%STATE PLANT BOARD
UNITED STATES DZPATTIEVT .- ',-i'LT'E
A%'.TCi..T, PAL F .-:' A 'T F :--..TTr .'
BU[T7-FA C ri: C : r.. .;" .' .,IA rA"TI T
A IEVIE' OF 'THE I'!SF'?` C iDAL USFS CF OT.'F;OrT .::: f. T7, DS
1P1'i DEF'-S, LO;ICH CA:FUS (CU'BE A;DT TIMrO), TE Kr-CSI-, ."..;D
T, K ._ f Er IT ` '1-TS
PART IV: HEM_.IFTEPA
By R. C. F%.a'-:, DivisL'un of ins.eticide I.v.st 1-at-. cnn-
Introducti n - -
Hemiptera: - -
Ciricidae - -
Co 'Cr 1,:] - -
L:,".i?. ae - -
F -trii'ae - -
Pyrr-hoc rilae -
P.Reduviidae - -
Tin-itidae - -
Insect index - -
Literature cited -
-I The manuscript o"' t1.is publicsti'-r, res rewd b'-y the f':,llorn-
leaders of research divisions of z.jTs Bureau, v:,-,c cc- r -n.-,ited hcl cf.il
sugge'tiocns: D. L. Van Dine, Frvit Insect Invezti c-tiCr s; V'. H. V-h.te,
Truc' Cron. ..ni Gn irdeTn I-sect i..vest i-ti*:_; c P s !.. Ha.r1d, .*$.:c.t.t' Il.sect
Investi-aticns; F. C. l s-hoip, assista ?-.ief of J3-r-c, f e'l n
charro of Insects Affec'tin -L ad n s; C fU. eeb!-, .:ect
Identification: L. A. p&-Wkirs, Cr.rtr'-l In,'.sti- : r.. 0- ; r-.1 C. .. Fk1:r!.ard,
Cereal and Forage Insect ILves3tij-aticns. i'he v vist..c," .f sfec"c1s
in thi:- Division of Insect IC'e:tific:ttior; in c!zs-ifl-:'- the ins-.cts
mentioned herein as to order ard fP' -nl. is 'r?.tiLf':l 1: ac.cv.r'lcd :..
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INTRODITC II? N
This is the fourth in a series of papers designed to review all
available inforn.Gion oi the insecticidal uses of rotenone and the
rotenoids. Part I reviewed tests with Derris, cube, timbo, Te1pi,-' ;ia,
Mundulea, and their constituents on -aembebrs of the orders Collembola,
Orthoptera, Dermaptera, Odonata, Iscptera, Corrodentia, and Yallophaga.
Apparently no tests have been recorded of the effects of th- rotenone
plants upon ThyE'..ur-., Ephemeroptera, or Plecoptera. Part II reviewed
the tests that have been made on Thysanc-tera; Part III, the tests on
Homoptera; and Part IV, the present paper, reviews the tests that have
been made on Hemiptera.
Cimex lectularius L., the bedbug
Daniels (15) in 1905 wrote that for some time derris had been
used most succes'sTu lyv to destr- bedbugs in jails in Perak, Dritish
I cT.ndoo, Sievers, and Abbott (59) in 119 reported that derris
w'as tested a-,.ain st bedbu s by placin-ZD bu.-:; in a jar th a quantity
of excelsior and then thorou-hly drsti-g the contents of the jar. In
nine tests under these ver severe conditions 24.4 percent of tl-e bu, s
were. iled in 24 hour. ard 52,8 percent in 4 days. The authors con-
cluded that derris would be of no practical value against bedbugs.
Kelsall et al. (53) in 1925 confined a number of bedbugs in a
vial with derris dust. They were active for 2 hours, but all were dead
after 3-1/2 hours.. .
Deiussy et al. (7) in 135 reported that the bedbug proved insen-
sitive to rotenone and to dorris powd r.
Van dor Laan (55) in ]U3's reported that the bedbug was not affected
T au&e (39) in 1'`3- discussed the pros and cons .of bedbug control
One State (not specified) recommended rotenone spray for bedbug control.
The use o .owdercd insecticides in bedbug control is generr.lly unsatis-
factory because el tf difficulty in ettinr -the .material into cracks
and crevic-s wihrcc the insects abound. Pyrethrumn and derris powders
are very toxic tc bedb' w s wicn the'y can be hit with the dust but have no
value acaJInst thc S. In liquid insecticide designed primarily for
bedbug control, it is generally aduisable-.to have a concentration of
approximately 0C,1 to 0.2 percent of actual rotcone in an oil base of
suitable viscosity. Ethy!len-. dic>loride, cyclohlixanore, and a nu:nber
of patented solvents are being used ;rL, & ctrolcno m oils to increase the
solubility-, of rotencne therein, .ic to-Jic action of rotenone sprays
against bedbugs is slow but may be cffecive for a ;.-ook or more, a
characteristic not i-eunr in other ccr only used contact insecticides.
Hockenyos (41) in 1940 discussed bdbi:g control. Rotenone
and derris are unquestionably effective. Derris po-wcer kills bedbugs
in a few hours. wallpaper r impregnated with rotenone kills bedbugs in
contact with it. The kill does not start until about 48 hours after
contact and some bugs survive for 96 hours. The sprays tested were
made up in different ways, with the rotmrone in true solution in some
cases and in a state of colloidal suspension in oil in other cases.
On- Percent of rotenone was used in these tests. The -all:;.per was
dipped in the rotenone solution or suspension and then thoroughly dried.
One suspension, in which dissolved rubber was the suspending agent, Y.as
tried on e practical scale and, although it gave results superior to
these obtained with ordinary nonresidual killnin,, agents, it is doubtful
whether '-,he practice could be regarded as economical. Occasionally
operators apply a paste to beds that are subject to frequent reinfesta-
tion. Such a paste -:: be made by dissolving 1 ounce of dcrris resin
in 1/2 pint of oleic acid wth gentle hIeating and then adding this
solution to sufficient' vaseline to make up a quart, This may be
brushed into the cracks and other hiding places of the bugs.
Acanthocoris scabrator (F.)
The Federated Iralay States Depart'-ent of agriculture (23) in
1934 reported tiat adults and larvae of tVhis bug were used as test
insects in spraying and dusting experiment with derris. The adults
were also used in tests made the .ollo.ring year (24).
Killer (64) in I?3 published a report on th-e toxic value of
different species of der'is in T.hich tests on this insect are recorded.
Owing to its active habits, this species is unsuitable for use in
spraying experiments but was used in in" ersion experimenrts. The
adults immersed in a suspension of rotern- e- 1:5,000 (prepared by
adding an acetone extract to .water), plus sulfonated castor oil,
suffered an average mortality of 56 percent irn 4 days; the sulfonated
castor oil alone produced a mortality of 30 percent in the same time.
with tannic acid added as a stabilizer rotenone at 1:2,000 killed an
average of 60 percent and at 1:4,000 it killed an aver,-. of 57.5
percent in 3 days. The control of acetone aud tannic acid caused no
Anasa tristis (De.. ), tihe scquaslh "ug
A dust of equal parts of derris and er ted l1 e had a rently
no effect or tVie squash hut. -.elsall -t al. (53) in II-2?.
Davidson (17) in 1950 reported that ihrhen rryed on the hibr--
nating adults and n s on squash a suspension of rotecnone in :ater
at a concentration of 1 in. to 250 cc. of water -illed ]0 percent and
at one-half this concentration it killed 5 percent. A dust made by
mixing 2 parts of rotenone w;ith 98 parts of diatomaceous earth killed
less than 50 percent.
Sprays prepared by addcing an rcetone solution of rotenone to water
wore ineffective against the n)mphs.--Darley (16) in l131.
Jones and Pav-idson (47) in 19l31 reported that rotenone and derris
extracts prepared with fish oil have a high toxicity to squash bugs.
Carmp-bell () in 1932 reviewed the rotenone tests made by Darley
(16) and Davidsoz (17) on squash bugs.
Gnadinger (33) in 1933 referred to unpublished work Gy -insburg,
*who found pyrethrins more toxic than rotenone to squash buj*.
The Alabama Agricultural Experiment Station (1) in 1935 reported
that derris alone was not very effective but when nixed i.rlth sulfur vwas
of some viuve as a repellent.
Derris dusts and sprays were ineffective, according to Hixson
of Oklahoma, as reportedly by Cory (87) in 1935.
Elliott (18) in 1935 reported tests of insecticides for the con-
trol of the squash brug,. Fotenone dust -killed only about 25 percent of
the third instars. I:otccide cprsy at 1:1C00 .as effective ajgi'st the
00 t -i reisul of tests
,.al:er and Anderson (94,) in r-orte the rsuls of tests
made at the Vir, inia Truck E: .periircnt S`ation, near 'orfoll, Va. On
two different occasions adult sqoash bugs ri. uratc-d into small fields
of young squash, and in each cas, ore dusting o' the infested plants
.with a derris dust cctain-n 0O.E orcc-t of rotenone gave very suc-
cessful control. IToweveor, no tests were conducted under conditions of
heavy infestation or here all states of tYe insect were present.
