A review of the insecticidal uses of rotenone and rotenoids from derris, lonchocarpus (cube and timbo), tephrosia, and related plants

Material Information

A review of the insecticidal uses of rotenone and rotenoids from derris, lonchocarpus (cube and timbo), tephrosia, and related plants
Portion of title:
Roark, R. C ( Ruric Creegan )
United States -- Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine
Place of Publication:
[Washington, D.C
U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Administration, Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine
Publication Date:
Physical Description:
15 p. : ; 27 cm.


Subjects / Keywords:
Biological insecticides ( lcsh )
Rotenone ( lcsh )
Insect pests -- Control ( lcsh )
Fleas -- Control ( lcsh )
bibliography ( marcgt )
federal government publication ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )


Includes bibliographical references (p. 10-14) and indexes.
General Note:
Caption title.
General Note:
General Note:
"April 1945."
Statement of Responsibility:
by R.C. Roark.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
This item is a work of the U.S. federal government and not subject to copyright pursuant to 17 U.S.C. §105.
Resource Identifier:
030289108 ( ALEPH )
779847604 ( OCLC )

Full Text




' By R. C0. Roark, Division of Insecticide Investigations I/

Introduction------------------------ 2
Doli chopsyllida e:
Nosopsyllus fasciatus (Bosc) (Syn., Ceratophyllus fascietus Bosc)
rat flea------- -----------------------------2
Echidnophage gallinacea (Westv.), sticktight flea------------ 3
Hystri chopsyllidae:
Leptopsylla segnis Schh.------------------------------------- 3
Lepto-psvlla segnis Sch'*nh 3
Cediopsylla simplex (Bak.), rabbit flea------------------------ 3
Ctenocephalides canis (Curt.), dog flea------------------------ 3
Otenocephalides felis (Bouche), cat flea--------------------- 3
Ctenocerhalides spp.---- ------------------------------------ 6
Hoplopsyllus effinis Bak.---------------------- ------------- 6
Pulex irritans L., human flea---------------------------------- 6
Xenopsylle brasiliensis Bak. and X. chaeopis (Rothsch.),
oriental rat flea------- ------------------------ 7
Unidentified species of Siphonaptera--- --------------- 7
Literature cited --- ---------------------------- -------- 10
.Junior-auth.r. indx ...-------- ---------------------------------- 14
Insect- index ------------------------------- 14

1/ The manuscript of this publication was read in the following research
divisions of the Bureau, and helpful suggestions were contributed: Fruit
Insect Investigations, Truck Crop and Garden Insect Investigations, Cotton
Insect Investigations, Insects Affecting Men and Animals, Cereal and For-
age Insect Investigations, Control Investigations, and Insect Identifi-
cation. The reviewers in these divisions -ere, respectively, D. L. Van
Dine, W. H. White, R. W. Harned, F. C. Bishop, C. M. Peckard, L. A. Harw-
kins, and C, F. W. Muesebeck end the specialists on Siphonaptera in his
Division (Insect Identification).

* _^ .. .. -.^ ..,-2-- -

This is the tenth in a series of papers designed to review all avail-
able information on the insecticidal uses of rotenone and the roteno&ds.
Part I reviewed tests with derris, cube, timbo, Tephrosia, Iundulea, and
their constituents onn members of th, Collembola, OrthBptera, Dermaptera,
Odonata, Isoptera, Corrodentia, end Iallophaga. Apparently no tests with
the rotenone plants on Thysenura, .Enhemeroptera, or Plecoptere have been
recorded. Part II reviewed' the tests thet have been made on Thysanoptera;(
Part III, the tests made on Homoptera; Part IV, the tests on Hemiptera;
Part V, the tests made on Anoplura: Part VI, the tests on Coleoptera;
Part VII, the tests on Lepidopters; Part VIII, the tests on Hymenoptera:
Part IX, the tests on Diptera; end Pert- X, the present paper, reviews
the tests -and recommendations for use on Sinhonaptera.


Nosopsyllus fasciatus (Bosc) (Syn., Ceratophyllus fasciatus (Bosc), the
rat flea
(See Gilmer (12) under Ctenocephelides canis (Curt.) on page 4.)

