Citation
The sunflower plant : its cultivation, composition and uses

Material Information

Title:
The sunflower plant : its cultivation, composition and uses
Series Title:
U.S. Dept. of agriculture. Division of chemistry. Bulletin
Creator:
Wiley, Harvey Washington, 1844-1930
Place of Publication:
Washington, D.C.
Publisher:
U.S. G.P.O.
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
31 p. : incl. illus., tables. front. ; 23 cm.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Sunflowers ( lcsh )
Genre:
federal government publication ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )

Notes

Statement of Responsibility:
By Harvey W. Wiley ...

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
This item is a work of the U.S. federal government and not subject to copyright pursuant to 17 U.S.C. §105.
Resource Identifier:
029684690 ( ALEPH )
28814478 ( OCLC )
agr09001094 ( LCCN )
Classification:
S584 .A3 no.60 ( lcc )

Downloads

This item has the following downloads:


Full Text



or
Be",

DRPARTMENt OF AGRIC iT ne BEL OTE

DIVISION, OF “CHEMISTRY, a | s

’ . ; J

~



WASHINGTON:
AC | GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE.
Beene reno el Logg,







Bul. 60, Div. Cnemistry, U. S. Dept. Agriculture. PLATE I.









SUNFLOWER PLANT, 12 FEET 6 INCHES HIGH, GROWN IN WASHINGTON, D. C., IN 1897.



.
; , +
‘
*
F >
’ \
“ ~~
nm ‘
| ~~
rs
a
, 2
£
i
Fr ’
‘
»
‘
ie
‘
: { ‘ “ : oi
, gone .
> @ . } ty 5 \
: ,
Race \
i * = haa . : |
| o . *
Bema i, | | .
ae ° | ae
« .
oe : , ry, «
: ‘ om ‘ oe Ses
Paani i
: mt 7 ’
an
* mats 5 ee

=, ‘ Ns 7 \





BULLETIN No. 60.

US. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,
DIVISION OF CHEMISTRY.

mae PUNFLOWER PLANT:

ITS CULTIVATION, COMPOSITION, AND USES.

BY

HARVEY W. WILEY,

CHiIer OF THE DIVISION OF CHEMISTRY.



WASHINGTON:
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE.
1901,



Digitized by the Internet Archive
In 2013

http://archive.org/details/sunflowerp00wile



LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL.

U.S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,
Division OF CHEMISTRY.
Washington, D. C., November 12, 1900.
Sir: I transmit herewith, for your inspection and approval, the
manuscript of a bulletin relating to the cultivation and uses of the sun-
flower in the United States and other countries. JI recommend that it
be published as Bulletin No. 60 of the Division of Chemistry.
Respectfully,
Hn. W. Wmery,
Ch ref of the Division of Chemistry.
Hon. JAMES WiLson,
Secretary of Agriculture.









;
;
CONTENTS:
Page.
ee BO ie cao ie eis ocean neeecsese--=n5 7
ese ee oy ee ee ot ee ee ee Sn 8
OR ne Pe ee ----- 8
ES gE SES ee SS ee ee ee 9
eee ee 2 ee ee 10
I IE 10
ES ee ee 11
J EIS ae a 12
SS OF Ee 12
EE 13
I FP er li ae ewer ee eee ees nl eee 14
Investigations of sunflowers by State experiment stations. ...........2------- 17
Extracts from a New York report ---- - BS ee ee eee 17
ES OO SDIMNO SS io Ne ee sc wae ne ee eee oe Is
Results of work with sunflowers in Vermont ..........-.-.------------- 21
Reports of work done on the Experimental Farms of Canada .-.-.-...-------- 22
IEE oS cs See swe ce - 2 ee 22
Ng cs ts oe -------- ee 23
ION eS ae oe Soe e bes ee am 24
Experiments conducted by the Division of Chemistry. ..........-..-.----.--- 25
IRE T: SRN So. oe ous ce ios ew oe esas. 28 25
Composition and character of seeds and other parts of the plant.....-.--- 26
rr mme MORMOWOr PIMNG 05-2 2.06. oe 8 one cee semen enesee--n 27
Commercial manufacture of sunflower oil in the United States .............-- 28
I 6 Ge SS can eo uedicp ce cuecech 2 Poste dares eae wet Oe wea ck 30
5
/



ILLUSTRATIONS.

PLATE.
Puate I. Sunflower plant grown in Washington, D.C.,in 1897.....-.. Frontispiece
FIGURES,

Ficure 1. Akenes (seeds) of sunflower, showing variations in size and form:
a, b,c, d, from cultivated plants; e, from wild plants; /, transverse

section . 2 oo. ccc cee bc cewc smc ew «c= = 5 sum
2. Machine for separating seeds from heads ...............--.-.--.- 13

6



THE SUNFLOWER PLANT: ITS CULTIVATION,
COMPOSITION, AND USES.

INTRODUCTION.

The introduction and successful establishment of new agricultural
industries can not fail to be of benefit to the general agricultural inter-
ests of the country, which as a rule are the more prosperous as they
are more diversified. Numerous inquiries have been addressed to the
Department of Agriculture in the last two years in regard to the growth
of sunflowers for economical purposes and the manufacture of oil from
their seed, indicating a large and growing popular interest in the sub-
ject. It has been found impossible to give the desired information to
correspondents in an epistolary form. For the purpose of giving to
those interested in the matter all the information available some investi-
gations have been made in the composition of the sunflower, the methods
of culture, and the manufacture of oil from the seed. The results of
these investigations are contained in the present bulletin.

By the courtesy of the Statistician, a circular was sent to the cor-
respondents of the Department for the purpose of ascertaining the
acreage cultivated in sunflowers, and the disposition made of the crop.
Many replies have been received in response to this circular, which
have enabled us to definitely point out those areas in the United States
in which the sunflower is now cultivated as an agricultural crop, and
also to give some valuable data in regard to the methods of cultivation
and harvesting employed. The answers to these circulars, however,
failed to give any definite information in regard to the extraction of
oil from the seeds of the sunflower for commercial purposes. It is
not believed that any oil factory devoted exclusively to the manufacture
of oil from sunflower seeds is in operation in this country. As will
appear from a discussion of the data which have been collected, it is
evident that the product of sunflowers at the present time, so far as
seeds are concerned, is devoted chiefly to the feeding of birds and
poultry, and in some instances to medicinal purposes for cattle and
horses,

~]



8

BOTANY OF THE SUNFLOWER.’
ORIGIN AND EARLY HISTORY.

The wild sunflower, //elianthus annuus, from which the cultivated
variety has been developed, is native in the Great Plains region from
Nebraska to northern Mexico. It was first cultivated in Europe in
the gardens at Madrid, about the middle of the sixteenth century.
This was soon after the Spanish expeditions to Peru and to Santa Fe,
N. Mex. Allof the earlier botanists and many writers of the present
day credit its origin to Peru, but this is probably an error, as there is
no evidence that the sunflower was cultivated by the natives in Peru,
and it is not recorded as indigenous anywhere south of the northern
part of Mexico. >

One of the earliest records of the plant is that of De Lobel,’ a Flem-
ish botanist, who gives a good illustration and description of a sunflower
with stout, erect stem, big leaves, and large, nodding head, like our
present garden variety, and calls it ** Solis flos Peruvianus” (Peruvian
suntlower).

The works of several European botanists printed during the last
quarter of the sixteenth century contain illustrations and descriptions
of the sunflower. Most of them follow Dodoens in calling it Chrysan-
themum peruvianum, and some of them refer especially to plants grow-
ing in the royal gardens at Madrid.

Descriptions and illustrations of four varieties given by Gerarde in
1597 indicate that the sunflower was well developed in Europe at
that time. The following statement which he makes in regard to its
origin and growth agrees well with the records of other writers of that
time :

These plants do growe of themselves without setting or sowing in Peru, and in
divers other provinces in America. There hath beene seene in Spain and other hot
regions a plant sowen and nourished up from the seede to attain to the height of 24
foote in one yeere.°

A case is cited by Caspar Bauhin‘ in 1671 in which 2,362 seeds from
one head were counted. |

The sunflower introduced into Europe was undoubtedly derived from
plants cultivated and developed by the American Indians. When
Champlain explored the region in the vicinity of Georgean Bay in
1615 he found the Indians there cultivating a *‘ herbe des soleil” from
the seeds of which they obtained oil used on their hair. Sunflower
seeds were also used for food by the Indians in early times, as they are

''The Division of Chemistry is indebted to Mr. L. H. Dewey of the Division of
Botany for the botanical description which is made a part of this bulletin.

* Matthiae de Lobel. Stirp. Hist., 322 (1576).

*’ Gerarde, Herbal, 612-614 (1597).

* Caspar Bauhin, Theatri Botanici, Nd. I, 277 (1671).



9

by many tribes at present. Dr. Asa Gray, who carefully studied the
history of the sunflower, makes the following statement :

Judging from the breadth of the flower heads soon after its introduction into Eu-
rope, it must in aboriginal hands have assumed much of the abnormal development

which distinguishes the cultivated sunflower from its wild original of the Western
plains."

DEVELOPMENT OF VARIETIES.

In western Europe and America, where the sunflower has been
grown chiefly for ornamental purposes or occasionally for poultry
food, there has been apparently little improvement or development in
large varieties during the three and a half centuries of cultivation.
Seeds 6 to 10 mm. in length, as large as those a ordinary varieties at
the present time, were figured by Camerarius? in 1586. More varie-
ties are grown purely for ornamental purposes than for the produc-
tion of seeds, but several of the ornamental sunflowers are derived
from other species.

In Russia, where the numerous religious fasts restricting the use of
meat lead to a large consumption of vegetable oils and oily foods, the
sunflower seed has become almost a staple
article of diet. It is eaten raw or roasted as
peanuts are in America, but much more ex-
tensively. Between 1830 and 1840 sunflower
oil began to be manufactured on a commer-
cial scale in the southern provinces of Rus- Fie.1. Akenes (seeds) of sun-
sia, and since that time a series of important ‘ie erepagei eee
industries based on the production of oil and _ vated plants; ¢, from wild plant;
oil cake has been developed there. This has / ‘*™*ve™se section.
led to the development of more prolific seed-producing varieties.

There are three principal varieties now cultivated in Russia—one
with large white seeds, which are said to yield the largest amount of
oil; one with smaller black seeds, which are sweeter and regarded as
best for eating; and an intermediate form with striped seeds, used both
for eating and for the production of oil. There are numerous inter-
grading forms, as may be found in most plants long in cultivation.

In the United States three principal varieties are grown for the pro-
duction of seeds. The common sunflower, with no distinguishing
varietal name, has been long cultivated here and is now found in gar-
dens in all parts of the country. Its nodding heads are 8 to 16 inches
in diameter, producing chiefly gray-brownish or striped seeds. The
mammoth Russian is a recently introduced variety, with heads 15 to 20
inches in diameter, producing seeds about one-half inch long, with
black or brownish stripes or sometimes all white (fig. 1, a, 4). The





' Asa Gray, with J. Hammond Trumbuli, Review of De Candolle’s Origin of Cul-
tivated Plants. Am. Journ. Sci. and Arts, 3 ser., 25-245 (1883).
*Camerarius, Epitome Plantis Utilissima, 503 (1586).



10

black giant, another variety, has heads 16 to 22 inches in diameter,
with rather thick black seeds about three-eighths inch long (fig. 1, ¢).

BOTANICAL DESCRIPTION.

All of the annual varieties with large heads, cultivated for the pro-
duction of seeds, are referred to one species, Helianthus annwus, which
is characterized as follows: Annual, with rather stout, erect, herba-
ceous stem, Ll to 3 inches in diameter and 5 to 20 feet in height, rough-
hairy or hispid, often purple-mottled, usually without branches except
near the top, but occasionally branching freely throughout; leaves
alternate except near the base of the stem, with rather stout petioles
2 to 10 inches long, and three-ribbed, heart-shaped blades 4 to 10 inches
long, and about two-thirds as wide, rough on both surfaces, coarsely
and irregularly toothed on the margins, pointed at the apex, and
somewhat decurrent on the petiole; heads one to six or more in the
smaller-flowered, branching forms, terminating the main stem and
branches, + to 20 inches in diameter, with 40 to 80 yellow rays and
brown or nearly black disk; chaff or scales among the disk flowers
three-toothed; scales of the involucre under and surrounding the
flower-head acuminate-pointed, more or less_ pubescent, and usually
ciliate.

The akenes (fig. 1), commonly called **seeds,” are variable in size
and coloring. They are obovate oblong, somewhat flattened, and more
or less diamond-shaped in transverse section.

The sunflower stem has rather strong bast fibers, as have nearly all
tall, slender herbaceous stalks, and the plant has often been suggested
as a source of fiber supply. The fiber is too weak and brittle, how-
ever, to be of value for cordage or textile purposes. Paper has been
made from the stalks, but in the treeless regions, where it is most
abundantly grown, the highest value is doubtless obtained in its use
for fuel.

USES OF THE SUNFLOWER.

The sunflower has long been grown in this country for ornamental
purposes. The beautiful yellow flowers, with dark centers, are par-
ticularly attractive in yards and gardens. In some of the Central States
the sunflower, in a much smaller form than the cultivated plant, grows
wild. In Kansas the borders of the wagon roads and railroads are fre-
quently lined for miles with these flowers, which, in August and Sep-
tember, when in full bloom, form a very marked feature of the prairie
landscape. The vsthetic influence of the sunflower has long been ree-
ognized in this country, but it is only of late years that we have real-
ized that it has an economic importance which promises to be a source
of wealth in the future. We have only just begun to learn from the
experience of China and Russia the economic value of the plant itself.







11

‘The general interest in this subject, as has already been intimated, has
- been evidenced by the hundreds of letters which have been received in
the last few years from all parts of the country, making inquiries in
regard to the possibility of the economic uses of the plant. The part
of the sunflower plant which has the chief value is the seed. The oil ex-
pressed from the seed is highly prized as an edible oil, and one which,
more nearly than any other known vegetable oil, has the general pro-
perties of the oil of the olive. The oil cake left after the extraction of
the oil by pressure is extremely rich in nitrogenous matter, and has a
food yalue equal to the cake resulting from the expression of maize oil
or linseed oil. In addition to this, it has the advantage of being more
palatable, and therefore will be eaten with more avidity than the other
oil cakes just mentioned. In some sources of information it is stated
that the leaves of the sunflower have been used as a substitute for to-
bacco, but it is not probable that the adulteration of tobacco with sun-
flower leaves has ever been practiced to any extent in this country. The
branches and stalk of the sunflower, when reduced to a sufficient state
of fineness, possess nutritive properties of a high order, and furnish
food suitable to the nourishment of many domesticated animals, such
as horses, cattle, and sheep. The food values of the different parts of
the stalk will be fully illustrated in the analyses given farther on in
this bulletin (pp. 18-22, and 27.) Perhaps the most valuable of the
products of the sunflower of a manufactured character is the oil,
which, by reason of its palatability and sweetness, is well suited for
table uses, and for this purpose can replace olive oil with better suc-
cess than any other known substitute.

MEDICINAL USES.

It is undoubtedly true that the sunflower seed is a valuable food
when mixed in proper proportions with other food products. It
improves the digestion of the animal, and therefore is beneficial to its
health. In fact the seeds are used to a large extent by horsemen and
cattlemen for the purpose of keeping animals in excellent physical
condition. The supposed efficacy of sunflower seeds for the cure of
certain specific diseases (as rheumatism, for instance) is probably
largely mythical.

There is a very prevalent notion that the growth of large quantities
of sunflowers in malarial regions prevents the development of diseases
of malarial origin.

Numerous inquiries in regard to the efficacy of the sunflower as
a preventive of malaria have been received at the Department of
Agriculture within the past few years. Inasmuch as the sunflower is
a vigorous grower, absorbing large quantities of moisture, and con-
suming, under proper conditions of nitrification and oxidation, large
quantities of organic matter, it is possible that the growth of it over



12

extensive areas may tend to correct some of the conditions in the
environment which are supposed to be favorable to the development
of malarial germs. That the plant itself, however, has any specific
influence upon malarial diseases is undoubtedly an illusion.

SOIL AND CULTIVATION.

By study of the reports which have been received from numerous
correspondents of the Divisions of Statistics and Chemistry in different
parts of the United States, it is found that sunflowers grow best, for |
commercial purposes, in Kansas, Missouri, and the Ohio Valley. Many
other parts of the country, however, are found peculiarly suitable to
the growth of this plant. As a rule the soils which are best suited for
the growth of indian corn produce the best crops of sunflowers. If the
soil is not naturally fertile, liberal fertilization must be practiced in
order to secure large crops. ‘The character of the fertilization depends
upon the nature of the soil and the deficiencies of plant foods therein.
The kind of fertilization necessary to produce a good crop of maize
will be found suitable to the sunflower. The soil should be prepared
by careful plowing, and the surface of the plowed soil should be reduced
to good tilth by the use of the harrow. Sunflowers are best planted
by a drill in rows from 3 to 34 feet apart. In order to secure a good
stand the seeds may be placed by the drill 2 or 3 inches apart; but
should they all grow, at least half of them should be cut out when the
plants are thinned. The seeds should be planted deep enough to secure
abundant moisture to germinate them; from 2 to 3 inches in depth,
where the soil is not too heavy, will be found the best. With heavy,
stiff soils, which are likely to become very hard on the surface after
heavy rains, it is better not to plant the seeds so deep. The seeds
should be planted as early as possible in the spring, as they endure very
well a slight degree of cold. After the plants are well formed they
should be thinned so as to stand at a distance of from 12 to 18 inches
in the row. The cultivation should be of the ordinary kind, mostly
superficial, and sufficient to prevent the weeds from growing and pre-
serve the moisture during periods of drought. Where the production
of seed is sought the best results are secured by limiting the number
of seed heads on each plant to a very few. The superfluous heads
when formed should be removed. No special directions need be given
for the cultivation, since it is so much like that of maize as to be
practically the same.

