Citation
Sugar-producing plants

Material Information

Title:
Sugar-producing plants record of analyses made by authority of the Commissioner of Agriculture, under direction of the chemist, 1887-'88 : sorghum, Fort Scott, Kansas, Rio Grande, New Jersey : sugar cane, Lawrence, Louisiana : together with a study of the data collected on sorghum and sugar cane
Series Title:
Bulletin / U.S. Department of Agriculture, Division of Chemistry ;
Place of Publication:
Washington, D.C.
Publisher:
U.S. G.P.O.
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
132 p. : ; 24 cm.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Sorghum sugar ( lcsh )
Sugarcane ( lcsh )
Sugar -- Manufacture and refining -- United States ( lcsh )
Genre:
bibliography ( marcgt )
federal government publication ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )

Notes

Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references and index.
General Note:
Submitted by H.W. Wiley.
General Note:
No. 6 in a vol. with binder's title: Sugar manufacture.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
This item is a work of the U.S. federal government and not subject to copyright pursuant to 17 U.S.C. §105.
Resource Identifier:
029705542 ( ALEPH )
80671648 ( OCLC )

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Pare ed ee... %
«2 a oe : a 2 Pw & c
. DEPARTMENT OF souieenrone.|

DIVISION OF CHEMISTRY ¢* C /
iS uit G8 :

Hl
oN )

" SUGAR- PRODUCING PrAisy












foe CHEMIST,
1887-88.

SORGHUM:
‘Fort SCOTT, KANSAS; RIO GRANDE, NEW JERSEY.

- SUGAR CANE: |
LAWRENCE, LOUISIANA, |

TOGETHER WITH A STUPY OF THE DATA COLLECTED
ON SORGHUM AND SUGAR CANE.

WASHINGTON:
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE,
1888





bompliments of

Mormian J, Colman,

Commissonel f Aguicullde

= ee eames eee ne eer snee

—_—$$_——$





=

U.S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE.

DIVISION OF CHEMISTRY.
BULLETIN No. 18.

» SUGAR-PRODUCING PLANTS.

RECORD OF ANALYSES

MADE BY AUTIIORITY OF

THE COMMISSIONER OF AGRICULTURE,

UNDER DIRECTION OF

Per cRRMIstT.,
1887-88.

SORGHUM:
FORT SCOTT, KANSAS; RIO GRANDE, NEW JERSEY.

SUGAR CANE:
LAWRENCE, LOUISIANA

TOGETHER WITH A STUDY OF THE DATA COLLECTED
ON SORGHUM AND SUGAR CANE,

WASHINGTON:
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE.
1888,
23576—Bull. 18——1



Digitized by the Internet Archive
in 2013

http://archive.org/details/sugarprplo0subm































INTRODUCTORY LETTER.

Sir: I submit herewith, for your inspection and approval, Bulletin
No. 18 of the Chemical Division.

In Bulletin No. 17 it is stated that much of the analytical work per-
taining to the recent experiments in the manufacture of sugar was not
ready for incorporation in that report. This work is now finished and
tabulated and will be found in the following pages.

In view of the fact that the experiments which have been conducted
for so long a time by the Department in the manufacture of sugar have
come to a successful end, I have thought it would be useful here to
collect together, in a condensed form, all the important recorded analyses
of sorghum which [have been able to find. Where series of such analyses
have been made, there are given only the means of the analyses, since
to reproduce them singly would extend the size of the bulletin to undue
proportions. Tor those, however, who may desire to study the analyses
more minutely, references are given to original publications contain-

-ingthem. I have also added to this part of the work an abstract of

recorded tonnage per acre for sorghum, yield of sugar per ton, and

other data which may help to assist any one interested in the matter

to an intelligent conclusion concerning the merits of sorghum as a
sugar-producing plant.

In like manner I have epitomized the results of the analytical in-
vestigations which the Department has carried on for several years at
Magnolia Plantation, Lawrence, La. Intending investors in establish-
ments for manufacturing sugar should have access to a careful and
unbiassed statement of the data on which the industry rests, and in
the following pages an effort has been made to furnish this kind of in.
formation.

Reports written under the influence of prospective personal profit,
or for pushing the claims of a patent, or to gratify personal pique or
ambition, are likely to become the argument of the advocate rather than
the charge of the non-partisan judge.

The persistent and often malicious misrepresentation of the work
which has been done by the Department has not been without its
baneful influence, although it has entirely failed of its chief purpose.

_ The large number of persons interested in the culture of sugar beets,
_ sorghum, and sugar cane recognize the value of the work which the



4

Department has done, a value which misrepresentation can Bt dispar-
age nor selfish greed pervert.

In the work which has been done under my supervision I am not con-
scious of having withheld credit from others to whom it was due, nor
of having claimed, for the Department, undeserved honor.

Exploring an unknown country, the real path of progress has often
been lost to view, and for myself Iam content if my labors have pointed
out to others the road to success.

The cordial encouragement and support which I have received from
you, even in the darkest hour of the work, have been most unqualified,
and your faith in the ultimate success of the industry has never fal-
tered.

The process of diffusion, by the efforts of your Department, has been
fully established as the best and most economical method of extracting
the sugar from the cane, and the way has been opened for private capi-
tal to extend and develope the sugar-producing power of our country
until if shall be placed ona sure foundation of prosperity.

Respectfully,
H. W. WILEY,
Chemist.
Hon. NORMAN J. COLMAN,
Commissioner of Agriculture.





ANALYTICAL WORK AT FORT SCOTT, SEASON OF 1887.

In the agreement made by the Commissioner of Agriculture with the
Parkinson Sugar Company for conducting the experiments in the manu-
facture of sugar from sorghum during the season of 1887, provision ©
was made for a complete chemical control of the work by the Chemical
Division of this Department. Having been directed by the Commis-
sioner of Agriculture to take charge of all the chemical work to be done
at the three sugar stations, Dr. C. A. Crampton and Mr. N. J. Fake
were directed to perform the analytical work at Fort Scott.

The following general directions were sent for conducting the work:

U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, CHEMICAL DIVISION,
Washington, D. C., August 29, 1887.

DEAR Sir: In conducting the analytical work at Fort Scott during the present
season, you will be guided by the following general directions:

(1) Samples of cane from the wagon or cane-carrier are to be taken from time to
time as last year, representing as nearly as possible the best, poorest, and medium
canes which are brought to the factory.

(2) When the diffusion battery is in operation, a given weight of chips is to be
taken from each of the cells until one complete round of the battery is represented.

These samples are to be preserved in a closed vessel until all are taken and then
passed through a small mill and the expressed juice examined in the usual way.

(3) A» measured sample of the juice discharged from each cell of the diffusion
battery should be taken until one complete round has been made. These mixed
samples of juice to be examined in the usual way.

(4) Samples of the juice above examined should be taken after the process of
clarification, representing as nearly as possible the same body of juice as above, and
examined in the usual way.

(5) After concentration to sirup, a sample should be taken, representing as nearly
as possible the juice of the above two numbers and subjected to analysis.

(6) Samples of the masse cuile, sugar and molasses are to be taken, carefully labeled,
and forwarded to the division here for examination.

(7) When the large mill is running, samples of the mixed juices should be taken
as often as convenient and subjected to examination.

(8) The bagasse from the large mill should be examined from time to time, either
by exhaustion with successive portions of water in an open vessel, or by exhaustion
in a closed flask, a little freshly precipitated carbonate of lime being added to the
water of maceration.

(9) Take from each cell of discharged chips a certain quantity representing as
nearly as possible the mean character of the chips discharged from that cell after one
complete circuit of the battery has been made, pass the samples so obtained through
the small mill, and subject the expressed juices to examination.

Concerning the details of the analytical work, little need be said. Double polari-
zation is not necessary except in cases where the canes may be badly injured, and you

5



G ee Pee

will use your own discretion in this matter. You will please report by mail to this
office at least once a week the general character of the analytical results obtained.

Any special chemical investigations desired by Mr. Parkinson or Mr. Swenson you
will make, in so far as these may not interfere with the general work indicated above.

Respectfully,
H. W. WILEY,
Chemist.
Dr. C. A. CRAMPTON,
Fort Scott, Kans.

Later in the season additional instructions were sent to carefully
compare the Brix spindles used in determining the total solids in the
juice with the direct determination of solids by drying a weighed por-
tion of the juice (2 grammes cirea) and determining the per cent. water
it contained. ‘This was thought necessary because it was found that
by determining the water directly in the masse euites they were shown
to have a higher co-efficient of purity than the juices from which they
were derived.

The large mill which, it was expected, would be in operation, was
not erected, and the directions to examine the juices therefrom were
therefore superfluous.

The work at Fort Scott was begun on the 2d of September and ended
October 19.

The sucrose in the juices was determined by polarization in a Laurent
large model instrument, with white light attachment. During the later
part of the season a Schmidt and Haensch double-compensating shadow
instrument was employed to check the results of the instrument first
named.

The glucose was determined by Fehling’s ( Violette’s) solution.

The total solids were determined by Brix spindles and by direct
weighing. ;

Following are the results of the analytical work:

ANALYSES OF JUICES OF SELECTED CANES.

For sampling different lots of cane, comparing saccharine richness,
ete., the juice of single canes, or small collections thereof, was exam-
ined at different periods. In these cases it would be expected that
much greater difference would be found than in the average samples of
chips in the second table. The results show how rich single canes of
sorghum may be in available sugar, and also how poor,

The maximum content of sugar is found in sample No. 9, viz, 14.20,
The minimum is seen in sample No. 8, where the sucrose drops to 2.54
per cent.

DESCRIPTION OF SAMPLES,

No. 1. Orange cane sample from Bullock.

. Orange cane sample from Bowman.

. Orange cane sample from Zoak.

. Late planted early amber from Brown,

& Ww ©





»

- No. 8. Honduras cane shipped by freight from Osage, Mich., to Fort Scott.

20. Orange cane from wagons, average sample cut to dry.
21, Amber cane from wagons, average sample cut to dry.
28. Steward’s hybrid cane.

29. Honduras cane.

31. Link’s hybrid, from land of company west of railroad track.
35. Link’s hybrid, same field, east end.

36. Link’s hybrid, green from slough.

37. Link’s hybrid, brow of hill.

38. Link’s hybrid, brow of next hill.

39. Mixture of orange and amber ripe cane.

40. Amber cane from company’s land.

41. Link’s hybrid, same field, green.

42, Link’s hybrid, same field, green.

43. Link’s hybrid, same field, green.

148. Sample of cane cut and allowed to lie some time to show effect of inversion.

253. Orange cane badly damaged by chinch bugs.
254. Same, another sample.

256. Orange cane from company’s land.

257. Orange cane from company’s land.

TABLE No. 1.—-Various analyses of mill juices from whole canes.













4
Date. | No. Sadie: Sucrose. | Glucose. |
Per cent Per cent.
EE clam din 1 16. 63 By ee ae
ON ae eee 2 19.13 TAO BO) tg Woe o ittahes
aS Se ee 3 19. 65 Re, ek Ltda ek wits 6
ES eee 4 19. 13 TETEs econ Sica
Ee 8 18. 43 Mp) tact apt |
Rete Oe .co ia 20 15.87 | 7. 83 5.43 |
ee 21 19. 87 14. 20 Soest.)
BOSE. es bccewss 28 17. 87 11.03 3. 43
MRS AG. oc. J d.a) 29 16.15 9. 27 4.23
UE, ain fue a 31 18. 37 12. 44 2. 23
IE is. ctw 35 13.68 | £20. fe S84
MOP Tac. 5 ke 36 14.68 | 9.03 | 2.46 |
ee Es us eas d 37 15. 80 %s8 | 282. |
EE co dendunc-| | OD 17. 30 ae Po BSB «I
GED scan ei naan 41 15. 18 iF 1 «3
__ SS eee ae 42 12. 43 5.95 | 278
UN OR ae ee 43 15.18 ee. > 2
MOMS TS. 2.40455. 39| 16.28 10.85 | 4.91
mem): so csct. 40! 16.78 11. 81 2.19
Rentic4. cask 148 19. 31 3. 32 | 9. 36
Pee EWRce. 5. ida 253 17. 43 12.98 | 1.78
SR ah ee aaa 254 17. 93 Sa eee. 5
See CIO 226 ccos ee ONO sod. | 257 15. 31 BO 4 Wisreieh stone
Means....... His 3 16. 72 10.12 | 3.35
Maxima..... ee 19. 65 14. 20 9. 26
Minima...... | Pinks 12. 43 2. 54 1.75



oh eres ee Ne aes
8 ee 3 wey 3





TABLE No, 2.—Mill juices from fresh chips. ;
~
Date. | No. | ( iseadan: Sucrose. | Glucose.
eee ea ~
| | Percent. Per cent.
DENG. joce-pveccee 5 15. 63 8.06 °°“ f Speeaeee ee
Sembee ee 9 17.43.) +10, 78og5 ee $23
Dente a6, as. ahaa nee ll 16. 73 10. 45 3. 50
Settee ote 16 16. 68 10, 94° “Se
a eae 15. 87 6. 20 6.49
Bonk: 30-2. sec 30 16. 87 9.48 3. 87
Sang. 30. vs. sees 33 14.70 8. 56 4.10
Ser S38... ee 47 17. 88 11.39 3.48
Remkctditsiede 51 17. 06 9.56 3. 84
eR cz 54 16. 46 - 92h 4.07
pente th: 2. <2 eeses 69 17. 00 10. 08 3. 62
anh $5. oon Se 73 16. 20 10. 21 2. 82
Sepicy 26. 5 222 ese 81 15. 93 10.15 2. 86
Biek AG. ..2 - cocenk 85 14. 65 9. 36 2.72
pent, 17. .chorks. 88 17. 47 9.99 4. 09
ce) | eee nee ie 92 16. 86 9. 99 3.54 |
Seni 1 cent oe 96 16. 07 10. 40 2. 67
Sept. 419 5. 22 oe 99 16.78 11.19 1. 39
Bente). shee 106 16. 80 10. 21 3.05
OR LO. are obey 110 15. 70 8.91 3.15
ION sae 123 17. 68 9.48 4. 20
Rept. 2? ooo sssnce 131 17.17 7. 70 5. 60
NGM. Coe - noosa 134 17. 73 7. 07 5. 34
Bent. 23. 25. oe 142 17. 21 9. 84 3. 82
DOI es. Ue we 146 16, 76 10.24 ~ °| See
BENG. 24 ooo 149 19. 00 9. 86 3. 31
SOM Ol those 153 17.17 11-28 2. 50
Soph. -O6:0- ts cee 161 16. 51 8. 89 3. 93
Senge OB? -tawy ces oe 166 14. 94 9. 04 2. 68
Otay >. . cnc aces 174 16. 79 10. 39 3. 10
Oct Bits seat. 182 106 10.80" |p eee cesid at
Oot,). 35.2 sn 187 15, 79 10. 38 3. 08
Oct > 3.22. tet 193 15. 69 10. 38 2. 68
Ont + 4-.4.798'5 198 16. 63 10.18 3.48
Ools- 4. 5.5. eo 203 15. 83 9. 88 2. 88
Oets; Sie. tS 216 16.70 10. 00 3. 08
Oak 46: ct aeevk | Boe 16. 58 10. 26 3. 67
Ook Bs. ings nee 230 18. 65 11.51 3.78
| Oe tT she oe 238 16. 10 9. 60 3. 53
ote: eB. cent 246 15. 76 7. 46 4. 23
OGbr 812. Foc ie 258 15. 2] 9. 59 3.15
Gals (dis oo. ee 282 14. 44 9.18 2. 96
Owe 418..}.. seat 265 14. 73 9.13 3. 44
OG 2s ee 272 15. 1] 10. 45 2.40
Qa iS <0 os ae oe 278 14. 97 9. 22 3.17
OGG GIS) S.= eee 282 15. 33 9. 62 2. 75
Oise cee eee 287 15. 69 9. 54 3. 53
Oats* (15. Blase 292 13. 68 8. 30 2.77
Oot 415.555. 6 295 14. 24 9. 02 2. 69
GE, 41620). LoS 300 15. 11 9.13 3.10
RGR PLT oe on a Ace oe 304 15. 31 8. 85 3. 39
OO, FET cbs cenkbes 307 13. 09 7. 99 2. 47
OR FB. cde stes ae 311 15. 81 9. 47 3. 03
OG “18... 8 ~ ale ee 315 14. 21 8.18 3. 23
OCG 719:..0-.. duets 318 14. 93 8. 46 3. 60
Averages. . Siting 16. 14 9. 54 3. 40





A study of Table No. 2 reveals the same characteristics of sorghum
juices Which have been noticed in the work of previous years. The
variations of the juice, however, from the mean have not been so pro-
nounced as they were during the season of 1886, owing, doubtless, to
the fact that the cane was, after harvesting, more promptly delivered
to the factory and worked with less delay than during the previous
season.

The maximum per cent. of sucrose was found in the juice obtained on
October 6, viz, 11.51. Other notably good juices were secured on Sep,
tember 12, 19, and 24; the sucrose in these cases rising above 11 per
cent, The minimum per centage of sucrose was found September 9,

ci lt ii



9

TABLE No. 3.—Diffusion juices.

Brix |

















Date. _ No. | (corrected). | Sucrose. | Glucose.
Beret Seen. a —
Per cent. Per cent.
Bae ore 17| 12.28 09 ht ee ea oe.
eon ete 22\ 12.82 200, -} * X07
ees, 8. 34 | 12.32 6.51 | 2.90
ers cae 48| 12.08 7.23 2. 52
Vr Se 52| 12.28 7.19 2.78
Me ean 55 | 12.42 Peer kee
ee ta et 70| 12.08 7.57 2. 54
Rie tes. 74| 12.62 8. 30 2. 30
ia ties'.. g2| ° 12.38 7. 88 2. 52
oh ie ae 86 13 i0 8.79 2.33
a ae g9| 12.28 7.44 2.92
ere ss. 93 |. 12.28 7. 82 2. 63
iG tos 97| 11.32 7.35 2. 02
Wie rae 100} 12.28 8. 00 1.94
Mes 2 sine: 107| 12.32 6.96 2.12
BeBe L coer is 111 12. 32 7.51 2.30
ee, 124| 11.61 6. 64 2.47
ie. to, 132 10. 85 5. 80 2.94
SS ont 135| 11.61 6. 46 2.73
Bi Neon Pee be. 143| 11.47 6.71 2.76
Pes) ot 147 11.57 Goh) et!
ee eg oe a 150| ° 12.14 6.57 2.28
cA ee ees 154 10, 95 6. 92 1. 93
a ER 162 | 10.81 6. 32 2, 40
BT ee 167 | 40.17 6.37 2.02
Bos. ad. 175 54 6. 20 2.20
PTA 183} 10.12 Rae Bo. ec...
RL ecess ve, 188 | 10.24 6.15 2.08
Pele 194} 10.54 6. 64 2. 00
b Aseates 199| 10.51 6.27 2.01
MRS 204} 19.15 hab et.
Bs xcs dete 2x 217| 11.05 6.29 2.25
Pes As oe 223 11. 68 7.15 2.41
“se 231 13. 10 8.04 2.61
Titled 239| 10.98 6. 54 2. 09
Bl chased. 247 11.51 5. 90 3. 06
Mes el 259| 10.39 6.58 2, 09
me Bak. 263 10. 49 6.51 1. 94
We ct hae, 266 9.97 6.17 2.03
Bs oni Bde 273 10. 82 7. 32 1. 85
ae sete: 279| 9.71 5.97 1. 89
fee 283} 10.97 6. 59 1. 80
ARE ES 288 | 10.17 6. 02 1. 80
indore | 293 9. 34 5. 66 1.75
Th ciciea Niki 296 10. 24 6.56 1.98
Med. 2 tea-) 301 9.45 6. 04 1.83
Wo ceasteee ss 3005 8. 74 5. 05 2. 06
Ps, ot BOB 9.51 5. 88 1. 84
etn. tint: | 312 9. 67 5. 66 2. 02
ais Bisa | 316 8. 64 5. 05 1.82
> eee | 319 8.77 5. 05 2.05
F } Moans :..:3..: iF 11.08 | 6.68 2. 26
PEOEUID cen clancis 13. 10 8.79 3.07
Minima.......|..... 8.74 | 5.05 | 1.80
The lowest sucrose in the diffusion juices was found on October 17
. ~~ ~ > . ~ » ~ or
and 19, viz, 5.05 per cent., and October 17 and 18, viz, 5.88 and 5.66 per
4 e . ;
cent. This was at the close of the season. On only four preceding

days did the percentage of sucrose fall below 6, viz, September 22, Oc-

tober 8, 13, and 15. The maximum per cent. of sucrose in the diffusion
Be saeace was found in sample No. 86, September 16, viz, 8.79.

_ The sample of mill juice corresponding to this number is found in

4 ~ No. 2, sample No. 85. The sucrose in this juice was 9.36 per






10

Thus, while the content of sucrose in the chip juices for that day was
18 per cent. below the average for the season, the sucrose in the diffusion

juice was 211 per cent. above it. These numbers show the difficulty of |

obtaining comparative samples in sorghum examinations. Single anal-
yses are apt to be deceptive, and reliance should be placed rather on
the work for the entire season.

TABLE No. 4.— Mill juices from exhausted chips.

| }





Date. No. Total sugars. | Date. | No. Total sugars. |

) ) :

Per cent. Percent. |
Sept. 9...| 24 99 | Oct. 1....] 176 . 57
Sept. 10...| 32 1.19 Oct. 3....| 189 . 90
Sept.12...| 49 56 | Oct. 4....) 200 | 1.01
| Sept. 13... 56 . 63 | Oct. 5....) 218 . 88
| Sept.15...| 71 | . 88 | Oct. 6....| 232 | . 84
Sept. 16... 84 1. 09 | Onis 7... =; 240 | . 89
| Sept. 17...| 90 1. 83 | Oct. 8 .. 248 | 1.35
| Sept.19 -.| 98a | 88 | Oct. 11....] 260 1.38
| Sept. 19...| 102 | 1.19 Oct. 12....| 267 91
| Sept. 20... 108 | 114 | Oct. 13....| 280 1.43
| Sept. 20...| 112 | 84 Oct. 14....! 289 .76
| Sept. 2L...) 125 1, 22 Oct. 15....| 294 1,02
Sept. 22...| 133 1. 37 Oct. 18....) 313 1.42

Sept. 23...| 145 . 49 Lada en
Sept. 24...) 151 | eae |. «A Verageli-a...- 1.03

Sept. 26...) 165 | . 69



The sucrose in the juice expressed from exhausted chips was inverted
and estimated with the reducing sugar present, and the whole expressed
as total sugars.

The ratio of the sucrose in the chips to the reducing sugar shows that
the former is more readily diffused than the latter. This ratio was not
determined for the whole season. From October 8 to 18, however,
seven such analyses were made, with the following results:

TABLE No. 5,—Sucrose and glucose in juice from ex/austed chips and corresponding diffu-
~ SiON juices,









Exhausted chips. Diffusion juices. |
Date. | eee ke < —< —
No. Glucose. | Sucrose. No. (Glucose. | Sucrose.
:
| z shy sc: 62 | i
Per cent.| Per cent. Per cent. | Per cent. |
Oct. 8.. 248 Ce .78 247 | 3.06 5. 90
| Oct. 11.. 200. | - BL) [a BP) TS Se ae 6. 58
| Oct. 12.. 267 0 63 | 266 | 2.03 6,17
| Oct. 13.. 280 .48 .95 | 279 1. 89 5. 97
Oot. 14.. 289 24 . 52 280 1, 80 6, 02
Oct. 15.. 294 oot oth! | “208. 2 share 5. 66
Oct. 18.. 313 43 | O04) * BLS 2. 02 5, 66
Averages|.......- Or Te: CM Sede ar 2.09 | 6,99
Ratio of glucose to sucrose from exhausted chips ...-..--... .---+--++-. 1» 1:85
Ratio of glucose to sucrose in diffusion juice .......-...---.+---eee eee eee 1: 2.86

Ratio of glucose to sucrose corresponding mill juice from fresh chips .... 1 : 2. 69

The variations in the quantities of sugar left in the chips were due
to differences in the quantity of diffusion juice drawn off at each charge,
and to changes in rapidity of working. Rapid working with small
quantities of juice drawn off leave more sugar in the chips than slower
working and larger charges of diffusion juice.

iit jer

ee el Mt



eee 11









Up to the 22d of September the quantity of juice drawn at each charge
We s 2,200 pounds. From this time to October 4, 2,640 pounds were

drawn off each time. Thence to the close of the season 2,420 pounds.
Assuming that each cell held 2,000 pounds of chips and the cane con-
tained 90 per cent. juice, we have the following data:








* Weight of chips in each cell....-.-....----..----------- pounds.. 2,000
” ES IE ee eee do.... 1,800
ET ee per cent.. 93

: Normal juice extracted from each cell. ..-.....-.....--.. pounds... 1,674

, 1 Charge withdrawn up to September 22 .....- Re oe aia ns do.... 2,200
7 EE ho oe ory a wo into eee mae mme wes ao.-... | on
; ee Se 32. 02

; Charge withdrawn September 22 to October 4..--......- pounds.. 2,640
NIE REIN Fo 2s oe nde <> sow sane Mee see ken ae xo <0 Gg. =. 966
a. Percentage of dilution -........-...-. bit apnfediny We welecir t aca So~ - my 57.70
Charge withdrawn October 4 to close..-... meets aeian 5~ = pounds.. 2, 420
ERE had ap unio moses n+ 0 ose tee inees ene ss fo-.-. .. 746
NONE SEE RS ee ee eee 44, 56

With the modern appliances for evaporating sugar juices in multiple
effect vacuum pans, the objections which have been urged against dif-
, sion on account of the necessary dilution of the juice are of little
force. A dilution of 60 per cent. is not at all incompatible with the
complete economic success of the process.

h
i
a

TABLE No. 6.—Defecated juices.



| x | Brix





| |
}
Date. | No. | (corrected). Sucrose. | Glucose. |
! a oe Jet Pe bie desl }
: }
| | Per cent. | Per cent.
Sept. 12...) 53 13. 35 8. 25 2. 66
Sept.15...| 72 | 13.02 8. 23 2.55 |
Sept. 16...| 87 | 13.28 8. 87 2.23 |
Sept.17...| 91 12. 48 7.90 | 2.53
Sept.19...| 98 10. 90 6. 99 1. 88
Sept. 19...) 101 12. 58 8. 09 1. 97
Sept. 20...| 109 12. 34 7.93 2.11
Sept. 21...| 126 12. 05 fe Takes
Sept. 22...| 136 11. 44 es as
Sept. 23...| 144 11. 24 6. 50 2. 35
Sept. 24...| 152 10, 58 6.43 2. 08
Sept. 26...) 164 10. 81 6.11 2. 38
Oct. 1...| 184 10.14 Bet ste Dy de kien
Ost. $:..] 195 10. 58 6. 24 2.22
Oct. 4...| 201 10.75 6. 83 1.75
Oct. 5...| 221 10. 98 6. 74 2. 23
Oct. 6...| 233 13. 20 6. 99 2. 85
Oct. 7...| 241 10. 81 6.58 1. 80
Oct. 8...| 249 11. 29 6.00 | 2.80
Oct. ia 264 10.01 | 6.09 2. 03
Oct. 12...| 274 asl» Ls 2. 02
Oct. 13...| 284 10. 91 7.10 1. 69
Oct. 15... 297 | 10.51 6.74 2. 04
Oct. 17...) 309 | 9,75 5. 94 1. 87
Oct. 19 " 320 8. 94 5.11 2.10
Averages 11,31 6. 91 2.19
:







=>

_ Dr. ©. A. Crampton has furnished the following additional notes on
the foregoing analytical work :

_ The first analysis of fresh chips was made on September 3, but the chemical con-
trol of the factory was not fally instituted until the 8th, This control consisted of





12 : ae
daily analyses of the fresh chips as supplied to the battery, of the diffusion juice, the —
defecated juice, and of the exhausted chips, together with analyses of the-semi-sirup
masse cuite and sugar from nearly every strike that wasmade. Great care was taken
to have the analyses of the different products comparable with each other ; the samples
were always taken after at least one complete circuit of the battery had been made,

as starting up the battery fresh did not allow of a proper extraction of the first cells
filled. After the first round had been made a sample of the fresh chips was collected,
an equal quantity being taken from each cell filled, the whole properly mixed and run
through the small experimental mill, and the juice submitted to analysis. The sam_
ple of diffusion juice was taken from the same cells represented by the samples of
fresh chips, by collecting and mixing together equal volumes from the drawings from
each cell. The sample of exhausted chips was likewise collected from the same cells,
and the juice obtained from them by pressure with the small mill. Thus the analyses
of these three important products are strictly comparable and represent as truth- —
fully as is possible, so far as the sampling is concerned, the character of the cane en-
tering the battery, of the juice obtained from it, and of the waste matter thrown out.
The defecated juices, having been boiled continuously in an open pan, samples could
not be obtained which would correspond precisely with the samples of diffusion juice,
but they were taken from a large receiving tank, which held the juice from anumber of
cells, so may be taken as a fair average of the defecated juice as it went to the double
effect.

ANALYSIS OF WHOLE CANES, TABLE 1.

These analyses were made for various purposes and are inserted here simply as a
matter of reference. They furnish additional proof, if any is needed, of the extreme
variability of sorghum cane, and of the fact that analyses of a few selected canes
give higher results than the average of a crop, and can not be depended on to show
the average composition of a field of cane. Nos. 29-43 were taken from different
parts of the same field, and at the same time, They show a content of sucrose all the
way from 12.44 to 5.95 per cent. No. 148 shows very well the inversion sorghum un-
dergoes by keeping after it is cut. It was taken from a load brought in by a farmer,
and had doubtless lain in the field several days after it was cut. This analysis, which
is simply an instance of what has been frequeutly observed before, shows the neces-
sity for the rapid handling of sorghum after it is cut. It has been proposed to buy
sorghum cane by its Brix indication, as is done with beets in some parts of Ger-
many. This analysis, with a Brix indication of 59, and a polarization of 3.32, shows
very conclusively that it would not pay very well to bny cane that had stood exposed
on the degree Brix given by the juice.

TABLE NO. 7.—Sirups (thick juices).

haltgre®
Date. | No. | Brix







| (corrected). Sucrose. Glucose.
| | Per cent. Per cent.
| Rept uses 46 | 37.26 16.10 10. 49
Sept. “18...0 cas. 57 41. 60 25. 75 7.90
Sent, (Ubicncunse 75 54. 46 33. 00 10. 92
a ee 94 41. 80 28. 70 7. 69
BORG TaUiecveurs 113 59. 50 39. 10 10. 16
Sept: (22y.4.505 P98 iv cteid pause we 41, 90 14. 70
Géek.. Sita. 137 46. 80 29, 90 9. 62
Sapt, 134; «ks. em 156 46, 60 20 50. |... | seateestiionats
Oct. Stns ae 196 42. 40 28. 00 &. 69
Oct. oS free 234 60, 40 35. 10 16. 26
| Oct. 1 ae 243 50, 60 33.00 10. 36
Oct. Eeteéhawes 268 36, 20 24. 20 6. 42
Oct. i in ED 275 40, 90 S7..70° ° ..|\ cane ee
| Oct. TA .\ceddach' eeu 39. 80 26. 70 7. 62
| Averages..|....... | 46,02 29. 90 10. 06





13




| ‘The variations in the proportion of sucrose to glucose in the thick
be juice as shown on Table No. 7 are much greater than would be expected
from the analyses recorded in the foregoing tables. The thorough mix-

ing of the products of large numbers of diffusion charges should tend
_ theoretically to equalize the ratios of the two sugars. This remark-
_ able variation is explained partly by the addition of sugar to the clari-
fied juices in order to promote crystallization in the vacuum pan.

TABLE No. 8.—WMasse cuites.







.
| Moist- Sucrose | Sucrose; Not :
) No. ee Ash. |Glucose. | “Girect, onpar. | Remarks.





indirect.
|



Per cent.| Pr. ct.









Per cent.| Pr. ct. lPaconi| Per — eo
; 5309 12. 34 4, 82 21. 69 50. 4 53. 94 6. 81 Not enriched. |
5310 | 11.18 | 5.28 | 22.70 52. 8 56. 73 4.11 Do.
F 5311 41.47 | 422. | 15.92 62. 40 | 66.47 1.92 | Enriched.
5312 | 13.86 | 4.07 16. 91 55. 93 | 60. 22 4.94 | Do.
5313 13.58 | 4.13 15.62 | 60.52 | 65.30 1.37.| . Deo
5314 a2241 4. 58 18.19 | 50.19 55. 32 9. 80 Not enriched. |
5315 | 13.83 | 448 | 19.88 | 52.18 | 58.50 | 3.31 Do.
5316 | 12.74 | 4.81 16.82 | 60.24 64. 01 1. 62 Do.
5343 13. 83 4. 02 15.25 | 60.97 61. 25 5.65 | Enriched.
5381 16.72 | 5.09 19. 60 57. 64 55.83 | 2.75 | Not enriched.
; 53885 | 17.80 | 4.72 | 21.00 50.28 | 51.76 | 4.72 Do.
. 5386 | 13.22 | 4.26 | 16.55 | 63.12 62.66 | 3.31 | Enriched.
5387 | 14.48 | 4.48 | 15.83 | 63.16 | 62.63 | 2.58 | Not enriched.
F 5388 | 13.89 | 4.83 | 16.40 | 57.84 59.64 | 5.24 Do.
5389 | 15.19 | 4.66 | 19.52 56.7 55.59 | 5.04 Do.
5344. | 14.38 | 4.50 | 17.36 61.79 61. 83 1.93 Do.
5347 | 11.40 | 4.49 | 13.61 65. 23 63.38 | 7.12 Do.
5348 | 12.96 | 5.01 15. 20 61. 79 61.51 5. 32 Do.
5349 | 13.30 | 4.62 17.30 | 60.00 60. 00 4.78 Do.
5353 | 12.55 | 7.14 | 17.78 | 59.10 59. 62 2.91 Do.
5354 | 25.61 | 4.24 15.95 51. 90 52. 11 2.09 Do.
5355 | 15.69 | 4.93 18.18 56. 03 58. 91 2. 39 Do.
5357 | 13.10 | 4.92 19. 40 55.45 | 57.37 5. 21 Do.
5358 | 22.01 | 4.80 | 16.68 54. 86 52. 18 4.33 | Do.
5283 | 14.12 | 4.32 15. 70 66. 08 59. 77 6. 07 Do.



Avo .. “M45 | 470 | 17.50 | oi eT 59. 06 | 4.21. | |
The remarks applied to the analyses of the sirups, Table No. 7, belong
equally well to Table No, 8. A distinction is made of the samples for-
tified by the addition of sugar. The differences between direct and double
polarization, which are so plainly shown in the analysis of sirups, masse
cuites, and molasses, will be discussed in another place. The greater
reliance should be placed on the indirect polarization when it is care-
fully done. Yet the difficulties attending an accurate analysis of these
substances are very great, and every precaution known to science will
not always lead to perfectly satisfactory results.
The remarkable difference between the direct and indirect polariza-
tions will at once be remarked in the mean results of Table No. 8. In
general, as has been already said, the preference should be given to the
indirect polarization when carefully done. In the present case, however,
the percentage of sucrose by indirect polarization appears to be too
high. The mean percentage of organic solids not sugar is only 4.21, a
much less proportion than would be expected.

se eee To
‘
:



_









' 7
TABLE No. 9.—Polarization of first sugars. .
No. |Sucrose.| No. | Sderassll
| | / !
Per cent. Per cent.
6 | 97.90 || 202 | 96.60
GO 95.00 | 224 95. 20
6L 96.70 | 229 96. 40
17 9%. 10 236 94. 80
104 | 97.80 245 93. £0
105 | 91.20 250 94. 90
129 | 96.50 251 94. 20
139 94.20 || 277 95. 30
159 97.30 || 281 96. 10
160 97.60 || 286 93. 70
165 | 97.20 | 302 92. 40
168 96. 30 | 303 95. 60
169 | 97.10 | 310 | 93.60
192 96. 70
!

i

TABLE No. 10.—Second sugars.





No. _ | se Sucrose.
Per cent.
8&3 82. 30
173 88. 70 ~
255 86. 40
Mean.. 85. 80



The first sugars, as shown by Table No. 9, had a mean content of su-
crose equal to 95.64 percent. The color of these sugars was mostly
grayish yellow, and most of the samples could be used for the coarser
kinds of table use and for cooking without refining.

Only a small quantity of second sugars was made, it having proved
more profitable to sell the molasses than to work it into sugar.

The composition of the second sugars is sufficiently indicated by
Table No. 10.

TABLE No. 11.—Molasses from first sugars.





| |

Station | Serial Moist- Sucrose | Sucrose} Not
Ash.

Glucose















No. | No. ure. | ‘| direct. |indirect.| sugar. |
Per cent. Per ¢ent.| Per cent.| Per cent.| Per cent.| Per cent

261 82 16. 43 6. 50 28.10 36. 67 35. 66 13. 81 |

59 5318 25. 25 : 6.18 27. 96 37. 65 37. 60 3.01 |
79 5320 23.49 | 5.97 23. 76 34. 52 35. 60 11.18

89 5271 | 25.56 | 5.91 | 23.15 | 35.16 | 35.80 | 10.08
97a 5322 28. 04 5. 22 22. 73 38. 67 88. 90 6.11
103 5323 23. 36 6.44 27.47 37 39 87. 00 5.738
130 5324 23. 01 6. 04 24, 32 35, 16 36. 20 10. 43
140 | 5325 22. 22 7.12 25. we 81, 32 31. 70 13. 96
Averages ... | 23, 42 | 6.17 | 26.31 | 95.81 ne 36.00 | 9.10

In Table No. 11 is given the composition of the molasses after separat-
ing the firstsugar. The increase in per cent. sucrose on double polariza-
tion is not as great as the results with masse cuites would lead us to ex-
pect,







15

The samples taken from the tanks at different times represent fairly
well the average composition of the whole for the entire season.

The sucrose remaining after the first crystallization is seen to be nearly
1.5 times the reducing sugar.

The composition of the molasses gives a check on the yield of sugar per’
ton, which the failure to weigh the cane left toa certain extent undeter-
mined. Supposing that there was no appreciable destruction of reduc-
ing sugar during the process of clarification, and no inversion of su-
crose during the evaporation, the relative composition of the molasses
and diffusion juices will indicate the theoretical yield in sucrose. Since,
however, the quantity of diffusion juice drawn off is difficult to deter-
mine from the data furnished, the comparison will have to be made on
the composition of the normal juice expressed from the samples of fresh



chips.
In these juices the mean composition for the season was—
Per cent.
ee EC eran embinpa ches hoanes vauaes dices’ 9, 54
EIN ee se he oi ic oa en = Sie's wins ds a colons aoe 3. 40

In the molasses the proportion of reducing sugars to sucrose is—
25.31 : 36.00, or 1.42.

Now, the product of 3.40 by 1.42 is 4.83; and 9.54 — 4.83 = 4.71, the
percentage of sucrose obtained in first sugars.

In 1 ton of cane chips there are, in round numbers, 1,800 pounds juice.
The extraction was 93 per cent., or 1,674 pounds. The theoretical quan-
tity of pure sucrose obtained per ton was, therefore, 78.8 pounds.

The mean polarization of the first sugars was 95.64, Then78.8+95.64=
$2.38 = number of pounds actual weight first sugar produced per ton.

The yield per ton is estimated at 100 pounds by Mr. Swenson'. By
Mr. Cowgill the yield per ton is estimated at 93.8 pounds per ton®% fact worthy of remark will be noticed on comparing this yield with the
output at Rio Grande and Magnolia, to be mentioned further on. It is
this: That the quantity of sugar obtained at the first crystallization can
not be determined by any fixed rule based on the relative proportions
of sucrose and glucose in the juice. As the proportion of sucrose dimin-
ishes the relative amount obtained rapidly increases. At Rio Grande,
for instance, the quantity of sucrose remaining in the molasses aftet
the first crystallization is actually less in some cases than the glucose,
In Louisiana, even aftera second or third crystallization, more sucrose
than glucose will usually—not always—be found in the molasses.

In the working of sorghum of the richness indicated by the foregoing
analyses, it is a grave question whether a second crystallization is com-
mercially desirable or even practicable, The difficulty of drying the
second masse cuite in the centrifugals is often so great as to render it
commercially unprofitable. Until the quality of sorghum, therefore, is
a)... iBall, 17, p.10. oie eIbid, p. 49. .







16

improved it will be well to base all calculations on the yield of first
sugars alone. This yield, with such cane as mentioned, will be 4 to 4.5
per cent. on the weight of clean cane.

TABLE No. 12.—Second masse cuite.



Not sugar

ure. direct. | indirect.) (organic).

— — 2 = — EES ee eee

fe oe rT _ —<_ “a
. ; :
‘we: | Moist- | n> Stefan Sucrose Sucrose
}









Per cent.| Per cent. | Per cent.| Per cent.| Per cent.| Per cent. |
7.08 | 63













5345 | 19.34 | 27.30 | 39.15 | 38.65 :
5384 | 1802 | 6.93 | 29.70 | 39.68 | 44.81 1. 04
5356 | 21.00 | 7.26 | 26.45 | 40.52 | 41.98 3. 31
Means| 19.45 | 7.09 | 27.82 | 39.78 418 | 3.99
TABLE No. 13.—Molasses from seconds.
es | - | basa | Gussie Not sugar
No. ure. Ash. od direct. indirect.) (organic).





$$ ee ——$——— — ) are a
| Per cent., Per cent. | Per cent. Per cent | Per sents Per cent.
5350 25.62 | 8.06 |! 31.35 | 32.40 | 29.08 ! 5. 89











53851 | 24.42 | 8.00 | 30.85 25. 60 33. 58 3.15
| 5380 | 26.14 | 7.53 29. 78 31. 66 30. 68 5. 90

Means, 25.39 7. 86 30. 66 33. 22 31.11 4. 98

’

In the second masse cuites the only marked difference from the first
molasses is in the degree of evaporation.

In the second molasses we see the sucrose about in the same propor-
tion as the glucose. It is also less by double polarization—a fact diffi-
cult of explanation.

TOTAL SOLIDS IN JUICES.

In Tables Nos. 1, 2, and 3 the total solids represent the readings of
the hydrometer graduated to give the quantity of pure sugar in an
aqueous solution, and corrected for temperature.

It is evident that in a cane juice containing large quantities of solids
other than pure sucrose, these readings can give only approximately the
percentage of dry solid matter in solution.

Instructions were therefore sent to Fort Scott to determine dry vola-
tile matter or total solids by evaporating a weighed portion of the juice
and noting the weight of the residue dried to practically constant —
weight at 105° C. This operation was carried on in a flat platinum .
dish, about 2 grams of the juice being used in each case. The re- |
sults showed a marked difference in the data furnished by the Brix
hydrometer and the direct method, the latter being uniformly lower, —
thus increasing the apparent purity of the juice. In ‘this operation,
however, the difficulty of securing uniform desiccation is great. The
greater the quantity of solid matter contained in a given juice the
more difficult is it to secure the complete removal of the water, The



17

- differences noted, therefore, in the case of the mill juices are greater
* than in the juices of diffusion. This matter will be referred to again in
the Louisiana analyses to follow. In Table No. 14 the differences. are















timation.
oe i.
| Mill juices. Diffusion juices.
ae eh 6) fs, ee eRe © ea
| No. Direct. Indirect. No. | Direct. | Indirect. |
| Per cent. Per cent.. | Per cent. | Per cent. |
238 15. 67 16. 10 oon.) 10. 15 10. 98
246 14. 95 15. 76 | 247 10. 54 rE 51
258 14. 55 15. 21 259 9. 50 10. 39
262 13. 85 14. 44 i (263 9. 60 10. 49
265 14. 40 14. 73 266 9. 00 9. 97
272 14. 80 15.11 ais 10. 05 10. 82
278 14. 40 14. 97 279 8. 85 9.71
282 14. 85 15. 33 283 | 9. 40 10. 27
292 13. 40 13. 68 293 | 8. 43 9, 34
255 13. 60 14. 24 296 9. 30 10. 24
300 14. 78 15-12 301 8. 58 9. 45
304 14. 85 TDiak: 205 8.10 8. 74
307 12. 50 13. 09 308 | &. 80 9. 51
m 315 13. 65) 14, 21 312 8.75 9. 67
318 14. 65 14. 93 316 7.0 8. 64
——S 319 8.05 8.77 |
Aver.| 14.33 | 14.81 | ae ee oe
Aver 9. 06 9, 91 |



Dr. Crampton makes the following observations on this work:

These results are very interesting and important. They show that while the spin-
dles give results but slightly below the actual determination by drying in the case of
mill juices, the results with the diffusion juices were, on an average, .85 too high.
The spindles used were tested afterwards with a standard solution of pure sugar, and
found to give results about .2 too high. They corresponded closely with a delicate
saccharimeter tested by Scheibler. The different results given by them in the case
of the mill and diffusion juices I am unable to explain, as it would seem more rational
that the diffusion juices, being more nearly pure solutions of sugar than the mill,
would give results approximating more closely to the standard upon which the spin-
dles were based. It is possible that the large amount of suspended solids in the mill
juices may in some way account for the discrepancy. At all events the direct de-
termination doubtless gives more reliable results. Correcting the average results on
the basis of the samples in which a direct estimation was made we have:

Total solids in the mill juices for the season...............------- 15. 66
Co-efficient of purity based on above.................200--------- 60.9
Total solids in diffusion juices for the season ........-...---.----- 10. 23
EE OES Es 65. 3

Showing an increase in the purity of the diffusion over the mill juices of 4.4 points,
The ratio of glucose to sucrose in the two juices for the season was as follows :

MOD no dasc pacésslauce Ses SURG aucune ss bedi widh eacad sk £2.80
Rl cab bape b« meen bees 1 : 2.95

This would seem to show one of two things: Either there was absolutely no inver-
sion in the battery, and the slight difference in favor of tae diffusion juice was due
_ to error of analysis, or that the glucose in the cane was not so readily diffusible as the
- sucrose, and thus a greater proportionate amount of the latter was obtained by diffusion

23576—Bull 18 2





18
than by milling, sufficient to cover whatever slight inversion there was in the bat-

tery, and leave a margin beside. The latter hypothesis seems to be borne out by the
analysis of the exhausted chips. Up to October 8 the total sugar remaining in the

chips was determined, no separate analyses being made of glucose and sucrose. After -

that date both sugars were estimated. Table No. 5 gives the results, together with
the sucrose and glucose in the corresponding diffusion juices:

TABLE No. 15.—Acidity in mill juices and diffusion.











Mill juice. Diffusion. |
! | ‘ ‘ i n
| No. C.C. No. | C.C. 10 |
alk. for 100. alk. for 100.
| |
—— eae pence ie pieitinneicieiil ede
174 | 32.0 175 14.4
193 | 288 194 16.8
198 | 38. 0 199 20. 0
| 222 32.0 223 18.4
230 | 39.0 231 22.8
936°} _ 32.% 229 26. 0
246 | 36.0 247 20.0
258 10.0 259 16.0
265 26. 0 266 15,39"
278 | 34.0 279 18.0
292 | ~ 18.9 293 19.0
304 34.0 305 12.0
811 21.0 312 9.0
315 26.0 | 316 10.0
Mean . 29.1 Mean. 16.3 “4



The work recorded in Table No. 15 was undertaken to show the ex-
tent to which the carbonate of lime added to the diffusion cells neutral-
ized the free acids of the juice. The numbers indicate the quantity of
tenth normal alkali required to neutralize the acids in 100 cubie centim-
eters of the juice. Taking as a basis of comparison the total solids
in the mill and diffusion juices for the season, as indicated in Tables
Nos. 2 and 3, the following data are obtained:

Total solids in mill juices. ... 5.2. ..20<.+sess0essnes ova 16,14
Total solids in diffusion juices... .f .....sa Acidity of mill juice... cn. cces sauces toacenacseneuns ta nee 29.1 ce.

The normal acidity of the diffusion juice, had no carbonate been
used, is obtained by the following calculation :

16,14 : 11.08=29.1 :X; whence
x 19.98

The mean quantity of alkali required for neutralizing the acid in the
diffusion juice was 16.3 cubie centimeters. Deduct this number from
the calculated normal number and the difference, viz, 3.68 cubic centim-
eters, represents the amount of acid neutralized.

The percentage of acid neutralized is therefore 3.68 + 29.1 x 100 =
12.65. The action of the carbonate, therefore, in neutralizing the acids
is not as far reaching as the experiments made by the Department and
recorded in Bulletin 14 would lead us to expect.





: a a A : . e

Th nan ge
wi », o
leo Bao .
“te ’







ice from exhausted chips contained 1.03 per cent. of total sugars. This
sugars as 2.04 per cent. of the amount contained in the cane. Sup-
io of glucose to sucrose in the exhausted chips for the whole season to
> same as that shown during the time that the two sugars were esti-
ttely, the average sucrose remaining would be .68 per cent. in the juice,
. of the chips themselves. This would give an extraction of 92.87 per
otal sucrose present in the cane.

ot so good an extraction as has been obtained in previous experiments with
neane. It is explained by Professor Swenson on the ground that the chips
ade fine enough, gaps in the knives of the small cutters, made by stones,
ig into it, allowing of the passage of comparatively large pieces of cane.



WORK AT RIO GRANDE, N. J.

The general instructions sent to the Fort Scott station were given
also to the analysts at Rio Grande, with such changes only as the
locality required.

Mr. I. V. Broadbent was placed in charge of the analytical work,
with Mr. Hubert Edson as assistant. Mr. Broadbent resigned his posi-
tion early in October. Mr. Edson then took charge of the work and
remained until the close of the season. With the assistance of one boy
he successfully conducted the chemical control of the factory.

In the following tables are given the results of his work:

TABLE No. 16.—Juices from diffusion chips.





















Date. eeaee| Baumé. pooh ag aes es Glucose.
ee eco ! a eed
) Per cent. Per iil
|Sept. 8.....) 1.057 7.8 14. 06 7.94 | S@@P ie
| Sept. 9 ..... 1. 059 21° Be 8.88 |] OS Oieariitnc:
Sept.10 ..... 1. 057 7. 45 22 8.34 |. @1: Sheena. oo
| Sept.12 ..... | 1.052 VE eh Ce S 7.95 | "08. 00a
| Sept. 13 ..... | 1.052 7.2 | 12.80 8.10 | 63.28 |....-.....
Sept.15 .....} 1.051 at 12. 96 7.37 | 56.87 3. 46
| Sept. 17 ..... 1. 054 7.6 | 3283 8. 01 | 62. 43 3. 22
| Sept.19 ..... | 1.050 6.9 | 12.26 | 7.29 | 59.46 3.79
Sept. 19 ..... 1. 052 72 jo 23 Op 7.33 | 58.73 4. 07
| Sept. 20 ..... 1. 055 7.6 12.06 | 7.61 | 58.72 3.13
Sept. 20 ..... | 1.057 7.8 13:62 «|, 9,53: 4 | Shee 3. 39
Sept. 21 ..... | 1.069 | 9.4 | 16.47 | 11,63 | 70.61 2. 52
Sept. 21...... | 1.072 | 9&8 | 17.80 | 12.28 | 68.99 2.76
| Sept. 222.27: 1.063 | 86 | 15.28 | 10.88 } 71.20 | 2.46
Sept.23 .....} 1.059 | 8&1 | 13.90 | 832 | 59.86 3. 04
Sept. 24 .....| 1. 058 7.8 13.86 | 8.55 | 61.69 3.45
Sept. 26 ..... | 1.061 8.3 14, 23 9. 09 63. 88 . 2.97
Sept.27 ..-..1 1.058 | 7.0 | 1371 8.42 | 61.42 | 3.63
Sept. 27 ..... | 1.061 aa: i: 4 8. Of 62.56 | 3.86
Sept. 28 ..... | 1.060 8.0 14. 20 8.80 | 61.97 3.32
| Sept. 20 ..... | 1.053 7.3 13. 02 8. 29 2. 67 3.30 |
Oct. Ivisx 1. 053 7.3 | 13-61 7. 98 | 61. 34 3. 05
Dot, +B ance: 1. 055 7.6 14.19 9.25 | 65.19 3.15
cer. Se, eee ae ee 13. 74 8.43 | 61.36 3.99
| O66. "Oveens | 1,000 | 8&2 14. 67 8. 83 60. 19 3.53
| Oot. 8 ces | 1.058 | 7.9 14. 1 9.34 | 65.27 3. 59
Oot "Sc | 1.087 | 78 | 98.80 9.21 | 66.74 2.70
| Ong St a | 1.059 8.1 15. 03 9.19 | 61.14 3. 36
‘Oat. - F sect | 1.057 7.8 | 13.88 8.94 | 64.41 3. 68
| Oct. 8 ..... | 1.066 | 7.7 |. 18.66 7.40 | 61.49 8.71
Oct. 10 ..... | 1.065 8.9 15. 94 10, 95 68. 70 2. 87
| Oct. 10..... 1. 065 8.9 16. 33 11.64 | 71.28 3.01
| Ook Bt... coc 1. 066 9.0 15. 61 11.02 | 70.42 3.05
a oe 1.067 | 91 15. 78 10.80 | 68.44 3.12
Ont, 18 «25. 1, 056 7.9 13. 66 9.08 | 66.47 2.94
DORIS vse. 1. 060 82 | 14.58 9.27 | 63.58 3. 29
| O66..94 ssc: 1, 059 81 | 1484 9.34 | 65.13 3.18
CNB.” Des aes | 1,057 7.8 13. 86 9 GL GD..34 -lesemiunees
Oct. 15......| 1.058 | 7.9 | 18.77 8.72 | 63.33 | 8.51
Det 38 Gee: 1070 | 95 | 16,71 11.40 | 68,22 3.13
Oat Wi wane 1. 070 9.5 16. 86 11. 51 G8, 27 covet vance
| Oot.” 2B wewas | 1,069 ), 4 | 16.738 11.47 Gs. 56 3. 28
ion 1S vias 1, 066 8.2 | 14. 30 9.36 | 65.45 3. 06

20



~






yt

21

TABLE No. 16.—Juices from diffusion chips—Continued.

'
Date. | Specific Gaaaa Brix (cor-











‘gravity, | rected.) Sucrose. Purity. Glucose. |

Per cent. Per cent. |
ere. | tem). 7.7 «| 13.26 8.49 | 64.02 2. 83
Oct. 20°....: 1.056 | 7.7 | 13.28 8.52 | 64.14 2. 83
Bei: Sh. .2.- 1. 050 6.9 11. 90 7.29 | 61.26 2.56
(oa) en 1.053 | 7.3 12.53 7.79 | 62.17 2. 94
Oct. 22 ..... 1.048 6.7 11. 24 6.81 | 60.59 2.99
Oct. 24 ...-.. 1.065 | 89 15. 21 10. 42 | 68. 51 2. 07

Oot 4 .:..- 1.065 | 8&9 | 15.47 10. 39 | 67.16 ce a ee

Oct 25 _.... 1051 | 71 | 1226 | 6.74 | 54.97 | 3.74 |
¢ Oct. 26 ..-.. 1.05 | 61 10.45 | 471 | 45.07 4.45
et. 27... .. | 1.056 1.7 13. 43 8.85 | 65.90 3.49
Se 1. 059 8.1 14.10 | 9.20 65.25 | 3.73

a, £e....- 1. 052 7-2). 12.87 8. 12 64. 60 3.40 |
et ae 1. 053 7.3 12. 24 8.16 | 66. 66 3. 78
a oes 1. 056 7.7 | - 13.05 7.70 59. 00 3.55
Mow..1 ...-. 1. 062 85 | 14.52 9.95 | 68,52 3. 30
Nov. 2..... 1. 062 8.5 14. 35 9.96 | 69.47 3. 88

Mev. 3 ...-. 1. 062 8.5 14 74 Ve a A ta
Nov. §....| 1.061 8.3 14, 20 9.48 | 66.29 53
Means .. | 1.067 7.8 | 14.02 8.98 | 64.05 | 3.24
Maxima .| 1.070 9.5 17. £0 12.28 | 71.28 | 4.45
Minima..| 1.045 | 6.3 | 10. 45 4.71 45.07 | 2.07



The analyses of the samples of chips taken from each charge of the
battery, often twice daily, show the remarkable fluctuations in sucrose
which have always been noticed in sorghum juices.

The mean composition of the normal juice, Table 16, shows a less per-
centage of sucrose, but a somewhat higher purity than were obtained
at Fort Scott.

The maximum percentage of sugar in the juice is not as great as at
Fort Scott, and the minimum is not so small. In general it may be
said that the canes worked at Rio Grande were slightly inferior for
production of sugar to those of Fort Scott.

The theoretical yield per ton, based on the Fort Scott analyses,
would have been as follows:

Pounds of juice at 93 per cent. extraction .........-........---- 1, 674.
OS Ee ee ee a 1. 60
Sn a ee 4.38
Pare sucrose, first crystallization .../...-....-.-. ...... ....--- 73, 32
peraucroee, 6L0., Ab Fort Scoté .... .. - 200 cece cen ccee ee ee 78.8

The yield obtained, for various reasons, was much less than this.

The tonnage obtained at Rio Grande, however, was fully double that
at Fort Scott, and this heavy growth may account for the slightly in-
ferior quality of the cane,



















| Rs ; ;
Date erates.) Baumé. Brix aa Sucrose.) Purity. | Glucose.

| oa bed ) ae

:

1887. 2 ° Per cent. Per cent. f
Sept. 8.-...- 1. 040 5.6 9.0 9. 57 5.€9 MSD cps ni, :
|Sept. 9.....| Loge | 5.6 9.1 | 10.21 | G21 | 60.82 |.......... 3
Sept. 10..... 1. 040 5.6 9.1 9.92 5. 57 SANS Bisa Pick ‘
Sept. 12..... | 1.033 4.7 8.1 8.91 5. 58 MRT betas ct '
Sept. 13..... | 1.037 5.2 9.0 9 GL 6. 03 We a nce ‘
Sent..36-.... | Ror TRS 9.2 9.77 5. 43 SME Pines c dan 3
Sept.Ats..: | 1.045 6.3 10. 4 10. 43 6.71 64. 33 2. 93 .
Sept. 19 =n 1. 040 5.6 9.6 10. 16 5.74 56. 50 2. 85
Sept. 20 ....| 1045 | 6.3 | 10.5 10.95 | 6.18 | 5644 | 3.27
Sept. 20.....| 1.047 6.5 11.1 11.55 6. 68 BA 6c ann ta
Sept. 21.....) 1.050 6.9 11.8 12.18 8.47 69. 54 2.12 a
Sept. 21 ....| 1. 050 6.9 12.8 13. 22 8. 97 67. 85 2.17 é
Sept. 22.....| 1. 060 8.2 14. 0 14. 40 9. 90 68.75 2.72
Sept. 23.....! 1.055 7.6 12.8 13. 06 7. 51 57.50 3. 00 z
Sept. 24.....| 1.051 7.1 12.3 12. 30 7.07 57.47 3. 24
Sevt. 26.....| 1.042 5.9 9.5 9.56 6.18 64. 64 2. 09
ae ee a 12.4 12. 60 7.72 61. 27 3. 27
sept. 27¢,~-4 3, 56 7.6 12.5 12. 80 7.81 61. 02 3. 51
Sept. 28.....| 1.053 7.3 12.5 12.77 7.47 58. 58 3.27
Sept. 29.....| 1.051 71) 1 G68 12.33 7. 81 63. 34 3. 16
Gear. . faa: 1. 046 6.4 10.9 11. 58 7. 09 61. 20 3. 09
Oe S34: 1. 040 5.6 10.0 11.12 6. 86 61. 69 2. 37
Oeb.* Bicczs 1. 052 7.2 12.1 12. 62 7.55 59. 83 3. 66
Heb: \ 450 1.044 6.1 10.2 10. 90 6.73 61.74 3.19
eh 4 1.0°6 "4 12.8 13.39 8. 70 64. 97 3. 82
Ose B.. : 1. 043 6.0 10.1 10. 35 6. 62 63. 96 2.50
Oote * 8x... 1. 045 6.3 10.6 | 11.01 6.98 63. 40 2. 62
ti) a eee 1.038 5.3 83.) « O38 5. 89 63. 43 2.53
Og’. 05555: 1. 035 4.9 7.9 8. 44 5. 08 60.19 2.03
Gets ARs 1. 042 5.9 10.4 10. 87 7. 42 68. 26 2.19
Oct. 10..... 1. 058 7.9 13.6 14.30 | 10.02 70. 07 3.10
iets A crcl 1, 057 7m 13.5 13. 73 9. 58 69. 78 2.94
oe t.. 1052 7:2 121 12.58 | 8.49 67. 49 2.18
Oot. .13.....| 1.045 6.3 10.5 10. 62 6.85 60. 47 2.50
O6e<48.074 1. 052 7.3 12.3 12.66 | 8.28 65. 40 2. 94
Oot: 34 bce) 3. Bl 71 12.2 12.58 | 8.11 64.47 2.91
Ot a4: 2... 1.053. | 7.3 12.3 12.85 | 8.66 67. 39 3.01
Oct. 15.....] 1.047 65 | 109 10. 98 | 7.14 65. 02 2.81
Oot. 47x... | 1.034 4.8 7.9 8.42 6.19 71.14 1. 57
Oet- 176 1. 035 4.9 8.2 8. 82 6. 24 PATI 16 ch. has
Cet Nae.:: 1. 035 4.9 8.2 8. 60 6.01 69.77 1.91
Oct.: 19.2... 1. 036 5.1 8.5 8. 82 5.78 65. 53 2.13
Oct. 20..... 1. 047 6.5 16.8 11.18 7.09 63. 42 2. 69
Ck 88S 2 1. 046 6.4 10.8 11.31 6.97 | 61. 64 2.57
Ch Bt zs. 1. 039 5.5 9.1 9.51 5. 54 54. 05 2. 46
Oot B12: .. 1. 045 6.3 10.4 10. 73 6. 52 60. 76 2.53
tS Se oe 1. 041 5.7 9.5 9.77 5. 70 56.19 2. 80
Det 34.3... 1. 035 4.9 8.0 8. 40 5.81 69,17 1.32
Oct. 24.... | 1.048 6.7 11.4 11.91 5.77 CEE Sie sak shan,

Oct. 25.....| 1.046 6.4 10 9 11.35 5.92 52. 16 3. 33
Oct. 26.....| 1.037 5.2 8.5 8.78 3. 89 44. 31 3.97
Oct. 27..... 1. 050 6.9 11.8 12. 08 7.61 63. 00 3.54
ae 1. 055 7.6 12.7 13. 00 7.97 61.31 3. 60
Dat, - 20.50.: 1. 043 6.0 10.0 10. 37 6. 49 62. 58 3.10
Ook B8.2...¢ 1. 036 5.1 8.2 8. 38 5. 05 60. 26 2.75
Oct. 31..... 1. 045 6.3 10.6 11.04 | 6.2 56, 43 3.45
Wari. ee 1. 050 6.9 11.7 11.82 | 6.72 56. 93 3. 88
Now. 3.24; 1. 059 8. 1 13.4 13. 40 8.73 65.15 3. 68
Nov. 3.....| 1.056 7.7 13.1 13.55 | 8.63 CO) (bua
Mat. °O. aan 1. 056 27 13.2 13. 26 8. 41 63. 71 3.74

Means...' 1.046 6.4 10.6 11.18 | 6.93 61.98 2. 86

Maxima.| 1,060 8.2 14.0 14.40 10. 02 71.14 3.97

Minima..| 1.033 4.7 7.9 8. 38 3. 89 44. 31 1, 32





The system of diffusion employed at Rio Grande is fully explained
by Fig. 5, Bulletin No. 17. It differs radically from the system of
closed diffusion. As operated at Rio Grande last year the extraction
was no better than by good milling in Louisiana, while the dilution was
fully as great as at Fort Scott and Magnolia.

The defects of the system were both mechanical and chemical,





> OS OF Bae ee ee “7 Te

—_”.

;
:
k
g



23

— The mechanical difficulty is the same as that which attends all meth-

ods of diffusion in which the cane chips are moved instead of the diffu-

sion liquors. From a mechanical point of view,it is far easier and

more economical to move a liquid in a series of vessels than a mass of
chips. In the Hughes system the whole mass of chips undergoing
diffusion, together with adhering liquor, and baskets and suspending
apparatus, are lifted vertically a distance of several feet, varying with
the depth of the diffusion tanks every few minutes. The mechanical

energy required to do this work is enormous, and with large batteries

the process would prove almost impossible.

The chemical defects of the system are shown in the exposure of so
large a surface to oxidation and the action of invertive ferments. It
is not surprising, therefore, to notice a distinct increase in the ratio of
glucose to sucrose in the data of Table No.17. Diffusion in open ves-
sels was tried years ago with the sugar beet, and was abandoned as
being both unscientific and expensive. The degree of extraction in open
vessels is also less perfect than in closed diffusers where a considera-
ble pressure is exerted on the osmotic liquors. It is but just to say,
however, that the poor extraction obtained at Rio Grande is due more
to the low temperature at which the diffusion took place than to the
open diffusion vessels. I measured the temperature several times at
the beginning of the season and found it below 60° C,

By certain modifications made after the close of the season, Mr.
Hughes obtained a better extraction, (Bulletin 17, p. 67.)

The composition of the diffusion juices is sufficiently shown in Table
No. 17.

TABLE No. 18,—Exhausted chip juice.









: ae ae ” |
Date ote | Baumé. | Brix. rected.) Sucrose. | Purity. | Glucose.
|
| ° ° ° Per cent. | | Per cent.
| Sept. 8..| 1.019 2.7 4.5 5.05 ) ge 2 eee
Sept. 9..| 1.012 1.7 a2 2.55 1,82 | OF heed 5.
Sept. 10..| 1.018 2.6 oe oh ete. | ear) 66.88 |...,......
Sept.12..) 1.017 | 2.4 | 0) Wi h4de 1 RGR 4 69:67. |..22.5-s-.
Sept. 13..| 1.016 OS a Ce ee Se eee ee |
Sept. 15..| 1.019 2.7 6:0, RRS to B08) 1-67.60 |s-..-.....
Sept. 17..| 1.016 2.3 Zi 4; is 2.03 65. OL . 97
Sept. 19..| 1.011 1.6 2.0 | 2.70 | 1:73 | 64.07 73
Sept. 20.. 1. 007 1.0 Ae k Bale | 99 58. 23 | 50
Sept. 20..| 1.010 | 1.4 1.9 | 230 1.16 | 50.43 bf
Sept. 21..| 1.007 tet: OLS 1.68 | 98 58. 33 35
I ih eebigeadildetdes siusbecesscen 39
Sept. 22..| 1.018 nie ts 4.3 4.96 | 3.12 | 638.09 . 50
Sept. 23..| 1.018 2.6 3:7 4. 09 2, 3) 56.48 Lhe
Sept. 24..; 1.021 | 3.0 4.6 4. 66 2. 67 57.30 | 1.34
Sept. 26..| 1.021 3.0 4.3 4.35 2. 83 65.06 | 1.06
Sept. 27..| 1.018 2.6 3.8 4.05 1.78 43.46 | 1,00
Sept. 27.. 1. 016 2.3 3.4 3. 82 2. 22 58.12 | 96
Sept. 28.. 1, 021 3.0 4.3 455 ?! 200 | 6.74 | 1.2 |
Sept. 29..| 1.016 2.3 3.5 4.12 2. 52 61.16 | 1. 05
Oct. 1, 1,015 2.0 3.3 8.98 | 2.5L | 63.07 | 114 |
Oct.) 8..) 1.011 1.6 34 | 3.49 2.13 62. 03 soe
Oct. 3..| 1.021 | 3.0 46 | 50 | 327 64. 88 142 |
Oct 4../ 1,016 | 2.3 %4 = 6| 4.23 2. 54 60. 05 1.15
Oct. 4..| 1. 022 3.2 4.8 | 6.55 3.51 63. 24 142 |
Oet. 5..| 1.007 | 1.0 ieee S09 5 i * 3.96 63.12 49 =|
Oct. 6..| 1.007 1.0 1.5 2.04 | 1.02 50.00 | 38
Oct, 7..| 1.006 | 9 1.0 1,39. -] KI 53. 38 30
Oct, 8..| 1.013 | 19 | 28 | 383 | J 97 59. 16 OL



24

TABLE No, 18.—Lvhausted chip juice—Continued.





















Paes Sy |
Date. | psec Baumé. Brix. ee Sucrose. | Purity. | Glucose.
! :
i
° ° ° Per cent. | Per cent
t Ovk,” 2053) 3. 08: - S8 4.1 4. 40 2. 81 | 63. 86 9
| Oct. 30..| 1.023 | 3.3 5.6 6.28 3. 90 62.10 1.25
Geek 11. hee 1+ 888 6.4 6. 64 4,23 | 63. 70 1.56
(Oct. 11.) 1.016 2.3 3.3 3. 60 2.31 64.17 .75
| Oct. 13..| 1.021 3.0 4.6 4.77 2.95 61. 85 1.40
| Oct. 13..| 1.622 3.2 4.9 5. 34 3.35 62. 75 1.37
| Oct. 14..} 1.023 3.3 5.1 | 5.42 3.42 63. 10 1.41
Oct. 14... 1.019 | 2.7 4.2 4. 82 3.14 63. 14 1.02
Oct. 15..| 1.018 2.6 4.1 4. 35 2. 72 62. 53 1. 04
Oct. 17..| 1.009 3 1.9 2. 23 1.49 G6. 81 42 |
Oct. 17..| 1.009 1.3 1:7 2.14 1.29 RO A ess oe
Oct. 18..! 1.006 9 iy 1.57 93 59. 23 29
Oct. 19.-| 1.016 2.3 4.5 5. 03 2.53 50. 30 .85
Oct. 20..| 1.017 2.4 3.8 4.21 2.¢ 67. 22 94
Oct. 21..| 1.013 1.9 2.9 3.28 2 OL 61.28 .79
Oct. 21..| 1.021 3.0 4.9 5.25 3.11 59. 24 1.29
Oct. 22..| 1.013 1.9 2.6 2. 87 1. 87 65. 85 8
Oct. 24..| 1.021 3.0 4.8 5. 26 2.76 52. 47 .65
Oct. 25..| 1.014 2.0 3.2 3.43 1.75 51. 01 1.16
Oct. 26..| 1.014 | 20 3.4 3. 87 1.91 49. 35 1. 43
Oct. 27..| 10074 sae 3.9 4.19 2.73 65. 18 1.18
Oct. 27..| 1.020 2.9 4.5 4. 87 3. 40 69. 82 1.31
Oct. 29..| 1.013 1.9 3.1 3. 40 | 2. 48 72. 94 84
Oct. 31..| 1.015 2.2 3.5 4.67 | 2.47 64. 31 1.08
Oct. 31..| 1.023 2c | Vee 5. 53 3.09 54. 07 1. 62
Nov. 1..| 1.023 eS 4. See 5. 45 | 3. 48 62. 02 1.41
Nov. 2..| 1.024 3.4 5. 4 5.43 3. 60 66. 30 1.43
Nov. 3..| 1.019 ey o> tee 4.48 2. 85 Wet Wott...
Nov. 8.) 1.019 | 2.7 4.4 | 456 2.97 | 62.94 Ki
Means..| 1.016 2.3 3.61 4.03 | 246 | 61.04 oan 4
Maxima.| 1.027 3.8 6.4 | 6.64 | 423° Symon 11
Minima.| 1.006 | .9 1.0 133 | .8L | 4346 | .30 |
!

In Table No. 18 1s shown the composition of the juices expressed from
the chips as discharged from the battery. The total sucrose in the fresh-
chip juice, as shown in Table No. 16, was 8.98 per cent. There was left
in the juice of the discharged chips 2.46 per cent. The juice remaining
in the chips suffers a slight dilution during the process of diffusion, but
for comparative purposes the quantity of juice in the chips before and
after diffusion may be taken as the same.

In this case the percentage of juice extracted is 8.98 — 2.46 = 6.52 per
cent. The percentage of extraction, therefore, based on the percentage
of sucrose in juices from fresh and discharged chips, is 72.6. This is
about the average extraction of good milling in Louisiana, but is better
than the results obtained by milling sorghum. As already stated, the
efficiency of the apparatus was greatly increased by some changes made
after the season was over.





mor 8...

Means ..
Maxima.
Minima.

Specific
gravity.

tO br tt fs peng pots
oS
oo
wo

pre tis oat bet pl
—
i]
to

1.138
1. 192
1. 083





TABLE No. 19.—Sirup (thick juice).















Baumé. Brix. ( ae ed). Sucrose. Purity. Glucose.
° ° ° Per cent. Per cent.
17.5 | 31.4 32.16 18. 67 ba 05 2 ee
17.7 | 34.4 31.86 18. 47 a... bee
22.3 | 40.7 41.12 21. 26 51:70 Te Sa
15.9 | 28.8 29. 64 16. 81 SETS ooo ee
169 | 30.8 |- 31.48 17. 45 he da W222. oe |
16.1 28.8 28. 83 15. 74 54. 60 8. 01
16.6 | 29.5 30.08 16. 60 55. 18 8.49 |
18.5 | 33.4 33. 94 18. 22 53. 71 10. 45
18.5 | 33.5 34.05 17.38 51.04 |: 10.20
20. 8 37.9 38. 37 21. 00 Baris Pb ewn .o nets
19.5 | 36.0 36. 69 23. 07 62. 88 7. 44
18.9 | 34.2 34. 74 23. 00 66. 21 7. 26
20. 6 37.6 38. 26 25. 51 66. 68 7. 64
19.1 34. 8 35.15 19, 25 54.7 8. 46
20.4 | 37.1 37. 20 20. 56 55.27 9.52
15.9 | 28.6 28. 68 16. 90 58. 92 5. 97
19.0 34.6 34. 83 20. 03 57. 56 9. 10
14.5 | 36.2 26. 40 15. &3 59. 96 6.87
15.4 | 27.5 28. 55 17.13 60. 00 9. 24
13.9 24.5 25. 57 15. 84 61.95 6.05
11.6 | 24.0 24, 82 12. 32 49. 64 6.10
14.5 26. 0 26. 60 15. 44 58. 05 7.79
19.6 35.4 35. 91 21.06 58. 64 9.10
13.2 23. 2 23. 23 12.05 51. &7 5.53
13.5 24.4 24. 70 16. 25 65. 79 5. 69
13.1 23.1 23. 52 13. 42 57. 10 6. 34
11:7 20.6 21.28 11. 69 54. 93 6. 59
19.5 | 35.0 35. 74 22.76 63. 68 8. 38
15.1 26.8 26. 98 18. 65 69.13 6. 32
18.0 32.2 32. 52 20. 98 64.51 7. 46
21.4 39.2 39. 30 2286 58.17 9.70
17.7. | $2.3 32. 55 19. 00 58. 37 8.32
19.0 34,5 34. 89 21.32 61.11 8.70
18.8 34.1 34. 65 20. 89 60, 29 8. 86
17.0 30.9 31.10 18.78 60. 39 7.9L
11.2 19.5 19. 88 13.73 64. 03- 3. 81
11.5 19.9 20. 55 14, 04 MD hs
17.3 31.2 31. 84 20. 80 65. 33 6. 38
21.3 39. 0 39. 59 23.31 58. 88 10.12
18.4 | 33.8 34.15 20. 44 59. 85 7.95
15.8 | 28.3 28. 62 15.15 52. 94 7. 59
19.5 35.3 35. 60 19.16 53. 82 10. 82
20.6 | 37.4 37.54 18.55 49. 42 10. 7
22.5 | 41.4 42, 02 24.86 - mate tt ae
16.9 | 30.6 30, 99 15. 82 51. 05 8. 34
16.3 | 29.5 30. 07 10. 78 35. 84 12. 94
19.9 36.3 36. 35 21.73 59.7 10. 93
17.8 | 322 33.17 19. 7: 59. 45 9. 58
17.0 31.7 32. 09 17. 29 53. 88 10, 13
23.1 42.0 42. 06 21.8 51. 83 14,45
15.4 27.7 28. 20 | 15. 07 53. 44 8. 83
21.7 39.6 39. 82 20. 64 51. 83 15. 70
23.4 | 43.1 43.16 | 25.26 58. 50 12. 27
19.7 35. 8 35. 98 21. 07 mene ns oe
20.0 | 36.4 36. 30 21. 26 58. 57 10.73
11.7 31. 99 32. 40 18, 68 57. 65 8. 67
23.4 | 43.1 43.16 | 25. 26 68. 32 15.70
11.2 19.5 19. §8 | 10. 78 35. 84 3. 81

eS OE









26

The diffusion juice at Rio Grande, without any treatment whatever,

was conducted directly to an open pan and concentrated to a thin sirup.

The disastrous effects of this treatment are shown by the data of Table
No. 19. The evaporation of sugar juices in an open pan is to be con-
demned for lack of economy; but such treatment, before neutralizing
the free acids of the juice, must also necessarily invert a large portion
of the sucrose.

The glucose per hundred of sucrose in the normal juice at Rio Grande
was 36.06; in the sirup it was 46.38.

The pan on which the concentration took place was shallow and fur-



nished with steam-pipes. The liquor ran rapidly through, otherwise the

inversion would have been much greater.

TABLE No. 20.—Masse cuites, Rio Grande, N. J.

aks Giiasine | Sucrose | Sucrose











T Y ;
Number. soir direct. | indirect.
)
Per cent. | Per cent.| Per cent. | Per cent. | Per cent.
5336 18. 37 5.29 | 23.33 49. 90 52. 03
5398 16.13 3. 22 20. 65 58. 97 60.71
5399 17. 89 3. 32 22. 47 51.10 56. 42
5400 21, 32 5. 65 24. 55 55. 47 St. 41
5401 19. 90 4.21 26. 24 51. 30 53. 97
5497 +| #»17.40 | 4.92 | 23.45 55. 45 55.11 |
Averages.| 18.50 | 4.44 | 23.45 | 53.70 | 55.44 |

Table No. 20 shows that no further inversion has taken place by
evaporating the sirup in the vacuum pan. Only a small number of
samples of masse cuite were obtained, sinceit required a long working of
the battery to furnish enough sirup fora strike. Moreover, no samples
of masse cuite were taken until Mr. Edson took charge of the analytical
work. The data of Table No. 20 are therefore not strictly comparable
with those of Table No. 19.

The masse cuites at Rio Grande were placed in wagons and kept in
the crystallizing room, at the proper temperature, for several days,
before being sent to the centrifugal machines. The first and second
sugars were thus obtained as one product.

sy reason of the omission of clarification the sugar was dried with
extreme difficulty. Indeed it was found impossible to dry it so as to
make a granular product. The gum, glucose, and other impurities
kept it in the form of awaxy mass. 21 will show the character of the sugar made, A sugar which still con-
tains 13.08 per cent. of reducing sugar would be regarded with grave
suspicion by refiners.

The character of the sugar shows the necessity of careful defecation
and clarification. Sorghum juices especially, when worked for sugar,
should be as nearly neutral as possible, and great care should be ex-
ercised to remove all the scums and to allow suspended matters to

settle,

@



Z

OF
a










TaBLE No. 21.—Raw sugars, Rio Grande, N. J.

Moisture. Ash. eee Sucrose Sucrose

Number. | direct. indirect.













}
|
|

| Per cent. | Per cent. | Per cent. | | Per cent. Per cent.

xy 5326 4.61 2.48 2:18 | ‘86.3 82. 11

5327 | 6. 74 3.75 16.94 | 67.7 70. 65

5328 4.73 2. 94 13. 02 | 76. 0 77.11

5330 6. 67 3.00 14, 25 75. 0 76. 88

5331 3.92 2.71 13. 23 69.7 72.79

5332 5.18 2. 52 13.13 78.8 77. 38

\ 5333 5.11 2. 83 13. 33 78.4 76. 33

5324 5.11 2.69 12. 35 73.8 71.95

5359 §. 08 3.08 16.78 72.5 72. 39

536L 4.41 2. 00 13. 98 78.2 | 177.63

5367 5. 81 1. 54 11. 00 81.0 | 79.77

5368 4.77 1.14 8. 20 85.6 | 84.49

5369 +| 8.40 L722 12. 58 Tc 7

> 5396 5. 40 2. OL 11.75 80. 0 79.61
° 5397 6. 33 2. 02 13.15 | 76.8 | 17.73
y 5428 5.30 | 3.29 13. 48 48 | 7 me. | -7801

Averages. 7 5. 54 eee et. 8 ae 2.48 | 13.08 ate

76.9 |

The molasses made at Rio Grande shows the cacusl phenomenon of
a larger percentage of reducing sugar than of sucrose. This is chiefly
due to the fact that it contained so large a quantity of water that it was
partly fermented before the analysis was made. The samples stood in
‘the laboratory from October, 1887, to February, 1888; and during this
time suffered some inversion.

No. 5342, Table No. 22,is an extreme instance of thisinversion. No.
5365 is also an anomalous sample, the data showing some fault of anal-
ysis which was not discovered until the tabulation was made. The pro-
portion of sucrose in this sample is entirely too large.

_ For further data concerning the composition of the molasses consult
Table No. 22.



















ee TABLE No. 22.—Molasses, Itio Gr mere N. J.
.
etal | . | Sucrose Sucrose
Number. Moisture. | Ash. Glucose. | direct. | indirect.
ms } 2 se oa :
Per cent. | Per cent. | Per cent. | Per cent.| Per cent.
5335 41.44 6.36 | 32. 35 | wee. Se | 23.74
5337 30. 14 6.47 | 33.65 | 26.6 | 26.68
5338 29. 49 | 6. 12 35. 12 26. L 27. 92
5340 29. 54 6.16 34.68 | 25.4 27.11
5341 39. 17 5. 31 32. 70..—| 23.0 22. 26
5342 40. 54 5. 49 39. 70 11.8 14.44
5360 29.43 6.85. | 37. 05 ~b6.4 27.97
5362 39.12 4, 28 35. 45 ' 2.5 28. 92
5363 36. G4 &22°'1- Si.6- | iS.) 4” 83.91
5364 40.11 §.66 | 80.21 21.1 25.45
5365 32. 32 3.28 | 28.95 49.5 | 45.92
5394 30.10 4,81 34. 70 26.2 31. 53
. 5395 31.38 | 3.88 3L. 05 27.3 30.84 |
E 5429 30.98 | 6.50 35.30 | 26.6 19.19 |
Averages..| 34. 31 | 5.46 33.75 | 26.5 | 28.20







ee RECRYSTALLIZED SUGARS.

— >

In order to fit the raw sugars for market they were melted and reboiled
in the vacuum pan.

he composition of these recrystallized sugars is about the same as
se _ nds frcm sugarcane. The mean percentage of sucrose is 90.7, while

oe of glucose remains abnormally high,

a onl





The analyses of these sugars are found in Table No. 23.

TABLE No, 23.—Recrystallized sugars, Rio Grande, N. J.

