S Craufurd--Benson (6) in 1938 discussed the selection of a standard
insect for the laboratory testing of liquid contact insecticides, espec-
ially derris preparations, by an immersion method. The ret flea was tried.
but, unfortunately, the derris insecticide was not sufficiently toxie to
give clear results. Fleas might provide suitable material for laboratory
work, as they can be reared in the laboratory in large numbers throughout
the year- however, their mobile activity makes them difficult to handle.


Hectopsyllidae W

Echidnophage ga Linacea (Westw.), the sticktight flea

(ee Little (19) under COtenocephalides fells (Bouche) on page 4
end Sch.'artz end Shook (33) under Cediopsylla simplex (Bek.) on page 3 .)

Wells, Bishopp and Laake (40) in 1922 reported the results of tests
of powdered derris root against certain external parasites of animals.
In one test puppies rather heavily infested with the sticktight flea,
as well as vith the dog and cat fleas, were each treated with 1 ginm. of
undiluted derris. In a few hours dead dog end cat fleas began dropping
off the hosts end the following day all specimens were dead, but many
stickti-hts remained attached.

Pish'opp (2) in 1931 reported that derris is exceedingly effective
in destrcoir~- fleas on animals.. Dogs and cats may be freed from
sticktih 1.'??s by applying derris. In 1937 Bishopp (3) wrote that
derris p:.- -r 'ill kill stick-tight fleas. When derris is applied to
dozs -nr zt. ts to control this flea it must be brought into contact with
the inscct 'ecziuse the sticktights do not move around and come in con-
tact with the powder.


Leptops:llp segnis (Sch'dnh.)

(See Guimaraes (13) under Xenopsylla brasiliensis (Bak.) on page 7.)


Cediopsylle simplex (Bak.)

Schwart aend Shook (33) in 1928 recommended that, for combating
fleas on rabbits, the animals be dusted with pyrethrum powder, powdered
naohthalene, or powdered derris root. Species known to attack rabbits
in the United States are the true rabbit flea, the dog flea, the cat
flea, the human flea, eand the sticktight flea.

Ctenocephglidcs 'canis (Curt.), the dog flea
Ctenocernhelides fells (Bouche), the cat flea

(See Schwartz and Shook (33) under Cediopsylle simplex (Bak.) on
page 3.)

Wood (42) in 1912 reported that P pre-ocration made by soaking 2
pounds of crashed fresh derris root in 2 imperial gallons of bciling


*> -4-

water for a few hours, end then adding 1 ouart of this stock solution to 1
gallon of water, readily killed fleas on dogs bathed in it. Dogs suffering
from manage should not be treated with derris solution.

Mclndoo, Sievers, and Abbott (23) in 1919 reported tests with derris
against' the dos flea. Eight dogs 'badly infested with fleas were dusted
thoroughly. The material was applied with a shaker and -well rubbed into the
hair with the hands. 'At the end of 48 hours no living fleas were observed.
Several dead ones were seen still clinging to the'hairs. These workers
concluded thet. powder, used as a dust under rractlcael conditions, is
efficient aeginst dog.-fleas.

Gilmer (12) in 1923 reported tests made with derris powder, also with
a derris extract seidr to contain 16 percent of active derris and 84 percent
of inert substances, apparently "yridine. Botn these products were manu-
factured by a British company. "he tests included the following mixtures:
Derris powder 10 percent, tobacco dust 90 percent; derris powder 7.5 -nercent,
tobacco dust 92.5. percent: derris powder 100 percent; derris Dowder 20 percent
tobacco dust 80 percent: and derris powder 7.5 percent, tobacco dust 67,5
percent, powdered sulfur 25 percent. The experiments were of two general
types--those performed with fhe derris powder as furnished, and these with
-the liquid derris extract. The.- tests were made on cats, dogs, end '-hltp
rats. The fleas included the rat flea (Ceratonhyllus) Nososyvllus fasciatus
(Bosc)) and the dog and cat fleas All the dusts were effective tut the use
.......of the liquid preparation on animals is not recommended.

