A review of the insecticidal uses of rotenone and rotenoids from derris, lonchocarpus (cube and timbo), tephrosia, and related plants

Material Information

A review of the insecticidal uses of rotenone and rotenoids from derris, lonchocarpus (cube and timbo), tephrosia, and related plants
Portion of title:
Roark, R. C ( Ruric Creegan )
United States -- Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine
Place of Publication:
[Washington, D.C
U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine
Publication Date:
Physical Description:
42 p. : ; 27 cm.


Subjects / Keywords:
Biological insecticides ( lcsh )
Rotenone ( lcsh )
Hymenoptera -- Control ( lcsh )
bibliography ( marcgt )
federal government publication ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )


Includes bibliographical references (p. 32-42) and indexes.
General Note:
Caption title.
General Note:
General Note:
"December 1944."
Statement of Responsibility:
by R.C. Roark.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
This item is a work of the U.S. federal government and not subject to copyright pursuant to 17 U.S.C. §105.
Resource Identifier:
030286355 ( ALEPH )
779529463 ( OCLC )

Full Text

34b0 : 6RARY
;i : . :. ...:.. ^ ..?.f^ y
I Ii... : December 1944








By R. C. Roark, Division of Insecticide Investigations I/


t I




Introduction--------- -----------------------
Hymenoptera ------------------------
Apidae -------------------------------------
Diprionidae .------------------------- ---
Formicidae -- ---------------------
Tenthredinidae ----------------------------
Vespidae (unidentified species)------------
Unidentified species of Hymnenoptera -------
Insect index ----------------------
Literature cited----------------------------
Junior-author index-----------


~The manuscript of this publication wns reed in the following re-
i search divisions of the Bureau and helpful suggestions were contributed:
V Fruit Insect Investigations, Truck Crop and Garden Insect Investigations,
Cotton Insect Investigations, Insects Affecting ?'.an and Animals, Insect
Identification, Control Investigations, Cereal and Forege Insect Investi-
S nations, and Bee Culture. The reviewers in these divisions were,
respectively, B, A. Porter, W. H. White, U. C. Lottin, H. H. Stage,
C. F. W. Mue-sebeck, It. H. Richrrdson et al., C. Y'. Pnckprd, and JPs. I.
y *.

December L944

This is the eighth in a series of papers designed -bo review all
available iziform.ation on the insecticidal uses of rqtenone and the ro-
tenoids. Parts I-VII have reviewed tests derrisa cube, timbo,
Tephrosia, Mundulea, and their. constituents on merberq of the Collem-
bola, Orthoptera, Drmaptera, 0donatal Isqpter. Corrodentia, Mallo-
phaga, Thysanoptera, Hon.optera5 Heniptera4 An.eplura, Coleoptera, and
Lepidoptera. Apparently no tests vdth the rotenone plants on Thysanuia,
Ephemeroptera, or Flecoptera have been recorded. Part VIII, the present
paper, review's the tests and recommendations for use on Hymenoptera.



'Apis mellifera L., the honeybee

In 19.19 .clndoo, Sievrrs, und .Tbbott (86) extracted fine derris pow-
der successively -,oth five solvents--petroleum ether, ether, chloroform,
alcohol, and itter, in five different sequences. Water used as the pri-
mary sol-:ent extracted 10.d percent of the material. The extracts and
the mares were added to ;c.ney snd -vere fed to honeybees. The extracts
were dissolved in .lcchol (0.4 m*n. ir 10 cc, of 55-percent alcohol),
and 0,25 cc. of thi-s..solution ri.s mixed 5 cc. of honey. The water
extract had no .effect en the bees tested asid the powder exhausted with
water killed 94' .percent of the bees vrithin 43 hours. All the ether ex-
tracts were a.lrmp.,t. equally toxic to honeybees. The powders exhausted
with ether, chi orofcrm, &.nd alcohol (C1/c yi'. of powder mixed with 5 cc.
of honey) hadr verve little effect on bees.

In 1928 Ci.ns'.urr .(36) reported that a suspension of derris (1:400)
killed 100 percent of the honeybees after ,4 hours, and a suspension of
cube root (l:200) kille' 100 percent after 40 hours. These suspensions
were mraixed w,.th hcr-one;- and were fed to the bees.
CanLpbell (13) in 1932 referred to the work of Ginsburg/'compared the
susceptibility of aphids and honeybees to rotenone suspensions without
spreader. A dilution of 1:160,000 killed 85.2 percent of the aphids and
bne of 1:5,000 killed 74.5 percent of the bees in 24 hours. Honeybees
are evidently maore resistant to rotenone suspensionsthan are aphids."

In 1932 (Jinsburr and Schmitt (57) compared rho contact insecticidal
action of rctonone und the pyrrethrins. Honeybees -were sprayed with
aqueous suspensions cf rotenonne nd derris extract, and pyrethrum extract,
obtained by' adding acetono solutions or these to water without a spreader.
Roternno at 1:2,500 cniJ derris root at 1:4,00 (equivalent to I part of ro-
ter.nne to 13,200 parts of water) killed 100 percent of the honeybees in
24 hours. Pyrethrum at 1:400 (equivalent to 1 part of pyrethrins to
44,000 parts o.f ritor) killed 89.3 percent of the bees in the same timo,


Gerard (33) in 1935 called attention to the poisoning of honeybees
caused by dust n',:r blooming raspberries v-,ith derris dust for the control
of the' raspberry beetle in 1934 in England. A microscopic examination
of the dead and dying bees revealed the presence of a fine brownish dust.
The entrances to the tracheae were thickly covered with the powder, and
Gerard suggested that the flying bees bad diod from actual suffocation
due to the tracheae bocomi'.g blocked vwith the powder, whereas the dead
brood had been poisoned by being fed pollen in vhich this powder had
been mixed by the bc-s.

In 1935 Ti3chlocr (114) studied the mechanism by which derris kills
insects. Tests mad:. -'iTh insects such as bees led to the conclusion that
derris inhibits the utilization .-,f oxygen by the tissues and that its
detrimental effects arc gen----r.-l rather than specific to any organ. Ex-
periments in v-.icV l.,cos ':ere cxoosod to a stream of air passed over der-
ris powder an. derri s c-xtracts, and to the build-up vapors of these der-
ris materials in a rtontaincr ernfirmed the findings of other investiga-
tors that derris doces ot emit toxic vapor.

In 1935, th} T'nito,' States Depc.rtment of Agriculture, Bureau of Ento-
mology and Plant C.uar?..ntirne (ll''.), reported the results of laboratory
tests on bees at Somerset, Md. Under laboratory conditions derris, cube,
and pyrethruin were extremely r.oxic to bees, both as stomach poisons and
as contact sprays.

DeBussy et al. (14) in 1936 reported that this s-ecies is sensitive
to derris dist or snra:. TbO rereorts of -MnE.ce to bee culture in Holland
have been received.

In 1936 IIunrclertmark (48) tested the rotenone and derris proprietary
products Derosil, Derrothan I, and Derrothan II on bees. All were toxic.
The dusts were a pl.ied i a there laboratory at the rate of 50 kg. per
hectare (44.5 lbs. ner acre).

In 1936 Va-. dor Laan (76) found that bees are sensitive to derris,
especially to dustn. :['- 1937 Bottcher (7) discussed the killing of bees
by insectici.:es, inelviliy derris.

Filmer (290) reic..-.ol inii 1-'37 that a dust co..tLinipn 0.75 percent of
rotenone, 2,j0 to 35 r.rcrnt o sulf'r, and about 15 percent of copper,
applied by airp-...u: t.'.. i'.a-brJai fields on the evcr'i nr o0' July 19 near
Findley, 11. *.., -.c& bl'.,.ed to be responsible for many ead bees found
nearby. The fact *.' .r-ze-o bees, as wzll as field bees, lhw.d been poi-
soned suf-cstcd L.:..i- LUic roten,:ne dust has poisoned the nectar. To check
this thccry, suiar seli.,Lion-n- containing, vary'in, quantititos of rotenone
dusts vrore fed to, colonics of bo:os. Dil-',ir:-.s of dusts containing, 4 per-
cent of roton'i;- ..;re adlcd to dilute su.'-,.r sirup to up dilutions
*.ontaining the Y'e1_ owi\ neu.its of rotenone: 1;2,500 (= 0.4 prcont);
1:1,250; 1:625; 1:317. Thoso dilutions whon fed to colonies of bees
were all toxic -..- t.. c',:ti-n of the 1:2,501r) .iluti., The colony
fed this solution ihov:cd '.c Fi. .-1s of rOi c':-t "y, 1, t'ilt up normally.
Tho other colonies rhovcI :--.mpt',,as of poiVIC.:il, 1 L. J:17 follor ng the
feeding of the sirup, and in all 1r'.cti c' 11 all the bees ,I-ro
killed within 7? hours. ThI. ;I-.'.ral s.nTpI.-s icrc sLiniIar to I hose due

to arsenical poisoning, with bees crawling from the hives, the abdomens
of many being gres.tly distended. To chec' the contact ac'tion'of rote-
none d-ists several batches of bees v-ere dusted directly with an 0.75-
percent dust-c and waere then placed in clear cages. Other batches of bees
were pl-.ced iu cages, the floors of vhich had been dusted lightly with
0.75 percent-rotenone dist. A complete 1-ill was obtained in 24 hours.

According to Stelwaag (112) in 1937, derris is both a contact and
a stomach pcison to bees.

Bottcher (8) in 1939 recorded the results of tests of derris and
rotenone upon bees. Rotenone had a lethal effect on bees as a stomach
and a contact poison, but v.-as ineffective by inhalation. The toxic ef-
fect -.'as influiicnced but little by the temperature. The minimum lethal
dose of pure rotononc* in a 0.2-percent concentration was 0.5 to 11 micro-
grams. The n,-dian lethal dose vas about 3 micrograms. From 0.6"'to 1.7
micrograms aave nortalities of 25 to 33.5 percent at a temperature of
20-34.5 C. Derris extracts (0.5 and 5.6 micrograms of rotenone) were
more effective tian the sar,'e amount :f pure rotenone. The median lethal
dose was -.bout 2.2 nicrogrms. Fro"i 25 to 533. percent of the bees
treated with about 1.i miicro-rac.s of rotenone died within 3 days. Con-
centrations up to 0.02 percent. o" rotenone in sprays and to 1.75 percent
in dusts did not seriously injure eit]'er the vworl:ers or their brood, and
the injuries to bees collecting pollen and honey were insignificant.
Even when the conceitratier. w'as 10 times as .-reat, relatively few bees
succumbed to the treatment. Large-scale e::perirents in fields frequented
by bees confirmed these results.