Thec Idaho Agricultural Lxperiment Station (43) in 1936 reported
that cube-kaolin dust (0.2 percent roteonore) readily killed rnmphs of
the squash. bug, but squash vir.es soon were reinvested.
iascmna((37) in 1937 reported testing derris dusts and sprays
against the squash" bug i.n Nissc!iri without much success.
C. L. Smith (79) in 1I37 obtained ? 92-porcent reduction in 48
hours with a spray cl 5 pounds of d.rris powder (4 percent rotenone)
plus 4 oo1ds 11 ounces of soap; and a reduLction o0 78 percent in the
s:-rpe tie "ith .~t dust cont.ain- g 0.75 nercent of rotenone. These tests
,7,3r ma i Ie u- ga ir. s n yr.plils.
Bc3rd (3) in 1939 reported or. the control Cf the common squash-
bug in Ccncticu. Several rotcrnoe spr/'.ys and dusts wore iven
laboratory trial 3, but ncne de on.,trcteod sufficient toxicity against
the bug to warrart field e ..ri.. o.ts.
Fulton and Howard (27, 28) in 1938 reported on the effect..on
the toxicity to plant bugs of addirn, oil to derris and other insecti-
cides. Derris powrder containing 4.5 percent of roteno:le and 14.5
percent of total.extractives (carbon tetrachloride) -Vas ad-ed to
emulsions of ,,T, teaseed, corn, cottonseed, linseed, peanut, olive,
and soybean oils, and also to heavy petrolat.m o-1, arn- vr.s tested
against squash bugs and the large milkweed bug (Oncopeltus fascietus
The oil emulsions with derris were prepared with the foiol-w !ing
quantities: Technical sodium- lauryl sulfate, 0.1 gm. (0.3 -.. ii some
tests); water 5 cc., oil 2 cc. (4 cc. for 2-percent e:.,nisC r:s); derris
0.44 m. (for spray of 0.01 perber.t rotenone ccnteint); and water to
make 200 cc., unless ot erwise noted. T combined so..u. l.ur, sulfate
and water was stirred with an electric niier unt l the forr'er was corn--
pletely dissolved. The measured quantity of the oil was then slowly
added and the mixture was stirred for several minutes until an emulsion
was obtained. The derris vwas introduced and the m---ture a ain stirred.
7- ter wrafs then added to obtain the desired dilution. The derris in
.acetone vwas pi-r.-red by mxinF 0.555 gi. of derris w-ith 5 cc. of acetone
and allowing it to stand for 24 hours before adding the other materials.
The triethanolari ne oleate used in the derris-acetone emulsions v.as made
by stirring. to .ether equal volumes oi triethanolamine and oleic acid in
the mixer. It was used at the rate cf 0.2 cc, to 200 cc. of the final
The results obtained with the squash bug ,ay be surira"zed as
follor!s: The to..icity of der-is, nicotine, nicotine sulfate, and anabasine
sulfate was mark-edly increased by the use of oils, especially peanut oil
Also, the tcxicit-/ of derris vas greatlyv increased when acetone- v.'as added
to the ] order 24 hours befcre use, and still further increased -hen peanut
oil vras usd. Freshly prepared derris cxtr...ct wXas ver- effective. T'-.,-
ve, cL. ble oils increased thc toxocity- at much greater dee-roe than %he
The m'lkw-eed "',' is not so resistant to insecticides as is the
squash bug, and it is relatively more susceptible at the hi -r humidity.
In the few tests w-,ith the milkweed bug, mineral dil was practically as
effective as the peanut oil, ,ut t-his 7Trs not te case n tcts Fith
the squash bu-. o-rowver, all the oils increased the toxicity of derris.
Foliag-e tests in the field on five varieties of half-r-rowri
squash plants indicated that two a L!) cet ions of sprays ccitainIngi
derris (0.015 percent rotenone) and1 pe rent of one of the following
oils were not injurious to t7e plUant: Olive, peanut, teasecd, and
A cube or derris dust (j p)rccnt rotenone) controlled the nimphs
and partially controlled the adults.--Zaudo (-8) in i3'59.
Corizus Hyalinus (F.)
CIc:inney (60) reported in 193S that preliminary cage tests at the
Phoenix, Ariz., 1T1borEtory of the Bureau indicated that a derris dust
mixture contc inng 1 percent of rotenone -;"ith clay as a diluent V.Us
effective in controlling the adults of C. hy:,linus, vhich had been causing
considerable damage to lettuce grovr for seed in the Salt River Valley of
Arizona and in the Yuma Valley. This dui.st mixture, ho-.rever, vwa.s not so
effective against the nymphs as ag:aist the adults.
MecKinT..Cr (61) in 1940 reported that derris-sulfur-talc and paris
grc,':-su] r-t.7J d--usts controlled Corizus sp. in small experimental
plots of lctt c'- bei. gro-mi for seed at Phoenix, Ariz. In one test
3 applicaticrns of a dorris dust containing 0.5 percent of rotenone in a
mixture of 1 -' of sulfur to 3 parts of talc gave 94-percent control
of the ac 'Its Ol-oercent control of n7Tiphs where there was an over-.age
of 857 nm'phs ;L. 2:.1 adults per plant on the undustcd plots. In the
same test a r:tiUrc containing 1 part of pD.ris green to 4 parts of sulfur
and 5 of t ir gav-_ 93-percent control of the adults and 91-percent con-
trol of tho nyrhs. 'hc derris-sulfur mixture vs,. applied at the rate
of 60 p crd s p,_r *.cro or rplication, end the paris green-sulfur mixture
at the r'-to of 49 Founds. During the period of those tests there :.:rc
decided -ncrse oin e infestations of n-,r.ahs and adults of Corizus sp.
on the tu.,rn.... l mIts in the siCes. p"ilic Thins at in.trrvals of 5
days or >ss m.v beo necesso.ry to combat rcinfstaition of the lettuce
brought -bout b1, the influx of this plant bug from outside sources and
the rcridu rate cf its dcveolopmcnt.
Dasynus priperis China
Van der Vecht (90) in 19536 reported that an infestation of this
species on black pepper on the island of Bankia vas reduced to about 3
percent -.ith a us.st containing 1.5 percent of rotenone and to about 6
percent b- sprawing vith a suspension containing 0.04 percent of rotenone.
Dusts and sprays diluted to half these strengths failed to give satisfac-
Leptocorisa acuta (Thunbg.)
This insect did not thrive in captivity and proved unsatisfactory
as a. test i-.-se f-ur sqrayi- an dusting experiments iith derris.--
ie er.'.ed -'lay States Department of Jgriculture (25) in 1934.
T:-s insect on rice may be killed by spraying r'ith derris.--Van
der Vechit (90) in 1536.
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Phthia picta (Drury), a tomato bug
Fenton (26) in 1936 reported excellent control of this insect in
the Rio Grande Valley by the liberal application of a der-is-sulfur dust
(0.5 percent rotenone).
According to S. E. Jones (49) in 1958, P. picta has been a
recognized pest of summner-grown tomatoes in southern l exas since ].933.
It has been found in seven semiarid counties southwest of San Antonio and
in the lower Rio Grande Valley. Preliminary control trst" in -v:hich screen
cages wecreused to confine the insects on the tomato plants wvore conducted
during August ond September 1935. Both adults and nymphs vrwre used in
these tests and Lreatment ".ith each material vwas replicotcd six times or
more. The average kills of nymphs and adults obtained in cage tests with
the various dusts are tabulated as follows:
Derris-sulfur, 0.75 percent rotenone 97
Derris-sulfur, 0,5 percent rotenone 85
Pyrethrum-sulfur, 0.125 percent pyrethrins 5
Nicotine-sulfate-lime, 10 percent
nicotine sulfate 5
A derris-sulfur mixture containing 0.75 percent of rotenone vas
used on a field scale during 1955 and again in 1936. Tvo applications
of this dust at the rate of 25 pounds per acre were effective in keeping
this insect under control.
Physomnerus grossipes (F.)
Used as a test insect by Miller (54) in 1935 in studying the toxic
value of different species of derris. The insects were immersed in solu-
tions and suspensions of toxic materials.
Blissus hirtus Montd., the hairy chinch bug
Eaxv:ell and iLacLeod (62) in 1i36 reported tests of insecticides
against the hairy cinch br., Areas of turf 16 square feet or more in
size were treated in rlimi-ry exn-erinents. The nost satisfactory
dry materials from the stanont of cost, efi-ectiverss, eand safety
were roteno-oe and tobacco usth. ihe 0.5 ,ercert and 1 percent reterone
dusts used were commercial prparationr. A dust containing 1 percent of
rotenone, applied at the rate of 25 pounds per 1,000 sruarc feet, caused
65-percent mortality in 1954, and 61-percent mortality in 1935; and a
dust co.itai*rir-- 0.5 percent rotenone caused 70.2-percent mortality in
1935, These results were rcfc
ment Station at Corncll University (66) in its 1936 annual report
publishedd in 1937).