<4 | ae Re —
| | | | | .
a : ) Sucrose. Sucrose
| !
| Number. Moisture. Ash. | Glucose. | diract | indirect’
| ee
Per cent. | Percent. Percent. | Percent. | Per cent.
| SE + 498 F 4 | 48 |" Se 90. 76
| 5431 5.03 | . 90 8.58 | 85.1 83. 65
5432 4.70 - 91 6. 54 ) 91.5 : 89. 69
5433 5. 84 -o2 8. 60 92.5 91.37
5434 a 40 2.7 . 3 92. 82
5437 3. 98 . 83 5. 93 91.3 . 89. 59
5438 5. 37 1.11 6. 26 89. 0 86. 57
| 5440 3 08 . 67 4.13 91.5 90. 31
| 5441 4.20 67 4.93 91.2 90. 08 3
5442 3. 85 ‘84 5.14 89.0 | 86.12 | .
|Averages..| 416 | .73 | 5.97 ee 90.7 | 89.10 |
TABLE No. 24.—Nitrogenous bodies in cane juice.
i) | ee
| x Number. | Nitrogen. | Albuminoids. | Number. Nitrogen. | Albuminoids.
| | Hao ead i at
a. | | | —
| | Percent> | Percent. Per cent. Per cent.
276 | . 052 . $250 40° . 020 i . 1250
hac Meee 045 2813. 413' |) Qed 1062
278 | 058 . 3625 431 | .093 5813
| 279 . V40 . 2500 471 - 012 . 0750
20 . 049 . 3063 472 - O17 . 106%
28) | 048 . 3000 480 . 023 . 1438 |
290 049 | . 3063 reel . 027 . 1688
292 . 052 . 8250 ! 457 022 .1375
293 | 041 2563 488 025 . 1563
TABLE No. 25—Nitrogenous bodies in diffusion juice.
: Number. er. | Nitrogen. | Albuminoids. |
| a
Per cent. | Per cent.
282 . 028 - 1438
405 O14 . 0835
415 5038. | . 0813
433 054 | . 8375
| 483 016 | . 1000
|
TABLE No. 26.—Nilrogenous matter in diffused chip juice.
Number. | Nitrogen. | Aibuminoids. |
SA ‘
Per cent. Per cent. .
281 . 008 . 0500
473 . 009 . 0563
4&2 012 . 0750

489 O14 . 0875

i

The most encouraging feature connected with the Rio Grande experi- |
ments is not found in the composition of the cane so much as in the
quantity of it which can be grown per acre. The large tonnage ob-
tained enabled Mr. Hughes to get more sugar per acre with 72 per cent.
extraction than was made at Fort Scott with 93 per cent. With a good
extraction in the battery, the yield at Rio Grande could have been in-
creased fully 20 per cent.








(9S a a) Sy

ee

fi

iw

_



ANALYTICAL WORK AT MAGNOLIA, LA.

The analytical work at Magnolia was divided into three classes, viz:

(1) A study of the composition of the juices from the mill and a par-
tial chemical control of the operation of the factory.

(2) A complete chemical control of the experiments in diffusion.

(3) Miscellaneous work.

The chemical work was done chiefly by Messrs. Crampton and Fake.
Bearing the latter part of the season Dr. Crampton was absent, and the
control work was done solely by Mr. Fake. The miscellaneous work I
“did myself, assisted part of the time by Mr. Fake.

The regular chemical work began on the 4th of November, 1887, and
ended January 19, 1888.

In sampling an juices a measured portion was taken from each of
six clarifiers, representing the average composition of the juice from 18
tonsof cane. In comparative work, the samples were taken as nearly

as possible from the same body of juice in different stages of concentra-
tion. The samples for the diffusion work were taken as at Fort Scott

and Rio Grande.
MILL JUICES.

During the first few days of the season the juices from the mill were

run through a sulphur box, where they were saturated with sulphurous

dioxide. They then passed through a heater to the clarifiers and thence
to the quadruple effect and strike pan without the use of animal char,
This method of treatment was abandoned after a short trial, and no

_ further sulphur was used except in one of the diffusion trials.

In Table No. 27 are found the analytical data obtained during this
time.
TABLE No, 27.— Mill juices sulphured.

Reducing





Date. No. Baumé.| Brix. | Sucrose. anwar Purity.
o o Per cent. Per cent.
Nov. 2 | 4 &8 15.9 12. 93 11 81. 32
Nov. 3 | 6 9.6 17.4 14.41 1.14 82.81
ore go tg 9.0 16, 23 12. 87 1.01 78. 68
Nov. 4....... reat “RO 16.2 13.11 1.11 k0, 92
Oe ee P 43 8.9 16. 08 12. 63 1.17 78.79 |
Maxima ..|...... | 96 17.4 14.41 1.17 82.81 |
PAADIMA |. 0222 | &&8 15.9 12, 63 1. 01 78.68 |
Means ....|......| 9. 08 16. 35 1. 19 lll | gv.50 |
|

vy

~s



A comparison of the sulphured and clarified juices was also made -

3

0

but the duration of the use of sulphur was not long enough to give con-
It would appear from the results of the analyses in Table
No. 28 that the process of clarification tended to lower the purity of
sulphured juices ; an apparent fact which more extended investigation
would probably modify.

clusive data.

TABLE No.



Minima...
Means....|

28.— Mill juices.—Comparative samples of sulphured and clarified.













Sulphured. |

a | 5 | :

Sh et alee Ss |os| & 18

5 | 5 | = 2 | = = s is

aia | am |e ie |e Te
—— $< | |
° ° ae ot. \Pr. ct. | |
4|8.8 | 15.90 | 12.93 | 1.11 | 81.32] 5 |
6| 9.6 | 17.40 | 14.41 | 1.14 | 82.81] 7 |
10 | 9.0 | 16.20 | 13.11 | 1.11 | 80.92 | i1 |
..-.| 9.6 | 17.40 | 14.41 | 1.14 | 82.81 |....|
:22:| 8.8 | 15.90 | 12.93 | 1.11 | go. 92 |...
+-+-] 9.13 | 16.50 | 13.48 | 1.12 | 81.68 |...











Clarified.
eo
3 © = :
so S Ons bB
8 4 fa = ch =
a | & 5 |e] s
—Q & 7) | fom a
=| 7 ee —— oo =,
° | ° Pr. ct. Pr. ct.
9.1 16.51 | 13.28 | 1.28 | 80.43
9.6 17.31 | 14.31 | 1.10 | 82.66
9. 4 16.97 | 13.56 | 1.20 | 77.90
9.6 | 17.31 | 14.31 | 1.28 | 62.60
9.1 16. 51 | 13.28 | 1.10 | 77.90
9.37 | 16.93 | 13. 72 | 1.19 | 80.33



The daily analyses of the mill juices are recorded in Table No. 29,
The variations in the percentage of sucrose were caused by the charac-
ter of the soil in which the cane was grown.
formly a cane richer in sucrose than the low lands back from the river.
Especially in new back land with a high tonnage was this deficiency

noticed.

The front lands gave uni-

The mean results show a juice rich in,sucrose, poor in reducing su-
gar, and of satisfactory purity.

| Nov.
| Nov.
| Nov.
Nov.
Nov.
Nov.



Nov.
Nov.
Nov.
Nov.
Nov.

Nov. :
Nov.
Nov. :
Nov. ¢
Nov, 24..<.|
ie,
Nov. ;
Nov. £

Nov.

Nov.
Nov.
Nov.
Dec,
Dec.
Dec.
Dee.
Dec.

Nov. :

Number. | Baumé.

i as



SA@
ss

PLP OCSCKM Keown aws
uo



eccacexoceoece
ut

ou

& : so : :
RONAN CAUS SNE ENO

|



Brix.

|



TABLE NO. 29.—Mill juices.









: Reducing | +
Sucrose. sugar | Purity
| Per cent. | Per cent. |
12.78 1.23... | $9.87
10. 85 de 3k 75. 87
13. pa5 a Rd 82. 76
13, 22 &S 83. 14
12. 27 1, 08 79. 31
12. 35 . 94 78. 81
12.39 1. 55 77. 58
12. 63 1.42 | 79.08
13. 25 1,15 81.13
13,25 1. 08 79. 66
13. 68 1.18 81, 28
13. 58 1.05 81.11
13.83 1,04 81. 69
14. 29 93 a3, 27
14, 94 . 65 87. OL
14, 07 . 66 84. 56
14. 00 76 82. 69
13.79 79 82, 66
13, 44 . 838 80, 48
12.13 . 82 81.03
14, 09 te 8&3. 37
14.46 78 $4, 21
13. 90 sl 84, 75
14. 74 72 84. 22
14,85 . 68 86.18
12, 98 65 77.04
18:05 — Mecoauuenoee 85. 27
13, 87 | 72 84, 36



31

TABLE No. 29.—Mill juices—Continued.













Date. Number. | Baumé. | Brix. ar Sucrose. ees Purity
f oa a
td A
. ° ° Percent. | Per cent.
+ 160 9.0 16. 21 13. 50 5 83. 33
Y 162 8.8 15. 93 43:37 1 70 83. 30
166 9.1 16. 40 14.16 | 70 86. 34
168 8.65 15. 60 72.57 - | 93 80. 57
172 8.9 16.13 13.55 72 84. 00
174 8.5 15.27] 12.18 1.00 79. 77
177 8.4 15.24 | 12.17 14,14. | 79.85
219 8.3 15. 06 Sees tit fos. | 80.01
226 8.15 14.91 11.94 1.01 80. 01
227 8. 30 14. 69 BO A a 80. 00
230 8.3 15. 04 11.84 | .92 78. 72
231 8.4 15.11 12.13 fv 80. 27
236 8.15 14. 67 11.76 88 80.16
238 8.2 14. 83 11. 61 84 78. 28
239 8.0 14.397). j1.33 | 94 78. 68
243 8.0 14.42 | 11.33 1. 02 78. 57
245 8.15 14. 69 11. 67 .99 79. 45
246 8.6 15.51 12.31 1.01 79. 37
247 8.4 15, 24 12. 27 97 80. 51
248 8.4 15. 23 12. 08 1.16 79.31
252 a7 15.71 13. 04 86 83. 00
254 9.2 16. 59 13. 68 69 82. 45
256 9.0 16. 23 13. 97 64 86. 07
259 8.1 14, 57 11.66 78 80. 02
269 9.3 16. 81 OE O6t, Wei2 oe uke 86. 49
270 9.4 ° | 17.06 14.78 45 86. 63
271 9.4 17. 04 14. 81 44 86. 91
272 9,295 |16.73| 14.31 | 52 85. 53
275 9.4 17. 07 14. 92 44 87.41
279 9.6 17. 34 15. 09 51 87. 02
281 9.5 17. 23 15. 32 43 88. 91
285 9.5 17. 23 15.18 40 88. 10
297 9.75 | 17.57 15. 40 41 87. 65
306 9.4 | 17 07 14.72 | 53 86. 23
310 S74 47547 15.33 | 47 87.18
316 9.4 | 16.89| 14.64 | 57 86. 67
326 9.4 17.08 | 14.75 49 86. 34
331 9.4 | 17.09 | 14.61 | 68 85.43
333 9.25 | 16.67 Hotere bao 85. 54
334 9.3 |1684| 14.87 55 88. 20
338 9.2m | 16.64 | 14.59 59 87. 68
342 9.4 | 17.01 14, 67 54 86. 29
344 9.8 17. 67 15.55 38 88. 00
345 9.6 17. 44 15. 28 .44 7. 04
350 9.5 17.19 14, &2 46: 86. 21
351 9.75 17. 59 15. 33 43 87.16
354 9.5 17.16 14. 92 47 85. 94
356 9.4 | 16.93 14. 82 . 69 87.53
361 9.6 | 17.33 15. 26 55 88. 05
364 9.4 | 16.96 14, 55 57 83.7
365 9.4 17.00 | 14 89 59 87.59
367 9.5 17.23! 1476 . 60 85. 66
368 9.1 16, 49 13.79 70 83. 57
372 =|. 9.5 17.17 14.20. | . 64 85. 61
373 9.4 6. 90 1441 | .65 | 85.26
377 | 9,25 16. 66 13.98 | 12 #3. 31
s78. | 9:1 16. 51 14. 02 . 67 84.96
see. | (88 16. 20 13, 87—} 82 K5. 61
BR4 9.3 16.79 | 14.48 | 83 86.19
389 9, 25 16. 69 14.26 | 6a 85, 39
390 9.25 | 16.69 18:73... 96 82. 21
396 =| (9.1 16, 47 | 13.83 | 7 83.97
eT sh 9. 04 16. 37 13. 69 77 &3. 48
6 AD 9, 80 17. 67 15.55 1.55 88. 91
Vie ae hh ashe 7.90 14. 30 10. 85 40 75. 87











The clarification of the mill juices was made in a simple manner. ‘To
the juice, as it entered the clarifier from the heater, a quantity of lime
was added, nearly sufficient to neutralize the free acid present. The
whole was then boiled and swept until no more dirty foam was formed.
It was then allowed to subside for half an hour, and the clear juice
drawn off.

The skimmings and sediments were sent to the filter presses.

The effect of this method of clarification is shown in Table 30.

TABLE No. 30.—Comparative samples of raw and clarified juices.




































Raw. | Clarified.
Date. Ee .~ Va ae eh | : =.
ze g |/38)/ 5/81] ¢ z Sel ta
s/ 8/41 & }Bs\ 2°18) 2 eee
elal# lade le lets ede
A —Q fa m | & oF 4 | |) wm io} Ay
ie ° Pr.ct.\Pr, ct | |, 2 oe Pr. ct. |Pr. ct.
Nov. 8...| 18 | 8.9 | 16.00 | 12.78 | 1.28 | 79.87! 19] 9.3 | 16.79 | 13,67 | 1.25 | 81.41
Nov. 9...| 22) 7.9 | 14.30] 10.85 | 1.11 | 75.87 | 23| &7 | 15.67 | 12.60 | 1.12 | 80.41
Nov. 10...| 26 | &8 | 15.90 | 13,22 | .88 | 83.14] 27| 9.25 | 16.73 | 14.01] .92 | 83.74
Nov. 11...| 31 | 8.9 | 16.10 | 12.77 | 1.08 | 79.31 | 32] 9.0 | 16.31 | 13.06 | 1.12 | 80.07
Nov. 12...| 35 | &7 | 15.67 | 12.35 | .94| 78.81] 36 | 89 | 16.01 | 13.02 | 1.20 | 81.37
Nov. 13...| 45| 8.9 | 15.97| 12.39 |1.55 | 77.58] 46/ 8.9 | 15.97] 13.19 | 1.57 | 82.59
Nov. 14...| 48 8.9 | 15.97 | 12.63 | 1.42 | 79.08] 49 | 9.25 | 16.68 | 12.94 | 1.58 | 77.58
Nov. 15...) 52) 8.5 | 16.33 | 13.25 | 1.15 | 81.13 | 53 | 10.0 | 17.98 | 14.87 | 1.21 | 82.70
Nov. 16...| 55 | 8.6 | 16.57 | 13.20 | 1.08 | 79.66] 56| 9.5 | 17.02 | 14.21 | 1.04 | 83.49
Nov. 17...| 61 | 9.3 | 16.83 | 23.68 | 1.18 | 81.28] 62 10.0 | 18.10 | 14.92 | 1.21 | 82.43
Nov. 18...| 66 | 9.25 | 16.73 | 13.58 | 1.05 | 81.11 | 67 | 9,55 | 17.24 | 14.37 | 1.08 | 83.35
Nov. 20...| 74| 9.4 | 16.93 | 13.83 | 1.04 | 81.69) 75 | 9.9 | 17.83 | 15.13 | 1.13 | 84.85
Nov. 21...| 78 | 9.5 | 17.16 | 14.29] .93 | 83.27| 79] 10.1 | 18.28 | 15.64] .95 | 85.55
Nov. 22...] 83 | 9.5 | 17.17 | 14.94 | .65 | 87.01] 84 | 9.8 | 17.72/ 15.79] .63 | 89.11
Nov. 23...] 96 | 9.2 | 16.63 | 14.07 | .66 | 84.56) 91] 9.5 | 17.17| 14.72] .64 | 85.73
Nov. 24...| 91| 9.4 | 16.93 | 14.00] .76 | 82.69 | 95 | 9.9 | 17,93 | 15.25) 172 | 85.05
Nov. 26...] 100 | 9.1 | 16.56 | 13.79 | .79| 82.66 101} 9.75 | 17.57 | 14.70 | .81 | 83.66
Nov. 27...| 106 | 9.25 | 16.70 | 13.44 | .88| 80.48 | 107 | 9.6 | 17.38) 14.14) .82 | 81.35
Nov. 28...| 114 | 9.4 | 16.91 | 14.09 | .73 | 83.37 | 115 | 9.65 | 17.45 | 14.83 | .70 | 84.98
Nov. 29...] 116 | 9.5 | 17.17 | 14.46 | 78 | 84.21] 117] 9.8 | 17.78 | 15.33 | .74 | 86.22
Nov. 30...| 120 | 8.0 | 14.41 | 13.y0 | .81 | 84.75 | 121] 9.75 | 17.63 | 15.20 | .77 | 86.21
Dec. 1...| 125 | 9.7 | 17.50 | 14.74 | .72 | 84.22 | 126] 9.8 | 17.69 | 14.72] .75 | 83.16
Dec. 2...| 133 | 9.5 | 17.23 | 14.85| .68| 86.18 134] 9.9 |17.79| 15.71] .66| 88 36
Dec. 5.. |156| 9.1 | 16.44 | 13.87] .72 | 81.36 |157| 9.4 | 16.94] 14.53] .73 | 85.
Dec. 6... 160 | 9.0 | 16.21 | 13.58 | .75 | 83.33 | 161) 9.4 | 17.08 | 14.48) .70 | 85. 03
Dec. 7..-| 166) 9.1 | 16.40 | 14.16 | .70 | 86.34 | 167] 9.1 | 16.46 | 14.18) .69 | 86,14
Dec. 8...] 168 | 8.65 | 15.60 | 12.57} .93 | 80.57 | 169} 89 | 16.07 | 13.34 | .93 | 83.01
Dec. 9...| 174 | 8.5 | 15.27 | 12.18 | 1.00 | 79.77 | 175| 8.9 | 16.03 | 13.17 | 1.04 | 82.16
Maxima.|..... | 9.70 | 17.50 | 14.94 | 1.55 | 87.01 |..-.. 10.1 | 18.28 | 15.79 | 1.58 | 89.11
Minima.|.....| 7.90 | 14.50 | 10.85 | .65 | 75.87 |..... 8.7 | 15.97 | 12. 60 77. 58
Means..|..-.-| 9.02 16.84 | 13.48 |. .94 |} 82.01 |..... 9, 48 oe Lit Te 14.35 | .95 | 83. 76





The increased density of the clarified juices, and the consequent
higher percentage of sucrose, are due to the evaporation which takes
place during clarification. The purity of the juices was raised 1.75
points by the process.
took place.

After clarification the juices were filtered through bone-black. This
char had been so long in use that its decolorizing power was partially
destroyed. It served, however, as a most excellent mechanical filter,
serving to remove suspended matter which would not subside,





4 ane Pa -— —— ——_— = o ~~ 7? af. vw = a _- 2a “. 2 Se ae

33



\ ‘comparative study of raw, clarified, and filtered juices is given in
able No. dl.
TABLE No. 31.—WMill juices.—Comparative samples of raw, clarified, and filtered juices.

ie &
RAW.

Reducing











































| Date. | Number.| Baume. | Brix. | Sucrose. “oy oay °| Purity.
° ° Per cent. pas | Per cent.
mare. oS: ... 18 8.9 16.00 12.78 123 79. 87
mov.) 9... 22 723 14. 30 10. 85 Lil 75. 87
Nov. 10... 26 8.8 15. 90 13. 22 .88 83.14
Noy. 11... 81 8.9 16. 10 12. Ti 1. 08 79.31
Nov. 12. -. 35 8.7 15. 67 © 12. 35 94 78. 81
Nov. 13... 45 8.9 15. 97 12. 39 185 77.58
iNew. 14... 48 8.9 15. 97 12. 63 1.42 79.08
WOWs. 15. -. 24 8.5 16. 33 13.25 1215 81.13
Nov. 16 .. a5 8.6 16. 57 13.2 1.08 79. 66
wey: 17... 6L 9.3 16. 83 13. 68 1.18 81.28
Nov. 18... 66 9. 25 16. 73 13. 58 1.05 81.11
Nov. 21.2 78 9.5 17.16 14. 29 93 83. 27
Noy. 22... 83 9.5 TTF 14. 94 . 65 87. 01
Nov. 23... 90 9.2 16. 63 14. 07 . 66 84. 56
Noy, 24. .. OL 9.4 16, 93 14. 00 .76 82. 69
Nov. 26.. 100 9.1 16. 56 13.79 -79 82. 66
Nov. 97... a5 106 9. 25 16. 70 13. 44 . 88 80.48
Boy. 29... 116 9.5 eae 14. 46 . 78 84. 21
Nov. 30... 120 8.0 16. 41 13. 90 .81 84. 75
IER |. cons oo. oe 9. 50 Se 17 14,94 1. 55 87.01
ORT too os a a= 7.90 14. 30 10, 85 . 65 75. 87
PS tbe ee wi en 8.95 16. 37 13. 31 1.00 81.39
CLARIFIED.
» 4 }
Date. Number.| Baume. | Brix. | Sucrose. Secroe |'suznr. | Pa Purity.
gar.
° ° Per cent. Rohe Per cent.
Nov. 8... 19 9.3 16. 79 13. 67 25 81. 41
Nov, 8... 23 &.7 15. 67 12. 60 12 80. 41
Nov. 10... 27 9, 25 16. 73 14.01 . 92 83. 74
Mov. 21... 32 9.0 16. 31 13. 06 1.12 80. 07
Nov. 12... 36 8.9 16.01 13. 02 1. 20 81. 37
Nov..13... 46 8.9 15, 97 13.19 Eos 82. 59
Nov. 14...| 49 9.25 16.68 | 12.94 | 1.50 77.58
Wov. 15... 53 10.0 17.98 14. 87 1. 21 82. 70
Nov. 16.. 56 9.5 17. 02 14.21 | 1.04 83. 49
Nov. 17.. 62 10.0 16. 10 14. 92 | 121 8z. 43
Nov. 18.. 67 9. 55 17. 24 14.37 1.08 83.35
‘Nov. 21... 79 10.1 18, 28 15. 64 95 85. 55
Nov. 22.. 84 9.8 17.72 15. 79 . 63 89.11
; Nov. 23. 91 9.5 1 ny § 14.7 . 64 85. 73
Nov. 24... 95 9.9 17. 93 15. 25 ota 85. 03
7 Nov. 26...| 103 9.75 17. 57 14. 70 | 81 83. 66
t eo a 107 9.6 17.38 14. 14 82 81. 35
A Nov. 29... 117 9.8 17. 78 15. 33 74 86. 2 22
Es Nov. 30... 121 9.75 17. 63 15. 20 | 77 &6. 2
F PRTG. oe inees 10.1 18. 28 15. 79 1.57 89. 11
PIU Te caus cawen 8.7 15. 67 16. 20 . 63 63. 74
4 ee 9. 50 17.16 14. 30 1, 02 82. 21
23576—Bull 18——3







34



















FILTERED.
Date. aiid Baumé. | Brix. | Sucrose. Reducing Purity.
| ie. SN oF sugar. :
[sy <> eee ie ae or
| > oO Per cent. | Per cent.
Nov. 8....| 20 9.4 16. 96 14.00 1. 26 82. 54
Nov. 2...) - & | 9.0 16. 23 13. 01 1. i2 0.16
Nev. 10-27, ~ 28) Ga ES 15. 73 12. 40 1.01 78. 76
Nov.03.. | 28° S83 16. 83 13. 62 1.03 80. 93
Nov.12....|. 37 9.1 16.47 13. 29 1.16 | 80.69
Nov. 13....| 47 9.2 | 16.56 13. 25 1.39 | 89.61
Nov. 14 : 50 9.55 | 17.27 13. 25 1. 60 76.72
Nov. 15... 54 9.6 ‘| 17.38 15. 16 1.13 87. 22
Nov. 16... 57h Bbc eke bales s Soe | 2 omnes teal a a ok es
Nov. 17... 63 9.6 17. 30 | 14. 29 1.18 82. 60
Nov.18....| 68 98 | 17.63 14. 27 1.14 80. 94
Nov.21 ...| 80 | 10.0 18.09 | 15.50 91 85, 63
Nov. 22... 85 10. 2 18 39 16.25 | Dt 88. 31
Nov.23....| 92 | 9.9 17. 87 15.64 | . 54 87. 52
Nov. 24... 96 eet pre Looe ws ee eee . \.. Soe oe
Nov.26...| 102 | 9.6 17. 30 | 14. 63 77 | 81.56
Nov. 27....| | 108 9.9 | 17.90 14. 89 .72 83. 13
Nov. 29..-.| 118 9.7 17. 47 15. 45 a 88. 44
Nov. 30... | 122 9.75 17. 50 15. U4 67 | 85.77
Maxima.) Sande nce | 10,2 18:39;."] “38:25 1. 60 88. 44
Minima..|.......... | 9.0 15.73 | 12.40 51 76.72
9. 55 17.23 | 14.35 . 99 83. 17

mena ees oe |

Samples of the sirup issuing from the Yaryan quadrupie effect pan
were taken from time to time, and the results of the analyses of these
sirups are shown in Table No. 32.

TABLE No. 32.



















Date. | Number. Number comet a comet Purity. | Sucrose. | Glucose.
Per cent.| Per cent.
Nov. 3.. 9 54. 37 29, 45 81.42 | 44.27 4.48
Nov. 4 15 53. 34 28. 90 80.43 | 42.9 4. 86
Nov. 12. 38 37. 45 20. 55 80.91 |. 30.3 2. 89
Nov. 18. 69 50, 90 27.70 82. 32 41.9 3. 80
Nov. 22. 86 51. 56 28. 00 87. 08 44.9 2.31
Nov. 23. 93 54. 18 29. 40 85. 46 46.3 2. OL
Noy. <6 103 47. 60 25. 90 76. 05 36. 2 2. 87
Nov. 28 112 51. 53 28. 00 85. 19 43.9 2.50
Dec. 2 136 50.19 27. 30 89. 66 65 0 oT ede «soaks
Dec. 4 151 52. 26 28. 35 £6. 68 45.3 2.41
Dec. 6.. 163 50. 66 27. 53 86.46 | 43.8 2. 03
Deo. 8.. 170 52. 64 28, 54 85. 49 45.0 2.46
Dec. 15.. 237 48. 86 26. 60 81. 87 40.0 3.16
Dec. 20.. 253 48.74 26. 50 78.17 38. 1 3. 65
Dec. 22.. 260 46. 29 25, 20 85. 98 BU.8 7 tees aeelds
Dec. 28.. 276 48.79 26. 60 89. 57 43.7 1.3
Jan. 2.. 825 50, * 27. 50 88. 56 44.8 1. 64
Jan. 4.. 346 50. 42 27. 40 88. 85 44.8 1. 60
Means..| tees ete< 50, 02 27.19 84. 45 42,28 2.75

The samples of masse cuites were placed in bottles and sent to the lab-
oratory for analysis. In addition to the determinations of the sucrose
by direct and double polarization it was also estimated by copper solu-
tion.

The mean result of this latter estimation is slightly below the mean
of the direct readings. In individual cases a marked variation between
the chemical and optical methods is noticed. The percentage of ash,
compared with sorghum masse cvites, is small.

For details see Table No, 33.

i i i





i? =

|

%

35

TABLE No. 33.—Jirst masse cuiles (mill), Lawrence, La.

















1
. | Sucrose
: Sucrose | Sucrose
Number. |Moisture.| Ash. Glucose. | Stee Banitioane: ae
:

6 Per cent. | Per cent. | Per cent. | Per cent. | Per cent. | Per céht.
5715 9. 69 2.33 8. 06, 78. 70 78.37 | 74,94
5717 9. 06 | 2.05 8.75 77. 03 76.74 | 75.62
5719 6/30 |)" 2.34 7.03 | 8100 | 8.77 | 78.58
5720 9.12 2. 64 7.31 76. 50 76. 98 74. 80
5721 8.65 | 2.03 7.06 78. 00 77.44 | 75.04
5727 17. 88 4. 06 12. 36 70. 00 71.04 | 71.48
5729 13. 51 2.01 4.5 81. 30 80.00 | 78.17
5730 C260 5.53 75. 80 77.71 | 76.78
5731 8.52 2.41 4.00 80. 50 81.06 | 80.32
5734 10.79 2.79 5.91 74. 10 75.58 | 76.13
5740 ee ee eee. on 6. 54 75. 90 76. 88 76, 82
5743 8. 47 3. 96 OO ee wth occas 78. 43
5748 8.21 2.58 4.79 79. 00 80, 23 80.71
5749 9.05 3.10 5.13 76. 80 78.45 78. 40
5754 10.71 2.17 4.78 77.10 78. 08 78.3
5755 10. 67 2. 63 8.65 80. 00 80. 92 78. 95
5762 10. 73 2. 66 4.29 77.70 79. 31 82. 14
5763 9.29 1.94 3.98 79. 00 79. 39 78.40 |
5767 8. 84 2.14 3.79 83. 20 84. 31 70. 50
MET oh fits ow os 4. 26 82. 20 83. 00 78.99
5770 10. 54 | 2.12 4. 46 79.00 89. 61 79.38
5773 9. 03 2.37 4.75 78. 10 79. 84 79.10
5776 9. 39 | 2.35 4. 83 79. 30 80. 91 79. 53
5780 9. 48 2.48 5. 26 78. 60 80.15 78. 28
5783 9.84 | 2,50 | 5.21 78.10 | 79.54 76.75

Averages ...| 9.79 | 2.53 5.73 | 78.21 79.05 | 77.46

Mean purity-|......-.-- Sapeceerr ne apres ige tT | | 87. 63





The high purity of the masse cuites, as shown in Table No. 33, as com-
pared with the juices and sirups, may be accounted for as follows:

In the latter the percentage of total solids was calculated from the
readings of the saccharometer; in the former by drying and direct
weighing. The results of last season’s work, both with sugar-cane and
sorghum juices, show that by the use of the spindle the percentage of
total solids found is always too high. The purity of the juices, therefore,
is higher than indicated by the analyses. A note on the subject will be
made subsequently.

The direct polarization of the first sugars is given in Table No. 34.

In these sugars there was only a trace of glucose, but no attempt was
made to estimate its quantity, not even by Soldaini’s reagent (carbonate
of copper dissolved in acid carbonate of potassium). For the same
reason a double polarization was not necessary.

TABLE No. 34.—First sugars, Lawrence, La.





Date. | No. | Sucrose. Date. | No. | Sucrose.

Per cent. er cent.
OY eee 14 96. 5 Dec. 16 ...... 240 97.0
A 34 98. 6 1960210... 20¢ 249 97.0
mov. 16...... 58 98.2 || Dec.22......| 262 97.7
Nov. 16...... 59 *97.3 60; 28 «cones 280 98.5
Oe. 20...<-. 76 98.8 al OE, * Bie sss 337 97.6
NOV. 20....<. 77 98. 6 lJan. 8...... 343 *98.0
POU. Be lenwes 89 97.5 eo a) 353 96.8
CC ee 105 $7.0 wee. OC eaece 362 | 98. 4
NOW, Of convene 169 97.6 —.
ee 110 98.5 A ee owt 97.8

ES eee 130 98. 0



*Cut strike.





36
FIRST MOLASSES.

Samples of molasses from the first sugars were taken from time to
time from the large tank into which the molasses was pumped after
issuing from the centrifugals. These samples therefore represent fairly
well the composition of the first molasses for the entire season. The
same remarks apply to the mean purity as were made in respect of the
purity of the masse cuites—the water in the TOL aan having been de-
termined by direct weight.

The mean determinations by the copper method agree well with the
results of double polarization, although, as in the case of the masse cuttes,
the individual deviations are large. The presence of invert sugar, op-
tically active, is clearly shown by the differences in single and double
polarization.

Analyses follow in Table No. 35.

TABLE NO. 35.—Jirst molasses, Lawrence, La.

Sucrose Sucrose | Sucreseby
direct. indirect. | Fehling.

| a | fe

Number. Moisture.| Ash. Glucose.

Per cent. | Per cent. | Per cent. Per cent. Per cent. Per cent.
44. 89







5718 31. 25 4, 32 13. 65 47. 20 46. 97 .
5724 28. 84 3. 92 14. 23 45. 50 48. 21 46. 89
5728 39. 65 4.48 16.18 33. 00 WEEE | Uiecape Sanens
5741 29. 39 VR Peererrron rere eeS
S744 Ji dceantses 8.43 14. 63 32. 30 36. 70 34.05
5745 30. 70 7.48 9. 43 46. 20 45, 34 43. 83
5747 29. 30 G.Gh | ces ccc cnn snnn cn tnunen] sane EE Re eelash tee ebeeke
RTM Tikes sens 4. 87 4,25 54. 90 52. 46 48. 09
S700. -. h conenenntieweaaede en 10. 58 44.10 55. 14 56. 26
5766 18. 82 7.15 13. 34 46, 20 49.77 50. 80
5768 22.95 4.49 8, 53 55. 50 58. 46 59. 26
5772 20. 94 4,52 8, 28 58. 50 WEOO | Weesans coanes
5775 23.30 5. 29 9. 80 53. 90 57. 27 57.72
5778 23. 08 4. 32 9. 52 55. 20 59, 12 58. 44
5781 23. 27 4.84 10. 05 55. 10 58. 85 67.70
Averages....| 26.79 5. 42 10. 96 48, 28 51. 05 51. 56
Mean purity .| 22.02 20--|ecccseccns|cccncccccces| snccccsensss| sauces sccce: 69.73



SECOND MASSE CUITE.

The samples of second masse cuite analyzed were all, with one ex-
ception, taken at the last of the season, when the juice was particularly
rich in sucrose. They show therefore a higher purity than the mean of
the first molasses. The data in Table No. 36 furnish a further illus-
tration of the fact that the molasses from rich juices have a higher
purity than that from the poorer sorghum. ‘These facts are suggestive
of the idea that the solids not sucrose in sorghum are less melassigenic
than those in sugar-cane.



37

TABLE No. 36.—Second masse cuites, Lawrence, La.





















: Sucrose Sucrose | Sucrose b
Number.| Moisture. | Ash. Glucose. | “Ginter. ndiepes: |) Wobdage y
!
Percent. | Per cent.| Percent. | Percent. | Per cent. | Percent. |
5722 5.49 4.25 13. 33 67.10 | 69. 84 68.68 |
URE aca = 576L 10. 51 4.08 7.31 69. 20 72.27 73:20 =}
cea 5764 Se Reet red 8.30 68. 00 70.50, -) 22 aed
a a San 5765 7.16 4.12 5.22 THROW |: 95.02 75.70 |
a. 5784 7.78 | 4.48 9. 69 67.90 | «77 | 6Lsl |
Be icndnns 7.73 4.23 | 8.91 69.04 | 71.54 69.85 |
see ap eam an hasenne «3 2 aang eS Acer er oro" 77.53





SECOND MCLASSES.

_ The samples of second molasses were taken fram large cisterus and
_ represent fairly well the character of this product for the entire season.
The most striking feature of the mean composition of this molasses is
_ the purity co-efficient. After twocrystallizations the molasses at Mag-
nolia still had a purity-number only a little below the first masse cuite
at Fort Scott, and almost identical with that of the first masse cuite at
_ Rio Grande.
This number shows the possibility of a large yield of third sugars.

TABLE No. 37.—Second molasses, Lawrence, La.





: ' | Sucrose Sucrose | Sucroseby |

Date. Number.! Moisture. Ash, Glucose. aivaek: ainaad Febling. |

' ee

: Per cent. | Per cent.| Per cent. Per cent. Per cent. | Per cent. |

fe, 20 2... 522: 5725 16. 33 6.70 21.93 41.70 46.43 | 4446 |

ee 5751 24. 27 7.46 16. 60 34.70 $8.81 | 3484. |
Be, Cecaccey-- 5766 18. 82 7.15 13. 34 46. 20 49.77 | 650.80
Averages .....].......-.- 19. 81 7.10 | 17.29 | 40.87 45.01 | 43.37
eh oc iecence<| owas anceen| saneaw senses | 56.13









| Date Number. Sucrose.
a
| Per cent
Nov. 12..... 44 | 95.6
em, 4. -5 152 90.6
~ be. > Meo. .2 171 | (91.8
: Dec. 20..... 255 87.0
re: 28s SS. 266 85. 8
be, ae 268 | 87.3
ee eee 349 ! 90.2
aon nici dad enieé< | 89.76









38

CHEMICAL CONTROL OF THE DIFFUSION EXPERIMENTS.



The following data respecting the diffusion experiments are abstracted
from Bulletin 17, pp. 83-89:

The first results from the experiments were obtained from the run of December 38,
1887.

The juice was treated with .3 per cent. its weight of lime, and after the precipita-
tion of the lime with carbonic dioxide, an amount of lignite equal to 10 per cent. of
the weight of the sugar present was added.

The juice filtered readily throngh the presses, forming firm, hard cakes. The filtered
juice was treated with phosphate of soda, 15 pounds of this salt being added for each
5,000 pounds of juice.

The phosphate produced an abundant floceulent precipitate, which filtered easily
through the twin filter presses, giving a juice of remarkable limpidity. The masse
cuite, however, was dark, and the molasses much inferior in color to that made by the
use of bone-blagk and ordinary clarification.

The phosphate of soda did not produce as favorable results as had been expected,
and its further use was discontinued.

Following are the data obtained in the first run:

TABLE No. 39.—First diffusion run, December 3, 1887.

















Rh Sucrose. | Glucose.

Juice from chips: Per ct. | Per cent. | Per cent.

WE ices execute Sdasas secrgh ous 15. 20 12.01 . 96

SOCONE ported aes we cuab sents ele re 14. 45 11. 92 1.00

TRING oon sie (td katana eas ae te 15. 45 12. 84 1.02

AVOEBEZG. «nn dus checn saber ves 15. 03 12. 26 . 99

Diffusion juice: a

Wir ioG ened 'o~ cans s'nmans wikenale 10, 88 8. 88 . 83

Sevatils 5. deters cere sae 10, 40 8. 65 . 74

AVGRS 0c Feie Ss etek ee 10. 64 8.76 | .78

Exhausted chips: a

First sample ........ Hiswhsw cot ieateae oS Weudeusck >

Second samiple ...osscs5.. tecncclaseesant 16 | Sa ddeeens

Third she ple: «0s 2s stunts
} eee eee

BV OTA . 505s nnwwe caps en -asealencheous | 73 aCinpee ares

| — SSS Ee

Carbonatated juice ...... ......--- 11. 09 | 9. 20 | 70

WEAGLO WADED cnane ccs ce shassutsoaileccnsisn yl keer eee »12

Bem elvan <5 ccs cneescasdapssatenaas 51. 80 42, 20 3. 39

First SUgar...--.. «sess -teona- aeuee| cmceuece OT. 50 |S ovenencs

Molasses from first sugar .......-.. 76. 30 45, 00 1.31

Becend GUGGE ds. Ks vaspercudinaserssvidinakase 01. 60 lewiewaaeute
Cano USC" « cccccuccducs scuncndvauna tans enpellmassunewéeest ae eens tons.. 80.3
Firet sugar per ton. ....0ssncdectesecsenctussaceue sncepsasenseneuenn pounds.. 146.1
Second sugar per tn... .ocece awasecsenndascbasonseescussesaus daumeunnee de.... 40.1
Total frat and second Sugars .... «coves caducs scontecesenssasneen do.... 186.2
Third SU gar voces sccncy cvancucencetcessvc sce sacneusunces suse eanneeel do.... 15.0
Pounds
The total sugar in the cane at 90 per cent. juice Was............eseeeeeenenee 220.6
Of this there was obtained 146.1 pounds at 97.50 ..... 2.2. cenecee awe cencnssee- 144.4
And 40.1 pounds ot 01.6. ...06 sc.ncc cccucucancuopessessacssnnseunaeeeanenene 36.7
Total pure sucrose obtained ......... cseacessewecsencescvesstynslepeunnenEne - 181.1
Left im ChIPs..... 20 ..cece scenes cececccans rewens cecmeerccsrccscnseensessesnes - 14.6

Total left in mola«ses and lost in manufacturing. ...........ccceecnecccvencee 24.9

Nore.—The third sugar will not be dried until in May or June, 1888, The esti-
mates of third sugar have been made by Mr. E. C. Barthelemy.



39

EXTRACTION.





‘The percentage of sucrose left in the spent chips was.73. Sucrose in cane was
11.03 per cent. The per cent. of extraction is therefore 11.03 — .73 =10.30 ~ 11.03 x

SECOND TRIAL.

Another trial was made of the diffusion machinery, beginning December 9. Car-

passed directly from the filter presses to the double-effect pan.

The quantity of lime employed was .6 per cent. the weight of the juice. The filtra-
tion was perfect. The experiment was remarkable in showing that a perfect defeca-
tion can be made with carbonatation with a much smaller percentage of lime than
had been supposed necessary.

The masse cuite was dark, but the sugar a fair yellow.

Following are the data of the run:

TABLE No. 40.—Second diffusion run, December 9, 1887.





















l
a ie Sucrose. | Glucose.
|
Fresh chips: Per ct. | Per cent. | Per cent.
el 14. 06 11.70 1. 04 |
Bera SAIS 525. ~6 255.65. 5~- 15. 65 | 13. 64 . 76 |
ee OMOMIO «oe. 202-5 --s >< 15. 70 13. 52 Te |
ss Meurth sample =... <-<-2«.---2- 15.50} 13.02 | 81 |
ee 14. 00 | 11.18 1,02 |
a eee 14.98 | 12.61) 88 |
Diffusion juice: Aa es
DN DIO co a oSc5 wide oo 9.36 | 7. 8&3 . 67
| Second sample 2. .2........2... 8. 67 | 7.25 - 58 |
PPimem@maringle. 2 20255... eee 9. 68 | 7. 6L - 59
Fourth sample ............----- 10. 40 | 8.69 | 91 |
PI ND 223) e eno 10. 20 | 8.45 | i
; Se | 9.66 | 7. 96 . 69
, Carbonatated juice: | = | cA
eS pe a eee | 9.121 7.73 65
Second sample ................. | 874 7.35 | 57
. PE MIG bccn wiswadns sc. | 10.20 8.55 | 50
eure SRINNIG .............5..- | 11.40 9. 00 ste
MOORES 2 en 5s 0 ---s-----|. 9,86 |. 816 | 61
Exhausted chips: fede tre 5 Yt ad
WOR DARINNO ssn cn ewe ete a Fre BOR ache ones
DeCeIe BAINDIO £5. $2055.25. =~ a ee eed Te OGuiten aes.
ee ee SAR ea tee sek 1.
rN MNES ode non nin cede Seanad | cy aes
a ee Pees PON eden a sack
ONIN nis Sia cCinaemsieetie aes =| ee sess
EINE, dileld kk cuales pwd euencesc ax | 47.70 3890! 2.96
First sugar....-....... oe ee a aa 00 12. oc. ine
Molasses from firsts ............--- | 72.20.| 42.40 10. 50 |
Na es oly oe. di bi lee sk I i
ERIE AGI ND dk. wneud se menccctcdeccces pounds.. 182
, en ne. cc mbewaweectcoceees Si. .&
eee teluMe se dse us SUCCES LCL. . oowokbeWane acces stceles tons.. 90
The total sugar in the cane at 90 per cent. juice was..............per ton.. 226.98
Of these there were obtained 128 pounds at 96.6...........-..---- ~ eee 123. 6
; a ne Ly cdi we ceut er cbeces 37.5
Zotal pure sucrose obtained . ... .... jc... 0. scene snenncccccsccces perton.. 161.1
a . iwchcenecedecs i... Ane
Pure sucrose left in molasses and lost in manufacture.......-.-....-- GQ.uc-,, ei
ee te eck encadheceacvece G6.... «29-0
Percentage sugar in cane extracted. ................ce--eeececececees 92. 16

_ The poor yield was due to use of thick chips during the first part of the ran,
causing a loss of 1.6 per cent. sucrose in the chips.



40

THIRD TRIAL.



In this run the use of carbonatation and lignite was discontinued. The diffusion
juices were treated with sulphur fumes until well saturated. They were then treated
with lime and clarified in the usual way.

The clarification took place readily. The quantity of seums was very small, and
the sediment subsided rapidly, forming a thin layer on the bottom of the tank, per-
mitting the clear liquor to be easily and completely drawn off. The juice passed at
once from the clarifiers to the double effect pan and subsequently received no further
purification.

Following are the analytical data obtained :

TABLE No. 41.—Third diffusion run December 10 and 11, 1888.





















a Sucrose. | Glucose.
Fresh chips: Per ct. | Per cent. | Per cent.
Pirat BRMDNG. «cco cs waves eee 14. 39 11.89 79
Second sample. ...-.-..-.-.--.--- 12.77 10. 63 ae
Third sample......... enacts 14. 49 12. 06 . 80
AVOTAGG : 32002" St AT pon eweres 13. 88 11. 58 .78
Diffusion juice:
Wiret wens. 6b. es tooo 9.42 7.82 - 62
WOCOHG BAN M Ss ccc can m TEE RANGES. 265k fy des pean 9.55 7. 86 - 67
SAW ORAS ae mare oc itn aetna 9. 46 7. 85 - 63
Sulphured juice: ae aie
Hirst sammeicsnsioccannccwstew cs 9. 69 8.17 . 66
Second sample...........<<.---.- 9.12 7. 53 . 58
ADRTERD. =——_ oe =
Clarified juice:
PTS ARIAS. << xcne des wana oe 9.95 8. 21 . 67
HSCORG GAM MlS.. wisovsin nine swnses 9. 89 8. 06 . 63
hind Shniples.i san sic dslcnon eens 10, 32 8.39 -71
NENG ls ntcicle anaeomane 10. 05 8. 22 - 67
Exhausted chips: hod
Wiret eample. <2 cvien denadd céwdansn eae sOO Po detacie st
Second sample, - se hwad ‘Phird samples. «65% axesnemarncem*|aeewaney Ps
Fourth sample. 2.26: sccsescuwcaclesesbe e- 6 Tinsradccue
PVOTBLG wienccnancs suense= =e vit epee 75 Sites 0888
Derteirnes sleep eeaiies eae coe 44.70. 34. 60 2. 87
PiSU GUGM. sje caneenccumasenyere adi anmanen 06. 801. coco der «s
Molasses from first sugar.....-.-...- 72. 90 36. 70 12. 07
Firat sugar Per tO Number tons Cane 1600 2.2.00 scccccscmencdaccenncscoscsuustesstneeeaeneeniese 110

The molasses from the first sugar was boiled to string proof, and put in wagons.
A good crystallization of second sugar was secured but, the molasses having been left
too acid, a good separation was not secured. Mr. Barthelemy therefore decided to
reboil the molasses with some of the product of the mill process, and therefore no
statement of the quantity of second sugar can be given. It was estimated at 30
pounds per ton.

The cane from which this run was made was grown on new back land and was the
poorest of the whole season.

The percentage of sugar extracted of total sugar in cano was 92.80.

FOURTH TRIAL.
In this run the diffusion juice was treated with lime until almost neutral. It was
then boiled, skimmed, and allowed to setile. The scums and sediments were of small
volume and were all returned to the battery.



41




to sirup in a double effect vacuum pan. The capacity of this pan was not quite great
enough to evaporate the juice as fast as furnished by the battery. For this reason
the run which might have been finished in two days occupied a part of a third day.
The quantity of cane worked was 200 tons.

The following is a record of the analytical data obtained :
=

TABLE No. 42.—Fourth diffusion run, December 29, 30, and 31, 1887.





















ae Sucrose.| Glucose.
Juices from fresh chips: fe Per ct.| Per cent.| Per cent.
cel se oO Siac mann ay osbwda snes 16. 46 14. 23 .49
MG io en cena ennaans sadecwancap ae = 17. 27 15. 33 - 43
erement, first day .........-......-.- ES 17. 26 15.12 43
| A. M., second day .......-...-- Ae oe eras 17.13 14. 84 45
r ES I ee 16. 97 14, 93 . 54
tho a Sewn bans ceapeewnse 16.19 13. 90 -61
EE nn eharbbadeh ao —xhasclanadace 16. 26 14. 05 - 50
Average fresh chip juice for run............- 16. 79 14. 60 .49
Diffusion juices:
Firstsample, first day .....-.......-...----...-- 9.72 8. 71 32
| Second sample, first day...........-..-..--.---- 10. 09 9.01 . 29
| ee 11. 38 10. 16 . 30
Fourth sample, first day............-.-.....---- 11. 60 9.31 . 53
| First sample, second Gay ------.--......-------- 11.10 9. 87 . 32
. Second sample, second day.............--.-----. 10. 92 9. 69 : 7Be
i Third sample, second day-.--..-.-..-..--------- 10, 94 9.7 44
| Firat sample, third day ...........--...-.--+s-<- 10. 45 9.31 .35
Second sample, third day .........-.-.---------- 10, 87 9. 69 -38
. Average diffusion juice for run.....---------- 10. 78 9. 50 . 36
Clarified juices:
ES ee oe 10. 75 9. 34 32
meereee ter socond day ..........--.--.--=.---- 11.77 10. 36 32
eeee waluplo, third day .......-........--.--..-- 12. OL 10. 36 -41
Second ee OS i eee 11.61 9.78 . 38
Third sample, third day ...........-----.--..--- 11. 25 9. 51 . 36
Average clarified juice for run .........--.... 11. 48 9. 87 . 36
Juices from exhausted chips:
NS OG eos enn on awindiv no odaons|scansnns eA Lenten ewe
pecoud eam, first day ............ 2000. ces00.]s0-.2-2 Wee Fotos gas a=
io ses wew cw ewscecdnn| ences as- See (leans
Prete, BOOOTHLGAY 58... 5c ow ccnp ewennccens| waceae RMR the tes hse
Second sample, second day..........--.---------|-----+-- \ ae
. Third sample, second day......-... CA oe te Sal alas FO oe
I SR icc ecanvlecusaae BO iether wc
eenome Seminie, CHING GG7... 5.6 20 cw one ow wwe nn |e ond ece: BO os fas
D I SNUG od cca conuncuan nbonvilscede one EA etteca ateca do
Average exhausted chip juice for run........|......-.. Se Evaindégiens
Te 37. 37 33.10 . 99
i NN rele a i laa vnidethe wun svlacedlvmns MR) tehccntvrens
omen eager trom first strike ...........< First molasses from first strike............--....---- 76. 22 51. 80 7. 76
Semi-sirup for second strike...................-.--- 40. 00 35. 10 1.19
I RE foe one socdaac pkeudd Gecavevelic'eecace OP O Tindaneasas
Sg ES a ea een meee GO Ie ace bigs
Molasses from second strike ...............-..-.--- 79. 00 ie GH.l. céduacads
I STON ne ec eeeckmascbacaleeasucee 05,8 *“tmaeecun--
SS ERO OUGRT NOP COT so... ven occcscccccesveems|scassees ee
Per cent, sugar extracted obtained in firsts.........).....--- Ow ts ceaeerees
ae ol Bnd as inepadetecesicseussieces pounds.. 45.9
7 ee NG a ins wncmanpeedus edectecenésece: do.... *18.0
; ee Gie Chic Gadlisy staccd auasvscwawsevscseccnces tons.. 200

F _————
*0n February 29 I was informed by letter from Governor Warmoth that the third sugars from the
fourth run had been dried and weighed, yielding 3,723 pounds, or 18.6 pounds per ton.







FIFTH TRIAL.

The fifth and last run of the diffusion battery was begun on January 14 and finished
on the 18th. This trial was made after the milling work had been completed. The
diffusion juices were treated precisely the same way as the mill juices had been, and
after passing over bone-black were concentrated to sirup ina Yaryan «iadruple effect,
which has been in use with the mill juices during the manufacturing season.

The working of all the machinery during this final trial was satisfactory, and the
even march of the whole work promoted the efficiency of the machinery and the sue-
cessful manipulation of the juice.

TABLE No. 43.—Analytical data of fifth run.













| No. | Brix. | Sucrose. | Glucose. No. _ Brix. | Sucrose. | Glucose.
Fresh chips: ° Per cent. | Per cent. || Diffusion juices—

SOT soe eee 16. 87 14, 23 74 continued. ° Per cent.| Per cent.

SOG 2s Se eat 16. 39 13. 45 37 45D. Ji eee 9. 88 8. 12 42

yl ee 16. 39 1357 . 89 453.2. .es ct cee 10. 87 9. 00 38

ee ee 17. 09 14.73 . 68 400... eee Deine ein . 45

BOG Se ce Joe 16. 86 1211 atk 466... S220 10. 67 8. 41 61

8M Nae a eee a 17. 16 14. 73 . 64 eee 10. 47 8.01 72

MEA OR vrctcatm eh ae Oe 14. 06 .70 473. : i... eee 8. 02 . 48

ry ee 17. 00 14. 50 . 61 Yee 10.15 7. 86 48

Ye 16. 70 13. 93 awe 479. 25. been 10, 31 7.92 47

Boeri ack aie te 16.7 14.11 . 74 485... cca eee 10. 59 8. 26 . 52

BG wwe ce oe 17.19 14.17 . 61 491°... 2Seeee 9. 69 7.53 .61

426 So ines Hoel is 314.19 . 59

CR ape ee ee visit 14, 55 . 61 Maximum -}....2.. 9.28 .72

eel BSS eee: 16.17 13. 48 75 Mirimum..|....... 7.03 coe

BA idole a mare 16.17 13.43 . 76 CaN . nese 8. 41 47

BAD Ae Salty 164. 60 13. 99 . 63 = —_——

AO. insxasce 16. 63 14. 39 . 65 || Exhausted chips:

Ae se ne 16.77 14. 28 63 09... 2.534 Rees ee tees
| 450: 2 16. 23 13. 29 ae 402. cass. Sac heameeee a RNase eae
BBS. 5 ieee icles 16. 03 13. 79 i] 407... 3... eee SOAS ae

AGS et 16. 07 13. 35 85 410..05. 5c 22S Wake Vics wee oe
[ se ee | 16.84 14, 34 64 413......3¢cacee Olid casa

B19 Ce. ee ce ' 16.37 13. 54 82 416- as deen eee RI oe oes

LTRs eon ae (16.51 14.17 70 419° 52 oa foe 1s cents wae

Goes | 16.94 14. 38 65 422... a0 secuelaeees Oaks

A962 ches: | 16, 57 14. 52 63 425 . wenn ao win a ele mate aA 4 [a See

a 498... cc eee SONS a eee

Maximum .)....... 14. 73 £9 481 W203 cence 43 }.25, 2
Minimum..!......- 12. 11 59 480... ....calt alee Sa ee eee

Mean ooo... ee cee 13. 98 70 442... cwan oe ae ee 667.25 oe

gn SEEDea ey oapeemeere iene 445 we eeereeeeceesisasaee-. . 42 eee ewww wee

Diffusion juices: | 448. . i... 50s) eeeeeee RAS ences

Fes Bo te ots wie 11.5 9. 28 60 r 13) es ee Ot sce wa coats

Ee Se ri | 10. 67 8. 66 64 454... .iwsie « SGC MO TAR ete

OE es cis | 10.61 8. 92 49 461... ck. 2h A sda

Be eS ts cade 10, 38 8. 53 41 467... 1c i@U Ree AD ~ ccecahe ee

MED. 3 dear 11. 01 9, 10 45 470... 3.25 Vek alee eee i eee ae es”

rh a a ae 10. 91 8. 60 48 474. ..5. ose teleee OS licen came

ATS cast ete 10. 71 8.7 40 AT tS a ee oie 04 diced aeoees

Adie ati delet 10. 65 8.77 40 490 oc. So cee ee BA lwaclta cues

424.. acea wh: BF. 8. 51 44 456... <= up acsheeeeene Ee caoeneee

BT Oe 10. 52 8. 90 46 403 . csc aek cn nnt eee S01 Mande ase

BOO cio awe oir aie 10, 65 9. 05 382 ———_ -—— , ——_ —

GES... oc.annbute te 8. 46 «Dd Maximum .|....... OO emd tenn

sb en 10,73 8.94 45 | Minimum ..)....... la ae

OAS ewe eae 10. 88 8. 99 42 Mean .
AGS ~c0% daltiinwes 9.5 7,68 .o4 |



The molasses from the first sugars being very rich, the method of reboiling to grain
wasemployed. To this end the molasses of the first strike, having been reduced to
55 to 60 per cent. of total solids, was boiled on a nucleus of first sugar left in the
pan from the second strike, In this way all the molasses was.boiled to grain with
most gratifying results except that from the last strike of the first sugars.

The attempt to boil this to grain did not sueceed in giving a masse cuite which could
be dried with ease. The molasses running from the machines was so thick that it
clogged them up. Seven large sugar wagons were filled with this material and set
in the hot room,








31 ade were equal incvery respect to those obtained by milling in simi-
‘Without counting the second sugar above named, the grained sugar
unted 181.5 pounds. The grained sugars in wagons will yield not less

TABLE No. 44.—Summary of resulis.

Sugar

Mean Mean grained
Number ofiun. | Cane. | sucrose | glucose. in pan per
in juice. | in juice. ton. First

sugar.











Tons. | Per cent.| Per cent. | Pounds.









mo es tet smite in wa os 80.3 12. 26 - 99 146.1
Fi is a aS Tee See 9). 0 12. 61 .88 128.0
~~ eS 110.0 11. 53 -78 143.0
$ eo occes 200. 0 14. GO .49 165. 5
. ee ee ae oe 417.0 | 13. 98 .70 181.5
‘>
- Wagon sugar per
ton.
Peet Rie A od 1 igtal
s ~_ sugars
Second |_zhira per ton.
| sugar. SUear (es-
' jt timated).
* Pounds. | Pouids. aa eae
- 40.1 15 201.2
43.0 18 189. 0
30.0 12 185. 0
45.9 18 229.4

18. 0 16 215.5

MASSE CUITES, SUGARS, AND MOLASSES FROM THE DIFFUSION RUNS.

Miollowing are the data of the analyses of the masse cuites, sugars, and
molasses from the diffusion runs.

In Table No. 45 are the results of examination of samples afforded by
the first diffusion run.

TABLE No. 45.—First run, juices after carbonalation clarified with sodium phosphate.



S
Sucrose | Sucrose Sucrose

No. | Moisture.| Ash. :
direct. indirect. Fehiing.

Glucose.







Per cent. | Percent. | Per cent.| Per cent. | Percent. | Per cent.
Masse cuite......... 5732 SOe* TA 3... eae 5.91 75.40 76. 96 78. 94







57s4 10. 79 2.79 5.91 74.10 75. 58 76.13
iH |- Averages .....|...... 10. 00 2.79 5.91 74. 75 76, 27 77. 54
ay | Firet Geagar......... 5733 0.51 Ge fi. t5s0. 258 OE Biasaki nekioeityeebe ate ak
5 2 >











+4

TABLE No. 46.—Carbonatation, second run, diffusion, Lawrence, La.





: Sucrose | Sucrose Sucrose
No. | Moisture.| Ash. Glucose. : Tae La
direct. indirect. Fehi in g.
Per cent. | Percent. | Percent.| Per cent. | Per cent. | Per cent.
First masse cuite...| 5735 9, 53 3. 90 6. 21 ye 76. 22 76. 94
Wirst molasses * ..- 1203-5 he con on el eee 10. 50 BA Me nan eA ae ee
First sugar.......-. 5727 58 RB BDewnsceeent UNE IR ocd ns costal cigs Men
Second sugar.....-. 5752 3. 23 2. 88 1.36 87.3 86. 49 84, 20



TABLE No. 47.—Juice sulphured, third run, diffusion, Lawrence, La.

. Sucrose | Sucrose Sd
No. | Moisture.| Ash. Glucose.
direct. | indirect. | ar 2

—— | —_ | ——— || | | | LL

Per cent. | Per cent. | Per cent. | Percent. | Percent. | Per cent.

Masse cuite ........ 5736 8. 42 3. 79 6.79 73.9 76.19 76. 58
Molasses .....------ 5739 | 34. 04 7. 53 12. 07 BF ese
PRES <. sors cauee Us 5738 46 pO. Tig ideeeien Se etrtin sens etna tu eee

TABLE No. 48.—Vourth run, clarification by lime, diffusion, Lawrence, La.



- : Sucrose | Sucrose
Number. | Moisture.| Ash. | Glucose. diel | tndinaa

| |

Per cent. | Per cent. | Per cent.| Percent. | Per cent.



BEOON0 DOIIAD, denne rscce= 5756 9. 42 308 © Icadéceeeee 77.40 78. 48
5759 9. 27 2.57 ~ [lass ceeeeeeeh ie connie cass ceo

swinswest yee 9.35 | 2.60 |..........| 77.40 | 78.48
MGIOSSEAS. oaen nape nino 5758 24. 01 5. 28 7.77 GLIGR" (has. eee
BOSUP, . dieea den nekees se 6757 27 a2 lcaseeenee 98.4 | [easstencens

TABLE No. 49.—JVifth run, juices bone-blacked, diffusion, Lawrence, La.



: Sucrose | Sucrose | SUctese
No. | Moisture.| Ash. Glucose. ; Sane by
direct. indirect. Fehling.

me ||

Per cent. | Per cent. | Per cent. | Per cent. | Per cent. | Per cent.

































First masse cuite..| 5785 8. 83 2. 47 5. 25 79.3 80. 53 80.75
5787 | 10. 68 2.47 4. 36 76.5 78.77 78. 80
5790 | 12.04 3.49 4. 24 73.7 15.33 75.44
Averages.....|...--- | 10.52 10.5 | 28 2. 81 is 4. 62 | 76.5 78. 2) 78, 33
ls ga pb
First molasses..... 5786 | 39.59 = 3.94 | 9.93 | 39.0 41. 98 43. 82
5788 | 42. 86 3.98 7.78 38. 2 41.14 42. 79
5791 | 31.57 a 71 13. 82 48.4 49.79 43. 92
Average....-.|...... | 38. 01 4.88 | 10.51 41.9 44. 20 43. 51
Second masse cuite|) 5792 10. 21 4.52 * Fae 70. $i 73.36 i 4 te 23
5789 | 24. 33 7. 44 15. 30 38.4 43. 81 45. 82
Second molasses...| 5793 |........... 7. 80 14. 50 45.8 51.22 63.14
Averages ....|...... 24. 33 7. 62 14. 90 | 41.9 | 47. 52 49. 48

The second molasses from the fifth run of diffusion, on account of the
crowded condition of the sugar-house, could not be kept separate from
the mill products. It will be noticed that this molasses was still ex-
ceedingly rich in sucrose.






|

45

‘
_ The apparent percentage of sucrose is as high as in the first molasses,

but this is due to the much higher content of water in the latter prod-
uct.

Nevertheless the sugar yield would still be very large to reduce the
third molasses to the relative proportions of sucrose and glucose con-
tained in the sample from the Calumet plantation, sent by W. J. Thomp-
son, the analysis of which will follow.

In view of this exceeding richness it would seem that the estimated

yield of third sugars from the run given in Bulletin 17, viz, 15 pounds

per ton, is entirely too low. This yield would doubtless have been fully
30 pounds per ton.

While the chemical controi of the diffusion experiments has proved
reasonably satisfactory, yet there remain many points of interest which
can only be determined by more extended investigations.

Among these may be mentioned the marked oxidizing power of the
bone-black on diffusion juices. These juices on reaching the bone-char-

filters were as nearly neutral as possible. On issuing from the fil-

ters they were intensely acid, and were again treated with lime before
a second filtration. Diffusion juices have proved to be much more
amenable to treatment for clarification than our first experiments with
diffusion applied to sorghum indicated. A simple treatment of the juice
with lime, careful skimming and subsequent precipitation of the sedi-
ment in settling tanks, appears to be all that is necessary to make a
fine article of raw sugar, either with sorghum or sugar canes.

re.



a oe es ee % a

SUMMARY OF DATA FOR FOUR YEARS AT MAGNOLIA,

BY G. L. SPENCER.



The crop of 1887 was in many respects a remarkable one. In the
early spring the cane was considerably larger than in average seasons.
The stand was unusually good. Favorable rains and exceptionally
good weather permitted a very thorough cultivation. The rows were
well shaded before the Ist of July. All these favorable conditions
united to make this crop the best in the history of the plantation. Mag-
nclia seemed to be especially favored. When the fields above azd on
the opposite side of the river were too wet for cultivation those of Mag-
nolia were in the best possible condition.

The following is a brief résumé of the growing seasons of the four
years since the establishment of the Magnolia station :

Season of 1884.—The spring weather was favorable and continued so
until the 1st of June, then followed a period of wet weather lasting
until August, which was a very dry month. September and October
were favorable to the ripening of the cane. During the rolling season
there were frequent and heavy rains. The tonnage was good, and the
quality of the cane excellent.

Season of 1885.—Exceptionally wet weather continued through the
early part of this season. The rainfall from April to July was limited
to two or three showers. There were frequent rains in August and
September. The rest of the season was exceptionally cool and dry. A
severe wind storm in September completely prostrated the cane. The
wet weather in September and the wind storm damaged the cane very
materially. The tonnage was large.

Season of 1886.—In January a freeze of remarkable severity threatened
damage to the stubble. Small crops were predicted for the next season.
The crop was small, but the shortage was not attributable to the results
of the freeze.

February, March, and April were cold and wet; consequently the
cane obtained a late start. May wasdry and cool; Juneand July were
too wet to permit of proper cultivation; August was dry and exceed-
ingly hot. These adverse conditions all teuded to stunt the cane. Al-
though the start was good the tonnage was small. The juice was ex-
ceptionally rich and pure.

46



AT



_ Season of 1887.—The cane obtained an early start. The weather was
favorable throughout the season. The crop was but little damaged by
the heavy wind storms in August and October. The tonnage was ex-
ceptionally large and the juice excelled in richness and purity.

It may be seen from the above résumé that two of the seasons were
very favorable, one of these exceptionally so.

The following table of averages shows the quality of the juices for
the four seasons:







Season. 1884. | 1885. 1886. | 1887.
eee loser sacendaecscses< seccen-cnoase 16.54 | 15.80] 16.20 16. 37
ED tenes So ews seco sae wasesaees sos btntieosnes 13.05 | 12.11] 13.50 13. 69
eee eee . 67 1.02 61 77
Se ee 78.69 | 76.64] 83.33 83. 48

The quality of the cane in 1885 was exceptional. The proportion of
glucose is considerably above the average for the four seasons. The
percentage of sucrose is low. The analyses for this season show fully
thirty pounds less available sugar present than those for 1887.

A comparison of the analyses of juices for the seasons of 1886 and
1887 shows that they were of almost exactly the same average quality,
although in the latter season the tonnage was about twice that of 1886.
Many planters considered it impossible to obtain a very large tonnage
and at the same time a rich cane.

The yield and quality of the cane in 1887 indicate that a large cane
does not necessarily carry a weak juice. On the contrary, some of the
heaviest cane on Magnolia was the richest, containing about 15.5 per
cent. sucrose in the juice. All this cane, including the heaviest, was
quite ripe. .

Work AT MAGNOLIA PLANTATION.

Crop of 1887~88.*













NTE en ee eit uk mene sun ciels sobe wees wsne vues 13, 344
ee eke CcWcke Sota ds 5 - aap sow ca ceun veces oe 275
eee deere taware as sees omvese respec eseese =~ = 242
NRE ei i bedin us Sa wceelesWewelssdu «< Ras Wulcairy vecwes «ov ebe veWece beeces vacccusccous 604
re Laan, osns sicact pasless aoss ss sanecs cudbencess 22. 09
i re MOE iis ewe wus weet dade dane cc osccine cute vese pounds.. 1,659, 120
Total weight, grained seconds................---..-- eChietbatecucs O04 220, 484
Total weight, wagon seconds ....................---.. EJCs tai ots e62.52 327, 269
Total weight, third sugars .... ......-....-..... WedawWadsee Wide ce G0: 522 214,178

re MORO Loe lbe eben sucedu ck te cdce seccee do.... 2,421,051



“Averages for entire crop, including diffusion work.





Average yield of sugar per ton of cane........-......-.-.------ pounds... 181. 43
Per cent. of yield, sugars... 22. 622200 scciewn «- 5050 oor s eee 9. 072
Total gallons of molasses... ~ 22.2 ~ 0 226-3 2. 25-- 005050 san en eee 58, 350
Total pounds of molasses, at 114 pounds per gallon .........-..-..--..--. 671, 025
Per cent. of yield of molasaes.........2 ./2.65 (25d bb cee eee 2.514
Per cent. of yield of masse cnite (7. e., sugar and molasses). ..--......-..- 11. 586
Pounds sugar per aclo .... s2 22s 62.4 ecane nacléos <
Pounds molasses per Acre .... .<--5- venn senses n= ecnne eee See sp eigehs 1,110

MAGNOLIA PLANTATION.

Crop of 1887~88.*— Diffusion work.

Tons of cane worked ...- 2. ...<0. 0s< sen ccc cnc ens» First sugar...--..-.--- ----- O nee cee comers ne ewnnn sess Semen ee pounds.. 121,964
Second sugar, grained ...... sass. ccc econes nae ee do.... ‘31,764
Second sugar WAGONS... . .200 0022 0s cen ccenes cannes suse eeeeenee do.... 15,935
Third Sugar WAZODS..... 0 «--2a0 we seeecoencenccunne suns sah eee eens = Saels 14, 653
Total sugar .u< 2.5. owe ese been cue e eecicen cone ce snsane ee ane 184, 316
Average yield, first sugar, per ton... .\... 2202-222 -00 weeesse0esPOUndS: - 133. 58
Average yield, second sugar grained, per ton.......-......--...- oT eee 34.17
Average yield, second sugar wagons, per ton..... a += ame ne alee Of ceen 17. 46
Average yield, third sugar wagonsy per ton.........--..--------- GOs 16. 05
Total sugar per ton of cane...2..5.4.65 2.2... .cccee as sean ne 201. 26
Por cent. of yield 22202.c> i542 Lice jiccu dec cacnet been Ree Foca 10. 063

MAGNOLIA PLANTATION.

Crop 1887-88.
First | Second | Third | Fourth | Fifth Sixth Total
period. | period. | period. | period. | period. | period.

Tons of cane rolled .......-----. 494 2, 261 2, 244 2, 260 806 3, 966 12, 431
Extraction, per cent......... =e 78. 60 79. 02 79. 01 78. 46 79 79. 30 78. 94
Pounds Ist sugar per ton cane..| 101 *132.80 | *139.94 | *123.50 | *122.70 | *144.50] 138.83
Pounds 2d sugar per toncane..| 34 8 36. 36 29. 60 40. 50 41. 60 25. 05
Pounds 3d sugar per ton cane..| 16.05 16,05 16.05 16. 05 16. 05 16. 05 16. 05
Total sugar per ton cane, lbs...| 151.05 156, 85 192. 35 169.15 | 179.25 202. 15 179. 93

* Includes grained seconds.

MAGNOLIA PLANTATION,

Crop of 1887~88.—Mill work.

Total tons of cane rolled. ; .....ccece vouncs deuce cee useee eens 12, 431
Pounds of jtce . 2.0 .0scsn vownncsuenve suas sas ces 645 niineie 19, 626, 062
Extraction per cent CONG. .c0 vase oncdccvaseseseeenpeean oe owhehaed<% 78. 94
Piret SUR 2. i ssc kcuvs 6hsts tieue wdndes suns skip an meee Pounds.. 1,537, 156
Becond sugar grained ... 00 sc0s ss 188, 720
Second sugar wagon........... swedee sdeyeos hoes suee ae do.... 311, 334
Third: GUZAT WAGON...o. cca cece cpsusuceedas becess snses see eae 199, 525
Total QUGAES ivdns casncicunesd:svénsaenuabucensinnaaer ae do.... 2,236, 735
Average first sugar per ton Cane... ... 22. cone cee seen coee ee -AO0cncs 123. 66
average second sugar grained per ton cane ......---.--------- O03. c60 15. 18
Average second sugar wagon per ton cane......---------+ +++. COisned 25. 05

——$——$—_—_———
a

* Average of all the cane worked by diffusion.







“Average third sugar wagon per ton cane ..-.-.-.. seat ca geoee pounds.. 16, 05
Sa verage total sugar per ton cane..........-.-.----. ---------- iis 235 179. 93
II SRR rs aE eee” oni woe sw tcenca sees 8, 996

SPECIAL ANALYTICAL WORK.

Several problems were presented during the progress of the work at
Magnolia for solution. It is difficult to get time during the progress
of manufacture to study such special problems; as much time, how-
ever, as I could take from the general sg ra of the work was given
to this special analysis.

COMPARISONS OF DIRECT AND INDIRECT POLARIZATION.

If sorghum and cane juices were composed alone of a solution of su-
crose, the quantity of this substance could be determined at once by a
direct polarization ; unfortunately for the simplicity of chemical manip-
ulation, such is not the case. These juices contain other substances which
are optically active. In sorghum juices especially we find large quanti-
ties of substances present other than sucrose, which have the power to
affect the polarized ray.

In cane juices the substances which tend to produce right-handed ro-
tation are soluble starch, so-called, and its derivatives, dextrine and
dextrose.

Of the substances tending to produce ieft-Landed rotation at ordinary
temperatures may be mentioned invert sugar and certain nitrogenous
bodies.

Were these left-handed and right-handed bodies present in neutral-
izing proportions they would have no effect upon the polariscopic de-
terminations of the sucrose, but such is not always the case; hence, a
direct reading on the polariscope of sugar juices can not always be re-
lied upon to give exact data concerning the proportion of sucrose pres-
ent.

In the case of juices the variation may not be marked, but after con-
centration a direct polariscopic reading of the masse cuite, or molasses,
may prove very erroneous.

To determine the magnitude of this variation in the juices of sirups
and molasses from sugar cane, the following analyses were made.

In Table No. 50 are found data relating to clarified juices.

These samples were taken with the greatest care. The measurements
were made in tared flasks, with a weighed quantity of the juice, and
all of the analytical operations conducted with the greatest precautions.
It will be seen by consulting the mean data of the table that the per-
centage of sucrose was increased from 14.49, the direct reading, to 14.67,
the percentage given by the polariscope after inversion. The mean
quantity of sucrose is increased by about one-third of the percentage of

the reducing sugar present.
23576—Bull 18——4







50

TABLE No. 50.—Single and double polarization of mill juices, Magnolia.









| Single Fi Ss
Invert Temper- ris )
Number. | polarization saat! P by double Increase.) Glucose.
| caereant eer ature. | by. dowble pelestationgels. |
: | [ies .
Per cent, °C. Per cent. Per cent.
1 14.7 — 4.84 24.0 14. 90 O: 20. 6s ee
2 | 12.75 — 4.39 23. 0 12. 92 O37 4a. eee
3 15. 53 — 4.75 2a. 5 15. 46 — 0.07 O38
4 13.75 — 4.90 23.0 | 14.07 0.32 140
5 13. 02 — 4.43 21:5 13. 09 0. 07 . 36
6 | 13. 95 — 4.35 27. 0 14, 02 0. 07 47
7 16, 45 — 5,23 29. 0 16. 74 0.29 42
8 15. 58 — 4.57 31.0 ‘| 15. 84 0. 26 53
9 16. 23 — 4.98 31. 25 16. 52 0. 29 - 566
10 16.18 — 4.90 27.0 15. 40 0. 22 oe
11 14. 80 — 4.68 28.0 i4. 99 0.19 . 64
12 12. 73 — 448 « Wicoacteeten aoe 12. 84 0.11 . 56
13 13. 65 == 4.95) - “lace ntlaaee eee 1S. BB Pies Seed ee





Averages ig ee eee | 14. 67 .19 . 50

In Table No. 51 is given the single and double polarization of sirups
derived from the juices in Table No. 50.

The same precautions were taken in the selection of samples and in
the analytical manipulation as in the preceding table.

The increase in the percentage of sugar on double polarization in the
case of the sirups is equivalent to about one-half of the percentage of
glucose present. It will be noticed in Table No. 50 that there are nu-
merous examples of a like proportionate increase. In sample No. 3, in
Table No. 50, there is an actual loss of sucrose, the second reading being
.07 less than the first. This result was doubtless due to some error
which all the precautions taken could not avoid.

TABLE No. 51.—Single and double polarization of sirups from mill juices.



















: : | Single Double Temper- el
Number. | polarization. | polarization. ature. Sucrose. Increase. | Glucose.
2 Per cent. ° °C, Pe r cent. Per cent.
4 44. 04 — 17.49 26.0 | 45,07 O81: hud c-Si
5 45. 25 — 16.23 23. 0 46.40 1.15 1. 39
6 41. 50 — 15.43 19.0 42. 27 0.77 1.19
7 43. 00 — 14.28 26.5 43. 81 0.81 1.44
8 46.88 — 14.58 28. 5 47.37 0.49 1, 28
9 45. 53 — 14,74 29.5 46. 63 1.10 1. 63
10 42.15 — 13.28 31, 25 43.19 1.04 1.61
11 44. 85 — 14.80 26. 5 45. 62 0. 77 1, 76
12 42. 85 =u 13, 81 27.0 43. 04 0.19 1, 92
39.98 | —=> 18, 26 25. 25 40, 53 0,55 1.81
|Averages |——-——-——_ | ——_——— —_—|—— _ _—
| 43, 60 Knis uin eee dasha tale kasi ica eee 44. 39 oe | 1,55



oo

In Table No. 52 are found the data of polarizations of various samples
of molasses taken at different times during the season. Unfortunately,
in only three cases was the percentage of glucose determined. In these
cases the increase on double polarization is equal to almost half the per-
centage of glucose present. The mean increase, however, viz, 8.30 per
cent., would probably not have been much greater than one-third of the
mean percentage of glucose present in the molasses.



51




|
Polarization





Single Temper-
Number. a after Sucrose. Increase. Glucose.
polarization. Subanon: ature.
Per cent. su-
crose. °C Per cent Per cent.
1 46.0 — 24.2 20. 52.4 Pet Sets e235
Z 45.5 — 23.1 20. 51.2 Ti a) ee ees
3 oA — 24.1 20. 36. 7 11.6 25. 25
4 45.8 — 20.4 23.5 51.6 Se ies oh a
5 28.2 — 23.7 22.5 39. 04 epee BN ass oe
6 oie — 23.54 21.0 37.9 10.8 23. 90
a 36.9 — 23.32 22. 0 45.3 8.4 16. 60
8 38.0 — 22.33 24. 0 45.7 ES. eee oS
9 = a | — 21.78 21.0 43.1 Moceee, fecet co 2Ae.
MER aS fp esi. 44.77 | 8.30 | Pear es Y
!



Description of samples.—No. 1, cample of first molasses; No. 2, sample of first mo-
lasses; No. 3, sample of third molasses; No. 4, sample of first molasses; No. 5, sample
of third molasses; No. 6, sample of third molasses; No.7, sample of second molasses;
No. 8, sample of second molasses; No. 9, sample of second molasses.

In Table No. 53 are found the analyses of some samples of molasses
_ sent by Mr. W. J. Thompson, of Calumet plantation. In these samples
| we have again the remarkable illustration of the error into which the
‘ - analyst would fall who would rely upon a single polarization alone. As
- acheck upon the results the sucrose was determined also with an alka-
line copper solution. The percentage obtained in this way agrees re-
markably well with that got by double polarization.

In these cases the total increase is a little less than one-third of the
amount of glucose present.

TABLE No. 53.—Composition of third molasses.

{Furnished by W. J. Thompson, Calumet plantation, Patterson, La. |

Sucrose



is Serial Moist- Ash Sucrose | Sucrose

Albumi-
number. ure. 7 direct. | indirect. i

ada. Glucose.

a ce | | | | ff



Per cent. | Per cent.| Per cent.| Per cent.| Per cent. | Per cent. | Per cent.
25. 34 : . 20

1 5918 25. 09 7. 55 15. 85 26. 00 1. 97 29,

2 5919 26.15 9. 35 17. 45 26. 02 26. 14 2. 40 28. 98
3 5920 25. 30 7. 84 17.15 25, 92 26.19 | 2.49 30, 07
4

5921 26. 09 7.01 17.05 25. 46 25.59 | 2.30 31.31



TABLE No. 53 (bis).—Composition of third molasses, average sample from Magnolia plan-
tation.

po renes |
} Snero s
| Sucrose | Sacrose Ta 8° | Albumi-
: 7
:

5 | Moist | I
No. : A sh. ° . ae ‘
direct. | indirect. copper. noids.

! ure.
:

Glucose.



——|——_| |



| Per cent. | Per cent. Per cent. | Per cent. | Per cent.| Per cent.| Per cent.
5958 | 30.37 | 954 | 20.73 | 27.65 | 27.7 1.92 | 21.13



Aside from the larger quantity of water in the third molasses from
Magnolia, the chief difference between the Calumet and Magnolia





52

samples is found in the smaller percentage of reducing sugar in the lat-
ter.

These results with the sugar-cane juices show that when single
polarization alone is practiced the real percentage of sucrose can be
approximately obtained by adding to the direct reading one-third of the
percentage of glucose present.

The results also show the preponderance of levo-gyratory impurities
in cane juices.

The left-handed disturbance, however, is greater than would be ex-
pected from the amount of invert sugar present.

We would, therefore, conclude that the albuminous matters present
are also active, or that in the reducing sugar naturally contained in the
juice there is a preponderance of levulose.

In sorghum juices I have shown in a previous publication that the
differences between direct and double polarization are not so great.
This is due to the fact that in sorghum there is a large portion of so-
called soluble starch and dextro-gyratory bodies.

STUDY OF INVERSION IN THE YARYAN QUADRUPLE EFFECT.

To determine the invertive effect of concentrating the juices in the
Yaryan quadruple effect pan, a series of careful analyses of entering
juices and issuing sirups was made. The samples were taken in the
following way, viz: From the feed-box of the Yaryan apparatus a
measured sample of the juices was taken every two minutes for thirty’
minutes; four minutes after taking the first sample of juice and every
two minutes thereafter for thirty minutes a measured sample of the
issuing sirup was taken. After mixing the samples of juice and sirup
were subjected to analysis. It will be seen that by the above method
the samples of juice and of sirup were strictly comparable. In each
case the sample for analysis was weighed out and made up to a stand-
ard volume in a tared flask. The analytical manipulations were con-
ducted with every possible precaution.

