


The Ohio A7ricultural Ex'eriment Station (116) in 1934 reported that
Rotecide at 1:400 in water save a 92-percent kill of red spider With no
observable injury to the soyvten plants in a

H':wsrd, Mason, and Davidson (74) t the meeting of the ohio Ve-etelle
Growers Association held. January 31, 1935, at Columbus, Ohio, reported that
tests --ith derris dust had been made against the red spider, but in erery
instance the infestation was too to draw conclusions.

The Rubber Service Laboratories Company, Inc. (131) in 1934 and aeain (132)
in 1935, issued suggestions for the use of Arrsken and Aresket in insecticidal
sprays. A mixture of 7 parts ty weight of derris resin, 33 arts by eightt of
Dry Areskap, end 60 parts by 1reight of either pine oil or oleic acid has been
found to be effective at 1:400 for control of the red spider.

The Polytechnic Institute of the Alabama Agricultural Experiment Station
(4) in 1935 stated that derris mixed with sulfur is effective against red
spiders. Derris dust should contain at least 0.5 percent of rotenone.

Weigel and Richardson (165) in'1935 reported that the proportion. .f
sulfonated castor oil is en important factor in the. effectiveness of derris
sprays against the red spider. Tests conducted against red spider mites at
Barberton, Ohio, indicated that a spray composed of derris-root potder in
water (rotenone approximately 0.0034 percent), which had not proved entirely
effective, showed a marked increase" in effectiveness '-ien the proportion of
sulfonated castor oil was increased from 1:400 to 1:300. With this proportion,
kills of 98.4 percent of the adults and 96.4 percent of the nymphs vere
obtained. It was observed that increasing the rotenone content to 0.0052
percent without increasing the proportion of sulfonated castor oil did not
appreciably increase the effectiveness. Similar results were obtained when
cube-root powder in water, containing approximately 0.0095 percent of rotenone,
was used with the sulfonated castor oil.

iMurphy (ll) in 1936 reported that beta-butoxy-betal-thiocyano-diethyl
-ether (the active constituent of Lethane 420 and Lothahe 440) was more
effective against the tr4enhouse red spider than -yrethrum or derris sprays.
One commercial derris snray killed 61 percent of the spiders at 1:200 and
another killed 74 percent at 1:500; whereas tht thiocyanate killed 76 Fercent
at 1:1,000 and 95 percent at 1:800, when used with a spTreader at 1:200.

The Ohio Agricultural Ex+eriment Station (117) in 1936 reported that for
the control of the red spider the rotenone sprays were the most satisfactory
of the materials used, when effectiveness, freedom from nlant injury, and
costs are all considered. A new sulfated alcohol sprecder and sticker, when
used at 1:500 with various commercial rotenone sprays, served to increase the
kill over that produced by the same rotenones when used -ith various sc?'
spreadQrs, at 1:250, hy approximately 11 percent in a number of tests.

Van Gundia (152) in 1936 reported excellent control of the red spider
with a rotenone formula that carried approximately 30 percent of sulfur in the
form of fused bentonite sulfur, which aids as a sticker for the rotenone and
also acts as 'an ec'tivator. It should not be applied to conifers until the new
growth for the season has ceased. If the tips are young, tender, and growing,
some conifers, particularly hemlock, will be' scorched,-

Consumer's Research, Inc. (45), in 1937 recommended rotenone products for
use against red spiders.,

Derrisol controls red: spiders, according to advertising literature issued
by the manufacturers, William *Cooper ad Nenhews, and enclosed in a letter dated
November 16, 71937, to R.. C. Roark. ;

C.. L. Smith (136) in 1937 reported tests of derris sprays against .several
species of insects. Small-plot tests were made and the derris powder (90-to 95
percent passing 'a 200-mesh sieve; rotenone 4 percent)' plus a 40-ncrocnt coconut-
oil soap was applied with Ia knapsack sprayer. Against red spiders on
delphinium plants in the field, results were as follows:

SApplication R reduction in' 48 hours
.Derris 3 b., soap 4 oz. ('anhydrous -..
basis), per 100 gal. 81 .

Derris, 1.5 lb., soap 30 oz. (anhydrous
basis), wettable sulfur 1.5 lb. 9Q

Duist, rotenone 0.75 percent 62
Against red spiders on hydrangea, derris 2 pounds and soap 30 ounces
(anhydrous basis) per 100 gallons caused 96-percent reduction, as revealed in
a count made every 24 hours. C. L. Smith's work was reviewed by-Manschke (97)
in 1937.

Weigel and NTelson (163)8)in 1937 reported that experiments performed against
the red spider on greenhouse-grown tomato and ceuiumber plants, in which four
sprays were applied at 4-day intervals, gave the following results: A derris
spray having a r6tenone content'of 0.0056 percent was-as effective as one with
O.Oll2-percent-rotenone content; the derris 'sprays used were surprior to cube
sprays of the same rotenone content, the difference being-explainable on the
basis of the total-extractives content, rhich was 18.6 percent for the derris
and 12.3percent for the cube; the addition of nyrethrtiim extract .id not
improve ..the effectiveness .gf the sprays against the red spider; with sprays of
Sthe same rotenone content, containing sulfonpted castor oil'as a spreader, the
result aas a better kill than when either elkylphenylbernzenesulfonic acid or
rosin residue was used. 'In a second series of exp6ri-ments the same insecticides
, that were used in the first series, but applied four times at weekly intervals,
. gave apnProximately the same results, except* that on tomatoes the spray contain-
ing derris, pyrethrum, and alkylphenylbenzenesulfonie acid appeared to be as

,_ .23-' ";'1 ) *", 1

-2 4-

effective as the sulfonated castor-oil sprays, PVne of the sprays except
lauryl thiocyanate caused any permanent injury to either tomato or cucumber.*

Boyce and Prendergast (14) in 1938 reported that, aside from the regular
oil spray, there are several materials or combinations of materials including
oil at low dosage plus rotenone-beering materials, that may be used in the
control of the citrus red mite. Combinations of iotenone-bearing materials,
such as derris, cube, timbo,, ..and others with a low dosage of oil (0.5 to 0.7
percent), have been in use for several years. Such combinations have generell,
afforded satisfactory control of the black scale but have been definitely
inferior to a regular dosage of oil in red spider control. Experimental work
with these combinations, together with extensive field observations of
commercial treatments, indicates that when from 1/2 to 2/3 of 1 percent of
light-medium oil is used '"ith any of the more commonly used rotenon--bearinz
materials the average length of time that red slider control 'may be expected is
about 3 months. With thorough application, the kill of all steaes, exceptt the
egg, is usually as good with these materials as with the full dosage of oil.
The amount of egg kill, however, appears to be directly related to theamount
of oil deposited and the nature of the deposit, Therefore, the period over
which these materials effect satisfactory control is largely determined by
climatic conditions and other factors affecting the development of the spider
after treatment. The oil-rotenone mixtures are relatively expensive when
considered in the control of the red spider alone; however, when considered in
the combined control of aphids, the red spider, and the'4off-hatch" black scale
during the spring, they are very practical. Of the available materials (Selc-
cide excepted) that may be used at this season for red spider control, the 0.5
percent light-medium oil plus rotenone-bearing materials is -erhaps the safest
and is generally most effective.

Hamilton (70) in 1938 reported the results ofjests of cube and derris
powrders (4 percent rotenone and 16 to 18 percent total extractives), applied
as a spray at the rate of 4 pounds per 100 gallons, with the addition of 4
pounds of rosin-residue emulsion. Cube powder appeared to be as effective es
derris powder in the rosin-emulsion spray, both as a contact poison and as a
repellent. These tests were made.-by members of the National Shade Tree Con-
ference under a cooperative project with"the Heicules Por-der Company, manufact-
urers of rosin residue, end 5 of the principal suppliers of derris nd cube
powders. Sufficient spray material to make from 500 to 1,000 gallons of
diluted spray was sent to each of 38 cooperators in 14 States, together with
instructions for using the spray and a report blank to be used in giving : the
results of the tests. In 4 out of 6 'tests, the sprays were satisfactory against'
snider mites on spruce, juniper, end privet., but probably were not effective
against the eggrs. .

The Massachusetts Agricultural Experiment Stption (99) in 1Q37 reported
that further.studies of pyrethrur and derris extracts as used in commercial
sprays showed that there spider mite is not satisfactorily controlled by
* pyrethrum extracts, but that extracts of derris, either as rotenone or es other
extracted resins, principally deguelin, terhrosin, and toxicerol, gave satis-
factory control. when used in the proercr concentration. The emulsified extracts
containing 10 percent of sulfated alcohol as a wetting and spreadinr- rent werc
diluted 1:200 for Pnpl.ceti.on. A sriray' containing 1.5 percent of 'yrethrins ha.


Practically no effect on the red slider, and 7hen the pyrethrins mere
increased to 2 percent, a relatively high concentration, the mortality
vas only 9.52 percent. The addition of 0.5 percent of rotenone to the
1.5 percent of pyrethrins killed 37 percent of the red sniders -hich is
poor control but indicates an increased toxicity of 35 percent due to
the rotenone. One percent of pyrethrins and 1 percent of rotenone com-
bined caused an average mortality of 79.65 percent; and 2 percent of
rotenone without pyrethrins killed 87.16 percent of the red spiders and
ras the most effective formula used in this series. Snray mixtures con-
taining "other extracted resins" of derris were 6pproximEtely one-half
es toxic to the red spider as was rotenone, and when used at twice the
concentration produced an equal or slightly greater mortality of this
pest. A summary of results is es follows:

Pyrethrins : Rotenone : Other derris resins : Average mortality
: :: of +1he red slider
Percent Pericent Percent Percent

1.5 0. 1.0 62.24

1.0 0 2.0 84.25

0 0- 4.0 86.77

1.5. 0. 0. 1.81

2.0 0. 0.- 9.52

.1.5 0,5 0 37.09

.1.0 1.0 0 79.65

2.0 0



In 1938 the same station (100) reported that in studies of insecticides
used for the control of the red spider on carnEtions and greenhouse plants,
materials containing rotenone continued to show a high toxicity against this
Spest end generally became more effective as the temDerature increased. The
addition of wettable sulfur as a fungicide to one of the rotenone sprays
caused no material change in the number of red spiders killed. In comparable
tests most of the newer commercial insecticides containing rotenone were
inferior to the older standard mixtures or to laboratory preparations. Sus-
pensions of derris, cube, or pyrethrum powder in weter were less effective
than the extracts of these materials, and the addition of a wetting agent
Adid not increase their effectiveness in the laboratory. This station (101)
in 1939 reported that experiments with sprays containing extractives from
derris and cube indicated that effective sprays of this nature for combating
the common red spider, and capable of consistently giving better than 90
percent control, should contain 0.03 percent of total extractives (0.0075
percent rotenone). This is equivalent to e stock mixture containing 1.5
percent of rotenone and 4.5 percent of other resins, diluted 1:200. Sprays
containing these active ingredients are slightly more consistent in effective
ness if combined with brown camphor oil, rather then with soluble pine oil or
sulfonreted castor oil. The addition of 0.2 percent of Keraya gun increased
the effectiveness about 5 percent, apparently by building up the deposit on
the leaves; but when both gum and spreader were added the run-off was
increased and no benefit from the gum resulted. When the temperature was
80 F. the effectiveness against the red snider Ves from 25 to 40 percent
greater than at 60. An alcoholic extract of derris containing 0.0075 percent
of rotenone and 0.0225 percent of other extrectives was 10 percent more
effective then e similar extract containing 0.005 percent of rotenone. The
addition of 0.005 percent of pyrethrins not only failed to increase the
mortality of the red spider but actually gave an average decrease of 6 percent
in three experiments.