The Connecticut Agricultural F-.r.-riment Station (13) in 1939
recommended tobacco dust containing, 1 p.rccnt of nicotine, or cube dust
containing 1 percent of rotenone, at the rate of 25 pounds to 1,000
square feet of lawn area, for the control of the hairy chinch bug in
Connecticut. It vas recommended that the first brood be treated,
preferably in the younger nymphal sto ges, about the first week of June.
In very hcavry infestations a second application should be made the
following week. The second brood should be treated about August 10, and
a second application, if necessary, should be made about August 20. As
the hairy chinch bug is difficult to control satisfactorily, examinations
should be made to determine the growth stage of the insect, so that the
insecticide may be applied, at the best time.
Haude (38) in 1939 recommended a cube or dorris dust (0.75 to 1
percent rotenone) at 6 to 10 pounds per 1,000 square feet of lavwn. The
dust should be applied during the hottest part of the duy, and best
results have been obtained by not watering it in.
Blissus leucopterus (Say), the chinch bug
The Kansas Agricultural Exp'eriment Station (50) in 1934 reported
that young chinch buss on 7heat iL an experimental planting -..ere con-
trolled by crn anpplication of Derrisol.
'icha.rdson, Deonier, and Simanton (73) in 1937 reported tests of
certain insecticides against the chinch bug, In laboratory tests pyre-
thrum e.tract in dilute acetone solution w s highly toxic on the basis
of total -yrethrin co-ntent and about equal to derris extract wJhen the
cor certr'.tion oi the latter was e:preesed as rotenone. On the above-
mentioned bases both pyrethrum extract ard derris extract w-ere much more
toxic than rote;rone. The lattc-r was almost nontoxic to adults and fifth
instars. There was no difference in toxicity between acetone and carbon
tetrachloride extra.cts of dorris. 'Khen tested as a spray, rotenone
wvas less effective in the field than in the laboratory, as were- also the
derris extracts. In the field powdered derris (5.7 percent rotenone)
used as a dust against third and fourth instars gave the following results:
Dosage per acre Estimated mortality in --
iounds 2 hours 4 hours 24 hours
Percent Percent Percent
7.2 5 15 25
25.1 10 25 75
The ar'proxima.te order of toxicity in the laboratory of the various
ratcrials based on thr median lethal concentrations for the adults Tas
as follows: Pyrcthrins = drris extract (based on rotenone content)>
nicotine '> sodium-base laundry soap > other potassium and sodium soaps >
piperidine kerosene-naphtl-alene enulsjon >kerosene emulsion. Rotenone
is not included because the toxicity data are insufficient.
Nysius ericac (Schillo), the false chinch bug
Dorris-fuller's-earth dusts (rotenone 0.5 and 1.0 percent) gave
practically no kill of this .nsecct on turnrips in the lowtr Rio Grande
Valley.--Fenton (26) in 1936.
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Oncopeltus fasciatus (Dall.), the large milkweed bug
See Fulton.and Howard (27) under A.s o. tristis (Deg.) on :a"e 5.
Oxyl-ens spp., Rutherglen bugs
Jarvis (46) in .1951 reported that Katakilla, 5 pounds per 100
imperial 1.-11lons of vi-ater, killed 7C.2 percent of bt'h adults and
Calocoris fulvo:iaculatus (Deg.)
C ],r pc r -r e bug~ .
CroLor. =re i: us CGiel., a t o-spotted green bug
Van der Laan (55) in 1956 reported these species to be sensitive to
Pear trees infested -vith C. i'ulvcmaculatus yielded more fruit vLen
dusted .ri.th derris (rctenone 1 or 2 percent than vrhen sprayed .rith 0.1
percent of ricctine.--DeBussy et al. (6) in 1936.
Dicyphus minimum TUhl., the suckfly
Excellent control -:.,as obtaied by d.ustin. vith derris-sulfur
(0,5 percent rotenone) at the rate of 30 pounds per acre,--Fenton (26)
Halticus citri (Ashm.), the garden flea hopper
Chamberlin (II) reported that during the lI53 gro.-ing season at
Quincy, Fla., a snail field of tobacco, very heavily infested vith the
garden flea hopper, T.as dusted with derris. A few. rowrs were treated
with undiluted, finely ground derris root and the remainder v.ith dilute
material. A total of nine applications v.r:re continued throughout the
greater part of the gro-,ing season. Ko appreciable control could be
Van der Scheer (75) in 1955 reported that a rotenone-benzone
emulsion in v:ater at c concentration of 1:5,000 rotenone gave good control.
This species on tea _Tav, perhaps, b!c controlled ('-_ austs containing
about 0.5 percent of rotcnone.-Van der Vccht (90) in 1953.
Heterocordylus malinus Reut., a dark apnplo red'ug
Ly;gidec mendax r'.:ut., the a'pl' rcdbug
Parrott, Glasgor-, and JIacLood (71) in 1921 r r.:rtel tests with a
number of materials against two species of nlant bv:., na-nmely, the
bright rcdbug (L. mendax) and the dark rcdbug (-.: ..c :...:.. i mal inus
Reut.). A dorris-soap compound was us-'d, a commnercial prcparati Torrisol?
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assumed to contain approximately 1/2 pound of powdered dorris root and
6 pounds of soap per gallon. This dorris-soap mixture was used at the
rate of 10 pounds to 100 gallons of Tatcr. Applied at the rate of 13-1/5
gallons per tree, the derris-soap mixture killed 99.2 percent of the
insects. This same mixture, in three different tests, injured 6, 6.3,
and 14.1 percent of 0he apples, the avergo being 13.2 percent. Derris
and tobacco dust, applied either in dry state or r.'ith limo-sulfur, dis-
played high toxicity against redb'i:s Kopp (54) in 1924, in a review of
the insecticidal uses of dcrris, referred to the above report,
The in.- York County agents' Training School (67) held at Ithaca
on December 19, 1938, heard reports on rotonone products as follows:
A spray of 3 pounds of cube plus wettablc sulfur gave a control of 73.7
percent of the bright apple redbug on Mclntosh apples. ITicotine sulfate
at 1:800 plus lime-sulfur gave the best control', namely, 93.9 percent.
Lygu.s apicalis Fieb.
Smith, Clark, and Scales (80) at Tallulah, La., in 1934 compared
the eff'tivencs of derris, cube, and other insecticides against L.
apicali3 In ca'.s and in the field. Both derris and cube contained 4
perren- i'2 ro rne. ie insecticides vere applied as dusts, according
to the i','lI procedure for field dust'r;-, with a small hand dust gun.
The re.',i2,s vere as follov.s:
Treatment : Lortalitv of..
-___ : Adu1A3h .: [ s"
Cube only - - - 41-- ,5 3
Derris only - - 51,3 4.1,1
Derris + sulfur(l+7)- 68.6 71.6
Calcitun arsenate- - 33.3 58,6
Check - - - - 18.8 13.7
As sho-nz in the table, cube 'as not equal to derris of equal
rotenone cont-nt. The highest kill of both adults and nymphs 'vas ob-
tained -:ith the derris-sulfur dust of high est sulfur content.
Lygus camoestris (L.)
A ,-rou d -ixture of 2.5 arts of Derris ellrtica rot, 7.5 parts
of saba- -'. .cs, ard 90 parts of talcum, pr,:v-:,K u'_- K! in exterminating
thror "e i 3 J3taad of the drugs, their effective rxtr&cts or the al-
ka' <. "ooe'ed ti-irefron .ay be used; for instance, by mixinC 0,2
pV ;* one, 0.3 percent of veratrin, and 99.5 percent of kaolin.--
Sci;r *; -nitz (76) in 1935.
:In 1936 Cassidy and barberr in a quarterly report to the Division
of Cctton Insect Investigaticns of the Bureau, stated that in plat tests
cube v;as less effective (45.2-percent control) than derris'(62.8-percent
control) against L, hesperus.
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Lyrus oblineatus (L.), the tarnished plant bug
The Ontario Department of Agriculture (69) in 1934 reported that
derris extract vas of little value for the control of the tarnished
plant bue on celery.
Thompson (85) in 1934 recorded tests against the tarnished plant
bug on celery in Ontario. Derris powder mixed with fresh hydrated lime
vwas used at the rate of 1 pound of derris to 20 pounds of lime as a dust.
The material was applied with a hand duster on a calm day. Penetration
vwas poor, and examinations carried on over a period of 2 weeks failed to
show any difference in the extent of damage on the treated rows, as com-
pared v.ith those in the check. Derris was also applied as a spray at
the rate of 1 pound of derris to 20 imperial gallons of water to which
a quarter of a pound of laundry soap had been added. The active principle
of the derris -as extracted by treating the pound of pow-der with 1 pint
of methyl alcohol. Derris did not prove of any value against any stage
of the tarnished plant bug, either as a dust or as a spray.