The results of the work are given in Tables Nos. 54 and 55,

TABLE No. 54.—Test for inversion in Yaryan pan.—Clarified juice.













| | Reducing pedueing
Purity on | Purity on | Sucrose Sucrose in- t wae a p|, Sugars
No.| Date Total direct indirect | djrect | direct [Reducing|"? ’°" ©* |\to 100 su-
" “| solids. | polariza- | polariza- | poluriza-| polariza- | sugars. Same crose indi-
| tion. tion, tion. tion. polariza- rect po-
i} clan larization
|
| 1887-"88 Per cent. Per cent.| Per cent. | Per cent.
1 }Dec. 28) 15.93 | 86,32 88. 32 13. 75 14. 07 - 40 2. 91 2. 84
| 2 |Dec. 28} 14,53 89, 61 90, 09 13. 02 13. 09 . 36 2.75 2. 75
| 3iJan. 4 15. 88 87. 85 88. 29 13, 95 14, 02 .47 3.47 3.35
| 4\Jan. 5 17. #8 92. 00 93. 62 16. 45 16, 74 42 2. 55 2.51
5 |Jan. 6 Lie 90. 73 92, 26 15. 58 15. 84 . 53 3.40 8. 36
6 |Jan, 7 17. 93 90, 52 92.14 16, 23 16. 52 . 56 3. 46 3. 39
7 \Jau. 8 16, 71 90. 85 91. 56 15.18 15. 40 . 57 3. 75 8. 70
8 |Jan, 9 16. 78 &8, 20 $9, 33 14. 80 14. 09 . 64 4.33 4.27
9 |Jan. 10 14.18 89. 77 90. 65 12. 73 12. 84 . 56 4. 41 4.37
Averages.| 16.33 89, 54 90. 68 | “14. 63 03 | 14. 83 . 50 8. 45 3. 39



LT



t



53

TABLE No. 55.—Sirups.

[Dates and numbers correspond to comparative samples in above table. |











1 |Dec. 28} 51.23 | 88.33 90.60 |. 45.25 | 46.40 1.3 3.07 3.00
2 |Dec. 28) 46.70 | 88.87 90.51 | 41.50 | 42.27 1.19 2.87 2. 82
3\Jan. 4| 49.02 | 87.72 89.35 | 43.00 | 43.81 1. 44 3.35 3.28
4\Jan. 5| 60.54 | 92.76 93.73 | 46.68 | 47.37 1. 28 2.73 2.70
5\Jan. 6| 51.16 | 88.99 91.14 | 45.53 | 46.63 1.62 3. 59 3. 50
G|Jan. 7| 47.60 | 88.55 90.74 | 42.15 | 43.19 1.51 3.57 3.50
0S flee en lene. 44.85 | 45.62 1.76 3.92 3. 86
8ijJan. 9 48. 83 87. 76 8.15 42. 85 43. 04 1. 92 4.48 4.46
9 |\Jan. 10| 45.22 | 88.41 £9.63 | 39.98 | 40.53 1. 81 4.53 4.47
Averages.| 48.79 | 88.92 | 90.48 | 43.55 | 44.32 1.55 | 3.57 3. 51

Any inversion which would take place in the process of concentration
would be indicated by an increase in the ratio of reducing sugar and
sucrose.

In the entering juices the mean ratios are as follows, viz:

By direct polarization, 3.45 parts reducing sugar to 100 of sucrose.

By double polarization, 3.39 parts reducing sugar to 100 of sucrose.

For the issuing sirups the ratios are as follows:

By direct polarization, 5.57 parts reducing sugar to 100 of sucrose.

By double polarization, 3.51 parts reducing sugar to 100 of sucrose.

It will be seen by the above numbers that the inverting effect of the
Yaryan pan is practically nothing. It amounts to only one-tenth of a

_ pound to 100 pounds of sugar made or 2 pounds to the ton of sugar.

ANALYSES OF BAGASSE.

Sixteen determinations were made at various times during the sea
sion of the quantity of water and sugar in the bagasse. The samples
were taken as follows: From time to time during fifteen to twenty min-
utes a handful of the bagasse issuing from the mill was taken and placed
in a covered vessel. These samples were then thoroughly mixed to-
gether and a portion taken for analysis, Small quantities of bagasse
were taken from the selected portion and eut into very fine chips.
Weighed portions of these chips were then dried at 105° C., and weighed

_ for the determination of moisture.

—_——

Tor the determination of sucrose, weighed portions of the bagasse
were extracted in a marked stoppered bottle for two hours at the tem-
perature of boiling water. After cooling, the contents of the bottle
were poured in a mortar and thoroughly rubbed up with a pestle. The
sucrose was determined in a filtered portion of the liquid, due allow-
ance being made for the volume occupied by the fiber of the cane. The
results of the analyses are given in Table No. 56.



54

Date. | Water. Sucrose.

ee

1888. Per cent, | Per cent.
q.





1 | Jan. 4 ‘ 8.58 || 10 | Jan. 8 54.99 50
2 Jan. 4 52. 87 7:68 ook Jan. 9 55. 08 7.95
3 Jan. 65 §2.99 | 8.10 12 Jan. 9 54. 69 7.65
4 |Jan. 5 53.89 | 8.19 | 13 | Jan. 10 53. 59 7.44
5 |Jan. 6| 62.51 | £497.73 | 14 | Jan. 10 55. 8 6.88
6 | Jan. 6 51. 69 8. 00 15 | Jan. 11 56. 71 7.74
7 1 Jan: -7 53. 12 8.07 16 | Jan. 11 56. 78 7.95
8 idan. 7 52. 68 7.95 | soar ciiepatateteal

9 | Jan. 8 53. 97 7.35 || Averages...... 54. 00 7.79

It will be seen that the mean percentage of the water in the bagasse
was 54 and the sucrose 7.79. It appears from the above analyses that
the bagasse contains water other than that in the sugar juice of the cane.
This fact is also shown by the following phenomenon.

[f a sugar-cane be passed through a small mill, the top entering the
mill first, drops of water will be seen to issue from the butt of the cane
as it approaches the rolls; if this water be tasted it will be found to be
free from sugar. It appears, then, from the analyses of the bagasse and
the phenomenon just related that the sap in the circulatory organs of
the cane is entirely different from the sugar juices stored in its cells,

ESTIMATION OF TOTAL SOLIDS BY HYDROMETERS AND BY ACTUAL
WEIGHT.

Attention has already been called in this bulletin to the error which
may arise from estimating the total solids in sugar juices and sirups
from the specific gravity as determined by a hydrometer.

In Table No. 57 is given a comparison of the results obtained in esti-
mating the total solids in cane juices by careful drying in a flat dish
partly filled with sand. The method of procedure was as follows:

A flat platinum dish was filled about two-thirds full of pure dry sand
and weighed; from a weighing bottle about 2 grams of the cane juice
was placed on the sand, and the exact amount taken obtained by re-
weighing the weighing bottle.

The dish was now dried at 100° until the moisture was nearly all
driven off, and then fora half an hour at105°. In each case the amount
of total solids as given by the Brix saccharometer was greater than that
obtained by actual drying. The mean increase was .56 per cent.

TABLE 57.—Comparison of total solids by spindle and drying on sand.















JUICES.
By By | law 4 B
No. | Date. drying. | spindle. Increase. | No. | Date. drying. ealurtle: Increase.
1888. | Per ct. | Per cent. oe | 1888. |Per ct. |Per cent.

1 Jan. 4 15. 68 16. 07 . 39 g | Jan.8 16. 76 17. 28 47
2 Jan. 5 17. 87 18. 64 ie 9 Jan. 9 16. 53 17.17 . 64
3 Jan. 6 16. 81 16.93 12 10 Jan. 9 16, 75 17. 30 . 53
4 Jan. 6 17 7 17. 80 . 63 11 Jan.10 15. 87 16. 66 .79
5 | Jan. 7 16. 57 16. .39 12 | Jan.10| 14.18) 1485 . 67
6 | Jan.7| 17.93 12.5 61 t

7 Jan, 8 16.71 Li, “e

|

i — ———=
75 ‘'Av'ges 16. 57 17.13 . 56











TABLE 58.—Sirups.
1 |Jan.4| 48.54] 49.02 | .48 || 5 | Jan.9| 4883] 50.22 | 1.39
2 |Jan.5| 50.51] 5272 | 218 || 6 |Janio| 45.22| 4676 | 1.54
3 | Jan.6| 50.85] 51.82 97 a eee
4 |Jan.7| 47.60| 48.64 1. 04 Av’age.| 48.60 | 49, 86 | 1.27



In Table 58 the same comparison is made with sirups. In order that
the sirups might not occlude moisture a less quantity was taken than
of the juices, so that the total solid residue might be the same. The:
mean increase in the case of sirups as determined by the Brix spin-
dle was 1.27 per cent. With sugars and molasses enough alcohol must
be added to the dish containing the sand and samples to dissolve the
latter thoroughly and distribute them evenly through all parts of
the sand. Not being quite satisfied with the result obtained by the
method given above, I tried the device of using paper coils for the ab-
sorption of the juices whose total solids were to be determined.

The manipulation was as follows: A piece of thick filtering paper 40
centimeters in length and 5 to 8 centimeters wide was rolled into a coil
and tried at 105°. While still hot it was placed in a dried weighing tube
and carfuliy stoppered. When cold it was weighed together with the

tube.

About 2.5 grams of the juice is now placed in a small beaker cov-
ered with a watch glass and weighed. One end of the coil is dipped
into the beaker and held there until the juice is absorbed. By means
of the dry end, the coil is transferred to the air bath, placed in an up-
right position with the wet end up and dried for two hours at 100°.
While still hot it is again placed in the weighing tube, and, when
cold, weighed.

By reweighing the beaker and the cover the weight of juice taken
is accurately determined. The increase of weight of the coil gives the
total quantity of solid matter present in the weight of juice taken.
This method was introduced so late in the season that only a few trials
of it were made, but they were eminently satisfactory. The results are

_ given in Table No. 59:

TABLE No. 59—Total solids by drying on paper coils.

MILL JUICES.

|
| |Total solids Total solids



No. Date. —_ ee by spindle. | by sand.
1888. Per cent. Per cent. | Per cent.
1 Jan. 11 16, 22 16. 53 16. 05
2 Jan. 12 15. 80 16. 70 16.16
3 Jan. 13 | 15. 94 mre © iceh Gosakaat
4 Jan. 17 | 15. 42 eat ae oe



Averages|.......... 15. 85 | 16. 54 | re oe





56

TABLE No. 59—Total solids by drying on paper coils—Continued.



DIFFUSION JUICES. :
1 Jan 16 10.10 11.37 ~\.toaeeeeee
2 Jan. 17 9. 80 19.67 ‘scenes
3 Jan. 17 9. 57 10.47 leepeeewe ns

arena eee 9. 82 10.84 | deen

As in the case of drying in sand, the amount of solid matter found in
juice is uniformly less than was indicated from the reading of the
spindle.

EFFECT OF TREATMENT OF MOLASSES WITH SUPERPHOSPHATE OF
LIME AND ALUMINA.

It is the custom in the sugar-houses of Louisiana to dilute the molasses
and treat it with superphosph ate of lime and alumina, or other chemi-
cals, before reboiling it for sugar. To determine the effect which this
treatment had upon the molasses, the analyses which are recorded in
Table No. 60 were made.

TABLE No, 60.—Treatment of molasses with superphospnate of lime and alumina,

MOLASSES BEFORE TREATMENT.

















Purity, | Purity, | Sucrose, | Sucrose, Glucose Glucose
No.| Total direct |indirect| direct indirect | Giycose.| per 100 | Per 100
“S| solids. | polariza-| polariza-| polariza- | polariza- 7 eee sucrose,
tion. tion. tion. tion. *| indirect.
Pr. ct. Per cent. | Per cent. |Per cent. Per cent.| Per cent.
1 | 65.59 | 71.30 77. 50 46.75 50. 80 6. 33 13. 55 12. 47
2 | 61.72] 71.29 76.17 44. 00 47. 01 5. 71 12. 96 12.16
MOLASSES AFTER TREATMENT.
1 | 63.86 | 72.70 76. 80 46. 30 48.91 6.17 13. 33 12. 64
2 | 60.45) 72.01 75. 89 43. 53 45, 88 5. 43 12. 43 11. &4
REMOVED SKIMMINGS.
1 | 67.03 | 77.20 78. 90 51.70 52.90 6.71 12. 97 12. 68
2 | 64.69 | 75.36 79.15 48. 75 51. 20 6.17 12. 65 12. 03











The table is divided into three parts, the first being the analysis of
the molasses before treatment; second, analysis after treatment; and
third, the analysis of the removed skimmings.

In the three cases the numbers refer to the same sample. It is quite
difficult to secure the same density in each case, and comparison should
be made with the ratio of the reducing sugar to the sucrose. Irom this
it is seen that the skimmings, which were removed and which were sup-
posed to be gum, were nothing but air-bubbles, surrounded with a film



57

of molasses. It is difficult to see any beneficial result attending the
treatment in question.
1



EFFECT OF DIFFERENT METHODS OF CLARIFICATION.

In order to determine the amount of organic matter removed by dif-
ferent methods of clarification the following experiments were made:
Weighed samples of mill juice were treated with subacetate of lead
until no further precipitation took place. The precipitate was then
thoroughly washed with hot water until all excess of lead was removed
and then dried.

Similar treatment was given to the same juice after clarification by
lime in the usual way, after filtration through lignite, and after single
carbonatation. The results are recorded in Table No. 61.

TABLE No. 61.—Zffeets of different methods of clarification.

| Raw. | Clarified. Lignite. | Carbonated. |











beret Ly! ir: pis |
Weight of lead precipitate: | | |

December 20, 1887, grammes.| 2.1919 1, 9452 1. 7685 1, 2725

December 21, 1887........--- 2. 2964 2.1545 2. 1930 1. 7058
Ter cent of lead:

December 20, 1887.......-.--- 62. 08 52. 43 69. 53 71. 68

December 21, 1887...-...-.-- 66. 01 69. 31 71. 68 71. 52
Sucrose, per cent : |

December ALD ES i ie 13. 08 13. 45 15.12 | 13.99

December 21, Sentra a. oe | 13.78 14. 01 15.02 | 14.74
Albuminoids, per cent:

December 20, 1887.......---- . 07 .07 03 | . 06

December 21,1887. .......-. | ll 07 03 05
Purity:

December 20, 1887........... 81.75 82. 50 84.38 | 85.67

December 21, 1887........-.- 85. 34 86. 32 84.71 | 88.58



It is seen that the weight of the dried precipitate is in every case
greatest in the raw juice and least in that which had been subjected to
single carbonatation. The purity of the juice was increased least by
ordinary clarification, next by filtration through lignite, and most of all
by carbonatation.

In regard to the removal of albumen, filtration through lignite ap-

pears to be the most efficacious method.

Carbonic dioxide gas in gases from lime-kiln and bagasse chimney.

The quantity of carbonic acid in the gases from the lime-kiln and
bagasse chimney is given in Table No. 60.

The object of determining the percentage of CO, in the bagasse
smoke was to see if it could be used in the process of carbonitation.
Since, with cane juices, this process requires so little lime it seems
probable that the gases from the Bagasse chimney can be used for this
purpose,

*
a
2





ie
4

58

TABLE No. 60.—Carbonic acid gas from furnace.



Num-
Date. Hour. oe COQ.

Per cent.

November 27 sc. --225--cceeee ee 11 a.m.. 1 25
0. severe ee oee Eee eee 32m =. 2 13. 88
DG cc bubs cose weacern ene 1p.m.. 3 15. 89
DO espn aesdatetheyeeewewas 3 p.m.. 4 18. 54
tS ee ay a ane a kee 5 p.m 5 21.47
Da aewenine anh cwaa eee ree 8 p.m.. 6 23. 93
Noveniber 28 222. 3 cee see 9 a.m 7 21. 60
0 i spe keene ee eee 4p.m 8 20. 80
2G 5 de ak oh an Cee 9 p.m.. 9 20. 54



December 2 « cssvesasssenoe eens 9a.m.. 16 11. 44
DO . dicts usa teteeedcaee 11 a.m.. 17 2L 15
190 .xnede= de awn WD el nea eae 3 p.m 18 8.8







DATA RELATING TO SORGHUM AS A SUGAR-PRODUCING PLANT.

The problem of the possible profitable production of sugar from sor-
ghum has occupied the attention of chemists, agronomists, and mann-
facturers for many years.

J will not insist here on the immense advantages which would accrue
to American agriculture by the development of an indigenous sugar
industry. There is no true friend of our farming interests who does not
wish our sugar to be produced at home, and if sorghum can help to the
consummation of such a wish we ought to know it.

A full discussion of these aspects of the subject can be found in my
presidential address before the Washington Chemical Society, delivered
on the 9th of December, 1886.!

It seems to me that we have now reached a point in the study of the
problem of the production of sugar from sorghum where it is possible,
by a careful review of the ground already passed over, to secure an ac-
curate notion of the progress which has been made. .

It is to this task that I bave devoted the present study. For con-
venience the study of the problems may be divided into three parts, viz:
(1) Chemical, (2) experimental, (3) practical.

CHEMICAL.

The amount of analytical work which has been done on sorghum in
this country is enormous. At most I can give only a summary of the
recorded results.

This analytical work may be best studied by dividing it into two
groups, namely: (a) Work done by the Department of Agriculture and
(b) other work.

(a) WORK DONE BY THE DEPARTMENT OF AGRIOULTURE.

_ The first analyses of sorghum canes by the Department of Agriculture
were made by Dr. C. M. Wetherill in 1862.

‘Second Ann. Bulletin Washington Chemical Society, pp. 11 et seq.

59





60

A mean of seventeen analyses of imphee and sorghum showed the
following results:!

Imphee.

Sorghum.
First |Second
mean. | mean.





|
Percent. | Perct.| Per-et.
4,29

Gnuemee. 2-2. - Gine0se. soo once cet 6. 08 7.00 | 3.65
Total sugars...... 10. 37 11.13 | 9.84

Dr. Wetherill also gives a table of mean results obtained by others
(p. 533), and adds the following observations:

It follows, from the experiments thus quoted and reported, that the largest propor-
tion of cane sugar to uncrystallizable sugar is afforded by the juice analyzed by Law-
rence Smith, to wit, as 10 to 2. My average results fall far below this; yet if the
analyses of my best canes are taken, their juice will compare favorably with thasof
the analysis of Smith. For exampie, by the analyses numbered 8, 10, 11, for every 10
parts of cane sugar found we have, respectively, 2.1, 1.8, and 1.8 per cent. of unerystal-
lizable sugar. It is remarkable that in analyses 10 and 11 the juices differing so much
in actual saccharine richness should contain the same relative proportion of cane
sugar to uncrystallizable sugar. When my mean results are compared with the re-
sults afforded by the practical experiment of Mr. Lovering, who grew the sorghum,
analyzed its juice, and converted the same into cane sugar and molasses, it appears
that my mean of sorghum analyses gives very nearly the same proportion of cane sugar
to uncrystallizable sugar, and that my imphee mean gives a larger proportion of cane
sugar. I think that my analyses and their means will give a moderately accurate
reflection of the present state of the sorghum and imphee culture in our country.

There are, doubtless, finer canes grown than I have examined, and richer both in
sirup-making quality and in the proportion of cane sugar present; but the analyses
probably represent the present condition of the cane as planted.

Henri Erni? reports one analysis of sorghum. It gave:

Per cent.
RUCrOSO 2 ccc caccer secccecauwos susence snc us tee 10, 31
GFIMBORG 66 onc cuweue secces condéchutsuh cue Gups ae 2. 07

He adds:

Contrary to my expectations, I found that the expressed sorgho juice of ripe cane
whether neutralized by lime or not, refused to crystallize, for what solidified or gran-
ulated after long standing of the sirup was grape-sugar. ‘This fact has been estab-
lished by the largest and most skillful farmers and experimenters, and admitted at the
western sorghum conventions. The result might be ascribed to the total inversion
previously of the cane-sugar by the influence of acid, or of a ferment, but this is not
the case, as I have repeatedly been able to prove. ‘The following extreme case may
suffice for illustration of this fact: In the sugar determination which is here given,
cane-sugar was found, and yet the most persistent efforts failed to produce a single
crystal in the concentrated liquid.

1 Department of Agriculture, report,1562, pp. 514 et seq.
Agricultural Report’ 1865, p) 48.



61

Dr. Thomas Antisell! reports analyses of frozen and fresh eanes. The
nice from frozen canes had the following composition:




Per cent.
re i re ba cebleue enc dbceacuec. ll, 10
Glucose peter £be oe Bete tae eee de dtreoen Chao waneoende 8, 90

The juice of the fresh canes had the following composition:

Per cent.

i EE ET PEE et SET ET EET Ee
gy RS tet 5 Teg ok 2 a ee
5 NN Ee oh Soret Caw cdiivee dune Gidccwdeas oad e. ie Oe
TE Be it LE ee Re eo ei ns ee ai gn a 3. 60

, Dr. Antisell adds the following observations :

Contrasting the amount of sugar in the fresh and dry cane, the latter greatly pre-
ponderates ; and were the question only on the amount of sugar to be obtained, the
decision would be in favor of working on the partially dried canes; but on observing
the ratio of glucose and cane sugar in the fresh juice and that expressed later, it will
be remarked that the relative amount of glucose is much higher, so that the sngar
“appears to be gradually passing into glucose the longer it remains in the cane, show-
ng that the fermenting causes are as active within the stem of the drying cane as
after the juice has been expressed and exposed to the air. Several attempts were
made in the laboratory to granulate the sugar of this juice; but whether neutralized
and defecated or not, the invariable result was the disappearance of cane sugar, and
a uniform sirup of uncrystallizable sugar. Thus far, then, laboratory examinations
indicate the necessity of evaporating the juice of the recently cut canes, if it is de-
sired to obtain any crystallizable sugar. -











In 1878 Dr. Collier began his extensive studies of sorghum. Dr. Col-
lier gave the following result of the analyses made Md the Department
of Agriculture in 1879°:

Early amber, from August 13 to October 29, inclusive, fifteen analyses, extending
over seventy-cight days, 14.6 per cent. sucrose.
_ White Liberian, from August 13 to October 29, inclusive, thirteen analyses, extend-
ing over seventy-eight days, 13.8 per cent. sucrose.
Liberian, from September 13 to October 29, inclusive, seven analyses, extending over
forty-six days, 13.8 per cent. sucrose.
Honduras, from October 14 to October 29, inclusive, three analyses, extending over
ixteen days, 14.6 per cent. sucrose.







In 1880 these analyses were continued in large numbers on samples
of cane grown in the Department grounds and on others sent in from
various localities. The details of these analyses are to be found in
the Annual Report of the Department of Agriculture for 1880, pp. 37
ot Seq.

The canes, according to development, were divided into nineteen
classes. With the seventh stage, the seed is just entering the milky
state. Since a large part of the seed will still bein this state, when the







1 Department of Kevlealinze, report, 1866, p. 43, * Sorghum., p. 186.







62

manufacture is to be carried on on a large scaie, I give the means of the
analyses of the different varieties from that stage on!':

|

Available Number





Stages. Glucose. | Sucrose. juices
SUGEOSy- analyzed.
Per cent.| Per cent.| Per cenit.
Ws wate ee eae 3. 86 7. 38 4. 06* 70
Bus woedeuecanees 3. 83 7. 69 4. 26 lll
Oc cacens eee 3.19 8. 95 6.50 266
70. Se ee eee 2. 60 9.98 6. 60 217
Tih. cencasee dee ore 2. 35 10. 66 7.22 166
92. ccsvunde enna 2. 07 11.18 7-Tr 170
NS W245 ebb eee eee 2. 03 11. 40 8. 00 183
FA: iscident cae eee 1.88 11.76 8. 33 191
ID ici. aenmanwen sek 1.81 il. 69 8. 21 217
16 cvcnetei eee 1. 64 12. 40 8. 86 359
10 pe ees ante 1. 56 13372 9.73 197
1022S. ckuse veweed 1. 85 11. 92 8. 27 191
IO en aes 3. 09 12. 08 7.82 30





Meas 235.50. 2. 44 10. 83 7, 28 | 181

* The method of determining available sugar does not clearly appear.

These analyses were continued in great detail during the following
years, 1881 and 1882, and the results are found in the reports of the
Department. ?

The averages for the whole number of samples for each stage after
the sixth is given below. ®

. f Available
Stages. bane Sucrose. | “ ucrose.

| Per cent.| Per cent.| Per cent.

Loa aaah bine a a 3. 69 6. 08 0. 00

Bocas iwenee nae 3.70 7.47 1.14

Boe owen ee eee 3. 30 8. 76 2. 86
RO co deanks cat kaoeeue va 10. 00 4.14
ean ecsesha see eee 2.74 12.01 6. 34
Re. Aes awaan aes 2. 47 13. 06 7.61
Diiswnak Sad one onaeee 2. 21 13. 98 8. 87
16 Nas bansn se genie 2.2 14. 34 9. 24
LAO. nics eterno 1. 84 15. 99 11.14
Bo pam Semmens ainamaets 1.72 15, 94 11. 02
Pocus odeuvon vanwen 1.83 16. 61 11.77
0 a ee ee 1.75 15. 23 9. 83
After 18th ..c.d08 1.73 11. 89 6. 33





MGRR <.s pions | 2. 47 12. 41 6. 95

The effect of frost on the character of the juice was also investigated.*
The frost produced aloss of sucrose amounting to 15.5 per cent., and a
gain of glucose, 29.1 per cent.

Dr. Collier makes the following observations on the results of the
analyses :°

GENERAL RESULTS OF ANALYSES BEARING UPON THE QUESTION OF AVAILABLE SUGAR,

By reference to the table giving the general results of all the analyses of the several
varieties of sorghum in 1879, 1830, and 1881, the aggregate number of analyses being





' Department of Agriculture, Report 1880, pp. 110, 111.

* Department of Agriculture, Report 1881-1882, p. 370 et seq., and Investigations of
Sorghum as a Sugar-Producing Plant, special report, 1883.

* Department of Agriculture, Report 1831 and 1882, pp. 438 et seq.

‘Department of Agriculture, Report 1881 and 1882, p. 460.

© Op. cit., p. 462.



63




















from as many distinct varieties by so large a number of separate analyses made in
‘successive years, the general conclusion reached appears established beyond question,
— It will be seen that during the ear‘y stages of development of these plants, up to
and including the sixth stage, the available sugar is given as a minus quantity, i. e¢.,
the amount of sucrose in the juice is less than the sum of the glucose and other solids.
It will also be scen that in the seventh stage the available sugar is practically none,
being only .13 per cent., and this stage represents the period when the seed is in the
milky stage. It is then obviously absurd to expect to obtain any sugar by working
up the crop until it has advanced beyond this condition toward maturity.
It will also be observed in the table that during these early stages the amount of
this minus available sugar remains nearly the same, the average for the first five stages
being 3.22 per cent., and also that the available sugar after it first appears rapidly in-
creases in quantity, and remains practically constant through the several subsequent
stages; and in this it agrees, as will be seen, with the development of thesucrose, which
at a certain period is very rapid, and afterward nearly constant through the season,
while, as has been remarked, the sum of tlie glucose and solids is nearly the same
throughout.

EFFECT OF SUCKERS ON COMPOSITION OF JUICE,

The injurious effect of suckers ou the juice is shown by the following
average analyses of thirty-four varieties.!



Unsuck-
ered.

Suck-

peda: Ratio.







Pr.ct. | Per cent.| Per cent.

STOMED oss wand dc cata 13.17 10.55 | 100: 80.1



CONG, 04 ss ceckeds 2. 14 2.95 | 100:137.9
Solids. . a 3.10 3.58 | 100:115.5 |
Available su gar. aoe

8.08 4.49 | 100: 55.6

ANALYSES OF JUICES FROM SMALL MILLS.’

These analyses were made from September 12 to October 22, 1881.
_ The canes were taken from the experimental plots in the Department
- grounds and from some other localities in the vicinity of Washington.
The mean results are as follows:

Per cent.
DE doce tcatwetbaanat=s>s cudieiven) cwadee shppys hipe uses 9, 89
eisai Vac bachitdeeda snbdiddibasatubeuseeueuhs esecun 3. 85
MA VALUGDIC SUGET ... « scce ieee ves voce tess concdencsvesecses WOO

ANALYSES OF JUICES FROM LARGE MILL.

The analyses were made from September 27 to October 27, 1881.
The total quantity of cane ground was 229 tons 444 pounds.

The mean composition of the juice for this entire season was as fol-
lows:

Per cent.
NS EEE, » Se mila eke es Sie a 6, 94
I er Rc Do) Ot te de bad acdns Chae 6. 38

A Mc ORGs chun be ue aden cdecervakes ¢sevese tonuad 1, 90

| Op. cit., p. 465.
Department of Agriculture, Report 1881 and ls82, pp. 478 et seq.
3 Department of Agriculture Report, 1851 and 1882, pp. 506, 507,



64



In respect of the character of the cane, Dr. Collier makes the follow- :
ing reports :!

THE WORK OF THE LARGE SUGAR MILL.

Mention has already been made of the several plots of sorghum of different varie- _
ties upon the lands of Mr. Patterson, Mr. Golden, and Dr. Dean, which were intended
for working upon a scale of sufficient magnitude to afford a practical demonstration
of the economical production of sugar upon a commercial scale.

Owing to the backward spring and the ravages of wire and cut worms, two succes-
sive plantings of seed almost entirely failed, and it was only after thoroughly coat-
ing the seed with coal-tar that a final stand of cane was secured. This third planting
was concluded June 18, fully seven weeks after the planting of the plot upon the
Department grounds, the examination and working of which has already been dis-
cussed in the preceding pages. To any one who has carefully perused this report
thus far, or either of the reports of the preceding years, giving the results of our ex-
amination of sorghum, it is entirely useless to say that this delay was fatal to suc-
cess in the production of sugar, and that failure was inevitable unless all our pre-
vious experience was to be falsified.

The failure of the crop to mature, as had been confidently predicted during the
summer, was fully realized, and at last, with the assurance that the frosts would
soon render the crop unfit even for sirup, owing to its immature state, it was resolved
to begin work, since, with the limited capacity of the mill, it would require at least
;wo months to work up the entire crop of 135 acres. Accordingly the work of cut-
ting the cane began September 19, aud grinding began September 26, and was con-
zinued without any serious interruption until October 28. At this time the cane still
remaining upon the field, through the effect of frosts and succeeding warm weather,
had become worthless, and the cane from only 934 acres in all was brought to the
mill, the last portions of which had already become sour and offensive.

ANALYSES IN 1882.2

Beginning with the stage when the seed was in the milk, I give be-
low the mean results of Dr. Collier’s analyses of many different varieties
of sorghum in 1882:











Glucose. | Sucrose. | Available sugar.
Percent. | Percent. Per cent.
Seed in milk.......... 2. 90 8.45 3. 20
Seed in dough.......... 2171 9. 88 5. 054
Seed bard. eo ads eee ce : 1.83 10.48 | 6, 233
Sucker seed inmilk...| 1.203 | 11.448 7. 426
Sucker seed in dough..; = 1.12 12. 25 8.19
Sucker seed hard...... 1.45 12. 63 8. 56
|





! Op. cit., p. 504.
* Sorghum as a Sugar-producing Plant, by Peter Collier, Special Report, 1833, p. 17.



65
UOMPUSITION OF JUICE IN BLADES AND STALKS.

Numerous analyses were made! to determine the relative composi.
tion of stalk and leaf juice. This comparison will be sufficiently indi-
cated by some of the analyses quoted below :

Stalks. | Leaves.

No. | Sucrose. Giucose, Not sugar. Sucrose. | Glucose. | Not sugar.











Per cent.| Per cent.| Per cent. | Per cent.| Per cent.| Per cent.
7.82

1 10. 29 3.21 ie. ho SO 1. 66

2 14. 64 1. 87 1. 54 hee 35 1. 52 9.21
3 11.79 1.15 3.03 . 4.23 2. 25 6. 76
4 13.31 .93 3. 28 2,23 2. 50 7.71

Dr. Collier adds the following observation :?

It is to be observed that in no case was there any available sugaw in the juice from
_ the leaves, owing not to the excess of glucose, but to the much larger percentage of
solids not sugars in the leaf juice.

FURTHER ANALYSES OF FROSTED CANES.®

Per cent.
Analyses before frost, November 3, 1882.—Means:

te clei winder Shes deen 12. 44
ee atid pire wren mpd wae sacelens ast 1,23
a i ee ee eee 2. 68
IEE Cte he oe sa es shows a abe we eels nes 8. 62
ESS EE oe ‘telat 58, 19

Analyses after thirteen frosts, December 8.—Means:
ee Mee a axa Caele wets oat Qe iwe-vne see 14, 35
CAPES Sch Gcu up cets bee tee cc eGs eae cecee iued wees 2. 85
RMNMLUALS Ft bbb ay ccolas Pls eh ce ceekt daw eta eeties 2.98
NRE Saleh s osides Jowsubeticweddduwk Tacetee 39.17
ee Be eee ee ae aa 32, 69
Ee 8 Soe unin wade gece utes 15. 35
III free in, oe wa tees Ck. cu baas becuadeacesakune 131. 71
nr ree MG ae oon accu jpunses'sode's le cncctaees 1,16

ANALYSES DURING THE YEAR 1883,

Numerous analyses were made by the Division of Chemistry of the
Department of Agriculture during the season of 1883, under my super
vision.

Considering that it had been sufficiently well established by the re-
searches of Dr. Collier, that small plats of cane under careful culture
and proper fertilization afforded an extremely rich saccharine plant, I
directed attention chiefly to the character of the juice as a whole. The
‘analyses represent the average composition of the juice from 746,350
pounds of cane.!

1
: Op. “it. 4 30. Bai NS. co pp. 43 and 47.
23576—Bull 18 ——5



:







66
Means:
Per cent.
Baeroee s2sud't ee des pees buwe seucsaces bec dlt uae 8.38
Gilunote 5.4 oc baeeeaes er ee 4.09
Total solids..<.. . 52 s-0ceness su cejecus eden cele 14. 06



The part of the cane ground from September 29 to October 4 was of
an exceptionally poor quality. Its analysis is given separately.!

Per cent.
BUCTORO .os0 oc dsas's addons eceb chan anke eee 2 doa ees 6.73
GINCOBO .. nen coc cen sama duis deusu dU eey alc ae nee ee 6.16
Parity co-efficient... ..2... «-.
A separate study of the mill juices was also made from October 16
to November 21.’
Following are the means of these analyses:

Per cent.
SUCTOSO . 2. cae ccc ene enccuy. one dan g= cian cule Sent 9.04
Glucose... 2... cc cncetcecue wes cce uns ie am ye ee ue han 4.08
Total solids... oc. poco oe weed sac vccs eeepc omen enn 14, 81

Analyses of diffusion juices obtained from the same lot of cane and
at the same time showed the following composition : *

Per cent.
SUCTOSO . << eccoses vadces sw acan ue he nn ot eeieae enn 4.95
GIUCOSO . . a noe ae osce cccees ou se ue ween eee ee 2. 42
Total solids. ....2cc wecsee nance on -0% eo ~ eee eee 8. 02

Analyses were also made of canes grown in Indiana.
The canes were cut and prepared as follows: ‘4

These canes were cut, the leaves and tops left undisturbed, the cut surface covered
with melted wax,and the whole wrapped carefully in paper and sent by express to
the laboratory here for analysis.

Nos. 1 and 2 were cut in the afternoon of October 1 and analyzed October 4, having
been three days on the road.

No. 1 was a sample of eight selected canes. No.2 wasa sample of sixteen canes
taken seriatim from an average row, and represents the cane asa whole. It seems to
have deteriorated very little in transit, and the analyses of the sirup go to show that
the average of the whole patch was about a mean of the results of Nos. land 2. No.3
was cut at 4 p.m. October 1 and analyzed October 6, at 9 a.m., an interval of four
days and seventeen hours,

Following are the results of the analyses: °

Indiana canes and sirups.



No. Sucrose. | Other sugars.

sbi einem an egal teeter ee



Per cent. Per cent.

1 | Sample of eight selected canes ..............} 13.25 2.30
2 | Sample of sixteen average canes ............ 10. 73 8.71
8 | Cane ont October 1 ic rccacutue acdusabesiuain 8. 54 5. 99
! Op. cit., p. 43, 3 Op. cit., p. 31. 5 Op. cit., p. 53.

* Bull. No. 2, p. 32. * Bull. No. 3, p. 52.





67

Analyses were also made of canes from the Rio Grande plantation,
New Jersey. These canes were prepared for shipment in the manner
just described. _

Analyses of juice from eight volunteer canes, ripe and in first-class
condition :

Per cent.
ete. oon oth. s cada medules Weck access eoumhn 10. 68
0 ee ee Reece Ay amadtaam oad eae Con 3. 25
i eS eee res ganna eg on <0 -S= = GR e- I ee nn ds peme ada aastnenaawomn 15. 36

Analyses of six canes from field fertilized with salt muck :

Per cent.
ee et ee sean chaer hae ae ns ones 12. 72
I ee ie Stk ge ego avok Uaaeewccen 1.77
tes sidan Jarek waccne bewe es ca3U deuneseeee 3. 23
EET SE a ae ee ee ae 17.78

Analyses of twenty-five canes taken from carrier representing fairly
well the canes ground on September 22, 1883 :

Per cent.

' En os A ee ey png oe eee pec susie 9. 32
ia ened web debs cine scmens concn, 4,99
OO ae edn een diene eres onan 0. 96

OR MERE a 15, 27

In 1884 some small plats of sorghum were grown on the Department
grounds. These varieties were Early Amber, Early Orange, Link’s
Hybrid, and Honduras. These plats had a dressing of well decomposed
stable manure and an application of superphosphate equal to 400
pounds per acre.

Following is a description of the method of preparing the canes for
analysis :!

The seed-heads, as they appeared, were cut off of a large number of canes at inter-
vals along the row. A like number of canes was left to mature in the usual way.
To protect the forming seeds of these against the depredations of the English spar-
rows they were covered with a cap of tarlatan; but in spite of this precaution the
seeds did not mature. The hungry birds would hang upon the netting and gradually
pick them off. To this extent the object of the trial was defeated; but the results
show that the removal of the seed, either before or after flowering, does apparently
increase the percentage of sucrose in the juice. This is shown from the fact that the
percentage of sucrose in canes deprived by the birds of their seed is much greater in
the juices analyzed in 1884 than in those of 1883, when the seed matured. On the
other hand, it does not appear that the removal of the panicle immediately on its
appearance tends to give a materially greater percentage of sucrose than is obtained
by allowing the birds to remove the seeds after they have begun to form.

‘In Table 1 are given the results of the analyses of canes whose panicles were cut
as soon as they could be seen. These canes were stripped and pressed in a small
mill. The percentage of juice expressed was noted. The bagasse was now passed
a second time through the mill, and the percentage of second juice calculated on the
first weight of the cane.

ee ss Ss ee
1 Bulletin No. 5, Division of Chemistry, Department of Agriculture, pp. 139, 140.





68

Means of analyses of canes whose seed-heads had been removed.'

ile i titi tie

First juices: Per cent.
Sucrose - - 2. oe ccs eee op cose eee ae + pape een eee
GIUCOS8G 2 on 2 onc con cece saee ede ceb ee eens = oe

Noteugar .... (5 .-s.Vicb.c el eke bee saaate 3. 71
Total eoltds:... 2.ae-2208 one se aves space vs cgevey 12,00
Parity co-efficient... ..-.....5 t«0ads Second juices: ?
SUCTOSE . 2. oe 2205 Ses cesin nee sms bese ae een - 14.83 -*
GImC0g8 L066 oe nc int pes take eee eee aby wagaattl 1,25
Not sugar... ... 0.2600 ss0n en usn en vost 4.99
Total solids... ..- swe --05:s\icsiwin's /<)5/btie mig ap pelea ea
Pority co-efficient... .... .. ..0=
Analyses of canes whose sceds were allowed to ripen.%

First juices : Per cent.
Sacroese 22.0 sce ee eee « occa deed Julstcehn i aannae 14,72
Glucese . 6.32 Ae tA a see Ib
Not sugar... 206825 sce (sun cuicicgn smep us aube eae neneneee
Total eolids.......> -wci> 9 wwe pcem oe} onesie waee anna

Purity co-efficiont ....'....[..c4 cecum enss «55 nee nee
Second juices : 4

Snorage >. 230) se ee cde enwsveu saecen abet ae pea ae
Glncose.. oe oo sn Sw als Salty ea Goh) BS
Not sugar -... Jc. .26s Asses ceweeeeln ow ae whe AO RETF
Total solids. 2.0. Lae eee eee + eS AE 20. 67
Parity 2 ii. Sita ee tees cee eee e ee eee cece ees 70, 54

~

Analyses of juices from stripped and unstripped canes.®

Canes with seed heads | Canes with seed heads
cut. uncut.



Stripped.| Unstripped.| Stripped.) Unstripped.





Per cent.| Percent. | Percent.| Per cent.

Sucrose x. as 28. ke 15.73 14. 48 15. 89 15. 05
(FIN C08O. Js WOO SUGET. dunce been 3.37 2. 84 3. 32 2.79
Total solids. ........ 20. 68 19.41 20. 58 20. 00

77.02 75. 22

| Purity co-efficient ..| 75,99 74. 52

I add the following observations: °

JUICES OF 1884 COMPARED WITH TIIOSE OF 1883.

The most surprising phase of the experimental work as exhibited in the tables
given is the great difference which it shows between the composition of juices ana-
lyzed and those analyzed during 1883:





Mean percentage sucrose......--.-- 8. 38 14.72
Mean, percentage reducing sugars..| 4. 09 1,24
Mean percentage albuminoids...... - 1544 . 961
' Op. cit., p. 141. 3 Op. cit., pp. 142, 143. 5 Op. cil., pp. 148, 149.

2 Op. cit., p. 142. * Op. cit., p. 144. 6 Op. cit., p. 150. —





69

The chief points of interest in this comparison are the increase in sucrose, the de-
_ crease in reducing sugars, and the increase in albuminoids. It is difficult to explain
why the same varieties of cane grown in the same locality, with the same kind of
culture and fertilizing, and in seasons not markedly different, should yield juice
_ of such different composition. Sorghum is one of the most capricious of plants, and
the above comparison brings some of its moods into strong contrast.

During the season of 1884 the Department made an extensive series
of analyses at Helena, Wis.!

The variety of cane was Early Amber, and it was grown in a light,
sandy soil without fertilizers. I visited the plantation during the prog-
ress of the work. The cane, though small, looked well and was mostly
ripe.

Following are the means of the analyses for the whole season :?

Per cent.
I te LS eae Dc i sue ae od 7.85
I Get eee ae ULL naked ecodce cael untalee 5. 00

The proprietors of the plantation, Messrs. Williams & Flynn, even
after the discouraging results of the above analyses, were not without
hope that sugar-making could be profitably undertaken in Wisconsin.
To this opinion I was not able to subscribe, as will be seen from the
following quotation : °

In spite of the conviction of Messrs. Williams & Flynn that sorghum sugar can be
made profitably in Wisconsin, I am far from being convinced of the justness of that
expectation, unless, indeed, it be in some small way. In view of the disasters that
have overtaken attempts at sorghum-sugar making further south I think it would be
unwise to encourage like enterprises in regions where at best not more than four weeks
of an average milling season can be expected.

In 1885 additional analyses were made of sorghum grown near Ottawa,
Kans.‘

The juices from the two mills used in grinding the cane were collected
in acommon tank and the samples for analysis taken from time to time
from this tank. These samples, therefore, represent the mean constitu-
tion of the juice from several thousand tons of cane. The samples were
taken from September 9 to October 14, inclusive:

Means of the analyses.



Per cent.

re ree ee ner. od cuedue tse cus 9.23
Lt iC ad llL Woeee te cha ave olkbewecacbalcebeseecce 3.04
MC habe. Saduone oe ded hava Pebwhaw’ «c4Gaivespae cass 2. 87
mI 5. Calcisbuele die daeil< 3 Uwwewd as ecce 15. 07

ANALYSES OF CANES USED IN DIFFUSION.

During the progress of the diffusion experiments at Ottawa, Kans.,
October 8, 1885, three samples of cane were taken at different times
' Op. cit., pp. L51, et seq.
2 Op. cit., p. 154.
% Op. cit., p. 156.
*Department of Agriculture, Division of Chemistry, Bull. No, 6, 1885.





during the day, and the juice, expressed on a small hand-mill , subjected
to analysis. The following results were obtained :!



First analysis, | Second analysis,| Third analysis,
10 a m. 1l a m. 11.30 a. m.

Per cent. Per cent. Per cent.
Total solids. ... 17. 00 15. 60 15. 20
Sucrose........ 11. 24 9. 62 9. 83
Glncose.....-.. 2. 44 2. 85 3.41
Not sugar ..... 3.32 3.13 1. 96



ANALYSIS OF DIFFUSION JUICES.

The diffusion juices obtained in the above experiment were analyzed _
with the following results: !



| First sample. | Second sample.

Per cent. Per cent.
Total solids.... 10. 84 9.70
Sucrose........ 6.19 5. 90
Glucose.-....-. 2.82 2.00
Notsugar...... 2. 23 1. 80

Vomposition of canes used in second diffusion experiment at Ottawa.?







No. Hour. Sucrose. | Glucose. | Not sugar. | Total solids.
Per cent.| Per cent.| Per cent. Per cent.
1 10 a. m 10. 23 2.11 2. 82 15. 16
2 3p. m. 8. 64 2. 95 2. 81 14. 40
3 | 4.30 p.m 8. 54 3.11 2. 89 14. 54
4 | 5.30p.m 8. 81 2. 61 2. 98 14. 40







No. Sucrose. | Glucose. | Not sugar. | Total solids.
Per cent. | Per cent.| Per cent. Per cent.
Pe te tase 4. 86 1. 69 1.78 8.33
Reawesveeeer 5. 94 2.00 2.20 10. 14
Bynd wavs hawt 4.99 2.31 1. 64 8. 94
Rn yan woeies 4.7 2.25 1. 55 8. 56
Ti cele eee 3. 91 2.16 1. 63 7.70
Means...... 4. 89 2.08 1.76 8. 74

Composition of juices from canes topped and suckered, topped and not suckered, and un-
touched, Otlawa, 1885.

MEANS.







Topped and | Topped and | Normal
suckered. | not suekered. | canes.

Per cent. Per cent. Per cent.
Sucrose.....-..--. 12.45 12. 46 12.15
Qine0aesscccesai 1. 99 2.09 2. 06
Not sugar ....... 2. 82 2.76 2. 56
Total solids... .. 17. 26 17. 31 16. 77



I Op. cit., Pp. 8, 2 Op. cil., p- 10, 3 Op. cil, p- 12,



71





i
ae

MPOSI'TION OF CANES AND JUICES AT FORT SCOTT, SEASON OF 1886.



ag

ta
Nt}
JC

_ During 1886 the Departinent analyses were continued at Fort Scott,
Kans.!

Mean composition of juices of canes expressed by hand-mill.

August 30 to October 1, 1886 :2

Per cent.
Ta eee ee 1S 8 oa then Sawa aeons 10. 49
Ne oe eo. ae os cic wak eiecieein ances am 4,01
ED 2 tt co a Ie ee Me are wikia 17. 56

October 1 to 26:

SII Se Tes eek Sr ae See a ke 8.70
ee La Sa a i a 4.15
eS ore See age ot eid 16. 60

MEAN COMPOSITION OF. DIFFUSION CHIPS.

These chips were taken from each cell and, after thorough mixing,
sampled for analysis. The extractions were made in closed bottles.’

1 the cane.) In the juice.







|
eof a et eee oS eD |
September 8 to October 1, 1886: | Percent. aati Per cent. |

BUGGER G22 - He ees 8.85 9. 73
SE Pe ne ee eer 3.32 3. 65
i ee BONS 26 os sc ae. sco. 14. 69 16.15
October 1 to 28:
eaereang eee Se: 7.01 iat,
IEEE ere nes ny eo 4.15 4. 56
at OMe rs. 265.05 14. 90 15. 99

COMPOSITION OF JUICES FROM DIFFUSION CHIPS.

Samples taken as just described and the chips passed through small

mill.
Means from October 15 to 28.4

Per cent.
EE EE, GS ob on ch Vn ccna coc ee ns case cccess 7. 28
ee ore oc ew ntde Bales ah ina new leciccd cca cece 3. 7A
NR tit Rs a og es oe ts bade 14. 80

Compesition of the canes calculated from the mill juices for the entire season.5

Glucose. |

Total solids. | Sucrose.











Per cent. Per cent. | Per cent. |



Before October 1- - 15. 63 9. 34 3. 57
After September 30. 14. 77 7.74 3. 79
After October 14.. 18.17 6. 48 3.31 |





Means ......... 44. 56 | 7. 85 | 3.52 |

1 Bulletin No. 14, Division of Chemistry, Department of Agriculture, 1887,
2 Op. cit., p. 15.
5 Op. cit., p. 16.
‘Op. cit., p. 17.
© Op, eit., p. 31.





72

MEAN COMPOSITION OF THK DIFFUSION JUICES FOR THE SEASON
OF 1886. |




Sampling.—F rom each cell as it was withdrawn a measured quantity —
of the diffusion juice was taken until an entire circuit of the battery .
had been made. The mixed samples was then subjected to analysis.’ —

Mean composition of diffusion juices.

September 9 to October 1: _ Per cent.
Sucrose... ... scasiec coon vs suum nue salaiicune deen 5.75
Glacose - . 2... senaee anne ces neue nus = ua cen 2. 32
Total solids... 2.0. ac. Soc e cc cccs cones See Rene 11.77

September 30 to October 28:

BUCTOSC.. .acucccase ciceés cane 505 ap edly keke cee 4.90
GIGRCOBC «oo sc00 cnccdu 040. 00s « duim'e a6 aneeleleeeeee 3. 39

Solids .... wcwcs ssnkic< de seoube neha adete ae 11. 34

(i) WORK NOT DONE BY THE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE.

D. J. Browne’ says the juice of sorghum grown in France contained
from 10 to 16 per cent. sugar, a third part of which is sometimes un-
crystallizable.

C. T, Jackson® analyzed samples of sorghum canes sent him by the
Department, and obtained from 9 to 12 per cent. saccharine matter to
weight of stalk.

From samples grown in Massachusetts he obtained from 10.6 to 14.6
per cent. saccharine matter. He made no attempt to separate the dif-
ferent sugars in the juice.

In same volume, p. 313, is given an analysis made at Verrieres,
France, showing 16 per cent. sugar, of which 10.33 is sucrose and 5.67
glucose.

C.T. Jackson reports further analyses in Agricultural Report, 1857, pp,
185 et seq.,in which the per cent. of saccharine matter varied from 9.36
to 16.6,and the sucrose from nothing to a large quantity, the exact
amount of which was not determined. Dr. Jackson made no determina-
tions of the sugar in the juice, but calculated the saccharine matter
from the specific gravity.

J. Lawrence Smith* made several analyses of sorghum, from which he
concludes that “the sorgho contains about 10 per cent. crystallizable
sugar.°



! Op. cit., pp. 18, 19.

* Department of Agriculture. Report 1856, pp. 309-313,
® Op. cit., p. 308.

‘Agricultural Report 1857, pp. 192 et seq.

© Op cit., p. 196.





73

Dr. C. A. Goessmann! gives the following as the means of his analyses
of the ripe canes:

Per cent.
7 SE ee ee eS eee eee ere 78. 94
NE I a nie an na mae aies oo ae
TEN INI os ee ee skins anaes 9, 25
rnrrimaneree net OS So. Ss cewsecen cose 8. 20
a WemIol OLner substances ...... -2.-.-2... ------ ---- 2. 64

Joseph 8. Lovering? found the following per cent. of sucrose in the
juices of sorghum in several experiments, viz, 5.01, 5.57, 7.29.

Stansbury reports? that the juice of sorghum, as examined in France,
contains from 10 to 16 per cent. of sugar, a third part of which is un-
erystallizable. In respect of the manufacture of sugar, he says:

In so far as the manufacture of sugar is concerned, in a domestic way, this plant
appears to have but little chance of success in a high northern climate, as a large pro-
portion of that which is uncrystallizable is not only a loss to the manufacturer, but
an obstacle to the extraction of what is crystallizable. It must not be understood,
however, that the produce of this plant is unprolific or difficult to obtain, but that,
all things being equal, its nature renders it more abundant in alcohol or sirup than
in sugar.

Hippolyte Leplay* found a percentage of sucrose varying in ripe
sorghum from 9.35 to 17.81.

Leplay® shows a total content of both sugars from 7.81 to 11.81 per
cent.

ANALYSES GIVEN BY F. L. STEWART.®

Stewart states that sorghum juices show an average density of 11° B.,
_ with 18° saccharine matter, nearly all of which is cane sugar.
After clarification this specific gravity is reduced to 9.5° BJ
Average results for juice of ripe cane grown on good upland soil are
given as follows:!

Se ONUENE S15 an ls ate GdNe ved drGeb deve sass. vaea>s 1. 085
Specific gravity of clarified juice.......................- 1. 070
NS SS Se ee ee ee eee 17. 00

Of which nearly all is sucrose.
Stewart quotes the analyses of Dr. C. T. Jackson as follows:

a ee mL ee docwedlews 1, 062
Calculated total sugar (per cent.)...-.........---. ..-.-- 15.5
Obtained sugar (nearly all sucrose), per cent...--. ....-. 16.6

The figures given in the Agricultural Report, already quoted for Dr.
Jackson’s analyses, are claimed by Stewart to be erroneous.

1 Contributions to the Knowledge of the Nature of the Chinese Sugar-Cane, 1862,
p. 21.

? Experiments on the Sorghum Saccharatum, 1857, pp. 7 and 14,

* Chinese Sugar-Cane, 1857, p. 10.

‘Culture du Sorgho sucre, pp. 33 and 34, Toulouse, 1858.

® Manuscript sent to author.

®Sorghum and its products, 1867, pp. 171 et seq.



74

The reliability of the obserVatious of Mr. Stewart may be called in
question by the fact that he gives an illustration of a thin section of
sorghum cane which shows an abundance of cane sugar crystals of a
triangular shape. I will allow Mr. Stewart to describe these crystals
in his own words:'

An incontrovertible evidence of the presence of cane sugar almost exclusively in
the juice of sorghum is afforded in the fact that thin sections of the fresh stalk of
the plant under the microscope exhibit the cells filled with innumerable minute crystals
of pure white sugar, which by their form and other criteria are shown to be cane sugar
only. Scarcelya trace of any other substance is found in the cells. This is well repre-
sented in the engravings.

The means of analyses of Early Amber cane made by Professor C. A.
Goessmann at the Agricultural College of Massachusetts in 1878 are as
follows :*

Per cent.
SUCKOSC 24... ono. no cance scans cccs bee a ab eee 5. 00
CC i 6. 35
Total solids .. 2.2 ce anein- nana dsacu sek y cece eee 14, 42

An analysis of the juice of the Amber cane at Berkeley, Cal., was made
in 1879 by Professor Hilgard. It gave the following results :°

Specific gravity... ....0.2.+) $22 .cuses.aaaes cee 1. 0605
Total solids’.c.- 22.0... 2 Saeed Cole eeeee per cent.. 14.8
SFUCTORO «.« --+- smenpinn yegy poase cae eee 1 ane aa |e |

Weber and Scovellt give the results of numerous analyses of Amber
and Orange sorghum. Following are the figures:

Composition of juice.

|

No. Sucrose. | Glucose. |





Per cent. | Per cent.
3. 34

1 10. 75
2 4.90 5. 70
3 12. 48 2. 47
4 7.12 6.19
5 11. 42 2.13
6 9.13 5. 00
7 11. 02 2.79
8 9. 76 4.11
9 10. 06 2.47
10 13,11 1.82
11 9. 67 2. 94
12 11. 41 4. 02

13] 3.55 14. 66

Means 9. 6L, 4.43
Weber gives the mean composition of the juice of orange cane as fol-
lows:°

Per cent.
BUCTOSC . 5. cas ds'cdes dcdads ddcdds GOUkan penee sina meee “ee he
Glncone .. . 2. scccakce covese andties duck sane ue sum enninel 3. 00
Water ..cecccccces civcus cuwbpuicnee dauabene ae 76. 58
Starch ...<0s icccces sinc ce slep'a aieseea balm ila bo gle 4,12

Op. cit., p. 186.

* Department of Agriculture, Report 1881 and 1882,

* Report California College of Agriculture, 1879, p. 58.
* Illinois Agricultural Report, 1880, pp. 425 et seq.

® Op. cit., p, 427.





15

. Fin e samples of sorghum juice examined by Professor Hilgard, of
Berkeley, Cal., in 1880, showed the following mean composition: 1

















MENU falas honed dip ds oes et eben es =< <5 5-4 1, 081
I rs oe as oe oo oe Sys eee per cent .. 19.65
te ee fo fe Loe anes ueaa twas see. os 10.80
ee ar ee ace cig cee a ameens oes 66. 82

In 1881 Weber and Scovell continued their ataivees: ?
the means of three series of determinations of sucrose and glucose

Series. | Sucrose. Glucose

Per cent.| Per cent.
First ... 8. 56 4. 84
Second..} 11.95 3.21
Tira. 2-1" “12,18 2. Se

Weber and Scovell® give the following as the mean composition of
the juice of Amber cane for 1881:

NO tS Saw = pee « ages sacit sa hb cay on pa beeneg on 1. 070
ee oe oa s beabionns opee se cccus snus per cent.. 12.08
See eee SoS. nas scene asa ees eens. -dO.-.. B47

ANALYSES AT EXPERIMENTAL FARM OF WISCONSIN FOR 1881.‘
The mean composition of the juice for 1881 at Madison, Wis., was—

Per cent.
ee eee, Cig a ooo e weed Sond secu ewre ncaa ecee 9.5
SRR EE ee ee a a2
I Set ie SELS bs oluisyGa asa ocae oo- see cece 2.3
| aaa eg on wee ulene = 85. 0

Analyses of Early Amber, Early Orange, and Honduras canes gave
the following mean results: °

In the juice. | Early Amber. | Early Orange.| Honduras.

Per cent. Per cent. Per cent.
Sucrose..... 10. 63 10. 50 7.00
Glucose..... 2. 68 4 95 4, 20

CANES FROM DIFFERENT PARTS OF THE STATE.

_ The mean composition of the juice from canes grown in different
parts of the State of Wisconsin and sent to experimental station for
analysis is as follows: ®

Per cent.
ee et anew bee cencuc cove 8. 07
a ee cewelccae bese veccce 5.12





' College of Agriculture, California, Report 1880, p. 41.

? Illinois Agricultural Report, 1881, p. 497.

* Encouragement to the Sorghum and Beet Sugar Industry, Department Agricult-
ure, 1883, p. 12.

- * Report National Academy Sciences on Sorghum, p. p. 80 et seq.

5 Op. cit., p. 86.

* Op. cit., p. 89.



76



Weber and Scovell give the following as the mean composition of ©

Amber cane for 1882.

Specific gravity --. ....<8 SucROSS « . 226. enn cana eunete ames 45 e596 5 es cae ne
GUGBOKO: ... 6. snc dead hoes apne Beene = ene eee do.... 3.66

For the best cane raised by ami in 1882 the following mean compo-
sition of the juice is given:?

Specif'c gravity ...... .----+ .-cces cosces scum = caneeeneeene 1, 060
Sucrose... os 25.) s2s Seoagee eee a seeeen per cent.. 10.17
Glucose . ...5 i. <-06 cee as -sseus ben ses Seen do.... 2,48

Swenson® gives the analyses of juices from plots of fertilized canes
grown at the experimental farms of the University of Wisconsin.
Following are the means of sixteen analyses:

«Per cent.
Saderose ..-. ..s6csa0 coc snud cee o wm swawesiala nate
GINCOSO .... «+ cone pocsesccocddeecuta de sculews one

Professor Swenson reports the mean percentage of sucrose in the
juice of three lots of cane used for sugar making as follows:+

Per cent.
Lot 1 -. 2... sowus .senen pekioge cauue sa5 5 S20 ie 9. 89
LGt 8:00. 5 nics cowie came on sae Sere ieee ak 12.19
L063 5. bone cicnwe nea bce wal sabe we.scee ae anne oe nn . 11.20

Twenty-six varieties of sorghum grown on the experimental farm of
Wisconsin in 1882 and analyzed by Professor Swenson showed the
following composition of the juice: °

Per cent.
SUCTOSC .ccc ccacce scan cucbnGeeeees os oenss oe 9, 84
GlUCOBE....o. ocnc accedeun'saewes auw oan auwele wes pane 5-35

Twenty-three varieties grown with fertilizers at same place gave a
juice of the following composition :°

Per cent,
BUCTOSO . . « «ad: '.c0'c c's con sud cdwaldp ocd utah wee ne ee 10,79
GIUCOG0... os cceuca sows swepesid nts tnecee dine 2.81

Swenson also reports’ another set of canes which had a juice on Oc-
tober 15 of the following composition :

Per cent.
Buc¥O86. « GH CO80. oc ccc c ccdccs sacads ceded seceed ueewee ae 2. 8&5

' Encouragement to the Sorghum and Beet Sugar Industry, Department of Agri-
culture, 1883, p. 12.

2 Op. cit., p. 16.

* Op. cit., p. 19.

‘Encouragement to Sorghum, etc., Department of Agriculture, 1883, p. 20.

° Experiments with Amber Cane, Madison, Wis., 1982, p. 7.

© Op. cit., p. 8.

7Encouragement to Sorghum, ete., Department of Agriculture, 1883, p. 21.

i a i








(7

TT
bs

nree days later the juice had the following composition:

‘ Per cent.
a ee eee ae Se be Bed 9,50
SRR AS 2S ow Er oe ee weet ede bowen tebe 5. 00

At Modena, Italy, during the same year, further experiments were
arried on by Professor Pirotta.!

The experiments were divided into four series. Following are the
ean results for each series. In each series are given the means of
welve analyses of sorghum juices:

First series :

CEREUS oo. cmag lions oneser oe dain taker ans ts 1.0712

SS et Scent sevens mente once averse percent... 8.20

tee cenudiie aiavs eke e cas seenes as ee Otc) WR
Second series:

AMS oo ced o.oo WStk Gand cds adeve4s 3 4u 1. 0946

| ha percent.. 14.84

er s6s O56 oS s gS mae pen anond se nennes do.... 5,14
Third series:

I one Bir S20 wien 0 an Sol w wpe, emcee 1, 0997

ive nie a wes o sb esas ceceny acon per cent.. 15.10.

etek aes ese nesclecunep casewcns do.... 5,81
Fourth series :

eee oid a nan ana
eae vege conse aefe~ seve veve--percent.. 180]

EE aes | ae ee

In 1882 I made numerous analyses of juice from a large cane-mill at
a Fayette, Ind. The analyses represent 50 acres of cane, the greater
art of which was stripped and ripe.’

The means of the analyses are as follows:

Ce Sen cu cusecateksenss so eee ON: Ia Pde Gnas minees >= do.... 5.80
RE Seis O55 wie Lip snickcis - Joan's = ss ane 1. 0586
















Fifteen varieties of sorghum were also grown on the experimental farm
f Purdue University during the same year. The whole of the plots was
mt and passed through the mill, and the analysis represents the com-
sition of the entire juice.

The means are as follows:

IN dI VEE O30 d0 es dec canecectweden veces per cent.. 7.17
EE SE ed Sek he vw ccwb shoves iccacs do.... 5.15
Ee err tas aii ok dionkee iss seine acs do.... 1.059

Prof. Giulio Monselise* gives the result of numerous analyses of sor-
‘hum juices. lollowing:are the means of forty-one analyses made on
anes planted in April, 1882:

Per cent.
Pe ae os cs canes cave ceedeses cvs 11.35
eG tt... . ow ec decile Secces cecne 5.7
Tee ec caweskcssoccecvscee 100

1 Annali di Agricoltura sul Sorgho Ambrato, 1883, pp. 28 et seq., Roma.

* Report Agricultural College of Indiana (Purdue University), 1882, pp. 244-245.
ambra primiticcia o Sorgho Zuccherino del Minnesota, Manitova, 1883, Facicolo
9; table opposite p. 192,

a

oe



78

In 1882 experiments were made at the Zootechnic school in Reggio, —
Italy, by Professors Zanelli and Spallanzani. The means of the analy-
ses made by them are as follows::

First series:
Per cent. in the juice.

SUGTOSO 2. ced cn coee saneiemas-uncuimm a wollen 13. 99

G1NC086 . .. ccc eens conn bana ennui deel ee 4, 97
Second series:

SUCTOSO . 2 conc wv cccus epeens ancnen ss tan ees ee 11.55

Glucose. . 2.00 wcccec secs cedovescseescecseM ees 7.82

Two samples of sorghum juice (early amber) examined by Professor
Hilgard, of the University of California, showed the following mean come
position :?

Specific gravity ~~ ..6 sows sees ob onuc'vaey se ane eee 1. 070
Total solids. .c..dsc0sbedee see enbeee eee per cent.. 17.00
SUCTORO . 20+ va sad c unawewcowiuwh's wale sweeten ae de.22. 6.10
Parity ...-.csses vase vejecesnhs a sawens heb ese eee 45. 40

A sample of juice from sugar-cane also grown in California showed the
following composition :

Specific gravity - . 10 « Fotal Solids... ua SUCTORC ...0. - ce cuaincwe weeuinpee'ns Wieder eos ae: 21. "T69

Parity ...06 22.0 scee wide du pdec'ers edd 6dnd stam anne nn
Professor Hilgard adds the following observations :*

The above analyses exhibit, first, the superiority of the true sugar-cane over the
sorghum in respect to purity as well as total sugar contents, although in both respects
the former is here shown below the quality to which it attains in tropical countries.
There can be no doubt that wherever the tropical sugar-cane can be grown to ad-
vantage within the reach of intelligent labor and perfected appliances, it is superior
to the sorghum as a sugar-producing plant.

Remarkable results were obtained by using special fertilizers in the
New Jersey experiments.

In sixteen experiments the percentages of sugar in the cane were as
follows:* 15.05, 13.13, 12.97, 11.74, 11.40, 12.50, 15.01, 11.79, 12.70, 15,20,
12.59, 13.57, 15.42, 15.93, 16.09, 15.37. Mean calculated for juice, 15.16
per cent.

In 1883 two samples of sorghum juice were analyzed by Dr. H. P.
Armsby, chemist of the Wisconsin Agricultural Experiment Station.

The results are given in the first annual report of the station, p. 79:





No. 1. No. 2.
Per cent. | Per cent.
BrOLOke sides senwes 6.15 LBS
(FITIDORS Fa cwane wees 8. 32 8, 22
Total solids....... 12. 00 13. 50



'Annali di Agricoltura sul sorgho Ambrato, Roma, 1883, pp. 20 et seq.
*College of Agriculture, University of California, report, 1882, p. 61,
3 Op. cit., p. GL.

*New Jersey Experiment Station, Bull. No. XXX, p. 7.



19

_ S$wenson! says the average percentage of cane sugar in sorghum
grown by him on the Wisconsin farm was 10.5 to 12.5.

Weber? reports the following as the general average of all the cane
juices manufactured at Champaign during the year 1883:











NEN 20 Sota ds sro dagiects ss S-6e ertesten 5 1, 059
Ee ee ee ee ee -..per cent.. 7.78
Nie i elo tonne annie ns's' = oe se wb nes do.... 4.76

The means of seventy analyses made of Amber canes at Hutchinson,
Kans., during the season of 1883, by Prof. M. Swenson, are as follows:*

Per cent.
Lae oS lo oe See E ea es ae cen aw hao tew ob vee 14,2
Eee Cds atin he mat tin’ « Pade douwas = ood aac 9.3
ee cad ah cle oo Wale, dw wade ndipiwarnia’ ow aden eae 2.8

The means of thirteen analyses of the cane juices from the large mill
at Hutchinson, Kans., give the following numbers: ‘

Per cent.
eS on con ge ue ee ee wwe MEw'S 15.7
ES I en 1)
I en ee. cc Sal knee coe + anccce ac

The means of thirteen ae of Orange cane at Hutchinson during
1883 are as follows :*

Per cent.
Sg EE ee ae 1s-3
i ck enews ecsccc seecne 8.7
a hasty” Mae

Seven analyses of the juices of Link’s Hy pride cane, made at same place
in 1883, are as follows: *

Per cent.
i ae wdc 3.2
ec cal a amin bbe o pide vi m= <<" ea ak 10.3
ea 2.13

Means of two analyses of the juices of Honduras cane, made at the
same time and place, are as follows:°

Per cent.
a ee i hate BE oe ia ele wane 15.2
ee Ue chan 'dd de beue'suucea- 10. 2
i a eas Se a a ae 3.4

The means of fifty-six analyses of the juices of sorghum, chiefly Amber,
made by Prof. M. A. Scovell, at Sterling, Kans., in 1883, are as follows:®

Per cent.
eS ns ee pate e ubie Ain bS ape cere 7.45
TN tr ete a. ond peek acaccucvgecess 3. &@
Te Cae cies duns bree esen eeu h ecw Wage dscusccece 3.13



1Third Annual Meeting Wisconsin Cane-Growers’ Association, February, 1883,
p. 16; edited by J. A. Field, Saint Louis, Mo.
2Department of Agriculture, Division of Chemistry, Bull. No. 3, p. 62.
2 Op. cit., p. 64.
4 Op. cit., p. 65.
5 Op. cit., p. 66.
6 Op. cit., pp. 67, 68.





80

The means of nine analyses of Early Amber cane juice, made by
Prof. G. H. Failyer, of the Kansas State Agricultural College, at Man-
hattan, in 1883, are as follows ;:?

Per cent.
Total solids 2... 5. sic%.cca oh aneanpedee sae bie = Tee
SUGEORO So... cones none sop eels pemecusanes eeenene 11.72
GIMGOBO . 6 se cawcessecece bans ceuep bee aus oun eee 1, 45

The means of six analyses made by the same person, at the same
place, of the juices of Link’s Hybrid cane, are as follows:!

Per cent.
Total solids ...-... bau cow Sle tp weialee dais Bue ae sFaescee 11.12
SUCTOSS owe 2 cane swoces venses aaanee be useeie Lenn 6.13
GIm0080. . ono. 5 acces pe wend inte wwpil same cre se ae 2.83

Means of four analyses of Kansas Orange cane juice, made by the
Same person at same place and time, are as follows: !

Per cent,
Total solide: ic.3idse scar cael nase Wales ew we belles enene 14, 91
SUCTOSS oc ecics aaccdwiccecce vetoes ncvuns bb aula 11. 28
GIGOORG . soot. oe cocce cece cccons ce scene a = ouwe amie penne

One analysis of Honduras cane, made at the same time and place by
Professor Failyer, gave—

BUAPORO 6 dccwn so cuaspaua spngh se sencaee os sae per cent.. 9.76
GAMEOGO . oo coo case dude ceupeuae pees selec ane do.... 229
Specific gravity - . 2.5 Joc. sates os sU aces 208 ee 1, 061.

The means of sixteen analyses reported by F. L. Stewart are as fol.
lows :?

Specific QvaVIEF 106 s2cdnnsleennorent eee eee owen SapEe Gree 1, 068
SUCTOSS .. 2. pes news no ase wimns a «mas_<= ‘aie ie eel
GINCOSE «2. oe a eee ccunrjass bnes = ae ese 6 =ip ee meen

Prof. W. A, Henry® reports the analyses of twenty-one samples of
sorghum juices from different varieties.
The mean results are as follows:

Per cent.
BUCKOGEO cc 0 0 sine degen cnviae due ditee te ese cue eee 8.93
GID COREG . oc cove ccce ve cave duce ve bs ov éuce cane ba ea en

In 1885 further analyses were made of field samples at the Rio
Grande factory by the chemist of the New Jersey station, Dr. Neale.

All the samples except the last one named had been fertilized. The
quantity of sugar in the cane of the several samples was as follows: ‘

! Op. cit., pp. 68, 69.

? Fourth Annual Report New York State Sugar-Growers’ Association, p. 44.
’ Second Annual Report Wisconsin Agricultural Experiment Station, p. 33.
4New Jersey Experiment Station, Bull. No. XXXVIII, p. 10.



81









The respective percentages of sucrose in these juices were as fol-
lows : 1 8.69, 8.23, 9.96, 8.89, 9.70, 9.48, 9.96, 9.12, 11.30, 11.21, 11.38,
11.16, 11.03, 8.87, 9.18. Mean, 9.88.

_ Twenty-six tons of early orange cane was found by another analysis
to contain 7.25 per cent. sucrose :?

Composition of sorghum juices from large mill al Rio Grande, N. J., for the four seasons
JSrom 1882 to 1885, inclusive.*

SUCROSE.
[Averages for each week.]

i |
1882.4 | 1883. 1884.6 | 1885.7

:
Per cent.| Per cent.| Per cent. | Per cent.
5 9. £0 6. 60

0.35 9.70 Le:
11.33 | 10.37 9.64 | 8.03
11.81 “| “8.56 9.16 | 839
1.56 | 9.22 | 10.96 | 870
10.68 | 9.50 | 11.10 8. 94
11.58 9.70 | 12.60 10. 64
10.85 10.46 | 10.25 10. 00
11. 00 10. 74 ome ocetcs ft”
10.56 9.93 o-patiy ce pes:

|
|
11. 38 ag oh BGO, [oa ae aac
11.118 | 9.758 |
4From Sept. 4 to Nov. 6.
®’ From Sept. 10 to Nov. 12.
® From Sept. 8 to Noy. 10.

7 From Sept. 2 to Oct. 12.
8 Mean.

For 1886 the mean percentage of sucrose in the cane as reported by
the New Jérsey Experiment Station was 114 to 120 pounds per ton.

NR CTE ae os cane awn an, dan ais Sem bw ome nin = 117
mean per Cont, SUCTOSse IN Cane. ... 2... 22. cee sic cee see 5. 85
meena per cent, sucrose in juice... ..-..--55 22. .-..-.-.. 22-20 6.54

The general average content of sucrose in the mill juices at Rio
Grande for the five years is 9.28 per cent.

The means of ninety-eight analyses made in 1886 by Professor Stubbs,
director of the experiment station at Kenner, La., were as follows:4

Per cent.
Sn er ht Lees ee ied ees ee ee en cc ces 11, 92
I i gs a Uk Sw we ncede 16, 34

' Op. cit., p. 10.

2 Op. cit., p. 15.

_8MS. from Mr. H. A. Hughes, superintendent.

* Louisiana Sugar Experiment Station, Kenner, La., Bull, No.5, pp. 6 and 7, 1886,

23576—Bull 18——6



82



In 1886 the New Jersey station continued its analyses at Rio Grande,
The percentage of sucrose in the cane varied from 114 to 120 pounds
per ton.!

COMPARISON OF MILL AND DIFFUSION JUICES FOR 1886.

At Rio Grande the chemist of the New Jersey station made analyses
for the purpose of comparing mill and diffusion juices.”
The means are as follows:

.

ee Diffusion 4

Mill juice. juice 3

3

Per cent. Per cent.

BUCTORO-<25s.26622 8.93 7.59
Total solids.....-.- 12.99 11. 56
Perthy’. dc. ers 68.75 65. 57





A mean of eight experiments made by J. I’. Willcox, of New York,? |
in 1886 shows 9 per cent. sucrose in sorghum juice.

ANALYTICAL DATA FROM THE EXPERIMENTS AT THE NEW JERSEY
AGRICULTURAL STATION.

The systematic investigations made by Dr. Geo. H. Cook, director of
the New Jersey Agricultural Experiment Station, have already been
quoted in the data given. These experiments were commenced in 1881
and have been continued every year since. The chemical work has been
in charge of Dr. A. T. Neale. The results of these experiments have
been so interesting and instructive that I have grouped them together.

In 1881 fourteen varieties were planted, of which only five matured.‘
The sucrose in the juice of these five matured varieties was as follows:
Per cent., 8.58, 7.28, 6.50, 7.60, 14.06. Mean, 8.80 per cent.

The same season® sixteen plots of Harly Amber were treated with
various fertilizers, and the yield of sugar calculated per acre,

The percentages of sucrose in the juice of the several plots were as
follows: 9.70, 9.43, 9, 9.27, 9.68, 9.94, 10.51, 11.65, 11.43, 9.84, 9.57, 11.61,
9.73, 9.44, 12.01. Mean, 10.16.

In respect of the experiments Dr. Cook makes the following report :®

"

-

ii caitlin Di tee

After a struggle, which has now lasted more than twenty-five years, sorghum to-
(lay does not occupy its true position among sugar-producing plants. Its advocate-
justiy claim that this is due to our lack of information, not only in regard to the manus
facture of sugar from it, but also in respect to its proper cultivation. For some time
past authorities have felt that the hope of having a small sugar-house on each farm
must be abandoned, and that our attention must be turned towards the more rational —

' Prof. G. Il. Cook, Rural World, July 7, 1887.

*Seventh Ann. Report New Jersey Agricultural Experiment Station, 1886, p. 130. .

3MS. communication to author. ‘

‘Second Ann. Report New Jersey Experiment Station, p. 43. j

© Op. cit., pp. 44, 45.

6 Op. cit., pp. 46, 47. |



83

_plan of thoroughly equipped mauufactories, in which the sorghum grown on neigh-
boring farms can be worked quickly and economically by skilled operatives.

The result of the season’s experiments is decidedly encouraging, considering the un-
favorable circumstances. There has been a drought of unprecedented severity and
length, so that the corn crop on the college farm was not more than one-quarter its
usual amount, And yet the results of sorghum growing on the same farm, as given
in the above table, are respectable. With aseason having the average rain-fall a
crop weighing from two to three times as much as that of the present one may safely
be calculated on.

In 1882 experiments were made on two plots on autumn and spring
plowed ground. Each plot was divided into sixteen sections, on which
different fertilizers were employed.

The mean percentages of sucrose in the juice for the two plots are as
follows :!

First plot...... Pe eee Peres eae Sena e sateen San poem Je a 13. 16
NER we sh abies. tecme + Secu ke bune as paneeses sacs 12,2



The season was again reported as unfavorable.”

The plants came up quickly and grew rapidly from the first, so that no special
trouble was experienced in hoeing or cultivating it. It came forward with strong and
stout canes until near the middle of August, when a very severe drought set in. The
growth of the cane was entirely stopped for some weeks, when it was about 6 feet
high. Finally stunted-looking seed-heads partially developed in irregular patches
and streaks over the field; most of the seed was blasted, and many of the stalks failed
tohead out. The height of the crop was 2 or 3 feet below the normal growth. When
the rains came in September new shoots forked out from the upper joints and unfolded
slender heads, but it was too late in the season, and no seeds ripened on them.

We judge that the crop of cane was not half what it would have been in a favorable
season, and that of the seed not one-third of a fullcrop. The percentage of juice in
the canes was also much lower than is natural in properly-grown sorghum.

The effects of the drought were irregular on the field, not following any of the lines
which marked the plots and fertilizers, so that we can draw no satisfactory conclu-
sions from the experiments on fertilizers either in the production of cane and seed or
on the quality and amount of the juice or sugar.

Our uniform course is to record our failures as well as our successes, and this is
published, though it is a disappointment and a failure which we could not avoid.

In 1883 the results of the experiments were still more encouraging.
_ The means of the percentages of sucrose in the juice of sixteen
samples from as many different plots was 15.16.°

The average quantity of sugar produced per acre, based on the above
analyses, was 3,963 pounds.

Some of the conclusions derived from the above set of experiments
are of a remarkable character.‘

Even when a mill expresses from 50 to 60 per cent. of juice from stripped and topped cane,
it may yel leave more than one-half of the sugar in the bagasse. This fact can be best
shown by an example. The cane on plot 11 contained 4,119 pounds of sugar per acre.
_ Of this the mill expressed 1,983 pounds, leaving in the bagasse 52 per cent. of the
_ sugar which the cane contained. This result is the most favorable in the experiment.
The other extreme is found on plot 10, where nearly 70 per cent. of the sugar was

1 Third Annual Report New Jersey Agricultural Experiment Station, pp. 64, 65.
* Op. cit., pp. 61, 62.

‘Fourth Annual Report New Jersey Experiment Station, p. 70.

4 Op. cit., pp. 67, 68.



84

wasted. In eleven other cases the loss exceeds 60 per cent. Apparently the greener
the cane the smaller the loss of sugar by the milling process.

To explain this loss it is necessary to assume that a considerable portion of the
sugar is stored in the cane in a solid state, either as pure crystallized sugar or in some
combination easily decomposed or dissolved in water. It is claimed that the micro-
scope has shown crystals of sugar in the cells of the sorghum; if this is true, it is
irrational to attempt the perfect separation of sugar from the cane fiber by mechani-
Cal means. For attaining this end the process of diffusion seems to be the most prac-
tical and promising method. It has been thoronghly tested and generally adopted
by the beet-sugar industry, and experiments thus far reported indicate that it is also
applicable to the sorghum and tropical cane.

Mr. H. B. Blackwell states in the Boston Journal of Chemistry that by following
this process he was able without difficulty to make 13 pounds of crystallized sugar
and 6 pounds of good sirup from 100 pounds of Amber cane.

In my opinion natural crystals of sugar never exist in healthy sor-
ghum canes. In 1883 I had this subject thoroughly examined.!

Six hundred sections of sorghum and sugar canes failed to show a
single crystal of sugar. In very dry seasons the juice of sorghum has
been known to exude through perforations made by an insect and to
crystallize on the outside of the stalk. A sample of very pure cane
sugar formed in this way was sent to me last year (1886) by Mr. A. A.
Denton, of Kansas.

In 1884 the following data were obtained as the result of the experi-
ments at the station.’

There were sixteen plots Early Amber all fertilized but two. The per-
centage of sucrose in the cane was 8.53 and in the juice 9.39. The aver-
age total sugar per acre for the sixteen plots was 1,752 pounds. Two
additional plots were planted in Amber and Orange canes respectively,
no fertilizers being used.®

The total sucrose in the Amber plot was, for the cane 9.20 per cent.,
and for the juice 10.12 per cent.

For the Orange the numbers were: for the cane 6.57 per cent., and
for the juice 7.22 per cent.

A plot of amber cane, from seed sent by Professor Henry, of Wis-
consin, showed in the same conditions as above :*

Per cent.
Sucrose iN CANE. ..... .. csc conse ceseas bates teen 8. 63
Sucrose in joice. ..... = ..60:00sis'so:<-S 90s Mews be wee 9, 49

The intensely hot weather following May 14, the date of planting, was decidedly
unfavorable for sorghum. The soil ‘‘baked” hard, the Amber seed germinated
slowly, the ‘‘ moping ” period appeared to be unusually prolonged, and the plants in
many hills perished, especially upon plots 12 to 16, inclusive. For a long time the
experiment was regarded as a failure, and received comparatively little attention.
Later the development was remarkable, and the yield of cane from several of the
plots was above the average; in quality, however, in all cases it fell far below pre-
vious results.®



' Department of Agriculture, Division of Chemistry, Bull. No, 2, p. 6.

* Vifth Aun. Report New Jersey Agricultural Experiment Station, pp. 84, 85.
> Op. cit., p. 79.

* Op. cit., p. 80.

® Op. cit., p. 81.





85







In 1885 comparative experiments were made with native Amber seed,
_ Amber seed from Prof. W. A. Henry, and native Orange seed.
The percentages of sucrose in the three kinds of canes were as follows: !

« In the cane. In the juice.





Per cent. Per cent.