HARVESTING SUNFLOWER SEED,

The heads should be harvested before the seeds are quite ripe to
avoid shattering and loss. After drying the seeds can be thrashed
out and stored in bags in the usual way. The seeds may be beaten
out with a flail, but where large quantities are grown this is a tedious





13

process. It is evident that 1f the sunflower be grown in this country
over large areas for commercial purposes, special thrashing machines
will be devised for the separation of the seed. Where, however, only
a few bushels are grown, even if they are for sale, the farmer may
employ some simple apparatus better than the flail for separating the
seed. Such a simple apparatus is described by Mr. Ormsbee in the
American Agriculturist of September 26, 1896. This machine (fig. 2)
consists of a wooden disk mounted in a frame precisely like that for
holding a grindstone and with a similar turning movement. In order
to run easily it should be so constructed that the axle will roll on fric-
tion wheels. The wooden disk or wheel should be 2 inches thick and
about 3 feet in diameter. This disk is prepared for its work of detach-
ing the seed by driving nails through it near the periphery parallel
to the axis and allowing them to project about half an inch on each
side. The width of the band of nails should be about 6 inches, and
the nails should be thick enough so that
the finger can not be inserted between
them. The ends of the nails should all
project the same distance. The peri-
meter of the wheel should be secured
by a heavy tire of iron, in order to hold
it in shape and prevent it from warp-
ing. This heavy iron tire also acts asa



4 oe eae a a cali Li ze 1 ES
of motion. e wheel is kept in moti js
best ey “i Oo i TE \s
by working the treadle. It should re- — Ta
volve toward the operator. When the peer

wheel is in full motion a sunflower head Fie. 2.—Machine for separating seeds
is held in each hand and pushed for an" "°*"*
instant against the protruding nails on either side. In a very short
period of time all the seeds will be detached. A man who has practiced
a little with this machine is easily able to shell 12 to 15 bushels of sun-
flower seed in an hour. It is evident that instead of having a disk as
indicated by the above figure, an equally effective machine would be
secured by having the thrashing apparatus in the form of a cylinder,
very much like that employed in thrashing wheat or oats, except that
the spikes of the roughened surface should be very much more numer-
ous. Such a machine works more rapidly than the simple disk, but
requires more power, and can hardly be driven by hand or foot power.
The seeds after separation should not at first be placed in large gran-
aries, but in barrels or small bins, to avoid any danger of heating by
fermentation.

THE SUNFLOWER IN RUSSIA.

The sunflower has assumed an economic importance in Russia
greater than in any other country. In fact, the variety of sunflower



14

which is most cultivated in this country at the present day for orna-
ment and for production of seeds is known as ** Russian.” The sun-
flower finds various uses in Russia. The larger and finer sunflower
seeds are highly relished as a delicacy by the Russians, even of the
upper classes, and great quantities of them are eaten raw. In palata-
bility and wholesomeness they are quite equal or superior to the nuts
of common consumption. The poorer and less perfect seeds furnish
an oil which is somewhat turbid and bitter and is of second quality,
while the better and more mature seeds provide the edible oil so
extensively used in Russia in replacement of all the vegetable oils
formerly used in that country. The stalks, straw, and chaff of the
sunflower are highly prized for fuel, furnishing in some localities of
the Empire almost all the fuel employed.

‘The extent and importance of the sunflower industry in Russia was
fully set forth in the report of Consul-General Crawford, of St.
Petersburg, a few years ago.’ This report gives the number of acres
under cultivation in the different governments of Russia, the character
of the soil and of the fertilizers used, and the methods of sowing and
cultivating. The report also calls attention to the chemical composi-
tion of the plant and the lime, potassium, and phosphoric acid which
it takes from the soil. The method of harvesting and thrashing the
seed is also fully described, and attention is called to the use of the
cakes, after the expression of the oil, as cattle food. It is stated that
the oil produced from the seed is largely consumed in Russia, only a
small quantity being exported. The largest amount exported in any
one year was 1,490,000 pounds, worth $170,900.

The publication of this report in 1892 served to call the attention of
the people of the United States to this valuable plant and also to
encourage the cultivation of it ona much larger scale than had ever
before been attempted in this country.

EXTRACTS FROM CORRESPONDENCE.

Sulzer Brothers. of Madison. Ind.. dealers in sunflower seeds, in
answer to an inquiry, wrote the following letter, dated September
3, 1895:

We are in receipt of your favor of August 26, and would have answered immedi-
ately, but have been awaiting the arrival of the first consignment of our new crop of
sunflower seed. The same arrived to-day, and we send 1 pound each of the Striped
Russian and the ordinary black. The Russian seed is what is wanted at present,
having taken the place of the old-style black. Now, I have read several accounts of
sunflower culture in Russia, and I think also in Italy, but am not certain as to the
latter country. As to America, I can not find where the oil is being expressed or
used. All the use that I can find for the seed is for feeding birds. If there is a mill
in the United States that presses sunflower seed I am not aware of it. Last season
we handled about 100 tons, and expect to double the quantity this season. It does

‘See Consular Report, February, 1892, No. 137, pp. 233 to 246, inclusive.





15

seem that it is impossible for birds to consume the immense quantity raised. It
may be used to adulterate some valuable oil. If such be the case, it is kept very
secret. Youcan nodoubt get some valuable information from our minister to Russia.
Any information you may secure on this subject, we would be pleased to have you
share with us.

Morris Brothers, of Madison, Ind., in response to inquiries sent from
this office, write, under date of September 1, 1895, as follows:

In regard to sunflowers and their cultivation, I will say that in the spring, as soon
as the frost is out of the ground, I cover the soil with a heavy coat of stable manure,
) plow from 7 to 8 inches deep, then roll with a heavy iron roller to pack the ground
as much as possible. I then leave it until time to plant corn, which is from April 20
to May 10. I then use a rolling cutter disk harrow, followed with a smoothing
harrow and a roller to thoroughly pulverize the soil. The ground is marked off in
rows 3 feet 9 inches apart, and the seeds planted with a corn drill, with a special

plate made for the purpose. When the plants are from 5 to 8 inches high, thinning

commences, leaving the stalks 18 inches apart in the row. The crop is then ready

for the hoe. After the hoeing it is plowed with a two-horse corn cultivator,

having 3 or 5 inch shovels. The cultivation is much the same as for corn. When

the stalk is in bloom I go through the field and pull off the excess of blooms, leaving
only from three to four flowers on the stalk. This constitutes the principal extra
expense of cultivating the crop. In regard to gathering the crop, I go through the
field and gather the ripe heads, take them to the barn, and remove the seeds with a
roller similar to that which is used to clean the seed from broom corn. The seed
and chaff are allowed to dry thoroughly, after which they are put through a fanning
mill. The seed must not be stored in large quantity ina bin, as it soon becomes
musty. When stored it should be turned over twice a week, much the same as
wheat. The average yield of the crop in this vicinity is from 800 to 1,000 pounds
per acre.



In southern Indiana, near Madison, Jefferson County, sunflowers
have been grown over considerable areas. One of the most promi-
nent growers, W. 8. Dean, in a letter to the American Agriculturist
of May 2, 1896, says:

Early in the spring of 1894 I planted, on an old tobacco field in the Ohio River
bottom, an acre of Russian sunflowers. They were planted with a corn drill, in rows
34 feet apart, and were afterward thinned to 16 inches apart in the row. The plants
were given the same cultivation as corn. The season was favorable, and I harvested
2,250 pounds of clean seed, or a trifle over 80 bushels, for which I received $2.75 per
hundredweight, a total of $61.87 from 1 acre. During 1895 I planted several acres,
but on account of the repeated ravages of cutworms the stand was very poor. Only
2 acres were harvested, and 2,500 pounds secured from the 2 acres. As the price
had declined to $1 per hundredweight, I sold none, but determined to feed them
instead. At the time I was feeding beef for my own use. To the other foods I
added Russian sunflower seed, and killed a very fat beef of most excellent quality.
I am now feeding the sunflower seed in connection with corn and oats, all ground
together, to my ewes and lambs, and also have a separate department in my sheep
shed, in which I keep a supply of the ground mixture, to which the lambs have free
access. It is interesting to note how soon they learn to eat this feed and how rapidly
they grow, all becoming fat and plump. I pour boiling water over the mixture and
feed it to my hens every morning, getting an abundance of eggs in return. Some of
my neighbors are feeding the seed to horses, hogs, and other stock, and report good
results. The feeding should be done with care, and as the grain is very rich it should





16

be combined with other feeds. By referring to the Agricultural Department bulletin
we find that corn has an average value of 10.3 per cent protein, 5 per cent of fat;
wheat has 11.8 per cent protein, 2.1 per cent fat; whole sunflowers 16.2 protein and
21.2 per cent fat. Taking into account the area in which sunflowers may be grown,
the yield per acre, the ease of cultivation, the value compared with other grains,
their palatability, and the results in feeding so far as they have been tried, I can not
see why they may not be grown with profit for feed, and thus help the farmer out
of his present difficulties.

Mr. James D. Clemmons, of Elwood, Ind., who owns a farm on the
Ohio River, in Jefferson County, Ind., has grown large quantities of
sunflowers. He says:

For the past five years I have raised from 5 to 8 acres of sunflowers annually.

Soil of medium fertility seems better adapted to the growth of sunflowers, although
they do well in both thin clay and rich bottom land. The seed must be planted very
early. I plant in March in the river bottom and often have plants several inches
high by corn-planting time. It is important that the plants should get large enough
to shade the ground before the hot weather comes on. After they have attained this
degree of growth no cultivation is necessary, as no grass or weeds can grow after the
ground is well shaded. Plant the same as corn, using planter or corn drill, and if the
plants are too thick they can be thinned, but will to some extent thin themselves.
The cultivation is the same as that given to corn. Harvest about the 10th to 20th of
September. Go through the field in a wagon, as in harvesting corn, and gather all
the ripe flowers. In about a week this operation should be repeated and later a third
gathering must be made, cleaning up the field. The growing of sunflowers crowds
out the weeds and the ground is left perfectly clean after the harvest of the crop.

The thrashing is done by hand. I use a short, heavy stick for the purpose. Two
or three blows will remove all the seeds. The flowers must be thrashed the same
day as gathered, for if they are left in a pile or in the wagon bed they will heat.
When thrashed the seed is shipped in sacks as soon-as possible. From 600 to 800
pounds are produced to the acre.

When I began raising sunflowers five years ago the price of seed was 3 cents a
pound, but now that more farmers are growing them the price has decreased and
this year the seed is selling for 2 cents a pound.

Sunflowers are a good fertilizer. When they are planted on thin land the following
crops are much larger than they were before the flowers were raised. I think the
principal use of the seed now is for condition powders for cattle and horses. The oil
is also expressed and makes an excellent soap, I am informed.

This statement respecting the fertilizing value of the sunflower plant
is probably due to a misinterpretation of the meaning of the increased
crops. It is not probable that the growth of the sunflower increases
fertility.

Mr. H. H. Marsh, of Monte Vista, Colo., makes the following
statement in regard to the growth of the sunflower in that State:

Sunflowers grow extremely well here, but there are not enough raised upon which
a reliable report could be based. I believe I could get a crop of 100 bushels per
acre.

Mr. A. M. Stratton, of Mount Vernon, IIl., gives the following
information:

In reply to yours of October 17, I would say in regard to planting and cultivating
sunflowers, and harvesting the seed, that they are planted and cultivated the same





en Seer |

—
-_

OQ ee

Â¥

Le et

a7

as corn, and gathered, the’ heads being cut off, just as ears of corn are plucked from the
stalks. The seed is thrashed out by several devices. One is by holding the sunflower
head in the hand and scratching out the seed with a good currycomb; another is by
beating it out with a stick. Where large crops are grown, a special machine, similar
to that employed for thrashing broom corn, is used for removing the seed, which is
then run through afan mill to remove the chaff and dirt. Sunflowers are considered
a profitable crop among many of our farmers.

The uses to which the seed is put are chicken feed and prepared stock food. Also,
I understand, a certain kind of oil is made from the seed. The yield of seed is from
1,000 to 1,500 pounds per acre. The average price, one year with another, is about
2 cents per pound.

Mr. J. H. Marion, of St. Louis, Mo., under date of October 14,
1899, says: 7

It may possibly interest you to know that the growth of sunflower seed in Jeffer-
son County, Ill., has been quite extensive the past summer. The industry has been
promoted by a gentleman named A. M. Stratton, of Mount Vernon, Ill. Mr. Strat-
ton furnished the seed to farmers, provided they would give him an option on the
crop. About 100,000 pounds of seed have been produced under this plan. What
disposition was made of it I have been totally unable to ascertain further than that
it was shipped to New York. A farmer named Bennett, near Mount Vernon, sold
Stratton 11,000 pounds of seed, grown from ten acres, for $156, a little more than $15
per acre.

INVESTIGATIONS OF SUNFLOWERS BY STATE EXPERIMENT STATIONS.

The sunflower has not occupied a great deal of attention in the agri-
cultural experimental work at the stations in the United States,
although a few isolated investigations have been made. Some work
was done at the New York Agricultural Experiment Station in 1883,
and the subject is discussed in the second annual.report for that year,
page 154. The objection which is urged in this report to the growth
of the crop in New York State, based upon the fact that it matures late
in the season, would not, of course, be tenable in more southern local-
ities. The New York report referred to is as follows:

EXTRACTS FROM A NEW YORK REPORT.

From a late article in the Drug Reporter we obtain some statistics relating to the
growing of the sunflower as a crop. In Italy its cultivation is confined tothe neigh-
borhood of Piove and Conegliano, in Venetia. In Russia the plant is most exten-
sively grown in Kielce and Podolia, and the district of Birutch in Voronej. The
production of seed is now estimated at 228,000,000 pounds from an area of 216,000
acres, or about 1,325 pounds to the acre. In Tartary and China it is cultivated in
immense quantities, but no actual statistics are available. In Mysore, India, 1 acre
of land gives 1,288 pounds of seed, which yields 45 gallons of oil, which is there com-
pared to peanut oil and applied to the same use. The Russian seed is expressed on
the spot, and the oil is largely employed for adulterating olive oil. The purified oil
is considered equal to olive and almond oil for table use.

The chief industrial uses of the oil are woolen dressing, lighting, and candle and
soap making. For the last-mentioned purpose it is superior to most oils. It is pale
yellow in color, thicker than hemp-seed oil, and dries slowly.

11715—No.





18

Experimental culture in France gave areturn of 1,778 pounds of seed, yielding 15
percent of oi] and 80 percent of cake from an acre; but the product varies consider-
ably according to soil, climate, and cultivation, and the average may be reundly
stated at 50 bushels of seed from an acre, and 1 gallon of oil from 1 bushel of seed.
The percentage of oil to seed ranges from 16 to 28, and that of husk to kernel from
41 to 60.

In Russia the seed is drilled into lines 18 inches apart, and the plants are thinned
out to 30 inches apart in the rows, thus giving about 11,000 plants to an acre. The
quantity of seed required for an acre is 46 pounds.

The station crop of 1883 occupied a plat of one-twentieth of an acre, was planted
4 kernels in a hill, the hills being 42 by 44 inches apart, and was cultivated during
growth the same as corn. The soil received at the rate of 400 pounds of superphos-
phate to the acre. Planted May 18, vegetated May 31, harvested in September, and
the seed beaten out and measured and weighed October 25, the yield being 2} bush-
els, or 573 pounds; expressed in acre yield, 50 bushels, or 1,150 pounds, the seed thus
weighing 23 pounds per struck bushel.

From not having facilities at the station for expressing the oil we must be content
with the results of analysis. Dr. S. M. Babcock found the seed to contain 20.52 per
cent of the oil in the air-dry seed. One hundred seeds in air-dry condition weighed
187.7 grains, and contained 49.1 per cent of husk and 50.9 per cent of kernel. The
complete analysis is as below:

Composition of sunflower seed.

Loe
Constituents. —. | Air-dry. Dried.
|



} :
) Per cent. | Per cent.



Water o 5 255 cose csi OA cewsb cs fqn hae ene Seco ea ee Be aoe ee N2.68..1.% yo ee
AD ho, oda RRS ro oe keer Deere als ates ie ete te ea ae eee Tee 3. 00 3.43
Albuminoids (NX 6.25) 2.20.0. 62. cam oSscSs eee a pee i os ee 15. 88 18.19
Crndle TiDGi ic oo cao a oe Howe re coe awe ee ten eh oe aes ae ae he ore oS 29. 21 33.45
Nitrogen-free Cxtract ..2.252656 Fat (ether extract). 2.6 <2: en. concen bot Seb asap ae cs 6 pe oo eis ee 20. 52 23. 50

TOGBL do noo mesic ech ma Se en Se a wots tes ea nt ec 100. 00 100. 00

The sunflower crop, however, has difficulties in the way of curing. As the plant
ripens late in the season the heads must be placed under cover to prevent waste, and
they contain at this stage much water. Wedried our crop by spreading the heads
upon a floor without piling, and as soon as the seeds were sufficiently dry they were
shelled out. As this has been a very late season, it is possible that in a more favor-
able year the seeds might be shelled off at the time of harvest.

RESULTS OF EXPERIMENTS IN MAINE,

The report of the Maine Agricultura! Experiment Station for 1895
contains an article on sunflower heads and black-eye peas as silage
crops. The yield of the sunflower heads which were used in the experi-
ments was 12,720 pounds per acre in the fresh state, containing 2,040
pounds of water-free material. The composition of the sunflower
heads and the peas used in the experiments and the yield per acre of
nutrients per ton of 2,000 pounds are given in the following tables:



19

Composition of sunflower heads and peas.

FRESH PLANT.





Nitrogen-|
; =i Ether
Protein, Fiber. free ex- | extract.