Cory (37) in 1935 reported that Farcovitch of Tennessee obtained
very good control in cage tests with a dust consisting of 1 part of
derris and 7 parts of talc.
The Division of Cotton Insect Investigations of this Bureau, in
a memorandum to R. C. Roark, dated Deceiber 2, 1936, reported the following
results of tests against the tarnished plant bug at Tallulah, La., and
Port Lava-ca, Tex., in 1936:
Treatment : Vortality
: I,._,1.r3 Adults
Derris 40 percent, sulfur 60 percent
(rotenone 1.6 percent) - 46,7 43.1
Derris 20 percent, sulfur 80 percent
(rotenone 0.8 percent) - 76.8 47.1
Derris 10 percent, sulfur 90 percent
(rotenone 0.4 percent) 59.4 36.7
Derris rotenonee 4 percent)- - - - - 78.7 68.2
Check- - - - - - - - - - - 66.6 28.9
Cube (rotenone 4 percent)- - - ---- - -- 67.5 64.5
Sulfur. - - - - - - - - - - 45.6 35.9
Tenphrosia virginiana (rotencre 1.7 percent)- 54,6 43.3
- 12 -
Smith and Scales (81) in 1937 reported the following results of
insecticidal tests on L. pratensis confined in cages on cotton:
MTaterials and proportions : mortality Control
:--______ y;..s .::.'Its: Kymphs Adults
Percent Percent Percent Percent
(rotenone 0.49 percent) - 79 52 71 21
Pyrethrum-sulfur 40:-60 - - - 74 78 63 63
Pyrethrumrn (0.76 percent total
pyrethrins) - - 90 88 86 80
Sulfur - - - - - - - 70 41 58 3
Checks --- - - - - - - 29 40 --
Cube-pyrethrum 40:60 (rotenone 1.96
percent)- -5 54 49
Cube-sulfur 20:80 (rotenone 0.98
percent) -- 33
Cube-sulfur 10:90 (roteonon 0.49
percent) -- -- -- 12
Cube (rctenone 4.9 percent) ---- -- -- 2 50
Derris dusts j-kve promisinrS results against L. pratensis on
chrysanthemum. A dust containinvu sulfur, derris, and nicotine seemed
to be superior to one contain' ng derris and nicotine and also to one
consisting mainly of derris.--[Cheshunt] E-perimentl -and Research
Station (12) in 1938.
Smith, Scales, and oines (82) in April 11.39 reported tests made
at Tallulah, La., in 1938 with insecticides on caged cotton plants out
of doors. In tests a ainst adults of the tarnished plant bug, derris
containing 4.3 percent of rotenone was only sliShtly more effective than
when diluted vith sulfur to contain approximately 1 percent of rotenone,
while both the derris and the derris-sulfur mixture were more effective
than sulfur alone.
The same authors (85) in December 5'39 reported the results of
tests against L. pratensis adults with derris as follows:
- 13 -
4.3 percent rotenone alone- - -
wit-h 1 percent vrettinr agent B- -
v-ith 1 percent YTettirn agent C- -
with 1 percent wetting agent A- -
S,1-t mortality on --
SCn t on C -- i n
: c9 ....C e @!sis
- -$5- 49~
3 6 30
mixture 1:3 alone -------
w-ith 1 percent wettinr agent B-
Twibh 1 percent wetting agent C-
with 1 percent wetting azent A-
alone- - - - - - - - -
with 1 percent 'vettirg agent B - -
writh 1 Dercent 7rettirg agent C - -
with- 1 percent .'wettinl- a rent A - -
The addition of 'rettinr -,en-s to these insecticides rnd mixtures
does not app ear jnaterially to affect the net mortality. These results
are based on nine rerlicaticns.
Lygus simonyi Peut., a coffee bug
tee LePelley (57) under Antestia orbitalis (Te.tw.), page 16.
L '.Iu s sp.
Cube dust ave 70-porcent co.trcl, derris dust (4 percent rotenone)
80-percent control, and fyrethrun Just 100-percent control in tests made
on c -,ed cotton plants in the field arnd in lantern -lobes in the insectary.-
Cassidy and Barber (10) in 1935.
Mertila malayensis Dist.
Leefmans (56) in 1931 reported tnat a spray of derris and soap
gave good result ts s-:-st t` :-.sid Ierti] a malevensis Dist., attacking
orchids in the Vetherlards I dies.
Plesiocoris ruiccllis (Fall.), a2 arple capsid bug
Kearns, Iarsh, and Pearce (52) in 1933 re' orted that derris suray
gives a good measure of control of cepsids (probabl- P. ru,.icollis) on
apple trees in En laand.
- 14 -
Kearns, iarsh, and I.lartin (51) in 1936 reported tests in England
with the folloin-g: 8 ounces of nicotine, 1.5 gallons of lime-sulfur,
1 pound of sulfonated Lorol to 100 imperial gallons of total solution;
1.2 ounces of rotenone, 1..18 pints of acetone, 1.5 gallons of liT.e-
sulfur, 1 pound of sulfonated Lorol to )00 gallons of total solution.
The rotenone spray was prepared by the addition of an acetone solution
(5.13 percent) of rotenon'Ie t the dilute lime sulfur-sulfonated Lorol
solution. The ivashe- were aoplied in drenching amounts on i'ayr 17, 1S34,
each to 4- trees selected at r.:ndcm, 4 other trees being left unsprayed
as control. Immediately after spraying, small numbers of cnpsid nymphs
and half-;-rovm winter-moth larvae were collected from the sprayed trees
and '!,:ept under observation. Iany of the insects collected from the
rotenone-sprayed trees remained active for an hour but paralysis then
set in, a.nd 15 hours later all the capsids and larvae --cre moribund.
The nicotine iash proved equally effective insofar as the capsids were
concerned but about half of the Yinter moth larvae recovered and con-
tinued normal feeding. The set of blossom on the trees a.-.s satisfactory
and the total number of caosid-markod and clean fruit on each tree ,as
ascertained during the third wcek of August. The results show that
nicotine and rct-rono,, at the respective concentrations used, were '
equally effective vhcn ap ?lied in conjunction vdth lime-sulfur and sul-
fonated Lordl for the control of the' apple capeid.
Psallus scriatus (Eout.), the cotton flea hopper
The Texas Agricultural E:ncrimet Station (84) in 1925 reported
that a spray of Derrisol reduced infestatin by the cotton flea hopper,
but sulfur dusts gave bettor results.
Fhwing (19) in 1935 reported rotenone dusts to be ineffective. Cube
powder (4 percent rotenone) gave a control of 9.7 percent offadults and
14 percent of nymphs.
Eswing (20) in 1936 reported the results of cage toxicity tests
with 20 dusting materials against the cctwAon flea hopper. Results vw-ith
cube and devil's-shoestrings (rotenone 1.7 percent, total carbon tecra-
chloride extractives 7.5 percent) were as follo-rs:
Insecticide : Adults yrp. : 1v-r.c
Percent Percent Percent
Pyrethrum-cubc-sulfur (10:10:80)- ----15.0 67.0 41.0
Devil's-shoostrings-sulfur (23.5:76.5)- - 11.8 63.8 37.8
DPvil's-shocstrings-sulfur (47:53)- ---9.2 42.2 25.7
Devil 's-sheocstrings-sulfur (94:6)----- 8,4 26.7 17.6
Untreated checks7-- - - - - - - 6.,0 11.0 8,5
SAverage mortality among 865 adults in 18 cages and 998 n :.s in 21 cago
(D e an 9 -n0. n
- 15 -
The maximum mortality (82 percent) of adults was given by a mixture
of 10 parts of air-floating paris -reen and 0SO parts of sulfur; the maxi-
mum mortality (93.5 percent) of nymphs vas riven by a mixture 6f 40 parts
of pyrethrum (pyrethrins 0.9 percent) and 60 parts of sulfur.
Ewing and i'cGarr (21) in 1937 reported results of insecticidal
tests against the cotton flea hopper in 1933, 1934: and 1935 at Port
Lavaca, Tex. Cotton flea hopper :1ymphs and adults -:ere introduced into
screen cages late in the afternoon of the day preceding the beginning of
the experiment. The dust applications -.-ere made early in the mornings,
usually shortly after sunrise. Pow:dered derris root and cube root, each
containing approximately 4 percent of rotenone, w-ere tried a-iit the
flea hopper. I!either of these materials showed any promise. The kill of
adults from derris root Tvas about 4 percent and of nymphs about 7 percent.
The cube root gave a kill of 2 percent of adults and no kill of nymphs.
Derris mixed v.ith sulfur, 1 part to 4 parts by weight, gave a mortality
of both nymphs and adults below that caused by straight sulfur. The mix-
ture of clay w,.ith 4 percent of rotenone showed no kill. A mixture -:ith
50 percent of rctenone vas then applied and still there -,as no kill of
adults and only a 2-percent kill of nymphs. A mixture of sulfur with
4 percent of rotenone also failed to show any benefit from the rotenone.