In 1959 Pories (20_) re]-ortod that a colony of honeybees under the
shingles of r- house dclstroyed withL a .ulst of derris powder (4 percent


DeBussy (;t al. (14) in 1936 reported that full-grown braconids in
tobacco seed are very sensitive to derris dust.


Janus integer (Ilort.), the currant stem girdler

In 1958 the ilew York County Argents Training School (93) stated that
emergence of the currant stem in Chautauqua CountyN. Y., exten-
ded over eo period Mlay 5 to June 10, vi-Ch the most activity from May 20
to 2r,. Spr:.y oct:.inin nicotine, derris, or pyrethrum were not effec-
tive in liritC''. tests.



Diprion pini (L.)

In 1936 DeBussy et al. (14) reported that larvae ef (Lophyrus)
Diprion pini were sensitive to-a dust containing 0,25 percent of rote-
none. This insect qn tr.qes waa controlled by this dust applied with a
motor-driven duster.

Houtzagers (47) in 1936 discussed control measures, stating that
there was only one practical method of control for the pine wasp, namely,
dusting with derris powder containing at least 0.5 percent of rotenone,
as soon as a part of the forest is infested. The derris powder should be
applied at the rate of 20 to 25 '-[:. per hectare. The infestation usually
begins on the sunny exterior portions of the forest, and the beginning of
the infestation can be rpdili, observed. If tre-ted at this tine, it is
sufficient to Rpply the derris dust to p strip 1' to 20 meters "ride. By
operating in this wqy justing an arcs of 2.5 hectpres i.s sufficient to
protect P forest having Pn area of 10 hectares, thus reducing the per-
hectaro cost of protecting, the whole forest to 20 guilders per hectare.
If the infestation has proceeded too fpr, the cost of the dusting is ex-
cessive and the only thing to do is to let the infestation run its

Klinger (73, 74) in 1936 reported that rotenene-talc dust (0.15 mg.
of rotenone per 415 sq. cm.) killed none of the fourth instars and a
rotenone spray (0.18 rmg. per 500 sq. cm.) killed only 5 percent in 8 days.

Van der Laen (78) in 1936 reported control -vith derris dust applied
by a power duster.

An anonymous -witer (3) in 1937 wrote that in the Netherlands dust-
ing tests with a 0.5-percecnt concentration of rotenone gp-ninst this
species produced good results.

In 1938 the Koloniarl Instituut of Amsterdam (77) in the Nether-
lands reported thpt one of the principal uiae of derris dust (0.5 to
0.75 percent rote:-;o,.c) during 1937 was for combating this species.

Spoon et al. (109) in 1937 compared the insecticidal value of derris
powder end of Lonc]-ocnrpus povder, both contninir-,p uqurlly hiFh amounts
of rotenone snd tAher extract. Against the ] the derris-diatoma-
ceous earth (0.5 pr'rco,,nt rotrone) ,ust wvvs r.bout 14 timcs as effec-
tive as the Lonchocr.rpus rilst.

Diprion simile (Mtg.), the introduced pine sr.vfly

McDaniel (8-i) in 1939 recommended a dust containing 0.75 percent of
rotenone, although f:bout ';2 hours wrs necessary to obtain aPny indication
a? kill. Cryolite nnd calcium arsrnnt dusts were moro c-ffective.

-6-., ...

Diprion hercyniae (Htg.), the European spruce sawfly

MacAloney (82) in 1936 reported, under the name Diprion polytom,.A,
that derris showed premise, and Potts (101, 102) in the same year re-.
ported that derris extract, 0.5 pound to 100 gallons of water (contain- -
ing 0.5 percent linseed oil), and derris powder (4.percent rotenone),
2 pounds to 100 gallons of water (containing 0.5 percent linseed oil)j
were very effective. Final observations on sprayed plots showed ex-
cellent control by derris extract, derris, lead arsenate, calcium ar-
senate, and lnime-sulfur. Poor control resulted from nicotine in any
form, pyrethrum, bordeaux mixture, and phenothiazine.

Neodiprion lecontei (Fitch), the red-headed pine sawfly

Hamilton (41) in 1938 reported that larvae on white pine trees weae
controlled 100 percent by a spray of derris or cube, powder (4 percent
rotenone) at 4 pounds per 100 gallons of water plus 4 pounds of rosin-
residue emulsion. The spray acts as a contact poison. The effective
period was 4 to 6 days and fill-grown larvae were fairly easily killed,

McDaniel (84) in 1939 recommended a dust containing 0.75 percent of
rotenone, although about 72 hours was necessary to obtain any indication
of kill. Cryolite n-l calcitun arsenate dusts were more effective.

Neodiprlon pinctutn (Ilort.), the w/hite-pinc sawfly

See LcDanicr-l (84') under 1!. locontei (Fitch).

ITeodirrion sr.

Potts (103) in 1937 reported that derris (4 percent rotenone) at
1:500 and 1:1,000 was very effective both as a stomach poison and as a
contact spray against the larvae in laboratory tests.


Anoplolopis lonripes (Jerd.)

According& to Van der Vecht (119) in 1936, some small-scale tests
against the "gramange" ant (Plagiolepis) Anoplolepis longLiEs gave un-
satisfactory results. If the treatment is to be done properly, so much
powder must be vaed thct the control would not be profitable in most
cases. .. .

Camponotus herculeanus (L.)

In 1933 Lindblom (80) reported that when derris.povder %was strevMn .
around in the room or paths here these ants were prevalent, or was
blown into cracks or holes in the valls, complete kills were obtained.

J .-,., '-"...-," .-

*X .i .:: -. ..

Camponotus p, -
In 1934 Lindblom/vote that when blown into their nests in" hollow
trees, derris powder was fairly satisfactory.

Dowries (20) in 1939 reported remarkable success with derris powder
containing 4 percent of rotenone. No matter 'where the nest was situated
or how extensive the infestation, if the powder could be placed where the
ants must walk through it ahd thus get some of it on their bodies, the
colony could be exterminated rapidly.

Dolichoderus (Hypoclinea) bidens (L.)

Reijne (104) in 1919 reported that of various sprays used, carbolic
acid and Phytophiline r.gve the best results, but the ligjh ncost of the
latter precluded its use. .Ne:oe water (probably an infusion of cube
root) was useless. [According to some reports the proprietary product
Phytophiline contains rotenone and rotenoids.]

Dolichoderus bituberculatus (Nayr)

According to Van der Vecht (119) in 1936, the black cacao ant is
very sensitive to derris. Dusting with derris powder (rotenone 0.5 per-
cent) or spraying ri;': suspensions containing rotenone at 1:10,000 is
usually effective.

Formica rufa L.

Lindblom (80) in 1933 reported results obtained with derris against
mound-building, or fallow, ants. Derris vas spread in a ring around the
S anthill,.so that the insects had to come in contact with it on entering
or leaving the mound. The ants at first hesitated before crossing the
strip of powder but later did so freely. Eight or ten minutes after
having- been in contact idth the derris, .ALC ants began to lose control
of thei-r movements 3nd later became paralyzed ahd died. The following
day an area of 8 to 10 meters from the around was covered wi'th dead or
half-dead ants. At intervals of a few days more derris '.as strewn
around, until 1,5 kgF. had been used. Four weeks later the mound was
opened, and it iias found that every insect had beer. destroyed.
S Iridomynnex Iayr, the Argentine ant

J. E. Ecksrt, (26a) in 1940 reported that he had found derrie powder,
lightly sprinkled where the ants enter, very effective in keeping these
ants out of the honey house and away from colonies of bees in the apiary
and from entering his own home. Since, after 4 or 5 days, the ants
seemed to be about as numerous as before, he concluded that the mnterial
must act more as a repellent than as a definite poison.



Myrmica rubra (L.)

In 1935 Van der Scheer (106) reported that red ants were controlled
by spraying with rotenone emulsion 1:;0,000. ".otnnone i.'as dissolved in
benzene and this was emulsified in Tat-?r 'ri-th Igepon T.

Red ants were used by Spoon and Van der Laan (108) in 1935 in eval-
uating derris dusts and sprays. It ccncl-.'ded that in rating derris
products first consideration should be givcn tc roternone content,.

DeBussy et al. (14) in 1936 report, t..t these ants are sensitive
to derris dust (rotenone 1 percent.) .'nd e-erris s-ray,, (rotenone 1:5,000),
but that the effect does not appear imnedi;.tely. An entire city garden
in Amsterdam was dusted with derris poowder containing 7 percent of rote-
none and 17 percent of ether extract, .o :ants could be found after 10

Van der Laan (78) in 1936 reported tlese ants as sensitive to derris.

Spoon et al.- (109) in 1937 stated thL.Et Derris and Lonchocarpus pow-
ders were each diluted with diatomaceoius earth to rot.-none contents of
0.5, 0.75, and 1.0 percent and tested -..:ainst this species. Derris dust
was twice as effective as Lonchocarpus dbst ,.i A..lhe same content of rote-
none and ether extract,

The I..T.sore (India) Agricultural DepF-rbtirient (89) in 1938 reported
'that derris powder (7 percent rotencne- and ?. e-ercnt ether extract)
"was effective against red ants.

Oecophylla smaragdina (F.)

In 1936 Van der Vecht (119) stated thv- alt1.o.ugh spraying and dust-
ing the nests of the "tnangrang- ant ,ith Oerris powder plus talc (rote-
none 1-1/5 percent) and derris powder in v'-.ter (rotenrione 1:2,000) killed
a great many ants, it did not secm possible to eradicate the ants com-
pletely in this way.

Prenolepis sp.

The British Guiana Department of Agriculture (13) in 1934 reported
that an aqueous extract of haiari ge.rv excellent results against an un-
determined species of ant, probably Pr.enolepis, infesting coffee trees.