_ Name of plant. Water. He
are OS: tract.
eer |

Per a Per cent. | Per cent. | Per cent. Per cent. | Per cent.





CE 1.16 2.18 | 4.21 5. 96 2.49
| 86.1 | 1:32 2.59 | 4.51 5. 29 .39
AIR-DRY.

| /
eee | 7.27 6.73 12. 63 24.4 34. 56 14. 41
re ee eer | 7.57 7.45 17.19 30.0 35.18 2.61



dD
.83

PMU PTONOROR | ox. = sane e no 2 ee tan e Sots 7.26 13. 62 26. 30 SieoT 1
OE ree i ae 8.06 | 18. 60 32.47 38. 04

nm ou

Yield per acre of nutrients compared with Maine field corn and red clover.

| Dry sub- Carbo-
Plant. | liga: Protein. hydrates.| Fat.

il TT — —



Pounds. | Pounds. Pounds. | Pounds.

eo ae 4, 224 385 3, 469 156
SS pe 3, 400 520 3, 150 133
CE ee. bocce dacceleee 2,040 278 1,296 | 317
ee ee ere eee eee 1,861 249 | 1,312 53

Nutrients per ton of 2,000 pounds water-free substance compared with other fodders.

. Imma-
Sun- |
= Red : Mature ture
N s. -eas, re 7 othy.\,; ‘
Nutrients Pea flower clover. rimothy flintcorn. Southern
heads. | corn

Pounds. | Pounds. | Pounds. | Pounds. | Pounds. | Pounds.

TRE et a Sen cere ccenvacs 372.0 | 272.4 | 306 160 184 166
SUEGIOG,......-..-.2--c0c00s--0000- 1,410.2 | 1,271.4 | 1,472 1, 670 1, 622 1, 668
IEEE Seed ocnn-anaacoseresaceccs ) 58.6 | 311.0 78 62 74 52











Re SS ke eat. Sele es 6 saa e | 1,838.8] 1,854.8 | 1, 856 | 1, 892 1, 880 1, 886
|

Commenting on the above data, Mr. J. M. Bartlett, the chemist of
the station, makes the following observations:

So far as is indicated by this experiment it would seem that sunflowers are not
nearly as profitable a crop to raise ascorn. With the same cultivation corn produces
a third more protein and more carbohydrate matter per acre. From this very limited

experience we are not favorably impressed with the sunflower as a profitable silage
crop. The peas are not considered, as a fair average crop was not secured.

In the report of the Maine station for 1896 a supplemental report
was made on sunflowers and English horse beans as silage crops. This
report was also made by Mr. J. M. Bartlett, and is as follows:

For three seasons sunflowers have been grown on a small scale for a silage crop.

In 1894 and 1895 very fair yields were secured, but the season of 1896 was very
favorable, and an exceedingly heavy crop was the result.



20

Horse beans have been grown for two seasons, but owing to late planting and
drought the crop of 1895 was not up to the average yield. In 1896 the seed was
planted early for this climate—May 18. The plants grew well, attaining a height of
3 to 4 feet, and contained many matured pods when harvested. A good yield was
secured, but it is possible that it could have been made somewhat larger, without
impairing the quality, by planting somewhat closer. The plants stood about 1 foot
apart in drills 33 feet apart.

Both crops were harvested September 8-10, run through the silage cutter and
mixed with corn in the silo, in the following proportions: One-fourth acre of sun-
flowers, one-half acre of horse beans, and one acre of corn. The whole plant of one-
half of the sunflowers was put in the silo mixed with corn and beans. Of the remain-
ing half the heads only were used.

Both mixtures were found to be well preserved when the silo was opened in Jan-
uary, and were greedily eaten by the cows. The stalks of the sunflowers were so
large and coarse that it seemed doubtful whether the cattle would eat them, but after
being ensiled the mixture was as well relished as the pure corn. The cost of grow-
ing these crops can be estimated to be about the same as that of corn. The land
should be put in about the same condition, and the labor of caring for them is not
materially different.

Yield per acre in pounds of sunflowers and horse beans.



Weightas | Weight of

Name of plant. harvested. | dry matter.













Pounds. Pounds.
Sunflower, heads. ...2s.cn ss ap ee Hee ba ho ewe pean wee eo Sere ee feel ate 27, 040 3, 767
Sunflower, whole plant , ..<. - <4 4-40.02 bac~cos ond ukes een dauniep as eee | 48, 800 7,219
English horse’ bean, whole plant-<2.- =<: =; ..<-.0sswace es .eebon ak 2a 20, 160 3,497

Se ees he
Chemical composition of the plants.
Fresh material as harv ested. Dry mato (water free).
: ! | oh Nitro- | | ! Nitro-|

Name of plant. | Pro-| Fi. | en- |Ether| | Pro- en- Ether

Water. Ash. tein.) ber y be ex- | Ash. tein Fiber. free | ex-

E ‘| ex- eae F ex- ‘tract.

tract. | | tract. |

| P.ct. | P.ct.| P.ct. | P.ct. | P.ct. | P. ct. oo | P.ct. | Pct. i P. ct. at. |. cet.
86.07 | 1.10 | 1.93 | 3.79 | 5.62 | 1.49} 7 9 | 18.87 | 27.20 | 40.33 | 10.70
5.21 | 1.92 | 1.70] 4 4 | 1.038 | 13.04 | 11.55 | 27.04 | 41.60) 6.78

)
2.65 2.09 | 3.88] 3.71 | 7.18) .49 | 12.07 | 22.34 | 21.41 | 41.35) 2.82







Sunflower, heads ........... |
|
|

—

’
).

~

=I

Horse bean, whole plant ...



|
|
|
Sunflower, whole plant.... ‘|
|



The very large yield of sunflowers (whole plant) per acre shown in the table above
would apparently secure for them a favorable position among coarse fodder plants
for silage material.

The yield of dry matter is slightly larger than has ever been obtained at the sta-
tion from corn, but notwithstanding that fact it can not be considered as desirable a
plant to raise for fodder where corn can be grown successfully. Its chemical compo-
sition is about the same as that of Southern corn grown in this climate; the exceed-
ingly coarse, rough stalks and leaves of the plant make it less palatable as a fodder
and, were it not ensiled, would be largely rejected by stock.

The chief value, therefore, of the experiment with this plant consists in showing
the utility of the silo in saving such materials and preventing waste. Sunflowers and
other coarse plants are often grown for seed or other purposes when only a small
portion of the plant is used. The coarse parts that were formerly thrown away can
be now utilized and made into palatable and nutritious food for stock by ensiling.





21

Horse beans are rich in protein and promise to rank well with plants of that class
as forage crops. They have the ability, like most legumes, to gather nitrogen from
the air, and consequently do not exhaust the soil of that element. At the present
time, however, when the price of nitrogenous feeds, like gluten meal and cotton-
seed meal, is so low, it is a question whether it is not more profitable for a farmer to
give his attention largely to growing corn for coarse fodders and to buy nitrogenous
feeds to balance up the ration.

RESULTS OF WORK WITH SUNFLOWERS IN VERMONT.

Sunflowers were grown at the Vermont Agricultural Experiment
Station in 1893. The number of pounds of green fodder harvested
per acre was 11,350, consisting of 8,612 pounds of water and 2,738
pounds of dry matter. The dry matter consisted of the following
substances in pounds:

RS ES ee ee 205
I fee on en sees eee eee e ee ee eee ceenene 485
SS a a fg I, a a 642
I Se eS a SO ee Sos el eee ye Shen 799
EE ISIE SS Se 607
. SE ne a 78
EE pe a 22
a aid a cia Ss os wow oe ww oe oe deen ene ee nneseenss 68

In connection with the analyses the following remark is made:

These plants were grown to furnish a portion of the fat for the Robertson mixture
ensilage. The heads only were used, and it will be seen that neariy a ton and a half
of dry matter and over 600 pounds of fat per acre were produced. The stalks, as
shown by the analysis, are too woody for use.

The composition of the Robertson mixture ensilage is given in the
eighth annual report of the Vermont Agricultural Experiment Station
for 1894, as indicated in the following table:

Average analyses of certain ensilage crops as harvested and as fed.
: ar ee aa / ~ : aie
| Original sub- Composition of dry matter.





stance.
Ensilage crops | | 2 J as “Nitro- | | |
, + ; | Dry | ornde | Câ„¢4)| Crude!) Fen: | Ether | Nitro-| P2os- Pot-
Water.) mat- ash | pro- | fiber free CX- | cen phoric ish
gars | SRS tein. | ry ex tract. | 5©": | acid. | 9S:
tract.

|
| | | pen ie ;
| P.ct. | P.ct. | P.ct. | Pict. | P.ct. | Peet.

Corn ensilage, as harvested ..| 75.75 | 24.25 | 6.50) 7.87 | 20.00 | 62.51 | 3.12 | 1.260 | 0.356 1.401
Corn ensilage, as fed ......... 76.05 | 23.95 | 8.55 | 8.60 | 25.37 | 54.95 | 2.53 | 1.376 | .372) 1.485
Corn for Robertson mixture .. 76.72 | 23.28 | 7.70 | 7.96 | 20.10 | 61.09) 3.15) 1.274 .329 |) 1.393
Horse beans for Robertson | |

UMM de haw a's dake whee cake $2.47 | 17.53 | 10.95 | 22.73 | 18. 75 ) 44.11 3.46 | 3.637 . 749 2.055
Soja bean (black) for Robert- ) |

MTIICUEO. Cop a ocnene cn nde 68.38 | 31.62 7.56 | 13.68 | 23,10 | 51.72 3.94 | 2.184 . 561 2. 282
Soja bean (green) for Rob- | | |

ertson mixture.............| 69.88 | 30.12 | 7.95 | 11.35 | 23.88 | 52.75 | 4.07 | 1.815 .504 |) 1,985
Sunflower heads for Robert- | |

MU INERSUTOC. > =. 2 saacses anc 86.26 | 13.74 | 9.23 | 11.41 | 18.96 | 53.71 6.69 | 1.827 . 789 2. 929
Robertson mixture as put in.) 78.19 | 21.81 | 8. 20 | 13.12 | 19.15 | 57.19 | 3.95 | 2.100} .487| 1.860
Robertson mixture as put in.) 78.21 | 21.79 | 8.31 | 10.66 | 20.08 | 57.40 | 3.641.701 | .431 | 1.599
Robertson mixture as fed....| 79.34 | 20.66 | 10.52 | 11.88 | 24.86 | 49.49 | 3.25 1 1. 984

- 901 4438





22

Feeding experiments: were conducted with the mixed ensilage con-
taining the sunflower heads, and the results are given in the following
extract from the report above mentioned:

Each of the ten cows was fed 10 pounds daily of fine early cut hay. While on
corn ensilage they received 4 pounds bran and 4 pounds corn meal daily, while
on the Robertson mixture 2 pounds grain less for every 50 pounds of ensilage fed.
Professor Robertson states that as good results will be obtained with 4 pounds less
grain per 50 pounds of ensilage fed, but on account of lower fat and protein contents
of the mixture than contemplated by its originator, but 2 pounds less were fed.
During the sixteen weeks each cow had eight weeks’ feeding on each fodder, so that
there were equal numbers of days’ feeding equally distributed, the equivalent of
three hundred and thirty-six days’ feed for one cow.

Quantity and constituents of milk produced.

| 7] ]
Kind of feed. Bali: | eee |g Fat. oe not SL hai. ee nee
SSSeorr ae

solids. fat solids. |

}
Pounds. | Per cent. | Per cent. | Per cent. | Pounds. peers Pounds.



COERmensiiag eon oe 4,007 14. 32 5. 04 9. 28 574 202 372
77 205 372

Robertson mixture_........... 3, 978 14.50 5.15 | 9.35 5



Essentially the same amounts of milk and butter were given with the Robertson
mixture ration with 2 pounds less grain per 50 pounds of ensilage as with the corn-
ensilage ration. The difference in quality of the milk was too slight to lay stress
upon.

REPORTS OF WORK DONE ON THE EXPERIMENTAL FARMS OF CANADA.
ANALYTICAL RESULTS.

The following table shows the results of the analyses made:

Analysis of the sunflower stalks and leaves, 1892.

‘Stalks and Heads with







Constituents. leaves. seeds
Per cent. | Per cent.
WCET... Sess oe cee ects en be cr dawcclc ates pees Gis at alee Cie ares aetna 84. 45 75. 62
Pepa cet Sh. os cack d No wae he oeapea ne eeenee ae uk ¢ onde gies aie nn 1 96 2.35
OE. oO. eet a> ebaeth aise eck by taken eae Me wis in:alwe & oem ait ral ea ae ee 87 | 4.86
Soluble carbon yvdarates .. Crude M68... once vi obenspexczvanksasesubh ¢oectdvade tected: mae ean ae | 5. 67 7.94
ABT nn cn kine canbe d slo m hd mtienin y wiasaniele won qnteGlm pele a wcollaetcs a ace oem anne ante oe 1.93 1,35
Totel Gry WAtter. ac cind nc cone pesca es ch cite pn benny faite as ee | 15. 55 24. 38



Dr. Shutt, the chemist of the Canadian station, in commenting on
the above analyses, makes the following observations:

The stalks and leaves contain but very little nutriment, being low in albuminoids
and fat, and containing a large percentage of water. Though still green, their fiber
was of a woody nature. Their food value is exceedingly low.

A marked difference is to be noted between the analysis of the heads and seeds and
thatofthestalksand leaves. The water is 10 per cent less, thealbuminoids nearly three
times higher, and the fat six times greater than in the stalks and leaves. The heads





23

with seeds would not furnish an ensilage as rich in albuminoids as that from beans,
yet in this respect it would be considerably more valuable than that from corn alone.
In fat, however, the ensilage is very much richer than that of either corn or beans.
Granting that the fiber of the heads with seeds is fairly digestible, the indications are
that a well-balanced and nutritious ensilage may be made by mixing the three crops—
corn, beans, and sunflower heads with seeds—in the silo. The first would supply the
large bulk of the carbohydrates, the second, the albuminoids chiefly, and the last,
fat and albuminoids.

SUNFLOWERS FOR ENSILAGE. .

In the report of the Canadian Experimental Farms for 1893 (on page
337) is found a statement of the results of experimental work with
sunflowers for that year, which is as follows:

Five pounds of Giant Russian Sunflower seed was sown in May. It was sown at
the rate of nearly 10 pounds per acre with a Planet, jr., seed drill in rows 3 feet apart.
and thinned when about a foot high to about 12 inches in the row.

On October 16 and 17 the heads were taken off to mix with the corn in the silo.
The weight of heads produced was 9, 690 pounds, or at the rate of over 8 tons per acre.



In the same report, the agriculturist, in connection with the chemist
of the station, described an ensilage in which the sunflower heads and
seeds were a component part. The sunflower heads with seeds em-
ployed in the making of the ensilage were the same as given in the
preceding table.

In the series of feeding experiments on dairy cows with corn ensi-
lage alone, and with a mixture of corn ensilage and sunflower heads, it
was found that although the milk obtained with the mixture contain-
ing sunflower heads had a slightly less percentage of fat, the amount

of butter recovered was slightly greater. The butter made from both
systems of feeding, when examined, showed that that made from the
feed containing sunflower was of a richer flavor and of a higher color
than the other. The directions for growing the materials for the ensi-
lage and making the ensilage of the Robertson mixture, as given to the
Canadian farmers, are as follows:

Soil.—lf a field with a drained, warm, loamy soil be convenient to the silo, and
can be used, it should be selected in preference to a heavy clay or wet soil. In all
cases, the land should receive a liberal dressing of manure, be plowed in the spring,
and be harrowed to a state of fine tilth before the seeds are planted.

Time to plant.—The time at which indian corn for fodder may be planted with the
best results is the best time at which to plant or sow these seeds also. In most dis-
tricts that period is during the last ten days of May, or late enough in the season to
escape frosts at night, and early enough to give the plants the advantage of as long a
season for growing as is practicable. The horse beans and sunflowers are less liable
to injury from frost than indian corn.

How to plant.—The indian corn and horse beans (which have been mixed) are to be
planted in rows 3 feet apart, with from 2 to 4 grains per linear foot in every row. A
horsepower corn planter or seed drill may be used for that purpose, or they may
be planted in hills 3 feet apart both ways, with from 6 to 10 grains in every hill. A
horsepower or hand corn planter may be used. If none of these implements and no
other suitable planter be available, furrows 3 inches deep may be plowed 3 feet



24

apart. The seeds may be put in them and covered, after which the field should be
rolled. The sunflower seeds are to be planted by themselves in rows 3 feet apart
with not more than 3 or 4 seeds per foot in the row. They may be planted witha
small hand planter, or by a method similar to the one which is used with the indian
corn and horse beans. All the seeds should be planted to a depth of from 2 to 3
inches. +

Cultivation.—Only in cases where a crust forms on the land, before or immediately
Riter the plants come up, a light harrowing will prove helpful to the crop. The cul-
tivation between the rows, when the plants are small, should be close to them; when
the plants have grown toa height of 2 feet it should be more distant and shallow, in
order not to injure the side roots.

Cutting in the field.—The crop is to be cut when the indian corn reaches the
‘‘glazing’’ stage of growth; that is, when the ears are just past the best condition for
table use. The corn and beans mav be cut by hand or by any of the devices in use
for cutting fodder corn in the field. The heads only of the sunflowers are to be used.
They may be cut off by a common reaping hook or other knife. They may be put
directly into a wagon or cart, or into a basket, or into heaps, from which they may
be loaded afterwards.