Cube root mixed Tith phenothiazine failed to give promising results.
Ragmus importunitas Dist.
It is possible that this species on crotalaria may be controlled
by dusts containing about 0.5 percent of rotpnone.--Van der Vecht (90)
Acrosternum hilare (Say), the ;reen stinkbug
Underhill (86) in 1934 reported that Derrisol gave poor results
against green stinkbug nymphs in laboratory tests. In field tests against
nymphs on bush lima beans Serrid Super .*_;ricultural Spray killed 67 per-
cent at the end of 24 hours ,,-hen applied at 1:200. At the same dilution
plus 0.5 percent of soap the kill -as 72 percent; plus 1 percent of soap
the kills in 4 tests wTere 100, 78, 85, and 100 percent. At 1:400 with
0.5 percent of scap this material killed 67, 65, and 93 percent of the
i-!,--s in three tests; at 1:400 with 1 percent of soap the kill wvas 72 and
81 percent in t'-o tests. It a.s concluded that nymphs can be killed by
using strong solutions of soapD or mixtures of sprays containing soap and
pyrethrin or soap and rotennon. iJcne of the combinations proved effective
a- ie-st the adults and eggs.
Haude (42) in 1939 rocoimerded spraying the :,.."ihs with cube or
dorris (4 percent rotenone) at the rate of 4 pounds 1or 100 -:l.ons of
water plus a wetter.
Agonoscelis rutila (F.), a red and black shield bug
The 'i:e,r South YWales Entomological Branch (65) in 1955 suggested
dusting with a mixture of 1 part of derris poTwder and 9 parts of talc by
Antestia orbitalis (Westi.), a variegated coffee bug
Le Pelley (57) in 1P33 reported effective control of the coffee
bugs A. orbi tali s var. lineaticollis Stal and Lygus- simionyi Reut. by
spraying vaih a kerosene extract of pyrethrum, using 100 M,. of ryr.-thrum
powder (pyrethrin content, 1.25 percent per liter). The spray Vwas
applied vith a small hand atomizer at the rate of 20 cc. of extract per
tree, and the spraying mas done under a cloth cover.
Attempts were made to extract the toxic principles of Tephrosia
vogelii and tobacco, in paraffin oil, in a similar simple riethcd
suitable for use on the plantation. It YV.as found that the extracts pre-
pared from 400 gm. of leaves and from 500 gm. of pulverized tobacco,
each in 1 liter of pocraffin oil, were only slightly toxic. A fairly
large proportion of the insects present v:ere brought dowii freo the trees,
but a very large percentage recovered. Laboratory trials shoved that
the extracts prepared from Teohrosia and tobacco, although not completely
lacking in insecticidal properties, were so inferior to the *'rcY run
extracts as to be hardly comparable by the methods used.
LAccordfng to H. G. Barber, orbitalis and lineaticollis are
differen- species of th , nus Antestia, tihe propcr name for the varie-
gated coffee bug being A, orbitalis (Westvw.).1
'Worsley (l00) in 1954 reported that -;hen tested in the laboratory
sprays .iade e::tractig ?eD.,rcsa vogelii seeds vi-Pth paraffin oil at
the rate cf 2 pounds per w"2lon were equal in effect to pyrethrum extracts
of 1/2 to 1 pour per gallon.
Bagrada hJlar s (Burn.), the eagrada bug
Gunn (3Li) in 1918 reported that both nymphs and adults of the
Ba:r-.* bhuS, feeding on cruciferous plants in South Africa, can be destroy
by sprayJr P with ordir-ar-. Katakilla (a derris prpocration), 1 pourd to 7
imperal gal 1lons of vac.ter, or e.ith a specic.l .ata.killa at the rote of 1
pound to 8 imperial alo' of w r.
Chlorochroa sa-i Stail, the Sa7y stinjrbuI
Cssidy -and Barber (10) in 1935 reported that cube dust k-illed none
of these insects, a-nd derris- dust (thle best of seven ,mterials tested)
gc e control of only 22 percent. Test s were -'made by dusting cl-)?d cotton
p! .uts i- the field and branches of cotton enclosed in l.an.ern globes in
~the icectry. In 196 these same apthlors reported tc the chief of the
thei~riScn rf.(Il 'u, u
Division of Coti-c Insect Investi'ations of the 'ureau that in plat tests,
cube -,ias less effective (45.2 percent control) than derris (62.8 percent
Coctosemc siamicu: I'alk. (C. ,'.. n-:. eum Mont. )
Van dcr Vecht (90) in 1936 reported that this insect iwas easily
kil led by sprayir. but ,atter-nts' to control it by dusting have met with
- 16 -
- 17 -
Eurydema o rnatum (L.)
This bu on cauliflower is repelled by a proprJetatry product con-
taining 0.72 percent of rotenone, accordiir to a letter from the manufac-
turers, the Fta'Jlissonents Rotenia, to R. C. F.oark in 1238.
Eir7:dema pulchrun lTesttr,
Spraying with derris kills this insect on cabbage.--Van der Vecht
(90) in 1S.5:.
Euschistus imoictiventris Stal, a brown cottonr.bugp
Cube dust gave 43-percent control (the best of seven insecticides
tested) and derris drstr 38-percent control in t'sts imade on ceged cotton
plai-ts in the field and in lantern globes in the inseciary. In plat tests
cu'>e ias less effective (45.2-percent control) than derris (62.8-percent
control).--CassiA and Barber (10) in 1935.
V'urgaent5 hiscrionica (Fahr), the >erlecuin bug
Brannon (4) in 1233 reported the results of tests against the
harlequin bug v.'ith roten ine dusts an spr ys at ]!orfolk, Va. Very poor
results were obtained 'ith the tr..tion duster, even though the nozzles
were e.rrv.a-._ed in several different -iays. .est results were obtained w'hen
heavy p-pliications wcre made -i th a7 hand duster. Counts indicated th.t
a, co narci.al derris dust at the rate of 3S rounds per acre had a repellent
action. Practically no .11ill vas obteoined with a derris extract (.5 gm.
rotenone per 100 cc. of acetone) at 1:200 in an experiment made wThen the
temocrature was 68 F,. and the relative htun'idity 76 percent. The same
materials gave excellent results when the temnper/Acure was 833 and the
relative hum4,dit-: 84 percent.
Gilmore (32) in 1933 rcporte" th.t at Clrlrsville Tenn., a field
test against the harlequin 1'.1, wi a .xre of equal parts of derris
dust and tobacco dust gave entirely unsai..sfactory control.
C. E. Sminth (78) in 1933 re-ocrtad orn tests to control the ha'rlequin
bu- at DAtonr. Pcuc, La. Dusts containinE; 1, 2, 3, and 4 percent of
rotenone were te-vted in cages in the field. The fcllowinf: respective hills
wore obtainei-id Ti-i 144 hours: 71.4, 61.9, 90.4, and 95.2 percent.
Because the ]:ill obtaine. with e .c '-porcert dust ias rather lo-, it s
replicated, givir- a 94-percent '-iil in 1'4 hours.
-]*.-cr and Anderson (92) in 1933 r. ported test mo-de at norfolk, Va.,
on the control of the harlequin bu with
c-rr- rations and with the follow four derris dus+s: Ku-b.-tox, Sentone,
Derrax, and an air-floated, powdoerod derris root 'lcne and in combination
with an inert carrier; also thrce derris sprays, viz, -.oxon Plant Sr.ray,
Serrid, and SuW-r Agricultur -I Spray.
- 18 -
The best results werec obtained with materials in -which rotenone
vwas thle active ingredic'.t. The most extensive tests were carried on -with
Serrid, a derris extract with a rotenone content of 5 gm. per 100 cc.
A 0.25-percent solution of powdered Ivory soap in combination with Seriid
gave nearly as high kills in the insectary as a 2-percent-so-p solution
in conbinrat.ion with Serrid in the field. Also, Serrid alone and the soap
alone, even at weaker dilutions, gave higher kills in the insectary than
in the field. The addition of soap to the Serrid greatly increased its
effectiveness. Practical field control of adult harlequin bugs on young
kale has been obtained with 1 part of Serrid to 200 parts of a 1-percent
solution of powdered Ivory soap, applied under 150 to 200 pounds pressure.
The Serrid and soap combination should be used as soon as it is mixed
because rotenone deteriorates rapidly in the presence of soap, and the
insects must be thoroughly covered with the spray material in order to
obtain satisfactory control.
!'oxon Plant Spray was about half as toxic-'as the Serrid and Soap
spray, Ku-ba-tox, a rotenone dust, did not give satisfactory control,
possi':ly because of its low rctenono ccntnt.
Preliminary tests with Supeor Agricult.r.i Spray, a derris product,
at the rate of 1 part to 200 parts of -woter, and with powdered air-
floated derris root with a 4-pcrcent-rotcnone content, used at the rate
of 1 part to 3 and 4 parts of an inert carrier known as Inert C (a clay),
have given satisfactory control both in the irscccary an, in the field.
