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An analysis of beginning to intermediate percussion methods used in selected public schools and their relationship to the performance requirements of state approved band literature

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An analysis of beginning to intermediate percussion methods used in selected public schools and their relationship to the performance requirements of state approved band literature
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Ackman, James Kent
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vii, 153 leaves : 29 cm.

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High schools ( jstor )
Instrumental music ( jstor )
Music education ( jstor )
Musical instruments ( jstor )
Musical performance ( jstor )
Pedagogy ( jstor )
Public schools ( jstor )
Side drums ( jstor )
Struck idiophones ( jstor )
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Band music -- Instruction and study ( lcsh )
Band music -- Performance ( lcsh )
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Thesis (Ph. D.)--University of Florida, 1998.
Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references (p. 129-139).
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Typescript.
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Vita.
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by James Kent Ackman.

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AN ANALYSIS OF BEGINNING TO
INTERMEDIATE PERCUSSION METHODS
USED IN SELECTED PUBLIC SCHOOLS AND
THEIR RELATIONSHIP TO THE PERFORMANCE
REQUIREMENTS OF STATE APPROVED BAND LITERATURE








By

JAMES KENT ACKMAN








A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT
OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF
DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY












UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA

1998










ACKNOWLEDGMENTS


T6 completion of a dissertation is merely the last project in a sequence of events leading to a doctorate degree, An endeavor of this magnitude would not have been possible without the support and sacrifice of my family and fhends. As such, I would like to take this opportunity to acknowledge the people who have guided me through this long, sometimes arduous, and ultimately rewarding process,

First and foremost, I wish to thank my mother for her unwavering belief in me. She provided moral and emotional support through the entire process and always understood how much the pursuit of a doctorate in music education meant to me. Her understanding and deep compassion are priceless gifts.

My wife, Jan, along with my daughter, Katie, who had to spend a lot of time growing up while I was pursuing my dream, deserve a very special place in my acknowledgments, They had to sacrifice the most of all those who helped me reach my goal, and were also the inspiration that allowed me to handle the difficult times along the way.

I wish to extend my warmest thanks to Dr. Charles Hoffer, my committee chair. He guided me through the whole process and had a more profound influence.on me as a person and a student than he will ever know. Although he taught me many things about music and education, the most important things I learned during the pursuit of this degree had nothing to do with music, and for this he has earned my deepest gratitude, I consider him a friend. as well as a mentor.

Another major influence during my time at the University of Florida was Dr. David Kushner. His impeccably high academic standards and attention to detail, along with his grasp of the importance of events within the larger scheme of things, provided the impetus









for me to become a more discerning scholar. His genuine warmth and humor were also greatly appreciated.

I also wish to acknowledge Dr. Phyllis Dorman, Dr. James Sain, and Dr, Art

Newman, They were all thoroughly professional and personable, and had an enormously positive influence on my educational and musical growth. In addition, I wish to thank my two closest friends in Gainesville, Vikki Truesdail and Paul Barrett, who helped me through some very difficult times and asked nothing in return save friendship. I am indeed fortunate to have two such caring and compassionate friends.

My last acknowledgments are perhaps the most important ones. They go to my grandmother and the memory of my grandfather. Along with my mother and my brother, Jon, they taught me the essential importance of hard work, dedication, and finishing a project, regardless of the obstacles. Their influence is something I will always carry with me. This dissertation is dedicated to their spirit, compassion, and simple human dignity,














TABLE OF CONTENTS


ACKNOW LEDGMENTS .... .................................... ................................... ........

A B S T R A C T ............................................................................... .......................... v i

CHAPTERS

I O V E R V IE W ................................................................................... 1

2 SURVEY OF RELATED
L IT E R A T U R E ................................................................................ 12


METHODOLOGY .................................. ...................................... 41

R e search D e sig n ............................................ ................................ 4 2
P aram eters o f S tu dy ...................................................................... 44

4 R E S U L T S ................................................. ..................................... 5 3

Regional Results of Survey. ............. ........................... ................... 54
Current Band M ethods Used in Public Nfiddle Schools .................... 55
Analysis of Percussion Books from Band M ethods .......................... 57
Summary of M ethod Books .................... ........................................ 94

5 CONTENT ANALYSES OF BAND LITERATURE ....... .............. 107

6 SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, AND RECOMMENDATIONS .... 119

S u m m a ry ......................................................................................... 1 1 9
C o n c lu sio n s .............................................. ..................... ................ 12 1
Recommendations for Improvement .................................. ............. 124
Recommendations for Further Research .......................................... 127


iv









B IB L IO G R A P H Y ........................................... ............. ................. 129

APPENDICES

A FO R M L E T T E R .................................................................. 140
B PERCUSSION REQUIREMENTS OF SELECTED
B AN D LITER ATUR E ...... ................................................. 142

BIOGR APHICAL SKETCH ...... ..................................................... 153













Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate School
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy AN ANALYSIS OF BEGINNING TO INTERMEDIATE PERCUSSION METHODS USED IN SELECTED PUBLIC SCHOOLS AND
THEIR RELATIONSHIP TO THE PERFORMANCE
REQUIREMENTS OF STATE APPROVED BAND LITERATURE By

JAMES KENT ACKMAN

August 1998

Chairman: Charles R. Hoffer Major Department: Music

The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between beginning to intermediate percussion books from contemporary band methods and the performance requirements of levels HI-VI band literature typically programmed by high school ensembles in concert, contest, and festival situations.

Contemporary band composers have written with increasing frequency and fluency for percussion instruments. In turn, this has lead to a demand for more comprehensively trained student percussionists. For this reason, there is a need for an examination of whether the skiffs student percussionists are taught in elementary and middle school percussion classes are what they actually need to know in order to successfiffly perforin levels IH-V1 band literature.

A major issue involving contemporary band directors and instrumental music

teachers in the area of percussion instruction is specialization, This is a situation in which vi









a student teams to perform on a particular percussion instrument, such as snare drum, and remains on that instrument throughout his or her public school performing career. This study examines the extent to which specialization influences the content of percussion method books as well as the performance requirements of levels III-VI band literature,
The sample of percussion books from band methods was taken from the results of a survey of 150 middle school band directors in three separate geographic locations in the United Sates, 50 each in Florida, Illinois, and Massachusetts.

Schools for the survey were randomly selected from the web-site of the American School Directory. Method books were examined for presentation of skills, concepts, and instruments. The reason for this was to provide a basis for. examination of the efficacy of the method books in preparing elementary and middle school percussionists to successfully perform typical high school band music literature.

Content analyses were performed on the four method book series most frequently cited in the survey as being in current use in middle school instrumental music programs. These method book series were examined for sequence of skills, concepts, and instruments presented in their texts, as well as their musical and educational scope.

In order to examine the extent of the relationship between elementary to

intermediate percussion method books and performance practices, 100 intermediate to advanced band works were analyzed for number of percussion players and instruments required, as well as percussion technique requirements. Works were randomly selected from the approved concert band literature list of the New York State School Association.

The final portion of the study is devoted to a discussion of conclusions from the survey and content analyses of method book series and band literature. In addition, recommendations are made for improving the musical and educational content of percussion method books, as well as facilitating the training of future music educators in undergraduate percussion skills classes.

vii














CHAPTER
OVERVIEW

Percussion instruments have been a part of musical culture since the dawn of

civilization. From prehistoric log drums to contemporary electronic drum-machines, there has been significant interest in the performance and educational areas of this particular family.

In the immediate aftermath of World War II, the trend in public schools was to program music for concerts featuring works of contemporary band composers in addition to standard marches and transcriptions of orchestral works, These composers were trained in the 20th century style of composition, which involved inclusion of the percussion section as part of the main fabric of the music. I This was a dramatic departure from percussion's traditional role of accompanist to the band.

During the second half of the 20th century, often referred to as the "golden age of percussion," band and orchestra composers have written with increasing frequency and fluency for percussion, exploring their musical and color potential.'

In the 1980s, percussion entered the arena of technology with the development of electronic percussion instruments, Today, using NMI (musical instrument digital interface) and other advanced capabilities, percussionists and composers have at their disposal an almost infinite range of sounds and timbres.3



I Harold F Abeles, Charles R. Hoffer, and Robert H. Klotman. Foundations ofMusic Education (Second Edition). Schirmer Books, New York, 1973. page 284.

2 Gary Cook, Teaching Percussion. Schirmer Books, New York, 1988. page 9.
1








2
The practical implications of this philosophy of composition with regard to percussion performance requirements are twofold, 1.) The number of percussion instruments employed in contemporary band literature has been expanded to include ethnic and world percussion instruments such as marimbas and Latin percussion. 2.) Percussion parts contained in contemporary literature have become more sophisticated and demanding.4

Need for Comprehensive Percussion Instruction Along with this increased emphasis upon percussion writing has come a demand for comprehensively trained percussionists, musicians who can perform competently on a vast array of instruments: pitched and non-pitched, melodic and rhythmic.'

Contemporary percussionists must develop diverse skills in order to meet the performance demands of modem band literature, It is a difficult dilemma for the contemporary band director: whether to program a piece containing a crucial mallet part that none of the percussionists can play, or use a musician from another section to perform the part. 6

With the implementation of the National Standards for music education, there has been a widespread use of percussion instruments for classroom instruction. The



I Steve Wilkes. "Welcome to Planet Electronic Drum." Percussive Notes, 35: 57-8 n6 1997.
4 Ibid.

5 Cook, page 3.

6 Donald Gilbert. "Changing Concepts in Percussion. 77?e Instrumentalist, 23: 64- 5 n 10 1969,









3

Orif-Schuiwerk method, among others features percussion instruments as the basis of musical instruction. Percussion education is appropriate for standard number 2, regarding the student's ability to play alone and with others, a wide variety of instruments.'

This quandary facing modem percussionists and music educators is recognized

by Richard Colwell and Thomas Goolsby (1992) in The Teaching of Instrumental Music. Their summary of the problem is found in the following quote:


In spite of their ancient age, the percussion instruments have not been quite respectable until recently. They have had no
literature of their own, no good texts or method books,
and no systematic approach for learning the necessary
techniques.8


The perception of percussionists as musicians is diametrically opposed to their traditional reputation as mere time-keepers, which has primeval roots. The perception of the role duality of percussionists also provides an equitable starting point for the examination of contemporary percussion education.9

Robert Buggert (1956) mentions his belief that instruction for percussion instruments is by its nature different than instruction for woodwind and brass instruments. He attributes this to brass and woodwind players receiving instruction in




7 National Standards for the Arts (Music). Music Educators National Conference Reston, VA, 1996.

8 Richard Colwell and Thomas Goolsby. The Teaching of Instrumental Music. (Second Edition). Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1992. page 323.

9 Cook, page 3.









4

areas such as scales, clefs, and phrasing, which are typically not included in percussion instruction.

At the same time, however, Buggert maintains that percussionists should also team "musical reading." This indicates a pattern of the duality with which percussionists have been historically viewed,"

Kenneth Mueller (1972), in a discussion concerning college freshmen

percussionists, states that it is "almost impossible to find a high school percussion student capable of playing 0 of the percussion instruments." He further emphasizes that his statistics revealed that 25 percent of incoming college freshmen percussion students could not adequately play the snare drum, 75 percent could not perform competently on timpani and that 94 percent of all freshmen percussion students lacked minimal skills on mallet percussion instruments. I I

Mueller's observations support Colwell's position that public school students have historically not received adequate and appropriate instruction on all percussion instnnnents, His observation that there is an apparent lack of both comprehensive percussion instruction and a suitable curriculum for public school percussionists provides a starting point for the investigation of what percussionists are being taught percussion curriculum and percussion performance requirements of typical concert band literature.





10 Robert Buggert."The Beginning Drummer." Ae Instrumentalist, 11: 67-8 n3 1956. 11 Kenneth A. Mueller. Teaching Total Percussion. Parker Publishing Company, Inc., West Nyack, NJ, 1972. pages 19-20.








5
Purpose of Study
The purpose of the study is to gather information related to the following fundamental question regarding the teaching of percussion: Are the concepts and techniques taught to beginning and intermediate percussion students consistent with what they actually need to know in order to successfully perform music typically performed in high school band concert situations?

In essence, the study is a search for information with which to analyze the

useMness of beginning-to-intermediate percussion curricula (elementary through middle school) for the percussion performance needs associated with contemporary high school (Grades III through VI) band literature.

This study is intended to the degree to which what is being taught to student

percussionists in the classroom of public school band programs prepares percussionists for the actual performance requirements of representative concert, festival, as well as solo/ensemble music, Thus, several crucial topics impacting contemporary public school percussion instruction are covered:

1. specialization

2. beginning percussion instruction

3. implementation of mallet instruments into public school

percussion curriculum

4. matched-grip versus traditional grip

5. implementation of comprehensive curriculum for public school

percussionists
6. training of undergraduate non-percussionist music majors

in percussion skills class








6

Research Questions

In order to examine the relationship between percussion method utilized in the instruction of public school percussionists and the performance requirements of high school band literature, this study will address three core research questions.

1. To what extent do the skills and concepts taught in the beginning and

intermediate band methods books contribute to the skills required for the performance of band music of Grades IV-VI difficulty?

A determination of this raises two additional research questions:

2. What is the content of the beginning and intermediate band methods books in terms of percussion instruments?

3., What are the skills needed for successfully performing the percussion parts in band music of grades IV-VI difficulty?

Procedures

Percussion books (I-rn) from selected beginning/intermediate band methods

were investigated for their content, scope, and educational philosophy, and their practical application to percussion performance requirements of state band literature.

Examples of percussion methods to be examined in this study include the

following: Feldstein(YReilly~s Yamaha Band Student: A Combined Percussion Book, Pearson's Standard of Excellence: Comprehensive Band Method, O'Reilly/Williams' Accent on Achievement, and Rhodes Essential Elements.

Levels Ill-VT band music listed in state-approved band literature lists published by groups like the Florida Bandmasters Association was examined for percussion performance requirements. The works were analyzed for instrumentation needs, rhythmic, rudiments, technical, harmonic, and melodic aspects,








7

The results of the examination of band literature were then compared with the curricula presented in the method books. This comparison is an essential part of determining the degree to which early classroom instruction provides the essential preparation for students to meet the performance requirements of moderate to difficult band literature typically performed at the high school level.

It was also necessary to investigate whether elementary and intermediate

percussion curricula provide the foundation for students to be able to achieve a level of performance suitable for the performance of high school band literature.

In order to accomplish this, a survey of percussion books used in selected middle school band programs was implemented to determine what method books are currently being used for beginning and intermediate percussion instruction.

Content analyses were performed on the percussion books of the selected band methods. The categories examined included the amount of time devoted to each of the four basic performance areas: snare drum, timpani, mallet percussion, and accessory percussion. The sequence, practicality, and clarity of the material was also examined, as were special pages devoted to a particular skill or instrument.

The final portion of the study is devoted to a discussion of suggestions for improving the content of elementary to intermediate percussion method books.


Assumptions for the Study

1. While some probability exists that a small number of high school band directors do use percussion method books for instruction, the assumption was made that the percentage was negligible. This fact is supported by Andrew Preston (1975), whose results indicate that the most prevalent shortcoming with regard to percussion instruction









8

in public schools is the narrow and restricted scope of instruction provided for beginning and intermediate-level percussionists. 12

2. The majority of beginning to intermediate public school percussionists are taught in group settings using the percussion book from a standard band method book.

3. The percussionists who are taught from these group method books

eventually become members of large school ensembles such as band or orchestra.

4. Public school band directors follow the curriculum presented in the percussion books of band methods.

5. Students have access to percussion instruments required for performance, That is, students cannot reasonably be expected to be able to perform on an instrument rarely found outside of school (e.g. xylophone) unless they have access to the instrument.

6. Students have regularly scheduled full ensemble (e.g. band, orchestra) rehearsals and lesson times during school hours.

7. The majority of public school percussionists do not take private lessons.

8. Grades I-11 band literature is designed primarily for beginning bands and as such presents few technical or percussion performance problems.
9. The majority of public school band directors are not percussionists.


Delimitations

1. Method books selected for this study will be restricted to the contemporary standard band methods commonly used in public school instrumental music instruction.


17 Andrew Conrath Preston. Me Development and Evaluation of Selected Instructional Materialsfor Teaching Percussion Instruments in the Beginning Band Class. Ed. D. Dissertation: Music.University of North Carolina at Greensboro. 1975. pages 4-5.








9

The first three levels of these method books were explored, with particular attention given to content, scope, and sequence.

2. Band literature works were limited to difficulty levels III-VI of state contest lists in order to provide a representative sample of the more complex concert works currently being programmed at festivals, concerts, and recitals. Levels 1-11 band works contain limited performance problems for percussionists.

3. The study was restricted to the examination of band literature that is typically performed by concert band and wind ensembles. Consequently, jazz band and marching band literature were not included because of the specialized nature of the music.

The reason for selection of method books at these levels for analysis, which

represent curriculum offerings for elementary through middle school, was that the vast majority of high school band directors do not instruct percussionists from percussion method books because they simply do not have time in their daily schedules to do so.

Furthermore, nearly all band methods end after level three in the sequence. In other words, band methods are typically not written for high school instruction. Thus, for all practical purposes, the training of percussionists ceases at the end of middle school. A further consideration is the fact that most public school band directors are not percussionists and thus are unable to provide advanced instruction for percussionists.

In addition, public school administrators are often reluctant either to hire a

percussion specialist or expand a high school band director's teaching responsibilities to include percussion lessons either before/after school hours or within their daily schedules. Administrators typically face tight budgets and therefore have a fixed amount of funds available for instrumental music. Thus the reasons for the limited time devoted









10

to percus sion instruction at the high school level are financial considerations rather than philosophical.


Definitions

Non-pitched instruments are percussion instruments that are incapable of playing melodic or harmonic parts. These instruments include snare drum, bass drum cymbals, wood-block, triangle, and gongs.

Pitched instruments are instruments that traditionally play melodic and/or harmonic lines such as bells, xylophone, marimba, and vibraphone.

Standard band literature refers to works on state-approved band lists such as the Florida Bandmasters Association, Massachusetts Music Educators Association, and the Illinois High School Association.

Rudiin~nt are the combinations of rhythmic patterns found in the Percussive Arts Society's Standard Drum Sheet of 40 Rudiments-single-stroke roll, flam, paradiddle, double-stroke roll, flam-taps, etc. 13

Grup bandbooks refer to the books commonly used in public school percussion instruction (e.g. Ployhar's Band Today).

Group instruction refers to classes involving two or more band students, one of whom is a percussionist, within scheduled school hours.

Private instruction is individual instruction of a student percussionist by a percussion specialist that takes place outside of school band rehearsal hours.



13 Percussive Arts Society, P.A. S International Drum Rudiments. Ludwig Industries, Inc., Elkhart, IN, 1990.









I1I

Starter kit refers to a collection of instruments and texts used by beginning percussionists-snare drum, drum pad, and method book.

Accessory percus1io refers to percussion instruments that cannot be easily grouped in the other main categories such as gong, suspended cymbal, woodblock, and triangle. 14

Speilization means the student percussionist plays only one instrument and does not receive instruction or experience on other percussion instruments.

Percussion ensemble is three or more percussionists playing literature specifically composed for such an ensemble.

Matched. grip is the method of holding sticks or mallets in which both hands are the same, This grip may be employed with any percussion instrument requiring sticks, mallets, or brushes.

TraditionaLgrip. is the method of holding snare drum sticks in which the left and right hands are not the same: i.e. the right hand is the same as matched grip but the left hand is different. This grip is used only on snare drum and drum set.

Transfer is the ability of a grip for snare drum to be used on other percussion instruments.

Matrix is a method for comparing and contrasting similar sections of method books such as the snare drum units of three percussion method books.






14Larry Dale Reeder. An Analysis and Comparison of Select Teaching Methods for the University Percussion Methods Class. Thesis (D.A.). University of Mississippi, Oxford, Mississippi. 1994. page 9.













CHAPTER 2
SURVEY OF
RELATED LITERATURE Introduction

Published research will be discussed by topic as it relates to the current study rather than an examination of each dissertation as a whole. The purpose of this section is to identify and describe several of the significant issues, mentioned previously in Chapter, surrounding contemporary public school percussion instruction:

-specialization

-percussion ensembles in public schools -comprehensive percussion curriculum

-need for mallet instruction

-heterogeneous versus homogenous instruction

-matched grip versus traditional grip

-training of undergraduate, non-percussionist music majors


Current Status of Percussion Instruction Robert Breithaupt (199 1) notes that a crucial part of the problem surrounding public school percussion education is that until recently, there have been relatively few resources available to music educators in the area of comprehensive percussion instruction: textbooks, method books, and literature for percussionists, As a result, most public school percussionists lack the necessary musical skills, due largely to the absence of 12








13

melodic lines to play or harmonic parts that fit into what the rest of the band is playing. I

According to Colwell, a portion of the problem endemic to contemporary

percussion instruction is that of specialization. In many public school band situations, snare drummers play only snare drum, with perhaps one student assigned to timpani, and another to bells. Colwell also notes that these students often remain on the same instrument for every selection during rehearsal and performance. He states that this format frequently leads to apathy and lack of motivation on the part of percussionists.

Kenneth Mueller (1972) mentions the complexity of contemporary band music

and its demands upon the percussionist. He states that if students have not been taught in a comprehensive manner, there is the risk that at some point the percussion section will be unable to play their parts. Mueller attributes this to the problem of "specialization": each player is able to play only one instrument, timpani for example, or snare drum, resulting in a limited experience for percussion students.

He notes that percussionists must be consciously aware of the instruments around them, something they may be unable to accomplish without training in a comprehensive percussion curriculum. Mueller also observes that percussionists who are not trained in a comprehensive percussion program often lack a musical approach to performance


I Robert B. Breithaupt. The Complete Percussionist: A Guidebookfor the Music Educator. C.L. Barnhouse Co., Oskaloosa, IA, 1991.

2 Colwell, page 471.

1 Kenneth A. Mueller. Teaching Total Percussion, Parker Publishing Company, Inc., West Nyack, NJ, 1972, pages 19-20.








14

C harles Spohn and John Tatgenhorst (197 1) mention the necessity of

instrumental music instructors providing a suitable melodic experience for beginning percussionists. They maintain that playing only the rhythmic parts of snare drum or other non-melodic percussion instrument will not provide the same type of complete and meaningful musical experience for the beginning percussionist as would be the case for one who learns from a melodic percussion instrument such as bells or xylophone.4

John Stede (1984) discusses the issue of specialization in a survey of selected

college percussion programs in the United States. The survey reports that a majority of university percussion programs place greater emphasis on one aspect of percussion education (e.g. jazz, ethnic, marching) opposed to using either of the more traditional instructional models: (e.g conservatory [performance] or music education).5I

Gary Cook (1988) examines specialization in his discussion on the selection

process regarding beginning percussion students. He states that it is desirable for these students to have a piano background. He observes that having such a background facilitates the reading of clefs, scales, and melodic lines.

Cook further suggests that the beginning percussion kit include a set of bells in addition to snare drum. He maintains that these instruments should be taught concurrently, as part of a comprehensive percussion curriculum.6




4 Charles Spohn and John J. Tatgenhorst. The Percussion: Performance and Instructional Techniques (Second Edition). Allyn and Bacon, Inc., Boston, 1971.
5 John Stede. 'Percussion in Higher Education: A Perspective On Its Present and Future." Percussive Notes, 26: 7-9 n2 1988. pages 8-9,
6 Cook, page 7.









15
Harry Bartlett and Ronald Holloway (1973) address specialization with their suggestion that comprehensive percussion instruction should be included in the curriculum for second year students. They state that including instruction on mallet percussion instruments in addition to snare drum, bass drum, and timpani allows percussionists to be more involved with the full band. They further state that this format contributes to "fostering a feeling of pride on the part of the student, leading to increased musical growth and sensitivity."

Joseph Casimino (1985) notes that college freshmen who specialized on one instrument in high school and desiring to major in music would be at a disadvantage: "without knowledge of tympani and mallet percussion instruments he would be very limited as a percussionist. "8

Robert Breithaupt ( 199 1 ) believes that beginning percussionists should have the

opportunity to play various percussion instruments in order to provide a complete musical experience. He states that the trading of parts, including mallet/keyboard percussion, helps solve the problems inherent in specialization.9

Douglas Overmier (1990) states that playing band literature involving large

amounts of percussion instruments allows percussionists to feel that they are an integral part of the overall ensemble. He cites the necessity of including the percussion section in the daily warm-up routine of the band, and the switching of instruments. He also notes




7 Bartlett and Holloway, Preface: viii.

8 Casimino, page 42.

9 Breithaupt, page 3.









16
that "playing in a percussion ensemble is a good way for students to develop musicianship and a feel for percussion performance. "10

James Lambert (1995) states that the percussion section is often neglected in band warm-ups. He advocates that all band warm-ups include the entire percussion section. He further states that snare drum exercises should be coordinated with timpani, mallet instruments and accessory percussion in daily warm-ups."'

Bruce Dalby (1994) discusses the problem of maintaining beginning percussion students' interest following the excitement of the first-year band experience. He states that percussionists should be included in all whole band warm-ups. Dalby also notes that this can be accomplished only if percussionists are introduced to timpani and mallet percussion from the beginning of instruction.'12


Percussion Ensembles in Public Schools Joseph Casimino (1985) cites Gordon Peters' study concerning the desirability of incorporating percussion ensemble in public school percussion curriculum as a vehicle for musical development of public school percussion students. He notes Peters' suggestion that the percussion ensemble provides many opportunities for musical growth, chief among which is the "focus on the melodic and harmonic aspects to compensate for many students receiving only rhythmic training on snare drum."'13


10 Douglas Overmier. "Training Student Percussionists." T-he Instrumentalist, 45: 46-53 n3 1990.

11 Lambert, page 176.

12 Bruce Dalby. "Challenging Percussionists." The Instrumentalist, 49: 56-60 n2 1994. "1 Casiniino, pages 60-61,








17

Donald Gilbert (1969) maintains that the percussion ensembles should be an

integral part of beginning public school percussion curriculum. He notes that percussion ensembles give students more meaningful and significant musical experiences, leading to more musically complete percussionists. He crystallizes his philosophy of percussion education in public schools with the following statement:


At his very first percussion lesson the young student should ... have
an opportunity to experience the sound and feel not only of the snare drum, but also the bass drum, cymbals, and bells. Within
his first few lessons, he should have the opportunity to perform on
most of the percussion instruments. 14


Gilbert also maintains that it is the responsibility of public school band directors to provide comprehensive percussion instruction even if it entails "changing our (music educators) concept of the elementary percussion class ... with this type of beginning instruction, perhaps we can at last begin to educate versatile percussionists instead of one-instrument drummers."' 5

Anna Watkins (1982) suggests that appropriate music for percussion ensemble, in conjunction with rehearsals designed to develop musical sensitivity, allows the musicians in the percussion section to attain a high level of ensemble playing. She notes that the ability to play as a unit enables percussionists to perform with a greater sense of musical awareness in any area of performance: band, orchestra, or chamber music.



14 Donald Gilbert. Changing Concepts in Percussion: Percussion Anthology. The Instrumentalist Company of Illinois, Chicago, EL, 1969, page 356. 15 Gilbert, page 65.









18

Watkins further maintains that this happens as a result of percussionists playing music requiring knowledge of the fundamental areas of percussion. 16

Murray Houliff (1977) states that mallet percussion instruments should be included in percussion curriculum from elementary through senior high school. He argues that this contributes to extensive growth in musicianship among public school percussionists 17

Fred Wickstromn (1983) advocates the incorporation of a complete percussion curriculum at all levels of education. Wickstromn states that instruction in each major category of percussion: snare drum, timpani, and mallet/keyboard instruments, should be included in the training of public school percussionists,.18

Jeffirey Dire (1977) notes that beginning percussionists very first lessons are crucial to their development as complete musicians. He suggests beginning that percussionists study a variety of instruments in addition to snare drum (e.g. timpani and mallet percussion). According to Dire, this comprehensive approach to teaching beginning percussionists allows public school percussionists to become familiar with a breadth of instruments and performance requirements, thus enabling them to become more complete, knowledgeable, and versatile musicians.'19




16 Anna Watkins. "The High School Percussion Ensemble," The Instrumentalist, 36: 90-2 n9 1982.

17 Houliff in Casimino, page 66.

18 Fred A. Wickstrom, Jr. "A Curriculum for College Bound Percussionists." Percussive Notes, 21: 54 n5 1983.

19 Jeffrey M. Dire. "A Beginning Percussion Curriculum Based on Comprehensive Musicianship." The Instrumentalist, 32: 74-6 n2 1977.









19

Steve Rehbein (1996) cites a recurring problem among incoming university

freshmen and first year percussion students as lack of versatility. He observes that these students 6'ften possess a working knowledge of only one instrument, usually snare drum. Rehbein attributes this lack of adaptability to students' public school percussion training, in which specialization is the norm.20


Comprehensive Percussion Curriculum Dave Black (1996) notes that percussionists are often ignored by band directors "~except to correct major errors." He mentions the fact that percussionists are often not given the same kind of specific instructions regarding dynamics, phrasing, and overall musical expression as woodwind and brass players.21

Bruce Dalby (1974) provides insight into the cause of this lack of overall musical skill on the part of percussionists. He notes that many band directors are unsure how to have percussionists participate in warm-ups. He also maintains that in rehearsal, it is often the case that wind players learn new notes and scales, while percussionists are left to accompany the band with quarter and eighth-note patterns.22

Dalby's view that potential instrumental music educators lack fundamental training in percussion is supported by Breithaupt (1991) and Albin (1979), who both cite a crucial



20 Steve Rehbein. "Versatility and Specialization: The Anthem of the Contemporary Percussionist." Percussive Notes, 34: 47 n6 1966. 21 Dave Black. "Of Musicians and Percussionists." The Instrumentalist, 51: 17-22 n2 1996.

22.Bruce Dalby. "Challenging Percussionists." The Instrumentalist, 4: 56-8 n2 1994.









20

need for both improved teacher training in percussion and implementation of a more comprehensive percussion curriculum in public schools.23

Lance Haas (1984) reports a need for comprehensive musical training for beginning percussionists. He states that a majority of public school band directors consider their programs hampered by a lack of overall musicianship among members of the percussion section. Haas goes on to state that this lack of musicianship is due to the fact that most snare drum literature for junior high and high school students contains a series of rhythmic patterns and little else, He strongly suggests that a lack of comprehensive training, including mallet instruments, is the cause of this limited ability of many percussionists to successfully interpret contemporary band MUSiC.24

Gary Cook (1988) cites a need for comprehensively trained public school percussionists using a thorough musical approach including the melodic, harmonic, structural, and rhythmic elements of music in conjunction with the technical aspects of pitched and non-pitched instruments.

Cook goes on to state that this kind of comprehensive percussion curriculum, if implemented properly from the beginning of instruction, will eventually lead to an increased musical sensitivity, interpretation skills, and overall musicianship among public school percussionists. 25




23 Ibid.

24 Lance Haas. 'Even Percussionists Can Be Musicians." Ae Instrumentalist, 39: 99-101 n2 1984. pages 2-3.
25 Cook, pages 9-10.









21

Linda Pimentel (1987), another advocate of comprehensive percussion training,

mentions gaps in instruction, particularly of keyboard instruments, in the training of public school percussionists. She suggests that percussion students be required to play a mallet/keyboard instrument for half of each band rehearsal in each of the first three or four years of band participation. 16 She further states that students do not have to study all areas of percussion all the time. However, it is Pimentel's contention that beginning percussionists need to have a sense of familiarity in each of the main areas: snare drum, timpani, mallet, and accessory percussion.

Pimentel also observes that reading skills are essential to percussion education. Her contention is that a majority of percussionists learn to read only rhythms. She states that it is most noticeable in keyboard performance, with the biggest hindrance to development in these areas the inability of percussion students to read clefs.27

Garwood Whaley (1988) mentions the focus of technical development over musical development as a continuing issue in percussion education. He attributes this to the fact that technical skills are easier to measure than overall musicianship skills. such as phrasing and style interpretation. Whaley contends that overaU musicianship skills are particularly difficult to measure in contest situations, where performances by public school percussionists consist primarily of rudimental snare drum solos requiring little in the way of dynamic shadings, phrase shaping, or style interpretation.',


16 Linda Pimentel, "Recommendations for the Reorganization of Percussion Instruction. Percussive Notes, 25: 23-6 n2 1987.
27 Ibid.

28 Garwood Whaley. "Percussion Education: Whose Responsibility?" Percussive Notes, 26: 7 n2 1988.








22

Need for Mallet Percussion Instruction Mario Gaetano (1980) emphasizes the need to instruct beginning percussionists in all areas of performance. He states that students should become familiar with mallet percussion instruments so that they may progress at the same rate as wind and brass players in the area of key signatures and scales.

Gaetano also mentions the necessity of bandrooms containing at minimum a

xylophone, tubular chimes, and orchestra bells in order for the percussionists to be able to perform the eclectic instrumentation required in the majority of contemporary band literature. 29

Jeff-rey Dire (1977) advocates the training of beginning percussionists on mallet percussion instruments and accessory percussion in addition to snare drum. He notes that while it is not realistic to expect all students to become proficient on all percussion instruments, "every attempt should be made to make mallet percussion the student's most proficient area. "30

Douglas Overmier (1990) observes that the majority of band methods include adequate percussion books. He states that these books contain sufficient and useful exercises for beginning mallet instruction and should be incorporated into the overall band curriculum. His main contention is that most public school band directors are reluctant to use these resources because of unfamiliarity with percussion.

23


29 Mario A. Gaetano. "Teaching Mallet Instruments to Beginners." The Instrumentalist, 34: 30-1 n10 1980,

30 Jeff-rey M. Dire. "A Beginning Percussion Curriculum Based On Comprehensive Musicianship." Ae Instrumentalist, 3 2: 74-9 n2 1977,









23

Overmier also advocates switching instruments among the members of the percussion section in order to provide a more complete and comprehensive musical experience. He states that switching instruments helps to alleviate some of the boredom extant in contemporary percussion sections and also benefits the band as a whole by involving all band members in rehearsals."

John Papastefan (1989) also advocates the inclusion of mallet instruments in public school percussion instruction. He notes that students who receive early training on mallet percussion are more likely to exhibit more musical sensitivity and growth than those who do not.32

Gordon Peters (1966) maintains that percussionists who play keyboard instruments are better equipped to have successful musical experiences at any level the encounter: amateur, collegiate or professional, He mentions that requiring percussionists to learn mallet/keyboard instruments from the onset of instruction can lead to a more enthusiastic and musically involved percussion section.33

Peters also states that percussionists must be given music requiring note reading skills to play, and not merely rhythms, further noting that it becomes uninteresting for percussionists to have as their only role that of accompanist.

He then categorically states that the band director has an educational responsibility for developing versatile percussionists, and that one way to achieve this is to insist that all


31 Douglas R. Overmier. "Training Student Percussionists." Ae Instrumentalist, 45. 46-53 n3 1990.

32 John Papastefan, "The Mallets Make a Difference." The Instrumentalist, 44: 48 n12 1989.
33 Gordon Peters. "The Marimba in the Band," Ae Instrumentalist, 20: 77-8 n6 1966.









24

beginning drummers learn to play mallet keyboard instruments and timpani as well as snare drum. 34

Donald Gilbert (1969) states categorically that most obvious omission from public school percussion curricula is mallet/keyboard training. He ijuher suggests that each elementary band room be equipped a set of orchestra bells, so that beginning student percussionists can become familiar with mallet instruments from the very start of instruction. He notes that percussionists who are instructed on mallet percussion and snare drum concurrently develop heightened musical awareness.35


Heterogeneous Class Instruction

A major issue concerning contemporary beginning percussion instruction is the question of whether to start percussionists in a heterogeneous setting such as full band or other mixed-instrument groups, or in a homogeneous group of percussion students separate from the band proper.

Robert Breithaupt (1991) states that public school percussionists with musical knowledge on an instrument such as piano encounter less difficulties in learning all percussion instruments than those who have no prior experience, regardless of whether the instructional format is percussion-only or heterogeneous. He notes that such a prior musical background benefits both students and teachers.36



34IbN&

11 Donald Gilbert. "Changing Concepts in Percussion." The Instrumentalist, 23: 64-5 nlO 1969.

36Ibid.








25
Loren Waa (1965) examines the effect of heterogeneous band methods and private instruction on the musical achievement scores on Seashore Measures of Musical Talents and the Farnum Music Notation Test. He notes that while students who receive private lessons scored higher on portions of the Seashore Measures and Watkins-Farnum tests, the results indicate no significant difference in overall test scores.37

James Shugert (1969) examines the effects of class and private instruction on the musical achievement of beginning band students in Connecticut public schools. His findings indicate that students who receive private instruction score no higher on musical aptitude and musical achievement tests than students taught in heterogeneous classes. He states that results were essentially the same regardless of instrument.38

Andrew Preston's (1975) study is a replication of Waa (1965) and investigates the musical backgrounds of beginning percussionists in North Carolina public schools. His hypothesis states that a supplementary book for beginning percussion students is needed for use in conjunction with the percussion book of the band method.39

As a result of his investigation, Preston noted that his data indicated that brass and woodwind players had higher expectation to develop musically beyond what was expected of percussionists. Preston also includes in his study suggestions for the improvement of basic skills and concepts for beginning percussionists. His suggestions address several


37 Loren Roger Waa. An Experimental Study of Class and Private Methods of Instruction in Instrumental Music. Ed.D. Thesis: Music.University of llinois. Champaign, IL. 1965. 38 James Malcolm Shugert. An Experimental Investigation of Heterogeneous Class and Private Methods of Instruction with Beginning Instrumental Music Students. Ed.D.
Thesis: Music. University of Illinois, Champaign, 1IL. 1969. 39 Preston, page 21.








26
crucial areas of elementary percussion instruction including scales and melodies for malletikeyboard percussion instruments, as well as timpani fundamentals such as ear-training and pitch changes, in his own method book Flexible Percussion Ensembles. 40

Gary Cook (1989) states that thorough beginning level percussion training cannot be adequately established through use of a heterogeneous class approach. He goes on to mention that many music educators believe in a homogeneous class setting for the initial stages of percussion instruction.41 Cook also states that heterogeneous band methods, when used in conjunction with a method designed exclusively for percussion instruments, are useful in the education of percussionists as part of the overall band program. He also suggests the use of different instrument parts to be played by percussionists e.g. flute, oboe, trombone, as useful sources of sight-reading for bells, marimba, and xylophone.41

Robert Buggert (1956), referring to a difference in the nature of drum instruction compared with brass and wind instruments, cites the rhythmic and rudimental nature of percussion instruments versus the emphasis on notes, scales, and tone production of wind instruments. He suggests that, because of this distinction in percussion education as compared with other instruments, "it is wise if the beginning drummers meet in a separate, homogeneous group." He maintains that this method "appears to reinforce the traditional concept of percussionists as not included in the essential core of the band as a whole." 43

40 Preston, page 20.

41 Cook, page 21.

42 Ibid.

43 Robert Buggert. "The Beginning Drummer." Yhe Instrumentalist, 11: 67-8 n3 1956. page 67.








27

Presented in Bartlett and Holloway's (1973) text is the philosophy of a class

approach to teaching percussion at three levels- elementary, junior high, and high school. They stipulate that mallet percussion instruments should not be introduced in the first year of instruction. They state the position that first year percussionists should instead concentrate on rhythms, sticking, and technical development. Thus, mallet/keyboard percussion instruments are to be introduced beginning the second year of band instruction.44

Bartlett and Holloway further recommend that beginning percussion students

receive private instruction on mallet/keyboard instruments. It is their view that beginning percussionists benefit most from such a combination of homogeneous and heterogeneous instructional formats, and private instruction.45


Matched Grip versus Traditional Grip One of the central issues confronting today's public school band director and college percussion instructor is the decision of which grip to use with beginning percussionists: matched or traditional. This issue is pertinent to the study because it effects public school percussion instruction not only at the beginning level but also at the middle school and high school levels,

The relevance of this issue to comprehensive percussion instruction fies in the reality that many high school marching band programs emulate the techniques of contemporary drum corps, which incorporate traditional grip on snare drum. As



44 Bartlett and Holloway, page 20
45 Ibid.








28
a result, the question of which grip to teach beginning percussionists is a frequently discussed topic among contemporary percussion teachers.

Bartlett and Holloway (1973) advocate the use of matched grip for all beginning percussion students, citing the elimination of the "'awkward and unnatural" left-hand grip of traditional rudiment-style playing, leading to the facilitation of learning other percussion instruments. They contend that because matched grip is nearly identical to grips used for timpani and mallet percussion instruments, it is thus unnecessary to teach a different grip when learning a new instrument.46

Larry Reeder (1994) indicates that traditional grip on snare drum is often viewed by teachers as more difficult to teach than is matched grip. He notes that this is due to the fact that traditional grip requires different grips for left and right hands, a situation which requires two separate, distinct performing and instructional techniques.47 In addition, Reeder cites the prevailing view of many contemporary percussion instructors and band directors that matched grip should be taught to beginning percussionists on snare drum because it transfers more readily to other percussion instruments than does traditional grip. This allows for consistency in instruction of performance techniques on all percussion instruments.48

John Papastefan (1990) also advocates the use of matched grip in preference to traditional grip. He remarks that use of the same muscle groups for both hands allow for quicker development of technique on snare drum. Papastefan also cites the ease of


46 Bartlett and Holloway, page 5 1.

47 Reeder, pages 17-19.

48I[bid.









29

transfer to other percussion instruments, which contributes to the establishment of a consistent percussion methodology as well as enhanced musical growth among public school percussionists at all grade levels: elementary, middle school, and high school.49

Robert Breithaupt (1991) suggests the use of different classes of instruments, starting with snare drum and including mallet percussion, for beginning percussion instruction. He concludes that use of matched grip on snare drum facilitates the learning of other percussion instruments, including the following:

1. membranophones (e.g snare drum, bass drum)

2. idiophones (e.g. bells, xylophone)50

Tony Ames, Gordon Peters, and Fred Wickstrom (1980) advocate matched grip for all percussion students because of its versatility and ease of transfer to other percussion instruments such as timpani and mallet percussion. They maintain that this allows percussionists to develop a more consistent approach in the development of comprehensive approach to percussion performance skills. 51

James Lambert and Robert (3rifa (1997) state that all fundamental techniques in percussion are derived from those used in matched grip snare drum playing. They compare the hand position of percussionists to the proper embouchure of wind and brass musicians. They declare that consistency of grip leads to ease of transfer to other instruments, thus providing a foundation for comprehensive percussion musicianship. 52 49 John Papastefan. "How to Practice Percussion." The Instrumentalist, 28: 38-41 n 4 1990.

50 Breithaupt, page 3.

51 Tony Ames, Gordon Peters, and Fred A.Wickstrom. 'Expert Advice for Percussion Students." The Instrumentalist, 34: 17-9 nlO 1980.









30

Mario Gaetano (1980) suggests that beginning percussionists receive lessons on keyboard percussion instruments in conjunction with snare drum instruction. He emphasizes that the combining of snare drum and mallet percussion is most logically approached utilizing matched grip for both instruments.

Gaetano notes that this type of training provides a consistency of instruction and avoids the problems inherent in teaching different grips for different instruments (e.g. snare drum, xylophone, timpani). However, he also states that in addition to matched grip, students should be cognizant of traditional grip because of its wide usage in the drumlines of high school marching bands. 53 Gaetano also cites ease of transfer to other percussion instruments as the primary reason for instructing beginning percussionists on matched grip for all instruments 54

Papastefan (1990) notes that the traditional grip was originally used in military

bands for performance on a snare drum carried on a sling. The result was a "tilted drum" requiring a specialized grip. He states that with the existence of modem drum carriers, which allow the drum to be placed in a level position, there is no practical need for instruction of traditional gip."5 He also mentions that many contemporary marching bands that are equipped with these carriers use matched grip in their snare drum sections.



57 James W. Lambert and Robert Grifa. "Beginning Percussionists With Good Fundamentals." The Instrumentalist, 51: 26-3 0 nil1 1997. 13 Mario A. Gaetano. "Teaching Mallet Instruments to Beginners." The Instrumentalist, 34: 30-1 nlO 1980.

54 Ibid.

55 Papastefan, page 38.









31

The website Percussion Education Online (1997) offers an interactive panel discussion on the subject of which grip to start beginning percussionists: matched or traditional, Band directors and percussion instructors are invited to add their comments to those already present online. The consensus of contributors is that matched grip should be taught to beginning percussionists because it transfers naturally to other percussion instruments, something that is not possible when beginning percussionists start with traditional grip. 56

Nature of Percussion Skills Class

One crucial aspect of comprehensive percussion instruction is that of teacher training at the collegiate level in undergraduate music education courses, which traditionally refers to percussion skills classes and how they prepare future music educators in the area of percussion. Robert Breithaupt addresses this issue with the following quote:


After countless articles, clinics, and seminars on the subject of percussion
instruments and young percussionists, ensemble directors continue to complain that the percussion area is a 'weak link' in their background
and training, 57


The College Pedagogy Committee of the Percussive Arts Society (1996)

developed a set of standards for future music educators in undergraduate percussion




16 Percussion Education Online. (http://www.cnir.fsu.edu/-bulajo/percussion/) 199T 57 Robert Breithaupt. 7he Complete Percussionist: A Guidebookfor the Music Educator. C.L. Barnhouse Company., Oskaloosa, Iowa, 1991. Introduction.








32

methods classes. These standards addressed the need for minimum competency levels to be obtained by students in these classes and also provided guidelines for percussion education instructors.58

The purpose of the percussion pedagogy committee was to provide content guidelines for instructors in order for them to be able to better prepare undergraduate music education majors for teaching percussion in public schools, The goal of these standards is to provide students familiarity and competence in all essentials areas of percussion instruction, including competency on snare drum, timpani, keyboard percussion, drumset, multi-percussion, and accessories, 59

Gary Cook (1988) cites a need for a practical reference source that can be used by music educators in conjunction with an instrumental course for band as an accompanying guide for comprehensive percussion instruction. He examines the instrumental music educator's task of providing guidance for percussionists as they attempt to achieve command of technique over instruments in the three main categories of percussion: snare dnam, timpani, and keyboard instruments.

Cook also maintains that a comprehensive teacher training course in percussion at the undergraduate level is essential for the development of public school instrumental music educators who are able to guide their students toward heightened musical growth as well as development of musical sensitivity and awareness of their percussion students,





51 Standards for the College Percussion Methods Class: From the PAS CoUege Pedagogy Committee. Percussive Notes, 35: 43-4 n3 1997. 59 Ibid.









33

Charles Spohn and John Tatgenhorst (1971) describe the need for improved training of teachers and percussionists, due to the increasing performance and interpretation demands of contemporary band literature as well as increasing pressure on educators to prepare teachers in percussion.60) They also argue the viewpoint that this task is considerably complicated by the time restrictions of a typical one semester undergraduate percussion methods course.61

Harry Bartlett and Ronald Holloway (1973) offer the view that percussion

instruction should be developed to serve musical ends, and recommended techniques generally used by artist-percussionists currently active in music performance. Their Guide to Teaching Percussion was designed primarily for use as a reference source by educators involved in preservice and inservice training of future music educators.62

Larry Reeder (1978) discusses the problems of pedagogy in teaching percussion to future music educators due to the wide and varied numbers of instruments, playing techniques, and sound production. He states that this type of eclecticism "adds to the confusion of methodologies and produces frustration." Reeder cites the relatively small number of comprehensive percussion methods available in comparison to those dealing with the instruction of brass or woodwinds. He also observes that public school band directors are 'somewhat less prepared to deal with percussionists than they were with wind and string players." 63


60 Cook, page 1,
61 Spohn and Tatgenhorst, page 3.

62 Harry R. Bartlett and Ronald A. Holloway. Guide to Teaching Percussion (Second Edition). William C. Brown Company Publishers, Dubuque, IA, 1973. Preface: vii. 63 Reeder, pages 7-8.









34

Joseph Casimino (1985) states that most public school music teachers have not received adequate training and preparation in percussion at the undergraduate level in music education. He cites a paucity of published percussion skills method books appropriate for collegiate level instruction as the reason for inadequate instruction. As a result, according to Casimino, these students avoid instruction of students on percussion instruments once they become band directors.64

Rudy Monty (1986) alludes to the need for a comprehensive method book in

training future music educators to teach percussion in public school. He mentions in his study that there exists "no method book was consistently helpful to non-percussionist band directors" for teaching beginning percussion65

Monty further states that a curriculum based on fundamental percussion techniques for snare drum, timpani, and mallet keyboard instruments had a positive influence on band directors who are not percussionists in providing effective instruction of percussion at beginning and intermediate levels.66

Frank Cocuzzi and Kristen Shiner (1988) suggest that undergraduate music education students develop their own handbook during percussion methods class for future use. They maintain that this will better prepare students to teach percussion in



64 JoehAnthony Casirnino. Curriculum Planning Practices for the Development of Percussionists in Selected School Districts of New York State. Ph.D. Dissertation. State University of New York at Buffalo. 1985. page 46. 65 Rudy A. Monty. Percussion Method Books Used in Selected United States Public Schools: Analyses and a Supplemental Guide for the Non-Percussionist Band Director.
Ed.D. Thesis: Music. New York University. New York, New York. 1986. page 21. 66,Ibid.








35

public schools because it gives them a core curriculum written in their own words, thus contributing to the presentation of clear and accessible concepts to their students.67 Comprehensive Percussion Curriculum William Albin (1979) found that eighty percent of those junior high and senior high and directors responding to a survey stated that the percussion instruments taught in their performing ensembles were limited to snare, bass drum, triangle, cymbals, tambourine, timpani, and bells. He also noted that a implementation comprehensive percussion curriculum in public schools may be related to the preparation of college-level music education students.68

Albin also discovered that sixty-five percent of those secondary instrumental music instructors surveyed believed they were not adequately prepared in their undergraduate percussion skills classes to teach percussion in public schools.69

In his 1985 study, Albin revealed that seventy-five percent of music performed for public school concerts and festivals required only snare drum, bass drun timpani, cymbals, and bells. In addition, the results of the study indicated that less than twenty-five percent of the music performed in concert situations required xylophone or marimba. 10


67 Frank Cocuzzi and Kristen Shiner. 'What Really Needs to be Taught in Percussion Methods Class." Percussive Notes, 26: 24-8 n4 1988. page 26. 68 William Robert Albin. "Teacher Preparation in Percussion: Results of a Survey Percussive Notes, 23: 69 n4 1985.
69 Ibid.

70 William Robert Albin. Yhe Development of Videotaped Instructional Unitsfor Teaching Selected Aspects of Mallet-Played Latin-American and Accessory Percussion Instruments. Ph.D. Dissertation: Music Education. Indiana University. Bloomington, IN, 1979. pages 2-3.








36

James Salmon (1963) cites the influence of television, movies, Broadway musicals, television commercials, and movie soundtracks as the primary reason for a "rediscovering of mallet percussion instruments by public school band directors" and their subsequent inclusion in band literature and curriculum.7'

In keeping with the duality of how percussionist s are often perceived, Salmon further suggested that if percussion section members are not familiar or have little experience with mallet percussion, a "trained and accomplished instrumentalist" from the wind or brass section might join the section to play those parts, contributing to the perception of percussionists as non-comprehensively trained musicians.

James Lambert (1995) notes a change in the traditional attitude with regards to percussionists as being the result of such landmark works as H. Own Reed's La Fiesta Mexicana, Vaclav Neihybel's Trittico, and Karel Husa's Music for Prague, 1968. He states that this helped bring about "a twentieth century renaissance in percussion performance attitudes and performance demnands."172

Bob Tilles (1967) observes that use of mallet percussion instruments in

contemporary band music has become increasingly popular "in the past five years" (since 1962). He notes that along with the expanded role of percussion in band literature, the need for comprehensively trained percussionists has grown accordingly73



71 James D. Salmon. "Mallet Percussion Can Produce Scintillating Sounds and New Sonorities." The Instrumentalist, 17: 65-7 n9 1963. 72 James Lambert. "The Percussion Ensemble: A Director's Best Friend." The Instrumentalist, 38: 39-42 nlO 1983.

73 Bob Tilles. "Teaching Mallet Percussion." The Instrumentalist, 21: 82-3 n8 1967.








37

Tiles' statement supports Barnett's prediction, given six years earlier, concerning the impact of mallet percussion instruments on the public school band experience,

Vincent Paxcia (1973) studied the impact of melodic training beginning percussionists musical development when used concurrently with the rudimental approach of the National Association of Rudimental Drummers. His sample population consisted of two elementary schools districts in Illinois and Minnesota, Paxcia stated that percussionists in the United States have traditionally scored lower on musical achievement tests than other instrumentalists 74 He maintains that this poorer showing is directly attributable to insufficient melodic training of beginning percussionists, specifically in the area of mallet/keyboard instruments.75

Joseph Casimino (1984) notes that public school percussionists must possess a wide variety of skills in order to fulfill the demands of percussion performance. He notes includes the ability to play timpani, mallet/keyboard percussion, and accessory percussion, in addition to snare drum.76 Casimino also states that diverse talents are necessary because public school percussionists, in the course of their music careers, are required to perform in diverse and eclectic musical situations including marching band, concert band, jazz band, orchestra, and other small ensembles. Casimino maintains that it





74 Vincent Kerry Paxcia. The Effect of Melodic Training on the Musical Development of Beginning Percussionists in Selected Midwest Communities. Ph.D. Dissertation: Music Education.University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA. 1973. 71 Ibid.

76 Casimino, page 43.








38

is for this reason that a comprehensive percussion curriculum in public schools is a necessity. 77

Spohn and Tatgenhorst (1971) observe a need to teach to teach beginning percussionist basic music fundamentals such as understanding treble and bass clefs, scales, and intervals through the use of keyboard percussion instruments. They further cite the necessity of implementing a comprehensive percussion curriculum that includes snare drum, timpani, and keyboard instruments in order for students to experience the full range of percussion performance. 78

Robert Breithaupt (199 1) perceives a need for prior musical knowledge such as piano skills to enhance beginning percussionists' progress toward comprehensive musicianship. He also maintains that public school percussionists should "trade parts" with special emphasis on having students take turns playing bells and other mallet percussion instruments as part of comprehensive percussion training. 79

David Peters (1978) discusses the use of computer assisted instruction (CAT) in the implementation of a comprehensive musicianship curriculum for public school percussionists. He mentions the availability of software programs for instruction in the four core areas of percussion instruction: snare drum pedagogy, timpani pedagogy, mallet percussion instruction, and accessory percussion techniques. 80



77 Ibid.

78 Spohn and Tatgenhorst, page 4.

79 Breithaupt, pages 3-6.

81)Dai Peters. "Percussion Instruction Methods by Computer." The Instrumentalist, 32: 41-3 n6 1978.








39

Fred Grumley (1983) notes that beginning band method books frequently place

percussionists at a disadvantage with regard to developmental music skills compared with brass and woodwind instrumentalist. He attributes this problem to a lack of training on mallet percussion instruments in addition to an overemphasis on snare drum technique and rudiments. Grumley ffirther states that inclusion of melodic instruments in the curriculum of beginning percussionist at the start of instruction provides a stable harmonic and melodic foundation, thus contributing to the development of musical growth and comprehensive musicianship among percussionists. 81

The Percussive Arts Society is a strong advocate of the concept of comprehensive percussion instruction in public schools. They maintain that students need to be trained in all four major areas of percussion performance: snare drum, timpani, mallet/keyboard percussion, and accessory percussion. They further state that this concept should pervade afl areas of percussion instruction, from the initial lesson in elementary school through high school. 82

According to The Percussive Arts Society's Education Committee, it is of

paramount importance to educate and inform students, teachers, as well as other musicians of the musical benefits that result from the implementation of a comprehensive percussion curriculum for all public school percussion students-"



81 Fred Grumley. 'Mallet Instruments Challenge Beginning Percussionists." Music Educators Journal, 70: 5 5 n 1 1983.
82 Percussion Education: A Source Book of Concepts and Information. Education Committee of P.A. S., Lawton, OK, 1990. 83. Ibid,








40

In summary, the musical demands upon contemporary percussionists are more rigorous constantly increasing and, the practice of "assigning students with bad ears to percussion instruments" is no longer an educationally or musically responsible option.14




































84 Colwell and Goolsby, page 472.













CHAPTER 3
METHODOLOGY

Need for Emphasis on Middle School Percussion

A primary reason for examination of middle school percussion curriculum and performance practices is the essential role middle school band represents in the overall music curriculum in public schools. This philosophy can be seen in the following quote from the Music Educators National Conference Task Force (1994) concerning the National Standards in the Arts:


The period represented by grades 5-8 is especially critical
in students' musical development. The music they perform
or study often becomes an integral part of their personal
musical repertoire. I


Research Questions

Answering the three research questions posed in chapter involved choosing a

format appropriate to the scope and sequence of the study. The purpose of the study was to compare two significant but different, elements of public school percussion curriculum:

1. percussion books of contemporary band methods

2. percussion performance requirements levels IR- VI band literature




MENC Task Force. Ae School Music Program: A New Vision. Music Educators National Conference, Reston, VA, 1994.

41








42

These elements are dissimilar because they represent two discrete levels of instrumental music curriculum: middle school and high school. Middle school band methods lead to, but are not directly comparable to, the performance of levels In-VI band literature. Therefore, certain types of comparative analysis such as canonical correlation or discriminant analysis were determined to be inappropriate for examination of the information collected in the study.'

Because of the nature of the study, consideration had to be given to the

examination not only the various components of the books, but also the relationship between these methods and performance requirements of typical high school band music. It was for these reasons that descriptive analysis was chosen. Essentially, the study attempted to determine the method books appropriateness in preparing percussionists to play moderately advanced and advanced high school band literature.

Research Design

Donald Casey (1992) discusses descriptive research and their appropriateness for studies in music education. He presents his view of the value of descriptive research in music education with the following quote:

When description is the primary goal of a research project, that project is
then termed descriptive research ... all research studies in which a relationship
between variables, as they naturally exist ... are ... descriptive... a strong
argument can be made that regardless of paradigm and mode, descriptive
research techniques are basic to nearly all inquiry in music education. 3


2 Walter R. Borg and Meredith D. Gall, Educational Research: An Introduction (Fifth Edition). Longman Publishing, New York, New York, 1989, pages 609-612.
3 Donald E. Casey. Descriptive Research: Techniques and Procedures. Handbook of Research on Music Teaching and Learning: A Project of the Music Educators National Conference (Editor Colwell). Schirmer Books, New York, New York, 1992. page 115.









43

Casey further recommends survey studies as a logical choice when a researcher examines a portion of the area in the belief that the section under scrutiny will provide information that is relatively descriptive of the entire area of study. He states that studies of this nature are properly termed surveys, and he cites two basic types: interview and questionnaire. 4

Walter Borg and Meredith Gall (1999) note that information obtained from

descriptive studies can provide crucial insight as to what actually happens in public school classrooms. They state that descriptive research is an appropriate investigation tool for recording phenomena such as occur in public schools.' They also note that certain types of descriptive research such as surveys are valuable in exploring the relationships "between two or more variables." 6

According to Babbie (1983), a survey is an appropriate research device when the intent of the study is to describe, explain, or explore, He notes that surveys are typically used in studies using individuals as the units of analysis, but also states that surveys can be used for other units of analysis providing that some individuals are used as respondents. Babbie notes that questionnaires are Ccessential to and most directly associated with survey research." 7




4EarI Babbie. Ihe Practice of Social Research (Third Edition). Wadsworth Publishing Company, Belmont, CA, 1983. pages 609-612.

5 Borg and Gall, page 419.
61bid.

7Babbie, page 209,








44
Parameters of Study

Since the purpose of the study was to describe the degree of relationship between the selected percussion methods and the performance requirements of level III-VI band literature, certain parameters had to be established for the study. A major consideration was the fact that the method books were examined at beginning to intermediate levels, These books lead to levels III-VI literature, but were certainly not equivalent. In other words, while the sequence of musical concepts and skills presented in percussion method books are similar to the performance requirements of levels III-VI band literature, they are quite separate entities.

Selection of Regional Populations
Use of Internet

The population used in this study consisted of middle school band directors, In order to collect information from a representative sample, school districts were chosen from three different areas of the United States. The southeastern region of the United

States was represented by Florida; the northeast portion of the country was

represented by Massachusetts, and Illinois represented the Midwest region of the country. School districts were chosen from three regions within each state. Florida's sample population was drawn from Alachua, Pinellas, and the Miami metro-area. Districts in Massachusetts were selected from Bristol and New Bedford counties as wen as the Boston metro-area. Illinois districts were chosen from Champaign and Sangamon counties in addition to the Chicago metro-area. One hundred and fifty middle schools were then randomly selected within the targeted population, 50 from each of the three selected states.

The majority of the rniddle schools used in the study were randomly chosen as a.result of an on-line search on the Internet. Schools not selected via the Internet were









45
randomly chosen from lists provided by the State Boards of Education of Illinois, Massachusetts, and Florida.

The search engine employed was Metacrawler, a multi-search engine combining the resources of several other search engines: Lycos, Alta Vista, and Webcrawler, The Website used to locate the middle schools used in the study was entitled "American School Districts." This Internet location contained a list of every public and private school district in the United States. 8

A survey was determined to be the appropriate method for gathering information from a population that was too large to observe directly, all middle school band directors in the United States. The survey thus provided a pool of respondents from a target population whose characteristics closely approximate the larger overall population


Survey and Questionnaire

A postcard survey was used to collect information for this study. Band directors were given a fist of ten contemporary band methods and asked to check the one used in their instrumental music program. Space was also provided to write in the title of a band method that were using if it was not included on the fist of choices. Directions for completion of the survey were given in the accompanying cover letter, along with an explanation of why the survey was being done, (See Appendix A)

The postcard format was chosen based on the belief that band directors would be more likely to respond to a brief and clear type of survey. Postcards were self-addressed


8 American School Districts. http://www.asd.com/

9 Babbie, page 147.









46

and stamped in order to simplify completion and encourage subjects to respond to the survey. 11

The study attempted to take advantage of the inherent strengths of the postcard questionnaire:
_ease of contact with respondents

-better control over the effects of any researcher bias

-uniform question presentation

VvUle attempting to avoid the major pitfalls often associated with this format:

-relatively low response rates which can engender criticisms of

selection bias

-limitations associated with written questions and answers

-lack of control over whom actually completes the questionnaire'


Selection of Band Methods The four most widely used contemporary band methods, as indicated by the survey results, were then chosen for examination. This investigation consisted of content analyses and comparison of content analyses.