Solenopsis geiinata (F.), the fire ant

Travis (116) in 1939 reported the results of tests of soil treat-
ments for the control of the fire ant. Corarercial derris powder was
applied in sufficient quantities to cover the colony mound with a thick
coating of dust, At the time of application, the colony was stirred
with a stick to expose as many ants as possible to the powder. Three
hours after treatment many partially par,.lyzod ants were seen, and large
numbers of dead ants were carried tlese colonies during the follow.v-
ing week. One week after treatment C',', pcrccnt ofP the colonies showed no
activity, but 3 months later all were active "IJnd S,.ppsa:ed normal.


Solenopsis sp.

The Department of Agriculture of British Guiana (13) in 1954 pub-
lished results of tests of cold water, hot water, and carbon tetrachlor-
ide extracts of the bark, stems, and leaves of fresh young shoots of
haiari against the red stinging ants. None of the extracts had any
effect on them.

Tetramorium caespitum (L.), the pavement ant

Walker and Anderson (121) in 1937 reported that in 1935 a derris
spray applied around the base of infested eggplants at NTorfolk, Va., wvas
not effective against the pavement ant. In 1936 derris fumigant powder,
containing 5 percent of rotenone, killed a few of the ants and appeared
to have a slight temporary repellent action, but the ants soon returned
and eventually killed two of the plants. Finely ground derris powder
was used undiluted as a dust containing 5 percent of rotenone, and di-
luted with bcth sulfur and talc to make dusts each containing 1 percent
of rotenone, and v.'ith finely ground tobacco to make a dust containing
0.75 percent of rotenone. None of these materials had any noticeable
effect on either the ants or the plants, the ants continuing to feed on
the eggplants in the presence of derris.

Formicidae (unidentified species)

Wood (123) in 1912 reported that a preparation made by adding 2 .-.
pounds of crushed fresh derris root to 2 imperial gallons of boiling
water, soaking it for a few hours and then diluting it by adding 1 quart
of this stock solution to 2 gallons of Trater, repelled ants from a bed
of germinating celery without t damaging the plants.

Gilmer (34) in )923 wrote that derris is fully the equal of pyreth-
rum as a check: against ants.

Lindblom (81) in 1934 published directions for destroying red, yel-
low, and black American lavn ants in Sweden by strewing pure derris pow-
der in a narrow circle around the anthill or in places Mhere the ants
w'dll come in contact with the powder.

Stanco, Inc., in 1934 first advertised Flit powder, a pyrethrum pro-
duct with 1 percent of "rotenone extractivd'e, according g to a label re-
ceived in 1937 from the manufacturer, Flit Powder contains 94 percent of
pyrethrum flowers, 1 percent "extract tubatoxirfl' and 5 percent of inert
ingredients. It is recommended for control of ants.

Miles and Niiles (88) in 1935 wrote that, for the control of ants in
glasshouses, derris dusT may be blown into crevices and cracks.

DeBussy et al. (14) in 1936 reported that ants are sensitive to der-
ris dust (rotenone 1 percent) and derris spray (rotenone 1:5,000), but
that the effect does not appear immediately. An entire city garden in
Amsterdam was dusted with derris powder containing 7 percent of rotenone
and 17 percent of ether extract. No ants could be found after 10 days.

1113O< RD
1j5tjflL' ^BA

< ... '..:~ -,.


The Idaho Agricultural Experiment (53) in 1936 reported results of
preliminary tests made with a cube-kaolin dust mixture containing 0,02
percent of rotenone. This mixture, applied in the center and over the
top of an anthill, killed most of the colony, and a second application
2 weeks later usually served to exterminate it. Occasional light dustings
of the mixture around shrubbery or ornamentals or at places where the in-
sects entered the buildings effectively controlled ants.

In 1936 the Koloniaal Instituut of Amsterdam (75) reported that ants
can be destroyed with the help of derris.

Van der Laan (78) in 1936 stated that ants are rather sensitive to

McDaniel (83) in 1936 published directions for ant control in houses
and on lawns. afterr discussing sprays, funigants, and poison baits he
stated that poison dusts, such as borax, pyrethrum, derris, or sane of
the fluorine compounds, should be distributed where the ants will walk
through it, and the barrier kept there as long as ants are present.
Poison dusts are satisfactory only when dry. ]!either borax, nor pyre-
thrum, nor derris are poisonous to higher animals.

Schoevers (107) in 1936 wrote a general account of derris in which
mention rias made of its use to control ants,

In 1936 Van der Vecht (119) stated th-'t in the Netherland Indies
only a fev: ants were recorded as injurious. Although ants are very sen-
sitive to derris, it is doubtful whether any use of derris on a larger
scale would be practicable. Ants which, for example, attend injurious
plant lice on cultivated plants can be killed by dusting or spraying;
but unless the nests are eradicated, success is short-lived. The use of
derris in baits has shown some promise. Derris has demonstrated some
use as an ant repellent; floors dusted with it were avoided by these in-
sects, but the powder must be regularly renewed.

Dietz (19) in 1938 advised the housewife on control of ants. If a
poisonous material is undesirable, use ground derris powder or, in an
emergency, use any one of the many common fly sprays once or twice a day.

Haude in 1939, in advertising literature published by John Powell &
Co., Hew York, H. Yi'., recommended dusting around the anthills with cube
or derris (0.75 percent rotenone).

Hackley (39) at the meeting of the California Pest Control Associa-
tion held at Oakland, Calif., in 1939, staLed that some brands of derris
powder are very effective ant repellents until destroyed by light.

C. B. Dibble in a "Bug Flasi-" in 1940 recommended derris or cube pow-
der as a barrier against ants in cupboards.

2 -.--..__ -. .... .. - .. .

Hackley (40) in 1941 wrrote that,,spr1no derris powders effectively re-
pel ants for several days.. This- repellent quality does not. exist
Equally in all brands pr types; scme -that vwore tried were lacking i-n
this respect. The one that vas most effective wras very pungent and so
irritating to the nose and throat that care was noee-d to avoid the un-
pleasant effect. It seems likely that the value of. the po-,/der lies in
this irritating quality.


Athalia colibri (Christ.)

DeBussy et al. (14) in 19368roportod that larvae rcre successfully
controlled width a derris dusting mixture.

Trappmann and Nitsche (115) in 1935 reported on the action of rote-
none and pyrethrins on various insects. A pyrethrum-talc dust contain-
ing 0.15 percent of pyrethrins, a rotenone-t'alc dust containing 0.15
percent of rotenone, a spray containing 0.15 percent of pyretnrins in 50
percent of Turkey-red oil, and a spray oc-ntaining 0.15 percent of rote-
none in the Turkey-red oil were tested against a variety of insects.
The dusting bell jar described by Lang and ..elts (A;ichrichtenbl. f. den
Deut. Pflanzenschutzdienst 10(9):75-76) was used for the tests with the
dusts, and the balance described by the authlors'(Ibid. 14(5):51-52.) for
spray materials vas used for the spray tests. In every case the dosage
vas regulated tc give a deposit of 0.18 mg. of pyrethrins or rotenone
per sq. cm. The tests 'were made i th the insects in glass dishes 5.5
centimeters high and 15 centimeters in dia.ieter, 10 insects in each dish.
Rotenone spray killed only 10 percent of the larvae of this species
after B days.

Riggcrt (105) in 1939 reported that three dsts containing bcth py-
rethrum and derris killed 99.5, 95.5, and 65.9 percent, respectively,, of
the larvae .'.ithin 24 hours in tests made in 1936; whereas tw+o dusts, con-
taining pyrnthrum only, killed 4.5 and 24.1 percent, respectively.

Caliroa aethiops (F.), the rose sawfly

Accordin,- to the (Tokyo) Institute of Physical and Chemical Research
(55) in 1927, I'eoton, 1 pound in 40 imperial gallons of vw-ator, complotoly
exterminated larvae of the rose sawfly.

Gorham (38) in 1928 reported on the lEuropean rose savfly in New
Brunswick, Canada. It was found that, like other savfly larvae, those
were very susceptible to the toxic action cf derris dust and that they
dropped in a helpless condition withinn 2 hours after aplic.-tion. !1'o
objectionable stains werc left on the foliage or blooms.

In 1938 Parks and Pierstorff (97) of the Ohio AgriculturLdl Exten-
sion Service, recommended spraying i.'-ith dcrris powder (4 percent rote-
none) at the rate of 3 pounds in 100 gallons of .'atcr for the control
of tho rose slug on roses.


Haude in advertising literature published by John PoViell & Co., New
York, N. Y., in 1939 recommended cube or derris dust (0.75 percent rote-
none) or spray (4 pounds of powder of 4 percent ro-banone content per 100

Caliroa cerasi (L.), the pear slug

In 1932 Andries (5) reported derrisol as effective against the pear

DeBussy et al. (14) in 1936 reported that this insect is sensitive
to derris dust.

According to an anonymous writer (2), the University of Bristol
Research Station at Long Ashiton, England, in 1937 demonstrated control
by the use of combined washes containing white-oil emulsion and rotenone-
containing substances.

The Colorado Experiment St-'.tion (17) in 1937 stated that derris or
cube powder containing 3 percent of rotenone, at the rate of 4 pounds to
100 gallons of w'rater, gave controls equal to -chiose effected by lead a.r-
senate. Rotenone dusts were also used on this slug.

Kearns and T'arsh (60) in 1937 recommended derris spray for control
and reported th'.t the second brood is best controlled by the application
in mid-July of r. spray containing 6 ounces cf -nicotine and 1/2 pound of
wetter to 100 imperial gallons of water, or that 1.5 pounds of derris
or bsrbasco root, containing not less than 1.5 percent of crystalline, r..ay:,' be substituted for the nicotine,

Evans (27) in 1938 reported that the- pear slug (Caliroa cerasi (L.))
in Tasms.nia is best controlled on fruit trees with lead arsenate but that
lead arsenate should not be used on plium or cherry trees when the fruit
is ripe or aimiost ready for picking; instead, any contact insecticide,
such as nicotine sulfate or derris, should be applied either as a spray
or as a dust. ]I.rrthorn hedges surrounding gardens should be given two
applicvftions of :-, derris dust, which acts r.s both a stomach and a con-
tact poison. The first application should b'e made during the first
fortnight in December and the second during th-. first fortnight in Feb-
ruary. The second application, which is intended for larvae of the sec-
ond generation, is the most important.

Hoiniltonr (41) in 1938 reported thrtpear slugs on pear trees vrre
controlled 100 percent by a spray of derris or cube powder (4 percent
rotenone) at 1 pounds per 100 gallons of water plus 4 pounds of rosin-
residue emulsion. The spray acts as a contact poison and as a repellent.
The effective period is 6 days.