Ho-vcver, those tests wmore so limited in nurTbr t:at further experiments
must be conducted under varied c nationss before their use can be generally
recomn.cndod. Scntone and -Derrax, tw.o rotcn.oic dusts, wcre not quite so
effective in ins-ctary tests as ,as the powydored, air-floated dcrris-root
V.l-itc and Pronnon (97) in 1933 reported the results of tests made
with many insecticides to dCetcrmic their effectiveness against the harlo-
quin bug. Derris extract iwas tested at dilutions ranging from 1:200 to
1:1,200 ,with and -ithout soap (0.s, 1, or 2 percent) and w-ith whale-oil
soap. Dorris extract was uise"l in a small series of experiments with white-
oil emulsion, su-mer-strength oils, and tannic acid, and with spreaders.
Several of these msatrials gave excellent results in cage tests,
but -wer- found to be inefficient under field conditions. The best results
w(.cre obtoiincd with derris extract (containing retcnone as the active in-
gredient and a s-rcader or wectting agent) at a dilution cf 1:200. This
may be -'rn rod as fellows: Use 2 quarts of dorris extract in 100 gallons
of ..:.- Ucr or, in smaller quantities, 2 ounces (4 tablespoonfuls) in 3
gallons of water. Measure the quantity of derris extract required to make
a 'i-~-n quantity o finished spray, and thoroughly dissolve this in a
little -wator. Then add the dilute derris extract tc the quanti',e- of wator
needed for the finished spray. gitat the mixture acd ap"ly immediately.
Fix ornly sufficient spray for imncdiat.. use. It should be borne in mind
that only those insects actually hit by the sprLy arc- killed. Thorouih-
ncss of a-p2lication is of prime importance. Proliminsary tests indicate
that cosmmcrcial dusting pow-ders containing approx-imatly 0.5 percent of
rotcnonc arc also cf value in controlling the harlequin bug.
Brannon (5) in 1i54 reported on the close correlation between tem-
perature and kilT of the harlequin bvg rd- t ruotnone sprays. In conducting
field tor:icity tests in 1933 Brannon observed that 20 adults in each treat-
ment, vrhen sprayed in the field ard placed in field cages over sprayed
plants, yielded the follov'j.-..; data:
: : Relative :
Date of treatment : Temperature : humidity : mortality
.F "Percent Percent
September 6 81 72 90
12 83 74 94
21 68 76 5
29 76 70 20
October 4 71 78 25
At the 1934 meet-in, of the A('nericanr. Association of Economic Ento-
mologists, Cory (87) led a discussion c-' field results with arsenical
substitutes for the control of vcgotable insects. Hixson of Oklahoma
reported that derris dusts and s r-:.-s .-erc ineffective. Iarcovitch of
Tennessee reported that a dust ccmc.sed of 1 part of derris and 7 parts of
talc c-ave very good control of tbe harlequin cabbage bug in cage tests.
Robinson of Alabnama reported that derris-talc or derris-sulfur dusts
(0.5 percent rotenone) gave not over 85-percent kill of the adults.
Gilbert and Popenoe (31) in 1934 reported that for the harlequin
bug derris extract, 4 tablespoonfuls to 3 gallons of xv.'wter, with two
1-inch cubes of soap added, has beer found to have some value against
the young bugs, but the full-gro ones arc lmcst spr_.-proof.
WTalker and Anderson (95) in 1354 reported that in cage tests derris
gave much better results than ,yrethr .. Proprietary derris products
tested included Cubor, Kubatox, and Spray.rite,
The Alabama Agric-.ltural xperime1t Station (1) in 1935 reported
that derris alone is not very effective but ihen mixed with sulfur is of
some value as a repellent.
7alk1er and Anderson (94) in 1935 reported that thoroi ,:hly dusting
harlequin bu-s ;.:ith a derris dust contaiining at least 0.5 percent of
rotenone usually givesbctter than 75-percent kill. Hov:ever, sometimes
the results are erratic, 't'th the dust fail-nj to give more than 25-
percent control. The cxact cause of all this variation has not been
determined., but cool, -indy zco.t-her s-e;s -rcaty to reduce the effective-
ness of the dust. This mAto ial is not entireli satisfactory, but when
thorcu-h:ly applied it has given bette: results than any ether material
tested, Pyrethrum dust containing nearly 1 percent of 'r. -'thrins
paralyzed the bu.^s to. pnorarily, but they soon recovered c.nd apparently
suffered no ill effects.
A derris-sulfur dust (0.5 percent rotcnnen) vwhen aoolied at the rate
of 55 pounds per acre is over 90 percent effective,--Fcnton (26) in 1956.
- 20 -
Howard and Mason (42) in 1937 referred to Brannon's tests which
indicated that derris spray or dust is a promising remedy.
Walker and Anderson (95) in 1937 reported that derris dust and
sprays have given promising results.
Fulton and Ho-ward (28) in 1938 reported that the addition of peanut
oil or pine oil to a derris-talc dust' mixture greatly increased its
toxicity to the harlequin bug. In fact, a derris-talo dust mixture without
an oil and co-,tain: ,*-. 0.5 percent of rotenone is very nearly innocuous
against the harlequin bug. The status of a wetting agent in the derris-
talc-oil dust mixture has not been determined definitely, but it is
believed, on the basis of results obtained in preliminary experiments,
that a wetting agent is unnecessary in this mixture and may be detrimental.
Gunderson of the Extension Service of the Iowa State College (34)
in 1938 recommended derris for the control of the harlequin bug.
Parks and Pierstorff (70) of the Extension Service, Ohio State
University, in 1238 recommended a strong rotenone spray with soap as a
spreader for the control of the harlequin bug on cabbage and cauliflower,*
Fulton and Hovward (29) in July 1P439 reported that coconut, castor,
linseed, and corn oils were more toxic to the harlequin bug after sulfona-
tion; whereas the toxicity of olive, teaseed, and cottonseed oils was not
appreciably increased by sul-fonation. Sulfonation of soybean oil increased
the toxicity to M. histrionica from 39 to 87 percent. These tests were all
made with mixtures of the oils and cube powder under laboratory conditions.
P. Jones (48)-in the 4-H Club insect manual issued in 1939
recommended derris or cube for the control of the harlequin bug.
Walker and Anderson (96) in 193 recorded tests with derris powder
and cube powders as sprays and vrith Stantex R against the harlequin bug
on cabbage. A cube-talc dust containing 2 percent of rotenone g-..ve only
38-percent control vhen applied on a sunshiny day at a temperature of
64 F. and a relative humidity cf 63 percent; but a cube dust ccntsirning
0.75 percent of rotenone, applied during a light drizzle of rain, gave
83-percent control. The authors concluded that thoroughly spraying
plants infested with harlequin bugs rith a mixture containing 8 pounds
of dcrris or cube powider (rotcnonc content 5 or 6 percent) to 100 gallons
of .sitcr, to which a good vwettin' agent has been added, wvill] give good
control of all harlequin bu,.s hit by the spray. Further, 1 part of
Sta.ntey R emulsified in 50 parts of water and thoroughly applied w-ill
give good control of this nost, as will the concentrated dorris extract
plus soap spra-; previously rcormncnded. On large plants where the bugs
are well protected it may be necessary to spray two or throe times at
weel-ly intervals to insure eood control.
Podops lurida (urm.)
The Institute of. Physical and ChmEnical T.esearch, Japan (44) in
1k27 reported that coton at 450 ,-,. plus t.:icc its weight of soap in
40 impcrial gal-lons of watcr killed onl, 17.5 percent of the adults;
at 675 gm. plus 750 gm. of soap it killed 100 percent of the third
- 21 -
instars; and at 900 gom. plus 750 gn. of soap it killed 94.1 percent of
the fifth instars. Another agricultural experiment station in J.'..
reported that 53.53 percent of the adults w 1rs killed by 1 pounmd of 7'eC)oton
in 80 imperial gallons of water, and 86.C percent were killed by twice
Rhoecocoris sulciventris (Stal), a bronze orange bug
The Queensland Department of .jriculture (72) in 1925 reported
tests to control the bronze orange bug on citrus trees at 1 ontville,
Australia, Salomia (10 ounces plus Derrisene, 1 ounce, ir 2 imperial
gallons of water) and Katakilla (4 ounces, in 2 imnnerial C.llons cf
,water) were unsatisfactory, and the addition of resin as a sticker did
not materially add to their value.
Hely (40) in 19538 reported on the control of the bronze orange
bug which is a familiar pest ir citrus orcl-ards in parts of the Iorth
Coast of ITie' South %ahles and in Queensland, and causes considerable con-
cern also in the moorland and surrounding districts in so:aie seasons.