Wells, Bishopp, and Laeke (40) in 1922 reported that a series of tests
with several breeds of dogs indicated that the minimum dosage necessary to
destroy all fleas completely was 0.87 im. of a mixture of equal parts of
derris and cornstarch per animal. 'When the quantity of derris '"as reduced
to 0.2 gm., 100-percent kill was not realized-. -After these pre-liminary
experiments, a mixture of derris and cornstarch, in the proportion of 1:3, we
applied to all the animals in the hospital at the time--48 d-gs end 9 cats.
Using his thumb and finger, the operator rut the materiel &lcnc the back end
neck of each animal. An average of slightly less then 2 gin. per animal was
applied. These animals, on which both dog and cat fleas were present, were
treated on December 4, and subsequent examinations u- to December 10 showed
no living fleas.

Mclndoo and Sievers (22) in 1924 reported that at Tallulah, La., a
commercial preparation of powdered derris was used on three dogs infested
with fleas and it was found to be efficient.

Little (19) in 1931 reported the results of 27 experiments -ith the
powdered root of Tephrosia. virginiena eaiznst fleas infesting cats and dogs.
There were four s-ecies involved in the infestations- the cat flea, the
sticktight flea, the human flea, and Ho -lopsyllus (Bak.), the t7'o
first-named species being- most numerous. The insecticide wrs applied as a

-5- ***

dust end as a dip. The chists were either diluted with equal parts of starch
or were used undiluted. The dip was used at the rate of 1:800. The quantity
of dust used ranged from 2 to 4 or more gin. per animal. Perfect results rere
obtained, except in some instances in the control of the sticktight flea.
Owing to their sedentary habits, sticktights were occasionally missed, end if
a flee. received only e light dosage it might be paralyzed and still live on
the host. Dusts were more satisfactory than dips. The insecticide proved
to bo effective for about 3 days. This was found by dusting a dog and tekin.:
it daily into a flea-ihfested barn and observing the fleas that got on it.
Several commercial flea powders were tested in comparison, but none proved to
be so effective. Undiluted derris, however, was more effective.

Galli-Valerio and Nicolle (ll) in 1932 reported that a proprietary dust
containing derris gave good results against the dog flee on foxes.

Hanson (14) in 1932 reported that a mixture of 1 part of fresh, finely
ground derris root and 2 partsof flour, talc, or some other carrier, applied
as a dust, is a good remedy" for the control of Ctenocephalides canis (Curt.)
the usual species of flea found on foxes.

Mar'covitch (24) in 1933 published directi-ons on how to combat household
pests. For the control of the dog flea arind'the cat flea, it is stated that
dry powdered derris is effective and should be siTfted into the fur.

De Bussy et el. (6) in 1935 reported the results of tests with derris
powder (2 percent rotenone) in the Netherlands. At Utrecht, Klarenbeek and
others investigated the effect of-derris on parasites of dogs, cats, and
foxes. The derris po-der, mixed with 40 parts of French chalk, may be rubbed
in and gives satisfactory results against fleas. The authors freed dogs from
the dog flea by rubbing in a derris powder having an 8-percent content of
rotenone diluted 1:160.

W1ilbaut and Stork (41) in 1935 recommended -derris powder for the control
of the cat flea end the dog flea.

De Bussy et al. (4) in 1936 reported that the use of derris powder to
kill vermin on dogs and cats, and also for the disinfestation of homes infes-
ted with dog or cat fleas, was steadily increasing in the Netherlands.

Bishopn (3) in 1937 issued information on fleas and their control.
There are three kinds of fleas that commonly become serious pests of man in
the United States. These are the doa flea, the cat flea, end the human flea.
The dog and cat fleas are very similar in appearance end feed interchangeably
on dogs and cats. These are the fleas responsible for house invasions in the
Eastern States. The human flea may live on many different-animals. Often it
is associated with hoas and breeds in the litter in hog houses. It also lives
on dogs, cats, and wild animals, such as coyotes, badgers, and skunks. This
is the flea most frequently found annoying man in the Mississippi Valley, in
Texas, and westward to the Pacific coast. Docs and cats can be kept
practically free from fleas by occasionally apDlying derris powder next to the
skin along the back end neck end on top of the head. If the animals have free