Native Amber .--..-- 8. 98 9. 87
Wisconsin Amber.... 10. 40 11. 44
Native Orange .......- 7.38 8.11



_ Sixteen plots all fertilized save two were planted in Early Amber and
the following data were obtained :”

Mean sucrose in ‘canes. -..-...---..-... .222---- percent.. 9.37
Mean Sncrose, In jnice. 2-32. 5-sos5 ose een t ee eee do.... 10.30
Average weight sugar per acre...........-....-- pounds.. 2,372

Another set of experiments was made at Rio Grande with the co-
operation of Mr. George C. Potts and Mr. H. A. Hughes. The follow-
ing data were obtained. Early Orange cane, sixteen plots, all fertilized
_ but one: *

Â¥

Mean percentage sucrose in juice .........- coae ecm se td 9.88
Total weight sugar per acre ................--.- pounds.. 2,508

In reviewing the operations of the Rio Grande factory for the past
five years, Professor Cook says: ‘4

The records of this plantation for the past five years show that upon the average
7.7 tons of unstripped and untopped cane only have been grown per acre, while the
average yield of merchantable sugar per ton of cane has not exceeded 40 pounds.

To compete successfully with other sources of cane sugar, therefore, the average
tonnage of good cane per acre should be at least doubled, while the quantity of mer-
chantable sugar secured per acre should be increased many fold.

In 1886 the experiments at Rio Grande were continued. Sixteen
_ plots all fertilized but one were planted in Early Orange Cane. The fol-
lowing data were obtained: °

Cane (leaves and seed) per acre............... pounds.. 13,383
peeem oane per dere: ..2..1.2.05.4.61...%5- eh ees do.... 10,448
pucrose in clean cane. .<.... 2.5565 cscs. .-000- percent... 7.95
Total weight sugar per acre ...:............--- pounds.. 905

Professor Cook makes the following remarks on the results of the
season : ®
Three years ago it was clearly seen that the Rio Grande Company failed to secure

one-half of the total amount of sugar present in its sorghum crops, and since that
time all energies have been directed toward the substitution of diffusion for milling.

' Sixth Annual Report New Jersey Agricultural Experimental Station, p. 109.
2 Op. cit., p. 111.

5 Op. cit., p. 126.

4 Op, cit., p. 119.

’ Seventh Annual Report New Jersey Experimental Station, p. 151,

6 Op. cit., p. 141.



86

The obstacles to this change, met at the very beginning, have at last been overcome,
and 70 per cent. of the sugar in the cane has this year been extracted and sold. In-
formation has also been gained which shows how 90 per cent. of the total sugar may
be secured in the future.

It still remains to be demonstrated that this industry can be made a financial suc-
cess,

The chemical analysis of cane, showing its percentage of sugar only, is far from re-
liable information on this question if unaccompanied by the actual weight of crop
per acre.' A normal evaporation of water from a crop, for instance, may cause an
apparent improvement in its quality, but as this evaporation is accompanied by a
corresponding loss of weight, it leaves the absolute amount of sugar per acre un-
changed. Again, the percentage of sugar in the juice may remain constant while the
quantity of juice to be secured from an acre of cane may be steadily decreasing, in-
volving thereby a loss in the absolute amount of sugar.

During the period October 9-23, 728 tons of unstripped and untopped sorghum were
diffused, and an average yield per ton of 80 pounds of 100° test sugar thereby se-
cured. Of this 80 pounds, 55.7 pounds crystallized and 24.3 pounds remained in the
molasses. This cane was grown principally upon banked meadows, and although it
may have passed its best stage as regards sugar production, it was not considered
‘dried up ” or pithy.

On the Ist, 2d, and 3d of November 241 tons of unstripped and untopped cane were
diffused, and an average yield per ton of 50 pounds of 100° test sugar thereby se-
cured, of which 30 pounds crystallized and 20 pounds remained in the molasses.
This cane was grown upon upland which had been heavily dressed with stable ma-
nure. Early in the fall it was considered a first-class crop, and, as it was within easy
reach of the sugar-house, it was held in reserve to be used in case any emergency
made it difficult to secure the necessary supply from more distant fields. This sor-
gbum affords an unusual example of an over-ripe, pithy crop.

The green cane yielded 80 pounds and the pithy cane 50 pounds of 100° test sugar
per ton. If, therefore, this loss of sugar was accompanied by losses in tonnage as
heavy as farmers claim, then milling wastes at once sink into comparative insignifi-
cance. For if one-half of the tonnage disappears, and if at the same time that por-
tion of the crop which remained depreciates 40 per cent. in value to the sugar boiler,
it follows that two-thirds of the sugar formed in the plant may be wasted by delays
in field-work.

This reasoning rests upon claims and assumptions which can be easily and thor-
oughly investigated ; it indicates that the most important question now awaiting
solution is, ‘‘ At what stage in its growth should sorghum be harvested ?”

MANUFACTURE OF SUGAR.
EXPERIMENTAL.

The first sorghum sugar made in this country appears to have been
in an experiment by Dr. Battey, of Rome, Ga., in the laboratory of
Dr. Booth in Philadelphia.’

We will give further results of experiments made at the South, and quote from the
Southern Cultivator for October, 1856: ‘‘ In the winter of 1844~45° the junior editor
of this journal obtained from Boston a few ounces of seed of this plant (Chinese
sugar-cane), then newly imported from France. It came very highly recommended
as a sugar-producing and forage plant; but, having a vivid recollection of many pre-



! Op. cii., pp. 153 et seq.
*? The Chinese Sagar-Cane, by James F’, C. Hyde, New York, 1857, pp. 46 ef seq.
§This is probably a mistake and means 1854-55.



Che.

i i re iii al i al a ee, hae

a i i



87

vious disappointments with new-fangled notions, we concluded to test it cautiously
and moderately. Passing by it one day, when the seeds were nearly or quite
ripe, we concluded to test the sweetness of the stalk; so cutting a moderate-sized
cane and peeling its hard outside coat, we found an exceedingly sweet and pleasant
flavor, wholly and entirely unlike anything of the corn-stalk family that we had ever
tasted. It was, in fact, ready-made candy.
_ Fully satisfied by this time that it was valuable, at least for the production of
soiling, forage, and dried fodder, we next turned our attention to its saccharine prop-
erties, and fortunately induced our friend, Dr. Robert Battey, of Rome, Ga., who was
_ at that time pursuing the stady of experimental chemistry in the well-known lJabora-
tory of Professor Booth, of Philadelphia, to test it. As the result of his experiment
Dr. Battey sent us three small phials, one containing a fine sirup, one a very good
_ sample of crude brown sugar, and the other a very good sample of crystallized sugar.
This we believe to be the first crystallized sugar made in the United States from the
juice of the sorgho-sucré.”’
Experiments were made by Joseph 8. Lovering at Oakhill, near Phila-
delphia, in 1857, in the manufacture of sugar from sorghum. The first
experiment was made September 30. In view of the voluminous liter-
ature on this subject in the thirty years that have passed since this ex-
periment was made, I give Mr. Lovering’s own description of it:!
The fact of the presence of crystallizable sugar in the cane being established, I pro-
ceeded to cut and grind 20 feet of a row, and passed the thirty canes which it pro-
duced three times through the rollers; about one-fourth of the seed had changed toa
dark glistening brown color, but was still milky; the remainder was quite green ;
ground six to eight of the lower joints, which together yielded 3} gallons of juice,
weighing 9° Beaume; neutralized the free acid by adding milk of lime ; clarified with
eggs and boiled it down to 240° F.
This first experiment looked discouraging and unpromising at every step; its
product was a very dark, thick, viscid mass, apparently a caput mortuum ; it stood six
days without the sign of a crystal, when it was placed over a flue and kept warm
four days longer, when I found a pretty good crop of soft crystals, the whole very
similar to the “ melada” obtained from Cuba, but of darker color.
Lovering’s fourth experiment was made on one-fiftieth of an acre. It
yielded 18.56 pounds of sugar and 23.73 pounds molasses.’
Calculated to1l:cre this gives 928 pounds sugar and 98.87 gallons
molasses.
A foot-note informs us:
Neither the scales in which this juice was weighed nor the quart measure in which
it was measured were sufficiently delicate or accurate to give precise results, and as
they form the basis of these calculations, the percentages are probably not absolutely
exact, but they are sufficiently so for all practical purposes.
Three other experiments were made by Mr. Lovering, but with results
less favorable than No. 4.
The fashion in excuses for failure in sorghum-sugar making was early
set by Mr. Lovering.
In the fifth experiment‘ he observed ‘‘a very sudden and unfavorable
change in the working of the juice,” which he ascribes to the weather
“becoming and continuing very warm.”

The sixth experiment, November 27,° was mace after warm Indian summer weather,
with heavy rains, also very cold weather, making ice 2 inches in thickness, thermome-
— —_———_——
































1 Op. cit. p. 7. “3 Op. cit. p. 17. 6 Op. cit., pp. 20-21.
2 Op. cit., p. 16, 4 Op. cit., p. 19.



88

ter having varied from 16° to 60°. To try the effect of these changes, I cut one-
hundredth part of an acre, which produced 11.15 gallons of juice only, instead of 19

or 20 gallons, as before. It had, however, regained its former weight of full 10° B., —
but was much more acid, rank, and dark-colored than previously. It clarified with-
out difficulty, but raised a much thicker and denser scum, and, when concentrated, _
was very dark and molasses-like; it, however, produced good, hard, sharp crystals,
but the quantity being much reduced, there was no inducement to pursue it further. -
This experiment proves, however, that this cane will withstand very great vicissi-
tudes of weather without the entire destruction of its saccharine properties.

On page 21 Mr. Lovering announces as a fundamental principle a
rule of analysis which he followed, which, unfortunately, has not char- |
acterized all subsequent investigations. He says:!

The foregoing are all actual results produced by myself (the polariscopic observa-
tions having been taken on the spot, under the supervision of my partner, Mr. Will-
iam Morris Davis), with no object in view but the truth and a desire to contribute
whatever useful information I could towards the solution of this interesting and im-
portant question.

But even thus early he was led into the error of making sorghum
sugar on paper, a process which for ease and profit is far superior to
making it from canes, and which, unfortunately, has been largely prac-
ticed since these days of initial experiments. Taking only his experi-
ment No. 4, he figures a yield of 1,466.22 pounds of sugar and 74.39
gallons molasses per acre, adding?



te te i Rie hl

Further, it will be observed that my acre produced but 1,847 gallons of juice. I
have, however, seen published accounts of far greater yields than this—one for in-
stance, in this county, apparently well authenticated, reaching 6,800 gallons per acre, A
_ Which, according to my actual results would produce 4,499 pounds of sugar and 274 ©
galious of molasses, and according to the foregoing probable results, would yield
5,389 pounds of sugar and 274 gallons to the acre. .

|
“

Mr. Lovering was also the first one to show (on paper) that sorghum
was quite as fine a sugar-making crop as the sugar-cane in Louisiana.
He makes the following comparison :*

Louisiana. | Pennsylvania.



| |
| Yield of juice per acre .........-.... gallons. . 2, 236 1, 847
Density of juice (Baumé)..-...-...,- degrees. 7 8.44 10. 00
. 66

|

|

Yield of sugar per gallon of juice ...pounds.. - 76
Yield of sugar per acre:
MOUUDYT (<< s acaa cose whan ne aera pounds.. 1, 704 1, 221. 85
Probable........ Ae mgh nikee eee oreo 00°52 55) o2 ieee oe 1, 612. 00
| Yield of molasses per acre:
BOGGS). cv sebus snc ce hereeateene gallons. .| 102 74,39
PECDADIG. cL adlahiy sn cgupe ee teacedutpead GOs... dlnacpeeeenenee 81, 83

As a result of the study of all his experiments, he arrives at the fol- |
lowing conclusions :* |
(1) That it is obvious that there is a culminating point in the development of the

sugar in the cane, which is the best time for sugar making. This point or season I
consider to be when most if not all the seods are ripe, and after several frosts, say
when the temperature falls to 25° or 30° F.



2 —_ Ee

| Op. cit., pp. 21 and 22, 8 Op. cit. p. 25,
* Op. cit., pp. 23-24. ‘ Op. cit., pp. 26, 27,



89

_-(2) That frost, or even hard freezing, doesnot injure the juice nor the sugar, but that
- warm Indian summer weather, after the frost and hard freezing, does injure them
_ very materially, and reduces both quantity and quality.

(3) That if the cane is cut and housed, or shocked in the field when in its most favor-
able condition, it will probably Keep unchanged for a long time.

(4) That when the juice is obtained the process should proceed continuonsly and
without delay.

(5) That the clarification should be as perfect as possible by the time the density
reached 15° Baumé, the sirup having tho appearance of good brandy.

(6) That although eggs were used in these small experiments, on account of their
convenience, bullock’s blood, if to be had, is equally good, and the milk of lime alone
will answer the purpose ; in the latter case, however, more constant and prolonged
skimming will be required to produce a perfect clarification, which is highly impor-
tant.

(7) That the concentration or boiling down, after clarification, should be as rapid
as possible without scorching, shallow evaporators being the best.

With these conditions secured, it is about as easy to make good sugar from the
Chinese cane as to make a pot of good mush, and much easier than to make a kettle
of good apple-butter.

EXPERIMENT BY PROF, €. A. GOESSMANN.

In 1857 Professor Goessmann obtained from 1,440 grams of sorghum
juice, by two crystallizations and washing the crystals with alcohol, 120
grams of sugar.! Professor Goessmann says:?

As I before mentioned, J.S. Lovering obtained in practice 7 to 8 per cent. of sugar
without estimating the amount left in the molasses. I found from 9 to 9} per cent. in
the juice; and Mr. Wray, an Englishman, who examined several species of sorghum
at Cape Natal, on the southeastern coast of Africa, found the percentage almost equal
to that of the real sugar cane, 18 per cent. I mention these facts to show what may
be expected when the sorghum shall have received the attention of our farmers and
have become acclimatized on a suitable soil. The transplantation of a plant to
anew and perhaps less congenial climate and soil invariably exerts at firstan inju-
rious influence on the vital principle and its products. When the beet root was first
cultivated for the manufacture of sugar it contained only 7 to 8 per cent. of sugar,
but by the application of proper care to the cultivation and to selecting the best
specimens for seed the percentage was increased to from 11 to 12 in some species.
Should it be possible to increase the percentage of sugar in the sorghum in the same
ratio, its successful cultivation would become an accomplished fact; and our farmers,
aided by their superior skill, more perfect machinery, and many other advantages af-
forded by this country, would be able to compete successfully with the planters of the
West Indies.

Between the dates of the experiments recorded above and 1878 hun.-
dreds of successful attempts to manufacture sorghum sugar as a by
product of molasses were made in the United States. I say successful
in the sense that they demonstrated beyond any doubt the possibility
of making sugar, although they threw no light on either the scientific
or economic problems involved. I therefore omit any further discussion
of them here. _

Numerous experiments were made by Dr. Collier, chemist of the De-

‘Sorghum Saccharatum, republished from Transactions N. Y. State Agricultural

Society, 1861, p. 21.
3 Op. cit., pp. 26, 27,



=



90

partment of Agriculture in 1878, in the production ot sugar from sor-
ghum and maize stalks.’

Dr. Collier says of these experiments :?

The point which these experiments have fully settled is, that there exists no diffi-
culty in making from either corn or sorghum a first-rate quality of sugar, which will
compare favorably with the best product from sugar-cane grown in the most favor-
able localities.

The experiments here given clearly indicate the probability that sugar may be
thus made at a profit, and it is desirable that nothing be spared in continuing an in-
vestigation giving such fair promise of success.

The experiments in the production of sugar were continued by the
Department of Agriculture in 1879.2 The sugar was not separated
from the molasses except in one case, but the percentage of sucrose
in the melada is given.

The melada from Chinese sorghum gave 54.7 percent. sugar. Some
of the analyses seem to show a loss of glucose, and in one instance this
loss is given at 144.5 per cent.°

On this point Dr. Collier says :°

The presence of the same relative proportions of crystallizable and uncrystallizable
sugar in a sirup to those present in the juice from which this sirup has been prepared
by no means implies that there has been no inversion of the erystallizable sugar; for
the destructive action of an excess of lime upon glucose is well known and is not un-
frequently made available in the production of sugar. Hence, it not unfrequently
happens that the relative quantity of crystallizable sugar in the sirup may be greatly

in excess of that present in the juice, even after a large quantity of the crystalliza-
ble sugar has been destroyed by inversion.

He adds:?

There is no doubt but that when the present industry shall have secured the em-
ployment of the capital and scientific ability which has developed the beet-sugar in-
dustry, even these results, which may appear extravagant to many, will be assured.

EXPERIMENTS AT THE ILLINOIS INDUSTRIAL UNIVERSITY, CHAM-
PAIGN, IN 1880.

These experiments were all directed by Professors Weber and Sco-
vell. They undertook a series of experiments to determine the possi-
bilities of manufacturing sugar from sorghum.* Twelve experiments
with amber and orange cane were made from September 17 to Octo.
ber 2. :

In experiment No. 5 the sugar obtained, calculated to 1 acre, amounted
to 710.67 pounds.



!Agricultural Report, 1878, pp. 98 et seq.

2Op. cit., p. 99.

* Agricultural Report, 1879, p. 53.

4 Op. cit., p. 56.

© Op. cit., p. 61.

Op. cit., p. 60.

7Op. cit., p. 56.

®Transactions Department of Agriculture, Illinois, 1880, pp. 428 et. seq.




Sd Prete het

sia tll a i eet dela é





























91

Quantitative determinations were not made in the other experiments.
As a result of their work the experimenters were led to make the fol-
lowing statement :'

From the results above given it appears that crystallized sugar can be obtained
from sorghum of as good a quality as that of the ordinary brown sugars found in the
market. A portion of this brown sugar was re-dissolved and the solution passed
through boneblack. On evaporation it yielded a white sugar, which had no trace of
sorghum taste or smell.

From the proximate analysis of the cane, it appears that 1 acre of sorghum pro-
duces over 2,500 pounds of cane sugar. Of this amount we obtained 710 pounds in
the form of good brown sugar, and 265 pouuds in the molasses drained from the sugar.
Hence 62 per cent. of the total amount of sugar was lost during the process of manu-
This shows that the method of manufacture in general use is very im-

The 710 pounds of sugar at 8 cents per pound would bring $56.80. The molasses is
worth 25 cents a gallon, or the products of an acre of sorghum would bring $75.55.
There is no doubt that, with proper care and apparatus, the above yield can be
doubled.
From our experiments, it seems that about one-half of the sugar remains in the ba-
gasse. This could, no doubt, in part be recovered by the process of percolation, as
is sometimes done in the manufacture of beet-root sugar. Experiments will be
made this coming season to determine the feasibility of recovering this great loss of
sugar.

In 1880 Mr. H. A. Hughes manufactured some sirup from early amber
cane near Cape May, N. J. This sirup was sent to a Philadelphia re-
finery and manufactured into sugar.’

EXPERIMENTS AT THE AGRICULTURAL STATION IN WISCONSIN IN 1881.

These experiments were conducted by Profs. W. A. Henry and M.
Swenson.? Two plots each of two-thirteenths acre area furnished the
canes for experiments. On plot A there was made 142 pounds of sugar.
On plot B there was made 109} pounds sugar.

Calculated for an acre, plot A would make 923 pounds, and plot B
would make 9974 pounds.

In regard to the character of the season, Professor Henry‘ says:

I would state upon the whole that the season has not been a very favorable one
*» * * Had sugar been the object with our mannfacturers this season, it would have
been a very unfavorable one.

Weber and Scovell® continued their work and made some very in-
structive experiments in the manufacture of sugar.

Experiment 1 (August 22): 6

Weight of cane crushed ................. pounds.. 1,560, 00
Weight of juice obtained .................. do.... 687.50
OE ID ee coon ceantre suse vues Uevsces se 43, 40

1 Op. cvt., pp. 431-2.

*Â¥ifth Ann. Report N. J. Agricultural Experiment Station, p. 86.
* Report National Academy Sciences on Sorghum, p. 85.

4 Op. cit., p. 92.

5Transactions Dept. of Agriculture, Ill., 1881, pp. 500 et seq.
®Op. cit., pp. 500, 501,



92

The juice was carefully neutralized with milk of lime and brought to the boiling
point in the defecating pan. A very heavy green scum rose, and this being removed,
the juice wasscen to be full of a green, light flocculent precipitate, which did not sub-
sequently rise to the top in any considerable quantity. The juice was now drawn off
into a tub, where it was allowed to repose twelve hours. At the end of this time
only about one-half of the juice could be drawn off clear, the precipitate being still
suspended in the remainder. It was found impossible to filter this portion, and it
was, therefore, thrown away. The clearjuice, after being passed through bone-black,
was evaporated ina copper finishing pan to the crystallizing point. The melada had
a very unpleasant, saltish taste, owing to the presence of salts of ammonia. The
sugar crystallized very readily, and although it looked well, it still retained some-
what of this saltish taste after being separated from the molasses. |



Experiment 2 (August 25):

Yield sugar per Here......5 2... .ccce-cu-e eee pounds.. 608.7
Yield. sugar. per ton .... .<.-<.-s<5+ +shaheeeee CP
Experiment 3:
Weight of cane..... phiskos Case thee Dee pounds.. 1,440
Weight of melada obtained .......---.-..--- GE scene, 2A
Weight of sugar not given.
Experiment 4:
Weight eine... scnntnnae=}aseee eee pounds.. 1,161
Weight melada from juice.........--..-.---- Peas 95.5
Weight sugar from juice... -.. ...s4sssseenee do.... 41.5

The authors add the following observations: !

(1) Seed should be planted as early as possible.

(2) The proper time to begin cutting the cane for making sugar is when the seed is
in the hardening dough.

(3) The cane should be worked up as soon as possible after cutti.g. Ciisb which
cut in the afternoon or evening may safely be worked up the following morning.

(4) The manufacture of sugar can be conducted properly only with improved ap-
paratus, and on a scale which would justify the erection of steam sugar-works, with
vacuum pans, steam defecators and evaporators, and the employment of a competent
chemist to superintend the business. The same is true for the manufacture of glu-
cose from the seed. Our experiments were made with the ordinary apparatus used in
manufacturing sorghum sirup, and any person who desired to work on a small scale
could use the methods with good results, provided he had acquired the necessary skill
in neutralizing and defecating the juice and in the treatment of the bone-black filters.
The manufacture of glucose on asmallscale is entirely out ofthe question. Five hun-
dred to a thousand acres ef sorghum would be sufficient to justify the erection of
steam sugar-works, and this amount could easily be raised in almost any community
within a radius of 1 or 2 miles from the works.”

Fourteen quantitative experiments were made by the Department of
Agriculture in 1882 in the production of sugar. These experiments are
described by Dr. Collier as follows: ? j

In the fourteen experiments which were made, quantitatively, eleven of the sirups —
were a solid mass of crystals; in twoof them two-thirds of the sirups were mush sugar,
and in the remaining sample the sirup contained a few crystals of sugar, but the
analysis showed that this one had not been evaporated quite to the point of good —

crystallization.
ter rng cee Screen atime ance

‘Op. cit. 502, 503.
* Investigations of Sorghum, Special Report, 1883, pp. 55 et eq.





‘ "a ‘sv oo” = ~ Ire —_——_
eA Prey Sho

93























EXPERIMENTS FOR WHICH AN AWARD OF $1,200 WAS MADE
BY THE COMMISSIONER OF AGRICULTURE.

(1) CHAMPAIGN, ILL.

The Champaign Sugar and Glucose Manufacturing Company in 1882
‘submitted a report of its operations to the Commissioner of Agricult-
ure, of which the following is a summary:!

Number tons cane worked for sugar..-............---- 1, 723. 99
IER SURUNN ip ho a a ide ome owe on anes 185.8
Pounds sugar manufactured............--...--.----- 86, 603. 00
Cg Se eee ee 50.3
Pounds sugar per acre .-.---.-- ESS ca we pon TE ole 465.5

A part of the crop was so poor in sucrose that it was worked for mo-
lasses only. The climatic conditions attending the experiments are de-
scribed as follows :?

The weather during this year, so far as planting, cultivating, maturing the crop,
and the development of cane sugar in sorghum in this section of the country has
been the most unfavorable of any year within our knowledge, and we are informed
by those who have grown sorghum and broom-corn that this year has been the most
_ unfavorable season for upwards of twenty years in this section for those crops.

Further difficulties in manufacture are also described.?

The company were unfortunate in not having a crystallizing-room, capable of being
heated to the proper temperature for the best results in crystallization, and the subse-
quent purging of the sugar. The room was so cold that the melada was too stiff to
arrange itself evenly in the centrifugal without the addition of warm water in the
mixer, and even then it was often found impossible to purge without washing with
warm water. We took the trouble to make experiments to see how much or what pro-
portion of sugar was being washed down with and into the molasses by reason of the
cold. It was done by taking a certain weight of melada, 120 pounds, which wascare-
fully warmed and then swung out. The yield was 56 pounds of dry sugar. The
same amount of melada from the same car was swung in the usual way, aud the yield
was 38 pounds of dry sugar, or a loss of 18 pounds of sugar in a purge, by reason of
the cold. We had but a few days of favorable weather, and the results from it com-
pared favorably with the above experiment.

Upon that basis we find that there was uselessly washed away 27,799 pounds of
sugar. Add sugar obtained, 86,603, and, with a suitable crystallizing-room kept at a
temperature of from 98° to 100°, the sugar product would have amounted to 114,402
pounds. This would have made the yield per ton of 66.3 pounds; yield per acre, 615.7
pounds.

This sugar was actually made, and was lost in separation by reason only of the fact
that it could not be kept at the proper temperature. This difficulty can be overcome
_ by having a crystallizing-room and having it kept properly heated.

In the next place sorghum requires hot summer weather for its proper development.
As shown in our report, the average temperature during the part of the past season
- fell far below the usual summer temperature in this section, and was an average of 6°
below the average of the same months of last year.

' Encouragement to sorghum, ete., 1883, p. 13.

2 Op. cit., p. 11.
3 Op. cit., pp. 17, 18.



94

(2) REPORT OF PROFESSOR SWENSON,

Magnus Swenson! reports three experiments:

a a

Three and three-fifths acres gave 75, 262 2, 116.5
TWO BEIOS. BIN R 652 cane epcntoosen 28, 974 1, 008
One and one-fourth acres gave.... 17, 112 594



Owing to the very backward season the growth of the cane was exceedingly slow.2 |
In respect of the purity of the juice Professor Swenson says: °

I do not believe that the average juice from the sorghum cane is of sufficient purity —
to allow of its being boiled to grain in the vacuum pan. I obtained a much coarser
sugar by allowing the crystallization to take place in small tanks, and it was conse-
quently much more easily separated.

Compare this with the statement of Professor Weber: ‘

During our season’s work in running the vacuum pan for sugar we did not fail at
any time to produce crystals therein of proper quantity and desirable size.

(3) REPORT OF MR. PAUL STECK, OF SAN FRANCISCO, CAL.°

Four hundred acres of cane were planted. Mr. Steck puts his daily
expenses, aside from the cost of cane, at $235.50. His premium of
$1,200 therefore only paid his running expenses for a little over five
days.

I give below that part of his report where we might expect to find a
statement of the quantity of sugar made.®

I manufactured from 609 to 650 gallons of sirup per day; average market price 50
cents per gallon. The reason why I could not manufacture sugar in quantity was on
account of the juice not crystallizing in the vacuum pan, as cane sugar should do, so
I was compelled to let the sirup run into tanks for crystallization. The sirup which I
manufactured from this sorghum was superior to any in the market, both in color and
taste. The time required in making the alterations necessary and the putting in of
large tanks, and other changes which I would have to make, was too short, so I con-
verted the crop into sirup, as above stated. The sorghum sirup has a very slow crys-
tallization, and the room in which it is kept should have a temperature of not less
than 105°, It is a very important point in manufacturing sugar from sorghum
not to bring the juice to boiling-point, as it checks the crystallization ; therefore it
should always be evaporated in vacuum pans (what we call single, double, and triple
effect), and also the cane brought to the mill should be manufactured into sugar or
sirup within twelve to fifteen hours, as the longer it is exposed to air the more sucrose
will turn to glucose. There should not be more cane cut in the field than can be
worked at the mill each day.

! Op. cit., pp. 19 ef seq. * Op. cit., p. 23, 6 Op. cit., pp. 23 et seq.
2 Op. cit., p. 20. 4 Op. cit., p. 15. 6 Op. cit., p. 25.





=
ee >

95

Sar the summary of his report, however, we have the follo wing curi-
ous information :!

Number of acres of sorghum brought to the mill...-.... 300
Number of tons of cane manufactured .........-......- 3, 600
The yield of sorghum per acre. ....-.-.-....---.-- tons.. 15
The amount of sugar manufactured (about) .---.. tons.. 5

The amount yielded per ton of cane (about)...-pounds-.-. 80 to 90

Mr. Steck, it seems, had equal difficulty in making sugarand comput-
ing yield perton. Had heavy floods and frosts not occurred, and the
factory had been large enough, Mr. Steck states that he would have
made 288,000 pounds.? The loss of 273,000 pounds is therefore to be at-
tributed to the unfriendliness of nature.

Mr. Steck closes his report with a promise which he has never per-
formed, viz: :

My intention next year is to manufacture sugar from sorghum, knowing the exact
process necessary to its manufacture.

(4) REPORT OF NELSON MAETBY, GENEVA, OHIO.?

Mr. Maltby makes the following statement of his work: ‘4

I worked up cane from 17} acres; the weight of the cane was 167 tons and 824
pounds, yielding a little over 94 tons per acre. I made 1,466 gallons sirup not to be
granulated. I made 1,095 gallons of sirup for sugar, weighing 12 pounds per gallon,
all of which grained well. I made 4,380 pounds good dry sugar from thesame. From
some cane I made 72 pounds sugar and 112 pounds sirup per ton. The average was

62 pounds sugar and 124 pounds sirup per ton.









(5) REPORT OF DRUMMOND BROS., WARRENSBURGH, MO.°

The number of tons of cane manufactured was 243, an average of 94
tons per acre. The greater part of this product did not crystallize.
The sugar obtained was wholly from the Early Amber variety, and
amounted to 1,464 pounds, being an average of 50 pounds per ton.
Calculated on the whole quantity of cane, however, it is not quite 7
pounds per ton.

Drummond Bros. make no complaint of the unfavorableness of the

season.
(6) REPORT OF A. J. DECKER, OF FOND DU LAC, WIS.

Mr. Decker, ia compesing for the prize of $1,200 for sorghum-sugar
making, naively remarks in his summary of operations:



Gallons.
Full amount of sirup made this year.......... .......-.--. 3, 600
ALOR LE aad dae ck woke Gus nddd’s sswnssccees 800
Sugar (not yet swung out).?
1 Op. cit., p. 25. 4 Op. cit., p. 27. 6 Op. cit., pp. 31 et seq.
2 Op. cit., p. 26. 5 Op. cit., pp. 28 et seq. 7 Op. cit., p. 36.

3 Op. cit., pp. 26 et seq.





96

The date of Mr. Decker’s report is not given. He says, however :!

On September 22 and 23 there was a sharp frost. The cane was mostly in blossom
and the juice tested 5° B. Three months Jater it tested less than 6° B. Thereis, there-
fore, internal evidence that the report was written later than December 23.

This failure to separate the sugar may have been due to the small
capacity of the centrifugal, which? “was small, 24 inches in diameter, 6

inches deep, with a capacity of 500 pounds per day.”
In respect of the weather we learn :3

The season has been the most unfavorable of any known in this locality since the
introduction of this crop.

Mr. Decker closes with a number of observations to which the pre-
ceding part of his report gives great emphasis :4

There are a number of points requisite to the development of sugar from sorghum
as well as the process of manufacturing. First, is ripe cane; second, proper appli-
ances; third, ‘‘the know how.” The long-continued high degree of heat required in
open-pan boiling destroys nearly all the sugar long before the required density is
reached, and under the most favorable circumstances not more than one pound of
sugar to the gallon can be expected fram open-pan work, and that does not deserve to
be called sugar making yet. I believe with the use of the vacuum pan and the skill
to run it, sagar in the West is as certain as making flour from wheat.

(7) REPORT OF WILLIAM FRAZIER, ESOFEA, VERNON COUNTY, WISs.®

The weight of cane manufactured by Mr. Frazier was nearly 259 tons,
grown on a little more than 41 acres. Mr. Frazier’s success in sugar
making can not be properly appreciated save in his own words: ®

My report on this subject can not be what I would like. I am able, however, to send
you what I believe to be a pretty fair sample of crude sugar; it was dried from sirup
made of Mr. Brigg’s cane, dried by draining the sirup through a coarse cloth. Allow
me to state here that my object has been sirup, with a view of making sugar in the
near future. The most of my sirup was thoroughly grained one week after it was
made. Had it granulate in the coolers frequently. My coolers are 8 inches deep and
hold 40 gallons each.

On two occasions there was about an inch in the bottom of the second cooler so
completely grained that it would not run out, although the melada was quite warm.
I now have about 2,500 pounds of sugar in the bottom of sirup tanks, whieh I intend
to throw out in the spring.

Mr. Frazier also finds fault with the weather:7

But the expected spring rains failed to come. It continued very dry until the 24th
day of June, when nearly 4 inches of rain fell in one day, many heavy rains follow-
ing, making it impossible to work our crops until the season was far advanced. I re-
pianted my cane twice, but owing to the cold, dry spring and to the ravages of the
grub worm, failed to get half a stand on the 19-acre piece.

(3) REPORT OF THE JEFFERSON SUGAR COMPANY, JEFFERSON, OHIO.

We manufactured 33,250 pounds of melada from the 190 tons of cane worked, We
have not separated all of it in the centrifugal as yet; but it is running about 4 pounds
per gallon (or for every 12 of melada), from the first granulation, We expect on re-









1 Op. cit.,pp. 3Land 3. °%Op.cit.,p.31. °Op.cit., pp. 36 et seq. 7 Op. cit., p. 41.
2 Op. cit., p. 35. 4 Op. cit.,p. 36. © Op. cit., p. 38. 8 Op. cit., p. 46,



97






























oiling twice to raise the figures to 7pounds. Last year we got 6 pounds in every 12,
with two boilings, from some of the best cane. If we do not succeed in getting more
than 6 pounds per gallon, we will have from the above figures 16,625 pounds sugar.
This would be nearly 90 pounds sugar per ton of cane, and about 700 pounds per acre
ofland. We feel assured of this much from the yield of that already separated ; but
we hope to obtain an average of 7 pounds per gallon from all of the cane worked for
sugar during the present season. If cane had fully matured we should not want to
stop with less than 8 pounds per gallon.

The weather, as usual, was bad:

The last two seasons have been the most disheartening ones for developing this new
industry that our country has seen for years.!

(9) REPORT OF THE OAK HILL REFINING COMPANY, EDWARDSVILLE,
ILL. ?

The report says:°

And now we must state plainly that we have not manufactured sugar on a business
scale this season. That is, we have simply made’a small quantity as samples of our
work, and contented ourselves with turning out the greater part of our products as
sirup. We did this for several reasons. f

In the first place, during the two previous years the juice, at its best (and seldom
so), had been on the ragged edge ; that is, scarcely enough sugar to crystallize under
the most favorable circumstances. In 1880-’81 the best ‘‘ quotient of purity” (i. e.,
polarization divided by solid contents) was about equal to the lowest boilings in a
sugar refinery, where a vacuum pan is needed, and three weeks’ storage in a ‘hot
room” to insure a yield of 25 per cent. in sugar, and afterwards a bone-black filtration
to give the sirup a salable color. In 1881~82 the cane, if anything, was poorer; we
had fine-looking ripe cane, the stalks of which were sticky with exuded juice; it had
been in the society of the chinch-bug, and the juice polarized from 1 to 2 per cent.
This year the chinch-bug had been hard at work improving the time as far as possi-
ble, and we knew what to expect.

As to the weather, etc., the report says: #

The past three years the chinch-bugs have been very troublesome in this section.
They have done great damage to the cane crop, especially severe in dry seasons, as
the past three have been.

(10) REPORT OF C. BOZARTH, CEDAR FALLS, IOWA.°

Mr. Bozarth introduces his report as follows :°

I want to preface by stating that I have been in the business twenty-four years,
aud this has been the worst year for cane that we have had for sixteen years. We
had a very cold, wet, backward spring. The cane was four weeks coming up, after
which there were a number of hard frosts, the weather continuing cold and wet up to
July, whichso delayed the crop that it was not much past the bloom when frost came
again on the 22d of September, leaving the cane poor in sweetness and weight, both
marking only 6° to 8° Baumé and averaging not more than 7°. I have made but lit-
tle sugar this season, hardly enough to pay for running through the centrifugal ma-
chine, and inasmuch as the sirup is a good price I have not thought best to put it
through for the little that is in if, although there is a considerable granulation
through all my sirup, fully as much this year as I could expect, and more, consider-
ing the quality of cane. Last year I had 5,000 pounds that sold in the market for

1 Op. cit., p. 43. 3Op. cit., p. SL. 5 Op. cit., pp. 57 etseq.
*Op. cit., pp.47 et seq. 4 Op. cit., pp. 55. 6 Op. cit., p. 57.
23576—Bull 18——7



—



98




&} cents per pound, and the year before 15,000 pounds that sold for 8 cents per pound.
I raised this year on my own farm 85 acres, which was all worked without stripping.

The introduction contains all there is in this repert concerning the
production of sugar.

The results of the experiments just abstracted are appropriately pre-
ceded by a summary made by the Commissioner of Agriculture of the
experiments which had been made up to that time by the Department
of Agriculture in the production of sugar from sorghum. He says:!

On assnming the duties of my office in 1881 I found 135 aeres of sorghum, contain
ing fifty-two varieties, which had been planted in Washington for the use of the D
partment. On being informed that the time had arrived for manufacturing siru
and sugar, I engaged the services of an expert in sugar-making who had been highly
recommended for the position of superintendent, and operations were commenced o
September 26 at the mill erected by my predecessor on the grounds. These oper
tions were continued with slight interruptions until the latter part of October, a
which time the supply of cane became exhausted. Forty-two acres of the crop wer
overtaken by frost before being sufficiently ripe for use, and this portion of the cro
was so badly damaged as to be unfit for manufacture. The yield of cane per acre o
the 93 acres gathered was 2} tons; the number of gallons of sirup obtained w
2,977, and the number of pounds of sugar was 165. The expense of raising the cane w
$6,589.45, and the expense of converting the cane intosirup and sugar was $1,667.64
an aggregate of $8,557.04.

To recapitulate the results of the ten experiments I give the follow
ing table:











Sugar made. Pounds.

NGS 1.5. dain eae 5 eine eee 86, 603
Wes ke flee ee a eee 3, 718.5
39 (abotth))<.2i65<-neen 10, 000
ee Si ge gcc, aE = aie 4, 380
No. 5 (bites a ND. 6. a bed ink ects nee 0, 000
WOl P35 Fe eetes secon e tees 0, 000
ey 8 ‘nabipanted) Stack eis 10, 000
Fee cap aay acteaty 0, 000
No. 10;("'a. little?) co.0. 28h epee
Total sugar.......... 116, 165.5

Amount of premium given, $12,000. Amount per pound (nearly), 10.3 cents.

BY THE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. |
PRACTICAL.

Attempts were made in 1881 by the Department of Agriculture to
manufacture sugar at Washington. Cane from 93.5 acres was crushed.
‘rom the official report it does not appear that any suecess attended
these efforts.

The causes of failure are thus set forth by Dr. Coflier 2

Briefly stated, the several chief sources of failure are as follows:

(1) The immaturity of the sorghum at the period when if iseut and worked, This

inay be due | to late planting, as in our experience the past season, or to the selection

|





! Op. cit., p. 3
$ Agdoultoral Report, 1881-2, pp. 509 et seq.



Full Text
~*
/

f
.

Pare ed ee... %
«2 a oe : a 2 Pw & c
. DEPARTMENT OF souieenrone.|

DIVISION OF CHEMISTRY ¢* C /
iS uit G8 :

Hl
oN )

" SUGAR- PRODUCING PrAisy












foe CHEMIST,
1887-88.

SORGHUM:
‘Fort SCOTT, KANSAS; RIO GRANDE, NEW JERSEY.

- SUGAR CANE: |
LAWRENCE, LOUISIANA, |

TOGETHER WITH A STUPY OF THE DATA COLLECTED
ON SORGHUM AND SUGAR CANE.

WASHINGTON:
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE,
1888


bompliments of

Mormian J, Colman,

Commissonel f Aguicullde

= ee eames eee ne eer snee

—_—$$_——$


=

U.S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE.

DIVISION OF CHEMISTRY.
BULLETIN No. 18.

» SUGAR-PRODUCING PLANTS.

RECORD OF ANALYSES

MADE BY AUTIIORITY OF

THE COMMISSIONER OF AGRICULTURE,

UNDER DIRECTION OF

Per cRRMIstT.,
1887-88.

SORGHUM:
FORT SCOTT, KANSAS; RIO GRANDE, NEW JERSEY.

SUGAR CANE:
LAWRENCE, LOUISIANA

TOGETHER WITH A STUDY OF THE DATA COLLECTED
ON SORGHUM AND SUGAR CANE,

WASHINGTON:
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE.
1888,
23576—Bull. 18——1
Digitized by the Internet Archive
in 2013

http://archive.org/details/sugarprplo0subm




























INTRODUCTORY LETTER.

Sir: I submit herewith, for your inspection and approval, Bulletin
No. 18 of the Chemical Division.

In Bulletin No. 17 it is stated that much of the analytical work per-
taining to the recent experiments in the manufacture of sugar was not
ready for incorporation in that report. This work is now finished and
tabulated and will be found in the following pages.

In view of the fact that the experiments which have been conducted
for so long a time by the Department in the manufacture of sugar have
come to a successful end, I have thought it would be useful here to
collect together, in a condensed form, all the important recorded analyses
of sorghum which [have been able to find. Where series of such analyses
have been made, there are given only the means of the analyses, since
to reproduce them singly would extend the size of the bulletin to undue
proportions. Tor those, however, who may desire to study the analyses
more minutely, references are given to original publications contain-

-ingthem. I have also added to this part of the work an abstract of

recorded tonnage per acre for sorghum, yield of sugar per ton, and

other data which may help to assist any one interested in the matter

to an intelligent conclusion concerning the merits of sorghum as a
sugar-producing plant.

In like manner I have epitomized the results of the analytical in-
vestigations which the Department has carried on for several years at
Magnolia Plantation, Lawrence, La. Intending investors in establish-
ments for manufacturing sugar should have access to a careful and
unbiassed statement of the data on which the industry rests, and in
the following pages an effort has been made to furnish this kind of in.
formation.

Reports written under the influence of prospective personal profit,
or for pushing the claims of a patent, or to gratify personal pique or
ambition, are likely to become the argument of the advocate rather than
the charge of the non-partisan judge.

The persistent and often malicious misrepresentation of the work
which has been done by the Department has not been without its
baneful influence, although it has entirely failed of its chief purpose.

_ The large number of persons interested in the culture of sugar beets,
_ sorghum, and sugar cane recognize the value of the work which the
4

Department has done, a value which misrepresentation can Bt dispar-
age nor selfish greed pervert.

In the work which has been done under my supervision I am not con-
scious of having withheld credit from others to whom it was due, nor
of having claimed, for the Department, undeserved honor.

Exploring an unknown country, the real path of progress has often
been lost to view, and for myself Iam content if my labors have pointed
out to others the road to success.

The cordial encouragement and support which I have received from
you, even in the darkest hour of the work, have been most unqualified,
and your faith in the ultimate success of the industry has never fal-
tered.

The process of diffusion, by the efforts of your Department, has been
fully established as the best and most economical method of extracting
the sugar from the cane, and the way has been opened for private capi-
tal to extend and develope the sugar-producing power of our country
until if shall be placed ona sure foundation of prosperity.

Respectfully,
H. W. WILEY,
Chemist.
Hon. NORMAN J. COLMAN,
Commissioner of Agriculture.


ANALYTICAL WORK AT FORT SCOTT, SEASON OF 1887.

In the agreement made by the Commissioner of Agriculture with the
Parkinson Sugar Company for conducting the experiments in the manu-
facture of sugar from sorghum during the season of 1887, provision ©
was made for a complete chemical control of the work by the Chemical
Division of this Department. Having been directed by the Commis-
sioner of Agriculture to take charge of all the chemical work to be done
at the three sugar stations, Dr. C. A. Crampton and Mr. N. J. Fake
were directed to perform the analytical work at Fort Scott.

The following general directions were sent for conducting the work:

U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, CHEMICAL DIVISION,
Washington, D. C., August 29, 1887.

DEAR Sir: In conducting the analytical work at Fort Scott during the present
season, you will be guided by the following general directions:

(1) Samples of cane from the wagon or cane-carrier are to be taken from time to
time as last year, representing as nearly as possible the best, poorest, and medium
canes which are brought to the factory.

(2) When the diffusion battery is in operation, a given weight of chips is to be
taken from each of the cells until one complete round of the battery is represented.

These samples are to be preserved in a closed vessel until all are taken and then
passed through a small mill and the expressed juice examined in the usual way.

(3) A» measured sample of the juice discharged from each cell of the diffusion
battery should be taken until one complete round has been made. These mixed
samples of juice to be examined in the usual way.

(4) Samples of the juice above examined should be taken after the process of
clarification, representing as nearly as possible the same body of juice as above, and
examined in the usual way.

(5) After concentration to sirup, a sample should be taken, representing as nearly
as possible the juice of the above two numbers and subjected to analysis.

(6) Samples of the masse cuile, sugar and molasses are to be taken, carefully labeled,
and forwarded to the division here for examination.

(7) When the large mill is running, samples of the mixed juices should be taken
as often as convenient and subjected to examination.

(8) The bagasse from the large mill should be examined from time to time, either
by exhaustion with successive portions of water in an open vessel, or by exhaustion
in a closed flask, a little freshly precipitated carbonate of lime being added to the
water of maceration.

(9) Take from each cell of discharged chips a certain quantity representing as
nearly as possible the mean character of the chips discharged from that cell after one
complete circuit of the battery has been made, pass the samples so obtained through
the small mill, and subject the expressed juices to examination.

Concerning the details of the analytical work, little need be said. Double polari-
zation is not necessary except in cases where the canes may be badly injured, and you

5
G ee Pee

will use your own discretion in this matter. You will please report by mail to this
office at least once a week the general character of the analytical results obtained.

Any special chemical investigations desired by Mr. Parkinson or Mr. Swenson you
will make, in so far as these may not interfere with the general work indicated above.

Respectfully,
H. W. WILEY,
Chemist.
Dr. C. A. CRAMPTON,
Fort Scott, Kans.

Later in the season additional instructions were sent to carefully
compare the Brix spindles used in determining the total solids in the
juice with the direct determination of solids by drying a weighed por-
tion of the juice (2 grammes cirea) and determining the per cent. water
it contained. ‘This was thought necessary because it was found that
by determining the water directly in the masse euites they were shown
to have a higher co-efficient of purity than the juices from which they
were derived.

The large mill which, it was expected, would be in operation, was
not erected, and the directions to examine the juices therefrom were
therefore superfluous.

The work at Fort Scott was begun on the 2d of September and ended
October 19.

The sucrose in the juices was determined by polarization in a Laurent
large model instrument, with white light attachment. During the later
part of the season a Schmidt and Haensch double-compensating shadow
instrument was employed to check the results of the instrument first
named.

The glucose was determined by Fehling’s ( Violette’s) solution.

The total solids were determined by Brix spindles and by direct
weighing. ;

Following are the results of the analytical work:

ANALYSES OF JUICES OF SELECTED CANES.

For sampling different lots of cane, comparing saccharine richness,
ete., the juice of single canes, or small collections thereof, was exam-
ined at different periods. In these cases it would be expected that
much greater difference would be found than in the average samples of
chips in the second table. The results show how rich single canes of
sorghum may be in available sugar, and also how poor,

The maximum content of sugar is found in sample No. 9, viz, 14.20,
The minimum is seen in sample No. 8, where the sucrose drops to 2.54
per cent.

DESCRIPTION OF SAMPLES,

No. 1. Orange cane sample from Bullock.

. Orange cane sample from Bowman.

. Orange cane sample from Zoak.

. Late planted early amber from Brown,

& Ww ©


»

- No. 8. Honduras cane shipped by freight from Osage, Mich., to Fort Scott.

20. Orange cane from wagons, average sample cut to dry.
21, Amber cane from wagons, average sample cut to dry.
28. Steward’s hybrid cane.

29. Honduras cane.

31. Link’s hybrid, from land of company west of railroad track.
35. Link’s hybrid, same field, east end.

36. Link’s hybrid, green from slough.

37. Link’s hybrid, brow of hill.

38. Link’s hybrid, brow of next hill.

39. Mixture of orange and amber ripe cane.

40. Amber cane from company’s land.

41. Link’s hybrid, same field, green.

42, Link’s hybrid, same field, green.

43. Link’s hybrid, same field, green.

148. Sample of cane cut and allowed to lie some time to show effect of inversion.

253. Orange cane badly damaged by chinch bugs.
254. Same, another sample.

256. Orange cane from company’s land.

257. Orange cane from company’s land.

TABLE No. 1.—-Various analyses of mill juices from whole canes.













4
Date. | No. Sadie: Sucrose. | Glucose. |
Per cent Per cent.
EE clam din 1 16. 63 By ee ae
ON ae eee 2 19.13 TAO BO) tg Woe o ittahes
aS Se ee 3 19. 65 Re, ek Ltda ek wits 6
ES eee 4 19. 13 TETEs econ Sica
Ee 8 18. 43 Mp) tact apt |
Rete Oe .co ia 20 15.87 | 7. 83 5.43 |
ee 21 19. 87 14. 20 Soest.)
BOSE. es bccewss 28 17. 87 11.03 3. 43
MRS AG. oc. J d.a) 29 16.15 9. 27 4.23
UE, ain fue a 31 18. 37 12. 44 2. 23
IE is. ctw 35 13.68 | £20. fe S84
MOP Tac. 5 ke 36 14.68 | 9.03 | 2.46 |
ee Es us eas d 37 15. 80 %s8 | 282. |
EE co dendunc-| | OD 17. 30 ae Po BSB «I
GED scan ei naan 41 15. 18 iF 1 «3
__ SS eee ae 42 12. 43 5.95 | 278
UN OR ae ee 43 15.18 ee. > 2
MOMS TS. 2.40455. 39| 16.28 10.85 | 4.91
mem): so csct. 40! 16.78 11. 81 2.19
Rentic4. cask 148 19. 31 3. 32 | 9. 36
Pee EWRce. 5. ida 253 17. 43 12.98 | 1.78
SR ah ee aaa 254 17. 93 Sa eee. 5
See CIO 226 ccos ee ONO sod. | 257 15. 31 BO 4 Wisreieh stone
Means....... His 3 16. 72 10.12 | 3.35
Maxima..... ee 19. 65 14. 20 9. 26
Minima...... | Pinks 12. 43 2. 54 1.75
oh eres ee Ne aes
8 ee 3 wey 3





TABLE No, 2.—Mill juices from fresh chips. ;
~
Date. | No. | ( iseadan: Sucrose. | Glucose.
eee ea ~
| | Percent. Per cent.
DENG. joce-pveccee 5 15. 63 8.06 °°“ f Speeaeee ee
Sembee ee 9 17.43.) +10, 78og5 ee $23
Dente a6, as. ahaa nee ll 16. 73 10. 45 3. 50
Settee ote 16 16. 68 10, 94° “Se
a eae 15. 87 6. 20 6.49
Bonk: 30-2. sec 30 16. 87 9.48 3. 87
Sang. 30. vs. sees 33 14.70 8. 56 4.10
Ser S38... ee 47 17. 88 11.39 3.48
Remkctditsiede 51 17. 06 9.56 3. 84
eR cz 54 16. 46 - 92h 4.07
pente th: 2. <2 eeses 69 17. 00 10. 08 3. 62
anh $5. oon Se 73 16. 20 10. 21 2. 82
Sepicy 26. 5 222 ese 81 15. 93 10.15 2. 86
Biek AG. ..2 - cocenk 85 14. 65 9. 36 2.72
pent, 17. .chorks. 88 17. 47 9.99 4. 09
ce) | eee nee ie 92 16. 86 9. 99 3.54 |
Seni 1 cent oe 96 16. 07 10. 40 2. 67
Sept. 419 5. 22 oe 99 16.78 11.19 1. 39
Bente). shee 106 16. 80 10. 21 3.05
OR LO. are obey 110 15. 70 8.91 3.15
ION sae 123 17. 68 9.48 4. 20
Rept. 2? ooo sssnce 131 17.17 7. 70 5. 60
NGM. Coe - noosa 134 17. 73 7. 07 5. 34
Bent. 23. 25. oe 142 17. 21 9. 84 3. 82
DOI es. Ue we 146 16, 76 10.24 ~ °| See
BENG. 24 ooo 149 19. 00 9. 86 3. 31
SOM Ol those 153 17.17 11-28 2. 50
Soph. -O6:0- ts cee 161 16. 51 8. 89 3. 93
Senge OB? -tawy ces oe 166 14. 94 9. 04 2. 68
Otay >. . cnc aces 174 16. 79 10. 39 3. 10
Oct Bits seat. 182 106 10.80" |p eee cesid at
Oot,). 35.2 sn 187 15, 79 10. 38 3. 08
Oct > 3.22. tet 193 15. 69 10. 38 2. 68
Ont + 4-.4.798'5 198 16. 63 10.18 3.48
Ools- 4. 5.5. eo 203 15. 83 9. 88 2. 88
Oets; Sie. tS 216 16.70 10. 00 3. 08
Oak 46: ct aeevk | Boe 16. 58 10. 26 3. 67
Ook Bs. ings nee 230 18. 65 11.51 3.78
| Oe tT she oe 238 16. 10 9. 60 3. 53
ote: eB. cent 246 15. 76 7. 46 4. 23
OGbr 812. Foc ie 258 15. 2] 9. 59 3.15
Gals (dis oo. ee 282 14. 44 9.18 2. 96
Owe 418..}.. seat 265 14. 73 9.13 3. 44
OG 2s ee 272 15. 1] 10. 45 2.40
Qa iS <0 os ae oe 278 14. 97 9. 22 3.17
OGG GIS) S.= eee 282 15. 33 9. 62 2. 75
Oise cee eee 287 15. 69 9. 54 3. 53
Oats* (15. Blase 292 13. 68 8. 30 2.77
Oot 415.555. 6 295 14. 24 9. 02 2. 69
GE, 41620). LoS 300 15. 11 9.13 3.10
RGR PLT oe on a Ace oe 304 15. 31 8. 85 3. 39
OO, FET cbs cenkbes 307 13. 09 7. 99 2. 47
OR FB. cde stes ae 311 15. 81 9. 47 3. 03
OG “18... 8 ~ ale ee 315 14. 21 8.18 3. 23
OCG 719:..0-.. duets 318 14. 93 8. 46 3. 60
Averages. . Siting 16. 14 9. 54 3. 40





A study of Table No. 2 reveals the same characteristics of sorghum
juices Which have been noticed in the work of previous years. The
variations of the juice, however, from the mean have not been so pro-
nounced as they were during the season of 1886, owing, doubtless, to
the fact that the cane was, after harvesting, more promptly delivered
to the factory and worked with less delay than during the previous
season.

The maximum per cent. of sucrose was found in the juice obtained on
October 6, viz, 11.51. Other notably good juices were secured on Sep,
tember 12, 19, and 24; the sucrose in these cases rising above 11 per
cent, The minimum per centage of sucrose was found September 9,

ci lt ii
9

TABLE No. 3.—Diffusion juices.

Brix |

















Date. _ No. | (corrected). | Sucrose. | Glucose.
Beret Seen. a —
Per cent. Per cent.
Bae ore 17| 12.28 09 ht ee ea oe.
eon ete 22\ 12.82 200, -} * X07
ees, 8. 34 | 12.32 6.51 | 2.90
ers cae 48| 12.08 7.23 2. 52
Vr Se 52| 12.28 7.19 2.78
Me ean 55 | 12.42 Peer kee
ee ta et 70| 12.08 7.57 2. 54
Rie tes. 74| 12.62 8. 30 2. 30
ia ties'.. g2| ° 12.38 7. 88 2. 52
oh ie ae 86 13 i0 8.79 2.33
a ae g9| 12.28 7.44 2.92
ere ss. 93 |. 12.28 7. 82 2. 63
iG tos 97| 11.32 7.35 2. 02
Wie rae 100} 12.28 8. 00 1.94
Mes 2 sine: 107| 12.32 6.96 2.12
BeBe L coer is 111 12. 32 7.51 2.30
ee, 124| 11.61 6. 64 2.47
ie. to, 132 10. 85 5. 80 2.94
SS ont 135| 11.61 6. 46 2.73
Bi Neon Pee be. 143| 11.47 6.71 2.76
Pes) ot 147 11.57 Goh) et!
ee eg oe a 150| ° 12.14 6.57 2.28
cA ee ees 154 10, 95 6. 92 1. 93
a ER 162 | 10.81 6. 32 2, 40
BT ee 167 | 40.17 6.37 2.02
Bos. ad. 175 54 6. 20 2.20
PTA 183} 10.12 Rae Bo. ec...
RL ecess ve, 188 | 10.24 6.15 2.08
Pele 194} 10.54 6. 64 2. 00
b Aseates 199| 10.51 6.27 2.01
MRS 204} 19.15 hab et.
Bs xcs dete 2x 217| 11.05 6.29 2.25
Pes As oe 223 11. 68 7.15 2.41
“se 231 13. 10 8.04 2.61
Titled 239| 10.98 6. 54 2. 09
Bl chased. 247 11.51 5. 90 3. 06
Mes el 259| 10.39 6.58 2, 09
me Bak. 263 10. 49 6.51 1. 94
We ct hae, 266 9.97 6.17 2.03
Bs oni Bde 273 10. 82 7. 32 1. 85
ae sete: 279| 9.71 5.97 1. 89
fee 283} 10.97 6. 59 1. 80
ARE ES 288 | 10.17 6. 02 1. 80
indore | 293 9. 34 5. 66 1.75
Th ciciea Niki 296 10. 24 6.56 1.98
Med. 2 tea-) 301 9.45 6. 04 1.83
Wo ceasteee ss 3005 8. 74 5. 05 2. 06
Ps, ot BOB 9.51 5. 88 1. 84
etn. tint: | 312 9. 67 5. 66 2. 02
ais Bisa | 316 8. 64 5. 05 1.82
> eee | 319 8.77 5. 05 2.05
F } Moans :..:3..: iF 11.08 | 6.68 2. 26
PEOEUID cen clancis 13. 10 8.79 3.07
Minima.......|..... 8.74 | 5.05 | 1.80
The lowest sucrose in the diffusion juices was found on October 17
. ~~ ~ > . ~ » ~ or
and 19, viz, 5.05 per cent., and October 17 and 18, viz, 5.88 and 5.66 per
4 e . ;
cent. This was at the close of the season. On only four preceding

days did the percentage of sucrose fall below 6, viz, September 22, Oc-

tober 8, 13, and 15. The maximum per cent. of sucrose in the diffusion
Be saeace was found in sample No. 86, September 16, viz, 8.79.

_ The sample of mill juice corresponding to this number is found in

4 ~ No. 2, sample No. 85. The sucrose in this juice was 9.36 per



10

Thus, while the content of sucrose in the chip juices for that day was
18 per cent. below the average for the season, the sucrose in the diffusion

juice was 211 per cent. above it. These numbers show the difficulty of |

obtaining comparative samples in sorghum examinations. Single anal-
yses are apt to be deceptive, and reliance should be placed rather on
the work for the entire season.

TABLE No. 4.— Mill juices from exhausted chips.

| }





Date. No. Total sugars. | Date. | No. Total sugars. |

) ) :

Per cent. Percent. |
Sept. 9...| 24 99 | Oct. 1....] 176 . 57
Sept. 10...| 32 1.19 Oct. 3....| 189 . 90
Sept.12...| 49 56 | Oct. 4....) 200 | 1.01
| Sept. 13... 56 . 63 | Oct. 5....) 218 . 88
| Sept.15...| 71 | . 88 | Oct. 6....| 232 | . 84
Sept. 16... 84 1. 09 | Onis 7... =; 240 | . 89
| Sept. 17...| 90 1. 83 | Oct. 8 .. 248 | 1.35
| Sept.19 -.| 98a | 88 | Oct. 11....] 260 1.38
| Sept. 19...| 102 | 1.19 Oct. 12....| 267 91
| Sept. 20... 108 | 114 | Oct. 13....| 280 1.43
| Sept. 20...| 112 | 84 Oct. 14....! 289 .76
| Sept. 2L...) 125 1, 22 Oct. 15....| 294 1,02
Sept. 22...| 133 1. 37 Oct. 18....) 313 1.42

Sept. 23...| 145 . 49 Lada en
Sept. 24...) 151 | eae |. «A Verageli-a...- 1.03

Sept. 26...) 165 | . 69



The sucrose in the juice expressed from exhausted chips was inverted
and estimated with the reducing sugar present, and the whole expressed
as total sugars.

The ratio of the sucrose in the chips to the reducing sugar shows that
the former is more readily diffused than the latter. This ratio was not
determined for the whole season. From October 8 to 18, however,
seven such analyses were made, with the following results:

TABLE No. 5,—Sucrose and glucose in juice from ex/austed chips and corresponding diffu-
~ SiON juices,









Exhausted chips. Diffusion juices. |
Date. | eee ke < —< —
No. Glucose. | Sucrose. No. (Glucose. | Sucrose.
:
| z shy sc: 62 | i
Per cent.| Per cent. Per cent. | Per cent. |
Oct. 8.. 248 Ce .78 247 | 3.06 5. 90
| Oct. 11.. 200. | - BL) [a BP) TS Se ae 6. 58
| Oct. 12.. 267 0 63 | 266 | 2.03 6,17
| Oct. 13.. 280 .48 .95 | 279 1. 89 5. 97
Oot. 14.. 289 24 . 52 280 1, 80 6, 02
Oct. 15.. 294 oot oth! | “208. 2 share 5. 66
Oct. 18.. 313 43 | O04) * BLS 2. 02 5, 66
Averages|.......- Or Te: CM Sede ar 2.09 | 6,99
Ratio of glucose to sucrose from exhausted chips ...-..--... .---+--++-. 1» 1:85
Ratio of glucose to sucrose in diffusion juice .......-...---.+---eee eee eee 1: 2.86

Ratio of glucose to sucrose corresponding mill juice from fresh chips .... 1 : 2. 69

The variations in the quantities of sugar left in the chips were due
to differences in the quantity of diffusion juice drawn off at each charge,
and to changes in rapidity of working. Rapid working with small
quantities of juice drawn off leave more sugar in the chips than slower
working and larger charges of diffusion juice.

iit jer

ee el Mt
eee 11









Up to the 22d of September the quantity of juice drawn at each charge
We s 2,200 pounds. From this time to October 4, 2,640 pounds were

drawn off each time. Thence to the close of the season 2,420 pounds.
Assuming that each cell held 2,000 pounds of chips and the cane con-
tained 90 per cent. juice, we have the following data:








* Weight of chips in each cell....-.-....----..----------- pounds.. 2,000
” ES IE ee eee do.... 1,800
ET ee per cent.. 93

: Normal juice extracted from each cell. ..-.....-.....--.. pounds... 1,674

, 1 Charge withdrawn up to September 22 .....- Re oe aia ns do.... 2,200
7 EE ho oe ory a wo into eee mae mme wes ao.-... | on
; ee Se 32. 02

; Charge withdrawn September 22 to October 4..--......- pounds.. 2,640
NIE REIN Fo 2s oe nde <> sow sane Mee see ken ae xo <0 Gg. =. 966
a. Percentage of dilution -........-...-. bit apnfediny We welecir t aca So~ - my 57.70
Charge withdrawn October 4 to close..-... meets aeian 5~ = pounds.. 2, 420
ERE had ap unio moses n+ 0 ose tee inees ene ss fo-.-. .. 746
NONE SEE RS ee ee eee 44, 56

With the modern appliances for evaporating sugar juices in multiple
effect vacuum pans, the objections which have been urged against dif-
, sion on account of the necessary dilution of the juice are of little
force. A dilution of 60 per cent. is not at all incompatible with the
complete economic success of the process.

h
i
a

TABLE No. 6.—Defecated juices.



| x | Brix





| |
}
Date. | No. | (corrected). Sucrose. | Glucose. |
! a oe Jet Pe bie desl }
: }
| | Per cent. | Per cent.
Sept. 12...) 53 13. 35 8. 25 2. 66
Sept.15...| 72 | 13.02 8. 23 2.55 |
Sept. 16...| 87 | 13.28 8. 87 2.23 |
Sept.17...| 91 12. 48 7.90 | 2.53
Sept.19...| 98 10. 90 6. 99 1. 88
Sept. 19...) 101 12. 58 8. 09 1. 97
Sept. 20...| 109 12. 34 7.93 2.11
Sept. 21...| 126 12. 05 fe Takes
Sept. 22...| 136 11. 44 es as
Sept. 23...| 144 11. 24 6. 50 2. 35
Sept. 24...| 152 10, 58 6.43 2. 08
Sept. 26...) 164 10. 81 6.11 2. 38
Oct. 1...| 184 10.14 Bet ste Dy de kien
Ost. $:..] 195 10. 58 6. 24 2.22
Oct. 4...| 201 10.75 6. 83 1.75
Oct. 5...| 221 10. 98 6. 74 2. 23
Oct. 6...| 233 13. 20 6. 99 2. 85
Oct. 7...| 241 10. 81 6.58 1. 80
Oct. 8...| 249 11. 29 6.00 | 2.80
Oct. ia 264 10.01 | 6.09 2. 03
Oct. 12...| 274 asl» Ls 2. 02
Oct. 13...| 284 10. 91 7.10 1. 69
Oct. 15... 297 | 10.51 6.74 2. 04
Oct. 17...) 309 | 9,75 5. 94 1. 87
Oct. 19 " 320 8. 94 5.11 2.10
Averages 11,31 6. 91 2.19
:







=>

_ Dr. ©. A. Crampton has furnished the following additional notes on
the foregoing analytical work :

_ The first analysis of fresh chips was made on September 3, but the chemical con-
trol of the factory was not fally instituted until the 8th, This control consisted of


12 : ae
daily analyses of the fresh chips as supplied to the battery, of the diffusion juice, the —
defecated juice, and of the exhausted chips, together with analyses of the-semi-sirup
masse cuite and sugar from nearly every strike that wasmade. Great care was taken
to have the analyses of the different products comparable with each other ; the samples
were always taken after at least one complete circuit of the battery had been made,

as starting up the battery fresh did not allow of a proper extraction of the first cells
filled. After the first round had been made a sample of the fresh chips was collected,
an equal quantity being taken from each cell filled, the whole properly mixed and run
through the small experimental mill, and the juice submitted to analysis. The sam_
ple of diffusion juice was taken from the same cells represented by the samples of
fresh chips, by collecting and mixing together equal volumes from the drawings from
each cell. The sample of exhausted chips was likewise collected from the same cells,
and the juice obtained from them by pressure with the small mill. Thus the analyses
of these three important products are strictly comparable and represent as truth- —
fully as is possible, so far as the sampling is concerned, the character of the cane en-
tering the battery, of the juice obtained from it, and of the waste matter thrown out.
The defecated juices, having been boiled continuously in an open pan, samples could
not be obtained which would correspond precisely with the samples of diffusion juice,
but they were taken from a large receiving tank, which held the juice from anumber of
cells, so may be taken as a fair average of the defecated juice as it went to the double
effect.

ANALYSIS OF WHOLE CANES, TABLE 1.

These analyses were made for various purposes and are inserted here simply as a
matter of reference. They furnish additional proof, if any is needed, of the extreme
variability of sorghum cane, and of the fact that analyses of a few selected canes
give higher results than the average of a crop, and can not be depended on to show
the average composition of a field of cane. Nos. 29-43 were taken from different
parts of the same field, and at the same time, They show a content of sucrose all the
way from 12.44 to 5.95 per cent. No. 148 shows very well the inversion sorghum un-
dergoes by keeping after it is cut. It was taken from a load brought in by a farmer,
and had doubtless lain in the field several days after it was cut. This analysis, which
is simply an instance of what has been frequeutly observed before, shows the neces-
sity for the rapid handling of sorghum after it is cut. It has been proposed to buy
sorghum cane by its Brix indication, as is done with beets in some parts of Ger-
many. This analysis, with a Brix indication of 59, and a polarization of 3.32, shows
very conclusively that it would not pay very well to bny cane that had stood exposed
on the degree Brix given by the juice.

TABLE NO. 7.—Sirups (thick juices).

haltgre®
Date. | No. | Brix







| (corrected). Sucrose. Glucose.
| | Per cent. Per cent.
| Rept uses 46 | 37.26 16.10 10. 49
Sept. “18...0 cas. 57 41. 60 25. 75 7.90
Sent, (Ubicncunse 75 54. 46 33. 00 10. 92
a ee 94 41. 80 28. 70 7. 69
BORG TaUiecveurs 113 59. 50 39. 10 10. 16
Sept: (22y.4.505 P98 iv cteid pause we 41, 90 14. 70
Géek.. Sita. 137 46. 80 29, 90 9. 62
Sapt, 134; «ks. em 156 46, 60 20 50. |... | seateestiionats
Oct. Stns ae 196 42. 40 28. 00 &. 69
Oct. oS free 234 60, 40 35. 10 16. 26
| Oct. 1 ae 243 50, 60 33.00 10. 36
Oct. Eeteéhawes 268 36, 20 24. 20 6. 42
Oct. i in ED 275 40, 90 S7..70° ° ..|\ cane ee
| Oct. TA .\ceddach' eeu 39. 80 26. 70 7. 62
| Averages..|....... | 46,02 29. 90 10. 06


13




| ‘The variations in the proportion of sucrose to glucose in the thick
be juice as shown on Table No. 7 are much greater than would be expected
from the analyses recorded in the foregoing tables. The thorough mix-

ing of the products of large numbers of diffusion charges should tend
_ theoretically to equalize the ratios of the two sugars. This remark-
_ able variation is explained partly by the addition of sugar to the clari-
fied juices in order to promote crystallization in the vacuum pan.

TABLE No. 8.—WMasse cuites.







.
| Moist- Sucrose | Sucrose; Not :
) No. ee Ash. |Glucose. | “Girect, onpar. | Remarks.





indirect.
|



Per cent.| Pr. ct.









Per cent.| Pr. ct. lPaconi| Per — eo
; 5309 12. 34 4, 82 21. 69 50. 4 53. 94 6. 81 Not enriched. |
5310 | 11.18 | 5.28 | 22.70 52. 8 56. 73 4.11 Do.
F 5311 41.47 | 422. | 15.92 62. 40 | 66.47 1.92 | Enriched.
5312 | 13.86 | 4.07 16. 91 55. 93 | 60. 22 4.94 | Do.
5313 13.58 | 4.13 15.62 | 60.52 | 65.30 1.37.| . Deo
5314 a2241 4. 58 18.19 | 50.19 55. 32 9. 80 Not enriched. |
5315 | 13.83 | 448 | 19.88 | 52.18 | 58.50 | 3.31 Do.
5316 | 12.74 | 4.81 16.82 | 60.24 64. 01 1. 62 Do.
5343 13. 83 4. 02 15.25 | 60.97 61. 25 5.65 | Enriched.
5381 16.72 | 5.09 19. 60 57. 64 55.83 | 2.75 | Not enriched.
; 53885 | 17.80 | 4.72 | 21.00 50.28 | 51.76 | 4.72 Do.
. 5386 | 13.22 | 4.26 | 16.55 | 63.12 62.66 | 3.31 | Enriched.
5387 | 14.48 | 4.48 | 15.83 | 63.16 | 62.63 | 2.58 | Not enriched.
F 5388 | 13.89 | 4.83 | 16.40 | 57.84 59.64 | 5.24 Do.
5389 | 15.19 | 4.66 | 19.52 56.7 55.59 | 5.04 Do.
5344. | 14.38 | 4.50 | 17.36 61.79 61. 83 1.93 Do.
5347 | 11.40 | 4.49 | 13.61 65. 23 63.38 | 7.12 Do.
5348 | 12.96 | 5.01 15. 20 61. 79 61.51 5. 32 Do.
5349 | 13.30 | 4.62 17.30 | 60.00 60. 00 4.78 Do.
5353 | 12.55 | 7.14 | 17.78 | 59.10 59. 62 2.91 Do.
5354 | 25.61 | 4.24 15.95 51. 90 52. 11 2.09 Do.
5355 | 15.69 | 4.93 18.18 56. 03 58. 91 2. 39 Do.
5357 | 13.10 | 4.92 19. 40 55.45 | 57.37 5. 21 Do.
5358 | 22.01 | 4.80 | 16.68 54. 86 52. 18 4.33 | Do.
5283 | 14.12 | 4.32 15. 70 66. 08 59. 77 6. 07 Do.



Avo .. “M45 | 470 | 17.50 | oi eT 59. 06 | 4.21. | |
The remarks applied to the analyses of the sirups, Table No. 7, belong
equally well to Table No, 8. A distinction is made of the samples for-
tified by the addition of sugar. The differences between direct and double
polarization, which are so plainly shown in the analysis of sirups, masse
cuites, and molasses, will be discussed in another place. The greater
reliance should be placed on the indirect polarization when it is care-
fully done. Yet the difficulties attending an accurate analysis of these
substances are very great, and every precaution known to science will
not always lead to perfectly satisfactory results.
The remarkable difference between the direct and indirect polariza-
tions will at once be remarked in the mean results of Table No. 8. In
general, as has been already said, the preference should be given to the
indirect polarization when carefully done. In the present case, however,
the percentage of sucrose by indirect polarization appears to be too
high. The mean percentage of organic solids not sugar is only 4.21, a
much less proportion than would be expected.

se eee To
‘
:
_









' 7
TABLE No. 9.—Polarization of first sugars. .
No. |Sucrose.| No. | Sderassll
| | / !
Per cent. Per cent.
6 | 97.90 || 202 | 96.60
GO 95.00 | 224 95. 20
6L 96.70 | 229 96. 40
17 9%. 10 236 94. 80
104 | 97.80 245 93. £0
105 | 91.20 250 94. 90
129 | 96.50 251 94. 20
139 94.20 || 277 95. 30
159 97.30 || 281 96. 10
160 97.60 || 286 93. 70
165 | 97.20 | 302 92. 40
168 96. 30 | 303 95. 60
169 | 97.10 | 310 | 93.60
192 96. 70
!

i

TABLE No. 10.—Second sugars.





No. _ | se Sucrose.
Per cent.
8&3 82. 30
173 88. 70 ~
255 86. 40
Mean.. 85. 80



The first sugars, as shown by Table No. 9, had a mean content of su-
crose equal to 95.64 percent. The color of these sugars was mostly
grayish yellow, and most of the samples could be used for the coarser
kinds of table use and for cooking without refining.

Only a small quantity of second sugars was made, it having proved
more profitable to sell the molasses than to work it into sugar.

The composition of the second sugars is sufficiently indicated by
Table No. 10.

TABLE No. 11.—Molasses from first sugars.





| |

Station | Serial Moist- Sucrose | Sucrose} Not
Ash.

Glucose















No. | No. ure. | ‘| direct. |indirect.| sugar. |
Per cent. Per ¢ent.| Per cent.| Per cent.| Per cent.| Per cent

261 82 16. 43 6. 50 28.10 36. 67 35. 66 13. 81 |

59 5318 25. 25 : 6.18 27. 96 37. 65 37. 60 3.01 |
79 5320 23.49 | 5.97 23. 76 34. 52 35. 60 11.18

89 5271 | 25.56 | 5.91 | 23.15 | 35.16 | 35.80 | 10.08
97a 5322 28. 04 5. 22 22. 73 38. 67 88. 90 6.11
103 5323 23. 36 6.44 27.47 37 39 87. 00 5.738
130 5324 23. 01 6. 04 24, 32 35, 16 36. 20 10. 43
140 | 5325 22. 22 7.12 25. we 81, 32 31. 70 13. 96
Averages ... | 23, 42 | 6.17 | 26.31 | 95.81 ne 36.00 | 9.10

In Table No. 11 is given the composition of the molasses after separat-
ing the firstsugar. The increase in per cent. sucrose on double polariza-
tion is not as great as the results with masse cuites would lead us to ex-
pect,




15

The samples taken from the tanks at different times represent fairly
well the average composition of the whole for the entire season.

The sucrose remaining after the first crystallization is seen to be nearly
1.5 times the reducing sugar.

The composition of the molasses gives a check on the yield of sugar per’
ton, which the failure to weigh the cane left toa certain extent undeter-
mined. Supposing that there was no appreciable destruction of reduc-
ing sugar during the process of clarification, and no inversion of su-
crose during the evaporation, the relative composition of the molasses
and diffusion juices will indicate the theoretical yield in sucrose. Since,
however, the quantity of diffusion juice drawn off is difficult to deter-
mine from the data furnished, the comparison will have to be made on
the composition of the normal juice expressed from the samples of fresh



chips.
In these juices the mean composition for the season was—
Per cent.
ee EC eran embinpa ches hoanes vauaes dices’ 9, 54
EIN ee se he oi ic oa en = Sie's wins ds a colons aoe 3. 40

In the molasses the proportion of reducing sugars to sucrose is—
25.31 : 36.00, or 1.42.

Now, the product of 3.40 by 1.42 is 4.83; and 9.54 — 4.83 = 4.71, the
percentage of sucrose obtained in first sugars.

In 1 ton of cane chips there are, in round numbers, 1,800 pounds juice.
The extraction was 93 per cent., or 1,674 pounds. The theoretical quan-
tity of pure sucrose obtained per ton was, therefore, 78.8 pounds.

The mean polarization of the first sugars was 95.64, Then78.8+95.64=
$2.38 = number of pounds actual weight first sugar produced per ton.

The yield per ton is estimated at 100 pounds by Mr. Swenson'. By
Mr. Cowgill the yield per ton is estimated at 93.8 pounds per ton®% fact worthy of remark will be noticed on comparing this yield with the
output at Rio Grande and Magnolia, to be mentioned further on. It is
this: That the quantity of sugar obtained at the first crystallization can
not be determined by any fixed rule based on the relative proportions
of sucrose and glucose in the juice. As the proportion of sucrose dimin-
ishes the relative amount obtained rapidly increases. At Rio Grande,
for instance, the quantity of sucrose remaining in the molasses aftet
the first crystallization is actually less in some cases than the glucose,
In Louisiana, even aftera second or third crystallization, more sucrose
than glucose will usually—not always—be found in the molasses.

In the working of sorghum of the richness indicated by the foregoing
analyses, it is a grave question whether a second crystallization is com-
mercially desirable or even practicable, The difficulty of drying the
second masse cuite in the centrifugals is often so great as to render it
commercially unprofitable. Until the quality of sorghum, therefore, is
a)... iBall, 17, p.10. oie eIbid, p. 49. .




16

improved it will be well to base all calculations on the yield of first
sugars alone. This yield, with such cane as mentioned, will be 4 to 4.5
per cent. on the weight of clean cane.

TABLE No. 12.—Second masse cuite.



Not sugar

ure. direct. | indirect.) (organic).

— — 2 = — EES ee eee

fe oe rT _ —<_ “a
. ; :
‘we: | Moist- | n> Stefan Sucrose Sucrose
}









Per cent.| Per cent. | Per cent.| Per cent.| Per cent.| Per cent. |
7.08 | 63













5345 | 19.34 | 27.30 | 39.15 | 38.65 :
5384 | 1802 | 6.93 | 29.70 | 39.68 | 44.81 1. 04
5356 | 21.00 | 7.26 | 26.45 | 40.52 | 41.98 3. 31
Means| 19.45 | 7.09 | 27.82 | 39.78 418 | 3.99
TABLE No. 13.—Molasses from seconds.
es | - | basa | Gussie Not sugar
No. ure. Ash. od direct. indirect.) (organic).





$$ ee ——$——— — ) are a
| Per cent., Per cent. | Per cent. Per cent | Per sents Per cent.
5350 25.62 | 8.06 |! 31.35 | 32.40 | 29.08 ! 5. 89











53851 | 24.42 | 8.00 | 30.85 25. 60 33. 58 3.15
| 5380 | 26.14 | 7.53 29. 78 31. 66 30. 68 5. 90

Means, 25.39 7. 86 30. 66 33. 22 31.11 4. 98

’

In the second masse cuites the only marked difference from the first
molasses is in the degree of evaporation.

In the second molasses we see the sucrose about in the same propor-
tion as the glucose. It is also less by double polarization—a fact diffi-
cult of explanation.

TOTAL SOLIDS IN JUICES.

In Tables Nos. 1, 2, and 3 the total solids represent the readings of
the hydrometer graduated to give the quantity of pure sugar in an
aqueous solution, and corrected for temperature.

It is evident that in a cane juice containing large quantities of solids
other than pure sucrose, these readings can give only approximately the
percentage of dry solid matter in solution.

Instructions were therefore sent to Fort Scott to determine dry vola-
tile matter or total solids by evaporating a weighed portion of the juice
and noting the weight of the residue dried to practically constant —
weight at 105° C. This operation was carried on in a flat platinum .
dish, about 2 grams of the juice being used in each case. The re- |
sults showed a marked difference in the data furnished by the Brix
hydrometer and the direct method, the latter being uniformly lower, —
thus increasing the apparent purity of the juice. In ‘this operation,
however, the difficulty of securing uniform desiccation is great. The
greater the quantity of solid matter contained in a given juice the
more difficult is it to secure the complete removal of the water, The
17

- differences noted, therefore, in the case of the mill juices are greater
* than in the juices of diffusion. This matter will be referred to again in
the Louisiana analyses to follow. In Table No. 14 the differences. are















timation.
oe i.
| Mill juices. Diffusion juices.
ae eh 6) fs, ee eRe © ea
| No. Direct. Indirect. No. | Direct. | Indirect. |
| Per cent. Per cent.. | Per cent. | Per cent. |
238 15. 67 16. 10 oon.) 10. 15 10. 98
246 14. 95 15. 76 | 247 10. 54 rE 51
258 14. 55 15. 21 259 9. 50 10. 39
262 13. 85 14. 44 i (263 9. 60 10. 49
265 14. 40 14. 73 266 9. 00 9. 97
272 14. 80 15.11 ais 10. 05 10. 82
278 14. 40 14. 97 279 8. 85 9.71
282 14. 85 15. 33 283 | 9. 40 10. 27
292 13. 40 13. 68 293 | 8. 43 9, 34
255 13. 60 14. 24 296 9. 30 10. 24
300 14. 78 15-12 301 8. 58 9. 45
304 14. 85 TDiak: 205 8.10 8. 74
307 12. 50 13. 09 308 | &. 80 9. 51
m 315 13. 65) 14, 21 312 8.75 9. 67
318 14. 65 14. 93 316 7.0 8. 64
——S 319 8.05 8.77 |
Aver.| 14.33 | 14.81 | ae ee oe
Aver 9. 06 9, 91 |



Dr. Crampton makes the following observations on this work:

These results are very interesting and important. They show that while the spin-
dles give results but slightly below the actual determination by drying in the case of
mill juices, the results with the diffusion juices were, on an average, .85 too high.
The spindles used were tested afterwards with a standard solution of pure sugar, and
found to give results about .2 too high. They corresponded closely with a delicate
saccharimeter tested by Scheibler. The different results given by them in the case
of the mill and diffusion juices I am unable to explain, as it would seem more rational
that the diffusion juices, being more nearly pure solutions of sugar than the mill,
would give results approximating more closely to the standard upon which the spin-
dles were based. It is possible that the large amount of suspended solids in the mill
juices may in some way account for the discrepancy. At all events the direct de-
termination doubtless gives more reliable results. Correcting the average results on
the basis of the samples in which a direct estimation was made we have:

Total solids in the mill juices for the season...............------- 15. 66
Co-efficient of purity based on above.................200--------- 60.9
Total solids in diffusion juices for the season ........-...---.----- 10. 23
EE OES Es 65. 3

Showing an increase in the purity of the diffusion over the mill juices of 4.4 points,
The ratio of glucose to sucrose in the two juices for the season was as follows :

MOD no dasc pacésslauce Ses SURG aucune ss bedi widh eacad sk £2.80
Rl cab bape b« meen bees 1 : 2.95

This would seem to show one of two things: Either there was absolutely no inver-
sion in the battery, and the slight difference in favor of tae diffusion juice was due
_ to error of analysis, or that the glucose in the cane was not so readily diffusible as the
- sucrose, and thus a greater proportionate amount of the latter was obtained by diffusion

23576—Bull 18 2


18
than by milling, sufficient to cover whatever slight inversion there was in the bat-

tery, and leave a margin beside. The latter hypothesis seems to be borne out by the
analysis of the exhausted chips. Up to October 8 the total sugar remaining in the

chips was determined, no separate analyses being made of glucose and sucrose. After -

that date both sugars were estimated. Table No. 5 gives the results, together with
the sucrose and glucose in the corresponding diffusion juices:

TABLE No. 15.—Acidity in mill juices and diffusion.