The earlier attempts to destroy lat-c-s':.e biugs .ith nicotine and pyrethrum
extracts were not successful, though' derris in dust form showed some
promise. Later trials with derr-is sard yrethrum solutions indicated that
further work .z rith these materials Ias Tustified and, as a result of tests
conducted in Novenber 1937, it ws fcrndC. tat either cube powder or ground
derris root at tne rate of 1 pounds to 41-C imperial gallons of water with
soft soap at the rate of 1.5 pounds to 40 imp-erial sllons gave an
excellent kill of all stages p resent, including adults. Bugs in the
second, third, and fourth instars appeared most susceptible, while those
in the late fifth instar just before chvnr:ing into adults were the most
resistant. Applications should therefore be noads when injury begins to
become apparent in the s-r ., when few- fifth instars are present.
In prep: ration of the sprays th< soft soap is dissolved ir hot
water and tien the derris or cube o-"der is stirred into the soap
solution. This mixture is then added to t'e water in the spray tank
and the whole .kept well r-itatod during tho spri -ng. Pyrcthrum at the
rates of 1 pound to 20 gllons ard 1 pound to 4-0 cn-ln hod the effect
of droppinrn soric of the bugs, but many of thcm recovered, though at
first t:-- were "->.oficd.
Scotino-hara ccarctata (F.)
The fodorated I+aay ar-.tc- Dopa:t-- t of A:riclilture (22) in 1920
reported that in p.rc-c, curin- OCtcb -r a..d ILovcmbcr, D,-oreJ-ecnts were
conducted on the control of n. "ur. (pcdp I )ScoStir'pnp .ra ccarctata F.,
a mediun-sized browi- bug. Srrcyir: witi:':rosc-icr: rlsioni w.-d with
-3 *_ --
extract of tuba root (Derris sp.) wa tried. The rcs'. ts w':re uncertain.
Corb~ctt and Yuso-c (14) in 1' 4 stated t'rt t. s ray of tuba root
has a m.arkc' .. killing effect c) va"iou s tagcs, but since the quantity
required would ma:e the opnrctic. o. spcyig too cstly, uless drris
plants were grown 'Iy the cultivc crs, this ...ho,* of combatii the insect
- 22 -
is not recommended. This insect did not thrive satisfactorily in captivity
and proved unsatisfactory as a test insect for spraying and dusting
experiments vYith derris.--Federated lMalay States Department of Agricul-
ture (23) in I'34. Spraying with derris was not very successful.--
Federated Lialayr States Department of Agriculture (25) in 1937.
Thyanta custator (F.)
Cassidy andy barber (12) reonorted in 1935 that in plat tests cube
u.as less effective (45.2-pe'rcent control) than derris (62.8-percent con-
trol) in controlling this insect.
Dysdercus cingulatus (F.), a red cotton bug
Gater (50) in 1925 reported that in dipping tests the nynphs are
particularly susceptible tc derris.
Dysdercus fasciatus Sign. ,
Andries (2) in 1K32 recommended a sprayr of' Derrisol for the control
of this cotton rtainer.
Dysdercus megalopygus Bred.
Butac (3) in 1933 reported the results of tests 'ith a derris dust
(1.5 percent rotenone) on cotton insects in one of the plots of the
Philinpine Carnival E:position. The dusting ,vas done at about 9 a.m.
and amnonT the insects collected bet,.-een 2 and 3 p.m. -vrere 4 adults of
this cotton stainer, all dead.
Merino and Otanes (65) in 1938 recommended derris in soapy water
for thE control of this insect on cotton in the Philippine Islands.
Dysdercus mimulus hussey, the Arizona cotton stainer
Cube dust .., 26-percent control and derris dust gave 10-percent
control :in tests made on caged cotton plants in the field and in lantern
globes in th" insectary. Of seven insecticides tested, pyr-thrum- dust
gave t-.c best (70 percent) control. In plat tests cube 's.s less
effecctive (45.2-percent control) than derris (62.8-porcent control).--
Cassidy and ;arbcr (10) in 1955.
Dysdercus niorofasciatus St1l
Andries (2) in 10932 rrconnd a spray of Derriscl for the control
of this cottor. stainer.
- 23 -
Dysdercus riuficollis (L.)
Wille et al. (98) in 1037 reported tests made v:ith cube at the
La Lolina, Peru, A-ri'-cultural F)xpnrimer:t Stat-.on. In laboratory tests
against 20 adults of D. ruficollis, a cube dust containing 5 percent of
rctenone killed 4 and-pa-al-yized ETe others in 24 hours, and after 4 days
19 v.ere deid., Dusts of 1-ower rotenone content also gaveo good results,
one of 0,01 percent giving 80-percent mortality in 5 days. One unfavor-
able result of this slow- rate of toxicity vas that females were able to
oviposit normally and their eggs hatched. Sprays of 0.1 percent rotenone
content in three tests gave 52-, 80-, and 100-percent mortality.
Dy'--dercus sunerstitiosus (F.)
Andries (2) in 1932 recoNmmended a spray of Derrisol for the con-
trol of this cotton stainer.
Dysdercus suturelus (H. S.), the cotton stainer
Jack and Sands (45) in 1922 reported that spraying -V.th tuba mix-
tures is one of the means recormenrdedc for controlling the cotton stainer.
Dysdercvs sp. on cotton may be killed by spraying with derris.--
Van der T-c-t (930) in 1236.
Ridley (74) in 11-2 vYrote thot in Sara-;lak there wras a small,
flattened, green bug, -oeculiar from having its sides fringed vith tiny
spines, which Yvs identified as an inTature fomnn, probably of some
species of Centrocnemis. The best methca of dealing v-th this serious
pest tv.as stated to be spra-' r. the vines with a decoction of tuba root
Cornthucha arcuata (Say), a lacebug
Hamilton (36) in 1938 reported a kill of "0 to 100 percent of
lacebugs on s-'ca2 re, azalea, and aster in three out o0 four tests made
with a spray of derris or cube powder (4 percent rotcnorya and 16 to 18
percent total extractives) Ct the rato of 4 -ics cr 100 -allons, with
the addition of 4 pounds of rosin-residue enmulsicn. ,- spray acts as a
Coryt-ihucha cydoniae (Fitch), a lacebug
The Ohio A-ricultural Experiment Station (68) in 1937 reported
that derris-talc dust had been tested against the 'acebug on cotoneaster
in the laboratory but that the results obtained w-erc not consistent.
- 24 -
Corythucha marmorata TIJhl, a chrysanthemum laqebug
McDaniel (58) in 1934 reported that a good kill of this lacebug on
chrysanthemums can be obtained vith either a pyretirua or a derris prepara-
tion by following the recommendations of the maker.,
(Elasmognathus) Diplocmph-iu: hewitti (Dist.), a pepper lacebug
Van der Vecht (89) in 1935 reported that this lacebug on pepper
was controlled effectively only with contact insecticides, among which
tobacco extract is more commonly used in 7.est Borneo. The tobacco extract
is frequently mixed with an extract of the roots of derris, which is cul-
tivated nearby for this purpose. Unsatisfactory spraying tests with
derris root extracts have been made, probably because the extracts had
a very low content of rotenone. In 1036 Van der Vecht reported (90)
that this bug on black pepper may be killed by spraying with derris.
Leptobyrsa rhododendri Horv., a rhododendron bug
Wilson (99) in 1938 reported that this rhododendron bug is con-
trolled by means of a reliable contact spray, e. g., nicotine-soap, derri6,
or white-oil emulsion, wich should be applied about mid-June and again in
mid-July to the underside of the leaves to destroy the immature stages.
Two applications are desirable, owing to the protracted period. of hatching.
Stephanitis pyri (F.)
The Etablissements Fotenia in 1938 started in a letter to R. C.
Roark that a product manufactured by them, containing 0.72 percent of
rotenone -with talc as a diluent, kills (Tingis) Stephanitis pyri on
Stephanitis rhododendri Horv., the rhododendron lacebug
Sh (77) in 1936 reported the following results from tests of derris:
: I o rta i ity
I_.aterial ; Larvae : Adults
Derris dust - - - - - - - 19 73
Derris spray- ---------77 100
Dcrris spray + 0.5 percent soap -- - 100 100
Derris spray + 1 percert soap 100 100
Derris spray + 2 percent soap 100 100
Van G-undia (88) in 1936 reported that a rotenorc dust containing .bo'
50 percent of sulfuLr in the forn of fused bcntonite-sulfur (which aids as
a sticker for the rotcnone and also acts as an activator) controls the
lacefly on rhododendron.
Unidentified species of Hemiptera
Rotenone spray 1:5,000, plus 0.1 percent Agral I, gave unsatisfactory
control of "'U..,-ntsen"' on string beans.--1,agcningen Plantcnziektenkundigc
Dicnst (91) in 1S34.