P1 AN1 b


run, this treatment must be repeated every 2 weeks. A level teaspoonful
is enough to kill every flea on a large dog. For smaller animals the amount
should be reduced according to the size of the animal. Most derris powders
ere effective. Their insect-killing.value depends largely on the amount of
rotenone they contain. They should have at least 0.5 percent of rotenone.
Much of the derris powder now on the market contains 4 or 5 percent of
rotenone. This may be diluted with talcum powder so as to bring the
rotenone content down to 1 percent. Derris kills slowly, therefore do not
expect to see the fleas drop off dead immediately after an application.

Stewart (37) in 1939 wrote that the careful rubbing of pyrethrum
powder into the fur of cats and dogs stupefies the fleas, which may be
brushed off onto a piece of paper and burned. Fresh derris powder has Plso
been used in the same way with good results.

McDaniel (21) in 1940 recommended derris dust (0.75-percent rotenone)
for combating fleas on animals, in the basement of houses, and on lawns.
Animals may be shampooed with a commercial rotenone preparation, care being
taken to wash the head first, to prevent the insects from seeking refuge
around the eyes and nose.

Roubaud (30) in 1940 reported that rotenone, diluted with from 1 to 2
parts of inert materiel, killed all flea larvae in 6 to 24 hours. It was
very effective against adult fleas, Crude derris powder, however, had no
effect on the larvae.

COtenocenhalides spp.

Van der Laan (18) in 1936 reported that in the Netherlands one of the
principal uses of derris is to control vermin (e. g., CtenoceDhalides spp.)
on cats and dogs.

14oplopsyllus affinis (Bak.)

(See Little (19) under Ctenocephalides felis (Bouche) on page 3.

Pulex irritans L., the human flea

(See Bishopp (3)and Little (19) under Ctenocenhalides cenis (Curt.) on
pages 3, and 4, respectively, and Schwartz and Shook (33) under Cediopsylla
simplex (Bak.) on page 3.

De Bussy, et al. (5) in 1935 reported this s'-'. .ies as more resistant
than the dog flea to diluted derris powder (rotenone 0.05 percent).

Van der'Laan (18) and also De Bussy et al. (4) in 1936 reported that
this species is much less sensitive to derris powder than are the dog flea '
and the cat flea.


Xenopsylla brasiliensis (Bak.) and X. 'Yieoanis_(Rothsch.'

Guimaraes 'I_3). in 1936 gave an account of tests of insecticides against
tese 2 species and also against Leptopsylla segnis (Sch6nh.), in Sao Paulo,
Brazil. Experiments on a small scale showed the most effective formula to
be 2 parts of Flit, 2 parts of kerosene, 1 part of creolin, and 20 parts of
-ater. This mixture was tested by placing infested rats in a cage in a room
-here the insecticide was atomized at the rate of 1.09 fluid ounces per 1,00,
cubic feet of space.. On the following day, 76 dead fleas and 212 live ones
were counted, the mortality being 26.39 percent. In 2 subsequent tests
mortalities of 75 and 72 percent were obtained by applying the spray at the
rate of 3.63 fluid ounces per 1,000 cubic feet. [Flit, made by Stanco Inc.,
is known to contain derris extractives (see advert4ement in Soap 10 (5):
93, 1934--R. C. R.O

Unidentified species of Siphonaptera

The Bureau of Entomology of the United States Department of Agriculture
in 1922 called attention to the work of Bishopp and associates, who found
derris to be very effective for use as a dust against fleas.

An anonymous writer (1) in 1926 described the preparation of an
insecticide spray.from derris root in Malaya. Only fresh root was used.
A bundle weighing 1.5 catty (1 catty1l-1/3 lb.) was sufficient for a 1/4-
acre garden plot. The root was chopped up, extracted in 2 gallons of- boiling
water, and diluted to a 1:4 solution. When used *on dogs, it killed the fleas
without irritating the skin, but should not be used in the presence of

In 1928 Richardson (28), in a review of the progress that has been
made in the use of insecticides, referred to the excellent results derris
had given against fleas on domestic animals.