Putting into the silo.—When the indian corn has reached the ‘‘glazing’’ stage of
growth, the crop is to be put into the silo without wilting or drying; but when it
has not reached the glazing stage before frost comes, it is to be cut and left to wilt or
dry in the field for about one day. The corn and beans (from 2 acres) are to be cut
in lengths of from 4 inch to 1 inch and put into the silo; and the heads only (from
half an acre) of sunflowers are to be cut with them. They may be fed through the
cutting box with the corn and beans. A fairly even distribution of the mixture
should be made in the silo while it is being filled. If the leaves and lighter parts
are permitted to flutter into one place, and the stalks, ears, and heavier portions are
allowed to settle by themselves, the ensilage will not keep well. The mixture is to
be tramped thoroughly around the sides and in the corners of the silo. A thin layer
of uncut cornstalks should be put between the Robertson mixture and the other
contents (if any) of the silo, in order to mark the exact place in the ensilage.

After the silo is filled, the surface should be leveled and thoroughly tramped, and
after the lapse of not more than one day it should be covered to a depth of 6 inches
with cut straw or cheap fodder. If this be tramped occasionally, and a foot of cut
straw be put on top of that a few days later, probably no waste ensilage will be found
on the opening of the silo for feeding.

Feeding the ensilage.—The Robertson mixture is to be fed with 4 pounds less meal
or grain per 50 pounds of ensilage than has been required with ordinary corn ensi-
lage, to make an economical ration for feeding milch cows and fattening cattle.



CO8T OF GROWING SUNFLOWERS.

In the report of the experimental farms of the Dominion of Canada
for 1894 is found, on page 100, an estimate of the cost of growing sun-
flowers, which will prove of interest.

Four acres of sunflowers of the Mammoth Russian variety were sown April 23, by
using a Planet Junior seed drill, with 5 pounds of seed per acre, in rows 3 feet apart.
The plants came up thick and were thinned when 2 or 3 inches high, so as to leave
one plant every 12 or 18 inches in the rows. The heads were allowed to become
almost ripe before they were cut; and they were in a drier condition than in former
years. In 1892 the yield per acre was 7} tons, containing 75.62 per cent of water.
In 1894 the heads when cut contained on the average 69.3 per cent of water.

'





29
_ The following is a statement of the cost of labor for growing the four acres of sun-
flowers and putting the heads into the silo:





RR CR ee ee ee oes. 73 $12. 00
I 8 ea ee Fe gs Se we e's Sie ne ee bees fe 8. 00
Harrowing, #wice at 20 cents each time per acre _..----.--------------.----- 1. 60
INI, BONG = Fe a Sew esse ccaesu---------2-- . 80
I Soe te ge Se Fe es ec Se eee eee weno eee ee 2. 00
IESE 2 2 oe OL ca Se ee te eee ee 2. 00
me ane tanning, 10,1, days, at $1.25. -.......:--.-.------------------- TAS
nt 2. GaAN5, at ol. 20... 2.30.52 .5...--.+----22------2- 2. 50
I ER es Se na ee a ne ae ne ws 5. 07
aime and putting into silos, 174 days, at $1.25...........-.--.----------- 21. 88
ert, drawing in, 64 days, at $1.75............-...-...-.-----.-- 11. 38
Sennen gimme Of farm foreman. -...........--..---.:-+---2-+--------- 8. 00
aa at EE SU a ne 88. 36

These figures do not include any allowance for the use of farm machinery, nor do
they include any amount as an equivalent for the exhaustion of soil. The cost for
labor was $22.09 per acre. The average yield of heads, nearly all ripe, was 3 tons,
1,009 pounds, which gives an average cost of $6.30 per ton for labor of growing,
including cost of seed and rent of land, etc., as in statements.

| EXPERIMENTS CONDUCTED BY THE DIVISION OF CHEMISTRY.

The average height of the Russian sunflower as grown in the United
States is probably about 6 feet, but occasionally plants of very much
larger dimensions are produced. The largest plant which has been
described grew in Washington during the summer of 1897, and a pho-
tograph of this plant, which is reproduced in Plate I, was made on the
3d of August, 1897. The circumference of the stalk of this plant at
the surface of the ground was 8 inches, showing a diameter of almost
3 inches. The extreme height of the plant was 12 feet and 6 inches.
It is evident that this large plant was produced under extraordinary
conditions of fertility.

DIMENSIONS OF SUNFLOWER PLANTS.

Many discrepant statements have been published in regard to the
dimensions of sunflower plants. These discrepancies have arisen chiefly
from the fact that actual measurements have not been made, but simply
approximate estimates. It is evident that often the plant attains a
height of 10 or 12 feet, but the average height of the plants is not so



26

great, as will be seen from the measurements of 17 plants grown in the
garden of the Department of Agriculture, given in the following table:

Measurements of sunflowers made July 29, 1897.

(All terminal flowers were fully opened unless otherwise stated.)











No.of | Total | Total Width of|Length of Pi#meter, meeeceet
plant. height. width. | leat. leaf.2 flower-t base of |
stalk.* :
Inches. | Inches. | Inches. Inches. | Inches. | Inches. |
ied 68 50 6 |: Wt |) Se
| 77 47 17.5 6 6 ||) hoBRe eee
fee 6s | 45 15 14.75 9.75| 5.25
Ahi 73 | 40.5 14. 25 13 10.75 | 5.75
Bs ae Te) 48. 1 te 14. 25 10.5 6-
Poe ee 60 46.75 | 17.5 15.75| 12 5.75
ee 54 49 18 17.5 EP.
ees. 85.5 50.5 | 19.75 16 gor 3
ince 2.7 | tay 2b Tne ag 10.5 | 6.5
Oc 8 103. 25 Be 19.5 | 520 55,25 7
es 93.5 | 46.25 15.5 |) 48,764 7.2) 6
ee 101 | 52.5 19.25 | 17.75| | Sees
eo 65.25 | 49 18.2%}, ar 1) ae 6.5
Be? eee | 49.75] 17 | 15.75), 1 eae
| 5... 8 | 50.75 17.75| 819 | S11 | 5%
it 98 49 17 15 4.25} 8.25
vee ee”. 76 49.75 | 17.75 | 17 8.25 6.25





1 Measured from tip to tip of two opposite outstretched leaves which were selected at about one-half
the height of the plant.

“Measured from beginning of the expansion of the petiole into the leaf skeleton to the tip of the
leaf.

* Measured from opposite points of the cirele marking the insertion of the yellow rays.

4 Measured at the middle of the lowest internode.

5 Not fully out.

Diameters of sunflower disks, September 13, 1897.







Number of plant. | Inches. | Number of plant. | Inches. || Number of plant. | Inches.



| |
bE nineties a 12 Dalen may Fontes eeee Tldl] 18... .scaceedse ess 12

;

ee

)
ees ve Oil’ Bhi ae 144) 14. cc eee
"TP ph are id] e222 11 |} 15:.., eee 8
Asch ete 2 Px I OR -dclicatenmeh | 16;|| 16. ..:dceanneanes
2s eee | Will 2 Foe ee ent aan 17... geen |
a Sas tar ae | it I) Biesen tpt | 13 ieacn

j

COMPOSITION AND CHARACTER OF SEEDS AND OTHER PARTS OF THE PLANT.

The sunflower seeds corresponding to serial No, 14183 were the striped
Russian variety, procured from Sulzer Bros., of Madison, Ind., and
those corresponding to 14184, the ordinary black variety derived from
the same source. The following table shows the weight of 100 of the
seeds and the relation between the kernel and the shell of each variety:





JT
Weight of seeds, kernels, and shells.

Serial numbers.

14183. 14184.



knees kien eaten ode p ard oaae ae weessnewsccan grams. . 6.99 | 10. 60

ee do.... 3.39 5. 50
cen nw om ic mee ee oem den sosee nse Os. 3. 60 | 5. 09
oS 0S ie ow wm ee oe dep omens lone wo =e 2 oe 48.47 | 51. 93
a, aa ee 51.53 48. 08



From the above data it will be seen that the total weight of the
seeds is about evenly divided between kernel and shell. Inasmuch as
the shell is rather an absorbent materia], it is important, in the expres-
sion of the oil, that it should be removed so as to avoid the absorption
which otherwise would take place.

The composition of the various parts of the sunflower plant is shown
in the following table:

Composition of the various parts of the sunflower plant.



a‘ : ee a Carbohy-

eria 1 : -4...,| Ether Crude - ‘ drates

Wo. Sample. Moisture. extract: Shor Protein. Ash. by differ-
ence.





Per cent. | Per cent. | Per cent. | Per cent. Per cent. Per cent.

14219 | Sunflower seeds .............--- 4.43 27.08 29.17 14. 97 3.41 20. 94
14220 | Sunflower stalks..............-- 8.79 1. 83 43. 30 4.47 9.12 32.49
14221 | Sunflower leaves ..............- 12.51 4.09 13. 16 10.15 21. 26 38. 83
14222 | Ten heads after removal of

| seeds and husks.............. 7.40 5.07 18.44}. 9.91 19.39 39.79
14223 | Sunflower husks..............-. 8.32 5. 28 17.74 6.13 11. 08 51.50
14277 | Sunflower kernels from No.

| eh 2 als ooo onic n pes 4.89 45, 21 2.67 26. 85 4, 32 16. 06
See | Sunflower seed shells from No.

Oe ee ee eee 6.16 1.67 63.75 3. 00 2.20 23. 22

It will be noticed from the above data that the content of ash is very
uniformly distributed throughout the different parts of the plant.
The leaves appear to contain the greatest percentage while the smallest
is found in the shells of the seeds. The percentage of protein is high,
as would be expected, in the kernels of the seeds. In the shells of the
seeds and in the stalks it is low. The content of oil in the seeds, after
the removal of the husks, is very high.

THE ASH OF THE SUNFLOWER PLANT.

In order to determine the distribution of the various ash constitu-
ents in the several parts of the plant, the ash coming from the seeds,
the stalks, the leaves, the seed heads, the husks or chaff, the seed ker-



28
nel, and the seed shells was subjected to separate analyses. The data

obtained are found in the following table:

Composition and distribution of the ash.





a j
| Heads— 1
einutitinae Seeds Stalks Leaves Hess) Husks | a Ss ck
ee 14224. | 14225. | 14226. | husks | 14228. | 14279 1 nn
14227. ‘ oe





Per ct. | Perct. | Perct. | Perct. | Perct. | Perct. | Perct.
Potmeh (RD) enc: sw es 29, 02 38. 94 8.04 54.24|. 55.66| 25.501 _ 47.86

oda (Wedd)... 22. ease Lr 3. 84 . 94 42 1.65 .81 | 99
Gimeii(ee) 35. 9. 43 24.08 44.00 16.61 20.08 6.58 20.91
Magnesia (MgO) ..........--- 17. 90 19. 88 21. 52 10. 01 9.47 14. 70 15. 88
Oxid of iron (FesO3) .....-.... 46 i art . 67 91 .42 1.09
Phosphoric acid (P20;)...-.--. 38. 40 1.54| $3.98] 4.44 8.73 | 50.84 6.83
Citerin (Oly 3 Use re 54 7.30 | 1.47 8.62 4.59 .03 | 1.50
Sulphuric acid (SO3)..------.-- 2. 87 3. 53 4.46 5. 50 2. 94 i97 4.98
ition: T61Gi). - oc eee a .38 1.31 13. 85 1.43 2.00 15 . 80
men ccs spol: dep eee eee 100. 12 101.64 | 100.33 101.94 101.03; 100.00 100. 34
Oxyren—Chiorin.-- --2-.-- sss ree 1. 64 33 1.94 te. ee | 34

Corrected Siiie = 2.6 2e cee 100. 00 100. 00 100. 00 100. 00 100. 00 100. 00 100. 00

It will be noticed from the above table that potash is the principal
mineral ingredient of the ash of the sunflower from whatever part of
the plant it is derived, with the possible exception of the leaves, where
the content of potash is comparatively low. Lime is an important
constituent of the ash in all cases, but especially of the leaves. Mag-
nesia is found in about the same abundance as lime, being larger in
quantity than the lime in the ash from some parts of the plants and
lower in others.

The principal acid in the pure ash is phosphoric, although the con-
tent of this acid is quite low in the stalks and naturally high in the
seeds. If the kernels and hulls of the seeds be studied separately it is
found that the percentage of phosphoric acid in the ash of the kernels
is 50.84, while in the hulls of the kernels it is only 6.83.

It is evident from the above data, including the composition of the
sunflower itself, that it isa plant which makes considerable drain upon _
the three principal mineral plant foods, viz, nitrogen, phosphoric
acid, and potash.

COMMERCIAL MANUFACTURE OF SUNFLOWER OIL IN THE UNITED

STATES.

Many inquiries have been received asking for information in regard
to the manufacture of sunflower oil on a commercial scale in the
United States, and a diligent search has been made to discover any
factories engaged in this enterprise. The addresses of several milling
companies were secured, which it was thought might have informa-
tion in regard to the matter, and letters were addressed to them for







29

information. D. I. Bushnell & Co., of St. Louis, dealers in flax, cas-
tor, hemp, sunflower, and other oil seeds, in response to my inquiry,
write as follows:

Answering yours of the 20th instant, I do not think there has ever been any sun-
flower oil made in the United States. Some years ago it was tried, but without suc-
cess. The porous shells of the seeds absorb the greatest portion of the oil, and
therefore we think sunflower seed as grown in the United States hardly suitable to
the manufacture of oil.

In response to a request for information in regard to the manufac-
ture of sunflower oil in the United States, the Oil Seed Pressing Com-
pany, of New York, sent the following letter:

Your esteemed favor of the 5th duly received, and in reply to same would state
that we have never engaged in the practical manufacture of oil from sunflower seed.
We pressed up one or two small lots, but the result was very unsatisfactory, and it
was done so long ago that we forget the details, and did not retain either the cake
or oil.

Any other information we have bearing on this subject we have obtained from a
report of the United States consul to Russia. We do not think that the manufacture
of sunflower oil will ever become an industry in the United States, as we have not
found or seen samples of seed containing a sufficient quantity of oil to pay the cost of
manufacture.

The large product of cotton-seed and corn oils, with their low prices, seems to fill
the wants of the people, and not to leave room for anything new.

It is seen that the general impression which prevails in the minds of
many to the effect that sunflower oil is manufactured in a commercial
way in the United States is erroneous. The impression, however, is
shared by the Board of General Appraisers at the port of New York,
which decided that sunflower seed was imported into this country for
oil-making purposes, and therefore was dutiable. The opinion of the
General Appraisers is as follows:

The General Appraisers have decided that these seeds are entitled to free admission,
under paragraph 656, as a flower seed.. They were assessed for duty at 30 per cent
ad valorem under paragraph 254 as seed ‘‘n.s. p.f.’? The General Appraisers held
that they are a flower seed, and therefore free, the law providing that flower and
grass seeds n.s. p. f. are free.

It is our opinion that these seeds are imported for the purpose of expressing oil
which we believe to be used for adulteration of some kind. The reason for this
opinion is that it is very difficult to ascertain what becomes of the seed. We do not
believe that the sunflower is raised for its beauty, but rather that the seeds are cul-
tivated for some such purpose as above indicated. I would therefore respectfully
recommend that the Department of Agriculture be asked to make this merchandise
the subject of special investigation.

To this request the Secretary of Agriculture made the following
reply:
The Secretary or tHe TREASURY.

Sir: I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of the 21st instant,

inclosing a communication from the United States appraiser at the port of New York
in re sunflower seed.

NOVEMBER 24, 1899,



50

~

Investigations made by the Division of Chemistry of this Department have shown
that sunflower seed is not used for the expression of oil in this country, but is ex-
tensively used for poultry feeding and for the food of horses and cattle not in the best
of health. The admixture of sunflower seed with the ordinary food of these animals
tends to restore them to health, and puts their systems into excellent condition.
There is in this country quite a large commerce in sunflower seed used for this
purpose.

Careful investigation made by the Division of Chemistry has failed to find any
factory in this country in which the oil is expressed from these seeds. Experi-
mentally, the Division of Chemistry has demonstrated that this seed yields an
excellent oil, suited for table uses, in the replacement of olive and cottonseed oil.
Dr. Wiley, the Chemist of the Department, has informed me that he has tried this
oil, and has found it to be of most excellent quality. It is believed that eventually
the industry of making oil from the sunflower seeds will be developed in this country.

The Chemist of the Department is now preparing a bulletin on the subject, in
which detailed information of which a summary has just been given, will be con-
tained.

I think that the Appraiser of the port of New York can safely be guided by the
above statements, inasmuch as I think the large quantities of sunflower seed im-
ported into this country are used for poultry food and for the feeding of cattle.

I have the honor to be, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,
JAMES WILSON, Secretary.

SUMMARY.

(1) The sunflower is a plant which can be grown successfully over
large areas in the United States.

(2) From the chemical analysis of the whole plant it is evident that
it is a crop making a considerable drain on the elements of soil fertili-
zers; therefore it should be cultivated with proper attention to fertil-
ization in order that the fertility of the soil be maintained.

(3) One of the most valuable constituents of the plant is the oil
which exists in large quantities in the seeds. This oil is formed by
direct synthesis in the process of growth, and does not diminish to any
great extent the fertility of the soil. On the other hand, the protein
matter which exists in large quantities in the seeds is derived almost
exclusively from the nitrogenous elements in the soil or added in fer-
tilizers. There is no evidence that the sunflower plant has the property
possessed by the Leguminosae of assimilating free nitrogen by means
of symbiotic organisms attached to its roots.

(4) The economic production of the sunflower plant is now contined
almost exclusively to Russia, where it is an agricultural industry of
considerable importance. ?

(5) In the United States the sunflower is grown as an ornament and
for the production of seeds which are used chiefly for poultry and bird
feeding, and for condimental and medicinal properties with farm
animals.