Mill juice. Diffusion. |
! | ‘ ‘ i n
| No. C.C. No. | C.C. 10 |
alk. for 100. alk. for 100.
| |
—— eae pence ie pieitinneicieiil ede
174 | 32.0 175 14.4
193 | 288 194 16.8
198 | 38. 0 199 20. 0
| 222 32.0 223 18.4
230 | 39.0 231 22.8
936°} _ 32.% 229 26. 0
246 | 36.0 247 20.0
258 10.0 259 16.0
265 26. 0 266 15,39"
278 | 34.0 279 18.0
292 | ~ 18.9 293 19.0
304 34.0 305 12.0
811 21.0 312 9.0
315 26.0 | 316 10.0
Mean . 29.1 Mean. 16.3 “4



The work recorded in Table No. 15 was undertaken to show the ex-
tent to which the carbonate of lime added to the diffusion cells neutral-
ized the free acids of the juice. The numbers indicate the quantity of
tenth normal alkali required to neutralize the acids in 100 cubie centim-
eters of the juice. Taking as a basis of comparison the total solids
in the mill and diffusion juices for the season, as indicated in Tables
Nos. 2 and 3, the following data are obtained:

Total solids in mill juices. ... 5.2. ..20<.+sess0essnes ova 16,14
Total solids in diffusion juices... .f .....sa Acidity of mill juice... cn. cces sauces toacenacseneuns ta nee 29.1 ce.

The normal acidity of the diffusion juice, had no carbonate been
used, is obtained by the following calculation :

16,14 : 11.08=29.1 :X; whence
x 19.98

The mean quantity of alkali required for neutralizing the acid in the
diffusion juice was 16.3 cubie centimeters. Deduct this number from
the calculated normal number and the difference, viz, 3.68 cubic centim-
eters, represents the amount of acid neutralized.

The percentage of acid neutralized is therefore 3.68 + 29.1 x 100 =
12.65. The action of the carbonate, therefore, in neutralizing the acids
is not as far reaching as the experiments made by the Department and
recorded in Bulletin 14 would lead us to expect.


: a a A : . e

Th nan ge
wi », o
leo Bao .
“te ’







ice from exhausted chips contained 1.03 per cent. of total sugars. This
sugars as 2.04 per cent. of the amount contained in the cane. Sup-
io of glucose to sucrose in the exhausted chips for the whole season to
> same as that shown during the time that the two sugars were esti-
ttely, the average sucrose remaining would be .68 per cent. in the juice,
. of the chips themselves. This would give an extraction of 92.87 per
otal sucrose present in the cane.

ot so good an extraction as has been obtained in previous experiments with
neane. It is explained by Professor Swenson on the ground that the chips
ade fine enough, gaps in the knives of the small cutters, made by stones,
ig into it, allowing of the passage of comparatively large pieces of cane.
WORK AT RIO GRANDE, N. J.

The general instructions sent to the Fort Scott station were given
also to the analysts at Rio Grande, with such changes only as the
locality required.

Mr. I. V. Broadbent was placed in charge of the analytical work,
with Mr. Hubert Edson as assistant. Mr. Broadbent resigned his posi-
tion early in October. Mr. Edson then took charge of the work and
remained until the close of the season. With the assistance of one boy
he successfully conducted the chemical control of the factory.

In the following tables are given the results of his work:

TABLE No. 16.—Juices from diffusion chips.





















Date. eeaee| Baumé. pooh ag aes es Glucose.
ee eco ! a eed
) Per cent. Per iil
|Sept. 8.....) 1.057 7.8 14. 06 7.94 | S@@P ie
| Sept. 9 ..... 1. 059 21° Be 8.88 |] OS Oieariitnc:
Sept.10 ..... 1. 057 7. 45 22 8.34 |. @1: Sheena. oo
| Sept.12 ..... | 1.052 VE eh Ce S 7.95 | "08. 00a
| Sept. 13 ..... | 1.052 7.2 | 12.80 8.10 | 63.28 |....-.....
Sept.15 .....} 1.051 at 12. 96 7.37 | 56.87 3. 46
| Sept. 17 ..... 1. 054 7.6 | 3283 8. 01 | 62. 43 3. 22
| Sept.19 ..... | 1.050 6.9 | 12.26 | 7.29 | 59.46 3.79
Sept. 19 ..... 1. 052 72 jo 23 Op 7.33 | 58.73 4. 07
| Sept. 20 ..... 1. 055 7.6 12.06 | 7.61 | 58.72 3.13
Sept. 20 ..... | 1.057 7.8 13:62 «|, 9,53: 4 | Shee 3. 39
Sept. 21 ..... | 1.069 | 9.4 | 16.47 | 11,63 | 70.61 2. 52
Sept. 21...... | 1.072 | 9&8 | 17.80 | 12.28 | 68.99 2.76
| Sept. 222.27: 1.063 | 86 | 15.28 | 10.88 } 71.20 | 2.46
Sept.23 .....} 1.059 | 8&1 | 13.90 | 832 | 59.86 3. 04
Sept. 24 .....| 1. 058 7.8 13.86 | 8.55 | 61.69 3.45
Sept. 26 ..... | 1.061 8.3 14, 23 9. 09 63. 88 . 2.97
Sept.27 ..-..1 1.058 | 7.0 | 1371 8.42 | 61.42 | 3.63
Sept. 27 ..... | 1.061 aa: i: 4 8. Of 62.56 | 3.86
Sept. 28 ..... | 1.060 8.0 14. 20 8.80 | 61.97 3.32
| Sept. 20 ..... | 1.053 7.3 13. 02 8. 29 2. 67 3.30 |
Oct. Ivisx 1. 053 7.3 | 13-61 7. 98 | 61. 34 3. 05
Dot, +B ance: 1. 055 7.6 14.19 9.25 | 65.19 3.15
cer. Se, eee ae ee 13. 74 8.43 | 61.36 3.99
| O66. "Oveens | 1,000 | 8&2 14. 67 8. 83 60. 19 3.53
| Oot. 8 ces | 1.058 | 7.9 14. 1 9.34 | 65.27 3. 59
Oot "Sc | 1.087 | 78 | 98.80 9.21 | 66.74 2.70
| Ong St a | 1.059 8.1 15. 03 9.19 | 61.14 3. 36
‘Oat. - F sect | 1.057 7.8 | 13.88 8.94 | 64.41 3. 68
| Oct. 8 ..... | 1.066 | 7.7 |. 18.66 7.40 | 61.49 8.71
Oct. 10 ..... | 1.065 8.9 15. 94 10, 95 68. 70 2. 87
| Oct. 10..... 1. 065 8.9 16. 33 11.64 | 71.28 3.01
| Ook Bt... coc 1. 066 9.0 15. 61 11.02 | 70.42 3.05
a oe 1.067 | 91 15. 78 10.80 | 68.44 3.12
Ont, 18 «25. 1, 056 7.9 13. 66 9.08 | 66.47 2.94
DORIS vse. 1. 060 82 | 14.58 9.27 | 63.58 3. 29
| O66..94 ssc: 1, 059 81 | 1484 9.34 | 65.13 3.18
CNB.” Des aes | 1,057 7.8 13. 86 9 GL GD..34 -lesemiunees
Oct. 15......| 1.058 | 7.9 | 18.77 8.72 | 63.33 | 8.51
Det 38 Gee: 1070 | 95 | 16,71 11.40 | 68,22 3.13
Oat Wi wane 1. 070 9.5 16. 86 11. 51 G8, 27 covet vance
| Oot.” 2B wewas | 1,069 ), 4 | 16.738 11.47 Gs. 56 3. 28
ion 1S vias 1, 066 8.2 | 14. 30 9.36 | 65.45 3. 06

20



~



yt

21

TABLE No. 16.—Juices from diffusion chips—Continued.

'
Date. | Specific Gaaaa Brix (cor-











‘gravity, | rected.) Sucrose. Purity. Glucose. |

Per cent. Per cent. |
ere. | tem). 7.7 «| 13.26 8.49 | 64.02 2. 83
Oct. 20°....: 1.056 | 7.7 | 13.28 8.52 | 64.14 2. 83
Bei: Sh. .2.- 1. 050 6.9 11. 90 7.29 | 61.26 2.56
(oa) en 1.053 | 7.3 12.53 7.79 | 62.17 2. 94
Oct. 22 ..... 1.048 6.7 11. 24 6.81 | 60.59 2.99
Oct. 24 ...-.. 1.065 | 89 15. 21 10. 42 | 68. 51 2. 07

Oot 4 .:..- 1.065 | 8&9 | 15.47 10. 39 | 67.16 ce a ee

Oct 25 _.... 1051 | 71 | 1226 | 6.74 | 54.97 | 3.74 |
¢ Oct. 26 ..-.. 1.05 | 61 10.45 | 471 | 45.07 4.45
et. 27... .. | 1.056 1.7 13. 43 8.85 | 65.90 3.49
Se 1. 059 8.1 14.10 | 9.20 65.25 | 3.73

a, £e....- 1. 052 7-2). 12.87 8. 12 64. 60 3.40 |
et ae 1. 053 7.3 12. 24 8.16 | 66. 66 3. 78
a oes 1. 056 7.7 | - 13.05 7.70 59. 00 3.55
Mow..1 ...-. 1. 062 85 | 14.52 9.95 | 68,52 3. 30
Nov. 2..... 1. 062 8.5 14. 35 9.96 | 69.47 3. 88

Mev. 3 ...-. 1. 062 8.5 14 74 Ve a A ta
Nov. §....| 1.061 8.3 14, 20 9.48 | 66.29 53
Means .. | 1.067 7.8 | 14.02 8.98 | 64.05 | 3.24
Maxima .| 1.070 9.5 17. £0 12.28 | 71.28 | 4.45
Minima..| 1.045 | 6.3 | 10. 45 4.71 45.07 | 2.07



The analyses of the samples of chips taken from each charge of the
battery, often twice daily, show the remarkable fluctuations in sucrose
which have always been noticed in sorghum juices.

The mean composition of the normal juice, Table 16, shows a less per-
centage of sucrose, but a somewhat higher purity than were obtained
at Fort Scott.

The maximum percentage of sugar in the juice is not as great as at
Fort Scott, and the minimum is not so small. In general it may be
said that the canes worked at Rio Grande were slightly inferior for
production of sugar to those of Fort Scott.

The theoretical yield per ton, based on the Fort Scott analyses,
would have been as follows:

Pounds of juice at 93 per cent. extraction .........-........---- 1, 674.
OS Ee ee ee a 1. 60
Sn a ee 4.38
Pare sucrose, first crystallization .../...-....-.-. ...... ....--- 73, 32
peraucroee, 6L0., Ab Fort Scoté .... .. - 200 cece cen ccee ee ee 78.8

The yield obtained, for various reasons, was much less than this.

The tonnage obtained at Rio Grande, however, was fully double that
at Fort Scott, and this heavy growth may account for the slightly in-
ferior quality of the cane,
















| Rs ; ;
Date erates.) Baumé. Brix aa Sucrose.) Purity. | Glucose.

| oa bed ) ae

:

1887. 2 ° Per cent. Per cent. f
Sept. 8.-...- 1. 040 5.6 9.0 9. 57 5.€9 MSD cps ni, :
|Sept. 9.....| Loge | 5.6 9.1 | 10.21 | G21 | 60.82 |.......... 3
Sept. 10..... 1. 040 5.6 9.1 9.92 5. 57 SANS Bisa Pick ‘
Sept. 12..... | 1.033 4.7 8.1 8.91 5. 58 MRT betas ct '
Sept. 13..... | 1.037 5.2 9.0 9 GL 6. 03 We a nce ‘
Sent..36-.... | Ror TRS 9.2 9.77 5. 43 SME Pines c dan 3
Sept.Ats..: | 1.045 6.3 10. 4 10. 43 6.71 64. 33 2. 93 .
Sept. 19 =n 1. 040 5.6 9.6 10. 16 5.74 56. 50 2. 85
Sept. 20 ....| 1045 | 6.3 | 10.5 10.95 | 6.18 | 5644 | 3.27
Sept. 20.....| 1.047 6.5 11.1 11.55 6. 68 BA 6c ann ta
Sept. 21.....) 1.050 6.9 11.8 12.18 8.47 69. 54 2.12 a
Sept. 21 ....| 1. 050 6.9 12.8 13. 22 8. 97 67. 85 2.17 é
Sept. 22.....| 1. 060 8.2 14. 0 14. 40 9. 90 68.75 2.72
Sept. 23.....! 1.055 7.6 12.8 13. 06 7. 51 57.50 3. 00 z
Sept. 24.....| 1.051 7.1 12.3 12. 30 7.07 57.47 3. 24
Sevt. 26.....| 1.042 5.9 9.5 9.56 6.18 64. 64 2. 09
ae ee a 12.4 12. 60 7.72 61. 27 3. 27
sept. 27¢,~-4 3, 56 7.6 12.5 12. 80 7.81 61. 02 3. 51
Sept. 28.....| 1.053 7.3 12.5 12.77 7.47 58. 58 3.27
Sept. 29.....| 1.051 71) 1 G68 12.33 7. 81 63. 34 3. 16
Gear. . faa: 1. 046 6.4 10.9 11. 58 7. 09 61. 20 3. 09
Oe S34: 1. 040 5.6 10.0 11.12 6. 86 61. 69 2. 37
Oeb.* Bicczs 1. 052 7.2 12.1 12. 62 7.55 59. 83 3. 66
Heb: \ 450 1.044 6.1 10.2 10. 90 6.73 61.74 3.19
eh 4 1.0°6 "4 12.8 13.39 8. 70 64. 97 3. 82
Ose B.. : 1. 043 6.0 10.1 10. 35 6. 62 63. 96 2.50
Oote * 8x... 1. 045 6.3 10.6 | 11.01 6.98 63. 40 2. 62
ti) a eee 1.038 5.3 83.) « O38 5. 89 63. 43 2.53
Og’. 05555: 1. 035 4.9 7.9 8. 44 5. 08 60.19 2.03
Gets ARs 1. 042 5.9 10.4 10. 87 7. 42 68. 26 2.19
Oct. 10..... 1. 058 7.9 13.6 14.30 | 10.02 70. 07 3.10
iets A crcl 1, 057 7m 13.5 13. 73 9. 58 69. 78 2.94
oe t.. 1052 7:2 121 12.58 | 8.49 67. 49 2.18
Oot. .13.....| 1.045 6.3 10.5 10. 62 6.85 60. 47 2.50
O6e<48.074 1. 052 7.3 12.3 12.66 | 8.28 65. 40 2. 94
Oot: 34 bce) 3. Bl 71 12.2 12.58 | 8.11 64.47 2.91
Ot a4: 2... 1.053. | 7.3 12.3 12.85 | 8.66 67. 39 3.01
Oct. 15.....] 1.047 65 | 109 10. 98 | 7.14 65. 02 2.81
Oot. 47x... | 1.034 4.8 7.9 8.42 6.19 71.14 1. 57
Oet- 176 1. 035 4.9 8.2 8. 82 6. 24 PATI 16 ch. has
Cet Nae.:: 1. 035 4.9 8.2 8. 60 6.01 69.77 1.91
Oct.: 19.2... 1. 036 5.1 8.5 8. 82 5.78 65. 53 2.13
Oct. 20..... 1. 047 6.5 16.8 11.18 7.09 63. 42 2. 69
Ck 88S 2 1. 046 6.4 10.8 11.31 6.97 | 61. 64 2.57
Ch Bt zs. 1. 039 5.5 9.1 9.51 5. 54 54. 05 2. 46
Oot B12: .. 1. 045 6.3 10.4 10. 73 6. 52 60. 76 2.53
tS Se oe 1. 041 5.7 9.5 9.77 5. 70 56.19 2. 80
Det 34.3... 1. 035 4.9 8.0 8. 40 5.81 69,17 1.32
Oct. 24.... | 1.048 6.7 11.4 11.91 5.77 CEE Sie sak shan,

Oct. 25.....| 1.046 6.4 10 9 11.35 5.92 52. 16 3. 33
Oct. 26.....| 1.037 5.2 8.5 8.78 3. 89 44. 31 3.97
Oct. 27..... 1. 050 6.9 11.8 12. 08 7.61 63. 00 3.54
ae 1. 055 7.6 12.7 13. 00 7.97 61.31 3. 60
Dat, - 20.50.: 1. 043 6.0 10.0 10. 37 6. 49 62. 58 3.10
Ook B8.2...¢ 1. 036 5.1 8.2 8. 38 5. 05 60. 26 2.75
Oct. 31..... 1. 045 6.3 10.6 11.04 | 6.2 56, 43 3.45
Wari. ee 1. 050 6.9 11.7 11.82 | 6.72 56. 93 3. 88
Now. 3.24; 1. 059 8. 1 13.4 13. 40 8.73 65.15 3. 68
Nov. 3.....| 1.056 7.7 13.1 13.55 | 8.63 CO) (bua
Mat. °O. aan 1. 056 27 13.2 13. 26 8. 41 63. 71 3.74

Means...' 1.046 6.4 10.6 11.18 | 6.93 61.98 2. 86

Maxima.| 1,060 8.2 14.0 14.40 10. 02 71.14 3.97

Minima..| 1.033 4.7 7.9 8. 38 3. 89 44. 31 1, 32





The system of diffusion employed at Rio Grande is fully explained
by Fig. 5, Bulletin No. 17. It differs radically from the system of
closed diffusion. As operated at Rio Grande last year the extraction
was no better than by good milling in Louisiana, while the dilution was
fully as great as at Fort Scott and Magnolia.

The defects of the system were both mechanical and chemical,


> OS OF Bae ee ee “7 Te

—_”.

;
:
k
g



23

— The mechanical difficulty is the same as that which attends all meth-

ods of diffusion in which the cane chips are moved instead of the diffu-

sion liquors. From a mechanical point of view,it is far easier and

more economical to move a liquid in a series of vessels than a mass of
chips. In the Hughes system the whole mass of chips undergoing
diffusion, together with adhering liquor, and baskets and suspending
apparatus, are lifted vertically a distance of several feet, varying with
the depth of the diffusion tanks every few minutes. The mechanical

energy required to do this work is enormous, and with large batteries

the process would prove almost impossible.

The chemical defects of the system are shown in the exposure of so
large a surface to oxidation and the action of invertive ferments. It
is not surprising, therefore, to notice a distinct increase in the ratio of
glucose to sucrose in the data of Table No.17. Diffusion in open ves-
sels was tried years ago with the sugar beet, and was abandoned as
being both unscientific and expensive. The degree of extraction in open
vessels is also less perfect than in closed diffusers where a considera-
ble pressure is exerted on the osmotic liquors. It is but just to say,
however, that the poor extraction obtained at Rio Grande is due more
to the low temperature at which the diffusion took place than to the
open diffusion vessels. I measured the temperature several times at
the beginning of the season and found it below 60° C,

By certain modifications made after the close of the season, Mr.
Hughes obtained a better extraction, (Bulletin 17, p. 67.)

The composition of the diffusion juices is sufficiently shown in Table
No. 17.

TABLE No. 18,—Exhausted chip juice.









: ae ae ” |
Date ote | Baumé. | Brix. rected.) Sucrose. | Purity. | Glucose.
|
| ° ° ° Per cent. | | Per cent.
| Sept. 8..| 1.019 2.7 4.5 5.05 ) ge 2 eee
Sept. 9..| 1.012 1.7 a2 2.55 1,82 | OF heed 5.
Sept. 10..| 1.018 2.6 oe oh ete. | ear) 66.88 |...,......
Sept.12..) 1.017 | 2.4 | 0) Wi h4de 1 RGR 4 69:67. |..22.5-s-.
Sept. 13..| 1.016 OS a Ce ee Se eee ee |
Sept. 15..| 1.019 2.7 6:0, RRS to B08) 1-67.60 |s-..-.....
Sept. 17..| 1.016 2.3 Zi 4; is 2.03 65. OL . 97
Sept. 19..| 1.011 1.6 2.0 | 2.70 | 1:73 | 64.07 73
Sept. 20.. 1. 007 1.0 Ae k Bale | 99 58. 23 | 50
Sept. 20..| 1.010 | 1.4 1.9 | 230 1.16 | 50.43 bf
Sept. 21..| 1.007 tet: OLS 1.68 | 98 58. 33 35
I ih eebigeadildetdes siusbecesscen 39
Sept. 22..| 1.018 nie ts 4.3 4.96 | 3.12 | 638.09 . 50
Sept. 23..| 1.018 2.6 3:7 4. 09 2, 3) 56.48 Lhe
Sept. 24..; 1.021 | 3.0 4.6 4. 66 2. 67 57.30 | 1.34
Sept. 26..| 1.021 3.0 4.3 4.35 2. 83 65.06 | 1.06
Sept. 27..| 1.018 2.6 3.8 4.05 1.78 43.46 | 1,00
Sept. 27.. 1. 016 2.3 3.4 3. 82 2. 22 58.12 | 96
Sept. 28.. 1, 021 3.0 4.3 455 ?! 200 | 6.74 | 1.2 |
Sept. 29..| 1.016 2.3 3.5 4.12 2. 52 61.16 | 1. 05
Oct. 1, 1,015 2.0 3.3 8.98 | 2.5L | 63.07 | 114 |
Oct.) 8..) 1.011 1.6 34 | 3.49 2.13 62. 03 soe
Oct. 3..| 1.021 | 3.0 46 | 50 | 327 64. 88 142 |
Oct 4../ 1,016 | 2.3 %4 = 6| 4.23 2. 54 60. 05 1.15
Oct. 4..| 1. 022 3.2 4.8 | 6.55 3.51 63. 24 142 |
Oet. 5..| 1.007 | 1.0 ieee S09 5 i * 3.96 63.12 49 =|
Oct. 6..| 1.007 1.0 1.5 2.04 | 1.02 50.00 | 38
Oct, 7..| 1.006 | 9 1.0 1,39. -] KI 53. 38 30
Oct, 8..| 1.013 | 19 | 28 | 383 | J 97 59. 16 OL
24

TABLE No, 18.—Lvhausted chip juice—Continued.





















Paes Sy |
Date. | psec Baumé. Brix. ee Sucrose. | Purity. | Glucose.
! :
i
° ° ° Per cent. | Per cent
t Ovk,” 2053) 3. 08: - S8 4.1 4. 40 2. 81 | 63. 86 9
| Oct. 30..| 1.023 | 3.3 5.6 6.28 3. 90 62.10 1.25
Geek 11. hee 1+ 888 6.4 6. 64 4,23 | 63. 70 1.56
(Oct. 11.) 1.016 2.3 3.3 3. 60 2.31 64.17 .75
| Oct. 13..| 1.021 3.0 4.6 4.77 2.95 61. 85 1.40
| Oct. 13..| 1.622 3.2 4.9 5. 34 3.35 62. 75 1.37
| Oct. 14..} 1.023 3.3 5.1 | 5.42 3.42 63. 10 1.41
Oct. 14... 1.019 | 2.7 4.2 4. 82 3.14 63. 14 1.02
Oct. 15..| 1.018 2.6 4.1 4. 35 2. 72 62. 53 1. 04
Oct. 17..| 1.009 3 1.9 2. 23 1.49 G6. 81 42 |
Oct. 17..| 1.009 1.3 1:7 2.14 1.29 RO A ess oe
Oct. 18..! 1.006 9 iy 1.57 93 59. 23 29
Oct. 19.-| 1.016 2.3 4.5 5. 03 2.53 50. 30 .85
Oct. 20..| 1.017 2.4 3.8 4.21 2.¢ 67. 22 94
Oct. 21..| 1.013 1.9 2.9 3.28 2 OL 61.28 .79
Oct. 21..| 1.021 3.0 4.9 5.25 3.11 59. 24 1.29
Oct. 22..| 1.013 1.9 2.6 2. 87 1. 87 65. 85 8
Oct. 24..| 1.021 3.0 4.8 5. 26 2.76 52. 47 .65
Oct. 25..| 1.014 2.0 3.2 3.43 1.75 51. 01 1.16
Oct. 26..| 1.014 | 20 3.4 3. 87 1.91 49. 35 1. 43
Oct. 27..| 10074 sae 3.9 4.19 2.73 65. 18 1.18
Oct. 27..| 1.020 2.9 4.5 4. 87 3. 40 69. 82 1.31
Oct. 29..| 1.013 1.9 3.1 3. 40 | 2. 48 72. 94 84
Oct. 31..| 1.015 2.2 3.5 4.67 | 2.47 64. 31 1.08
Oct. 31..| 1.023 2c | Vee 5. 53 3.09 54. 07 1. 62
Nov. 1..| 1.023 eS 4. See 5. 45 | 3. 48 62. 02 1.41
Nov. 2..| 1.024 3.4 5. 4 5.43 3. 60 66. 30 1.43
Nov. 3..| 1.019 ey o> tee 4.48 2. 85 Wet Wott...
Nov. 8.) 1.019 | 2.7 4.4 | 456 2.97 | 62.94 Ki
Means..| 1.016 2.3 3.61 4.03 | 246 | 61.04 oan 4
Maxima.| 1.027 3.8 6.4 | 6.64 | 423° Symon 11
Minima.| 1.006 | .9 1.0 133 | .8L | 4346 | .30 |
!

In Table No. 18 1s shown the composition of the juices expressed from
the chips as discharged from the battery. The total sucrose in the fresh-
chip juice, as shown in Table No. 16, was 8.98 per cent. There was left
in the juice of the discharged chips 2.46 per cent. The juice remaining
in the chips suffers a slight dilution during the process of diffusion, but
for comparative purposes the quantity of juice in the chips before and
after diffusion may be taken as the same.

In this case the percentage of juice extracted is 8.98 — 2.46 = 6.52 per
cent. The percentage of extraction, therefore, based on the percentage
of sucrose in juices from fresh and discharged chips, is 72.6. This is
about the average extraction of good milling in Louisiana, but is better
than the results obtained by milling sorghum. As already stated, the
efficiency of the apparatus was greatly increased by some changes made
after the season was over.


mor 8...

Means ..
Maxima.
Minima.

Specific
gravity.

tO br tt fs peng pots
oS
oo
wo

pre tis oat bet pl
—
i]
to

1.138
1. 192
1. 083





TABLE No. 19.—Sirup (thick juice).















Baumé. Brix. ( ae ed). Sucrose. Purity. Glucose.
° ° ° Per cent. Per cent.
17.5 | 31.4 32.16 18. 67 ba 05 2 ee
17.7 | 34.4 31.86 18. 47 a... bee
22.3 | 40.7 41.12 21. 26 51:70 Te Sa
15.9 | 28.8 29. 64 16. 81 SETS ooo ee
169 | 30.8 |- 31.48 17. 45 he da W222. oe |
16.1 28.8 28. 83 15. 74 54. 60 8. 01
16.6 | 29.5 30.08 16. 60 55. 18 8.49 |
18.5 | 33.4 33. 94 18. 22 53. 71 10. 45
18.5 | 33.5 34.05 17.38 51.04 |: 10.20
20. 8 37.9 38. 37 21. 00 Baris Pb ewn .o nets
19.5 | 36.0 36. 69 23. 07 62. 88 7. 44
18.9 | 34.2 34. 74 23. 00 66. 21 7. 26
20. 6 37.6 38. 26 25. 51 66. 68 7. 64
19.1 34. 8 35.15 19, 25 54.7 8. 46
20.4 | 37.1 37. 20 20. 56 55.27 9.52
15.9 | 28.6 28. 68 16. 90 58. 92 5. 97
19.0 34.6 34. 83 20. 03 57. 56 9. 10
14.5 | 36.2 26. 40 15. &3 59. 96 6.87
15.4 | 27.5 28. 55 17.13 60. 00 9. 24
13.9 24.5 25. 57 15. 84 61.95 6.05
11.6 | 24.0 24, 82 12. 32 49. 64 6.10
14.5 26. 0 26. 60 15. 44 58. 05 7.79
19.6 35.4 35. 91 21.06 58. 64 9.10
13.2 23. 2 23. 23 12.05 51. &7 5.53
13.5 24.4 24. 70 16. 25 65. 79 5. 69
13.1 23.1 23. 52 13. 42 57. 10 6. 34
11:7 20.6 21.28 11. 69 54. 93 6. 59
19.5 | 35.0 35. 74 22.76 63. 68 8. 38
15.1 26.8 26. 98 18. 65 69.13 6. 32
18.0 32.2 32. 52 20. 98 64.51 7. 46
21.4 39.2 39. 30 2286 58.17 9.70
17.7. | $2.3 32. 55 19. 00 58. 37 8.32
19.0 34,5 34. 89 21.32 61.11 8.70
18.8 34.1 34. 65 20. 89 60, 29 8. 86
17.0 30.9 31.10 18.78 60. 39 7.9L
11.2 19.5 19. 88 13.73 64. 03- 3. 81
11.5 19.9 20. 55 14, 04 MD hs
17.3 31.2 31. 84 20. 80 65. 33 6. 38
21.3 39. 0 39. 59 23.31 58. 88 10.12
18.4 | 33.8 34.15 20. 44 59. 85 7.95
15.8 | 28.3 28. 62 15.15 52. 94 7. 59
19.5 35.3 35. 60 19.16 53. 82 10. 82
20.6 | 37.4 37.54 18.55 49. 42 10. 7
22.5 | 41.4 42, 02 24.86 - mate tt ae
16.9 | 30.6 30, 99 15. 82 51. 05 8. 34
16.3 | 29.5 30. 07 10. 78 35. 84 12. 94
19.9 36.3 36. 35 21.73 59.7 10. 93
17.8 | 322 33.17 19. 7: 59. 45 9. 58
17.0 31.7 32. 09 17. 29 53. 88 10, 13
23.1 42.0 42. 06 21.8 51. 83 14,45
15.4 27.7 28. 20 | 15. 07 53. 44 8. 83
21.7 39.6 39. 82 20. 64 51. 83 15. 70
23.4 | 43.1 43.16 | 25.26 58. 50 12. 27
19.7 35. 8 35. 98 21. 07 mene ns oe
20.0 | 36.4 36. 30 21. 26 58. 57 10.73
11.7 31. 99 32. 40 18, 68 57. 65 8. 67
23.4 | 43.1 43.16 | 25. 26 68. 32 15.70
11.2 19.5 19. §8 | 10. 78 35. 84 3. 81

eS OE






26

The diffusion juice at Rio Grande, without any treatment whatever,

was conducted directly to an open pan and concentrated to a thin sirup.

The disastrous effects of this treatment are shown by the data of Table
No. 19. The evaporation of sugar juices in an open pan is to be con-
demned for lack of economy; but such treatment, before neutralizing
the free acids of the juice, must also necessarily invert a large portion
of the sucrose.

The glucose per hundred of sucrose in the normal juice at Rio Grande
was 36.06; in the sirup it was 46.38.

The pan on which the concentration took place was shallow and fur-



nished with steam-pipes. The liquor ran rapidly through, otherwise the

inversion would have been much greater.

TABLE No. 20.—Masse cuites, Rio Grande, N. J.

aks Giiasine | Sucrose | Sucrose











T Y ;
Number. soir direct. | indirect.
)
Per cent. | Per cent.| Per cent. | Per cent. | Per cent.
5336 18. 37 5.29 | 23.33 49. 90 52. 03
5398 16.13 3. 22 20. 65 58. 97 60.71
5399 17. 89 3. 32 22. 47 51.10 56. 42
5400 21, 32 5. 65 24. 55 55. 47 St. 41
5401 19. 90 4.21 26. 24 51. 30 53. 97
5497 +| #»17.40 | 4.92 | 23.45 55. 45 55.11 |
Averages.| 18.50 | 4.44 | 23.45 | 53.70 | 55.44 |

Table No. 20 shows that no further inversion has taken place by
evaporating the sirup in the vacuum pan. Only a small number of
samples of masse cuite were obtained, sinceit required a long working of
the battery to furnish enough sirup fora strike. Moreover, no samples
of masse cuite were taken until Mr. Edson took charge of the analytical
work. The data of Table No. 20 are therefore not strictly comparable
with those of Table No. 19.

The masse cuites at Rio Grande were placed in wagons and kept in
the crystallizing room, at the proper temperature, for several days,
before being sent to the centrifugal machines. The first and second
sugars were thus obtained as one product.

sy reason of the omission of clarification the sugar was dried with
extreme difficulty. Indeed it was found impossible to dry it so as to
make a granular product. The gum, glucose, and other impurities
kept it in the form of awaxy mass. 21 will show the character of the sugar made, A sugar which still con-
tains 13.08 per cent. of reducing sugar would be regarded with grave
suspicion by refiners.

The character of the sugar shows the necessity of careful defecation
and clarification. Sorghum juices especially, when worked for sugar,
should be as nearly neutral as possible, and great care should be ex-
ercised to remove all the scums and to allow suspended matters to

settle,

@
Z

OF
a










TaBLE No. 21.—Raw sugars, Rio Grande, N. J.

Moisture. Ash. eee Sucrose Sucrose

Number. | direct. indirect.













}
|
|

| Per cent. | Per cent. | Per cent. | | Per cent. Per cent.

xy 5326 4.61 2.48 2:18 | ‘86.3 82. 11

5327 | 6. 74 3.75 16.94 | 67.7 70. 65

5328 4.73 2. 94 13. 02 | 76. 0 77.11

5330 6. 67 3.00 14, 25 75. 0 76. 88

5331 3.92 2.71 13. 23 69.7 72.79

5332 5.18 2. 52 13.13 78.8 77. 38

\ 5333 5.11 2. 83 13. 33 78.4 76. 33

5324 5.11 2.69 12. 35 73.8 71.95

5359 §. 08 3.08 16.78 72.5 72. 39

536L 4.41 2. 00 13. 98 78.2 | 177.63

5367 5. 81 1. 54 11. 00 81.0 | 79.77

5368 4.77 1.14 8. 20 85.6 | 84.49

5369 +| 8.40 L722 12. 58 Tc 7

> 5396 5. 40 2. OL 11.75 80. 0 79.61
° 5397 6. 33 2. 02 13.15 | 76.8 | 17.73
y 5428 5.30 | 3.29 13. 48 48 | 7 me. | -7801

Averages. 7 5. 54 eee et. 8 ae 2.48 | 13.08 ate

76.9 |

The molasses made at Rio Grande shows the cacusl phenomenon of
a larger percentage of reducing sugar than of sucrose. This is chiefly
due to the fact that it contained so large a quantity of water that it was
partly fermented before the analysis was made. The samples stood in
‘the laboratory from October, 1887, to February, 1888; and during this
time suffered some inversion.

No. 5342, Table No. 22,is an extreme instance of thisinversion. No.
5365 is also an anomalous sample, the data showing some fault of anal-
ysis which was not discovered until the tabulation was made. The pro-
portion of sucrose in this sample is entirely too large.

_ For further data concerning the composition of the molasses consult
Table No. 22.



















ee TABLE No. 22.—Molasses, Itio Gr mere N. J.
.
etal | . | Sucrose Sucrose
Number. Moisture. | Ash. Glucose. | direct. | indirect.
ms } 2 se oa :
Per cent. | Per cent. | Per cent. | Per cent.| Per cent.
5335 41.44 6.36 | 32. 35 | wee. Se | 23.74
5337 30. 14 6.47 | 33.65 | 26.6 | 26.68
5338 29. 49 | 6. 12 35. 12 26. L 27. 92
5340 29. 54 6.16 34.68 | 25.4 27.11
5341 39. 17 5. 31 32. 70..—| 23.0 22. 26
5342 40. 54 5. 49 39. 70 11.8 14.44
5360 29.43 6.85. | 37. 05 ~b6.4 27.97
5362 39.12 4, 28 35. 45 ' 2.5 28. 92
5363 36. G4 &22°'1- Si.6- | iS.) 4” 83.91
5364 40.11 §.66 | 80.21 21.1 25.45
5365 32. 32 3.28 | 28.95 49.5 | 45.92
5394 30.10 4,81 34. 70 26.2 31. 53
. 5395 31.38 | 3.88 3L. 05 27.3 30.84 |
E 5429 30.98 | 6.50 35.30 | 26.6 19.19 |
Averages..| 34. 31 | 5.46 33.75 | 26.5 | 28.20







ee RECRYSTALLIZED SUGARS.

— >

In order to fit the raw sugars for market they were melted and reboiled
in the vacuum pan.

he composition of these recrystallized sugars is about the same as
se _ nds frcm sugarcane. The mean percentage of sucrose is 90.7, while

oe of glucose remains abnormally high,

a onl


The analyses of these sugars are found in Table No. 23.

TABLE No, 23.—Recrystallized sugars, Rio Grande, N. J.

























<4 | ae Re —
| | | | | .
a : ) Sucrose. Sucrose
| !
| Number. Moisture. Ash. | Glucose. | diract | indirect’
| ee
Per cent. | Percent. Percent. | Percent. | Per cent.
| SE + 498 F 4 | 48 |" Se 90. 76
| 5431 5.03 | . 90 8.58 | 85.1 83. 65
5432 4.70 - 91 6. 54 ) 91.5 : 89. 69
5433 5. 84 -o2 8. 60 92.5 91.37
5434 a 40 2.7 . 3 92. 82
5437 3. 98 . 83 5. 93 91.3 . 89. 59
5438 5. 37 1.11 6. 26 89. 0 86. 57
| 5440 3 08 . 67 4.13 91.5 90. 31
| 5441 4.20 67 4.93 91.2 90. 08 3
5442 3. 85 ‘84 5.14 89.0 | 86.12 | .
|Averages..| 416 | .73 | 5.97 ee 90.7 | 89.10 |
TABLE No. 24.—Nitrogenous bodies in cane juice.
i) | ee
| x Number. | Nitrogen. | Albuminoids. | Number. Nitrogen. | Albuminoids.
| | Hao ead i at
a. | | | —
| | Percent> | Percent. Per cent. Per cent.
276 | . 052 . $250 40° . 020 i . 1250
hac Meee 045 2813. 413' |) Qed 1062
278 | 058 . 3625 431 | .093 5813
| 279 . V40 . 2500 471 - 012 . 0750
20 . 049 . 3063 472 - O17 . 106%
28) | 048 . 3000 480 . 023 . 1438 |
290 049 | . 3063 reel . 027 . 1688
292 . 052 . 8250 ! 457 022 .1375
293 | 041 2563 488 025 . 1563
TABLE No. 25—Nitrogenous bodies in diffusion juice.
: Number. er. | Nitrogen. | Albuminoids. |
| a
Per cent. | Per cent.
282 . 028 - 1438
405 O14 . 0835
415 5038. | . 0813
433 054 | . 8375
| 483 016 | . 1000
|
TABLE No. 26.—Nilrogenous matter in diffused chip juice.
Number. | Nitrogen. | Aibuminoids. |
SA ‘
Per cent. Per cent. .
281 . 008 . 0500
473 . 009 . 0563
4&2 012 . 0750

489 O14 . 0875

i

The most encouraging feature connected with the Rio Grande experi- |
ments is not found in the composition of the cane so much as in the
quantity of it which can be grown per acre. The large tonnage ob-
tained enabled Mr. Hughes to get more sugar per acre with 72 per cent.
extraction than was made at Fort Scott with 93 per cent. With a good
extraction in the battery, the yield at Rio Grande could have been in-
creased fully 20 per cent.





(9S a a) Sy

ee

fi

iw

_



ANALYTICAL WORK AT MAGNOLIA, LA.

The analytical work at Magnolia was divided into three classes, viz:

(1) A study of the composition of the juices from the mill and a par-
tial chemical control of the operation of the factory.

(2) A complete chemical control of the experiments in diffusion.

(3) Miscellaneous work.

The chemical work was done chiefly by Messrs. Crampton and Fake.
Bearing the latter part of the season Dr. Crampton was absent, and the
control work was done solely by Mr. Fake. The miscellaneous work I
“did myself, assisted part of the time by Mr. Fake.

The regular chemical work began on the 4th of November, 1887, and
ended January 19, 1888.

In sampling an juices a measured portion was taken from each of
six clarifiers, representing the average composition of the juice from 18
tonsof cane. In comparative work, the samples were taken as nearly

as possible from the same body of juice in different stages of concentra-
tion. The samples for the diffusion work were taken as at Fort Scott

and Rio Grande.
MILL JUICES.

During the first few days of the season the juices from the mill were

run through a sulphur box, where they were saturated with sulphurous

dioxide. They then passed through a heater to the clarifiers and thence
to the quadruple effect and strike pan without the use of animal char,
This method of treatment was abandoned after a short trial, and no

_ further sulphur was used except in one of the diffusion trials.

In Table No. 27 are found the analytical data obtained during this
time.
TABLE No, 27.— Mill juices sulphured.

Reducing





Date. No. Baumé.| Brix. | Sucrose. anwar Purity.
o o Per cent. Per cent.
Nov. 2 | 4 &8 15.9 12. 93 11 81. 32
Nov. 3 | 6 9.6 17.4 14.41 1.14 82.81
ore go tg 9.0 16, 23 12. 87 1.01 78. 68
Nov. 4....... reat “RO 16.2 13.11 1.11 k0, 92
Oe ee P 43 8.9 16. 08 12. 63 1.17 78.79 |
Maxima ..|...... | 96 17.4 14.41 1.17 82.81 |
PAADIMA |. 0222 | &&8 15.9 12, 63 1. 01 78.68 |
Means ....|......| 9. 08 16. 35 1. 19 lll | gv.50 |
|

vy

~s
A comparison of the sulphured and clarified juices was also made -

3

0

but the duration of the use of sulphur was not long enough to give con-
It would appear from the results of the analyses in Table
No. 28 that the process of clarification tended to lower the purity of
sulphured juices ; an apparent fact which more extended investigation
would probably modify.

clusive data.

TABLE No.



Minima...
Means....|

28.— Mill juices.—Comparative samples of sulphured and clarified.













Sulphured. |

a | 5 | :

Sh et alee Ss |os| & 18

5 | 5 | = 2 | = = s is

aia | am |e ie |e Te
—— $< | |
° ° ae ot. \Pr. ct. | |
4|8.8 | 15.90 | 12.93 | 1.11 | 81.32] 5 |
6| 9.6 | 17.40 | 14.41 | 1.14 | 82.81] 7 |
10 | 9.0 | 16.20 | 13.11 | 1.11 | 80.92 | i1 |
..-.| 9.6 | 17.40 | 14.41 | 1.14 | 82.81 |....|
:22:| 8.8 | 15.90 | 12.93 | 1.11 | go. 92 |...
+-+-] 9.13 | 16.50 | 13.48 | 1.12 | 81.68 |...











Clarified.
eo
3 © = :
so S Ons bB
8 4 fa = ch =
a | & 5 |e] s
—Q & 7) | fom a
=| 7 ee —— oo =,
° | ° Pr. ct. Pr. ct.
9.1 16.51 | 13.28 | 1.28 | 80.43
9.6 17.31 | 14.31 | 1.10 | 82.66
9. 4 16.97 | 13.56 | 1.20 | 77.90
9.6 | 17.31 | 14.31 | 1.28 | 62.60
9.1 16. 51 | 13.28 | 1.10 | 77.90
9.37 | 16.93 | 13. 72 | 1.19 | 80.33



The daily analyses of the mill juices are recorded in Table No. 29,
The variations in the percentage of sucrose were caused by the charac-
ter of the soil in which the cane was grown.
formly a cane richer in sucrose than the low lands back from the river.
Especially in new back land with a high tonnage was this deficiency

noticed.

The front lands gave uni-

The mean results show a juice rich in,sucrose, poor in reducing su-
gar, and of satisfactory purity.

| Nov.
| Nov.
| Nov.
Nov.
Nov.
Nov.



Nov.
Nov.
Nov.
Nov.
Nov.

Nov. :
Nov.
Nov. :
Nov. ¢
Nov, 24..<.|
ie,
Nov. ;
Nov. £

Nov.

Nov.
Nov.
Nov.
Dec,
Dec.
Dec.
Dee.
Dec.

Nov. :

Number. | Baumé.

i as



SA@
ss

PLP OCSCKM Keown aws
uo



eccacexoceoece
ut

ou

& : so : :
RONAN CAUS SNE ENO

|



Brix.

|



TABLE NO. 29.—Mill juices.









: Reducing | +
Sucrose. sugar | Purity
| Per cent. | Per cent. |
12.78 1.23... | $9.87
10. 85 de 3k 75. 87
13. pa5 a Rd 82. 76
13, 22 &S 83. 14
12. 27 1, 08 79. 31
12. 35 . 94 78. 81
12.39 1. 55 77. 58
12. 63 1.42 | 79.08
13. 25 1,15 81.13
13,25 1. 08 79. 66
13. 68 1.18 81, 28
13. 58 1.05 81.11
13.83 1,04 81. 69
14. 29 93 a3, 27
14, 94 . 65 87. OL
14, 07 . 66 84. 56
14. 00 76 82. 69
13.79 79 82, 66
13, 44 . 838 80, 48
12.13 . 82 81.03
14, 09 te 8&3. 37
14.46 78 $4, 21
13. 90 sl 84, 75
14. 74 72 84. 22
14,85 . 68 86.18
12, 98 65 77.04
18:05 — Mecoauuenoee 85. 27
13, 87 | 72 84, 36
31

TABLE No. 29.—Mill juices—Continued.













Date. Number. | Baumé. | Brix. ar Sucrose. ees Purity
f oa a
td A
. ° ° Percent. | Per cent.
+ 160 9.0 16. 21 13. 50 5 83. 33
Y 162 8.8 15. 93 43:37 1 70 83. 30
166 9.1 16. 40 14.16 | 70 86. 34
168 8.65 15. 60 72.57 - | 93 80. 57
172 8.9 16.13 13.55 72 84. 00
174 8.5 15.27] 12.18 1.00 79. 77
177 8.4 15.24 | 12.17 14,14. | 79.85
219 8.3 15. 06 Sees tit fos. | 80.01
226 8.15 14.91 11.94 1.01 80. 01
227 8. 30 14. 69 BO A a 80. 00
230 8.3 15. 04 11.84 | .92 78. 72
231 8.4 15.11 12.13 fv 80. 27
236 8.15 14. 67 11.76 88 80.16
238 8.2 14. 83 11. 61 84 78. 28
239 8.0 14.397). j1.33 | 94 78. 68
243 8.0 14.42 | 11.33 1. 02 78. 57
245 8.15 14. 69 11. 67 .99 79. 45
246 8.6 15.51 12.31 1.01 79. 37
247 8.4 15, 24 12. 27 97 80. 51
248 8.4 15. 23 12. 08 1.16 79.31
252 a7 15.71 13. 04 86 83. 00
254 9.2 16. 59 13. 68 69 82. 45
256 9.0 16. 23 13. 97 64 86. 07
259 8.1 14, 57 11.66 78 80. 02
269 9.3 16. 81 OE O6t, Wei2 oe uke 86. 49
270 9.4 ° | 17.06 14.78 45 86. 63
271 9.4 17. 04 14. 81 44 86. 91
272 9,295 |16.73| 14.31 | 52 85. 53
275 9.4 17. 07 14. 92 44 87.41
279 9.6 17. 34 15. 09 51 87. 02
281 9.5 17. 23 15. 32 43 88. 91
285 9.5 17. 23 15.18 40 88. 10
297 9.75 | 17.57 15. 40 41 87. 65
306 9.4 | 17 07 14.72 | 53 86. 23
310 S74 47547 15.33 | 47 87.18
316 9.4 | 16.89| 14.64 | 57 86. 67
326 9.4 17.08 | 14.75 49 86. 34
331 9.4 | 17.09 | 14.61 | 68 85.43
333 9.25 | 16.67 Hotere bao 85. 54
334 9.3 |1684| 14.87 55 88. 20
338 9.2m | 16.64 | 14.59 59 87. 68
342 9.4 | 17.01 14, 67 54 86. 29
344 9.8 17. 67 15.55 38 88. 00
345 9.6 17. 44 15. 28 .44 7. 04
350 9.5 17.19 14, &2 46: 86. 21
351 9.75 17. 59 15. 33 43 87.16
354 9.5 17.16 14. 92 47 85. 94
356 9.4 | 16.93 14. 82 . 69 87.53
361 9.6 | 17.33 15. 26 55 88. 05
364 9.4 | 16.96 14, 55 57 83.7
365 9.4 17.00 | 14 89 59 87.59
367 9.5 17.23! 1476 . 60 85. 66
368 9.1 16, 49 13.79 70 83. 57
372 =|. 9.5 17.17 14.20. | . 64 85. 61
373 9.4 6. 90 1441 | .65 | 85.26
377 | 9,25 16. 66 13.98 | 12 #3. 31
s78. | 9:1 16. 51 14. 02 . 67 84.96
see. | (88 16. 20 13, 87—} 82 K5. 61
BR4 9.3 16.79 | 14.48 | 83 86.19
389 9, 25 16. 69 14.26 | 6a 85, 39
390 9.25 | 16.69 18:73... 96 82. 21
396 =| (9.1 16, 47 | 13.83 | 7 83.97
eT sh 9. 04 16. 37 13. 69 77 &3. 48
6 AD 9, 80 17. 67 15.55 1.55 88. 91
Vie ae hh ashe 7.90 14. 30 10. 85 40 75. 87








The clarification of the mill juices was made in a simple manner. ‘To
the juice, as it entered the clarifier from the heater, a quantity of lime
was added, nearly sufficient to neutralize the free acid present. The
whole was then boiled and swept until no more dirty foam was formed.
It was then allowed to subside for half an hour, and the clear juice
drawn off.

The skimmings and sediments were sent to the filter presses.

The effect of this method of clarification is shown in Table 30.

TABLE No. 30.—Comparative samples of raw and clarified juices.




































Raw. | Clarified.
Date. Ee .~ Va ae eh | : =.
ze g |/38)/ 5/81] ¢ z Sel ta
s/ 8/41 & }Bs\ 2°18) 2 eee
elal# lade le lets ede
A —Q fa m | & oF 4 | |) wm io} Ay
ie ° Pr.ct.\Pr, ct | |, 2 oe Pr. ct. |Pr. ct.
Nov. 8...| 18 | 8.9 | 16.00 | 12.78 | 1.28 | 79.87! 19] 9.3 | 16.79 | 13,67 | 1.25 | 81.41
Nov. 9...| 22) 7.9 | 14.30] 10.85 | 1.11 | 75.87 | 23| &7 | 15.67 | 12.60 | 1.12 | 80.41
Nov. 10...| 26 | &8 | 15.90 | 13,22 | .88 | 83.14] 27| 9.25 | 16.73 | 14.01] .92 | 83.74
Nov. 11...| 31 | 8.9 | 16.10 | 12.77 | 1.08 | 79.31 | 32] 9.0 | 16.31 | 13.06 | 1.12 | 80.07
Nov. 12...| 35 | &7 | 15.67 | 12.35 | .94| 78.81] 36 | 89 | 16.01 | 13.02 | 1.20 | 81.37
Nov. 13...| 45| 8.9 | 15.97| 12.39 |1.55 | 77.58] 46/ 8.9 | 15.97] 13.19 | 1.57 | 82.59
Nov. 14...| 48 8.9 | 15.97 | 12.63 | 1.42 | 79.08] 49 | 9.25 | 16.68 | 12.94 | 1.58 | 77.58
Nov. 15...) 52) 8.5 | 16.33 | 13.25 | 1.15 | 81.13 | 53 | 10.0 | 17.98 | 14.87 | 1.21 | 82.70
Nov. 16...| 55 | 8.6 | 16.57 | 13.20 | 1.08 | 79.66] 56| 9.5 | 17.02 | 14.21 | 1.04 | 83.49
Nov. 17...| 61 | 9.3 | 16.83 | 23.68 | 1.18 | 81.28] 62 10.0 | 18.10 | 14.92 | 1.21 | 82.43
Nov. 18...| 66 | 9.25 | 16.73 | 13.58 | 1.05 | 81.11 | 67 | 9,55 | 17.24 | 14.37 | 1.08 | 83.35
Nov. 20...| 74| 9.4 | 16.93 | 13.83 | 1.04 | 81.69) 75 | 9.9 | 17.83 | 15.13 | 1.13 | 84.85
Nov. 21...| 78 | 9.5 | 17.16 | 14.29] .93 | 83.27| 79] 10.1 | 18.28 | 15.64] .95 | 85.55
Nov. 22...] 83 | 9.5 | 17.17 | 14.94 | .65 | 87.01] 84 | 9.8 | 17.72/ 15.79] .63 | 89.11
Nov. 23...] 96 | 9.2 | 16.63 | 14.07 | .66 | 84.56) 91] 9.5 | 17.17| 14.72] .64 | 85.73
Nov. 24...| 91| 9.4 | 16.93 | 14.00] .76 | 82.69 | 95 | 9.9 | 17,93 | 15.25) 172 | 85.05
Nov. 26...] 100 | 9.1 | 16.56 | 13.79 | .79| 82.66 101} 9.75 | 17.57 | 14.70 | .81 | 83.66
Nov. 27...| 106 | 9.25 | 16.70 | 13.44 | .88| 80.48 | 107 | 9.6 | 17.38) 14.14) .82 | 81.35
Nov. 28...| 114 | 9.4 | 16.91 | 14.09 | .73 | 83.37 | 115 | 9.65 | 17.45 | 14.83 | .70 | 84.98
Nov. 29...] 116 | 9.5 | 17.17 | 14.46 | 78 | 84.21] 117] 9.8 | 17.78 | 15.33 | .74 | 86.22
Nov. 30...| 120 | 8.0 | 14.41 | 13.y0 | .81 | 84.75 | 121] 9.75 | 17.63 | 15.20 | .77 | 86.21
Dec. 1...| 125 | 9.7 | 17.50 | 14.74 | .72 | 84.22 | 126] 9.8 | 17.69 | 14.72] .75 | 83.16
Dec. 2...| 133 | 9.5 | 17.23 | 14.85| .68| 86.18 134] 9.9 |17.79| 15.71] .66| 88 36
Dec. 5.. |156| 9.1 | 16.44 | 13.87] .72 | 81.36 |157| 9.4 | 16.94] 14.53] .73 | 85.
Dec. 6... 160 | 9.0 | 16.21 | 13.58 | .75 | 83.33 | 161) 9.4 | 17.08 | 14.48) .70 | 85. 03
Dec. 7..-| 166) 9.1 | 16.40 | 14.16 | .70 | 86.34 | 167] 9.1 | 16.46 | 14.18) .69 | 86,14
Dec. 8...] 168 | 8.65 | 15.60 | 12.57} .93 | 80.57 | 169} 89 | 16.07 | 13.34 | .93 | 83.01
Dec. 9...| 174 | 8.5 | 15.27 | 12.18 | 1.00 | 79.77 | 175| 8.9 | 16.03 | 13.17 | 1.04 | 82.16
Maxima.|..... | 9.70 | 17.50 | 14.94 | 1.55 | 87.01 |..-.. 10.1 | 18.28 | 15.79 | 1.58 | 89.11
Minima.|.....| 7.90 | 14.50 | 10.85 | .65 | 75.87 |..... 8.7 | 15.97 | 12. 60 77. 58
Means..|..-.-| 9.02 16.84 | 13.48 |. .94 |} 82.01 |..... 9, 48 oe Lit Te 14.35 | .95 | 83. 76





The increased density of the clarified juices, and the consequent
higher percentage of sucrose, are due to the evaporation which takes
place during clarification. The purity of the juices was raised 1.75
points by the process.
took place.

After clarification the juices were filtered through bone-black. This
char had been so long in use that its decolorizing power was partially
destroyed. It served, however, as a most excellent mechanical filter,
serving to remove suspended matter which would not subside,


4 ane Pa -— —— ——_— = o ~~ 7? af. vw = a _- 2a “. 2 Se ae

33



\ ‘comparative study of raw, clarified, and filtered juices is given in
able No. dl.
TABLE No. 31.—WMill juices.—Comparative samples of raw, clarified, and filtered juices.

ie &
RAW.

Reducing











































| Date. | Number.| Baume. | Brix. | Sucrose. “oy oay °| Purity.
° ° Per cent. pas | Per cent.
mare. oS: ... 18 8.9 16.00 12.78 123 79. 87
mov.) 9... 22 723 14. 30 10. 85 Lil 75. 87
Nov. 10... 26 8.8 15. 90 13. 22 .88 83.14
Noy. 11... 81 8.9 16. 10 12. Ti 1. 08 79.31
Nov. 12. -. 35 8.7 15. 67 © 12. 35 94 78. 81
Nov. 13... 45 8.9 15. 97 12. 39 185 77.58
iNew. 14... 48 8.9 15. 97 12. 63 1.42 79.08
WOWs. 15. -. 24 8.5 16. 33 13.25 1215 81.13
Nov. 16 .. a5 8.6 16. 57 13.2 1.08 79. 66
wey: 17... 6L 9.3 16. 83 13. 68 1.18 81.28
Nov. 18... 66 9. 25 16. 73 13. 58 1.05 81.11
Nov. 21.2 78 9.5 17.16 14. 29 93 83. 27
Noy. 22... 83 9.5 TTF 14. 94 . 65 87. 01
Nov. 23... 90 9.2 16. 63 14. 07 . 66 84. 56
Noy, 24. .. OL 9.4 16, 93 14. 00 .76 82. 69
Nov. 26.. 100 9.1 16. 56 13.79 -79 82. 66
Nov. 97... a5 106 9. 25 16. 70 13. 44 . 88 80.48
Boy. 29... 116 9.5 eae 14. 46 . 78 84. 21
Nov. 30... 120 8.0 16. 41 13. 90 .81 84. 75
IER |. cons oo. oe 9. 50 Se 17 14,94 1. 55 87.01
ORT too os a a= 7.90 14. 30 10, 85 . 65 75. 87
PS tbe ee wi en 8.95 16. 37 13. 31 1.00 81.39
CLARIFIED.
» 4 }
Date. Number.| Baume. | Brix. | Sucrose. Secroe |'suznr. | Pa Purity.
gar.
° ° Per cent. Rohe Per cent.
Nov. 8... 19 9.3 16. 79 13. 67 25 81. 41
Nov, 8... 23 &.7 15. 67 12. 60 12 80. 41
Nov. 10... 27 9, 25 16. 73 14.01 . 92 83. 74
Mov. 21... 32 9.0 16. 31 13. 06 1.12 80. 07
Nov. 12... 36 8.9 16.01 13. 02 1. 20 81. 37
Nov..13... 46 8.9 15, 97 13.19 Eos 82. 59
Nov. 14...| 49 9.25 16.68 | 12.94 | 1.50 77.58
Wov. 15... 53 10.0 17.98 14. 87 1. 21 82. 70
Nov. 16.. 56 9.5 17. 02 14.21 | 1.04 83. 49
Nov. 17.. 62 10.0 16. 10 14. 92 | 121 8z. 43
Nov. 18.. 67 9. 55 17. 24 14.37 1.08 83.35
‘Nov. 21... 79 10.1 18, 28 15. 64 95 85. 55
Nov. 22.. 84 9.8 17.72 15. 79 . 63 89.11
; Nov. 23. 91 9.5 1 ny § 14.7 . 64 85. 73
Nov. 24... 95 9.9 17. 93 15. 25 ota 85. 03
7 Nov. 26...| 103 9.75 17. 57 14. 70 | 81 83. 66
t eo a 107 9.6 17.38 14. 14 82 81. 35
A Nov. 29... 117 9.8 17. 78 15. 33 74 86. 2 22
Es Nov. 30... 121 9.75 17. 63 15. 20 | 77 &6. 2
F PRTG. oe inees 10.1 18. 28 15. 79 1.57 89. 11
PIU Te caus cawen 8.7 15. 67 16. 20 . 63 63. 74
4 ee 9. 50 17.16 14. 30 1, 02 82. 21
23576—Bull 18——3




34



















FILTERED.
Date. aiid Baumé. | Brix. | Sucrose. Reducing Purity.
| ie. SN oF sugar. :
[sy <> eee ie ae or
| > oO Per cent. | Per cent.
Nov. 8....| 20 9.4 16. 96 14.00 1. 26 82. 54
Nov. 2...) - & | 9.0 16. 23 13. 01 1. i2 0.16
Nev. 10-27, ~ 28) Ga ES 15. 73 12. 40 1.01 78. 76
Nov.03.. | 28° S83 16. 83 13. 62 1.03 80. 93
Nov.12....|. 37 9.1 16.47 13. 29 1.16 | 80.69
Nov. 13....| 47 9.2 | 16.56 13. 25 1.39 | 89.61
Nov. 14 : 50 9.55 | 17.27 13. 25 1. 60 76.72
Nov. 15... 54 9.6 ‘| 17.38 15. 16 1.13 87. 22
Nov. 16... 57h Bbc eke bales s Soe | 2 omnes teal a a ok es
Nov. 17... 63 9.6 17. 30 | 14. 29 1.18 82. 60
Nov.18....| 68 98 | 17.63 14. 27 1.14 80. 94
Nov.21 ...| 80 | 10.0 18.09 | 15.50 91 85, 63
Nov. 22... 85 10. 2 18 39 16.25 | Dt 88. 31
Nov.23....| 92 | 9.9 17. 87 15.64 | . 54 87. 52
Nov. 24... 96 eet pre Looe ws ee eee . \.. Soe oe
Nov.26...| 102 | 9.6 17. 30 | 14. 63 77 | 81.56
Nov. 27....| | 108 9.9 | 17.90 14. 89 .72 83. 13
Nov. 29..-.| 118 9.7 17. 47 15. 45 a 88. 44
Nov. 30... | 122 9.75 17. 50 15. U4 67 | 85.77
Maxima.) Sande nce | 10,2 18:39;."] “38:25 1. 60 88. 44
Minima..|.......... | 9.0 15.73 | 12.40 51 76.72
9. 55 17.23 | 14.35 . 99 83. 17

mena ees oe |

Samples of the sirup issuing from the Yaryan quadrupie effect pan
were taken from time to time, and the results of the analyses of these
sirups are shown in Table No. 32.

TABLE No. 32.



















Date. | Number. Number comet a comet Purity. | Sucrose. | Glucose.
Per cent.| Per cent.
Nov. 3.. 9 54. 37 29, 45 81.42 | 44.27 4.48
Nov. 4 15 53. 34 28. 90 80.43 | 42.9 4. 86
Nov. 12. 38 37. 45 20. 55 80.91 |. 30.3 2. 89
Nov. 18. 69 50, 90 27.70 82. 32 41.9 3. 80
Nov. 22. 86 51. 56 28. 00 87. 08 44.9 2.31
Nov. 23. 93 54. 18 29. 40 85. 46 46.3 2. OL
Noy. <6 103 47. 60 25. 90 76. 05 36. 2 2. 87
Nov. 28 112 51. 53 28. 00 85. 19 43.9 2.50
Dec. 2 136 50.19 27. 30 89. 66 65 0 oT ede «soaks
Dec. 4 151 52. 26 28. 35 £6. 68 45.3 2.41
Dec. 6.. 163 50. 66 27. 53 86.46 | 43.8 2. 03
Deo. 8.. 170 52. 64 28, 54 85. 49 45.0 2.46
Dec. 15.. 237 48. 86 26. 60 81. 87 40.0 3.16
Dec. 20.. 253 48.74 26. 50 78.17 38. 1 3. 65
Dec. 22.. 260 46. 29 25, 20 85. 98 BU.8 7 tees aeelds
Dec. 28.. 276 48.79 26. 60 89. 57 43.7 1.3
Jan. 2.. 825 50, * 27. 50 88. 56 44.8 1. 64
Jan. 4.. 346 50. 42 27. 40 88. 85 44.8 1. 60
Means..| tees ete< 50, 02 27.19 84. 45 42,28 2.75

The samples of masse cuites were placed in bottles and sent to the lab-
oratory for analysis. In addition to the determinations of the sucrose
by direct and double polarization it was also estimated by copper solu-
tion.

The mean result of this latter estimation is slightly below the mean
of the direct readings. In individual cases a marked variation between
the chemical and optical methods is noticed. The percentage of ash,
compared with sorghum masse cvites, is small.

For details see Table No, 33.

i i i


i? =

|

%

35

TABLE No. 33.—Jirst masse cuiles (mill), Lawrence, La.

















1
. | Sucrose
: Sucrose | Sucrose
Number. |Moisture.| Ash. Glucose. | Stee Banitioane: ae
:

6 Per cent. | Per cent. | Per cent. | Per cent. | Per cent. | Per céht.
5715 9. 69 2.33 8. 06, 78. 70 78.37 | 74,94
5717 9. 06 | 2.05 8.75 77. 03 76.74 | 75.62
5719 6/30 |)" 2.34 7.03 | 8100 | 8.77 | 78.58
5720 9.12 2. 64 7.31 76. 50 76. 98 74. 80
5721 8.65 | 2.03 7.06 78. 00 77.44 | 75.04
5727 17. 88 4. 06 12. 36 70. 00 71.04 | 71.48
5729 13. 51 2.01 4.5 81. 30 80.00 | 78.17
5730 C260 5.53 75. 80 77.71 | 76.78
5731 8.52 2.41 4.00 80. 50 81.06 | 80.32
5734 10.79 2.79 5.91 74. 10 75.58 | 76.13
5740 ee ee eee. on 6. 54 75. 90 76. 88 76, 82
5743 8. 47 3. 96 OO ee wth occas 78. 43
5748 8.21 2.58 4.79 79. 00 80, 23 80.71
5749 9.05 3.10 5.13 76. 80 78.45 78. 40
5754 10.71 2.17 4.78 77.10 78. 08 78.3
5755 10. 67 2. 63 8.65 80. 00 80. 92 78. 95
5762 10. 73 2. 66 4.29 77.70 79. 31 82. 14
5763 9.29 1.94 3.98 79. 00 79. 39 78.40 |
5767 8. 84 2.14 3.79 83. 20 84. 31 70. 50
MET oh fits ow os 4. 26 82. 20 83. 00 78.99
5770 10. 54 | 2.12 4. 46 79.00 89. 61 79.38
5773 9. 03 2.37 4.75 78. 10 79. 84 79.10
5776 9. 39 | 2.35 4. 83 79. 30 80. 91 79. 53
5780 9. 48 2.48 5. 26 78. 60 80.15 78. 28
5783 9.84 | 2,50 | 5.21 78.10 | 79.54 76.75

Averages ...| 9.79 | 2.53 5.73 | 78.21 79.05 | 77.46

Mean purity-|......-.-- Sapeceerr ne apres ige tT | | 87. 63





The high purity of the masse cuites, as shown in Table No. 33, as com-
pared with the juices and sirups, may be accounted for as follows:

In the latter the percentage of total solids was calculated from the
readings of the saccharometer; in the former by drying and direct
weighing. The results of last season’s work, both with sugar-cane and
sorghum juices, show that by the use of the spindle the percentage of
total solids found is always too high. The purity of the juices, therefore,
is higher than indicated by the analyses. A note on the subject will be
made subsequently.

The direct polarization of the first sugars is given in Table No. 34.

In these sugars there was only a trace of glucose, but no attempt was
made to estimate its quantity, not even by Soldaini’s reagent (carbonate
of copper dissolved in acid carbonate of potassium). For the same
reason a double polarization was not necessary.

TABLE No. 34.—First sugars, Lawrence, La.





Date. | No. | Sucrose. Date. | No. | Sucrose.

Per cent. er cent.
OY eee 14 96. 5 Dec. 16 ...... 240 97.0
A 34 98. 6 1960210... 20¢ 249 97.0
mov. 16...... 58 98.2 || Dec.22......| 262 97.7
Nov. 16...... 59 *97.3 60; 28 «cones 280 98.5
Oe. 20...<-. 76 98.8 al OE, * Bie sss 337 97.6
NOV. 20....<. 77 98. 6 lJan. 8...... 343 *98.0
POU. Be lenwes 89 97.5 eo a) 353 96.8
CC ee 105 $7.0 wee. OC eaece 362 | 98. 4
NOW, Of convene 169 97.6 —.
ee 110 98.5 A ee owt 97.8

ES eee 130 98. 0



*Cut strike.


36
FIRST MOLASSES.

Samples of molasses from the first sugars were taken from time to
time from the large tank into which the molasses was pumped after
issuing from the centrifugals. These samples therefore represent fairly
well the composition of the first molasses for the entire season. The
same remarks apply to the mean purity as were made in respect of the
purity of the masse cuites—the water in the TOL aan having been de-
termined by direct weight.

The mean determinations by the copper method agree well with the
results of double polarization, although, as in the case of the masse cuttes,
the individual deviations are large. The presence of invert sugar, op-
tically active, is clearly shown by the differences in single and double
polarization.

Analyses follow in Table No. 35.

TABLE NO. 35.—Jirst molasses, Lawrence, La.

Sucrose Sucrose | Sucreseby
direct. indirect. | Fehling.

| a | fe

Number. Moisture.| Ash. Glucose.

Per cent. | Per cent. | Per cent. Per cent. Per cent. Per cent.
44. 89







5718 31. 25 4, 32 13. 65 47. 20 46. 97 .
5724 28. 84 3. 92 14. 23 45. 50 48. 21 46. 89
5728 39. 65 4.48 16.18 33. 00 WEEE | Uiecape Sanens
5741 29. 39 VR Peererrron rere eeS
S744 Ji dceantses 8.43 14. 63 32. 30 36. 70 34.05
5745 30. 70 7.48 9. 43 46. 20 45, 34 43. 83
5747 29. 30 G.Gh | ces ccc cnn snnn cn tnunen] sane EE Re eelash tee ebeeke
RTM Tikes sens 4. 87 4,25 54. 90 52. 46 48. 09
S700. -. h conenenntieweaaede en 10. 58 44.10 55. 14 56. 26
5766 18. 82 7.15 13. 34 46, 20 49.77 50. 80
5768 22.95 4.49 8, 53 55. 50 58. 46 59. 26
5772 20. 94 4,52 8, 28 58. 50 WEOO | Weesans coanes
5775 23.30 5. 29 9. 80 53. 90 57. 27 57.72
5778 23. 08 4. 32 9. 52 55. 20 59, 12 58. 44
5781 23. 27 4.84 10. 05 55. 10 58. 85 67.70
Averages....| 26.79 5. 42 10. 96 48, 28 51. 05 51. 56
Mean purity .| 22.02 20--|ecccseccns|cccncccccces| snccccsensss| sauces sccce: 69.73



SECOND MASSE CUITE.

The samples of second masse cuite analyzed were all, with one ex-
ception, taken at the last of the season, when the juice was particularly
rich in sucrose. They show therefore a higher purity than the mean of
the first molasses. The data in Table No. 36 furnish a further illus-
tration of the fact that the molasses from rich juices have a higher
purity than that from the poorer sorghum. ‘These facts are suggestive
of the idea that the solids not sucrose in sorghum are less melassigenic
than those in sugar-cane.
37

TABLE No. 36.—Second masse cuites, Lawrence, La.





















: Sucrose Sucrose | Sucrose b
Number.| Moisture. | Ash. Glucose. | “Ginter. ndiepes: |) Wobdage y
!
Percent. | Per cent.| Percent. | Percent. | Per cent. | Percent. |
5722 5.49 4.25 13. 33 67.10 | 69. 84 68.68 |
URE aca = 576L 10. 51 4.08 7.31 69. 20 72.27 73:20 =}
cea 5764 Se Reet red 8.30 68. 00 70.50, -) 22 aed
a a San 5765 7.16 4.12 5.22 THROW |: 95.02 75.70 |
a. 5784 7.78 | 4.48 9. 69 67.90 | «77 | 6Lsl |
Be icndnns 7.73 4.23 | 8.91 69.04 | 71.54 69.85 |
see ap eam an hasenne «3 2 aang eS Acer er oro" 77.53





SECOND MCLASSES.

_ The samples of second molasses were taken fram large cisterus and
_ represent fairly well the character of this product for the entire season.
The most striking feature of the mean composition of this molasses is
_ the purity co-efficient. After twocrystallizations the molasses at Mag-
nolia still had a purity-number only a little below the first masse cuite
at Fort Scott, and almost identical with that of the first masse cuite at
_ Rio Grande.
This number shows the possibility of a large yield of third sugars.

TABLE No. 37.—Second molasses, Lawrence, La.





: ' | Sucrose Sucrose | Sucroseby |

Date. Number.! Moisture. Ash, Glucose. aivaek: ainaad Febling. |

' ee

: Per cent. | Per cent.| Per cent. Per cent. Per cent. | Per cent. |

fe, 20 2... 522: 5725 16. 33 6.70 21.93 41.70 46.43 | 4446 |

ee 5751 24. 27 7.46 16. 60 34.70 $8.81 | 3484. |
Be, Cecaccey-- 5766 18. 82 7.15 13. 34 46. 20 49.77 | 650.80
Averages .....].......-.- 19. 81 7.10 | 17.29 | 40.87 45.01 | 43.37
eh oc iecence<| owas anceen| saneaw senses | 56.13









| Date Number. Sucrose.
a
| Per cent
Nov. 12..... 44 | 95.6
em, 4. -5 152 90.6
~ be. > Meo. .2 171 | (91.8
: Dec. 20..... 255 87.0
re: 28s SS. 266 85. 8
be, ae 268 | 87.3
ee eee 349 ! 90.2
aon nici dad enieé< | 89.76






38

CHEMICAL CONTROL OF THE DIFFUSION EXPERIMENTS.



The following data respecting the diffusion experiments are abstracted
from Bulletin 17, pp. 83-89:

The first results from the experiments were obtained from the run of December 38,
1887.

The juice was treated with .3 per cent. its weight of lime, and after the precipita-
tion of the lime with carbonic dioxide, an amount of lignite equal to 10 per cent. of
the weight of the sugar present was added.

The juice filtered readily throngh the presses, forming firm, hard cakes. The filtered
juice was treated with phosphate of soda, 15 pounds of this salt being added for each
5,000 pounds of juice.

The phosphate produced an abundant floceulent precipitate, which filtered easily
through the twin filter presses, giving a juice of remarkable limpidity. The masse
cuite, however, was dark, and the molasses much inferior in color to that made by the
use of bone-blagk and ordinary clarification.

The phosphate of soda did not produce as favorable results as had been expected,
and its further use was discontinued.

Following are the data obtained in the first run:

TABLE No. 39.—First diffusion run, December 3, 1887.

















Rh Sucrose. | Glucose.

Juice from chips: Per ct. | Per cent. | Per cent.

WE ices execute Sdasas secrgh ous 15. 20 12.01 . 96

SOCONE ported aes we cuab sents ele re 14. 45 11. 92 1.00

TRING oon sie (td katana eas ae te 15. 45 12. 84 1.02

AVOEBEZG. «nn dus checn saber ves 15. 03 12. 26 . 99

Diffusion juice: a

Wir ioG ened 'o~ cans s'nmans wikenale 10, 88 8. 88 . 83

Sevatils 5. deters cere sae 10, 40 8. 65 . 74

AVGRS 0c Feie Ss etek ee 10. 64 8.76 | .78

Exhausted chips: a

First sample ........ Hiswhsw cot ieateae oS Weudeusck >

Second samiple ...osscs5.. tecncclaseesant 16 | Sa ddeeens

Third she ple: «0s 2s stunts
} eee eee

BV OTA . 505s nnwwe caps en -asealencheous | 73 aCinpee ares

| — SSS Ee

Carbonatated juice ...... ......--- 11. 09 | 9. 20 | 70

WEAGLO WADED cnane ccs ce shassutsoaileccnsisn yl keer eee »12

Bem elvan <5 ccs cneescasdapssatenaas 51. 80 42, 20 3. 39

First SUgar...--.. «sess -teona- aeuee| cmceuece OT. 50 |S ovenencs

Molasses from first sugar .......-.. 76. 30 45, 00 1.31

Becend GUGGE ds. Ks vaspercudinaserssvidinakase 01. 60 lewiewaaeute
Cano USC" « cccccuccducs scuncndvauna tans enpellmassunewéeest ae eens tons.. 80.3
Firet sugar per ton. ....0ssncdectesecsenctussaceue sncepsasenseneuenn pounds.. 146.1
Second sugar per tn... .ocece awasecsenndascbasonseescussesaus daumeunnee de.... 40.1
Total frat and second Sugars .... «coves caducs scontecesenssasneen do.... 186.2
Third SU gar voces sccncy cvancucencetcessvc sce sacneusunces suse eanneeel do.... 15.0
Pounds
The total sugar in the cane at 90 per cent. juice Was............eseeeeeenenee 220.6
Of this there was obtained 146.1 pounds at 97.50 ..... 2.2. cenecee awe cencnssee- 144.4
And 40.1 pounds ot 01.6. ...06 sc.ncc cccucucancuopessessacssnnseunaeeeanenene 36.7
Total pure sucrose obtained ......... cseacessewecsencescvesstynslepeunnenEne - 181.1
Left im ChIPs..... 20 ..cece scenes cececccans rewens cecmeerccsrccscnseensessesnes - 14.6

Total left in mola«ses and lost in manufacturing. ...........ccceecnecccvencee 24.9

Nore.—The third sugar will not be dried until in May or June, 1888, The esti-
mates of third sugar have been made by Mr. E. C. Barthelemy.
39

EXTRACTION.





‘The percentage of sucrose left in the spent chips was.73. Sucrose in cane was
11.03 per cent. The per cent. of extraction is therefore 11.03 — .73 =10.30 ~ 11.03 x

SECOND TRIAL.

Another trial was made of the diffusion machinery, beginning December 9. Car-

passed directly from the filter presses to the double-effect pan.

The quantity of lime employed was .6 per cent. the weight of the juice. The filtra-
tion was perfect. The experiment was remarkable in showing that a perfect defeca-
tion can be made with carbonatation with a much smaller percentage of lime than
had been supposed necessary.

The masse cuite was dark, but the sugar a fair yellow.

Following are the data of the run:

TABLE No. 40.—Second diffusion run, December 9, 1887.





















l
a ie Sucrose. | Glucose.
|
Fresh chips: Per ct. | Per cent. | Per cent.
el 14. 06 11.70 1. 04 |
Bera SAIS 525. ~6 255.65. 5~- 15. 65 | 13. 64 . 76 |
ee OMOMIO «oe. 202-5 --s >< 15. 70 13. 52 Te |
ss Meurth sample =... <-<-2«.---2- 15.50} 13.02 | 81 |
ee 14. 00 | 11.18 1,02 |
a eee 14.98 | 12.61) 88 |
Diffusion juice: Aa es
DN DIO co a oSc5 wide oo 9.36 | 7. 8&3 . 67
| Second sample 2. .2........2... 8. 67 | 7.25 - 58 |
PPimem@maringle. 2 20255... eee 9. 68 | 7. 6L - 59
Fourth sample ............----- 10. 40 | 8.69 | 91 |
PI ND 223) e eno 10. 20 | 8.45 | i
; Se | 9.66 | 7. 96 . 69
, Carbonatated juice: | = | cA
eS pe a eee | 9.121 7.73 65
Second sample ................. | 874 7.35 | 57
. PE MIG bccn wiswadns sc. | 10.20 8.55 | 50
eure SRINNIG .............5..- | 11.40 9. 00 ste
MOORES 2 en 5s 0 ---s-----|. 9,86 |. 816 | 61
Exhausted chips: fede tre 5 Yt ad
WOR DARINNO ssn cn ewe ete a Fre BOR ache ones
DeCeIe BAINDIO £5. $2055.25. =~ a ee eed Te OGuiten aes.
ee ee SAR ea tee sek 1.
rN MNES ode non nin cede Seanad | cy aes
a ee Pees PON eden a sack
ONIN nis Sia cCinaemsieetie aes =| ee sess
EINE, dileld kk cuales pwd euencesc ax | 47.70 3890! 2.96
First sugar....-....... oe ee a aa 00 12. oc. ine
Molasses from firsts ............--- | 72.20.| 42.40 10. 50 |
Na es oly oe. di bi lee sk I i
ERIE AGI ND dk. wneud se menccctcdeccces pounds.. 182
, en ne. cc mbewaweectcoceees Si. .&
eee teluMe se dse us SUCCES LCL. . oowokbeWane acces stceles tons.. 90
The total sugar in the cane at 90 per cent. juice was..............per ton.. 226.98
Of these there were obtained 128 pounds at 96.6...........-..---- ~ eee 123. 6
; a ne Ly cdi we ceut er cbeces 37.5
Zotal pure sucrose obtained . ... .... jc... 0. scene snenncccccsccces perton.. 161.1
a . iwchcenecedecs i... Ane
Pure sucrose left in molasses and lost in manufacture.......-.-....-- GQ.uc-,, ei
ee te eck encadheceacvece G6.... «29-0
Percentage sugar in cane extracted. ................ce--eeececececees 92. 16

_ The poor yield was due to use of thick chips during the first part of the ran,
causing a loss of 1.6 per cent. sucrose in the chips.
40

THIRD TRIAL.



In this run the use of carbonatation and lignite was discontinued. The diffusion
juices were treated with sulphur fumes until well saturated. They were then treated
with lime and clarified in the usual way.

The clarification took place readily. The quantity of seums was very small, and
the sediment subsided rapidly, forming a thin layer on the bottom of the tank, per-
mitting the clear liquor to be easily and completely drawn off. The juice passed at
once from the clarifiers to the double effect pan and subsequently received no further
purification.