Fulmer (10) in 1930 stated that one of the chief uses for derris was
for combating fleas.

Homes (17) in 1930 wrote that an infusion of the roots of Tephrosia
macropoda with water was commonly used by early settlers:in Natal as a wash
for freeing does from fleas.

Schmitt (32) in 1930 reviewed the use of Derris elliptica as an
insecticide. When dusted with derris powder, cats, dogs, and rabbits were
freed from fleas within 3 to 5 hours.

Bishopp (2) in 1921 reported that fresh derris powder is exceedingly
effective in destroying fleas on animals. All fleas on a dog will be
destroyed by one application of 1 am., or about 3/4 of a level teaspoonful,
of the powder. It is suggested that the material be mixed at the time it is


used -ith.2 rerts of flour or cornrtFrch,.and then be dusted into the hair
of the animal, especially alonz the back anA neck, rith e shaker. The skin
of a cat is much more easily injured -ith chemicals than that of a doz:
hence arn,. re-oeration used should be -eaker "-hen used on cats than on does.
Vnen the animals are.ex-osed t-o infested premises treatment 'should be
repeated at intervals cf 10 days.

Little (19) in 1931 reported that the ordered root of Tephrosia
virtiniana -ave almcst perfect results cn various species of fleas.

Sanderson arnd. ears (31) in 1931 -rote thrt fleas are readily
controlled .with derris powder and soaps containing derris.

:vis (7) in 1932 wrote that derris have special usefulness
as a control for fleas cn domestic animals.

Flint and Metcalf (9) in 1932 stated that powders containing derris
are the moEt effective and satisfactory for killing, fleas on does, cats, and
other pets, because the%, do not make the pets sick.

Watt and Breyer-?rendwijk (39) in 1932 stated the the Zulus use
Tenhr:sia mecr-roda as a vermin killer. The leaves cf T. vo-elii are said
to b'e an efficient parasiticide against fleas, lice, end ticks, and are
commonly -sed in zRhodesia fcr this 7' ty.-uropeans. The Thongas use
a decoction of the .root cf a species of Tcnhrcsp (r-robably T. grandiflora)
-as a parasiticide. The preparation is said tj have been used for the same
Surn.cse '.- trans-ort riders in the early days of Natal.

John Pw7-ell & Comnpany, Inc. (27), in 1933 stated that derris and cube
po--ders, as well as their extractives, -yhen combined -ith inert carriers
-ake satisfactory flea c"c-dIrs; .Their action is slower than that of
pyrethrum powder and th.-y -are effective for a longer period, but they are
no more toxic to fleas than is ryrethrun no.oder.

Soon (35)wr:)te in 1935 that fleas and lice on cats and dogs were
controlled bty rubbinz- into the pelt of the eni3al a mixture of derris
(2 percent rotenone, 8 -ercent ether extract) an- sone neutral diluent, such
as talc (l: 4C). An suspensi-rn of the same derris powder 1:300 may
also be used if the animal is bathed in this suspension. If there is any
fear of the animal's teir-.- roisone4 by licking the treated pelt (although
derris is b;-lieved to be n;ntoxic to -arm-blooded animals), a pasteboard
collar can be fastene.d around the neck in such a ranr_,er as to prevent this.
A flea-infested room -as dusted --ith a derris orc-der-talc mixture and left
closed over ni--ht. 1:: further com-laint cf fleas -as received. Spoon (36)
also reported in 1935 that derris po-.der nixed -ith talc, or some other
inert (1:40 to 1:.16C, denendir.- on the rotenrcne content) was
effective ir. ridding cats a!d dc-s :f fleas and- lice. T-o products sold on
the Datch market for ridding household nets of fleas and lice -ere examined,
and f:'jLnd to c:nsist* of derris T:.-7der and talc or kaolin.

W. A. Riley (29) in ,1936 discussed the "flea problem on fox ranches.
Control measures consist of treatment of individual foxes end general ranch
sanitation. Animels brought in should be inspected and either be given a
thorough dusting.with a good flea powder or be diuned. Cats and dogs should
likewise be freed from fleas, because they harbor the same species that most
commonly infest ranch foxes. Of flea powders, the ones whose active principle
is derris have proved nost efficient. Special attention should be given to the
forehead, the nose, and the areas behind and between the ears. If infestation
is heavy, the treatment should be repeated within 2 weeks.