Representativeness of Sample The study focused on percussion curricula in typical middle school instrumental music programs, with the majority of students receiving all of their instruction in a



Babbie, pages 209-213.

Ibid.








47
classroom, Though some students may have received private lessons, it was assumed that the percentage of those percussionists receiving private instruction was too small to have much influence on the validity of the study. This assumption is supported by Preston (1975) and Waa (1965), both of whom found that middle school and high school percussionists who received private instruction did not score significantly higher on standardized music tests than those whose instruction was limited to instruction in public schools. 12

One of the areas of concern with regard to survey research is the possibility of a low response rate among the selected population. According to Fuqua et al. (1983), individual follow-up of nonrespondents has been found to be the most effective method of increasing the percentage of response to a survey. 1-1

In the event of a poor response rate, postcard questionnaires would be mailed to 30 middle schools not on the original survey list. The survey and postcard questionnaire format was designed to promote ease of completion and response, Response Rate
Earl Babbie (1983) addressed the issue of response rate of surveys in The Practice of Social Research. He noted that while "the body of inferential statistics used in connection with survey analysis assumes that all members of the initial sample complete and return their questionnaires ... this almost never happens." He goes on to state that a less than perfect response rate may give the appearance of a random sample of the original sample.


12 Preston, pages 19-21.

13 Fuqua. et al., page 73.








48

This, according to Babbie, could result in a smaller than desired random sample of the population, and increases the likelihood of response bias. 14 He also indicates that if a survey demonstrates a high response rate, there is a lesser possibility of significant response bias than one exhibiting a low response rate. Flis guidelines for acceptable response rates for surveys are as follows:

-50%: Adequate

-60%: Good

-70%: Very Good 15


Questionnaire Bias The postcard survey was designed to reduce the possibilities of response bias

among the targeted population. The parameters were limited to the collection of specific information: which band method is currently being used in the subject's instrumental music program.

The survey incorporated no questions containing biased terms (e.g. 'Don't you think that this particular band method..."), thus satisfying the guidelines stated by Babbie with regard to response bias. 16 Selection of Band Literature Pieces selected for examination were restricted to original compositions for

band/wind ensemble because there is a dearth of percussion parts and limited performance


14 Babbie, page 226.

15 Ibid.

16 Babbie, pages 134-5.









49

requirements in most orchestral transcriptions for band. Pieces arranged by the original composer for both band and orchestra, such as Gustav Holst's Hammersmith and Percy Grainger's Lincolnshire Posy, were included because they are frequently programmed by high school wind ensembles and represent an important part of wind band repertoire, Content Analysis of Percussion Methods A content analysis was conducted of the percussion books from the six band

methods most frequently used in contemporary public schools, The examination of these books focused on three ftindamental questions:

1. What skills, concepts, and instruments are introduced?

2. When are these skills, concepts, and instruments introduced?

3. How much instruction time, in terms of pages, units, or exercises,

is allocated to each skill, concept, or instrument?

Also explored were implications of performance requirements for percussion methods. These implications were based on an examination of the content of the four selected percussion books. This information was analyzed for patterns of instructional presentation such as notable discrepancies in content, as well as concepts and skills that were given scant attention (e.g. a reference to timpar technique in a book that does not include timpani in its content).

The crucial issue addressed in the content analysis section was whether or not

some percussion instruments prominently featured in high school performance situations were covered adequately in percussion methods book. An example of this would be a piece that contains a difficult xylophone or marimba solo, extensive timpani work, or instruments and techniques not ordinarily encountered in the majority of public middle school and high school band performances.








50
The question of whether special techniques were covered in the percussion books was also examined. Special performance requirements include such points as the use of brushes for snare drum, use of French-grip for timpani, and a four-mallet technique for keyboard percussion.

Content Analysis of Band Literature
Content analyses were made of the 100 pieces of contemporary band literature most frequently programmed by public high school band directors. In order to collect a representative selection of level III-VI literature, every third title on the appropriate list was selected for examination. Each work was analyzed in four large categories:

1. The number of percussion players required for performance.

2. Which percussion instruments were required for performance.

3. Any special technique requirements such as four-mallet parts on marimba, thumb-roll on tambourine, or special instrument requirements such as celeste, thunder sheet, or wind machine

4. The relative musical importance of percussion part in relation to the band work as a whole. An example of this is whether the snare drum was musically integrated into the musical texture of the piece or was primarily used as an accompanying part.

Use of Matrix
A matrix was employed in order to examine the content of the selected percussion books at the macro-level. The resulting information was used to answer the three fundamental content analysis questions mentioned in Chapter 1. The matrix also provided a method for comparison/contrast of two different sets of data:

1.) The content of the percussion books of band methods series books.

2.) The percussion performance requirements of contemporary band literature,









51
The format of the matrix was similar to that employed by Larry Reeder (1994) in his comparison of teaching methods used in undergraduate percussion skills classes, Data from each percussion book and band work were arranged on the matrix according to category. "I The information was then positioned on a grid-chart so that the data would be accessible for examination.

For example, percussion books were examined for the specific snare drum

rudiments covered, as well as when they were introduced in the instructional sequence. The point in the method book, at which mallet percussion instruments were introduced, as well as key signatures, scales, etudes, and clefs were categorized in the matrix.

Prominent features with regard to percussion performance requirements and

instrumentation needs contained in the band literature were also included in the matrix. Such features might be the number and type of non-traditional percussion instruments such as Tibetan prayer rocks, Brazilian rainstick, or instruments requiring musical instrument digital interface (NMI) technology.


Analysis and Description of Data

The data categorized in the matrix were then examined for both similarities and differences in the areas of content, sequence, amount of time spent on each area, and clarity of presentation. This was done in order to determine which percussion method books provided the best preparation for percussion performance requirements of medium difficult and difficult high school band wind ensemble literature.




17 Reeder, page 13.








52

Content Analysis of Band Literature

Band literature was subjected to a similar analysis. Works were examined for the prominence of the percussion parts and their relative musical importance within the piece. Special or unorthodox techniques not covered in the method books and non-typical instruments were also noted, as well as their frequency of use within the work and their practical accessibility to public school percussionists. The selected band works were also examined for the extent to which the percussion section is essential to the overall musical fabric of a particular work.


Comparison and Contrast of Content Analyses A major factor in the comparison of the information collected in the study was the selection of an appropriate method for comparison of disparate data. The selection of the raw-data matrix used in the study was to provide an acceptable foundation for describing and analyzing possible relationships between data. Babbie (1983) supports this, who observed that contrasting data collected as the result of descriptive research as conducive to the use of this format. 18

A feature that the study shares with Preston's (1975) investigation is a section

devoted to suggestions for improvement of percussion instruction in the areas of content and educational effectiveness. This study also explores the possible relationship between two different sets of data.







18 Babbie, pages 409-10.













CHAPTER 4
RESULTS

Format of Survey

The postcard/questionnaire survey was addressed to a particular school, and

not to an individual because the lists from which the middle schools were selected for the study did not contain the names of individual band directors. A letter of introduction explained the purpose of the survey and its relation to the study. The letter followed the format suggested by Borg and Gall (1992) for introductory letters of surveys. I Enclosed with each letter was a postcard/survey listing ten contemporary band methods. These methods were selected from the Publishers Showcase portion of the JW Pepper company's music education web-site.2

Subjects were instructed to place a check in the box corresponding with the

band method currently used in their middle school instrumental music program. A blank space was provided on the postcards for subjects to write in the name of a band method currently used in their instrumental music program that was not included on the list of ten. The enclosed postcards were self-addressed and postage paid in order to expedite completion and return mailing of the survey, as well as to provide a viable and representative sample for analysis.



I Borg and Gafl, page 149.

2 j.W, Pepper company @ http://www.jwpepper.musicpublications.com


53








54

Regional Results of Survey
The method employed for categorizing results of the survey was a variation of Babbie's return rate graph. This type of graph begins with the day on which the survey was mailed, with the number of returned surveys plotted and recorded each day until no more surveys are received. 3 However, due to the fact that the postcard survey was sent to three different geographic areas, the results of the survey were categorized by region.

Florida, Illinois, and Massachusetts formed the three main geographic areas

for examination of the returns, In order to provide a representative sample of n-fiddle schools in the United States, each state was then subdivided into three areas, forming nine geographic cells. Overall return rate was 57%.

Metro-Area Response Rates to Survey Chicago demonstrated the highest return rate among the three metropolitan areas with 55% (11 of 20) responding to the questionnaire, with Miami posting the lowest return rate 29% (4 of 14). Boston's return rate of 34% may have been skewed because there were only five instrumental music programs extant in Boston proper at the time of the survey,

The possibility of skewed data for the Boston metropolitan area was confirmed by Dr, Richard Colwell, who oversaw these band and music programs during his tenure as chairman of the music education department of Boston University.4 Tables 4-1 and 4-2 summarize the return rates of the postcard survey.


3 Babbie, page 224.

interview with Dr. Richard Colwell, Chairman, Department of Music Education at New England Conservatory of Music: Boston, MA (March 5, 1998).








55

Table 4-1
Return Rates of Postcard Survey Overall (N= 15 0)

Illinois 64% 3 2/50

Florida 56% 28/50

Massachusetts 50% 25/50

Totals 57% 85/150


Table 4-2
Return Rates by Region
N= 150

Illinois Champaign/Macon Sangamon/Tazewell Chicago Metro

50% 7/14 87% 14/16 55% 11/20

Massachusetts Bristol/Norfolk Barnstable/Plymouth Boston Metro 71% 10/14 53% 7/13 34% 8/23

Florida Alachua County Pinellas County Miami Metro

77% 10/13 61% 14/23 29% 4/14

Totals 57% 85/150


Current Band Methods
Used in Public Middle Schools Ten contemporary band methods were listed on the postcard survey. Four band methods comprised 90.6% of responses for the 85 returned questionnaires: Yamaha Band Student, Standard of Excellence, Essential Elements, and Accent on Achievement, Results were predominantly regional, with Standard of Excellence and









56
Yamaha Band Student used extensively in Massachusetts and Florida. Illinois results indicated the use of Essential Elements and Accent on Achievement as the primary band methods used for instruction of beginning to intermediate percussion students.

The ten band methods listed in the questionnaire were as follows:

1, Yamaha Band Student: A (Tomb med Percussion Method

2. Standard of Excellence

3. Band Today
4. Belwin 21Ist Century Band Method 5. Beginning.Developing Band Book

6. Essential Elements

7. Band Encounters

8. Basic Band Method

9. Accent on Achievement

10, Now Go Home and Practice

Bruce Pearson's Standard of Excellence was the most used method book,

with 56% of those responding to the survey indicating the use of this text. Yamaha Band Student: A Combined Method was cited in 16% of those surveyed, Essential Elements 14%, and Accent on Achievement used by 13% of those responding to the questionnaire, Table 4-3 gives a summary of the percentages of each method cited in the survey.

Table 4-3
Percentage of Band Usage: Totals From Returned Questionnaires (N--85)
Listed 10 Methods: Perentage
Standard of Excellence 56%
Yamaha Band Student (Combined) 16%
Essential Elements 14%








57

Table 4-3 (cont)
Percentage of Band Usage Listed 10 Methods Perccutage
Accent on Achievement 13%
Band Today 03%
Belwin 21 st Century Band Method 01%
Band Encounters 0%
Basic Band Method 0%
Beginning/Developing Band Book 0%
Now Go Home and Practice 0%

Other
Breeze Easy 02%
Best in Class 01%
I Recommend 01%



Analysis of
Percussion Books from Band Methods This portion of the study is an analysis of the content of the four method book series most frequently cited in the survey for use in the instruction of elementary to intermediate public school percussionists. Method books were examined for skills, concept, and instruments introduced in each book. These books were also examined for scope and sequence of content.


Standard of Excellence: Combined Percussion-Drums and MaRet Percussion (Bruce Pearson)

This method series contains three levels of instruction for percussionists:

-Book 1: Drums and Mallet Percussion -Book 2: Drums and Mallet Percussion -Book 3: Drums and Mallet Percussion









58

The content of this series of method book consists of 120-155 exercises and musical example for both percussion and mallet percussion instruments. Each book utilizes a double-page format, with snare drum/percussion on the left-hand side and mallet instruments on the right.

Skills, concepts and instruments are introduced in color boxes at the top of the page, and are also demonstrated in special boxes at the bottom of the page, entitled "For Drums Only" of "For Mallets Only." Rudiments are typically included in musical examples one to three pages after their introduction. Instruments are generally included in musical examples on the same page as their introduction.

A prominent feature of these books is the manner in which rolls are presented. The multiple bounce is introduced before double bounce, and all rolls are presented in multiple bounce form when they are initially discussed. Starting with the special pages in book 1 and the beginning of book 2, rolls are presented in both multiple bounce and double bounce form. 5

Each method book in this series contains special pages entitled "Excellerators," which include exercises for specific instruments. Examples of this include "Excellerators for Snare Drums Only," which includes exercises containing the previously covered five, nine, and seventeen stroke rolls, and "Excellerators for Mallets Only," which incorporate scale studies, rolls, and sticking exercises.6




5 Bruce Pearson. Standard of Excellence: Comprehensive Band Method: Drums and Mallet Percusson-Book 1. Neil A. Kjos Music Company Publisher, San Diego, CA, 1995, pages 39-41.

6 Pearson-Book 1, page 4 1.








59

Standard of Excellence-Book I
Preliminary Pages
In the introductory pages, Pearson refers to picking up drum sticks and mallets. He also includes color illustrations of snare drum and (matched) grip, bass drum and grip, and mallet percussion grip. 7 Although not explicitly stated as the method's teaching philosophy, the orr ssion of traditional grip for snare drum, the inclusion of mallet percussion in the introduction, and the dual page format, suggests that mallet percussion instruments are to be taught simultaneously with snare drum and bass drum.


Skills, Concepts, and Instruments

Instruction begins with the introduction of the accent, half note and half rest for the snare drum, and the initial appearance of the whole note and whole rest for both snare drum and mallet percussion instruments. This section also features the introduction of the first rudiment for snare drum, the single paradiddle, It is also at this juncture that the bass drum becomes paired with snare drum on a consistent basis.8

The concept /skill of multiple bounce for snare drum is introduced 17% into this method book, The author give a written explanation of this skill as well as illustrations of its performance and how it is notated, One page is devoted to instruction of this skill. 9

The flam and flarn accent are covered 22% through the text. The flarn is

introduced with color illustrations of starting hand position for both left and right flams, as



7 Pearson-Book 1, page 3.

8 Pearson-Book 1, pages 6-8.

Pearson-Book 1, page 9.









60
written text describing the proper stroke. Also included is an illustration of how flams are notated, Two pages are allocated for instruction of these rudiments, 10

Flam accent is the next rudiment covered, occurring 40% into the text. It is included in the musical example "Third Time Around" on the page of its introduction. One page is devoted to this rudiment.11

Following this set of pages is a piece for percussion solo/percussion ensemble

entitled "Sawmill Creek," written by the author. This selection requires the snare drum to be played with snares off as well as on the rim, and incorporates accents. The mallet part performs the melodic line which moves predominantly in conjunct fashion.'12

The full band arrangements of "Montego Bay" is featured 50% into this method book. The snare drum part of this work includes passages of multiple bounce (buzz) rolls, and also includes flams.

The fiam paradiddle, another rudiment, is also covered in this portion of the

method book, as is the concept of right hand lead. The flamnacue is featured in the musical example "This Old Man" one page after its introduction. One-half page is allocated to instruction of the fiamacue. 13

The nine stroke roll, five stroke roll for snare drum, as well as the sustained roll (single stroke) for mallet instruments are introduced 65% into this method book. This



10 Pearson-Book 1, pages 11-12.

11 Pearson-Book 1, page 18.

12 Pearson-Book 1, page 20.

13 Pearson-Book 1, page 21-23.









61

portion of the book also contains the introduction of the seventeen stroke roll for snare drum, and double stops for mallet instruments. 14

"Sticking With It," a multiple percussion solo written for snare drum, occurs

75% into the method book. This pieces utilize rolls, accents, and sixteenth-eighth note combination, as well as playing on the rim of the snare drum. The rim shot is also introduced at this juncture. 15

Double stops for mallet instruments and the seventeen stroke roll, a rudiment are introduced simultaneously 80% through the text. Both skills are incorporated in musical examples one page after their introduction, with seventeen stroke rolls featured in the "Just Fine," and double stops utilized in Lowell Mason's "Chorale."16 Specialized Pages

Following the conclusion of dual instruction, this method book features a

section consisting of advanced studies for both snare drum and mallet instruments entitled "Excellerators For Snare Drum Only" and "Excellerators For Mallets Only." This section includes rhythmic studies and rudimental exercises for snare drum and scale studies, along with sticking exercises for mallet instruments, 17

The final pages of this method book include the International Drum Rudiments of the Percussive Arts Society, These pages also contain color illustrations of bells,


14 Pearson-Book 1, pages 27-33.

15 Pearson-Book 1, pages 36-37.

16 Pearson-Book 1, pages 32-33.

17 Pearson-Book 1, pages 39-45.









62

marimba, xylophone, vibraphone, and chimes, which contain a description of the performance capabilities of each instrument, and a mallet percussion note chart. 18 Standard of Excellence-Book 2
Overview

This method begins with a review of material from the previous book. Five, seven, and nine stroke rolls are reviewed in the snare drum pages. Students are instructed to play these rolls in using both multiple bounce (buzz) and double strokes (rudimental style). These rolls are all incorporated in the musical example "Knucklebuster," which also includes fiam paradiddles and flam. taps. 19 Content

The content of this method book consists of 118 exercises and etudes, and musical examples, as well as seven one to three page band arrangements, a multiple percussion solo utilizing five different instrument, and a mallet percussion solo. Eight pages of advanced exercises complete the content of this method book. These studies consist of four pages of studies for both snare drum- "Excellerators For Drums Only" and for keyboard percussion instruments-"Excellerators For Mallets Only" Skills, Concepts, and Instruments

Syncopation in the context of a nine stroke roll is the first significant topic covered in this method book, and is introduced 5% into the text. It is incorporated in the musical




18 Pearson-Book 1, pages 46-9.

19 Bruce Pearson. Standard of Excellence: Comprehensive Band Method Drums and Mallet Percussion-Book 2. Neil A. Kjos Music Company, Publisher, San Diego, CA, 1995, pages 2-4.








63

example "Laredo" (Mexican Folk Song) on the page of its introduction, The double paradiddle is also introduced at this point. This rudiment in not featured in the remainder of this method book. A total of one and on-half pages are allocated to the instruction of these topics, 20

The rudiments drag and single drag tap are introduced 20% into this method book on the snare drum pages, along with the first appearance of a three-voice mallet part, in an excerpt from Brahm's "Academic Festival March-Trio." The flamacue, another snare 21
drum rudiment, is presented 29% into the text of this method book.

Also included in this portion of the method book is a musical excerpt from Sibelius' "Finlandia" which features snare drum/bass drum and mallet performing double stops, and an exercise 'Tor Snare Drum Only" which implements snare drum, bass drum, and a suspended cymbal part consisting of repeated eighth notes. 22

For the first time in this series, the method book includes a two page percussion solo/ensemble for both snare drum and mallet instruments. "Turkish March- from 'The Ruins of Athens... (Beethoven arr. Pearson), contains a bass drum/snare drum part incorporating several of the skills and concepts from the preceding portions of book 2.23

The snare drum pages include the rudiments five stroke roll, drag, flamacue, and flarn, as well as playing on the rim, The mallet part utilizes double stops, accents, and a



20 Pearson-Book 2, pages 5-7.

21 Pearson-Book 2, pages 8-10, 14.

22 Pearson-Book 2, pages 17-19.

23 Pearson-Book 2, pages 20-3.








64

modulation from tonic to the relative minor (Bb major to G minor), along with phrasing considerations. 24

The seven stroke roll is introduced 54% into this method book. It is illustrated with double strokes and multiple bounce strokes, and is incorporated into an excerpt from Suppe's "Light Cavalry Overture," along with the drag, and the long roll. 25 Musical Examples

Starting at the 58% point, the remainder of the method book consists entirely of musical examples. These pieces are predominantly one or two pages in length, and represent a synthesis of the skills and concepts introduced throughout this method book. Musical examples include "Jamaican Sunrise," a one-page percussion ensemble work with a snare drum, bass drum, and suspended cymbal percussion part, and a melodic line written for marimba that includes the long roll and double stop passages.26 This is the first mention of marimba in this series of method books.

Also included in this last portion of the method book is the multiple percussion solo 'Txpress Lane" (Pearson), which requires snare drum, high tom-tom, low tom-tom, suspended cymbal, and tambourine. The piece incorporates flams, double stops, long rolls, and moving between instruments.

Instructions given at the top and bottom of the first page explain the -physical set-up of the instruments, and the techniques required for performance. This piece is



24 Ibid.

25 Pearson-Book 2, pages 24-7.

2.6 Pearson-Book 2, page 36.









65
written for one player and contains different shaped note heads (e.g. a diamond shaped note head signifies a half note for suspended cymbal).27


Specialized Pages

Consistent with the format established in the first book of this series,
"Excellerator" pages are included in this method book. In this book, the "Excel]lerators" sections consist of two pages of exercises "For Drums Only," followed by two pages of studies 'For Mallets Only." The drum pages contain examples of sticking exercises, and rudiments, to be practiced starting with either hand. Bass drum is combined with snare drum in the majority of these exercises; there is also a page of studies written for snare drum, bass drum, and suspended cymbal that closely resemble beginning drum set patterns.

Mallet instrument "Excellerator" pages include exercises in major and minor keys, utilizing thirds, fifths, scalar passages, and a chorale-like section. Musical skills covered in these pages include rolls, sticking considerations, and chromatic passages.28


Standard of Excellence-Book 3
Overview
This method commences with seven pages of review material from the preceding book. These pages are devoted to technical exercises and musical examples. Snare drum skills reviewed include 5, 7, and 9-stroke rolls. New concepts appearing within the review



27 PasonBok 2, page 38.

28 Pearson-Book 2, pages 40-1.









66
section are rolls in 3/8 and 6/8 meter, and triple paradiddle for snare drum, which is utilized in "Technique Break," an exercise also featuring flams and seventeen stroke rolls.29 Content also includes 134 exercises, studies, and musical examples for both snare drum/percussion and mallet percussion instruments. Skills, Concepts, and Instruments
The thirteen stroke roll is the first new skill introduced in this method book. It appears at 27% into the text, and is illustrated in a technical study on the page of its introduction. One page is devoted to this rudiment.
A basic four-mallet cross grip is featured in the mallet pages of this portion of the method book. The author devotes one page to this grip, and illustrates holding the mallets as well as how to play using four mallets. Included is a description of the basic four-mallet stroke, as well as exercises for developing this technique. Two pages are allotted for instruction of this skill,30
Music of the Middle Ages and Renaissance is featured in the next section of the method book, 35% and 37% into the text, respectively. The rudiment single ratamcue, double ratamacue, and seven stroke roll with triplet primary strokes are introduced in the snare drum pages. Thoinot Arbeau's "The Official Branle" features the single ratamacue as well as the triplet/seven stroke roll. Teilman Susato's "Bergerette Sans Roche" utilizes the double ratamacue. Four pages are devoted to instruction of these topics. 31


29 Bruce Pearson. Standard of Excellence: Comprehensive Band Method: Drums andMallet Percussion-Book 3. Neil A. Kjos Music Company, Publisher, San Diego, CA: 1995. Author's Forward and Review Section, pages 1-8. 30 Pearson-Book 3, pages 9-10.

31 Pearson-Book 3, pages 11-14.









67
Music of the Baroque period is featured starting 45% through this method book. Snare drum pages add the rudiments triple ratamacue and paradiddle-diddle.32 Both snare drum and mallet instrument pages introduce the trill, which is defined as a single-stroke roll for non-pitched percussion and timpani, and as a rapid alteration from a written note to the note above it in the key in the mallet percussion pages. The trill is featured in the mallet percussion musical example, "Allemande." Four pages are allocated to the instruction of these topics. 33

The rudiments fiamn paradiddle-diddle and four stroke ruff are introduced in the section covering music from the Classical period, which begins 59% into this method book. In addition, the grace note is introduced for mallet percussion instruments at this point. Musical examples from the Classical period containing these skills and concepts include an excerpt from a Beethoven work entitled "Sonatina," which utilizes the fourstroke ruff for snare drum and grace notes in the mallet percussion part, and "Theme from Symphony No. 40" (W. A. Mozart), which utilizes the flamn paradiddle-diddle.34

Music from the Romantic period, which occurs 67% into this method book, features the introduction of the rudiments drag paradiddle and double drag tap for snare drum and glissando for mallet instruments. The double drag tap and glissando appear only in the "For Snare Drum Only" and "For Mallets Only" exercises at the bottom of their page of introduction. Three pages are devoted to instruction of these skills.35



32 Oearsin-Book 3, pages 16, 18.

33 Pearson-Book 3, pages 16-20.

34 Pearson-Book 3, page 21-24.








68
The concluding portion of book 3, which begins 8 1 % through the text of book 3, features music from the 20th century. This section includes the introduction of the fifteen and eleven stroke rolls (rudiments), the use of brushes for snare drum, and the concept of the ride cymbal, The author includes an explanation of brush technique that includes and illustration. 36

Also included in the snare drum pages is the bass drum roll, which requires the use of two mallets. The mallet instrument pages include the musical example "Ode to Igor Stravinsky" (Salerno), which is written in two treble clef staves, and may be performed by either two players, or one player using four mallets. Two and one-half pages are allocated to instruction of these topics. 37

"Tin Roof Blues/Blues for a Fat Cat" (Pearson) incorporates the use of brushes on snare drum. This piece is written for snare drum, bass drum, and ride cymbal, and incorporates rolls, as well as jazz-style (uneven) eighth notes. It also requires the percussionist to play a written out one-bar drum fill. This piece may be played by either three players, one to a part, or one player on drum set. 38

The final concept introduced in this method book is ad labium, which is defined by the author as taking "liberties, improvising within the boundaries of the music." Musical examples utilizing this concept include "55 T-Bird" and "Right On," written by Kevin



35 Pearson-Book 3, pages 25-29.

36 Pearson-Book 3, pages 30-33,

37 Ibid.

38 Pearson-Book 3, pages 34-35.









69
Daley. These works require the player to sustain a suspended cymbal pattern appropriate to the style of the piece and include one-measure passages for playing a "drum fill." Either of these pieces may be played on the drum set.39


Specialized Pages

Beginning 900/o into the method book is an "Excellerator" section "For Drums Only," which includes exercises incorporating rolls in 3/8 and 9/8 meters, as well as the rudiments Swiss Army triplet, single flamed mill, pataflata, and inverted flamn tap.

Also included in this portion of the book is a section of basic drum set patterns. Instructions are given for playing bass drum with a pedal (right foot), and playing the high-hat with the left foot. Students are also given instructions to play the high-hat ride patterns with the left hand as well as crossing over with the right hand. The concept of the ride cymbal and its function is introduced at this juncture.40

Following the snare drum "Excellerator" pages is a section containing advanced mallet techniques. These pages include exercises featuring rolls, grace notes, double stroke repeated notes, and four mallet studies. Musical examples containing these skils include and excerpt from "Sonatina in G Major" (Clementi), which utilizes grace notes, and rolls, as well as 'Thunder and Lightning Polka" (Johann Strauss, Jr.), which contains glissandi, and double stops.41




39 Pearson-Book 3, page 36.

40 Pearson-Book 3, "For Drums Only," pages 44-7. 41 Ibid.









70
The final portion of this method book features a reappearance of the Percussive Art Societ's International Drum Rudiments. The illustrated mallet instrument page and mallet keyboard layout/note chart, both features of books 1 and 2, are also included.42


Yamaha Band Student: Combined Percussion Feldstein and O'Reilly
Overview

This method series contains three levels of instruction for percussionists:

Book 1 : Combined Percussion- Snare Drum, Bass Drum,
Accessory Percussion/Keyboard Percussion

Book 2: Combined Percussion-Snare Drum, Bass Drum,
Accessory Percussion/Keyboard Percussion

Book 3: Combined Percussion- Snare Drum, Bass Drum,
Accessory Percussion/Keyboard Percussion
Each level is set up as a one year curriculum for percussion students, with

suggested goals and objectives for students and instructors. The introductory pages in this series mention which snare drum rudiments are covered in each book, as well as performance techniques for accessories (e.g. triangle, suspended cymbal, wood block). Each method book also includes a chart illustrating the ranges for orchestra bells, xylophone, vibraphone, and marimba.43




42 Pearson-Book 3, page 48

43 Sandy Feldstein and John O'Reilly. Yamaha Band Student: Combined Percussion (Snare Drum, Bass Drum, Accessory/Keyboard Percussion)Books 1-3.
Alfred Publishing Co, Inc., Van Nuys, CA, 1988.









71
The text for each method book employs a double-page format, with snare drum, bass drum, and accessory parts on the left and keyboard percussion parts on the right, While there are no introductory pages explaining the philosophy of combined percussion, it appears from the content that the intent is to develop well-rounded percussionists as opposed to percussionists who specialize on one instrument such as snare drum, bass drum, or keyboard instruments,

This method series does not mention a preference for either matched or traditional grip as the basis for beginning snare drum instruction. However, the structure and overall content of the method suggest a combined percussion curriculum employing matched grip on all instruments as fundamental part of the instructional format.

The format for presenting the rudiments consists of an illustration at the top of the page on which it is introduced. Rudiments are utilized in a one-line exercise at the bottom of the same page entitled "Just for Drums." Rudiments appear in the musical examples contained on its page of introduction. For example, double strokes are introduced on page 5, but appear for the first time in a musical example on page 7.

Keyboard percussion instrument pages follow the instructional format for all other melodic instruments, with the exception of a section entitled "Just For Keyboard." This portion of the method book contains exercises and studies which incorporate a particular skill or concept for keyboard instruments, such as double stops. These exercises also constitute a review of the key signatures introduced in the method book. This format is followed throughout all three books in the series.44




44 Feldstein/O'Reifly-Book 1, pages 5, 7.








72

Yamaha Band Student-Book I
Skills, Concepts, and Instruments
Instruction begins with the introduction of double strokes, the first snare drum rudiment, paradiddle, and triangle in the percussion pages, along with written accidentals in the keyboard instrument pages. A total of two pages is allocated for instruction of these skills and concepts.45
The first full band arrangements appear 30% into this method book. "Jingle Bells" (arr. Feldstein/O'Reily), is written on two staves and requires snare drum, bass drum, and triangle for percussion.46

The next rudiments introduced are the flam and flame tap, appearing 35% into
the method book. Also included in this portion of the method book is the introduction of the suspended cymbal. One page is devoted to each of these topics. A musical example featuring these two rudiments is "Let's Row Again," which incorporates flams and flam taps.47
The woodblock and the snare drum rudiment flame accent are introduced 45% and 52% into this method book, respectively. The concept of playing on the rim of a drum is introduced on the same page as the flare accent, which also includes the introduction of divisi for keyboard instruments. A total of one and a half pages are allocated for woodblock, playing on the rim, and flare accent48


45 Feldstein/O'Reilly-Book 1, pages 5-10. 46 Feldstein/O'Reilly-Book 1, page 9.

47 Feldstein/O'Reilly-Book 1, pages 10-15. 48 Feldstein/O'Reilly-Book 1, pages 14-17.








73
Five stroke and nine stroke rolls (rudiments) are introduced 67% into this method book, along with sustained rolls for keyboard instruments. One page is devoted to both five and nine stroke rolls. Musical examples containing these skills include "Smooth As Glass," which requires rolls in the keyboard instrument part, and an excerpt from Beethoven's "Ode To Joy from Symphony No. 9," which contains five stroke rolls.49

The rim shot, suspended cymbal roll, triangle roll, and playing snare drum with

snares off are introduced beginning 80% through this method book. A total of one page is allocated to these subjects. Musical examples utilizing these skills and concepts include an excerpt from Dvorak's "Largo from the New World Symphony."50
Book 1 concludes with separate full-page solos for percussion and keyboard instruments. "Suspension" is a multiple percussion solo written for snare drum and suspended cymbal, utilizing flams, paradiddles, nine stroke rolls, and snares on/off 51 Yamaha Band Student-Book 2
Skills, Concepts, and Instruments
Instruction begins with a section devoted to the proper method of tuning of drum heads. The authors explain the function of the tension rods in the process of adjusting the pitch of the drum. The rudiment flam paradiddle for snare drum occurs at the 20% point of this method book, and is included in the duet "Dueling Sixteenths."52



49 Feldstein/O'Reilly-Book 1, pages 20-23. 50 Feldstein/O'Reilly-Book 1, pages 25-27. 51 Feldstein/O'Reilly-Book 1, pages 31.

52 Feldstein/O'Reilly-Book 2, pages 4-7.








74
The multiple bounce (buzz) roll and the tambourine are introduced 33% and 40%, respectively, into this method book. Two pages are devoted to instruction these topics. An illustration is included concerning how to play the tambourine. The authors also explain three ways of striking this instrument:

1.) finger tips

2.) knuckles or heel of the hand

3.) flat of the hand
The tambourine is utilized in the duet "Dueling Sixteenths," a piece occurring on the same page as its introduction. One page is devoted to this subject.53

Tambourine roll, as well as the rudiments drag and flamacue are the next topics

covered, beginning at 44% into this method book. Musical examples containing these skill include "Theme from Marche Slav," which employs the drag as well as the multiple bounce roll, and the duet "A Little Pop," which incorporates tambourine rolls. Both the drag and tambourine roll are allocated a full page. Flamacues are not included in musical examples in this method book, except for their introduction.54

Tonal properties of the snare drum and independence of hands are the next topics of instruction, starting at 67% into the this method book. The authors explain that different areas of the batter head produce different tones. Students are instructed to experiment to find areas of the head that are most appropriate to the music. One-half page is devoted to this subject.55


53 Feldstein/O'Rei~ly-Book 2, pages 10-13. 54 Feldstein/O'Reilly-Book 2, pages 14-17. 55 Feldstein/O'Reilly-Book 2, pages 20, 28.








75
Independence is explained as the ability to play two lines of music. The authors give a two-line example in which the right hand plays the higher notes, and the left hand plays the lower notes. Independence is required in the musical example "Our Boys Will Shine Tonight." Two pages are devoted to this topic.56

Double paradiddle and triple paradiddle (rudiments), and the concept of damping of muffling bass drum and metallic accessory instruments are introduced 75% into this method book. The technique of dampening rests in the bass drum part is required in "Soldier's March" (Schumann).
The triple paradiddle is included in "Rudimentally Yours"(Feldstein/O'Reilly), a full page snare drum solo incorporating many of the rudiments covered in this method book. One page is allocated to these topics. 57

The single ratamacue is introduced 90% through the text. It is featured in "March from the Nutcracker Ballet" (Tchaikovsky), a piece also incorporating long rolls and flams,58

Yamaha Band Student-Book 3
Review Pages
The final book in this method series begins with a review of material from the previous book; in this portion of the method, students are required to perform etudes containing previously learned rhythms and key signatures. An example of this is "Ab




56 Feldstein/O'Reilly-Book 2, pages 21-22. 57 Feldstein/O'Reilly-Book 2, pages 24-25, 31. 58 Feldstein/O'Reilly-Book 2, pages 27, 31.








76
Major Etude and Chords," which utilizes flams and drags in the percussion part, and divisi in the keyboard percussion part. 59


Format
Following the review section, this method book consists almost entirely of musical examples, with the exception of introductory exercises following the first appearance of a skill or concept. An example of this is the seven stroke roll, which is included in two one-line exercises immediately after its introduction. There is also a separate mallet percussion part on the corresponding keyboard percussion page.60


Introduction of Skills, Concepts, and Instruments

Seven stroke rolls on the beat for snare drum are introduced 29% into the method book. This rudiment is incorporated in the musical example "Take Me Out to the Ball Game." The "Just for Drums" section also includes an exercise featuring the seven stroke roll starting on the upbeat in rudimental (double bounce) style.61

Bells and percussion are combined in the same part in the musical example "Barnacle Bill the Sailor," a piece featuring flam accents in the snare drum part and extended rolls in the orchestra bell part. This is the only time in the method series that this combination of instruments occurs on the same page.62 59 John O'Reilly and John Kinyon. Yamaha Band Student: Combined Percussion-Book 3. Alfred Publishing Co., Inc., Van Nuys, CA, 1995, pages 4-5. 60 O'Reilly/Kinyon-Book 3, pages 6-9. 61 O'Reilly/Kinyon-Book 3, page 9.

62 O'Reilly/Kinyon-Book 3, page 13.









77
The drag paradiddle #1 occurs 52% into this method book. "Rudimental Thunder," a snare drum solo occurring later in the method book, utilizes the drag paradiddle # 2, a rudiment that is not introduced in book 3.63 The snare drum rudiment, paradiddle-diddle is covered 67% into this method book, and is incorporated in the musical example "Greensleeves" on the page of its introduction. One-half page is devoted to this rudiment.64

Musical Examples

From the 77% point of this method book, the content consists entirely of musical examples; there are no new skills, concepts or instruments introduced throughout the remainder of this book. Music in this portion of the method book contain previously learned skills and concepts from the preceding pages.

"Rudimental Thunder" is written for snare drum and incorporates flams, long rolls, five stroke rolls on the upbeat as well as on the downbeat, seven stroke rolls, nine stroke rolls, and drag paradiddle #2. All rolls in this solo are to be played in rudimental style.65

An arrangement of Handel's "Air and Bouree" is written for keyboard percussion solo and employs long rolls. This solo features a distinct melodic line and requires the percussionist to chose the most efficient sticking patterns which do not interfere with the musical flow of the work's long phrases, a characteristic of Baroque era music.66




63 O'Reily/Kinyon-Book 3, pages 16, 21, 27. 64 O'Reilly/Kinyon-Book 3, page 20.

65 O'Reilly/Kinyon-Book 3, "Percussion," page 27. 66 O'Reilly/Kinyon-Book 3, "Keyboard," page 27.









78
The final musical example in this method series is a two page piece for full band entitled "Suite for Winds and Percussion." This work is written for snare drum, bass drum, crash cymbals, and tambourine in the percussion part; it also includes a separate part for keyboard percussion instruments. The percussion part features nine stroke rolls for snare drum, and a long roll for tambourine. The keyboard percussion part contains extended rolls.67

Specialized Pages

This method book concludes with two pages of exercises for both snare drum and keyboard percussion instruments. The snare drum pages contain three line exercises utilizing the following rudiments:

1.) single, double, and triple paradiddles
2.) flame, flam tap and flame accents

3.) five, seven, nine and seventeen stroke rolls, long rolls

4.) flam paradiddle, flamacue

5.) single, double, and triple ratamacues 6.) drag paradiddle, paradiddle-diddle68 Essential Elements
Rhodes, Bierschenk, and Lautzenheiser
This method book series contains two books; content of method books

consists of 140 and 130 exercises and musical examples for books 1 and 2, respectively,




67 O'Reilly/Kinyon-Book 3, pages 27-28. 68 O'Reilly/Kinyon-Book 3, "Snare Drum," pages 30-31.









79

and is devoted exclusively to non-keyboard percussion instruments. This series also includes four supplementary pages under the heading "Special Percussion Exercises," which incorporate roll review exercises, as well as studies in advanced meters accents, independence, and stick control. The final pages of these method books contain the Percussive Arts Society's International Drum Rudiments.


Essential Elements-Book 1
Introductory Pages
This method book begins with a brief history of percussion. Mentioned in these three paragraphs are pre-historic cultures, Turkish military bands, orchestral percussion, and famous percussionists (e.g. Buddy Rich).69

Matched grip, which the authors refer to matched grip as "a natural grip," and traditional grip are explained in the next portion of the introductory pages. Illustrations show the hand position and drum set-up for both grips:

2.) matched grip-right and left hands mirror each other, drum is flat

3.) traditional-right and left hands use different grips, drum is tilted70

The next page is entitled "Basic Percussion Instruments," and consists of a list of percussion instruments commonly used in instrumental music programs. This section also includes suggestions concerning mallet and stick selection, as well as a list of general accessory percussion instruments (e.g. tambourine, cowbell).71


69 Tom C. Rhodes, Donald Bierschenk, and Tim Lautzenheiser. Essential Elements.- A Comprehensive Band Method-Percussion Book 1. Hal Leonard Publishing Corporation, Milwaukee, WI, 1997, pages 1-2.

70 Rhodes. et, al. Book 1, pages 2-3.









80
Percussion clef is also demonstrated in the introductory pages, along with the letter names of lines and spaces for both treble and bass clefs. The authors state that students should practice all exercises in this method book in conjunction with Essential Elements Keyboard Percussion Book, and should switch parts frequently. A double page format is used in this method (e.g. 5-A, 5-B) with content pertaining almost exclusively with non-pitched percussion instruments. Overall content of this method book consists of 140 exercises and musical examples. 72

Rudiments and Sticking

The concept of multiple bounce is introduced 11% through this method book, and is taught in conjunction with eighth notes. The authors instruct students to "let the stick bounce freely on the drum head."

Also included in this portion of the method book is an explanation of the concept of right hand lead. This refers to the use of right hand on all downbeats and left hand on all upbeats. Right hand lead is incorporated in the musical example "Old MacDonald Had A Band" one page after its introduction. 73

The flam and the paradiddle are introduced 38% and 43% into the method book, respectively. The authors include illustrated definitions of these rudiments, Two pages are spent on instruction of flams; they are included in the musical example" Alouette." One page is devoted to these rudiment.74


71 Rhodes, et. al. Book 1, page 4 A-B.

72 Rhodes. et. al. Book 1, page 5 A-B.

73 Rhodes. et. al. Book 1, pages 6-B to 7-B, 74 Rhodes. et. al. Book 1, pages I11-A to 12-B.








81

Flarn taps are introduced in conjunction with sixteenth notes 48% into this method book. This rudiment is utilized in the musical example "Jolly Old St. Nick," in order to demonstrate the relationship between eighth and sixteenth notes. One page is devoted to instruction of this rudiment, 75

The closed (buzz) roll is first presented at the 61% point of this method book, and is introduced in conjunction with a grouping of four sixteenth notes and occurs later (75%) through the method book as an extended roll. Extended rolls are illustrated as half notes, dotted half notes, and whole notes. One page is devoted to instruction of this rudiment. 76

The final rudiment introduced is the flamacue, which is presented 95% into the text. It is featured in F.W. Meacham's "American Patrol." One-half page is devoted to this rudiment. 77

Instruments

Bass drum appears immediately after the introduction of the snare drum. The authors describe how to hold the bass drum mallet and where to strike on the surface of the drum head for best tone quality. The bass drum is played in conjunction with snare drum in all musical examples and exercises except for those pertaining exclusively to another instrument. One-half page is devoted to the introduction of this instrument. 78



75 Rhodes. et. al. Book 1, page 13-13,

76 Rhodes. et. al. Book 1, pages 17-A, 23-A. 77 Rhodes. et. al. Book 1, page 26-A.









82
Crash cymbals are the next instrument covered, and are introduced 25% into the text. An explanation of how to hold the cymbals is included, as well as a description of how to choke or muffle the cymbals. One half page is allocated for the introduction of this instrument. 79

Woodblock and triangle are the next instruments introduced in this method book. They initially appear 33% and 35% into the text, respectively. The written definitions also include basic performance techniques (e.g. use a metal beater ... hit the triangle opposite the open end), for both instruments. Woodblock appears in "Old Joe Clark," which also features double bounce sticking for snare drum. Triangle appears in Stephen Foster's "Camptown Races," Students are instructed to write in the sticking for snare drum. Three pages are allocated for instruction of these instruments.80

Claves and maracas are introduced at the 43% point of the method book. These instruments are given a written definition and performance suggestion. An example of this is the instructions for playing maracas: "Hold maracas by the handles. Use short, precise wrist motion to shake maracas."81 Claves and maracas are included in the musical example "Mexican Clapping Song." One page is devoted to these instruments. 82




78 Rhodes. et. al. Book 1, page 5-B.

79 Rhodes. et. al.Book 1, page 8-B,

80 Rhodes. et. al. Book 1, pages 10O-A, I10-B, 11I-B. 81 Rhodes. et, al. Book 1, page 12-B.

82 Ibid.









83
Tambourine is also introduced in this portion of the text. The authors list three ways to play this instrument in order to achieve different sounds:

1.) Soft sounds-fingertips on the head

2.) Medium loud sounds-palm side of fist or straight fingers

3.) Loud sounds-knuckles on head83

Sleigh bells and suspended cymbal are the final instruments introduced in this method book at the 48% and 5 1% through the text, respectively. These instruments are given a written descriptions, and the authors also include performance suggestions. One and one-half pages to these instruments.84

Book I concludes with four multi-page arrangements featuring combinations of

percussion instruments. An example of this is "Can-Can" (Offenbach arr. Lepper), a work for percussion ensemble written for five or more players. Instrumentation is as follows:

1.) Keyboard percussion- I or more players

2.) Snare Drum/Bass Drum-2 or more players

3.) Crash CymnballWoodblock- 1 or 2 players

4.) Triangle/Tambourine- I or 2 players

This piece features right hand lead and playing on the rim for snare drum, as well as triangle and tambourine rolls. The keyboard percussion part includes double stops. Performance requirements for this piece also include switching back and forth between different instruments by one player. This is the fourth musical example containing a mallet part is this method book. 8


83 Rhodes. et. al. Book 1, page 13-A. 84 Rhodes. et. al. Book 1, pages 13-B, 14-B.








84
Essential Elements-Book 2: Rudiments and Sticking

This book begins with a description of four methods of sticking commonly used in playing snare drum:

1.) Alternate sticking: R L R L

2.) Single hand sticking: R R R R or L L L L
3.) Right hand lead: R on strong divisions of the beat

4.) Rudimental sticking: Basic rudiments


Content
Right hand lead occurs in the musical example "Salsa Siesta." Alternate sticking is utilized in "Chromatic Cruise," and is the predominant method of sticking used in this method book Single hand sticking is featured in "A-Roving." Rudimental sticking is incorporated in all musical examples containing drum rudiments (e.g. flare taps in "Glow Worm").86 A total of four pages are devoted to instruction of these skills.

The concept of double bounce is introduced at the beginning the text. The authors include a written and illustrated definition, which also includes practice suggestions. The double bounce is incorporated in the musical example "Tallis Canon" (Thomas Tallis) two pages after its introduction. One page is devoted to this concept.87




85 Rhodes. et. al. Book 1, pages 27 A-C. 86 Tom C. Rhodes, Donald Bierschenk, and Tim Lautzenheiser. Essential Elements: A Comprensive BandMethod-Percussion Book 2. Hal Leonard Publishing Corporation, Milwaukee, WI, 1991. pages 2-A, 3-A, 5-A, 7-A. 87 Rhodes. et. al. Book 2, pages 2-B, 4-A.









85

The snare drum rudiments fiamadiddle and double paradiddle are introduced 10% and 13% into this method book, respectively. The authors include illustrations of both rudiments, along with written definitions. The bass drum roll is also introduced in this portion of the text.

Flamadiddles occur along with fiam taps in the musical example "Glow Worm." Double paradiddles are incorporated in "A Change of Key." Two pages are allocated for instruction of these topics. 88

The drag, appears at the 22% point of book 2. Included in its definition is an illustration of the proper method of sticking. The drag appears in the musical example "A-Roving." One page is devoted instruction of this rudiment. 89

Flamn accents and fiamn tap in 6/8 meter are introduced 57% into the text. Both rudiments are utilized in the musical example "Lazy Day." They are the final rudiments introduced in this method book series. One-half page is allocated to these rudiments.90


Instruments

Guiro is the first instrument introduced in this method book, occurring 10% through the text, The authors provide a brief description and history of this LatinAmerican instrument, along with performance suggestions that instruct the student on the accepted method of producing a tone on this instrument. The guiro is incorporated in the musical example "Salsa. Siesta." One page is devoted to this instrument.91


88 Rhodes. et. al. Book 2, pages 4-A, 5 A. 89 Rhodes. et. al. Book 2, page 7-A.

90 Rhodes. et. al. Book 2, page 15-A.









86

Timpani are introduced 36% through this method book. A brief written

description, as well as their function as tonal percussion instruments is provided, and the explanation that timpani parts are written in bass clef The authors include suggestions for tuning pedal timpani e.g. "Use an electronic tuner ... lightly tap your fingers on the head of one drum and compare ... pitch(es) The authors include suggestions as to what type of mallets are appropriate for timpani.92

Timpani appear in the musical example "She'll Be Comin' 'Round The Mountain." This piece is written for two timpani tuned to an interval of a perfect fifth. Students are instructed to ask their teacher for assistance with pitch changes and tuning. One-half page is devoted to instruction of this instrument. 93 Special Techniques

Bass drum roll is introduced 12% into the text. The authors include suggestions

for performing this skill. Bass drum roll is included in the musical example "Glow Worm." One-half page is allocated to this skill. 94

The triangle roll is introduced 46% into this method book. An explanation of how to perform this skill is provided ( .... using rapid ... motion between the bottom and the side). The triangle roll is incorporated in the musical example 'English Dance." One-half page is allocated for this skill.95




92 Rhodes. et. al. Book 2, page 9-B.

93 Ibid.

94 Rhodes. et. al. Book 2, page 5-A.

95 Rhodes. et. al. Book 2, page 12-A.









87

The timpani roll is discussed 22% through this method book. An explanation of how to perform this skills is provided, as well as performance suggestions. In addition, there is an illustration of how this skill is notated. The timpani roll appears in "Marching Along." One-half page is devoted to instruction of this skill. 96 Special Pages

Following the 130 exercises and musical examples contained in this method book are four pages devoted to advanced study and review of previously learned material. This section is entitled "Special Percussion Exercises" and includes etudes incorporating rolls, additional studies in 6/8 meter, accent exercises, and studies for improving independence of hands. Each topic is allocated one page. 97

Also included in this portion of the method book is a page of stick control and rolls without release notes. Both skills are allocated one-half page of instruction. The method series concludes with the inclusion of the Percussive Art Society's 40 International Drum Rudiments.98

Accent on Achievement: Overview

This method book is the first in a series, and is described by the authors as "a comprehensive band method that develops creativity and musicianship. "99 The second




96 Rhodes. et. al. Book 2, page 13-A.

97 Rhodes. et, al. Book 2, pages 28-A to 29-B. 98 Rhodes. et. al. Book 2, pages 3 O-A to 3 1 -B. 99 John O'Reilly and Mark Willarns. Accent on Achievement: Combined Percussion-Book 1. Alfted Publishing Co., Inc., Van Nuys, CA, 1997.









88

book of the series was unpublished at the time of this study. Book I begins with 8 pages of introductory material, consisting of four pages for percussion and mallet instruments, These pages contain descriptions of the following instruments:

1) Snare Drum

2.) Triangle

3.) Woodblock 4.) Tambourine

5.) Suspended Cymbal

6.) Bass Drum

7.) Crash Cymbals

Each instrument description includes a color photograph of a middle school band student demonstrating grip and playing position. Also included is an accompanying text for each illustration, with performance suggestion and practice tips. Both matched and traditional grip are illustrated for playing snare drum. 100

Following the introductory pages, content of this method book consists of 30 pages of double-page instruction, containing 134 exercises and musical examples, with percussion on the left-hand side, and mallet percussion on the right. The prevailing format for the introduction of rudiments is a brief description along with an illustration, at the top of the page of introduction, in conjunction with a special exercise at the bottom of the same page. Rudiments are subsequently utilized in a musical example one to three pages later in the method book.




100 O'Reilly/Williams-Book 1, pages 4-6.









89
Another feature of this method book is "Accent on Performance," a series of full page arrangements appearing at regular intervals throughout the book (e.g. pages 11, 17, 23, 29, 36). The musical examples on these pages utilize skills, concepts, and instruments covered in previous pages.

The final portion of this method book consists of a series of advanced exercises for snare drum and mallet percussion instruments. Exercises include rhythm studies for both snare drum and mallet percussion, as well as accent, and rudiment studies for snare drum. Also included are scale studies for mallet percussion instruments. 101 Rudiments and Sticking

The first rudiment introduced in this method book is the single paradiddle, and occurs 16% into the text. The authors include an illustration as well as a written definition. Single paradiddles are featured in the musical example "Mary Ann." One-half page is devoted to this rudiment. 102

Flams and flarn taps are the next rudiments covered in this method book. They are introduced at 30% and 40% through the text, respectively. Flars are incorporated in an excerpt from "Southern Roses" (Johann Strauss, Jr.). Flam taps are featured in "Minka, Minka." A total of one page is allocated to instruction of these rudiments. 103

The flam accent, occurs at 52% into the text. It is incorporated into the musical example "Bella Bimba" one page after its introduction. One-half page is devoted to this



101 O'Reilly/Williams-Book 1, pages 11, 17, 23, 29, 36. 102 O'Reilly/Williams-Book 1, pages 9, 10. 103 O'Reilly/Williams-Book 1, pages 13, 14, 16, 18.









90

rudiment, which does not appear in subsequent pages of book 1. 104 Long rolls for mallet percussion instruments and nine stroke rolls for snare drum are introduced 70% into this method book, Long rolls are featured in an excerpt from Dvorak's "New World Symphony." Nine stroke rolls are incorporated in "Folk Festival." A total of one and one-half pages are allocated for teaching these rolls. 105

The final rudiment introduced in this method book is the five stroke roll, initially occurring 88% through the text, in conjunction with double stops for mallet percussion instruments. The five stroke roll is illustrated in two ways:

1.) beginning on the downbeat

2.) beginning on the upbeat

Downbeat five stroke rolls are featured in "Tom Dooley." Upbeat five stroke rolls are incorporated in an excerpt from Elgars's "Pomp and Circumstance." Two pages are devoted to this rudiment. 10


Instruments and Special Techniques

Bass drum is the first instrument introduced following snare drum, and initially appears 09% into this method book. The authors give a brief synopsis of proper playing techniques and indicate that the bass drum is written in the bottom space of percussion clef From this point on in the method book, snare drum and bass drum are paired together on the same stave. One page is devoted to instruction of this instrument. 107


104 O'Reilly/Williams-Book 1, pages 20, 21. 105 O'Reilly/Williams-Book 1, pages 27-28. 106 O'Reilly/Williams-Book 1, pages 31-33.









91

Triangle is introduced 20% through the text, in conjunction with tied notes, Music notation for triangle consists of triangle shaped note heads, This instrument appears in "The Score is Tied." One page is allocated to the instruction of this instrument. 108

Suspended cymbal is introduced 33% into this method book, in conjunction with the suspended cymbal roll. Notation for this instrument consists of diamond shaped note heads and x's. Suspended cymbal appears initially in "Three-Four Duet." Students are instructed that all suspended cymbal rolls are to be played with alternating single strokes, and that mallets are the most common choice for performing this technique.

Suspended cymbal rolls first occur in the duet "Aura Lee," which also feature snare drum played with snares off. Double stops for mallet instruments are also introduced in this portion of the method book. A total of three pages are devoted to these topics. 109

Tambourine is introduced 45% through the text. The authors give a brief review of the playing techniques initially described in the introductory pages:

1.) strike with fingertips 2.) strike with knuckles

3.) strike with heel of hand

Tambourine appears in the musical example "Mnka, Minka," a piece that also includes flamn taps on snare drum. One page is devoted to instruction of this



107 O'Reilly/Williamns-Book 1, page 8.

108 O'Reilly/Williams-Book 1, page 10. 109 O'Reilly/Williams-Book 1, pages 14-15.









92

instrument.'110 The concept of dampening notes on metallic mallet percussion instruments is discussed 52% into the text of this method book. The authors instruct students to stop the sound of the bar on orchestra bells with their hand, tempo permitting. One page is allocated for instruction of this technique 111

Woodblock is introduced at the 54% point of this method book. It is notated with regular note heads. This instrument is included in the musical example "Chopsticks," a duet including tambourine. One-half page is devoted to instruction of this instrument. 112

Crash cymbals are the final instruments introduced in this method book, appearing at the 80% point of the text. Students are advised to refer back to the photograph in the introductory pages pertaining to this instrument. Notation of crash cymbals consists of diamond shaped note heads and x's, and is placed in the first space below bass drum. This instrument is included in the musical example "Clarinet Climb." One-half page is allocated for instruction of this instrument. 113

Special Pages

Following the 134 exercises and musical examples of this method book, there are six pages of exercises devoted to individual instruments. For example, "Yankee Doodle Drummer" is a two page snare drum solo with piano accompaniment that utilizes five





110 O'Reilly/Williams-Book 1, page 18.

111 O'Reilly/Williamns-Book 1, page 20.

112 O'Reilly/Williams-Book 1, page 21.

113 O'Reilly/Williams-Book 1, pages 26, 28.









93
stroke rolls on the downbeat and on the upbeat, nine stroke rolls, and flams "Hunter's Chorus from Der Freishutz" (Weber) is a mallet percussion solo featuring accents and arpeggios; this piece also contains apiano accompaniment 114 The final musical example of this method book is "Sousa Spectacular," a one page work for snare drum, bass drum, crash cymbals, tambourine, and mallet percussion, which features five and nine stroke rolls. 115

The concluding portion of this method book contains seven double pages of

exercises which feature skills, concepts, and instruments covered in the course of book 1. "Accent on Scales" features rudiments on the snare drum page and scales, chords, double stops, and movement by thirds on the mallet percussion page. 116

"Accent on Rhythms" consists of twenty single line rhythm studies for mallet instruments. 117 "Accent on Rests" contains ten exercises for both percussion (snare drum/bass drum) and mallet percussion instruments. These studies are rhythmically in unison, with mallet percussion parts containing scale-wise movement, arpeggios, and dampening of notes, "Accent on Snare Drum," which is a review of accents and flams, and "Accent on Mallets," which utilizes double stops and arpeggios, conclude this method book. 118



114 O'Reilly/Williams-Book 1, pages 34-5. 115 O'Reilly/Williams-Book 1, page 36.

116 O'Reilly/Williams-Book 1, page 37.

117 O'Reilly/Williams-Book 1, pages 38-9. 118 O'Reilly/Williams-Book 1, pages 40-41.




Full Text
31
The website Percussion Education Online (1997) offers an interactive panel
discussion on the subject of which grip to start beginning percussionists: matched or
traditional. Band directors and percussion instructors are invited to add their comments to
those already present online. The consensus of contributors is that matched grip should be
taught to beginning percussionists because it transfers naturally to other percussion
instruments, something that is not possible when beginning percussionists start with
traditional grip.56
Nature of Percussion Skills Class
One crucial aspect of comprehensive percussion instruction is that of teacher
training at the collegiate level in undergraduate music education courses, which
traditionally refers to percussion skills classes and how they prepare future music
educators in the area of percussion. Robert Breithaupt addresses this issue with the
following quote:
After countless articles, clinics, and seminars on the subject of percussion
instruments and young percussionists, ensemble directors continue to
complain that the percussion area is a weak link in their background
and training. 57
The College Pedagogy Committee of the Percussive Arts Society (1996)
developed a set of standards for future music educators in undergraduate percussion
56 Percussion Education Online. (http://www.cmr.fsu.edu/~bulaJo/percussion/) 1997.
57 Robert Breithaupt. The Complete Percussionist: A Guidebook for the Music Educator.
C.L. Bamhouse Company., Oskaloosa, Iowa, 1991. Introduction.


76
Major Etude and Chords, which utilizes flams and drags in the percussion part, and divisi
in the keyboard percussion part.59
Format
Following the review section, this method book consists almost entirely of musical
examples, with the exception of introductory exercises following the first appearance of a
skill or concept. An example of this is the seven stroke roll, which is included in two
one-line exercises immediately after its introduction. There is also a separate mallet
percussion part on the corresponding keyboard percussion page.60
Introduction of Skills, Concepts, and Instruments
Seven stroke rolls on the beat for snare drum are introduced 29% into the method
book. This rudiment is incorporated in the musical example Take Me Out to the Ball
Game. The Just for Drums section also includes an exercise featuring the seven stroke
roll starting on the upbeat in rudimental (double bounce) style.61
Bells and percussion are combined in the same part in the musical example
Barnacle Bill the Sailor, a piece featuring flam accents in the snare drum part and
extended rolls in the orchestra bell part. This is the only time in the method series
that this combination of instruments occurs on the same page.62
59 John O'Reilly and John Kinyon. Yamaha Batid Student: Combined Percussion-Book 3.
Alfred Publishing Co., Inc., Van Nuys, CA, 1995, pages 4-5.
60 OReilly/Kinyon-Book 3, pages 6-9.
61 O'Reilly/Kinyon-Book 3, page 9.
62 OReilly/Kinyon-Book 3, page 13.