The New Jersey State Agricultural Exoerimcnt Station (112) in 1938
reported that during the last few years the greenhouse red snider has done
much damage to roses. In 1937 studies of the effect of derris-oil emulsions
on this earthropod indicated that these ere very satisfactory and cheap
materials for red spider control. By the use of derris, the amount of oil
necessary to effect control has been greatly reduced and the danger of damage
to the rose plants correspondingly decreased. This material destroys all
stages, including the eggs.

Weigel end Nelson (164) in 1938 tested derris end cube with various
wetting agents (including elkylphenylbenzenesulfonic acid, sulfonated castor
oil, and ammonium caseinate+rosin-residue emulsion) for control of the
common red spider on greenhouse tomatoes end cucumbers. The authors concluded
that a derris soray having a rotenone content of 0.0056 -oercent is as
effective as one with a 0.0112-percent-rotenone content -hen sulfonpted cestof
oil is used as a spreader; that the derris soreys used in these tests are
superior to cube sprays of the same rotenone content, the difference being
explainable on the basis of the total extractives: that the addition of
pyrethrum extract does not improved the effectivcne.s of the spray against


the red spider; that with sprays of the same rotenorne content with sulfonate-
castor oil es a spreader the kill is better than with either alkylpThenylben-
zenesulfonic acid or ammonium caseinate with rosin residue; and that pro-
prietary thiocyanate spray is an effective as the derris spray plus sulfonate
castor oil. None of the derris or cube sprays plus the spreader or the pro-
prietary thiocyanate caused any permanent injury to either tomatoes or cucum-
bers. The lauryl thiocyenate spray with a sodium oleyl sulfate, plus syn-
thetic resin as'a spreader, caused severe injury to both the foliage and the
fruit of tomatoes. This work was referred to by-the United States Department
of Agriculture, Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine (150) in 1933.8

Weigel and Johnson (159) in 1939 reported the results of tests made at
Beltsville, Md., on the control of red spider on cucumbers. The results of
mortality counts of red spiders on greenhouse-:ro-,n cucumber plants after six
sprays were applied, the first two of which were applied 4 days apart and the
remainder at weekly intervals, indicated that in sprays containing 0.0056
percent of rotenone and 0.01 percent of total pyrethrins with sulfonated
castor oil (1:300) a greater kill resulted-than when an alkylphenylbenzene-
sulfonic acid was used as a spreader. The addition of pyrethrum to a derris
end sulfonated castor-oil spray did not increase its effect against red
spiders. Sulfoneted castor oil diluted 1:300 when used alone did not possess
much toxicity to the*spider mites. A proprietary thiocy.nate gave a good
kill of red spiders. Three applications of tartar emetic and brown sugar gave
a kill of, 100 percent of the spiders, but caused serious injury to the
cucumber plants and reduced the yield of fruit. When peanut oil was used
with derris and pyrethrum at the strength indicated above, 98.5 percent of the
spiders were killed after four applications, but the treatment caused a
yellowing of the cucumber foliage. No positive correlation was found between
the yield of cucumbers and the control of red spiders obtained with the
various spr-ys.

In August 1939 Wei.zel and Johnson (160) reported that a proprietary
compound containi-ng derris, an organic thiocyenete compound, pine oil,
petroleum., rnd an emulsifier was less effective, then was tartar emetic with
either bro--n sugar or glycerin when used against the red spider on chrysanth-
emum euttinzs in the laboratory. In November 1939 these authors (161)
reported that tests made at Beltsville, Mid.f indicate that, on the basis of
examinations made of all living red spiders found on representative, samples
of cucumber foliege from greenhouse-grown plants,, which were given a total
of nine applications of a derris-pyrethrum-sulfonated castor-oil spray, this
combination -proved superior to an equal number of applications of sprays
composed of a commercially prepared thiocyanate. This confirmed the results
obtained during the preceding three seasons. Under the conditions of this
.experiment no differences -ere revealed in the numerical production of
cucumbers from plants treated with these two sprays, but the per-plant pro-
duction wes considerably reduced in the check plots. It should be emrnhasized,
however, that the pl-nts in the check plots produced a higher percentage of
Grade No. 1 cucumberB than the plants subjected to either of the spray treat-
ments, indicating the possibility of mechanical injury to the flowers or young
cucumbers by the suraey. The derris-pyrethrum-sulfonated castor-oil sprey did


not cause detectable injury to the cucumber-plants, but those to -hich the
thiocyanate spray was applied suffered some injury directly attributed to
the treatment.

Weigel and Johnson (162) in 1940 reported that white-oil emulsion is
more effective than sulfonated castor oil as a qoreader for derris-pyrethrum
spray against red spider. Small-scale toxicity tests against Tetranychus
bimaculatus were made on potted cucumber seedlings, and were designed to
determine whether certain spreaders could be substituted for sulfoneted*
castor oil in the derris-pyrethrum-sulfonated castor-oil snray without
reducing the effectiveness of the spray combination against this pest. The
test plants were uniformly treated by spraying both sides of all leaves with
a smell atomizing electric sprayer held at a distance of 15 feet from the
leaves during application. In all derris-pyrethruLLm spray mixtures tested the
concentration was 0.0056 percent of rotenone and 0.01 percent of pyrethrins,
while the derris spray alone contained 0.0056 percent of rotenone. All
mortality counts of red spiders were made 2 days after treatment. The
mortality of red spiders ranged from 71.9 to 100 percent for the 11 spray
combinations used in the tests. Both the derris spray Pnd the derris-pny-
rethrum spray, to which had been added white-oil emulsion, 1:100 by weight,
gave 100-percent mortality of the spiders, as compared with 82.2 and 83
percent from derris-pyrethrum sprays to which had been added sulfonated
castor oil at the rates of 1:300 and 1:400 by VOluLL, re-pectively. 'Water
sprays containing only the white-oil emulsion at concentrations of 1:100 and
1:200 by weight resulted in mortalities of 97.3 rn-i 9,1 percent, respective-
ly. A derris-pyrethrum spray containing sodium oleyl sulfate 1:1,000 by
volume gave e mortality of 78.7 percent, whereas one containing the sodium
oleyl sulfate plus synthetic res.ins, 1:1:000 by volume, gave 87.6 percent
mortality. Another derris-pyreIhrum spray containing sodium Ipuryl sulfate,
1:3,000 by weight, resulted in e mortality of 71.9 percent; for the same
period of observation there was an average mortality of 5.3 percent of the
red spiders on untreated cacmunber seedli gs and 23.3 percent on plants
sprayed with plain water. Apparently the white-oil emulsion 1:100 by weight
was considerably more effective than sulfonated. castor oil 1:300 or 1:400 in
the derris-pyrethrum spray. The white-oil emulsion Plone, 1:100 or 1:20C by
weight, was very effective against the spiders. There wes probably little,
if any, real difference-between the effectiveness of sodium oleyl sulfate
1:1,000 by volume, sodium oleyl sulfate plus synthetic resins 1:1,000 by
volume, sodium lauryl sulfate 1:3,000 by weight, cnd sulfoneted castor oil
1:300 or 1:400 by volume, in the rotenone-nyrethrum soray.

Crosby, Churp, and Leiby (47) in February 1939 discussed the control of
diseases and insects affecting vegetable crops on Long Island. Experimental
results indicated that the red spider mite on lima beans can be controlled
by dusting with e sulfur-rotenone dust containing 0.75 percent of rotencine.
The rotenone is included in the formula under the assumption that the vines
would be dusted for the control of. the Mexican bean beetle at the same time
that efforts to control the red spider mite are beinF made. If a spray is
desired, 4 pounds of rotenone-bearin7 powder (4 percent rotenone) in 100
gallons of water probably will control this pest satisfactorily. The dust

most of
or spray must hit the mites on the under side of the leaves, here they do/
their feeding. If it is desired to control downy milder, along 7ith the bean
beetle end the red spider, the rotenone spray should be combined with a
copper spray. The 4 pounds of a 4-percent-rotenone po-der should be added
to each 100 gallons of a bordeaux mixture or other copper spray, as advised
for mildew control. A copper-rotenone spray should be applied soon after
it is mixed.

Hamilton (71) in 1939 recommended derris- or cube-extract sprays as
*contact poisons for the control of the red spider On house plants.

According to T. J, HeuAe, in-advertising literature published by John
Powell & Co., New York, N. T., in 1939, derris-oil sprays have been success-
fully used for red spider control in the coastal areas; however, this use
has not been extensive, except in areas where the black scale is also a factor.
Sprays containing rotenone are effective for the control of the red spider on
ornamentals. A contact snrae containing the equivalent of 1 percent of
rotenone ma.y be diluted at the rate of 1 part to 400 parts of water. It is
advisable that such a soray rhen diluted contain at least 0.5 percent of
a nonalkaline wetting agent. Dusts are apparently not so effective as sprays.
The addition of derris or cube to sulfur dusts rill increase their efficiency
against the red spider on cotton.

0OBrien (115) .in 1940 wrote that, according to M1cDaniel of Michigan State
College, red spiders dislike any preparation that contains derris or its
derivative, rotenone. He recommends dusting with a copper-derris compound,
which can be bought in commercial mixture, or spraying with a mixture of
sulfoneted castor oil and derris powder. To 1 gallon of water, use a little
less than a tablespoonful of the oil and a teaspoonful of the derris.

Brennon (15) in 1940 reported that a derris-pyrethrum-sulfur dust mixture
is promising as en all-purpose dust mixture for the combined control of
several species of insects commonly attacking beans, including the Mexican
bean beetle, the bean leaf beetle, the potato leafhopp'er, and the common red
spider, end for the prevention of powdery mildew.

Coleman and Lyle (42) in 1940 reported the results of tests with a large
number of materials to determine the most effective and economical control for
red spiders, thrips, mealybugs, and aphids in greenhouses. -The three most
effective were Loro, Lethane, and derris extract. Derris extract diluted
1:200 killed 98 percent of the red spiders, but it cost nearly 2.4 times as
much as the se ame mount of Loro, which at 1:800 killed 97.8 percent of this

Morrison end Mote (110) in 1940 reported that a dust containing 0.75
percent of rotenone'nlus 2 percent of sodium lauryl sulfate killed 35 percent
of red spiders on hops in Oregon; whereas a dust containing 1 percent of
dinitro-ortho-cyclohexylphenol killed'99 percent. Rotenone -es compatible
-ith the "roprietery DN dust (1 percent DN on ewalnut-shell flour) but did not
contribute added toxicity.,

The California Fruit Growers Exchange, Bureau o.f Pest Control, (21)/in
the November 1935 issue of their Pest Control Circular that Ortho Derris and
Tox-X are less effective than oil snray a:einst the red snider. In the Angust
1936 issue of this circular (22) it is stated that Ortho Derris enA Tox-X are
composed of a powdered insecticide containing derris added to a low dosage
of light-medium oil, usually from 1/2 to 2/3 of 1 percent. At slightly higher
oil dosages, up to 1.0 or 1.25 percent, they kill red spiders and eE-s, but
have not given control for such long periods as have the oil snrays normally
recommended; however, they will check spiders for at least a few months. The
article says further:

However, in orchards where red scale i s a problem and red
spider is important, in the light of present knowledge it '-ould
appear that these sprays, even with the higher dosages of oil,
should not be substituted for the regular oil spray and fumiga-
tion program.