D. W. Smith.(34), Trade Comiss ioner at Batavia, Java, in 1936 reported
that a small factory had recently been opened at Bandoeng, Java, for the
production of various types of derris insecticides. The new enterprise, known
as the "Joho" Derris Factory, markets a variety of insecticides under the trare
name of "Desid," an abbreviation of the words "Doodt elk schadelijk insect
direct" (kills every harmful insect immediately). Among the products offered
by the factory is Desid Dog Soap for killing vermin (probably fleas and lice)
on household pets.

Worsley (43) in 1936 reported that Mtundulea-bark powder, which contains
rotenone, was tested a.einst flees on doGs and the results were inconclusive--
whereas the pyrethrum powder stunned the fleas rapidly, the Mundulea had no
immediate effect other then to repel them and, in consequence, no dead fleas
could be found. "

The Bonide Chemical Company, Inc*, Utica, N. Y., on November 16, '1?.
1937, in a letter to R. C. Roark, submitted advertising literature -which stated
that their proprietary derris products, Bonide Dog Zop Shampoo and Flea Killer
and Bonide Flezix Flea Po-der, were effective against fleas on dogs and cats.

William Coooer and Ne-hews, Inc., Chicago, Ill., in a letter to R. C. Roerk
dated November 16, 1937, stated that their proprietary products Kur-Maige,
Pulvex, Pulvex 6-Use Do- Soap, and Sopex, all of which contain derris powder or
derris extractives, will control fleas.

Hearle (15), of the Canadian Department of Agriculture, in 1938 recommended
derris for fleas on cats, dogs, -nd foxes.

Herrick and Griswold (16) in 1938 recommended derris and cube for
eliminating flees from cats and dogs. Best results will be obtained from an
undiluted powder containing 4 or 5 percent of rotenone, A small amount of the
powder, rubbed into the animal's fur, will generally kill all fleas present:
furthermore, the powder seems to be helpful in keeping a new supply of fleas
from getting on the animal.

Merino end Otanes (25), of the Philippine Department of Agriculture and
Commerce, in 1938 wrote that derris dust is effective earinst fleas. It should
be dusted end rubbed on the bodies of the infested dogs or cats. It maey also
be dusted on infested premises.


Metcalf and Flint (26) in 1928 stated that dry po-dered derris sifted
into the fur of pets controls fleas. In 1939, these authors wrote as follows:

The best treatment of pets is frequent dusting with derris
powder containing at least 0.5 percent of rotenone, or washing "ith
derris soaps. Although derris kills slowly, it is very deadly to
fleas and harmless to the pets, should they lick it off their coats.
On hogs, which often become grossly infested, a cheaper treatment
by sprinkling their bodies lightly with crude petroleum, fuel oil,
miscible spray oil, or crankcase oil may be used. A thorough snray-
ing of rooms with a high-grade rotenone, pyrethrum, or Lethene spray
Till often check an infestation in its inoipiency. These sprays, or
dusts of derris or pyrethrum, will also help to keen fleas off of
one's legs or bed, temporarily. Mats or rugs on which pets sleep
should be laundered or shaken frequently, or dusted at intervals
with derris or pyrethrum powder.

Fenne (8) in 1940 recommended derris and cube dusts and sprays for the
control of fleas.

R. C. Roark, in a typewritten compilation of information on proprietary
insecticides containing rotenone or rotenoids in 1940, included Antrol Flea
Powder (1.25 percent rotenone) and Bee Brand Flea Powder (1 percent rotenone)
as products designed especially for combatin- fleas, Tick Insect Dust and
Tick Insect Spray are also represented as effective a-einst fleas. Flit, a
pyrethrum product containing 1 percent of derris extractives, is recommended
by the manufacturer for fleas on dogs and cats.



/ 1926. De derris ellipotica wortel. Landbouw, Nijv. en Handel Korte
Ber. 16 (18): 151.