54
Regional Results of Survey
The method employed for categorizing results of the survey was a variation
of Babbie's return rate graph. This type of graph begins with the day on which the
survey was mailed, with the number of returned surveys plotted and recorded each
day until no more surveys are received. 3 However, due to the fact that the postcard
survey was sent to three different geographic areas, the results of the survey were
categorized by region.
Florida, Illinois, and Massachusetts formed the three main geographic areas
for examination of the returns, in order to provide a representative sample of middle
schools in the United States, each state was then subdivided into three areas, forming
nine geographic cells. Overall return rate was 57%.
Metro-Area Response Rates to Survey
Chicago demonstrated the highest return rate among the three metropolitan
areas with 55% (11 of 20) responding to the questionnaire, with Miami posting the
lowest return rate 29% (4 of 14). Boston's return rate of 34% may have been skewed
because there were only five instrumental music programs extant in Boston proper at the
time of the survey.
The possibility of skewed data for the Boston metropolitan area was confirmed by
Dr Richard Colwell, who oversaw these band and music programs during his tenure as
chairman of the music education department of Boston University .4 Tables 4-1 and 4-2
summarize the return rates of the postcard survey.
3 Babbie, page 224.
4 Interview with Dr. Richard Colwell, Chairman, Department of Music Education at New
England Conservatory of Music: Boston, MA (March 5, 1998).


136
Pearson, Bruce. Standard of Excellence: Comprehensive Band Method-Drums
and Mallet Percussion Book 3. Neil A. Kjos Music Company, Publisher,
San Diego, CA, 1996.
Pearson, Bruce. Standard of Excellence: Comprehensive Band Method-Timpani
and Auxiliary Percussion-Book 1. Neil A. Kjos Music Company, Publisher,
San Diego, CA: 1992.
Pearson, Bruce. Standard of Excellence: Comprehensive Band Method-Timpani
and Auxiliary Percussion-Book 2. Neil A. Kjos Music Company, Publisher,
San Diego, CA, 1994.
Pearson, Bruce. Standard of Excellence: Comprehensive Band Method-Timpani
and Auxiliary Percussion-Book 3. Neil A. Kjos Music Company, Publisher,
San Diego, CA, 1996.
Percussive Arts Society. Percussion Education: A Source Book of
Concepts and Information Education Committee ofP.A.S., Lawton, OK, 1990.
Percussive Arts Society. P.A.S. International Drum Rudiments. Ludwig
Industries, Inc., Elkhardt, IN, 1990.
Percussive Arts Society. Standards for the College Percussion Methods Class.
Percussive Notes, 35: 43-4 n3 1997.
Peters, David G. Percussion Instruction Methods By Computer The
Instrumentalist, 32: 41-3 n6 1978.
Peters, Gordon B. Initiating a Percussion Ensemble Program. The
Instrumentalist, 19: 72 nlO 1965.
Peters, Gordon B. Our Responsibilities in Percussion. The Instrumentalist,
18: 88 nl 1963.
Pimentel, Linda. The Band Director and the Private Teacher: Partners in
Percussion Education. Percussive Notes, 23: 18-9 n5 1987.
Pimentel, Linda. The Reorganizing of Percussion Instruction. Percussive Notes,
23: 23-6 n2 1987.


149
Band Literature-Level VI (cont)
Selection
Armies of Otserf
(cont.)
Blayers Instruments.
Jingle Bell Jar, M.
X. B. V. TB. Piano
Assorted WC: Oriental
Bells. Glass/or Metal
Wind Chimes-sm, m, lg
24" Water Gong
Timp (4)
Techniques
whip flat of cymbal back and forth
rapidly; Crotales: Triple stops
WC: Roll (ext) TB: ad lib (3 pitches)
roll w/soft felt mallets
Assorted Chinese Bells: ad lib.
TBL: Prominent part. Piano:
Pluck stnngs+play strings with
rubber mallet+glass tumbler (Roll)
Crotales: Play w/tri beater. X/M: (D)
Mallets: Extensive ad lib sections-
V (10pitches)+dampen/pedaling
M (7 pitches), B (7 pitches)
Be Glad Then.
America
(William Schuman)
4-5
SD. BD. CC. Timp (4)
TB. B
SD Flams. SC: Roll w/sticks. Roll
using edges, Timp:PC-4. Solo.
Dampen/Muffle. TB:DS, Muffle
Beowulf
(W. Francis McBeth)
5
SD, BD. CC, SC, X. B,
Timp (4). Metal Trash
an Lid (MTL), Gong
SD: On rim with butt of bell
mallets+snares off. BD: (D) Grace
notes (Extensive), Rolls. Dampen.
Timp: PC-5 (D), CC: 2 pair together.
B/X: Double stops, Double stop
rolls. TB: Solo, Gong: Use chime
mallet at top right under flange,
SC: Play with wooden end of timp mallet
MTL: 32nd notes+sextuplets (D)
Celebration Overture
(Paul Crestn)
4
SD. BD, TT/Indian
Drum (2), Tamb, Tri,
SC, CC, Timp (4). B, X
Indian Drum: Flams, BD: Dampen
B: Ostinato (Ext), Tamb: Prominent
(D) Timp: PC-8. Prominent (D)
Do Not Go Gentle
Into That Good Night
(Elliot Del Borgo)
8
SD. BD, FD, SC, CC
TT (4), Tri (large)
TBL (5) Timp (5)
B. M, Celeste
SD: Flams, TT: Prominent
BD: Solo+Dampen (Ext). TBL:
Solo+DS, Timp: Solo+PC-4,
On rim. Prominent, Celeste
B: (Ext), M: 4-mallets
Diverimento for Band
(Vincent Persichetti)
4
SD, BD, CC. SC, WB,
Timp (3), X
SD/WB Duet. CC: Choke
(Extensive)Timp: PC-2, Double
stops, X: Rolls, Prominent part (D)
El Salon Mexico
(Aaron Copland
arr. Hinckley)
7
SD, BD, CC, Gourd,
WB, Timp (3), X, LD
Ch. B
SD: 6-stroke Ruff, Rolls w/o release
Timp: PC-4. DS, Dampen (Ext) (MD)
Gourd: Ostinato (Ext), LD: Dull
sound Ch. B. High/Low


69
Daley. These works require the player to sustain a suspended cymbal pattern appropriate
to the style of the piece and include one-measure passages for playing a drum fill.
Either of these pieces may be played on the drum set.39
Specialized Pages
Beginning 90% into the method book is an Excellerator section Tor Drums
Only, which includes exercises incorporating rolls in 3/8 and 9/8 meters, as well as
the rudiments Swiss Army triplet, single flammed mill, pataflata, and inverted flam tap.
Also included in this portion of the book is a section of basic drum set patterns.
Instructions are given for playing bass drum with a pedal (right foot), and playing the
high-hat with the left foot. Students are also given instructions to play the high-hat ride
patterns with the left hand as well as crossing over with the right hand. The concept of
the ride cymbal and its function is introduced at this juncture.40
Following the snare drum Excellerator pages is a section containing advanced
mallet techniques. These pages include exercises featuring rolls, grace notes, double
stroke repeated notes, and four mallet studies. Musical examples containing these skills
include and excerpt from Sonatina in G Major (Clementi), which utilizes grace notes,
and rolls, as well as Thunder and Lightning Polka (Johann Strauss, Jr ), which contains
glissandi, and double stops.41
39 Pearson-Book 3, page 36.
40 Pearson-Book 3, Tor Drums Only, pages 44-7.
41Ibid.


81
Flam taps are introduced in conjunction with sixteenth notes 48% into this method
book. This rudiment is utilized in the musical example Jolly Old St. Nick, in order to
demonstrate the relationship between eighth and sixteenth notes. One page is devoted
to instruction of this rudiment.75
The closed (buzz) roll is first presented at the 61% point of this method book, and
is introduced in conjunction with a grouping of four sixteenth notes and occurs later
(75%) through the method book as an extended roll. Extended rolls are illustrated as half
notes, dotted half notes, and whole notes. One page is devoted to instruction of this
rudiment.76
The final rudiment introduced is the flamacue, which is presented 95% into the
text. It is featured in F. W. Meachams American Patrol. One-half page is devoted to
this rudiment.77
Instruments
Bass drum appears immediately after the introduction of the snare drum.
The authors describe how to hold the bass drum mallet and where to strike on the
surface of the drum head for best tone quality. The bass drum is played in conjunction
with snare drum in all musical examples and exercises except for those pertaining
exclusively to another instrument. One-half page is devoted to the introduction of
this instrument.78
75 Rhodes, et. al. Book 1, page 13-B.
76 Rhodes, et. al. Book 1, pages 17-A, 23-A.
77 Rhodes, et. al. Book 1, page 26-A.


90
rudiment, which does not appear in subsequent pages of book 1.104 Long rolls for mallet
percussion instruments and nine stroke rolls for snare drum are introduced 70% into this
method book. Long rolls are featured in an excerpt from Dvoraks "New World
Symphony. Nine stroke rolls are incorporated in Folk Festival. A total of one and
one-half pages are allocated for teaching these rolls 105
The final rudiment introduced in this method book is the five stroke roll, initially
occurring 88% through the text, in conjunction with double stops for mallet percussion
instruments. The five stroke roll is illustrated in two ways:
1.) beginning on the downbeat
2.) beginning on the upbeat
Downbeat five stroke rolls are featured in Tom Dooley. Upbeat five stroke rolls
are incorporated in an excerpt from Elgarss Pomp and Circumstance. Two pages are
devoted to this rudiment.106
Instruments and Special Techniques
Bass drum is the first instrument introduced following snare drum, and initially
appears 09% into this method book. The authors give a brief synopsis of proper playing
techniques and indicate that the bass drum is written in the bottom space of percussion
clef. From this point on in the method book, snare drum and bass drum are paired
together on the same stave. One page is devoted to instruction of this instrument.107
104 OReilly/Williams-Book 1, pages 20, 21.
105 OReilly/Williams-Book 1, pages 27-28.
106 OReilly/Williams-Book 1, pages 31-33.


87
The timpani roll is discussed 22% through this method book. An explanation of
how to perform this skills is provided, as well as performance suggestions. In addition,
there is an illustration of how this skill is notated. The timpani roll appears in Marching
Along. One-half page is devoted to instruction of this skill.96
Special Pages
Following the 130 exercises and musical examples contained in this method book
are four pages devoted to advanced study and review of previously learned material. This
section is entitled Special Percussion Exercises and includes etudes incorporating rolls,
additional studies in 6/8 meter, accent exercises, and studies for improving independence
of hands. Each topic is allocated one page.97
Also included in this portion of the method book is a page of stick control and rolls
without release notes. Both skills are allocated one-half page of instruction. The method
series concludes with the inclusion of the Percussive Art Societys 40 International Drum
Rudiments.98
Accent on Achievement: Overview
This method book is the first in a series, and is described by the authors as a
comprehensive band method that develops creativity and musicianship.99 The second
96 Rhodes, et. al. Book 2, page 13-A.
97 Rhodes, et. al. Book 2, pages 28-A to 29-B.
98 Rhodes, et. al. Book 2, pages 30-A to 31-B.
99 John OReilly and Mark Wiliams. Accent on Achievement: Combined
Percussion-Book l. Alfred Publishing Co., Inc., Van Nuys, CA, 1997


38
is for this reason that a comprehensive percussion curriculum in public schools is a
necessity.77
Spohn and Tatgenhorst (1971) observe a need to teach to teach beginning
percussionist basic music fundamentals such as understanding treble and bass clefs,
scales, and intervals through the use of keyboard percussion instruments. They further
cite the necessity of implementing a comprehensive percussion curriculum that includes
snare drum, timpani, and keyboard instruments in order for students to experience the
full range of percussion performance.78
Robert Breithaupt (1991) perceives a need for prior musical knowledge such as
piano skills to enhance beginning percussionists' progress toward comprehensive
musicianship. He also maintains that public school percussionists should trade parts
with special emphasis on having students take turns playing bells and other mallet
percussion instruments as part of comprehensive percussion training.79
David Peters (1978) discusses the use of computer assisted instruction (CAI) in
the implementation of a comprehensive musicianship curriculum for public school
percussionists. He mentions the availability of software programs for instruction in the
four core areas of percussion instruction: snare drum pedagogy, timpani pedagogy, mallet
percussion instruction, and accessory percussion techniques.80
77 Ibid.
78 Spohn and Tatgenhorst, page 4.
79 Breithaupt, pages 3-6.
80 David Peters. Percussion Instruction Methods by Computer. The Instrumentalist, 32:
41-3 n6 1978.


15
Harry Bartlett and Ronald Holloway (1973) address specialization with their
suggestion that comprehensive percussion instruction should be included in the
curriculum for second year students. They state that including instruction on mallet
percussion instruments in addition to snare drum, bass drum, and timpani allows
percussionists to be more involved with the full band. They further state that this format
contributes to fostering a feeling of pride on the part of the student, leading to increased
musical growth and sensitivity.7
Joseph Casimino (1985) notes that college freshmen who specialized on one
instrument in high school and desiring to major in music would be at a disadvantage:
without knowledge of tympani and mallet percussion instruments he would be very
limited as a percussionist.8
Robert Breithaupt (1991) believes that beginning percussionists should have the
opportunity to play various percussion instruments in order to provide a complete musical
experience. He states that the trading of parts, including mallet/keyboard percussion,
helps solve the problems inherent in specialization.9
Douglas Overmier (1990) states that playing band literature involving large
amounts of percussion instruments allows percussionists to feel that they are an integral
part of the overall ensemble. He cites the necessity of including the percussion section
in the daily warm-up routine of the band, and the switching of instruments. He also notes
7 Bartlett and Holloway, Preface: viii.
8 Casimino, page 42.
9 Breithaupt, page 3.


30
Mario Gaetano (1980) suggests that beginning percussionists receive lessons
on keyboard percussion instruments in conjunction with snare drum instruction. He
emphasizes that the combining of snare drum and mallet percussion is most logically
approached utilizing matched grip for both instruments.
Gaetano notes that this type of training provides a consistency of instruction and
avoids the problems inherent in teaching different grips for different instruments (e g.
snare drum, xylophone, timpani). However, he also states that in addition to matched
grip, students should be cognizant of traditional grip because of its wide usage in the
drumlines of high school marching bands. 53 Gaetano also cites ease of transfer to
other percussion instruments as the primary reason for instructing beginning percussionists
on matched grip for all instruments.54
Papastefan (1990) notes that the traditional grip was originally used in military
bands for performance on a snare drum carried on a sling. The result was a tilted drum
requiring a specialized grip. He states that with the existence of modem drum carriers,
which allow the dram to be placed in a level position, there is no practical need for
instruction of traditional grip.55 He also mentions that many contemporary marching
bands that are equipped with these carriers use matched grip in their snare dram sections.
52 James W Lambert and Robert Grifa. Beginning Percussionists With Good
Fundamentals. The Instrumentalist, 51: 26-30 nil 1997.
53 Mario A Gaetano. Teaching Mallet Instruments to Beginners. The Instrumentalist,
34: 30-1 nlO 1980.
54 Ibid.
55 Papastefan, page 38.


CHAPTER 3
METHODOLOGY
Need for Emphasis on Middle School Percussion
A primary reason for examination of middle school percussion curriculum and
performance practices is the essential role middle school band represents in the overall
music curriculum in public schools. This philosophy can be seen in the following quote
from the Music Educators National Conference Task Force (1994) concerning the
National Standards in the Arts:
The period represented by grades 5-8 is especially critical
in students musical development. The music they perform
or study often becomes an integral part of their personal
musical repertoire.1
Research Questions
Answering the three research questions posed in chapter 1 involved choosing a
format appropriate to the scope and sequence of the study. The purpose of the study was
to compare two significant but different, elements of public school percussion curriculum:
1. percussion books of contemporary band methods
2. percussion performance requirements levels III- VI band literature
1 MENC Task Force. The School Music Program: A New Vision. Music Educators
National Conference, Reston, VA, 1994.
41


13
melodic lines to play or harmonic parts that fit into what the rest of the band is playing.1
According to Colwell, a portion of the problem endemic to contemporary
percussion instruction is that of specialization, in many public school band situations,
snare drummers play only snare drum, with perhaps one student assigned to timpani,
and another to bells. Colwell also notes that these students often remain on the same
instrument for every selection during rehearsal and performance. He states that this
format frequently leads to apathy and lack of motivation on the part of percussionists.2
Kenneth Mueller (1972) mentions the complexity of contemporary band music
and its demands upon the percussionist. He states that if students have not been taught in
a comprehensive manner, there is the risk that at some point the percussion section will
be unable to play their parts. Mueller attributes this to the problem of specialization:
each player is able to play only one instrument, timpani for example, or snare drum,
resulting in a limited experience for percussion students.
He notes that percussionists must be consciously aware of the instruments
around them, something they may be unable to accomplish without training in a
comprehensive percussion curriculum. Mueller also observes that percussionists who
are not trained in a comprehensive percussion program often lack a musical approach to
performance.3
1 Robert B. Breithaupt. The Complete Percussionist: A Guidebook for the Music
Educator. C.L. Bamhouse Co., Gskaloosa, IA, 1991.
2 Colwell, page 471.
3 Kenneth A Mueller Teaching Total Percussion. Parker Publishing Company, Inc.,
West Nyack, NJ, 1972. pages 19-20.


ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
The completion of a dissertation is merely the last project in a sequence of events
leading to a doctorate degree, An endeavor of this magnitude would not have been
possible without the support and sacrifice of my family and friends. As such, would like
to take this opportunity to acknowledge the people who have guided me through this
long, sometimes arduous, and ultimately rewarding process.
First and foremost, I wish to thank my mother for her unwavering belief in me.
She provided moral and emotional support through the entire process and always
understood how much the pursuit of a doctorate in music education meant to me. Her
understanding and deep compassion are priceless gifts.
My wife, Jan, along with my daughter, Katie, who had to spend a lot of time
growing up while I was pursuing my dream, deserve a very special place in my
acknowledgments. They had to sacrifice the most of all those who helped me reach
my goal, and were also the inspiration that allowed me to handle the difficult times along
the way.
I wish to extend my warmest thanks to Dr. Charles Hoffer, my committee chair.
He guided me through the whole process and had a more profound influence on me as a
person and a student than he will ever know. Although he taught me many things about
music and education, the most important things I learned during the pursuit of this degree
had nothing to do with music, and for this he has earned my deepest gratitude. I consider
him a friend as well as a mentor.
Another major influence during my time at the University of Florida was Dr. David
Kushner. His impeccably high academic standards and attention to detail, along with his
grasp of the importance of events within the larger scheme of things, provided the impetus
ii


84
Essentia! Elements-Book 2: Rudiments and Sticking
This book begins with a description of four methods of sticking commonly used in
playing snare drum:
1.) Alternate sticking: R L R L
2.) Single hand sticking: RRRRorLLLL
3.) Right hand lead: R on strong divisions of the beat
4.) Rudimental sticking: Basic rudiments
Content
Right hand lead occurs in the musical example Salsa Siesta. Alternate sticking is
utilized in Chromatic Cruise, and is the predominant method of sticking used in this
method book Single hand sticking is featured in A-Roving. Rudimental sticking is
incorporated in all musical examples containing drum rudiments (e g. flam taps in Glow
Worm) 86 A total of four pages are devoted to instruction of these skills.
The concept of double bounce is introduced at the beginning the text. The authors
include a written and illustrated definition, which also includes practice suggestions. The
double bounce is incorporated in the musical example Tallis Canon (Thomas Tallis) two
pages after its introduction. One page is devoted to this concept.87
85 Rhodes, et. al. Book 1, pages 27 A-C.
86 Tom C. Rhodes, Donald Bierschenk, and Tim Lautzenheiser. Essential Elements: A
Comprensive Band Method-Percussion Book 2. Hal Leonard Publishing Corporation,
Milwaukee, WI, 1991. pages 2-A, 3-A, 5-A, 7-A.
87Rhodes et. al. Book 2, pages 2-B, 4-A.


103
Overview of Timpani Methods
The next portion of the study will examine the content of the supplemental timpani
books of the four band methods selected for analysis from the results of the survey.
Method books will be examined for content, sequence, and scope of presented material in
the areas of skills, concepts, and instruments.
Standard of Excellence-Timpani Book 1
This method series begins with a brief history of timpani, illustrations of hand
position, proper playing posture, grip types, and a discussion of the function of pedal
timpani.121 Content of this method book consists of 155 exercises and musical examples
corresponding to the exercises and musical examples in book 1 of Combined Percussion.
Auxiliary percussion instruments are also covered in this method book (e g. tambourine,
maracas, claves).
Timpani are incorporated in 43% of the exercises and musical examples contained
in this method book. Also included are four pages of full-band arrangements that include
timpani and/or auxiliary percussion instruments. An example of this is Jeremiah Clarkes
Trumpet Voluntary (arr. Pearson) which is written for two timpani and incorporates
rolls, dampening, and does not require pitch changes.122 This method book concludes
with two sets of double pages of studies for two timpani featuring rolls, staccato sticking,
dampening, and double strokes.123
121 Bruce Pearson. Standard of Excellence: Comprehensive Band Method: Timpani and
Auxiliary Percussion-Book 1. Neil A. Kjos Company, San Diego, CA, 1992, pages 1-3.
122 Pearson, Timpani/Auxilary Percussion-Book 1, page 30.
123 Pearson, Timpani/Auxiliary Percussion Book 1, Tor Timpani Only, pages 41/41,
and Tor Auxiliary Percussion Only, pages 41/41.


64
modulation from tonic to the relative minor (Bb major to G minor), along with phrasing
considerations 24
The seven stroke roll is introduced 54% into this method book. It is illustrated
with double strokes and multiple bounce strokes, and is incorporated into an excerpt
from Suppe's Light Cavalry Overture, along with the drag, and the long roll.25
Musical Examples
Starting at the 58% point, the remainder of the method book consists entirely of
musical examples. These pieces are predominantly one or two pages in length, and
represent a synthesis of the skills and concepts introduced throughout this method book.
Musical examples include Jamaican Sunrise, a one-page percussion ensemble work
with a snare drum, bass drum, and suspended cymbal percussion part, and a melodic line
written for marimba that includes the long roll and double stop passages.26 This is the
first mention of marimba in this series of method books.
Also included in this last portion of the method book is the multiple percussion
solo Express Lane (Pearson), which requires snare drum, high tom-tom, low tom-tom,
suspended cymbal, and tambourine. The piece incorporates flams, double stops, long
rolls, and moving between instruments.
Instructions given at the top and bottom of the first page explain the .physical
set-up of the instruments, and the techniques required for performance. This piece is
24 Ibid.
25 Pearson-Book 2, pages 24-7.
26 Pearson-Book 2, page 36.


120
Method Books
A content analysis of the four most frequently cited method book series cited
in the survey was performed. These analyses included the examination of the skills,
concepts, and instruments introduced in each method book, as well as the sequence
of their introduction. In addition, the amount of time allocated to each skill, concept,
and instrument was indicated.
Band Literature
In order to achieve a representative sample of band literature for content analysis,
100 works (levels III-VI) were randomly selected from the New York State School Music
Associations list of approved contest pieces, the band/wind ensemble files of Boston
Music Company (Boston MA), and from the music libraries of two New England high
school band programs.
Each work was examined for the number of players as well as the number and
types of percussion instruments required for performance. The frequency with which
an instrument or special technique occurred was also noted (e.g. snare drum 98%), as
was the relative importance of the percussion part to the overall texture of each work.
A summary of these content analyses is found in Appendix B. A similar
examination of Table 4-4 (Chapter 4) reveals that the majority of percussion instruments
required for successful performance of typical high school band literature are covered in
the percussion books of the four band methods examined in this study.
An example of this is the tambourine, which is covered in all four percussion books
examined in this study, and is also included in 27% of selected band works. Table 6-1 is a
summary of the instruments required in 10% or more of the levels III-VI band works


Chapter 6
SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, AND
RECOMMENDATIONS
This chapter presents an examination of the relationship between beginning to
intermediate percussion books from contemporary band methods and the percussion
performance requirements for intermediate to advanced (Grades III-VI) state-approved
contest band literature.
Summary
In order to examine a representative sample of beginning to intermediate
percussion method books employed in contemporary instrumental music programs, a
postcard survey was taken of 150 middle school band programs located in three separate
geographic areas of the United States. School were randomly selected from the American
School District web-site.1
The survey contained a list of percussion books from ten contemporary band
methods, randomly selected from the J.W. Pepper Music web-site.2 Subjects were
instructed to check the box indicating the method book utilized for percussion instruction
in their instrumental music program. Space was provided for writing in the name of a
method book series not listed among the ten.
1 American School Districts, http://www.asd.org
2 J.W. Pepper Music Company, http://www.jwpepper.org
119


37
Tilles' statement supports Barnett's prediction, given six years earlier, concerning
the impact of mallet percussion instruments on the public school band experience.
Vincent Paxcia (1973) studied the impact of melodic training beginning
percussionists musical development when used concurrently with the rudimental
approach of the National Association of Rudimental Drummers. His sample population
consisted of two elementary schools districts in Illinois and Minnesota. Paxcia stated
that percussionists in the United States have traditionally scored lower on musical
achievement tests than other instrumentalists.74 He maintains that this poorer showing
is directly attributable to insufficient melodic training of beginning percussionists,
specifically in the area of mallet/keyboard instruments.75
Joseph Casimino (1984) notes that public school percussionists must possess
a wide variety of skills in order to fulfill the demands of percussion performance. He
notes includes the ability to play timpani, mallet/keyboard percussion, and accessory
percussion, in addition to snare drum.76 Casimino also states that diverse talents are
necessary because public school percussionists, in the course of their music careers, are
required to perform in diverse and eclectic musical situations including marching band,
concert band, jazz band, orchestra, and other small ensembles. Casimino maintains that it
74 Vincent Kerry Paxcia. The Effect of Melodic Training on the Musical Development of
Beginning Percussionists in Selected Midwest Communities. PhD. Dissertation: Music
Education.University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA. 1973.
75 Ibid.
76 Casimino, page 43.


44
Parameters of Study
Since the purpose of the study was to describe the degree of relationship between
the selected percussion methods and the performance requirements of level III-VI band
literature, certain parameters had to be established for the study. A major consideration
was the fact that the method books were examined at beginning to intermediate levels
These books lead to levels III-VI literature, but were certainly not equivalent. In other
words, while the sequence of musical concepts and skills presented in percussion method
books are similar to the performance requirements of levels III- VI band literature, they are
quite separate entities.
Selection of Regional Populations
Use of Internet
The population used in this study consisted of middle school band directors. In
order to collect information from a representative sample, school districts were chosen
from three different areas of the United States. The southeastern region of the United
States was represented by Florida; the northeast portion of the country was
represented by Massachusetts, and Illinois represented the Midwest region of the country.
School districts were chosen from three regions within each state. Florida's sample
population was drawn from Alachua, Pinellas, and the Miami metro-area. Districts in
Massachusetts were selected from Bristol and New Bedford counties as well as the
Boston metro-area. Illinois districts were chosen from Champaign and Sangamon
counties in addition to the Chicago metro-area. One hundred and fifty middle schools
were then randomly selected within the targeted population, 50 from each of the three
selected states.
The majority of the middle schools used in the study were randomly chosen as
a result of an on-line search on the Internet. Schools not selected via the Internet were


137
Prentice, Barbara and Sutton, Julie. The Care and Feeding of Young Drummers.
The Instrumentalist, 43: 40 nlO 1989.
Preston, Andrew Conrath. The Development and Evaluation of Selected
Instructional Materials for Teaching Percussion. Ed.D Dissertation: Music.
University of North Carolina. Greensboro, North Carolina. 1975.
Reeder, Larry Dale. An Analysis and Comparison of Selected Teaching Methods
for the University Percussion Methods Class. D A. Thesis: Music. University of
Mississippi. Oxford, Mississippi. 1994.
Rehbein, Steve. Versatility and Specialization: The Anthem of the Contemporary
Percussionist. Percussive Notes, 34: 47 n6 1996
Rhodes, Tom C., Bierschenk, Donald, and Lautzenheiser, Tim. Essential
Elements: A Comprehensive Band Method-Percussion Book 1. Hal Leonard
Publishing Corporation, Milwaukee, WI, 1991.
Rhodes, Tom C ., Bierschenk, Donald, and Lautzenheiser, Tim. Essential
Elements: A Comprehensive Band Method-Percussion Book 2. Hal Leonard
Publishing Corporation, Milwaukee, Wl, 1991.
Salmon, James D. Mallet Percussion. The Instrumentalist, 17: 65 n9 1963.
Sampson, Ulysses Thomas. An Identification of Deficiencies in Past and Current
Method Books for Beginning Heterogeneous Wind-Percussion Class Instrumental
Music Instruction. Ed.D. Thesis: Music. Indiana University. Bloomington, Indiana.
1968.
Schinstine, William J. Audition Solos for First-Year Percussionists. The
Instrumentalist, 35: 48 nl 1980.
Shugert, James M. An Experimental Investigation of Heterogeneous Class and
Private Methods of Instruction With Beginning Instrumental Music Students.
Ed.D Dissertation: Music. University of Illinois. Champaign, Illinois. 1969.
Sisney, Carolyn Reid. The Place of the Marimba in the School Music Program.
The Instrumentalist, 23: 67 n9 1969.
Snider, Larry Concepts for the Inexperienced Mallet Player The
Instrumentalist, 29: 62 n4 1974.


108
Number of Players
Band literature was grouped into three categories in order to examine the number
of players required for performance;
1)3 or fewer players
2.) 3 to 5 players
3.) 5 or more players
The majority (56%) of works required 3 to 5 players for successful performance.
Slightly less than one-third (32%) required 5 or more players, and 12% required 3 or
fewer players. Each level of band literature (III- VI) examined in this study contained
works in all three categories of players required for performance. Level VI literature
contained 50% of the pieces (16) requiring 5 or more players, with level III works
containing the least (2). Level IV and level V works contained the remainder of works
requiring 5 or more players, with five and nine, respectively.
Instruments Used in Band Literature
One of the considerations of this study was to determine what instruments are
typically incorporated in contemporary band literature. The information contained in
Table 5-1 reveals, for example, that snare drum (94%), bass drum (93%), and timpani
(86%) were the three most frequently required instruments.
This is consistent with Casimino (1985) who found that 99% of those instrumental
music directors responding to a survey stated that snare drum was the instrument most
frequently used in percussion instruction. Those surveyed also indicated that timpani
(87%) was the second most important area of study in the percussion curriculum.1
1 Casimino, page 87.


59
Standard of Excellence-Book 1
Preliminary Pages
In the introductory pages, Pearson refers to picking up drum sticks and mallets. He
also includes color illustrations of snare drum and (matched) grip, bass drum and grip,
and mallet percussion grip.7 Although not explicitly stated as the method's teaching
philosophy, the omission of traditional grip for snare drum, the inclusion of mallet
percussion in the introduction, and the dual page format, suggests that mallet percussion
instruments are to be taught simultaneously with snare drum and bass drum.
Skills, Concepts, and Instruments
Instruction begins with the introduction of the accent, half note and half rest for
the snare drum, and the initial appearance of the whole note and whole rest for both snare
drum and mallet percussion instruments. This section also features the introduction of the
first rudiment for snare drum, the single paradiddle. It is also at this juncture that the bass
drum becomes paired with snare drum on a consistent basis.8
The concept /skill of multiple bounce for snare drum is introduced 17% into this
method book. The author give a written explanation of this skill as well as illustrations of
its performance and how it is notated. One page is devoted to instruction of this skill. 9
The flam and flam accent are covered 22% through the text. The flam is
introduced with color illustrations of starting hand position for both left and right flams, as
7 Pearson-Book 1, page 3.
8 Pearson-Book 1, pages 6-8.
9 Pearson-Book 1, page 9.


60
written text describing the proper stroke. Also included is an illustration of how flams are
notated. Two pages are allocated for instruction of these rudiments.10
Flam accent is the next rudiment covered, occurring 40% into the text. It is
included in the musical example Third Time Around on the page of its introduction.
One page is devoted to this rudiment.11
Following this set of pages is a piece for percussion solo/percussion ensemble
entitled Sawmill Creek, written by the author. This selection requires the snare drum to
be played with snares off as well as on the rim, and incorporates accents. The mallet part
performs the melodic line which moves predominantly in conjunct fashion.12
The full band arrangements of Montego Bay is featured 50% into this method
book. The snare drum part of this work includes passages of multiple bounce (buzz)
rolls, and also includes flams,
The flam paradiddle, another rudiment, is also covered in this portion of the
method book, as is the concept of right hand lead. The flamacue is featured in the musical
example This Old Man one page after its introduction. One-half page is allocated to
instruction of the flamacue.13
The nine stroke roll, five stroke roll for snare drum, as well as the sustained roll
(single stroke) for mallet instruments are introduced 65% into this method book. This
10 Pearson-Book 1, pages 11-12.
11 Pearson-Book 1, page 18.
12 Pearson-Book 1, page 20.
13Pearson-Book 1, page 21-23.


112
Double stops were the most commonly required technique for orchestra bells,
xylophone, and vibraphone, which also required pedaling and dampening, two techniques
unique to this percussion instrument. Solos were required for these instruments in 4-5%
of the selected band works. The fact that these instruments were featured prominently in
three of the four method book series examined in this study suggests difference of
philosophy between music educators
and composers of band music.
In addition, crash cymbals (choke), suspended cymbal (roll with mallets),
tambourine (shake), and triangle (roll), were the only other percussion instrument
techniques featured in more than 10 percent of selected band literature; examples of these
techniques included the following:
-Snare Drum: Four-Stroke Ruff (7%), Flamacue (2%), Ratamcue (1%)
-Timpani: Muffle (3%), Double Stops (3%)
-Bells: Gliss (2%), Double-Stop Roll (1%)
-Xylophone: Double Stops (9%), Rolls (7%)
-Chimes: Double Stops (6%)
-Maracas: Shake (3%), Rattle (1%), Roll (1%)
-Brake Drum: Play with tack hammers (1%)
Table 5-2 summarizes the performance requirements of the 100 selected band works.
Table 5-2
Performance Techniques of Band Literature
Instrument
Technique
Frequency
Snare Drum
Flam
29%
Drag
26%
Long Roll
17%
5-Stroke Roll
11%
Snares On/Off
09%


22
Need for Mallet Percussion Instruction
Mario Gaetano (1980) emphasizes the need to instruct beginning percussionists
in all areas of performance. He states that students should become familiar with mallet
percussion instruments so that they may progress at the same rate as wind and brass
players in the area of key signatures and scales.
Gaetano also mentions the necessity of bandrooms containing at minimum a
xylophone, tubular chimes, and orchestra bells in order for the percussionists to be able
to perform the eclectic instrumentation required in the majority of contemporary band
literature.29
Jeffrey Dire (1977) advocates the training of beginning percussionists on mallet
percussion instruments and accessory percussion in addition to snare drum. He notes that
while it is not realistic to expect all students to become proficient on all percussion
instruments, every attempt should be made to make mallet percussion the student's most
proficient area.30
Douglas Overmier (1990) observes that the majority of band methods include
adequate percussion books. He states that these books contain sufficient and useful
exercises for beginning mallet instruction and should be incorporated into the overall
band curriculum. His main contention is that most public school band directors are
reluctant to use these resources because of unfamiliarity with percussion.
23
29 Mario A. Gaetano. Teaching Mallet Instruments to Beginners. The Instrumentalist,
34: 30-1 nlO 1980.
30 Jeffrey M. Dire. A Beginning Percussion Curriculum Based On Comprehensive
Musicianship. The Instrumentalist, 32: 74-9 n2 1977.


14
Charles Spohn and John Tatgenhorst (1971) mention the necessity of
instrumental music instructors providing a suitable melodic experience for beginning
percussionists. They maintain that playing only the rhythmic parts of snare drum or
other non-melodic percussion instrument will not provide the same type of complete
and meaningful musical experience for the beginning percussionist as would be the case
for one who learns from a melodic percussion instrument such as bells or xylophone.4
John Stede (1984) discusses the issue of specialization in a survey of selected
college percussion programs in the United States. The survey reports that a majority of
university percussion programs place greater emphasis on one aspect of percussion
education (e g. jazz, ethnic, marching) opposed to using either of the more traditional
instructional models: (e.g conservatory [performance] or music education).5
Gary Cook (1988) examines specialization in his discussion on the selection
process regarding beginning percussion students. He states that it is desirable for these
students to have a piano background. He observes that having such a background
facilitates the reading of clefs, scales, and melodic lines.
Cook further suggests that the beginning percussion kit include a set of
bells in addition to snare drum. He maintains that these instruments should be
taught concurrently, as part of a comprehensive percussion curriculum.6
4 Charles Spohn and John J. Tatgenhorst. The Percussion: Performance and Instructional
Techniques (Second Edition). Allyn and Bacon, Inc., Boston, 1971.
5 John Stede. Percussion in Higher Education: A Perspective On Its Present and Future.
Percussive Notes, 26: 7-9 n2 1988. pages 8-9.
6 Cook, page 7.


TABLE OF CONTENTS
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ii
ABSTRACT vi
CHAPTERS
1 OVERVIEW 1
2 SURVEY OF RELATED
LITERATURE 12
METHODOLOGY 41
Research Design 42
Parameters of Study 44
4 RESULTS 53
Regional Results of Survey 54
Current Band Methods Used in Public Middle Schools 55
Analysis of Percussion Books from Band Methods 57
Summary of Method Books 94
5 CONTENT ANALYSES OF BAND LITERATURE 107
6 SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, AND RECOMMENDATIONS .119
Summary 119
Conclusions 121
Recommendations for Improvement 124
Recommendations for Further Research 127
iv


18
Watkins further maintains that this happens as a result of percussionists playing music
requiring knowledge of the fundamental areas of percussion.16
Murray Houliff (1977) states that mallet percussion instruments should be included
in percussion curriculum from elementary through senior high school. He argues that this
contributes to extensive growth in musicianship among public school percussionists.17
Fred Wickstrom (1983) advocates the incorporation of a complete percussion
curriculum at all levels of education. Wickstrom states that instruction in each major
category of percussion: snare drum, timpani, and mallet/keyboard instruments, should
be included in the training of public school percussionists.18
Jeffrey Dire (1977) notes that beginning percussionists very first lessons are crucial
to their development as complete musicians. He suggests beginning that percussionists
study a variety of instruments in addition to snare drum (e g. timpani and mallet
percussion). According to Dire, this comprehensive approach to teaching beginning
percussionists allows public school percussionists to become familiar with a breadth of
instruments and performance requirements, thus enabling them to become more complete,
knowledgeable, and versatile musicians.19
16 Anna Watkins. The High School Percussion Ensemble. The Instrumentalist, 36: 90-2
n9 1982.
17 Houliff in Casimino, page 66.
18 Fred A. Wickstrom, Jr. A Curriculum for College Bound Percussionists. Percussive
Notes, 21: 54 n5 1983.
19 Jeffrey M. Dire. A Beginning Percussion Curriculum Based on Comprehensive
Musicianship. The Instrumentalist, 32: 74-6 n2 1977.


52
Content Analysis of Band Literature
Band literature was subjected to a similar analysis. Works were examined for the
prominence of the percussion parts and their relative musical importance within the piece.
Special or unorthodox techniques not covered in the method books and non-typical
instruments were also noted, as well as their frequency of use within the work and their
practical accessibility to public school percussionists. The selected band works were also
examined for the extent to which the percussion section is essential to the overall musical
fabric of a particular work.
Comparison and Contrast of Content Analyses
A major factor in the comparison of the information collected in the study was the
selection of an appropriate method for comparison of disparate data. The selection of the
raw-data matrix used in the study was to provide an acceptable foundation for describing
and analyzing possible relationships between data. Babbie (1983) supports this,
who observed that contrasting data collected as the result of descriptive research as
conducive to the use of this format.18
A feature that the study shares with Preston's (1975) investigation is a section
devoted to suggestions for improvement of percussion instruction in the areas of content
and educational effectiveness. This study also explores the possible relationship between
two different sets of data.
18 Babbie, pages 409-10.


21
Linda Pimentel (1987), another advocate of comprehensive percussion training,
mentions gaps in instruction, particularly of keyboard instruments, in the training of public
school percussionists. She suggests that percussion students be required to play a
mallet/keyboard instrument for half of each band rehearsal in each of the first three or
four years of band participation26 She further states that students do not have to study
all areas of percussion all the time. However, it is Pimentel's contention that beginning
percussionists need to have a sense of familiarity in each of the main areas: snare drum,
timpani, mallet, and accessory percussion.
Pimentel also observes that reading skills are essential to percussion education. Her
contention is that a majority of percussionists learn to read only rhythms. She states that
it is most noticeable in keyboard performance, with the biggest hindrance to development
in these areas the inability of percussion students to read clefs.27
Garwood Whaley (1988) mentions the focus of technical development over
musical development as a continuing issue in percussion education. He attributes this
to the fact that technical skills are easier to measure than overall musicianship skills,
such as phrasing and style interpretation. Whaley contends that overall musicianship
skills are particularly difficult to measure in contest situations, where performances by
public school percussionists consist primarily of rudimental snare drum solos requiring
little in the way of dynamic shadings, phrase shaping, or style interpretation.28
26 Linda Pimentel. Recommendations for the Reorganization of Percussion Instruction.
Percussive Notes, 25: 23-6 n2 1987.
27 Ibid.
28 Garwood Whaley. Percussion Education: Whose Responsibility? Percussive Notes,
26: 7 n2 1988.


70
The final portion of this method book features a reappearance of the Percussive
Art Society's International Drum Rudiments The illustrated mallet instrument page and
mallet keyboard layout/note chart, both features of books 1 and 2, are also included.42
Yamaha Band Student: Combined Percussion
Feldstein and O'Reilly
Overview
This method series contains three levels of instruction for percussionists:
Book 1 : Combined Percussion-Snare Drum, Bass Drum,
Accessory Percussion/Keyboard Percussion
Book 2: Combined Percussion-Snare Drum, Bass Drum,
Accessory Percussion/Keyboard Percussion
Book 3: Combined Percussion-Snare Drum, Bass Drum,
Accessory Percussion/Keyboard Percussion
Each level is set up as a one year curriculum for percussion students, with
suggested goals and objectives for students and instructors. The introductory pages in this
series mention which snare drum rudiments are covered in each book, as well as
performance techniques for accessories (e g. triangle, suspended cymbal, wood block).
Each method book also includes a chart illustrating the ranges for orchestra bells,
xylophone, vibraphone, and marimba.43
42 Pearson-Book 3, page 48
43 Sandy Feldstein and John O'Reilly. Yamaha Band Student: Combined
Percussion (Snare Drum, Bass Drum, Accessory/Keyboard Percussiori)Books 1-3.
Alfred Publishing Co, Inc., Van Nuys, CA, 1988.


10
to percussion instruction at the high school level are financial considerations rather than
philosophical.
Definitions
are percussion instruments that are incapable of playing
melodic or harmonic parts. These instruments include snare drum, bass drum cymbals,
wood-block, triangle, and gongs.
Pitched instruments are instruments that traditionally play melodic and/or harmonic
lines such as bells, xylophone, marimba, and vibraphone.
Standard band literature refers to works on state-approved band lists such as the
Florida Bandmasters Association, Massachusetts Music Educators Association, and the
Illinois High School Association.
Rudiments are the combinations of rhythmic patterns found in the Percussive Arts
Society's Standard Drum Sheet of 40 Rudiments-single-stroke roll, flam, paradiddle,
double-stroke roll, flam-taps, etc.13
Group band books refer to the books commonly used in public school percussion
instruction (e g. Ployhar's Band Today).
Group instruction refers to classes involving two or more band students, one of
whom is a percussionist, within scheduled school hours.
Private instruction is individual instruction of a student percussionist by a
percussion specialist that takes place outside of school band rehearsal hours.
13 Percussive Arts Society, P.A.S. International Drum Rudiments. Ludwig Industries, Inc.,
Elkhart, IN, 1990.


131
Cocuzzi, Frank and Shiner, Kristen, What Really Needs to Be Taught in
Percussion Methods Class. Percussive Notes, 26: 24-8 n4 1988.
Colwell, Richard J. Educating Teachers of Music for What9 Percussive Notes,
30: 21-8 n2 1991.
Colwell, Richard J. and Goolsby, T. The Teaching of Instrumental Music (2nd
Edition). Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1992.
Combs, J C. The Problems of Sight-Reading Mallet-Played Instruments and
Their Relationships to Kinesthetic Sensation Ph.D. Dissertation: Music
Education. University of Oklahoma. Norman, Oklahoma. 1968.
Combs, Michael F. Percussionists and the Contest/Festival. The Instrumentalist,
27: 76 n8 1973.
Combs. Michael F. Selecting a Snare Drum Method. The Instrumentalist, 27: 50
n5 1972.
Combs, Michael F. Survey of Percussion Specialists. The Instrumentalist 27: 53
n6 1973.
Cook Gary D Teaching Percussion. Schirmer Books, New York, NY, 1988.
Culp, Paula. Common Faults of School Percussionists. The Instrumentalist,
21: 66 n4 1966.
Dachtyl, Cary. The Status of Snare Drum Instruction in Percussion Methods
Programs of Selected Universities and Colleges in Ohio and Contiguous States.
Ph D. Dissertation: Music Pedagogy. Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio.
1992.
Daigneault, David Joseph. A Survey of Recommended Procedures and Teaching
Methods for Building and Maintaining a Wind and Percussion Program Grades
Six Through Twelve (Sixth-Grade, Twelfth-Grade). D A. Thesis: Music. University
of Mississippi, Oxford, Mississippi. 1993
Daubeny, Ulric. Orchestral Wind Instruments: Ancient and Modem. Wm Reeves,
London, 1920.


for me to become a more discerning scholar. His genuine warmth and humor were also
greatly appreciated
I also wish to acknowledge Dr. Phyllis Dorman, Dr. James Sain, and Dr. Art
Newman. They were all thoroughly professional and personable, and had an enormously
positive influence on my educational and musical growth, in addition, I wish to thank my
two closest friends in Gainesville, Vikki Truesdail and Paul Barrett, who helped me
through some very difficult times and asked nothing in return save friendship. I am indeed
fortunate to have two such caring and compassionate friends.
My last acknowledgments are perhaps the most important ones. They go to my
grandmother and the memory of my grandfather. .Along with my mother and my brother,
Jon, they taught me the essential importance of hard work, dedication, and finishing a
project, regardless of the obstacles. Their influence is something I will always carry with
me. This dissertation is dedicated to their spirit, compassion, and simple human dignity.


71
The text for each method book employs a double-page format, with snare drum,
bass drum, and accessory parts on the left and keyboard percussion parts on the right.
While there are no introductory pages explaining the philosophy of combined percussion,
it appears from the content that the intent is to develop well-rounded percussionists as
opposed to percussionists who specialize on one instrument such as snare drum, bass
drum, or keyboard instruments,
This method series does not mention a preference for either matched or traditional
grip as the basis for beginning snare drum instruction. However, the structure and overall
content of the method suggest a combined percussion curriculum employing matched grip
on all instruments as fundamental part of the instructional format.
The format for presenting the rudiments consists of an illustration at the top of
the page on which it is introduced. Rudiments are utilized in a one-line exercise at the
bottom of the same page entitled Just for Drums. Rudiments appear in the musical
examples contained on its page of introduction. For example, double strokes are
introduced on page 5, but appear for the first time in a musical example on page 7
Keyboard percussion instrument pages follow the instructional format for all other
melodic instruments, with the exception of a section entitled Just For Keyboard. This
portion of the method book contains exercises and studies which incorporate a particular
skill or concept for keyboard instruments, such as double stops. These exercises also
constitute a review of the key signatures introduced in the method book. This format
is followed throughout all three books in the series.44
44 Feldstein/OReilly-Book 1, pages 5, 7


a student leams to perform on a particular percussion instrument, such as snare drum, and
remains on that instrument throughout his or her public school performing career. This
study examines the extent to which specialization influences the content of percussion
method books as well as the performance requirements of levels III-VI band literature.
The sample of percussion books from band methods was taken from the results
of a survey of 150 middle school band directors in three separate geographic locations in
the United Sates, 50 each in Florida, Illinois, and Massachusetts.
Schools for the survey were randomly selected from the web-site of the American
School Directory. Method books were examined for presentation of skills, concepts, and
instruments. The reason for this was to provide a basis for examination of the efficacy of
the method books in preparing elementary and middle school percussionists to successfully
perform typical high school band music literature.
Content analyses were performed on the four method book series most frequently
cited in the survey as being in current use in middle school instrumental music programs.
These method book series were examined for sequence of skills, concepts, and
instruments presented in their texts, as well as their musical and educational scope.
In order to examine the extent of the relationship between elementary to
intermediate percussion method books and performance practices, 100 intermediate to
advanced band works were analyzed for number of percussion players and instruments
required, as well as percussion technique requirements. Works were randomly selected
from the approved concert band literature list of the New York State School Association.
The final portion of the study is devoted to a discussion of conclusions from the
survey and content analyses of method book series and band literature. In addition,
recommendations are made for improving the musical and educational content of
percussion method books, as well as facilitating the training of future music educators in
undergraduate percussion skills classes.
vii


This dissertation was submitted to the Graduate Faculty of the College of Fine
Arts and to the Graduate School and was accepted as partial fulfillment of the
requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.
August 1998
Dean, College of Fine Arts
Dean, Graduate School


Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate School
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy
AN ANALYSIS OF BEGINNING TO
INTERMEDIATE PERCUSSION METHODS
USED IN SELECTED PUBLIC SCHOOLS AND
THEIR RELATIONSHIP TO THE PERFORMANCE
REQUIREMENTS OF STATE APPROVED BAND LITERATURE
By
JAMES KENT ACKMAN
August 1998
Chairman: Charles R Hoffer
Major Department: Music
The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between beginning to
intermediate percussion books from contemporary band methods and the performance
requirements of levels III-VI band literature typically programmed by high school
ensembles in concert, contest, and festival situations.
Contemporary band composers have written with increasing frequency and fluency
for percussion instruments. In turn, this has lead to a demand for more comprehensively
trained student percussionists. For this reason, there is a need for an examination of
whether the skills student percussionists are taught in elementary and middle school
percussion classes are what they actually need to know in order to successfully perform
levels m-VI band literature.
A major issue involving contemporary band directors and instrumental music
teachers in the area of percussion instruction is specialization. This is a situation in which
vi


78
The final musical example in this method series is a two page piece for full band
entitled Suite for Winds and Percussion. This work is written for snare drum, bass
drum, crash cymbals, and tambourine in the percussion part; it also includes a separate
part for keyboard percussion instruments. The percussion part features nine stroke rolls
for snare drum, and a long roll for tambourine. The keyboard percussion part contains
extended rolls.67
Specialized Pages
This method book concludes with two pages of exercises for both snare drum and
keyboard percussion instruments. The snare drum pages contain three line exercises
utilizing the following rudiments:
1.) single, double, and triple paradiddles
2.) flam, flam tap and flam accents
3 .) five, seven, nine and seventeen stroke rolls, long rolls
4.) flam paradiddle, flamacue
5.) single, double, and triple ratamacues
6.) drag paradiddle, paradiddle-diddle68
Essential Elements
Rhodes, Bierschenk, and Lautzenheiser
This method book series contains two books, content of method books
consists of 140 and 130 exercises and musical examples for books 1 and 2, respectively,
67 O'Reilly/Kinyon-Book 3, pages 27-28.
68 O'Reilly/Kinyon-Book 3, Snare Drum, pages 30-31.


132
Dalby, Bruce. Challenging Percussionists. The Instrumentalist, 49: 56-60 n2
1994.
Dire, Jeffrey M. A Beginning Percussion Curriculum Based On Comprehensive
Musicianship. The Instrumentalist, 32: 74-8 n2 1977.
Dodson, Tom. Are Students Learning Music in Band9 Music Educators Journal,
76: 25 n3 1989.
Ely, Mark and Stowers, Amy. Many Method Books For Beginning Bands: An
Overview of Six Publications. The Instrumentalist, 49: 28-34 nl2 1995.
Feldstein, Sandy and OReilly, John. Yamaha Band Student: Combined
Percussion-Book 1. Alfred Publishing Co., Inc., Van Nuys, CA, 1987.
Feldstein, Sandy and OReilly, John. Yamaha Band Student: Combined
Percussion-Book 2 Alfred Publishing Co., Inc., Van Nuys, CA, 1989.
Fink, Ron. The Percussionist/Band Director: An Interview with Robert
A.Winslow. The Instrumentalist, 30: 63 n2 1975.
Fluegel, Neal. A Likehand Grip for Flolding Snare Drum Sticks. The
Instrumentalist, 17: 56 n5 1963
Funes, Don Music in Higher Education: The Dawning of the Golden Age
Percussive Notes, 30: 29-34 n2 1991.
Fuqua, D. R, Hartman, B. W., and Brown, D. F. Survey of Research in Higher
Education. Research in Higher Education, 17: 69-80 nl 1982.
Gaetano, Mario A. Teaching Mallet Instruments to Beginners. The
Instrumentalist, 34: 30-1 nlO 1980.
Gilbert, Donald K. Changing Concepts in Percussion. The Instrumentalist, 23:
64 nlO 1969.
Goodlad, John. A Place Called School. McGraw-Hill Publishing Company,
New York, NY, 1983.
Grifa, Robert. Beyond Just Drumming: Teaching Percussionists to be Musicians
The Instrumentalist, 50: 50 46 n5 1995.


118
details surrounding this issue are beyond the parameters of this investigation.
Nevertheless, this issue presents a starting point for exploration of what might be done,
from an educational and pedagogical standpoint, in order to more effectively meet the
needs of public school percussionists, band directors, and those who train future music
educators.


62
marimba, xylophone, vibraphone, and chimes, which contain a description of the
performance capabilities of each instrument, and a mallet percussion note chart.18
Standard of Excellence-Book 2
Overview
This method begins with a review of material from the previous book. Five, seven,
and nine stroke rolls are reviewed in the snare drum pages. Students are instructed to play
these rolls in using both multiple bounce (buzz) and double strokes (rudimental
style). These rolls are all incorporated in the musical example Knucklebuster, which
also includes flam paradiddles and flam taps.19
Content
The content of this method book consists of 118 exercises and etudes, and
musical examples, as well as seven one to three page band arrangements, a multiple
percussion solo utilizing five different instrument, and a mallet percussion solo. Eight
pages of advanced exercises complete the content of this method book. These studies
consist of four pages of studies for both snare drum- Excellerators For Drums Only
and for keyboard percussion instrument s-Excellerators For Mallets Only
Skills, Concepts, and Instruments
Syncopation in the context of a nine stroke roll is the first significant topic covered
in this method book, and is introduced 5% into the text. It is incorporated in the musical
18 Pearson-Book 1, pages 46-9.
19 Bruce Pearson. Standard of Excellence: Comprehensive Band Method. Drums and
Mallet Percussion-Book 2. Neil A. Kjos Music Company, Publisher, San Diego, CA,
1995, pages 2-4.


145
Band Literature-Level IV (cont.)
Selection
Nobles of the
Mystic Shrine
(J.P. Sousa/Fennell)
North Star Overture
(John OReilly)
Ov erture For Symphonic
Band
(Vaclav Nelhybel)
Overture For Winds
(Elliot Del Borgo)
Prelude and Fugue
(Vaclav Nelhybel)
Second Suite in F
(Gustav Holst)
Scenes From The Louvre
(Norman Dello Joio)
Shenandoah
(C.T. Smith)
Two American Songs
(Clare E. Gundman)
Variation Overture
(Clifton Williams)
Adagio and Allegro
(Vaclav Nelhybel)
Elayers Instruments.
6 SD. BD. FD. CC. Tri.
Tamb, Timp (3), B
SD: Flams, Double-stroke
Rolls+flamyroll. BD.Muffle,
Tamb: Shake (Ext). B: Melody
4 SD. BD. CC. WB. N/A
Tamb. B. X
Role
4
2
6 SD. FD, BD. CC,
TT (4), Timp (4)
B. V
SD: Flams. Drags, Lesson 25 (Inverted) 4
TT: Prominent. Timp: Dampen (Ext)
(D). TB: DS. Pedaling, V: Prominent+
Pedaling, B: DS
6
5
SD. BD. TT (4), WB SD: Flams. Snares On/Off, TT: DS, 4
CB, Tri,Timp (4), B, V. Prominent. Solo (Ext) (D). BD:Dampen
M Timp: PC-1, Dampen. M: Long Roll.
V: DS (Ext), Dampen WB: Prominent
SD, BD, CC, SC SD: Solo (MD), On rim, CC: Choke 4
Timp (3). X BD. Dampen (Ext), X: DS (Ext) (MD)
TB: DS
3
4
SD. BD, CC, Tri, SD: Flams. Rolls, CC: Choke,
Tamb, Anvil. Timp (2) Tri: Roll, BD: Rolls+Dampen,
Tamb: Shake, Use of Anvil
SD. BD, CC, Timp (4), B Timp: Solo-Significant (M)
3
4
4-5 SD, BD, SC, B, V,
TB, Timp (3)
4-5 SD, BD, WB (2)
Timp (3), TB, B
4 SD, BD, CC, SC,
Timp (4), TB
5-6 SD. BD, SC, Tri,
TB Timp (3), Gong
B, Celeste
V: Melody (Ext),
B: Prominent (D), Timp: PC-2
SD:Flams, B:Melody (Ext)
SD: Flams+On rim, BD: Dampen
CC: Choke (Ext), Timp: PC-2,
Long rolls (Ext), SC: Play with
heavy s.d. stick
Timp:PC-5 (D), B/TB soli.
X/B: Prominent, TB: Sixteenth
notes-Extensive, TBL: Prominent
Use of Celeste (Ext)
4
3
4
4


93
stroke rolls on the downbeat and on the upbeat, nine stroke rolls, and flams. Hunters
Chorus from Der Freishutz (Weber) is a mallet percussion solo featuring accents and
arpeggios; this piece also contains apiano accompaniment 114 The final musical example
of this method book is Sousa Spectacular, a one page work for snare drum, bass drum,
crash cymbals, tambourine, and mallet percussion, which features five and nine stroke
rolls.115
The concluding portion of this method book contains seven double pages of
exercises which feature skills, concepts, and instruments covered in the course of book 1.
Accent on Scales features rudiments on the snare drum page and scales, chords, double
stops, and movement by thirds on the mallet percussion page.116
Accent on Rhythms consists of twenty single line rhythm studies for mallet
instruments.117 Accent on Rests contains ten exercises for both percussion (snare
drum/bass drum) and mallet percussion instruments. These studies are rhythmically in
unison, with mallet percussion parts containing scale-wise movement, arpeggios, and
dampening of notes. Accent on Snare Drum, which is a review of accents and flams,
and Accent on Mallets, which utilizes double stops and arpeggios, conclude this method
book.118
114 OReilly/Williams-Book 1, pages 34-5.
115 OReilly/Williams-Book 1, page 36.
116 OReilly/Williams-Book 1, page 37.
117 OReilly/Williams-Book 1, pages 38-9.
118 OReilly/Williams-Book 1, pages 40-41


72
Yamaha Band Student-Book 1
Skills, Concepts, and Instruments
Instruction begins with the introduction of double strokes, the first snare drum rudiment,
paradiddle, and triangle in the percussion pages, along with written accidentals in the
keyboard instrument pages. A total of two pages is allocated for instruction of these skills
and concepts.45
The first lull band arrangements appear 30% into this method book. Jingle Bells
(arr. Feldstein/OHeilly), is written on two staves and requires snare drum, bass drum, and
triangle for percussion.46
The next rudiments introduced are the flam and flam tap, appearing 35% into
the method book. Also included in this portion of the method book is the introduction of
the suspended cymbal. One page is devoted to each of these topics. A musical example
featuring these two rudiments is Let's Row Again, which incorporates flams and flam
taps.47
The woodblock and the snare drum rudiment flam accent are introduced 45%
and 52% into this method book, respectively. The concept of playing on the rim of a
drum is introduced on the same page as the flam accent, which also includes the
introduction of divisi for keyboard instruments. A total of one and a half pages are
allocated for woodblock, playing on the rim, and flam accent.48
45 Feldstein/OReilly-Book 1, pages 5-10.
46 Feldstein/OReilly-Book 1, page 9.
47 Feldstein/OReilly-Book 1, pages 10-15.
48 Feldstein/OReilly-Book 1, pages 14-17.


114
Table 5-2 (cont.)
Performance Techniques of Band Literature
Instrument
Technique
Frequency
Timpani (cont.)
Double Grace notes
02%
Play with snare drum sticks
02%
Play in center of head
01%
Crash Cymbals
Choke
26%
Play pianissimo
01%
Scrape edges together to produce roll
01%
Wave in circles after crash to produce wah-wah effect
01%
Suspended
Roll with yam mallets
17%
Cymbal
Play with snare drum stick
04%
Play with but end of snare drum stick
02%
Choke
02%
Scrape
02%
Suspended
Play on dome
02%
Cymbal (cont)
Scrape with coin
01%
Play with wooden end of timpani mallet
01%
Tom-Toms
Double Stops
03%
Flams
02%
On Rim
01%
Drag
01%
Drag Tap
01%
Long Roll
01%
Solo
01%
Play in center of head
01%
Place large tambourine on large head
01%
Tambourine
Shake
13%
On knee
03%
Play with snare drum sticks
03%
Thumb Roll
02%
Play with timpani mallets (lay flat)
01%
Play with snare drum sticks in center
01%
Play with hard xylophone mallets
01%
Triangle
Roll
11%
Dampen
06%
Play with 2 beaters
01%
Play with snare drum stick
01%


134
Lefever, Maxine. Snare Drum Instruction: Straight or Rudimental. The
Instrumentalist, 21: 16 n7 1967.
Leglar, Mary. Profile of Research in Music Teacher Education. Quarterly
Journal of Music Teaching and Learning, 4: 59-67 nl 1993.
Longyear, Rex Morgan. Starting Percussion Students on Mallet Instruments.
The Instrumentalist, 16: 85 n2 1961.
Ludwig, William F Jr. A History of American Drumming. The Instrumentalist,
45: 22 n4 1990.
McCarthy, James Francis. Effect of Individualized Instruction on the Performance
Achievement of Beginning Instrumentalists. PhD. Dissertation: Music Education
Michigan State University. East Lansing, Michigan. 1972.
McCormick, Robert. Developing Concert Snare Drum Technique. The
Instrumentalist, 34: 72 n9 1980.
McCormick, Larry W. The School Percussion Section. The Instrumentalist,
17: 77 n3 1962.
McCutcheon, Tony. MIDI Percussion and Music Education. Percussive Notes,
34: 68 n4 1996.
McKenzie, Jack. Same Grip With Both Hands. The Instrumentalist, 15: 55 n9
1961.
McKinney, James R. A Band Director's Guide to Percussion Texts. The
Instrumentalist, 29: 75 nil 1975.
Malcagni, Greg. Drummer, Percussionist, or Musician? Percussive Notes, 34:
60-1 n4 1996.
Miller, Lloyd Dewey. The Efficacy Of A Programmed Music Fundamentals Text
As An Adjunct To Beginning Instrumental Study. Ph D. Dissertation: Music
Education. Michigan State University. East Lansing, MI. 1974.
Monty, Rudy A. Percussion Method Books Used In Selected U. S. Public Schools:
Analyses And A Supplemental Guide For The Non-Percussionist Band Director.
Ed.D Thesis: Music. New York University. New York, New York. 1986.