According to the lileu' Jersey Agriculttiral Experiment Station (91) in
1938, derris ur cube powder in watcr to which rosin-resido emulsion had
been addcd vas shown to be effective against sawfly or pear slug larvae.

4 -- .. ....... ............ .. l.


nEmphytus albicinctus Mats. var. meridionalis Takouchi

Oishi (96) in 1934 reported that the larvae can be killed by a der-
ris spray.

Fenusa pulsilla (Lep.) (Syn., F. pumila)

Turner (117) in 1932 reported that cube extract in 1-percent oil
emulsified vrith powdered milk (cube extract 1:25,000) killed 74 percent
of the larvae in nines; the check oil killed 3 percent.

Hoplocampa flava (L.)

Kearns, Marsh, and Vartin (61) in 1935 reported trials carried out
the previous year at Long Ashton, England, Yith combined sprays for the
control of "red spider, caterpillar, and plum savfly" on plums. At
Pinvin trials were carried out on trees of the Czar variety. Double
spraying vias employed, and tvio types of spray were tested in the second
application. For the first application, on Lay 11, 7 days after petal
fall, a spray containing lead arsenate and nicotine v.ras used. The sec-
ond application v:as made on Yay 29, vhen half the trees sprayed on I.Lay
11 received an oil and lead arsenate spray. T'ie remv.ain.ln: half of these
trees vere sprayed on N.&y 29 with a derris-lead arsenate spray of the
following composition: Ground derris root (2 percent crystalline rote-
none) 2 pounds, lead :rsenc.te powder (300-nesh) 4 poun.rds, Lethalate
wetting preparatic-! C ounces, and .vater 100 gallons. The control of the
plum sa-.-fly ..s in no c-se satisfactory, as the first spray -Las applied
before oviposition vuas completed, whereas the second spray did not pro-
vide any material control of -,andering sayrfly larvae.

The University of Briscol Agricultural and Horticultural Research
Station at Ashton, England (ll), in 1936 ,reported that carefully timed
applications of nicotine E.n! arsenate sprays did not provide a satis-
factory control of the plum sanfly. Dorris vrs the most satisfactory

Jancke ond E.aercks (57) in 1936 reported the follovin- results with
pure rotenone: On blooming tvrigs, a 0.75-percent solution killed 51 per-
cent of the e-gs of the plun sav.-fly and a 0.5-percent solution killed 35
percent; on tr.rigs that .... ceased blocmni.., a 0.5-percent solution killed
58 percent of ti.e eggs and a, 0.75-percent solution killed 73 pfrccnt.

Loib (79) in 193C reported the results of tests of a camnercial
derris product applied as a spray at 0.4-pcrccnt con-cntr:tion against
the plum s'.vfly; 81 to 95 p-rcent of the Zruit treated 3 times at 4- to
5-day interv .ris "dth this spray was Sounu, withoutt holes.

Petherbridge '.nd Thomas (98) in 195'3 rc'-,.rted on the control of the
plum sawfly in England vith derris. T'c s',rayv:i,-s (der'is 0,8 pound,
spreader 3 pints, nr sulfonated lorol 1 1 ;.ci.'n,, Zator 40 i',-p.'rin! -al-
Ions) gave results than did spra-,yin' *ith nicotine sulfa-te (10
ounces) plus lc-.d arsenate (1 pounn.) to ._0 im erial ,illons. Only 5.2
percent of the darnsons on the trees spray:ccl tt. dcrris worc injur,"!,
whereas the unsprayed trees showed 16.7 percent dam.a-c. ,h dustinir

': .. "' : ..... .

with a derris dust (0.2 percent rotenone) was not satisfactory. In the-..
case of a bad attack they recommended spraying twice .rith 'derris, 0.8
pound plus 5 ounces of a spreader in 40 imperial gallons, v.ften the cots
(receptacles) are beginning to split, and also a week later. -. ,4

Steer (110) in 1936 reported that the use ofderri's agaihsrt.the
plum sawfly apparently ".as not a marked success, but that observations
made in 1934 suggested that it might uith advantage be used. i. -a dry
form against migrating larvae when the first signs of secondary attack
are observed.

Kearns and Marsh (60) in 1937 recommended derris or derris extract
as a spray for control or the plum savwfly in England. The spray should
contain not less than 0.004 percent of crystalline rotenone'. Thefrees
should be sprayed bout Fay 10-20 and again 7 days later. Barbasco or
any other rotenone-containing material may be used as a substitute for
derris, provided it is suitable for use with a white-oil emulsion.

Kearns, Narsh, and Martih (63) in 1937 reported that a refined pe-
troleum oil proved more effective than a water-soluble spreader as a
supplement for rotenone-containinr spraysapplied for the control of the
plum sawfly.

Petherbridge and Thomas (99) in 1937 recommended the following spray
for the control of the plum saiwly when the fruit-tree red spider or the
plum thrips is troublesome: tineral-oil emulsion 3-1/5 pints, derris 12
ounces, water 40 imperial gallons. Used against the plum sawfly, derris
vdith the oil better than derris -rith sulfonated lorol. The fruit-
tree red spider and the thrips vore controlled only by the derris-oil

Jary and Austin (58) in 1938 reported that heavy attaokd by the plum
sarf'fly in Kent, England, i:.'ere controlled commercially by applications of
derris and derris-netroleum-oil sprays.

ILearns -nd Knrtir. (65) in 1938 recommended a spray containing 0.67
gallon of actual oil and T pound of derris or Lonchocarpus ground root
(rotenone 4 percent) in 100 imperial gallons of vater for the control.- of
the plum savrfly. Oil emulsion gave better results than a water-soluble
wetter, but if for any reason the latter is preferred 0.5; pound of Agral-2,
or Lethglate V'Jetting Preparation, or sulfon:.ted lorol, per 100 gallons
may be used. One drenching application made just before the hatching of of the cggs controls not only the savrfly but also the red spider.
An extract of Lonchocarpus nicou gave a more potent combined spray, than did
the powdered root.

Steer and IHassan (111) in 1930 reported that in field spraying trials
on the control of the plum sawfly on Czar pluims, one spraying with der-
ris gave substantially as good a result ..s did two sprayings. Derris at
0.2 percent (equivalent to a crystalline rotenone. content of 0.004 per-
cent), in conjunction with soap, gave an adequate measure of control if
applied at any time during the 7 to 10 days ,following petal fall. An
unusually low concentration of dorris (equivalent to about 0.002 per-
cent crystalline rotenone) gave vory promising results. Nicotine at
0.05 percent and lead arsenate paste at 0.4 percent were each ineffec-
tive, whereas a preparation of thiodiphenylamine at 0.1 percent -


was only partially successful. The derris. povdor contained 10.4 percent
of ether extractives and 2.14 percent of rotenone. The soap was prepared
by dissolving 3 ounces of caustic soda in 50 gallons of water and then
adding a pint of commercial brown oleine. On each occasion the spraying
was followed by rain,

Hoplocampa minute (Christ.)

Ahlberg (4) in 1934 reported spraying experiments to kill the eggs
of this plum savrfly. The sprays tested included pyrethrmn and derris
preparations, and the trees were sprayed irmiediately before as well as
during and after blooming. These sprays have given no results up to now.

The Tageningen Plantenziektenkundige Dienst (120) in 1934 reported
that rotenone, 1:10,000 with 0,2 percent of Agral I, was sprayed on plum
to control this species. The results coulc. not be ascertained because
the insects rere repelled. Rotenone 1:5,000 vrith 0.1 percent of Agral
I, was sprayed on plum on hay 3 and Lay 15, 1933, vith satisfactory re-

DeBussy et al. (14) in 1936 reported that sprays of derris having
a rotenone concentration of 1:5,000, 1:8,000, and 1:10,000, plus a
spreader, applied immediately after the appearance of the eggs, gave
good control of this species. A concentration of rotenone 1:13,000
proved too dilute to be effective.

In 1936 Van der Laan (78) reported that this species may be control-
led with derris dust.

Hoplocampa pyricola Roh.

Yago (124) in 1933 wrote that this species, formerly abundant in
pear orchard's in Shidzuoka, Japan, had become scarce, probably owing to
the use of insectlficides, including derris.

Hoplocampa testudinea (Klug)

Austin, Jary, and Mar-tin (6) in 1932 reported that a Polvo-soap
solution was prepared by the addition of 1/3 gallon of brown commercial
oleic acid to 100 gallons of watr containing 1 pound of flake caustic
soda. Polvo at the rato of 2-1/2 pounds per 100 gallons was stirred in-
to a smooth past w-'ith a little of the soap solution and then added to
the bulk of tho solution in the spray tan]:. This gave o control of tho
apple fruit saiwfly similar to that given b'd nicotine at 8 ounces pnr
100 imperial gallons. Katakilla (5 pour.ds per 10C imperial gallons of
water) gave equally good control.

The Agricultural and Horticultural PResearch Station of the Univer-
sity of Bristol, England (10), in 1933 stated th-.t dorris emulsion,
ground dorris root in a soap suspension, pyrethrum ,:mulsion, and colloi-
dal lead arsonatu wore tested against the apple sawfly, the derris nmul-
sion giving results equal to the nicotine spray ihich, -'hen applied 5 to
8 days after petal fall, had given the highest control.


The East Ma1ling Research Station (23), Kent, England, in 1933 re-
ported that a derris dust of knom. composition was applied at night to
apple trees infested with the apple fruit sawfly.

The dust was applied by means of a hend duster on June 22 at
8 p,m TNhite sheets were placed under the dusted trees, while
other sheets were placed under adjoining trees, which were left as
controls. The weather proved to be bitterly cold for the time of
the year (the temperature registered cnly 1 above freezing soon
after midnight), but in spite of this a number of larvae came out,
as usual, after dusk. The observ.t-Lions VJere confined each night,
and after 4 nights more than 100 larvae were removed from the white
sheets under each dusted tree, while an average of 23 larvae were
collected from each of the sheets under the control trees.