2. BISHOP, F. C.

1931. Fleas and their control. U. S. Dept. Agr. Farmer's Bul. 897,
revised, 16 pp., illus.

3. -----

1937. How to control fleas. U. S. Dept. Agr. Leaflet 152, 4 pn., illus

4. BUSSY, L. P. de, LAAI, P. A. van der, and DIAKONOFF, A.

1936. Bestrijding van nederlandsche insecten met derris. Tijdschr.
over Plentenziekten. 42: 77-100, illus.

- I.L-

5. ------- LAAN, P. A. van der, and JACOBI, E. F.

1935. Resultaten van rnroeven met derris-oeder en rotenon op
nederlendsche insecten. Tijdschr. over F.lentenziekten.
41: 33-50, illus. Also Amsterdam Kolon. Inst., Afd. Hendels-
museum. Ber. 91, 25 pp., illus.; and Indische Meircuur 58: 103-
104, 119-121.


1938. The selection of a standard insect for the laboratory testing: of
insecticides. Bul. Ent. Res. 29 (2): 119-123.

7. DAVIS, J. J.

1932. Derris. Insecticides end their uses. Purdue Univ. Pharm. Ext.
Ser. I, Bul. 32 (7): 27.

8. FENtE, S. B.

1940. Information on insecticides and fungicides. Va. Agr. Col. Ext.
%ul. 150, 12 Tm.

9. FLINT, W. P., end .TTCALF, C. L.

1932. Insects, men's chief competitors. 133 pp., illus. Baltimore.

10. FULMER, H. L.

1930. Insecticides, fungicides, and herbicides. Ontario Dept. Agr. Bul.
*351, 75 pr,. Abstract in Malayan Agr. Jour. 18: 462.


1932. Observations sur le biologie et les maladies du renard argente.
Soc. Vaud. des Sci. Net. Bul. 57 (231): 557-586. abstract
in Rev. Appl. Ent. (B) 21: 119.-

12. GILIAER, P. 14.

1923. Derris as a parasiticide. linn. State Ent. Rpt. (1922) 19: 41-49.


1936. Nota sobre a destruicao de pulgaes por meio de insecticides.
Sao Paulo Univ., Feculd. de Med. Ann. 9, 1 (6): 473-482.
abstract in Rev. Anpl. Ent,-(B) 25: 207"



14. ._1TWSON, K. B.

1932. Peresites of ranch foxes and their treatment. Amer. Vet. iMed.
Assoc. Jour. 80: 202-212.

15. iEARLE, E.

1933. Insects end allied parasites injurious to livestock and poultry
in Ceneda. Canada rent. ATr., Pub. 604 (Farmers' m'il. 53),
108 pr., illus.

16. t-MRRICK, 0. W., end GRISW3LD, G. H.

1938. Common insects of the household. N. Y. State C>1. A.r. Ext.
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17. H0TES, F. N.

1930. Fish poison rlents. Kew Roy. Bot. Gard. Eal. Misc. Inform. 4:

18. LAAN, F. A. van der

1936. Versla, ven d(e eI-len-en-Zesticste Wintervereaderinz der Neder-
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1936. Tijdschr. v. Ent. 79: 52-58.

19. LITTLE, V. A.

1931. A preliminary report on the insecticidal properties of devil's
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20. -----

1931. Devil's shoestrin- as en insecticide. Science 73: 315-316.

21. Mc&DA.TIEL, E. I.

1940. Fleas. Mich. State Col. Ext. Bul. 209, 3 pp.

22. icINDOO, r. E., end SIBVERS, A. F.

1924. Plants tested for or reported to possess insecticidal
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23. ---------- SIEVES, A. F., and AE-CTT, W. S.

1919. Derris as an insecticide. Jour. Agr. Res. 17: 177-200.



1933. How to combat certain pests of the household. Tenn. Agr. Expt.
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25. IAERINO, G. and OTAMES, F. Q.

1938. Control of insects end other pests. Philip-pine Jour. Agr. 8 (4):
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1939. Destructive and Useful Insects: Their Habits and Control.
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27. P07?ELL & CO1PAITTP J.