Following are the analytical data obtained :

TABLE No. 41.—Third diffusion run December 10 and 11, 1888.





















a Sucrose. | Glucose.
Fresh chips: Per ct. | Per cent. | Per cent.
Pirat BRMDNG. «cco cs waves eee 14. 39 11.89 79
Second sample. ...-.-..-.-.--.--- 12.77 10. 63 ae
Third sample......... enacts 14. 49 12. 06 . 80
AVOTAGG : 32002" St AT pon eweres 13. 88 11. 58 .78
Diffusion juice:
Wiret wens. 6b. es tooo 9.42 7.82 - 62
WOCOHG BAN M Ss ccc can m TEE RANGES. 265k fy des pean 9.55 7. 86 - 67
SAW ORAS ae mare oc itn aetna 9. 46 7. 85 - 63
Sulphured juice: ae aie
Hirst sammeicsnsioccannccwstew cs 9. 69 8.17 . 66
Second sample...........<<.---.- 9.12 7. 53 . 58
ADRTERD. =——_ oe =
Clarified juice:
PTS ARIAS. << xcne des wana oe 9.95 8. 21 . 67
HSCORG GAM MlS.. wisovsin nine swnses 9. 89 8. 06 . 63
hind Shniples.i san sic dslcnon eens 10, 32 8.39 -71
NENG ls ntcicle anaeomane 10. 05 8. 22 - 67
Exhausted chips: hod
Wiret eample. <2 cvien denadd céwdansn eae sOO Po detacie st
Second sample, - se hwad ‘Phird samples. «65% axesnemarncem*|aeewaney Ps
Fourth sample. 2.26: sccsescuwcaclesesbe e- 6 Tinsradccue
PVOTBLG wienccnancs suense= =e vit epee 75 Sites 0888
Derteirnes sleep eeaiies eae coe 44.70. 34. 60 2. 87
PiSU GUGM. sje caneenccumasenyere adi anmanen 06. 801. coco der «s
Molasses from first sugar.....-.-...- 72. 90 36. 70 12. 07
Firat sugar Per tO Number tons Cane 1600 2.2.00 scccccscmencdaccenncscoscsuustesstneeeaeneeniese 110

The molasses from the first sugar was boiled to string proof, and put in wagons.
A good crystallization of second sugar was secured but, the molasses having been left
too acid, a good separation was not secured. Mr. Barthelemy therefore decided to
reboil the molasses with some of the product of the mill process, and therefore no
statement of the quantity of second sugar can be given. It was estimated at 30
pounds per ton.

The cane from which this run was made was grown on new back land and was the
poorest of the whole season.

The percentage of sugar extracted of total sugar in cano was 92.80.

FOURTH TRIAL.
In this run the diffusion juice was treated with lime until almost neutral. It was
then boiled, skimmed, and allowed to setile. The scums and sediments were of small
volume and were all returned to the battery.
41




to sirup in a double effect vacuum pan. The capacity of this pan was not quite great
enough to evaporate the juice as fast as furnished by the battery. For this reason
the run which might have been finished in two days occupied a part of a third day.
The quantity of cane worked was 200 tons.

The following is a record of the analytical data obtained :
=

TABLE No. 42.—Fourth diffusion run, December 29, 30, and 31, 1887.





















ae Sucrose.| Glucose.
Juices from fresh chips: fe Per ct.| Per cent.| Per cent.
cel se oO Siac mann ay osbwda snes 16. 46 14. 23 .49
MG io en cena ennaans sadecwancap ae = 17. 27 15. 33 - 43
erement, first day .........-......-.- ES 17. 26 15.12 43
| A. M., second day .......-...-- Ae oe eras 17.13 14. 84 45
r ES I ee 16. 97 14, 93 . 54
tho a Sewn bans ceapeewnse 16.19 13. 90 -61
EE nn eharbbadeh ao —xhasclanadace 16. 26 14. 05 - 50
Average fresh chip juice for run............- 16. 79 14. 60 .49
Diffusion juices:
Firstsample, first day .....-.......-...----...-- 9.72 8. 71 32
| Second sample, first day...........-..-..--.---- 10. 09 9.01 . 29
| ee 11. 38 10. 16 . 30
Fourth sample, first day............-.-.....---- 11. 60 9.31 . 53
| First sample, second Gay ------.--......-------- 11.10 9. 87 . 32
. Second sample, second day.............--.-----. 10. 92 9. 69 : 7Be
i Third sample, second day-.--..-.-..-..--------- 10, 94 9.7 44
| Firat sample, third day ...........--...-.--+s-<- 10. 45 9.31 .35
Second sample, third day .........-.-.---------- 10, 87 9. 69 -38
. Average diffusion juice for run.....---------- 10. 78 9. 50 . 36
Clarified juices:
ES ee oe 10. 75 9. 34 32
meereee ter socond day ..........--.--.--=.---- 11.77 10. 36 32
eeee waluplo, third day .......-........--.--..-- 12. OL 10. 36 -41
Second ee OS i eee 11.61 9.78 . 38
Third sample, third day ...........-----.--..--- 11. 25 9. 51 . 36
Average clarified juice for run .........--.... 11. 48 9. 87 . 36
Juices from exhausted chips:
NS OG eos enn on awindiv no odaons|scansnns eA Lenten ewe
pecoud eam, first day ............ 2000. ces00.]s0-.2-2 Wee Fotos gas a=
io ses wew cw ewscecdnn| ences as- See (leans
Prete, BOOOTHLGAY 58... 5c ow ccnp ewennccens| waceae RMR the tes hse
Second sample, second day..........--.---------|-----+-- \ ae
. Third sample, second day......-... CA oe te Sal alas FO oe
I SR icc ecanvlecusaae BO iether wc
eenome Seminie, CHING GG7... 5.6 20 cw one ow wwe nn |e ond ece: BO os fas
D I SNUG od cca conuncuan nbonvilscede one EA etteca ateca do
Average exhausted chip juice for run........|......-.. Se Evaindégiens
Te 37. 37 33.10 . 99
i NN rele a i laa vnidethe wun svlacedlvmns MR) tehccntvrens
omen eager trom first strike ...........< First molasses from first strike............--....---- 76. 22 51. 80 7. 76
Semi-sirup for second strike...................-.--- 40. 00 35. 10 1.19
I RE foe one socdaac pkeudd Gecavevelic'eecace OP O Tindaneasas
Sg ES a ea een meee GO Ie ace bigs
Molasses from second strike ...............-..-.--- 79. 00 ie GH.l. céduacads
I STON ne ec eeeckmascbacaleeasucee 05,8 *“tmaeecun--
SS ERO OUGRT NOP COT so... ven occcscccccesveems|scassees ee
Per cent, sugar extracted obtained in firsts.........).....--- Ow ts ceaeerees
ae ol Bnd as inepadetecesicseussieces pounds.. 45.9
7 ee NG a ins wncmanpeedus edectecenésece: do.... *18.0
; ee Gie Chic Gadlisy staccd auasvscwawsevscseccnces tons.. 200

F _————
*0n February 29 I was informed by letter from Governor Warmoth that the third sugars from the
fourth run had been dried and weighed, yielding 3,723 pounds, or 18.6 pounds per ton.




FIFTH TRIAL.

The fifth and last run of the diffusion battery was begun on January 14 and finished
on the 18th. This trial was made after the milling work had been completed. The
diffusion juices were treated precisely the same way as the mill juices had been, and
after passing over bone-black were concentrated to sirup ina Yaryan «iadruple effect,
which has been in use with the mill juices during the manufacturing season.

The working of all the machinery during this final trial was satisfactory, and the
even march of the whole work promoted the efficiency of the machinery and the sue-
cessful manipulation of the juice.

TABLE No. 43.—Analytical data of fifth run.













| No. | Brix. | Sucrose. | Glucose. No. _ Brix. | Sucrose. | Glucose.
Fresh chips: ° Per cent. | Per cent. || Diffusion juices—

SOT soe eee 16. 87 14, 23 74 continued. ° Per cent.| Per cent.

SOG 2s Se eat 16. 39 13. 45 37 45D. Ji eee 9. 88 8. 12 42

yl ee 16. 39 1357 . 89 453.2. .es ct cee 10. 87 9. 00 38

ee ee 17. 09 14.73 . 68 400... eee Deine ein . 45

BOG Se ce Joe 16. 86 1211 atk 466... S220 10. 67 8. 41 61

8M Nae a eee a 17. 16 14. 73 . 64 eee 10. 47 8.01 72

MEA OR vrctcatm eh ae Oe 14. 06 .70 473. : i... eee 8. 02 . 48

ry ee 17. 00 14. 50 . 61 Yee 10.15 7. 86 48

Ye 16. 70 13. 93 awe 479. 25. been 10, 31 7.92 47

Boeri ack aie te 16.7 14.11 . 74 485... cca eee 10. 59 8. 26 . 52

BG wwe ce oe 17.19 14.17 . 61 491°... 2Seeee 9. 69 7.53 .61

426 So ines Hoel is 314.19 . 59

CR ape ee ee visit 14, 55 . 61 Maximum -}....2.. 9.28 .72

eel BSS eee: 16.17 13. 48 75 Mirimum..|....... 7.03 coe

BA idole a mare 16.17 13.43 . 76 CaN . nese 8. 41 47

BAD Ae Salty 164. 60 13. 99 . 63 = —_——

AO. insxasce 16. 63 14. 39 . 65 || Exhausted chips:

Ae se ne 16.77 14. 28 63 09... 2.534 Rees ee tees
| 450: 2 16. 23 13. 29 ae 402. cass. Sac heameeee a RNase eae
BBS. 5 ieee icles 16. 03 13. 79 i] 407... 3... eee SOAS ae

AGS et 16. 07 13. 35 85 410..05. 5c 22S Wake Vics wee oe
[ se ee | 16.84 14, 34 64 413......3¢cacee Olid casa

B19 Ce. ee ce ' 16.37 13. 54 82 416- as deen eee RI oe oes

LTRs eon ae (16.51 14.17 70 419° 52 oa foe 1s cents wae

Goes | 16.94 14. 38 65 422... a0 secuelaeees Oaks

A962 ches: | 16, 57 14. 52 63 425 . wenn ao win a ele mate aA 4 [a See

a 498... cc eee SONS a eee

Maximum .)....... 14. 73 £9 481 W203 cence 43 }.25, 2
Minimum..!......- 12. 11 59 480... ....calt alee Sa ee eee

Mean ooo... ee cee 13. 98 70 442... cwan oe ae ee 667.25 oe

gn SEEDea ey oapeemeere iene 445 we eeereeeeceesisasaee-. . 42 eee ewww wee

Diffusion juices: | 448. . i... 50s) eeeeeee RAS ences

Fes Bo te ots wie 11.5 9. 28 60 r 13) es ee Ot sce wa coats

Ee Se ri | 10. 67 8. 66 64 454... .iwsie « SGC MO TAR ete

OE es cis | 10.61 8. 92 49 461... ck. 2h A sda

Be eS ts cade 10, 38 8. 53 41 467... 1c i@U Ree AD ~ ccecahe ee

MED. 3 dear 11. 01 9, 10 45 470... 3.25 Vek alee eee i eee ae es”

rh a a ae 10. 91 8. 60 48 474. ..5. ose teleee OS licen came

ATS cast ete 10. 71 8.7 40 AT tS a ee oie 04 diced aeoees

Adie ati delet 10. 65 8.77 40 490 oc. So cee ee BA lwaclta cues

424.. acea wh: BF. 8. 51 44 456... <= up acsheeeeene Ee caoeneee

BT Oe 10. 52 8. 90 46 403 . csc aek cn nnt eee S01 Mande ase

BOO cio awe oir aie 10, 65 9. 05 382 ———_ -—— , ——_ —

GES... oc.annbute te 8. 46 «Dd Maximum .|....... OO emd tenn

sb en 10,73 8.94 45 | Minimum ..)....... la ae

OAS ewe eae 10. 88 8. 99 42 Mean .
AGS ~c0% daltiinwes 9.5 7,68 .o4 |



The molasses from the first sugars being very rich, the method of reboiling to grain
wasemployed. To this end the molasses of the first strike, having been reduced to
55 to 60 per cent. of total solids, was boiled on a nucleus of first sugar left in the
pan from the second strike, In this way all the molasses was.boiled to grain with
most gratifying results except that from the last strike of the first sugars.

The attempt to boil this to grain did not sueceed in giving a masse cuite which could
be dried with ease. The molasses running from the machines was so thick that it
clogged them up. Seven large sugar wagons were filled with this material and set
in the hot room,





31 ade were equal incvery respect to those obtained by milling in simi-
‘Without counting the second sugar above named, the grained sugar
unted 181.5 pounds. The grained sugars in wagons will yield not less

TABLE No. 44.—Summary of resulis.

Sugar

Mean Mean grained
Number ofiun. | Cane. | sucrose | glucose. in pan per
in juice. | in juice. ton. First

sugar.











Tons. | Per cent.| Per cent. | Pounds.









mo es tet smite in wa os 80.3 12. 26 - 99 146.1
Fi is a aS Tee See 9). 0 12. 61 .88 128.0
~~ eS 110.0 11. 53 -78 143.0
$ eo occes 200. 0 14. GO .49 165. 5
. ee ee ae oe 417.0 | 13. 98 .70 181.5
‘>
- Wagon sugar per
ton.
Peet Rie A od 1 igtal
s ~_ sugars
Second |_zhira per ton.
| sugar. SUear (es-
' jt timated).
* Pounds. | Pouids. aa eae
- 40.1 15 201.2
43.0 18 189. 0
30.0 12 185. 0
45.9 18 229.4

18. 0 16 215.5

MASSE CUITES, SUGARS, AND MOLASSES FROM THE DIFFUSION RUNS.

Miollowing are the data of the analyses of the masse cuites, sugars, and
molasses from the diffusion runs.

In Table No. 45 are the results of examination of samples afforded by
the first diffusion run.

TABLE No. 45.—First run, juices after carbonalation clarified with sodium phosphate.



S
Sucrose | Sucrose Sucrose

No. | Moisture.| Ash. :
direct. indirect. Fehiing.

Glucose.







Per cent. | Percent. | Per cent.| Per cent. | Percent. | Per cent.
Masse cuite......... 5732 SOe* TA 3... eae 5.91 75.40 76. 96 78. 94







57s4 10. 79 2.79 5.91 74.10 75. 58 76.13
iH |- Averages .....|...... 10. 00 2.79 5.91 74. 75 76, 27 77. 54
ay | Firet Geagar......... 5733 0.51 Ge fi. t5s0. 258 OE Biasaki nekioeityeebe ate ak
5 2 >








+4

TABLE No. 46.—Carbonatation, second run, diffusion, Lawrence, La.





: Sucrose | Sucrose Sucrose
No. | Moisture.| Ash. Glucose. : Tae La
direct. indirect. Fehi in g.
Per cent. | Percent. | Percent.| Per cent. | Per cent. | Per cent.
First masse cuite...| 5735 9, 53 3. 90 6. 21 ye 76. 22 76. 94
Wirst molasses * ..- 1203-5 he con on el eee 10. 50 BA Me nan eA ae ee
First sugar.......-. 5727 58 RB BDewnsceeent UNE IR ocd ns costal cigs Men
Second sugar.....-. 5752 3. 23 2. 88 1.36 87.3 86. 49 84, 20



TABLE No. 47.—Juice sulphured, third run, diffusion, Lawrence, La.

. Sucrose | Sucrose Sd
No. | Moisture.| Ash. Glucose.
direct. | indirect. | ar 2

—— | —_ | ——— || | | | LL

Per cent. | Per cent. | Per cent. | Percent. | Percent. | Per cent.

Masse cuite ........ 5736 8. 42 3. 79 6.79 73.9 76.19 76. 58
Molasses .....------ 5739 | 34. 04 7. 53 12. 07 BF ese
PRES <. sors cauee Us 5738 46 pO. Tig ideeeien Se etrtin sens etna tu eee

TABLE No. 48.—Vourth run, clarification by lime, diffusion, Lawrence, La.



- : Sucrose | Sucrose
Number. | Moisture.| Ash. | Glucose. diel | tndinaa

| |

Per cent. | Per cent. | Per cent.| Percent. | Per cent.



BEOON0 DOIIAD, denne rscce= 5756 9. 42 308 © Icadéceeeee 77.40 78. 48
5759 9. 27 2.57 ~ [lass ceeeeeeeh ie connie cass ceo

swinswest yee 9.35 | 2.60 |..........| 77.40 | 78.48
MGIOSSEAS. oaen nape nino 5758 24. 01 5. 28 7.77 GLIGR" (has. eee
BOSUP, . dieea den nekees se 6757 27 a2 lcaseeenee 98.4 | [easstencens

TABLE No. 49.—JVifth run, juices bone-blacked, diffusion, Lawrence, La.



: Sucrose | Sucrose | SUctese
No. | Moisture.| Ash. Glucose. ; Sane by
direct. indirect. Fehling.

me ||

Per cent. | Per cent. | Per cent. | Per cent. | Per cent. | Per cent.

































First masse cuite..| 5785 8. 83 2. 47 5. 25 79.3 80. 53 80.75
5787 | 10. 68 2.47 4. 36 76.5 78.77 78. 80
5790 | 12.04 3.49 4. 24 73.7 15.33 75.44
Averages.....|...--- | 10.52 10.5 | 28 2. 81 is 4. 62 | 76.5 78. 2) 78, 33
ls ga pb
First molasses..... 5786 | 39.59 = 3.94 | 9.93 | 39.0 41. 98 43. 82
5788 | 42. 86 3.98 7.78 38. 2 41.14 42. 79
5791 | 31.57 a 71 13. 82 48.4 49.79 43. 92
Average....-.|...... | 38. 01 4.88 | 10.51 41.9 44. 20 43. 51
Second masse cuite|) 5792 10. 21 4.52 * Fae 70. $i 73.36 i 4 te 23
5789 | 24. 33 7. 44 15. 30 38.4 43. 81 45. 82
Second molasses...| 5793 |........... 7. 80 14. 50 45.8 51.22 63.14
Averages ....|...... 24. 33 7. 62 14. 90 | 41.9 | 47. 52 49. 48

The second molasses from the fifth run of diffusion, on account of the
crowded condition of the sugar-house, could not be kept separate from
the mill products. It will be noticed that this molasses was still ex-
ceedingly rich in sucrose.



|

45

‘
_ The apparent percentage of sucrose is as high as in the first molasses,

but this is due to the much higher content of water in the latter prod-
uct.

Nevertheless the sugar yield would still be very large to reduce the
third molasses to the relative proportions of sucrose and glucose con-
tained in the sample from the Calumet plantation, sent by W. J. Thomp-
son, the analysis of which will follow.

In view of this exceeding richness it would seem that the estimated

yield of third sugars from the run given in Bulletin 17, viz, 15 pounds

per ton, is entirely too low. This yield would doubtless have been fully
30 pounds per ton.

While the chemical controi of the diffusion experiments has proved
reasonably satisfactory, yet there remain many points of interest which
can only be determined by more extended investigations.

Among these may be mentioned the marked oxidizing power of the
bone-black on diffusion juices. These juices on reaching the bone-char-

filters were as nearly neutral as possible. On issuing from the fil-

ters they were intensely acid, and were again treated with lime before
a second filtration. Diffusion juices have proved to be much more
amenable to treatment for clarification than our first experiments with
diffusion applied to sorghum indicated. A simple treatment of the juice
with lime, careful skimming and subsequent precipitation of the sedi-
ment in settling tanks, appears to be all that is necessary to make a
fine article of raw sugar, either with sorghum or sugar canes.

re.
a oe es ee % a

SUMMARY OF DATA FOR FOUR YEARS AT MAGNOLIA,

BY G. L. SPENCER.



The crop of 1887 was in many respects a remarkable one. In the
early spring the cane was considerably larger than in average seasons.
The stand was unusually good. Favorable rains and exceptionally
good weather permitted a very thorough cultivation. The rows were
well shaded before the Ist of July. All these favorable conditions
united to make this crop the best in the history of the plantation. Mag-
nclia seemed to be especially favored. When the fields above azd on
the opposite side of the river were too wet for cultivation those of Mag-
nolia were in the best possible condition.

The following is a brief résumé of the growing seasons of the four
years since the establishment of the Magnolia station :

Season of 1884.—The spring weather was favorable and continued so
until the 1st of June, then followed a period of wet weather lasting
until August, which was a very dry month. September and October
were favorable to the ripening of the cane. During the rolling season
there were frequent and heavy rains. The tonnage was good, and the
quality of the cane excellent.

Season of 1885.—Exceptionally wet weather continued through the
early part of this season. The rainfall from April to July was limited
to two or three showers. There were frequent rains in August and
September. The rest of the season was exceptionally cool and dry. A
severe wind storm in September completely prostrated the cane. The
wet weather in September and the wind storm damaged the cane very
materially. The tonnage was large.

Season of 1886.—In January a freeze of remarkable severity threatened
damage to the stubble. Small crops were predicted for the next season.
The crop was small, but the shortage was not attributable to the results
of the freeze.

February, March, and April were cold and wet; consequently the
cane obtained a late start. May wasdry and cool; Juneand July were
too wet to permit of proper cultivation; August was dry and exceed-
ingly hot. These adverse conditions all teuded to stunt the cane. Al-
though the start was good the tonnage was small. The juice was ex-
ceptionally rich and pure.

46
AT



_ Season of 1887.—The cane obtained an early start. The weather was
favorable throughout the season. The crop was but little damaged by
the heavy wind storms in August and October. The tonnage was ex-
ceptionally large and the juice excelled in richness and purity.

It may be seen from the above résumé that two of the seasons were
very favorable, one of these exceptionally so.

The following table of averages shows the quality of the juices for
the four seasons:







Season. 1884. | 1885. 1886. | 1887.
eee loser sacendaecscses< seccen-cnoase 16.54 | 15.80] 16.20 16. 37
ED tenes So ews seco sae wasesaees sos btntieosnes 13.05 | 12.11] 13.50 13. 69
eee eee . 67 1.02 61 77
Se ee 78.69 | 76.64] 83.33 83. 48

The quality of the cane in 1885 was exceptional. The proportion of
glucose is considerably above the average for the four seasons. The
percentage of sucrose is low. The analyses for this season show fully
thirty pounds less available sugar present than those for 1887.

A comparison of the analyses of juices for the seasons of 1886 and
1887 shows that they were of almost exactly the same average quality,
although in the latter season the tonnage was about twice that of 1886.
Many planters considered it impossible to obtain a very large tonnage
and at the same time a rich cane.

The yield and quality of the cane in 1887 indicate that a large cane
does not necessarily carry a weak juice. On the contrary, some of the
heaviest cane on Magnolia was the richest, containing about 15.5 per
cent. sucrose in the juice. All this cane, including the heaviest, was
quite ripe. .

Work AT MAGNOLIA PLANTATION.

Crop of 1887~88.*













NTE en ee eit uk mene sun ciels sobe wees wsne vues 13, 344
ee eke CcWcke Sota ds 5 - aap sow ca ceun veces oe 275
eee deere taware as sees omvese respec eseese =~ = 242
NRE ei i bedin us Sa wceelesWewelssdu «< Ras Wulcairy vecwes «ov ebe veWece beeces vacccusccous 604
re Laan, osns sicact pasless aoss ss sanecs cudbencess 22. 09
i re MOE iis ewe wus weet dade dane cc osccine cute vese pounds.. 1,659, 120
Total weight, grained seconds................---..-- eChietbatecucs O04 220, 484
Total weight, wagon seconds ....................---.. EJCs tai ots e62.52 327, 269
Total weight, third sugars .... ......-....-..... WedawWadsee Wide ce G0: 522 214,178

re MORO Loe lbe eben sucedu ck te cdce seccee do.... 2,421,051



“Averages for entire crop, including diffusion work.


Average yield of sugar per ton of cane........-......-.-.------ pounds... 181. 43
Per cent. of yield, sugars... 22. 622200 scciewn «- 5050 oor s eee 9. 072
Total gallons of molasses... ~ 22.2 ~ 0 226-3 2. 25-- 005050 san en eee 58, 350
Total pounds of molasses, at 114 pounds per gallon .........-..-..--..--. 671, 025
Per cent. of yield of molasaes.........2 ./2.65 (25d bb cee eee 2.514
Per cent. of yield of masse cnite (7. e., sugar and molasses). ..--......-..- 11. 586
Pounds sugar per aclo .... s2 22s 62.4 ecane nacléos <
Pounds molasses per Acre .... .<--5- venn senses n= ecnne eee See sp eigehs 1,110

MAGNOLIA PLANTATION.

Crop of 1887~88.*— Diffusion work.

Tons of cane worked ...- 2. ...<0. 0s< sen ccc cnc ens» First sugar...--..-.--- ----- O nee cee comers ne ewnnn sess Semen ee pounds.. 121,964
Second sugar, grained ...... sass. ccc econes nae ee do.... ‘31,764
Second sugar WAGONS... . .200 0022 0s cen ccenes cannes suse eeeeenee do.... 15,935
Third Sugar WAZODS..... 0 «--2a0 we seeecoencenccunne suns sah eee eens = Saels 14, 653
Total sugar .u< 2.5. owe ese been cue e eecicen cone ce snsane ee ane 184, 316
Average yield, first sugar, per ton... .\... 2202-222 -00 weeesse0esPOUndS: - 133. 58
Average yield, second sugar grained, per ton.......-......--...- oT eee 34.17
Average yield, second sugar wagons, per ton..... a += ame ne alee Of ceen 17. 46
Average yield, third sugar wagonsy per ton.........--..--------- GOs 16. 05
Total sugar per ton of cane...2..5.4.65 2.2... .cccee as sean ne 201. 26
Por cent. of yield 22202.c> i542 Lice jiccu dec cacnet been Ree Foca 10. 063

MAGNOLIA PLANTATION.

Crop 1887-88.
First | Second | Third | Fourth | Fifth Sixth Total
period. | period. | period. | period. | period. | period.

Tons of cane rolled .......-----. 494 2, 261 2, 244 2, 260 806 3, 966 12, 431
Extraction, per cent......... =e 78. 60 79. 02 79. 01 78. 46 79 79. 30 78. 94
Pounds Ist sugar per ton cane..| 101 *132.80 | *139.94 | *123.50 | *122.70 | *144.50] 138.83
Pounds 2d sugar per toncane..| 34 8 36. 36 29. 60 40. 50 41. 60 25. 05
Pounds 3d sugar per ton cane..| 16.05 16,05 16.05 16. 05 16. 05 16. 05 16. 05
Total sugar per ton cane, lbs...| 151.05 156, 85 192. 35 169.15 | 179.25 202. 15 179. 93

* Includes grained seconds.

MAGNOLIA PLANTATION,

Crop of 1887~88.—Mill work.

Total tons of cane rolled. ; .....ccece vouncs deuce cee useee eens 12, 431
Pounds of jtce . 2.0 .0scsn vownncsuenve suas sas ces 645 niineie 19, 626, 062
Extraction per cent CONG. .c0 vase oncdccvaseseseeenpeean oe owhehaed<% 78. 94
Piret SUR 2. i ssc kcuvs 6hsts tieue wdndes suns skip an meee Pounds.. 1,537, 156
Becond sugar grained ... 00 sc0s ss 188, 720
Second sugar wagon........... swedee sdeyeos hoes suee ae do.... 311, 334
Third: GUZAT WAGON...o. cca cece cpsusuceedas becess snses see eae 199, 525
Total QUGAES ivdns casncicunesd:svénsaenuabucensinnaaer ae do.... 2,236, 735
Average first sugar per ton Cane... ... 22. cone cee seen coee ee -AO0cncs 123. 66
average second sugar grained per ton cane ......---.--------- O03. c60 15. 18
Average second sugar wagon per ton cane......---------+ +++. COisned 25. 05

——$——$—_—_———
a

* Average of all the cane worked by diffusion.




“Average third sugar wagon per ton cane ..-.-.-.. seat ca geoee pounds.. 16, 05
Sa verage total sugar per ton cane..........-.-.----. ---------- iis 235 179. 93
II SRR rs aE eee” oni woe sw tcenca sees 8, 996

SPECIAL ANALYTICAL WORK.

Several problems were presented during the progress of the work at
Magnolia for solution. It is difficult to get time during the progress
of manufacture to study such special problems; as much time, how-
ever, as I could take from the general sg ra of the work was given
to this special analysis.

COMPARISONS OF DIRECT AND INDIRECT POLARIZATION.

If sorghum and cane juices were composed alone of a solution of su-
crose, the quantity of this substance could be determined at once by a
direct polarization ; unfortunately for the simplicity of chemical manip-
ulation, such is not the case. These juices contain other substances which
are optically active. In sorghum juices especially we find large quanti-
ties of substances present other than sucrose, which have the power to
affect the polarized ray.

In cane juices the substances which tend to produce right-handed ro-
tation are soluble starch, so-called, and its derivatives, dextrine and
dextrose.

Of the substances tending to produce ieft-Landed rotation at ordinary
temperatures may be mentioned invert sugar and certain nitrogenous
bodies.

Were these left-handed and right-handed bodies present in neutral-
izing proportions they would have no effect upon the polariscopic de-
terminations of the sucrose, but such is not always the case; hence, a
direct reading on the polariscope of sugar juices can not always be re-
lied upon to give exact data concerning the proportion of sucrose pres-
ent.

In the case of juices the variation may not be marked, but after con-
centration a direct polariscopic reading of the masse cuite, or molasses,
may prove very erroneous.

To determine the magnitude of this variation in the juices of sirups
and molasses from sugar cane, the following analyses were made.

In Table No. 50 are found data relating to clarified juices.

These samples were taken with the greatest care. The measurements
were made in tared flasks, with a weighed quantity of the juice, and
all of the analytical operations conducted with the greatest precautions.
It will be seen by consulting the mean data of the table that the per-
centage of sucrose was increased from 14.49, the direct reading, to 14.67,
the percentage given by the polariscope after inversion. The mean
quantity of sucrose is increased by about one-third of the percentage of

the reducing sugar present.
23576—Bull 18——4




50

TABLE No. 50.—Single and double polarization of mill juices, Magnolia.









| Single Fi Ss
Invert Temper- ris )
Number. | polarization saat! P by double Increase.) Glucose.
| caereant eer ature. | by. dowble pelestationgels. |
: | [ies .
Per cent, °C. Per cent. Per cent.
1 14.7 — 4.84 24.0 14. 90 O: 20. 6s ee
2 | 12.75 — 4.39 23. 0 12. 92 O37 4a. eee
3 15. 53 — 4.75 2a. 5 15. 46 — 0.07 O38
4 13.75 — 4.90 23.0 | 14.07 0.32 140
5 13. 02 — 4.43 21:5 13. 09 0. 07 . 36
6 | 13. 95 — 4.35 27. 0 14, 02 0. 07 47
7 16, 45 — 5,23 29. 0 16. 74 0.29 42
8 15. 58 — 4.57 31.0 ‘| 15. 84 0. 26 53
9 16. 23 — 4.98 31. 25 16. 52 0. 29 - 566
10 16.18 — 4.90 27.0 15. 40 0. 22 oe
11 14. 80 — 4.68 28.0 i4. 99 0.19 . 64
12 12. 73 — 448 « Wicoacteeten aoe 12. 84 0.11 . 56
13 13. 65 == 4.95) - “lace ntlaaee eee 1S. BB Pies Seed ee





Averages ig ee eee | 14. 67 .19 . 50

In Table No. 51 is given the single and double polarization of sirups
derived from the juices in Table No. 50.

The same precautions were taken in the selection of samples and in
the analytical manipulation as in the preceding table.

The increase in the percentage of sugar on double polarization in the
case of the sirups is equivalent to about one-half of the percentage of
glucose present. It will be noticed in Table No. 50 that there are nu-
merous examples of a like proportionate increase. In sample No. 3, in
Table No. 50, there is an actual loss of sucrose, the second reading being
.07 less than the first. This result was doubtless due to some error
which all the precautions taken could not avoid.

TABLE No. 51.—Single and double polarization of sirups from mill juices.



















: : | Single Double Temper- el
Number. | polarization. | polarization. ature. Sucrose. Increase. | Glucose.
2 Per cent. ° °C, Pe r cent. Per cent.
4 44. 04 — 17.49 26.0 | 45,07 O81: hud c-Si
5 45. 25 — 16.23 23. 0 46.40 1.15 1. 39
6 41. 50 — 15.43 19.0 42. 27 0.77 1.19
7 43. 00 — 14.28 26.5 43. 81 0.81 1.44
8 46.88 — 14.58 28. 5 47.37 0.49 1, 28
9 45. 53 — 14,74 29.5 46. 63 1.10 1. 63
10 42.15 — 13.28 31, 25 43.19 1.04 1.61
11 44. 85 — 14.80 26. 5 45. 62 0. 77 1, 76
12 42. 85 =u 13, 81 27.0 43. 04 0.19 1, 92
39.98 | —=> 18, 26 25. 25 40, 53 0,55 1.81
|Averages |——-——-——_ | ——_——— —_—|—— _ _—
| 43, 60 Knis uin eee dasha tale kasi ica eee 44. 39 oe | 1,55



oo

In Table No. 52 are found the data of polarizations of various samples
of molasses taken at different times during the season. Unfortunately,
in only three cases was the percentage of glucose determined. In these
cases the increase on double polarization is equal to almost half the per-
centage of glucose present. The mean increase, however, viz, 8.30 per
cent., would probably not have been much greater than one-third of the
mean percentage of glucose present in the molasses.
51




|
Polarization





Single Temper-
Number. a after Sucrose. Increase. Glucose.
polarization. Subanon: ature.
Per cent. su-
crose. °C Per cent Per cent.
1 46.0 — 24.2 20. 52.4 Pet Sets e235
Z 45.5 — 23.1 20. 51.2 Ti a) ee ees
3 oA — 24.1 20. 36. 7 11.6 25. 25
4 45.8 — 20.4 23.5 51.6 Se ies oh a
5 28.2 — 23.7 22.5 39. 04 epee BN ass oe
6 oie — 23.54 21.0 37.9 10.8 23. 90
a 36.9 — 23.32 22. 0 45.3 8.4 16. 60
8 38.0 — 22.33 24. 0 45.7 ES. eee oS
9 = a | — 21.78 21.0 43.1 Moceee, fecet co 2Ae.
MER aS fp esi. 44.77 | 8.30 | Pear es Y
!



Description of samples.—No. 1, cample of first molasses; No. 2, sample of first mo-
lasses; No. 3, sample of third molasses; No. 4, sample of first molasses; No. 5, sample
of third molasses; No. 6, sample of third molasses; No.7, sample of second molasses;
No. 8, sample of second molasses; No. 9, sample of second molasses.

In Table No. 53 are found the analyses of some samples of molasses
_ sent by Mr. W. J. Thompson, of Calumet plantation. In these samples
| we have again the remarkable illustration of the error into which the
‘ - analyst would fall who would rely upon a single polarization alone. As
- acheck upon the results the sucrose was determined also with an alka-
line copper solution. The percentage obtained in this way agrees re-
markably well with that got by double polarization.

In these cases the total increase is a little less than one-third of the
amount of glucose present.

TABLE No. 53.—Composition of third molasses.

{Furnished by W. J. Thompson, Calumet plantation, Patterson, La. |

Sucrose



is Serial Moist- Ash Sucrose | Sucrose

Albumi-
number. ure. 7 direct. | indirect. i

ada. Glucose.

a ce | | | | ff



Per cent. | Per cent.| Per cent.| Per cent.| Per cent. | Per cent. | Per cent.
25. 34 : . 20

1 5918 25. 09 7. 55 15. 85 26. 00 1. 97 29,

2 5919 26.15 9. 35 17. 45 26. 02 26. 14 2. 40 28. 98
3 5920 25. 30 7. 84 17.15 25, 92 26.19 | 2.49 30, 07
4

5921 26. 09 7.01 17.05 25. 46 25.59 | 2.30 31.31



TABLE No. 53 (bis).—Composition of third molasses, average sample from Magnolia plan-
tation.

po renes |
} Snero s
| Sucrose | Sacrose Ta 8° | Albumi-
: 7
:

5 | Moist | I
No. : A sh. ° . ae ‘
direct. | indirect. copper. noids.

! ure.
:

Glucose.



——|——_| |



| Per cent. | Per cent. Per cent. | Per cent. | Per cent.| Per cent.| Per cent.
5958 | 30.37 | 954 | 20.73 | 27.65 | 27.7 1.92 | 21.13



Aside from the larger quantity of water in the third molasses from
Magnolia, the chief difference between the Calumet and Magnolia


52

samples is found in the smaller percentage of reducing sugar in the lat-
ter.

These results with the sugar-cane juices show that when single
polarization alone is practiced the real percentage of sucrose can be
approximately obtained by adding to the direct reading one-third of the
percentage of glucose present.

The results also show the preponderance of levo-gyratory impurities
in cane juices.

The left-handed disturbance, however, is greater than would be ex-
pected from the amount of invert sugar present.

We would, therefore, conclude that the albuminous matters present
are also active, or that in the reducing sugar naturally contained in the
juice there is a preponderance of levulose.

In sorghum juices I have shown in a previous publication that the
differences between direct and double polarization are not so great.
This is due to the fact that in sorghum there is a large portion of so-
called soluble starch and dextro-gyratory bodies.

STUDY OF INVERSION IN THE YARYAN QUADRUPLE EFFECT.

To determine the invertive effect of concentrating the juices in the
Yaryan quadruple effect pan, a series of careful analyses of entering
juices and issuing sirups was made. The samples were taken in the
following way, viz: From the feed-box of the Yaryan apparatus a
measured sample of the juices was taken every two minutes for thirty’
minutes; four minutes after taking the first sample of juice and every
two minutes thereafter for thirty minutes a measured sample of the
issuing sirup was taken. After mixing the samples of juice and sirup
were subjected to analysis. It will be seen that by the above method
the samples of juice and of sirup were strictly comparable. In each
case the sample for analysis was weighed out and made up to a stand-
ard volume in a tared flask. The analytical manipulations were con-
ducted with every possible precaution.

The results of the work are given in Tables Nos. 54 and 55,

TABLE No. 54.—Test for inversion in Yaryan pan.—Clarified juice.













| | Reducing pedueing
Purity on | Purity on | Sucrose Sucrose in- t wae a p|, Sugars
No.| Date Total direct indirect | djrect | direct [Reducing|"? ’°" ©* |\to 100 su-
" “| solids. | polariza- | polariza- | poluriza-| polariza- | sugars. Same crose indi-
| tion. tion, tion. tion. polariza- rect po-
i} clan larization
|
| 1887-"88 Per cent. Per cent.| Per cent. | Per cent.
1 }Dec. 28) 15.93 | 86,32 88. 32 13. 75 14. 07 - 40 2. 91 2. 84
| 2 |Dec. 28} 14,53 89, 61 90, 09 13. 02 13. 09 . 36 2.75 2. 75
| 3iJan. 4 15. 88 87. 85 88. 29 13, 95 14, 02 .47 3.47 3.35
| 4\Jan. 5 17. #8 92. 00 93. 62 16. 45 16, 74 42 2. 55 2.51
5 |Jan. 6 Lie 90. 73 92, 26 15. 58 15. 84 . 53 3.40 8. 36
6 |Jan, 7 17. 93 90, 52 92.14 16, 23 16. 52 . 56 3. 46 3. 39
7 \Jau. 8 16, 71 90. 85 91. 56 15.18 15. 40 . 57 3. 75 8. 70
8 |Jan, 9 16. 78 &8, 20 $9, 33 14. 80 14. 09 . 64 4.33 4.27
9 |Jan. 10 14.18 89. 77 90. 65 12. 73 12. 84 . 56 4. 41 4.37
Averages.| 16.33 89, 54 90. 68 | “14. 63 03 | 14. 83 . 50 8. 45 3. 39



LT
t



53

TABLE No. 55.—Sirups.

[Dates and numbers correspond to comparative samples in above table. |











1 |Dec. 28} 51.23 | 88.33 90.60 |. 45.25 | 46.40 1.3 3.07 3.00
2 |Dec. 28) 46.70 | 88.87 90.51 | 41.50 | 42.27 1.19 2.87 2. 82
3\Jan. 4| 49.02 | 87.72 89.35 | 43.00 | 43.81 1. 44 3.35 3.28
4\Jan. 5| 60.54 | 92.76 93.73 | 46.68 | 47.37 1. 28 2.73 2.70
5\Jan. 6| 51.16 | 88.99 91.14 | 45.53 | 46.63 1.62 3. 59 3. 50
G|Jan. 7| 47.60 | 88.55 90.74 | 42.15 | 43.19 1.51 3.57 3.50
0S flee en lene. 44.85 | 45.62 1.76 3.92 3. 86
8ijJan. 9 48. 83 87. 76 8.15 42. 85 43. 04 1. 92 4.48 4.46
9 |\Jan. 10| 45.22 | 88.41 £9.63 | 39.98 | 40.53 1. 81 4.53 4.47
Averages.| 48.79 | 88.92 | 90.48 | 43.55 | 44.32 1.55 | 3.57 3. 51

Any inversion which would take place in the process of concentration
would be indicated by an increase in the ratio of reducing sugar and
sucrose.

In the entering juices the mean ratios are as follows, viz:

By direct polarization, 3.45 parts reducing sugar to 100 of sucrose.

By double polarization, 3.39 parts reducing sugar to 100 of sucrose.

For the issuing sirups the ratios are as follows:

By direct polarization, 5.57 parts reducing sugar to 100 of sucrose.

By double polarization, 3.51 parts reducing sugar to 100 of sucrose.

It will be seen by the above numbers that the inverting effect of the
Yaryan pan is practically nothing. It amounts to only one-tenth of a

_ pound to 100 pounds of sugar made or 2 pounds to the ton of sugar.

ANALYSES OF BAGASSE.

Sixteen determinations were made at various times during the sea
sion of the quantity of water and sugar in the bagasse. The samples
were taken as follows: From time to time during fifteen to twenty min-
utes a handful of the bagasse issuing from the mill was taken and placed
in a covered vessel. These samples were then thoroughly mixed to-
gether and a portion taken for analysis, Small quantities of bagasse
were taken from the selected portion and eut into very fine chips.
Weighed portions of these chips were then dried at 105° C., and weighed

_ for the determination of moisture.

—_——

Tor the determination of sucrose, weighed portions of the bagasse
were extracted in a marked stoppered bottle for two hours at the tem-
perature of boiling water. After cooling, the contents of the bottle
were poured in a mortar and thoroughly rubbed up with a pestle. The
sucrose was determined in a filtered portion of the liquid, due allow-
ance being made for the volume occupied by the fiber of the cane. The
results of the analyses are given in Table No. 56.
54

Date. | Water. Sucrose.

ee

1888. Per cent, | Per cent.
q.





1 | Jan. 4 ‘ 8.58 || 10 | Jan. 8 54.99 50
2 Jan. 4 52. 87 7:68 ook Jan. 9 55. 08 7.95
3 Jan. 65 §2.99 | 8.10 12 Jan. 9 54. 69 7.65
4 |Jan. 5 53.89 | 8.19 | 13 | Jan. 10 53. 59 7.44
5 |Jan. 6| 62.51 | £497.73 | 14 | Jan. 10 55. 8 6.88
6 | Jan. 6 51. 69 8. 00 15 | Jan. 11 56. 71 7.74
7 1 Jan: -7 53. 12 8.07 16 | Jan. 11 56. 78 7.95
8 idan. 7 52. 68 7.95 | soar ciiepatateteal

9 | Jan. 8 53. 97 7.35 || Averages...... 54. 00 7.79

It will be seen that the mean percentage of the water in the bagasse
was 54 and the sucrose 7.79. It appears from the above analyses that
the bagasse contains water other than that in the sugar juice of the cane.
This fact is also shown by the following phenomenon.

[f a sugar-cane be passed through a small mill, the top entering the
mill first, drops of water will be seen to issue from the butt of the cane
as it approaches the rolls; if this water be tasted it will be found to be
free from sugar. It appears, then, from the analyses of the bagasse and
the phenomenon just related that the sap in the circulatory organs of
the cane is entirely different from the sugar juices stored in its cells,

ESTIMATION OF TOTAL SOLIDS BY HYDROMETERS AND BY ACTUAL
WEIGHT.

Attention has already been called in this bulletin to the error which
may arise from estimating the total solids in sugar juices and sirups
from the specific gravity as determined by a hydrometer.

In Table No. 57 is given a comparison of the results obtained in esti-
mating the total solids in cane juices by careful drying in a flat dish
partly filled with sand. The method of procedure was as follows:

A flat platinum dish was filled about two-thirds full of pure dry sand
and weighed; from a weighing bottle about 2 grams of the cane juice
was placed on the sand, and the exact amount taken obtained by re-
weighing the weighing bottle.

The dish was now dried at 100° until the moisture was nearly all
driven off, and then fora half an hour at105°. In each case the amount
of total solids as given by the Brix saccharometer was greater than that
obtained by actual drying. The mean increase was .56 per cent.

TABLE 57.—Comparison of total solids by spindle and drying on sand.















JUICES.
By By | law 4 B
No. | Date. drying. | spindle. Increase. | No. | Date. drying. ealurtle: Increase.
1888. | Per ct. | Per cent. oe | 1888. |Per ct. |Per cent.

1 Jan. 4 15. 68 16. 07 . 39 g | Jan.8 16. 76 17. 28 47
2 Jan. 5 17. 87 18. 64 ie 9 Jan. 9 16. 53 17.17 . 64
3 Jan. 6 16. 81 16.93 12 10 Jan. 9 16, 75 17. 30 . 53
4 Jan. 6 17 7 17. 80 . 63 11 Jan.10 15. 87 16. 66 .79
5 | Jan. 7 16. 57 16. .39 12 | Jan.10| 14.18) 1485 . 67
6 | Jan.7| 17.93 12.5 61 t

7 Jan, 8 16.71 Li, “e

|

i — ———=
75 ‘'Av'ges 16. 57 17.13 . 56








TABLE 58.—Sirups.
1 |Jan.4| 48.54] 49.02 | .48 || 5 | Jan.9| 4883] 50.22 | 1.39
2 |Jan.5| 50.51] 5272 | 218 || 6 |Janio| 45.22| 4676 | 1.54
3 | Jan.6| 50.85] 51.82 97 a eee
4 |Jan.7| 47.60| 48.64 1. 04 Av’age.| 48.60 | 49, 86 | 1.27



In Table 58 the same comparison is made with sirups. In order that
the sirups might not occlude moisture a less quantity was taken than
of the juices, so that the total solid residue might be the same. The:
mean increase in the case of sirups as determined by the Brix spin-
dle was 1.27 per cent. With sugars and molasses enough alcohol must
be added to the dish containing the sand and samples to dissolve the
latter thoroughly and distribute them evenly through all parts of
the sand. Not being quite satisfied with the result obtained by the
method given above, I tried the device of using paper coils for the ab-
sorption of the juices whose total solids were to be determined.

The manipulation was as follows: A piece of thick filtering paper 40
centimeters in length and 5 to 8 centimeters wide was rolled into a coil
and tried at 105°. While still hot it was placed in a dried weighing tube
and carfuliy stoppered. When cold it was weighed together with the

tube.

About 2.5 grams of the juice is now placed in a small beaker cov-
ered with a watch glass and weighed. One end of the coil is dipped
into the beaker and held there until the juice is absorbed. By means
of the dry end, the coil is transferred to the air bath, placed in an up-
right position with the wet end up and dried for two hours at 100°.
While still hot it is again placed in the weighing tube, and, when
cold, weighed.

By reweighing the beaker and the cover the weight of juice taken
is accurately determined. The increase of weight of the coil gives the
total quantity of solid matter present in the weight of juice taken.
This method was introduced so late in the season that only a few trials
of it were made, but they were eminently satisfactory. The results are

_ given in Table No. 59:

TABLE No. 59—Total solids by drying on paper coils.

MILL JUICES.

|
| |Total solids Total solids



No. Date. —_ ee by spindle. | by sand.
1888. Per cent. Per cent. | Per cent.
1 Jan. 11 16, 22 16. 53 16. 05
2 Jan. 12 15. 80 16. 70 16.16
3 Jan. 13 | 15. 94 mre © iceh Gosakaat
4 Jan. 17 | 15. 42 eat ae oe



Averages|.......... 15. 85 | 16. 54 | re oe


56

TABLE No. 59—Total solids by drying on paper coils—Continued.



DIFFUSION JUICES. :
1 Jan 16 10.10 11.37 ~\.toaeeeeee
2 Jan. 17 9. 80 19.67 ‘scenes
3 Jan. 17 9. 57 10.47 leepeeewe ns

arena eee 9. 82 10.84 | deen

As in the case of drying in sand, the amount of solid matter found in
juice is uniformly less than was indicated from the reading of the
spindle.

EFFECT OF TREATMENT OF MOLASSES WITH SUPERPHOSPHATE OF
LIME AND ALUMINA.

It is the custom in the sugar-houses of Louisiana to dilute the molasses
and treat it with superphosph ate of lime and alumina, or other chemi-
cals, before reboiling it for sugar. To determine the effect which this
treatment had upon the molasses, the analyses which are recorded in
Table No. 60 were made.

TABLE No, 60.—Treatment of molasses with superphospnate of lime and alumina,

MOLASSES BEFORE TREATMENT.

















Purity, | Purity, | Sucrose, | Sucrose, Glucose Glucose
No.| Total direct |indirect| direct indirect | Giycose.| per 100 | Per 100
“S| solids. | polariza-| polariza-| polariza- | polariza- 7 eee sucrose,
tion. tion. tion. tion. *| indirect.
Pr. ct. Per cent. | Per cent. |Per cent. Per cent.| Per cent.
1 | 65.59 | 71.30 77. 50 46.75 50. 80 6. 33 13. 55 12. 47
2 | 61.72] 71.29 76.17 44. 00 47. 01 5. 71 12. 96 12.16
MOLASSES AFTER TREATMENT.
1 | 63.86 | 72.70 76. 80 46. 30 48.91 6.17 13. 33 12. 64
2 | 60.45) 72.01 75. 89 43. 53 45, 88 5. 43 12. 43 11. &4
REMOVED SKIMMINGS.
1 | 67.03 | 77.20 78. 90 51.70 52.90 6.71 12. 97 12. 68
2 | 64.69 | 75.36 79.15 48. 75 51. 20 6.17 12. 65 12. 03











The table is divided into three parts, the first being the analysis of
the molasses before treatment; second, analysis after treatment; and
third, the analysis of the removed skimmings.

In the three cases the numbers refer to the same sample. It is quite
difficult to secure the same density in each case, and comparison should
be made with the ratio of the reducing sugar to the sucrose. Irom this
it is seen that the skimmings, which were removed and which were sup-
posed to be gum, were nothing but air-bubbles, surrounded with a film
57

of molasses. It is difficult to see any beneficial result attending the
treatment in question.
1



EFFECT OF DIFFERENT METHODS OF CLARIFICATION.

In order to determine the amount of organic matter removed by dif-
ferent methods of clarification the following experiments were made:
Weighed samples of mill juice were treated with subacetate of lead
until no further precipitation took place. The precipitate was then
thoroughly washed with hot water until all excess of lead was removed
and then dried.

Similar treatment was given to the same juice after clarification by
lime in the usual way, after filtration through lignite, and after single
carbonatation. The results are recorded in Table No. 61.

TABLE No. 61.—Zffeets of different methods of clarification.

| Raw. | Clarified. Lignite. | Carbonated. |











beret Ly! ir: pis |
Weight of lead precipitate: | | |

December 20, 1887, grammes.| 2.1919 1, 9452 1. 7685 1, 2725

December 21, 1887........--- 2. 2964 2.1545 2. 1930 1. 7058
Ter cent of lead:

December 20, 1887.......-.--- 62. 08 52. 43 69. 53 71. 68

December 21, 1887...-...-.-- 66. 01 69. 31 71. 68 71. 52
Sucrose, per cent : |

December ALD ES i ie 13. 08 13. 45 15.12 | 13.99

December 21, Sentra a. oe | 13.78 14. 01 15.02 | 14.74
Albuminoids, per cent:

December 20, 1887.......---- . 07 .07 03 | . 06

December 21,1887. .......-. | ll 07 03 05
Purity:

December 20, 1887........... 81.75 82. 50 84.38 | 85.67

December 21, 1887........-.- 85. 34 86. 32 84.71 | 88.58



It is seen that the weight of the dried precipitate is in every case
greatest in the raw juice and least in that which had been subjected to
single carbonatation. The purity of the juice was increased least by
ordinary clarification, next by filtration through lignite, and most of all
by carbonatation.

In regard to the removal of albumen, filtration through lignite ap-

pears to be the most efficacious method.

Carbonic dioxide gas in gases from lime-kiln and bagasse chimney.

The quantity of carbonic acid in the gases from the lime-kiln and
bagasse chimney is given in Table No. 60.

The object of determining the percentage of CO, in the bagasse
smoke was to see if it could be used in the process of carbonitation.
Since, with cane juices, this process requires so little lime it seems
probable that the gases from the Bagasse chimney can be used for this
purpose,

*
a
2


ie
4

58

TABLE No. 60.—Carbonic acid gas from furnace.



Num-
Date. Hour. oe COQ.

Per cent.

November 27 sc. --225--cceeee ee 11 a.m.. 1 25
0. severe ee oee Eee eee 32m =. 2 13. 88
DG cc bubs cose weacern ene 1p.m.. 3 15. 89
DO espn aesdatetheyeeewewas 3 p.m.. 4 18. 54
tS ee ay a ane a kee 5 p.m 5 21.47
Da aewenine anh cwaa eee ree 8 p.m.. 6 23. 93
Noveniber 28 222. 3 cee see 9 a.m 7 21. 60
0 i spe keene ee eee 4p.m 8 20. 80
2G 5 de ak oh an Cee 9 p.m.. 9 20. 54



December 2 « cssvesasssenoe eens 9a.m.. 16 11. 44
DO . dicts usa teteeedcaee 11 a.m.. 17 2L 15
190 .xnede= de awn WD el nea eae 3 p.m 18 8.8




DATA RELATING TO SORGHUM AS A SUGAR-PRODUCING PLANT.

The problem of the possible profitable production of sugar from sor-
ghum has occupied the attention of chemists, agronomists, and mann-
facturers for many years.

J will not insist here on the immense advantages which would accrue
to American agriculture by the development of an indigenous sugar
industry. There is no true friend of our farming interests who does not
wish our sugar to be produced at home, and if sorghum can help to the
consummation of such a wish we ought to know it.

A full discussion of these aspects of the subject can be found in my
presidential address before the Washington Chemical Society, delivered
on the 9th of December, 1886.!

It seems to me that we have now reached a point in the study of the
problem of the production of sugar from sorghum where it is possible,
by a careful review of the ground already passed over, to secure an ac-
curate notion of the progress which has been made. .

It is to this task that I bave devoted the present study. For con-
venience the study of the problems may be divided into three parts, viz:
(1) Chemical, (2) experimental, (3) practical.

CHEMICAL.

The amount of analytical work which has been done on sorghum in
this country is enormous. At most I can give only a summary of the
recorded results.

This analytical work may be best studied by dividing it into two
groups, namely: (a) Work done by the Department of Agriculture and
(b) other work.

(a) WORK DONE BY THE DEPARTMENT OF AGRIOULTURE.

_ The first analyses of sorghum canes by the Department of Agriculture
were made by Dr. C. M. Wetherill in 1862.

‘Second Ann. Bulletin Washington Chemical Society, pp. 11 et seq.

59


60

A mean of seventeen analyses of imphee and sorghum showed the
following results:!

Imphee.

Sorghum.
First |Second
mean. | mean.





|
Percent. | Perct.| Per-et.
4,29

Gnuemee. 2-2. - Gine0se. soo once cet 6. 08 7.00 | 3.65
Total sugars...... 10. 37 11.13 | 9.84

Dr. Wetherill also gives a table of mean results obtained by others
(p. 533), and adds the following observations:

It follows, from the experiments thus quoted and reported, that the largest propor-
tion of cane sugar to uncrystallizable sugar is afforded by the juice analyzed by Law-
rence Smith, to wit, as 10 to 2. My average results fall far below this; yet if the
analyses of my best canes are taken, their juice will compare favorably with thasof
the analysis of Smith. For exampie, by the analyses numbered 8, 10, 11, for every 10
parts of cane sugar found we have, respectively, 2.1, 1.8, and 1.8 per cent. of unerystal-
lizable sugar. It is remarkable that in analyses 10 and 11 the juices differing so much
in actual saccharine richness should contain the same relative proportion of cane
sugar to uncrystallizable sugar. When my mean results are compared with the re-
sults afforded by the practical experiment of Mr. Lovering, who grew the sorghum,
analyzed its juice, and converted the same into cane sugar and molasses, it appears
that my mean of sorghum analyses gives very nearly the same proportion of cane sugar
to uncrystallizable sugar, and that my imphee mean gives a larger proportion of cane
sugar. I think that my analyses and their means will give a moderately accurate
reflection of the present state of the sorghum and imphee culture in our country.

There are, doubtless, finer canes grown than I have examined, and richer both in
sirup-making quality and in the proportion of cane sugar present; but the analyses
probably represent the present condition of the cane as planted.

Henri Erni? reports one analysis of sorghum. It gave:

Per cent.
RUCrOSO 2 ccc caccer secccecauwos susence snc us tee 10, 31
GFIMBORG 66 onc cuweue secces condéchutsuh cue Gups ae 2. 07

He adds:

Contrary to my expectations, I found that the expressed sorgho juice of ripe cane
whether neutralized by lime or not, refused to crystallize, for what solidified or gran-
ulated after long standing of the sirup was grape-sugar. ‘This fact has been estab-
lished by the largest and most skillful farmers and experimenters, and admitted at the
western sorghum conventions. The result might be ascribed to the total inversion
previously of the cane-sugar by the influence of acid, or of a ferment, but this is not
the case, as I have repeatedly been able to prove. ‘The following extreme case may
suffice for illustration of this fact: In the sugar determination which is here given,
cane-sugar was found, and yet the most persistent efforts failed to produce a single
crystal in the concentrated liquid.

1 Department of Agriculture, report,1562, pp. 514 et seq.
Agricultural Report’ 1865, p) 48.
61

Dr. Thomas Antisell! reports analyses of frozen and fresh eanes. The
nice from frozen canes had the following composition:




Per cent.
re i re ba cebleue enc dbceacuec. ll, 10
Glucose peter £be oe Bete tae eee de dtreoen Chao waneoende 8, 90

The juice of the fresh canes had the following composition:

Per cent.

i EE ET PEE et SET ET EET Ee
gy RS tet 5 Teg ok 2 a ee
5 NN Ee oh Soret Caw cdiivee dune Gidccwdeas oad e. ie Oe
TE Be it LE ee Re eo ei ns ee ai gn a 3. 60

, Dr. Antisell adds the following observations :

Contrasting the amount of sugar in the fresh and dry cane, the latter greatly pre-
ponderates ; and were the question only on the amount of sugar to be obtained, the
decision would be in favor of working on the partially dried canes; but on observing
the ratio of glucose and cane sugar in the fresh juice and that expressed later, it will
be remarked that the relative amount of glucose is much higher, so that the sngar
“appears to be gradually passing into glucose the longer it remains in the cane, show-
ng that the fermenting causes are as active within the stem of the drying cane as
after the juice has been expressed and exposed to the air. Several attempts were
made in the laboratory to granulate the sugar of this juice; but whether neutralized
and defecated or not, the invariable result was the disappearance of cane sugar, and
a uniform sirup of uncrystallizable sugar. Thus far, then, laboratory examinations
indicate the necessity of evaporating the juice of the recently cut canes, if it is de-
sired to obtain any crystallizable sugar. -











In 1878 Dr. Collier began his extensive studies of sorghum. Dr. Col-
lier gave the following result of the analyses made Md the Department
of Agriculture in 1879°:

Early amber, from August 13 to October 29, inclusive, fifteen analyses, extending
over seventy-cight days, 14.6 per cent. sucrose.
_ White Liberian, from August 13 to October 29, inclusive, thirteen analyses, extend-
ing over seventy-eight days, 13.8 per cent. sucrose.
Liberian, from September 13 to October 29, inclusive, seven analyses, extending over
forty-six days, 13.8 per cent. sucrose.
Honduras, from October 14 to October 29, inclusive, three analyses, extending over
ixteen days, 14.6 per cent. sucrose.







In 1880 these analyses were continued in large numbers on samples
of cane grown in the Department grounds and on others sent in from
various localities. The details of these analyses are to be found in
the Annual Report of the Department of Agriculture for 1880, pp. 37
ot Seq.

The canes, according to development, were divided into nineteen
classes. With the seventh stage, the seed is just entering the milky
state. Since a large part of the seed will still bein this state, when the







1 Department of Kevlealinze, report, 1866, p. 43, * Sorghum., p. 186.




62

manufacture is to be carried on on a large scaie, I give the means of the
analyses of the different varieties from that stage on!':

|

Available Number





Stages. Glucose. | Sucrose. juices
SUGEOSy- analyzed.
Per cent.| Per cent.| Per cenit.
Ws wate ee eae 3. 86 7. 38 4. 06* 70
Bus woedeuecanees 3. 83 7. 69 4. 26 lll
Oc cacens eee 3.19 8. 95 6.50 266
70. Se ee eee 2. 60 9.98 6. 60 217
Tih. cencasee dee ore 2. 35 10. 66 7.22 166
92. ccsvunde enna 2. 07 11.18 7-Tr 170
NS W245 ebb eee eee 2. 03 11. 40 8. 00 183
FA: iscident cae eee 1.88 11.76 8. 33 191
ID ici. aenmanwen sek 1.81 il. 69 8. 21 217
16 cvcnetei eee 1. 64 12. 40 8. 86 359
10 pe ees ante 1. 56 13372 9.73 197
1022S. ckuse veweed 1. 85 11. 92 8. 27 191
IO en aes 3. 09 12. 08 7.82 30





Meas 235.50. 2. 44 10. 83 7, 28 | 181

* The method of determining available sugar does not clearly appear.

These analyses were continued in great detail during the following
years, 1881 and 1882, and the results are found in the reports of the
Department. ?

The averages for the whole number of samples for each stage after
the sixth is given below. ®

. f Available
Stages. bane Sucrose. | “ ucrose.

| Per cent.| Per cent.| Per cent.

Loa aaah bine a a 3. 69 6. 08 0. 00

Bocas iwenee nae 3.70 7.47 1.14

Boe owen ee eee 3. 30 8. 76 2. 86
RO co deanks cat kaoeeue va 10. 00 4.14
ean ecsesha see eee 2.74 12.01 6. 34
Re. Aes awaan aes 2. 47 13. 06 7.61
Diiswnak Sad one onaeee 2. 21 13. 98 8. 87
16 Nas bansn se genie 2.2 14. 34 9. 24
LAO. nics eterno 1. 84 15. 99 11.14
Bo pam Semmens ainamaets 1.72 15, 94 11. 02
Pocus odeuvon vanwen 1.83 16. 61 11.77
0 a ee ee 1.75 15. 23 9. 83
After 18th ..c.d08 1.73 11. 89 6. 33





MGRR <.s pions | 2. 47 12. 41 6. 95

The effect of frost on the character of the juice was also investigated.*
The frost produced aloss of sucrose amounting to 15.5 per cent., and a
gain of glucose, 29.1 per cent.

Dr. Collier makes the following observations on the results of the
analyses :°

GENERAL RESULTS OF ANALYSES BEARING UPON THE QUESTION OF AVAILABLE SUGAR,

By reference to the table giving the general results of all the analyses of the several
varieties of sorghum in 1879, 1830, and 1881, the aggregate number of analyses being





' Department of Agriculture, Report 1880, pp. 110, 111.

* Department of Agriculture, Report 1881-1882, p. 370 et seq., and Investigations of
Sorghum as a Sugar-Producing Plant, special report, 1883.

* Department of Agriculture, Report 1831 and 1882, pp. 438 et seq.

‘Department of Agriculture, Report 1881 and 1882, p. 460.

© Op. cit., p. 462.
63




















from as many distinct varieties by so large a number of separate analyses made in
‘successive years, the general conclusion reached appears established beyond question,
— It will be seen that during the ear‘y stages of development of these plants, up to
and including the sixth stage, the available sugar is given as a minus quantity, i. e¢.,
the amount of sucrose in the juice is less than the sum of the glucose and other solids.
It will also be scen that in the seventh stage the available sugar is practically none,
being only .13 per cent., and this stage represents the period when the seed is in the
milky stage. It is then obviously absurd to expect to obtain any sugar by working
up the crop until it has advanced beyond this condition toward maturity.
It will also be observed in the table that during these early stages the amount of
this minus available sugar remains nearly the same, the average for the first five stages
being 3.22 per cent., and also that the available sugar after it first appears rapidly in-
creases in quantity, and remains practically constant through the several subsequent
stages; and in this it agrees, as will be seen, with the development of thesucrose, which
at a certain period is very rapid, and afterward nearly constant through the season,
while, as has been remarked, the sum of tlie glucose and solids is nearly the same
throughout.

EFFECT OF SUCKERS ON COMPOSITION OF JUICE,

The injurious effect of suckers ou the juice is shown by the following
average analyses of thirty-four varieties.!



Unsuck-
ered.

Suck-

peda: Ratio.







Pr.ct. | Per cent.| Per cent.

STOMED oss wand dc cata 13.17 10.55 | 100: 80.1



CONG, 04 ss ceckeds 2. 14 2.95 | 100:137.9
Solids. . a 3.10 3.58 | 100:115.5 |
Available su gar. aoe

8.08 4.49 | 100: 55.6

ANALYSES OF JUICES FROM SMALL MILLS.’

These analyses were made from September 12 to October 22, 1881.
_ The canes were taken from the experimental plots in the Department
- grounds and from some other localities in the vicinity of Washington.
The mean results are as follows:

Per cent.
DE doce tcatwetbaanat=s>s cudieiven) cwadee shppys hipe uses 9, 89
eisai Vac bachitdeeda snbdiddibasatubeuseeueuhs esecun 3. 85
MA VALUGDIC SUGET ... « scce ieee ves voce tess concdencsvesecses WOO

ANALYSES OF JUICES FROM LARGE MILL.

The analyses were made from September 27 to October 27, 1881.
The total quantity of cane ground was 229 tons 444 pounds.

The mean composition of the juice for this entire season was as fol-
lows:

Per cent.
NS EEE, » Se mila eke es Sie a 6, 94
I er Rc Do) Ot te de bad acdns Chae 6. 38

A Mc ORGs chun be ue aden cdecervakes ¢sevese tonuad 1, 90

| Op. cit., p. 465.
Department of Agriculture, Report 1881 and ls82, pp. 478 et seq.
3 Department of Agriculture Report, 1851 and 1882, pp. 506, 507,
64



In respect of the character of the cane, Dr. Collier makes the follow- :
ing reports :!

THE WORK OF THE LARGE SUGAR MILL.

Mention has already been made of the several plots of sorghum of different varie- _
ties upon the lands of Mr. Patterson, Mr. Golden, and Dr. Dean, which were intended
for working upon a scale of sufficient magnitude to afford a practical demonstration
of the economical production of sugar upon a commercial scale.

Owing to the backward spring and the ravages of wire and cut worms, two succes-
sive plantings of seed almost entirely failed, and it was only after thoroughly coat-
ing the seed with coal-tar that a final stand of cane was secured. This third planting
was concluded June 18, fully seven weeks after the planting of the plot upon the
Department grounds, the examination and working of which has already been dis-
cussed in the preceding pages. To any one who has carefully perused this report
thus far, or either of the reports of the preceding years, giving the results of our ex-
amination of sorghum, it is entirely useless to say that this delay was fatal to suc-
cess in the production of sugar, and that failure was inevitable unless all our pre-
vious experience was to be falsified.

The failure of the crop to mature, as had been confidently predicted during the
summer, was fully realized, and at last, with the assurance that the frosts would
soon render the crop unfit even for sirup, owing to its immature state, it was resolved
to begin work, since, with the limited capacity of the mill, it would require at least
;wo months to work up the entire crop of 135 acres. Accordingly the work of cut-
ting the cane began September 19, aud grinding began September 26, and was con-
zinued without any serious interruption until October 28. At this time the cane still
remaining upon the field, through the effect of frosts and succeeding warm weather,
had become worthless, and the cane from only 934 acres in all was brought to the
mill, the last portions of which had already become sour and offensive.

ANALYSES IN 1882.2

Beginning with the stage when the seed was in the milk, I give be-
low the mean results of Dr. Collier’s analyses of many different varieties
of sorghum in 1882:











Glucose. | Sucrose. | Available sugar.
Percent. | Percent. Per cent.
Seed in milk.......... 2. 90 8.45 3. 20
Seed in dough.......... 2171 9. 88 5. 054
Seed bard. eo ads eee ce : 1.83 10.48 | 6, 233
Sucker seed inmilk...| 1.203 | 11.448 7. 426
Sucker seed in dough..; = 1.12 12. 25 8.19
Sucker seed hard...... 1.45 12. 63 8. 56
|





! Op. cit., p. 504.
* Sorghum as a Sugar-producing Plant, by Peter Collier, Special Report, 1833, p. 17.
65
UOMPUSITION OF JUICE IN BLADES AND STALKS.

Numerous analyses were made! to determine the relative composi.
tion of stalk and leaf juice. This comparison will be sufficiently indi-
cated by some of the analyses quoted below :

Stalks. | Leaves.

No. | Sucrose. Giucose, Not sugar. Sucrose. | Glucose. | Not sugar.











Per cent.| Per cent.| Per cent. | Per cent.| Per cent.| Per cent.
7.82

1 10. 29 3.21 ie. ho SO 1. 66

2 14. 64 1. 87 1. 54 hee 35 1. 52 9.21
3 11.79 1.15 3.03 . 4.23 2. 25 6. 76
4 13.31 .93 3. 28 2,23 2. 50 7.71

Dr. Collier adds the following observation :?

It is to be observed that in no case was there any available sugaw in the juice from
_ the leaves, owing not to the excess of glucose, but to the much larger percentage of
solids not sugars in the leaf juice.

FURTHER ANALYSES OF FROSTED CANES.®

Per cent.
Analyses before frost, November 3, 1882.—Means:

te clei winder Shes deen 12. 44
ee atid pire wren mpd wae sacelens ast 1,23
a i ee ee eee 2. 68
IEE Cte he oe sa es shows a abe we eels nes 8. 62
ESS EE oe ‘telat 58, 19

Analyses after thirteen frosts, December 8.—Means:
ee Mee a axa Caele wets oat Qe iwe-vne see 14, 35
CAPES Sch Gcu up cets bee tee cc eGs eae cecee iued wees 2. 85
RMNMLUALS Ft bbb ay ccolas Pls eh ce ceekt daw eta eeties 2.98
NRE Saleh s osides Jowsubeticweddduwk Tacetee 39.17
ee Be eee ee ae aa 32, 69
Ee 8 Soe unin wade gece utes 15. 35
III free in, oe wa tees Ck. cu baas becuadeacesakune 131. 71
nr ree MG ae oon accu jpunses'sode's le cncctaees 1,16

ANALYSES DURING THE YEAR 1883,

Numerous analyses were made by the Division of Chemistry of the
Department of Agriculture during the season of 1883, under my super
vision.

Considering that it had been sufficiently well established by the re-
searches of Dr. Collier, that small plats of cane under careful culture
and proper fertilization afforded an extremely rich saccharine plant, I
directed attention chiefly to the character of the juice as a whole. The
‘analyses represent the average composition of the juice from 746,350
pounds of cane.!

1
: Op. “it. 4 30. Bai NS. co pp. 43 and 47.
23576—Bull 18 ——5



:




66
Means:
Per cent.
Baeroee s2sud't ee des pees buwe seucsaces bec dlt uae 8.38
Gilunote 5.4 oc baeeeaes er ee 4.09
Total solids..<.. . 52 s-0ceness su cejecus eden cele 14. 06



The part of the cane ground from September 29 to October 4 was of
an exceptionally poor quality. Its analysis is given separately.!

Per cent.
BUCTORO .os0 oc dsas's addons eceb chan anke eee 2 doa ees 6.73
GINCOBO .. nen coc cen sama duis deusu dU eey alc ae nee ee 6.16
Parity co-efficient... ..2... «-.
A separate study of the mill juices was also made from October 16
to November 21.’
Following are the means of these analyses:

Per cent.
SUCTOSO . 2. cae ccc ene enccuy. one dan g= cian cule Sent 9.04
Glucose... 2... cc cncetcecue wes cce uns ie am ye ee ue han 4.08
Total solids... oc. poco oe weed sac vccs eeepc omen enn 14, 81

Analyses of diffusion juices obtained from the same lot of cane and
at the same time showed the following composition : *

Per cent.
SUCTOSO . << eccoses vadces sw acan ue he nn ot eeieae enn 4.95
GIUCOSO . . a noe ae osce cccees ou se ue ween eee ee 2. 42
Total solids. ....2cc wecsee nance on -0% eo ~ eee eee 8. 02

Analyses were also made of canes grown in Indiana.
The canes were cut and prepared as follows: ‘4

These canes were cut, the leaves and tops left undisturbed, the cut surface covered
with melted wax,and the whole wrapped carefully in paper and sent by express to
the laboratory here for analysis.

Nos. 1 and 2 were cut in the afternoon of October 1 and analyzed October 4, having
been three days on the road.

No. 1 was a sample of eight selected canes. No.2 wasa sample of sixteen canes
taken seriatim from an average row, and represents the cane asa whole. It seems to
have deteriorated very little in transit, and the analyses of the sirup go to show that
the average of the whole patch was about a mean of the results of Nos. land 2. No.3
was cut at 4 p.m. October 1 and analyzed October 6, at 9 a.m., an interval of four
days and seventeen hours,

Following are the results of the analyses: °

Indiana canes and sirups.



No. Sucrose. | Other sugars.

sbi einem an egal teeter ee



Per cent. Per cent.

1 | Sample of eight selected canes ..............} 13.25 2.30
2 | Sample of sixteen average canes ............ 10. 73 8.71
8 | Cane ont October 1 ic rccacutue acdusabesiuain 8. 54 5. 99
! Op. cit., p. 43, 3 Op. cit., p. 31. 5 Op. cit., p. 53.

* Bull. No. 2, p. 32. * Bull. No. 3, p. 52.


67

Analyses were also made of canes from the Rio Grande plantation,
New Jersey. These canes were prepared for shipment in the manner
just described. _

Analyses of juice from eight volunteer canes, ripe and in first-class
condition :

Per cent.
ete. oon oth. s cada medules Weck access eoumhn 10. 68
0 ee ee Reece Ay amadtaam oad eae Con 3. 25
i eS eee res ganna eg on <0 -S= = GR e- I ee nn ds peme ada aastnenaawomn 15. 36

Analyses of six canes from field fertilized with salt muck :

Per cent.
ee et ee sean chaer hae ae ns ones 12. 72
I ee ie Stk ge ego avok Uaaeewccen 1.77
tes sidan Jarek waccne bewe es ca3U deuneseeee 3. 23
EET SE a ae ee ee ae 17.78

Analyses of twenty-five canes taken from carrier representing fairly
well the canes ground on September 22, 1883 :

Per cent.

' En os A ee ey png oe eee pec susie 9. 32
ia ened web debs cine scmens concn, 4,99
OO ae edn een diene eres onan 0. 96

OR MERE a 15, 27

In 1884 some small plats of sorghum were grown on the Department
grounds. These varieties were Early Amber, Early Orange, Link’s
Hybrid, and Honduras. These plats had a dressing of well decomposed
stable manure and an application of superphosphate equal to 400
pounds per acre.

Following is a description of the method of preparing the canes for
analysis :!

The seed-heads, as they appeared, were cut off of a large number of canes at inter-
vals along the row. A like number of canes was left to mature in the usual way.
To protect the forming seeds of these against the depredations of the English spar-
rows they were covered with a cap of tarlatan; but in spite of this precaution the
seeds did not mature. The hungry birds would hang upon the netting and gradually
pick them off. To this extent the object of the trial was defeated; but the results
show that the removal of the seed, either before or after flowering, does apparently
increase the percentage of sucrose in the juice. This is shown from the fact that the
percentage of sucrose in canes deprived by the birds of their seed is much greater in
the juices analyzed in 1884 than in those of 1883, when the seed matured. On the
other hand, it does not appear that the removal of the panicle immediately on its
appearance tends to give a materially greater percentage of sucrose than is obtained
by allowing the birds to remove the seeds after they have begun to form.

‘In Table 1 are given the results of the analyses of canes whose panicles were cut
as soon as they could be seen. These canes were stripped and pressed in a small
mill. The percentage of juice expressed was noted. The bagasse was now passed
a second time through the mill, and the percentage of second juice calculated on the
first weight of the cane.

ee ss Ss ee
1 Bulletin No. 5, Division of Chemistry, Department of Agriculture, pp. 139, 140.


68

Means of analyses of canes whose seed-heads had been removed.'

ile i titi tie

First juices: Per cent.
Sucrose - - 2. oe ccs eee op cose eee ae + pape een eee
GIUCOS8G 2 on 2 onc con cece saee ede ceb ee eens = oe

Noteugar .... (5 .-s.Vicb.c el eke bee saaate 3. 71
Total eoltds:... 2.ae-2208 one se aves space vs cgevey 12,00
Parity co-efficient... ..-.....5 t«0ads Second juices: ?
SUCTOSE . 2. oe 2205 Ses cesin nee sms bese ae een - 14.83 -*
GImC0g8 L066 oe nc int pes take eee eee aby wagaattl 1,25
Not sugar... ... 0.2600 ss0n en usn en vost 4.99
Total solids... ..- swe --05:s\icsiwin's /<)5/btie mig ap pelea ea
Pority co-efficient... .... .. ..0=
Analyses of canes whose sceds were allowed to ripen.%

First juices : Per cent.
Sacroese 22.0 sce ee eee « occa deed Julstcehn i aannae 14,72
Glucese . 6.32 Ae tA a see Ib
Not sugar... 206825 sce (sun cuicicgn smep us aube eae neneneee
Total eolids.......> -wci> 9 wwe pcem oe} onesie waee anna

Purity co-efficiont ....'....[..c4 cecum enss «55 nee nee
Second juices : 4

Snorage >. 230) se ee cde enwsveu saecen abet ae pea ae
Glncose.. oe oo sn Sw als Salty ea Goh) BS
Not sugar -... Jc. .26s Asses ceweeeeln ow ae whe AO RETF
Total solids. 2.0. Lae eee eee + eS AE 20. 67
Parity 2 ii. Sita ee tees cee eee e ee eee cece ees 70, 54

~

Analyses of juices from stripped and unstripped canes.®

Canes with seed heads | Canes with seed heads
cut. uncut.



Stripped.| Unstripped.| Stripped.) Unstripped.





Per cent.| Percent. | Percent.| Per cent.

Sucrose x. as 28. ke 15.73 14. 48 15. 89 15. 05
(FIN C08O. Js WOO SUGET. dunce been 3.37 2. 84 3. 32 2.79
Total solids. ........ 20. 68 19.41 20. 58 20. 00

77.02 75. 22

| Purity co-efficient ..| 75,99 74. 52

I add the following observations: °

JUICES OF 1884 COMPARED WITH TIIOSE OF 1883.

The most surprising phase of the experimental work as exhibited in the tables
given is the great difference which it shows between the composition of juices ana-
lyzed and those analyzed during 1883:





Mean percentage sucrose......--.-- 8. 38 14.72
Mean, percentage reducing sugars..| 4. 09 1,24
Mean percentage albuminoids...... - 1544 . 961
' Op. cit., p. 141. 3 Op. cit., pp. 142, 143. 5 Op. cil., pp. 148, 149.

2 Op. cit., p. 142. * Op. cit., p. 144. 6 Op. cit., p. 150. —


69

The chief points of interest in this comparison are the increase in sucrose, the de-
_ crease in reducing sugars, and the increase in albuminoids. It is difficult to explain
why the same varieties of cane grown in the same locality, with the same kind of
culture and fertilizing, and in seasons not markedly different, should yield juice
_ of such different composition. Sorghum is one of the most capricious of plants, and
the above comparison brings some of its moods into strong contrast.

During the season of 1884 the Department made an extensive series
of analyses at Helena, Wis.!

The variety of cane was Early Amber, and it was grown in a light,
sandy soil without fertilizers. I visited the plantation during the prog-
ress of the work. The cane, though small, looked well and was mostly
ripe.

Following are the means of the analyses for the whole season :?

Per cent.
I te LS eae Dc i sue ae od 7.85
I Get eee ae ULL naked ecodce cael untalee 5. 00

The proprietors of the plantation, Messrs. Williams & Flynn, even
after the discouraging results of the above analyses, were not without
hope that sugar-making could be profitably undertaken in Wisconsin.
To this opinion I was not able to subscribe, as will be seen from the
following quotation : °

In spite of the conviction of Messrs. Williams & Flynn that sorghum sugar can be
made profitably in Wisconsin, I am far from being convinced of the justness of that
expectation, unless, indeed, it be in some small way. In view of the disasters that
have overtaken attempts at sorghum-sugar making further south I think it would be
unwise to encourage like enterprises in regions where at best not more than four weeks
of an average milling season can be expected.

In 1885 additional analyses were made of sorghum grown near Ottawa,
Kans.‘

The juices from the two mills used in grinding the cane were collected
in acommon tank and the samples for analysis taken from time to time
from this tank. These samples, therefore, represent the mean constitu-
tion of the juice from several thousand tons of cane. The samples were
taken from September 9 to October 14, inclusive:

Means of the analyses.



Per cent.

re ree ee ner. od cuedue tse cus 9.23
Lt iC ad llL Woeee te cha ave olkbewecacbalcebeseecce 3.04
MC habe. Saduone oe ded hava Pebwhaw’ «c4Gaivespae cass 2. 87
mI 5. Calcisbuele die daeil< 3 Uwwewd as ecce 15. 07

ANALYSES OF CANES USED IN DIFFUSION.

During the progress of the diffusion experiments at Ottawa, Kans.,
October 8, 1885, three samples of cane were taken at different times
' Op. cit., pp. L51, et seq.
2 Op. cit., p. 154.
% Op. cit., p. 156.
*Department of Agriculture, Division of Chemistry, Bull. No, 6, 1885.


during the day, and the juice, expressed on a small hand-mill , subjected
to analysis. The following results were obtained :!



First analysis, | Second analysis,| Third analysis,
10 a m. 1l a m. 11.30 a. m.

Per cent. Per cent. Per cent.
Total solids. ... 17. 00 15. 60 15. 20
Sucrose........ 11. 24 9. 62 9. 83
Glncose.....-.. 2. 44 2. 85 3.41
Not sugar ..... 3.32 3.13 1. 96



ANALYSIS OF DIFFUSION JUICES.

The diffusion juices obtained in the above experiment were analyzed _
with the following results: !



| First sample. | Second sample.

Per cent. Per cent.
Total solids.... 10. 84 9.70
Sucrose........ 6.19 5. 90
Glucose.-....-. 2.82 2.00
Notsugar...... 2. 23 1. 80

Vomposition of canes used in second diffusion experiment at Ottawa.?