Kearns, Darsh, and Pearce (64) in 1933 reported that derris spray
gave a good measure of control of the aipple sawfly. Commercial experi-
ence with derris as a means of controlling apple pests 5.n England is
limited and the results have been v-'ariable. The indifferent results are
probably due to the use of too loir a concentr-.-cion of the toxic princi-
ple (riotenone). Derris is used mainly in t.wo forms for the preparation
of sprays: (a) Finely ground derris root added to a weak soap solution,
and (b) an oiT emulsion consisting of" a dorris extract in a mineral
or vegetable oil. The duration of effective toxicity after application
of scn, preparations may bc several days, 'ut critical data on this point
are not available for apple pests. Derris dusts have not been used to
any extent o,- aples.

Kearns and Swarbriclk (68) in 1933 reported further observations on
the control of the apple savrfly. Among the sprays tested -,erc the fol- (1) derris-soap solution: 2.5 pounds of finely ground derris
root, 10 pounds of soft soap, 100 imperial gallons of water (rotenone
0.004 percent, w.l-ih rwas sufficient to 'ill the young larvae provided
it come in cc..tact ,.ith them). This spray possessed good sprearLr, g prop-
erties. (?) Der--is em.YIsion: A proprietary spra:- consisting r.f a derris
extract in a rape-oil r.,-riulsion and appli,-.d a.t c. concentra-Cin rrpresent-
ing ..prroxim' I.0 p-'cent of the range oil .'and -,in iun etr.nln:d content
of rctenor.e, T),n c:;,o' fion wetted the fruitlets thorouh n!, Thos.? says
were applied 7 dJ',.ys al'`tcr pe:. fall. Tacos sp:cd *ih ti-c derj"s
crrm.ulsion -.1'..i t. p,.-ccnt of ir.f:,tcd fruits cnd, soraycd w .it, drris-
soap had '.5,1 rucnt, as coirmpA:-'ed ith 41,0 pc.'cci"t in the untropted
check. T"-0e oc : :.I+r-,l (2.7 percent of Infe:'Ccd fruit, s) -.-as ii by
nicotine 3 f. .'..:l ouic.,s of D'E percent ni-, c-,. ne, ., rounds of A^:v"nl I
as o.ctiv:'.L-cr -.i 1 :-,reci.uer, 1 imperial g".l] ons of wACC-ir) applied 6 days
after pe'Lc:.] f.l, Dc.ris-SoaL. did not give gooi results because it
killed onl: .:p:o,,sed l_1rvae arid not those in urrmas. The derris emulsion
reduced the inf-sta'ion to 9.2 percent and pos-ibiy oeed its increased
effijcac%, -.s cor.ipaircd -..-ith tlie derris eoap, mainly to the ease vith uhich
it penetrated the larval burrovw because of the presence of the oil.


Kearns and Walton (70) in 1933 reported tests vith derris spray (2.5
or 5 pounds of derris powder containing 1.72 percent of rotenone, and 10
pounds of spraying soap per 100 imperial gallons) 'tnd derris emulsion
(derris extract in rape oil). The proprietary derris emulsion gave a
good control of the apple savrfly, whereas the derris in soap suspension
gave a poor control.
The East Lalling Research Station (24) of Kent, England, in 1934
stated that derris in both vet and dry forn ;vas tried against the apple
sawfly. Derris dust prevents oviposition by this insect. b

Hey, Moore, and Steer (44) in 1934 made the follov.-in recommendation
for the control of the apple

The object of a petal-fall application for sawfly is to kill
the eggs and so to prevent infestatic-u of t'ie fruits. If, for any
reason, this spray is omitted, some loss can still be avoided.
Examine the trees about a fortnight after petal fall and, if tunnels
under the skin or holes in the sides of the fruitlets are seen,
apply a derris dust immediately to protect the remaining uninjured
fruits. If the dust is washed off by rain -.ithin 10 days of apli-
cation, then dust again.

Hey and Steer (45, 46) in 1934 reoDrtcd experiments undertaken to
determine the relative value ofP control rec-surces argast. the apple saw-
fly adults by means of derris; against rhe egqs by means of nicotine; and
against the young larvae by means of (a) petal-fall applications of der-
ris, barium s ilicoflueride, and lead arsenate, and (b) post-petal-fall
applications of'derris, barium silicofluoride, lead arsenate, and nico-
tine; -and against the migrating larvae by canss of derris and nicotine.
The derris contained 2.71 percent of crude rotenone cnd vwas used atb the
rate of 2 pounds per 100 imperial gallons plus 8 pounds of soft soap.
The derris dust consisted of 10 percent of derris and 90 pcrccnt of
china clay. The report states:

Ihen used primarily against the larvae, nicotine and derris
were of approximately equal value at the concentrations used. In
addition to killing those larvae with 'rhich it comes into contact,
nicotine probably kills the unhatched eggs remaining at the ti'ne of
spraying. On the other hand, derris is probably toxic only to the
larvae, though its residual contact properties give it an advantage
over nicotine which compensates for its presumed lack of ovicidal

As a dust the scope of derris appears to be restricted to its
uses (a) as a means of preventing oviposi-ion by killing the adults
and (b7 as a means of arresting secondary infestation by migrating
larvae. For the latter purpose derris-soap and nicotine-soap sprays
also seem effective.


Nicotine (95-98 percent) was used at the rate of 8 ounces per 100
imperial gallons plus 8 pounds of soft soap.

The authors' conclusions were as follows:

(A) The adult is susceptible to a derris dust.

(B) The egg is (at any stage of its incubative period) suscep-
tible to nicotine and soap--a fact of vast importance in commercial
spr-y practice.
(C) The newley hatched larva appears to be equally susceptible
to nicotirne and to derris (each with-.soap) at the concentrations
used, but in the case of nicotine (applied a week: after petal fall)
it is difficult to differentiate exactly bet-been an effect on the
egg and an effect on the larva. Arsenate of lead and barium silico-
fluoride (e-ach vrith gelatine) were of about equal value at the con-
centrations used, and were each much less efficient than nicotine.

S(D) The migrating larva. Secondary infestation by migrating
larvae, an important phase of sawflr attack, was arrested by a der-
ris dust, by derris and soap, and by nicotine and soap, each applied
eighteen clays after petal fall.

The same authors observed that mirratin; larvae of the apple sawfly
were controlled best by derris (0.19 percent roetenone). Derris-
soap reduced the seccondr'r attack but ias l:-ss effective than the dust.

M. H. NMoore, of tLhe East Ealling Pesearch Station (25), in 1934 re-
ported field tests of combined derris-fungicide sprays. -Ierris contain-
ing 2.7 percent of rotenone w.aIs sprv.yred on Cc'x:'s Crange Pippin apple
trees at the rate of 2 pounds per 10C imperial gallons admixed i'dth lime-
sulfur and sulfite-lye liquid, concentrate (sp. gr. 1.3). The derris pro-
gram vras as follows:

At green-bud Derris (2 pounds) + sulfite-lye (6 pints)
At pink-bud Lime-sulfur (1:40) + derris (2 pounds) +
sulfite-lye (6 pints)
At oetal fall Lime-sulfur (C pints) t derris (2 pounds)
+ sulfite-lye (6 pints)
Three vreeks after '"
petal fall Lime-sulfur (I g,-'.llon)

The conclusions were as follows:

Exc-ellent control of apple scab (Venturia inaequalis Aderh.),
red spider (Oligponychus ulmi Koch.) H.nd earrfly (oplocampa testudinea
Klug.) mts given on Cox'.- Orange Pippin in 1933 by employing a pro-
gramme of sprays iit. Vhich lime-sulphur '.as used in combination with
nicotine, with sulphite-lye as ,'rotter and 'spreader. Reasons are
given to show that the effect of the nicotine against s'.awfly vas
ovicidal. VA-ere derris vwas the contact insecticide used, the effec-
tiveness of the combined spray agaii.:t Sawfly was reduced by about
one-half, whilo agviILst Scab it rcraincd o::cellcnt. Load arsenate
r'as not included itn the progCra:mo :'.::,.

" ... -19-

The East falling Research Station (26) in 1935 reported dusting and
S spraying tests against the apple savfly v-ith derris (2 pounds) + lime-
: sulfur (6 pints) + sulfonated Lorol (0.5 pound) per 100 imperial gallons,
I and with nicotine (8 ounces per 1,00 gallons) sprays. On the Vborcesters,
S ~nicotine, lime-sulfur, and a wetter reduced the attack by about 65 per-
T cent, whereas derris reduced it by only 60 percent, a result which agrees
, will with last season's findings. It was concluded that derris can con-
" siderably reduce sawfly damage but is inferior to a petal-fall applica-
tion of nicotine, and that a derris dust can control the migratory larvae
and so prevent most of the secondary dartage.

The Bristol University Agricultural and Horticultural Research Sta-
S... tion at Lona Ashton, England (ll), in 1936 reported that laboratory and
field experiments were carried out in 19'34-35 tiith rotenone sprays for
-the control of the apple sawfly. Investigations showed that nicotine did
not act as an ovicide but as a stomach poison to the young larvae. Rote-
none also functioned in a similar manner.

Kearns et al. (62) in 1936 concluded that in the control of the apple
sawfly rotenone atl 1.2 bunices per 100 gallons and derris root at 2.5
pounds per 100 gallons, as constituents of combined sprays of lime-sm'ltur
plus a wetter, proved practically a.s effective as nicotine at 8 ounces
per 100 gallons. 1Vhen applied up to. 8 days before egg hatch, nicotine
and derris controlled the apple sa-:,fly by nctin7- as stomach poisons.
There vwas no evidence that nicotine acted as an ovicide.

Steer (110) in 1936 reported that derris was useful as an ingredi-
ent of the petal-fall spray for scab. Derris ias effective against lar-
vae of the apple sawfly but not against the eggs. a petal-fall
s-pray has been omitted, derris dust can be usefully employed to prevent
attack by migrating larvae.

........... The Pristol University Agricultural and_ Horticultural Research Sta-
*tion at Long Ashton, England (12), in 1937 stated that a biological
method for the evaluation of letters a.nd spreaders hod been perfected.
The apple savfly was used as the test insect. Experiments showed that a
white-oil emulsion w'as superior to iater-soluble tietters when vsed in
conjunction v.-ith a rotenone-containing wvbstance. Investigations were
continued on the chemical and biological evaluation of rotenone-contain-
ing materials. The work included experiments with the ground root and
extracts of species of Derris and Lonchocarrus.