If a grower in thid area C]ivera-Do--ney-Ihittier area] must
treat over-mature fruit for spider, and so much of his crop remains
that he does not desire to treat over it with light-medium oil,
the other possible treatment in this area is one of the so-called
derris sprays with 0.5 percent of light-medium oil. To date,
derris sprays with 0.5 percent of li:ht-mediun oil have snon
little oil deposit, no interference with color, will control the
black scale setisfactprily, and handle the spider for several
months; but, unless conditions are very favorable, additional
spider control will have to be made within the year. 9hile light-
medium oil applied at this time will give a lonrcr spider control
than derris sprays, it is not recommended over mature fruit.

The Exchange (23) in the September 1936 issue of its Pest Control
Circular, stated that it is uncertain whether derris-oil sprays at 0.5 to 1.0
percent of light-medium oil will hold the red spider in check for more than
a few months. The Exchange (24) wrote as follows in July 1937:

Oil sDreys, while the most effective of any materials against
red spider, are not advisable, even at the low dosage of 1 percent
light-medium oil, owing to the danger of causing excessive drop of
the young crop should the weather become hot. Even the so-called
derris-oil sprays, meide uo of 0.5 percent of, a light-medium oil
and derris powder, although applied on a lar,-e acreage of orangcs
during the last few' months without -rr.t deman-ze, cannot be
recommended, for the same reason. A sudden hot spell follo-ing
application of this material might hasten the drop of small fruit.
However, where growers feel justified in using oil, at present it
appears to be the safest oil type.

In November 1937 the Exchange (25) stated that the most dependable
material for control of red sniders on Valencia oranges at that time of the
yerr is light-medium oil, preferably 1-1/2 to 1-2/3 percent emulsion,


grovwrs prefer less oil, even v-with the possibility of shorter control, the
better knoin oil-rotenone combinations, such as Botano-R or Tox-X, may be used.
For growers who refuse to accept the risk: attendant on the use of miscible oil
and lime-sulfur on navel oranges, an altcrnr.tive is low-dosage oil-rotenono.
IWith this material, however, there is the possibility of retarded fruit
coloration, which may necessitate late shipment. In December 1957 the Exc}ange
(26) rccormondod rotonene-oil sprays for the control of the red spider on lemons
and orarges. These sprays are usable in all districts, whereas the use of
miscible oil and lime-sulfur is limited to interior areas,

Rotcnone-oil products were recommended by the California Fruit Growers
Exchange (27) in Ja.nuary 1938, for the control of rod spider on lemons in the
coastal areas and on'oranges in the interior. In February 1938, the Exchange
(28) rccormicnd'd oil-rotenone combinations for combating the red spider, the
citrus rphi.d, and the immature black scale. A suitable spray is made from-0.5
to 0.75 -':.llons of light-mcdium oil, 1 to 4 pounds (depending on the brand)
of retc,-e,- .3o7der, and water to make 100 gallons. In March 1958, the Exchange
(20) rcportcd. that the beginning stages of water rot-became evident the last
:c&: in December in some oil-sprayed Thmpson I!.'vel Orchards in oe.stern Los
Aneolcs County, but the rot v:.s arrested by drying weather. There appeared to
be no cutsta.nding diffcronce between orchards spry ,r1. withn emulsion and those
spra'.-d 'ith emulsible oils. Oil-rotenonc combinations containing less oil
sho- .-.l.. rkThnoe than the regular oil sprays; in' fact, the extent of w.ater-rot
dcvclo,.mcnt largely in proportion to the pcrccrt. -e cf cil used. Sprays
carryK'-,;: !czs t..han 1 v-rccnt of cil ,shc.icd much less rot than sprays carrying
1.5 percent or morc. For the control of rod spiders en oranges in the coastal
ar .i of C.alifornia it'vas stated that, since aphids are ali-ost al-.ys present
at this tir-- of year along with the red spider, one of the rotcenone-oil sprays
with 0.5 percent of light-mcdjium oil slo-" Id be the preferred treatment and will
contr-_l b:?th posts. Tho most vidoly used rotencne-oil sprays of known value
arc Bot-nc-R, Tcx-X, and Rctox.

Ir. 'ay 1S38 the California Fruit Growers' Exchange (30) discussed the rod
spider situation. For lemons, in groves v/hcro there is a considerable amount
of maturing or where spring fixnigation has boon practiced, "light-nomedium
oil (1.5 to 1.67 percent) or one of the rotcncn.,-oil sprays at 0.5 to 0.67
porccr.t of light-modiun oil, Tii-.t bec given preference. In July 193C8, the
Excha.ngc (31) advised cr.c rs cf oranges in Vortura County as follows: "If
-spra is used on orangpes for black scale, low-dosago dorris-oil will handle the
black scale, an& in most cases the red spider, and is easier on the trees and

The 2xchango (32) in Jv.nuary 1939 recom.meonded rotcnore-oil for use against
red spi.. 's on lomon-s in coastal-areas. In April 1939 it (33) recommended one
of th: r-.tcnone-oil sprays with l/2 of 1 pcrccet of light-m.Ediumn oil as the
prcff:rr'd treatocnt to han-le both aphids and the red spider on oranges in the
co--st.--l areas. In July 1939 the E:ch-n'-e (54) roccniuondcd rotenonc-cil sprays
using 1/2 to 2/3 of 1 pcrtccnt of light-mcdi, oil for the control of the black
scale and the rod spider in Vcntur:. County, where treatment must be nade over
rips fruitt, In Aulust l39 it (35)' discussed thec control of the rod spider in citrus orchards. In areas where a spre.y is also necessary fer black


scale control, straight oil spr?.y uil also control the rcd spidLr. .h-2rc
rotonriono is used with a light dosage of oil, c trporary
unless aided greatly by weather unfavorable tc the/spider.

In April 1940 the Exchange (36) reported on control of red spiders on
oranges. In coastal areas, if aphids beconoe a pest alcng with the red s-ider,
one of the rotenone-oil sprays with 0.5 percent of light-nedium oil should be
the -r::ferrod treatment to handle both posts. The formula given: Light-medimi.
oil 1/2 to 3/4 gallon, rotenone powder 3/4 pound to 3 pounds (depend!n: on the
brand), and water to make 100 gallons.

The Exchange (37) in January 1941 reported on the control of red spiders
or citrus fruits. If scales are also present in immediate coastal areas,
light-mcdiumn oil or oil-rotenono night be used. In Iarch 1941 the Exc}-"nno
(3K) rccoc:ncndcd one of the DU dusts as the preferred treatment at that time of
yea.r. If rain falls soonerlnthan3 or 4 days after the application, its offeeo
tivenoss is greatly reduced./Valcncia areas along the coast, where aphids i:.y
be a post along irth rod spiders, one of the rotonono-oil sprays at 0.5 to 0.75
percent of light-medium .oil'is the preferred treatne-t to control both insects.
' "-ro oil is used fcr scales on lemons, it v.ill also control the red spider.

Tctrany-chus alth.eae v. Hnnt. -

Dc3ussy ct al. (18) in 1936 reported that (Epitetr-.n,-,hus) Tctr:,".cius
c.lth.aeo was not controlled by derris dust and i'.'.s i.-ipncrfoctly ccntrollc.. by
dcrris spray, vi-ich was more effective than pure rotencno (both on a basis of
rotonone 1:3,000). In each spray material 0.05 percent of lothalato was added
as a spreader*

Tetrrnychus mcdanioli JLcG.

The Kichigan Agricultural Experiment Station (103) in 1931. reported that
Deorrisol at 1:800 plus 2 pounds of Ivory soap per 100 ---gallcns killed active
raspberry mites that were fairly hit by the spray; and in 1932 this station (104)
reported that mn,- sprays wore tried for the control of this species, acng
them glue, cils, nicotine, pyrcthrun, derris, soap, and as many ccr.binati.ns as
time permitted. It vas. finally demonstrated that sunmner oils usod at the
of 1 percent, either alone or in combination with bordcaux, controlled this post.

Hutson (77) in 1933 reported that in tests of single applications of
insecticides, Dorrisol 1:800 plus 2 pounds of Ivory s( .7 in 100 -.llons was
sprayod on raspberries zith an orchard sprayer developing 250 pounds pressure.
Afi'ter this treatment 247 live mites of this species wore fcun. per 1'00 loaves,
as c>'*:- p: red with 822 on the chock. hL. best control, 114 live mites per 100
leaves, was obtained with glue at the rate of 15 pounds in 100 gallons cf -.ratcr.

Tetr'-.ycl'.,'.s pacificus McG., the Pacific mite

The 74ashington St-.te College Extension Service (15) in 1940 stated that
rotenone material (powdered dorri.s, cube, and Timbo) ccntainin.- not loss

-33- .

than 3.6 percent of rotenone, vWhen used at the rate' of 1 pound per 100 gallons
with 3 quarts of kerosene, is effective in reducing infestations of the Pacific

Moore ct al. (107) in 1941 reported on control of the Pacific mite and the
European rod imite on apples. Although mites have been a serious pc'st on apples
in Washington for many years, no satisfactory method of control hksqhertofore
been found. Infestations present early in the spring are generally kept down by
the regular codling moth spray program; the sprays, applied under high pressure,
wash some of the mites off the trees. In July, when the oodling-moth spray
program tacpers off, the mite infestations build up. At this time it Is dangerous
to use noro than 0.75 percent of oil on the trees and this is not sufficient
to kill both sites ard eggs, for which about 1.5 percent of oil is necessary.
The use of dorris, with 0.5 to 0.75 percent of oil, increases the kill of mites
somewhat, but does not kill the eggs; hence the infestation soon builds up again.
Because of climatic conditions and the use of oil in codling moth sprays it is
dangerous tc use sulfur compounds for mite control in Washington.

Tctranychus tolarius L.

The Experimental and Research Station of the Nurscry and Irarket Garden
Industries' Dovelcpnicnt Society Ltd., of Cheshunt, Herts, England (57) in 1934
reported tests with spray, fluids, purporting to contain rotonone, for the con-
trol of the r od spider mite on potted plants of Arum and t A dosage of
1/2 fluid ounce of concentrate to 1 gallon of wat-uerwas applied. On the Artun
foliage about 1 percent of the adults remained alive 24 hours after spraying.
On the tomatoes several adults and deutonymph resting stages were alive 12 days
after sprayin-. Infested plants in a greenhouse were thoroughly sprayed with 7
fluid ounces of concentrate to 12 gallons of water. Ten days later a consider-
able number of mites were alive on the sprayed foliage. Tom:,.to shoots infested
with mites were sprayed with an emulsion consisting of 0.12 percent of rotenone,
5 percent of acetone, and 1 percent of saoonin. After 24 hours all the mites
appeared to be dead except bne larva, which probably hatched after spraying had
been finished. After 48 hours the following mites were collected: Dead, 5
females, many young stages; moribund, 3 females; alive, 1 female and 12 larvae.
Five days after spraying many mites were alive and had migrated to the upper
surface of tho foliage. The conclusion reached was as follows:

"A reasonably good control on commercial nurseries is certainly
not to be expected from sora:'s containing this substance [rotenonej ."