116
Table 5-2 (cont)
Percussion Requirements of Band Literature
Latin Percussion (cont.)
Instrument
Technique
Frequency
Maracas
Shake
03%
Rattle
01%
Roll
01%
Sandpaper Blocks
Scrape
03%
Timbales
Double Stops
02%
Other
Ad Lib:
Stick-tapping noises (3 players)
01%
T Bar Wind Chimes: Shimmer
01%
Triangle: Play with brashes+with fingers
01%
Vibraphone: 10 pitches
01%
Wood on wood. Snare Dram+Bass Dram
01%
Marimba: 7 pitches X/B: 10 pitches.
01%
TB: 3 pitches
01%
Hat: Jazz-style solo
01%
Alto Drum:
Play with brashes
01%
Brake Dram:
Play with tack hammers+Double Stops
01%
C rotates:
Triple Stops+pay with triangle beater
01%
Gong
Use chime mallet at top right under flange
01%
Jingle Bell Jar
Slowly roll over and over
01%
Metal Trash Can Lid
Extensive use of 32nd notes
01%
Piano
Pluck strings+play with glass water tumbler
01%
Triangle
Triple Stops
01%
24 Water Gong
Immerse in bucket of water after striking
01%


Selection
Impressions of Japan
(James Barnes)
In the Spring When the
Kings Go Off to War
(Darid R. Holsinger)
Lincolnshire Posy
(Percy Grainger)
Liturgical Dances
(David R. Holsinger)
Lonely Beach-1944
(James Barnes)
Masquerade
(Vincent Persichetti)
150
Band Literature-Level VI (cont.)
Players Instruments Techniques
5-8 SD. BD, SC. Tamb SC: Roll with mallets+s.d. stick
Claves. TT (6), Gong, (use butt end), scrape with coin.
WC (Bamboo), Crotales: Tamb: Shake (Ext), Gong: Solo.
2 sets. Timp (4). X, V, B M:4-mallets, X: Prominent. Grace
notes V: 4-mallets+use of motor.
B: Extensive part, TB: pedaling+
play with tri beater
8-11 SD. BD. FD, Tenor Drum Extensive ad lib sections:
SC (2): reg and small
"bright CC.Tn (3), WC.
TT (6): Two sets of 3.
TBL (5), SS, SLB. Tamb
Gong, Crotales. FC. SS.
CB, Timp (4). B, V. M,
X. TB
4-5 SD. BD. FD, CC,
SC, Timp (4), B, X,
Hand Bells+other
6-7 SD (2), BD, SC, CC,
Tri, WC. Gong,
Timp (5) B, X, M
WC-Roll, TT-random stick
tapping noises (D), SD/BD:
wood on wood, Tri: Triple
stops. Dampen. Roll. TBL:
Rolls. Tamb: Shake. Dampen
and Roll, Timp: PC-6, DS.
Dampen (Ext) Solo (D) CC:
Choke (Ext) V: ad lib-6 pitches
and ad lib-9 pitches+DS Rolls
(Ext), V/B:ad lib (Ext), M: DS
(Ext) Important Solo, Crotales:
ad lib (Ext). Rolls
Prominent mallet work
SC: Rolls. Timp: Solo (MD)
SDs: Prominent. Snares on/off.
(D), BD: "Dampen head as taut
as possible, (Ext), CC: Choke
(Ext), SC: Roll, V/X: DS (Ext)
TB: (D), Tri: Roll, WC: Rattle
Role
4
4
4
6 SD, FD, BD (3): SD: Open rolls. Sotch BD: Muffled head 4
Scotch. Lg BD. All BDs: Dampen (Ext),SC: Roll (Ext).
V Lg BD, TD, CC, Timp: Double grace notes,
SC, WC. Timp (4), B. V Timed entrances foroff -stage percussion
7 SD, BD. Alto Drum, SD: Drags. 4-stroke ruffs, On rim, 4
FD, SC, CC, SZC, TT, Flams w/brushes+ snares off w/
Tri, WB, Ratchet, SB. timp mallets (muffled), Prominent,
Tamb. Anvil, Gong, FD: Rolls w/brushes, TT: Play with
Timp (4) B, X, brushes+w/fingers, BD: Rolls, Drags,
On rim, Muffle (Ext) Tamb: On knee,
Thumb Roll, Shake, SB: (D) Ratchet:
Roll, Gong: Play w/tri beater+Roll w/


130
Black, Dave. Of Musicians and Percussionists. The Instrumentalist, 51: 17-22 n2
1966.
Blades, James. Percussion Instruments and Their History (Revised Edition).
The Bold Strummer, Ltd., Westport, CT, 1992.
Borg, Walter R., and Gall, Meredith D. Educational Research: An Introduction
(Fifth Edition). Longman, New York, NY, 1989.
Boyle, David J., and Radocy, Rudolf E. Measurement and Evaluation of Musical
Experiences. Schirmer Books, New York, NY, 1987.
Breithaupt, Robert B. The Complete Percussionist: A Guidebook for the Music
Educator. C L. Bamhouse Company, Oskaloosa, IA, 1991.
Brindle, Reginald Smith. Contemporary Percussion. Oxford University Press,
New York, NY, 1970.
Brown, J.D. Identifying Problems Facing the School Band Movement. Indiana
Gemeinhardt Company, Bloomington, IN, 1982.
Buggert, Robert W. The Beginning Drummer. The Instrumentalist, 11: 67-8 n3
1956.
Carrico, Jerry. The Matched Grip Versus The Unmatched Grip The
Instrumentalist,19: 70 nil 1965,
Casimino, Joseph Anthony. Curriculum Planning Practices for the Development
of Percussionists in Selected School Districts of New York State. Ed. D
Dissertation: Music. State University of New York at Buffalo. 1986.
Chenoweth, Vida. The Marimba Comes Into Its Own Music Journal, 15:12 n3
1957.
Christie, John M. Instrumental Instruction in the Elementary School. The
Instrumentalist, 21: 45 n3 1966.
Cirone, Anthony. School Directors and Their Percussion Sections. The
Instrumentalist, 23: 80 nil 1969.


AN ANALYSIS OF BEGINNING TO
INTERMEDIATE PERCUSSION METHODS
USED IN SELECTED PUBLIC SCHOOLS AND
THEIR RELATIONSHIP TO THE PERFORMANCE
REQUIREMENTS OF STATE .APPROVED BAND LITERATURE
By
JAMES KENT ACKMAN
A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT
OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF
DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
The completion of a dissertation is merely the last project in a sequence of events
leading to a doctorate degree, An endeavor of this magnitude would not have been
possible without the support and sacrifice of my family and friends. As such, would like
to take this opportunity to acknowledge the people who have guided me through this
long, sometimes arduous, and ultimately rewarding process.
First and foremost, I wish to thank my mother for her unwavering belief in me.
She provided moral and emotional support through the entire process and always
understood how much the pursuit of a doctorate in music education meant to me. Her
understanding and deep compassion are priceless gifts.
My wife, Jan, along with my daughter, Katie, who had to spend a lot of time
growing up while I was pursuing my dream, deserve a very special place in my
acknowledgments. They had to sacrifice the most of all those who helped me reach
my goal, and were also the inspiration that allowed me to handle the difficult times along
the way.
I wish to extend my warmest thanks to Dr. Charles Hoffer, my committee chair.
He guided me through the whole process and had a more profound influence on me as a
person and a student than he will ever know. Although he taught me many things about
music and education, the most important things I learned during the pursuit of this degree
had nothing to do with music, and for this he has earned my deepest gratitude. I consider
him a friend as well as a mentor.
Another major influence during my time at the University of Florida was Dr. David
Kushner. His impeccably high academic standards and attention to detail, along with his
grasp of the importance of events within the larger scheme of things, provided the impetus
ii

for me to become a more discerning scholar. His genuine warmth and humor were also
greatly appreciated
I also wish to acknowledge Dr. Phyllis Dorman, Dr. James Sain, and Dr. Art
Newman. They were all thoroughly professional and personable, and had an enormously
positive influence on my educational and musical growth, in addition, I wish to thank my
two closest friends in Gainesville, Vikki Truesdail and Paul Barrett, who helped me
through some very difficult times and asked nothing in return save friendship. I am indeed
fortunate to have two such caring and compassionate friends.
My last acknowledgments are perhaps the most important ones. They go to my
grandmother and the memory of my grandfather. .Along with my mother and my brother,
Jon, they taught me the essential importance of hard work, dedication, and finishing a
project, regardless of the obstacles. Their influence is something I will always carry with
me. This dissertation is dedicated to their spirit, compassion, and simple human dignity.

TABLE OF CONTENTS
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ii
ABSTRACT vi
CHAPTERS
1 OVERVIEW 1
2 SURVEY OF RELATED
LITERATURE 12
METHODOLOGY 41
Research Design 42
Parameters of Study 44
4 RESULTS 53
Regional Results of Survey 54
Current Band Methods Used in Public Middle Schools 55
Analysis of Percussion Books from Band Methods 57
Summary of Method Books 94
5 CONTENT ANALYSES OF BAND LITERATURE 107
6 SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, AND RECOMMENDATIONS .119
Summary 119
Conclusions 121
Recommendations for Improvement 124
Recommendations for Further Research 127
iv

BIBLIOGRAPHY.
129
APPENDICES
A FORM LETTER 140
B PERCUSSION REQUIREMENTS OF SELECTED
BAND LITERATURE 142
BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH 153
v

Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate School
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy
AN ANALYSIS OF BEGINNING TO
INTERMEDIATE PERCUSSION METHODS
USED IN SELECTED PUBLIC SCHOOLS AND
THEIR RELATIONSHIP TO THE PERFORMANCE
REQUIREMENTS OF STATE APPROVED BAND LITERATURE
By
JAMES KENT ACKMAN
August 1998
Chairman: Charles R Hoffer
Major Department: Music
The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between beginning to
intermediate percussion books from contemporary band methods and the performance
requirements of levels III-VI band literature typically programmed by high school
ensembles in concert, contest, and festival situations.
Contemporary band composers have written with increasing frequency and fluency
for percussion instruments. In turn, this has lead to a demand for more comprehensively
trained student percussionists. For this reason, there is a need for an examination of
whether the skills student percussionists are taught in elementary and middle school
percussion classes are what they actually need to know in order to successfully perform
levels m-VI band literature.
A major issue involving contemporary band directors and instrumental music
teachers in the area of percussion instruction is specialization. This is a situation in which
vi

a student leams to perform on a particular percussion instrument, such as snare drum, and
remains on that instrument throughout his or her public school performing career. This
study examines the extent to which specialization influences the content of percussion
method books as well as the performance requirements of levels III-VI band literature.
The sample of percussion books from band methods was taken from the results
of a survey of 150 middle school band directors in three separate geographic locations in
the United Sates, 50 each in Florida, Illinois, and Massachusetts.
Schools for the survey were randomly selected from the web-site of the American
School Directory. Method books were examined for presentation of skills, concepts, and
instruments. The reason for this was to provide a basis for examination of the efficacy of
the method books in preparing elementary and middle school percussionists to successfully
perform typical high school band music literature.
Content analyses were performed on the four method book series most frequently
cited in the survey as being in current use in middle school instrumental music programs.
These method book series were examined for sequence of skills, concepts, and
instruments presented in their texts, as well as their musical and educational scope.
In order to examine the extent of the relationship between elementary to
intermediate percussion method books and performance practices, 100 intermediate to
advanced band works were analyzed for number of percussion players and instruments
required, as well as percussion technique requirements. Works were randomly selected
from the approved concert band literature list of the New York State School Association.
The final portion of the study is devoted to a discussion of conclusions from the
survey and content analyses of method book series and band literature. In addition,
recommendations are made for improving the musical and educational content of
percussion method books, as well as facilitating the training of future music educators in
undergraduate percussion skills classes.
vii

CHAPTER 1
OVERVIEW
Percussion instruments have been a part of musical culture since the dawn of
civilization. From prehistoric log drums to contemporary electronic drum-machines, there
has been significant interest in the performance and educational areas of this particular
family.
In the immediate aftermath of World War II, the trend in public schools was
to program music for concerts featuring works of contemporary band composers in
addition to standard marches and transcriptions of orchestral works. These composers
were trained in the 20th century style of composition, which involved inclusion of the
percussion section as part of the main fabric of the music.1 This was a dramatic
departure from percussion's traditional role of accompanist to the band.
During the second half of the 20th century, often referred to as the golden age
of percussion, band and orchestra composers have written with increasing frequency
and fluency for percussion, exploring their musical and color potential.2
In the 1980s, percussion entered the arena of technology with the development
of electronic percussion instruments. Today, using MIDI (musical instrument digital
interface) and other advanced capabilities, percussionists and composers have at their
disposal an almost infinite range of sounds and timbres.3
1 Harold F Abeles, Charles R. Hoffer, and Robert H. Klotman. Foundations of Music
Education (Second Edition). Schirmer Books, New York, 1973. page 284.
2 Gary Cook. Teaching Percussion. Schirmer Books, New York, 1988. page 9.
1

2
The practical implications of this philosophy of composition with regard to
percussion performance requirements are twofold. 1.) The number of percussion
instruments employed in contemporary band literature has been expanded to include
ethnic and world percussion instruments such as marimbas and Latin percussion. 2.)
Percussion parts contained in contemporary literature have become more sophisticated
and demanding 4
Need for Comprehensive Percussion Instruction
Along with this increased emphasis upon percussion writing has come a demand
for comprehensively trained percussionists, musicians who can perform competently on
a vast array of instruments: pitched and non-pitched, melodic and rhythmic.5
Contemporary percussionists must develop diverse skills in order to meet the
performance demands of modem band literature. It is a difficult dilemma for the
contemporary band director: whether to program a piece containing a crucial mallet
part that none of the percussionists can play, or use a musician from another section
to perform the part. 6
With the implementation of the National Standards for music education, there
has been a widespread use of percussion instruments for classroom instruction. The
3Steve Wilkes/Welcome to Planet Electronic Drum. Percussive Notes, 35: 57-8 n6
1997.
4 Ibid.
5 Cook, page 3.
6 Donald Gilbert. Changing Concepts in Percussion. The Instrumentalist, 23: 64-5 nlO
1969.

3
Orff-Schulwerk method, among others features percussion instruments as the basis of
musical instruction. Percussion education is appropriate for standard number 2, regarding
the students ability to play alone and with others, a wide variety of instruments7
This quandary facing modern percussionists and music educators is recognized
by Richard Colwell and Thomas Goolsby (1992) in The Teaching of Instrumental Musjc.
Their summary of the problem is found in the following quote:
In spite of their ancient age, the percussion instruments have
not been quite respectable until recently. They have had no
literature of their own, no good texts or method books,
and no systematic approach for learning the necessary
techniques.8
The perception of percussionists as musicians is diametrically opposed to their
traditional reputation as mere time-keepers, which has primeval roots. The perception
of the role duality of percussionists also provides an equitable starting point for the
examination of contemporary percussion education.9
Robert Buggert (1956) mentions his belief that instruction for percussion
instruments is by its nature different than instruction for woodwind and brass
instruments. He attributes this to brass and woodwind players receiving instruction in
7 National Standards for the Arts (Music). Music Educators National Conference
Reston, VA, 1996.
8 Richard Colwell and Thomas Goolsby. The Teaching of Instrumental Music.
(Second Edition). Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1992. page 323.
9 Cook, page 3.

4
areas such as scales, clefs, and phrasing, which are typically not included in percussion
instruction.
At the same time, however, Buggert maintains that percussionists should
also learn musical reading. This indicates a pattern of the duality with which
percussionists have been historically viewed.10
Kenneth Mueller (1972), in a discussion concerning college freshmen
percussionists, states that it is almost impossible to find a high school percussion
student capable of playing all of the percussion instruments. He further emphasizes
that his statistics revealed that 25 percent of incoming college freshmen percussion
students could not adequately play the snare drum, 75 percent could not perform
competently on timpani, and that 94 percent of all freshmen percussion students
lacked minimal skills on mallet percussion instruments.11
Mueller's observations support Colwell's position that public school students
have historically not received adequate and appropriate instruction on all percussion
instruments. His observation that there is an apparent lack of both comprehensive
percussion instruction and a suitable curriculum for public school percussionists
provides a starting point for the investigation of what percussionists are being taught
percussion curriculum and percussion performance requirements of typical concert band
literature.
10 Robert Buggert.The Beginning Drummer. The Instrumentalist, 11: 67-8 n3 1956.
11 Kenneth A. Mueller. Teaching Total Percussion Parker Publishing Company, Inc.,
West Nyack, NJ, 1972. pages 19-20.

5
Purpose of Study
The purpose of the study is to gather information related to the following
fundamental question regarding the teaching of percussion: Are the concepts and
techniques taught to beginning and intermediate percussion students consistent with
what they actually need to know in order to successfully perform music typically
performed in high school band concert situations?
In essence, the study is a search for information with which to analyze the
usefulness of beginning-to-intermediate percussion curricula (elementary through middle
school) for the percussion performance needs associated with contemporary high school
(Grades III through VI) band literature.
This study is intended to the degree to which what is being taught to student
percussionists in the classroom of public school band programs prepares percussionists
for the actual performance requirements of representative concert, festival, as well as
solo/ensemble music. Thus, several crucial topics impacting contemporary public school
percussion instruction are covered:
1. specialization
2. beginning percussion instruction
3. implementation of mallet instruments into public school
percussion curriculum
4. matched-grip versus traditional grip
5 implementation of comprehensive curriculum for public school
percussionists
6. training of undergraduate non-percussionist music majors
in percussion skills class

6
Research Questions
In order to examine the relationship between percussion method utilized in the
instruction of public school percussionists and the performance requirements of high
school band literature, this study will address three core research questions.
1 To what extent do the skills and concepts taught in the beginning and
intermediate band methods books contribute to the skills required for the performance
of band music of Grades IV-VI difficulty?
A determination of this raises two additional research questions;
2. What is the content of the beginning and intermediate band methods books in
terms of percussion instruments?
3. What are the skills needed for successfully performing the percussion parts in
band music of grades IV-VI difficulty?
Procedures
Percussion books (I-III) from selected beginning/intermediate band methods
were investigated for their content, scope, and educational philosophy, and their practical
application to percussion performance requirements of state band literature.
Examples of percussion methods to be examined in this study include the
following: Feldstein/CyReilly's Yamaha Band Student: A Combined Percussion Book,
Pearson's Standard of Excellence: Comprehensive Band Method, O'Reilly/Williams'
Accent on Achievement, and Rhodes Essential Elements.
Levels III-VI band music listed in state-approved band literature lists published by
groups like the Florida Bandmasters Association was examined for percussion
performance requirements. The works were analyzed for instrumentation needs, rhythmic,
rudiments, technical, harmonic, and melodic aspects.

7
The results of the examination of band literature were then compared with
the curricula presented in the method books. This comparison is an essential part
of determining the degree to which early classroom instruction provides the essential
preparation for students to meet the performance requirements of moderate to difficult
band literature typically performed at the high school level.
It was also necessary to investigate whether elementary and intermediate
percussion curricula provide the foundation for students to be able to achieve a level
of performance suitable for the performance of high school band literature.
In order to accomplish this, a survey of percussion books used in selected middle
school band programs was implemented to determine what method books are currently
being used for beginning and intermediate percussion instruction.
Content analyses were performed on the percussion books of the selected band
methods. The categories examined included the amount of time devoted to each of the
four basic performance areas: snare drum, timpani, mallet percussion, and accessory
percussion. The sequence, practicality, and clarity of the material was also examined,
as were special pages devoted to a particular skill or instrument.
The final portion of the study is devoted to a discussion of suggestions for
improving the content of elementary to intermediate percussion method books.
Assumptions for the Study
1. While some probability exists that a small number of high school band directors
do use percussion method books for instruction, the assumption was made that the
percentage was negligible. This fact is supported by Andrew Preston (1975), whose
results indicate that the most prevalent shortcoming with regard to percussion instruction

8
in public schools is the narrow and restricted scope of instruction provided for beginning
and intermediate-level percussionists.12
2. The majority of beginning to intermediate public school percussionists are
taught in group settings using the percussion book from a standard band method book.
3. The percussionists who are taught from these group method books
eventually become members of large school ensembles such as band or orchestra.
4. Public school band directors follow the curriculum presented in the percussion
books of band methods.
5. Students have access to percussion instruments required for performance. That
is, students cannot reasonably be expected to be able to perform on an instrument rarely
found outside of school (e g. xylophone) unless they have access to the instrument.
6. Students have regularly scheduled full ensemble (e g. band, orchestra)
rehearsals and lesson times during school hours.
7. The majority of public school percussionists do not take private lessons.
8. Grades I-II band literature is designed primarily for beginning bands and
as such presents few technical or percussion performance problems.
9. The majority of public school band directors are not percussionists.
Delimitations
1. Method books selected for this study will be restricted to the contemporary
standard band methods commonly used in public school instrumental music instruction.
12 Andrew Conrath Preston. The Development and Evaluation of Selected Instructional
Materials for Teaching Percussion Instruments in the Beginning Band Class. Ed.D.
Dissertation: Music.University of North Carolina at Greensboro. 1975. pages 4-5.

9
The first three levels of these method books were explored, with particular
attention given to content, scope, and sequence.
2. Band literature works were limited to difficulty levels III-VI of state contest
lists in order to provide a representative sample of the more complex concert works
currently being programmed at festivals, concerts, and recitals. Levels I-II band works
contain limited performance problems for percussionists.
3. The study was restricted to the examination of band literature that is typically
performed by concert band and wind ensembles. Consequently, jazz band and marching
band literature were not included because of the specialized nature of the music.
The reason for selection of method books at these levels for analysis, which
represent curriculum offerings for elementary through middle school, was that the vast
majority of high school band directors do not instruct percussionists from percussion
method books because they simply do not have time in their daily schedules to do so.
Furthermore, nearly all band methods end after level three in the sequence In
other words, band methods are typically not written for high school instruction. Thus,
for all practical purposes, the training of percussionists ceases at the end of middle school.
A further consideration is the fact that most public school band directors are not
percussionists and thus are unable to provide advanced instruction for percussionists.
In addition, public school administrators are often reluctant either to hire a
percussion specialist or expand a high school band directors teaching responsibilities
to include percussion lessons either before/after school hours or within their daily
schedules. Administrators typically face tight budgets and therefore have a fixed amount
of funds available for instrumental music. Thus the reasons for the limited time devoted

10
to percussion instruction at the high school level are financial considerations rather than
philosophical.
Definitions
are percussion instruments that are incapable of playing
melodic or harmonic parts. These instruments include snare drum, bass drum cymbals,
wood-block, triangle, and gongs.
Pitched instruments are instruments that traditionally play melodic and/or harmonic
lines such as bells, xylophone, marimba, and vibraphone.
Standard band literature refers to works on state-approved band lists such as the
Florida Bandmasters Association, Massachusetts Music Educators Association, and the
Illinois High School Association.
Rudiments are the combinations of rhythmic patterns found in the Percussive Arts
Society's Standard Drum Sheet of 40 Rudiments-single-stroke roll, flam, paradiddle,
double-stroke roll, flam-taps, etc.13
Group band books refer to the books commonly used in public school percussion
instruction (e g. Ployhar's Band Today).
Group instruction refers to classes involving two or more band students, one of
whom is a percussionist, within scheduled school hours.
Private instruction is individual instruction of a student percussionist by a
percussion specialist that takes place outside of school band rehearsal hours.
13 Percussive Arts Society, P.A.S. International Drum Rudiments. Ludwig Industries, Inc.,
Elkhart, IN, 1990.

11
Starter kit refers to a collection of instruments and texts used by beginning
percussionists-snare drum, drum pad, and method book.
Accessory percussion refers to percussion instruments that cannot be easily
grouped in the other main categories such as gong, suspended cymbal, woodblock,
and triangle.14
Specialization means the student percussionist plays only one instrument and
does not receive instruction or experience on other percussion instruments.
Percussion ensemble is three or more percussionists playing literature specifically
composed for such an ensemble.
Matched grip is the method of holding sticks or mallets in which both hands are
the same. This grip may be employed with any percussion instrument requiring sticks,
mallets, or brushes.
Traditional grip is the method of holding snare drum sticks in which the left and
right hands are not the same: i.e. the right hand is the same as matched grip but the left
hand is different. This grip is used only on snare drum and drum set.
Transfer is the ability of a grip for snare drum to be used on other percussion
instruments.
Matrix is a method for comparing and contrasting similar sections of method
books such as the snare drum units of three percussion method books.
14 Larry Dale Reeder. An Analysis and Comparison of Select Teaching Methods for the
University Percussion Methods Class. Thesis (D .A.). University of Mississippi, Oxford,
Mississippi. 1994. page 9,

CHAPTER 2
SURVEY OF
RELATED LITERATURE
Introduction
Published research will be discussed by topic as it relates to the current study
rather than an examination of each dissertation as a whole. The purpose of this section
is to identify and describe several of the significant issues, mentioned previously in
Chapter 1, surrounding contemporary public school percussion instruction:
-specialization
-percussion ensembles in public schools
-comprehensive percussion curriculum
-need for mallet instruction
-heterogeneous versus homogenous instruction
-matched grip versus traditional grip
-training of undergraduate, non-percussionist music majors
Current Status of Percussion Instruction
Robert Breithaupt (1991) notes that a crucial part of the problem surrounding
public school percussion education is that until recently, there have been relatively few
resources available to music educators in the area of comprehensive percussion
instruction: textbooks, method books, and literature for percussionists. As a result, most
public school percussionists lack the necessary musical skills, due largely to the absence of
12

13
melodic lines to play or harmonic parts that fit into what the rest of the band is playing.1
According to Colwell, a portion of the problem endemic to contemporary
percussion instruction is that of specialization, in many public school band situations,
snare drummers play only snare drum, with perhaps one student assigned to timpani,
and another to bells. Colwell also notes that these students often remain on the same
instrument for every selection during rehearsal and performance. He states that this
format frequently leads to apathy and lack of motivation on the part of percussionists.2
Kenneth Mueller (1972) mentions the complexity of contemporary band music
and its demands upon the percussionist. He states that if students have not been taught in
a comprehensive manner, there is the risk that at some point the percussion section will
be unable to play their parts. Mueller attributes this to the problem of specialization:
each player is able to play only one instrument, timpani for example, or snare drum,
resulting in a limited experience for percussion students.
He notes that percussionists must be consciously aware of the instruments
around them, something they may be unable to accomplish without training in a
comprehensive percussion curriculum. Mueller also observes that percussionists who
are not trained in a comprehensive percussion program often lack a musical approach to
performance.3
1 Robert B. Breithaupt. The Complete Percussionist: A Guidebook for the Music
Educator. C.L. Bamhouse Co., Gskaloosa, IA, 1991.
2 Colwell, page 471.
3 Kenneth A Mueller Teaching Total Percussion. Parker Publishing Company, Inc.,
West Nyack, NJ, 1972. pages 19-20.

14
Charles Spohn and John Tatgenhorst (1971) mention the necessity of
instrumental music instructors providing a suitable melodic experience for beginning
percussionists. They maintain that playing only the rhythmic parts of snare drum or
other non-melodic percussion instrument will not provide the same type of complete
and meaningful musical experience for the beginning percussionist as would be the case
for one who learns from a melodic percussion instrument such as bells or xylophone.4
John Stede (1984) discusses the issue of specialization in a survey of selected
college percussion programs in the United States. The survey reports that a majority of
university percussion programs place greater emphasis on one aspect of percussion
education (e g. jazz, ethnic, marching) opposed to using either of the more traditional
instructional models: (e.g conservatory [performance] or music education).5
Gary Cook (1988) examines specialization in his discussion on the selection
process regarding beginning percussion students. He states that it is desirable for these
students to have a piano background. He observes that having such a background
facilitates the reading of clefs, scales, and melodic lines.
Cook further suggests that the beginning percussion kit include a set of
bells in addition to snare drum. He maintains that these instruments should be
taught concurrently, as part of a comprehensive percussion curriculum.6
4 Charles Spohn and John J. Tatgenhorst. The Percussion: Performance and Instructional
Techniques (Second Edition). Allyn and Bacon, Inc., Boston, 1971.
5 John Stede. Percussion in Higher Education: A Perspective On Its Present and Future.
Percussive Notes, 26: 7-9 n2 1988. pages 8-9.
6 Cook, page 7.

15
Harry Bartlett and Ronald Holloway (1973) address specialization with their
suggestion that comprehensive percussion instruction should be included in the
curriculum for second year students. They state that including instruction on mallet
percussion instruments in addition to snare drum, bass drum, and timpani allows
percussionists to be more involved with the full band. They further state that this format
contributes to fostering a feeling of pride on the part of the student, leading to increased
musical growth and sensitivity.7
Joseph Casimino (1985) notes that college freshmen who specialized on one
instrument in high school and desiring to major in music would be at a disadvantage:
without knowledge of tympani and mallet percussion instruments he would be very
limited as a percussionist.8
Robert Breithaupt (1991) believes that beginning percussionists should have the
opportunity to play various percussion instruments in order to provide a complete musical
experience. He states that the trading of parts, including mallet/keyboard percussion,
helps solve the problems inherent in specialization.9
Douglas Overmier (1990) states that playing band literature involving large
amounts of percussion instruments allows percussionists to feel that they are an integral
part of the overall ensemble. He cites the necessity of including the percussion section
in the daily warm-up routine of the band, and the switching of instruments. He also notes
7 Bartlett and Holloway, Preface: viii.
8 Casimino, page 42.
9 Breithaupt, page 3.

16
that playing in a percussion ensemble is a good way for students to develop musicianship
and a feel for percussion performance.10
James Lambert (1995) states that the percussion section is often neglected in band
warm-ups. He advocates that all band warm-ups include the entire percussion
section. He further states that snare drum exercises should be coordinated with timpani,
mallet instruments and accessory percussion in daily warm-ups.11
Bruce Dalby (1994) discusses the problem of maintaining beginning percussion
students interest following the excitement of the first-year band experience. He states
that percussionists should be included in all whole band warm-ups. Dalby also notes
that this can be accomplished only if percussionists are introduced to timpani and mallet
percussion from the beginning of instruction.12
Percussion Ensembles in Public Schools
Joseph Casimino (1985) cites Gordon Peters' study concerning the desirability of
incorporating percussion ensemble in public school percussion curriculum as a vehicle for
musical development of public school percussion students. He notes Peters' suggestion
that the percussion ensemble provides many opportunities for musical growth, chief
among which is the focus on the melodic and harmonic aspects to compensate for many
students receiving only rhythmic training on snare drum.13
10 Douglas Overmier. Training Student Percussionists. The Instrumentalist, 45: 46-53
n3 1990.
11 Lambert, page 176.
12 Bruce Dalby. Challenging Percussionists. The Instrumentalist, 49: 56-60 n2 1994.
13 Casimino, pages 60-61.

17
Donald Gilbert (1969) maintains that the percussion ensembles should be an
integral part of beginning public school percussion curriculum. He notes that percussion
ensembles give students more meaningful and significant musical experiences, leading to
more musically complete percussionists. He crystallizes his philosophy of percussion
education in public schools with the following statement:
At his very first percussion lesson the young student should. .have
an opportunity to experience the sound and feel not only of the
snare drum, but also the bass drum, cymbals, and bells. Within
his first few lessons, he should have the opportunity to perform on
most of the percussion instruments. 14
Gilbert also maintains that it is the responsibility of public school band directors to
provide comprehensive percussion instruction even if it entails changing our (music
educators) concept of the elementary percussion class. . with this type of beginning
instruction, perhaps we can at last begin to educate versatile percussionists instead of
one-instrument drummers.15
Anna Watkins (1982) suggests that appropriate music for percussion ensemble,
in conjunction with rehearsals designed to develop musical sensitivity, allows the
musicians in the percussion section to attain a high level of ensemble playing. She notes
that the ability to play as a unit enables percussionists to perform with a greater sense of
musical awareness in any area of performance: band, orchestra, or chamber music.
14 Donald Gilbert. Changing Concepts in Percussion: Percussion Anthology.
The Instaimentalist Company of Illinois, Chicago, IL, 1969. page 356
15 Gilbert, page 65.

18
Watkins further maintains that this happens as a result of percussionists playing music
requiring knowledge of the fundamental areas of percussion.16
Murray Houliff (1977) states that mallet percussion instruments should be included
in percussion curriculum from elementary through senior high school. He argues that this
contributes to extensive growth in musicianship among public school percussionists.17
Fred Wickstrom (1983) advocates the incorporation of a complete percussion
curriculum at all levels of education. Wickstrom states that instruction in each major
category of percussion: snare drum, timpani, and mallet/keyboard instruments, should
be included in the training of public school percussionists.18
Jeffrey Dire (1977) notes that beginning percussionists very first lessons are crucial
to their development as complete musicians. He suggests beginning that percussionists
study a variety of instruments in addition to snare drum (e g. timpani and mallet
percussion). According to Dire, this comprehensive approach to teaching beginning
percussionists allows public school percussionists to become familiar with a breadth of
instruments and performance requirements, thus enabling them to become more complete,
knowledgeable, and versatile musicians.19
16 Anna Watkins. The High School Percussion Ensemble. The Instrumentalist, 36: 90-2
n9 1982.
17 Houliff in Casimino, page 66.
18 Fred A. Wickstrom, Jr. A Curriculum for College Bound Percussionists. Percussive
Notes, 21: 54 n5 1983.
19 Jeffrey M. Dire. A Beginning Percussion Curriculum Based on Comprehensive
Musicianship. The Instrumentalist, 32: 74-6 n2 1977.

19
Steve Rehbein (1996) cites a recurring problem among incoming university
freshmen and first year percussion students as lack of versatility. He observes that these
students often possess a working knowledge of only one instrument, usually snare drum.
Rehbein attributes this lack of adaptability to students' public school percussion training, in
which specialization is the norm.20
Comprehensive Percussion Curriculum
Dave Black (1996) notes that percussionists are often ignored by band directors
except to correct major errors. He mentions the fact that percussionists are often not
given the same kind of specific instructions regarding dynamics, phrasing, and overall
musical expression as woodwind and brass players.21
Bruce Dalby (1974) provides insight into the cause of this lack of overall musical
skill on the part of percussionists. He notes that many band directors are unsure how to
have percussionists participate in warm-ups. He also maintains that in rehearsal, it is often
the case that wind players learn new notes and scales, while percussionists are left
to accompany the band with quarter and eighth-note patterns.22
Dalby's view that potential instrumental music educators lack fundamental training
in percussion is supported by Breithaupt (1991) and Albin (1979), who both cite a crucial
20 Steve Rehbein. Versatility and Specialization: The Anthem of the Contemporary
Percussionist. Percussive Notes, 34: 47 n6 1966.
21 Dave Black. Of Musicians and Percussionists. The Instrumentalist, 51: 17-22 n2
1996.
22 Bruce Dalby. Challenging Percussionists. The Instrumentalist, 4: 56-8 n2 1994.

20
need for both improved teacher training in percussion and implementation of a more
comprehensive percussion curriculum in public schools.23
Lance Haas (1984) reports a need for comprehensive musical training for
beginning percussionists. He states that a majority of public school band directors
consider their programs hampered by a lack of overall musicianship among members of
the percussion section. Haas goes on to state that this lack of musicianship is due to the
fact that most snare drum literature for junior high and high school students contains a
series of rhythmic patterns and little else. He strongly suggests that a lack of
comprehensive training, including mallet instruments, is the cause of this limited ability of
many percussionists to successfully interpret contemporary band music.24
Gary Cook (1988) cites a need for comprehensively trained public school
percussionists using a thorough musical approach including the melodic, harmonic,
structural, and rhythmic elements of music in conjunction with the technical aspects of
pitched and non-pitched instruments.
Cook goes on to state that this kind of comprehensive percussion curriculum, if
implemented properly from the beginning of instruction, will eventually lead to an
increased musical sensitivity, interpretation skills, and overall musicianship among public
school percussionists.25
23 Ibid.
24 Lance Haas. Even Percussionists Can Be Musicians. The Instrumentalist, 39: 99-101
n2 1984. pages 2-3.
25 Cook, pages 9-10.

21
Linda Pimentel (1987), another advocate of comprehensive percussion training,
mentions gaps in instruction, particularly of keyboard instruments, in the training of public
school percussionists. She suggests that percussion students be required to play a
mallet/keyboard instrument for half of each band rehearsal in each of the first three or
four years of band participation26 She further states that students do not have to study
all areas of percussion all the time. However, it is Pimentel's contention that beginning
percussionists need to have a sense of familiarity in each of the main areas: snare drum,
timpani, mallet, and accessory percussion.
Pimentel also observes that reading skills are essential to percussion education. Her
contention is that a majority of percussionists learn to read only rhythms. She states that
it is most noticeable in keyboard performance, with the biggest hindrance to development
in these areas the inability of percussion students to read clefs.27
Garwood Whaley (1988) mentions the focus of technical development over
musical development as a continuing issue in percussion education. He attributes this
to the fact that technical skills are easier to measure than overall musicianship skills,
such as phrasing and style interpretation. Whaley contends that overall musicianship
skills are particularly difficult to measure in contest situations, where performances by
public school percussionists consist primarily of rudimental snare drum solos requiring
little in the way of dynamic shadings, phrase shaping, or style interpretation.28
26 Linda Pimentel. Recommendations for the Reorganization of Percussion Instruction.
Percussive Notes, 25: 23-6 n2 1987.
27 Ibid.
28 Garwood Whaley. Percussion Education: Whose Responsibility? Percussive Notes,
26: 7 n2 1988.

22
Need for Mallet Percussion Instruction
Mario Gaetano (1980) emphasizes the need to instruct beginning percussionists
in all areas of performance. He states that students should become familiar with mallet
percussion instruments so that they may progress at the same rate as wind and brass
players in the area of key signatures and scales.
Gaetano also mentions the necessity of bandrooms containing at minimum a
xylophone, tubular chimes, and orchestra bells in order for the percussionists to be able
to perform the eclectic instrumentation required in the majority of contemporary band
literature.29
Jeffrey Dire (1977) advocates the training of beginning percussionists on mallet
percussion instruments and accessory percussion in addition to snare drum. He notes that
while it is not realistic to expect all students to become proficient on all percussion
instruments, every attempt should be made to make mallet percussion the student's most
proficient area.30
Douglas Overmier (1990) observes that the majority of band methods include
adequate percussion books. He states that these books contain sufficient and useful
exercises for beginning mallet instruction and should be incorporated into the overall
band curriculum. His main contention is that most public school band directors are
reluctant to use these resources because of unfamiliarity with percussion.
23
29 Mario A. Gaetano. Teaching Mallet Instruments to Beginners. The Instrumentalist,
34: 30-1 nlO 1980.
30 Jeffrey M. Dire. A Beginning Percussion Curriculum Based On Comprehensive
Musicianship. The Instrumentalist, 32: 74-9 n2 1977.

23
Overmier also advocates switching instruments among the members of the
percussion section in order to provide a more complete and comprehensive musical
experience He states that switching instruments helps to alleviate some of the boredom
extant in contemporary percussion sections and also benefits the band as a whole by
involving all band members in rehearsals.31
John Papastefan (1989) also advocates the inclusion of mallet instruments in public
school percussion instruction. He notes that students who receive early training on mallet
percussion are more likely to exhibit more musical sensitivity and growth than those who
do not.32
Gordon Peters (1966) maintains that percussionists who play keyboard instruments
are better equipped to have successful musical experiences at any level the encounter:
amateur, collegiate or professional. He mentions that requiring percussionists to learn
mallet/keyboard instruments from the onset of instruction can lead to a more enthusiastic
and musically involved percussion section.33
Peters also states that percussionists must be given music requiring note reading
skills to play, and not merely rhythms, further noting that it becomes uninteresting for
percussionists to have as their only role that of accompanist.
He then categorically states that the band director has an educational responsibility
for developing versatile percussionists, and that one way to achieve this is to insist that all
31 Douglas R. Overmier. Training Student Percussionists. The Instrumentalist, 45:
46-53 n3 1990.
32 John Papastefan. The Mallets Make a Difference. The Instrumentalist, 44: 48 nl2
1989.
33 Gordon Peters The Marimba in the Band. The Instrumentalist, 20: 77-8 n6 1966.

24
beginning drummers learn to play mallet keyboard instruments and timpani as well as snare
drum.34
Donald Gilbert (1969) states categorically that most obvious omission from public
school percussion curricula is mallet/keyboard training. He further suggests that each
elementary band room be equipped a set of orchestra bells, so that beginning student
percussionists can become familiar with mallet instruments from the very start of
instruction He notes that percussionists who are instructed on mallet percussion and
snare drum concurrently develop heightened musical awareness.35
Heterogeneous Class Instruction
A major issue concerning contemporary beginning percussion instruction is the
question of whether to start percussionists in a heterogeneous setting such as full
band or other mixed-instrument groups, or in a homogeneous group of percussion
students separate from the band proper
Robert Breithaupt (1991) states that public school percussionists with musical
knowledge on an instrument such as piano encounter less difficulties in learning all
percussion instruments than those who have no prior experience, regardless of whether
the instructional format is percussion-only or heterogeneous. He notes that such a prior
musical background benefits both students and teachers.36
34 Ibid.
35 Donald Gilbert. Changing Concepts in Percussion. The Instrumentalist, 23: 64-5 nlO
1969.
36Ibid.

25
Loren Waa (1965) examines the effect of heterogeneous band methods and private
instruction on the musical achievement scores on Seashore Measures of Musical Talents
and the Forman Music Notation Test. He notes that while students who receive private
lessons scored higher on portions of the Seashore Measures and Watkins-Famum tests,
the results indicate no significant difference in overall test scores.37
James Shugert (1969) examines the effects of class and private instruction on the
musical achievement of beginning band students in Connecticut public schools. His
findings indicate that students who receive private instruction score no higher on musical
aptitude and musical achievement tests than students taught in heterogeneous classes
He states that results were essentially the same regardless of instrument.38
Andrew Preston's (1975) study is a replication of Waa (1965) and investigates
the musical backgrounds of beginning percussionists in North Carolina public schools
His hypothesis states that a supplementary book for beginning percussion students is
needed for use in conjunction with the percussion book of the band method39
As a result of his investigation, Preston noted that his data indicated that brass and
woodwind players had higher expectation to develop musically beyond what was expected
of percussionists. Preston also includes in his study suggestions for the improvement of
basic skills and concepts for beginning percussionists. His suggestions address several
37 Loren Roger Waa. A n Experimental Study of Class and Private Methods of Instruction
in Instrumental Music Ed.D Thesis: Music. University of Illinois Champaign, IL. 1965.
38 James Malcolm Shugert. An Experimental Investigation of Heterogeneous Class and
Private Methods of Instruction with Beginning Instrumental Music Students. Ed.D
Thesis: Music. University of Illinois, Champaign, IL. 1969.
39 Preston, page 21.

26
crucial areas of elementary percussion instruction including scales and melodies for
mallet/keyboard percussion instruments, as well as timpani fundamentals such as
ear-training and pitch changes, in his own method book Flexible Percussion Ensembles40
Gary Cook (1989) states that thorough beginning level percussion training cannot
be adequately established through use of a heterogeneous class approach. He goes on to
mention that many music educators believe in a homogeneous class setting for the initial
stages of percussion instruction.41 Cook also states that heterogeneous band methods,
when used in conjunction with a method designed exclusively for percussion instruments,
are useful in the education of percussionists as part of the overall band program. He also
suggests the use of different instrument parts to be played by percussionists e g. flute,
oboe, trombone, as useful sources of sight-reading for bells, marimba, and xylophone.42
Robert Buggert (1956), referring to a difference in the nature of drum instruction
compared with brass and wind instruments, cites the rhythmic and rudimental nature of
percussion instruments versus the emphasis on notes, scales, and tone production of
wind instruments. He suggests that, because of this distinction in percussion education
as compared with other instruments, it is wise if the beginning drummers meet in a
separate, homogeneous group. He maintains that this method appears to reinforce the
traditional concept of percussionists as not included in the essential core of the band as
a whole. 43
40 Preston, page 20.
41 Cook, page 21.
42 Ibid.
43 Robert Buggert. The Beginning Drummer. The Instrumentalist, 11: 67-8 n3 1956.
page 67.

27
Presented in Bartlett and Holloway's (1973) text is the philosophy of a class
approach to teaching percussion at three levels: elementary, junior high, and high school.
They stipulate that mallet percussion instruments should not be introduced in the first year
of instruction. They state the position that first year percussionists should instead
concentrate on rhythms, sticking, and technical development. Thus, mallet/keyboard
percussion instruments are to be introduced beginning the second year of band
instruction.44
Bartlett and Holloway further recommend that beginning percussion students
receive private instruction on mallet/keyboard instruments. It is their view that beginning
percussionists benefit most from such a combination of homogeneous and heterogeneous
instructional formats, and private instruction.45
Matched Grip versus Traditional Grip
One of the central issues confronting today's public school band director and
college percussion instructor is the decision of which grip to use with beginning
percussionists: matched or traditional. This issue is pertinent to the study because it
effects public school percussion instruction not only at the beginning level but also at the
middle school and high school levels.
The relevance of this issue to comprehensive percussion instruction lies in the
reality that many high school marching band programs emulate the techniques of
contemporary drum corps, which incorporate traditional grip on snare drum. As
44 Bartlett tind Holloway, page 20
45 Ibid.

28
a result, the question of which grip to teach beginning percussionists is a frequently
discussed topic among contemporary percussion teachers.
Bartlett and Holloway (1973) advocate the use of matched grip for all beginning
percussion students, citing the elimination of the awkward and unnatural left-hand grip
of traditional rudiment-style playing, leading to the facilitation of learning other percussion
instruments. They contend that because matched grip is nearly identical to grips used for
timpani and mallet percussion instruments, it is thus unnecessary to teach
a different grip when learning a new instrument.46
Larry Reeder (1994) indicates that traditional grip on snare drum is often viewed
by teachers as more difficult to teach than is matched grip. He notes that this is due to
the fact that traditional grip requires different grips for left and right hands, a situation
which requires two separate, distinct performing and instructional techniques.47 In
addition, Reeder cites the prevailing view of many contemporary percussion instructors
and band directors that matched grip should be taught to beginning percussionists on snare
drum because it transfers more readily to other percussion instruments than does
traditional grip. This allows for consistency in instruction of performance techniques on
all percussion instruments.48
John Papastefan (1990) also advocates the use of matched grip in preference to
traditional grip. He remarks that use of the same muscle groups for both hands allow for
quicker development of technique on snare drum. Papastefan also cites the ease of
46 Bartlett and Holloway, page 51.
47 Reeder, pages 17-19.
48Ibid.

29
transfer to other percussion instruments, which contributes to the establishment of a
consistent percussion methodology as well as enhanced musical growth among public
school percussionists at all grade levels: elementary, middle school, and high school.49
Robert Breithaupt (1991) suggests the use of different classes of instruments,
starting with snare drum and including mallet percussion, for beginning percussion
instruction. He concludes that use of matched grip on snare drum facilitates the learning
of other percussion instruments, including the following:
1. membranophones (e.g snare drum, bass drum)
2. idiophones (e g. bells, xylophone)50
Tony Ames, Gordon Peters, and Fred Wickstrom (1980) advocate matched
grip for all percussion students because of its versatility and ease of transfer to other
percussion instruments such as timpani and mallet percussion. They maintain that this
allows percussionists to develop a more consistent approach in the development of
comprehensive approach to percussion performance skills.51
James Lambert and Robert Grifa (1997) state that all fundamental techniques in
percussion are derived from those used in matched grip snare drum playing. They
compare the hand position of percussionists to the proper embouchure of wind and
brass musicians. They declare that consistency of grip leads to ease of transfer to other
instruments, thus providing a foundation for comprehensive percussion musicianship.52
49 John Papastefan. How to Practice Percussion. The Instrumentalist, 28: 38-41 n 4
1990.
50 Breithaupt, page 3.
51 Tony Ames, Gordon Peters, and Fred A. Wickstrom. Expert Advice for Percussion
Students. The Instrumentalist, 34: 17-9 nlO 1980.

30
Mario Gaetano (1980) suggests that beginning percussionists receive lessons
on keyboard percussion instruments in conjunction with snare drum instruction. He
emphasizes that the combining of snare drum and mallet percussion is most logically
approached utilizing matched grip for both instruments.
Gaetano notes that this type of training provides a consistency of instruction and
avoids the problems inherent in teaching different grips for different instruments (e g.
snare drum, xylophone, timpani). However, he also states that in addition to matched
grip, students should be cognizant of traditional grip because of its wide usage in the
drumlines of high school marching bands. 53 Gaetano also cites ease of transfer to
other percussion instruments as the primary reason for instructing beginning percussionists
on matched grip for all instruments.54
Papastefan (1990) notes that the traditional grip was originally used in military
bands for performance on a snare drum carried on a sling. The result was a tilted drum
requiring a specialized grip. He states that with the existence of modem drum carriers,
which allow the dram to be placed in a level position, there is no practical need for
instruction of traditional grip.55 He also mentions that many contemporary marching
bands that are equipped with these carriers use matched grip in their snare dram sections.
52 James W Lambert and Robert Grifa. Beginning Percussionists With Good
Fundamentals. The Instrumentalist, 51: 26-30 nil 1997.
53 Mario A Gaetano. Teaching Mallet Instruments to Beginners. The Instrumentalist,
34: 30-1 nlO 1980.
54 Ibid.
55 Papastefan, page 38.

31
The website Percussion Education Online (1997) offers an interactive panel
discussion on the subject of which grip to start beginning percussionists: matched or
traditional. Band directors and percussion instructors are invited to add their comments to
those already present online. The consensus of contributors is that matched grip should be
taught to beginning percussionists because it transfers naturally to other percussion
instruments, something that is not possible when beginning percussionists start with
traditional grip.56
Nature of Percussion Skills Class
One crucial aspect of comprehensive percussion instruction is that of teacher
training at the collegiate level in undergraduate music education courses, which
traditionally refers to percussion skills classes and how they prepare future music
educators in the area of percussion. Robert Breithaupt addresses this issue with the
following quote:
After countless articles, clinics, and seminars on the subject of percussion
instruments and young percussionists, ensemble directors continue to
complain that the percussion area is a weak link in their background
and training. 57
The College Pedagogy Committee of the Percussive Arts Society (1996)
developed a set of standards for future music educators in undergraduate percussion
56 Percussion Education Online. (http://www.cmr.fsu.edu/~bulaJo/percussion/) 1997.
57 Robert Breithaupt. The Complete Percussionist: A Guidebook for the Music Educator.
C.L. Bamhouse Company., Oskaloosa, Iowa, 1991. Introduction.

32
methods classes. These standards addressed the need for minimum competency levels to
be obtained by students in these classes and also provided guidelines for percussion
education instructors.58
The purpose of the percussion pedagogy committee was to provide content
guidelines for instructors in order for them to be able to better prepare undergraduate
music education majors for teaching percussion in public schools. The goal of these
standards is to provide students familiarity and competence in all essentials areas of
percussion instruction, including competency on snare drum, timpani, keyboard
percussion, drumset, multi-percussion, and accessories. 59
Gary Cook (1988) cites a need for a practical reference source that can be used
by music educators in conjunction with an instrumental course for band as an
accompanying guide for comprehensive percussion instruction. He examines the
instrumental music educator's task of providing guidance for percussionists as they
attempt to achieve command of technique over instruments in the three main categories
of percussion: snare drum, timpani, and keyboard instruments.
Cook also maintains that a comprehensive teacher training course in percussion at
the undergraduate level is essential for the development of public school instrumental
music educators who are able to guide their students toward heightened musical growth
as well as development of musical sensitivity and awareness of their percussion students.
58 Standards for the College Percussion Methods Class. From the PAS College Pedagogy
Committee Percussive Notes, 35: 43-4 n3 1997.
59 Ibid.

33
Charies Spohn and John Tatgenhorst (1971) describe the need for improved
training of teachers and percussionists, due to the increasing performance and
interpretation demands of contemporary band literature as well as increasing pressure
on educators to prepare teachers in percussion.60 They also argue the viewpoint that
this task is considerably complicated by the time restrictions of a typical one semester
undergraduate percussion methods course.61
Harry Bartlett and Ronald Holloway (1973) offer the view that percussion
instruction should be developed to serve musical ends, and recommended techniques
generally used by artist-percussionists currently active in music performance. Their Guide
to Teaching Percussion was designed primarily for use as a reference source by educators
involved in preservice and inservice training of future music educators.62
Larry Reeder (1978) discusses the problems of pedagogy in teaching percussion
to future music educators due to the wide and varied numbers of instruments, playing
techniques, and sound production. He states that this type of eclecticism adds to the
confusion of methodologies and produces frustration. Reeder cites the relatively small
number of comprehensive percussion methods available in comparison to those dealing
with the instruction of brass or woodwinds. He also observes that public school band
directors are somewhat less prepared to deal with percussionists than they were with
wind and string players.63
60 Cook, page 1.
61 Spohn and Tatgenhorst, page 3.
62 Harry R. Bartlett and Ronald A. Holloway. Guide to Teaching Percussion (Second
Edition). William C. Brown Company Publishers, Dubuque, IA, 1973. Preface: vii.
63 Reeder, pages 7-8.

34
Joseph Casimino (1985) states that most public school music teachers have not
received adequate training and preparation in percussion at the undergraduate level in
music education. He cites a paucity of published percussion skills method books
appropriate for collegiate level instruction as the reason for inadequate instruction. As
a result, according to Casimino, these students avoid instruction of students on percussion
instruments once they become band directors.64
Rudy Monty (1986) alludes to the need for a comprehensive method book in
training future music educators to teach percussion in public school. He mentions in his
study that there exists no method book was consistently helpful to non-percussionist band
directors for teaching beginning percussion.65
Monty further states that a curriculum based on fundamental percussion techniques
for snare drum, timpani, and mallet keyboard instruments had a positive influence on band
directors who are not percussionists in providing effective instruction of percussion at
beginning and intermediate levels.66
Frank Cocuzzi and Kristen Shiner (1988) suggest that undergraduate music
education students develop their own handbook during percussion methods class for
future use. They maintain that this will better prepare students to teach percussion in
64 Joseph Anthony Casimino. Curriculum Planning Practices for the Development of
Percussionists in Selected School Districts of New York State. PhD. Dissertation. State
University of New York at Buffalo. 1985. page 46.
65 Rudy A. Monty. Percussion Method Books Used in Selected United States Public
Schools: Analyses and a Supplemental Guide for the Non-Percussionist Band Director
Ed D. Thesis: Music. New York University. New York, New York. 1986. page 21.
66Ibid.

35
public schools because it gives them a core curriculum written in their own words, thus
contributing to the presentation of clear and accessible concepts to their students.67
Comprehensive Percussion Curriculum
William Albin (1979) found that eighty percent of those junior high and senior high
and directors responding to a survey stated that the percussion instruments taught in their
performing ensembles were limited to snare, bass drum, triangle, cymbals, tambourine,
timpani, and bells. He also noted that a implementation comprehensive
percussion curriculum in public schools may be related to the preparation of college-level
music education students.68
Albin also discovered that sixty-five percent of those secondary instrumental music
instructors surveyed believed they were not adequately prepared in their undergraduate
percussion skills classes to teach percussion in public schools.69
In his 1985 study, Albin revealed that seventy-five percent of music performed
for public school concerts and festivals required only snare drum, bass drum, timpani,
cymbals, and bells. In addition, the results of the study indicated that less than twenty-five
percent of the music performed in concert situations required xylophone or marimba.70
67 Frank Cocuzzi and Kristen Shiner. What Really Needs to be Taught in Percussion
Methods Class. Percussive Notes, 26: 24-8 n4 1988. page 26.
68 William Robert Albin. Teacher Preparation in Percussion: Results of a Survey.
Percussive Notes, 23: 69 n4 1985.
69 Ibid.
70 William Robert Albin. The Development of Videotaped Instructional Units for
Teaching Selected Aspects of Mallet-Played Latin-Americcm and Accessory Percussion
Instruments. Ph.D. Dissertation: Music Education. Indiana University. Bloomington,
IN, 1979. pages 2-3.

36
James Salmon (1963) cites the influence of television, movies, Broadway musicals,
television commercials, and movie soundtracks as the primary reason for a rediscovering
of mallet percussion instruments by public school band directors and their subsequent
inclusion in band literature and curriculum.71
In keeping with the duality of how percussionists are often perceived, Salmon
further suggested that if percussion section members are not familiar or have little
experience with mallet percussion, a "trained and accomplished instrumentalist" from
the wind or brass section might join the section to play those parts, contributing to the
perception of percussionists as non-comprehensively trained musicians.
James Lambert (1995) notes a change in the traditional attitude with regards to
percussionists as being the result of such landmark works as H. Own Reed's La Fiesta
Mexicana, Vaclav Nelhybel's Trittico, and Karel Husas Music for Prague, 1968. He
states that this helped bring about a twentieth century renaissance in percussion
performance attitudes and performance demands.72
Bob Tilles (1967) observes that use of mallet percussion instruments in
contemporary band music has become increasingly popular in the past five years
(since 1962). He notes that along with the expanded role of percussion in band literature,
the need for comprehensively trained percussionists has grown accordingly.73
71 James D. Salmon. 'Mallet Percussion Can Produce Scintillating Sounds and New
Sonorities. The Instrumentalist, 17; 65-7 n9 1963.
72 James Lambert. The Percussion Ensemble: A Director's Best Friend. The
Instrumentalist, 38: 39-42 nlO 1983.
73 Bob Tilles. Teaching Mallet Percussion. The Instrumentalist, 21: 82-3 n8 1967

37
Tilles' statement supports Barnett's prediction, given six years earlier, concerning
the impact of mallet percussion instruments on the public school band experience.
Vincent Paxcia (1973) studied the impact of melodic training beginning
percussionists musical development when used concurrently with the rudimental
approach of the National Association of Rudimental Drummers. His sample population
consisted of two elementary schools districts in Illinois and Minnesota. Paxcia stated
that percussionists in the United States have traditionally scored lower on musical
achievement tests than other instrumentalists.74 He maintains that this poorer showing
is directly attributable to insufficient melodic training of beginning percussionists,
specifically in the area of mallet/keyboard instruments.75
Joseph Casimino (1984) notes that public school percussionists must possess
a wide variety of skills in order to fulfill the demands of percussion performance. He
notes includes the ability to play timpani, mallet/keyboard percussion, and accessory
percussion, in addition to snare drum.76 Casimino also states that diverse talents are
necessary because public school percussionists, in the course of their music careers, are
required to perform in diverse and eclectic musical situations including marching band,
concert band, jazz band, orchestra, and other small ensembles. Casimino maintains that it
74 Vincent Kerry Paxcia. The Effect of Melodic Training on the Musical Development of
Beginning Percussionists in Selected Midwest Communities. PhD. Dissertation: Music
Education.University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA. 1973.
75 Ibid.
76 Casimino, page 43.

38
is for this reason that a comprehensive percussion curriculum in public schools is a
necessity.77
Spohn and Tatgenhorst (1971) observe a need to teach to teach beginning
percussionist basic music fundamentals such as understanding treble and bass clefs,
scales, and intervals through the use of keyboard percussion instruments. They further
cite the necessity of implementing a comprehensive percussion curriculum that includes
snare drum, timpani, and keyboard instruments in order for students to experience the
full range of percussion performance.78
Robert Breithaupt (1991) perceives a need for prior musical knowledge such as
piano skills to enhance beginning percussionists' progress toward comprehensive
musicianship. He also maintains that public school percussionists should trade parts
with special emphasis on having students take turns playing bells and other mallet
percussion instruments as part of comprehensive percussion training.79
David Peters (1978) discusses the use of computer assisted instruction (CAI) in
the implementation of a comprehensive musicianship curriculum for public school
percussionists. He mentions the availability of software programs for instruction in the
four core areas of percussion instruction: snare drum pedagogy, timpani pedagogy, mallet
percussion instruction, and accessory percussion techniques.80
77 Ibid.
78 Spohn and Tatgenhorst, page 4.
79 Breithaupt, pages 3-6.
80 David Peters. Percussion Instruction Methods by Computer. The Instrumentalist, 32:
41-3 n6 1978.