Kearns, rarsh, and martin (63) in 1937 reported tests made in Eng-
land with derris, derris extract, and barblasco (5.6 percent rotenone and
17 percent ether extractives) sprays to te;t the efficacy of spreaders.
Rotenone-containing insecticides were shovn to be suitable for use in
field trials for comparison of the relative efficiencies of spray sup-
plements a penetrants. The synthetic sprer.ders Agral 2 and sulfonated
lorol, used Tdith rotenone-containing insecticides for their control of the
apple savfly, proved to be more effective a.t 0.05 percent thun sulfite-
S lye at 0.75 percen-L, gamma-sulfonates at C.05 percent being intermediate
in efficiency. The most effective spray supplement examined was a re-
fined (grade G) petroleum oil emnulsified vrith sulfito-lye, the superior
efficiency of which as a penetrant may have boon associated with solu-
bility factors.


According to Etablissements Potenia, in a letter to R. C. Roark in
1938, this pest on cherry trees was killed by a product containing 12
percent of powdered Lonchocarpus nicou root (of 6 percent rotenone con-
tent) and U8. percent of talcum.

Plant Protection Ltd. (100) of Yalding, Kent, England, in 1938 ad-
vertised Dr-ymac I!o. 2 as a derris dlst si.-.itable for the control of the

Kearns and ITartin (66, 67) in 1939 described tests to control the
apple sawfly in England. The results were as follows:

Derris (0.25 percent)
Derris (0.1 percen-it)
Barbasco (0.1 percent)
Lonchocarpus extract
Lonchocarpi., extract
Lonchocarpus extract
Lonchocarpu3 extract
Lonchocarpus extract

Significant differences
(F = o.o05)

Sul fon&'.ted"' lorol
Sulfonated lorol
Sulfcnated lorol
Sulfonated lc.roel
Sulfonated lorol
Agral 2
Ganxa z u lfonait es
Sul fite-lye

Rotenone-containing sprays act,' as stomach poisons to newly hatched
larvae of the apple sawfly, but apparently the insecticide is not fixed
by the calyx-cup tissue and toxicity decreases each day after applica-
tion. If the period between application and egg hatch is too long, the
initial concentration of rotenone may have decreased to-such an extent
that the larvae are not killed. Variable results are therefore obtained
with derris and similar rotenone-containing materials. Further work may
indicate a concentration of rotenone that provides'a satisfactory dura-
tion of toxicity to cover all normal requirements. The sawfly spray must
be applied as a drenching application to wet the flowers thoroughly, en-
suring that the spray deposited on the stainens will run into the calyx

Hoplocampa sp.

According to the (Tokyo) Institute of Physical and Chemical Research
(55) in 1927, a solution of'l pound of ':Teot-on in 60 gallons of water ex-
terminates larvae of the pear sawfly if they are on the rind of the
fruits in course of transition. If a transition takes place after the
solution becomes dry, only 40 percent of such larvae succumb.

.,U urnD e r
, 255
1, 7c,5




Ifetallus rubi Forbes

SDaniel (18.) in 1928 reported on the control of the blackberry leaf
miner, which is probably a limiting factor in the culture cf blackberries
in western aewr York. Derrisol, in a dilution of 1:200, averaged 69 per-
cent control when sprayed upon the larvae, but had no value as an

Blennocampa rubi (Harr.), the raspberry sawfly

'The Michigan Agricultural Experiment Station (87) in 1931 reported
that one application of Derrisol at 1:800 plus 2 pounds of Ivory soap
per 100 gallons of solution completely controlled the raspberry savwfly,
(Ejonophadnoides) Blennocampna rubi in a field of red raspberries.

Hutson (50O) in 1934 reported that after the fruit was set, raspberry
sawfly larvae can be combated r-ith sprays of the contact insecticides,
derris or pyrethrum. Derris acts slowly bvt insects do not feed after
they have been hit.

Dutton, Hutscn, and Cation (22) in 1936 recommended derris for con-
trol -of late infestations of savflies on raspberries. Derris prepara-
tions are slowvr-acting poisons and a good thorough application is required.
Repeat in-a week if all the larvae are not killed the first time.

Caffrey (15) in 1938 recommended a derris dust containing 0.75 per-
cent of rotenone fo6r the control of the raspberry savrfly on raspberries
and blackberries after blooms appear on the pl-a4ts.

* Neurotoma ner.oralis (L.)

Jahnke and Roesler (56) in 1940 reported that dust residues of der-
ris retain their effectiveness much longer than those based on pyrethrum
S or nicotine.

fPhymatocera aterrima (Klug)

See Fryer et al. (31) under Pteronidoa ribesii (Scop.), on page 22.

Priophorus rubivorus Poh. -

Hanson and lebster (42) in 1938 recomrended derris or cube dust
(6.5 percent rotonone) or spray (0.01 .erccnt rotenone) for the control
of the raspberry sawfly.

Pristiphora abietinus (Christ.) (Syn., Ly;aoonematus pini Eetz.)

DeBussy et al. (14) in 1936 reported that a heavy infestation of
larvae of (Lygaeor.noma.u) Pristiphora abic-Linus in spruce trees was
killed in a few hours vith a dust containing 0.5 percent of rotonone and
1.2 percent of ether extract. As a result of these experiments, the
forester vwas able to control the infestation by dusting with motor-
driven dusting equipment usinu a dusting mixture containing 0.2 percent
of rotenone purchased on the open market.

----- _.- ~ ~ ~ ---- *.* 2iU W


The Koloniaal In-stituut of Amsterdam (73) in 1936 reported that in
the Netherlands derris had been used for the control of this species.

Van dcr Laan (78) in 1936 reported control with derris dust applied
by a power duster.

In 1936 lNageli (90) reported havin: dusted infested spruce trees
with Pirox, a rotenone preparation which ..lso contains fungicidal sub-
stances and which is prepared by the firm of Dr. Maag in Dielsdorf. Ten
to 12 kilograms of Pirox per hectare vwas used. This treatment completely
destroyed the larvae and also, with correctly timed dusting, greatly re-
duced the damage during the current year.

Lygaeonematus erichsonii (Htg.), the larch sawrfly

Kelsall et al. (71) in 1926 reported that an undiluted derris dust,
applied vith a hand duster, gave 100 percent control of larch savrfly
larvae, (Pristiphora) Lygaeonematus erichsoiaii.

lqcDaniel (84) in 1D30 recommended a duzt containing 0.75 percent of
rotenone, although about 72 hours were Lnecessary to obtain any indica-
tion of kill. Cryolite and calcilu-i arsen'aLte d-usts were more effective.

Pteronidea ribesii (Soeep.), t?e imported c"vrrLntj worm

Fryer et al. (31) in 1923 reported an investig-.,tioh in which extracts
of Derris elliptica were shiov-n to hiav- a high insecticidal value, partic-
ularly for caterpillars, but were not so toxic to aphids. The dry root
itself may be used in a finely powdered condcition .-.orked up with Vater
together with soap or other emnulsifying roagmnts. As the pure poisons
found in derris roct are solids End only slightly soluble in water, their
toxicity appears to depend or;n the degree of dispersion. A biological
method of determining insecticidal properties quantitatively is described.
It depends on dipping insects, fPor a constant period of time (10 seconds)
in known strengths of highly dispersed si'spensoids in dilute aqueous sol-
utions of svponin. Results agreeing w-ith those given by the chemical
method .1readJy described v'ere obtained. It onablc.d the authors to com-
pare- extracts of derris i-ith nicotine. To certain caterpillars, tuba-
toxin and drrid were shonvm to be of -,ch- zSu.e order of toxicity as nico-
tine. These conclusions arc based on tests v-ith the gooseberry saivfly
larvae and larvae of anothr.r savrfly, Phymiatoccr.L aterrimna (Rlug).

Durham (21) in 1926 gave an i,'-.t-.erestinr: account of his early work
with derris, ,-ich he regarded as ess-entially a stomach poison. A fair-
ly large-scale trial was made in June 1904 in a garden at Shelford, where
the gooseberries were covered with sawrfly larvae; the larvae were prompt-
ly killed; and the cooked fruit caused no unpleasant symptoms.

According to Eelsall et al. (71) in 1926, derris at 0.31-pound per
100 imperial gallonss of water killed 100 percent. A dust of 98.75 parts
hydrated lime and 1.25 parts derris gavo 1CO0 percent control in a heav-
ily infested currant plantation. .... '

F,'- -25-

STurner (117) in 1932 reported the results of work carried on during
-.O8f-131 with cube extract and with rotenone obtained from cube. Cube
extract in 0.5 percent of cil emulsified rith a sulfonate emuls'ifier
(cube extract 1:25,000) killed 100 percent cf the eggs; the check oil
Skilled- 12 percent. Two series of tests of repellents were made on the
larvae. In the first series cube extract at the rate cf 1:25,000 caused
death within 24 hour-s of 80 percent of the 20 larvae, vhiereas only 15
-percent of the 20 larvae onr. check tvwigs died. In the second series all
the larvae on the sprayed leaves died within 5 days and 84 percent of
the larvae on check leaves died within the same period. The high mortal-
Sity within a short period indicated some toxic action aside from the
repellent effect.

Kearns (59) in 1934 reported that "caterpillars" of the gooseberry
sawfly arc readily controlled by derris spray-.-
Wtilbaux (122) in 1934 tested extracts of the leaves of 22-year-old
Tephrosia voeolii and reported that as a contact insecticide the loaves
-are about as toxic as nicotine. Larvae of the imported currant worm were
S very sensitive, even vhen the material ,-as used without a wetting agent.
Variable amounts of acetone extract vrcre added to the water used for
spraying. The emulsions were used immodiatcly. The following results
were obtained:







24 hour

Larvae observed after --
s I 67 hours

8 dead, 2 sick
6 dead, 4 sick
6 dead, 4 sick
6 dead, 4 sick

5 dead, 5 sick

On seods
9 dead, 1 moribund
10 dead
9 dead, 1 moribund
8 dead, I moribund,
1 sick
6 dead, 2 moribund,
2 sick

*;' -1:1,000




On Leaves
10 dead 10 dead
10 dead 10 dead
8 dead, 2 sick 9 dead, I living
5 dead, 2 sic]: 7 dead, 3 sick
3 living
1 dead, 9 living 5 dead, 3 sic]', 2

The chocks sprayed w.ith 1 percent of acetone '-'ore 'nnff6ctod.