The same station (sg), in 1936 reported that many commercial derris sprays
and dusts had been tried for the control of the, red spider mraite on young tomato
plants. Dusts containing derris were without appreciable action on the mite,
but several s-rays containing emulsified derris extracts, or finely ground derris,
tno ,'th-r -"ith a wretting agent, showed considerable toxicity to the mite in small
-scale trials conducted early in the season. Control of the pest was obtained
in February by two ap-oplications of those sprays to badly infested cucumber and
tomato plants. Extended trials throughout the season, however, showed that a

satisfactor" control of the pest irs unobtainable during the suinrcr, even if
the same insecticides wore applied at two or more tines the strength found
effective in the first instance. Consequently spra'.s contz.inir- derris as
the active principle j.crr unlikely to replace petroleum-oil emulsions for
general use, and further work is neccsscr:, before they can be recommcnded for
use early in the season when risk of edema is greatest. This station (60),
in 1938 reported that dcrris extract added to a ocpetroleum-oil emulsion was
more effective against red spider mites than derris only.

lIiles and l:iles (10 5) in 1935 reported that recent work had indicated that
s rars containing derris or extract of pyr'thrum may prove of value in control-
ling red spiders. Derris sra-,'s were used extensively against red spiders on
hops. 11ith derris sprays there is no risk of injury to delicate plants. In
this publication Polvosol was advertised by Cooper, IcDougall, and Robcrtson,
Ltd., Yalding, Kent, for the control of red spiders. Polvosol is a highly
concentrated liquid preparation of derris, which kills at l:14GO and is
particularly? suitable for plants susceptible to cde:ia.

Jary (79) in 1955 re-orted tests of insecticides against the red spider
on hoes. Indications were that the toxicit- of a derris sra; to the nite
may be greater some hours after its preparation than when freshly orccopred.
A dterris spray of 0.0056 percent of rotenone content and continuing O.Oo
percent of sulfonated Lorol appeared to give a complete control at the second
a)plicrtion, whereas it failed to do so at the first. Jary (8O) in 1936 agai:
reported the results ,f spraying potted hop plants for control of this mite.
Two derris extracts diluted to 0.005 percent and 0.002 percent of, rotenone,
respectively, were i-ithout appreciable effect when two applications were made
with a knapsack sprayer. Pyrethrum extract also proved ineffective. Lime
-sulfur 1:79 gave the best results in pot experiments, and proved successful
in the field when a wetter -as added,

Tctran~ychidao (unidentified species)

Carlos (4l) in 1926 re-oorted that red spiders are anong the chief nests
that can be easily exterminated by the application of insecticides containing
derris or its products.

The Institute of Physical and Chemical Research (78) Tokyo, Japan, in 1927
repoorted that icoton, at the rate of 1 pound per 80 imperial gallons of water
killed 100 percent of the red spiders.
Schmitt (l5l) in 1950 reported that dusting with lry po'-der of the finely
pulverized root of Dorris elliptica was not effective against red spiders.

Andries (5) in 1932 recommended Dcrrisol and Katakilla for use a.-inst red
spiders in South Africa.



Kearns, Marsh, and Pearce (84) in 1933 reported that derris spray gives
a good measure of control of the red spider. Commercial experience with
derris as a means of controlling appole pests in Englpnd is limited end the
results have been variable. The indifferent results are probably due to the
use of too low a concentration of the toxic principle (rotenone). Derris
is used mainly in two forms for the preparation of washes: Finely ground
derris root added to a weak soap solution, and an oil emulsion consisting
of a derris extract in a mineral or vegetable oil. Thejduration of effective
toxicity after the application of some preparations may be several days, but
critical data on this point are not available for eipple pests. Derris dusts
have not been used to any extent on apples.

Kearns, Marsh, and Martin (83) in 1935 reported trials carried out the
previous year at Long Ashton, England, with combined sprays for the simul-
taneous control of the red spider, cateroillers, and the plum sawfly on
plums. At Finvin trials -ere carried out on trees of the variety Czar.
Double spraying was employed, and tqo types of spray were tested in the second
application. For the first a-pplication, on May 11, 7 days after petal fall,
the following mixed spray was used: Colloidal lead arsenate 2 pints, nicotine
8 ounces, lethelate getting preparation 8 ounces, and water 100 gallons.
The second application was made on May 29, when half the trees previously
sprayed on May 11 received the following spray: Refined petroleum-oil
emulsion 1.5 gallons, lead arsenate powder 4 pounds, end water 100 gallons.
The remaining half of these trees was sprayed on May 29 with a derris-arsenate
spray of the following composition: Ground derris root (2 percent crystalline
rotenone) 2 pounds, lead arsenate powder 4 pounds, lethalate wetting prep-
aration 8 ounces, and water 100 gallons. The control of the red spider was
satisfactory in both types of treatment employed, and no foliage damage was

Van der Laan (90) in 1936 reported that Tetranychidae are sensitive to
The East Malling Research Station, England (55) in 1936 reported that a
proprietary derris powder was used in the routine spraying program in 1935
for the red spider on apples (1-1/4 pounds-f- 5 pounds of soft soap per 100
imperial gallons of water).

Steer (140) in 1936 published a summary of the use of derris as an
insecticide in England. On damsons in 1934 derris and soap, applied on May
18, was substantially as effective as lime-sulfur for the control of red
spiders. The reduction caused by these sprays in the amount of red spider
injury, and the reduction in numbers of summer egczs subsequently laid on the
leaves, was 92 and 97 percent, respectively. Derris showed great promise and
is worthy of trial for the control of red spiders where lime-sulfur cannot be
used with safety.

The University of Bristol, Agricultural and Horticultural Research
Station at Lon, Ashton, Enlanar (16), in 1936 reported that derris was the
most satisfactory'spray for the control of the red spider.

wri ter
Accordirln to an.anonymous/(2) for the Lone Ashton Research Station, the
annual open d-y of the University of Bristol Research Station at Lc'n: Ashton
was held. on May 6, 1937, the control of the plum sea'-fl"- nfl. the red spider
w'as demonstrated by- the use of combined sprays containin- "'-hite-oil emulsion
and. substances.

Kearns and Martin (85) in 1938 recommended a spray containing 0.67
.-llon of actual cl and 1 pound of derris or,.Lonchokrnups ground root
(rotenone 4'p,--rccnt) to 100 :ellons of water for the control of the plum
sa-fly. One drenching application made just before the hatching of most of
the e="s controls not only the plum sawfly but also red solders. An extract
of Lonchocerpus nicou gave a more potent combined spray than did the powdered

The New Jersey Agricultural Experiment Station (112) in 1938 reportedded
that derris or cube powder inter to which rosin-residue emulsion had been/
killed'the adults and young of several species ef spider mites, but there
did not* seem to be much kill of the e~s.

The New Zealand Department of Scientific and Industrial Research (113)
in 1940 reported that derris. srrays, consisting of ground derris root in
various concentrations, gave only partial control of red mites on apples.
.Derris products of this type cannot be re;erded'as suitable substitutes for
sunmer oil.


Caloglyphus kramerii Berl.

Mi]s and Miles (105) in 1935 reported that dustinE mushroom beds with
derris and pyrethrum dusts may give some relief when an attack of mushroomn
mites (Calolyphus kramerii Berl. Is the most, comr-mon) is sever"

Tyroglynhus longi'r Gerv.

The ExnerimrF-ntel and Research Station (59) of Cheshunt, Herts, England,
in 1938 reported that several dusts contpinin- pyrTethrum, derris, and
nicotine were tried Pnd found unsatisfactory for the control of Tyroglyphus
l-nio-r in mushroom beds.

Unidentified species of Acrrina

See Preston (123) under ticks, on rpp e 41.

The W1,-enin.-en PlantenziektFncmnii-:e Dienst (153) in 1928 recommended
Erysit j?, derris nrenaretion?] and ?hytrphiline for the control of mites.

Schmitt (134) in 1930 reported th-t after beinr- dusted -ith dry powder
of the finely pulverized root- of Derris elliptical, cats, do-s, rabbits, and
chickens were freed from mites within 3 to 5 hours.


Bernales, Bemberen, and Maldonado (7) in 1932 reported on the
therapeutic uses of cube in Peru. The first case of mange treated was one
of generalized scebiosis, with en edema more or less diffuse, dyspneal, and
oli-ruretic. Rubbings were given with a rotenone solution ("Sernol") as the
only treatment, chengin the underclothes of the patient as frequently as
is customary in these cases. The sick person stated that from the first
day of treatment the itching had diminished and by the third day the edema
began to decrease and the diuresis to increase. By the sixth day there were
no traces of dropsical phenomena and the skin affection had disappeared. In
view of this result, the remedy was used on 20 more patients, including each
sex and various ages and conditions, and it invariably effected a cure after
4 or 5 daily rubbings.. In a case in which mange was complicated with skin
lice the curative success in the two diseases was shown. "Piojol" (a pro-
prietary rotenone preparation) not only kills the body louse (Pediculus
humanus corpois Deg.) with certainty, but also destroys the eggs, or nits.

Hanson (72) in 1932 reported that a mixture of 1 part of fresh, finely
ground derris root and 2 arts of flour, tac, or some other carrier, applied
as a dust, is a good remedy for the control of the usual species of flea
found on foxes. In discussing this paper C. W. Bower stated that good results
azeinst ear mites in foxes and cats had been obtained by swabbing the ears
and bathing the head and neck in an 8- to 10-percent active solution of derris
root. Generally one application was sufficient. Dr. Hanson replied:

As regards derris root for ear mites, Dr. N. L. Chandler, of
Michigan State Colle-e, apparently was the first to introduce this
drug as a remed'- for "ear mites. He proposed its use in a soap
solution. This, like the aqueous solution,. fails, however, to
possess ability to cut and dissolve earwax, an ability which is a
desirable, if not essential, property of an ear-rmenoe remedy in
order that it prove effective and practicable.

0G6tze (67) in 1933 compared derris suspension with oil of birch and
another proprietary "Oil aa" for control of "GrabmilbenraeUdell" arcoptic
manpej on 1-41/2-year-old bulls. This derris was ap-plied as for warble
fly larvae, end produced excellent results, with no disturbance to the
health of the animals; whereas the oils, while giving equal control, produced
reddenine and s,-ellinz of the skin, as well as other general disturbances.
The derris can be applied without shearing the animals.

Spoon (139) in 1933 concluded that rotenone can be of service in horti-
culture for the control of spider mites. on various plants.

The 7ageningen Plantenziektenkundige Dienst (154) in 1933 reported the
results of tests on spider mites in the Netherlands. The derris powder used
in the experiments contained 2 percent of rotenone, and was added to 50 parts
of 1-percent soao solution (1 part rotenone to 2,500 parts of water). Pure
rotenone was dissolved in 25 tarts of acetone, end the acetone solution w'as
added to 200 parts of water (1 pert of rotenone to 5,000 parts of water).


The followin- results were obtained in 1932:

Rotenone concen-.
tration Insect Host Result .. Locality

1:5,000 Spider Rose !No result Aalsmeer

1:2,500 do. do do Do.

1:5,000 do Grape and pear do. Naaldwijk

1:2,500 do' do. do. Do.

1:5,000 do. do. Unsatisfactory Goes

1:2,500 do. do. do Do.

2 percent +1 percent
soapD do Stringbean Satisfactory Amsterdam

Do. do Cucumber do. Do.

1 percent percent
of soap do:. do" Not satisfactory Do.