39
Fred Grumley (1983) notes that beginning band method books frequently place
percussionists at a disadvantage with regard to developmental music skills compared with
brass and woodwind instrumentalist. He attributes this problem to a lack of training on
mallet percussion instruments in addition to an overemphasis on snare drum
technique and rudiments. Grumley further states that inclusion of melodic instruments
in the curriculum of beginning percussionist at the start of instruction provides a stable
harmonic and melodic foundation, thus contributing to the development of musical growth
and comprehensive musicianship among percussionists.81
The Percussive Arts Society is a strong advocate of the concept of comprehensive
percussion instruction in public schools. They maintain that students need to be trained in
all four major areas of percussion performance: snare drum, timpani, mallet/keyboard
percussion, and accessory percussion. They further state that this concept should pervade
all areas of percussion instruction, from the initial lesson in elementary school through
high school.82
According to The Percussive Arts Society's Education Committee, it is of
paramount importance to educate and inform students, teachers, as well as other musicians
of the musical benefits that result from the implementation of a comprehensive percussion
curriculum for all public school percussion students.83
81 Fred Grumley. Mallet Instruments Challenge Beginning Percussionists. Music
Educators Journal, 70: 55 nl 1983.
82 Percussion Education: A Source Book of Concepts and Information. Education
Committee of P.A S., Lawton, OK, 1990.
83Ibid.

40
In summary-, the musical demands upon contemporary percussionists are more
rigorous constantly increasing and, the practice of assigning students with bad ears to
percussion instruments is no longer an educationally or musically responsible option.84
84 Colwell and Goolsby, page 472.

CHAPTER 3
METHODOLOGY
Need for Emphasis on Middle School Percussion
A primary reason for examination of middle school percussion curriculum and
performance practices is the essential role middle school band represents in the overall
music curriculum in public schools. This philosophy can be seen in the following quote
from the Music Educators National Conference Task Force (1994) concerning the
National Standards in the Arts:
The period represented by grades 5-8 is especially critical
in students musical development. The music they perform
or study often becomes an integral part of their personal
musical repertoire.1
Research Questions
Answering the three research questions posed in chapter 1 involved choosing a
format appropriate to the scope and sequence of the study. The purpose of the study was
to compare two significant but different, elements of public school percussion curriculum:
1. percussion books of contemporary band methods
2. percussion performance requirements levels III- VI band literature
1 MENC Task Force. The School Music Program: A New Vision. Music Educators
National Conference, Reston, VA, 1994.
41

42
These elements are dissimilar because they represent two discrete levels of
instrumental music curriculum: middle school and high school. Middle school band
methods lead to, but are not directly comparable to, the performance of levels III- VI
band literature. Therefore, certain types of comparative analysis such as canonical
correlation or discriminant analysis were determined to be inappropriate for examination
of the information collected in the study.2
Because of the nature of the study, consideration had to be given to the
examination not only the various components of the books, but also the relationship
between these methods and performance requirements of typical high school band music.
It was for these reasons that descriptive analysis was chosen. Essentially, the study
attempted to determine the method books appropriateness in preparing percussionists
to play moderately advanced and advanced high school band literature.
Research Design
Donald Casey (1992) discusses descriptive research and their appropriateness for
studies in music education. He presents his view of the value of descriptive research in
music education with the following quote:
When description is the primary goal of a research project, that project is
then termed descriptive research all research studies in which a relationship
between variables, as they naturally exist...are...descriptive... a strong
argument can be made that regardless of paradigm and mode, descriptive
research techniques are basic to nearly all inquiry in music education.3
2 Walter R. Borg and Meredith D. Gall. Educational Research: An Introduction (Fifth
Edition). Longman Publishing, New York, New York, 1989. pages 609-612.
3 Donald E Casey. Descriptive Research: Techniques and Procedures. Handbook of
Research on Music Teaching and Learning: A Project of the Music Educators National
Conference (Editor Colwell). Schirmer Books, New York, New York, 1992. page 115.

43
Casey further recommends survey studies as a logical choice when a researcher
examines a portion of the area in the belief that the section under scrutiny will provide
information that is relatively descriptive of the entire area of study. He states that studies
of this nature are properly termed surveys, and he cites two basic types: interview and
questionnaire. 4
Walter Borg and Meredith Gall (1989) note that information obtained from
descriptive studies can provide crucial insight as to what actually happens in public school
classrooms. They state that descriptive research is an appropriate investigation tool for
recording phenomena such as occur in public schools.5 They also note that certain types
of descriptive research such as surveys are valuable in exploring the relationships between
two or more variables.6
According to Babbie (1983), a survey is an appropriate research device when
the intent of the study is to describe, explain, or explore. He notes that surveys are
typically used in studies using individuals as the units of analysis, but also states that
surveys can be used for other units of analysis providing that some individuals are used
as respondents. Babbie notes that questionnaires are essential to and most directly
associated with survey research.7
4 Earl Babbie. The Practice of Social Research (Third Edition), Wadsworth Publishing
Company, Belmont, CA, 1983 pages 609-612.
5 Borg and Gall, page 419.
6 Ibid.
7 Babbie, page 209.

44
Parameters of Study
Since the purpose of the study was to describe the degree of relationship between
the selected percussion methods and the performance requirements of level III-VI band
literature, certain parameters had to be established for the study. A major consideration
was the fact that the method books were examined at beginning to intermediate levels
These books lead to levels III-VI literature, but were certainly not equivalent. In other
words, while the sequence of musical concepts and skills presented in percussion method
books are similar to the performance requirements of levels III- VI band literature, they are
quite separate entities.
Selection of Regional Populations
Use of Internet
The population used in this study consisted of middle school band directors. In
order to collect information from a representative sample, school districts were chosen
from three different areas of the United States. The southeastern region of the United
States was represented by Florida; the northeast portion of the country was
represented by Massachusetts, and Illinois represented the Midwest region of the country.
School districts were chosen from three regions within each state. Florida's sample
population was drawn from Alachua, Pinellas, and the Miami metro-area. Districts in
Massachusetts were selected from Bristol and New Bedford counties as well as the
Boston metro-area. Illinois districts were chosen from Champaign and Sangamon
counties in addition to the Chicago metro-area. One hundred and fifty middle schools
were then randomly selected within the targeted population, 50 from each of the three
selected states.
The majority of the middle schools used in the study were randomly chosen as
a result of an on-line search on the Internet. Schools not selected via the Internet were

45
randomly chosen from lists provided by the State Boards of Education of Illinois,
Massachusetts, and Florida.
The search engine employed was Metacrawler, a multi-search engine combining
the resources of several other search engines: Lycos, Alta Vista, and Webcrawler.
The Website used to locate the middle schools used in the study was entitled American
School Districts This Internet location contained a list of every public and private
school district in the United States.8
A survey was determined to be the appropriate method for gathering information
from a population that was too large to observe directly, all middle school band directors
in the United States. The survey thus provided a pool of respondents from a target
population whose characteristics closely approximate the larger overall population.9
Survey and Questionnaire
A postcard survey was used to collect information for this study. Band directors
were given a list of ten contemporary band methods and asked to check the one used in
their instrumental music program. Space was also provided to write in the title of a band
method that were using if it was not included on the list of choices. Directions for
completion of the survey were given in the accompanying cover letter, along with an
explanation of why the survey was being done. (See Appendix A)
The postcard format was chosen based on the belief that band directors would be
more likely to respond to a brief and clear type of survey. Postcards were self-addressed
8 American School Districts http://www.asd.com/
9 Babbie, page 147.

46
and stamped in order to simplify completion and encourage subjects to respond to the
survey.10
The study attempted to take advantage of the inherent strengths of the postcard
questionnaire:
-ease of contact with respondents
-better control over the effects of any researcher bias
-uniform question presentation
While attempting to avoid the major pitfalls often associated with this format:
-relatively low response rates which can engender criticisms of
selection bias
-limitations associated with written questions and answers
-lack of control over whom actually completes the questionnaire11
Selection of Band Methods
The four most widely used contemporary band methods, as indicated by the survey
results, were then chosen for examination. This investigation consisted of content analyses
and comparison of content analyses.
Representativeness of Sample
The study focused on percussion curricula in typical middle school instrumental
music programs, with the majority of students receiving all of their instruction in a
10 Babbie, pages 209-213.
11 Ibid.

47
classroom. Though some students may have received private lessons, it was assumed that
the percentage of those percussionists receiving private instruction was too small to have
much influence on the validity of the study. This assumption is supported by Preston
(1975) and Waa (1965), both of whom found that middle school and high school
percussionists who received private instruction did not score significantly higher on
standardized music tests than those whose instruction was limited to instruction in public
schools.12
One of the areas of concern with regard to survey research is the possibility of
a low response rate among the selected population. According to Fuqua et al. (1983),
individual follow-up of nonrespondents has been found to be the most effective method of
increasing the percentage of response to a survey. 13
In the event of a poor response rate, postcard questionnaires would be mailed to
30 middle schools not on the original survey list. The survey and postcard questionnaire
format was designed to promote ease of completion and response.
Response Rate
Earl Babbie (1983) addressed the issue of response rate of surveys in The
Practice of Social Research. He noted that while the body of inferential statistics
used in connection with survey analysis assumes that all members of the initial sample
complete and return their questionnaires.. .this almost never happens. He goes on to
state that a less than perfect response rate may give the appearance of a random sample
of the original sample.
12 Preston, pages 19-21.
13 Fuqua, et al., page 73.

48
This, according to Babbie, could result in a smaller than desired random sample of
the population, and increases the likelihood of response bias.14 He also indicates that if a
survey demonstrates a high response rate, there is a lesser possibility of significant
response bias than one exhibiting a low response rate. His guidelines for acceptable
response rates for surveys are as follows:
-50%: Adequate
-60%: Good
-70%: Very Good 15
Questionnaire Bias
The postcard survey was designed to reduce the possibilities of response bias
among the targeted population. The parameters were limited to the collection of specific
information: which band method is currently being used in the subject's instrumental music
program.
The survey incorporated no questions containing biased terms (e g. Dont you
think that this particular band method...), thus satisfying the guidelines stated by Babbie
with regard to response bias.16
Selection of Band Literature
Pieces selected for examination were restricted to original compositions for
band/wind ensemble because there is a dearth of percussion parts and limited performance
14 Babbie, page 226.
15 Ibid.
16 Babbie, pages 134-5.

49
requirements in most orchestral transcriptions for band. Pieces arranged by the original
composer for both band and orchestra, such as Gustav Holst's Hammersmith and Percy
Grainger's Lincolnshire Posy, were included because they are frequently programmed by
high school wind ensembles and represent an important part of wind band repertoire.
Content Analysis of Percussion Methods
A content analysis was conducted of the percussion books from the six band
methods most frequently used in contemporary public schools. The examination of these
books focused on three fundamental questions:
1. What skills, concepts, and instruments are introduced9
2. When are these skills, concepts, and instruments introduced?
3. How much instruction time, in terms of pages, units, or exercises,
is allocated to each skill, concept, or instrument?
Also explored were implications of performance requirements for percussion
methods. These implications were based on an examination of the content of the four
selected percussion books. This information was analyzed for patterns of instructional
presentation such as notable discrepancies in content, as well as concepts and skills that
were given scant attention (e g. a reference to timpani technique in a book that does not
include timpani in its content).
The crucial issue addressed in the content analysis section was whether or not
some percussion instruments prominently featured in high school performance situations
were covered adequately in percussion methods book. An example of this would be a
piece that contains a difficult xylophone or marimba solo, extensive timpani work, or
instruments and techniques not ordinarily encountered in the majority of public middle
school and high school band performances.

50
The question of whether special techniques were covered in the percussion books
was also examined. Special performance requirements include such points as the use of
brushes for snare drum, use of French-grip for timpani, and a four-mallet technique for
keyboard percussion.
Content Analysis of Band Literature
Content analyses were made of the 100 pieces of contemporary band literature
most frequently programmed by public high school band directors. In order to collect a
representative selection of level III- VI literature, every third title on the appropriate list
was selected for examination. Each work was analyzed in four large categories:
1. The number of percussion players required for performance.
2. Which percussion instruments were required for performance.
3. Any special technique requirements such as four-mallet parts on marimba,
thumb-roll on tambourine, or special instrument requirements such as celeste, thunder
sheet, or wind machine
4. The relative musical importance of percussion part in relation to the band work
as a whole. An example of this is whether the snare drum was musically integrated into
the musical texture of the piece or was primarily used as an accompanying part.
Use of Matrix
A matrix was employed in order to examine the content of the selected percussion
books at the macro-level. The resulting information was used to answer the three
fundamental content analysis questions mentioned in Chapter I. The matrix also provided
a method for comparison/contrast of two different sets of data:
1.) The content of the percussion books of band methods series books.
2.) The percussion performance requirements of contemporary band literature

51
The format of the matrix was similar to that employed by Larry Reeder (1994) in
his comparison of teaching methods used in undergraduate percussion skills classes. Data
from each percussion book and band work were arranged on the matrix according to
category.17 The information was then positioned on a grid-chart so that the data would be
accessible for examination.
For example, percussion books were examined for the specific snare drum
rudiments covered, as well as when they were introduced in the instructional sequence.
The point in the method book, at which mallet percussion instruments were introduced, as
well as key signatures, scales, etudes, and clefs were categorized in the matrix.
Prominent features with regard to percussion performance requirements and
instrumentation needs contained in the band literature were also included in the matrix.
Such features might be the number and type of non-traditional percussion instruments
such as Tibetan prayer rocks, Brazilian rainstick, or instruments requiring musical
instrument digital interface (MIDI) technology.
Analysis and Description of Data
The data categorized in the matrix were then examined for both similarities and
differences in the areas of content, sequence, amount of time spent on each area, and
clarity of presentation. This was done in order to determine which percussion method
books provided the best preparation for percussion performance requirements of medium
difficult and difficult high school band wind ensemble literature.
17 Reeder, page 13.

52
Content Analysis of Band Literature
Band literature was subjected to a similar analysis. Works were examined for the
prominence of the percussion parts and their relative musical importance within the piece.
Special or unorthodox techniques not covered in the method books and non-typical
instruments were also noted, as well as their frequency of use within the work and their
practical accessibility to public school percussionists. The selected band works were also
examined for the extent to which the percussion section is essential to the overall musical
fabric of a particular work.
Comparison and Contrast of Content Analyses
A major factor in the comparison of the information collected in the study was the
selection of an appropriate method for comparison of disparate data. The selection of the
raw-data matrix used in the study was to provide an acceptable foundation for describing
and analyzing possible relationships between data. Babbie (1983) supports this,
who observed that contrasting data collected as the result of descriptive research as
conducive to the use of this format.18
A feature that the study shares with Preston's (1975) investigation is a section
devoted to suggestions for improvement of percussion instruction in the areas of content
and educational effectiveness. This study also explores the possible relationship between
two different sets of data.
18 Babbie, pages 409-10.

CHAPTER 4
RESULTS
Format of Survey
The postcard/questionnaire survey was addressed to a particular school, and
not to an individual because the lists from which the middle schools were selected for the
study did not contain the names of individual band directors. A letter of introduction
explained the purpose of the survey and its relation to the study. The letter followed
the format suggested by Borg and Gail (1992) for introductory letters of surveys.1
Enclosed with each letter was a postcard/survey listing ten contemporary band methods.
These methods were selected from the Publishers Showcase portion of the J.W. Pepper
company's music education web-site.2
Subjects were instructed to place a check in the box corresponding with the
band method currently used in their middle school instrumental music program. A blank
space was provided on the postcards for subjects to write in the name of a band method
currently used in their instrumental music program that was not included on the list of ten.
The enclosed postcards were self-addressed and postage paid in order to expedite
completion and return mailing of the survey, as well as to provide a viable and
representative sample for analysis.
1 Borg and Gall, page 149.
2 J.W. Pepper company @ http://www.jwpepper.musicpublications.com
53

54
Regional Results of Survey
The method employed for categorizing results of the survey was a variation
of Babbie's return rate graph. This type of graph begins with the day on which the
survey was mailed, with the number of returned surveys plotted and recorded each
day until no more surveys are received. 3 However, due to the fact that the postcard
survey was sent to three different geographic areas, the results of the survey were
categorized by region.
Florida, Illinois, and Massachusetts formed the three main geographic areas
for examination of the returns, in order to provide a representative sample of middle
schools in the United States, each state was then subdivided into three areas, forming
nine geographic cells. Overall return rate was 57%.
Metro-Area Response Rates to Survey
Chicago demonstrated the highest return rate among the three metropolitan
areas with 55% (11 of 20) responding to the questionnaire, with Miami posting the
lowest return rate 29% (4 of 14). Boston's return rate of 34% may have been skewed
because there were only five instrumental music programs extant in Boston proper at the
time of the survey.
The possibility of skewed data for the Boston metropolitan area was confirmed by
Dr Richard Colwell, who oversaw these band and music programs during his tenure as
chairman of the music education department of Boston University .4 Tables 4-1 and 4-2
summarize the return rates of the postcard survey.
3 Babbie, page 224.
4 Interview with Dr. Richard Colwell, Chairman, Department of Music Education at New
England Conservatory of Music: Boston, MA (March 5, 1998).

55
Table 4-1
Return Rates of Postcard Survey
Overall (N=150)
Illinois
64%
32/50
Florida
56%
28/50
Massachusetts
50%
25/50
Totals
57%
85/150
Table 4-2
Return Rates by Region
N=150
Illinois
Champaign/Macon
S angamon/T azewell
Chicago Metro
50% 7/14
87% 14/16
55% 11/20
Massachusetts Bristol/Norfolk
Bamstable/Plymouth
Boston Metro
71% 10/14
53% 7/13
34% 8/23
Florida
Alachua County
Pinellas County
Miami Metro
77%, 10/13
61% 14/23
29% 4/14
Totals 57% 85/150
Current Band Methods
Used in Public Middle Schools
Ten contemporary band methods were listed on the postcard survey. Four
band methods comprised 90.6% of responses for the 85 returned questionnaires:
Yamaha Band Student, Standard of Excellence, Essential Elements, and Accent on
Achievement. Results were predominantly regional, with Standard of Excellence and

56
Yamaha Band Student used extensively in Massachusetts and Florida. Illinois results
indicated the use of Essential Elements and Accent on Achievement as the primary
band methods used for instruction of beginning to intermediate percussion students,
The ten band methods listed in the questionnaire were as follows:
1. Yamaha Batid Student: A Combined Percussion Method
2. Standard of Excellence
3. Band Today
4. Be twin 21st Century Band Method
5. Beginning Developing Band Book
6. Essential Elements
7. Band Encounters
8. Basic Band Method
9. Accent on Achievement
10. Now Go Home and Practice
Bruce Pearson's Standard of Excellence was the most used method book,
with 56% of those responding to the survey indicating the use of this text. Yamaha Band
Student: A Combined Method was cited in 16% of those surveyed, Essential Elements
14%, and Accent on Achievement used by 13% of those responding to the questionnaire.
Table 4-3 gives a summary of the percentages of each method cited in the survey.
Table 4-3
Percentage of Band Usage.
Totals From Returned Questionnaires
(N=85)
Listed 10 Methods:
Standard of Excellence
Yamaha Band Student (Combined)
Essential Elements
Percentage
56%
16%
14%

57
Table 4-3 (cont)
Percentage of Band Usage
Listed 10 Methods
Percentage
Accent on Achievement
13%
Band Today
03%
Belwin 21st Century Band Method
01%
Band Encounters
0%
Basic Band Method
0%
Beginning/Developing Band Book
0%
Now Go Home and Practice 0%
Qiheu
Breeze Easy
02%
Best in Class
01%
Recommend
01%
Analysis of
Percussion Books from Band Methods
This portion of the study is an analysis of the content of the four method book
series most frequently cited in the survey for use in the instruction of elementary to
intermediate public school percussionists. Method books were examined for skills,
concept, and instruments introduced in each book. These books were also examined
for scope and sequence of content.
Standard of Excellence: Combined Percussion-Drums
and Mallet Percussion (Bruce Pearson)
This method series contains three levels of instruction for percussionists:
-Book 1: Drums and Mallet Percussion
-Book 2: Drums and Mallet Percussion
-Book 3. Drums and Mallet Percussion

58
The content of this series of method book consists of 120-155 exercises and
musical example for both percussion and mallet percussion instruments. Each book
utilizes a double-page format, with snare drum/percussion on the left-hand side and mallet
instruments on the right
Skills, concepts and instruments are introduced in color boxes at the top of the
page, and are also demonstrated in special boxes at the bottom of the page, entitled
For Drums Only of For Mallets Only. Rudiments are typically included in musical
examples one to three pages after their introduction. Instruments are generally included
in musical examples on the same page as their introduction.
A prominent feature of these books is the manner in which rolls are presented.
The multiple bounce is introduced before double bounce, and all rolls are presented in
multiple bounce form when they are initially discussed. Starting with the special pages in
book 1 and the beginning of book 2, rolls are presented in both multiple bounce and
double bounce form.5
Each method book in this series contains special pages entitled Excellerators,
which include exercises for specific instruments. Examples of this include Excellerators
for Snare Drums Only, which includes exercises containing the previously covered five,
nine, and seventeen stroke rolls, and Excellerators for Mallets Only, which incorporate
scale studies, rolls, and sticking exercises 6
5 Bruce Pearson. Standard of Excellence: Comprehensive Band Method: Drums and
Mallet Percussion-Book 1. Neil A. Kjos Music Company Publisher, San Diego, CA, 1995,
pages 39-41.
6 Pearson-Book 1, page 41.

59
Standard of Excellence-Book 1
Preliminary Pages
In the introductory pages, Pearson refers to picking up drum sticks and mallets. He
also includes color illustrations of snare drum and (matched) grip, bass drum and grip,
and mallet percussion grip.7 Although not explicitly stated as the method's teaching
philosophy, the omission of traditional grip for snare drum, the inclusion of mallet
percussion in the introduction, and the dual page format, suggests that mallet percussion
instruments are to be taught simultaneously with snare drum and bass drum.
Skills, Concepts, and Instruments
Instruction begins with the introduction of the accent, half note and half rest for
the snare drum, and the initial appearance of the whole note and whole rest for both snare
drum and mallet percussion instruments. This section also features the introduction of the
first rudiment for snare drum, the single paradiddle. It is also at this juncture that the bass
drum becomes paired with snare drum on a consistent basis.8
The concept /skill of multiple bounce for snare drum is introduced 17% into this
method book. The author give a written explanation of this skill as well as illustrations of
its performance and how it is notated. One page is devoted to instruction of this skill. 9
The flam and flam accent are covered 22% through the text. The flam is
introduced with color illustrations of starting hand position for both left and right flams, as
7 Pearson-Book 1, page 3.
8 Pearson-Book 1, pages 6-8.
9 Pearson-Book 1, page 9.

60
written text describing the proper stroke. Also included is an illustration of how flams are
notated. Two pages are allocated for instruction of these rudiments.10
Flam accent is the next rudiment covered, occurring 40% into the text. It is
included in the musical example Third Time Around on the page of its introduction.
One page is devoted to this rudiment.11
Following this set of pages is a piece for percussion solo/percussion ensemble
entitled Sawmill Creek, written by the author. This selection requires the snare drum to
be played with snares off as well as on the rim, and incorporates accents. The mallet part
performs the melodic line which moves predominantly in conjunct fashion.12
The full band arrangements of Montego Bay is featured 50% into this method
book. The snare drum part of this work includes passages of multiple bounce (buzz)
rolls, and also includes flams,
The flam paradiddle, another rudiment, is also covered in this portion of the
method book, as is the concept of right hand lead. The flamacue is featured in the musical
example This Old Man one page after its introduction. One-half page is allocated to
instruction of the flamacue.13
The nine stroke roll, five stroke roll for snare drum, as well as the sustained roll
(single stroke) for mallet instruments are introduced 65% into this method book. This
10 Pearson-Book 1, pages 11-12.
11 Pearson-Book 1, page 18.
12 Pearson-Book 1, page 20.
13Pearson-Book 1, page 21-23.

61
portion of the book also contains the introduction of the seventeen stroke roll for snare
drum, and double stops for mallet instruments.14
Sticking With It, a multiple percussion solo written for snare drum, occurs
75% into the method book. This pieces utilize rolls, accents, and sixteenth-eighth note
combination, as well as playing on the rim of the snare drum. The rim shot is also
introduced at this juncture.15
Double stops for mallet instruments and the seventeen stroke roll, a rudiment are
introduced simultaneously 80% through the text. Both skills are incorporated in musical
examples one page after their introduction, with seventeen stroke rolls featured in the
Just Fine, and double stops utilized in Lowell Masons Chorale.16
Specialized Pages
Following the conclusion of dual instruction, this method book features a
section consisting of advanced studies for both snare drum and mallet instruments entitled
Excellerators For Snare Drum Only and Excellerators For Mallets Only. This section
includes rhythmic studies and rudimental exercises for snare drum and
scale studies, along with sticking exercises for mallet instruments.17
The final pages of this method book include the International Drum Rudiments
of the Percussive Arts Society. These pages also contain color illustrations of bells,
14 Pearson-Book 1, pages 27-33.
13 Pearson-Book 1, pages 36-37.
16 Pearson-Book 1, pages 32-33.
17 Pearson-Book 1, pages 39-45.

62
marimba, xylophone, vibraphone, and chimes, which contain a description of the
performance capabilities of each instrument, and a mallet percussion note chart.18
Standard of Excellence-Book 2
Overview
This method begins with a review of material from the previous book. Five, seven,
and nine stroke rolls are reviewed in the snare drum pages. Students are instructed to play
these rolls in using both multiple bounce (buzz) and double strokes (rudimental
style). These rolls are all incorporated in the musical example Knucklebuster, which
also includes flam paradiddles and flam taps.19
Content
The content of this method book consists of 118 exercises and etudes, and
musical examples, as well as seven one to three page band arrangements, a multiple
percussion solo utilizing five different instrument, and a mallet percussion solo. Eight
pages of advanced exercises complete the content of this method book. These studies
consist of four pages of studies for both snare drum- Excellerators For Drums Only
and for keyboard percussion instrument s-Excellerators For Mallets Only
Skills, Concepts, and Instruments
Syncopation in the context of a nine stroke roll is the first significant topic covered
in this method book, and is introduced 5% into the text. It is incorporated in the musical
18 Pearson-Book 1, pages 46-9.
19 Bruce Pearson. Standard of Excellence: Comprehensive Band Method. Drums and
Mallet Percussion-Book 2. Neil A. Kjos Music Company, Publisher, San Diego, CA,
1995, pages 2-4.

63
example Laredo (Mexican Folk Song) on the page of its introduction. The double
paradiddle is also introduced at this point. This rudiment in not featured in the remainder
of this method book. A total of one and on-half pages are allocated to the instruction of
these topics.20
The rudiments drag and single drag tap are introduced 20% into this method book
on the snare drum pages, along with the first appearance of a three-voice mallet part, in
an excerpt from Brahm's Academic Festival March-Trio. The flamacue, another snare
drum rudiment, is presented 29% into the text of this method book.21
Also included in this portion of the method book is a musical excerpt from Sibelius'
Finlandia which features snare drum/bass drum and mallet performing double stops, and
an exercise Tor Snare Drum Only which implements snare drum, bass drum, and a
suspended cymbal part consisting of repeated eighth notes.22
For the first time in this series, the method book includes a two page percussion
solo/ensemble for both snare drum and mallet instruments. Turkish March- from The
Ruins of Athens (Beethoven arr Pearson), contains a bass drum/snare drum part
incorporating several of the skills and concepts from the preceding portions of book 2.23
The snare drum pages include the rudiments five stroke roll, drag, flamacue, and
flam, as well as playing on the rim. The mallet part utilizes double stops, accents, and a
20 Pearson-Book 2, pages 5-7.
21 Pearson-Book 2, pages 8-10, 14.
22 Pearson-Book 2, pages 17-19.
23Pearson-Book 2, pages 20-3.

64
modulation from tonic to the relative minor (Bb major to G minor), along with phrasing
considerations 24
The seven stroke roll is introduced 54% into this method book. It is illustrated
with double strokes and multiple bounce strokes, and is incorporated into an excerpt
from Suppe's Light Cavalry Overture, along with the drag, and the long roll.25
Musical Examples
Starting at the 58% point, the remainder of the method book consists entirely of
musical examples. These pieces are predominantly one or two pages in length, and
represent a synthesis of the skills and concepts introduced throughout this method book.
Musical examples include Jamaican Sunrise, a one-page percussion ensemble work
with a snare drum, bass drum, and suspended cymbal percussion part, and a melodic line
written for marimba that includes the long roll and double stop passages.26 This is the
first mention of marimba in this series of method books.
Also included in this last portion of the method book is the multiple percussion
solo Express Lane (Pearson), which requires snare drum, high tom-tom, low tom-tom,
suspended cymbal, and tambourine. The piece incorporates flams, double stops, long
rolls, and moving between instruments.
Instructions given at the top and bottom of the first page explain the .physical
set-up of the instruments, and the techniques required for performance. This piece is
24 Ibid.
25 Pearson-Book 2, pages 24-7.
26 Pearson-Book 2, page 36.

65
written for one player and contains different shaped note heads (e g. a diamond shaped
note head signifies a half note for suspended cymbal).27
Specialized Pages
Consistent with the format established in the first book of this series,
Excellerator pages are included in this method book. In this book, the Excellerators
sections consist of two pages of exercises "For Drums Only," followed by two pages of
studies For Mallets Only. The drum pages contain examples of sticking exercises, and
rudiments, to be practiced starting with either hand. Bass drum is combined with snare
drum in the majority of these exercises, there is also a page of studies written for snare
drum, bass drum, and suspended cymbal that closely resemble beginning drum set
patterns.
Mallet instrument Excellerator pages include exercises in major and minor keys,
utilizing thirds, fifths, scalar passages, and a chorale-like section. Musical skills covered in
these pages include rolls, sticking considerations, and chromatic passages 28
Standard of Excellence-Book 3
Overview
This method commences with seven pages of review material from the preceding
book. These pages are devoted to technical exercises and musical examples. Snare drum
skills reviewed include 5, 7, and 9-stroke rolls. New concepts appearing within the review
27 Pearson-Book 2, page 38.
28 Pearson-Book 2, pages 40-1.

66
section are rolls in 3/8 and 6/8 meter, and triple paradiddle for snare drum, which is
utilized in Technique Break, an exercise also featuring flams and seventeen stroke
rolls 29 Content also includes 134 exercises, studies, and musical examples for both
snare drum/percussion and mallet percussion instruments.
Skills, Concepts, and Instruments
The thirteen stroke roll is the first new skill introduced in this method book. It
appears at 27% into the text, and is illustrated in a technical study on the page of its
introduction. One page is devoted to this rudiment.
A basic four-mallet cross grip is featured in the mallet pages of this portion of
the method book. The author devotes one page to this grip, and illustrates holding the
mallets as well as how to play using four mallets. Included is a description of the basic
four-mallet stroke, as well as exercises for developing this technique. Two pages are
allotted for instruction of this skill.30
Music of the Middle Ages and Renaissance is featured in the next section of the
method book, 35% and 37% into the text, respectively. The rudiment single ratamcue,
double ratamacue, and seven stroke roll with triplet primary strokes are introduced in the
snare drum pages. Thoinot Arbeau's The Official Branle features the single ratamacue
as well as the triplet/seven stroke roll. Teilman Susato's Bergerette Sans Roche utilizes
the double ratamacue. Four pages are devoted to instruction of these topics.31
29 Bruce Pearson. Standard of Excellence: Comprehensive Band Method:
Drums and Mallet Percussion-Book 3. Neil A. Kjos Music Company, Publisher,
San Diego, CA: 1995. Author's Forward and Review Section, pages 1-8
Pearson-Book 3, pages 9-10.
31 Pearson-Book 3, pages 11-14

67
Music of the Baroque period is featured starting 45% through this method book.
Snare drum pages add the rudiments triple ratamacue and paradiddle-diddle.32 Both snare
drum and mallet instrument pages introduce the trill, which is defined as a single-stroke
roll for non-pitched percussion and timpani, and as a rapid alteration from a written note
to the note above it in the key in the mallet percussion pages. The trill is featured in the
mallet percussion musical example, Allemande. Four pages are allocated to the
instruction of these topics.33
The rudiments flam paradiddle-diddle and four stroke ruff are introduced in the
section covering music from the Classical period, which begins 59% into this method
book. In addition, the grace note is introduced for mallet percussion instruments at this
point. Musical examples from the Classical period containing these skills and concepts
include an excerpt from a Beethoven work entitled Sonatina, which utilizes the four-
stroke ruff for snare drum and grace notes in the mallet percussion part, and Theme
from Symphony No. 40 (W.A. Mozart), which utilizes the flam paradiddle-diddle.34
Music from the Romantic period, which occurs 67% into this method book,
features the introduction of the rudiments drag paradiddle and double drag tap for
snare drum and glissando for mallet instruments. The double drag tap and glissando
appear only in the Tor Snare Drum Only and Tor Mallets Only exercises at the bottom
of their page of introduction. Three pages are devoted to instruction of these skills 35
32 Oearsin-Book 3, pages 16, 18.
33 Pearson-Book 3, pages 16-20.
34 Pearson-Book 3, page 21-24.

68
The concluding portion of book 3, which begins 81% through the text of book 3,
features music from the 20th century. This section includes the introduction of the fifteen
and eleven stroke rolls (rudiments), the use of brushes for snare drum, and the concept of
the ride cymbal. The author includes an explanation of brush technique that includes and
illustration.36
Also included in the snare drum pages is the bass drum roll, which requires the use
of two mallets. The mallet instrument pages include the musical example Ode to Igor
Stravinsky (Salerno), which is written in two treble clef staves, and may be
performed by either two players, or one player using four mallets. Two and one-half
pages are allocated to instruction of these topics.37
Tin Roof Blues/Blues for a Fat Cat (Pearson) incorporates the use of brushes
on snare drum. This piece is written for snare drum, bass drum, and ride cymbal, and
incorporates rolls, as well as jazz-style (uneven) eighth notes. It also requires the
percussionist to play a written out one-bar drum fill. This piece may be played by
either three players, one to a part, or one player on drum set.38
The final concept introduced in this method book is ad labium, which is defined by
the author as taking liberties, improvising within the boundaries of the music. Musical
examples utilizing this concept include 55 T-Bird and Right On, written by Kevin
35 Pearson-Book 3, pages 25-29.
36 Pearson-Book 3, pages 30-33.
37 Ibid.
38 Pearson-Book 3, pages 34-35.

69
Daley. These works require the player to sustain a suspended cymbal pattern appropriate
to the style of the piece and include one-measure passages for playing a drum fill.
Either of these pieces may be played on the drum set.39
Specialized Pages
Beginning 90% into the method book is an Excellerator section Tor Drums
Only, which includes exercises incorporating rolls in 3/8 and 9/8 meters, as well as
the rudiments Swiss Army triplet, single flammed mill, pataflata, and inverted flam tap.
Also included in this portion of the book is a section of basic drum set patterns.
Instructions are given for playing bass drum with a pedal (right foot), and playing the
high-hat with the left foot. Students are also given instructions to play the high-hat ride
patterns with the left hand as well as crossing over with the right hand. The concept of
the ride cymbal and its function is introduced at this juncture.40
Following the snare drum Excellerator pages is a section containing advanced
mallet techniques. These pages include exercises featuring rolls, grace notes, double
stroke repeated notes, and four mallet studies. Musical examples containing these skills
include and excerpt from Sonatina in G Major (Clementi), which utilizes grace notes,
and rolls, as well as Thunder and Lightning Polka (Johann Strauss, Jr ), which contains
glissandi, and double stops.41
39 Pearson-Book 3, page 36.
40 Pearson-Book 3, Tor Drums Only, pages 44-7.
41Ibid.

70
The final portion of this method book features a reappearance of the Percussive
Art Society's International Drum Rudiments The illustrated mallet instrument page and
mallet keyboard layout/note chart, both features of books 1 and 2, are also included.42
Yamaha Band Student: Combined Percussion
Feldstein and O'Reilly
Overview
This method series contains three levels of instruction for percussionists:
Book 1 : Combined Percussion-Snare Drum, Bass Drum,
Accessory Percussion/Keyboard Percussion
Book 2: Combined Percussion-Snare Drum, Bass Drum,
Accessory Percussion/Keyboard Percussion
Book 3: Combined Percussion-Snare Drum, Bass Drum,
Accessory Percussion/Keyboard Percussion
Each level is set up as a one year curriculum for percussion students, with
suggested goals and objectives for students and instructors. The introductory pages in this
series mention which snare drum rudiments are covered in each book, as well as
performance techniques for accessories (e g. triangle, suspended cymbal, wood block).
Each method book also includes a chart illustrating the ranges for orchestra bells,
xylophone, vibraphone, and marimba.43
42 Pearson-Book 3, page 48
43 Sandy Feldstein and John O'Reilly. Yamaha Band Student: Combined
Percussion (Snare Drum, Bass Drum, Accessory/Keyboard Percussiori)Books 1-3.
Alfred Publishing Co, Inc., Van Nuys, CA, 1988.

71
The text for each method book employs a double-page format, with snare drum,
bass drum, and accessory parts on the left and keyboard percussion parts on the right.
While there are no introductory pages explaining the philosophy of combined percussion,
it appears from the content that the intent is to develop well-rounded percussionists as
opposed to percussionists who specialize on one instrument such as snare drum, bass
drum, or keyboard instruments,
This method series does not mention a preference for either matched or traditional
grip as the basis for beginning snare drum instruction. However, the structure and overall
content of the method suggest a combined percussion curriculum employing matched grip
on all instruments as fundamental part of the instructional format.
The format for presenting the rudiments consists of an illustration at the top of
the page on which it is introduced. Rudiments are utilized in a one-line exercise at the
bottom of the same page entitled Just for Drums. Rudiments appear in the musical
examples contained on its page of introduction. For example, double strokes are
introduced on page 5, but appear for the first time in a musical example on page 7
Keyboard percussion instrument pages follow the instructional format for all other
melodic instruments, with the exception of a section entitled Just For Keyboard. This
portion of the method book contains exercises and studies which incorporate a particular
skill or concept for keyboard instruments, such as double stops. These exercises also
constitute a review of the key signatures introduced in the method book. This format
is followed throughout all three books in the series.44
44 Feldstein/OReilly-Book 1, pages 5, 7

72
Yamaha Band Student-Book 1
Skills, Concepts, and Instruments
Instruction begins with the introduction of double strokes, the first snare drum rudiment,
paradiddle, and triangle in the percussion pages, along with written accidentals in the
keyboard instrument pages. A total of two pages is allocated for instruction of these skills
and concepts.45
The first lull band arrangements appear 30% into this method book. Jingle Bells
(arr. Feldstein/OHeilly), is written on two staves and requires snare drum, bass drum, and
triangle for percussion.46
The next rudiments introduced are the flam and flam tap, appearing 35% into
the method book. Also included in this portion of the method book is the introduction of
the suspended cymbal. One page is devoted to each of these topics. A musical example
featuring these two rudiments is Let's Row Again, which incorporates flams and flam
taps.47
The woodblock and the snare drum rudiment flam accent are introduced 45%
and 52% into this method book, respectively. The concept of playing on the rim of a
drum is introduced on the same page as the flam accent, which also includes the
introduction of divisi for keyboard instruments. A total of one and a half pages are
allocated for woodblock, playing on the rim, and flam accent.48
45 Feldstein/OReilly-Book 1, pages 5-10.
46 Feldstein/OReilly-Book 1, page 9.
47 Feldstein/OReilly-Book 1, pages 10-15.
48 Feldstein/OReilly-Book 1, pages 14-17.

73
Five stroke and nine stroke rolls (rudiments) are introduced 67% into this method
book, along with sustained rolls for keyboard instruments. One page is devoted to both
five and nine stroke rolls. Musical examples containing these skills include Smooth As
Glass, which requires rolls in the keyboard instrument part, and an excerpt from
Beethoven's Ode To Joy from Symphony No. 9, which contains five stroke rolls.49
The rim shot, suspended cymbal roll, triangle roll, and playing snare drum with
snares off are introduced beginning 80% through this method book. A total of one page is
allocated to these subjects. Musical examples utilizing these skills and concepts include an
excerpt from Dvorak's Largo from the New World Symphony.50
Book 1 concludes with separate full-page solos for percussion and keyboard
instruments. Suspension is a multiple percussion solo written for snare drum and
suspended cymbal, utilizing flams, paradiddles, nine stroke rolls, and snares on/off 51
Yamaha Band Student-Book 2
Skills, Concepts, and Instruments
Instruction begins with a section devoted to the proper method of tuning of drum
heads. The authors explain the function of the tension rods in the process of adjusting the
pitch of the drum. The rudiment flam paradiddle for snare drum occurs at the 20% point
of this method book, and is included in the duet Dueling Sixteenths.52
49 Feldstein/OReilly-Book 1, pages 20-23.
50 Feldstein/OReilly-Book 1, pages 25-27
51 Feldstein/OReilly-Book 1, pages 31
52 Feldstein/OReilly-Book 2, pages 4-7

74
The multiple bounce (buzz) roll and the tambourine are introduced 33% and 40%,
respectively, into this method book. Two pages are devoted to instruction these topics.
An illustration is included concerning how to play the tambourine. The authors also
explain three ways of striking this instrument:
1.) finger tips
2.) knuckles or heel of the hand
3 .) flat of the hand
The tambourine is utilized in the duet Dueling Sixteenths, a piece occurring on the same
page as its introduction. One page is devoted to this subject.53
Tambourine roll, as well as the rudiments drag and flamacue are the next topics
covered, beginning at 44% into this method book. Musical examples containing these skill
include Theme from Marche Slav, which employs the drag as well as the multiple
bounce roll, and the duet A Little Pop, which incorporates tambourine rolls. Both the
drag and tambourine roll are allocated a full page. Flamacues are not included in musical
examples in this method book, except for their introduction.54
Tonal properties of the snare drum and independence of hands are the next topics
of instruction, starting at 67% into the this method book. The authors explain that
different areas of the batter head produce different tones. Students are instructed to
experiment to find areas of the head that are most appropriate to the music. One-half page
is devoted to this subject.55
53 Feldstein/OReilly-Book 2, pages 10-13.
54 Feldstein/OReilly-Book 2, pages 14-17
55 Feldstein/OReilly-Book 2, pages 20, 28.

75
Independence is explained as the ability to play two lines of music. The authors
give a two-line example in which the right hand plays the higher notes, and the left hand
plays the lower notes. Independence is required in the musical example Our Boys Will
Shine Tonight. Two pages are devoted to this topic.56
Double paradiddle and triple paradiddle (rudiments), and the concept of damping
of muffling bass drum and metallic accessory instruments are introduced 75% into this
method book. The technique of dampening rests in the bass drum part is required in
Soldier's March (Schumann).
The triple paradiddle is included in Rudimentally Yours(Feldstein/0'Reilly), a full
page snare drum solo incorporating many of the rudiments covered in this method book.
One page is allocated to these topics.57
The single ratamacue is introduced 90% through the text. It is featured in
March from the Nutcracker Ballet (Tchaikovsky), a piece also incorporating long
rolls and flams.58
Yamaha Band Student-Book 3
Review Pages
The final book in this method series begins with a review of material from the
previous book; in this portion of the method, students are required to perform etudes
containing previously learned rhythms and key signatures. An example of this is Ab
56 Feldstein/OReilly-Book 2, pages 21-22.
57 Feldstein/OReilly-Book 2, pages 24-25, 31.
58 Feldstein/OReilly-Book 2, pages 27, 31

76
Major Etude and Chords, which utilizes flams and drags in the percussion part, and divisi
in the keyboard percussion part.59
Format
Following the review section, this method book consists almost entirely of musical
examples, with the exception of introductory exercises following the first appearance of a
skill or concept. An example of this is the seven stroke roll, which is included in two
one-line exercises immediately after its introduction. There is also a separate mallet
percussion part on the corresponding keyboard percussion page.60
Introduction of Skills, Concepts, and Instruments
Seven stroke rolls on the beat for snare drum are introduced 29% into the method
book. This rudiment is incorporated in the musical example Take Me Out to the Ball
Game. The Just for Drums section also includes an exercise featuring the seven stroke
roll starting on the upbeat in rudimental (double bounce) style.61
Bells and percussion are combined in the same part in the musical example
Barnacle Bill the Sailor, a piece featuring flam accents in the snare drum part and
extended rolls in the orchestra bell part. This is the only time in the method series
that this combination of instruments occurs on the same page.62
59 John O'Reilly and John Kinyon. Yamaha Batid Student: Combined Percussion-Book 3.
Alfred Publishing Co., Inc., Van Nuys, CA, 1995, pages 4-5.
60 OReilly/Kinyon-Book 3, pages 6-9.
61 O'Reilly/Kinyon-Book 3, page 9.
62 OReilly/Kinyon-Book 3, page 13.

77
The drag paradiddle #1 occurs 52% into this method book. Rudimental
Thunder, a snare drum solo occurring later in the method book, utilizes the drag
paradiddle # 2, a rudiment that is not introduced in book 3 .63 The snare drum rudiment,
paradiddle-diddle is covered 67% into this method book, and is incorporated in the
musical example Greensleeves on the page of its introduction. One-half page is
devoted to this rudiment.64
Musical Examples
From the 77% point of this method book, the content consists entirely of musical
examples, there are no new skills, concepts or instruments introduced throughout the
remainder of this book. Music in this portion of the method book contain previously
learned skills and concepts from the preceding pages.
Rudimental Thunder is written for snare drum and incorporates flams, long rolls,
five stroke rolls on the upbeat as well as on the downbeat, seven stroke rolls, nine stroke
rolls, and drag paradiddle #2. All rolls in this solo are to be played in rudimental style.65
An arrangement of Handel's Air and Bouree is written for keyboard percussion
solo and employs long rolls. This solo features a distinct melodic line and requires the
percussionist to chose the most efficient sticking patterns which do not interfere with
the musical flow of the works long phrases, a characteristic of Baroque era music.66
63 O'Reilly/Kinyon-Book 3, pages 16, 21, 27.
64 O'Reilly/Kinyon-Book 3, page 20.
65 O'Reilly/Kinyon-Book 3, Percussion, page 27.
66 O'Reilly/Kinyon-Book 3, Keyboard, page 27.

78
The final musical example in this method series is a two page piece for full band
entitled Suite for Winds and Percussion. This work is written for snare drum, bass
drum, crash cymbals, and tambourine in the percussion part; it also includes a separate
part for keyboard percussion instruments. The percussion part features nine stroke rolls
for snare drum, and a long roll for tambourine. The keyboard percussion part contains
extended rolls.67
Specialized Pages
This method book concludes with two pages of exercises for both snare drum and
keyboard percussion instruments. The snare drum pages contain three line exercises
utilizing the following rudiments:
1.) single, double, and triple paradiddles
2.) flam, flam tap and flam accents
3 .) five, seven, nine and seventeen stroke rolls, long rolls
4.) flam paradiddle, flamacue
5.) single, double, and triple ratamacues
6.) drag paradiddle, paradiddle-diddle68
Essential Elements
Rhodes, Bierschenk, and Lautzenheiser
This method book series contains two books, content of method books
consists of 140 and 130 exercises and musical examples for books 1 and 2, respectively,
67 O'Reilly/Kinyon-Book 3, pages 27-28.
68 O'Reilly/Kinyon-Book 3, Snare Drum, pages 30-31.

79
and is devoted exclusively to non-keyboard percussion instruments. This series also
includes four supplementary pages under the heading Special Percussion Exercises,
which incorporate roll review exercises, as well as studies in advanced meters accents,
independence, and stick control. The final pages of these method books contain the
Percussive Arts Society's International Drum Rudiments.
Essential Elements-Book 1
Introductory Pages
This method book begins with a brief history of percussion. Mentioned in these
three paragraphs are pre-historic cultures, Turkish military bands, orchestral percussion,
and famous percussionists (e g. Buddy Rich) 69
Matched grip, which the authors refer to matched grip as a natural grip, and
traditional grip are explained in the next portion of the introductory pages. Illustrations
show the hand position and drum set-up for both grips:
2.) matched grip-right and left hands mirror each other, drum is flat
3.) traditional-right and left hands use different grips, drum is tilted70
The next page is entitled Basic Percussion Instruments, and consists of a list of
percussion instruments commonly used in instrumental music programs. This section
also includes suggestions concerning mallet and stick selection, as well as a list of general
accessory percussion instruments (e g. tambourine, cowbell).71
69 Tom C. Rhodes, Donald Bierschenk, and Tim Lautzenheiser. Essential Elements: A
Comprehensive Band Method-Percussion Book I. Hal Leonard Publishing Corporation,
Milwaukee, WI, 1997, pages 1-2.
70 Rhodes, et. al. Book 1, pages 2-3

80
Percussion cief is also demonstrated in the introductory pages, along with the letter
names of lines and spaces for both treble and bass clefs. The authors state that students
should practice all exercises in this method book in conjunction with Essential Elements
Keyboard Percussion Book, and should switch parts frequently. A double page format is
used in this method (e g. 5-A, 5-B), with content pertaining almost exclusively with
non-pitched percussion instruments. Overall content of this method book consists of 140
exercises and musical examples.72
Rudiments and Sticking
The concept of multiple bounce is introduced 11% through this method book, and
is taught in conjunction with eighth notes. The authors instruct students to let the stick
bounce freely on the drum head.
Also included in this portion of the method book is an explanation of the concept
of right hand lead. This refers to the use of right hand on all downbeats and left hand on
all upbeats. Right hand lead is incorporated in the musical example Old MacDonald Had
A Band one page after its introduction.73
The flam and the paradiddle are introduced 38% and 43% into the method book,
respectively, The authors include illustrated definitions of these rudiments. Two pages
are spent on instruction of flams, they are included in the musical example" Alouette.
One page is devoted to these rudiment.74
71 Rhodes, et. al. Book 1, page 4 A-B.
72 Rhodes, et. al. Book 1, page 5 A-B.
73 Rhodes, et. al. Book 1, pages 6-B to 7-B.
74 Rhodes, et. al. Book 1, pages 11-Ato 12-B.

81
Flam taps are introduced in conjunction with sixteenth notes 48% into this method
book. This rudiment is utilized in the musical example Jolly Old St. Nick, in order to
demonstrate the relationship between eighth and sixteenth notes. One page is devoted
to instruction of this rudiment.75
The closed (buzz) roll is first presented at the 61% point of this method book, and
is introduced in conjunction with a grouping of four sixteenth notes and occurs later
(75%) through the method book as an extended roll. Extended rolls are illustrated as half
notes, dotted half notes, and whole notes. One page is devoted to instruction of this
rudiment.76
The final rudiment introduced is the flamacue, which is presented 95% into the
text. It is featured in F. W. Meachams American Patrol. One-half page is devoted to
this rudiment.77
Instruments
Bass drum appears immediately after the introduction of the snare drum.
The authors describe how to hold the bass drum mallet and where to strike on the
surface of the drum head for best tone quality. The bass drum is played in conjunction
with snare drum in all musical examples and exercises except for those pertaining
exclusively to another instrument. One-half page is devoted to the introduction of
this instrument.78
75 Rhodes, et. al. Book 1, page 13-B.
76 Rhodes, et. al. Book 1, pages 17-A, 23-A.
77 Rhodes, et. al. Book 1, page 26-A.

82
Crash cymbals are the next instrument covered, and are introduced 25%
into the text. An explanation of how to hold the cymbals is included, as well as
a description of how to choke or muffle the cymbals. One half page is allocated
for the introduction of this instrument.79
Woodblock and triangle are the next instruments introduced in this method book.
They initially appear 33% and 35% into the text, respectively. The written definitions also
include basic performance techniques (e g. use a metal beater...hit the triangle opposite the
open end), for both instruments. Woodblock appears in Old Joe Clark, which also
features double bounce sticking for snare drum. Triangle appears in Stephen Fosters
Camptown Races. Students are instructed to write in the sticking for snare drum Three
pages are allocated for instruction of these instruments.80
Claves and maracas are introduced at the 43% point of the method book. These
instruments are given a written definition and performance suggestion. An example of this
is the instructions for playing maracas: Hold maracas by the handles. Use short, precise
wrist motion to shake maracas.81 Claves and maracas are included in the musical
example Mexican Clapping Song. One page is devoted to these instruments.82
78 Rhodes, et. al. Book 1, page 5-B
79 Rhodes, et. al Book 1, page 8-B.
80 Rhodes, et. al. Book 1, pages 10-A, 10-B, 11-B.
81 Rhodes, et. al. Book 1, page 12-B.
82 Ibid.

83
Tambourine is also introduced in this portion of the text. The authors list three
ways to play this instrument in order to achieve different sounds:
1.) Soft sounds-fingertips on the head
2.) Medium loud sounds-palm side of fist or straight fingers
3.) Loud sounds-knuckles on head83
Sleigh bells and suspended cymbal are the final instruments introduced in this
method book at the 48% and 51% through the text, respectively. These instruments
are given a written descriptions, and the authors also include performance suggestions.
One and one-half pages to these instruments.84
Book 1 concludes with four multi-page arrangements featuring combinations of
percussion instruments. An example of this is Can-Can (Offenbach arr. Lepper), a work
for percussion ensemble written for five or more players. Instrumentation is as follows:
1.) Keyboard percussion-1 or more players
2.) Snare Drum/Bass Drum-2 or more players
3 .) Crash Cymbal/Woodblock-1 or 2 players
4.) Triangle/Tambourine- 1 or 2 players
This piece features right hand lead and playing on the rim for snare drum, as well
as triangle and tambourine rolls. The keyboard percussion part includes double stops.
Performance requirements for this piece also include switching back and forth between
different instruments by one player. This is the fourth musical example containing a mallet
part is this method book.85
83 Rhodes, et, al. Book 1, page 13-A.
84 Rhodes, et. al. Book 1, pages 13-B, 14-B.

84
Essentia! Elements-Book 2: Rudiments and Sticking
This book begins with a description of four methods of sticking commonly used in
playing snare drum:
1.) Alternate sticking: R L R L
2.) Single hand sticking: RRRRorLLLL
3.) Right hand lead: R on strong divisions of the beat
4.) Rudimental sticking: Basic rudiments
Content
Right hand lead occurs in the musical example Salsa Siesta. Alternate sticking is
utilized in Chromatic Cruise, and is the predominant method of sticking used in this
method book Single hand sticking is featured in A-Roving. Rudimental sticking is
incorporated in all musical examples containing drum rudiments (e g. flam taps in Glow
Worm) 86 A total of four pages are devoted to instruction of these skills.
The concept of double bounce is introduced at the beginning the text. The authors
include a written and illustrated definition, which also includes practice suggestions. The
double bounce is incorporated in the musical example Tallis Canon (Thomas Tallis) two
pages after its introduction. One page is devoted to this concept.87
85 Rhodes, et. al. Book 1, pages 27 A-C.
86 Tom C. Rhodes, Donald Bierschenk, and Tim Lautzenheiser. Essential Elements: A
Comprensive Band Method-Percussion Book 2. Hal Leonard Publishing Corporation,
Milwaukee, WI, 1991. pages 2-A, 3-A, 5-A, 7-A.
87Rhodes et. al. Book 2, pages 2-B, 4-A.

85
The snare drum rudiments flamadiddie and double paradiddle are introduced 10%
and 13% into this method book, respectively. The authors include illustrations of both
rudiments, along with written definitions. The bass drum roll is also introduced in this
portion of the text.
Flamadiddles occur along with flam taps in the musical example Glow Worm.
Double paradiddles are incorporated in A Change of Key. Two pages are allocated
for instruction of these topics.88
The drag, appears at the 22% point of book 2. Included in its definition is an
illustration of the proper method of sticking. The drag appears in the musical example
A-Roving. One page is devoted instruction of this rudiment .89
Flam accents and flam tap in 6/8 meter are introduced 57% into the text. Both
rudiments are utilized in the musical example Lazy Day. They are the final rudiments
introduced in this method book series. One-half page is allocated to these rudiments.90
Instruments
Giro is the first instrument introduced in this method book, occurring 10%
through the text. The authors provide a brief description and history of this Latin-
American instrument, along with performance suggestions that instruct the student on the
accepted method of producing a tone on this instrument. The giro is incorporated in the
musical example Salsa Siesta. One page is devoted to this instrument.91
88 Rhodes, et. al. Book 2, pages 4-A, 5 A.
89 Rhodes, et. al. Book 2, page 7-A.
90 Rhodes, et. al. Book 2, page 15-A.

86
Timpani are introduced 36% through this method book. A brief written
description, as well as their function as tonal percussion instruments is provided, and the
explanation that timpani parts are written in bass clef. The authors include suggestions for
tuning pedal timpani e g. Use an electronic tuner .lightly tap your fingers on the head
of one drum and compare . pitch(es) The authors include suggestions as to what type of
mallets are appropriate for timpani.92
Timpani appear in the musical example Shell Be Cornin Round The Mountain.
This piece is written for two timpani tuned to an interval of a perfect fifth. Students are
instructed to ask their teacher for assistance with pitch changes and tuning. One-half page
is devoted to instruction of this instrument.93
Special Techniques
Bass drum roll is introduced 12% into the text. The authors include suggestions
for performing this skill. Bass drum roll is included in the musical example Glow Worm.
One-half page is allocated to this skill.94
The triangle roll is introduced 46% into this method book. An explanation of how
to perform this skill is provided (.. .using rapid. .motion between the bottom and the side).
The triangle roll is incorporated in the musical example English Dance. One-half page is
allocated for this skill.95
92 Rhodes, et. al. Book 2, page 9-B.
93 Ibid.
94 Rhodes, et. al. Book 2, page 5-A.
95 Rhodes, et. al. Book 2, page 12-A.

87
The timpani roll is discussed 22% through this method book. An explanation of
how to perform this skills is provided, as well as performance suggestions. In addition,
there is an illustration of how this skill is notated. The timpani roll appears in Marching
Along. One-half page is devoted to instruction of this skill.96
Special Pages
Following the 130 exercises and musical examples contained in this method book
are four pages devoted to advanced study and review of previously learned material. This
section is entitled Special Percussion Exercises and includes etudes incorporating rolls,
additional studies in 6/8 meter, accent exercises, and studies for improving independence
of hands. Each topic is allocated one page.97
Also included in this portion of the method book is a page of stick control and rolls
without release notes. Both skills are allocated one-half page of instruction. The method
series concludes with the inclusion of the Percussive Art Societys 40 International Drum
Rudiments.98
Accent on Achievement: Overview
This method book is the first in a series, and is described by the authors as a
comprehensive band method that develops creativity and musicianship.99 The second
96 Rhodes, et. al. Book 2, page 13-A.
97 Rhodes, et. al. Book 2, pages 28-A to 29-B.
98 Rhodes, et. al. Book 2, pages 30-A to 31-B.
99 John OReilly and Mark Wiliams. Accent on Achievement: Combined
Percussion-Book l. Alfred Publishing Co., Inc., Van Nuys, CA, 1997

88
book of the series was unpublished at the time of this study. Book 1 begins with 8 pages
of introductory material, consisting of four pages for percussion and mallet instruments.
These pages contain descriptions of the following instruments:
1.) Snare Drum
2.) Triangle
3.) Woodblock
4.) Tambourine
5.) Suspended Cymbal
6.) Bass Drum
7.) Crash Cymbals
Each instrument description includes a color photograph of a middle school band
student demonstrating grip and playing position. Also included is an accompanying text
for each illustration, with performance suggestion and practice tips. Both matched and
traditional grip are illustrated for playing snare drum.100
Following the introductory pages, content of this method book consists of 30
pages of double-page instruction, containing 134 exercises and musical examples, with
percussion on the left-hand side, and mallet percussion on the right. The prevailing format
for the introduction of rudiments is a brief description along with an illustration, at the top
of the page of introduction, in conjunction with a special exercise at the bottom of the
same page. Rudiments are subsequently utilized in a musical example one to three pages
later in the method book.
100 OReilly/Williams-Book 1, pages 4-6

89
Another feature of this method book is Accent on Performance, a series of full
page arrangements appearing at regular intervals throughout the book (e g. pages 11, 17,
23, 29, 36) The musical examples on these pages utilize skills, concepts, and instruments
covered in previous pages.
The final portion of this method book consists of a series of advanced exercises for
snare drum and mallet percussion instruments. Exercises include rhythm studies for
both snare drum and mallet percussion, as well as accent, and rudiment studies for snare
drum. Also included are scale studies for mallet percussion instruments.101
Rudiments and Sticking
The first rudiment introduced in this method book is the single paradiddle, and
occurs 16% into the text. The authors include an illustration as well as a written
definition. Single paradiddles are featured in the musical example Mary Ann. One-half
page is devoted to this rudiment.102
Flams and flam taps are the next rudiments covered in this method book. They are
introduced at 30% and 40% through the text, respectively. Flams are incorporated in an
excerpt from Southern Roses (Johann Strauss, Jr ). Flam taps are featured in Minka,
Minka A total of one page is allocated to instruction of these rudiments.103
The flam accent, occurs at 52% into the text. It is incorporated into the musical
example Bella Bimba one page after its introduction. One-half page is devoted to this
101 OReilly/Williams-Book 1, pages 11, 17, 23, 29, 36.
102 OReilly/Williams-Book 1, pages 9, 10.
103 OReilly/Williams-Book 1, pages 13, 14, 16, 18.

90
rudiment, which does not appear in subsequent pages of book 1.104 Long rolls for mallet
percussion instruments and nine stroke rolls for snare drum are introduced 70% into this
method book. Long rolls are featured in an excerpt from Dvoraks "New World
Symphony. Nine stroke rolls are incorporated in Folk Festival. A total of one and
one-half pages are allocated for teaching these rolls 105
The final rudiment introduced in this method book is the five stroke roll, initially
occurring 88% through the text, in conjunction with double stops for mallet percussion
instruments. The five stroke roll is illustrated in two ways:
1.) beginning on the downbeat
2.) beginning on the upbeat
Downbeat five stroke rolls are featured in Tom Dooley. Upbeat five stroke rolls
are incorporated in an excerpt from Elgarss Pomp and Circumstance. Two pages are
devoted to this rudiment.106
Instruments and Special Techniques
Bass drum is the first instrument introduced following snare drum, and initially
appears 09% into this method book. The authors give a brief synopsis of proper playing
techniques and indicate that the bass drum is written in the bottom space of percussion
clef. From this point on in the method book, snare drum and bass drum are paired
together on the same stave. One page is devoted to instruction of this instrument.107
104 OReilly/Williams-Book 1, pages 20, 21.
105 OReilly/Williams-Book 1, pages 27-28.
106 OReilly/Williams-Book 1, pages 31-33.