No. Hour. Sucrose. | Glucose. | Not sugar. | Total solids.
Per cent.| Per cent.| Per cent. Per cent.
1 10 a. m 10. 23 2.11 2. 82 15. 16
2 3p. m. 8. 64 2. 95 2. 81 14. 40
3 | 4.30 p.m 8. 54 3.11 2. 89 14. 54
4 | 5.30p.m 8. 81 2. 61 2. 98 14. 40







No. Sucrose. | Glucose. | Not sugar. | Total solids.
Per cent. | Per cent.| Per cent. Per cent.
Pe te tase 4. 86 1. 69 1.78 8.33
Reawesveeeer 5. 94 2.00 2.20 10. 14
Bynd wavs hawt 4.99 2.31 1. 64 8. 94
Rn yan woeies 4.7 2.25 1. 55 8. 56
Ti cele eee 3. 91 2.16 1. 63 7.70
Means...... 4. 89 2.08 1.76 8. 74

Composition of juices from canes topped and suckered, topped and not suckered, and un-
touched, Otlawa, 1885.

MEANS.







Topped and | Topped and | Normal
suckered. | not suekered. | canes.

Per cent. Per cent. Per cent.
Sucrose.....-..--. 12.45 12. 46 12.15
Qine0aesscccesai 1. 99 2.09 2. 06
Not sugar ....... 2. 82 2.76 2. 56
Total solids... .. 17. 26 17. 31 16. 77



I Op. cit., Pp. 8, 2 Op. cil., p- 10, 3 Op. cil, p- 12,
71





i
ae

MPOSI'TION OF CANES AND JUICES AT FORT SCOTT, SEASON OF 1886.



ag

ta
Nt}
JC

_ During 1886 the Departinent analyses were continued at Fort Scott,
Kans.!

Mean composition of juices of canes expressed by hand-mill.

August 30 to October 1, 1886 :2

Per cent.
Ta eee ee 1S 8 oa then Sawa aeons 10. 49
Ne oe eo. ae os cic wak eiecieein ances am 4,01
ED 2 tt co a Ie ee Me are wikia 17. 56

October 1 to 26:

SII Se Tes eek Sr ae See a ke 8.70
ee La Sa a i a 4.15
eS ore See age ot eid 16. 60

MEAN COMPOSITION OF. DIFFUSION CHIPS.

These chips were taken from each cell and, after thorough mixing,
sampled for analysis. The extractions were made in closed bottles.’

1 the cane.) In the juice.







|
eof a et eee oS eD |
September 8 to October 1, 1886: | Percent. aati Per cent. |

BUGGER G22 - He ees 8.85 9. 73
SE Pe ne ee eer 3.32 3. 65
i ee BONS 26 os sc ae. sco. 14. 69 16.15
October 1 to 28:
eaereang eee Se: 7.01 iat,
IEEE ere nes ny eo 4.15 4. 56
at OMe rs. 265.05 14. 90 15. 99

COMPOSITION OF JUICES FROM DIFFUSION CHIPS.

Samples taken as just described and the chips passed through small

mill.
Means from October 15 to 28.4

Per cent.
EE EE, GS ob on ch Vn ccna coc ee ns case cccess 7. 28
ee ore oc ew ntde Bales ah ina new leciccd cca cece 3. 7A
NR tit Rs a og es oe ts bade 14. 80

Compesition of the canes calculated from the mill juices for the entire season.5

Glucose. |

Total solids. | Sucrose.











Per cent. Per cent. | Per cent. |



Before October 1- - 15. 63 9. 34 3. 57
After September 30. 14. 77 7.74 3. 79
After October 14.. 18.17 6. 48 3.31 |





Means ......... 44. 56 | 7. 85 | 3.52 |

1 Bulletin No. 14, Division of Chemistry, Department of Agriculture, 1887,
2 Op. cit., p. 15.
5 Op. cit., p. 16.
‘Op. cit., p. 17.
© Op, eit., p. 31.


72

MEAN COMPOSITION OF THK DIFFUSION JUICES FOR THE SEASON
OF 1886. |




Sampling.—F rom each cell as it was withdrawn a measured quantity —
of the diffusion juice was taken until an entire circuit of the battery .
had been made. The mixed samples was then subjected to analysis.’ —

Mean composition of diffusion juices.

September 9 to October 1: _ Per cent.
Sucrose... ... scasiec coon vs suum nue salaiicune deen 5.75
Glacose - . 2... senaee anne ces neue nus = ua cen 2. 32
Total solids... 2.0. ac. Soc e cc cccs cones See Rene 11.77

September 30 to October 28:

BUCTOSC.. .acucccase ciceés cane 505 ap edly keke cee 4.90
GIGRCOBC «oo sc00 cnccdu 040. 00s « duim'e a6 aneeleleeeeee 3. 39

Solids .... wcwcs ssnkic< de seoube neha adete ae 11. 34

(i) WORK NOT DONE BY THE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE.

D. J. Browne’ says the juice of sorghum grown in France contained
from 10 to 16 per cent. sugar, a third part of which is sometimes un-
crystallizable.

C. T, Jackson® analyzed samples of sorghum canes sent him by the
Department, and obtained from 9 to 12 per cent. saccharine matter to
weight of stalk.

From samples grown in Massachusetts he obtained from 10.6 to 14.6
per cent. saccharine matter. He made no attempt to separate the dif-
ferent sugars in the juice.

In same volume, p. 313, is given an analysis made at Verrieres,
France, showing 16 per cent. sugar, of which 10.33 is sucrose and 5.67
glucose.

C.T. Jackson reports further analyses in Agricultural Report, 1857, pp,
185 et seq.,in which the per cent. of saccharine matter varied from 9.36
to 16.6,and the sucrose from nothing to a large quantity, the exact
amount of which was not determined. Dr. Jackson made no determina-
tions of the sugar in the juice, but calculated the saccharine matter
from the specific gravity.

J. Lawrence Smith* made several analyses of sorghum, from which he
concludes that “the sorgho contains about 10 per cent. crystallizable
sugar.°



! Op. cit., pp. 18, 19.

* Department of Agriculture. Report 1856, pp. 309-313,
® Op. cit., p. 308.

‘Agricultural Report 1857, pp. 192 et seq.

© Op cit., p. 196.


73

Dr. C. A. Goessmann! gives the following as the means of his analyses
of the ripe canes:

Per cent.
7 SE ee ee eS eee eee ere 78. 94
NE I a nie an na mae aies oo ae
TEN INI os ee ee skins anaes 9, 25
rnrrimaneree net OS So. Ss cewsecen cose 8. 20
a WemIol OLner substances ...... -2.-.-2... ------ ---- 2. 64

Joseph 8. Lovering? found the following per cent. of sucrose in the
juices of sorghum in several experiments, viz, 5.01, 5.57, 7.29.

Stansbury reports? that the juice of sorghum, as examined in France,
contains from 10 to 16 per cent. of sugar, a third part of which is un-
erystallizable. In respect of the manufacture of sugar, he says:

In so far as the manufacture of sugar is concerned, in a domestic way, this plant
appears to have but little chance of success in a high northern climate, as a large pro-
portion of that which is uncrystallizable is not only a loss to the manufacturer, but
an obstacle to the extraction of what is crystallizable. It must not be understood,
however, that the produce of this plant is unprolific or difficult to obtain, but that,
all things being equal, its nature renders it more abundant in alcohol or sirup than
in sugar.

Hippolyte Leplay* found a percentage of sucrose varying in ripe
sorghum from 9.35 to 17.81.

Leplay® shows a total content of both sugars from 7.81 to 11.81 per
cent.

ANALYSES GIVEN BY F. L. STEWART.®

Stewart states that sorghum juices show an average density of 11° B.,
_ with 18° saccharine matter, nearly all of which is cane sugar.
After clarification this specific gravity is reduced to 9.5° BJ
Average results for juice of ripe cane grown on good upland soil are
given as follows:!

Se ONUENE S15 an ls ate GdNe ved drGeb deve sass. vaea>s 1. 085
Specific gravity of clarified juice.......................- 1. 070
NS SS Se ee ee ee eee 17. 00

Of which nearly all is sucrose.
Stewart quotes the analyses of Dr. C. T. Jackson as follows:

a ee mL ee docwedlews 1, 062
Calculated total sugar (per cent.)...-.........---. ..-.-- 15.5
Obtained sugar (nearly all sucrose), per cent...--. ....-. 16.6

The figures given in the Agricultural Report, already quoted for Dr.
Jackson’s analyses, are claimed by Stewart to be erroneous.

1 Contributions to the Knowledge of the Nature of the Chinese Sugar-Cane, 1862,
p. 21.

? Experiments on the Sorghum Saccharatum, 1857, pp. 7 and 14,

* Chinese Sugar-Cane, 1857, p. 10.

‘Culture du Sorgho sucre, pp. 33 and 34, Toulouse, 1858.

® Manuscript sent to author.

®Sorghum and its products, 1867, pp. 171 et seq.
74

The reliability of the obserVatious of Mr. Stewart may be called in
question by the fact that he gives an illustration of a thin section of
sorghum cane which shows an abundance of cane sugar crystals of a
triangular shape. I will allow Mr. Stewart to describe these crystals
in his own words:'

An incontrovertible evidence of the presence of cane sugar almost exclusively in
the juice of sorghum is afforded in the fact that thin sections of the fresh stalk of
the plant under the microscope exhibit the cells filled with innumerable minute crystals
of pure white sugar, which by their form and other criteria are shown to be cane sugar
only. Scarcelya trace of any other substance is found in the cells. This is well repre-
sented in the engravings.

The means of analyses of Early Amber cane made by Professor C. A.
Goessmann at the Agricultural College of Massachusetts in 1878 are as
follows :*

Per cent.
SUCKOSC 24... ono. no cance scans cccs bee a ab eee 5. 00
CC i 6. 35
Total solids .. 2.2 ce anein- nana dsacu sek y cece eee 14, 42

An analysis of the juice of the Amber cane at Berkeley, Cal., was made
in 1879 by Professor Hilgard. It gave the following results :°

Specific gravity... ....0.2.+) $22 .cuses.aaaes cee 1. 0605
Total solids’.c.- 22.0... 2 Saeed Cole eeeee per cent.. 14.8
SFUCTORO «.« --+- smenpinn yegy poase cae eee 1 ane aa |e |

Weber and Scovellt give the results of numerous analyses of Amber
and Orange sorghum. Following are the figures:

Composition of juice.

|

No. Sucrose. | Glucose. |





Per cent. | Per cent.
3. 34

1 10. 75
2 4.90 5. 70
3 12. 48 2. 47
4 7.12 6.19
5 11. 42 2.13
6 9.13 5. 00
7 11. 02 2.79
8 9. 76 4.11
9 10. 06 2.47
10 13,11 1.82
11 9. 67 2. 94
12 11. 41 4. 02

13] 3.55 14. 66

Means 9. 6L, 4.43
Weber gives the mean composition of the juice of orange cane as fol-
lows:°

Per cent.
BUCTOSC . 5. cas ds'cdes dcdads ddcdds GOUkan penee sina meee “ee he
Glncone .. . 2. scccakce covese andties duck sane ue sum enninel 3. 00
Water ..cecccccces civcus cuwbpuicnee dauabene ae 76. 58
Starch ...<0s icccces sinc ce slep'a aieseea balm ila bo gle 4,12

Op. cit., p. 186.

* Department of Agriculture, Report 1881 and 1882,

* Report California College of Agriculture, 1879, p. 58.
* Illinois Agricultural Report, 1880, pp. 425 et seq.

® Op. cit., p, 427.


15

. Fin e samples of sorghum juice examined by Professor Hilgard, of
Berkeley, Cal., in 1880, showed the following mean composition: 1

















MENU falas honed dip ds oes et eben es =< <5 5-4 1, 081
I rs oe as oe oo oe Sys eee per cent .. 19.65
te ee fo fe Loe anes ueaa twas see. os 10.80
ee ar ee ace cig cee a ameens oes 66. 82

In 1881 Weber and Scovell continued their ataivees: ?
the means of three series of determinations of sucrose and glucose

Series. | Sucrose. Glucose

Per cent.| Per cent.
First ... 8. 56 4. 84
Second..} 11.95 3.21
Tira. 2-1" “12,18 2. Se

Weber and Scovell® give the following as the mean composition of
the juice of Amber cane for 1881:

NO tS Saw = pee « ages sacit sa hb cay on pa beeneg on 1. 070
ee oe oa s beabionns opee se cccus snus per cent.. 12.08
See eee SoS. nas scene asa ees eens. -dO.-.. B47

ANALYSES AT EXPERIMENTAL FARM OF WISCONSIN FOR 1881.‘
The mean composition of the juice for 1881 at Madison, Wis., was—

Per cent.
ee eee, Cig a ooo e weed Sond secu ewre ncaa ecee 9.5
SRR EE ee ee a a2
I Set ie SELS bs oluisyGa asa ocae oo- see cece 2.3
| aaa eg on wee ulene = 85. 0

Analyses of Early Amber, Early Orange, and Honduras canes gave
the following mean results: °

In the juice. | Early Amber. | Early Orange.| Honduras.

Per cent. Per cent. Per cent.
Sucrose..... 10. 63 10. 50 7.00
Glucose..... 2. 68 4 95 4, 20

CANES FROM DIFFERENT PARTS OF THE STATE.

_ The mean composition of the juice from canes grown in different
parts of the State of Wisconsin and sent to experimental station for
analysis is as follows: ®

Per cent.
ee et anew bee cencuc cove 8. 07
a ee cewelccae bese veccce 5.12





' College of Agriculture, California, Report 1880, p. 41.

? Illinois Agricultural Report, 1881, p. 497.

* Encouragement to the Sorghum and Beet Sugar Industry, Department Agricult-
ure, 1883, p. 12.

- * Report National Academy Sciences on Sorghum, p. p. 80 et seq.

5 Op. cit., p. 86.

* Op. cit., p. 89.
76



Weber and Scovell give the following as the mean composition of ©

Amber cane for 1882.

Specific gravity --. ....<8 SucROSS « . 226. enn cana eunete ames 45 e596 5 es cae ne
GUGBOKO: ... 6. snc dead hoes apne Beene = ene eee do.... 3.66

For the best cane raised by ami in 1882 the following mean compo-
sition of the juice is given:?

Specif'c gravity ...... .----+ .-cces cosces scum = caneeeneeene 1, 060
Sucrose... os 25.) s2s Seoagee eee a seeeen per cent.. 10.17
Glucose . ...5 i. <-06 cee as -sseus ben ses Seen do.... 2,48

Swenson® gives the analyses of juices from plots of fertilized canes
grown at the experimental farms of the University of Wisconsin.
Following are the means of sixteen analyses:

«Per cent.
Saderose ..-. ..s6csa0 coc snud cee o wm swawesiala nate
GINCOSO .... «+ cone pocsesccocddeecuta de sculews one

Professor Swenson reports the mean percentage of sucrose in the
juice of three lots of cane used for sugar making as follows:+

Per cent.
Lot 1 -. 2... sowus .senen pekioge cauue sa5 5 S20 ie 9. 89
LGt 8:00. 5 nics cowie came on sae Sere ieee ak 12.19
L063 5. bone cicnwe nea bce wal sabe we.scee ae anne oe nn . 11.20

Twenty-six varieties of sorghum grown on the experimental farm of
Wisconsin in 1882 and analyzed by Professor Swenson showed the
following composition of the juice: °

Per cent.
SUCTOSC .ccc ccacce scan cucbnGeeeees os oenss oe 9, 84
GlUCOBE....o. ocnc accedeun'saewes auw oan auwele wes pane 5-35

Twenty-three varieties grown with fertilizers at same place gave a
juice of the following composition :°

Per cent,
BUCTOSO . . « «ad: '.c0'c c's con sud cdwaldp ocd utah wee ne ee 10,79
GIUCOG0... os cceuca sows swepesid nts tnecee dine 2.81

Swenson also reports’ another set of canes which had a juice on Oc-
tober 15 of the following composition :

Per cent.
Buc¥O86. « GH CO80. oc ccc c ccdccs sacads ceded seceed ueewee ae 2. 8&5

' Encouragement to the Sorghum and Beet Sugar Industry, Department of Agri-
culture, 1883, p. 12.

2 Op. cit., p. 16.

* Op. cit., p. 19.

‘Encouragement to Sorghum, etc., Department of Agriculture, 1883, p. 20.

° Experiments with Amber Cane, Madison, Wis., 1982, p. 7.

© Op. cit., p. 8.

7Encouragement to Sorghum, ete., Department of Agriculture, 1883, p. 21.

i a i





(7

TT
bs

nree days later the juice had the following composition:

‘ Per cent.
a ee eee ae Se be Bed 9,50
SRR AS 2S ow Er oe ee weet ede bowen tebe 5. 00

At Modena, Italy, during the same year, further experiments were
arried on by Professor Pirotta.!

The experiments were divided into four series. Following are the
ean results for each series. In each series are given the means of
welve analyses of sorghum juices:

First series :

CEREUS oo. cmag lions oneser oe dain taker ans ts 1.0712

SS et Scent sevens mente once averse percent... 8.20

tee cenudiie aiavs eke e cas seenes as ee Otc) WR
Second series:

AMS oo ced o.oo WStk Gand cds adeve4s 3 4u 1. 0946

| ha percent.. 14.84

er s6s O56 oS s gS mae pen anond se nennes do.... 5,14
Third series:

I one Bir S20 wien 0 an Sol w wpe, emcee 1, 0997

ive nie a wes o sb esas ceceny acon per cent.. 15.10.

etek aes ese nesclecunep casewcns do.... 5,81
Fourth series :

eee oid a nan ana
eae vege conse aefe~ seve veve--percent.. 180]

EE aes | ae ee

In 1882 I made numerous analyses of juice from a large cane-mill at
a Fayette, Ind. The analyses represent 50 acres of cane, the greater
art of which was stripped and ripe.’

The means of the analyses are as follows:

Ce Sen cu cusecateksenss so eee ON: Ia Pde Gnas minees >= do.... 5.80
RE Seis O55 wie Lip snickcis - Joan's = ss ane 1. 0586
















Fifteen varieties of sorghum were also grown on the experimental farm
f Purdue University during the same year. The whole of the plots was
mt and passed through the mill, and the analysis represents the com-
sition of the entire juice.

The means are as follows:

IN dI VEE O30 d0 es dec canecectweden veces per cent.. 7.17
EE SE ed Sek he vw ccwb shoves iccacs do.... 5.15
Ee err tas aii ok dionkee iss seine acs do.... 1.059

Prof. Giulio Monselise* gives the result of numerous analyses of sor-
‘hum juices. lollowing:are the means of forty-one analyses made on
anes planted in April, 1882:

Per cent.
Pe ae os cs canes cave ceedeses cvs 11.35
eG tt... . ow ec decile Secces cecne 5.7
Tee ec caweskcssoccecvscee 100

1 Annali di Agricoltura sul Sorgho Ambrato, 1883, pp. 28 et seq., Roma.

* Report Agricultural College of Indiana (Purdue University), 1882, pp. 244-245.
ambra primiticcia o Sorgho Zuccherino del Minnesota, Manitova, 1883, Facicolo
9; table opposite p. 192,

a

oe
78

In 1882 experiments were made at the Zootechnic school in Reggio, —
Italy, by Professors Zanelli and Spallanzani. The means of the analy-
ses made by them are as follows::

First series:
Per cent. in the juice.

SUGTOSO 2. ced cn coee saneiemas-uncuimm a wollen 13. 99

G1NC086 . .. ccc eens conn bana ennui deel ee 4, 97
Second series:

SUCTOSO . 2 conc wv cccus epeens ancnen ss tan ees ee 11.55

Glucose. . 2.00 wcccec secs cedovescseescecseM ees 7.82

Two samples of sorghum juice (early amber) examined by Professor
Hilgard, of the University of California, showed the following mean come
position :?

Specific gravity ~~ ..6 sows sees ob onuc'vaey se ane eee 1. 070
Total solids. .c..dsc0sbedee see enbeee eee per cent.. 17.00
SUCTORO . 20+ va sad c unawewcowiuwh's wale sweeten ae de.22. 6.10
Parity ...-.csses vase vejecesnhs a sawens heb ese eee 45. 40

A sample of juice from sugar-cane also grown in California showed the
following composition :

Specific gravity - . 10 « Fotal Solids... ua SUCTORC ...0. - ce cuaincwe weeuinpee'ns Wieder eos ae: 21. "T69

Parity ...06 22.0 scee wide du pdec'ers edd 6dnd stam anne nn
Professor Hilgard adds the following observations :*

The above analyses exhibit, first, the superiority of the true sugar-cane over the
sorghum in respect to purity as well as total sugar contents, although in both respects
the former is here shown below the quality to which it attains in tropical countries.
There can be no doubt that wherever the tropical sugar-cane can be grown to ad-
vantage within the reach of intelligent labor and perfected appliances, it is superior
to the sorghum as a sugar-producing plant.

Remarkable results were obtained by using special fertilizers in the
New Jersey experiments.

In sixteen experiments the percentages of sugar in the cane were as
follows:* 15.05, 13.13, 12.97, 11.74, 11.40, 12.50, 15.01, 11.79, 12.70, 15,20,
12.59, 13.57, 15.42, 15.93, 16.09, 15.37. Mean calculated for juice, 15.16
per cent.

In 1883 two samples of sorghum juice were analyzed by Dr. H. P.
Armsby, chemist of the Wisconsin Agricultural Experiment Station.

The results are given in the first annual report of the station, p. 79:





No. 1. No. 2.
Per cent. | Per cent.
BrOLOke sides senwes 6.15 LBS
(FITIDORS Fa cwane wees 8. 32 8, 22
Total solids....... 12. 00 13. 50



'Annali di Agricoltura sul sorgho Ambrato, Roma, 1883, pp. 20 et seq.
*College of Agriculture, University of California, report, 1882, p. 61,
3 Op. cit., p. GL.

*New Jersey Experiment Station, Bull. No. XXX, p. 7.
19

_ S$wenson! says the average percentage of cane sugar in sorghum
grown by him on the Wisconsin farm was 10.5 to 12.5.

Weber? reports the following as the general average of all the cane
juices manufactured at Champaign during the year 1883:











NEN 20 Sota ds sro dagiects ss S-6e ertesten 5 1, 059
Ee ee ee ee ee -..per cent.. 7.78
Nie i elo tonne annie ns's' = oe se wb nes do.... 4.76

The means of seventy analyses made of Amber canes at Hutchinson,
Kans., during the season of 1883, by Prof. M. Swenson, are as follows:*

Per cent.
Lae oS lo oe See E ea es ae cen aw hao tew ob vee 14,2
Eee Cds atin he mat tin’ « Pade douwas = ood aac 9.3
ee cad ah cle oo Wale, dw wade ndipiwarnia’ ow aden eae 2.8

The means of thirteen analyses of the cane juices from the large mill
at Hutchinson, Kans., give the following numbers: ‘

Per cent.
eS on con ge ue ee ee wwe MEw'S 15.7
ES I en 1)
I en ee. cc Sal knee coe + anccce ac

The means of thirteen ae of Orange cane at Hutchinson during
1883 are as follows :*

Per cent.
Sg EE ee ae 1s-3
i ck enews ecsccc seecne 8.7
a hasty” Mae

Seven analyses of the juices of Link’s Hy pride cane, made at same place
in 1883, are as follows: *

Per cent.
i ae wdc 3.2
ec cal a amin bbe o pide vi m= <<" ea ak 10.3
ea 2.13

Means of two analyses of the juices of Honduras cane, made at the
same time and place, are as follows:°

Per cent.
a ee i hate BE oe ia ele wane 15.2
ee Ue chan 'dd de beue'suucea- 10. 2
i a eas Se a a ae 3.4

The means of fifty-six analyses of the juices of sorghum, chiefly Amber,
made by Prof. M. A. Scovell, at Sterling, Kans., in 1883, are as follows:®

Per cent.
eS ns ee pate e ubie Ain bS ape cere 7.45
TN tr ete a. ond peek acaccucvgecess 3. &@
Te Cae cies duns bree esen eeu h ecw Wage dscusccece 3.13



1Third Annual Meeting Wisconsin Cane-Growers’ Association, February, 1883,
p. 16; edited by J. A. Field, Saint Louis, Mo.
2Department of Agriculture, Division of Chemistry, Bull. No. 3, p. 62.
2 Op. cit., p. 64.
4 Op. cit., p. 65.
5 Op. cit., p. 66.
6 Op. cit., pp. 67, 68.


80

The means of nine analyses of Early Amber cane juice, made by
Prof. G. H. Failyer, of the Kansas State Agricultural College, at Man-
hattan, in 1883, are as follows ;:?

Per cent.
Total solids 2... 5. sic%.cca oh aneanpedee sae bie = Tee
SUGEORO So... cones none sop eels pemecusanes eeenene 11.72
GIMGOBO . 6 se cawcessecece bans ceuep bee aus oun eee 1, 45

The means of six analyses made by the same person, at the same
place, of the juices of Link’s Hybrid cane, are as follows:!

Per cent.
Total solids ...-... bau cow Sle tp weialee dais Bue ae sFaescee 11.12
SUCTOSS owe 2 cane swoces venses aaanee be useeie Lenn 6.13
GIm0080. . ono. 5 acces pe wend inte wwpil same cre se ae 2.83

Means of four analyses of Kansas Orange cane juice, made by the
Same person at same place and time, are as follows: !

Per cent,
Total solide: ic.3idse scar cael nase Wales ew we belles enene 14, 91
SUCTOSS oc ecics aaccdwiccecce vetoes ncvuns bb aula 11. 28
GIGOORG . soot. oe cocce cece cccons ce scene a = ouwe amie penne

One analysis of Honduras cane, made at the same time and place by
Professor Failyer, gave—

BUAPORO 6 dccwn so cuaspaua spngh se sencaee os sae per cent.. 9.76
GAMEOGO . oo coo case dude ceupeuae pees selec ane do.... 229
Specific gravity - . 2.5 Joc. sates os sU aces 208 ee 1, 061.

The means of sixteen analyses reported by F. L. Stewart are as fol.
lows :?

Specific QvaVIEF 106 s2cdnnsleennorent eee eee owen SapEe Gree 1, 068
SUCTOSS .. 2. pes news no ase wimns a «mas_<= ‘aie ie eel
GINCOSE «2. oe a eee ccunrjass bnes = ae ese 6 =ip ee meen

Prof. W. A, Henry® reports the analyses of twenty-one samples of
sorghum juices from different varieties.
The mean results are as follows:

Per cent.
BUCKOGEO cc 0 0 sine degen cnviae due ditee te ese cue eee 8.93
GID COREG . oc cove ccce ve cave duce ve bs ov éuce cane ba ea en

In 1885 further analyses were made of field samples at the Rio
Grande factory by the chemist of the New Jersey station, Dr. Neale.

All the samples except the last one named had been fertilized. The
quantity of sugar in the cane of the several samples was as follows: ‘

! Op. cit., pp. 68, 69.

? Fourth Annual Report New York State Sugar-Growers’ Association, p. 44.
’ Second Annual Report Wisconsin Agricultural Experiment Station, p. 33.
4New Jersey Experiment Station, Bull. No. XXXVIII, p. 10.
81









The respective percentages of sucrose in these juices were as fol-
lows : 1 8.69, 8.23, 9.96, 8.89, 9.70, 9.48, 9.96, 9.12, 11.30, 11.21, 11.38,
11.16, 11.03, 8.87, 9.18. Mean, 9.88.

_ Twenty-six tons of early orange cane was found by another analysis
to contain 7.25 per cent. sucrose :?

Composition of sorghum juices from large mill al Rio Grande, N. J., for the four seasons
JSrom 1882 to 1885, inclusive.*

SUCROSE.
[Averages for each week.]

i |
1882.4 | 1883. 1884.6 | 1885.7

:
Per cent.| Per cent.| Per cent. | Per cent.
5 9. £0 6. 60

0.35 9.70 Le:
11.33 | 10.37 9.64 | 8.03
11.81 “| “8.56 9.16 | 839
1.56 | 9.22 | 10.96 | 870
10.68 | 9.50 | 11.10 8. 94
11.58 9.70 | 12.60 10. 64
10.85 10.46 | 10.25 10. 00
11. 00 10. 74 ome ocetcs ft”
10.56 9.93 o-patiy ce pes:

|
|
11. 38 ag oh BGO, [oa ae aac
11.118 | 9.758 |
4From Sept. 4 to Nov. 6.
®’ From Sept. 10 to Nov. 12.
® From Sept. 8 to Noy. 10.

7 From Sept. 2 to Oct. 12.
8 Mean.

For 1886 the mean percentage of sucrose in the cane as reported by
the New Jérsey Experiment Station was 114 to 120 pounds per ton.

NR CTE ae os cane awn an, dan ais Sem bw ome nin = 117
mean per Cont, SUCTOSse IN Cane. ... 2... 22. cee sic cee see 5. 85
meena per cent, sucrose in juice... ..-..--55 22. .-..-.-.. 22-20 6.54

The general average content of sucrose in the mill juices at Rio
Grande for the five years is 9.28 per cent.

The means of ninety-eight analyses made in 1886 by Professor Stubbs,
director of the experiment station at Kenner, La., were as follows:4

Per cent.
Sn er ht Lees ee ied ees ee ee en cc ces 11, 92
I i gs a Uk Sw we ncede 16, 34

' Op. cit., p. 10.

2 Op. cit., p. 15.

_8MS. from Mr. H. A. Hughes, superintendent.

* Louisiana Sugar Experiment Station, Kenner, La., Bull, No.5, pp. 6 and 7, 1886,

23576—Bull 18——6
82



In 1886 the New Jersey station continued its analyses at Rio Grande,
The percentage of sucrose in the cane varied from 114 to 120 pounds
per ton.!

COMPARISON OF MILL AND DIFFUSION JUICES FOR 1886.

At Rio Grande the chemist of the New Jersey station made analyses
for the purpose of comparing mill and diffusion juices.”
The means are as follows:

.

ee Diffusion 4

Mill juice. juice 3

3

Per cent. Per cent.

BUCTORO-<25s.26622 8.93 7.59
Total solids.....-.- 12.99 11. 56
Perthy’. dc. ers 68.75 65. 57





A mean of eight experiments made by J. I’. Willcox, of New York,? |
in 1886 shows 9 per cent. sucrose in sorghum juice.

ANALYTICAL DATA FROM THE EXPERIMENTS AT THE NEW JERSEY
AGRICULTURAL STATION.

The systematic investigations made by Dr. Geo. H. Cook, director of
the New Jersey Agricultural Experiment Station, have already been
quoted in the data given. These experiments were commenced in 1881
and have been continued every year since. The chemical work has been
in charge of Dr. A. T. Neale. The results of these experiments have
been so interesting and instructive that I have grouped them together.

In 1881 fourteen varieties were planted, of which only five matured.‘
The sucrose in the juice of these five matured varieties was as follows:
Per cent., 8.58, 7.28, 6.50, 7.60, 14.06. Mean, 8.80 per cent.

The same season® sixteen plots of Harly Amber were treated with
various fertilizers, and the yield of sugar calculated per acre,

The percentages of sucrose in the juice of the several plots were as
follows: 9.70, 9.43, 9, 9.27, 9.68, 9.94, 10.51, 11.65, 11.43, 9.84, 9.57, 11.61,
9.73, 9.44, 12.01. Mean, 10.16.

In respect of the experiments Dr. Cook makes the following report :®

"

-

ii caitlin Di tee

After a struggle, which has now lasted more than twenty-five years, sorghum to-
(lay does not occupy its true position among sugar-producing plants. Its advocate-
justiy claim that this is due to our lack of information, not only in regard to the manus
facture of sugar from it, but also in respect to its proper cultivation. For some time
past authorities have felt that the hope of having a small sugar-house on each farm
must be abandoned, and that our attention must be turned towards the more rational —

' Prof. G. Il. Cook, Rural World, July 7, 1887.

*Seventh Ann. Report New Jersey Agricultural Experiment Station, 1886, p. 130. .

3MS. communication to author. ‘

‘Second Ann. Report New Jersey Experiment Station, p. 43. j

© Op. cit., pp. 44, 45.

6 Op. cit., pp. 46, 47. |
83

_plan of thoroughly equipped mauufactories, in which the sorghum grown on neigh-
boring farms can be worked quickly and economically by skilled operatives.

The result of the season’s experiments is decidedly encouraging, considering the un-
favorable circumstances. There has been a drought of unprecedented severity and
length, so that the corn crop on the college farm was not more than one-quarter its
usual amount, And yet the results of sorghum growing on the same farm, as given
in the above table, are respectable. With aseason having the average rain-fall a
crop weighing from two to three times as much as that of the present one may safely
be calculated on.

In 1882 experiments were made on two plots on autumn and spring
plowed ground. Each plot was divided into sixteen sections, on which
different fertilizers were employed.

The mean percentages of sucrose in the juice for the two plots are as
follows :!

First plot...... Pe eee Peres eae Sena e sateen San poem Je a 13. 16
NER we sh abies. tecme + Secu ke bune as paneeses sacs 12,2



The season was again reported as unfavorable.”

The plants came up quickly and grew rapidly from the first, so that no special
trouble was experienced in hoeing or cultivating it. It came forward with strong and
stout canes until near the middle of August, when a very severe drought set in. The
growth of the cane was entirely stopped for some weeks, when it was about 6 feet
high. Finally stunted-looking seed-heads partially developed in irregular patches
and streaks over the field; most of the seed was blasted, and many of the stalks failed
tohead out. The height of the crop was 2 or 3 feet below the normal growth. When
the rains came in September new shoots forked out from the upper joints and unfolded
slender heads, but it was too late in the season, and no seeds ripened on them.

We judge that the crop of cane was not half what it would have been in a favorable
season, and that of the seed not one-third of a fullcrop. The percentage of juice in
the canes was also much lower than is natural in properly-grown sorghum.

The effects of the drought were irregular on the field, not following any of the lines
which marked the plots and fertilizers, so that we can draw no satisfactory conclu-
sions from the experiments on fertilizers either in the production of cane and seed or
on the quality and amount of the juice or sugar.

Our uniform course is to record our failures as well as our successes, and this is
published, though it is a disappointment and a failure which we could not avoid.

In 1883 the results of the experiments were still more encouraging.
_ The means of the percentages of sucrose in the juice of sixteen
samples from as many different plots was 15.16.°

The average quantity of sugar produced per acre, based on the above
analyses, was 3,963 pounds.

Some of the conclusions derived from the above set of experiments
are of a remarkable character.‘

Even when a mill expresses from 50 to 60 per cent. of juice from stripped and topped cane,
it may yel leave more than one-half of the sugar in the bagasse. This fact can be best
shown by an example. The cane on plot 11 contained 4,119 pounds of sugar per acre.
_ Of this the mill expressed 1,983 pounds, leaving in the bagasse 52 per cent. of the
_ sugar which the cane contained. This result is the most favorable in the experiment.
The other extreme is found on plot 10, where nearly 70 per cent. of the sugar was

1 Third Annual Report New Jersey Agricultural Experiment Station, pp. 64, 65.
* Op. cit., pp. 61, 62.

‘Fourth Annual Report New Jersey Experiment Station, p. 70.

4 Op. cit., pp. 67, 68.
84

wasted. In eleven other cases the loss exceeds 60 per cent. Apparently the greener
the cane the smaller the loss of sugar by the milling process.

To explain this loss it is necessary to assume that a considerable portion of the
sugar is stored in the cane in a solid state, either as pure crystallized sugar or in some
combination easily decomposed or dissolved in water. It is claimed that the micro-
scope has shown crystals of sugar in the cells of the sorghum; if this is true, it is
irrational to attempt the perfect separation of sugar from the cane fiber by mechani-
Cal means. For attaining this end the process of diffusion seems to be the most prac-
tical and promising method. It has been thoronghly tested and generally adopted
by the beet-sugar industry, and experiments thus far reported indicate that it is also
applicable to the sorghum and tropical cane.

Mr. H. B. Blackwell states in the Boston Journal of Chemistry that by following
this process he was able without difficulty to make 13 pounds of crystallized sugar
and 6 pounds of good sirup from 100 pounds of Amber cane.

In my opinion natural crystals of sugar never exist in healthy sor-
ghum canes. In 1883 I had this subject thoroughly examined.!

Six hundred sections of sorghum and sugar canes failed to show a
single crystal of sugar. In very dry seasons the juice of sorghum has
been known to exude through perforations made by an insect and to
crystallize on the outside of the stalk. A sample of very pure cane
sugar formed in this way was sent to me last year (1886) by Mr. A. A.
Denton, of Kansas.

In 1884 the following data were obtained as the result of the experi-
ments at the station.’

There were sixteen plots Early Amber all fertilized but two. The per-
centage of sucrose in the cane was 8.53 and in the juice 9.39. The aver-
age total sugar per acre for the sixteen plots was 1,752 pounds. Two
additional plots were planted in Amber and Orange canes respectively,
no fertilizers being used.®

The total sucrose in the Amber plot was, for the cane 9.20 per cent.,
and for the juice 10.12 per cent.

For the Orange the numbers were: for the cane 6.57 per cent., and
for the juice 7.22 per cent.

A plot of amber cane, from seed sent by Professor Henry, of Wis-
consin, showed in the same conditions as above :*

Per cent.
Sucrose iN CANE. ..... .. csc conse ceseas bates teen 8. 63
Sucrose in joice. ..... = ..60:00sis'so:<-S 90s Mews be wee 9, 49

The intensely hot weather following May 14, the date of planting, was decidedly
unfavorable for sorghum. The soil ‘‘baked” hard, the Amber seed germinated
slowly, the ‘‘ moping ” period appeared to be unusually prolonged, and the plants in
many hills perished, especially upon plots 12 to 16, inclusive. For a long time the
experiment was regarded as a failure, and received comparatively little attention.
Later the development was remarkable, and the yield of cane from several of the
plots was above the average; in quality, however, in all cases it fell far below pre-
vious results.®



' Department of Agriculture, Division of Chemistry, Bull. No, 2, p. 6.

* Vifth Aun. Report New Jersey Agricultural Experiment Station, pp. 84, 85.
> Op. cit., p. 79.

* Op. cit., p. 80.

® Op. cit., p. 81.


85







In 1885 comparative experiments were made with native Amber seed,
_ Amber seed from Prof. W. A. Henry, and native Orange seed.
The percentages of sucrose in the three kinds of canes were as follows: !

« In the cane. In the juice.





Per cent. Per cent.

Native Amber .--..-- 8. 98 9. 87
Wisconsin Amber.... 10. 40 11. 44
Native Orange .......- 7.38 8.11



_ Sixteen plots all fertilized save two were planted in Early Amber and
the following data were obtained :”

Mean sucrose in ‘canes. -..-...---..-... .222---- percent.. 9.37
Mean Sncrose, In jnice. 2-32. 5-sos5 ose een t ee eee do.... 10.30
Average weight sugar per acre...........-....-- pounds.. 2,372

Another set of experiments was made at Rio Grande with the co-
operation of Mr. George C. Potts and Mr. H. A. Hughes. The follow-
ing data were obtained. Early Orange cane, sixteen plots, all fertilized
_ but one: *

Â¥

Mean percentage sucrose in juice .........- coae ecm se td 9.88
Total weight sugar per acre ................--.- pounds.. 2,508

In reviewing the operations of the Rio Grande factory for the past
five years, Professor Cook says: ‘4

The records of this plantation for the past five years show that upon the average
7.7 tons of unstripped and untopped cane only have been grown per acre, while the
average yield of merchantable sugar per ton of cane has not exceeded 40 pounds.

To compete successfully with other sources of cane sugar, therefore, the average
tonnage of good cane per acre should be at least doubled, while the quantity of mer-
chantable sugar secured per acre should be increased many fold.

In 1886 the experiments at Rio Grande were continued. Sixteen
_ plots all fertilized but one were planted in Early Orange Cane. The fol-
lowing data were obtained: °

Cane (leaves and seed) per acre............... pounds.. 13,383
peeem oane per dere: ..2..1.2.05.4.61...%5- eh ees do.... 10,448
pucrose in clean cane. .<.... 2.5565 cscs. .-000- percent... 7.95
Total weight sugar per acre ...:............--- pounds.. 905

Professor Cook makes the following remarks on the results of the
season : ®
Three years ago it was clearly seen that the Rio Grande Company failed to secure

one-half of the total amount of sugar present in its sorghum crops, and since that
time all energies have been directed toward the substitution of diffusion for milling.

' Sixth Annual Report New Jersey Agricultural Experimental Station, p. 109.
2 Op. cit., p. 111.

5 Op. cit., p. 126.

4 Op, cit., p. 119.

’ Seventh Annual Report New Jersey Experimental Station, p. 151,

6 Op. cit., p. 141.
86

The obstacles to this change, met at the very beginning, have at last been overcome,
and 70 per cent. of the sugar in the cane has this year been extracted and sold. In-
formation has also been gained which shows how 90 per cent. of the total sugar may
be secured in the future.

It still remains to be demonstrated that this industry can be made a financial suc-
cess,

The chemical analysis of cane, showing its percentage of sugar only, is far from re-
liable information on this question if unaccompanied by the actual weight of crop
per acre.' A normal evaporation of water from a crop, for instance, may cause an
apparent improvement in its quality, but as this evaporation is accompanied by a
corresponding loss of weight, it leaves the absolute amount of sugar per acre un-
changed. Again, the percentage of sugar in the juice may remain constant while the
quantity of juice to be secured from an acre of cane may be steadily decreasing, in-
volving thereby a loss in the absolute amount of sugar.

During the period October 9-23, 728 tons of unstripped and untopped sorghum were
diffused, and an average yield per ton of 80 pounds of 100° test sugar thereby se-
cured. Of this 80 pounds, 55.7 pounds crystallized and 24.3 pounds remained in the
molasses. This cane was grown principally upon banked meadows, and although it
may have passed its best stage as regards sugar production, it was not considered
‘dried up ” or pithy.

On the Ist, 2d, and 3d of November 241 tons of unstripped and untopped cane were
diffused, and an average yield per ton of 50 pounds of 100° test sugar thereby se-
cured, of which 30 pounds crystallized and 20 pounds remained in the molasses.
This cane was grown upon upland which had been heavily dressed with stable ma-
nure. Early in the fall it was considered a first-class crop, and, as it was within easy
reach of the sugar-house, it was held in reserve to be used in case any emergency
made it difficult to secure the necessary supply from more distant fields. This sor-
gbum affords an unusual example of an over-ripe, pithy crop.

The green cane yielded 80 pounds and the pithy cane 50 pounds of 100° test sugar
per ton. If, therefore, this loss of sugar was accompanied by losses in tonnage as
heavy as farmers claim, then milling wastes at once sink into comparative insignifi-
cance. For if one-half of the tonnage disappears, and if at the same time that por-
tion of the crop which remained depreciates 40 per cent. in value to the sugar boiler,
it follows that two-thirds of the sugar formed in the plant may be wasted by delays
in field-work.

This reasoning rests upon claims and assumptions which can be easily and thor-
oughly investigated ; it indicates that the most important question now awaiting
solution is, ‘‘ At what stage in its growth should sorghum be harvested ?”

MANUFACTURE OF SUGAR.
EXPERIMENTAL.

The first sorghum sugar made in this country appears to have been
in an experiment by Dr. Battey, of Rome, Ga., in the laboratory of
Dr. Booth in Philadelphia.’

We will give further results of experiments made at the South, and quote from the
Southern Cultivator for October, 1856: ‘‘ In the winter of 1844~45° the junior editor
of this journal obtained from Boston a few ounces of seed of this plant (Chinese
sugar-cane), then newly imported from France. It came very highly recommended
as a sugar-producing and forage plant; but, having a vivid recollection of many pre-



! Op. cii., pp. 153 et seq.
*? The Chinese Sagar-Cane, by James F’, C. Hyde, New York, 1857, pp. 46 ef seq.
§This is probably a mistake and means 1854-55.



Che.

i i re iii al i al a ee, hae

a i i
87

vious disappointments with new-fangled notions, we concluded to test it cautiously
and moderately. Passing by it one day, when the seeds were nearly or quite
ripe, we concluded to test the sweetness of the stalk; so cutting a moderate-sized
cane and peeling its hard outside coat, we found an exceedingly sweet and pleasant
flavor, wholly and entirely unlike anything of the corn-stalk family that we had ever
tasted. It was, in fact, ready-made candy.
_ Fully satisfied by this time that it was valuable, at least for the production of
soiling, forage, and dried fodder, we next turned our attention to its saccharine prop-
erties, and fortunately induced our friend, Dr. Robert Battey, of Rome, Ga., who was
_ at that time pursuing the stady of experimental chemistry in the well-known lJabora-
tory of Professor Booth, of Philadelphia, to test it. As the result of his experiment
Dr. Battey sent us three small phials, one containing a fine sirup, one a very good
_ sample of crude brown sugar, and the other a very good sample of crystallized sugar.
This we believe to be the first crystallized sugar made in the United States from the
juice of the sorgho-sucré.”’
Experiments were made by Joseph 8. Lovering at Oakhill, near Phila-
delphia, in 1857, in the manufacture of sugar from sorghum. The first
experiment was made September 30. In view of the voluminous liter-
ature on this subject in the thirty years that have passed since this ex-
periment was made, I give Mr. Lovering’s own description of it:!
The fact of the presence of crystallizable sugar in the cane being established, I pro-
ceeded to cut and grind 20 feet of a row, and passed the thirty canes which it pro-
duced three times through the rollers; about one-fourth of the seed had changed toa
dark glistening brown color, but was still milky; the remainder was quite green ;
ground six to eight of the lower joints, which together yielded 3} gallons of juice,
weighing 9° Beaume; neutralized the free acid by adding milk of lime ; clarified with
eggs and boiled it down to 240° F.
This first experiment looked discouraging and unpromising at every step; its
product was a very dark, thick, viscid mass, apparently a caput mortuum ; it stood six
days without the sign of a crystal, when it was placed over a flue and kept warm
four days longer, when I found a pretty good crop of soft crystals, the whole very
similar to the “ melada” obtained from Cuba, but of darker color.
Lovering’s fourth experiment was made on one-fiftieth of an acre. It
yielded 18.56 pounds of sugar and 23.73 pounds molasses.’
Calculated to1l:cre this gives 928 pounds sugar and 98.87 gallons
molasses.
A foot-note informs us:
Neither the scales in which this juice was weighed nor the quart measure in which
it was measured were sufficiently delicate or accurate to give precise results, and as
they form the basis of these calculations, the percentages are probably not absolutely
exact, but they are sufficiently so for all practical purposes.
Three other experiments were made by Mr. Lovering, but with results
less favorable than No. 4.
The fashion in excuses for failure in sorghum-sugar making was early
set by Mr. Lovering.
In the fifth experiment‘ he observed ‘‘a very sudden and unfavorable
change in the working of the juice,” which he ascribes to the weather
“becoming and continuing very warm.”

The sixth experiment, November 27,° was mace after warm Indian summer weather,
with heavy rains, also very cold weather, making ice 2 inches in thickness, thermome-
— —_———_——
































1 Op. cit. p. 7. “3 Op. cit. p. 17. 6 Op. cit., pp. 20-21.
2 Op. cit., p. 16, 4 Op. cit., p. 19.
88

ter having varied from 16° to 60°. To try the effect of these changes, I cut one-
hundredth part of an acre, which produced 11.15 gallons of juice only, instead of 19

or 20 gallons, as before. It had, however, regained its former weight of full 10° B., —
but was much more acid, rank, and dark-colored than previously. It clarified with-
out difficulty, but raised a much thicker and denser scum, and, when concentrated, _
was very dark and molasses-like; it, however, produced good, hard, sharp crystals,
but the quantity being much reduced, there was no inducement to pursue it further. -
This experiment proves, however, that this cane will withstand very great vicissi-
tudes of weather without the entire destruction of its saccharine properties.

On page 21 Mr. Lovering announces as a fundamental principle a
rule of analysis which he followed, which, unfortunately, has not char- |
acterized all subsequent investigations. He says:!

The foregoing are all actual results produced by myself (the polariscopic observa-
tions having been taken on the spot, under the supervision of my partner, Mr. Will-
iam Morris Davis), with no object in view but the truth and a desire to contribute
whatever useful information I could towards the solution of this interesting and im-
portant question.

But even thus early he was led into the error of making sorghum
sugar on paper, a process which for ease and profit is far superior to
making it from canes, and which, unfortunately, has been largely prac-
ticed since these days of initial experiments. Taking only his experi-
ment No. 4, he figures a yield of 1,466.22 pounds of sugar and 74.39
gallons molasses per acre, adding?



te te i Rie hl

Further, it will be observed that my acre produced but 1,847 gallons of juice. I
have, however, seen published accounts of far greater yields than this—one for in-
stance, in this county, apparently well authenticated, reaching 6,800 gallons per acre, A
_ Which, according to my actual results would produce 4,499 pounds of sugar and 274 ©
galious of molasses, and according to the foregoing probable results, would yield
5,389 pounds of sugar and 274 gallons to the acre. .

|
“

Mr. Lovering was also the first one to show (on paper) that sorghum
was quite as fine a sugar-making crop as the sugar-cane in Louisiana.
He makes the following comparison :*

Louisiana. | Pennsylvania.



| |
| Yield of juice per acre .........-.... gallons. . 2, 236 1, 847
Density of juice (Baumé)..-...-...,- degrees. 7 8.44 10. 00
. 66

|

|

Yield of sugar per gallon of juice ...pounds.. - 76
Yield of sugar per acre:
MOUUDYT (<< s acaa cose whan ne aera pounds.. 1, 704 1, 221. 85
Probable........ Ae mgh nikee eee oreo 00°52 55) o2 ieee oe 1, 612. 00
| Yield of molasses per acre:
BOGGS). cv sebus snc ce hereeateene gallons. .| 102 74,39
PECDADIG. cL adlahiy sn cgupe ee teacedutpead GOs... dlnacpeeeenenee 81, 83

As a result of the study of all his experiments, he arrives at the fol- |
lowing conclusions :* |
(1) That it is obvious that there is a culminating point in the development of the

sugar in the cane, which is the best time for sugar making. This point or season I
consider to be when most if not all the seods are ripe, and after several frosts, say
when the temperature falls to 25° or 30° F.



2 —_ Ee

| Op. cit., pp. 21 and 22, 8 Op. cit. p. 25,
* Op. cit., pp. 23-24. ‘ Op. cit., pp. 26, 27,
89

_-(2) That frost, or even hard freezing, doesnot injure the juice nor the sugar, but that
- warm Indian summer weather, after the frost and hard freezing, does injure them
_ very materially, and reduces both quantity and quality.

(3) That if the cane is cut and housed, or shocked in the field when in its most favor-
able condition, it will probably Keep unchanged for a long time.

(4) That when the juice is obtained the process should proceed continuonsly and
without delay.

(5) That the clarification should be as perfect as possible by the time the density
reached 15° Baumé, the sirup having tho appearance of good brandy.

(6) That although eggs were used in these small experiments, on account of their
convenience, bullock’s blood, if to be had, is equally good, and the milk of lime alone
will answer the purpose ; in the latter case, however, more constant and prolonged
skimming will be required to produce a perfect clarification, which is highly impor-
tant.

(7) That the concentration or boiling down, after clarification, should be as rapid
as possible without scorching, shallow evaporators being the best.

With these conditions secured, it is about as easy to make good sugar from the
Chinese cane as to make a pot of good mush, and much easier than to make a kettle
of good apple-butter.

EXPERIMENT BY PROF, €. A. GOESSMANN.

In 1857 Professor Goessmann obtained from 1,440 grams of sorghum
juice, by two crystallizations and washing the crystals with alcohol, 120
grams of sugar.! Professor Goessmann says:?

As I before mentioned, J.S. Lovering obtained in practice 7 to 8 per cent. of sugar
without estimating the amount left in the molasses. I found from 9 to 9} per cent. in
the juice; and Mr. Wray, an Englishman, who examined several species of sorghum
at Cape Natal, on the southeastern coast of Africa, found the percentage almost equal
to that of the real sugar cane, 18 per cent. I mention these facts to show what may
be expected when the sorghum shall have received the attention of our farmers and
have become acclimatized on a suitable soil. The transplantation of a plant to
anew and perhaps less congenial climate and soil invariably exerts at firstan inju-
rious influence on the vital principle and its products. When the beet root was first
cultivated for the manufacture of sugar it contained only 7 to 8 per cent. of sugar,
but by the application of proper care to the cultivation and to selecting the best
specimens for seed the percentage was increased to from 11 to 12 in some species.
Should it be possible to increase the percentage of sugar in the sorghum in the same
ratio, its successful cultivation would become an accomplished fact; and our farmers,
aided by their superior skill, more perfect machinery, and many other advantages af-
forded by this country, would be able to compete successfully with the planters of the
West Indies.

Between the dates of the experiments recorded above and 1878 hun.-
dreds of successful attempts to manufacture sorghum sugar as a by
product of molasses were made in the United States. I say successful
in the sense that they demonstrated beyond any doubt the possibility
of making sugar, although they threw no light on either the scientific
or economic problems involved. I therefore omit any further discussion
of them here. _

Numerous experiments were made by Dr. Collier, chemist of the De-

‘Sorghum Saccharatum, republished from Transactions N. Y. State Agricultural

Society, 1861, p. 21.
3 Op. cit., pp. 26, 27,



=
90

partment of Agriculture in 1878, in the production ot sugar from sor-
ghum and maize stalks.’

Dr. Collier says of these experiments :?

The point which these experiments have fully settled is, that there exists no diffi-
culty in making from either corn or sorghum a first-rate quality of sugar, which will
compare favorably with the best product from sugar-cane grown in the most favor-
able localities.

The experiments here given clearly indicate the probability that sugar may be
thus made at a profit, and it is desirable that nothing be spared in continuing an in-
vestigation giving such fair promise of success.

The experiments in the production of sugar were continued by the
Department of Agriculture in 1879.2 The sugar was not separated
from the molasses except in one case, but the percentage of sucrose
in the melada is given.

The melada from Chinese sorghum gave 54.7 percent. sugar. Some
of the analyses seem to show a loss of glucose, and in one instance this
loss is given at 144.5 per cent.°

On this point Dr. Collier says :°

The presence of the same relative proportions of crystallizable and uncrystallizable
sugar in a sirup to those present in the juice from which this sirup has been prepared
by no means implies that there has been no inversion of the erystallizable sugar; for
the destructive action of an excess of lime upon glucose is well known and is not un-
frequently made available in the production of sugar. Hence, it not unfrequently
happens that the relative quantity of crystallizable sugar in the sirup may be greatly

in excess of that present in the juice, even after a large quantity of the crystalliza-
ble sugar has been destroyed by inversion.

He adds:?

There is no doubt but that when the present industry shall have secured the em-
ployment of the capital and scientific ability which has developed the beet-sugar in-
dustry, even these results, which may appear extravagant to many, will be assured.

EXPERIMENTS AT THE ILLINOIS INDUSTRIAL UNIVERSITY, CHAM-
PAIGN, IN 1880.

These experiments were all directed by Professors Weber and Sco-
vell. They undertook a series of experiments to determine the possi-
bilities of manufacturing sugar from sorghum.* Twelve experiments
with amber and orange cane were made from September 17 to Octo.
ber 2. :

In experiment No. 5 the sugar obtained, calculated to 1 acre, amounted
to 710.67 pounds.



!Agricultural Report, 1878, pp. 98 et seq.

2Op. cit., p. 99.

* Agricultural Report, 1879, p. 53.

4 Op. cit., p. 56.

© Op. cit., p. 61.

Op. cit., p. 60.

7Op. cit., p. 56.

®Transactions Department of Agriculture, Illinois, 1880, pp. 428 et. seq.




Sd Prete het

sia tll a i eet dela é


























91

Quantitative determinations were not made in the other experiments.
As a result of their work the experimenters were led to make the fol-
lowing statement :'

From the results above given it appears that crystallized sugar can be obtained
from sorghum of as good a quality as that of the ordinary brown sugars found in the
market. A portion of this brown sugar was re-dissolved and the solution passed
through boneblack. On evaporation it yielded a white sugar, which had no trace of
sorghum taste or smell.

From the proximate analysis of the cane, it appears that 1 acre of sorghum pro-
duces over 2,500 pounds of cane sugar. Of this amount we obtained 710 pounds in
the form of good brown sugar, and 265 pouuds in the molasses drained from the sugar.
Hence 62 per cent. of the total amount of sugar was lost during the process of manu-
This shows that the method of manufacture in general use is very im-

The 710 pounds of sugar at 8 cents per pound would bring $56.80. The molasses is
worth 25 cents a gallon, or the products of an acre of sorghum would bring $75.55.
There is no doubt that, with proper care and apparatus, the above yield can be
doubled.
From our experiments, it seems that about one-half of the sugar remains in the ba-
gasse. This could, no doubt, in part be recovered by the process of percolation, as
is sometimes done in the manufacture of beet-root sugar. Experiments will be
made this coming season to determine the feasibility of recovering this great loss of
sugar.

In 1880 Mr. H. A. Hughes manufactured some sirup from early amber
cane near Cape May, N. J. This sirup was sent to a Philadelphia re-
finery and manufactured into sugar.’

EXPERIMENTS AT THE AGRICULTURAL STATION IN WISCONSIN IN 1881.

These experiments were conducted by Profs. W. A. Henry and M.
Swenson.? Two plots each of two-thirteenths acre area furnished the
canes for experiments. On plot A there was made 142 pounds of sugar.
On plot B there was made 109} pounds sugar.

Calculated for an acre, plot A would make 923 pounds, and plot B
would make 9974 pounds.

In regard to the character of the season, Professor Henry‘ says:

I would state upon the whole that the season has not been a very favorable one
*» * * Had sugar been the object with our mannfacturers this season, it would have
been a very unfavorable one.

Weber and Scovell® continued their work and made some very in-
structive experiments in the manufacture of sugar.

Experiment 1 (August 22): 6

Weight of cane crushed ................. pounds.. 1,560, 00
Weight of juice obtained .................. do.... 687.50
OE ID ee coon ceantre suse vues Uevsces se 43, 40

1 Op. cvt., pp. 431-2.

*Â¥ifth Ann. Report N. J. Agricultural Experiment Station, p. 86.
* Report National Academy Sciences on Sorghum, p. 85.

4 Op. cit., p. 92.

5Transactions Dept. of Agriculture, Ill., 1881, pp. 500 et seq.
®Op. cit., pp. 500, 501,
92

The juice was carefully neutralized with milk of lime and brought to the boiling
point in the defecating pan. A very heavy green scum rose, and this being removed,
the juice wasscen to be full of a green, light flocculent precipitate, which did not sub-
sequently rise to the top in any considerable quantity. The juice was now drawn off
into a tub, where it was allowed to repose twelve hours. At the end of this time
only about one-half of the juice could be drawn off clear, the precipitate being still
suspended in the remainder. It was found impossible to filter this portion, and it
was, therefore, thrown away. The clearjuice, after being passed through bone-black,
was evaporated ina copper finishing pan to the crystallizing point. The melada had
a very unpleasant, saltish taste, owing to the presence of salts of ammonia. The
sugar crystallized very readily, and although it looked well, it still retained some-
what of this saltish taste after being separated from the molasses. |



Experiment 2 (August 25):

Yield sugar per Here......5 2... .ccce-cu-e eee pounds.. 608.7
Yield. sugar. per ton .... .<.-<.-s<5+ +shaheeeee CP
Experiment 3:
Weight of cane..... phiskos Case thee Dee pounds.. 1,440
Weight of melada obtained .......---.-..--- GE scene, 2A
Weight of sugar not given.
Experiment 4:
Weight eine... scnntnnae=}aseee eee pounds.. 1,161
Weight melada from juice.........--..-.---- Peas 95.5
Weight sugar from juice... -.. ...s4sssseenee do.... 41.5

The authors add the following observations: !

(1) Seed should be planted as early as possible.

(2) The proper time to begin cutting the cane for making sugar is when the seed is
in the hardening dough.

(3) The cane should be worked up as soon as possible after cutti.g. Ciisb which
cut in the afternoon or evening may safely be worked up the following morning.

(4) The manufacture of sugar can be conducted properly only with improved ap-
paratus, and on a scale which would justify the erection of steam sugar-works, with
vacuum pans, steam defecators and evaporators, and the employment of a competent
chemist to superintend the business. The same is true for the manufacture of glu-
cose from the seed. Our experiments were made with the ordinary apparatus used in
manufacturing sorghum sirup, and any person who desired to work on a small scale
could use the methods with good results, provided he had acquired the necessary skill
in neutralizing and defecating the juice and in the treatment of the bone-black filters.
The manufacture of glucose on asmallscale is entirely out ofthe question. Five hun-
dred to a thousand acres ef sorghum would be sufficient to justify the erection of
steam sugar-works, and this amount could easily be raised in almost any community
within a radius of 1 or 2 miles from the works.”

Fourteen quantitative experiments were made by the Department of
Agriculture in 1882 in the production of sugar. These experiments are
described by Dr. Collier as follows: ? j

In the fourteen experiments which were made, quantitatively, eleven of the sirups —
were a solid mass of crystals; in twoof them two-thirds of the sirups were mush sugar,
and in the remaining sample the sirup contained a few crystals of sugar, but the
analysis showed that this one had not been evaporated quite to the point of good —

crystallization.
ter rng cee Screen atime ance

‘Op. cit. 502, 503.
* Investigations of Sorghum, Special Report, 1883, pp. 55 et eq.


‘ "a ‘sv oo” = ~ Ire —_——_
eA Prey Sho

93























EXPERIMENTS FOR WHICH AN AWARD OF $1,200 WAS MADE
BY THE COMMISSIONER OF AGRICULTURE.

(1) CHAMPAIGN, ILL.

The Champaign Sugar and Glucose Manufacturing Company in 1882
‘submitted a report of its operations to the Commissioner of Agricult-
ure, of which the following is a summary:!

Number tons cane worked for sugar..-............---- 1, 723. 99
IER SURUNN ip ho a a ide ome owe on anes 185.8
Pounds sugar manufactured............--...--.----- 86, 603. 00
Cg Se eee ee 50.3
Pounds sugar per acre .-.---.-- ESS ca we pon TE ole 465.5

A part of the crop was so poor in sucrose that it was worked for mo-
lasses only. The climatic conditions attending the experiments are de-
scribed as follows :?

The weather during this year, so far as planting, cultivating, maturing the crop,
and the development of cane sugar in sorghum in this section of the country has
been the most unfavorable of any year within our knowledge, and we are informed
by those who have grown sorghum and broom-corn that this year has been the most
_ unfavorable season for upwards of twenty years in this section for those crops.

Further difficulties in manufacture are also described.?

The company were unfortunate in not having a crystallizing-room, capable of being
heated to the proper temperature for the best results in crystallization, and the subse-
quent purging of the sugar. The room was so cold that the melada was too stiff to
arrange itself evenly in the centrifugal without the addition of warm water in the
mixer, and even then it was often found impossible to purge without washing with
warm water. We took the trouble to make experiments to see how much or what pro-
portion of sugar was being washed down with and into the molasses by reason of the
cold. It was done by taking a certain weight of melada, 120 pounds, which wascare-
fully warmed and then swung out. The yield was 56 pounds of dry sugar. The
same amount of melada from the same car was swung in the usual way, aud the yield
was 38 pounds of dry sugar, or a loss of 18 pounds of sugar in a purge, by reason of
the cold. We had but a few days of favorable weather, and the results from it com-
pared favorably with the above experiment.

Upon that basis we find that there was uselessly washed away 27,799 pounds of
sugar. Add sugar obtained, 86,603, and, with a suitable crystallizing-room kept at a
temperature of from 98° to 100°, the sugar product would have amounted to 114,402
pounds. This would have made the yield per ton of 66.3 pounds; yield per acre, 615.7
pounds.

This sugar was actually made, and was lost in separation by reason only of the fact
that it could not be kept at the proper temperature. This difficulty can be overcome
_ by having a crystallizing-room and having it kept properly heated.

In the next place sorghum requires hot summer weather for its proper development.
As shown in our report, the average temperature during the part of the past season
- fell far below the usual summer temperature in this section, and was an average of 6°
below the average of the same months of last year.

' Encouragement to sorghum, ete., 1883, p. 13.

2 Op. cit., p. 11.
3 Op. cit., pp. 17, 18.
94

(2) REPORT OF PROFESSOR SWENSON,

Magnus Swenson! reports three experiments:

a a

Three and three-fifths acres gave 75, 262 2, 116.5
TWO BEIOS. BIN R 652 cane epcntoosen 28, 974 1, 008
One and one-fourth acres gave.... 17, 112 594



Owing to the very backward season the growth of the cane was exceedingly slow.2 |
In respect of the purity of the juice Professor Swenson says: °

I do not believe that the average juice from the sorghum cane is of sufficient purity —
to allow of its being boiled to grain in the vacuum pan. I obtained a much coarser
sugar by allowing the crystallization to take place in small tanks, and it was conse-
quently much more easily separated.

Compare this with the statement of Professor Weber: ‘

During our season’s work in running the vacuum pan for sugar we did not fail at
any time to produce crystals therein of proper quantity and desirable size.

(3) REPORT OF MR. PAUL STECK, OF SAN FRANCISCO, CAL.°

Four hundred acres of cane were planted. Mr. Steck puts his daily
expenses, aside from the cost of cane, at $235.50. His premium of
$1,200 therefore only paid his running expenses for a little over five
days.

I give below that part of his report where we might expect to find a
statement of the quantity of sugar made.®

I manufactured from 609 to 650 gallons of sirup per day; average market price 50
cents per gallon. The reason why I could not manufacture sugar in quantity was on
account of the juice not crystallizing in the vacuum pan, as cane sugar should do, so
I was compelled to let the sirup run into tanks for crystallization. The sirup which I
manufactured from this sorghum was superior to any in the market, both in color and
taste. The time required in making the alterations necessary and the putting in of
large tanks, and other changes which I would have to make, was too short, so I con-
verted the crop into sirup, as above stated. The sorghum sirup has a very slow crys-
tallization, and the room in which it is kept should have a temperature of not less
than 105°, It is a very important point in manufacturing sugar from sorghum
not to bring the juice to boiling-point, as it checks the crystallization ; therefore it
should always be evaporated in vacuum pans (what we call single, double, and triple
effect), and also the cane brought to the mill should be manufactured into sugar or
sirup within twelve to fifteen hours, as the longer it is exposed to air the more sucrose
will turn to glucose. There should not be more cane cut in the field than can be
worked at the mill each day.

! Op. cit., pp. 19 ef seq. * Op. cit., p. 23, 6 Op. cit., pp. 23 et seq.
2 Op. cit., p. 20. 4 Op. cit., p. 15. 6 Op. cit., p. 25.


=
ee >

95

Sar the summary of his report, however, we have the follo wing curi-
ous information :!

Number of acres of sorghum brought to the mill...-.... 300
Number of tons of cane manufactured .........-......- 3, 600
The yield of sorghum per acre. ....-.-.-....---.-- tons.. 15
The amount of sugar manufactured (about) .---.. tons.. 5

The amount yielded per ton of cane (about)...-pounds-.-. 80 to 90

Mr. Steck, it seems, had equal difficulty in making sugarand comput-
ing yield perton. Had heavy floods and frosts not occurred, and the
factory had been large enough, Mr. Steck states that he would have
made 288,000 pounds.? The loss of 273,000 pounds is therefore to be at-
tributed to the unfriendliness of nature.

Mr. Steck closes his report with a promise which he has never per-
formed, viz: :

My intention next year is to manufacture sugar from sorghum, knowing the exact
process necessary to its manufacture.

(4) REPORT OF NELSON MAETBY, GENEVA, OHIO.?

Mr. Maltby makes the following statement of his work: ‘4

I worked up cane from 17} acres; the weight of the cane was 167 tons and 824
pounds, yielding a little over 94 tons per acre. I made 1,466 gallons sirup not to be
granulated. I made 1,095 gallons of sirup for sugar, weighing 12 pounds per gallon,
all of which grained well. I made 4,380 pounds good dry sugar from thesame. From
some cane I made 72 pounds sugar and 112 pounds sirup per ton. The average was

62 pounds sugar and 124 pounds sirup per ton.









(5) REPORT OF DRUMMOND BROS., WARRENSBURGH, MO.°

The number of tons of cane manufactured was 243, an average of 94
tons per acre. The greater part of this product did not crystallize.
The sugar obtained was wholly from the Early Amber variety, and
amounted to 1,464 pounds, being an average of 50 pounds per ton.
Calculated on the whole quantity of cane, however, it is not quite 7
pounds per ton.

Drummond Bros. make no complaint of the unfavorableness of the

season.
(6) REPORT OF A. J. DECKER, OF FOND DU LAC, WIS.

Mr. Decker, ia compesing for the prize of $1,200 for sorghum-sugar
making, naively remarks in his summary of operations:



Gallons.
Full amount of sirup made this year.......... .......-.--. 3, 600
ALOR LE aad dae ck woke Gus nddd’s sswnssccees 800
Sugar (not yet swung out).?
1 Op. cit., p. 25. 4 Op. cit., p. 27. 6 Op. cit., pp. 31 et seq.
2 Op. cit., p. 26. 5 Op. cit., pp. 28 et seq. 7 Op. cit., p. 36.

3 Op. cit., pp. 26 et seq.


96

The date of Mr. Decker’s report is not given. He says, however :!

On September 22 and 23 there was a sharp frost. The cane was mostly in blossom
and the juice tested 5° B. Three months Jater it tested less than 6° B. Thereis, there-
fore, internal evidence that the report was written later than December 23.

This failure to separate the sugar may have been due to the small
capacity of the centrifugal, which? “was small, 24 inches in diameter, 6

inches deep, with a capacity of 500 pounds per day.”
In respect of the weather we learn :3

The season has been the most unfavorable of any known in this locality since the
introduction of this crop.

Mr. Decker closes with a number of observations to which the pre-
ceding part of his report gives great emphasis :4

There are a number of points requisite to the development of sugar from sorghum
as well as the process of manufacturing. First, is ripe cane; second, proper appli-
ances; third, ‘‘the know how.” The long-continued high degree of heat required in
open-pan boiling destroys nearly all the sugar long before the required density is
reached, and under the most favorable circumstances not more than one pound of
sugar to the gallon can be expected fram open-pan work, and that does not deserve to
be called sugar making yet. I believe with the use of the vacuum pan and the skill
to run it, sagar in the West is as certain as making flour from wheat.

(7) REPORT OF WILLIAM FRAZIER, ESOFEA, VERNON COUNTY, WISs.®

The weight of cane manufactured by Mr. Frazier was nearly 259 tons,
grown on a little more than 41 acres. Mr. Frazier’s success in sugar
making can not be properly appreciated save in his own words: ®

My report on this subject can not be what I would like. I am able, however, to send
you what I believe to be a pretty fair sample of crude sugar; it was dried from sirup
made of Mr. Brigg’s cane, dried by draining the sirup through a coarse cloth. Allow
me to state here that my object has been sirup, with a view of making sugar in the
near future. The most of my sirup was thoroughly grained one week after it was
made. Had it granulate in the coolers frequently. My coolers are 8 inches deep and
hold 40 gallons each.

On two occasions there was about an inch in the bottom of the second cooler so
completely grained that it would not run out, although the melada was quite warm.
I now have about 2,500 pounds of sugar in the bottom of sirup tanks, whieh I intend
to throw out in the spring.

Mr. Frazier also finds fault with the weather:7

But the expected spring rains failed to come. It continued very dry until the 24th
day of June, when nearly 4 inches of rain fell in one day, many heavy rains follow-
ing, making it impossible to work our crops until the season was far advanced. I re-
pianted my cane twice, but owing to the cold, dry spring and to the ravages of the
grub worm, failed to get half a stand on the 19-acre piece.

(3) REPORT OF THE JEFFERSON SUGAR COMPANY, JEFFERSON, OHIO.

We manufactured 33,250 pounds of melada from the 190 tons of cane worked, We
have not separated all of it in the centrifugal as yet; but it is running about 4 pounds
per gallon (or for every 12 of melada), from the first granulation, We expect on re-









1 Op. cit.,pp. 3Land 3. °%Op.cit.,p.31. °Op.cit., pp. 36 et seq. 7 Op. cit., p. 41.
2 Op. cit., p. 35. 4 Op. cit.,p. 36. © Op. cit., p. 38. 8 Op. cit., p. 46,
97






























oiling twice to raise the figures to 7pounds. Last year we got 6 pounds in every 12,
with two boilings, from some of the best cane. If we do not succeed in getting more
than 6 pounds per gallon, we will have from the above figures 16,625 pounds sugar.
This would be nearly 90 pounds sugar per ton of cane, and about 700 pounds per acre
ofland. We feel assured of this much from the yield of that already separated ; but
we hope to obtain an average of 7 pounds per gallon from all of the cane worked for
sugar during the present season. If cane had fully matured we should not want to
stop with less than 8 pounds per gallon.

The weather, as usual, was bad:

The last two seasons have been the most disheartening ones for developing this new
industry that our country has seen for years.!

(9) REPORT OF THE OAK HILL REFINING COMPANY, EDWARDSVILLE,
ILL. ?

The report says:°

And now we must state plainly that we have not manufactured sugar on a business
scale this season. That is, we have simply made’a small quantity as samples of our
work, and contented ourselves with turning out the greater part of our products as
sirup. We did this for several reasons. f

In the first place, during the two previous years the juice, at its best (and seldom
so), had been on the ragged edge ; that is, scarcely enough sugar to crystallize under
the most favorable circumstances. In 1880-’81 the best ‘‘ quotient of purity” (i. e.,
polarization divided by solid contents) was about equal to the lowest boilings in a
sugar refinery, where a vacuum pan is needed, and three weeks’ storage in a ‘hot
room” to insure a yield of 25 per cent. in sugar, and afterwards a bone-black filtration
to give the sirup a salable color. In 1881~82 the cane, if anything, was poorer; we
had fine-looking ripe cane, the stalks of which were sticky with exuded juice; it had
been in the society of the chinch-bug, and the juice polarized from 1 to 2 per cent.
This year the chinch-bug had been hard at work improving the time as far as possi-
ble, and we knew what to expect.

As to the weather, etc., the report says: #

The past three years the chinch-bugs have been very troublesome in this section.
They have done great damage to the cane crop, especially severe in dry seasons, as
the past three have been.

(10) REPORT OF C. BOZARTH, CEDAR FALLS, IOWA.°

Mr. Bozarth introduces his report as follows :°

I want to preface by stating that I have been in the business twenty-four years,
aud this has been the worst year for cane that we have had for sixteen years. We
had a very cold, wet, backward spring. The cane was four weeks coming up, after
which there were a number of hard frosts, the weather continuing cold and wet up to
July, whichso delayed the crop that it was not much past the bloom when frost came
again on the 22d of September, leaving the cane poor in sweetness and weight, both
marking only 6° to 8° Baumé and averaging not more than 7°. I have made but lit-
tle sugar this season, hardly enough to pay for running through the centrifugal ma-
chine, and inasmuch as the sirup is a good price I have not thought best to put it
through for the little that is in if, although there is a considerable granulation
through all my sirup, fully as much this year as I could expect, and more, consider-
ing the quality of cane. Last year I had 5,000 pounds that sold in the market for

1 Op. cit., p. 43. 3Op. cit., p. SL. 5 Op. cit., pp. 57 etseq.
*Op. cit., pp.47 et seq. 4 Op. cit., pp. 55. 6 Op. cit., p. 57.
23576—Bull 18——7



—
98




&} cents per pound, and the year before 15,000 pounds that sold for 8 cents per pound.
I raised this year on my own farm 85 acres, which was all worked without stripping.

The introduction contains all there is in this repert concerning the
production of sugar.

The results of the experiments just abstracted are appropriately pre-
ceded by a summary made by the Commissioner of Agriculture of the
experiments which had been made up to that time by the Department
of Agriculture in the production of sugar from sorghum. He says:!

On assnming the duties of my office in 1881 I found 135 aeres of sorghum, contain
ing fifty-two varieties, which had been planted in Washington for the use of the D
partment. On being informed that the time had arrived for manufacturing siru
and sugar, I engaged the services of an expert in sugar-making who had been highly
recommended for the position of superintendent, and operations were commenced o
September 26 at the mill erected by my predecessor on the grounds. These oper
tions were continued with slight interruptions until the latter part of October, a
which time the supply of cane became exhausted. Forty-two acres of the crop wer
overtaken by frost before being sufficiently ripe for use, and this portion of the cro
was so badly damaged as to be unfit for manufacture. The yield of cane per acre o
the 93 acres gathered was 2} tons; the number of gallons of sirup obtained w
2,977, and the number of pounds of sugar was 165. The expense of raising the cane w
$6,589.45, and the expense of converting the cane intosirup and sugar was $1,667.64
an aggregate of $8,557.04.

To recapitulate the results of the ten experiments I give the follow
ing table:











Sugar made. Pounds.

NGS 1.5. dain eae 5 eine eee 86, 603
Wes ke flee ee a eee 3, 718.5
39 (abotth))<.2i65<-neen 10, 000
ee Si ge gcc, aE = aie 4, 380
No. 5 (bites a ND. 6. a bed ink ects nee 0, 000
WOl P35 Fe eetes secon e tees 0, 000
ey 8 ‘nabipanted) Stack eis 10, 000
Fee cap aay acteaty 0, 000
No. 10;("'a. little?) co.0. 28h epee
Total sugar.......... 116, 165.5

Amount of premium given, $12,000. Amount per pound (nearly), 10.3 cents.

BY THE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. |
PRACTICAL.

Attempts were made in 1881 by the Department of Agriculture to
manufacture sugar at Washington. Cane from 93.5 acres was crushed.
‘rom the official report it does not appear that any suecess attended
these efforts.

The causes of failure are thus set forth by Dr. Coflier 2

Briefly stated, the several chief sources of failure are as follows:

(1) The immaturity of the sorghum at the period when if iseut and worked, This

inay be due | to late planting, as in our experience the past season, or to the selection

|





! Op. cit., p. 3
$ Agdoultoral Report, 1881-2, pp. 509 et seq.
99


























of a variety which requires more time for its complete maturity than the season in
any given latitude may give. The importance, then, of selecting only such varieties
as will ma‘ure sufficiently long before frosts, so as to give a reasonable time to work
up the crop, can not be overestimated.

(2) Another frequent cause of failure is due to allowing the sorghum to remain
‘some time after being cut up before itis worked at the mill. That sucha course may
be pursued in certain seasons and in certain localities without producing an unfavor-
able result has been established beyond much doubt, but the climatic conditions which
render such a procedure possible are imperfectly understood at the present, and re-
_ peated experiments have demonstrated that after being cut up the juices are subject
tochemical changes which speedily result in the destruction of the crystallizable
sugar. For the present, then, the only safe course to pursue is to work up the cane
_ within at most twenty-four hours after it is cut up.

(3) A third cause of failure existsin an imperfect method of defecation of the juice.
_ The object of defecation and the method by which it is accomplished should be care-
fully studied and as thoroughly understood by the sugar-boiler as is possible, for, al-
though somewhat complex in its details, the general principles which underlie this
important step are few and easily comprehended.

The report of the engineer in charge of the work, Mr. J. H. Harvey,
- gives the following summary :!

Cane crushed .......-.... sabe 'dalblosibioad ba ndidl pounds.. 458, 444
EN ee gallons.. 26,794
is piri ab na ae ae mnie ce meee eesst do..<. . 2,977
CO Ee a ee pounds.. 165

Mr. Peter Lynch, sugar expert, makes the following statement con-
cerning the work :?

Peter Lynch, who had the general management of the sorghum business, super-
intending its manufacture into juice, sirup, and sugar, says that he has had fifteen
years’ experience as a sugar-boiler with Cuban molasses, cane sugar, grape sugar, ete. ;
_ that of the 2063 gallons of light sirup obtained October 5 and 6, 1881, there were from
175 to 200 pounds of sugar obtained—nearly 1 pound per gallon. It was good sugar,
worth 8 to 9 cents a pound, wholesale; would polarize between 96 and 98. No special
means were used to obtain this result. It was boiled to a proof that would granulate.
The juice from which this was made contained on an average from 2.8 to 3} per cent.
of glucose and from 11 to 13} per cent. of cane sugar.

The mill worked excellently, and every particle of juice possible was extracted. Had
this same quality prevailed with all the season’s juice, the same average quality of
sugar would probably have been obtained every day.

The only canes really worth anything were those worked that day. On other days
the proportion of glucose was greater, owing to bad cane. Do not think the quality
_of sirup made this year as fair an average as might be expected with fair soil, fair cli-
- mate,etc. Good soil ought to raise from 16 to 18 tons of stripped stalks.

For the results of the season’s work no blame can be attached to the machinery or
anything else. The only cause for failure to make sugar was that the cane was not
sufficiently ripe.

In 1883 572,350 pounds of sorghum cane were worked for sugar by the
_ Department at Washington. The machinery employed was that used
_ by Dr. Collier in the work of 1881.

The quantity of sugar made was 7,160 pounds, or 1.24 per cent. of the
- cane worked, or 24.8 pounds per. ton.®

1 Op. cit., p. 522.

2 Op. cit., p. 523.

* Department of Agriculture, Division of Chemistry, Bulletin No. 3, p. 43.
100

Forty-two tons of clean cane grown in Indiana were also worked for
sugar. The quantity made was 2,860 pounds, or 3.39 per cent., equal
to 67.8 pounds per ton.!

Further attempts were made by the Department in Ottawa, Kans., in
1885 to manufacture sugar from sorghum. The process of diffusion was —
employed. Expensive machinery was provided and one satisfactory
trial was made. Unfortunately the actual number of tons of cane used
could only be estimated. The estimate was based on the weight of
masse cuite obtained, and is without doubt very nearly correct. The
quantity of sugar made was 1,420 pounds, estimated at 95 pounds per
ton.?, A subsequent trial failed to produce any sugar.® 7

Further attempts were made by the Department in 1886 to manu- —
facture sugar from sorghum at Fort Scott, Kans. The diffusion pro-
cess wasemployed. The average weight of masse cuite was 12 per cent.
of the weight of the cane used.t The weight of cane worked for su-
gar was 2,322 tons. The weight of sugar made was 50,000 pounds.®
Weight sugar per ton, 21.6 pounds.

MANUFACTURING TRIALS WITHOUT THE DEPARTMENT.

I could not give here all the incidental attempts at making sugar
which have been made in connection with the manufacture of molasses
from the time of the introduction of the sorghum plant into this country
to the present time. I will confine myself to a brief review of the at-
tempts which have been made to produce sugar.

— ee ee ee ee Eee ee ee

CRYSTAL LAKE, NEAR CHICAGO.