In 1934 the WaEeningen Plantenziektenkundige Dienst (155) reported tests
with rotenone and derris. Rotenone, with the addition of 0.1 percent of Agral
I, was s-orPeed with the follow-ing results: At Amsterdam this material at the
rate of 1:5,000 was satisfactory against mites on pears and mites on graFes;
1:5,000 was satisfactory against nites on pears and mites on grapes; 1:5,000
kills the mites but not the egs, therefore repeated snrayin. is necessary.
Rotenone, without the addition of Agrel I, aevE results as follows: At
Pancras 1:10,000 against mites on grapes killed about 70 percent of the mites;
at `:prld,'ijk 1:2,500 on nonbearin- pears was satisfactory for control of mnites:
at Boskoop 1:5,000 did not zive satisfactory control of mites in cucumbers,
when srrayed during the day on May 27; end 1:5,000 0.1 percent of Agrel I,
s-nrayed. during the dav on June 6, was also unsatisfactory. Then used at e
concentration of 1:10,000 ''ith 0.1 percent of A-zrel I, however, end sprayed
in the evening on Jaly 19, no living mites could be found on July 20. The
samine plot was sprayed in the eveninc- regularly each reek with rotenone
1:10,000 0.1 percent of A.-rpl I. Cucumbers were harvested from this plot
for 3 weeks longer thc-n from the untreated plot, and commanded a hither price
because they -ere practically free from insect injury. Alvesco derris dust
did not give satisfactory results in the control of the sprint (a mite) on
zr&apes at l1Ildwijk.

Derussy, Van der Lean, and Jacobi (19) in 1935 reported the results of
tests with derris po-wder -nd rotenone on F nunb-r of insects in the Nether-
lands. Thirty-t'-o species were found to be sensitive to %ustin.: with derris


powder containing 2 percent of rotenone, and 15 species -ere found to be
not sensitive. Derris or rotenone suspensions at a concentration of 1:5,000
or 1:6,250 were effective in the control of "spintmijt" (a spider mite).
At Utrecht Klarenbeek and others investigated the effect of derris on
parasites of dogs, cats, end foxes and found that the prospects of using
it successfully against mange mites appeared good. They advised that a
watery extract be made by boiling the derris powder (2 percent rotenone) in
300 parts of water for half an hour, then adding a little soap to promote
contact with the skin. The derris powder, mixed with 40 parts of French
chalk, may be rubbed in and givbs. satisfactory results.

The United States Department of Agriculture, Bureau of Entomology and
Plant Quarantine (150) in 1938 gave the results of much work with rotenone
products. Tests made against mites and other pests in the mushroom houses
at Beltsville, Md., with a number of drenches, including free nicotine (40
percent), nicotine sulfate (40 percent), alcoholic extract of pyrethrum (2
percent total pyrethrins), hellebore powder, and derris-root powder, demon-
strated that the drenches containing free nicotine or the alcoholic extract
of pyrethrum gave the best results, as judged by yield.

Moore et al. (108) in 1939 reported on the control of mites infesting
apple trees in the State of Washington. Derris powder (3.6 percent rotenone)
was extracted for 15 minutes vith kerosene (1 lb. to 3 qt.) and this extract
was added to the regular cryolite spray used to control the codling moth.
The reduction of mites was 95.6 percent.

Ticks in General

Daniels (48) in 1905 reported that in British Malaya derris was known
to be useful in destroying ticks on dogs.

Probably the earliest published account of the use of cube as an
insecticide occurs in an article by Klinge (87) published 1910 at Lime, Peru.
A translation from the Spanish is as follows:

At present I am studying end testing out a liquid for the
control of ticks on llamas, of which I spoke in one of my recent
letters. There is a plant here called "Cube"i in the Quechuan
dialect, rhich is used for cptchin7 fish in dammed-up streams by
poisoning the water with the root. From tests that I made * *
maceration produces an effective insecticide, -hich destroys the
tick; but I do not know whether it "-ill be toxic to the llamas,
if these animals should take it internally, as would be the case
in a dipping process. I am makirn- solutions byr crushing and
maceration in various proportions, in order to find one, if
possible, which kills the tick end is not -noisonous to the
llamas (Then used in quantities lErrcr then 1 liter, which is
the maximum that can be taken during a dippin- bath.


Wood (171) in 1912 reporteQ. that a rrepnrEtion mEde by soaking 2 pounds
qf cr,.-hed fresh derris root in 2 imperial -allons of boiling reater for a
few hours, adding 1 quart of .this to 2 gallons of rater, readily killed ticks
on dos bathed in it. Dops s.ufferin- from manze should not be treated with
derris solution.

On June 15, 1921, W. R, "Allen wrote N. E. MAclndoo, of the Division of
Insecticide Investigations, Bureau of Entomolory end Plant Quarantine, United
States Department of Agriculture, that cube .-as used in Peru as a wash for
killing parasites. He enclosed a sneashot -'hich showed the -ashing of a cow
to kill ticks.

The Institute of Physical and Chemical Research'(78), Tokyo, Japan, in
1927 reported results obtained 'with Keoton at seven agricultural experiment
t-ations in Japan. The following tests were made at the Animal Husbandry
Experimental Station, Chiba, Japan: A solution of 1/2 pound of Neoton end 1
pound of soap in 20 imperial gallons of water was painted on the skin of
Nine .ca.lve.s of Holstein-Ayrshire strain. All ticks were killed withinn 28
hours. No injurious action on the calves -as noted during and .after the
experiment, A solution of 1/2 pound of Neoton and 1 pound of soen in 24 or
28. imperial gallons of water killed ell ticks on one mature and three young
Yorkshire pigs 1 hour after application. This peamphlet on Neoton also records
tests by Ito, of Bolivar, Argentina, -'ho reported in 1926 that three or four
applications of ieoton -ill exterminate skin diseases (sarna or kraze) of
cattle, and that Keoton has been found to be the most effective of all the
medicaments now bein, used in that country.

Howes (75) in-1930 wrote that an infusion of the roots of Tephrosia
macropodg vith water was corumonly used by early settlers in Natal as a wash
for freeing dogs from fleas and ticks.

The Kolonieal Instituut (88) of Amster'an in 1930 stet-d that there is
a good ground for believing that derris root contains active materials other
than rotenone. For instance, some Sumatra root from '-hich no rotenone could
be obtained was active. Experiments "ere lade at the Handelsmnuseum of this
Instituut to test the conclusions arrived at in other countries concerning
the effectiveness of derris. When di'-'ed in the emulsion, all ticks were

Schmitt (134)' in 1930 reported' that crts, dogrs, rabbits, and chickens
were freed from ticks within 3 to 5 hours nftcr beine dusted '-ith dry powder
of the finely pulverized root of Derris ellintica.

Watt and Breyer-Brandwijk (157) in 1932 stctei that the Zulus use
Tephrosia macropoda as a vermin killer. The leaveS of T. vo-elii re said to
be an efficient perasiticide ea-inst flas, lice, and ticks, and are commonly
used for this purpose by Europt-ns in Rh.i)rcsip.. Thc Thones use a decoction
of the root of a species of Tephrosia (] robUbly T. grendiflore) as a parasiti-
cide. The preparation is said to have been used for the same purpose by
transport riders in the early days of Natal.


Preston (123) in 1935 reported as follows on the use of cube:

In experiments in Peru a suspension of the ground eried
rooted of cub, CLonhocag rpus-1 in a solution of sodium* carbonate
proved e successful dip in control" of ticks end mange mites on
sheep. The treatment protected sheep from reinfestation with
ticks for at least a "eek. Ticks survived for several days on
a piece of fleece netted with the liquid and kept moist, but
died in a day on another piece of fleec6 similarly wetted but
allowed to dry. It is, therefore, concluded that the drying
of the wool and the body warmth assist the action'of the
poison. The amount of sodium carbonate must be varied accord-
ing to the hardness of the water. T"o applications, with a
week's interval, of a mixture of 1 p5art of cube powder and 100
parts of oil cured mange on llamas.

Williams (168) in 1934 reported that the latex from the roots of Lon-
*chocarpus nicou is used in the Andean highlands as a wash to kill ticks on

Meyer (102) in 1938 described the treatment of animals afflicted with
scab by the use of timbo. A severe outbreak of scab anong rabbits led to
a trial of the toxic principle of timbo. The favorable results obtained led
subsequently to the application of this substance in the treatment of various
types of the disease in dogs, cats, swine, and other animals. A great
improvement of the condition, and in many cases a complete cure, was obtained,
The preparation used in the treatment of rabbits as an ointment made of 200
cm. of powdered timbo roots, extracted in 2 liters of ether for 2 days. Two
hundred cc. of this solution was mixed with l1q. of vaseline, which produced
an ointment slightly yellow in color. The 'application of this ointment was
found to be preferable to washing, because it left the-'fur in better con-
dition. On the other hand, dogs, cats, and swine were treated with a liquid
solution of 400 gin. of the powdered roots dissolved in 1 liter of 95-percent
alcohol, or 200 cc. of ethereal extract diluted in 800 cc. of 95-percent
alcohol. Incidentally, with the treatment of the scab infection, a large
proportion of the insect pests end ticks affecting these animals at the same
time were destroyed.
Literature Cited


1930. Powdered derris root. Pherm. Jour. and Pharm. [Londoni
124: 568.

2. -----

1937. Long Ashton Research Station. Nature Ltondonj 139:874-875.
Noted in the Daily Digest, U.S. Dept. Agr., 65 (53): 2.



1939. The scrub tick. Queensland Agr. Jour. 51 (1): 97.


1935. The use of derris in controlling cerden insects. Ale.
Polytech. Inst. Cir. .a;y 20, 1935, 2 pp. rProcessei. ]


1932. Controlling Plant Pests in Southern Africa. 199 r-i., illus.

6. BABCOCK, 0. G.

1936. Ground devil's-shoestrinTs gives promise as a tickicide.
U. S. Dept. Agr., Bur. Ent. and Plant Cuar. Ne-s Let.
3 (4): 14. [Processed.]

7. BEZ-.1ILES, J. V1, 3A.BARBEN, C. A., and !,ALDCNAD9 A.

1932. Aplicaciones terp'euticas del cube o barbasco. Cron. led.
Lima 49: 309-311.

8. BISHOP, F. C.

1931. The bto'-n dog tick, with suggestions for its. control, U. S.
Dept. Agr,, Bur. Ent. E-292, 2 pp. [-Processed.]

9. -------

193. The brovm dog tick, with su,-7esti'ns for its control. U. S.
Dept. Agr., Bur. Ent. and Plant Cuarantine E-292, revised
3 pp., illus. [Proccssced.]

10. ------- and Smith

1938. Combating the American dog tick, carrier of Rocky Mcuntin
spotted fever in the Central end Eastern States. U. S.
Dept. Agr., Bur. Ent. and Plaht Qupr. E-454, 5 -r., illus.

11. -------- end SMITH, C. N.

1938. The American do.: tick, eastern cErrier of Rocky Mountain
spott, d fever. U. S. Dent. Agr., Cir. 478, 25 pp., illus.

12. 1WOYCE, A. M.

1936&. The citrus red mite Pre t etrenychus citri icO. in C(lifcrnie,
and its control. Jour. Econ. Ent. 23: 12-130.

13. ------- and MIAXMWELL, K. E.

1938. The new citrus bud mite. Cealif. :Citroz. 23 (3): 109, 152.

14. --------- and PRENDERGAST, D. T.

1938. Control of citrus red mite (spider). Calif. Citrog. 23 (9):
370,, 398-4Q00.

15. BRANNON, L. W.

1940.. Derris-pyrethrum-sulfur dust mixture effective against
bean leaf beetle' and associated, insects on beans.
U.S. Dept. Agr., Bur. Ent. and Plant Quer. News Let.
7 (7): 22. [Processed.]