(6) The oil of the sunflower seed is not produced commercially in
the United States. It is very palatable and makes, without refining,



a ae er a a > and an
~ = 2 <<) >. -
. " ” or 4 . _ i -
— - J oe te as z
= 7 oA ”
Sw i t Ses /
a ; ey “a ) @
I eS yt,
I* a. ae be 8]
eer on GS : :
e ‘ y ~ ad xf
ems oo ~



au 1 dressing. The residual oil cakes have a high nutri-
| pits equal if not superior to that possessed by flax-seed
-seed cakes.







m4

, t/ y

vu
=








al UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA

1262 taint 7 at





Full Text


xml version 1.0 encoding UTF-8
REPORT xmlns http:www.fcla.edudlsmddaitss xmlns:xsi http:www.w3.org2001XMLSchema-instance xsi:schemaLocation http:www.fcla.edudlsmddaitssdaitssReport.xsd
INGEST IEID EV2DAJS0G_7VP8G1 INGEST_TIME 2014-09-22T15:12:51Z PACKAGE AA00024988_00001
AGREEMENT_INFO ACCOUNT UF PROJECT UFDC
FILES





or
Be",

DRPARTMENt OF AGRIC iT ne BEL OTE

DIVISION, OF “CHEMISTRY, a | s

’ . ; J

~



WASHINGTON:
AC | GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE.
Beene reno el Logg,

Bul. 60, Div. Cnemistry, U. S. Dept. Agriculture. PLATE I.









SUNFLOWER PLANT, 12 FEET 6 INCHES HIGH, GROWN IN WASHINGTON, D. C., IN 1897.
.
; , +
‘
*
F >
’ \
“ ~~
nm ‘
| ~~
rs
a
, 2
£
i
Fr ’
‘
»
‘
ie
‘
: { ‘ “ : oi
, gone .
> @ . } ty 5 \
: ,
Race \
i * = haa . : |
| o . *
Bema i, | | .
ae ° | ae
« .
oe : , ry, «
: ‘ om ‘ oe Ses
Paani i
: mt 7 ’
an
* mats 5 ee

=, ‘ Ns 7 \


BULLETIN No. 60.

US. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,
DIVISION OF CHEMISTRY.

mae PUNFLOWER PLANT:

ITS CULTIVATION, COMPOSITION, AND USES.

BY

HARVEY W. WILEY,

CHiIer OF THE DIVISION OF CHEMISTRY.



WASHINGTON:
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE.
1901,
Digitized by the Internet Archive
In 2013

http://archive.org/details/sunflowerp00wile
LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL.

U.S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,
Division OF CHEMISTRY.
Washington, D. C., November 12, 1900.
Sir: I transmit herewith, for your inspection and approval, the
manuscript of a bulletin relating to the cultivation and uses of the sun-
flower in the United States and other countries. JI recommend that it
be published as Bulletin No. 60 of the Division of Chemistry.
Respectfully,
Hn. W. Wmery,
Ch ref of the Division of Chemistry.
Hon. JAMES WiLson,
Secretary of Agriculture.



;
;
CONTENTS:
Page.
ee BO ie cao ie eis ocean neeecsese--=n5 7
ese ee oy ee ee ot ee ee ee Sn 8
OR ne Pe ee ----- 8
ES gE SES ee SS ee ee ee 9
eee ee 2 ee ee 10
I IE 10
ES ee ee 11
J EIS ae a 12
SS OF Ee 12
EE 13
I FP er li ae ewer ee eee ees nl eee 14
Investigations of sunflowers by State experiment stations. ...........2------- 17
Extracts from a New York report ---- - BS ee ee eee 17
ES OO SDIMNO SS io Ne ee sc wae ne ee eee oe Is
Results of work with sunflowers in Vermont ..........-.-.------------- 21
Reports of work done on the Experimental Farms of Canada .-.-.-...-------- 22
IEE oS cs See swe ce - 2 ee 22
Ng cs ts oe -------- ee 23
ION eS ae oe Soe e bes ee am 24
Experiments conducted by the Division of Chemistry. ..........-..-.----.--- 25
IRE T: SRN So. oe ous ce ios ew oe esas. 28 25
Composition and character of seeds and other parts of the plant.....-.--- 26
rr mme MORMOWOr PIMNG 05-2 2.06. oe 8 one cee semen enesee--n 27
Commercial manufacture of sunflower oil in the United States .............-- 28
I 6 Ge SS can eo uedicp ce cuecech 2 Poste dares eae wet Oe wea ck 30
5
/
ILLUSTRATIONS.

PLATE.
Puate I. Sunflower plant grown in Washington, D.C.,in 1897.....-.. Frontispiece
FIGURES,

Ficure 1. Akenes (seeds) of sunflower, showing variations in size and form:
a, b,c, d, from cultivated plants; e, from wild plants; /, transverse

section . 2 oo. ccc cee bc cewc smc ew «c= = 5 sum
2. Machine for separating seeds from heads ...............--.-.--.- 13

6
THE SUNFLOWER PLANT: ITS CULTIVATION,
COMPOSITION, AND USES.

INTRODUCTION.

The introduction and successful establishment of new agricultural
industries can not fail to be of benefit to the general agricultural inter-
ests of the country, which as a rule are the more prosperous as they
are more diversified. Numerous inquiries have been addressed to the
Department of Agriculture in the last two years in regard to the growth
of sunflowers for economical purposes and the manufacture of oil from
their seed, indicating a large and growing popular interest in the sub-
ject. It has been found impossible to give the desired information to
correspondents in an epistolary form. For the purpose of giving to
those interested in the matter all the information available some investi-
gations have been made in the composition of the sunflower, the methods
of culture, and the manufacture of oil from the seed. The results of
these investigations are contained in the present bulletin.

By the courtesy of the Statistician, a circular was sent to the cor-
respondents of the Department for the purpose of ascertaining the
acreage cultivated in sunflowers, and the disposition made of the crop.
Many replies have been received in response to this circular, which
have enabled us to definitely point out those areas in the United States
in which the sunflower is now cultivated as an agricultural crop, and
also to give some valuable data in regard to the methods of cultivation
and harvesting employed. The answers to these circulars, however,
failed to give any definite information in regard to the extraction of
oil from the seeds of the sunflower for commercial purposes. It is
not believed that any oil factory devoted exclusively to the manufacture
of oil from sunflower seeds is in operation in this country. As will
appear from a discussion of the data which have been collected, it is
evident that the product of sunflowers at the present time, so far as
seeds are concerned, is devoted chiefly to the feeding of birds and
poultry, and in some instances to medicinal purposes for cattle and
horses,

~]
8

BOTANY OF THE SUNFLOWER.’
ORIGIN AND EARLY HISTORY.

The wild sunflower, //elianthus annuus, from which the cultivated
variety has been developed, is native in the Great Plains region from
Nebraska to northern Mexico. It was first cultivated in Europe in
the gardens at Madrid, about the middle of the sixteenth century.
This was soon after the Spanish expeditions to Peru and to Santa Fe,
N. Mex. Allof the earlier botanists and many writers of the present
day credit its origin to Peru, but this is probably an error, as there is
no evidence that the sunflower was cultivated by the natives in Peru,
and it is not recorded as indigenous anywhere south of the northern
part of Mexico. >

One of the earliest records of the plant is that of De Lobel,’ a Flem-
ish botanist, who gives a good illustration and description of a sunflower
with stout, erect stem, big leaves, and large, nodding head, like our
present garden variety, and calls it ** Solis flos Peruvianus” (Peruvian
suntlower).

The works of several European botanists printed during the last
quarter of the sixteenth century contain illustrations and descriptions
of the sunflower. Most of them follow Dodoens in calling it Chrysan-
themum peruvianum, and some of them refer especially to plants grow-
ing in the royal gardens at Madrid.

Descriptions and illustrations of four varieties given by Gerarde in
1597 indicate that the sunflower was well developed in Europe at
that time. The following statement which he makes in regard to its
origin and growth agrees well with the records of other writers of that
time :

These plants do growe of themselves without setting or sowing in Peru, and in
divers other provinces in America. There hath beene seene in Spain and other hot
regions a plant sowen and nourished up from the seede to attain to the height of 24
foote in one yeere.°

A case is cited by Caspar Bauhin‘ in 1671 in which 2,362 seeds from
one head were counted. |

The sunflower introduced into Europe was undoubtedly derived from
plants cultivated and developed by the American Indians. When
Champlain explored the region in the vicinity of Georgean Bay in
1615 he found the Indians there cultivating a *‘ herbe des soleil” from
the seeds of which they obtained oil used on their hair. Sunflower
seeds were also used for food by the Indians in early times, as they are

''The Division of Chemistry is indebted to Mr. L. H. Dewey of the Division of
Botany for the botanical description which is made a part of this bulletin.

* Matthiae de Lobel. Stirp. Hist., 322 (1576).

*’ Gerarde, Herbal, 612-614 (1597).

* Caspar Bauhin, Theatri Botanici, Nd. I, 277 (1671).
9

by many tribes at present. Dr. Asa Gray, who carefully studied the
history of the sunflower, makes the following statement :

Judging from the breadth of the flower heads soon after its introduction into Eu-
rope, it must in aboriginal hands have assumed much of the abnormal development

which distinguishes the cultivated sunflower from its wild original of the Western
plains."

DEVELOPMENT OF VARIETIES.

In western Europe and America, where the sunflower has been
grown chiefly for ornamental purposes or occasionally for poultry
food, there has been apparently little improvement or development in
large varieties during the three and a half centuries of cultivation.
Seeds 6 to 10 mm. in length, as large as those a ordinary varieties at
the present time, were figured by Camerarius? in 1586. More varie-
ties are grown purely for ornamental purposes than for the produc-
tion of seeds, but several of the ornamental sunflowers are derived
from other species.

In Russia, where the numerous religious fasts restricting the use of
meat lead to a large consumption of vegetable oils and oily foods, the
sunflower seed has become almost a staple
article of diet. It is eaten raw or roasted as
peanuts are in America, but much more ex-
tensively. Between 1830 and 1840 sunflower
oil began to be manufactured on a commer-
cial scale in the southern provinces of Rus- Fie.1. Akenes (seeds) of sun-
sia, and since that time a series of important ‘ie erepagei eee
industries based on the production of oil and _ vated plants; ¢, from wild plant;
oil cake has been developed there. This has / ‘*™*ve™se section.
led to the development of more prolific seed-producing varieties.

There are three principal varieties now cultivated in Russia—one
with large white seeds, which are said to yield the largest amount of
oil; one with smaller black seeds, which are sweeter and regarded as
best for eating; and an intermediate form with striped seeds, used both
for eating and for the production of oil. There are numerous inter-
grading forms, as may be found in most plants long in cultivation.

In the United States three principal varieties are grown for the pro-
duction of seeds. The common sunflower, with no distinguishing
varietal name, has been long cultivated here and is now found in gar-
dens in all parts of the country. Its nodding heads are 8 to 16 inches
in diameter, producing chiefly gray-brownish or striped seeds. The
mammoth Russian is a recently introduced variety, with heads 15 to 20
inches in diameter, producing seeds about one-half inch long, with
black or brownish stripes or sometimes all white (fig. 1, a, 4). The





' Asa Gray, with J. Hammond Trumbuli, Review of De Candolle’s Origin of Cul-
tivated Plants. Am. Journ. Sci. and Arts, 3 ser., 25-245 (1883).
*Camerarius, Epitome Plantis Utilissima, 503 (1586).
10

black giant, another variety, has heads 16 to 22 inches in diameter,
with rather thick black seeds about three-eighths inch long (fig. 1, ¢).

BOTANICAL DESCRIPTION.

All of the annual varieties with large heads, cultivated for the pro-
duction of seeds, are referred to one species, Helianthus annwus, which
is characterized as follows: Annual, with rather stout, erect, herba-
ceous stem, Ll to 3 inches in diameter and 5 to 20 feet in height, rough-
hairy or hispid, often purple-mottled, usually without branches except
near the top, but occasionally branching freely throughout; leaves
alternate except near the base of the stem, with rather stout petioles
2 to 10 inches long, and three-ribbed, heart-shaped blades 4 to 10 inches
long, and about two-thirds as wide, rough on both surfaces, coarsely
and irregularly toothed on the margins, pointed at the apex, and
somewhat decurrent on the petiole; heads one to six or more in the
smaller-flowered, branching forms, terminating the main stem and
branches, + to 20 inches in diameter, with 40 to 80 yellow rays and
brown or nearly black disk; chaff or scales among the disk flowers
three-toothed; scales of the involucre under and surrounding the
flower-head acuminate-pointed, more or less_ pubescent, and usually
ciliate.

The akenes (fig. 1), commonly called **seeds,” are variable in size
and coloring. They are obovate oblong, somewhat flattened, and more
or less diamond-shaped in transverse section.

The sunflower stem has rather strong bast fibers, as have nearly all
tall, slender herbaceous stalks, and the plant has often been suggested
as a source of fiber supply. The fiber is too weak and brittle, how-
ever, to be of value for cordage or textile purposes. Paper has been
made from the stalks, but in the treeless regions, where it is most
abundantly grown, the highest value is doubtless obtained in its use
for fuel.

USES OF THE SUNFLOWER.

The sunflower has long been grown in this country for ornamental
purposes. The beautiful yellow flowers, with dark centers, are par-
ticularly attractive in yards and gardens. In some of the Central States
the sunflower, in a much smaller form than the cultivated plant, grows
wild. In Kansas the borders of the wagon roads and railroads are fre-
quently lined for miles with these flowers, which, in August and Sep-
tember, when in full bloom, form a very marked feature of the prairie
landscape. The vsthetic influence of the sunflower has long been ree-
ognized in this country, but it is only of late years that we have real-
ized that it has an economic importance which promises to be a source
of wealth in the future. We have only just begun to learn from the
experience of China and Russia the economic value of the plant itself.




11

‘The general interest in this subject, as has already been intimated, has
- been evidenced by the hundreds of letters which have been received in
the last few years from all parts of the country, making inquiries in
regard to the possibility of the economic uses of the plant. The part
of the sunflower plant which has the chief value is the seed. The oil ex-
pressed from the seed is highly prized as an edible oil, and one which,
more nearly than any other known vegetable oil, has the general pro-
perties of the oil of the olive. The oil cake left after the extraction of
the oil by pressure is extremely rich in nitrogenous matter, and has a
food yalue equal to the cake resulting from the expression of maize oil
or linseed oil. In addition to this, it has the advantage of being more
palatable, and therefore will be eaten with more avidity than the other
oil cakes just mentioned. In some sources of information it is stated
that the leaves of the sunflower have been used as a substitute for to-
bacco, but it is not probable that the adulteration of tobacco with sun-
flower leaves has ever been practiced to any extent in this country. The
branches and stalk of the sunflower, when reduced to a sufficient state
of fineness, possess nutritive properties of a high order, and furnish
food suitable to the nourishment of many domesticated animals, such
as horses, cattle, and sheep. The food values of the different parts of
the stalk will be fully illustrated in the analyses given farther on in
this bulletin (pp. 18-22, and 27.) Perhaps the most valuable of the
products of the sunflower of a manufactured character is the oil,
which, by reason of its palatability and sweetness, is well suited for
table uses, and for this purpose can replace olive oil with better suc-
cess than any other known substitute.

MEDICINAL USES.

It is undoubtedly true that the sunflower seed is a valuable food
when mixed in proper proportions with other food products. It
improves the digestion of the animal, and therefore is beneficial to its
health. In fact the seeds are used to a large extent by horsemen and
cattlemen for the purpose of keeping animals in excellent physical
condition. The supposed efficacy of sunflower seeds for the cure of
certain specific diseases (as rheumatism, for instance) is probably
largely mythical.

There is a very prevalent notion that the growth of large quantities
of sunflowers in malarial regions prevents the development of diseases
of malarial origin.

Numerous inquiries in regard to the efficacy of the sunflower as
a preventive of malaria have been received at the Department of
Agriculture within the past few years. Inasmuch as the sunflower is
a vigorous grower, absorbing large quantities of moisture, and con-
suming, under proper conditions of nitrification and oxidation, large
quantities of organic matter, it is possible that the growth of it over
12

extensive areas may tend to correct some of the conditions in the
environment which are supposed to be favorable to the development
of malarial germs. That the plant itself, however, has any specific
influence upon malarial diseases is undoubtedly an illusion.

SOIL AND CULTIVATION.

By study of the reports which have been received from numerous
correspondents of the Divisions of Statistics and Chemistry in different
parts of the United States, it is found that sunflowers grow best, for |
commercial purposes, in Kansas, Missouri, and the Ohio Valley. Many
other parts of the country, however, are found peculiarly suitable to
the growth of this plant. As a rule the soils which are best suited for
the growth of indian corn produce the best crops of sunflowers. If the
soil is not naturally fertile, liberal fertilization must be practiced in
order to secure large crops. ‘The character of the fertilization depends
upon the nature of the soil and the deficiencies of plant foods therein.
The kind of fertilization necessary to produce a good crop of maize
will be found suitable to the sunflower. The soil should be prepared
by careful plowing, and the surface of the plowed soil should be reduced
to good tilth by the use of the harrow. Sunflowers are best planted
by a drill in rows from 3 to 34 feet apart. In order to secure a good
stand the seeds may be placed by the drill 2 or 3 inches apart; but
should they all grow, at least half of them should be cut out when the
plants are thinned. The seeds should be planted deep enough to secure
abundant moisture to germinate them; from 2 to 3 inches in depth,
where the soil is not too heavy, will be found the best. With heavy,
stiff soils, which are likely to become very hard on the surface after
heavy rains, it is better not to plant the seeds so deep. The seeds
should be planted as early as possible in the spring, as they endure very
well a slight degree of cold. After the plants are well formed they
should be thinned so as to stand at a distance of from 12 to 18 inches
in the row. The cultivation should be of the ordinary kind, mostly
superficial, and sufficient to prevent the weeds from growing and pre-
serve the moisture during periods of drought. Where the production
of seed is sought the best results are secured by limiting the number
of seed heads on each plant to a very few. The superfluous heads
when formed should be removed. No special directions need be given
for the cultivation, since it is so much like that of maize as to be
practically the same.