91
Triangle is introduced 20% through the text, in conjunction with tied notes. Music
notation for triangle consists of triangle shaped note heads. This instrument appears in
The Score is Tied. One page is allocated to the instruction of this instrument.108
Suspended cymbal is introduced 33% into this method book, in conjunction with
the suspended cymbal roll. Notation for this instrument consists of diamond shaped note
heads and xs. Suspended cymbal appears initially in Three-Four Duet. Students are
instructed that all suspended cymbal rolls are to be played with alternating single strokes,
and that mallets are the most common choice for performing this technique.
Suspended cymbal rolls first occur in the duet Aura Lee, which also feature
snare drum played with snares off. Double stops for mallet instruments are also
introduced in this portion of the method book. A total of three pages are devoted to
these topics.109
Tambourine is introduced 45% through the text. The authors give a brief review
of the playing techniques initially described in the introductory pages:
1.) strike with fingertips
2.) strike with knuckles
3.) strike with heel of hand
Tambourine appears in the musical example Minka, Minka, a piece that also
includes flam taps on snare drum. One page is devoted to instruction of this
107 OReillyAVilliams-Book 1, page 8.
108 OReilly/Williams-Book 1, page 10.
109 QReilly/Williams-Book 1, pages 14-15

92
instrument 110 The concept of dampening notes on metallic mallet percussion instruments
is discussed 52% into the text of this method book. The authors instruct students to stop
the sound of the bar on orchestra bells with their hand, tempo permitting. One page is
allocated for instruction of this technique.111
Woodblock is introduced at the 54% point of this method book. It is notated with
regular note heads. This instrument is included in the musical example Chopsticks, a
duet including tambourine. One-half page is devoted to instruction of this instrument .112
Crash cymbals are the final instruments introduced in this method book, appearing
at the 80% point of the text. Students are advised to refer back to the photograph in the
introductory pages pertaining to this instrument. Notation of crash cymbals consists of
diamond shaped note heads and xs, and is placed in the first space below bass drum. This
instrument is included in the musical example Clarinet Climb. One-half page is allocated
for instruction of this instrument.113
Special Pages
Following the 134 exercises and musical examples of this method book, there are
six pages of exercises devoted to individual instruments. For example, Yankee Doodle
Drummer is a two page snare drum solo with piano accompaniment that utilizes five
110 OReilly/Williams-Book 1, page 18
111 OReilly/Williams-Book 1, page 20.
112 OReilly/Williams-Book 1, page 21.
113 OReilly/Williams-Book 1, pages 26, 28.

93
stroke rolls on the downbeat and on the upbeat, nine stroke rolls, and flams. Hunters
Chorus from Der Freishutz (Weber) is a mallet percussion solo featuring accents and
arpeggios; this piece also contains apiano accompaniment 114 The final musical example
of this method book is Sousa Spectacular, a one page work for snare drum, bass drum,
crash cymbals, tambourine, and mallet percussion, which features five and nine stroke
rolls.115
The concluding portion of this method book contains seven double pages of
exercises which feature skills, concepts, and instruments covered in the course of book 1.
Accent on Scales features rudiments on the snare drum page and scales, chords, double
stops, and movement by thirds on the mallet percussion page.116
Accent on Rhythms consists of twenty single line rhythm studies for mallet
instruments.117 Accent on Rests contains ten exercises for both percussion (snare
drum/bass drum) and mallet percussion instruments. These studies are rhythmically in
unison, with mallet percussion parts containing scale-wise movement, arpeggios, and
dampening of notes. Accent on Snare Drum, which is a review of accents and flams,
and Accent on Mallets, which utilizes double stops and arpeggios, conclude this method
book.118
114 OReilly/Williams-Book 1, pages 34-5.
115 OReilly/Williams-Book 1, page 36.
116 OReilly/Williams-Book 1, page 37.
117 OReilly/Williams-Book 1, pages 38-9.
118 OReilly/Williams-Book 1, pages 40-41

94
Summary of Method Books
Table 4-4 provides a summary of the content-skills, concepts, and instruments
presented in each of the method books examined in the study. A percentage is used to
indicate the point at which a particular skill or instrument is introduced in the text of a
method book. Time allotted is indicated in increments of one-half pages. This number
value includes a written explanation and the page of introduction of a skill or instrument.
Coverage represents to what degree the skill, concept, or instrument is examined:
1.) Cursory: superficial examination of skill e g. the flam is a rudiment
2.) Moderate: a definition and explanation of skill, concept, or instrument
that includes brief performance instructions e g. strike the woodblock in
the center with a yarn mallet
3.) Thorough: topic is introduced with a clear definition, an educationally
functional illustration, and specific performance instructions e g. Using
a bass drum beater, strike the drum halfway between the rim and the
center of the head. Use a.. .forearm motion. 119
The last column, integrated in music, refers to the extent that a skill, concept,
or instrument is incorporated in musical examples, following its page of introduction in a
particular method book. The terms are as follows:
1.) Seldom: 0-1 appearances
2.) Occasionally: 2-3 appearances
3.) Frequently: 4-5 appearances
4.) Extensively: 6 or more appearances
1!9 Pearson-Book 1, page 3.

95
Rudiments
Flams and single paradiddles were the rudiments introduced at the most
consistent point within the four method books. Flams were introduced 23 % into
Standard of Excellence-Book 1, 35% into Yamaha Band Student-Book A., 36%
into Essential Elements-Book 1, and 28% through Accent on Achievement In each
of the four method books, flams were integrated extensively into musical examples.
The single paradiddle was introduced within the first half of book one in all
method books examined. Each of the four method books integrated this rudiment
into musical examples at a different level of inclusion:
1. Yamaha Band 5m 2. Standard of Exce lienee-YxQcpxet&y
3. Essential Elements-Occasionally
4. Accent on Achievement-Seldom
It is interesting to note that double strokes were introduced in the first book in
three of the selected method book series. The fourth method book {Essential Elements)
introduced this skill in book two. Multiple bounce strokes were introduced in book one of
Standard of Excellence and Essential Elements; in contrast, this skill was not introduced
until the second book of the Yamaha Band Student series, and Accent on Achievement did
not cover this skill in book one of the method series. These two dissimilar formats
suggests a difference of philosophy among the four method book series regarding the
subject of beginning instruction of rolls.
Five stroke rolls using double bounce strokes were prominently featured in three of
the four method book series examined in this study. This rudiment was introduced in

96
book one of all method books, with the exception of Essential Elements, which used
the multiple bounce (buzz) stroke as the starting point for all rolls, and which did not.
Mallet Percussion
The two skills most frequently employed in three of the four method books
examined in the study were rolls and double stops. These skills were introduced in
the last half of book one in all method books, excluding Essential Elements. Rolls
and double stops were integrated extensively into the musical examples of Standard of
Excellence, Yamaha Band Student, and Accent on Achievement. Basic four-mallet grips,
techniques, and skills for mallet percussion instruments was found only in Standard of
Excellence-Book 3 (page 10).
The instructional format with regard to mallet instruments was nearly identical
in three of the four method book series with respect to the mallet percussion instrument,
the content followed almost exclusively that of the treble clef instruments. In addition,
all method book series incorporated mallet percussion instruments in musical examples.
An example of this is found in Accent on Achievement (page 13), in which the mallet
percussion part in the musical example London Bridge is identical to that of the
clarinet part.120
Instruments
All four selected method book series provided thorough coverage of snare
drum, bass drum, crash cymbals, suspended cymbal, tambourine, woodblock. Three
of the four methods also provided extensive coverage of mallet percussion instruments
120 John OReilly and Mark Williams. Accent on Achievement: Combined Percussion-
Book I., and Bb Clarinet-Book 1. Alfred Publishing Co., Inc., Van Nuys, CA, 1992.

97
e g. bells, xylophone. In these methods, scales, clefs, and key signatures are presented
at the beginning of book one of the series.
The exception is Essential Elements, which also introduces clefs and scales at the
beginning of book one. However, it provides neither formal nor consistent presentation
of mallet percussion instruction. In contrast to the other three percussion methods, this
method book series is the only one of the four that included instruction on timpani as part
of the basic percussion curriculum .
Accessory percussion instruments were covered in a more comprehensive manner
in Essential Elements in comparison with the other three method book series selected for
examination in this study. An example of this is the introduction of the tambourine on
page 13-A, in which a detailed description of basic playing techniques for this instrument
are included.
Table 4-4
Method Book Content
Standard of Excellence-Book 1
Skill/Technique
Introduced
Paaes Allotted Coveraee
Integrated in Music
Paradiddle
10%
1
Moderate
Frequently
Multiple Bounce
15%
1
Cursory
Frequently
Flam
23%
1
Thorough
Extensively
Flam tap
26%
1/2
Moderate
Seldom
Flam Accent
48%
1/2
Moderate
Seldom
Flam Paradiddle
55%
1/2
Moderate
Seldom
9-Stroke Roll
76%
1/2
Thorough
Frequently
5-Stroke Roll
79%
1
Thorough
Extensively
17-Stroke Roll
89%
1/2
Thorough
Occasionally
Rim Shot
95%
1
Thorough
Frequently
Double Strokes
98%
1
Thorough
Frequently

98
Table 4-4 (cont.)
Method Book Content
Standard of Excellence-Book 1
ivi-aueis
Rolls
muuuuceu
72%
rages nnoiu
1
;a coverage
Moderate
mtegrateo in music
Frequently
Double Stops
89%
1/2
Moderate
Occasionally
Instruments
Bells/Snare Drum
Beginning
2
Thorough
Extensively
Bass Drum
10%
1/2
Moderate
Extensively
Suspended Cymbal
95%
1/2
Cursory
Frequently
Standard of Excellence-Book 2
Skill/Technique
Introduced
Pases Allotted Coverage
Integrated in Music
Double Paradiddle
20%
1/2
Cursory
Seldom
Drag
25%
1/2
Cursory
Extensively
Single Drag Tap
33%
1/2
Cursory
Frequently
Instruments
Chimes
25%
1
Cursory
Seldom
Marimba
96%
1
Cursory
Occasionally
Xylophone
98%
1
Cursory
Occasionally
Standard of Excellence-Book 3
Skill/Technique
Introduced
Pages Allotted Coverage
Integrated in Music
Triple Ratamacue 23%
13-Stroke Roll 29%
Single Ratamacue 38%
Double Ratamacue 40%
7-Stroke Roll-Triplet 40%
Triple Ratamacue 45%
Trill 48%
4-Stroke Ruff 64%
Drag Taradiddle 70%
Double Drag Tap 77%
15-Stroke Roll 81%
11-Stroke Roll 88%
1/2 Cursory
1 Thorough
1 Moderate
1/2 Moderate
1/2 Thorough
1/2 Cursory
1 Moderate
1/2 Moderate
1/2 Cursory
1/2 Cursory
1/2 Moderate
1 Thorough
Seldom
Occasionally
Frequently
Occasionally
Occasionally
Seldom
Occasionally
Frequently
Seldom
Seldom
Occasionally
Seldom

99
Table 4-4 (cont.)
Method Book Content
Standard of Excellence-Book 3
Special Skills Introduced Pages Allotted Coverage Integrated in Music
Bass Drum Roll
81%
Ride Cymbal Patterns 95%
Play with Brushes
95%
Mallets
4-Mallet Technique
31%
Trill
45%
Grace Note
59%
1/2
Moderate
Seldom
1
Moderate
Occasionally
1
Thorough
Occasionally
2
Thorough
Seldom
1
Moderate
Frequently
1
Moderate
Frequently
Yamaha Band Student-Book 1
Skill/Technique
Introduced
Pages Allotted Coverage
integrated in Music
Double Strokes
15%
1/2
Thorough
Occasionally
Single Paradiddle
22%
1/2
Moderate
Extensively
Flam
35%
1/2
Cursory
Extensively
Flam Tap
39%
1/2
Cursory
Extensively
Flam Accent
55%
1/2
Cursory
Seldom*
5-Stroke Roll
64%
1/2
Cursory
Frequently
9-Stroke Roll
71%
1/2
Cursory
Extensively
On Rim
55%
1/2
Cursory
Frequently
Susp. Cymb. Roll
81%
1/2
Cursory
Seldom
Triangle Roll
84%
1/2
Cursory
Extensively
Mallets
Double Stops
55%
1/2
Cursory
Frequently
Roll
64%
1/2
Cursory
Extensively
Instrument
Bells/Snare Drum
Beginning
1
Cursory
Extensively
Bass Drum
05%
1/2
Cursory
Extensively
Triangle
20%
1/2
Moderate
Extensively
Suspended Cymbal
42%
1/2
Cursory
Extensively
Woodblock
45%
1/2
Thorough
Seldom
*Flam Accent is utilized only on the page of its introduction (page 17).

100
Table 4-4 (cont .)
Band Method Content
Yamaha Band Student-Book 2
Skill/Technique
Introduced
Paaes Allotted Coverage
Integrated in Music
Flam Paradiddle
20%
1/2
Moderate
Occasionally
Multiple Bounce Roll 33%
1/2
Moderate
Frequently
Drag
44%
1/2
Moderate
Extensively
Flamacue
55%
1/2
Moderate
Seldom
Double Paradiddle
75%
1/2
Moderate
Seldom
Triple Paradiddle
75%
1/2
Moderate
Seldom
Single Ratamacue
90%
1/2
Moderate
Occasionally
Instrument
Tambourine
40%
1
Thorough
Extensive
Special Techniques
Tuning Drums
15%
1/2
Thorough
N/A
Dampen/Muffling
78%
1
Thorough
Frequently
Tambourine Roll
50%
1
Thorough
Occasionally
Tonal Properties
67%
1
Moderate
Seldom
Independence
70%
1
Moderate
Frequently
Yamaha Band Student-Book 3
Skill/Technique
Introduced
Paaes Allotted Coveraae
Integrated in Music
7-Stroke Roll
30%
1
Moderate
Frequently
Drag Paradiddle #1
52%
1/2
Moderate
Seldom
Paradiddle-Diddle
67%
1/2
Cursory
Occasionally
Drag Paradiddle#2
90%
1
None**
Extensively* *
**Drag Paradiddle #2 is used extensively on page 27 (Rudimental Thunder); it is not
introduced in this method book series.
Essential Elements-Book 1
Skill/Technique Introduced Pages Allotted Coverage Integrated in Music
Multiple Bounce 11% 1 Thorough Extensively
Right Hand Lead 20% 1/2 Cursory Extensively

101
Table 4-4 (cont.)
Band Method Content
Skill/Technique
Essential Elements-Book 1
Introduced Pages Allotted Coverage
integrated in Music
Flam
36%
1
Thorough
Extensively
Paradiddle
44%
1/2
Cursory
Occasionally
Snares Off
46%
0+
None+
Occasionally
Closed (Buzz) Roll
61%
1/2
Moderate
Extensively
On Rim
81%
0+
None+
Occasionally
Extended Roll
85%
1/2
Thorough
Frequently
Flamacue
95%
1/2
Cursory
Occasionally
Instrument
Snare Drum
Beginning
1
Thorough
Extensively
Bass Drum
05%
1
Thorough
Extensively
Crash Cymbals
26%
1/2
Thorough
Frequently
Woodblock
32%
1/2
Thorough
Frequently
Triangle
36%
1/2
Thorough
Frequently
Maracas
44%
1/2
Thorough
Occasionally
Claves
44%
1/2
Thorough
Occasionally
Tambourine
46%
1/2
Thorough
Frequently
Sleigh Bells
48%
1/2
Cursory
Occasionally
Suspended Cymbal
51%
1/2
Thorough
Occasionally
Special Technique
Tambourine Shake
93%
1/2
Moderate
Occasionally
Rim Shot
44%
1/2
Thorough
Occasionally
+Snares Off is not introduced until Book 2 (page
2-A)
Essential Elements-Book 2
Skill/Technique
Introduced
Pages Allotted Coverage
Integrated in Music
Double Bounce
04%
1/2
Moderate
Extensively
Flamadiddle
08%
1/2
Cursory
Occasionally
Double Paradiddle
14%
1/2
Cursory
Seldom
Drag
23%
1/2
Thorough
Extensively
Flam Accent
61%
1/2
Cursory
Seldom
Multiple Bounce (6/8) 63%
1/2
Moderate
Occasionally
Independence
66%
1/2
Thorough
Occasionally

102
Table 4-4 (cont.)
Band Method Content
Essential Elements-Book 3
Instrument Introduced Pages Allotted Coverage Integrated in Music
Giro
06%
1/2
Moderate
Seldom
Timpani
36%
1
Moderate
Frequently
Bongos
98%
0
None
Occasionally
Wind Chimes
98%
0
None
Occasionally
Shaker
98%
0
None
Seldom
Cowbell
98%
0
None
Occasionally
Table 4-4 (cont.)
Band Method Content
Accent on Achievement-Book 1
Technique Introduced
Pages Allotted
Coverage Integrated in Music
Snares OIF
07%
1/2
Cursory
Frequently
Paradiddle
16%
1/2
Cursory
Seldom
Flam
28%
1/2
Moderate
Extensively
Flam Accent
52%
1/2
Cursory
Occasionally
9-Stroke Roll w/
Double Bounce
77%
1/2
Moderate
Extensively
5-Stroke Roll
90%
1
Cursory
Extensively
Mallets
Double Stops
33%
1
Moderate
Frequently
Dampening Notes
52%
1
Cursory
Frequently
Rolls
77%
1
Thorough
Extensively
Instruments
Snare Drum
Beginning
1
Thorough
Extensively
Triangle
20%
1
Thorough
Extensively
Suspended Cymbal
33%
1
Thorough
Extensively
Tambourine
45%
1
Thorough
Extensively
Woodblock
56%
1
Thorough
Frequently
Crash Cymbals
0%
1
Thorough
Frequently
Special Technique
Susp Cymbal Roll
37%
1/2
Thorough
Frequently

103
Overview of Timpani Methods
The next portion of the study will examine the content of the supplemental timpani
books of the four band methods selected for analysis from the results of the survey.
Method books will be examined for content, sequence, and scope of presented material in
the areas of skills, concepts, and instruments.
Standard of Excellence-Timpani Book 1
This method series begins with a brief history of timpani, illustrations of hand
position, proper playing posture, grip types, and a discussion of the function of pedal
timpani.121 Content of this method book consists of 155 exercises and musical examples
corresponding to the exercises and musical examples in book 1 of Combined Percussion.
Auxiliary percussion instruments are also covered in this method book (e g. tambourine,
maracas, claves).
Timpani are incorporated in 43% of the exercises and musical examples contained
in this method book. Also included are four pages of full-band arrangements that include
timpani and/or auxiliary percussion instruments. An example of this is Jeremiah Clarkes
Trumpet Voluntary (arr. Pearson) which is written for two timpani and incorporates
rolls, dampening, and does not require pitch changes.122 This method book concludes
with two sets of double pages of studies for two timpani featuring rolls, staccato sticking,
dampening, and double strokes.123
121 Bruce Pearson. Standard of Excellence: Comprehensive Band Method: Timpani and
Auxiliary Percussion-Book 1. Neil A. Kjos Company, San Diego, CA, 1992, pages 1-3.
122 Pearson, Timpani/Auxilary Percussion-Book 1, page 30.
123 Pearson, Timpani/Auxiliary Percussion Book 1, Tor Timpani Only, pages 41/41,
and Tor Auxiliary Percussion Only, pages 41/41.

104
Standard of Excellence-Timpani Book 2
Following a review section containing a detailed description of dampening
on timpani, the content of this method book consists primarily of musical examples
incorporating auxiliary percussion skills and timpani skills in a double-page format
Instruments and skills introduced in this text include bongos, cowbell, and the shake
roll on tambourine.124
Timpani are included in 41% of the exercises and musical examples contained
in this method book. There are also four lull-page arrangements and one two-page
arrangement devoted exclusively to timpani. An example of this is Sonatina for
Timpani, (Pearson/Elledge) a timpani solo in three movements incorporating
cross-sticking, double-bounce sticking, dampening, long rolls, and stick clicking.125
Standard of Excellence-Timpani Book 3
The final book in this method series is devoted to both auxiliary percussion and
timpani instruction and includes continuation of the concepts and skills covered in books
one and two of the series.126 Pearson reviews instruments previously covered as well
as introducing new instruments. Auxiliary percussion instruments are also examined in
this method book (e g. giro, bongos, castanets).127
124 Bruce Pearson. Standard of Excellence: Comprehensive Band Method: Timpani and
Auxiliary Percussion-Book 2. Neil A. Kjos Company, San Diego, CA, 1992, pages 1-3.
125 Pearson, Timpani/Auxiliary Percussion Book 2, page 38.
126 Bruce Pearson. Standard of Excellence: Comprehensive Band Method: Timpani and
Auxiliary Percussion-Book 3. Neil A. Kjos Company, San Diego, CA, 1992, pages 1-8.
127Ibid.

105
Each new instrument introduced includes a drawing that illustrates the proper
playing position and technique. Written definitions include detailed performance
suggestions applicable to each instrument. For example, students are instructed to
warm-up or prime the tam-tam by tapping it lightly several times with the fingers
prior to striking the instrument with a direct stroke, placed slightly off-center 128
Following the review section, timpani is included in 39% of the exercises,
studies, and musical examples in this method book. In addition, there is a full page
devoted to dampening, single, double, and triple grace notes, as well as the forte-piano
crescendo roll. Also included is a two page section devoted to scale studies for three
timpani.129
Skills and concepts introduced in this book include two drum technique,
three-drum technique, and four drum-technique. In addition, there is a section on
dampening technique and performance of glisses. Pitch changes are not discussed
in this method book series.130
Essential Elements-Book 2
Timpani are first introduced in this method series 36% into book 2, as the first
book in this series does not cover this instrument. Timpani are included in 7% of the
remaining exercises and musical example in this method book. Musical Examples are
written for two timpani and do not require pitch changes.131
128 Pearson, Timpani/Auxiliary Percussion Book 2, page 9.
129 Pearson, Timpani/Auxiliary Percussion Book 3, pages 38-39.
130 Pearson, Timpani/Auxiliary Percussion Book 3, pages 15, 18, 29, 32.
131 Rhodes, et al. Essential Elements: A Comprehensive Band Method-Percussion

106
Accent On Achievement-Books 1-2 and Yamaha Band Student: Books 1-3
Timpani are not covered in book 1 of Accent on Achievement. Book 2 of
this method series was not yet in print at the time of this study. The Yamaha Band
Student: Combined Percussion method book series does not include instruction on
timpani, nor does it contain a supplementary book for timpani.
Summary of Timpani Books
Of the four method book series most frequently cited in the survey as being used
for instruction of public school percussionists, only Essential Elements (Rhodes, et al.)132
incorporates timpani into a combined percussion format. Pearsons Standard of
Excellence 133 series contains a supplementary method book for timpani and auxiliary
percussion instruction. The Yamaha Band Student (OReilly, et al.)134 method does not
include instruction on timpani in the Combined Percussion series, nor does it feature a
supplementary text for instruction in this area. Book one of Accent on Achievement
(OReillyAVilliams) does not include instruction on timpani.135 Book two in this series
was not in print at the time of the survey.
Book 2. Hal Leonard Publishing Corporation, Milwaukee, WI, 1991, page 9-B.
132 Tom C. Rhodes, Donald Bierschenk, and Tim Lautzenheiser Essential Elements:
Combined Percussion. Hal Leonard Publishing Corporation, Milwaukee, WI, 1991
133 Bruce Pearsoa Standard of Excellence: Comprehensive Band Method: Combined
Percussion. Neil A. Kjos Company, San Diego, CA, 1992.
134 Sandy Feld stein, John Kinyon, and JohnOReilly. Yamaha Band Student: Combined
Percussion-Books 1-3. Alfred Publishing Co., Inc., Van Nuys, CA, 1987-89.
135 John OReilly and MarkWilliams. Accent on Achievement: Combined
Percussion-Book 1. Alfred Publishing Co., Inc., Van Nuys, CA, 1997

CHAPTER 5
CONTENT ANALYSIS OF BAND LITERATURE
Overview
This chapter presents an examination of band literature typically programmed by
high school bands in performance situations such as concerts, contests, and festivals, and
to provide a basis for discussing the implications of percussion performance requirements
of band music and their relationship to the content of percussion books of the four
selected band methods.
The works discussed in this chapter (N=100) were randomly selected from state
contest lists of concert band/wind ensemble literature (levels III-VI) and the concert band
music library of Boston Music Company (Boston MA).
Works were examined for each of the following areas:
1.) Number of players required for performance
2.) Instruments required for performance
3 .) Prominent and/or special techniques required in each work
e g. pitch changes for timpani, extensive mallet solo/part
4 .) The role of the percussion part in relationship to the overall
musical texture of the work.
Appendix B summarizes the content analyses of the band literature selected for this
study. Abbreviations were assigned to each instrument in order to provide visual clarity of
the data included in the table. In cases where an instrument shared several letters with
other instruments, the full name of the instrument was used (e g. Timbales).
107

108
Number of Players
Band literature was grouped into three categories in order to examine the number
of players required for performance;
1)3 or fewer players
2.) 3 to 5 players
3.) 5 or more players
The majority (56%) of works required 3 to 5 players for successful performance.
Slightly less than one-third (32%) required 5 or more players, and 12% required 3 or
fewer players. Each level of band literature (III- VI) examined in this study contained
works in all three categories of players required for performance. Level VI literature
contained 50% of the pieces (16) requiring 5 or more players, with level III works
containing the least (2). Level IV and level V works contained the remainder of works
requiring 5 or more players, with five and nine, respectively.
Instruments Used in Band Literature
One of the considerations of this study was to determine what instruments are
typically incorporated in contemporary band literature. The information contained in
Table 5-1 reveals, for example, that snare drum (94%), bass drum (93%), and timpani
(86%) were the three most frequently required instruments.
This is consistent with Casimino (1985) who found that 99% of those instrumental
music directors responding to a survey stated that snare drum was the instrument most
frequently used in percussion instruction. Those surveyed also indicated that timpani
(87%) was the second most important area of study in the percussion curriculum.1
1 Casimino, page 87.

109
Bells were featured in slightly more than half of the selected band works. The fact
that this significant drop-off in frequency of occurrence exists suggests that less musical
and educational emphasis is placed on mallet percussion instruments by composers and
instrumental music teachers than is the case with snare drum, bass drum, and timpani.
Another consideration in determining the extent of the relationship between
elementary and secondary percussion books with band music was to examine the
frequency of occurrence of performance techniques in selected band literature.
The most frequently required instruments-those included in more than 75 percent
of selected band literature-were snare drum, bass drum, timpani, crash cymbals, suspended
cymbal, and bells. Triangle, xylophone, and tambourine were each utilized in more than
25 percent of the band works selected for examination in this study. In addition, chimes,
gong, and woodblock were featured in approximately 20 percent of selected works. All
other percussion instruments were included in less than 10 percent of selected band
literature (e g. field drum, marimba), a drop-off of nearly 45 percent in frequency of
appearance. Table 5-1 provides a summary of the frequency with which a particular
percussion instrument is required for performance of selected band literature (levels
in-vi).
Table 5-1
Percentage of Instruments Used
in Selected Band Literature
(N=100)
Instruments Used in Over 75% of Selected Band Literature
Instrument
Snare Drum
Bass Drum
Timpani
Crash Cymbals
Percentage
94%
93%
86%
79%

110
Table 5-1 (coni.)
Instruments Used in 40-75% of Selected Band Literature
Instrument
Percentage
Suspended Cymbal
65%
Bells
2%
Triangle
42%
Instruments Used in 20-40% of Selected Band Literature
Instrument
Percentage
Xylophone
37%
Tambourine
27%
Chimes
22%
Instruments Used in 5-20% of Selected Band Literature
instrument.
Percentage
Gong
19%
Woodblock
16%
Field Drum
09%
Marimba
08%
Temple Blocks
07%
Wind Chimes
06%
Instruments Used in Less Than 5% of Selected Band Literature
Instrument
Percentage
Bongos
04%
Bell Tree
02%
Castanets
04%
Finger Cymbals
02%
Claves
04%
Giro
02%
Cowbell
04%
Mark Tree
02%
Crotales
04%
Tenor Drum
02%
Ratchet
04%
Timbales
02%
Slap Stick
04%
Vibraslap
02%
Sleigh Bells
04%
Alto Drum
01%
Sandpaper Blocks
03%
Cabasa
01%
Sizzle Cymbal
03%
High-Hat
01%
Maracas
03%
Indian Drum
01%
Celeste
03%
Jingle Bell Jar
01%
Anvil
03%
Piano
01%
Popgun
01%
T-Bar Wind Chimes
01%
Trash Can Lid
01%
Wind Chimes (Bamboo)
01%

Ill
Performance Techniques
The most frequently required performance techniques for snare drum were the
flam, drag, five stroke roll, and long roll. All other skills, techniques, and rudiments for
this instrument were utilized in fewer than 10% of selected band works examined in this
study. An illustration of this is the single paradiddle, which is featured in all four method
book series examined in this study, but does not appear in any of the selected band
literature.
Another example of the seeming dichotomy that exists between percussion method
series and percussion performance practices is the rudimental (double stroke) roll This
rudiment is featured prominently in three of the four selected method book series, and
appears in only 3% of examined band works.
Dampening and rolls were the most frequently required techniques for bass drum
among selected band literature. All other techniques for this instrument were incorporated
in less than 7% of examined works. In addition, it is interesting to note that while bass
drum rolls were featured in 16 of the examined band works, the use of two beaters was
specified in only six of these works. This suggests that the use of 1 or 2 beaters for the
execution of a bass drum roll is left to the interpretive discretion of the performer.
Pitch changes, dampening, and rolls were the most commonly occurring techniques
for timpani in the selected band works. All other techniques for this instrument were
employed in less than 04% of band works selected for examination. Furthermore, with the
exception of Essential Elements, timpani was not covered in the combined percussion
curricula of the method book series examined in this study. Timpani was covered in
thorough fashion in the supplementary percussion books of the other three method book
series.

112
Double stops were the most commonly required technique for orchestra bells,
xylophone, and vibraphone, which also required pedaling and dampening, two techniques
unique to this percussion instrument. Solos were required for these instruments in 4-5%
of the selected band works. The fact that these instruments were featured prominently in
three of the four method book series examined in this study suggests difference of
philosophy between music educators
and composers of band music.
In addition, crash cymbals (choke), suspended cymbal (roll with mallets),
tambourine (shake), and triangle (roll), were the only other percussion instrument
techniques featured in more than 10 percent of selected band literature; examples of these
techniques included the following:
-Snare Drum: Four-Stroke Ruff (7%), Flamacue (2%), Ratamcue (1%)
-Timpani: Muffle (3%), Double Stops (3%)
-Bells: Gliss (2%), Double-Stop Roll (1%)
-Xylophone: Double Stops (9%), Rolls (7%)
-Chimes: Double Stops (6%)
-Maracas: Shake (3%), Rattle (1%), Roll (1%)
-Brake Drum: Play with tack hammers (1%)
Table 5-2 summarizes the performance requirements of the 100 selected band works.
Table 5-2
Performance Techniques of Band Literature
Instrument
Technique
Frequency
Snare Drum
Flam
29%
Drag
26%
Long Roll
17%
5-Stroke Roll
11%
Snares On/Off
09%

113
Table 5-2
Performance Techniques of Band Literature
Instrument
Technique
Frequency
Snare Drum
Solo
09%
(cont.)
On Rim
08%
4-Stroke Ruff
07%
9-Stroke Roll
06%
Rolls without release
05%
Rudimental Rolls
03%
Drag Tap
03%
6-Stroke Roll
02%
Flamacue
02%
Flam+Roll
02%
Rim Shot
02%
6-Stroke Ruff
01%
Muffled Head
01%
Ratamcue
01%
One Hand Sticking
01%
Lesson #25 (Inverted)
01%
Single Stroke Roll
01%
Flams played with brushes
01%
Roll with brushes
01%
Play on rim with butt end off bell mallets
01%
Bass Drum
Dampen
23%
Rolls
16%
Grace Notes
06%
Use of 2 beaters
06%
Muffled Head
03%
On Rim
03%
Play on center of head
01%
2 Players
01%
Play with timpani mallets
01%
Dampen head as taut as possible (pitch change)
01%
Lay flat and dampen
Table 5-2 (cont.)
Performance Techniques of Band Literature
01%
Instrument
Technique
Frequency
Timpani
Pitch Changes
43%
Dampen
34%
Rolls
18%
Muffle
03%
Solo
03%
Double Stops
03%

114
Table 5-2 (cont.)
Performance Techniques of Band Literature
Instrument
Technique
Frequency
Timpani (cont.)
Double Grace notes
02%
Play with snare drum sticks
02%
Play in center of head
01%
Crash Cymbals
Choke
26%
Play pianissimo
01%
Scrape edges together to produce roll
01%
Wave in circles after crash to produce wah-wah effect
01%
Suspended
Roll with yam mallets
17%
Cymbal
Play with snare drum stick
04%
Play with but end of snare drum stick
02%
Choke
02%
Scrape
02%
Suspended
Play on dome
02%
Cymbal (cont)
Scrape with coin
01%
Play with wooden end of timpani mallet
01%
Tom-Toms
Double Stops
03%
Flams
02%
On Rim
01%
Drag
01%
Drag Tap
01%
Long Roll
01%
Solo
01%
Play in center of head
01%
Place large tambourine on large head
01%
Tambourine
Shake
13%
On knee
03%
Play with snare drum sticks
03%
Thumb Roll
02%
Play with timpani mallets (lay flat)
01%
Play with snare drum sticks in center
01%
Play with hard xylophone mallets
01%
Triangle
Roll
11%
Dampen
06%
Play with 2 beaters
01%
Play with snare drum stick
01%

115
Table 5-3 (cont.)
Performance Techniques of Band Literature
Instrument
Technique
Freauencv
Bells
Double Stops
12%
Solo
05%
Gliss
02%
Grace notes
02%
Double-stop Roll
01%
Xylophone
Double Stops
09%
Rolls
07%
Solo
06%
Gliss
04%
Grace notes
01%
Double-stop roll
01%
4-Mallets
01%
Vibraphone
Double Stops
06%
Pedaling
05%
Dampening
04%
4-Mallets
04%
Solo
04%
Rolls
02%
Double-stop roll
01%
Gliss
01%
Motor On
01%
Chimes
Double Stops
02%
Rolls
02%
4-Mallets
02%
Temple Blocks
Double Stops
02%
Solo
02%
Sleigh Bells
Shake
03%
Wind Chimes
Rolls/Shimmer
03%
Finger Cymbals
Flay with triangle beater
01%
Latin Percussion
Instrument
Technique
Frequency
Bongos
Roll
02%
Castanets
Sixteenth notes
01%

116
Table 5-2 (cont)
Percussion Requirements of Band Literature
Latin Percussion (cont.)
Instrument
Technique
Frequency
Maracas
Shake
03%
Rattle
01%
Roll
01%
Sandpaper Blocks
Scrape
03%
Timbales
Double Stops
02%
Other
Ad Lib:
Stick-tapping noises (3 players)
01%
T Bar Wind Chimes: Shimmer
01%
Triangle: Play with brashes+with fingers
01%
Vibraphone: 10 pitches
01%
Wood on wood. Snare Dram+Bass Dram
01%
Marimba: 7 pitches X/B: 10 pitches.
01%
TB: 3 pitches
01%
Hat: Jazz-style solo
01%
Alto Drum:
Play with brashes
01%
Brake Dram:
Play with tack hammers+Double Stops
01%
C rotates:
Triple Stops+pay with triangle beater
01%
Gong
Use chime mallet at top right under flange
01%
Jingle Bell Jar
Slowly roll over and over
01%
Metal Trash Can Lid
Extensive use of 32nd notes
01%
Piano
Pluck strings+play with glass water tumbler
01%
Triangle
Triple Stops
01%
24 Water Gong
Immerse in bucket of water after striking
01%

117
Summary of Performance Techniques
The information contained in Table 5-3 reveals that there are few advanced
techniques written for snare drum beyond flams and rolls, for bass drum (with the
exception of dampening), or for timpani (pitch changes), in the band works selected for
examination in this study. Mallet percussion instrument techniques are predominantly
restricted to double stops and rolls (e g. bells, xylophone, vibraphone, and marimba).
Other examples of limited technique requirements include vibraphone utilizing
pedaling (5%), the tambourine played on the knee (3%) tambourine thumb roll (2%),
double stops on timbales, and performing a roll on bongos (2%).
A large number of techniques were employed in only one percent of the selected
band works. Examples of this include the following:
-Snare Drum: Lesson #25, Single stroke roll
-Timpani: Play in center of head
-Bass Drum: Play in center of head
-Xylophone: Grace notes
-Crotales: Triple stops played with triangle beaters
This information suggests that composers of band music write percussion parts
with regard to a particular sound quality or color, rather than including percussion
instruments, concepts, and skills that have been thoroughly covered in typical band
method book series such as those examined in this study.
The commercial and financial obligations of band music composers and the
educational needs of public school band directors and instrumental music teachers
notwithstanding, the evidence uncovered in this study suggests an educational and
philosophical dichotomy between composers and educators. The eclectic and complex

118
details surrounding this issue are beyond the parameters of this investigation.
Nevertheless, this issue presents a starting point for exploration of what might be done,
from an educational and pedagogical standpoint, in order to more effectively meet the
needs of public school percussionists, band directors, and those who train future music
educators.

Chapter 6
SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, AND
RECOMMENDATIONS
This chapter presents an examination of the relationship between beginning to
intermediate percussion books from contemporary band methods and the percussion
performance requirements for intermediate to advanced (Grades III-VI) state-approved
contest band literature.
Summary
In order to examine a representative sample of beginning to intermediate
percussion method books employed in contemporary instrumental music programs, a
postcard survey was taken of 150 middle school band programs located in three separate
geographic areas of the United States. School were randomly selected from the American
School District web-site.1
The survey contained a list of percussion books from ten contemporary band
methods, randomly selected from the J.W. Pepper Music web-site.2 Subjects were
instructed to check the box indicating the method book utilized for percussion instruction
in their instrumental music program. Space was provided for writing in the name of a
method book series not listed among the ten.
1 American School Districts, http://www.asd.org
2 J.W. Pepper Music Company, http://www.jwpepper.org
119

120
Method Books
A content analysis of the four most frequently cited method book series cited
in the survey was performed. These analyses included the examination of the skills,
concepts, and instruments introduced in each method book, as well as the sequence
of their introduction. In addition, the amount of time allocated to each skill, concept,
and instrument was indicated.
Band Literature
In order to achieve a representative sample of band literature for content analysis,
100 works (levels III-VI) were randomly selected from the New York State School Music
Associations list of approved contest pieces, the band/wind ensemble files of Boston
Music Company (Boston MA), and from the music libraries of two New England high
school band programs.
Each work was examined for the number of players as well as the number and
types of percussion instruments required for performance. The frequency with which
an instrument or special technique occurred was also noted (e.g. snare drum 98%), as
was the relative importance of the percussion part to the overall texture of each work.
A summary of these content analyses is found in Appendix B. A similar
examination of Table 4-4 (Chapter 4) reveals that the majority of percussion instruments
required for successful performance of typical high school band literature are covered in
the percussion books of the four band methods examined in this study.
An example of this is the tambourine, which is covered in all four percussion books
examined in this study, and is also included in 27% of selected band works. Table 6-1 is a
summary of the instruments required in 10% or more of the levels III-VI band works

121
works selected for analysis in this study These instruments are covered in the percussion
books of all four method book series examined in this study.
Table 6-1
Instrument Requirements of
Levels III-VI Band Literature
Snare Drum
94%
Triangle
42%
Bass Drum
93%
Xylophone
37%
Timpani
86%
Tambourine
27%
Crash Cymbals
79%
Chimes
22%
Suspended Cymbal
65%
Gong
19%
Orchestra Bells
52%
Woodblock
16%
Conclusions
The data collected from the survey indicates that in the areas of snare drum and
accessory percussion, the content of the four percussion method book series examined
in this study is consistent with the skills, concepts, and instruments that public school
percussion students require for successful performance of Grades III-VI band literature.
However, it is my judgment that the skills required for performance of selected
band literature in the significant areas of timpani and mallet percussion instrument were
inadequately presented in the four selected method book series.
Research Questions
1. To what extent do the skills and concepts taught in beginning to intermediate
band method books contribute to the skills required for the performance of band music
of levels III-VI difficulty?

122
The results of the content analyses of the four method book series suggest that
percussion students, upon entering high school are adequately prepared on snare drum,
bass drum, and commonly required accessory percussion instruments e g. triangle, crash
cymbals. However, the data also suggests that percussion students are inadequately
prepared in the performances areas of mallet percussion and timpani.
For example, timpani were required in 86 of the examined band works, yet only
24% of those band directors responding to the survey indicated instruction on timpani as
part of their curriculum. However, this instrument was covered in only one of the four
selected method book series. In addition, nearly half of the band works analyzed in this
study required pitch changes on timpani.
Similarly, mallet percussion instruments, contained relatively little material specific
to the instruction of bells, xylophone, vibraphone, marimba, chimes, with the exception of
rolls and double stops. An example of this is the xylophone, which was required in more
than one-third of selected band works, yet was allocated less than
one page of instruction specific to this instrument in each of the four method book series.
Mallet pages generally included the same material as treble clef brass and woodwind
instruments.
These data suggest that student percussionists who have received their training
through one of the four method book series do not possess the necessary skills on timpani
and mallet percussion in order to successfully perform typical high school band literature
on this instrument.
2. What is the content of the beginning and intermediate band method books
in terms of percussion instruments?
The results of the content analyses of the percussion books from band methods
indicate that a disproportionate amount of time is spent on snare drum rudiments relative

123
to other performance skills and other instruments. For example, flams and ruffs are
included in 29% and 26% of the band works examined, respectively. The long roll and the
5-stroke roll a were the only other snare drum rudiments appearing in more than 10% of
the selected band literature.
However, all of these rudiments are included in the percussion curricula of the four
band methods examined in this study. This information suggests that snare drum
rudiments are being emphasized to the detriment of other skills, concepts, and instruments
in the overall curricula.
In order to examine the relationship between beginning to intermediate band
methods and the percussion performance requirements of typical high school band
literature, it is necessary to answer the third research question posed in chapter 1:
What skills are needed for the playing of the percussion parts in band music
of Grade III-VI difficulty?
The skills, techniques, and instruments most frequently required for the successful
performance of typical high school band literature are adequately covered in all four of the
method book series. The exceptions are those skills required on timpani. Table 6-2 is a
list of the techniques found included most frequently in the selected Grades III-VI band
literature examined in this study (more than 10%).
Table 6-2
Technique Requirements of
Levels III-VI Band Literature
Drag
Long Roll
5-Stroke Roll
Frequency
29%
26%
17%
11%
Snare Drum

124
Table 6-2 (cont.)
Technique Requirements of
Levels III-IV Band Literature
Technique
Frequencv
Bass Drum
Dampen
23%
Rolls
16%
Timpani
Pitch Changes
43%
Dampen
34%
Rolls
18%
Crash Cymbals
Choke
26%
Suspended
Cymbal
Roll with yam mallets
17%
Tambourine
Shake
13%
Triangle
Roll
11%
Bells
Double Stops
12%
Thus, the fundamental issue in this study becomes a question of how to bridge
the gap between what is taught to beginning and intermediate public school percussionists
and performance requirements of advanced high school band music. This is an issue that
contains philosophical as well as practical elements.
The next portion of the study is a discussion pertaining to recommendations for
preparing public school percussionists to achieve the goal of successfully performing
typical high school concert band literature. Because many of the philosophical aspects
of this issue are beyond the parameters of this study, the discussion will focus on the
practical aspects of this topic.
Recommendations for Improvement
Creating a specific class for advanced percussion instruction would be to the
benefit of students, teachers, and the overall band program, in part because increased

125
time spend instructing percussion students outside of daily band rehearsals would
ultimately lead to improved musicianship, with a resulting decrease in class time
devoted to instructing percussionists.
However, it is typically the case that high school band directors have limited
flexibility in scheduling, have large time commitments to major performing ensembles such
as marching band, concert band, and jazz band. As a result of these time
constraints, adding a class for percussion instruction is rarely a feasible option.
Moreover, the majority of high school band directors are not percussionists,
further adding to the challenges of incorporating advanced percussion instruction into
their instrumental music programs. Administration policies may also affect what classes
may be added to the overall school curriculum.
This is consistent with Casimino (1985), who noted that while 73% of band
directors responding to a survey indicated a need for a percussion at the high school
level, less than one-third (28%) employed a written curriculum for percussion instruction.
Casimino also maintains that the quality of high school percussion curriculum is almost
solely dependent upon the success of band directors in implementing instruction.4
Recommendation #1: One option for increasing contact time with high school
percussionists is the implementation of regularly scheduled percussion sectionals outside
of regular school hours. Students could thus receive specific, individualized instruction in
percussion without taking time away from full band rehearsals.
Recommendation #2: An option for improving percussion instruction is to have
special workshops for middle school and high school band directors, especially in the areas
of mallet percussion instruments and timpani. The expertise and experience of local
4 Casimino, pages 9-13

126
percussionists, college instructors, and other community resources e g. local libraries and
music stores could thus be added to the high school curriculum with a beneficial results for
directors and students, and the community.
Recommendation #3: Create rehearsal time for development of percussion
ensemble at the middle school and high school level. This allows students to rehearse and
perform a wide variety of literature ideally suited for their continued musical growth, and
adds another dimension to the percussion curricula of public school instrumental music
programs.
Recommendation #4. The training of undergraduate music education students
should be expanded to two semesters. Because of the eclectic nature of percussion
instruments and their attendant skills and techniques, it is not possible to cover an
adequate amount of topics for teacher preparation in one semester.
Extending the undergraduate percussion skills class would allow instructors more
time for instruction of fundamental concepts and skills (e g. snare drum grips). It would
also give students an opportunity to gain experience in specialized areas of percussion
education that could not otherwise be adequately covered in a one-semester course (e g.
timpani, marching percussion, percussion technology).
Recommendation #5: The content of percussion books of band methods should
be consistent with the performance requirements of levels III-VI band literature It is
critical that emphasis on snare drum rudiments reflect the performance requirements of
these levels of band literature, and that those rudiments seldom utilized in representative
band literature be included in exercises supplementary to the main curriculum.
In addition, techniques and skills for mallet instruments and timpani need to
be included in the fundamental percussion curriculum. Exercises and musical examples

127
containing skills specific to these instalments e g. dampening strokes on orchestra bells,
pitch changes on timpani, should be added in proportion to the reduction in rudiments.
Recommendations for Further Research
The goal of developing percussion curricula for public schools that addresses the
needs of students, teachers, instrumental music programs, and the community is one that
requires on-going investigation and research. The continued musical growth of music
students requires a cooperative effort on the part of students, teachers, and parents.
Further information regarding the implementation of public school percussion
curricula can be accrued through continued investigative study. Following is a discussion
of recommendations for further research in the area of percussion methods relationship
to performance requirements of band literature
Recommendation #1: Investigation of the performance requirements of orchestral
music and percussion ensemble. The parameters of this study dictated the delimitation of
examining Grades III- VI band literature. An examination of the wealth of percussion
parts in orchestral music, and the almost limitless combinations of instruments and
arrangements for percussion ensemble could provide a more eclectic as well as probing
examination of the relationship between the content of percussion method books and
performance requirements of typically programmed high school instrumental literature.
Recommendation #2: A study of the development of teacher training in percussion
in skills classes at the undergraduate level. In order to have a comprehensive percussion
curricula in public schools, it is essential to produce music educators with enough
fundamental knowledge of percussion instruments and percussion education to teach all
areas of percussion to public school students. An examination of percussion skills classes
in American universities would add valuable knowledge in this area.

128
Recommendation #3: A comparative study on the relationship between percussion
curricula and teaching loads of public school band directors and music teachers. A
fundamental obstacle to expanding percussion curricula in public schools
is limited time for extra rehearsals, instruction, and/or lessons. An examination of the
teaching loads of public school band directors could yield valuable information on the
subject of how to most efficiently address this issue.
Recommendation #4: A study examining the influence of drum corps on the
percussion education of contemporary instrumental music programs. Drum corps have
had a major impact on the philosophies, procedures, and field presentations of high
school marching band programs. A study of this type might examine the extent to which
middle school and high school band directors are involved with drum corps, and how that
might influence their philosophy of teaching percussion in the public schools, particularly
in regard to the issue of whether to start beginning percussionists on matched or
traditional grip for snare drum.
Recommendation #5: An examination of the role of technology in percussion
education, performance, and composition. Since the mid-1980s, there has been enormous
growth in all areas of technology with regard to music education as a whole An
investigation into the types of technology available could yield information helpful to
improving the content and quality of public school percussion curricula.

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APPENDIX A
Form Letter
James Ackman
60 Oakdale St. #22
Attleboro MA 02703
January 7, 1998
Churchill Jr. High School
905 Maple Avenue
Galesburg IL 61401
Dear Music Educator:
The enclosed postcard survey is a portion of my PhD dissertation in the music
education program at the University of Florida. My dissertation is an examination of the
relationship between percussion books of elementary/secondary band methods and
percussion performance requirements in programmed band literature.
It is a matter of prime importance to obtain your response to the survey as the
results of this study will be used to help facilitate the advancement of percussion education
in elementary and secondary schools.
It will be greatly appreciated if you could complete and return the enclosed survey
prior to January 20 The reason for this request is because other sections of this study
cannot be completed until the results of the survey are received.
140

141
APPENDIX A (cont.)
In order to complete the survey, please check the box representing the band
method currently used at your school and drop the stamped, self-addressed postcard
in the mail. There is a space provided for writing in a method title that is not listed.
I will be happy to send you a summary of the survey results. You may either
write or e-mail your request. Thank you very much for your time and consideration.
Sincerely,
James Ackman
University of Florida
ack3jjk@aol.com
Enclosure

APPENDIX B
Performance Requirements of Selected Band Literature
Band Literature-Level III
SD=Snare Drum, BD=Bass Drum. CC=Crash Cymbals E=Easy, MD=Moderate. D=Difficult
SC=Suspended Cymbal. TT=Tom-Toms. FD=Field Drum Role: 1 insignificant. 2=Supportive,
Timp=Timpani (PC=Pitch Changes), B=Bells, X=Xylophone 3=Integrated in Music, 4=Equal to Brass
V=Vibraphone, M=Marimba, TB=Chimes. Tri=Triangle, and Woodwinds
WB=Woodblock, Tamb=Tambounnc. CB=Cowbell
SS=Slapstick, VS=Vibraslap. TBL=Temple Blocks
SB=Sandpaper Blocks, FC=Finger Cymbals, G=Gong
WC=Wind Chimes, BT=Bell Tree. MT=Mark Tree
SLB=Sleigh Bells. DS=Double stops. Ext=Extensive
SZC=Sizzle Cymbal
Selection
Air for Band
(Frank Erickson)
Players
2-3
Instruments
SD. BD. CC
Blue Ridge Rhapsody
(John Kinyon)
4-5
SD. BD, CC, Timp (2)
Bridgeview Overture
(Ed Huckeby)
4
SD. BD. CC, SC,
Tri. B. TB
Centuria Overture
(James Swearingen)
4-5
SD, BD. CC, Tri,
Tamb, Timp (3), X, B
Chesapeake
(John O'Reilly)
3
SD, BD, Tamb
Cobb County
(John O'Reilly)
4
SD, BD, CC, TT (2)
WB, X, B
Techniques 2
Timp: Rolls PC-2,Soli+Dampen 3
CC: Choke, B: Soli wflute
B Double Stops 3
CC Choke. Timp: PC-1
Timp: PC-5, X: Solo 3
N/A 3
SD: Soto (E), TT: Roll, CC: Choke 3
Festive Overture
(Wm. Grant Still)
5 SD, Military Drum, SC, Tri: Dampen (Ext), Tamb: Shake. 3
Tri. Tamb. Timp (3), M, Timp: PC-4, Dampen (Ext)
B, V, X, TB B: DS (Ext), M: DS, Rolls (Ext), X: Solo
Heatherwood Portrait 6
(James Barnes)
SD, BD, SC, Tri, SLB SD: Drags, Rolls w/out release
Timp (2), TB, B Timp: PC-6, Dampen (Ext)
4
142

143
Band Literature-Level m (cont.)
Selection
Players
Instruments
Techniques
Role
3
Hudson River
(John O'Reilly)
4-5
SD. BD, CC, SC, TT
Timp (3)
CC: Choke. Timp: PC-3, Rolls
Dampen. Prominent (MD)
Invincia Overture
(Jared Spears)
3-4
SD. BD. SC. TT (3)
Tri. Maracas, B
Timp (2)
SD: Flams. Drags, SC: On dome,
TT: Play on center of heads.
Timp: Play on center of heads, B: DS
3
Into The Storm
(Robert W. Smith)
7
SD. BD. CC (2 pr)
SC. Tamb. TT (4)
Timp (2), B. X. WC
BD: Rolls, CC: Choke (Ext), Tamb:
Shake (Ext), X: DS, Prominent (MD)
B: DS, WC: Extended Roll (Gliss)
TT: DS. Prominent
4
Night On
Bald Mountain
(Modest Mussorgsky/
arr. Conley)
4
SD, BD. CC. Gong,
Timp (2). TB, B
SD: One-hand sticking, 9-stroke rolls
BD: Dampen/Choke, Use of 2 beaters
CC: Choke, SC:Play w/s.d. stick+Choke.
Timp: PC-1, Dampen Solo (Ext)
4
Novena
(James Swearingen)
4-5
SD, BD, SC. Timp (3)
TB, B, Tamb
SD.Rim-shots, SC: Choke,
Timp: Solo (E), PC-2 Tamb: Shake
4
Richland Overture
(John O'Reilly)
3
SD, BD, CC. WB,
Tamb
SD: Flams, Rolls, CC: Choke
Tamb: Prominent
3
Tunbridge Overture
(James D. Ployhar)
4
SD. BD. CC, Timp (3), B SD Solo, CC: Choke, Timp: Dampen
3
Three Ayres
(Hugh M. Stuart)
3
SD. BD, Tri
SD: Flams, 4-stroke ruffs,
Rolls (Ext), Tri: Choke
3
Band Literature-Level IV
Adagio for Winds
(Elliot Del Borgo)
1
SC
SC: Roll
2
American Folk
Rhapsody #2
(Clare E. Grundman)
4-5
SD, BD, CC,
Timp (2), X, TB, B
SD Drags, Flams, Timp: Dampen
SC Roll, X: DS, Gliss
4
American Folk
Rhapsody #4
(Clare E. Grundman)
6
SD, BD. CC, SC, Tri,
WB, TBL, Timp (3), X
WB: Solo, CC: Choke, Timp:
Dampen (Ext), X: Solo w/picc (M)
4

144
Band Literature-Level IV (cont)
Selection
Players Instruments
Techniques
Role
The Blue and The Gray
(Clare E. Gnmdman)
4
SD. BD. CC. Gong,
Timp (3), B, X
SD: Flams. Drags, Solo (E)
BD: Dampen, CC: Choke (Ext)
Timp. No PC, Dampen. X: Soli, Gliss
3
Chant and Jubilo
(W. Francis McBeth)
5
SD. BD, SC, CC. Tri,
Timp (4)
SD: 4-stroke Ruff, Drags. Flamacue.
6-stroke roll. Rolls w/o release. Timp: PC-5
(D) Dampen/Muffle+play w/s.d sticks
4
Chorale Prelude-Turn
Not Thy Face
(Vincent Persichetti)
4
SD. BD, SC. Timp (2)
SD: Muffled, BD: Roll, SC: Roll
2
Chorale/ Shaker Dance
(John Zdechlik)
5-6
SD. BD. CC, SC.
Tri, Timp (2), B, X
SD On rim, BD: Roll, Dampen
(Ext), SC: Roll, On dome, Timp: Solo
X/B: Melody (Ext)
4
Down A Country Lane
(Aaron Copland arr.
Patterson)
1
V
V: DS, 4-maIlets+pedaling (MD)
2
Fantasy on American
Sailing Songs
(Clare. E. Grundman)
3-4
SD, BD. CC, B, Timp (3) SD: Flams, 4-stroke ruff, Drag,
BD: Dampen. CC: Choke, Timp:
PC-2+Dampen
3
Festive Bells
and Ancient Kings
(Charles R. Spinney)
4-5
SD. BD, CC, Tamb,
Timp (3), TB, B
TB: Solo (Ext) BD: Dampen,
CC: Choke, Tamb: Prominent
4
Festive Scenario
(Elliot Del Borgo)
4-5
SD, BD, CC, SC, WB
Claves, Tamb, Timp (3)
CB,B
SD: Snares on/oflf, BD: Dampen
Tamb: Play w/s.d sticks. Timp:
Dampen, Use of Claves
3
First Suite in Eb
(Gustav Holst)
4
SD, BD, CC. SC, Tri (2)
Tamb. Timp (4)
SD: Long Rolls, BD:Roll, SC:Roll,
Tri-2 (High and Low)+Roll,
Tamb: Sixteenths (Ext) Timp: DS,
3
Irish Rliapsody, An
(Clare E. Grundman)
3-4
SD, BD, CC, Timp (3)
Timp: Dampen/Muffle
3
Irish Tune (Derry)
(Percy Grainger/Rogers)
1
SC
SC: Roll
3
Kadchsh
(W. Francis McBeth)
5
BD, CC, SC, Gong,
Timp (3), B, TB
BD: Grace notes+Choke, SC:
Roll, Timp: Grace notes. X/B:
DS, (Ext) (D)
4

145
Band Literature-Level IV (cont.)
Selection
Nobles of the
Mystic Shrine
(J.P. Sousa/Fennell)
North Star Overture
(John OReilly)
Ov erture For Symphonic
Band
(Vaclav Nelhybel)
Overture For Winds
(Elliot Del Borgo)
Prelude and Fugue
(Vaclav Nelhybel)
Second Suite in F
(Gustav Holst)
Scenes From The Louvre
(Norman Dello Joio)
Shenandoah
(C.T. Smith)
Two American Songs
(Clare E. Gundman)
Variation Overture
(Clifton Williams)
Adagio and Allegro
(Vaclav Nelhybel)
Elayers Instruments.
6 SD. BD. FD. CC. Tri.
Tamb, Timp (3), B
SD: Flams, Double-stroke
Rolls+flamyroll. BD.Muffle,
Tamb: Shake (Ext). B: Melody
4 SD. BD. CC. WB. N/A
Tamb. B. X
Role
4
2
6 SD. FD, BD. CC,
TT (4), Timp (4)
B. V
SD: Flams. Drags, Lesson 25 (Inverted) 4
TT: Prominent. Timp: Dampen (Ext)
(D). TB: DS. Pedaling, V: Prominent+
Pedaling, B: DS
6
5
SD. BD. TT (4), WB SD: Flams. Snares On/Off, TT: DS, 4
CB, Tri,Timp (4), B, V. Prominent. Solo (Ext) (D). BD:Dampen
M Timp: PC-1, Dampen. M: Long Roll.
V: DS (Ext), Dampen WB: Prominent
SD, BD, CC, SC SD: Solo (MD), On rim, CC: Choke 4
Timp (3). X BD. Dampen (Ext), X: DS (Ext) (MD)
TB: DS
3
4
SD. BD, CC, Tri, SD: Flams. Rolls, CC: Choke,
Tamb, Anvil. Timp (2) Tri: Roll, BD: Rolls+Dampen,
Tamb: Shake, Use of Anvil
SD. BD, CC, Timp (4), B Timp: Solo-Significant (M)
3
4
4-5 SD, BD, SC, B, V,
TB, Timp (3)
4-5 SD, BD, WB (2)
Timp (3), TB, B
4 SD, BD, CC, SC,
Timp (4), TB
5-6 SD. BD, SC, Tri,
TB Timp (3), Gong
B, Celeste
V: Melody (Ext),
B: Prominent (D), Timp: PC-2
SD:Flams, B:Melody (Ext)
SD: Flams+On rim, BD: Dampen
CC: Choke (Ext), Timp: PC-2,
Long rolls (Ext), SC: Play with
heavy s.d. stick
Timp:PC-5 (D), B/TB soli.
X/B: Prominent, TB: Sixteenth
notes-Extensive, TBL: Prominent
Use of Celeste (Ext)
4
3
4
4

146
Band Literature-Level V
Selection
Players
Instruments
Techniques
American Overture
For Band
(J. Wilcox Jenkins)
5
SD, BD. WB. SC.
Timp (2) Gong, B
Timp: Dampen (Ext)
Chester
(William Schuman)
3-4
SD. BD. CC. WB.
Timp (3)
SD: Flams. Solo (E)
CC Choke. Timp: PC-1
Children's March
(Percy Grainger)
3
SD.Timp (2). B. X
SD: Drags
Chorale Prelude:
So Pure The Star
(Vincent Persichetti)
4
SD. BD. CC. SC.
Timp (2)
BD: Roll, SC: Roll
CC. Choke
Crown Imperial
(William Walton)
5
SD. BD. CC. B. Timp (2)
B: Prominent (MD)
Country' Band
(Charles Ives arr.
James Sinclair)
5
SD. BD, CC, Tri, X, B
SD: Single Drag, Single Drag
Tap. Flams, Rudimental Rolls,
Single-stroke roll, (D), BD: Dampen (D)
Declaration Overture
(C.T. Smith)
5-6
SD, BD, CC, SC, Tri,
B. X. TB, Timp (4)
SD: On rim, Drags, BD:
On rim (Extensive), SC:
Roll, Tri: Long roll, Timp:
PC-3, B: Extensive, X: DS (Ext))
Festival Prelude
(Alfred Reed)
4
SD, BD, CC, Tri,
Timp (3)
BD:Dampen, CC: Choke
Timp: Solo (D)+Dampen
Tri: Roll
Incantation and Dance
(John Barnes Chance)
6-7
SD, BD, CC, TBL (5)
Claves. Tamb, SS
Bongos. Gourd,
Timp (4) Timbales,
Gong, Maracas
BD: Dampen (Ext), Tamb:
Shake, Prominent (D), Use
of Timbales. Bongos: (D), Gourd:
Scrape, Maracas: Shake+Swirl
(Ext), Timp: PC-4+Muted
(Folded handkerchief on heads
near rim opposite playing area)
Korean Folk Song
(John Barnes Chance)
6
SD, BD, CC, Tri,
TBL (5), B, X, V
SD: Flams, Rudimental rolls,
Drags, 4-stroke ruffs (Ext)
+Solo (M), TBL: Solo (Ext) (D)
SC: On dome V: DS+Solo (D)
X: Prominent (D)
Rale
3
4
3
2
3
3
4
3
4
4