I believe the first attempt to make sugar from sorghum on a large
scale in this country was at Crystal Lake, near Chicago. The factory
was under the direction of Mr. J. B. Thoms. According to the report of —
the National-Academy of Sciences on sorghum—*

6 ee ee

-

In 1879, witha “ miserable mill,” he obtained juice of 84° B. (specific gravity 1,060),
and from a gallon of sirup weighing 11 pounds got a yieldof about 4} pounds to the
gallon. He obtained from 15 to 23 gallons of sirup to the ton of cane, weighing 114
pounds to the gallon, the sirup yielding 44 pounds sugar, polarized 53°. Of amber cane,
which is the only sort he has worked, has known as high as 21 tons cut to an acre,
and states 12 tons as an average. He sold of the crop of 1879 over 50,000 pounds of
good C sugar, which was tested in Boston and New York, and polarized 96} per cent.
of sugar. In 1880 his crop of about 300 acres was nearly all destroyed by a hurricane
and the product of about 30 acres of damaged cane was all made into sirup, which
polarized only 42 per cent.



‘Op. cit., p. 52.

2 Department of Agriculture, Div. of Chemistry, Bul. No. 6, p. 9.
* Op. cit.,p. 13. {
4 Department of Agriculture, Div. of Chemistry, Bul. No, 14, p. 36. }
© Op. cit., p. 35.

6 Op. cit., p. 36.

7 Report Nat. Acad. of Sciences, p. 36.


101

Further data concerning operations at Orystal Lake and Hoopeston
I give in quotations from the communication of Mr. Thoms to the com-
mittee of the National Academy :!

In the first place let me state to you I am a practical sugar refiner; spent some
eight years in the West Indies making sugar from cane. So you will perceive I came
here well armed in the knowledge of the business of sugar making. In August, 1879,
I saw sorghum for the first time, and although the works were put up by inexpe-
rienced persons, besides being so near the time for grinding the cane, we had not much
chance to make the necessary alterations, so had to get along as well as we could;
and as the cane was new to me, and I had little or no faith in its sugar-producing
qualities, I resolved to treat it with as much delicacy as a mother would her sick
child.

In consequence of the vacuum-pan boiling the sugar so hot, and not being familiar
with the juice, and wishing to get as large a yield of sugar as possible, I boiled it
rather stiff, which made the grain finer than I wished it, but to the experienced that
did not detract one iota from its strength. I continued to run until I had made over
50,000 pounds of sugar.

In 1880 we had made alterations in order to do some pretty good work; planted
about 300 acres of cane, and a month before it matured it was struck by a hurricane
and damaged to such an extent that we received only the product of 30 acres; that,
mixed with dead cane, rendering the juice so bad that the sirup only polarized about
42 percent. Boiled some for sugar, but finding it very gummy abandoned the idea
and made only sirup. Thus ends the chapter for 1880. In 1881 the spring was so
backward our cane hardly matured, and the sirup from it polarized about the same
as the previous year (424 per cent). Having such bad luck the past two years at
Crystal Lake, Ill., where the above experiments were tried at the works of F. A.
Waidner & Co., we have concluded to abandon any further work at (he above place.
I should here state that Crystal Lake is the most elevated sevtion in the State of
Illinois which makes raising a crop there rather uncertain; although the old resi-
dents of the place say they never experienced two such years with sorghum as 1880
and 1881; indeed, that is the general verdict throughout the country. Crystal Lake
is situated about 44 miles north of Chicago. I am interested in a large works at
Hoopeston, Ill., which is attached to a corn-canning establishment erected for the
purpose of utilizing corn-stalks, That we found was no go, as the stalks had but
little juice; could not produce enough sirup to pay expenses. I consider the corn-
stalks had a thorough test. We found only about a foot or a foot and a half of the
stalk to contain juice; the rest wasadry pith. At the time the corn was in the roast-
ing-ear. The corn-stalks were tested in 1880. In 1881 we cultivated 500 acres of sorgo,
and the drought was so severe we only got about 2? tons to the acre, instead of from
10 to 20. Cane was very thin and in some instances not over 2 or 3 feet long, sirup
only polarizing 40; did not attempt to make sugar. This year we are putting under
cultivation at Hoopeston 1,000 acres. We sold all of our product last year by the car-
load in this city at 50 cents per gallon.

Notwithstanding I have been here three seasons I have not had a single day’s fair
trial of sorgo juice. With the plant of machinery we have at Hoopeston now to work
up juice such as I had in 1879, Lam sure the results I could produce would astonish
the country. ;

I am satisfied of one thing, that the cultivation of the cane is not thoroughly un-
derstood. One great drawback here has been the want of proper machinery and a
knowledge how to treat the juice. They imagine all that is necessary is to boil out
the water and let nature do the rest.



! Op. eit., pp. 119, 120.


102

I have been a very careful student for the last three years, and consider myself
now familiar with the juice, and just want one fair chance. They were thirteen
years in Louisiana before they could successfully make sugar from ribbon cane. We
did it here in six weeks.”

I will add that the further attempts to make sugar at Hoopeston were
total failures, and both factories have been abandoned and dismantled.

FARIBAULT, MINN.

In 1879 a factory was built at Faribault, but no sugar was made.’ In
1880 5,000 pounds sugar were made.? In 18S1 there are several con-
flicting reports of the amounts made. Blakeley reports 7,000 pounds.®
He also reports the amount at 11,000 pounds. The total amount made
during the season is also given at 15,000 pounds.®

The manufacture of sugar having proved financially unsuccessful
further operations were abandoned and the factory closed.

CHAMPAIGN, ILL.

A large factory was built at Champaign, IIL, in 1882. This factory
was under the immediate supervision of Professors Weber and Scovell.
Professor Weber says :*

As a result of the experiments carried on by the writers in the seasons of 1880 and
1881 the Champaign Sugar and Glucose Company, of Champaign, Il., was organized.
The object of the company was to carry out on a commercial scale the production of
sugar and glucose from sorghum, as was indicated by our laboratory experiments.
The company was organized with a capital stock of $25,000. The total expenditure
for building the works and raising the crop, however, exceeds $30,000.

The committee of the National Academy’ say:

In 1882 the results of the sugar mill at Champaign, IIl., are reported as boing very
satisfactory to owners.

Several hundred thousand pounds of white sugar were made in that
and the two following seasons. The venture, not proving profitable,

was abandoned.
HUTCHINSON, KANS.

This factory was built in 1882, but the first year failed to produce any
sugar. In 1883 about 200,000 pounds of sugar were made, but at a
heavy loss.

In 1884, 250,000 pounds of sugar were made, but still with aloss. Fur-
ther attempts were then abandoned and the factory has been dismantled.

STERLING, KANS.

The first season’s work of this mill, 1882, resulted in the production
of a very small quantity of sugar. In 1883, 170,000 pounds were made.

' Blakeley, Report Nat. Acad. Sciences on Sorghum, p. 35.

2 Op. cit., p. 35,

° Op. cit., p. 36,

*Third Aun. Meeting Wis. State Cane-Growers’ Association, p. 33
®’ Report Nat. Acad. of Sciences on Sorghum, p. 30.

© Op. cit., p. 78.

7 Op. cit., p. 34.
103

In 1884 a little over 100,000 pounds sugar were manufactured and the
business was then abandoned as unprofitable.






















FRANKLIN, TENN.

The disasters which attended the fortunes of this company, 1883-84,
were not softened by the production of sugar. The young sugar-boiler
at first secured a few crystals in his pan. Each day, bowever, the re-
sults were poorer, ‘and at the end of one week no trace of sugar could
be found, and in mortification he left without notice and has not yet

been heard from.”!
OTTAWA, KANS.

A large glucose factory here was converted into a sorghum-sugar fac.
tory. Sugar was made in considerable quantities in 1884 and 1885, and
the house was then shut up, the business being attended with financial

loss.
RIO GRANDE, N. J.

This factory is the most extensive and thoroughly equipped of any
'sorghum-sugar house ever built in the United States.

_ For five successive seasons from 1882 it was conducted with the
highest skill. With the aid of a State bounty of $1 per ton for the
cane and 1 cent a pound for the sugar, the company was able to hold
together financially. With the close of 1886 the State bounty expired
and the factory has now been ciosed and dismantled, since it could only
be run at a loss without the bounty. In all nearly 1,500,000 pounds
of sugar have been made by this company.

In speaking of the operations of the large factories the committee
of the National Academy says :?

One signal success, on a large scale, obtained by intelligent attention to the results
of experimertal research and skillful culture, opens the way to a repetition of like
results.

It is from the States of New Jersey and Illinois that we are able to cite examples
of success on so large a scale and attended with such a satisfactory result as fairly puts
to rest any doubts as to the production of sugar, on a great scale, in a northern climate
with a commercial profit.

How sadly the members of the committee suffered themselves to be
deceived the financial ruin of the above two “successes” has attested:
At the present time, May, 1888, there remains only one sorghum”
sugar factory on a large scale in the country, viz, at Fort Scott, Kans.
One is building at Topeka and one at Conway Springs, Kans. Col.
Cunningham, Sugar Lands, Tex., is also preparing to make sorghum
sugar in connection with the sugar-cane.

DISCUSSION OF THE DATA.

Having thus collected from every available source the results of the
analyses of sorghum juices made by different investis gators, except those

rd

' Department of Agriculture, Div. of Chemistry, Bull. No. 5, » P 165,
*Report National Academy of Sciences on Sorghum, pp. 30, 31.
104

recorded in Bulletin 17 and Professor Stubbs’s Bulletin No. 12, it ought
to be possible to weigh them justly and to form some approximately
accurate idea of the value of sorghum as a sugar producer.

First of all, it will be necessary to divide the analytical data into two
classes, viz: (1) Data derived from the analyses of small samples, in |
other words, experimental data, and (2) those obtained from analysis
of large quantities of material entering in the process of manufacture ;
in other words, manufacturing data.

I have collected below all the mean analyses of experimental samples,
and have obtained therefrom a general average of the character of all
the juices which have been analyzed in a small way.

BY THE DEPARTMENT.

|

Erni

eee eww ee eee



Averages



$$$ —— eK TF
——


105

ANALYTICAL DATA OBTAINED WITHOUT THE DEPARTMENT



Total

Authority. Sucrose. | Glucose. ablids:

Per cent. | Per cent.| Per cent.
* POINT se ote na a Coes ee 7.00 ety Nes a
11. 00 S100 ithe is
NESTE fos ee a ts ot 10. 33 PRR R, Sacer ehavoes
Bnet ee! Ac Oe eo) 11. 00 20S Fy 5.
PRAM Nao Sos oes Te D4 lis gs en
EE oe dpm a aan 5 aio = DOR Pt 55 58 drs oe

CCST) a
ESE eee ee ne ae
Weber & Scovell

Weber & Scovell

©
oO
=
CO
co,
Cw

AaOnwmwonnonon

10.17

~ eee wwe

_

=

o

o
22 ND 29 STR BR PO 89 POND Go
SESbeseses ese
©

Henry & Swenson. ........-- 10.75

10. 59

2
5
PIRI oo acini tet ls 0 ~ a 8. 20 6
14. 84 5
15, 10 5.

18. 01 4,17 24. 50
ON se. ook Sold oe ban beens Mosk d 5
PORN. 6303206 ac cak se: 11. 35 5
Zanelli & Spallanzani........ 13, 99 4
11. 55 7



3
3
2
3
2
3.
JOS [aS Se 2 i ee a 7.45 3. 83 14. 41
]
2
1
3
2
2

a ea Ure
~~
So
eo
=









MPOTOGE. . Scaccssccs: 10. 00 3. 83 15. 99

——___— —~._.


106

Means of tne two sets of data:

SUGrose ...<<-s sscece os peew eiaaus om hme ss cereale
Gincess <2. .se- Sicas Seedas doe seve oe ass se
Total solide. . ... acisasw ss cn ~ank pa- 0s 2am nap eee 16. 68

The means of the above means of experimental analyses show that,
taken as a whole, even small quantities of sorghum have not been par-
ticularly suitable for sugar-making.

If, however, we study the analyses in detail, it will be seen that the
sorghum often develops a surprisingly high content of sucrose, an
amount in fact which, could it always be produced and kept long enough
to allow of its manufacture, would place sorghum in the front rank of
sugar-producing plants.



ANALYSES OF JUICES EMPLOYED IN MANUFACTURE.

We turn with lively interest from the experimental laboratory to the
large factory. |

Unfortunately the promises of a laboratory experiment are not al- —
ways performed in actual practice, and in the case of sorghum sugar-
making this fact is emphasized.

Following are the means of the analyses of samples of large quanti- |
ties of sorghum juices entering into the defecating pan.

The lessons which these mean analyses teach us of the nature of sor-
ghum juice when produced on a large scale for manufacturing pur-
poses are far more valuable from a practical point of view than the
teachings of an experimental laboratory.

The mean analyses are taken from the data already given. Those
from Weber and Scovelland Weber are from the factory at Champaign,
Ill.; those marked Scovell from the factory at Sterling, Kans.; those

marked Swenson from the Hutchinson factory; those marked Collier —

from the large operations conducted by the Department of Agriculture
at Washington; those marked Neale and Hughes from the factory at
tio Grande, N. J., and those marked Wiley from the large operations
carried on at Washington, Helena, Wis., Ottawa and Fort Scott,
Kans.

The means of these analyses show as accurately as possible the char-
acter of sorghum grown on a large scale in the United States from 1880_
until the present time.

These are figures which do not deal with the fature and the ideal,
but set forth in a convincing light what has actually been accomplished
in the growing of sorghum as a sugar-producing plant on a large scale.



: 107

I believe I have incorporated in these general means the average
1umbers representing the composition of all the sorghum juices which
ave entered into manufacturing on a large scale of which analyses
ave been made:

Means of analyses of sorghum juices manufactured into sugar.

Total

Analysts. Sucrose. Glucose. solide:



CQMIOP sn sec ceuescis-- 6.3 15

MEG eka y -ac Ant noo 8.38 4,09 14. 06
6. 73 GSIG? 13 oo os ote

7. 85. Cd Re ae

9. 23 3. 04 15. 07

9. 73 3. 65 16.15

7.78 4. 56 15. 99

7.28 3. 74 14. 80

7.52 5. 80 14. 50

CPOE costo cas. EAR. 7.78 2.96 [5.202 L200
PGRN Seiide aig sinn > RERTO Sete cid aca =< = DF Ly latina oxtae |qset ess kas
OS ldanake ave ops bes oss se poe
SE ese ano cgennpaccedonuss
BONIS S00 sits ae Wale kb Wad on

Less Se ee as eee Ne oeletee t clrees tee bereits aims
AWGTAEOS -....55- 8. 54 4. 59 15.19

- We come, therefore, to the somewhat surprising result that the mean
percentage of sucrose in the juices of sorghum grown on a large scale
and entering into the manufacture of sugar in the United States dur-
ing the past six years is only 8.54 per cent.
~ The mean co-eflicient of purity of these juices is 56.2 and the per cent.
of available sugar on the basis of difference between per cent. sucrose
and sum of the percentages of other solids, 1.89. Allowing an aver-
age extraction of 60 per cent. of the weight of cane, the theoretical
yield per ton for the time indicated, supposing there was no loss in man-
ufacture, would be 22.68 pounds. By diffusion extracting 93 per cent.
of the sugar, and calculating available sugar as sucrose less glucose
‘multiplied by 1.4, the theoretical yield per ton would have been 35.5.
| These figures need no comment. They show beyond any question
es the failure to make sorghum sugar profitably in this country has
not been due alone to defective machinery nor lack of skill, but chiefly
to the quality of the cane which has been used.

These practical results are strongly in contrast with the conclusions
f the committee of the National Academy of Science, who, basing their
tatements on the results of the analyses of small samples of carefully
ultivated cane, reached results which in no manner represent the actual
data of experience. The committee says :!

These analyses have shown the constitution of the juices of each variety at the sue-
essive stages in the development of the growing plant. They not only confirm the
well-known fact of the presence of sugar in the juices of these plants in notable quan-
tity, but they also establish beyond cavil what seems surprising to those who have
not examined the facts, that the sorghum particularly holdsin its juices, when taken

t the proper stage of development, about as much cane sugar as the best sugar-cane
ftrepical regions.

— +







— a ED

' Report National Academy of Sciences on sorghum, p. 43.
Pal ooh, a ae SRS

108

It is particularly unfortunate that such a fallacious conclusion should
have been published on such high authority, not so much because of the
harm it has done and will do, but chiefly because it is constantly used
by unscrupulous persons to bias the minds of those who have not time
to investigate this matter for themselves, thus hindering #c knowledge
of the truth.

A strenuous effort has been made in certain quarters to convey the
impression that nothing has been learned about sorghum since the re-
port of the Academy was published and that any person who calls in
question its infallibility is unworthy of public confidence.

But what shall we think of the care exercised by the committee in
forming its conclusions on this matter when we find it at. the same time
indorsing the corn-stalk sugar theory in the following terms? }

By refereuce to the tables it will also be seen that of the eight varieties of maize
examined in 1881, seven of which were of common field and one of sweet corn:

Per cent. of cane sugar.

3 analyses of 3 varieties gave OVEF...... wecemes eacans sass ome O52 a5ee 13
9 analyses of 7 varieties ZAVe OVEr.....- .-..0.ss4n0s GRREEApEa> Sones - 12
22 analyses of 7 varieties ZaVe OVEF. .. 222. 220. coda cece wacecesecs ance il
29 analyses of 7 varieties gave OVEr. ... 22. -- 22. wee eee een cece cae 10
35 analyses of 7 varieties gave Over. .....- ..- 2p -- enon ce maddinwes asses 9

Of ten varieties of maize grown in 1880, the following results were obtained :

Per cent. of cane sugar.

124 analyses of 10 varieties gave OVEr. .... 222 2. pene cowe sone cae cee 9
90 analyses of 10 varieties gave OVEP. +... 22. 2.222. cenens csceee cacees- 10
59 analyses of 9 varieties gave OVEer- .5.~ -» .--0.s 24 analyses of 9 varieties ZaVe OVET. «2 ~~ epee anes apsacascs> ope past 12
8 analyses of 4 varieties ZAVE OVEF..< 220 cone cons coce sass manceese cess 13
2 analyses of 1 Variety gave GVers.- /. 55.6 ccc. eens sweedsua sees ene ee
1 analysis of 1 variety gave over . . 202.0. .05 Leo Sessa eS





In 1880 over 62,000,000 acres of our land were in maize, or 38 per cent. of all the
cnltivated land of the United States. The amount of sugar thus apparently lost, cal- —
culated on the results obtained at the Department of Agriculture in the last three
years, is equal to the present product of the entire world. Itis premature to say
that the profitable extraction of sugar feom corn-stalks is demonstrated, but such —
a result may yet be possible, .

The only trial on a large scale for extracting sugar from corn-stalks of which we
have record will be found in the statement of J. B. Thoms, of date April 10, appended
to this report (p. 119), and was not a success. It is possible that if the maize had been
allowed to mature, in place of being cut when the car was in an immature state fit for can-
ning, the result might have been different.

I have taken the liberty of italicizing the last sentence, since it is one ©
of the most remarkable scientific generalizations that has ever met my
view.

I will add that the committee were extremely modest in limiting the
corp-stalk sugar to the whole sugar production of the world. Sixty-—
four million acres of maize would give not less than 640,000,000 tons of
corn-stalks. The mean per cent. of sucrose as given by the committee
is 11.6. The total quantity of sugar which is, therefore, annually wasted



' Op. cit., pp. 44 et seq.
109




in our corn stalks is 74,240,000 tons. Since the annual production of
sugar for the whole world is only 6,000,000 tons, it is seen that by a
failure to utilize the means of wealth which were so carefully pointed
out we waste a quantity of sugar twelve times larger than the whole
product of the world.

But this is a theoretical computation. Let us take the actual yields

which the committee found had been obtained :!

It will be seen that in successive years there was also obtained from the stalks of
common maize, after the ripened grain had been plucked, at the rate of 900 pounds of
sugar to the acre. It also appears from the correspondence submitted that many
| parties have practically secured results nearly equal to these in their work.

At 900 pounds per acre 64,000,000 acres would give 57,600,000,000
pounds, or 28,800,000 tons. 7

Those of us who have been brought up on a farm and know by ex-
perience the exceptionally juicy and saccharine character of the corn
stalk when the ears are fully ripe can appreciate the explanation which
the committee makes of Mr. Thoms’ failure to secure sugar from the

stalks. Oredat Judeus Apella.

The above opinions show the danger of forming conclusions which
from insufficient data or from data which are partial, are not safe guides

to the whole truth.

It is evident, therefore, that the committee of the academy, having
now before them the data derived from the attempts at manufacture on a

large scale, to which I have referred, would compile a summary wholly
different from that given in their report.

There is one fact, however, which is emphasized in the analytical data
which demands careful attention. It is seen by numerous analyses of
the juices of a single or a few stalks of sorghum that they are capable
of furnishing a large yield of sugar.

_ The question therefore arises, ‘‘ May not a whole crop of this kind be
| produced ?”

_ Without referring to the analyses which were made before, it will be
sufficient to cite those made by the Department at Fort Scott, Kans.

| I call attention first to some analyses made of the juices of a few canes
, expressed by a small ‘ hand-mill” :







> Date. Sucrose.| Glucose.| otal
solids.
Per cent.| Per cent. | Per cent.

i bth oak eee pine 13. 54 2.97} 20.00 |
DEG Uetass thcedsbenstabecece 14. 50 2.77 21. 20
BOTT CM shhntenees td eades dun sha 13. 53 2.41 18. 70
UE ee Peso tera s cats 12. 39 3.76 | 17.80
CN biden ie eek ins ban we pc's 14. 50 1. Ta 20. 20
OS Ee Oe ee ee ee 14. 37 2.16 | 20.70
Site i Sak ceed adachst cabin's’s ds 13. 20 2.37; 19.70
5 MET Ata iat eid das << wee 13. 72 2, 60 19. 76

' Op. cit., p. 48.
* Department of Agriculture, Div. of Chemistry, Bul. No. 14, p. 15.
110


















With such cane juices, although they are not as pure as the averag:
sugar-cane juice jn Louisiana, it would not be difficult, in my opinion
to make sugar profitably. The data which I give are easily duplicat
in those of former years, but this point is so well settled that I will no
dwell longer on it here.

In contrast with this I will cite an equal number of analyses made in
the same circumstances: !

Date. | Sucrose, Glucose. alta:

Per cent.| Per cent. | Per cent.

Sept. 16 consxccusnnum=pasaberetet 7. 04 7.80 19. 00
SODt 20. ann ee eee ee eee ae 3. 60 11. 36 20. 30
Ook? Bib2is os Sebel EYES 8. 37 4.95 15. 50
Och: ica hep de aoe 9.95 4.88 18. 80
9) LE OO hae i gM ate aE 8 ee 4. 55 9, 62 18. 30
Oc ete ee Ses 6. 65 4. 72 14. 40
Oat, Ae ren en ete “5.71 11. 41 21.50

Moan, e342. siete eka 6. 56 7. 82 18. 26

It seems almost incredible that two sets of analyses so entirely different
in their results could have been made on samples taken in identically the
same manner. This remarkable fact discloses the great difficulty which
the sugar maker working on sorghum has to encounter, viz, the unre-
liability of his raw material.

This difference between seven of the best analyses and seven of the
poorest ones, made during the same season, is not more remarkable,
however, than the differences between two sets of such experiments
made under similar conditions by the New Jersey station.

In the data already quoted we find:

| 1883. | 1886.







Sucrose in juice......... per cent...) 15.16] 7.95
Total sugar per acre ..... pounds..| 3,963) 9.05



These two illustrations set forth in a most striking form the tendency
to acute and extensive variations which the sorghum plant has shown
ever since its introduction into this country.

The worker in sugar cane and sugar beets is reasonably sure of his
material. What it is to-day it will likely be to-morrow and so continue
sensibly until the end of the season. Unhappily the sorghum-sugar
worker has no such assurance. The same variety of cane, in the same
degree of maturity, will show the most surprising differences in the
sugar content of its sap.

Prof. Hippolyte Leplay has noticed this variation especially, from
year to year, and has ascribed it to the process of degeneration. He
says :?

The culture and distillation of sorghum cane had given such important results in

Algiers that Mr. Hardy, director of the Central Government nursery at Algiers, an-
nounced, as results of bis experiments, that from 1 hectare (2.47 acres) of sorghum,



! Loe. vit. 2MS. to author, p, 5 et eq: :
111

aw the price of alcohol was 171 francs per hectoliter (26.40 gallons), he could realize
a profit of 8313 francs, and with the price of alcohol as low as 70 francs per hectoliter,
_ the profit from 1 hectare would be 3340 franes.
_ Under the influence of these encouraging results, the question as to the culture and
distillation of sorghum could not be doubtful.
The most important establishments were able to distill from 8,000,000 to 10,000,000
kilograms of sugar cane in the districts of Haute-Garonne, Pyrénées-Orientales of Vau-
_cluse, and in Algiers.

Five years later, that is to say, in 1862, all this grand agricultural and industrial
movement had disappeared, all the large and small distilleries had closed, with great
losses, and the culture of sorghum cane was almost entirely abandoned.

What have been the causes of these great reverses after the grand success of the
beginning so generally and so well established ?

Certain circumstances have led the author of this article to occupy himself per-
sonally in the culture of sorghum, mostly with a view to its industrial utilization.
He took an active part in the grand movement of which sorghum was the object in
1856 to 1862; he has followed all the phases of its prosperity and of its decadence as
propagator and as victim; he has been able to study the causes of the failure and the
means of avoiding it, but the discouragement from all sides became too great for him
to examine with coolness and mature thought or to attempt new efforts. In 1863 he
finally abandoned sorghum, which every one else had already given up, as the captain
abandons his shipat last, when it sinks under his feet, and the distillery ‘‘ St. Michel,”
_at Avignon, was, like the other establishments, closed up and abolished. Since that
time, and until within the last few years, sorghum has given no signs of life and no
further publications upon the subject have been made; but generations pass, the de-
feats of the past lose their intensity, prejudice isdissipated, and there is born of these
disasters a new breath of youthfulness which creates new projects.

We have studied much into the details and the causes of this failure in France
in many manufactories established in the south for the distillation of the cane using
several millions of kilograms of stalks each season. The first year the production in
alcohol was, from 100 kilograms of stalks, 7.50 liters or quarts, or 22 pounds.

The second year the production from the same amount of stalks was 6 liters; the
third year, 4.50 liters; the fourth year, 2 liters.

It was discovered that the cause of this reduction in the ema itty of alcohol, and
consequently in the quantity of sugar, was due to the fecundation of the sugar cane
by the broom cane, or Sorghum vulgare, which is cultivated in great quantities in the
same localities. The crossing is caused by the pollen from the broom cane being car-
ried by the winds to the sugar cane, and the consequence of this fecundation was that
- the seeds which had received this attaint, when resown, produced stalks full of white
_ pith without juice, like the stalks of broom corn, or stalks half pithy, which, instead
of containing 90 per cent. of juice, contained only 15 or 20 per cent., and this juice
was of a quality which produced a small quantity of sugar.

All means employed to overcome this imperfection were without success. One
‘could distinguish by the peculiarities of the spike those stalks whieh had not been
tainted by the pollen from the broom corn, but this influence was invisible in the
seed, which had been fecundated by the pollen to such an extent that, although taken
from stalks containing 15 per cent. sugar and sown the following season, would pro-
duce only degenerated cane.

We have seen stalks of sorghum cane produced from the planting of seeds from the
same spike, of which the primitive stalk contained 16 per cent. of sugar, give bunches
of seeds and single seeds presenting such entirely different characteristics that they
would serve to constitute as many different varieties, more or less rich in sugar, and
which in reality were only the product of a degeneracy under the influence of a
crossing more or less pronounced in each seed.

_ Such an experience for several years was disastrous, and it is upon this hybri-
dizing of the sorghum cane and the broom cane that all the responsibility must be







112 ast

thrown. Now that which is trae in France should also ocenrin America, and {
eauses for the failure in the sugarcane must be the same in thetwocountries,
There is no doubt of the truth of M. Leplay’s ideas in respect of the
admixture of sorghum with broom corn, but such an admixture can be
avoided, and if this were the only cause of deterioration we would hay
little to fear.
Horace Piper' says :
The natural cross-breeding of different varieties with those of snSesiad qualities is
avery frequent cause of deterioration. This is often observed in gramineons ant
leguminous and cureubitaceous plants, which are raised annually from their se
All the varieties of maize are very liable to deteriorate in this way. Those of the
Serghem saccharatem intermix so freely that cultivators have found it almost impossi-
ble to obtain pure seeds. From the same cause it is extremely difficult to preserv
any of the varieties of the melon pure for any considerable time.
No one can have any Security of obtaining pure seeds unless they are planted
rods from all others, and the perfect flowers from which seeds are to be raised ar
covered with small tents of gauze of sufficient size te inclose each and protect it from
insects. The jadicious cross-breeding, however, of individuals of the same variety
when taken from a distance, will, as bas before been observed, have a ee
improve it.

The rapid deterioration of the juice of the cane when cut has beer
noticed by every one who has had anything to do with sorghum. This
deterioration, however, is independent of the natural variations above
mentioned.

The gradual failure of the sucrose in the juice is also noticed when
there has been no admixture with broom corn, as pointed out by Mr.
Leplay. This has been unmistakedly illustrated at Rio Grande, N. J.
The sugar in the amber cane there has been failing since the first unti
the year 1886, when the juice of this cane from several hundred ac
was so poor that no attempt was made to convert it into sugar.

My own observations on this inconstancy of sorghum have been pub-
lished more than once.

In speaking in a previous publication of the difficulties of successft
sugar-making, I said :*

A carefal study of the foregoing data will not fail to convince every investigator tha
the manofacture of sugar from sorghum has not yet proved financially successful.

The men who have put their money in these enterprises seem likely to lose it,
intending investors will carefully consider the facts herein set forth before makin;
final arrangements. The expectations of the earlier advocates of the industry ha
not been met, and the predictions of enthusiastic prophets have not been verified. It
would be unwise and unjust to conceal the fact that the future of the sorghum-sugar
industry is somewhat doubtfal. In the first place, the difficulties inherent in the
plant itself have been constantly undervalued. The success of the industry has bi
based on the belief of the production of sorghum with high percentages of sucrose
smal] amounts of reducing sugar and other impurities.

Bat the universal experience of practical manufacturers shows that the average
constitution of the serghum-cane is far inferior to that just indicated. Taking the
‘Ann. Report, U.S. Department of Agricaltare, 1367, p. 315. <

2 Department of Agricalture, Division of Chemistry, Ball. No. 5, pp. 185, et seq.



























#

i
113

of several seawrs asa sure basis of computstion, it cam mow be enti fat the
hum as they come from the mill do not coniaim over 19 per cent. of sa
es while the perovotaze of orez winds in wlation we a let
x difficulty with which the indmsivy has kad to contend kat born found
leness and ineficiency of the machinery which bas been in nee.
secon gar-making depends more on the eficiemey of the machinery used than
i, her kind of manufacturing. Ii is safe to say that should the sncer-mak-
SN Aiidegt to make beot anger with machinery as iespesfect 2s that mend
i the sorghum-sugar manufacture the attempt would end im disastron: tuillure.

he working of sorghum juices will be found as Gifficnlt a: thow of bees, and ime
= ¢an not be hoped for until the processes used for the ome are ws complete and
ntifie as for the other. Ii is not meant by this that the processes and machinery
‘The chemical as well as mechanical treatment of the two kinds of juice will douls-
ees differ in many respects. And this leads to the comsideraiion of the third Gifi-
pulty, wiz, the chemical treaiment of sorghum juice. Ti bas taken wearly thess-quar-
ers of a centary to develop the chemistry of the beet-sngar process, and ere Bow
2 S progress in this direciion is great. The chemisizy of the sorghum-snca process
‘scarcely yet a science. Ii is only an imitation of what has beem done in other Gedas
Mwork. Sorghum will have to developa chemisizy Of its own. This will mot be ibe
ork of a day or a year, bat it will be accomplished soomer or Later.
a Fs ees eae these
3 most favorable to the growth of thi plant and its manafactore.
IT dnl ciapiclaint poral in the probleas, aid ie new occupying sermeasly the
nizon of the thoughifal advocates of the sorgham- pady clear, i. ¢., thai the area of sucsessfial somgham calture is met Dearly sp ex-
tensive as it was thouczhi to be a few yearsaga. I would urge a fuoribe Inmvesiize
a im this direction as a work peculiarly within the prevince of the Department,
J one which would prove of immense benefit to the country. Five millien acres
if land suitable to the purpose will prodace all the sugar required for this commiry
several years to come. It is therefore certain that the sugar indusizy will be ca-
ned to the most favorable localities. If a thorough scientific steady of al] the sal
and climatic conditions does not point oat this reziea, bitter expericnte amd the loss
of hundreds of millions of dollars will gradmally fix its boundaries. Last of all, the
sorghum indastry has suffered from the general dewresmem which has been fh by the
avar industry of the entire world. Low prices have camsed less where every other
condition has been favorable. It is hardly probable thai the prmce of snrar will mise
ain to its maximum of the years passsd. Only war, pestilence, o@ disaster would
2 this effect. It is best, therefore, for the sagar-crower fe aceepit ihe present
SNIED cad senkn hin urronqumanis macmedingly. Bat low prices will pradoce
sed consumption, and thus even with a smaller profit the sngzar-crewer by @-
Nea SUN tkdy Gad hit busines senieieiihy nemiomanadive if nat an exiching
7 before. The sorghum-sagar crower will be injared or bemeiited with the growers
pfother kinds of sugar by these economic forces. Hence there shoald be ne enmity
tween the grower of the sorghum, the sagambeet, and the sngar~cane, bi all shonld
work in harmony for the general goad.
~ Itis trae that the present oatlook is discouraging. Bat discsnragemeni is not de
at. The time has now come for solid, emenretie work. Scdemce and practice mmst
mn improved agriculture, and altogether cam accomplish what nether aleme wank)
be able to achieve. It is not wise to promise too mach, bat this Baran weld
Ashort of its duty were it cither to sappress the dissonraging reports ef this in
stry en possibility of its sneoess. The fatare Gepemds em the
» and wisdom of the advocates of sangham. The problem they have t
i ciask Qiicelt one, bat its selatien is Rot impossible.

—--33576—Ball 1s——s







































—
by



a
.
i
—.
y
114

Again, in speaking of the necessity of systematic field experiment
insecuring a sorghum suitable for sugar making, I said :!

Such a series of experiments carried on under uniform conditions over the whole
country would do more in five years to determine these great agricultural problems
than fifty years of spasmodic and disjointed work could accomplish.

Much of the success of the beet-sugar industry of Europe has been due to a wise
selection and improvement of the seed, by which the sugar contents of the beet, in’
some instances, has been nearly doubled. There is no reason to doubt that a similar
iinprovement (but not, perhaps, to the same extent) could be made in Northern cane,
Such an improvement station could be established at small cost; but, to be effective,
must be continued through, series of years. The seed of those canes showing the ©
highest sugar content should be planted and the selection continued until a maximum
of sugar is obtained. If in this way a variety of cane could be produced which
would give an average result in analyses of only 2 per cent. uncrystallizable sugar
and 10 per cent. of sucrose, it would prove of the greatest value to the country.

In another place, referring to the lessons which were taught by the
Fort Scott experiments, I said: ?

The chief thing to be accomplished is the production of a sorghum plant containing
a reasonably constant percentage of crystallizable sugar.

Recently in a public address I said 3°

It is easily seen from the foregoing figures that in four years I have never found a
large field of sorghum, judged by the juice obtained, which was rich enough to make
sugar economically.

On the other hand, intensive culture, like that given to a garden, has produced
sorghum which, with the improved processes which have been introduced, would
easily make 150 pounds of sugar per ton.

The sorghum enthusiast has been abroad in the land, and, in his wake, bas closely
followed the crank. Fairy tales of the richness of sorghum have been told every-
where, and have often obtained credence. Fictions of the imagination, and often, I
am sorry to say, fictions without any imagination, have portrayed the glowing future
of sorghum--a future full of triumph and glory. Sorghum has been extolled as the
one great savior of the country, furnishing alike its bread, its sweets, its meats, and
its drinks.

The hope for sorghum is not in new methods and new machinery; it is in the skill
and patience of the agronomist.

Wise selection of seed, intensive culture, judicious fertilization—these are the fae-
tors that can make the sorghum sufficiently saccharifacient.

Still more recently, having collected various data concerning the in-
stability of sugar in sorghum, I presented them to the Indiana Acad-
emy of Sciences,

Â¥Yrom this paper I make the following quotations :'

ON TUE CAUSES OF THE VARIATIONS IN THE CONTENTS OF SUCROSE IN SORGHUM SAC-
CHARATUM,

For some years I have been investigating the Sorghum saccharatum in respect of its
adaptability to the production of sugar.

During this time many difficulties have been encountered, and these troubles have
all been overcome with one exception, The chief obstacles to snecessful ‘sug ur-mak-

a

' Department of Agriculture, Report 1333, pp. 443, 444.

2 Department of Agriculture, Division of Chemistry, Bull. 14, p. 42,
‘Bulletin No, 2, Chemical Society of Washington, pp. 28, 29,

4 Potanical Gazette, Vol, XII, No. 3, pp. 54 et, seq.


115



riations and rapid changes in the sucrose of the juice. All of these problems have
been successfully solved save the last. It is proper to say, however, that certain
methods of cultivation and certain methods of selecting seeds tend to produce maxi-
‘mum contents of sucrose in the cane, and these methods are not yet fully developed.
A proper conception of the variations to which the sucrose in sorghum is obnoxious
can not be had unless we study briefly the method of its formation, how it is stored,
and the physiological functions in which it takes part.
; Vegetable physiologists have taught us that a carbohydrate can be formed by a
P

~T =a.

certain retrogressive change in protoplasm, by which the cell envelope, in other words
_ cellulose, is produced. The carbohydrates which appear in the embryo of a plant are
_ developed at the expense of the stores of material in the seed. After the appear-
_ ance of the chlorophyll cells in the plant the production of carbohydrates takes place
_ with their aid, CO, being absorbed from the air and free oxygen being eliminated.

It would be easy to explain the production of carbohydrates by supposing that the
chlorophyll cell exerted a reducing influence! on the CO, which, with the assimila-
tion of water, produced, for instance, starch by the formula 6CO,+5H,0 = C,H i905 + On.

_ In the vast majority of plants it is found, in corroboration of this supposition, that
the volume of the oxygen set free is sensibly the same as the carbonic dioxide ab-
sorbed. The carbohydrate which is generally formed in the chlorophyll cells is
starch. This starch is removed from the leaf, and it is supposed that the carbohy-
drates which are formed in all parts of the plant are derived from this original sub-
stance. °
In point of fact, however, the production of organic matter iz a plant does not
probably take place in the simple manner above described. It is more likely that
_ the presence of a nitrogenous body is necessary and this proteid itself is the active
principle in the production of new organic matter, by a certain decomposition it
suffers, with the help of carbonic dioxide and water. Nor is it by any means certain
_ that starch is the only organic matter formed by the chlorophyll cells; in fact, it is
known that oil is often the product of this constructive and destructive metabolism.

But it seems reasonable to suppose that the different sugars are as likely to be formed
_ in the leaf of the plant as starch.2, When we remember how easily starch is detected

in most minute quantities, and how easily sugar is missed even when present in much
larger quantities, we do not wonder that vegetable physiologists have supposed that
starch is the first carbohydrate formed in the leaf, and that all the others are derived
therefrom. The explanation, which is made of the translation of the starch from the
point of its formation to the localities where it is stored, is as follows: ;

Take, for instance, the formation of starch in the germ of cereals. We are taught

that the starch first formed in the leaves is changed into sugar, and in this soluble
state carried through the plant until it reaches the seed. This sugar, reaching the
point where the seed is forming, is changed to starch again by the amyloplast.

Let us subject this theory of the translation of starch to a brief examination. There
are two only known methods by which starch can be converted into sugar, viz: First,
by the action of certain acids, and second by the action of certain ferments. The
conversion of starch into sugar by acids even at a high temperature and with the
stronger acids is very slow. It is simply incredible that such a conversion can take
place at the ordinary temperature in the leaf of a plant, and by reason of the action
f the extremely dilute weak vegetable acids which the leaf contains. In the same

‘It has lately been stated that this reduction is due to the action of electricity on
he leaf—producing hydrogen—and this hydrogen is the active principle in the reduc-
tion of the carbonic dioxide. This statement appears to be purely theoretical,

2Meyer (Botanische Zeitung, 44, Nos. 5,6,7, 8) has lately shown that the leaf of
' the plant is incapable of forming starch out of sucrose, levulose, etc., and calls es-
pecial attention to the fact that starch may not be the original substance formed,

i i i






116

way it must be conceded that the opportunity for the action of a ferment in the leaf
is extremely limited.’ Such actionrequires tine and much more favoable conditions
than can be found in the living leaf. In any case if sugar be formed from starch in
either of the ways indicated it could not be sucrose.

In fact the reducing sugar which is found in plants is seldom starch sugar, i. e., mal-
tose or dextrose. This appears to be a fact which the vegetable physiologists have-
entirely ignored. The sugars of plants which reduce an alkaline copper solution
are either derived from sucrose by inversion, or more probable are of independent
formation. If they were derived from starch they would show dextro- if from su- —
crose, Jievo-gyration. In point of fact they often show neither, as I long ago pointed
out, when, in view of this optical inactivity, I proposed for them the name of anop-
tose. When they do show rotation, however, it is left-handed.

It seems to me that there is one fact that the physiologists forget, viz, that starch
is not always insoluble. In my examinations of sorghum juices I have never failed to
find soluble starch when I looked for it.2 The existence of bodies when first formed —
in the soluble state, which when once made solid become insoluble, is not unknown.
Certain forms of silica are illustrations of this. It seems much more reasonable to sup-
pose that in the case of the sorghum, for instance, the starch which appears in the seed
is partly trausferred directly from the soluble nascent state to the seat of its final depo-
sition. This, indeed, is hardly a theory in the light of the fact mentioned above—
that the sap of the plant always contains soluble starch.

It is far more simple to suppose that the sucrose which we find in sorghum is pro-
duced directly by the decomposition of protoplasm in presence of carbonic acid, pro-
voked by the katalytic action of the chlorophyll cell. At any rate there is no sort of
evidence that it is ever made from starch, and no physiologist has ever invented any
hypothetical saccharoplast to account for such a transformation. 7

This subject of the origin of sucrose is of great interest; but I have not yet finished
my experimental studies of it, and so will not pursue it farther at present.

The question now arises is the sucrose of sorghum a plastic material, reserve mate-
rial, or waste? In respect of plastic material it is sufficient to call attention to the
fact that the development of sucrose does not begin in the plant until it is far on the
road to maturity. To this it may be objected that its accumulation does not begin
until this period, and that what is formed earlier in its history is a really plastic ma-_
terial used in the development of other tissues. Had I time I might show, I think, —
conclusively, that the presence of the sucrose as a plastic material is not probable.
Is it areserve material? The sucrose which is deposited in the seeds of piants, in
tubers like the sugar-beet, and in sugar-cane, doubtless is a true reserve material,
and by its decomposition helps the growth of the succeeding plant. But the sucrose
in sorghum seems to have no such function, It can in no way aid the ineipient
growth of the next plant, for that plant grows from a seed. As far as any use in the
economy of the plant is concerned, it appears to be absolutely worthless. It is true
that in the case of ‘‘ suckering,” the sucrose in the cane may suffer loss, but ‘sucker-'
ing” is not always a natural growth; it is adventitious and is always detrimental to
the proper maturity of a plant.

It seems, therefore, that the sucrose in sorghum is purely a waste material—as
much so as an alkaloid or a resin.

In the cases where sucrose is a true reserve material, as in seeds, in tubers, and in
sugar-cane, we find there is no tendency for it to disappear until the needs of the new —
plant require it. The sucrose remains, for instance, unchanged in the sugar-beet
until the new growth begins. The same is true in a higher degree of the sucrose in
seeds. The fact, therefore, that in sorghum all traces of sucrose may disappear in a
few days shows th: it its office is radically different,



!'The ferment which aets on the starch has been studied by Brasse and Schimper
(Bied. Centralblatt, vol. 14, p. 169, vol. 15, pp. 310 and 473). It is called amylase,
2 That is a body in solution which gives a blue color with iodine,




117

____As a result of my investigations I will say that the development of sucrose in sor-
ghum is an accidental function, or rather an adventitious function. It goes on usu-
ally pari passu with the formation of the starch in the grain and the content of su-
crose in the plant, and its quantity is ata maximum at the time the starch formation
is completed. In the sugar-cane the sucrose appears to be not only reserve, but also
plastic material. In the upper part of the cane the content of sucrose is much less
than in the lower, showing that in the region of most active growth the sucrose may
suffer decomposition and help in the formation of proteid. (I wish to add here that
the only way in which the plant can use sucrose for the formation of other bodies or
for working it into living tissues is by thus getting itinto protoplasm.) On the other
hand, the content of sucrose in sorghum is sensibly the same in all parts of the cane,
being just as great at the top near the place of most rapid starch storage, as it is near
the base. It is not strange, therefore, if it be true that the production of sucrose is
only the expression of the exuberant vitality of the leaf of the sorghum, that the
greatest variations should be met with the content of sucrose. These variations are
not confined to different varieties or to different fields, but are found in the same va-
riety in different canes growing in the same hill, and which, therefore, have been
subjected to precisely the same conditions of culture and weather.

In ten successive analyses of sugar-beets made two years ago, I found no greater
variation than 1 per cent. in sucrose. The same was true of ten successive analyses
of sugar-canes I made last month, November, 1886. On the other hand, any ten suc-
cessive analyses of sorghum-canes, made last October, will show a variation of 6 per
cent.

I have not the time here to cite all the instances I have noticed which illustrate the
principles set forth above. They number hundreds. Without a record of these
analyses, however, the fact clearly appears that the chief cause of variation is found
in the accidental or adventitious nature of the formation of the sucrose; in other
words, its independence of the life history of the plant. When, however, the sucrose
has once been formed, as in a mature cane, it is subject to sudden variations. Sudden
changes in the weather, severe frosts, followed by warm weather, or simply standing
dead ripe, often cause a rapid disappearance of the sucrose. It is first converted into
invert sugar and this quickly disappears by fermentation.

When the canes have been cut also, if they be expressed at a temperature of a warm
September day, the sucrose is rapidly inverted. This inversion is not due to the ac-
tion of the acids which the sap contains, but is produced by a special ferment, proba-
bly invertin, or some similar substance.!

These variations in the content of sucrose are, as I intimated at the beginning, the
chief obstacles now in the way of the successful introduction of a sorghum-sugar in-
dustry into this country. The last one is easily avoided by promptly working the
cane as soon as it is cut. The first one can only be overcome by the scientific agrono-
mist, aided by the best practical botany and chemistry.

Since writing the above I have received the Revue Scientifique, of February 5,
1887, containing a notice of the observations of Girard on the production of carbohy-
drates in plants. This author definitely confirms my statements in respect of the in-
dependent formation of sucrose in leaves. The reviewer says:

**Les expériences de M. A. Girard mettent hors de doute que les limbes fabriquent
alors des saccharoses et des sucres réducteurs,”

M. Girard shows the possibility of leaves developing starch from sucrose, but there
appears to be no evidence that the reverse of this operation takes place.



YIELD PER ACRE.

In the experiments of the New Jersey station we have already seen
the theoretical yield of sugar per acre. It is a matter of considerable



‘Ducloux, Compt. rend., 103, p. 881, has shown that sunlight is capable of inverting a
solution of sucrose,
118

importance to know what the average yield of sorghum in clean stalks
per acre is. Weber and Scovell' report yield of clean cane, equal to
15,766 pounds or 7.88 tons per acre. Professor Henry? gives the follow-
ing as the yield of cane per acre:

| Pounds.
PG DIGG
ona ac tax cag Sa heoe oe ae = i ells 30, 348
Second plot... is 2o5 25.5 n-nn- sanmes sateen 23, 550

In 1882 Henry found the following as a mean yield in clean eane of
fifteen plots calculated to one acre:* Mean for fifteen experiments,
14,500 pounds=7.15 tons.

The yield per acre for the field crop‘ in the several fields was as fol-
lows:

Pirst field 5 acsanjodeasndenad aadsiodee 20, 906 pounds = 10.45 tons.
Second Geldasias ics cote autaaas 14,487 pounds= 7.24 tons.
Third fields, ois. tations 2 Va 13,688 pounds= 6.84 tons.

In the field trial of cane by the Department at Washington in 1881
the average yield from 94 acres was 5,000 pounds’=2.5 tons.
The mean weight of clean cane per acre as determined at Champaign,
Ill., in 1882, is seen from the following data.®

Bumbo? G000G Wo ck ccue ockelceaeee 244. 59
Romer TOs «2. .2.06> sax nae aoe 2, £82. 75
FOnS DOF ALTO. Pocc rind dete aeaees 9, 33=18, 660 pounds.

The average yield of 6.85 acres at the Wisconsin agricultural farm
in 1882 was 16,200 pounds per acre, equal to 8.1 tons.

Nelson Maltby obtained (mean of 17.5 acres) 9.5 tons per acre, equal
to 19,000 pounds.?

Drummond Brothers report an average of 26.5 acres, at 9.17 tons, —
equal to 18,340 pounds.®

A. J. Decker® reports average yield of 45 acres at 6 tons, equal to
12,000 pounds.

William Frazier® states yield for 45 acres averaged 6 tons per acre,
equal to 12,000 pounds.

A. L. Talcott" estimates yield per acre at 9.6 tons (226 acres), equal
to 19,200 pounds.

Ralchar and Schwarz’ report yield for 191 acres at 3 tons rer acre,
6,000 pounds.

| Transactions Department of Agriculture, Illinois, 1881, p. 501,
* Experiments in Amber cane, 1881, p. 14.
*Second Annual Report, Amber cane, p. 8.
4 Op. cit., p. 14.

® Encouragement to Sorghum, p. 3.

®Op. cil., p. 18.

70p. cit., p. 27.

8Op. cit., p. 28.

Op. cit., p. 35.

Op. cit., p. 37.

"Op. cit., p. 46.

LOp. cit., p. 33.




119

Bozarth! from 85 acres reports a yield of 8.1 tons per acre, equal to
16,206 pounds.

In a field of 64 acres grown by the Department of Agriculture near
Washington, in 1883, the yield was 746,250 pounds of clean cane, or
; 11,662 pounds per acre, equal to 5.83 tons.

_ At Rio Grande, according to the report of Professor Cook already

_ cited,” it is shown that the average yield of that plantation for five years

(about 1,000 acres per annum) was only 7.7 tons of unstripped and un-
topped canes, or of clean cane about 6 tons, equal to 12,000 pounds per
acre.

TONNAGE PER ACRE DETERMINED BY THE EXPERIMENTS OF THE
NEW JERSEY AGRICULTURAL STATION.®

In 1881 the average yield at the New Jersey experiment station‘ was
4.84 tons, equal to 9,741 pounds per acre.

In 1882, in fall-plowed land, the mean yield in sixteen experimental
plots was 8.45 tons, equal to 17,110 pounds’ per acre.

For the spring-plowed Jand the numbers are 9.84 tons per acre, equal
to 19,680 pounds.®

For 1883 the mean yield of sixteen experimental plots was 14.4 tons,
equal to 28,851 pounds per acre.’

In 1884 the mean yield of sixteen experiments was 10.30 tons, equal
to 20,601 pounds per acre.®

In 1885 the mean yield of sixteen plots was 12.48 tons, equal to
24,965 pounds per acre.

In 1886° the mean weight of cane on fourteen fertilized plots caleu-
lated to 1 acre was of clean cane 10,443 pounds, equal to 5.22 tons.

I believe a perfectly fair average of the yield per acre of sorghum,
taking into consideration all seasons and methods of culture and fertiliz-
ing, will be found by the investigation of the foregoing means.



1Op. cit., p. 58.

*Sixth Ann. Report New Jersey Agricultural Experiment Station, p. 119.
Ann. reports of station.

* Op. cit., 1881, p. 45.

® Op. cit., 1882, p. 64.

© Op. cit., p. 65.

* Op. cit., 1883, p. 70.

8 On. cit., 1884, p. 84.

"Op. cit., 1886, p. 151.

<——- = -—.




oe > Si be
120 . 5
Summary.
aol | Yield
| Authority. | per acre.
4
Tons

| Weber and Scovell ......... 5 aver eee 7. 88
| Henry and Swenson. ....... 006.062... 15. 17
Lia
, Ulenry .-.-----------+--- 0 +++ sree ee eee: 7.15
10. 45
7. 24
6. 84
Harvey js. . cette cade bab neta aes 2. 50
Wieber. ant Scovell. ~. sas <.-sc5.eseec 5 9. 33
Henry ‘and. Sivenson 4ic 26 incde on oe 8.10
Maltby: (22.505 2.25 + aboereee eae 9. £0
1) Drammen Buok: .c.d-- ca d-ucackaaee eee 9.17
Decker... .25.5-0 stock. an be eee oe 6.00
D* Frazier je o>. tabs 2 ioe cd eae tee ; 6. 00
Talootti2.-3 (2.1. nee eee 9. GO
Belcher and SchwartZ <..<..-<----.ss<0- 3. 00
Bosarth 12 face seca sonst oat eee 8.10

Wiley (ocho ee eee aS 5. 83 -
Hughes and Codksescsa cote oe tee 6. 00

6. 00 ~
6. 00
6.00
6. 00
Gookk i i035t. 8. 45
9. 84
14. 40
10 30
12. 48
¢ 5. 22
General average per acre..............- 7.97










We may, therefore, place the average crop of topped and stripped
cane in round numbers at 8 tons per acre. .

Practical farmers, chemists, and manufacturers have long recognized
the imperative necessity of producing a better raw material for sorghum
sugar-making, but many of those who have gone into the business have
not been impressed with such a necessity.

In many of our newspapers, in some official documents, and in the
report of the Academy of Sciences, which has already been quoted,
sorghum has been represented as the equal of Louisana sugar-cane, and
therefore the great inferiority of it to that sugar plant has been first
revealed by the crash of financial failure.

Among the methods which have been tried for increasing the sucrose
in sorghum I will cite the

EFPECT OF REMOVAL OF THE SEED HEADS.

The question of the formation of sucrose in the sorghum cane has
already been discussed.
Formerly, when it was considered that the starch was derived from
the sucrose, if was supposed a priori that the removal of the panicle,
thus preventing the formation of starch, would tend to inerease the pers
centage of sucrose in the juice.
It is stated in Hyde’s book! that—

———

‘The Chinese § Sug: wr-Cane, Hyde, pp. 23, 24.


121

The ripeness of the seeds does not appear much to lessen theproduction of sugar, at
least in the climate near Paris, but in other countries where it matures when the
weather is still warm the effect may be different. According to the report of M. de
Beauregard, addressed to the ‘‘ Comice de Toulon,” the ripening of the sorgho in that
latitude had no unfavorable effect ; and he considers the seeds and the sugar as two
products to be conjointly obtained. On the other hand, Mr. Wray says the Zulu-
Kaffirs are in the habit of pulling off the panicles of the plant the moment they ap-
pear, in order to augment the quantity of saccharine matter in the stalks.

Mr. Leonard Wray! makes the same statement. In the direction for
making sugar from sorghum printed in “ The Working Farmer,” and
quoted in the book of Mr. Stansbury,’ occurs the following sentence :

When the grower intends to make sugar, he should pinch off the seed heads before

they are fully formed, or indeed as soon as they appear, thus causing the plant to
give a larger yield of stronger juice.

‘

In 1882 and 1885 experiments were made by Prof. H. A. Weber and
Prof. M. A. Scovell, at Champaign, Ill, to determine the effect of the
removal of the seed heads. Following is Professor Weber’s report :°

The first experiment in topping cane was made in the season of 1882. It was sug-
gested by the theory that the starch, which forms about 63 per cent. of the weight of
the seed, could, by removing the top in time, be retained in the stalk in the form of
cane sugar. The experiments in this direction fully proved the correctness of this
theory. In the first experiment a portion of the heads was removed from a plat of
Amber cane soon after they made their appearance and before there was any visible
formation of seed. When the remaining cane had reached the hard-dough stage
comparative analyses were made, with the following results:

| Topped. | Untopped.





Density, Baumé........ 9.5 8.1
Cane sugar, per cent. -. 12. 62 7. 80
Grape sugar.... do..... 2. 58 4. 80

In the seasen of 1883 two more experiments were made in this direction. In the
first one, a field of Kansas orange cane was chosen. ‘Two rows lying side by side and
of uniform growth were selected. One was topped as soon as the heads appeared.
The first comparative analyses were made on September 19, when the upper half of
the seed heads was in the hardening dough. The results are as follows:

| Topped. Untopped. |

|
Density, Baumé........ 10.8 9.8
Cane sugar, per cent. .. 14.4 11. 83
Grape sugar... do...... 4. 01 3. 89

' Two more comparative analyses of the same rows were made on October 2, after
the seed was fully ripe.

' Agricultural Report 1854, p. 222.
*Stansbury, Chinese Sugar-Cane, p. 35.
*Department of Agriculture, Division of Chemistry, Bull, No. 5, pp. 145, 146.
. : ci ae ss
: iy ro \ +”) Seto Pt
a AD ee
Sl on
122 ee}

The following table shows the results:

| Topped. Untoppea.

Density, Baumé........

Cane sugar, per cent...
Grape sugar... do

a
New
00 00 GO
bh

9.4
11. 53
3. 53





The last test was made with a plat of Indian cane.
23, three days after the heads began to appear.

The comparative analyses were made October 6. At this date the seeds were per-
fectly ripe, and would drop from the head when shaken.
The results are given in the following table:

The topping was done August
-!

Topped. | Untopped.





Density, Baumé.....--. 10.2 8.3
Cane sugar, per cent... 13. 04 10. 06

Grape sugar... do...-... 1. 54 2.46

These results show an increase of over 3 per cent. of cane sugar in favor of the
topped cane.

Dr. Collier also was Jed to investigate the same subject.'

Two sets of analyses were made. In the first set of ninety-six pairs
of analyses the results are as follows :

In the juice.

Seed

removed. Seed on.

= ie Se en HH Pe aee ret
Per cent. | Per cent.
Snerose sts. 27. cess ee 12. 66 9, 96
GIN 0080.45 5 oo as ob eae Jog 1.40
‘Total Holds St d
In the second set of forty-two pairs of analyses the results were as
follows :

| Seed | =
| removed, | eed on.

|
Per cent, Per cent.



Bucrose .W sctadscw il tc.

11. 34 12. 08
SPIDICORO’ & vdeciee a ance tks 1. 21 1. 08
otal. slither 32 ok2. oh 15. 53 15. 89

Dr. Collier makes the following observations on the results of these
analyses :?

The practical conclusions from these results are, that there is no incompatibility
between the maximum crop of ripe seed possible, and the maximum content of sugar
in the juice of the stalks; and that, owing to the more rapid development of the cane

' Collier's Sorghum, pp. 133 and 241; Special Report, pp. 18 ef ' 8eq.
2 Op, cit... p. 140,




123

from which the seed has been removed, the time necessary from planting to the ma-
turity of the crop would be shortened frum seven to ten days for each of the varie-
_ ties, if the seed was removed early.

In 1884 I made a large number of experiments in the study of the
effect of topping the canes.!

After having compared ail the analyses the following conclusions
were reached :”
The effect of cutting off the young heads in increasing the per cent. of sucrose was
not as marked as had been expected, being a little less than .3 per cent.
Experiments on a much larger scale were made at Ottawa, Kans., in
1885, and these trials confirmed in every respect the results obtained at
Washington the preceding years. _
Following are the data:?

Means of ten analyses.



| Total
Sucrose. | Glucose. | solids.
SEXS ca <=
|
Per cent. | Per cent. | Per cent.
Topped and suckered canes. ... 12. 45 1.99 | 17.26
Toppped canes, not suckered . . 12. 46 | 2.09} 17.31

Natural canes. .......:.--...... 12. 15 | 2.06 | 16.77
° !



From the above results it is seen that no appreciable increase of su-
crose is obtained by topping and suckering the canes.

Even had experiments shown a notable increase in sucrose in the
juices of those canes from which the seed heads had been removed the
practical difficulties attending the process would prevent it from ever
becoming more than an experimental study.

I think, therefore, we may at once dismiss all expectations of ever
increasing the value of sorghum as a sugar producer by preventing the
maturation of the seed.

THE FORT SCOTT EXPERIMENTS.

For the first time in the history of sorghum sugar making an oppor-
tunity was presented at Fort Scott in 1886 to try under identical con-
ditions the relative merits of Louisiana sugar cane and Kansas sorghum
as sugar-producing plants.

The light which this trial has thrown on the vexed problem has served
to illuminate many points which were in obscurity. A candid study of
the results of the experiments will set at rest all doubts in respect of the
relative merits of these two sacchariferous plants.

In the Chicago Journal of Commerce of July 6, 1887, Dr. Collier makes
a comparison of the analyses of juices of sorghum and sugar canes,

~which he submits as the teachings of years of experiment.

1 Department of Agriculture, Diy. of Chemistry, Bull. No.5, pp. 139 et seq.
2 Op. cit., pp. 144, 145,
*Bull, No. 6, p. 16.
124 RENT

From these analyses he draws the following conclusions:



























The average of the above (including two hundred and two analyses of sugar-eane
juices grown on different plantations and in different years, and of three hundred and
thirty-oue analyses of many varieties of sorghum juices also grown in different years)
gives for each ton of sugar cane 225 pounds total sugar, of which 179 pounds are the
oretically available, and foreach ton of sorghum cane a total of 261 pounds of suge
of which 199 pounds are available.

In respect of the quality of the crop of sorghum at Fort Scott the same
writer in the Journal of Commerce of the date mentioned, after quoting
the results of a single analysis, makes the following observations :

Now, the above shows in each ton of cane 238} pounds total sugar, of which 169°
pounds were available. :

Such was the average crop of cane according to the very best, and indeed the only
method by which its value could be ascertained.

It is thus seen that it has been claimed that the sorghum crop at
Fort Scott was not only equal to Louisiana cane, but, in fact, far supe:
rior to it in its sugar- Maka qualities.

The same authority says: !

The next question which arises is most naturally this: Granting that this sugar
is found in the crop of cane, can it be recovered by processes similar to those em
ployed on the sugar-cane plantations of the South or the best sugar factories of Eu.
rope? Ireply with a decided yes to this most important practical question.

In the light of these statements the value of the actual comparisor
is greatly increased.

ABSTRACT OF EXPERIMENTS WITH SORGHUM AT FORT SCOTT, KANS..,
IN 1886.2

Mean composition of juices, seventy analyses, expressed from small
quantities of sorghum canes during the entire season: *

Per cent.
BUOTORS <05 6 enue ks eden sep emas > wane out bss me cele 9, 34
GFIMCOBG nce cane ucce cnab sabebes bate aac cet oe can 4.10
Total solids... 2. Jove tcc acc cccenesaceee ctus Jaen 16, 94
Parity co-efficient: .... .ss0 ance scaecce usc ens aen eee 55, 14

The small samples of cane above mentioned were taken in such a way
as to represent as nearly as possible the general character of cane en-
tering the mill. It is idle to claim, however, that in nearly 3,000 tons
of cane, varying in such a marked manner as has already been set forth,
such a selection of samples could accurately represent the whole. They
might give results better or worse than the average. Which of these
was the case with the above samples will appear by studying closely
the following data :

SAMPLES COLLECTED FROM CHIPS ENTERING EACH CELL AND AFTER
MIXING PASSED THROUGH SMALL MILL.

Such samples represent much more accurately than those just ome
ied the average composition of the canes entering into manufacture

| Chicago Journal of Commerce, November 17, 1880,
* Department of Agriculture, Div. of Chemistry, Bull. No, ah
® Op. cit., pp. 14, 15.


125

. They were taken on twelve different days, from October 15 to 27, and
each sample represents the mean composition of 10 tons of cane. The
means of the twelve samples are as follows :!

In the juice.

Per cent.
PE te Soa gee o Ss ot Sede ela saws ancien eagmese 7.28
ea aerate eee OS. nn caw Se ee ee td e we 3.74
IE Ss eee ON come awe eee ee ese odes woe 14, 80
Parity co-efficient ..-.-...../....-.- ip ATs is Dep eae 49. 00

MEAN COMPOSITION OF THE DIFFUSION JUICES FOR THE WHOLE
SEASON.

Following are the means of seventy-six analyses” extending over the
whole season. The samples were taken (a measured quantity) from
each cell when discharged. After ten samples were collected and mixed
the analysis was made. The results of the analyses are, therefore, a
true index of the diffusion juices for the entire season :”

Per cent.
Re feta otd 26 cic Sb ay ce scccn es wota + vbanmelae sans 5. 10
eS es cls o's cla uemeaa Cae tmecd 3. 07
Oe SERED Bota ta Cuets antaauu coke 11. 47
ES ee eer eee ee 44.4

There is one point in the above data to which I desire to expressly call
attention. The juice which was actually worked for sugar at Fort Scott
was the diffusion juice, of which the mean composition is given above,
This juice, according to the methods of estimating its value in common
‘use, not only would not yield crystallizable sugar, but, on the other hand,
could have had a large quantity of pure sugar added to it before any
could be obtained in the ordinary process of manufacturing.

The above is the actual character of the juices which Dr. Collier has
stated had in each ton ‘238.5 pounds sugar, of which 169 pounds were
available.”

We now turn for comparison to the data obtained with identically
the same processes employed at Fort Scott to make sugar from sugar
cane.

The canes on which these trials were made were cut in Louisiana Oc-
tober 25 to 50, and subjected to diffusion at Fort Scott, November 6 and
7, 1886.

MEAN COMPOSITION OF THE JUICES IN THE CANE.

Samples of chips were taken from each cell until twelve were filled.
These samples were passed through the small mill and the analyses
made in the mixed juices.

Five sets of analyses were made, giving the mean composition of
seventy-two tons of chips.

: Op. cit., p. 17. “Op. cit., pp. Ls, 19,
126 a? a
Following are the means of the results: j . 4
In juice. Ae
Per cent. .
SUCTOSO .- 2 woe on owas sssuvaens suse vote on lweneh th eaee eee 10.62
GNGOR0 6 < os on an bnn wes ddns sh euue« ade phe as ote ae 1.78
Total solids .... - 2. seceec ino ces tude cupeer a ulee eee 14.38
Parity co-efficient ..2 22. 2. 2.0 oe abun een oes eee ee 73.8

COMPOSITION OF DIFFUSION JUICES FROM ABOVE CANES.

The samples were taken by withdrawing a measured quantity from
each of the twelve cells and thoroughly mixing. Six sets of analyses
were made.

Following are the means:

Per cent.
Sadvede (td aN oe Leese pe eke eee e sceen ane 7.16
GIRCORG - woos cwcduc asics tune vedemanse® a uapee see L.2o
Total eohids.c st. < sets Laid cme wp boa al Wiest eee te ee 9.86
POxiby - p00 ond nas siewe nas agin ie ane emo poeeliche eee 72.6




In this connection it must be remembered, too, that the mean temper-
ature used in the diffusion of sorghum chips was 70° C., while for sugar —
cane the diffusion took place at 90°. Therefore, a much greater inver- —
sion would be expected with the former than with the latter.

In point of fact, it has been clearly established that the sucrose in
ripe and fresh sorghum canes undergoes no appreciable inversion dur-
ing the process of diffusion at 70°, if that process is not delayed by
faulty machinery or accidents. When inversion in the battery does take
place, it is due to the fact that chips are used which are notin a fit state
for sugar making, or by reason of some delay in the process.

Without discussing further the details of the experiments with sugar-
cane, I desire to call your attention to the following points : 3

(1) Sorghum-canes manufactured at Fort Scott in 1886 gave a yield
of 21.6 pounds sugar per ton.

(2) Louisiana sugar-cane, manufactured at the same place, by iden-
tically the same processes, and under identical conditions, save that the
temperature in diffusion was 20° higher, gave 144 pounds sugar per ton.

The sorghum-cane, therefore, grown at Fort Scott was nearly seven
times less valuable for sugar making than the sugar-cane. I am fully.
convinced of the fact, however, that had the machinery at Fort Scott
in 1886 been perfect, so that the sorghum could have been promptly
worked at maturity, the quantity of sugar it made would have been
greatly increased. ‘This fact I have emphasized in Bulletin No. 14.

It will be of interest in closing this brief review of our present knowl-
edge concerning sorghum and sugar cane, to add to the summary given
the results of the final experiments recorded in Bulletin No. 17. Inthe —
summary of the data for Louisiana this has already been done.
127

The mean composition of sorghum juices used for manufacturing

sugar on a large scale up to 1887 and the means of the two stations at
Rio Grande and Fort Scott for 1887 are as follows:





| Rio Grande, |- Fort Scott,
1887. || 1887.



| Up to 1887. |
Per cent. Percent. | Per cent.
0 ee 8. 54 | 8. 98 | 9. 54
Reducing sugar............ 4. 59 3. 24 | 3. 40
GIO SLMS. > on, Saciswnoe 15.19 | 14. 02 16. 14

ES eae 56. 22 64, 05 59. 11

It will be seen that the cane both at Rio Grande and Fort Scott was
slightly better than the average of the recorded analyses up to that
time. I see no reason todoubt, however, the possibility of producing in
a few years a sorghum-cane, the purity of whose juice will average
higher even than that at Rio Grande.

I am not one of those, however, who claim for sorghum a position
above the sugar-cane, either at present or remotely. All such claims
are based either purposely on afew selected analyses, or ignorantly on
partial evidence, or on no scientific evidence whatever.

The work which has been done under my supervision has had a
double purpose: (1) To determine the true average sugar content of
sorghum when grown on a commercial scale; and, (2) to devise the best
methods of securing the sugar in merchantable form.

I have not hesitated to state the facts as they were disclosed during
the progress of the work, nor have I knowingly concealed any result
which has had any apparent relation to the PROPEEM, whether of a favor-
able or unfavorable nature.

In conclusion, I will say that [ have written this bulletin to bring into
convenient shape for reference all the information which I have been
able to collect coucerning the sugar industry of this country,
















aie -
INDEX.

as
3 made by Division of Chemistry in 1883 ...........-.-00-- ee 7
NE I oir ones USS UEP occa ade dpeaeeee :
III soca 20S Fi Sante keees oe soae eo cens oeen omen .

: ~

ie "
S ti oles oe ge wis eco wes woccea ys occesstescss conccese
Seeeomposition of..........-..-........--.-. A: a a re
Semaine, COMposition Of juice in ...... -.. 22. .....--e2e eee cne nec enee
en cen dek cccm cons owew sine ene ;

C.
‘eorehum, various yiolds per acre of.........-.--- --2 20. ene nee cee cecee ;
; I Drs eR SU re go ong ica acca sence :
rom different parts of Wisconsin, analyses of .............----+--c0 cee
SG ee er
Aiea! hina aes as cad Sawn Sd wow tus sum Sune
meeivess of, by Dr. C. M. Wetherill... .. 22.5... seccce secaceee

str iihpee metre. Mialyses Of 228 5.26.2 ooo eee ce cece ceceee cone .

i mples of, collected from each cell and after mixing passed through a

lier, , Dr. I oie Se ticenits owes chien Hous sts w wn dvecGnee Sages oe

:. effect of removing seed heads....... 2.22.2 sesece ceeees cece
ne DOLIMONGES. 4 ds Caeser vewbadcu sd ceanssecmecse
sorghum crop at Fort Scott: .... 2ccc cess sce cave coca ccceses

mes D.

ecke tf, A. J., report Of ..-.2. ++ +2 ceeeee eee e eee eeeeeeee Se ee a
e on experiments at Ottawa, Kans., 1885 2... 2... .2-20e cee eee cone cece eee
- chemical control of RIMeg eek Amey coe Uke vane’ os baa aéeuwe
juices at Fort Scott, mean composition of ...... 2.2... 2002. eee cee

for the season of 1886, mean composition of .........--...-6- °
b . run, first. ee eee eee eee ee eee eee ee 2 |

| ; ek bo nad aRSeboes tose se ewen ewes eves ccccce
INES C8 TOSOIES DY pon ccc nee conn owes cacces soccncccuscs
non | Brothers, report of ta Soa eam iain Ce dineie mbt hatd adve've

+

j—Bull 18——9 129

53
54
65
97

—
118 ~
117

~
é

59

124
57

122
123
124

95

125
72
33
39
40
41
42
43
95
130



E.
Page. ,
Experiments at Fort Scott, comments of Dr. Collier On......++-eeeseeeseeeee-- 123 0
during 1888, analyses in ...... 2. .scnssaeeeen een ae z
for which an award of $1,200 was made by the Commissioner of 7
Agriculture ..... 02.2. FP,
Failyer, Prof..G. H., report of 1... . << Gece tones evecs coveussacdn beeen vere Ae
Fake, N.J., analytical work by........-....-. Sie whgnbcte a tai) eee ssc el aatiate : 29
Fort Scott, analytical work at, season of 1887. ...... 22.222 wecene cccnccss Micese 5
instructions sent tO. .... sac. «00 uence uncuconeunbe ones ane 5
work at, additional notes. On. <5. c.-» aces vase tae week Pekin wn ll
Frazier, William, report of. ~.......< sesasec cus sase=> varunusss en aeennee 96
G.
Goeesmann, Dr..C. A., analyses by <.62.
experiments in the manufacture of sorghum sugar by.... 89

Hi.
Harvey, Mr. J. H., report of... scene caceuscceuah aeosss anes sien ae 99
Helena, Wis., analyses made by Department at .. ...... 0222. .2 200 cose ccccce 69
Henry, Prof. W. A., analyses by .... 2.5 sc0- sdenscins deca pauonpeu senna 88
Hilgard, Professor, analyses by .... ...5 00.0020 cances cece eves canna Kents 74
I.

Iinois Industrial University, experiments at, in 1€80.........22. e200 cone cone 90

J.
Jackson, C..T., analyses DY 66. 0snccen cous cone pessicnts shan wenn ougiihatree » 72
Jefferson Sugar Company, report of ......... ..<0s sacs su enuows sons San . 96
Juice, discussion of the composition of, at Fort Scott .... 2... --.. 2220 eens ones 126
from exhausted chips and corresponding diffusion juices, table of glu-
COSC ANd BUCTORE IN 2... .ccses cee cwedcnees sues occa caueeee ae 10
Juices, comparative samples of raw, clarified, and filtered, table of analyses of. 33
and clarified, table of analyses of........ . 32
defecated, table: of analyses of... .... sdecos asswee cussu eehepe eee 71
diffusion, for the season of 1886, mean composition of...... ..........-- 72
tables of analyses af... ...iskwvesedccetdwaewns meee “nee Sure? Oe
employed in manufacturing, analyses of...... Sey ind Wenen 106
exhausted chip, table of analyses of..... a eee ‘a eep ane attest 23
from diffusion chips, table of analyses Of... 2.2. ...c0. ce0e cone cocees — 20
hand mill, analyses Of .... ve -ossen s0<0ds Sonces saunnn sua 109
in the cane at Fort Scott, mean composition of........ 2.2... eeeceeee ae
L.
Lime-kiln and bagasse chimney, carbonic dioxidein gases from.. .... -.02 ee0e 57
Lovering, Joseph 8., experiments by .. ooo. ceccce veccce cove seccce see « cadwae ee 88
| Lynch, Mr. Peter, statement of 2.2000 casos cscucs cvccenvconsce sun ynnne nbes 99
M.
Magnolia, special analytical work at .........-. bos vuenbobwne aud o cccece'sdnees
summary of data for four years at .........-------- © wecc cecccccese
WOPK Bt.cccce cece vcence ceccee cesccse a vececcces sevecs © voce cece seus
Maltby, Nelson, report of .... .cccce cocccs coccce cocccs veces coccss esses whale tele


131

ee eee ee erwin cn ana Gb cab se bans ss ecne eset ale
a a a a Se ee

sugars, and molasses from diffusion runs, analyses of........... °

a TE ete aes okra Sin 6 pa Sees ave cies castes ese °

Ra ee tere ale es wa ae co ceee ee nune 0s ece= ooee
IIE eo aS wo an Cone dosgande css escounwn

from exhausted chips, table of analyses of. ..............26 ec wen

Tent Pipe $a Ot MOI VEOR Of. 2 - .. Soc caps oe ce ccee sancon :

whole canes, table of analyses of ...... ...... .. 2202 ceccnscccce

single and double polarizations of .... ... 22. ..2222 0-22 cece oe ce weee

Molasses, analyses of, sent by W. J. Thompson .........---.. 222-22. -20- ce neee

effect of treatment of, with superphosphate of lime and alumina....

NCR ON Bene SR Gans ww obi s Gs sect nosac cacaen ce ccotsyecus

from first sugars, table of analyses of.........-..-..--....-0- :

Seman, paolo ae BNL YOR OF 2. oc. Sin Co cadeccnnnctene cnas

ETON SORE GE oe icine dwicnw'napuow'cncune cares cads penn uewe

ET 5 ee a ee F

single and double polarizations of ............. Shah mas dsSe aang aceite

RI Ort, DUGLVMOS. BY 5665 oo. noc con cannes went snewce ncevecace aa
N. ug oo) 8.

, : JO go
New Jersey Agricultural Station, analytical a“"[oq rss S984) neriments at -.e.
i



Oak Hill, experiments made at, in 1857 .... 3 ea
Oak Hill Refining Company, report of nthe cnnane
4

Polarization, comparison of direct and indirect...... ~ 22.2.2 cece ce eeee coon
R.

Rio Grande, N. J., work at . 200 220 coe 2-2. coccceccces i sade hapa tulociee saints
S.

GREG, C11CCb Of TOMOVE)-OL «2.6 ccce coc. os oe ne cees cesccs ceces sieve wueen .

removal of, experiments by Dr. Collier in)... 2... 2200 ween eee cecnce

Sirups at Magnolia, table of analyses of..........- 9 amonse oq on evacecasseusuce

single and double polarization of........- © wav eeson ccvces senses cesuces .

BMDIOS Of ANALYSES OF.
Sorghum, abstract of experiments with, at Fort Scott, Kans.................-

as @ sugar-producing plant, data relating t0O...... ...20+ .---0 ween ee

analyses of, by Henry Erni .... 2... .ceccs cocces coccce cecccs vecccce °

at Pradon, Miss .. ceeds ceccuc cace secs coccce scccces cece

cane, discussion of cross-breeding Of 2.4, ...000 --00 eee ee ee eee eeees ts

GHGS GOtSTIOFAGION OF 65 Wee we cecccce cs wove cccussceue

the variation of, by Hippolyte Leplay.......-......

yield per ton of..... © oes cons cccces cone cecces secees cocces secs

experiments in the culture of, at Algiers ........---- Ee

with, at Modena, Italy ... 2.6 seceee ceccee cocccccccccses

grown at Hutchinson, Kans., analyses Of ...- ...-00 .--e0e eeee cee wees

juice, comparison of the composition of, at Rio Grande and Fort

Scott im 1687 ...... .....0 eee © eecede tccwee coweee sevece cenese cos “

juices manufactured into sugar, means of analyses Of .....--+-++-+-

Mean analyses Of . ... cccccecccccee cece cccces ce ccees secccee .

nitrogenous bodies in ...... obese nce Sdbces aeeces nb6cus Cees ece

total solids | a sa a neal es ial aan ales

*



Page.
13
35
43, 44
26
29
30
10

Qo

50
51
56
36
14
16
37
27
51
77



112
112
110
15
110
77
79

127
107
107

23

‘
»

















Sorghum on Department grounds, analyses of ...--. ane 22s haan — seeeee sa
ripe, sucrose found by Hippolyte Leplay in -..-.....-.-. ee ee cece e
saccharatum, variations of the contents of sucrose in ...... steeeeee

suitable for sugar making, necessity of field experiments in ........
sugar, discussion of the data on the practical manufacture of ......

experiments in the manufacture of, by Dr. C. A. Goessmann..—
Joseph §. Lovering a=

first attempt to make, at Crystal Lake...........- ipa ae
made in this country, by Dr. Battey.-....--....---...--
trials in the manufacture of, without the Department-......
various factories for the manufacture of ........- arene 2
summary of average yields per acre Of ...-....---. +--+ ++----------
tonnage per acre, determined by the New Jersey Agricultural Station
Spencer, G. L., summary of data for four years at Magnolia, by.....------.-- Z
Steck, Mr. Paul, report of, on sugar making..---.----.----. +--+++-+2++- pene @s
Stewart, F. L., analyses by ...--- .----- -- 222s cee eee ce ene cee cee en ene one te
Sterling, Kans., analyses at ....----------.--- losece(s- Junk eeenee mites aiaeess
Stubbs, Professor, means of analyses by .--. .--.----++ -+--++----es rasan ben end
Suckers, effects of, on the composition of juice ...... --2- -222 ese e ee cee n ee eee ee
Ugarr, available, discussions of, by Dr. Col]’ier....-...--=-+ +-22- o teem fs teeeee
and glucose, Champaigu Manufactvriag Company, reports DYa sien seecs
Corn StalK. owe nc ecne coes secese oop epies Ones eee o seces scids gence .
experiments in the practical manufacture of, by Dr. Collier ......-...-—
experimental manufacture of + = +++ = een e ween eee eee eee ee : %. at
Sugars, first, and seeoyiversity, expeririZations Of ...-..-----++---- e ceceeeecce :
tebisofiatta, j- . _..dus.dpswaeiees. pane eaee Saldebe spank
raw, table of analyse. 1id'v Nesipus a iam’ oo ee aananaaee scecanestpee
recrystallized at Rio Grande... 02.2.2 20 sn cans cnepeecacs wethndt dey Wbierd ois y.
table of analysda. of... £.2::. , a.
Swenson, Magnus, report of three experiments by ........--+.-0- o hens «Jaen peas 3
analyses by ...... sneqe ea <- oe chee nesses penne aes
=
Thoms, Mr., communication to National Academy by ..... «oa ns canes oie ata a
Total solids, by spindle, comparison of, with the results obtained direct by esti- ae
mation. - 2... pac cct vc con snp sss aan ne << «Rha eee .
estimation of, by hydrometers and by actual weight ............ 4
are!) ee
Weber and Scovell, analyses. by. 2. c.~.wusc cue vase mevehoes tauueses anew aaneen ee 74

experiments by, to determine effect of removal of seed-

heads of -sorghudt.,. ...ncuse sen vee vnuewe cnc paqovess- sane
practical experiments in the manufacture of sugar by.....
yield per acre reported by..... ees o ccccncee salves sepmet 2am
Wisconsin, experiments at the agricultural station in .. 2... 220. .eecee cece eees 91
Work.at Rio Grande, N. J. 2.0. ccccennccnnsccece S iude}comebna scccseeGee cee §=6=ROT SS
Work on sorghum not done by the Department of Agriculture .....2.-.2.---. 72. " es
% ti
Yaryan quadruple effect, analysis of sirup from ...20.--22 cece cece seen veee cece”
study of inVersion IN 2... sccecve cone cece ccccccsccess ;
Yields of sorghum per acre, summary of various .....-...--- oo spmojec'schmene cae anna
per ton, theoretical, at Rio Grande, N, Dave. .- 00s eeesiecniop eee al 7
* ,
“i Re





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