DeBussy et al. (14)in 1936 reported that this species is sensitive' to
derris dust.

According to Van der Laan (78) in 1936, this species may be controlled
with derris.

The New York State Agricultural Experiment Station (94) in 1936 re-
ported that when stomach insecticides are needed for control of the im-
ported currant worm a r-otenone spray or dust may be used. studies made in
1935 showed that derris or cube dusts containing from 0.3 to 0.5 percent
of rotenone were very effective.

Kearns and Marsh (60) in 1937 recommended a spray containing derris,
1/2 pound of a wetter, 7nd I gallon of lime-sulfur per 100 gallons of
water for control of gooseberry sawfly and Americel mildew,

Kearns and Umpleby (69) in 1937 recommended derris for the control of
the gooseberry sawfly. The derris dulst must be used at a concentration
that represents not less than 0.18 percent of crystalline rotenone. A der-
ris, nicotine, or lead arsenate spray may be substituted for the dust.

Kelsall and Stultz (72) in 1937 reported that in laboratory experi-
ments derris-gypsum dusts gave the following results:

Derris in dust Mortality
Percent Percent

0.25 .. 70 in 3 days
.50 70 in 3 days
1.00 90 in 3 days
2.50 91 in 3 days
5.00 100 in 2 days
12.5@ 100 in 2 days

In field experiments derris was most extraordinarily effective against
this insect. Derris used at a concentration of 2.5 percent of rotenone
was effective from a practical standpoint. It was observed that bushes
treated with derris prevented reinfestation for apparently 3 weeks, whereas
bushes treated with pyrethrum were rapidly reinfested by nevrly hatched
insects. From these experiments it is obvious that derris is exceedingly
toxic to this insect, but that pyrethrum is toxic only when used copiously.

The IT.ovr York Agriculturil Experiment Station (95) in 1937 reported
that the imported currant worm is readily controlled with rotenone sprays
and dusts. As infestations of this insect in a given planting are often
localized, spot dusting or spraying may be practiced to advantage. All
the currant pests for which arsenicals have been used previously may now
be controlled by rotenone sprays or dusts, on the use pf which there are
no legal restrictions.



: Lk

Hamilton (41) in 1938 reported thlat currant vorms on currant bushes
were controlled 100 percent by a spray of derris or cube powder (4 per-
cent. rotenone) at 4 pounds, per-.100 gallons of. water plus 4 pounds of rosin-
residue emulsion. The spray acted as a contact poison, and killed 100
percent in 1 or 2 days..

Flint Pnd AndErson (30) of the Illinois Agricultural Experiment Sta-
tion in 1939 recommended a rotenone sproy (8 pounds ground derris or cube,
containing 0.75 percent rotenone, in 100 gallons of water) for the control
of the currant worm on currants and gooseberries. This spray should be
applied eerly in the season just after the plants come into full foliage.

Pteronidea salicis (L.)

DeBussy et al. (14) in 1936 reported that this species was sensitive
to derris dust.

*el1ndria etra (Steph.)

According: to Etpblissernents Rotenip in a letter to T. C, Ro.rl/3this
pest on peer trees wvas killed by n product containing 12 percent ot powdered
Lonchocerpus nicou root (6 percent rotenone) i.nd 88 percent of talcum.

Tomostethus juncivorus Roh.

Harukav.wa (43) in 1925 reported tests mqde in Japan..',ith "tuba-fluid,"
a whitish solution made from derris roots supplied by Pn insecticide
dealer. It was particularly effective against the larvae of the rush saw-
fly, killing 100 percent when diluted 1:1,000. The addition of soap did
not increase ,the effectiveness.

The Institute of Physical and Chemical Research (55) Tokyo, Japan, in
1927 reported that Neoton at 225 gm. plus 450 gm. of soap per 40 imperial
gallons of water gave 85 percent mortality of larvae.

Tenthredinidae (unidentified species)

Tattersfield and Roach (113) in 1923 published some of the results of
Durham's work with derris from 1902 to 1907. He founa tic larvae of saw-
flies to be very susceptible.

Mclndoo and Sievers (85) in 1924 stated that the cold alcoholic ex-
tract of cube used with soap was efficient against sawfly lrrvve. The
alcoholic extract of derris used .vithi soap -.'ins efficient rgvinst half-
grown sawfly larvae.

The Institute of Physicrl -nd Chnmi cr.l Pesenrch (.5) Tokyo, Japrn, in
1927 reported thrt Neoton at 1/2 pound plus 1 pound of sonnp per 40 imper-
ial gallons of water gnvo 100 percent mortality.



Hus (49) in 1933 stated that derris preparations could be used for
the control of hymenopterous larvae on currants, raspberries, and draw-

Hutson (51, 52) in 1936 and again in 1937 wrote that currant worms
were controlled by the application of a dust containing 0.5 to 0.75 per-
cent of rotenone at thi ra-e-. of 15 to 25 pounds per acre. Derris spray
was also effective.

According to the Koloniaal Institult of Amsterdam (75) in 1936, the
larvae of sawflies can be destroyed -,,ith, 'he help of derris.

The New Y.-rk (Corn.ell) Agricultural Experiment Station (92) in 1936
reported-thot in ,:,,o counties v.rhere current gro"rin. is Pn important busi-
ness, considerable ,"Jfficult' v haJ been experience in 1934 from arsenical
residue. A part cf the rcsid'ie c-me 'rom s.orvin- the currants for worms,
and a par- cme from the drip from overIhaning apple? trees. For currants
grown in the open, the problem was solved h'y using a rotenone dust. Where
the currants were grovm under trees, it '--.zs necessary to wash the crop be-
fore it could be marketed.

The Illinois Agricultural Experiment Station (54) in 1937 issued di-
rections for spraying fruits in Illinois. The currant worm on currants
and gooseberries may be controlled by spraying with 8 pounds of ground
derris or cube (0.75 percent rotenone) in 100 gallons dc water. Do not
wait until the worms appear, but spray early in the season just after
the plants come into full foliage.

Westcott, in the New York Times, Sunday, June 6, 1937, wrote that
rose slugs (3 species of sawfly larvae) are readily controlled by a com-
bination spray or dust containing lead arsenate or rotenone.

According to the New Jersey Agricultural Experiment Station (91)in
1938, derris or cube powder in water to which rosin-residue emulsion had
been added was effective against sawfly larvae. June sawflyy larvae and
currant worms were easily killed.

Parks and Pierstorff (97) in 1938 recommended the application of P
derris or cube dust (0.5 percent of rotenone)or spray (3 pounds of powder
containing 4 percent of rotenone in 100 gallons of water) for the control
of currPnt worms on currant.
C. B. Dibble, of ihian, ina Pug Fl'sh" in 1940, recommended der-
ris or cube dusts diluted with flour or tIlc, or commercial d(lusts contain-
ing 0.5 or 0.75 percent of rotenone for the control of the raspberry saw-

Fenne (28) in 1940 recommended derris and cube dusts and sprays for
control of currant worms.

e-27- - -

(.. espidae (unidentified .sp.) -

'An anonymous ' (i)- i-n1 "1927' reported .th. r1it lrr-e ho.rn-rt in
flight was" stunnedd, -an4 -lner &iA ?"hen snrayed .rieh c proprietary der-
ris product probqhyl Neoton at the rnte of 100 p-m. in 300 liters of
*Downei (20) in 1939 reported thqt a hornet's nest in a 6herry tree vras
destroyed in 24 hours. by thriving a handful of derris powder (4" percent
rotehone) at the io-le. iLn .thy -si-dC" 6f' the nest,

Unidentified species of Hymenoptera

G'eoffroy (32) in 1895 reported that sugar dipped in a saturated Pico-
holic solution of rotenone and Iried in an oven was .highly trxic to wasps.

The Wageningen Plantenziektenkundige Dienst (120) in 1934 reported
that rotenone 1:5,000 with the addition of 0.1 percent of-Agra.l I .was-
satisfactory against hynenopterous larvae on Astilbe at-Ansterdfinm.

DeBussy et nl. (14) in 1936 reported that loaf-wasp larvae arc very
sensitive to derris.

Van der Laan (78) in 1936 reported that wasps are less sensitive than
honeybees to derris.

Dowries (20) in 1939 stated that a small vwasps' nest was destrc'yed
within S hours with derris powder (4 perc.'-nt rotenne.-).


< *

- 28 -

Insect Index

Anop lolepis lon-ipes
Aphid - - - -
Apidae - - -
Apis mellifera - -
See also Honeybee.
fruit sawfly -
See also Apple sa,,w
scab ------
Argentine ant - -
;.th.lia. colibri -


- 6, 10
2, 22
-- 2
-- -- 2

- 3?-.16


- 15-20
- - 18

Bees---- -----
See also Honeybee.
Anerican lpivn ant -
cacao ar.t-------
Blackberry leif miner
Blennocampa rubi -
Br-coi idac - - - -

cergsi - - -

-- 2-4,8

- - - - - - - - - - -- - 9
- - - - - - - - - - w - 7
-,- - - - - - - - - - .- - 21
- - - - - - - - - - - - 21
,-- - - - - - - - - - - 4

- - - - - - - - - - 12
- - - - - - - - - - 12

herculefnus -
Carpenter ants
Cephidae -- -

- - 67
-- 4

sawVfly - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 12

See also Penr slug.
slug - - - - - - - -
See also Pear slug.
stem girdler - - - - -----
vror n - - - - - - - -

Di pr i on-
pini - - - - - - - ---
simile - - - - - - - -
Diprionidae - - - -
Doli clioderus-
bitubercu ] atus-m - - - - - -
(Hypoclinea) l.idens - - - - -

Emphytus albicinctus meridionalis -
Erioc'. nTpn limacina.- See Caliroa cerasi.