HARVESTING SUNFLOWER SEED,

The heads should be harvested before the seeds are quite ripe to
avoid shattering and loss. After drying the seeds can be thrashed
out and stored in bags in the usual way. The seeds may be beaten
out with a flail, but where large quantities are grown this is a tedious


13

process. It is evident that 1f the sunflower be grown in this country
over large areas for commercial purposes, special thrashing machines
will be devised for the separation of the seed. Where, however, only
a few bushels are grown, even if they are for sale, the farmer may
employ some simple apparatus better than the flail for separating the
seed. Such a simple apparatus is described by Mr. Ormsbee in the
American Agriculturist of September 26, 1896. This machine (fig. 2)
consists of a wooden disk mounted in a frame precisely like that for
holding a grindstone and with a similar turning movement. In order
to run easily it should be so constructed that the axle will roll on fric-
tion wheels. The wooden disk or wheel should be 2 inches thick and
about 3 feet in diameter. This disk is prepared for its work of detach-
ing the seed by driving nails through it near the periphery parallel
to the axis and allowing them to project about half an inch on each
side. The width of the band of nails should be about 6 inches, and
the nails should be thick enough so that
the finger can not be inserted between
them. The ends of the nails should all
project the same distance. The peri-
meter of the wheel should be secured
by a heavy tire of iron, in order to hold
it in shape and prevent it from warp-
ing. This heavy iron tire also acts asa



4 oe eae a a cali Li ze 1 ES
of motion. e wheel is kept in moti js
best ey “i Oo i TE \s
by working the treadle. It should re- — Ta
volve toward the operator. When the peer

wheel is in full motion a sunflower head Fie. 2.—Machine for separating seeds
is held in each hand and pushed for an" "°*"*
instant against the protruding nails on either side. In a very short
period of time all the seeds will be detached. A man who has practiced
a little with this machine is easily able to shell 12 to 15 bushels of sun-
flower seed in an hour. It is evident that instead of having a disk as
indicated by the above figure, an equally effective machine would be
secured by having the thrashing apparatus in the form of a cylinder,
very much like that employed in thrashing wheat or oats, except that
the spikes of the roughened surface should be very much more numer-
ous. Such a machine works more rapidly than the simple disk, but
requires more power, and can hardly be driven by hand or foot power.
The seeds after separation should not at first be placed in large gran-
aries, but in barrels or small bins, to avoid any danger of heating by
fermentation.

THE SUNFLOWER IN RUSSIA.

The sunflower has assumed an economic importance in Russia
greater than in any other country. In fact, the variety of sunflower
14

which is most cultivated in this country at the present day for orna-
ment and for production of seeds is known as ** Russian.” The sun-
flower finds various uses in Russia. The larger and finer sunflower
seeds are highly relished as a delicacy by the Russians, even of the
upper classes, and great quantities of them are eaten raw. In palata-
bility and wholesomeness they are quite equal or superior to the nuts
of common consumption. The poorer and less perfect seeds furnish
an oil which is somewhat turbid and bitter and is of second quality,
while the better and more mature seeds provide the edible oil so
extensively used in Russia in replacement of all the vegetable oils
formerly used in that country. The stalks, straw, and chaff of the
sunflower are highly prized for fuel, furnishing in some localities of
the Empire almost all the fuel employed.

‘The extent and importance of the sunflower industry in Russia was
fully set forth in the report of Consul-General Crawford, of St.
Petersburg, a few years ago.’ This report gives the number of acres
under cultivation in the different governments of Russia, the character
of the soil and of the fertilizers used, and the methods of sowing and
cultivating. The report also calls attention to the chemical composi-
tion of the plant and the lime, potassium, and phosphoric acid which
it takes from the soil. The method of harvesting and thrashing the
seed is also fully described, and attention is called to the use of the
cakes, after the expression of the oil, as cattle food. It is stated that
the oil produced from the seed is largely consumed in Russia, only a
small quantity being exported. The largest amount exported in any
one year was 1,490,000 pounds, worth $170,900.

The publication of this report in 1892 served to call the attention of
the people of the United States to this valuable plant and also to
encourage the cultivation of it ona much larger scale than had ever
before been attempted in this country.

EXTRACTS FROM CORRESPONDENCE.

Sulzer Brothers. of Madison. Ind.. dealers in sunflower seeds, in
answer to an inquiry, wrote the following letter, dated September
3, 1895:

We are in receipt of your favor of August 26, and would have answered immedi-
ately, but have been awaiting the arrival of the first consignment of our new crop of
sunflower seed. The same arrived to-day, and we send 1 pound each of the Striped
Russian and the ordinary black. The Russian seed is what is wanted at present,
having taken the place of the old-style black. Now, I have read several accounts of
sunflower culture in Russia, and I think also in Italy, but am not certain as to the
latter country. As to America, I can not find where the oil is being expressed or
used. All the use that I can find for the seed is for feeding birds. If there is a mill
in the United States that presses sunflower seed I am not aware of it. Last season
we handled about 100 tons, and expect to double the quantity this season. It does

‘See Consular Report, February, 1892, No. 137, pp. 233 to 246, inclusive.


15

seem that it is impossible for birds to consume the immense quantity raised. It
may be used to adulterate some valuable oil. If such be the case, it is kept very
secret. Youcan nodoubt get some valuable information from our minister to Russia.
Any information you may secure on this subject, we would be pleased to have you
share with us.

Morris Brothers, of Madison, Ind., in response to inquiries sent from
this office, write, under date of September 1, 1895, as follows:

In regard to sunflowers and their cultivation, I will say that in the spring, as soon
as the frost is out of the ground, I cover the soil with a heavy coat of stable manure,
) plow from 7 to 8 inches deep, then roll with a heavy iron roller to pack the ground
as much as possible. I then leave it until time to plant corn, which is from April 20
to May 10. I then use a rolling cutter disk harrow, followed with a smoothing
harrow and a roller to thoroughly pulverize the soil. The ground is marked off in
rows 3 feet 9 inches apart, and the seeds planted with a corn drill, with a special

plate made for the purpose. When the plants are from 5 to 8 inches high, thinning

commences, leaving the stalks 18 inches apart in the row. The crop is then ready

for the hoe. After the hoeing it is plowed with a two-horse corn cultivator,

having 3 or 5 inch shovels. The cultivation is much the same as for corn. When

the stalk is in bloom I go through the field and pull off the excess of blooms, leaving
only from three to four flowers on the stalk. This constitutes the principal extra
expense of cultivating the crop. In regard to gathering the crop, I go through the
field and gather the ripe heads, take them to the barn, and remove the seeds with a
roller similar to that which is used to clean the seed from broom corn. The seed
and chaff are allowed to dry thoroughly, after which they are put through a fanning
mill. The seed must not be stored in large quantity ina bin, as it soon becomes
musty. When stored it should be turned over twice a week, much the same as
wheat. The average yield of the crop in this vicinity is from 800 to 1,000 pounds
per acre.



In southern Indiana, near Madison, Jefferson County, sunflowers
have been grown over considerable areas. One of the most promi-
nent growers, W. 8. Dean, in a letter to the American Agriculturist
of May 2, 1896, says:

Early in the spring of 1894 I planted, on an old tobacco field in the Ohio River
bottom, an acre of Russian sunflowers. They were planted with a corn drill, in rows
34 feet apart, and were afterward thinned to 16 inches apart in the row. The plants
were given the same cultivation as corn. The season was favorable, and I harvested
2,250 pounds of clean seed, or a trifle over 80 bushels, for which I received $2.75 per
hundredweight, a total of $61.87 from 1 acre. During 1895 I planted several acres,
but on account of the repeated ravages of cutworms the stand was very poor. Only
2 acres were harvested, and 2,500 pounds secured from the 2 acres. As the price
had declined to $1 per hundredweight, I sold none, but determined to feed them
instead. At the time I was feeding beef for my own use. To the other foods I
added Russian sunflower seed, and killed a very fat beef of most excellent quality.
I am now feeding the sunflower seed in connection with corn and oats, all ground
together, to my ewes and lambs, and also have a separate department in my sheep
shed, in which I keep a supply of the ground mixture, to which the lambs have free
access. It is interesting to note how soon they learn to eat this feed and how rapidly
they grow, all becoming fat and plump. I pour boiling water over the mixture and
feed it to my hens every morning, getting an abundance of eggs in return. Some of
my neighbors are feeding the seed to horses, hogs, and other stock, and report good
results. The feeding should be done with care, and as the grain is very rich it should


16

be combined with other feeds. By referring to the Agricultural Department bulletin
we find that corn has an average value of 10.3 per cent protein, 5 per cent of fat;
wheat has 11.8 per cent protein, 2.1 per cent fat; whole sunflowers 16.2 protein and
21.2 per cent fat. Taking into account the area in which sunflowers may be grown,
the yield per acre, the ease of cultivation, the value compared with other grains,
their palatability, and the results in feeding so far as they have been tried, I can not
see why they may not be grown with profit for feed, and thus help the farmer out
of his present difficulties.

Mr. James D. Clemmons, of Elwood, Ind., who owns a farm on the
Ohio River, in Jefferson County, Ind., has grown large quantities of
sunflowers. He says:

For the past five years I have raised from 5 to 8 acres of sunflowers annually.

Soil of medium fertility seems better adapted to the growth of sunflowers, although
they do well in both thin clay and rich bottom land. The seed must be planted very
early. I plant in March in the river bottom and often have plants several inches
high by corn-planting time. It is important that the plants should get large enough
to shade the ground before the hot weather comes on. After they have attained this
degree of growth no cultivation is necessary, as no grass or weeds can grow after the
ground is well shaded. Plant the same as corn, using planter or corn drill, and if the
plants are too thick they can be thinned, but will to some extent thin themselves.
The cultivation is the same as that given to corn. Harvest about the 10th to 20th of
September. Go through the field in a wagon, as in harvesting corn, and gather all
the ripe flowers. In about a week this operation should be repeated and later a third
gathering must be made, cleaning up the field. The growing of sunflowers crowds
out the weeds and the ground is left perfectly clean after the harvest of the crop.

The thrashing is done by hand. I use a short, heavy stick for the purpose. Two
or three blows will remove all the seeds. The flowers must be thrashed the same
day as gathered, for if they are left in a pile or in the wagon bed they will heat.
When thrashed the seed is shipped in sacks as soon-as possible. From 600 to 800
pounds are produced to the acre.

When I began raising sunflowers five years ago the price of seed was 3 cents a
pound, but now that more farmers are growing them the price has decreased and
this year the seed is selling for 2 cents a pound.

Sunflowers are a good fertilizer. When they are planted on thin land the following
crops are much larger than they were before the flowers were raised. I think the
principal use of the seed now is for condition powders for cattle and horses. The oil
is also expressed and makes an excellent soap, I am informed.

This statement respecting the fertilizing value of the sunflower plant
is probably due to a misinterpretation of the meaning of the increased
crops. It is not probable that the growth of the sunflower increases
fertility.

Mr. H. H. Marsh, of Monte Vista, Colo., makes the following
statement in regard to the growth of the sunflower in that State:

Sunflowers grow extremely well here, but there are not enough raised upon which
a reliable report could be based. I believe I could get a crop of 100 bushels per
acre.

Mr. A. M. Stratton, of Mount Vernon, IIl., gives the following
information:

In reply to yours of October 17, I would say in regard to planting and cultivating
sunflowers, and harvesting the seed, that they are planted and cultivated the same


en Seer |

—
-_

OQ ee

Â¥

Le et

a7

as corn, and gathered, the’ heads being cut off, just as ears of corn are plucked from the
stalks. The seed is thrashed out by several devices. One is by holding the sunflower
head in the hand and scratching out the seed with a good currycomb; another is by
beating it out with a stick. Where large crops are grown, a special machine, similar
to that employed for thrashing broom corn, is used for removing the seed, which is
then run through afan mill to remove the chaff and dirt. Sunflowers are considered
a profitable crop among many of our farmers.

The uses to which the seed is put are chicken feed and prepared stock food. Also,
I understand, a certain kind of oil is made from the seed. The yield of seed is from
1,000 to 1,500 pounds per acre. The average price, one year with another, is about
2 cents per pound.

Mr. J. H. Marion, of St. Louis, Mo., under date of October 14,
1899, says: 7

It may possibly interest you to know that the growth of sunflower seed in Jeffer-
son County, Ill., has been quite extensive the past summer. The industry has been
promoted by a gentleman named A. M. Stratton, of Mount Vernon, Ill. Mr. Strat-
ton furnished the seed to farmers, provided they would give him an option on the
crop. About 100,000 pounds of seed have been produced under this plan. What
disposition was made of it I have been totally unable to ascertain further than that
it was shipped to New York. A farmer named Bennett, near Mount Vernon, sold
Stratton 11,000 pounds of seed, grown from ten acres, for $156, a little more than $15
per acre.

INVESTIGATIONS OF SUNFLOWERS BY STATE EXPERIMENT STATIONS.

The sunflower has not occupied a great deal of attention in the agri-
cultural experimental work at the stations in the United States,
although a few isolated investigations have been made. Some work
was done at the New York Agricultural Experiment Station in 1883,
and the subject is discussed in the second annual.report for that year,
page 154. The objection which is urged in this report to the growth
of the crop in New York State, based upon the fact that it matures late
in the season, would not, of course, be tenable in more southern local-
ities. The New York report referred to is as follows:

EXTRACTS FROM A NEW YORK REPORT.

From a late article in the Drug Reporter we obtain some statistics relating to the
growing of the sunflower as a crop. In Italy its cultivation is confined tothe neigh-
borhood of Piove and Conegliano, in Venetia. In Russia the plant is most exten-
sively grown in Kielce and Podolia, and the district of Birutch in Voronej. The
production of seed is now estimated at 228,000,000 pounds from an area of 216,000
acres, or about 1,325 pounds to the acre. In Tartary and China it is cultivated in
immense quantities, but no actual statistics are available. In Mysore, India, 1 acre
of land gives 1,288 pounds of seed, which yields 45 gallons of oil, which is there com-
pared to peanut oil and applied to the same use. The Russian seed is expressed on
the spot, and the oil is largely employed for adulterating olive oil. The purified oil
is considered equal to olive and almond oil for table use.

The chief industrial uses of the oil are woolen dressing, lighting, and candle and
soap making. For the last-mentioned purpose it is superior to most oils. It is pale
yellow in color, thicker than hemp-seed oil, and dries slowly.

11715—No.


18

Experimental culture in France gave areturn of 1,778 pounds of seed, yielding 15
percent of oi] and 80 percent of cake from an acre; but the product varies consider-
ably according to soil, climate, and cultivation, and the average may be reundly
stated at 50 bushels of seed from an acre, and 1 gallon of oil from 1 bushel of seed.
The percentage of oil to seed ranges from 16 to 28, and that of husk to kernel from
41 to 60.

In Russia the seed is drilled into lines 18 inches apart, and the plants are thinned
out to 30 inches apart in the rows, thus giving about 11,000 plants to an acre. The
quantity of seed required for an acre is 46 pounds.

The station crop of 1883 occupied a plat of one-twentieth of an acre, was planted
4 kernels in a hill, the hills being 42 by 44 inches apart, and was cultivated during
growth the same as corn. The soil received at the rate of 400 pounds of superphos-
phate to the acre. Planted May 18, vegetated May 31, harvested in September, and
the seed beaten out and measured and weighed October 25, the yield being 2} bush-
els, or 573 pounds; expressed in acre yield, 50 bushels, or 1,150 pounds, the seed thus
weighing 23 pounds per struck bushel.

From not having facilities at the station for expressing the oil we must be content
with the results of analysis. Dr. S. M. Babcock found the seed to contain 20.52 per
cent of the oil in the air-dry seed. One hundred seeds in air-dry condition weighed
187.7 grains, and contained 49.1 per cent of husk and 50.9 per cent of kernel. The
complete analysis is as below:

Composition of sunflower seed.

Loe
Constituents. —. | Air-dry. Dried.
|



} :
) Per cent. | Per cent.



Water o 5 255 cose csi OA cewsb cs fqn hae ene Seco ea ee Be aoe ee N2.68..1.% yo ee
AD ho, oda RRS ro oe keer Deere als ates ie ete te ea ae eee Tee 3. 00 3.43
Albuminoids (NX 6.25) 2.20.0. 62. cam oSscSs eee a pee i os ee 15. 88 18.19
Crndle TiDGi ic oo cao a oe Howe re coe awe ee ten eh oe aes ae ae he ore oS 29. 21 33.45
Nitrogen-free Cxtract ..2.252656 Fat (ether extract). 2.6 <2: en. concen bot Seb asap ae cs 6 pe oo eis ee 20. 52 23. 50

TOGBL do noo mesic ech ma Se en Se a wots tes ea nt ec 100. 00 100. 00

The sunflower crop, however, has difficulties in the way of curing. As the plant
ripens late in the season the heads must be placed under cover to prevent waste, and
they contain at this stage much water. Wedried our crop by spreading the heads
upon a floor without piling, and as soon as the seeds were sufficiently dry they were
shelled out. As this has been a very late season, it is possible that in a more favor-
able year the seeds might be shelled off at the time of harvest.

RESULTS OF EXPERIMENTS IN MAINE,

The report of the Maine Agricultura! Experiment Station for 1895
contains an article on sunflower heads and black-eye peas as silage
crops. The yield of the sunflower heads which were used in the experi-
ments was 12,720 pounds per acre in the fresh state, containing 2,040
pounds of water-free material. The composition of the sunflower
heads and the peas used in the experiments and the yield per acre of
nutrients per ton of 2,000 pounds are given in the following tables:
19

Composition of sunflower heads and peas.

FRESH PLANT.





Nitrogen-|
; =i Ether
Protein, Fiber. free ex- | extract.

_ Name of plant. Water. He
are OS: tract.
eer |

Per a Per cent. | Per cent. | Per cent. Per cent. | Per cent.