1933. Pyrethrum pointers. Ed. 2, 20 pp. Te"- York.


1928. Insecticide studies develop many new ways to kill pests.
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29. RILEY, W. A.

1936. The flea problem on ranches. Amer. Fur Ereeder 9 (4): 10, 12.


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31. SANDERSON, E. D., and FEAT?_S, .. M.

1931. Insect Pests of farm, garden, and orchard. Ed. 3, 568 pn.


1930. Derris elliptica Benth., ein vezetabilischer und ungiftiger
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33. SC'WARTZ, B., and SHOOK, W. B,

1928. Rabbit perasites and diseases. U. S. Dept. Agr., Farmers' Bul.
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34. SMITH, D. W.

1936. !Jew derris factory at Pend:eng, Java. U. S. Dept. Corn. Econ.
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35. SPOON, W.

1935. Derrispoeder teen de runderhorzel en teen ongerierte bij hond
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36. -----

1935. Derrispoeder tegen de runderhorzel en te-'en on.:edierte bi.j hon1
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37. STEWART, m. A.

1939. The control of fleas and tropical, rat mites. Pests 7 (5): 6-6.


1922. Insecticide studies. U. S. Dept. Agr., Bur. Ent. Ann. Rpt.
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39. WATT, J. M., and MRYER-3A.DWIJK, I. G.

1932. The medicinal end iooisoious plants of southern Africa. 314 pp.,
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40. WELLS, R. 7., BISHOP, F. C., end LAKE, E. W.

1922. Derris as a promising insecticide. J1-ur. Econ. Ent. 15: 90-95.

41. WIBAUT, N. L., and STCPJ, M. N.

1935. Insecten in huis-levens'wijze en bestrijdinx. 183 nP., illus.

42. WOOD, W. L.

1912. Tuba root. Fed. Malay States A-r. Bul. 1: 164-166.

43. WDRSLEY, R. R. LeG.

1936. The insecticidal properties of some East African plants. II.
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Abbott, W. S. See Mclndoo, N. E., 23
Bishopp, F. C. See Wells, R. W., 40
Breyer-Brandwijk, M. G. See Watt, J. M., 39
Diakonoff, A. See Bussy, L. P. de, 4.
Flint, W. P. See Metcalf, C. L., 26.
Griswold, G. H. See Herrick, G. W., 16.
Jacobi, E. F. See Bussy, L. P. d.e, 5.
Laake, E. W. See Wells, R. W., 40.
Laan, P. A. van der, See Bussy, L. P. de, 4, 5.
Metcalf, C. L. See Flint, W. P., 9.
Nicolle, A. See Galli-Valerlo, B., 11.
Otanes, F. Q. See Merino, G., 25.
Peairs, L. M. See Sanderson, E. D., 31
Shook, W. B. See Schwartz, B., 33.
Sievers, A. F. See Mclndoo, N. E., 22, 23.
Stork, M. N. See Wlbaut, N. L., 41.


Cat flea- - - - - - - - - -
Cediopsylla simplex- - - - - -- - -
Ceratophyllus fasciatus - - - - - -
Ctenocephalides --
canis- - - - - - - - - -
felis- - - - - - - - - -
spp - - - - - - - - - --
Dog flea- - - - - - - - - -
Dolichopsyllidae- - - - - - - -
Echidnophaga gallinacea - - - - - -
Fleas- - - - - - - - - - -
Hectopsyllidae - - - - - ----
Hoplopsyllus affinis - - - - - -
Human flea - - - - - - - -
Hystrichopsyllidae - - - - - - -
Leptopsylla segnis - - - - - - -
Lice - - - - -- - - - - -
Nosopsyllus fasciatus- - - - - - -
Oriental rat flea- - - - - - - -
Pulex irritans - - - - - - - -
Pulicidae - - - - - - - - -
Rabbit flea - - - - - - - - -
Rat flea - - - - - - - - -
Siphonaptera- - - - - - - - -
Sticktight flea - - - - - - - -

Ticks - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Vermin- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
brasillensis----- - - - - - - - - - --
chaeopis - - - - --- - - - - - - - - -




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