1936. Report on advisory work 1934-35. Bristol Univ., Agr. and
Hort. Res. Sta. Ann. 1pt. 1935: 220-247.

17. BROOKS, A. N., WATSON, J.R., .and MOWRY, H.

1932. Strawberry production. Fla. Univ. Agr. Ext. Bul. 63, 51 pp.,

18. BUSSY, 1. P. de, LAAN, P. A. van der, and DIAKONOF.F, A.

1936. Bestrijding van nederlandsche insecten met derris. Tijdschr.
over Plentenziekten. 42: 77-100, illus.

19. --. LAAN, P. A. van der, end JACOBI, E. F.

1935. Resultaten van proven met derrispoeder en rotenone op
nederlendsche insecten. Tijdschr. over Plantenziekten.
41: 33-50, illus. Also in Amsterdam Kolon. Inst., Afd.
Handelsmuseum Ber. 91, 25 pp.-, illus.;. and Indische
Mercuur 58: ..103-10.4, 1.19-121.


1923. Insecticidal value of Cal-if. Agr. Expt. Sta. Bien.
Rpt. 1922-23; 132. .


1935. Preliminary results of ne"7. citrus sprays, against black scale.
Calif. Fruit Growers Exc.h. Pest Control Cir. 11: 1-3.

22. ----

1936. So-called "non-oil". spreys.. The use of Selocide in the
Rivere-Downey-Whittier area.. Calif. Fruit Growers Exch.
Pest Control Cir. 20: 2-3.

-4 .-

23. -----

1936. Red spider. Calif. Fruit Growers Exch. Pest Control Cir.
21: 2.

24. -----

1937. Red spider persists in some areas. Calif. Fruit Growers
Exch. Pest Control Cir. 31: 2.

25. -----

1937. Red spider. Calif. Fruit Gro-ers Exch. Pest Control Cir.
35: 2.

26. ----

1937. The red snider situation. Calif. Fruit Gro-ers Exch. Pest
Control Cir. 36, 4 pp.

27. -----

1938. Red spider. Calif. Fruit Growers Exch. Pest Control Cir,
37: 4.

28. -----

1938. Importance of winter red scale treatment. Calif. -Fruit
Gro'-ers Exch. Pest Control Cir. 38: 2-3.

29. ---

1938. Water rot again appears in oil-sprayed navel orchards. Red
spider. Calif. Fruit Gro-ers Exch. Pest Control Cir. 39: 5

30 -----

1938. Present spider condition. Calif. Fruit Growers Exch. Pest
Control Cir. 41, 4 pp.


1938. [] Calif. Fruit Growers Exch. Pest Control Cir.
43: 4.

32. ------

1939. [ Red spider.] Calif. Fruit Growers Exch. Pest Control Cir.
49, 4 pp.

33. ----

1939. Red spider.. Calif. Fruit Gro-ers Exch. Pest Control Cir.
S52: 3..


34. -----

1939. The summer pest control program. Calif.. Fruit Growvers Exch.
.Pest Control Cir. 55, 6 pp. ,


1939. Red spider. Calif. Fruit Growers Exch. Pest Control Cir.
56: 2.


1940. The citrus aphis.. Calif. Fruit Growvers Exch. Pest Control
Cir. 64, 4 pp.

37. ------

1941. Red spider. Calif. Fruit Growers Exch. Pest. Control Cir.
734, 4 pp.

38. ----

1941. Red spider. Calif. Fruit Growers Exch. Pest Control Cir. 75::

39. cAMEROIT, A. E. .

1939. Insect end other pests of 1938. .Highlend end Apr.. Soc.
Scot. Trans. (5) 51: 136-174.

40. CAiBELL F, L.

1932. Review of information on the insecticidal- value of. rotenone.
U.S. Dept. Agr., Bur.. Ent. E-298, 28 pp. [Processed.]

41. CARLOS, A. S,

1926. Derris and its uses as an inseftioide. Fert., Feed. Stuffs,
and Farm Supplies Jour, 11: 161.

42. COLEMA,. S. H., and.LYLE, C.

1940. Insecticides for greenhouse pests. Assoc. South. Agr.
Workers Proc. 41: 116-117.

43. COIAPTON, C, 0.

1930. Greenhouse pests, a manual of pre. control of
insects and other pests attacking ornamental plants and
flowers gro'-n.under glass in Illinois.. Ill. Nat. Hist.
Survey Cir. 12, 112 pp., illus.

44. -----

1931. Red spider control in greenhouses. Jour. Econ. Ent. 24:



1937. Gaerdeninz. VI. Insecticides end fungicides. Consumers'
Res., Inc., Gen. Bul. 3 (9). 13-20.

46. CRANE, D. B.

1933. Rotenone A new perasiticide. Cornell Vet. 23 (I): 15-31.

47. CROSBY, C. R., CHJPP, C., and LEIBY, R. W.

1939. The control of diseases and insects effecting vegetable crops
on Lonz Island. N. Y. Agr. Col. (Cornell) Ext. Bal. 278,
revised, 87 pp.,. illus.

48. DANIELS, C. W.

1905.. A plea for the scientific study of native drugs and poisons.
Malaya Branch Brit. Med. Assoc. Jour. [Singaporei (n.s.)
2: 3-5. [Reviewed in Brit. Med. Jour. 2373: 1475.]


1931. Some comparative tests with rotenone, nicotine, and nyrethrum
Jour. Econ. Ent. 24: 111-115.

50., DAVIDSON, W. M.

1924. Results of experiments with miscellaneous substances against
the chicken mite. U. S. Dept. Amr. Bul. 1228:' 5,7.


1930. Rotenone as a contact insecticide. Jour. Econ. Ent. 23:

52., --------

1930. Th4 relative value as contact insecticides of some con-
stituents of derris. Jour. Econ. Ent. 23: 877-879.

53. De ONG, E. R., and WHITE, L. T.W.

1924. Further studies of derris as en insecticide. Jour. Econ. Ent
17: 49q-501.

54. DOWS-IT' V. H. W.

1935. Notes on insecticide trials with date pelms, Kut As-sayvid
Estate, 1934. Hedar 8 (6): 174-175.



1936. Routine spraying progremme. East i iellini [Kent] Res. Sta.
Ann. Rpt. (1q35) 23: 22-25.

56. EASTM1AN, D. A. -

1935. Follicular mange in dogs. North Amer. Vet. 16 (8): 44-47.


1934. [ Rotenbne.]& Cheshunt Expt. and.Res. Ste. Ann. Rpt. (1933)
19: 70.
58 ----

1936. Red spider mite. [Cheshunt] Expt. and Res. Ste. Ann. Rpt,
(1935) 21. 73


Derris. [Cheshunt] Expt. and Res. Ste. Ann. Rpt. (1937)
23: 61-65.

60. -----

1939. Derris, [Cheshunt] Expt. end Res. Sta. Ann. Rpt. (1938) 24,
108 Tp.


1929. Derrisol. Fla. Agr. Expt. Sta. Am. Rpt. 1928: 5R-123R.

62 . .-

1931. Derrisol. Fla. Agr. Expt. Sta. Ann. Rpt. 1930: 72.

63. GABLICK, v. G.

1929. Notes on the red spider on bush fruits, Tetranychus telarius
L. Ent. Soc. Ontario, Ann. Rpt. 59: 86-93.

64. CAGRMAN, P., and TOSEND, J. F.

1938. The European red minite and its control. Conn. (State) Agr.
Expt. Sta. B3ul, 418, 34 pp., illus.,


1933. Pyrethrum Flowers4 269 pp., illus. Minneapolis.


66. G0.GGRIJP, I. H.

1929. Mijtenbestrijdina op hevea k-eekbedden. Arch. v. Rutbercult.
Nederland.-Indie 13 (2): 79-97. Also in Al-. Prefsta. der
A. V. R. 0. S. Rubber Ser. 67: 19. abstract in Expt. Sta.
Rec. 62: 457.

67. GZOTZE, R.

1933. UTber die Derriswurzel und ihre An-endunp zur Bekimpfun: von
Ektoparasiten bei Rindern. Deut. Tierarztl. Wchnschr.
41: 129-131.


1933. Die Behandlung der Rinderra.ude mit Derris-taschmitteln.
Berlin. Tierarztl. Wchnschir. 49: 78q-792.

69. HLA.ILTON, C. C.

1934. Control of qider mites on ornamental plants. N. J. A;r. Expt,
Sta. Cir. 334, 4 pp.

70. --------

1938. Tests rith derris powder or cube por1er in rosin residue
emulsion sprays for the control of shade tree insects.
Natl. Shade Tree Conf. Proc. 13: 140-147.


19.39. Contro.llin; house plant pests. N. J. Amr. Exrt. Sta. Cir.
?8, 4 pT.

72.. HANSON, K. B.

1932. Parasites of ranch foxes and their treatment. Amer. Vet. Med.
Assoc. Jour. 80: 202-212.

73. HEAL, R. E.

1936. Derris insecticides. VI. Summer control of European r.ed
mite on P-ople writh derris and neutral rettin, agents.
Jour. Econ. Ent. 29: 550-556.

71. HOWARD, N. F., 4-SOIT,) H. C., and DAIDSON., R. ,.

1935. Derris for the contr',l of certain vczetrble insects. Ohio
Ve -. Grovrers' Assoc. Proc. 20: 21-25.


75. HOWES, F. I:.

1030. Fish poison plants. Kew Roy. Bot. Gard. Bul., Misc. Inform.
4: 129-153.

76. HUTSON, R.

1932. Tests sho" way to control raspberry mites. MIich. Agr. Exrt.
Sta. Ouart. Bul. 14 (3): 191-193.


1933. Experiments on the control of mites infesting raspberries.
Jour. Econ. Ent. 26: 425-430.


1927. "Neoton" what it means to agriculturists. [Tokyo] Inst.
Phys. and Chem. Res. Bul. 12 pp.

79. JARY, S. G.

1935. Some observations upon the "Red spider", Tetranychus telerius
L., on hods and its control, with notes on some -redatory
insects. Ann. Appl. Biol. 22: 538-548.


1936. Further experiments on the control of the hop red spider.
mite, Tetranychus telarius L. Ann. Apil. Biol. 23: 606-611

81. ----- nd AUSTI, ,I. D.
193. De,'-rtmPnt of Entomology. Southeast. Agr. Col. Jour. 41:

82. JCTUES H. A., and DAVIDSON, M.

1931. PrearsFt ions containing rotenone for use as insecticides. I.
Aauejus suspensions. Jour. Econ. Ent. 24: 244-257.

83. KEARNS, H. G. H., -iARPS'- P. 7T., and. MARTIN, H.

1935. Combined -wsahes, F- -' ress Report. Bristol Univ., At-r. and
'-Trt. '"s P Ann -rnt. 1934: 109-125.

8 1* -------- IASH. s E, T. J. P.

1933. Ex)eriw-r.ts rit1 e mib'eo insecticide-fungicide siprays for
epp!-s, Pj o.-ver, r~,~z't Bristol Univ., Apr. and Hort.
Res, Sta.. rAnn. Rnt. 1932: 66-85.



85. ----- end M14ARTIN, H.

1938. The control of plum sawfly (Hoplocam, fleva L.) Bristol
Univ., Ajr. end -ort. Res. Ste. Ann. t 19,7: 7---i4.

86.------- and 'J-ARTI[, H.