CE 1.16 2.18 | 4.21 5. 96 2.49
| 86.1 | 1:32 2.59 | 4.51 5. 29 .39
AIR-DRY.

| /
eee | 7.27 6.73 12. 63 24.4 34. 56 14. 41
re ee eer | 7.57 7.45 17.19 30.0 35.18 2.61



dD
.83

PMU PTONOROR | ox. = sane e no 2 ee tan e Sots 7.26 13. 62 26. 30 SieoT 1
OE ree i ae 8.06 | 18. 60 32.47 38. 04

nm ou

Yield per acre of nutrients compared with Maine field corn and red clover.

| Dry sub- Carbo-
Plant. | liga: Protein. hydrates.| Fat.

il TT — —



Pounds. | Pounds. Pounds. | Pounds.

eo ae 4, 224 385 3, 469 156
SS pe 3, 400 520 3, 150 133
CE ee. bocce dacceleee 2,040 278 1,296 | 317
ee ee ere eee eee 1,861 249 | 1,312 53

Nutrients per ton of 2,000 pounds water-free substance compared with other fodders.

. Imma-
Sun- |
= Red : Mature ture
N s. -eas, re 7 othy.\,; ‘
Nutrients Pea flower clover. rimothy flintcorn. Southern
heads. | corn

Pounds. | Pounds. | Pounds. | Pounds. | Pounds. | Pounds.

TRE et a Sen cere ccenvacs 372.0 | 272.4 | 306 160 184 166
SUEGIOG,......-..-.2--c0c00s--0000- 1,410.2 | 1,271.4 | 1,472 1, 670 1, 622 1, 668
IEEE Seed ocnn-anaacoseresaceccs ) 58.6 | 311.0 78 62 74 52











Re SS ke eat. Sele es 6 saa e | 1,838.8] 1,854.8 | 1, 856 | 1, 892 1, 880 1, 886
|

Commenting on the above data, Mr. J. M. Bartlett, the chemist of
the station, makes the following observations:

So far as is indicated by this experiment it would seem that sunflowers are not
nearly as profitable a crop to raise ascorn. With the same cultivation corn produces
a third more protein and more carbohydrate matter per acre. From this very limited

experience we are not favorably impressed with the sunflower as a profitable silage
crop. The peas are not considered, as a fair average crop was not secured.

In the report of the Maine station for 1896 a supplemental report
was made on sunflowers and English horse beans as silage crops. This
report was also made by Mr. J. M. Bartlett, and is as follows:

For three seasons sunflowers have been grown on a small scale for a silage crop.

In 1894 and 1895 very fair yields were secured, but the season of 1896 was very
favorable, and an exceedingly heavy crop was the result.
20

Horse beans have been grown for two seasons, but owing to late planting and
drought the crop of 1895 was not up to the average yield. In 1896 the seed was
planted early for this climate—May 18. The plants grew well, attaining a height of
3 to 4 feet, and contained many matured pods when harvested. A good yield was
secured, but it is possible that it could have been made somewhat larger, without
impairing the quality, by planting somewhat closer. The plants stood about 1 foot
apart in drills 33 feet apart.

Both crops were harvested September 8-10, run through the silage cutter and
mixed with corn in the silo, in the following proportions: One-fourth acre of sun-
flowers, one-half acre of horse beans, and one acre of corn. The whole plant of one-
half of the sunflowers was put in the silo mixed with corn and beans. Of the remain-
ing half the heads only were used.

Both mixtures were found to be well preserved when the silo was opened in Jan-
uary, and were greedily eaten by the cows. The stalks of the sunflowers were so
large and coarse that it seemed doubtful whether the cattle would eat them, but after
being ensiled the mixture was as well relished as the pure corn. The cost of grow-
ing these crops can be estimated to be about the same as that of corn. The land
should be put in about the same condition, and the labor of caring for them is not
materially different.

Yield per acre in pounds of sunflowers and horse beans.



Weightas | Weight of

Name of plant. harvested. | dry matter.













Pounds. Pounds.
Sunflower, heads. ...2s.cn ss ap ee Hee ba ho ewe pean wee eo Sere ee feel ate 27, 040 3, 767
Sunflower, whole plant , ..<. - <4 4-40.02 bac~cos ond ukes een dauniep as eee | 48, 800 7,219
English horse’ bean, whole plant-<2.- =<: =; ..<-.0sswace es .eebon ak 2a 20, 160 3,497

Se ees he
Chemical composition of the plants.
Fresh material as harv ested. Dry mato (water free).
: ! | oh Nitro- | | ! Nitro-|

Name of plant. | Pro-| Fi. | en- |Ether| | Pro- en- Ether

Water. Ash. tein.) ber y be ex- | Ash. tein Fiber. free | ex-

E ‘| ex- eae F ex- ‘tract.

tract. | | tract. |

| P.ct. | P.ct.| P.ct. | P.ct. | P.ct. | P. ct. oo | P.ct. | Pct. i P. ct. at. |. cet.
86.07 | 1.10 | 1.93 | 3.79 | 5.62 | 1.49} 7 9 | 18.87 | 27.20 | 40.33 | 10.70
5.21 | 1.92 | 1.70] 4 4 | 1.038 | 13.04 | 11.55 | 27.04 | 41.60) 6.78

)
2.65 2.09 | 3.88] 3.71 | 7.18) .49 | 12.07 | 22.34 | 21.41 | 41.35) 2.82







Sunflower, heads ........... |
|
|

—

’
).

~

=I

Horse bean, whole plant ...



|
|
|
Sunflower, whole plant.... ‘|
|



The very large yield of sunflowers (whole plant) per acre shown in the table above
would apparently secure for them a favorable position among coarse fodder plants
for silage material.

The yield of dry matter is slightly larger than has ever been obtained at the sta-
tion from corn, but notwithstanding that fact it can not be considered as desirable a
plant to raise for fodder where corn can be grown successfully. Its chemical compo-
sition is about the same as that of Southern corn grown in this climate; the exceed-
ingly coarse, rough stalks and leaves of the plant make it less palatable as a fodder
and, were it not ensiled, would be largely rejected by stock.

The chief value, therefore, of the experiment with this plant consists in showing
the utility of the silo in saving such materials and preventing waste. Sunflowers and
other coarse plants are often grown for seed or other purposes when only a small
portion of the plant is used. The coarse parts that were formerly thrown away can
be now utilized and made into palatable and nutritious food for stock by ensiling.


21

Horse beans are rich in protein and promise to rank well with plants of that class
as forage crops. They have the ability, like most legumes, to gather nitrogen from
the air, and consequently do not exhaust the soil of that element. At the present
time, however, when the price of nitrogenous feeds, like gluten meal and cotton-
seed meal, is so low, it is a question whether it is not more profitable for a farmer to
give his attention largely to growing corn for coarse fodders and to buy nitrogenous
feeds to balance up the ration.

RESULTS OF WORK WITH SUNFLOWERS IN VERMONT.

Sunflowers were grown at the Vermont Agricultural Experiment
Station in 1893. The number of pounds of green fodder harvested
per acre was 11,350, consisting of 8,612 pounds of water and 2,738
pounds of dry matter. The dry matter consisted of the following
substances in pounds:

RS ES ee ee 205
I fee on en sees eee eee e ee ee eee ceenene 485
SS a a fg I, a a 642
I Se eS a SO ee Sos el eee ye Shen 799
EE ISIE SS Se 607
. SE ne a 78
EE pe a 22
a aid a cia Ss os wow oe ww oe oe deen ene ee nneseenss 68

In connection with the analyses the following remark is made:

These plants were grown to furnish a portion of the fat for the Robertson mixture
ensilage. The heads only were used, and it will be seen that neariy a ton and a half
of dry matter and over 600 pounds of fat per acre were produced. The stalks, as
shown by the analysis, are too woody for use.

The composition of the Robertson mixture ensilage is given in the
eighth annual report of the Vermont Agricultural Experiment Station
for 1894, as indicated in the following table:

Average analyses of certain ensilage crops as harvested and as fed.
: ar ee aa / ~ : aie
| Original sub- Composition of dry matter.





stance.
Ensilage crops | | 2 J as “Nitro- | | |
, + ; | Dry | ornde | Câ„¢4)| Crude!) Fen: | Ether | Nitro-| P2os- Pot-
Water.) mat- ash | pro- | fiber free CX- | cen phoric ish
gars | SRS tein. | ry ex tract. | 5©": | acid. | 9S:
tract.

|
| | | pen ie ;
| P.ct. | P.ct. | P.ct. | Pict. | P.ct. | Peet.

Corn ensilage, as harvested ..| 75.75 | 24.25 | 6.50) 7.87 | 20.00 | 62.51 | 3.12 | 1.260 | 0.356 1.401
Corn ensilage, as fed ......... 76.05 | 23.95 | 8.55 | 8.60 | 25.37 | 54.95 | 2.53 | 1.376 | .372) 1.485
Corn for Robertson mixture .. 76.72 | 23.28 | 7.70 | 7.96 | 20.10 | 61.09) 3.15) 1.274 .329 |) 1.393
Horse beans for Robertson | |

UMM de haw a's dake whee cake $2.47 | 17.53 | 10.95 | 22.73 | 18. 75 ) 44.11 3.46 | 3.637 . 749 2.055
Soja bean (black) for Robert- ) |

MTIICUEO. Cop a ocnene cn nde 68.38 | 31.62 7.56 | 13.68 | 23,10 | 51.72 3.94 | 2.184 . 561 2. 282
Soja bean (green) for Rob- | | |

ertson mixture.............| 69.88 | 30.12 | 7.95 | 11.35 | 23.88 | 52.75 | 4.07 | 1.815 .504 |) 1,985
Sunflower heads for Robert- | |

MU INERSUTOC. > =. 2 saacses anc 86.26 | 13.74 | 9.23 | 11.41 | 18.96 | 53.71 6.69 | 1.827 . 789 2. 929
Robertson mixture as put in.) 78.19 | 21.81 | 8. 20 | 13.12 | 19.15 | 57.19 | 3.95 | 2.100} .487| 1.860
Robertson mixture as put in.) 78.21 | 21.79 | 8.31 | 10.66 | 20.08 | 57.40 | 3.641.701 | .431 | 1.599
Robertson mixture as fed....| 79.34 | 20.66 | 10.52 | 11.88 | 24.86 | 49.49 | 3.25 1 1. 984

- 901 4438


22

Feeding experiments: were conducted with the mixed ensilage con-
taining the sunflower heads, and the results are given in the following
extract from the report above mentioned:

Each of the ten cows was fed 10 pounds daily of fine early cut hay. While on
corn ensilage they received 4 pounds bran and 4 pounds corn meal daily, while
on the Robertson mixture 2 pounds grain less for every 50 pounds of ensilage fed.
Professor Robertson states that as good results will be obtained with 4 pounds less
grain per 50 pounds of ensilage fed, but on account of lower fat and protein contents
of the mixture than contemplated by its originator, but 2 pounds less were fed.
During the sixteen weeks each cow had eight weeks’ feeding on each fodder, so that
there were equal numbers of days’ feeding equally distributed, the equivalent of
three hundred and thirty-six days’ feed for one cow.

Quantity and constituents of milk produced.

| 7] ]
Kind of feed. Bali: | eee |g Fat. oe not SL hai. ee nee
SSSeorr ae

solids. fat solids. |

}
Pounds. | Per cent. | Per cent. | Per cent. | Pounds. peers Pounds.



COERmensiiag eon oe 4,007 14. 32 5. 04 9. 28 574 202 372
77 205 372

Robertson mixture_........... 3, 978 14.50 5.15 | 9.35 5



Essentially the same amounts of milk and butter were given with the Robertson
mixture ration with 2 pounds less grain per 50 pounds of ensilage as with the corn-
ensilage ration. The difference in quality of the milk was too slight to lay stress
upon.

REPORTS OF WORK DONE ON THE EXPERIMENTAL FARMS OF CANADA.
ANALYTICAL RESULTS.

The following table shows the results of the analyses made:

Analysis of the sunflower stalks and leaves, 1892.

‘Stalks and Heads with







Constituents. leaves. seeds
Per cent. | Per cent.
WCET... Sess oe cee ects en be cr dawcclc ates pees Gis at alee Cie ares aetna 84. 45 75. 62
Pepa cet Sh. os cack d No wae he oeapea ne eeenee ae uk ¢ onde gies aie nn 1 96 2.35
OE. oO. eet a> ebaeth aise eck by taken eae Me wis in:alwe & oem ait ral ea ae ee 87 | 4.86
Soluble carbon yvdarates .. Crude M68... once vi obenspexczvanksasesubh ¢oectdvade tected: mae ean ae | 5. 67 7.94
ABT nn cn kine canbe d slo m hd mtienin y wiasaniele won qnteGlm pele a wcollaetcs a ace oem anne ante oe 1.93 1,35
Totel Gry WAtter. ac cind nc cone pesca es ch cite pn benny faite as ee | 15. 55 24. 38



Dr. Shutt, the chemist of the Canadian station, in commenting on
the above analyses, makes the following observations:

The stalks and leaves contain but very little nutriment, being low in albuminoids
and fat, and containing a large percentage of water. Though still green, their fiber
was of a woody nature. Their food value is exceedingly low.

A marked difference is to be noted between the analysis of the heads and seeds and
thatofthestalksand leaves. The water is 10 per cent less, thealbuminoids nearly three
times higher, and the fat six times greater than in the stalks and leaves. The heads


23

with seeds would not furnish an ensilage as rich in albuminoids as that from beans,
yet in this respect it would be considerably more valuable than that from corn alone.
In fat, however, the ensilage is very much richer than that of either corn or beans.
Granting that the fiber of the heads with seeds is fairly digestible, the indications are
that a well-balanced and nutritious ensilage may be made by mixing the three crops—
corn, beans, and sunflower heads with seeds—in the silo. The first would supply the
large bulk of the carbohydrates, the second, the albuminoids chiefly, and the last,
fat and albuminoids.

SUNFLOWERS FOR ENSILAGE. .

In the report of the Canadian Experimental Farms for 1893 (on page
337) is found a statement of the results of experimental work with
sunflowers for that year, which is as follows:

Five pounds of Giant Russian Sunflower seed was sown in May. It was sown at
the rate of nearly 10 pounds per acre with a Planet, jr., seed drill in rows 3 feet apart.
and thinned when about a foot high to about 12 inches in the row.

On October 16 and 17 the heads were taken off to mix with the corn in the silo.
The weight of heads produced was 9, 690 pounds, or at the rate of over 8 tons per acre.



In the same report, the agriculturist, in connection with the chemist
of the station, described an ensilage in which the sunflower heads and
seeds were a component part. The sunflower heads with seeds em-
ployed in the making of the ensilage were the same as given in the
preceding table.

In the series of feeding experiments on dairy cows with corn ensi-
lage alone, and with a mixture of corn ensilage and sunflower heads, it
was found that although the milk obtained with the mixture contain-
ing sunflower heads had a slightly less percentage of fat, the amount

of butter recovered was slightly greater. The butter made from both
systems of feeding, when examined, showed that that made from the
feed containing sunflower was of a richer flavor and of a higher color
than the other. The directions for growing the materials for the ensi-
lage and making the ensilage of the Robertson mixture, as given to the
Canadian farmers, are as follows:

Soil.—lf a field with a drained, warm, loamy soil be convenient to the silo, and
can be used, it should be selected in preference to a heavy clay or wet soil. In all
cases, the land should receive a liberal dressing of manure, be plowed in the spring,
and be harrowed to a state of fine tilth before the seeds are planted.

Time to plant.—The time at which indian corn for fodder may be planted with the
best results is the best time at which to plant or sow these seeds also. In most dis-
tricts that period is during the last ten days of May, or late enough in the season to
escape frosts at night, and early enough to give the plants the advantage of as long a
season for growing as is practicable. The horse beans and sunflowers are less liable
to injury from frost than indian corn.

How to plant.—The indian corn and horse beans (which have been mixed) are to be
planted in rows 3 feet apart, with from 2 to 4 grains per linear foot in every row. A
horsepower corn planter or seed drill may be used for that purpose, or they may
be planted in hills 3 feet apart both ways, with from 6 to 10 grains in every hill. A
horsepower or hand corn planter may be used. If none of these implements and no
other suitable planter be available, furrows 3 inches deep may be plowed 3 feet
24

apart. The seeds may be put in them and covered, after which the field should be
rolled. The sunflower seeds are to be planted by themselves in rows 3 feet apart
with not more than 3 or 4 seeds per foot in the row. They may be planted witha
small hand planter, or by a method similar to the one which is used with the indian
corn and horse beans. All the seeds should be planted to a depth of from 2 to 3
inches. +

Cultivation.—Only in cases where a crust forms on the land, before or immediately
Riter the plants come up, a light harrowing will prove helpful to the crop. The cul-
tivation between the rows, when the plants are small, should be close to them; when
the plants have grown toa height of 2 feet it should be more distant and shallow, in
order not to injure the side roots.

Cutting in the field.—The crop is to be cut when the indian corn reaches the
‘‘glazing’’ stage of growth; that is, when the ears are just past the best condition for
table use. The corn and beans mav be cut by hand or by any of the devices in use
for cutting fodder corn in the field. The heads only of the sunflowers are to be used.
They may be cut off by a common reaping hook or other knife. They may be put
directly into a wagon or cart, or into a basket, or into heaps, from which they may
be loaded afterwards.

Putting into the silo.—When the indian corn has reached the ‘‘glazing’’ stage of
growth, the crop is to be put into the silo without wilting or drying; but when it
has not reached the glazing stage before frost comes, it is to be cut and left to wilt or
dry in the field for about one day. The corn and beans (from 2 acres) are to be cut
in lengths of from 4 inch to 1 inch and put into the silo; and the heads only (from
half an acre) of sunflowers are to be cut with them. They may be fed through the
cutting box with the corn and beans. A fairly even distribution of the mixture
should be made in the silo while it is being filled. If the leaves and lighter parts
are permitted to flutter into one place, and the stalks, ears, and heavier portions are
allowed to settle by themselves, the ensilage will not keep well. The mixture is to
be tramped thoroughly around the sides and in the corners of the silo. A thin layer
of uncut cornstalks should be put between the Robertson mixture and the other
contents (if any) of the silo, in order to mark the exact place in the ensilage.