- 25 -
I B'Y T INDEX
Acrost -:i.r! hilare - - - -
'. c.:"rc, sci rutila ------
An:asa tristis- - - - - -
or''.- i t s var. lineaticollis -
sp.o ---- - - - - --
capsid - - - - - -
redbug - - - - - --
Ar.zoza cotton stainer-----
,- "rd-a bug- - - - - -
Bagrada hiluris- - - - -
"Bena KutiW1----- -- --- ------
Vlir-t-Us - - - - - -
Bedbug -------- ----
Bright apple redbug-------
Bronze orange b'bug- - - - -
Brovw cottonbug- --------
no rv~eg-cus - - - - -
Capsid bug - - - - - -
Centrocnenis sp.---- ---
C-hinch bug- - -...----.----
false- - - --- - - -
hairy- - - - - - -
Chlorochroa za- - -----
Chrs t-'t-emeun iacebog----- ---
Cimex lectularius---- ----
Ci-icidae- ---------- - -
Coffee bug - - - - -- -
Contosoz7a ,.a. --ae -------
Cop tos o-oa siai-c,--n - - - --
Coreidae - - - - - -
Hyal inue - - - - - -
sp - - - - - - -
marmo rata--------- ---
insects- ------- ---
stainer- - -------
- 26 -
Dark apple redhug - -
Dasmynus piperis - -
"cyplhus minirmus- -
Dipl ogomphus hevritti- -
cingulatus- - - -
ruficollis- - - -
sT- - --- - - -
sumerst,.1iosv's- - -
suturellus- - - -
El a s nonath us hewitti.
E rvdema- -
ornaturn - - - -
puichrum- - - -
See Diplogonphus hewitti.
EuschlistUs 1im ctiventris -------
apple redtug------ -------
chinch bug-- -------
Flea hopper -
cotton - - - - -- - -
garden- - - - - - - - -
Green stinhbug-- ----------
Hairy chinch bug- - - - --
Halticus citri- --------- ---
bug - - - - - - - - -
cabbage bug.See harlequin bug,
Helooeltis sp.- ----------
Heraiptera - - - - - - - -
Heterocordylus r-alinus- - - - -
Tra7c'T 13?T ~9^e-e- --c JeMu g'.
Lacebug - - - - - - - -
Large mril -nveed bug- - ------
Leptobyrsa rhododendri- - - - -
acuta - - - - - - - -
sp. - - - - - - - - -
campestris - - - - - --
hesperus- - - - - - - -
ob1 ineatus- - - - - - - -
pratensis - - - - - - -
s imnonyi ---------
- - - - - .- 9
- - - - - - 8
- - - - -* - - 2
- - - - - - 9
- - -- - - - 23
- - - - - -. -2
- - - -- - - 24
- - - - - - 7
- - - - - - 9
- 27 -
:ertila mal a:,enis i s-- - - - - - - T-
Li 2. 1 -eed bug- 5,9.
Kiridae-------- -- -------- 9
S:ur'gairtia histrio"lica - - - - - - - - - -17, 20
Tysivs ericae - --- - - - - - - - - - 8
C-iccpeltus fasciatvs-- - - - - - - - - -- 5, 9
Oxy'crenus spp. - - - - - - - - - - -- 9
Pen te.-:-' :ae- - - - - - - - - - - - 15
Pepper lacebug- - -- - - - - - - - - - - 24
Phthia icta- - - - - - - - - - - - 7
PF T, .e.' -e,'F grossipes- - - - - - - - - - 7
lr.'t 1" -- - - -- - - - - - - -6, 9
Plesiocoris rugicllis-------------- 15
P c' i' 'i I "'1 -
coarcteata. See Scotinophara coarctata.
lurida - - - -- - - - - - - - - 20
Psallus seriatus- - - - - - - - - - - 14
-r7 -o r ida ---------------------- ---- ---------22
Ra i,,u ir'portwu-itas - - - - - - - - - - 15
ed and '..-:.: :iid bu-- - -- - - - - - - 15
Red cottonbug - - - - - - -- - - - - - 22
Eedbu gs - - - - - - - - -- - - - --. 9
Reduviidae - - - - - - - - - - - -- 25
lacebug --------- ----- -- ---24
Rhoer ocoris sulciventris-------------- 21
Rutherglen bugs-- --------- 9
Say stink,'-ug- - - - - - - - - - - - 16
Scot .Ic -'.._'. _ra coarctata- - - - - - - - - - 21
Squash bug- - - - - - - - - - - - - 4
S teh.- i '.-_ ijj s--
r- ri : - - - - - -- - - - - - 24
r"; -^~ TC n----- -- -- -- ------- -- -- -- -- -- -----24
Say - - - - - - - - - - - - - -16
Tarnished plant ',:,--- I---------- ---------11
T"ha.-,-.. custator- - - - - - - - - - - 22
Iiin[is pi, ri z.,,.-- Stephar.litis pyri.
Tinguiidae-~ ------- .......-..----- ... 25
s fly - - - - - - - - - - - - 9
Two-s:,---t 'Ld green bug - ----- --- ------ 9
Variegated coffee bug - - - - - - - - - 16
Ve'-rtable insects - -- - - - - - - - - 19
Winter moth -------- -------14
- 28 -
(1) ALADA-A POLYTrEC'-5IC Iv STITUTE
1-35. The use of derris in controlling garden insects. Ala.
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(2) AlDPI", 7 T. E.I
19K2. Controlling plant pests in southern Africa. 199 pp.
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1938. Control of the squash bug. Conn. (State) Agr. Expt. Sta.
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1935. Results vdith rotenone dusts and sprays. U. S. Dept. Agr.,
cur. Ent. ilcnthly Let, 234: 8. [Processed ]
1934. Tests sho-r closc correlation between temperature and kill
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I38. Life history; and habits oJ" the cotton bollworms in the
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1955. abstract of report en hemipteroiis insects in Arizona. 2 pp.
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(11) CYT JELIL, F. S.
1933. Results vith rotcnone dusts and sprays. U. S. Dept. Agr.,
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- 29 -
(12) [C.HWSi-T. FXtTPIT TAL AIL PTSE1 TCT ST TCT [E,1 CLj,-D]
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1935. The squash bu-- in Connecticut, iAnasa tristis DeGeer.
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1935, Statement on results of tests for controlling the cotton
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- 30 -
1934. [Entomology.] Straits Settlements and Fed. Malay States
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1935. Division of Entomology Annual Report for the year 1934,
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Adding oil emulsion to derris sprays or dusts increases
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Effect of addition of oil on the toxicity to plant bugs of
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1925. Investi-ttions on "tuba". Malayan Agr. Jour. 13: 312-329,
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1933. PyrethrLun Flowers. 269 pp., illus. Minneapolis.
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1938. Controlling garden insects in Iovwa, Iovra State Col, Ext.
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- 31 -
1918. The bagrada bug (B__Frda hilaris). Union So. Africa
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Tests with derris powder or cube powder in rosin residue
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Natl. Shade Tree Conf. Proc. 13: 140-147. 1937.
Controlling insect pests of melons, cucumbers, and re-
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- 32 -
(48) JOTES, M. P.
1939. 4-H Club Insect Irlnual. U. S. Dept. Agr., Y:isc, Pub.
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- 33 -
(60) cIKmn', K. B.
1938. Derris controls a plant bug on lettuce grovmn for seed,
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1935.. The toxic value of Derris spp. Fed. falay States Dept.
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(References are to Literature Cited)
Abbott, W. S. See McIndoo, N. E., 59
Anderson, L, D. See Walker, H. G., 92, 93, 94, 95, 96
Barber, T. C. See Cassidy, T. P., 10
Brannon, L. Vi. See TWhite, WV. H., 97
Clark, J. C. See Smith, G. L., 80
Davidson, W. M. See Jones, H. A., 47
Deonier, C. C. See Richardson, C. H., 73
Diakonoff, A, See Bussy, L. P. de, 6
Gaines, P. C. See Smith, G. L., 82, 83
Glasgow, H. See Parrott, P. J., 71
Gorham, R. P. See Kelsall, A., 53
Gornitz, K. See Schotte, II., 76
Howard, N. F. See Fulton, R. A., 27, 28, 29
Jacobi, E. F. See Bussy, L. P. de, 7
Laan, P. A. van der See Bussy, L. P. de, 6, 7
Mac'Bod, G. F. See Maxwell, K. E., 62; Parrott, P. J., 71
McGarr, R.'L. ,See Ewing, KY P.,. 21
Marsh, R. W. See Kearns, H. G ., 51, 52
Martin, H. See Kearns, H. G. H., 51
Mason, H. C. See Howard, il. F,, 42
Ocampo, J. A. See Wille, J., 98
Otanes, F. Q. See Merino, G., 65
Pearce, T, J. P. See Kearns, H. G. H., 52
Pierstorff, A. L. See Parks, T. H., 70
Popenoe, C. H. See Gilbert, We. 7., 31
Sands, N W, See Jack, H.W,, 45
Scales, A. L. See Smith, G. L., 80, 81, 82, 83
Sohofield, D. See Wille, J.,,'98
Sievers, A. F. See Mclndoo, IT, E., 59
Simanton, W. A. See Richardson, C. H., 73
Spittall, J. P. See Kelsall, A., 53
Walker, G. P. See Kelsall, A., 53
Wcberbaue'r, A. See T.'1ile, J.,'98
Yusope, I'. See Corbett, G. H., 14
.*:- rnr'-; rs^
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA t:7"
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