1939. The position of combined- washes in the nost-dormsnt s-.ray
program. II. The us'e of po'st-dormant combined was-aes in
fruit crops. Sci. Short. [Wyc, Kent] 7: 105-118.

87. ?:LI!IGEr, G.

1910. Liter-s apuntes sobre el valle de Huanceyo. [Peru]
de Fomento, Dir. Agr. y Ganad. 8 (2): 43-45.


1930. Toeba-wortel. Inlichtin-:en en onderzoekinzen van de
efdeelinz handelsmuseum in 1929. Amsterdam Kolhn. Inst.
Afd. H-andelsmuseum Meded. 26 (8): 91-99, illus.

89. YRA T'VELD, F. C.

1936. Overzicht over proeven inzakp de tekendoodende -erkin7 van
derrisnoeder-extrecten. ::pdcrland. Indische I. v.
Diero-enec sk. 48: 97-102.

90. LAAN, P. A. van der

1936. Versle] ven de Nezen-en-Zestirste Winterverpaderin- ler
Nederlandsche Entomolo ,ische Verceni .in.-:,- Ameterdan,
February 23, 1936. Tijdschr. v. Ent. 79: 52-58.


1926. Citrus comments. Citrus Indus. *7 (4):. 20.

92. LESSER, M. A.

1940. Dermal parasiticides. Dru- end Cosmetic Indus. 47 (1):
33-35, 37, 47.

93. LITTLE, V. A.

1931. A 7orcliminery report on the insecticidal properties of.
devil's shoestring, CrIcca virginiana Linn.. Jour. Econ.
Ent. 24: 713-754.

94. McINDOO, N. E., SIEVERS, A. F., Pnd A70'TT, W. S.

1919. Derris as an insecticide. Jour. A>~r. Res. 17: 177-200.


95. Mae LEOD, J.

1933. The use of derris against the sheep tick. Scot. Jour. Agr.
16: 84-86.

96. Mac LEOD* J.

1938, The sheep tick (Ixades ricinus) and its control in Great
Britain. Cooper Tech. Br. Bu1. 2, 27 pp., i.llus.
[Abstract in Rev, Appl. Ent. (B-) 26: 108.]


1937. Schadlinasbekampfung mit aess-rigen Derrispulver-Losungen.
Obst u. Gemiusebau 83 .(4).: 54.

98. MAFlNEY, U. E.

1932. Controlling the brown dog tick. North Amer. Vet, 13 (8):


1937. [Derris.] Mass. Agr. Expt. Sta. Ann. Rpt. (1936).339: 36-4C

100. -----

1938. [Derris.] Mass. Agr. Expt. Sta. Ann. Rpt. 1937
(Bul. 347), 99 pp.


1939. [Derris.]' Mass. Agr. Expt. Sta. Bul. 355: 40, 60, 6a.

102. MTYER, J. R.

1938. Tratamento das sarnas dos animeis pelo timbo. Bioloqico
4 (8): 257-261.


1931. Derrisol.] Mich. Agr. Expt. Sta. Ann. Rpt. 1931: 11.


1932. pferris.] Mich. Agr. Ex-)t. Ste.- Bien. Rpt. Dir. 1932: 31.


105. MILES, H. V., and MILES, M.

1935. Insect pests of -lasshouse crops. 174 pr., illus. Surbiton
Surrey, England.


1940. Derris and its insecticidal properties, Med. Parasitol.
and Parasitic Dis. 9 (1-2): 106-108.

107. MOORE, J. B., GADIN GER, C. B., COULTER, R.W., and FOX, C.C.

1941. Control of Pacific mite and European red mite on apples.
Jour. Econ. Ent. 34: 111-116.

108. ----- T7E-STER, R. L., GROVES, K., and FALLSCHEER, H.

1939. [Rotenone. ] Investigations on codling moth and mite control
Wash. State Hort. Assoc. Proc. 35: 95-105.

109. MORRIS, M. L.

1936. Demodex folliculorum (cejiis), its diaz-n:ais end treatment.
Amer. Vet. Med. Assoc..our, 88 (4): 460-474.

110. MORRISON, H. E., and MCTE, D. C.

1940. DN dusts on hops for control of the red snider. J:uLr.
Econ. Ent. 33: 614-619.

111. MTJKPHY, D. F.

1936. Insect! ciail activity of aliphatic thiocyenates. III.
Red spiders. and mites. Jour. Econ. Ent. 29: 606-611.


1938. [Rotenone.] N. J. Agr. Expt. Sta. Ann. R->t. (1938) 59:


1940. [Derris.3. New Zeal. Dept. Sci. and Indus. Res.Pul. 14: 65.


1939. North East of Scotland Sheep Tick Commilttec Report, 1938.
55 pp. Aberdeen.

115. OB1RIEN, H. R.

1940. Diary of a plain dirt gardener. Better Homes & Gardens.
19 (1): 10, 63.|



1934. [Rotecide.] Ohio Apr. Ex t. Ste. Ann. Rpt. (l933)
532: 43.

1 17.- -----

1936. Entomology. Ohio Agr. Expt. Ste. Ann. Rpt. (1935) 561:

118. PARISH, H. E.

1940. Sulfur-cube ineffective against brori printer tick. U. S.
Dept. Agr., Bur. Ent. and Plant Quer. Ext. Ent. 4(2): 14.

119. PENICK, S.C., and COMPANY

1936. Derris, the New Safe Insecticide. Ed. 4, 14 ppD., illus.
New York.


1938. [ Derris.] Pa. Agr. Expt. Sta. Ann. Rpt. 1938 51: 59.

121. PETHERBRIDGE, F. R-, End TH01AS, I.

1937. Spraying for plum-sawfly. [ Gt. Brit.] Min. Azr. and
Fisheries Jour. 44 (9): 858-865.

122. PETTIT, R. 7., and HUTSOkT, R.

1931. The insect situation in Michigan. Ent. Soc. Ontario Ann.
Rpt. 61: 33-35.

123. PRESTON, H.

1935. El cube como pnaresiticida. [Peru] Dir. de Agr., Ganad.,
y Colon..Bol. 4 (13-16): 95-97. [Abstract in Rev. Appl.
Ent. (B) 23: 174.]


1932. A preliminary study of the insecticidal efficiency of the
pyrethrins, nicotine, and rotenone against the greenhouse
red spider mite. Jour. Econ. Ent. 25: 592-599.

125. ------

1934. Studies of derris, nicotine, paris green, end other poisons
in combination with molasses in the control of the
gladiolus thrips. Jour. Agr. Res. 49: 359-373.



1935. The effectiveness.of variousderris end cube products
for control of the red snider.on 3reenhLuse plants.
Jour. Econ. Ent. 28: 1076-1078,

127. RIES, D. T.
1935. A new mite (IWeotetrenychus buxj, n. s. Garman) n boxwood.
Jour. Econ. Ent. 28: 55-62.

128. ROARK, R. C.

1938. D erris versus cube Is cube equal to derris as en
insecticide? Soap 14 (1): 111-113, 120.


1939. Report of Horticultural Branch. ?rit. Columbia Dcpt. Agr.,
Ann. Rpt. (1938) 33: 27-42.

130. ROSS, I. C.
s- .
1935. Tick paralysis: A fatal disease of dogs and other animals
in eastern-Australia. Austrel. Council Sci. and Indus.
Res. Jour. 8 (1): 8-13.


1934. The use of Aresco and. Aresket in insecticidal snr.-vys.
GLH 634, 5 pp. [Processed.]


1935. The use of Areskap and Aresket in insecticidal sprays.
Rubber Service Laboratories Co., Inc., GLH 634,*5 pp.
S"' [Processed. '

133. SC'EIlFR, A. '

1934. Versuche zur Pekempfung der Rinderraude. II. _eitrag.
Derris-pr"P1rate (Panderran und Derrisol) Aulin. 39 pp.
Hannover. (Inaug.-Diss.)

134; SC' ITT, t .-'

1930. Derris ellintice Benth., ein vet-etPtilischcr undi ungiftiger
Insecticidlieferent. An.-ew. Bot. 12: 453-463.


135. SC:'CEDE-R, C. R.

1934. The snake mite (Ophionyssus. serentium Hirst). Jour.
Econ. Ent. 27: 1004-1014.

136. S ITH, C. L.

1937. Studies on the use of derris powder in the form of an
aqueous suspension. Canner 84 (5): 36, 38, 40.


1939. Resistance of American dog tick to derris dips. U. S.
Dept. Agr., Bur. Ent. end Plant Quar. Ujcws Let. 6 (P):
20. [Processed.]

I17B. SilTH., D. w.

1938. Insecticidal effect of derris powder extracts. Econ. and
Trade Note No. 390, 2 pp. Batavia, Java.

139. SPOON, W.

1933. Het insecticide rotenon in de nederlandsche praktijk,
eerste proefjear. Amsterdam Kolon, Inst. Afd. Handels-
museun Ber. 83, 17 pp., illus. Also Indische lIercuur 56
(51): 805-807.

1.10. STEER, W.

1936. Insecticides and fungicides. The use of derris root as an
insecticide. -East Lallin:z Kent Res. Sta. Ann. Rpt.
(1935) 23: 225-227.


193i. 3Die I:[ilbenkrauselkrankheit der Rebe und ihre Bekamnfun--.
Biol. Reichanst. f. Land u. Forst7. Flubgl. 102, ed. 2,
8 pp., illus,

142. STEWART, 7. L.

1939. [Dlerris.] The tick: problem. Vet. Rec. 51 (4): 93-98.
143... .

1939. The economic importance of Ixodes ricinus L. (British shEep
tick).- Vet. Jour. 95 (9): 3-A-349.


144. SWAN, D. C.

1934. The red-leed earth mite, Halotydeus.destrictor (Tucker)
in South Australia: With remarks upon Penthaleus major
(Duges).. So. Austral. Dent. Agr. Jour. 3e (3): 353-367.

145. TI-014AS, C. C., and MILLER, E. E.

1940. Rotenone in the treatment of scabies. Amn--r. Jour. led.
Sci. 199 (5): 670-674.

146. 7UPIRIR, N.

1932. Notes on rotenone as an insecticide. Jour. Econ. Ent.
25: 1228-1237.


1940. Ticks and spotted fever. U. S. Dept. Atr. Employee Activ,,
Agr. Exch. 11 (17): 1-2. [Processed.]


1940. [Derris.] U. S. De t. A.r., Buir. Animal Indus. Ann. Rpt.
1940: 81-82.


1933. [Derris.] U. S. Dept. A-r., Fur. Ent. Ann. Rpt. 1933,
47 pp.


1938. [Derris.] U. S.Dept. A"r,, Bur. Ent. and Plant Quar. Ann.
Rpt. 1938, 84 pp.


1936. [Derris.] U. S. Deot. Agr., Food and Drug. Admin., Ann.
Rpt. 1936: 20-21.

152. VA:' GUNDIA, G. K.

1936. Possibilities of dusting shade trees for pest control.
Natl. Shade Tree Conf. Proc. 12: 161-167.


1928. Het spint (r.ode spin). Waienin-en plantenziektenkundiae
vlugschr. 36, 4 pp.



1933. Rotenon en eftreksel van Derris elliptica (Akar toeba).
Wag;eningeh Plantenziektenkund. Dienst Verslag. en Mleded.
72: 96-99.

155. -----

1934. [ Rotenone. ] Wageningen Plantenziektenkund. Dienst Verslag.
en Meded. 76, 116 pp., illus.