- - - - - --- - 12

- - - - - -- -- 4
- - - - - -- 24-26

- - - - - -- - 5-6
- - - - - - - - 5


- - - - - - --- - 7
- - - - - - - - 7

- - -13

li'Tincin SPe Cpliron c-rmsl.
CP p-7otus--

-. 29 -

Eriocampoides limacina - -

rose sp'::fly - - ------ - -
spruce swfly - - - - - -

Fallovj ant ---. .---------
pumila. See 'enusa pnlsills.
pulsilja - - - - - - - -
Fire ant - - - - - - -- - -
Formica rufa -------
Formicidae ..---------
Fruit tree red spider -------- -

Gilpinia .polytoma ----------
Gooseberry savawfly - - - - - -
Grampnge ant - - - - - - - -

- - - - - -- 11-12

- - - - - - -6

- - - - - - - 7

- -13

- 7
- 14

- 6
- 6

Honeybee - --- - - - - - - - -- - ---
f I pIra - - - - - - - - - - - -
fulvicornis. See `ioplocampa minute.
minute - - - - - - - - - - - -
testudinea - - - - - - - - - - -
sp* - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Hornet - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Hymenopterous Iprvpe - - - - - - - - -
Hypoclinen bidens. Spe Doli.chorierus (r-T^"oclinep) birdlens.

currant worm - - -
sawfly - - - - -
See also Introduced pine
Intrcuced pine sawvfly -
Iridornyrmyx humilis - -

s awfly.

Janus integer - - ---- - -- -
June sawfly -- - -- ------ - -

Larch sawfly - - - - - - ---
Leaf-wasp larva n -
Lophyrus pini. ,Se.:. DipriQn pini,.
abieti.u. See Pristiphorr abietinus.
pin.i. See Fristiphora nbietinus.

- - 1-'1,27

-- - 15


- - - 27
- - 27
- - 26-27

-~ ~ ~ ~ ~~o - )0
- - - - - - - 5


- - - - - - - 4

- - - - - 26

Mletallus rubi - - - .. - - - - - - - - - 21
Monophadnoides rubi. See Blennocampa rubi.
1iound-building ant - 7
1iyrmica rubra ----- -7

- 30 -

Nlangrang ant - - - - -- - - - - - - - 8
Nematus abietinus. See Pristiphora abietinus.
lecontei - - - - - ----------- - - -' 6
pinetum - - - - - - - - - - - -- 6
sp - - - 6
"... . .... _..; .. .- .- r4" r ..
ITeurotom p .- .--- w -.. 21

Oecqpphylla smnar.agdina -..-. ,* - .- 8
Oligonychus ulrni - ------------------- 18

Pavement ant - - -. .-- - -- '-- --- 9
.Pear- . ... .
sp..vwfly .. - - _. _.- _, .. 20
slug. .. .- ..e 12
Phymatocera aterrima - - .- - - .. .. .- 21,22
s .,wfly - - 6
wasp -- ------------------- 5
Plcgiolepi's lonii.pes. Se- o poloale.pis longi.pes ..
spvrfly .- - 12-15
thrips 14
Prenolepis sp.- -r---------- - - -- - 8
Priophorus rubivorus ---------------21
Pristiphora-- "
abi.etinus--- - - - ---- ------------ 21-22
e'-ichisonii-T - - - - - --------------- 22
ribcsii --.- ------------------ .-- - 2
k s5licis - 25
Raspberry-- .
be.'t Ie .- 3
s-.'rfly ---- -------------------- ---.- -2-1,26
Red- ...
A.meric-n l'"n nt - - - 9--------------------
Snt ------------- - 8-9
spider ------- --- ------------ ..----
.stinring ant ,... --- 9
.Red-he-oed -pi"ne. sawrlly .
s;-"f ly- 1. . .- - - - -.- - .. - - 1-12
slug-. -. ...- .IL-1 ,
Rush sawrfly----- - - - - -- - - - - - - .--

Savwfly ...... ..- 1. 3-26
So1.ndria. atra 2
Solenopsis-- -. -
sp. - - - -- - -- 9
Spruce s,-.wvrfly - -- --------- 21
. i . . . ^ ** ..-'
Tenthrodinid'oe--- ---------- - -1:-26
Tetramorium ca..situi -.--.-.---.-... -. ., -', ---- -- 9
. "

". ..

~- 31
SThrips -
Tomostethus juncivorus-------

Venturia inaequt"lis---------
Vespidae----- --------

'asps -- ----- - - - -
White-pine spw.Ifly -

Yellov knoricpn liwvn ant-----


- - - - - - - 18
- - - -- - 27

- - ---- -- -- ----6

.4 C



-. p.

^ '

- 32 -

Literature cited
1927. Schadlingsbekampfung mit Derris elliptica. Weinbau u.
Xellerw. 6(10) :10S-109.

1937. Long Ashton Research Station. INature [London]
139: 74-875.

1937. Tederlandsche insecten en derris in 1936. Tijdschr.
over Plantenziekten. 43:251-265.
4. AHLBE.G, 0.
1934. Plomnonstekeln. Ett observandum for vara fruktodlare.
[Sweden] Statens Vaxtskyddsanst. Flygbl. 10:4,
illus. [Abstract in Rev. Appl. Ent. (A) 23:626-627.]

1932. Controlling plant pes'.s in southern Africa. 199 PP.,
illus. Johannesburg.

6. AUSTIIT, M. D., JARY, S. G., and 1AR.TI17, H.
1932. Some new, insecticides and possible insecticide-fungicide
combinations. [Wye, Kent] Hort. Ed. Assoc. Year Book

1937. Bienensterben durch Schadlingsbeka'mipfung? Angew. Chem.

1939. Untersuchungen iber den Einfluss von Pflanzenschutzmitteln
auf die Bienen. Ztschr. f. Angew. Ent. 25(4):691-702.

9. BOYD, W. M.
1937. Rotenone in household insect control. Soap 13(6):125, 129.

1933. Report on advisory work 1931-32. B:istol Univ., Agr.
and Hort. Res. Sta. Ann. Rpt. 1932:237-259.

1936. Report on advisory work 1934-35. Bristol Univ., Agr.
and Hort. Res. Sta. Ann. Rpt. 1935:220-247.

12. --------
1937. Report on advisory work 1935-36. Bristol Univ., Agr.
and Hort. Res. Sta. Ann. Rpt. 1936:263-293.

1934. [Rotenone.] Brit. Guiana Dept. Agr., Div. Rpts.

- 33 -

r l4,. BUtSSY, L. P, de, LAANT, P. A-. van der, and DIAKONOFFIT, A.
1936. Bestrljding van nederlandsche insecten met derris.
.. .. ... Tidesohr. over. Plantenziekten. 42:77-100, illus.
1938. Some insects and other pests attacking raspberries and
4 blackberries and how to control them. U.-S. Dept.
Agr., Bur. Ent. and Plant Quar. E-449, 5 pp, [Pro-

16. CAiPBELL, F. L.
1932. Review of information on the insecticidal value of
rotenone. U. S. Dept. Agr., Bur. Ent. E-298,
28 pp. [Processed.]

1937. [Rotenone.] Colo. Expt. Sta. Ann. Rpt. (1936-37)
S50:28. .
18. DANIEL D. M.
S3,928. Biology and. control of the blackberry leaf miner.
N. Y. State Agr. Expt. Sta. Tech. Bul. 133, 37 PP.

19. DIETZ, H. F.
1938. Some interesting facts about ants and their habits
and suggestions as to effective methods of control.
Du Pont de Nemours, E. I. & Co., Agr.,News Let.
S. 6(5):75-77.

20. DOMIES, 7.
1939.. Derris for ants and wasps. Jour. Econ.. Ent.,
21. DURHIAM, H. E.
1926. Non-arseni'cal preparations for garden use. Gard.
Chron. (ser. 3) 79(2047):213-214.

22. DUTTQN, W.-C., HUTSON, R., and CATII..T, D. ,
1936. Spraylng calendar. tNich. State Col. Ext. Bul.454:45.

S1933.: [Derris.] East Mailing [Kent] Res. Sta. Ann. Rpt.
(1932) 20:112.
1931. [Entomology,.] East Malling [Kent] .Res. Sta. Ann. Rpt.
(1933) 21:52-55.

25. ----
1934., A field spraying trial of combined fungicide-contact
insecticide sprays in 1933. A progress report.
East Malling [Kent] Res, Sta. Ann. Rpt. (1933)

26. -
1935. [Derris.] East Mailing [Kent] Res. Sta. Ann. Rpt.
(1934) 22:165-172.
V ~o

.3 4 "- '* ":

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72. ----- and STULTZ, H. T.
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73. KLIGER ,-j{.
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- 39 -

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- 4o -

101. POTTS, S. F. .
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- 41 -

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Junior Author Index

Abbott, W. S. See McIndoo, ii. E., 86
Anderson, H. WV. See Flint, W. P., 30
Anderson, L. D. See Walker, H. G., 121
Austin, N. D. See Jary, S. G., 58
Cation, D. See Dutton, W. C., .22
Diakonoff, A. Sec Bussy, L. P. de, 14 and Spoon, Wd, 109
Gorhar, R. P. Sec Kelsall, A., 71
Hassan, A. A. G. See Steer, VT., 111
Hutson, R. See Duttcn, W. C., 22
Jary, S. G. See iustin, I1. D., 6
Laan, P. A. van der. See Bussy, L. P. de, 14-and Spoon, W., 108, 109
Miaercks, H. See Jancke, 0., 57
1hrsh, R. W. See Kearns, H.OG. H., 60, 61, 62, 63, 64
TWartin, H. See Austin, M. D., 6 and Kearns, H. G. H., 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67
Miles, H. See MTiles, H. W., 88
Moore, M. H. See Hey, G. L., 44
Nitsche, G. See Trappmann, W., 115
Pearce, T. J. P. See Kearns, H. G. H., 64
Pierstorff, 'A. *L. See Parks, T. H., 97
Roach, W. At See Fryer, J. C. F., 31 and Tattersfield, F., 113
Roesler, R. See Jahr ke, 0., 56
Schmitt, J. B. See Ginsburg, J. TH., 37
Sievers, A. F. See Mclndoo, N. E., 85, 86
Smulders, C. M. L. See Spoon, W., 109
Spittall, J. P. See Kelsall, A., 71
Steer, W. 'See Hey, G. L., 44, 45, 46
Stenton, R. Soc Fryer, J. C. F., 31
Stultz, H. T. See Kolsall, A., 72
Svrarbrick, T. Soee Koarns, H. G. H., 68
Tattersfield, F. See Fryer, J. C..F., -31
Thomas, I. Soo Pcthcrbridgo, F. R., 93, 99
Unpleby, E. See Koarns, H. G. H., 69
Walker, G. P. See Kelsall, A., 71
Walton, C. L. Sec Koarns, H.'G. H., .70
Webster, R. L. Seo Hanson, A. J., 42


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