After the silo is filled, the surface should be leveled and thoroughly tramped, and
after the lapse of not more than one day it should be covered to a depth of 6 inches
with cut straw or cheap fodder. If this be tramped occasionally, and a foot of cut
straw be put on top of that a few days later, probably no waste ensilage will be found
on the opening of the silo for feeding.

Feeding the ensilage.—The Robertson mixture is to be fed with 4 pounds less meal
or grain per 50 pounds of ensilage than has been required with ordinary corn ensi-
lage, to make an economical ration for feeding milch cows and fattening cattle.



CO8T OF GROWING SUNFLOWERS.

In the report of the experimental farms of the Dominion of Canada
for 1894 is found, on page 100, an estimate of the cost of growing sun-
flowers, which will prove of interest.

Four acres of sunflowers of the Mammoth Russian variety were sown April 23, by
using a Planet Junior seed drill, with 5 pounds of seed per acre, in rows 3 feet apart.
The plants came up thick and were thinned when 2 or 3 inches high, so as to leave
one plant every 12 or 18 inches in the rows. The heads were allowed to become
almost ripe before they were cut; and they were in a drier condition than in former
years. In 1892 the yield per acre was 7} tons, containing 75.62 per cent of water.
In 1894 the heads when cut contained on the average 69.3 per cent of water.

'


29
_ The following is a statement of the cost of labor for growing the four acres of sun-
flowers and putting the heads into the silo:





RR CR ee ee ee oes. 73 $12. 00
I 8 ea ee Fe gs Se we e's Sie ne ee bees fe 8. 00
Harrowing, #wice at 20 cents each time per acre _..----.--------------.----- 1. 60
INI, BONG = Fe a Sew esse ccaesu---------2-- . 80
I Soe te ge Se Fe es ec Se eee eee weno eee ee 2. 00
IESE 2 2 oe OL ca Se ee te eee ee 2. 00
me ane tanning, 10,1, days, at $1.25. -.......:--.-.------------------- TAS
nt 2. GaAN5, at ol. 20... 2.30.52 .5...--.+----22------2- 2. 50
I ER es Se na ee a ne ae ne ws 5. 07
aime and putting into silos, 174 days, at $1.25...........-.--.----------- 21. 88
ert, drawing in, 64 days, at $1.75............-...-...-.-----.-- 11. 38
Sennen gimme Of farm foreman. -...........--..---.:-+---2-+--------- 8. 00
aa at EE SU a ne 88. 36

These figures do not include any allowance for the use of farm machinery, nor do
they include any amount as an equivalent for the exhaustion of soil. The cost for
labor was $22.09 per acre. The average yield of heads, nearly all ripe, was 3 tons,
1,009 pounds, which gives an average cost of $6.30 per ton for labor of growing,
including cost of seed and rent of land, etc., as in statements.

| EXPERIMENTS CONDUCTED BY THE DIVISION OF CHEMISTRY.

The average height of the Russian sunflower as grown in the United
States is probably about 6 feet, but occasionally plants of very much
larger dimensions are produced. The largest plant which has been
described grew in Washington during the summer of 1897, and a pho-
tograph of this plant, which is reproduced in Plate I, was made on the
3d of August, 1897. The circumference of the stalk of this plant at
the surface of the ground was 8 inches, showing a diameter of almost
3 inches. The extreme height of the plant was 12 feet and 6 inches.
It is evident that this large plant was produced under extraordinary
conditions of fertility.

DIMENSIONS OF SUNFLOWER PLANTS.

Many discrepant statements have been published in regard to the
dimensions of sunflower plants. These discrepancies have arisen chiefly
from the fact that actual measurements have not been made, but simply
approximate estimates. It is evident that often the plant attains a
height of 10 or 12 feet, but the average height of the plants is not so
26

great, as will be seen from the measurements of 17 plants grown in the
garden of the Department of Agriculture, given in the following table:

Measurements of sunflowers made July 29, 1897.

(All terminal flowers were fully opened unless otherwise stated.)











No.of | Total | Total Width of|Length of Pi#meter, meeeceet
plant. height. width. | leat. leaf.2 flower-t base of |
stalk.* :
Inches. | Inches. | Inches. Inches. | Inches. | Inches. |
ied 68 50 6 |: Wt |) Se
| 77 47 17.5 6 6 ||) hoBRe eee
fee 6s | 45 15 14.75 9.75| 5.25
Ahi 73 | 40.5 14. 25 13 10.75 | 5.75
Bs ae Te) 48. 1 te 14. 25 10.5 6-
Poe ee 60 46.75 | 17.5 15.75| 12 5.75
ee 54 49 18 17.5 EP.
ees. 85.5 50.5 | 19.75 16 gor 3
ince 2.7 | tay 2b Tne ag 10.5 | 6.5
Oc 8 103. 25 Be 19.5 | 520 55,25 7
es 93.5 | 46.25 15.5 |) 48,764 7.2) 6
ee 101 | 52.5 19.25 | 17.75| | Sees
eo 65.25 | 49 18.2%}, ar 1) ae 6.5
Be? eee | 49.75] 17 | 15.75), 1 eae
| 5... 8 | 50.75 17.75| 819 | S11 | 5%
it 98 49 17 15 4.25} 8.25
vee ee”. 76 49.75 | 17.75 | 17 8.25 6.25





1 Measured from tip to tip of two opposite outstretched leaves which were selected at about one-half
the height of the plant.

“Measured from beginning of the expansion of the petiole into the leaf skeleton to the tip of the
leaf.

* Measured from opposite points of the cirele marking the insertion of the yellow rays.

4 Measured at the middle of the lowest internode.

5 Not fully out.

Diameters of sunflower disks, September 13, 1897.







Number of plant. | Inches. | Number of plant. | Inches. || Number of plant. | Inches.



| |
bE nineties a 12 Dalen may Fontes eeee Tldl] 18... .scaceedse ess 12

;

ee

)
ees ve Oil’ Bhi ae 144) 14. cc eee
"TP ph are id] e222 11 |} 15:.., eee 8
Asch ete 2 Px I OR -dclicatenmeh | 16;|| 16. ..:dceanneanes
2s eee | Will 2 Foe ee ent aan 17... geen |
a Sas tar ae | it I) Biesen tpt | 13 ieacn

j

COMPOSITION AND CHARACTER OF SEEDS AND OTHER PARTS OF THE PLANT.

The sunflower seeds corresponding to serial No, 14183 were the striped
Russian variety, procured from Sulzer Bros., of Madison, Ind., and
those corresponding to 14184, the ordinary black variety derived from
the same source. The following table shows the weight of 100 of the
seeds and the relation between the kernel and the shell of each variety:


JT
Weight of seeds, kernels, and shells.

Serial numbers.

14183. 14184.



knees kien eaten ode p ard oaae ae weessnewsccan grams. . 6.99 | 10. 60

ee do.... 3.39 5. 50
cen nw om ic mee ee oem den sosee nse Os. 3. 60 | 5. 09
oS 0S ie ow wm ee oe dep omens lone wo =e 2 oe 48.47 | 51. 93
a, aa ee 51.53 48. 08



From the above data it will be seen that the total weight of the
seeds is about evenly divided between kernel and shell. Inasmuch as
the shell is rather an absorbent materia], it is important, in the expres-
sion of the oil, that it should be removed so as to avoid the absorption
which otherwise would take place.

The composition of the various parts of the sunflower plant is shown
in the following table:

Composition of the various parts of the sunflower plant.



a‘ : ee a Carbohy-

eria 1 : -4...,| Ether Crude - ‘ drates

Wo. Sample. Moisture. extract: Shor Protein. Ash. by differ-
ence.





Per cent. | Per cent. | Per cent. | Per cent. Per cent. Per cent.

14219 | Sunflower seeds .............--- 4.43 27.08 29.17 14. 97 3.41 20. 94
14220 | Sunflower stalks..............-- 8.79 1. 83 43. 30 4.47 9.12 32.49
14221 | Sunflower leaves ..............- 12.51 4.09 13. 16 10.15 21. 26 38. 83
14222 | Ten heads after removal of

| seeds and husks.............. 7.40 5.07 18.44}. 9.91 19.39 39.79
14223 | Sunflower husks..............-. 8.32 5. 28 17.74 6.13 11. 08 51.50
14277 | Sunflower kernels from No.

| eh 2 als ooo onic n pes 4.89 45, 21 2.67 26. 85 4, 32 16. 06
See | Sunflower seed shells from No.

Oe ee ee eee 6.16 1.67 63.75 3. 00 2.20 23. 22

It will be noticed from the above data that the content of ash is very
uniformly distributed throughout the different parts of the plant.
The leaves appear to contain the greatest percentage while the smallest
is found in the shells of the seeds. The percentage of protein is high,
as would be expected, in the kernels of the seeds. In the shells of the
seeds and in the stalks it is low. The content of oil in the seeds, after
the removal of the husks, is very high.

THE ASH OF THE SUNFLOWER PLANT.

In order to determine the distribution of the various ash constitu-
ents in the several parts of the plant, the ash coming from the seeds,
the stalks, the leaves, the seed heads, the husks or chaff, the seed ker-
28
nel, and the seed shells was subjected to separate analyses. The data

obtained are found in the following table:

Composition and distribution of the ash.





a j
| Heads— 1
einutitinae Seeds Stalks Leaves Hess) Husks | a Ss ck
ee 14224. | 14225. | 14226. | husks | 14228. | 14279 1 nn
14227. ‘ oe





Per ct. | Perct. | Perct. | Perct. | Perct. | Perct. | Perct.
Potmeh (RD) enc: sw es 29, 02 38. 94 8.04 54.24|. 55.66| 25.501 _ 47.86

oda (Wedd)... 22. ease Lr 3. 84 . 94 42 1.65 .81 | 99
Gimeii(ee) 35. 9. 43 24.08 44.00 16.61 20.08 6.58 20.91
Magnesia (MgO) ..........--- 17. 90 19. 88 21. 52 10. 01 9.47 14. 70 15. 88
Oxid of iron (FesO3) .....-.... 46 i art . 67 91 .42 1.09
Phosphoric acid (P20;)...-.--. 38. 40 1.54| $3.98] 4.44 8.73 | 50.84 6.83
Citerin (Oly 3 Use re 54 7.30 | 1.47 8.62 4.59 .03 | 1.50
Sulphuric acid (SO3)..------.-- 2. 87 3. 53 4.46 5. 50 2. 94 i97 4.98
ition: T61Gi). - oc eee a .38 1.31 13. 85 1.43 2.00 15 . 80
men ccs spol: dep eee eee 100. 12 101.64 | 100.33 101.94 101.03; 100.00 100. 34
Oxyren—Chiorin.-- --2-.-- sss ree 1. 64 33 1.94 te. ee | 34

Corrected Siiie = 2.6 2e cee 100. 00 100. 00 100. 00 100. 00 100. 00 100. 00 100. 00

It will be noticed from the above table that potash is the principal
mineral ingredient of the ash of the sunflower from whatever part of
the plant it is derived, with the possible exception of the leaves, where
the content of potash is comparatively low. Lime is an important
constituent of the ash in all cases, but especially of the leaves. Mag-
nesia is found in about the same abundance as lime, being larger in
quantity than the lime in the ash from some parts of the plants and
lower in others.

The principal acid in the pure ash is phosphoric, although the con-
tent of this acid is quite low in the stalks and naturally high in the
seeds. If the kernels and hulls of the seeds be studied separately it is
found that the percentage of phosphoric acid in the ash of the kernels
is 50.84, while in the hulls of the kernels it is only 6.83.

It is evident from the above data, including the composition of the
sunflower itself, that it isa plant which makes considerable drain upon _
the three principal mineral plant foods, viz, nitrogen, phosphoric
acid, and potash.

COMMERCIAL MANUFACTURE OF SUNFLOWER OIL IN THE UNITED

STATES.

Many inquiries have been received asking for information in regard
to the manufacture of sunflower oil on a commercial scale in the
United States, and a diligent search has been made to discover any
factories engaged in this enterprise. The addresses of several milling
companies were secured, which it was thought might have informa-
tion in regard to the matter, and letters were addressed to them for




29

information. D. I. Bushnell & Co., of St. Louis, dealers in flax, cas-
tor, hemp, sunflower, and other oil seeds, in response to my inquiry,
write as follows:

Answering yours of the 20th instant, I do not think there has ever been any sun-
flower oil made in the United States. Some years ago it was tried, but without suc-
cess. The porous shells of the seeds absorb the greatest portion of the oil, and
therefore we think sunflower seed as grown in the United States hardly suitable to
the manufacture of oil.

In response to a request for information in regard to the manufac-
ture of sunflower oil in the United States, the Oil Seed Pressing Com-
pany, of New York, sent the following letter:

Your esteemed favor of the 5th duly received, and in reply to same would state
that we have never engaged in the practical manufacture of oil from sunflower seed.
We pressed up one or two small lots, but the result was very unsatisfactory, and it
was done so long ago that we forget the details, and did not retain either the cake
or oil.

Any other information we have bearing on this subject we have obtained from a
report of the United States consul to Russia. We do not think that the manufacture
of sunflower oil will ever become an industry in the United States, as we have not
found or seen samples of seed containing a sufficient quantity of oil to pay the cost of
manufacture.

The large product of cotton-seed and corn oils, with their low prices, seems to fill
the wants of the people, and not to leave room for anything new.

It is seen that the general impression which prevails in the minds of
many to the effect that sunflower oil is manufactured in a commercial
way in the United States is erroneous. The impression, however, is
shared by the Board of General Appraisers at the port of New York,
which decided that sunflower seed was imported into this country for
oil-making purposes, and therefore was dutiable. The opinion of the
General Appraisers is as follows:

The General Appraisers have decided that these seeds are entitled to free admission,
under paragraph 656, as a flower seed.. They were assessed for duty at 30 per cent
ad valorem under paragraph 254 as seed ‘‘n.s. p.f.’? The General Appraisers held
that they are a flower seed, and therefore free, the law providing that flower and
grass seeds n.s. p. f. are free.

It is our opinion that these seeds are imported for the purpose of expressing oil
which we believe to be used for adulteration of some kind. The reason for this
opinion is that it is very difficult to ascertain what becomes of the seed. We do not
believe that the sunflower is raised for its beauty, but rather that the seeds are cul-
tivated for some such purpose as above indicated. I would therefore respectfully
recommend that the Department of Agriculture be asked to make this merchandise
the subject of special investigation.

To this request the Secretary of Agriculture made the following
reply:
The Secretary or tHe TREASURY.

Sir: I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of the 21st instant,

inclosing a communication from the United States appraiser at the port of New York
in re sunflower seed.

NOVEMBER 24, 1899,
50

~

Investigations made by the Division of Chemistry of this Department have shown
that sunflower seed is not used for the expression of oil in this country, but is ex-
tensively used for poultry feeding and for the food of horses and cattle not in the best
of health. The admixture of sunflower seed with the ordinary food of these animals
tends to restore them to health, and puts their systems into excellent condition.
There is in this country quite a large commerce in sunflower seed used for this
purpose.

Careful investigation made by the Division of Chemistry has failed to find any
factory in this country in which the oil is expressed from these seeds. Experi-
mentally, the Division of Chemistry has demonstrated that this seed yields an
excellent oil, suited for table uses, in the replacement of olive and cottonseed oil.
Dr. Wiley, the Chemist of the Department, has informed me that he has tried this
oil, and has found it to be of most excellent quality. It is believed that eventually
the industry of making oil from the sunflower seeds will be developed in this country.

The Chemist of the Department is now preparing a bulletin on the subject, in
which detailed information of which a summary has just been given, will be con-
tained.

I think that the Appraiser of the port of New York can safely be guided by the
above statements, inasmuch as I think the large quantities of sunflower seed im-
ported into this country are used for poultry food and for the feeding of cattle.

I have the honor to be, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,
JAMES WILSON, Secretary.

SUMMARY.

(1) The sunflower is a plant which can be grown successfully over
large areas in the United States.

(2) From the chemical analysis of the whole plant it is evident that
it is a crop making a considerable drain on the elements of soil fertili-
zers; therefore it should be cultivated with proper attention to fertil-
ization in order that the fertility of the soil be maintained.

(3) One of the most valuable constituents of the plant is the oil
which exists in large quantities in the seeds. This oil is formed by
direct synthesis in the process of growth, and does not diminish to any
great extent the fertility of the soil. On the other hand, the protein
matter which exists in large quantities in the seeds is derived almost
exclusively from the nitrogenous elements in the soil or added in fer-
tilizers. There is no evidence that the sunflower plant has the property
possessed by the Leguminosae of assimilating free nitrogen by means
of symbiotic organisms attached to its roots.

(4) The economic production of the sunflower plant is now contined
almost exclusively to Russia, where it is an agricultural industry of
considerable importance. ?

(5) In the United States the sunflower is grown as an ornament and
for the production of seeds which are used chiefly for poultry and bird
feeding, and for condimental and medicinal properties with farm
animals.

(6) The oil of the sunflower seed is not produced commercially in
the United States. It is very palatable and makes, without refining,
a ae er a a > and an
~ = 2 <<) >. -
. " ” or 4 . _ i -
— - J oe te as z
= 7 oA ”
Sw i t Ses /
a ; ey “a ) @
I eS yt,
I* a. ae be 8]
eer on GS : :
e ‘ y ~ ad xf
ems oo ~



au 1 dressing. The residual oil cakes have a high nutri-
| pits equal if not superior to that possessed by flax-seed
-seed cakes.

m4

, t/ y

vu
=





al UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA

1262 taint 7 at