1940. Rotenone. Recommendations for codling moth and orchard
mite control in WaFhinzton for 1940. Wash. State Col.,
Ext. Serv. Bul. 252: 10.


1932. The Medicinal and Poisonous Plants of Southern Africa.
314 -T)., illus. Edinburgh.

158. TEBSTER, R. L.

1932.- Red spider control. Wash. State Hort. Assoc. Proc. (1931)
27: 17-21; Northwest Fruit Grower 3 (12): 8, 12, 15; and
Better Fruit 26 (8): 10-11.

159. -EIGEL, C. A., and JOTHNSON, G. V.

1939.- Control of red spiders on cucumbers. U. S. Dept. Agr.,
Bur. Ent. end Plant quar. Ne's Let. 6 (1): 20.

160. -------- and JOq\TSON, G. V.

1939. Glycerine and tartar emetic effective against red snider.
U. S. Dept. AMr., Bur. Ent. and Plant Quar. News Let.
6 (8): 20. [ Prooessed.]

161. --------- and J YSTSOT, 'G. V.

1939. Control of red snider on greenhouse cucumbers. U. S.
Dept. Apr., Bur. Ent. and Plant Quar. ._ws Let. 6 (11):
24. [Processed.]

162. -------- and JCHIUSOU, G. V.

1-940-. ; hitc-dil emulsion more -effective than stilfoneted castor
oil as spreader for derris-pyrethrum sp-ray eaairint red
spider. U. S. Dept. Agr., Bur. Ent. and Plant Quar.
Neo-s Let. 7 (10): 17-18. [Processed.]

-- -4,.
*- -I fzr rd s- aers a -id _- --

Set. 2- -1 -

netic._el tests a& -.t re7 -ie a!-. .-' "7'. =-ree.s-

2l'_ _^-2"_ .

....... -. s l.? ca '. s i-:- r .:.-. factor i"

E7- --,, -- -, 7 l 21

i Ic-E -terrtr:er. 1s: tr. a

1:--- _. r- c- us
... . *

r -- en .-r t_ N -' tr-

--- -?-.- T-. -. -- t i t *r ..**:-* l r -i ^ A -g g u

"* '-. -~ -. -1 -. '. d* -s1

l -7:7' - 2

-- -- -. .- -
-}2. =risie re- ,icre.-. .'-- -. (3'8 32.

1 .- t. -L, .-iy Sta-es _<-.. 'r. =u1. I: i.--I{6.

l"-.^. Red s-i-er. is rl~rii? '..._--"=- :e~r.,:ri<-5.. .--t.".. F1:r'st
!ul rs r .... ( ) ~-c 2 "

Abbott, S. See N:!-r:, N. -Z, '-
,S . . . -
Au ti : See J"'.r-, 3. m- S1
Bartarer, C. A. See, J. 7., 7
3re,--er-_r3i"-' i- 3, N See ;::- J. M., ---
Chut, :. See -r:s:.,-, C. --., L7
Cyiter, .. W. See 2:re, J. 3., 107
3vi5.i:n, -. E. See .-zwari, .,. _., -
-ii- See Jones, A., 2
i)1 k'f:f:, A. See 3:s3S, I. de, "-
=-.s:e.e-r, -. See Moore, J. 3, _.
--- C. See L::re, J. 3., 17
C-=i-er, CC 3 See -.:-re, J. 3., 107

7, Seee a,
Ca-s -s See -re, J. 3., 1C
ec --. See -ettit, 5. "., 122
Jct: Si, 3. See - ..?, e. e 1 16
---a 1e 1r 9
e -n, t s. ee -ei e C *, 1 ,
K?-cr'-r-_:va, Z. See -ir r..-', "., -2=
reck, C. B. See Y::hers, W. '., 172
:l?.r, ?. A. van der. See :ssy, L. ?. ae, lg, 19
Leib., :. . See Cro:-, C. s.., -7
L.le, C, See C:-lean, S. _
Ad.n A. See -.r-'es, J. 7., 7
arsh, _R., i See 7e-.u- s, E, G. ., g3, '-
K rt-: z, -. See Tr--ns, 5. G. "-., ", ;-:
a:. See 3:te, 13.

!er, C-
j *** S:3L
M-Lies, V.. See 1Miles, B. If., >-:
Miller J ZC See ::cc------ Z. ., 2 *-
,'[ te, See "" -, 5. ., 1
Cc'.:r', -. See 3r. :-.:3, A. .., 17
"or'i *':-" See "--"" ":':' '.',". ~
H-' . See 7 C. A., 163, -
Cc -f:, J. See ;i" J. 167
e. rce, ?. Se '
?'- t, 2. See 3-ce, A ..S,
S.icha.ron, H ,,-= C. A., 16A
Schzfie-i = See ,-'.. e, ., l1 7
Sie -'?rs, C . See ..., C. ,. 11

JT 127
5-"-it-G I. See Pe-.ih S Ce, 121
3''r-r.StrzA J. -. See I---.- b-
'i-.-s. -_, J. B. See -r- -. ,'erbauer, A. 'See _'5-e, J., 1 ;7
webster, _-. See Koore, J. 3 --?
.-.: I. *r. S--: "' r^ B 53

- L=

Index of Mites, Ticks, and Insects


Acarus bubalus--- --------------- ---------
American dog tick-----------------------------------
Aphid. --------------- -------------- -----------------
Argasidae ------------------------------ ------
Argas iniatus --------------------------------------------
Avocado red mite -----------------------. --------------

Bean leaf beetle- ------------ ---------------
Black scale-------- -------------------------
Boophilus annulatus-----------------------------------
Bottle tick-- --------------------------------------------
British sheep tick-----------------------------------------------
Bryobia mite-- -------------------------------------------
Broad mite---------- -------------------------------
dog tick -----------------------------------------------
winter tick----------------------------------------------------
pratensis. See B. praetiosa.


24 30 o,31,32
6, ;


Caloglyphus kramerii -------------------------------------- 36
Castor bean tick ------ ------------------- ------ 6
Caterpillar---------------------------------------- 35
Cattle tick ------------------------------------------------- 4
Chicken mite--- ---------------------------------------- 3
Chorioptes bovis --------------------------------C--------- 9
aphid---------------- -------------------------------------------- 31-
bud mite ----------------------------------------------3
red mite----------------------------------------------------------- 13,24
rust mite------------------------------------------------------ 3
Clover mite --------------------------------------------- 12
Codling moth---------------------------------------------33
red mite of chicken. S.e Chicken mite.
red snider---------------------- ----lo- 22, 28-32
wood tick-------------------------------------------------------- ,6
Cyclnmen mite----_- 12

Date mite------------------------------- ------------------- 13
folliculorum bovis --------------------------------------------- 10
folliculorum canis ---------------------------------------------- 10
andersoni -------------------------------------------------------
nigrolineatus-- --------------------------------------
venustus. See D6 andersoni.


61 -
P ge
Dermanyssid e --------------- ---------------- 2.
Derr.inyssus :-". linae --- -------------------------- 3
follicle mite ------------------------------------------ ------- 10
tick. See. Brown dog tick.

.ar mite ------------------------------------------------------ 37
Znitetranychus althaeae, See Tetrarychus althaeae.
Zpitrinerus vitis------------------------------------- ------- 2
Zriophyes sheldoni --------------------------------- 3
E .rphidfie ------------------------------------------------ 2
,uroTe.n-r red mite- -- ------------------_---- r4)... ... i,15,jl6,33

reas --d--i-e-------------------------------------------------- 37i 5
-leas-=.. .....37,40
Fowl tick---------- ----------------------- ----- 2
Fruit tree red spider -------------- --------4,6

Gall mite------------- ---------------------- ---------------------2
Gamasidae--------------------------------------------------------- 3
Gree nie----*----------------------------------------- ,1
Green mite --------6,-1 .
Greenhouse rec s.idor---------------------------------------------16,19,20,26

Halotydeus destructor --- -------------------------- I ----- 9
Hem, cheese, or flour mite------------------------------------------ 36
Hemitnrsonemus latus' --------------------------------------12
Human itch mite---------------------------------..-.-----.-.-.---- 11

h 'locyclus---------------------------------------------- --------- 6'
ricinus---------------------------------------------------------- 6,
Ix 'c i i" e------ --------------------------------------------------------- 4

Lice. ------------------------------------------------ 37,40
L~ance mite -- --- - _-- - !IO ,]1,4~l
I.ealybug----------------------------------------------------- 29
i.exicari btan beetle---------------------------------------------------- 28,29
Mushroom mite------------------------ ------------------- 36

Neotetranyc hus buxi-------------------------------------------------- 13

Oak mite---------------------------- .. ------------------------------ 13
Oligonychus- I
simplex----------------------------- --------------------------------- 13
ulmi. See Paratetranychus pilosus.
Onion thrips------------------------ ------------- -------------- 21
Ophionyssus serpentium ----------------------------------------- 2
Ornilthodoros-- .
moubata----------------------------------------------------------- 2
tartakovskyi------------------------------------------------ 2

- 62 -

Pacific mite ---------- ----------------------
Parasi tidae---- --....---- ---------
Parat etranychus-
bicolor -----------------------------------------------------------
ilicis ---------------------------------------------
sp ---------------- --------------------------------------------------
Pediculo idida -- ---------------------------------------------
Pediculus corporis----- -----------------------------------------
Pigrma eophorus sp.-------------------------------------------------
Plum sawfly--------------------------------------------------------
Potato leafhopper---------------------------------------------------
Psoroptes sp.----------------------------------




Raspberry mite----------------------------------------------------- 14,32
Red-legged earth mite ------ ----------------------- --- 9
Red-- -
mite on apples---------------------------------------------------- 36
sealo - '-- --- --- -------....----- ----------- 30
spider. See.also Common red. spider-.
soider mite. See Red spider.
Rhipicephalus sangu.ineus ----------------------------- g
Rust mite-------- ---------------------------------------------- 3

Sarcopt e s-
scabiei ----------------------------------------------------------- 11
sp.--------------------------------------------------------------- 11,12
Sarcoptidae --------------------------------------------------- 9
Scale------------------------------------------ 30-352
Scrub tick-----.-------------------------------------------------- 6
(Seiulus) Lasioseius pmi------- --------------------- 9
Sheep tick-------------------------------------------------------- 6,7,8
Snake mite---- ---------------------------------------- 2
See Red spider.
mite------------------------------------------------------------ 31,32,35,357-39
Spotted fever tick------------------------------------------------ 4
Spruce mite---------------------------------------------------------- 16

Tarsonemidae --- --------------------------- ------------------------ 12
pallidus---------------------------------------------------------- 12
sp.---------------------------------------------------------------- 12
translucens. See Hen itarsonemus latus.
Tetr-.nychidae------------------------------------------------------- 12,'4,35
Tc t rnny :chis--
althaeae---------------------------------------------------------- 32
bim-iculatus---------------------------------------- 13,16


Tetrgnychus-- Continued. 03 Page
mcdanieli ---------------------------------------------------------- 32
',acificus --------- -------------------------- 14,32
telarius ---------------------------------------------------------- 33
Thrips --------------------------------------------------------- 29
Ticks --------------------------------------------------------4-9,36,39-41
Two-spotted mite. See Red spider.
Tyroglyphid-ae- --- ----------------------------------------------
Tyroglyphus longio r--------------------------------- 36

Vermin --y----------------------------------------------------------- 40
Warble, fly------------------------_-------- 37

3 1262 09230 4137.

3 1262 09230 4137

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