147
Band Literature-Level V (cont)
Selection
Masque
(W. Francis McBeth)
Players
7
Instruments
SD. BD. CC. SC. Tn.
Tamb. Timp (5). TB.
B, X, V
Techniques
SD: Single-stroke rolls, Snares on/
off. BD: Rolls (Ext)+use of
timp mallets. SC: Rolls, Tamb.
Lay flat and play with s.d. sticks
in middle of head, Timp: PC-4.
Ostinato. sfe < (Ext) Gliss+
Play with wooden end of mallets.
X: Ostinato. TB: Prominent (D)
B/V: DS (Ext)
Role
4
Moorside March
(Gustav Holst)
3-4
SD. BD. CC. Tri.
Timp (3)
SD: Rolls, Tn: Roll
2
An Original Suite
(Gordon Jacob)
4
SD, BD, CC, Timp (2)
SD: Drags+Solo (E), BD: Dampen
Pageant
(Vincent Persichetti)
3
SD. BD, FD. CC
SD: Soli (M)+On Rim.
Five-stroke Ruffs (Ext)
4
Pageantry
(Robert Washburn)
5-6
SD. BD. CC, FD,
Timp (4). B
SD: Flams, Drags, BD: Roll, SC:
Roll, Timp: PC-6, B: Soli (2)
4
Praises
(W. Francis McBeth)
5
SD, BD, Timp (4)
CC, SC. B, BRD
SD Flams, BD. Flams, SC: Roll
CC: Choke, B: DS, Grace notes
Timp: PC-4+Dampen, BRD: DS
4
Sketches on a Tudor
Psalm
(Fisher Tull)
6-7
SD, FD, BD, SC. CC,
Tri.WB. Timbales,
Tamb. SS.Timp (4)
Gong, B, X, TB,
Celeste
SD: Flams (Ext), Drags, FD: Flams,
SC: Scrape w/metal rod. Tamb: play
w/hard xylo mallets, Timp: Solo+w/
hard mallets, Dampen (Ext)B: DS,
X: DS, Grace notes (Ext) (MD),
TB: Solo
4
Slavonic Dances
(Antonin Dvorak arr.
Cumow)
4
BD, CC, Tri,
Timp (4)
BD: Dampen (Ext), Tri: Roll+
Dampen (Ext), Timp: PC-13,
Grace notes (Ruff), Dampen
3
Symphonic Overture
(James Barnes)
6-8
SD, BD, SC, CC, Tamb,
Tri, SLB, Castanets. SB
SD: Flams, BD: Dampen,
Tamb: Shake (Ext), SC: Play
3
WB, Giro, Pop Gun. w/butt end of s.d stick, X:
Timp (4) X, B, V Prominent (D), V: 2 and 3
mallet sections, (Ext), Gliss (D)
Timp: PC-3+Dampen (Ext) (D)

148
Band Literature-Level V (cont.)
Selection
Symphonic Variations:
In Dulci Jubilo
C.T. Smith)
Symphonic Variations
on a Theme of Purcell
(Edward J. Madden)
Serenade for Band
(Vincent Persichetti)
Toccata Marziale
(R Vaughan Williams)
Upon These Grounds
(John Tatgenhorst)
Valdres
(Johanees Hansen
arr. Cumow)
Variations on a
Shaker Melody
(Aaron Copland)
Armenian Dances
(Loris O. Chobanian)
Selection
Armies of Otserf
(David R. Holsinger)
Elayers Instruments
4-5 SD. BD, CC, Try
TBL (8) Tamb.
Gong, X
4 SD, BD. SC, CC, Tri,
FC. B, Timp (3)
Techmques
SD: Flams, Drags.
Tamb: ShakeX: DS (Ext).
CC: Choke
BD: Dampen (Ext). CC: Choke
B: Prominent (M)
Role
4
3
4-5 SD. BD FD, CC,
Timp (3)
4 SD. BD, CC, Tri.
Timp (2)
SD:Four-stroke Ruff
Timp: PC-3
SD: Drags. Flams, Timp:
Dampen (MD)
4
3
6
SD, FD. BD. CC. SC.
Tri, Tamb, Gong,
Timp (4). B. X, M,
TB
SD: Rolls (Ext), FD: Solo (E) 3
BD: 2 players (Rolls) (Ext),
Tri: Rolls, Tamb: Sixteenth notes
(Ext), On knee, CC: Choke. Timp: PC-6
Dampen (D), B: Melody, Prominent
(MD), M: Melody, Rolls (Ext) (E)
4 SD, BD, CC, X+
Hand Bells
SD: Solo (D)-Flams,
Rolls, X: Solo, Timp Dampen
Use of Hand Bells
3
5 Timp (3), Tri, B, X X: DS (Ext), B: Prominent
3
Band Literature-Level VI
6-7 SD, BD, CC, SC, Tri,
Tamb (2) SLB, WB,
Timp (4)
B, X, TB, Gong
SD: Rolls w/out release, snares on/ 4
off. Flams Drags (Ext), BD:Dampen
Roll, TT(2), TT(3), Lg Tamb on TT(2),
Tamb Timp (head), TTs: Flams, Prominent
(MD), Tamb: Shake, SLB. Dampen
Timp: PC-4 (MD), X. Gliss, Grace notes (D)
Players Instruments
8-10 SD, BD, SC (2) Tri (3)
sm m, lg, TT: 2 Sets
(6 total), FD. TD.CC,
CB, SZC TBL (5), FC,
Tri (3): Sm, med, lg,
Gong, Crotales, Tamb
Techniques
BD:Dampen, Tri: ad lib pattern,
Stick-noise tapping, (3 players)
SZC: Choke, Jingle Bell Jar:
Slowly roll over and over,
Water Gong: Strike and immerse
in tub of water, CC: After crash.
Role
4

149
Band Literature-Level VI (cont)
Selection
Armies of Otserf
(cont.)
Blayers Instruments.
Jingle Bell Jar, M.
X. B. V. TB. Piano
Assorted WC: Oriental
Bells. Glass/or Metal
Wind Chimes-sm, m, lg
24" Water Gong
Timp (4)
Techniques
whip flat of cymbal back and forth
rapidly; Crotales: Triple stops
WC: Roll (ext) TB: ad lib (3 pitches)
roll w/soft felt mallets
Assorted Chinese Bells: ad lib.
TBL: Prominent part. Piano:
Pluck stnngs+play strings with
rubber mallet+glass tumbler (Roll)
Crotales: Play w/tri beater. X/M: (D)
Mallets: Extensive ad lib sections-
V (10pitches)+dampen/pedaling
M (7 pitches), B (7 pitches)
Be Glad Then.
America
(William Schuman)
4-5
SD. BD. CC. Timp (4)
TB. B
SD Flams. SC: Roll w/sticks. Roll
using edges, Timp:PC-4. Solo.
Dampen/Muffle. TB:DS, Muffle
Beowulf
(W. Francis McBeth)
5
SD, BD. CC, SC, X. B,
Timp (4). Metal Trash
an Lid (MTL), Gong
SD: On rim with butt of bell
mallets+snares off. BD: (D) Grace
notes (Extensive), Rolls. Dampen.
Timp: PC-5 (D), CC: 2 pair together.
B/X: Double stops, Double stop
rolls. TB: Solo, Gong: Use chime
mallet at top right under flange,
SC: Play with wooden end of timp mallet
MTL: 32nd notes+sextuplets (D)
Celebration Overture
(Paul Crestn)
4
SD. BD, TT/Indian
Drum (2), Tamb, Tri,
SC, CC, Timp (4). B, X
Indian Drum: Flams, BD: Dampen
B: Ostinato (Ext), Tamb: Prominent
(D) Timp: PC-8. Prominent (D)
Do Not Go Gentle
Into That Good Night
(Elliot Del Borgo)
8
SD. BD, FD, SC, CC
TT (4), Tri (large)
TBL (5) Timp (5)
B. M, Celeste
SD: Flams, TT: Prominent
BD: Solo+Dampen (Ext). TBL:
Solo+DS, Timp: Solo+PC-4,
On rim. Prominent, Celeste
B: (Ext), M: 4-mallets
Diverimento for Band
(Vincent Persichetti)
4
SD, BD, CC. SC, WB,
Timp (3), X
SD/WB Duet. CC: Choke
(Extensive)Timp: PC-2, Double
stops, X: Rolls, Prominent part (D)
El Salon Mexico
(Aaron Copland
arr. Hinckley)
7
SD, BD, CC, Gourd,
WB, Timp (3), X, LD
Ch. B
SD: 6-stroke Ruff, Rolls w/o release
Timp: PC-4. DS, Dampen (Ext) (MD)
Gourd: Ostinato (Ext), LD: Dull
sound Ch. B. High/Low

Selection
Impressions of Japan
(James Barnes)
In the Spring When the
Kings Go Off to War
(Darid R. Holsinger)
Lincolnshire Posy
(Percy Grainger)
Liturgical Dances
(David R. Holsinger)
Lonely Beach-1944
(James Barnes)
Masquerade
(Vincent Persichetti)
150
Band Literature-Level VI (cont.)
Players Instruments Techniques
5-8 SD. BD, SC. Tamb SC: Roll with mallets+s.d. stick
Claves. TT (6), Gong, (use butt end), scrape with coin.
WC (Bamboo), Crotales: Tamb: Shake (Ext), Gong: Solo.
2 sets. Timp (4). X, V, B M:4-mallets, X: Prominent. Grace
notes V: 4-mallets+use of motor.
B: Extensive part, TB: pedaling+
play with tri beater
8-11 SD. BD. FD, Tenor Drum Extensive ad lib sections:
SC (2): reg and small
"bright CC.Tn (3), WC.
TT (6): Two sets of 3.
TBL (5), SS, SLB. Tamb
Gong, Crotales. FC. SS.
CB, Timp (4). B, V. M,
X. TB
4-5 SD. BD. FD, CC,
SC, Timp (4), B, X,
Hand Bells+other
6-7 SD (2), BD, SC, CC,
Tri, WC. Gong,
Timp (5) B, X, M
WC-Roll, TT-random stick
tapping noises (D), SD/BD:
wood on wood, Tri: Triple
stops. Dampen. Roll. TBL:
Rolls. Tamb: Shake. Dampen
and Roll, Timp: PC-6, DS.
Dampen (Ext) Solo (D) CC:
Choke (Ext) V: ad lib-6 pitches
and ad lib-9 pitches+DS Rolls
(Ext), V/B:ad lib (Ext), M: DS
(Ext) Important Solo, Crotales:
ad lib (Ext). Rolls
Prominent mallet work
SC: Rolls. Timp: Solo (MD)
SDs: Prominent. Snares on/off.
(D), BD: "Dampen head as taut
as possible, (Ext), CC: Choke
(Ext), SC: Roll, V/X: DS (Ext)
TB: (D), Tri: Roll, WC: Rattle
Role
4
4
4
6 SD, FD, BD (3): SD: Open rolls. Sotch BD: Muffled head 4
Scotch. Lg BD. All BDs: Dampen (Ext),SC: Roll (Ext).
V Lg BD, TD, CC, Timp: Double grace notes,
SC, WC. Timp (4), B. V Timed entrances foroff -stage percussion
7 SD, BD. Alto Drum, SD: Drags. 4-stroke ruffs, On rim, 4
FD, SC, CC, SZC, TT, Flams w/brushes+ snares off w/
Tri, WB, Ratchet, SB. timp mallets (muffled), Prominent,
Tamb. Anvil, Gong, FD: Rolls w/brushes, TT: Play with
Timp (4) B, X, brushes+w/fingers, BD: Rolls, Drags,
On rim, Muffle (Ext) Tamb: On knee,
Thumb Roll, Shake, SB: (D) Ratchet:
Roll, Gong: Play w/tri beater+Roll w/

151
Band Literature-Level VI (cont.)
Selection
Masquerade (cont.)
Blayers.
Instruments
Mars (Gustav Holst)
3-4
SD, BD. SC (Gong),
Timp
Music for Hamlet
(Alfred Reed)
6-7
SD. FD, CC. SC. Tri.
Gong, Timp (4), B. X.
V (2). TB
Outdoor Overture
(Aaron Copland)
4
SD. BD. CC, Tn, B
Timp (3)
Pagan Dances
(James Barnes)
6
SD. BD. CC. SC, Tri,
FC. BT. WC, Ratchet,
BRD, TT (4), Tamb.
Timp (4), B, X
Postcard
(Frank Ticheli)
7
SD, BD, CC, SC, SS,
Tri. TT. VS, TBL (4)
X, V, Timp (5)
Psalm for Band
(Vincent Persichetti)
2-3
TD. BD, SC
Psalm and Celebration
(Elliot Del Borgo)
7-8
SD, BD, CC, SC, CB,
SS, Cabasa, Claves,
VS. TBL (5), SB, Tri
(lg), TT (4), Bongos,
Timp (4), TB. B, M, V
Ritual
(Vaclav Nelhybel)
4
SD, BD, SC TT,
Timp (3) TB
Shepherds Hey
(Percy Grainger
arr. Rogers)
5
SD. BD (Big), CC,
SC, Timp (3), X, B
timp mallets, X/B: DS. Rolls (Ext)
Prominent (D), Timp: PC-5. DS.
Dampen, Alto Drum: Play w/brushes
SD: Drags. Flams, Timp: DS, Gong: Roll 3
SD: Drags. 4-stroke Ruffs (D) 4
BD: Rolls w/timp sticks. Dampen.
FD: Drags, SC: Rolls w/ timp sticks
Timp: PC-5. Dampen. Rolls (D)
Extensive mallet work- X: 4-mallets.
DS (D). B: DS.(Ext), V(2): 4-mallets
Timp: PC-3, X: Solo+soli w/wws 3
and trumpet (D) SD: 4-stroke ruff.
Ratamacue, SC: Play with hard sticks
SD: Drags, TT: Drags, Drag Tap. 4
SC: Use wooden end of timp mallet
FC: Prominent part. BRD: Play
with tack hammers, Tn: Roll (Ext)
Crotales, Prominent, WC: Shimmer
Timp: PC-3+DS (D), B: Prominent
DS+DS Rolls (Ext) (D) X: Rolls (MD)
SD: Flams, Drags, On rim, TT: On rim, 4
CC: Choke, Timp: PC-6. (D) X: 4-mallet
section+Solo, (D), V: Solo, DS, Pedaling
BD: On rim w/sixteenth notes. Rolls (Ext) 4
SD: Flams, Rolls, BD: Grace notes 4
(Drag), CB: Choke, Bongos: Rolls,
(MD), TT-Solo (M), Prominent.
Use of Cabasa and VS, Timp: PC-2
Solo (MD), Dampen. TB: DS
V: DS Rolls, Pedaling (Ext) (D)
Timp: PC-2, BD: Solo with rolls 3
CC: Pianissimo
SC: Roll+Choke, CC: Choke, 3
BD: Rolls, X/B: Gliss (Ex)+ad lib

152
Band Literature-Level VI (cont.)
Selection
Sinfona Nobilissima
(Robert Jager)
Players
4
Instruments
SD. BD. CC. Timp (4)
Techniques
SD: Flams. Flamacues. Rolls w/o
release. Drags (Ext), Timp: PC-3.
Prominent. Dampen (Ext) (D
Role
3
Symphony for Band
(Vincent Persichetti)
5
SD (3)-high, med. low.
FD. BD. SC. CC. TT.
Tamb. Tri, SZC,
Timp (3), X
SD: Single-stroke rolls, snares
on/off. Prominent (D). BD: Lay flat+
Dampen. Rolls. Tamb: Lay flat+
play vv/timp mallets. TT: DS (Ext),
FD: Prominent+use of timp mallets.
Tri: Play w/s.d stick. SC: Play w/timp
mallet handles. SZC: Play with brushes.
Timp: Rolls. Dampen. PC-12. (D). X:
Prominent (D)
4
Symphony in Bb
(Paul Hindemith)
4-5
SD. BD. CC. Tamb,
Tri. Timp (3), B
SD: Drags. BD: Roll,
B: Solo (MD) Tamb: Roll
Timp: PC-3, Dampen
4
Through Countless
Halls of Air
(W. Francis McBeth)
7
SD, BD, CC. SC, Tri.
Gong, T Bar WC, TB,
MT, Crotales, Timp (4)
B, X
SD: Drags. BD: Rolls (Ext)Dampen.
Grace notes. CC: Choke, Timp: Grace
notes, Drags. TB: DS, B: Prominent
Grace notes, DS (Ext), X: Prominent,
Grace notes. Use of TBar WC and MT
4
Tunbridge Fair
(Walter Piston)
4
SD. BD. CC, Tri,
Timp (2)
SD: Flams (Ext), Tri: Roll,
BD: Dampen (Ext), Timp: PC-3
3
Variations on America
(Charles Ives arr.
Schuman)
6
SD. BD. SC, Tri.
Castanets, Tamb,
Timp (4), X, B
SD: Flams (Ext), Rolls w/out release 4
Flam+Roll. BD: Dampen (Ext) Tamb:
Shake, Castanets: Sixteenth notes (Ext)
Rolls. Tri: Dampen, SC: Choke, Timp:
Dampen (Ext), X: DS, (D), B: DS (2 players)
West Side Story
(Leonard Bernstein
arr. Duthoit)
5-6
SD. BD. CC, SC, Tri,
Tamb. Claves, Cast
Bongos, Maracas, TB
Timp (2), B, Hi-Hat
SD:Brushes, BD: Muffled,
Castanets: Prominent (D). CC: Choke
B: DS+Melody (D) Latin Percussion:
ad lib (Ext), Hi-Hat: Solo-Jazz-style
4
William Byrd Suite
(Gordon Jacob)
4
SD, BD, FD, CC,
Tri, Timp (3), TB
SD:Rudimental and Buzz Rolls, Drags.
Drag Tap, Timp: PC-2 (MD)
3

153
BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH
James Ademan, candidate for the Doctor of Philosophy degree in music education
from the University of Florida, received a Bachelor of Music from Southern Illinois
University (1977) and a Master of Music degree in instrumental music conducting from
Eastern Illinois University (1986). He was active in all major performing ensembles
during his undergraduate and graduate studies.
Mr. Ackman taught for thirteen years as a high school band director in Illinois
and Massachusetts. He also directed the athletic bands at Boston University and the jazz
ensemble at Regis College for two years before entering the doctoral program in music
education at the University of Florida in January 1994.
Mr. Ackman taught the percussion skills class for undergraduate music education
majors at the University of Florida, where he was also a teaching assistant with the
University Band program: Pride of the Sunshine Marching Band, University Wind
Ensemble, University Orchestra, and Gator Pep Band.
He received the David Wilmot Prize for Excellence in Music Education for
1995-96. Mr. Ackman has performed with the Gainesville Symphony Orchestra as well
as various other music ensembles in the Alachua County area, and is a member of the
Unitarian Universalist Fellowship of Gainesville. He is married with one daughter, two
cats, and a yellow Labrador retriever.

I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it conforms to
acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality,
as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.
Charles Hoffer, Chair, Profe:
I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it conforms to
acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality,
as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.
Phyllis Dorman, Co-chair, Professor of Music
I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it conforms to
acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality,
as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.
David
rofessor of Music
I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it conforms to
acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality,
as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.
Q&uLl
David Kushner, Professor of Music
I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it conforms to
acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality,
as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.
I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it conforms to
acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality,
as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.
Art Newman, Professor of Foundations
of Education

This dissertation was submitted to the Graduate Faculty of the College of Fine
Arts and to the Graduate School and was accepted as partial fulfillment of the
requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.
August 1998
Dean, College of Fine Arts
Dean, Graduate School



65
written for one player and contains different shaped note heads (e g. a diamond shaped
note head signifies a half note for suspended cymbal).27
Specialized Pages
Consistent with the format established in the first book of this series,
Excellerator pages are included in this method book. In this book, the Excellerators
sections consist of two pages of exercises "For Drums Only," followed by two pages of
studies For Mallets Only. The drum pages contain examples of sticking exercises, and
rudiments, to be practiced starting with either hand. Bass drum is combined with snare
drum in the majority of these exercises, there is also a page of studies written for snare
drum, bass drum, and suspended cymbal that closely resemble beginning drum set
patterns.
Mallet instrument Excellerator pages include exercises in major and minor keys,
utilizing thirds, fifths, scalar passages, and a chorale-like section. Musical skills covered in
these pages include rolls, sticking considerations, and chromatic passages 28
Standard of Excellence-Book 3
Overview
This method commences with seven pages of review material from the preceding
book. These pages are devoted to technical exercises and musical examples. Snare drum
skills reviewed include 5, 7, and 9-stroke rolls. New concepts appearing within the review
27 Pearson-Book 2, page 38.
28 Pearson-Book 2, pages 40-1.


109
Bells were featured in slightly more than half of the selected band works. The fact
that this significant drop-off in frequency of occurrence exists suggests that less musical
and educational emphasis is placed on mallet percussion instruments by composers and
instrumental music teachers than is the case with snare drum, bass drum, and timpani.
Another consideration in determining the extent of the relationship between
elementary and secondary percussion books with band music was to examine the
frequency of occurrence of performance techniques in selected band literature.
The most frequently required instruments-those included in more than 75 percent
of selected band literature-were snare drum, bass drum, timpani, crash cymbals, suspended
cymbal, and bells. Triangle, xylophone, and tambourine were each utilized in more than
25 percent of the band works selected for examination in this study. In addition, chimes,
gong, and woodblock were featured in approximately 20 percent of selected works. All
other percussion instruments were included in less than 10 percent of selected band
literature (e g. field drum, marimba), a drop-off of nearly 45 percent in frequency of
appearance. Table 5-1 provides a summary of the frequency with which a particular
percussion instrument is required for performance of selected band literature (levels
in-vi).
Table 5-1
Percentage of Instruments Used
in Selected Band Literature
(N=100)
Instruments Used in Over 75% of Selected Band Literature
Instrument
Snare Drum
Bass Drum
Timpani
Crash Cymbals
Percentage
94%
93%
86%
79%


APPENDIX B
Performance Requirements of Selected Band Literature
Band Literature-Level III
SD=Snare Drum, BD=Bass Drum. CC=Crash Cymbals E=Easy, MD=Moderate. D=Difficult
SC=Suspended Cymbal. TT=Tom-Toms. FD=Field Drum Role: 1 insignificant. 2=Supportive,
Timp=Timpani (PC=Pitch Changes), B=Bells, X=Xylophone 3=Integrated in Music, 4=Equal to Brass
V=Vibraphone, M=Marimba, TB=Chimes. Tri=Triangle, and Woodwinds
WB=Woodblock, Tamb=Tambounnc. CB=Cowbell
SS=Slapstick, VS=Vibraslap. TBL=Temple Blocks
SB=Sandpaper Blocks, FC=Finger Cymbals, G=Gong
WC=Wind Chimes, BT=Bell Tree. MT=Mark Tree
SLB=Sleigh Bells. DS=Double stops. Ext=Extensive
SZC=Sizzle Cymbal
Selection
Air for Band
(Frank Erickson)
Players
2-3
Instruments
SD. BD. CC
Blue Ridge Rhapsody
(John Kinyon)
4-5
SD. BD, CC, Timp (2)
Bridgeview Overture
(Ed Huckeby)
4
SD. BD. CC, SC,
Tri. B. TB
Centuria Overture
(James Swearingen)
4-5
SD, BD. CC, Tri,
Tamb, Timp (3), X, B
Chesapeake
(John O'Reilly)
3
SD, BD, Tamb
Cobb County
(John O'Reilly)
4
SD, BD, CC, TT (2)
WB, X, B
Techniques 2
Timp: Rolls PC-2,Soli+Dampen 3
CC: Choke, B: Soli wflute
B Double Stops 3
CC Choke. Timp: PC-1
Timp: PC-5, X: Solo 3
N/A 3
SD: Soto (E), TT: Roll, CC: Choke 3
Festive Overture
(Wm. Grant Still)
5 SD, Military Drum, SC, Tri: Dampen (Ext), Tamb: Shake. 3
Tri. Tamb. Timp (3), M, Timp: PC-4, Dampen (Ext)
B, V, X, TB B: DS (Ext), M: DS, Rolls (Ext), X: Solo
Heatherwood Portrait 6
(James Barnes)
SD, BD, SC, Tri, SLB SD: Drags, Rolls w/out release
Timp (2), TB, B Timp: PC-6, Dampen (Ext)
4
142


91
Triangle is introduced 20% through the text, in conjunction with tied notes. Music
notation for triangle consists of triangle shaped note heads. This instrument appears in
The Score is Tied. One page is allocated to the instruction of this instrument.108
Suspended cymbal is introduced 33% into this method book, in conjunction with
the suspended cymbal roll. Notation for this instrument consists of diamond shaped note
heads and xs. Suspended cymbal appears initially in Three-Four Duet. Students are
instructed that all suspended cymbal rolls are to be played with alternating single strokes,
and that mallets are the most common choice for performing this technique.
Suspended cymbal rolls first occur in the duet Aura Lee, which also feature
snare drum played with snares off. Double stops for mallet instruments are also
introduced in this portion of the method book. A total of three pages are devoted to
these topics.109
Tambourine is introduced 45% through the text. The authors give a brief review
of the playing techniques initially described in the introductory pages:
1.) strike with fingertips
2.) strike with knuckles
3.) strike with heel of hand
Tambourine appears in the musical example Minka, Minka, a piece that also
includes flam taps on snare drum. One page is devoted to instruction of this
107 OReillyAVilliams-Book 1, page 8.
108 OReilly/Williams-Book 1, page 10.
109 QReilly/Williams-Book 1, pages 14-15


CHAPTER 2
SURVEY OF
RELATED LITERATURE
Introduction
Published research will be discussed by topic as it relates to the current study
rather than an examination of each dissertation as a whole. The purpose of this section
is to identify and describe several of the significant issues, mentioned previously in
Chapter 1, surrounding contemporary public school percussion instruction:
-specialization
-percussion ensembles in public schools
-comprehensive percussion curriculum
-need for mallet instruction
-heterogeneous versus homogenous instruction
-matched grip versus traditional grip
-training of undergraduate, non-percussionist music majors
Current Status of Percussion Instruction
Robert Breithaupt (1991) notes that a crucial part of the problem surrounding
public school percussion education is that until recently, there have been relatively few
resources available to music educators in the area of comprehensive percussion
instruction: textbooks, method books, and literature for percussionists. As a result, most
public school percussionists lack the necessary musical skills, due largely to the absence of
12


123
to other performance skills and other instruments. For example, flams and ruffs are
included in 29% and 26% of the band works examined, respectively. The long roll and the
5-stroke roll a were the only other snare drum rudiments appearing in more than 10% of
the selected band literature.
However, all of these rudiments are included in the percussion curricula of the four
band methods examined in this study. This information suggests that snare drum
rudiments are being emphasized to the detriment of other skills, concepts, and instruments
in the overall curricula.
In order to examine the relationship between beginning to intermediate band
methods and the percussion performance requirements of typical high school band
literature, it is necessary to answer the third research question posed in chapter 1:
What skills are needed for the playing of the percussion parts in band music
of Grade III-VI difficulty?
The skills, techniques, and instruments most frequently required for the successful
performance of typical high school band literature are adequately covered in all four of the
method book series. The exceptions are those skills required on timpani. Table 6-2 is a
list of the techniques found included most frequently in the selected Grades III-VI band
literature examined in this study (more than 10%).
Table 6-2
Technique Requirements of
Levels III-VI Band Literature
Drag
Long Roll
5-Stroke Roll
Frequency
29%
26%
17%
11%
Snare Drum


24
beginning drummers learn to play mallet keyboard instruments and timpani as well as snare
drum.34
Donald Gilbert (1969) states categorically that most obvious omission from public
school percussion curricula is mallet/keyboard training. He further suggests that each
elementary band room be equipped a set of orchestra bells, so that beginning student
percussionists can become familiar with mallet instruments from the very start of
instruction He notes that percussionists who are instructed on mallet percussion and
snare drum concurrently develop heightened musical awareness.35
Heterogeneous Class Instruction
A major issue concerning contemporary beginning percussion instruction is the
question of whether to start percussionists in a heterogeneous setting such as full
band or other mixed-instrument groups, or in a homogeneous group of percussion
students separate from the band proper
Robert Breithaupt (1991) states that public school percussionists with musical
knowledge on an instrument such as piano encounter less difficulties in learning all
percussion instruments than those who have no prior experience, regardless of whether
the instructional format is percussion-only or heterogeneous. He notes that such a prior
musical background benefits both students and teachers.36
34 Ibid.
35 Donald Gilbert. Changing Concepts in Percussion. The Instrumentalist, 23: 64-5 nlO
1969.
36Ibid.


AN ANALYSIS OF BEGINNING TO
INTERMEDIATE PERCUSSION METHODS
USED IN SELECTED PUBLIC SCHOOLS AND
THEIR RELATIONSHIP TO THE PERFORMANCE
REQUIREMENTS OF STATE .APPROVED BAND LITERATURE
By
JAMES KENT ACKMAN
A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT
OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF
DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


88
book of the series was unpublished at the time of this study. Book 1 begins with 8 pages
of introductory material, consisting of four pages for percussion and mallet instruments.
These pages contain descriptions of the following instruments:
1.) Snare Drum
2.) Triangle
3.) Woodblock
4.) Tambourine
5.) Suspended Cymbal
6.) Bass Drum
7.) Crash Cymbals
Each instrument description includes a color photograph of a middle school band
student demonstrating grip and playing position. Also included is an accompanying text
for each illustration, with performance suggestion and practice tips. Both matched and
traditional grip are illustrated for playing snare drum.100
Following the introductory pages, content of this method book consists of 30
pages of double-page instruction, containing 134 exercises and musical examples, with
percussion on the left-hand side, and mallet percussion on the right. The prevailing format
for the introduction of rudiments is a brief description along with an illustration, at the top
of the page of introduction, in conjunction with a special exercise at the bottom of the
same page. Rudiments are subsequently utilized in a musical example one to three pages
later in the method book.
100 OReilly/Williams-Book 1, pages 4-6


9
The first three levels of these method books were explored, with particular
attention given to content, scope, and sequence.
2. Band literature works were limited to difficulty levels III-VI of state contest
lists in order to provide a representative sample of the more complex concert works
currently being programmed at festivals, concerts, and recitals. Levels I-II band works
contain limited performance problems for percussionists.
3. The study was restricted to the examination of band literature that is typically
performed by concert band and wind ensembles. Consequently, jazz band and marching
band literature were not included because of the specialized nature of the music.
The reason for selection of method books at these levels for analysis, which
represent curriculum offerings for elementary through middle school, was that the vast
majority of high school band directors do not instruct percussionists from percussion
method books because they simply do not have time in their daily schedules to do so.
Furthermore, nearly all band methods end after level three in the sequence In
other words, band methods are typically not written for high school instruction. Thus,
for all practical purposes, the training of percussionists ceases at the end of middle school.
A further consideration is the fact that most public school band directors are not
percussionists and thus are unable to provide advanced instruction for percussionists.
In addition, public school administrators are often reluctant either to hire a
percussion specialist or expand a high school band directors teaching responsibilities
to include percussion lessons either before/after school hours or within their daily
schedules. Administrators typically face tight budgets and therefore have a fixed amount
of funds available for instrumental music. Thus the reasons for the limited time devoted


125
time spend instructing percussion students outside of daily band rehearsals would
ultimately lead to improved musicianship, with a resulting decrease in class time
devoted to instructing percussionists.
However, it is typically the case that high school band directors have limited
flexibility in scheduling, have large time commitments to major performing ensembles such
as marching band, concert band, and jazz band. As a result of these time
constraints, adding a class for percussion instruction is rarely a feasible option.
Moreover, the majority of high school band directors are not percussionists,
further adding to the challenges of incorporating advanced percussion instruction into
their instrumental music programs. Administration policies may also affect what classes
may be added to the overall school curriculum.
This is consistent with Casimino (1985), who noted that while 73% of band
directors responding to a survey indicated a need for a percussion at the high school
level, less than one-third (28%) employed a written curriculum for percussion instruction.
Casimino also maintains that the quality of high school percussion curriculum is almost
solely dependent upon the success of band directors in implementing instruction.4
Recommendation #1: One option for increasing contact time with high school
percussionists is the implementation of regularly scheduled percussion sectionals outside
of regular school hours. Students could thus receive specific, individualized instruction in
percussion without taking time away from full band rehearsals.
Recommendation #2: An option for improving percussion instruction is to have
special workshops for middle school and high school band directors, especially in the areas
of mallet percussion instruments and timpani. The expertise and experience of local
4 Casimino, pages 9-13


2
The practical implications of this philosophy of composition with regard to
percussion performance requirements are twofold. 1.) The number of percussion
instruments employed in contemporary band literature has been expanded to include
ethnic and world percussion instruments such as marimbas and Latin percussion. 2.)
Percussion parts contained in contemporary literature have become more sophisticated
and demanding 4
Need for Comprehensive Percussion Instruction
Along with this increased emphasis upon percussion writing has come a demand
for comprehensively trained percussionists, musicians who can perform competently on
a vast array of instruments: pitched and non-pitched, melodic and rhythmic.5
Contemporary percussionists must develop diverse skills in order to meet the
performance demands of modem band literature. It is a difficult dilemma for the
contemporary band director: whether to program a piece containing a crucial mallet
part that none of the percussionists can play, or use a musician from another section
to perform the part. 6
With the implementation of the National Standards for music education, there
has been a widespread use of percussion instruments for classroom instruction. The
3Steve Wilkes/Welcome to Planet Electronic Drum. Percussive Notes, 35: 57-8 n6
1997.
4 Ibid.
5 Cook, page 3.
6 Donald Gilbert. Changing Concepts in Percussion. The Instrumentalist, 23: 64-5 nlO
1969.


138
Spearman, Elvis O. The Development of Comprehensive Musicianship in the
Secondary Instrumental Music Program. Missouri Journal of Research in Music
Education, 4: 92-3 n4 1980.
Spohn, Charles L., and Tatgenhorst, John J. The Percussion: Performance and
Instructional Techniques (Second Edition). Allyn and Bacon, Inc., Boston, MA,
1971.
Stede, John. Percussion in Higher Education: A Perspective on its Present and
Future. Percussive Notes, 26: 7-9 n2 1988.
Tilles, Bob. Teaching Mallet Percussion. The Instrumentalist, 21: 82-3 n8 1967.
Tirro, Frank P. Development of an Elementary Instrumental Music Program.
Music Educators Journal, 51: 56 nl 1964.
Waa, Loren Roger. An Experimental Study of Class and Private Methods of
Instruction in Instrumental Music. Ed.D. Dissertation: Music. University of
Illinois. Champaign, Illinois. 1965.
Watkins, Anna. The High School Percussion Ensemble. The Instrumentalist, 36:
90-2 n9 1982.
Weerts, Richard K. The Beginning Instrumental Program in Perspective. The
Instrumentalist, 23: 46 n2 1968.
Whaley, Garwood. Teaching Accessory Percussion Instruments. The
Instrumentalist, 34: 72 nlO 1980
Whaley, Garwood. Percussion Education: Whose Responsibility? Percussive
Notes, 26: 7 n2 1988.
Wickstrom, Fred A., Jr. A Curriculum for Colloege Bound Percussionists
Percussive Notes, 21: 54 n5 1983.
Whitener, William Thomas. Comparison of Two Approaches to Teaching
Beginning Bands. Journal of Research in Music Education, 31: 5-14 nl 1983.
Willard, Raymond D. Do Your Drummers Belong? The Instrumentalist, 33: 46
nil 1979. ^


144
Band Literature-Level IV (cont)
Selection
Players Instruments
Techniques
Role
The Blue and The Gray
(Clare E. Gnmdman)
4
SD. BD. CC. Gong,
Timp (3), B, X
SD: Flams. Drags, Solo (E)
BD: Dampen, CC: Choke (Ext)
Timp. No PC, Dampen. X: Soli, Gliss
3
Chant and Jubilo
(W. Francis McBeth)
5
SD. BD, SC, CC. Tri,
Timp (4)
SD: 4-stroke Ruff, Drags. Flamacue.
6-stroke roll. Rolls w/o release. Timp: PC-5
(D) Dampen/Muffle+play w/s.d sticks
4
Chorale Prelude-Turn
Not Thy Face
(Vincent Persichetti)
4
SD. BD, SC. Timp (2)
SD: Muffled, BD: Roll, SC: Roll
2
Chorale/ Shaker Dance
(John Zdechlik)
5-6
SD. BD. CC, SC.
Tri, Timp (2), B, X
SD On rim, BD: Roll, Dampen
(Ext), SC: Roll, On dome, Timp: Solo
X/B: Melody (Ext)
4
Down A Country Lane
(Aaron Copland arr.
Patterson)
1
V
V: DS, 4-maIlets+pedaling (MD)
2
Fantasy on American
Sailing Songs
(Clare. E. Grundman)
3-4
SD, BD. CC, B, Timp (3) SD: Flams, 4-stroke ruff, Drag,
BD: Dampen. CC: Choke, Timp:
PC-2+Dampen
3
Festive Bells
and Ancient Kings
(Charles R. Spinney)
4-5
SD. BD, CC, Tamb,
Timp (3), TB, B
TB: Solo (Ext) BD: Dampen,
CC: Choke, Tamb: Prominent
4
Festive Scenario
(Elliot Del Borgo)
4-5
SD, BD, CC, SC, WB
Claves, Tamb, Timp (3)
CB,B
SD: Snares on/oflf, BD: Dampen
Tamb: Play w/s.d sticks. Timp:
Dampen, Use of Claves
3
First Suite in Eb
(Gustav Holst)
4
SD, BD, CC. SC, Tri (2)
Tamb. Timp (4)
SD: Long Rolls, BD:Roll, SC:Roll,
Tri-2 (High and Low)+Roll,
Tamb: Sixteenths (Ext) Timp: DS,
3
Irish Rliapsody, An
(Clare E. Grundman)
3-4
SD, BD, CC, Timp (3)
Timp: Dampen/Muffle
3
Irish Tune (Derry)
(Percy Grainger/Rogers)
1
SC
SC: Roll
3
Kadchsh
(W. Francis McBeth)
5
BD, CC, SC, Gong,
Timp (3), B, TB
BD: Grace notes+Choke, SC:
Roll, Timp: Grace notes. X/B:
DS, (Ext) (D)
4


16
that playing in a percussion ensemble is a good way for students to develop musicianship
and a feel for percussion performance.10
James Lambert (1995) states that the percussion section is often neglected in band
warm-ups. He advocates that all band warm-ups include the entire percussion
section. He further states that snare drum exercises should be coordinated with timpani,
mallet instruments and accessory percussion in daily warm-ups.11
Bruce Dalby (1994) discusses the problem of maintaining beginning percussion
students interest following the excitement of the first-year band experience. He states
that percussionists should be included in all whole band warm-ups. Dalby also notes
that this can be accomplished only if percussionists are introduced to timpani and mallet
percussion from the beginning of instruction.12
Percussion Ensembles in Public Schools
Joseph Casimino (1985) cites Gordon Peters' study concerning the desirability of
incorporating percussion ensemble in public school percussion curriculum as a vehicle for
musical development of public school percussion students. He notes Peters' suggestion
that the percussion ensemble provides many opportunities for musical growth, chief
among which is the focus on the melodic and harmonic aspects to compensate for many
students receiving only rhythmic training on snare drum.13
10 Douglas Overmier. Training Student Percussionists. The Instrumentalist, 45: 46-53
n3 1990.
11 Lambert, page 176.
12 Bruce Dalby. Challenging Percussionists. The Instrumentalist, 49: 56-60 n2 1994.
13 Casimino, pages 60-61.


Ill
Performance Techniques
The most frequently required performance techniques for snare drum were the
flam, drag, five stroke roll, and long roll. All other skills, techniques, and rudiments for
this instrument were utilized in fewer than 10% of selected band works examined in this
study. An illustration of this is the single paradiddle, which is featured in all four method
book series examined in this study, but does not appear in any of the selected band
literature.
Another example of the seeming dichotomy that exists between percussion method
series and percussion performance practices is the rudimental (double stroke) roll This
rudiment is featured prominently in three of the four selected method book series, and
appears in only 3% of examined band works.
Dampening and rolls were the most frequently required techniques for bass drum
among selected band literature. All other techniques for this instrument were incorporated
in less than 7% of examined works. In addition, it is interesting to note that while bass
drum rolls were featured in 16 of the examined band works, the use of two beaters was
specified in only six of these works. This suggests that the use of 1 or 2 beaters for the
execution of a bass drum roll is left to the interpretive discretion of the performer.
Pitch changes, dampening, and rolls were the most commonly occurring techniques
for timpani in the selected band works. All other techniques for this instrument were
employed in less than 04% of band works selected for examination. Furthermore, with the
exception of Essential Elements, timpani was not covered in the combined percussion
curricula of the method book series examined in this study. Timpani was covered in
thorough fashion in the supplementary percussion books of the other three method book
series.


I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it conforms to
acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality,
as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.
Charles Hoffer, Chair, Profe:
I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it conforms to
acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality,
as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.
Phyllis Dorman, Co-chair, Professor of Music
I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it conforms to
acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality,
as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.
David
rofessor of Music
I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it conforms to
acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality,
as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.
Q&uLl
David Kushner, Professor of Music
I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it conforms to
acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality,
as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.
I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it conforms to
acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality,
as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.
Art Newman, Professor of Foundations
of Education


36
James Salmon (1963) cites the influence of television, movies, Broadway musicals,
television commercials, and movie soundtracks as the primary reason for a rediscovering
of mallet percussion instruments by public school band directors and their subsequent
inclusion in band literature and curriculum.71
In keeping with the duality of how percussionists are often perceived, Salmon
further suggested that if percussion section members are not familiar or have little
experience with mallet percussion, a "trained and accomplished instrumentalist" from
the wind or brass section might join the section to play those parts, contributing to the
perception of percussionists as non-comprehensively trained musicians.
James Lambert (1995) notes a change in the traditional attitude with regards to
percussionists as being the result of such landmark works as H. Own Reed's La Fiesta
Mexicana, Vaclav Nelhybel's Trittico, and Karel Husas Music for Prague, 1968. He
states that this helped bring about a twentieth century renaissance in percussion
performance attitudes and performance demands.72
Bob Tilles (1967) observes that use of mallet percussion instruments in
contemporary band music has become increasingly popular in the past five years
(since 1962). He notes that along with the expanded role of percussion in band literature,
the need for comprehensively trained percussionists has grown accordingly.73
71 James D. Salmon. 'Mallet Percussion Can Produce Scintillating Sounds and New
Sonorities. The Instrumentalist, 17; 65-7 n9 1963.
72 James Lambert. The Percussion Ensemble: A Director's Best Friend. The
Instrumentalist, 38: 39-42 nlO 1983.
73 Bob Tilles. Teaching Mallet Percussion. The Instrumentalist, 21: 82-3 n8 1967


17
Donald Gilbert (1969) maintains that the percussion ensembles should be an
integral part of beginning public school percussion curriculum. He notes that percussion
ensembles give students more meaningful and significant musical experiences, leading to
more musically complete percussionists. He crystallizes his philosophy of percussion
education in public schools with the following statement:
At his very first percussion lesson the young student should. .have
an opportunity to experience the sound and feel not only of the
snare drum, but also the bass drum, cymbals, and bells. Within
his first few lessons, he should have the opportunity to perform on
most of the percussion instruments. 14
Gilbert also maintains that it is the responsibility of public school band directors to
provide comprehensive percussion instruction even if it entails changing our (music
educators) concept of the elementary percussion class. . with this type of beginning
instruction, perhaps we can at last begin to educate versatile percussionists instead of
one-instrument drummers.15
Anna Watkins (1982) suggests that appropriate music for percussion ensemble,
in conjunction with rehearsals designed to develop musical sensitivity, allows the
musicians in the percussion section to attain a high level of ensemble playing. She notes
that the ability to play as a unit enables percussionists to perform with a greater sense of
musical awareness in any area of performance: band, orchestra, or chamber music.
14 Donald Gilbert. Changing Concepts in Percussion: Percussion Anthology.
The Instaimentalist Company of Illinois, Chicago, IL, 1969. page 356
15 Gilbert, page 65.


32
methods classes. These standards addressed the need for minimum competency levels to
be obtained by students in these classes and also provided guidelines for percussion
education instructors.58
The purpose of the percussion pedagogy committee was to provide content
guidelines for instructors in order for them to be able to better prepare undergraduate
music education majors for teaching percussion in public schools. The goal of these
standards is to provide students familiarity and competence in all essentials areas of
percussion instruction, including competency on snare drum, timpani, keyboard
percussion, drumset, multi-percussion, and accessories. 59
Gary Cook (1988) cites a need for a practical reference source that can be used
by music educators in conjunction with an instrumental course for band as an
accompanying guide for comprehensive percussion instruction. He examines the
instrumental music educator's task of providing guidance for percussionists as they
attempt to achieve command of technique over instruments in the three main categories
of percussion: snare drum, timpani, and keyboard instruments.
Cook also maintains that a comprehensive teacher training course in percussion at
the undergraduate level is essential for the development of public school instrumental
music educators who are able to guide their students toward heightened musical growth
as well as development of musical sensitivity and awareness of their percussion students.
58 Standards for the College Percussion Methods Class. From the PAS College Pedagogy
Committee Percussive Notes, 35: 43-4 n3 1997.
59 Ibid.


45
randomly chosen from lists provided by the State Boards of Education of Illinois,
Massachusetts, and Florida.
The search engine employed was Metacrawler, a multi-search engine combining
the resources of several other search engines: Lycos, Alta Vista, and Webcrawler.
The Website used to locate the middle schools used in the study was entitled American
School Districts This Internet location contained a list of every public and private
school district in the United States.8
A survey was determined to be the appropriate method for gathering information
from a population that was too large to observe directly, all middle school band directors
in the United States. The survey thus provided a pool of respondents from a target
population whose characteristics closely approximate the larger overall population.9
Survey and Questionnaire
A postcard survey was used to collect information for this study. Band directors
were given a list of ten contemporary band methods and asked to check the one used in
their instrumental music program. Space was also provided to write in the title of a band
method that were using if it was not included on the list of choices. Directions for
completion of the survey were given in the accompanying cover letter, along with an
explanation of why the survey was being done. (See Appendix A)
The postcard format was chosen based on the belief that band directors would be
more likely to respond to a brief and clear type of survey. Postcards were self-addressed
8 American School Districts http://www.asd.com/
9 Babbie, page 147.


BIBLIOGRAPHY
Abeles, Harold F., Hoffer Charles R, and Klotman, Robert H. Foundations of
Music Education (Second Edition) Wadsworth Publishing Company, Inc.,
Belmont, CA, 1994
Albin, William Robert The development of Videotaped Instructional
Units for Teaching Selected Aspects of Mallet-PIctyed Latin-American and
Accessory Percussion Instruments. Ph D. Dissertation: Music Education. Indiana
University, Bloomington, Indiana, 1979.
American School Directory: A Listing of all Public and Private Schools in the
United States. URL http://www.asd.com/ 1997.
Ames, Tony, Peters, Gordon, and Wickstrom, Fred A. Expert Advice for
Percussion Students. The Instrumentalist, 34: 17-19 nlO 1980.
Baas, James Randall. Instrumental Music Education: An Annotated Guide of
Current Books and Materials. Thesis: Master Music Education. Lamar University,
Beaumont, TX, 1990.
Baker, Gilbert. The Percussion Methods Class. Percussive Notes, 29: 43-4 n4
1991
Balen, Jerry. Observation of Festival Percussion Sections. Percussive Notes, 33:
39-40 n2 1995.
Barnett, Wallace. Discovering Mallet Instruments: Part I. The Instrumentalist,
16: 57 n3 1961.
Barnett, Wallace. Discovering Mallet Instruments: Part II. The Instrumentalist.,
16: 43 n4 1961.
Bartlett, Harry R. and Holloway, Ronald A. Guide to Teaching Percussion (2nd
Edition). Wm. C. Brown Company Publishers, Dubuque, IA, 1973.
129


74
The multiple bounce (buzz) roll and the tambourine are introduced 33% and 40%,
respectively, into this method book. Two pages are devoted to instruction these topics.
An illustration is included concerning how to play the tambourine. The authors also
explain three ways of striking this instrument:
1.) finger tips
2.) knuckles or heel of the hand
3 .) flat of the hand
The tambourine is utilized in the duet Dueling Sixteenths, a piece occurring on the same
page as its introduction. One page is devoted to this subject.53
Tambourine roll, as well as the rudiments drag and flamacue are the next topics
covered, beginning at 44% into this method book. Musical examples containing these skill
include Theme from Marche Slav, which employs the drag as well as the multiple
bounce roll, and the duet A Little Pop, which incorporates tambourine rolls. Both the
drag and tambourine roll are allocated a full page. Flamacues are not included in musical
examples in this method book, except for their introduction.54
Tonal properties of the snare drum and independence of hands are the next topics
of instruction, starting at 67% into the this method book. The authors explain that
different areas of the batter head produce different tones. Students are instructed to
experiment to find areas of the head that are most appropriate to the music. One-half page
is devoted to this subject.55
53 Feldstein/OReilly-Book 2, pages 10-13.
54 Feldstein/OReilly-Book 2, pages 14-17
55 Feldstein/OReilly-Book 2, pages 20, 28.


34
Joseph Casimino (1985) states that most public school music teachers have not
received adequate training and preparation in percussion at the undergraduate level in
music education. He cites a paucity of published percussion skills method books
appropriate for collegiate level instruction as the reason for inadequate instruction. As
a result, according to Casimino, these students avoid instruction of students on percussion
instruments once they become band directors.64
Rudy Monty (1986) alludes to the need for a comprehensive method book in
training future music educators to teach percussion in public school. He mentions in his
study that there exists no method book was consistently helpful to non-percussionist band
directors for teaching beginning percussion.65
Monty further states that a curriculum based on fundamental percussion techniques
for snare drum, timpani, and mallet keyboard instruments had a positive influence on band
directors who are not percussionists in providing effective instruction of percussion at
beginning and intermediate levels.66
Frank Cocuzzi and Kristen Shiner (1988) suggest that undergraduate music
education students develop their own handbook during percussion methods class for
future use. They maintain that this will better prepare students to teach percussion in
64 Joseph Anthony Casimino. Curriculum Planning Practices for the Development of
Percussionists in Selected School Districts of New York State. PhD. Dissertation. State
University of New York at Buffalo. 1985. page 46.
65 Rudy A. Monty. Percussion Method Books Used in Selected United States Public
Schools: Analyses and a Supplemental Guide for the Non-Percussionist Band Director
Ed D. Thesis: Music. New York University. New York, New York. 1986. page 21.
66Ibid.


99
Table 4-4 (cont.)
Method Book Content
Standard of Excellence-Book 3
Special Skills Introduced Pages Allotted Coverage Integrated in Music
Bass Drum Roll
81%
Ride Cymbal Patterns 95%
Play with Brushes
95%
Mallets
4-Mallet Technique
31%
Trill
45%
Grace Note
59%
1/2
Moderate
Seldom
1
Moderate
Occasionally
1
Thorough
Occasionally
2
Thorough
Seldom
1
Moderate
Frequently
1
Moderate
Frequently
Yamaha Band Student-Book 1
Skill/Technique
Introduced
Pages Allotted Coverage
integrated in Music
Double Strokes
15%
1/2
Thorough
Occasionally
Single Paradiddle
22%
1/2
Moderate
Extensively
Flam
35%
1/2
Cursory
Extensively
Flam Tap
39%
1/2
Cursory
Extensively
Flam Accent
55%
1/2
Cursory
Seldom*
5-Stroke Roll
64%
1/2
Cursory
Frequently
9-Stroke Roll
71%
1/2
Cursory
Extensively
On Rim
55%
1/2
Cursory
Frequently
Susp. Cymb. Roll
81%
1/2
Cursory
Seldom
Triangle Roll
84%
1/2
Cursory
Extensively
Mallets
Double Stops
55%
1/2
Cursory
Frequently
Roll
64%
1/2
Cursory
Extensively
Instrument
Bells/Snare Drum
Beginning
1
Cursory
Extensively
Bass Drum
05%
1/2
Cursory
Extensively
Triangle
20%
1/2
Moderate
Extensively
Suspended Cymbal
42%
1/2
Cursory
Extensively
Woodblock
45%
1/2
Thorough
Seldom
*Flam Accent is utilized only on the page of its introduction (page 17).


152
Band Literature-Level VI (cont.)
Selection
Sinfona Nobilissima
(Robert Jager)
Players
4
Instruments
SD. BD. CC. Timp (4)
Techniques
SD: Flams. Flamacues. Rolls w/o
release. Drags (Ext), Timp: PC-3.
Prominent. Dampen (Ext) (D
Role
3
Symphony for Band
(Vincent Persichetti)
5
SD (3)-high, med. low.
FD. BD. SC. CC. TT.
Tamb. Tri, SZC,
Timp (3), X
SD: Single-stroke rolls, snares
on/off. Prominent (D). BD: Lay flat+
Dampen. Rolls. Tamb: Lay flat+
play vv/timp mallets. TT: DS (Ext),
FD: Prominent+use of timp mallets.
Tri: Play w/s.d stick. SC: Play w/timp
mallet handles. SZC: Play with brushes.
Timp: Rolls. Dampen. PC-12. (D). X:
Prominent (D)
4
Symphony in Bb
(Paul Hindemith)
4-5
SD. BD. CC. Tamb,
Tri. Timp (3), B
SD: Drags. BD: Roll,
B: Solo (MD) Tamb: Roll
Timp: PC-3, Dampen
4
Through Countless
Halls of Air
(W. Francis McBeth)
7
SD, BD, CC. SC, Tri.
Gong, T Bar WC, TB,
MT, Crotales, Timp (4)
B, X
SD: Drags. BD: Rolls (Ext)Dampen.
Grace notes. CC: Choke, Timp: Grace
notes, Drags. TB: DS, B: Prominent
Grace notes, DS (Ext), X: Prominent,
Grace notes. Use of TBar WC and MT
4
Tunbridge Fair
(Walter Piston)
4
SD. BD. CC, Tri,
Timp (2)
SD: Flams (Ext), Tri: Roll,
BD: Dampen (Ext), Timp: PC-3
3
Variations on America
(Charles Ives arr.
Schuman)
6
SD. BD. SC, Tri.
Castanets, Tamb,
Timp (4), X, B
SD: Flams (Ext), Rolls w/out release 4
Flam+Roll. BD: Dampen (Ext) Tamb:
Shake, Castanets: Sixteenth notes (Ext)
Rolls. Tri: Dampen, SC: Choke, Timp:
Dampen (Ext), X: DS, (D), B: DS (2 players)
West Side Story
(Leonard Bernstein
arr. Duthoit)
5-6
SD. BD. CC, SC, Tri,
Tamb. Claves, Cast
Bongos, Maracas, TB
Timp (2), B, Hi-Hat
SD:Brushes, BD: Muffled,
Castanets: Prominent (D). CC: Choke
B: DS+Melody (D) Latin Percussion:
ad lib (Ext), Hi-Hat: Solo-Jazz-style
4
William Byrd Suite
(Gordon Jacob)
4
SD, BD, FD, CC,
Tri, Timp (3), TB
SD:Rudimental and Buzz Rolls, Drags.
Drag Tap, Timp: PC-2 (MD)
3


121
works selected for analysis in this study These instruments are covered in the percussion
books of all four method book series examined in this study.
Table 6-1
Instrument Requirements of
Levels III-VI Band Literature
Snare Drum
94%
Triangle
42%
Bass Drum
93%
Xylophone
37%
Timpani
86%
Tambourine
27%
Crash Cymbals
79%
Chimes
22%
Suspended Cymbal
65%
Gong
19%
Orchestra Bells
52%
Woodblock
16%
Conclusions
The data collected from the survey indicates that in the areas of snare drum and
accessory percussion, the content of the four percussion method book series examined
in this study is consistent with the skills, concepts, and instruments that public school
percussion students require for successful performance of Grades III-VI band literature.
However, it is my judgment that the skills required for performance of selected
band literature in the significant areas of timpani and mallet percussion instrument were
inadequately presented in the four selected method book series.
Research Questions
1. To what extent do the skills and concepts taught in beginning to intermediate
band method books contribute to the skills required for the performance of band music
of levels III-VI difficulty?


48
This, according to Babbie, could result in a smaller than desired random sample of
the population, and increases the likelihood of response bias.14 He also indicates that if a
survey demonstrates a high response rate, there is a lesser possibility of significant
response bias than one exhibiting a low response rate. His guidelines for acceptable
response rates for surveys are as follows:
-50%: Adequate
-60%: Good
-70%: Very Good 15
Questionnaire Bias
The postcard survey was designed to reduce the possibilities of response bias
among the targeted population. The parameters were limited to the collection of specific
information: which band method is currently being used in the subject's instrumental music
program.
The survey incorporated no questions containing biased terms (e g. Dont you
think that this particular band method...), thus satisfying the guidelines stated by Babbie
with regard to response bias.16
Selection of Band Literature
Pieces selected for examination were restricted to original compositions for
band/wind ensemble because there is a dearth of percussion parts and limited performance
14 Babbie, page 226.
15 Ibid.
16 Babbie, pages 134-5.


146
Band Literature-Level V
Selection
Players
Instruments
Techniques
American Overture
For Band
(J. Wilcox Jenkins)
5
SD, BD. WB. SC.
Timp (2) Gong, B
Timp: Dampen (Ext)
Chester
(William Schuman)
3-4
SD. BD. CC. WB.
Timp (3)
SD: Flams. Solo (E)
CC Choke. Timp: PC-1
Children's March
(Percy Grainger)
3
SD.Timp (2). B. X
SD: Drags
Chorale Prelude:
So Pure The Star
(Vincent Persichetti)
4
SD. BD. CC. SC.
Timp (2)
BD: Roll, SC: Roll
CC. Choke
Crown Imperial
(William Walton)
5
SD. BD. CC. B. Timp (2)
B: Prominent (MD)
Country' Band
(Charles Ives arr.
James Sinclair)
5
SD. BD, CC, Tri, X, B
SD: Single Drag, Single Drag
Tap. Flams, Rudimental Rolls,
Single-stroke roll, (D), BD: Dampen (D)
Declaration Overture
(C.T. Smith)
5-6
SD, BD, CC, SC, Tri,
B. X. TB, Timp (4)
SD: On rim, Drags, BD:
On rim (Extensive), SC:
Roll, Tri: Long roll, Timp:
PC-3, B: Extensive, X: DS (Ext))
Festival Prelude
(Alfred Reed)
4
SD, BD, CC, Tri,
Timp (3)
BD:Dampen, CC: Choke
Timp: Solo (D)+Dampen
Tri: Roll
Incantation and Dance
(John Barnes Chance)
6-7
SD, BD, CC, TBL (5)
Claves. Tamb, SS
Bongos. Gourd,
Timp (4) Timbales,
Gong, Maracas
BD: Dampen (Ext), Tamb:
Shake, Prominent (D), Use
of Timbales. Bongos: (D), Gourd:
Scrape, Maracas: Shake+Swirl
(Ext), Timp: PC-4+Muted
(Folded handkerchief on heads
near rim opposite playing area)
Korean Folk Song
(John Barnes Chance)
6
SD, BD, CC, Tri,
TBL (5), B, X, V
SD: Flams, Rudimental rolls,
Drags, 4-stroke ruffs (Ext)
+Solo (M), TBL: Solo (Ext) (D)
SC: On dome V: DS+Solo (D)
X: Prominent (D)
Rale
3
4
3
2
3
3
4
3
4
4


124
Table 6-2 (cont.)
Technique Requirements of
Levels III-IV Band Literature
Technique
Frequencv
Bass Drum
Dampen
23%
Rolls
16%
Timpani
Pitch Changes
43%
Dampen
34%
Rolls
18%
Crash Cymbals
Choke
26%
Suspended
Cymbal
Roll with yam mallets
17%
Tambourine
Shake
13%
Triangle
Roll
11%
Bells
Double Stops
12%
Thus, the fundamental issue in this study becomes a question of how to bridge
the gap between what is taught to beginning and intermediate public school percussionists
and performance requirements of advanced high school band music. This is an issue that
contains philosophical as well as practical elements.
The next portion of the study is a discussion pertaining to recommendations for
preparing public school percussionists to achieve the goal of successfully performing
typical high school concert band literature. Because many of the philosophical aspects
of this issue are beyond the parameters of this study, the discussion will focus on the
practical aspects of this topic.
Recommendations for Improvement
Creating a specific class for advanced percussion instruction would be to the
benefit of students, teachers, and the overall band program, in part because increased


67
Music of the Baroque period is featured starting 45% through this method book.
Snare drum pages add the rudiments triple ratamacue and paradiddle-diddle.32 Both snare
drum and mallet instrument pages introduce the trill, which is defined as a single-stroke
roll for non-pitched percussion and timpani, and as a rapid alteration from a written note
to the note above it in the key in the mallet percussion pages. The trill is featured in the
mallet percussion musical example, Allemande. Four pages are allocated to the
instruction of these topics.33
The rudiments flam paradiddle-diddle and four stroke ruff are introduced in the
section covering music from the Classical period, which begins 59% into this method
book. In addition, the grace note is introduced for mallet percussion instruments at this
point. Musical examples from the Classical period containing these skills and concepts
include an excerpt from a Beethoven work entitled Sonatina, which utilizes the four-
stroke ruff for snare drum and grace notes in the mallet percussion part, and Theme
from Symphony No. 40 (W.A. Mozart), which utilizes the flam paradiddle-diddle.34
Music from the Romantic period, which occurs 67% into this method book,
features the introduction of the rudiments drag paradiddle and double drag tap for
snare drum and glissando for mallet instruments. The double drag tap and glissando
appear only in the Tor Snare Drum Only and Tor Mallets Only exercises at the bottom
of their page of introduction. Three pages are devoted to instruction of these skills 35
32 Oearsin-Book 3, pages 16, 18.
33 Pearson-Book 3, pages 16-20.
34 Pearson-Book 3, page 21-24.


128
Recommendation #3: A comparative study on the relationship between percussion
curricula and teaching loads of public school band directors and music teachers. A
fundamental obstacle to expanding percussion curricula in public schools
is limited time for extra rehearsals, instruction, and/or lessons. An examination of the
teaching loads of public school band directors could yield valuable information on the
subject of how to most efficiently address this issue.
Recommendation #4: A study examining the influence of drum corps on the
percussion education of contemporary instrumental music programs. Drum corps have
had a major impact on the philosophies, procedures, and field presentations of high
school marching band programs. A study of this type might examine the extent to which
middle school and high school band directors are involved with drum corps, and how that
might influence their philosophy of teaching percussion in the public schools, particularly
in regard to the issue of whether to start beginning percussionists on matched or
traditional grip for snare drum.
Recommendation #5: An examination of the role of technology in percussion
education, performance, and composition. Since the mid-1980s, there has been enormous
growth in all areas of technology with regard to music education as a whole An
investigation into the types of technology available could yield information helpful to
improving the content and quality of public school percussion curricula.


CHAPTER 1
OVERVIEW
Percussion instruments have been a part of musical culture since the dawn of
civilization. From prehistoric log drums to contemporary electronic drum-machines, there
has been significant interest in the performance and educational areas of this particular
family.
In the immediate aftermath of World War II, the trend in public schools was
to program music for concerts featuring works of contemporary band composers in
addition to standard marches and transcriptions of orchestral works. These composers
were trained in the 20th century style of composition, which involved inclusion of the
percussion section as part of the main fabric of the music.1 This was a dramatic
departure from percussion's traditional role of accompanist to the band.
During the second half of the 20th century, often referred to as the golden age
of percussion, band and orchestra composers have written with increasing frequency
and fluency for percussion, exploring their musical and color potential.2
In the 1980s, percussion entered the arena of technology with the development
of electronic percussion instruments. Today, using MIDI (musical instrument digital
interface) and other advanced capabilities, percussionists and composers have at their
disposal an almost infinite range of sounds and timbres.3
1 Harold F Abeles, Charles R. Hoffer, and Robert H. Klotman. Foundations of Music
Education (Second Edition). Schirmer Books, New York, 1973. page 284.
2 Gary Cook. Teaching Percussion. Schirmer Books, New York, 1988. page 9.
1


CHAPTER 5
CONTENT ANALYSIS OF BAND LITERATURE
Overview
This chapter presents an examination of band literature typically programmed by
high school bands in performance situations such as concerts, contests, and festivals, and
to provide a basis for discussing the implications of percussion performance requirements
of band music and their relationship to the content of percussion books of the four
selected band methods.
The works discussed in this chapter (N=100) were randomly selected from state
contest lists of concert band/wind ensemble literature (levels III-VI) and the concert band
music library of Boston Music Company (Boston MA).
Works were examined for each of the following areas:
1.) Number of players required for performance
2.) Instruments required for performance
3 .) Prominent and/or special techniques required in each work
e g. pitch changes for timpani, extensive mallet solo/part
4 .) The role of the percussion part in relationship to the overall
musical texture of the work.
Appendix B summarizes the content analyses of the band literature selected for this
study. Abbreviations were assigned to each instrument in order to provide visual clarity of
the data included in the table. In cases where an instrument shared several letters with
other instruments, the full name of the instrument was used (e g. Timbales).
107


105
Each new instrument introduced includes a drawing that illustrates the proper
playing position and technique. Written definitions include detailed performance
suggestions applicable to each instrument. For example, students are instructed to
warm-up or prime the tam-tam by tapping it lightly several times with the fingers
prior to striking the instrument with a direct stroke, placed slightly off-center 128
Following the review section, timpani is included in 39% of the exercises,
studies, and musical examples in this method book. In addition, there is a full page
devoted to dampening, single, double, and triple grace notes, as well as the forte-piano
crescendo roll. Also included is a two page section devoted to scale studies for three
timpani.129
Skills and concepts introduced in this book include two drum technique,
three-drum technique, and four drum-technique. In addition, there is a section on
dampening technique and performance of glisses. Pitch changes are not discussed
in this method book series.130
Essential Elements-Book 2
Timpani are first introduced in this method series 36% into book 2, as the first
book in this series does not cover this instrument. Timpani are included in 7% of the
remaining exercises and musical example in this method book. Musical Examples are
written for two timpani and do not require pitch changes.131
128 Pearson, Timpani/Auxiliary Percussion Book 2, page 9.
129 Pearson, Timpani/Auxiliary Percussion Book 3, pages 38-39.
130 Pearson, Timpani/Auxiliary Percussion Book 3, pages 15, 18, 29, 32.
131 Rhodes, et al. Essential Elements: A Comprehensive Band Method-Percussion


68
The concluding portion of book 3, which begins 81% through the text of book 3,
features music from the 20th century. This section includes the introduction of the fifteen
and eleven stroke rolls (rudiments), the use of brushes for snare drum, and the concept of
the ride cymbal. The author includes an explanation of brush technique that includes and
illustration.36
Also included in the snare drum pages is the bass drum roll, which requires the use
of two mallets. The mallet instrument pages include the musical example Ode to Igor
Stravinsky (Salerno), which is written in two treble clef staves, and may be
performed by either two players, or one player using four mallets. Two and one-half
pages are allocated to instruction of these topics.37
Tin Roof Blues/Blues for a Fat Cat (Pearson) incorporates the use of brushes
on snare drum. This piece is written for snare drum, bass drum, and ride cymbal, and
incorporates rolls, as well as jazz-style (uneven) eighth notes. It also requires the
percussionist to play a written out one-bar drum fill. This piece may be played by
either three players, one to a part, or one player on drum set.38
The final concept introduced in this method book is ad labium, which is defined by
the author as taking liberties, improvising within the boundaries of the music. Musical
examples utilizing this concept include 55 T-Bird and Right On, written by Kevin
35 Pearson-Book 3, pages 25-29.
36 Pearson-Book 3, pages 30-33.
37 Ibid.
38 Pearson-Book 3, pages 34-35.


46
and stamped in order to simplify completion and encourage subjects to respond to the
survey.10
The study attempted to take advantage of the inherent strengths of the postcard
questionnaire:
-ease of contact with respondents
-better control over the effects of any researcher bias
-uniform question presentation
While attempting to avoid the major pitfalls often associated with this format:
-relatively low response rates which can engender criticisms of
selection bias
-limitations associated with written questions and answers
-lack of control over whom actually completes the questionnaire11
Selection of Band Methods
The four most widely used contemporary band methods, as indicated by the survey
results, were then chosen for examination. This investigation consisted of content analyses
and comparison of content analyses.
Representativeness of Sample
The study focused on percussion curricula in typical middle school instrumental
music programs, with the majority of students receiving all of their instruction in a
10 Babbie, pages 209-213.
11 Ibid.


82
Crash cymbals are the next instrument covered, and are introduced 25%
into the text. An explanation of how to hold the cymbals is included, as well as
a description of how to choke or muffle the cymbals. One half page is allocated
for the introduction of this instrument.79
Woodblock and triangle are the next instruments introduced in this method book.
They initially appear 33% and 35% into the text, respectively. The written definitions also
include basic performance techniques (e g. use a metal beater...hit the triangle opposite the
open end), for both instruments. Woodblock appears in Old Joe Clark, which also
features double bounce sticking for snare drum. Triangle appears in Stephen Fosters
Camptown Races. Students are instructed to write in the sticking for snare drum Three
pages are allocated for instruction of these instruments.80
Claves and maracas are introduced at the 43% point of the method book. These
instruments are given a written definition and performance suggestion. An example of this
is the instructions for playing maracas: Hold maracas by the handles. Use short, precise
wrist motion to shake maracas.81 Claves and maracas are included in the musical
example Mexican Clapping Song. One page is devoted to these instruments.82
78 Rhodes, et. al. Book 1, page 5-B
79 Rhodes, et. al Book 1, page 8-B.
80 Rhodes, et. al. Book 1, pages 10-A, 10-B, 11-B.
81 Rhodes, et. al. Book 1, page 12-B.
82 Ibid.


95
Rudiments
Flams and single paradiddles were the rudiments introduced at the most
consistent point within the four method books. Flams were introduced 23 % into
Standard of Excellence-Book 1, 35% into Yamaha Band Student-Book A., 36%
into Essential Elements-Book 1, and 28% through Accent on Achievement In each
of the four method books, flams were integrated extensively into musical examples.
The single paradiddle was introduced within the first half of book one in all
method books examined. Each of the four method books integrated this rudiment
into musical examples at a different level of inclusion:
1. Yamaha Band 5m 2. Standard of Exce lienee-YxQcpxet&y
3. Essential Elements-Occasionally
4. Accent on Achievement-Seldom
It is interesting to note that double strokes were introduced in the first book in
three of the selected method book series. The fourth method book {Essential Elements)
introduced this skill in book two. Multiple bounce strokes were introduced in book one of
Standard of Excellence and Essential Elements; in contrast, this skill was not introduced
until the second book of the Yamaha Band Student series, and Accent on Achievement did
not cover this skill in book one of the method series. These two dissimilar formats
suggests a difference of philosophy among the four method book series regarding the
subject of beginning instruction of rolls.
Five stroke rolls using double bounce strokes were prominently featured in three of
the four method book series examined in this study. This rudiment was introduced in


77
The drag paradiddle #1 occurs 52% into this method book. Rudimental
Thunder, a snare drum solo occurring later in the method book, utilizes the drag
paradiddle # 2, a rudiment that is not introduced in book 3 .63 The snare drum rudiment,
paradiddle-diddle is covered 67% into this method book, and is incorporated in the
musical example Greensleeves on the page of its introduction. One-half page is
devoted to this rudiment.64
Musical Examples
From the 77% point of this method book, the content consists entirely of musical
examples, there are no new skills, concepts or instruments introduced throughout the
remainder of this book. Music in this portion of the method book contain previously
learned skills and concepts from the preceding pages.
Rudimental Thunder is written for snare drum and incorporates flams, long rolls,
five stroke rolls on the upbeat as well as on the downbeat, seven stroke rolls, nine stroke
rolls, and drag paradiddle #2. All rolls in this solo are to be played in rudimental style.65
An arrangement of Handel's Air and Bouree is written for keyboard percussion
solo and employs long rolls. This solo features a distinct melodic line and requires the
percussionist to chose the most efficient sticking patterns which do not interfere with
the musical flow of the works long phrases, a characteristic of Baroque era music.66
63 O'Reilly/Kinyon-Book 3, pages 16, 21, 27.
64 O'Reilly/Kinyon-Book 3, page 20.
65 O'Reilly/Kinyon-Book 3, Percussion, page 27.
66 O'Reilly/Kinyon-Book 3, Keyboard, page 27.


101
Table 4-4 (cont.)
Band Method Content
Skill/Technique
Essential Elements-Book 1
Introduced Pages Allotted Coverage
integrated in Music
Flam
36%
1
Thorough
Extensively
Paradiddle
44%
1/2
Cursory
Occasionally
Snares Off
46%
0+
None+
Occasionally
Closed (Buzz) Roll
61%
1/2
Moderate
Extensively
On Rim
81%
0+
None+
Occasionally
Extended Roll
85%
1/2
Thorough
Frequently
Flamacue
95%
1/2
Cursory
Occasionally
Instrument
Snare Drum
Beginning
1
Thorough
Extensively
Bass Drum
05%
1
Thorough
Extensively
Crash Cymbals
26%
1/2
Thorough
Frequently
Woodblock
32%
1/2
Thorough
Frequently
Triangle
36%
1/2
Thorough
Frequently
Maracas
44%
1/2
Thorough
Occasionally
Claves
44%
1/2
Thorough
Occasionally
Tambourine
46%
1/2
Thorough
Frequently
Sleigh Bells
48%
1/2
Cursory
Occasionally
Suspended Cymbal
51%
1/2
Thorough
Occasionally
Special Technique
Tambourine Shake
93%
1/2
Moderate
Occasionally
Rim Shot
44%
1/2
Thorough
Occasionally
+Snares Off is not introduced until Book 2 (page
2-A)
Essential Elements-Book 2
Skill/Technique
Introduced
Pages Allotted Coverage
Integrated in Music
Double Bounce
04%
1/2
Moderate
Extensively
Flamadiddle
08%
1/2
Cursory
Occasionally
Double Paradiddle
14%
1/2
Cursory
Seldom
Drag
23%
1/2
Thorough
Extensively
Flam Accent
61%
1/2
Cursory
Seldom
Multiple Bounce (6/8) 63%
1/2
Moderate
Occasionally
Independence
66%
1/2
Thorough
Occasionally


11
Starter kit refers to a collection of instruments and texts used by beginning
percussionists-snare drum, drum pad, and method book.
Accessory percussion refers to percussion instruments that cannot be easily
grouped in the other main categories such as gong, suspended cymbal, woodblock,
and triangle.14
Specialization means the student percussionist plays only one instrument and
does not receive instruction or experience on other percussion instruments.
Percussion ensemble is three or more percussionists playing literature specifically
composed for such an ensemble.
Matched grip is the method of holding sticks or mallets in which both hands are
the same. This grip may be employed with any percussion instrument requiring sticks,
mallets, or brushes.
Traditional grip is the method of holding snare drum sticks in which the left and
right hands are not the same: i.e. the right hand is the same as matched grip but the left
hand is different. This grip is used only on snare drum and drum set.
Transfer is the ability of a grip for snare drum to be used on other percussion
instruments.
Matrix is a method for comparing and contrasting similar sections of method
books such as the snare drum units of three percussion method books.
14 Larry Dale Reeder. An Analysis and Comparison of Select Teaching Methods for the
University Percussion Methods Class. Thesis (D .A.). University of Mississippi, Oxford,
Mississippi. 1994. page 9,


133
Groeling, Charles R. A Comparison of Two Methods of Teaching Instrumental
Music to Fourth Grade Beginners. Ph.D. Dissertation: Music Education.
Northwestern University. Evanston, Illinois. 1975.
Grumley, Fred Mallet Instruments Challenge Beginning Percussionists Music
Educators Journal, 70: 55 nl 1983.
Elaas, Lance. Even Percussionists Can Be Musicians. The Instrumentalist, 39:
99-101 n2 1984. pages 2-3.
Hasenpflug, Thom, Motivation in Methods Class Percussive Notes, 33: 41-3 n2
1995.
Heim, Alyn Joseph. Forget the Music, Drummers. Just Try to Follow! The
Instrumentalist, 22: 61 n4 1967.
Holly, Richard T. Preparing for Percussion Auditions. The Instrumentalist, 38:
62 n4 1983.
Holmes, Charles. Is the High School Percussionist Prepared for College?
The Instrumentalist, 30: 26 nl 1 1976.
Jacob, George, F. Our Complete School Percussionists. School Musician
Director and Teacher, 45: 22 n 2 1970.
Keene, James A. A History of Music Education in the United States. University
Press of New England, Hanover, CT, 1982.
Knaack, Donald F. How To Organize A High School Percussion Ensemble
The Instrumentalist, 25: 57 nlO 1971.
Lambert, James W. and Grifa, Robert. Beginning Percussionists with Good
Fundamentals. The Instrumentalist, 51: 26-30 nil 1997.
Lambert, James W. The Amazing Growth of Percussion Ensembles. The
Instrumentalist, 50: 176 nl 1995.
Leach, Joel. Adequate Training for Music Educators. The Instrumentalist, 18:
30 nl 1963.


151
Band Literature-Level VI (cont.)
Selection
Masquerade (cont.)
Blayers.
Instruments
Mars (Gustav Holst)
3-4
SD, BD. SC (Gong),
Timp
Music for Hamlet
(Alfred Reed)
6-7
SD. FD, CC. SC. Tri.
Gong, Timp (4), B. X.
V (2). TB
Outdoor Overture
(Aaron Copland)
4
SD. BD. CC, Tn, B
Timp (3)
Pagan Dances
(James Barnes)
6
SD. BD. CC. SC, Tri,
FC. BT. WC, Ratchet,
BRD, TT (4), Tamb.
Timp (4), B, X
Postcard
(Frank Ticheli)
7
SD, BD, CC, SC, SS,
Tri. TT. VS, TBL (4)
X, V, Timp (5)
Psalm for Band
(Vincent Persichetti)
2-3
TD. BD, SC
Psalm and Celebration
(Elliot Del Borgo)
7-8
SD, BD, CC, SC, CB,
SS, Cabasa, Claves,
VS. TBL (5), SB, Tri
(lg), TT (4), Bongos,
Timp (4), TB. B, M, V
Ritual
(Vaclav Nelhybel)
4
SD, BD, SC TT,
Timp (3) TB
Shepherds Hey
(Percy Grainger
arr. Rogers)
5
SD. BD (Big), CC,
SC, Timp (3), X, B
timp mallets, X/B: DS. Rolls (Ext)
Prominent (D), Timp: PC-5. DS.
Dampen, Alto Drum: Play w/brushes
SD: Drags. Flams, Timp: DS, Gong: Roll 3
SD: Drags. 4-stroke Ruffs (D) 4
BD: Rolls w/timp sticks. Dampen.
FD: Drags, SC: Rolls w/ timp sticks
Timp: PC-5. Dampen. Rolls (D)
Extensive mallet work- X: 4-mallets.
DS (D). B: DS.(Ext), V(2): 4-mallets
Timp: PC-3, X: Solo+soli w/wws 3
and trumpet (D) SD: 4-stroke ruff.
Ratamacue, SC: Play with hard sticks
SD: Drags, TT: Drags, Drag Tap. 4
SC: Use wooden end of timp mallet
FC: Prominent part. BRD: Play
with tack hammers, Tn: Roll (Ext)
Crotales, Prominent, WC: Shimmer
Timp: PC-3+DS (D), B: Prominent
DS+DS Rolls (Ext) (D) X: Rolls (MD)
SD: Flams, Drags, On rim, TT: On rim, 4
CC: Choke, Timp: PC-6. (D) X: 4-mallet
section+Solo, (D), V: Solo, DS, Pedaling
BD: On rim w/sixteenth notes. Rolls (Ext) 4
SD: Flams, Rolls, BD: Grace notes 4
(Drag), CB: Choke, Bongos: Rolls,
(MD), TT-Solo (M), Prominent.
Use of Cabasa and VS, Timp: PC-2
Solo (MD), Dampen. TB: DS
V: DS Rolls, Pedaling (Ext) (D)
Timp: PC-2, BD: Solo with rolls 3
CC: Pianissimo
SC: Roll+Choke, CC: Choke, 3
BD: Rolls, X/B: Gliss (Ex)+ad lib


94
Summary of Method Books
Table 4-4 provides a summary of the content-skills, concepts, and instruments
presented in each of the method books examined in the study. A percentage is used to
indicate the point at which a particular skill or instrument is introduced in the text of a
method book. Time allotted is indicated in increments of one-half pages. This number
value includes a written explanation and the page of introduction of a skill or instrument.
Coverage represents to what degree the skill, concept, or instrument is examined:
1.) Cursory: superficial examination of skill e g. the flam is a rudiment
2.) Moderate: a definition and explanation of skill, concept, or instrument
that includes brief performance instructions e g. strike the woodblock in
the center with a yarn mallet
3.) Thorough: topic is introduced with a clear definition, an educationally
functional illustration, and specific performance instructions e g. Using
a bass drum beater, strike the drum halfway between the rim and the
center of the head. Use a.. .forearm motion. 119
The last column, integrated in music, refers to the extent that a skill, concept,
or instrument is incorporated in musical examples, following its page of introduction in a
particular method book. The terms are as follows:
1.) Seldom: 0-1 appearances
2.) Occasionally: 2-3 appearances
3.) Frequently: 4-5 appearances
4.) Extensively: 6 or more appearances
1!9 Pearson-Book 1, page 3.


8
in public schools is the narrow and restricted scope of instruction provided for beginning
and intermediate-level percussionists.12
2. The majority of beginning to intermediate public school percussionists are
taught in group settings using the percussion book from a standard band method book.
3. The percussionists who are taught from these group method books
eventually become members of large school ensembles such as band or orchestra.
4. Public school band directors follow the curriculum presented in the percussion
books of band methods.
5. Students have access to percussion instruments required for performance. That
is, students cannot reasonably be expected to be able to perform on an instrument rarely
found outside of school (e g. xylophone) unless they have access to the instrument.
6. Students have regularly scheduled full ensemble (e g. band, orchestra)
rehearsals and lesson times during school hours.
7. The majority of public school percussionists do not take private lessons.
8. Grades I-II band literature is designed primarily for beginning bands and
as such presents few technical or percussion performance problems.
9. The majority of public school band directors are not percussionists.
Delimitations
1. Method books selected for this study will be restricted to the contemporary
standard band methods commonly used in public school instrumental music instruction.
12 Andrew Conrath Preston. The Development and Evaluation of Selected Instructional
Materials for Teaching Percussion Instruments in the Beginning Band Class. Ed.D.
Dissertation: Music.University of North Carolina at Greensboro. 1975. pages 4-5.


29
transfer to other percussion instruments, which contributes to the establishment of a
consistent percussion methodology as well as enhanced musical growth among public
school percussionists at all grade levels: elementary, middle school, and high school.49
Robert Breithaupt (1991) suggests the use of different classes of instruments,
starting with snare drum and including mallet percussion, for beginning percussion
instruction. He concludes that use of matched grip on snare drum facilitates the learning
of other percussion instruments, including the following:
1. membranophones (e.g snare drum, bass drum)
2. idiophones (e g. bells, xylophone)50
Tony Ames, Gordon Peters, and Fred Wickstrom (1980) advocate matched
grip for all percussion students because of its versatility and ease of transfer to other
percussion instruments such as timpani and mallet percussion. They maintain that this
allows percussionists to develop a more consistent approach in the development of
comprehensive approach to percussion performance skills.51
James Lambert and Robert Grifa (1997) state that all fundamental techniques in
percussion are derived from those used in matched grip snare drum playing. They
compare the hand position of percussionists to the proper embouchure of wind and
brass musicians. They declare that consistency of grip leads to ease of transfer to other
instruments, thus providing a foundation for comprehensive percussion musicianship.52
49 John Papastefan. How to Practice Percussion. The Instrumentalist, 28: 38-41 n 4
1990.
50 Breithaupt, page 3.
51 Tony Ames, Gordon Peters, and Fred A. Wickstrom. Expert Advice for Percussion
Students. The Instrumentalist, 34: 17-9 nlO 1980.


49
requirements in most orchestral transcriptions for band. Pieces arranged by the original
composer for both band and orchestra, such as Gustav Holst's Hammersmith and Percy
Grainger's Lincolnshire Posy, were included because they are frequently programmed by
high school wind ensembles and represent an important part of wind band repertoire.
Content Analysis of Percussion Methods
A content analysis was conducted of the percussion books from the six band
methods most frequently used in contemporary public schools. The examination of these
books focused on three fundamental questions:
1. What skills, concepts, and instruments are introduced9
2. When are these skills, concepts, and instruments introduced?
3. How much instruction time, in terms of pages, units, or exercises,
is allocated to each skill, concept, or instrument?
Also explored were implications of performance requirements for percussion
methods. These implications were based on an examination of the content of the four
selected percussion books. This information was analyzed for patterns of instructional
presentation such as notable discrepancies in content, as well as concepts and skills that
were given scant attention (e g. a reference to timpani technique in a book that does not
include timpani in its content).
The crucial issue addressed in the content analysis section was whether or not
some percussion instruments prominently featured in high school performance situations
were covered adequately in percussion methods book. An example of this would be a
piece that contains a difficult xylophone or marimba solo, extensive timpani work, or
instruments and techniques not ordinarily encountered in the majority of public middle
school and high school band performances.


CHAPTER 4
RESULTS
Format of Survey
The postcard/questionnaire survey was addressed to a particular school, and
not to an individual because the lists from which the middle schools were selected for the
study did not contain the names of individual band directors. A letter of introduction
explained the purpose of the survey and its relation to the study. The letter followed
the format suggested by Borg and Gail (1992) for introductory letters of surveys.1
Enclosed with each letter was a postcard/survey listing ten contemporary band methods.
These methods were selected from the Publishers Showcase portion of the J.W. Pepper
company's music education web-site.2
Subjects were instructed to place a check in the box corresponding with the
band method currently used in their middle school instrumental music program. A blank
space was provided on the postcards for subjects to write in the name of a band method
currently used in their instrumental music program that was not included on the list of ten.
The enclosed postcards were self-addressed and postage paid in order to expedite
completion and return mailing of the survey, as well as to provide a viable and
representative sample for analysis.
1 Borg and Gall, page 149.
2 J.W. Pepper company @ http://www.jwpepper.musicpublications.com
53


20
need for both improved teacher training in percussion and implementation of a more
comprehensive percussion curriculum in public schools.23
Lance Haas (1984) reports a need for comprehensive musical training for
beginning percussionists. He states that a majority of public school band directors
consider their programs hampered by a lack of overall musicianship among members of
the percussion section. Haas goes on to state that this lack of musicianship is due to the
fact that most snare drum literature for junior high and high school students contains a
series of rhythmic patterns and little else. He strongly suggests that a lack of
comprehensive training, including mallet instruments, is the cause of this limited ability of
many percussionists to successfully interpret contemporary band music.24
Gary Cook (1988) cites a need for comprehensively trained public school
percussionists using a thorough musical approach including the melodic, harmonic,
structural, and rhythmic elements of music in conjunction with the technical aspects of
pitched and non-pitched instruments.
Cook goes on to state that this kind of comprehensive percussion curriculum, if
implemented properly from the beginning of instruction, will eventually lead to an
increased musical sensitivity, interpretation skills, and overall musicianship among public
school percussionists.25
23 Ibid.
24 Lance Haas. Even Percussionists Can Be Musicians. The Instrumentalist, 39: 99-101
n2 1984. pages 2-3.
25 Cook, pages 9-10.


96
book one of all method books, with the exception of Essential Elements, which used
the multiple bounce (buzz) stroke as the starting point for all rolls, and which did not.
Mallet Percussion
The two skills most frequently employed in three of the four method books
examined in the study were rolls and double stops. These skills were introduced in
the last half of book one in all method books, excluding Essential Elements. Rolls
and double stops were integrated extensively into the musical examples of Standard of
Excellence, Yamaha Band Student, and Accent on Achievement. Basic four-mallet grips,
techniques, and skills for mallet percussion instruments was found only in Standard of
Excellence-Book 3 (page 10).
The instructional format with regard to mallet instruments was nearly identical
in three of the four method book series with respect to the mallet percussion instrument,
the content followed almost exclusively that of the treble clef instruments. In addition,
all method book series incorporated mallet percussion instruments in musical examples.
An example of this is found in Accent on Achievement (page 13), in which the mallet
percussion part in the musical example London Bridge is identical to that of the
clarinet part.120
Instruments
All four selected method book series provided thorough coverage of snare
drum, bass drum, crash cymbals, suspended cymbal, tambourine, woodblock. Three
of the four methods also provided extensive coverage of mallet percussion instruments
120 John OReilly and Mark Williams. Accent on Achievement: Combined Percussion-
Book I., and Bb Clarinet-Book 1. Alfred Publishing Co., Inc., Van Nuys, CA, 1992.


35
public schools because it gives them a core curriculum written in their own words, thus
contributing to the presentation of clear and accessible concepts to their students.67
Comprehensive Percussion Curriculum
William Albin (1979) found that eighty percent of those junior high and senior high
and directors responding to a survey stated that the percussion instruments taught in their
performing ensembles were limited to snare, bass drum, triangle, cymbals, tambourine,
timpani, and bells. He also noted that a implementation comprehensive
percussion curriculum in public schools may be related to the preparation of college-level
music education students.68
Albin also discovered that sixty-five percent of those secondary instrumental music
instructors surveyed believed they were not adequately prepared in their undergraduate
percussion skills classes to teach percussion in public schools.69
In his 1985 study, Albin revealed that seventy-five percent of music performed
for public school concerts and festivals required only snare drum, bass drum, timpani,
cymbals, and bells. In addition, the results of the study indicated that less than twenty-five
percent of the music performed in concert situations required xylophone or marimba.70
67 Frank Cocuzzi and Kristen Shiner. What Really Needs to be Taught in Percussion
Methods Class. Percussive Notes, 26: 24-8 n4 1988. page 26.
68 William Robert Albin. Teacher Preparation in Percussion: Results of a Survey.
Percussive Notes, 23: 69 n4 1985.
69 Ibid.
70 William Robert Albin. The Development of Videotaped Instructional Units for
Teaching Selected Aspects of Mallet-Played Latin-Americcm and Accessory Percussion
Instruments. Ph.D. Dissertation: Music Education. Indiana University. Bloomington,
IN, 1979. pages 2-3.


6
Research Questions
In order to examine the relationship between percussion method utilized in the
instruction of public school percussionists and the performance requirements of high
school band literature, this study will address three core research questions.
1 To what extent do the skills and concepts taught in the beginning and
intermediate band methods books contribute to the skills required for the performance
of band music of Grades IV-VI difficulty?
A determination of this raises two additional research questions;
2. What is the content of the beginning and intermediate band methods books in
terms of percussion instruments?
3. What are the skills needed for successfully performing the percussion parts in
band music of grades IV-VI difficulty?
Procedures
Percussion books (I-III) from selected beginning/intermediate band methods
were investigated for their content, scope, and educational philosophy, and their practical
application to percussion performance requirements of state band literature.
Examples of percussion methods to be examined in this study include the
following: Feldstein/CyReilly's Yamaha Band Student: A Combined Percussion Book,
Pearson's Standard of Excellence: Comprehensive Band Method, O'Reilly/Williams'
Accent on Achievement, and Rhodes Essential Elements.
Levels III-VI band music listed in state-approved band literature lists published by
groups like the Florida Bandmasters Association was examined for percussion
performance requirements. The works were analyzed for instrumentation needs, rhythmic,
rudiments, technical, harmonic, and melodic aspects.


42
These elements are dissimilar because they represent two discrete levels of
instrumental music curriculum: middle school and high school. Middle school band
methods lead to, but are not directly comparable to, the performance of levels III- VI
band literature. Therefore, certain types of comparative analysis such as canonical
correlation or discriminant analysis were determined to be inappropriate for examination
of the information collected in the study.2
Because of the nature of the study, consideration had to be given to the
examination not only the various components of the books, but also the relationship
between these methods and performance requirements of typical high school band music.
It was for these reasons that descriptive analysis was chosen. Essentially, the study
attempted to determine the method books appropriateness in preparing percussionists
to play moderately advanced and advanced high school band literature.
Research Design
Donald Casey (1992) discusses descriptive research and their appropriateness for
studies in music education. He presents his view of the value of descriptive research in
music education with the following quote:
When description is the primary goal of a research project, that project is
then termed descriptive research all research studies in which a relationship
between variables, as they naturally exist...are...descriptive... a strong
argument can be made that regardless of paradigm and mode, descriptive
research techniques are basic to nearly all inquiry in music education.3
2 Walter R. Borg and Meredith D. Gall. Educational Research: An Introduction (Fifth
Edition). Longman Publishing, New York, New York, 1989. pages 609-612.
3 Donald E Casey. Descriptive Research: Techniques and Procedures. Handbook of
Research on Music Teaching and Learning: A Project of the Music Educators National
Conference (Editor Colwell). Schirmer Books, New York, New York, 1992. page 115.


23
Overmier also advocates switching instruments among the members of the
percussion section in order to provide a more complete and comprehensive musical
experience He states that switching instruments helps to alleviate some of the boredom
extant in contemporary percussion sections and also benefits the band as a whole by
involving all band members in rehearsals.31
John Papastefan (1989) also advocates the inclusion of mallet instruments in public
school percussion instruction. He notes that students who receive early training on mallet
percussion are more likely to exhibit more musical sensitivity and growth than those who
do not.32
Gordon Peters (1966) maintains that percussionists who play keyboard instruments
are better equipped to have successful musical experiences at any level the encounter:
amateur, collegiate or professional. He mentions that requiring percussionists to learn
mallet/keyboard instruments from the onset of instruction can lead to a more enthusiastic
and musically involved percussion section.33
Peters also states that percussionists must be given music requiring note reading
skills to play, and not merely rhythms, further noting that it becomes uninteresting for
percussionists to have as their only role that of accompanist.
He then categorically states that the band director has an educational responsibility
for developing versatile percussionists, and that one way to achieve this is to insist that all
31 Douglas R. Overmier. Training Student Percussionists. The Instrumentalist, 45:
46-53 n3 1990.
32 John Papastefan. The Mallets Make a Difference. The Instrumentalist, 44: 48 nl2
1989.
33 Gordon Peters The Marimba in the Band. The Instrumentalist, 20: 77-8 n6 1966.


73
Five stroke and nine stroke rolls (rudiments) are introduced 67% into this method
book, along with sustained rolls for keyboard instruments. One page is devoted to both
five and nine stroke rolls. Musical examples containing these skills include Smooth As
Glass, which requires rolls in the keyboard instrument part, and an excerpt from
Beethoven's Ode To Joy from Symphony No. 9, which contains five stroke rolls.49
The rim shot, suspended cymbal roll, triangle roll, and playing snare drum with
snares off are introduced beginning 80% through this method book. A total of one page is
allocated to these subjects. Musical examples utilizing these skills and concepts include an
excerpt from Dvorak's Largo from the New World Symphony.50
Book 1 concludes with separate full-page solos for percussion and keyboard
instruments. Suspension is a multiple percussion solo written for snare drum and
suspended cymbal, utilizing flams, paradiddles, nine stroke rolls, and snares on/off 51
Yamaha Band Student-Book 2
Skills, Concepts, and Instruments
Instruction begins with a section devoted to the proper method of tuning of drum
heads. The authors explain the function of the tension rods in the process of adjusting the
pitch of the drum. The rudiment flam paradiddle for snare drum occurs at the 20% point
of this method book, and is included in the duet Dueling Sixteenths.52
49 Feldstein/OReilly-Book 1, pages 20-23.
50 Feldstein/OReilly-Book 1, pages 25-27
51 Feldstein/OReilly-Book 1, pages 31
52 Feldstein/OReilly-Book 2, pages 4-7


47
classroom. Though some students may have received private lessons, it was assumed that
the percentage of those percussionists receiving private instruction was too small to have
much influence on the validity of the study. This assumption is supported by Preston
(1975) and Waa (1965), both of whom found that middle school and high school
percussionists who received private instruction did not score significantly higher on
standardized music tests than those whose instruction was limited to instruction in public
schools.12
One of the areas of concern with regard to survey research is the possibility of
a low response rate among the selected population. According to Fuqua et al. (1983),
individual follow-up of nonrespondents has been found to be the most effective method of
increasing the percentage of response to a survey. 13
In the event of a poor response rate, postcard questionnaires would be mailed to
30 middle schools not on the original survey list. The survey and postcard questionnaire
format was designed to promote ease of completion and response.
Response Rate
Earl Babbie (1983) addressed the issue of response rate of surveys in The
Practice of Social Research. He noted that while the body of inferential statistics
used in connection with survey analysis assumes that all members of the initial sample
complete and return their questionnaires.. .this almost never happens. He goes on to
state that a less than perfect response rate may give the appearance of a random sample
of the original sample.
12 Preston, pages 19-21.
13 Fuqua, et al., page 73.


33
Charies Spohn and John Tatgenhorst (1971) describe the need for improved
training of teachers and percussionists, due to the increasing performance and
interpretation demands of contemporary band literature as well as increasing pressure
on educators to prepare teachers in percussion.60 They also argue the viewpoint that
this task is considerably complicated by the time restrictions of a typical one semester
undergraduate percussion methods course.61
Harry Bartlett and Ronald Holloway (1973) offer the view that percussion
instruction should be developed to serve musical ends, and recommended techniques
generally used by artist-percussionists currently active in music performance. Their Guide
to Teaching Percussion was designed primarily for use as a reference source by educators
involved in preservice and inservice training of future music educators.62
Larry Reeder (1978) discusses the problems of pedagogy in teaching percussion
to future music educators due to the wide and varied numbers of instruments, playing
techniques, and sound production. He states that this type of eclecticism adds to the
confusion of methodologies and produces frustration. Reeder cites the relatively small
number of comprehensive percussion methods available in comparison to those dealing
with the instruction of brass or woodwinds. He also observes that public school band
directors are somewhat less prepared to deal with percussionists than they were with
wind and string players.63
60 Cook, page 1.
61 Spohn and Tatgenhorst, page 3.
62 Harry R. Bartlett and Ronald A. Holloway. Guide to Teaching Percussion (Second
Edition). William C. Brown Company Publishers, Dubuque, IA, 1973. Preface: vii.
63 Reeder, pages 7-8.


75
Independence is explained as the ability to play two lines of music. The authors
give a two-line example in which the right hand plays the higher notes, and the left hand
plays the lower notes. Independence is required in the musical example Our Boys Will
Shine Tonight. Two pages are devoted to this topic.56
Double paradiddle and triple paradiddle (rudiments), and the concept of damping
of muffling bass drum and metallic accessory instruments are introduced 75% into this
method book. The technique of dampening rests in the bass drum part is required in
Soldier's March (Schumann).
The triple paradiddle is included in Rudimentally Yours(Feldstein/0'Reilly), a full
page snare drum solo incorporating many of the rudiments covered in this method book.
One page is allocated to these topics.57
The single ratamacue is introduced 90% through the text. It is featured in
March from the Nutcracker Ballet (Tchaikovsky), a piece also incorporating long
rolls and flams.58
Yamaha Band Student-Book 3
Review Pages
The final book in this method series begins with a review of material from the
previous book; in this portion of the method, students are required to perform etudes
containing previously learned rhythms and key signatures. An example of this is Ab
56 Feldstein/OReilly-Book 2, pages 21-22.
57 Feldstein/OReilly-Book 2, pages 24-25, 31.
58 Feldstein/OReilly-Book 2, pages 27, 31


139
Williams, Kenyon The Role of the Public School Percussion Educator.
Percussive Notes, 35: 46-50 n3 1997.


BIBLIOGRAPHY.
129
APPENDICES
A FORM LETTER 140
B PERCUSSION REQUIREMENTS OF SELECTED
BAND LITERATURE 142
BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH 153
v


66
section are rolls in 3/8 and 6/8 meter, and triple paradiddle for snare drum, which is
utilized in Technique Break, an exercise also featuring flams and seventeen stroke
rolls 29 Content also includes 134 exercises, studies, and musical examples for both
snare drum/percussion and mallet percussion instruments.
Skills, Concepts, and Instruments
The thirteen stroke roll is the first new skill introduced in this method book. It
appears at 27% into the text, and is illustrated in a technical study on the page of its
introduction. One page is devoted to this rudiment.
A basic four-mallet cross grip is featured in the mallet pages of this portion of
the method book. The author devotes one page to this grip, and illustrates holding the
mallets as well as how to play using four mallets. Included is a description of the basic
four-mallet stroke, as well as exercises for developing this technique. Two pages are
allotted for instruction of this skill.30
Music of the Middle Ages and Renaissance is featured in the next section of the
method book, 35% and 37% into the text, respectively. The rudiment single ratamcue,
double ratamacue, and seven stroke roll with triplet primary strokes are introduced in the
snare drum pages. Thoinot Arbeau's The Official Branle features the single ratamacue
as well as the triplet/seven stroke roll. Teilman Susato's Bergerette Sans Roche utilizes
the double ratamacue. Four pages are devoted to instruction of these topics.31
29 Bruce Pearson. Standard of Excellence: Comprehensive Band Method:
Drums and Mallet Percussion-Book 3. Neil A. Kjos Music Company, Publisher,
San Diego, CA: 1995. Author's Forward and Review Section, pages 1-8
Pearson-Book 3, pages 9-10.
31 Pearson-Book 3, pages 11-14


28
a result, the question of which grip to teach beginning percussionists is a frequently
discussed topic among contemporary percussion teachers.
Bartlett and Holloway (1973) advocate the use of matched grip for all beginning
percussion students, citing the elimination of the awkward and unnatural left-hand grip
of traditional rudiment-style playing, leading to the facilitation of learning other percussion
instruments. They contend that because matched grip is nearly identical to grips used for
timpani and mallet percussion instruments, it is thus unnecessary to teach
a different grip when learning a new instrument.46
Larry Reeder (1994) indicates that traditional grip on snare drum is often viewed
by teachers as more difficult to teach than is matched grip. He notes that this is due to
the fact that traditional grip requires different grips for left and right hands, a situation
which requires two separate, distinct performing and instructional techniques.47 In
addition, Reeder cites the prevailing view of many contemporary percussion instructors
and band directors that matched grip should be taught to beginning percussionists on snare
drum because it transfers more readily to other percussion instruments than does
traditional grip. This allows for consistency in instruction of performance techniques on
all percussion instruments.48
John Papastefan (1990) also advocates the use of matched grip in preference to
traditional grip. He remarks that use of the same muscle groups for both hands allow for
quicker development of technique on snare drum. Papastefan also cites the ease of
46 Bartlett and Holloway, page 51.
47 Reeder, pages 17-19.
48Ibid.


127
containing skills specific to these instalments e g. dampening strokes on orchestra bells,
pitch changes on timpani, should be added in proportion to the reduction in rudiments.
Recommendations for Further Research
The goal of developing percussion curricula for public schools that addresses the
needs of students, teachers, instrumental music programs, and the community is one that
requires on-going investigation and research. The continued musical growth of music
students requires a cooperative effort on the part of students, teachers, and parents.
Further information regarding the implementation of public school percussion
curricula can be accrued through continued investigative study. Following is a discussion
of recommendations for further research in the area of percussion methods relationship
to performance requirements of band literature
Recommendation #1: Investigation of the performance requirements of orchestral
music and percussion ensemble. The parameters of this study dictated the delimitation of
examining Grades III- VI band literature. An examination of the wealth of percussion
parts in orchestral music, and the almost limitless combinations of instruments and
arrangements for percussion ensemble could provide a more eclectic as well as probing
examination of the relationship between the content of percussion method books and
performance requirements of typically programmed high school instrumental literature.
Recommendation #2: A study of the development of teacher training in percussion
in skills classes at the undergraduate level. In order to have a comprehensive percussion
curricula in public schools, it is essential to produce music educators with enough
fundamental knowledge of percussion instruments and percussion education to teach all
areas of percussion to public school students. An examination of percussion skills classes
in American universities would add valuable knowledge in this area.


100
Table 4-4 (cont .)
Band Method Content
Yamaha Band Student-Book 2
Skill/Technique
Introduced
Paaes Allotted Coverage
Integrated in Music
Flam Paradiddle
20%
1/2
Moderate
Occasionally
Multiple Bounce Roll 33%
1/2
Moderate
Frequently
Drag
44%
1/2
Moderate
Extensively
Flamacue
55%
1/2
Moderate
Seldom
Double Paradiddle
75%
1/2
Moderate
Seldom
Triple Paradiddle
75%
1/2
Moderate
Seldom
Single Ratamacue
90%
1/2
Moderate
Occasionally
Instrument
Tambourine
40%
1
Thorough
Extensive
Special Techniques
Tuning Drums
15%
1/2
Thorough
N/A
Dampen/Muffling
78%
1
Thorough
Frequently
Tambourine Roll
50%
1
Thorough
Occasionally
Tonal Properties
67%
1
Moderate
Seldom
Independence
70%
1
Moderate
Frequently
Yamaha Band Student-Book 3
Skill/Technique
Introduced
Paaes Allotted Coveraae
Integrated in Music
7-Stroke Roll
30%
1
Moderate
Frequently
Drag Paradiddle #1
52%
1/2
Moderate
Seldom
Paradiddle-Diddle
67%
1/2
Cursory
Occasionally
Drag Paradiddle#2
90%
1
None**
Extensively* *
**Drag Paradiddle #2 is used extensively on page 27 (Rudimental Thunder); it is not
introduced in this method book series.
Essential Elements-Book 1
Skill/Technique Introduced Pages Allotted Coverage Integrated in Music
Multiple Bounce 11% 1 Thorough Extensively
Right Hand Lead 20% 1/2 Cursory Extensively


25
Loren Waa (1965) examines the effect of heterogeneous band methods and private
instruction on the musical achievement scores on Seashore Measures of Musical Talents
and the Forman Music Notation Test. He notes that while students who receive private
lessons scored higher on portions of the Seashore Measures and Watkins-Famum tests,
the results indicate no significant difference in overall test scores.37
James Shugert (1969) examines the effects of class and private instruction on the
musical achievement of beginning band students in Connecticut public schools. His
findings indicate that students who receive private instruction score no higher on musical
aptitude and musical achievement tests than students taught in heterogeneous classes
He states that results were essentially the same regardless of instrument.38
Andrew Preston's (1975) study is a replication of Waa (1965) and investigates
the musical backgrounds of beginning percussionists in North Carolina public schools
His hypothesis states that a supplementary book for beginning percussion students is
needed for use in conjunction with the percussion book of the band method39
As a result of his investigation, Preston noted that his data indicated that brass and
woodwind players had higher expectation to develop musically beyond what was expected
of percussionists. Preston also includes in his study suggestions for the improvement of
basic skills and concepts for beginning percussionists. His suggestions address several
37 Loren Roger Waa. A n Experimental Study of Class and Private Methods of Instruction
in Instrumental Music Ed.D Thesis: Music. University of Illinois Champaign, IL. 1965.
38 James Malcolm Shugert. An Experimental Investigation of Heterogeneous Class and
Private Methods of Instruction with Beginning Instrumental Music Students. Ed.D
Thesis: Music. University of Illinois, Champaign, IL. 1969.
39 Preston, page 21.


5
Purpose of Study
The purpose of the study is to gather information related to the following
fundamental question regarding the teaching of percussion: Are the concepts and
techniques taught to beginning and intermediate percussion students consistent with
what they actually need to know in order to successfully perform music typically
performed in high school band concert situations?
In essence, the study is a search for information with which to analyze the
usefulness of beginning-to-intermediate percussion curricula (elementary through middle
school) for the percussion performance needs associated with contemporary high school
(Grades III through VI) band literature.
This study is intended to the degree to which what is being taught to student
percussionists in the classroom of public school band programs prepares percussionists
for the actual performance requirements of representative concert, festival, as well as
solo/ensemble music. Thus, several crucial topics impacting contemporary public school
percussion instruction are covered:
1. specialization
2. beginning percussion instruction
3. implementation of mallet instruments into public school
percussion curriculum
4. matched-grip versus traditional grip
5 implementation of comprehensive curriculum for public school
percussionists
6. training of undergraduate non-percussionist music majors
in percussion skills class


110
Table 5-1 (coni.)
Instruments Used in 40-75% of Selected Band Literature
Instrument
Percentage
Suspended Cymbal
65%
Bells
2%
Triangle
42%
Instruments Used in 20-40% of Selected Band Literature
Instrument
Percentage
Xylophone
37%
Tambourine
27%
Chimes
22%
Instruments Used in 5-20% of Selected Band Literature
instrument.
Percentage
Gong
19%
Woodblock
16%
Field Drum
09%
Marimba
08%
Temple Blocks
07%
Wind Chimes
06%
Instruments Used in Less Than 5% of Selected Band Literature
Instrument
Percentage
Bongos
04%
Bell Tree
02%
Castanets
04%
Finger Cymbals
02%
Claves
04%
Giro
02%
Cowbell
04%
Mark Tree
02%
Crotales
04%
Tenor Drum
02%
Ratchet
04%
Timbales
02%
Slap Stick
04%
Vibraslap
02%
Sleigh Bells
04%
Alto Drum
01%
Sandpaper Blocks
03%
Cabasa
01%
Sizzle Cymbal
03%
High-Hat
01%
Maracas
03%
Indian Drum
01%
Celeste
03%
Jingle Bell Jar
01%
Anvil
03%
Piano
01%
Popgun
01%
T-Bar Wind Chimes
01%
Trash Can Lid
01%
Wind Chimes (Bamboo)
01%


126
percussionists, college instructors, and other community resources e g. local libraries and
music stores could thus be added to the high school curriculum with a beneficial results for
directors and students, and the community.
Recommendation #3: Create rehearsal time for development of percussion
ensemble at the middle school and high school level. This allows students to rehearse and
perform a wide variety of literature ideally suited for their continued musical growth, and
adds another dimension to the percussion curricula of public school instrumental music
programs.
Recommendation #4. The training of undergraduate music education students
should be expanded to two semesters. Because of the eclectic nature of percussion
instruments and their attendant skills and techniques, it is not possible to cover an
adequate amount of topics for teacher preparation in one semester.
Extending the undergraduate percussion skills class would allow instructors more
time for instruction of fundamental concepts and skills (e g. snare drum grips). It would
also give students an opportunity to gain experience in specialized areas of percussion
education that could not otherwise be adequately covered in a one-semester course (e g.
timpani, marching percussion, percussion technology).
Recommendation #5: The content of percussion books of band methods should
be consistent with the performance requirements of levels III-VI band literature It is
critical that emphasis on snare drum rudiments reflect the performance requirements of
these levels of band literature, and that those rudiments seldom utilized in representative
band literature be included in exercises supplementary to the main curriculum.
In addition, techniques and skills for mallet instruments and timpani need to
be included in the fundamental percussion curriculum. Exercises and musical examples


50
The question of whether special techniques were covered in the percussion books
was also examined. Special performance requirements include such points as the use of
brushes for snare drum, use of French-grip for timpani, and a four-mallet technique for
keyboard percussion.
Content Analysis of Band Literature
Content analyses were made of the 100 pieces of contemporary band literature
most frequently programmed by public high school band directors. In order to collect a
representative selection of level III- VI literature, every third title on the appropriate list
was selected for examination. Each work was analyzed in four large categories:
1. The number of percussion players required for performance.
2. Which percussion instruments were required for performance.
3. Any special technique requirements such as four-mallet parts on marimba,
thumb-roll on tambourine, or special instrument requirements such as celeste, thunder
sheet, or wind machine
4. The relative musical importance of percussion part in relation to the band work
as a whole. An example of this is whether the snare drum was musically integrated into
the musical texture of the piece or was primarily used as an accompanying part.
Use of Matrix
A matrix was employed in order to examine the content of the selected percussion
books at the macro-level. The resulting information was used to answer the three
fundamental content analysis questions mentioned in Chapter I. The matrix also provided
a method for comparison/contrast of two different sets of data:
1.) The content of the percussion books of band methods series books.
2.) The percussion performance requirements of contemporary band literature


85
The snare drum rudiments flamadiddie and double paradiddle are introduced 10%
and 13% into this method book, respectively. The authors include illustrations of both
rudiments, along with written definitions. The bass drum roll is also introduced in this
portion of the text.
Flamadiddles occur along with flam taps in the musical example Glow Worm.
Double paradiddles are incorporated in A Change of Key. Two pages are allocated
for instruction of these topics.88
The drag, appears at the 22% point of book 2. Included in its definition is an
illustration of the proper method of sticking. The drag appears in the musical example
A-Roving. One page is devoted instruction of this rudiment .89
Flam accents and flam tap in 6/8 meter are introduced 57% into the text. Both
rudiments are utilized in the musical example Lazy Day. They are the final rudiments
introduced in this method book series. One-half page is allocated to these rudiments.90
Instruments
Giro is the first instrument introduced in this method book, occurring 10%
through the text. The authors provide a brief description and history of this Latin-
American instrument, along with performance suggestions that instruct the student on the
accepted method of producing a tone on this instrument. The giro is incorporated in the
musical example Salsa Siesta. One page is devoted to this instrument.91
88 Rhodes, et. al. Book 2, pages 4-A, 5 A.
89 Rhodes, et. al. Book 2, page 7-A.
90 Rhodes, et. al. Book 2, page 15-A.


147
Band Literature-Level V (cont)
Selection
Masque
(W. Francis McBeth)
Players
7
Instruments
SD. BD. CC. SC. Tn.
Tamb. Timp (5). TB.
B, X, V
Techniques
SD: Single-stroke rolls, Snares on/
off. BD: Rolls (Ext)+use of
timp mallets. SC: Rolls, Tamb.
Lay flat and play with s.d. sticks
in middle of head, Timp: PC-4.
Ostinato. sfe < (Ext) Gliss+
Play with wooden end of mallets.
X: Ostinato. TB: Prominent (D)
B/V: DS (Ext)
Role
4
Moorside March
(Gustav Holst)
3-4
SD. BD. CC. Tri.
Timp (3)
SD: Rolls, Tn: Roll
2
An Original Suite
(Gordon Jacob)
4
SD, BD, CC, Timp (2)
SD: Drags+Solo (E), BD: Dampen
Pageant
(Vincent Persichetti)
3
SD. BD, FD. CC
SD: Soli (M)+On Rim.
Five-stroke Ruffs (Ext)
4
Pageantry
(Robert Washburn)
5-6
SD. BD. CC, FD,
Timp (4). B
SD: Flams, Drags, BD: Roll, SC:
Roll, Timp: PC-6, B: Soli (2)
4
Praises
(W. Francis McBeth)
5
SD, BD, Timp (4)
CC, SC. B, BRD
SD Flams, BD. Flams, SC: Roll
CC: Choke, B: DS, Grace notes
Timp: PC-4+Dampen, BRD: DS
4
Sketches on a Tudor
Psalm
(Fisher Tull)
6-7
SD, FD, BD, SC. CC,
Tri.WB. Timbales,
Tamb. SS.Timp (4)
Gong, B, X, TB,
Celeste
SD: Flams (Ext), Drags, FD: Flams,
SC: Scrape w/metal rod. Tamb: play
w/hard xylo mallets, Timp: Solo+w/
hard mallets, Dampen (Ext)B: DS,
X: DS, Grace notes (Ext) (MD),
TB: Solo
4
Slavonic Dances
(Antonin Dvorak arr.
Cumow)
4
BD, CC, Tri,
Timp (4)
BD: Dampen (Ext), Tri: Roll+
Dampen (Ext), Timp: PC-13,
Grace notes (Ruff), Dampen
3
Symphonic Overture
(James Barnes)
6-8
SD, BD, SC, CC, Tamb,
Tri, SLB, Castanets. SB
SD: Flams, BD: Dampen,
Tamb: Shake (Ext), SC: Play
3
WB, Giro, Pop Gun. w/butt end of s.d stick, X:
Timp (4) X, B, V Prominent (D), V: 2 and 3
mallet sections, (Ext), Gliss (D)
Timp: PC-3+Dampen (Ext) (D)


98
Table 4-4 (cont.)
Method Book Content
Standard of Excellence-Book 1
ivi-aueis
Rolls
muuuuceu
72%
rages nnoiu
1
;a coverage
Moderate
mtegrateo in music
Frequently
Double Stops
89%
1/2
Moderate
Occasionally
Instruments
Bells/Snare Drum
Beginning
2
Thorough
Extensively
Bass Drum
10%
1/2
Moderate
Extensively
Suspended Cymbal
95%
1/2
Cursory
Frequently
Standard of Excellence-Book 2
Skill/Technique
Introduced
Pases Allotted Coverage
Integrated in Music
Double Paradiddle
20%
1/2
Cursory
Seldom
Drag
25%
1/2
Cursory
Extensively
Single Drag Tap
33%
1/2
Cursory
Frequently
Instruments
Chimes
25%
1
Cursory
Seldom
Marimba
96%
1
Cursory
Occasionally
Xylophone
98%
1
Cursory
Occasionally
Standard of Excellence-Book 3
Skill/Technique
Introduced
Pages Allotted Coverage
Integrated in Music
Triple Ratamacue 23%
13-Stroke Roll 29%
Single Ratamacue 38%
Double Ratamacue 40%
7-Stroke Roll-Triplet 40%
Triple Ratamacue 45%
Trill 48%
4-Stroke Ruff 64%
Drag Taradiddle 70%
Double Drag Tap 77%
15-Stroke Roll 81%
11-Stroke Roll 88%
1/2 Cursory
1 Thorough
1 Moderate
1/2 Moderate
1/2 Thorough
1/2 Cursory
1 Moderate
1/2 Moderate
1/2 Cursory
1/2 Cursory
1/2 Moderate
1 Thorough
Seldom
Occasionally
Frequently
Occasionally
Occasionally
Seldom
Occasionally
Frequently
Seldom
Seldom
Occasionally
Seldom


55
Table 4-1
Return Rates of Postcard Survey
Overall (N=150)
Illinois
64%
32/50
Florida
56%
28/50
Massachusetts
50%
25/50
Totals
57%
85/150
Table 4-2
Return Rates by Region
N=150
Illinois
Champaign/Macon
S angamon/T azewell
Chicago Metro
50% 7/14
87% 14/16
55% 11/20
Massachusetts Bristol/Norfolk
Bamstable/Plymouth
Boston Metro
71% 10/14
53% 7/13
34% 8/23
Florida
Alachua County
Pinellas County
Miami Metro
77%, 10/13
61% 14/23
29% 4/14
Totals 57% 85/150
Current Band Methods
Used in Public Middle Schools
Ten contemporary band methods were listed on the postcard survey. Four
band methods comprised 90.6% of responses for the 85 returned questionnaires:
Yamaha Band Student, Standard of Excellence, Essential Elements, and Accent on
Achievement. Results were predominantly regional, with Standard of Excellence and


83
Tambourine is also introduced in this portion of the text. The authors list three
ways to play this instrument in order to achieve different sounds:
1.) Soft sounds-fingertips on the head
2.) Medium loud sounds-palm side of fist or straight fingers
3.) Loud sounds-knuckles on head83
Sleigh bells and suspended cymbal are the final instruments introduced in this
method book at the 48% and 51% through the text, respectively. These instruments
are given a written descriptions, and the authors also include performance suggestions.
One and one-half pages to these instruments.84
Book 1 concludes with four multi-page arrangements featuring combinations of
percussion instruments. An example of this is Can-Can (Offenbach arr. Lepper), a work
for percussion ensemble written for five or more players. Instrumentation is as follows:
1.) Keyboard percussion-1 or more players
2.) Snare Drum/Bass Drum-2 or more players
3 .) Crash Cymbal/Woodblock-1 or 2 players
4.) Triangle/Tambourine- 1 or 2 players
This piece features right hand lead and playing on the rim for snare drum, as well
as triangle and tambourine rolls. The keyboard percussion part includes double stops.
Performance requirements for this piece also include switching back and forth between
different instruments by one player. This is the fourth musical example containing a mallet
part is this method book.85
83 Rhodes, et, al. Book 1, page 13-A.
84 Rhodes, et. al. Book 1, pages 13-B, 14-B.


4
areas such as scales, clefs, and phrasing, which are typically not included in percussion
instruction.
At the same time, however, Buggert maintains that percussionists should
also learn musical reading. This indicates a pattern of the duality with which
percussionists have been historically viewed.10
Kenneth Mueller (1972), in a discussion concerning college freshmen
percussionists, states that it is almost impossible to find a high school percussion
student capable of playing all of the percussion instruments. He further emphasizes
that his statistics revealed that 25 percent of incoming college freshmen percussion
students could not adequately play the snare drum, 75 percent could not perform
competently on timpani, and that 94 percent of all freshmen percussion students
lacked minimal skills on mallet percussion instruments.11
Mueller's observations support Colwell's position that public school students
have historically not received adequate and appropriate instruction on all percussion
instruments. His observation that there is an apparent lack of both comprehensive
percussion instruction and a suitable curriculum for public school percussionists
provides a starting point for the investigation of what percussionists are being taught
percussion curriculum and percussion performance requirements of typical concert band
literature.
10 Robert Buggert.The Beginning Drummer. The Instrumentalist, 11: 67-8 n3 1956.
11 Kenneth A. Mueller. Teaching Total Percussion Parker Publishing Company, Inc.,
West Nyack, NJ, 1972. pages 19-20.


63
example Laredo (Mexican Folk Song) on the page of its introduction. The double
paradiddle is also introduced at this point. This rudiment in not featured in the remainder
of this method book. A total of one and on-half pages are allocated to the instruction of
these topics.20
The rudiments drag and single drag tap are introduced 20% into this method book
on the snare drum pages, along with the first appearance of a three-voice mallet part, in
an excerpt from Brahm's Academic Festival March-Trio. The flamacue, another snare
drum rudiment, is presented 29% into the text of this method book.21
Also included in this portion of the method book is a musical excerpt from Sibelius'
Finlandia which features snare drum/bass drum and mallet performing double stops, and
an exercise Tor Snare Drum Only which implements snare drum, bass drum, and a
suspended cymbal part consisting of repeated eighth notes.22
For the first time in this series, the method book includes a two page percussion
solo/ensemble for both snare drum and mallet instruments. Turkish March- from The
Ruins of Athens (Beethoven arr Pearson), contains a bass drum/snare drum part
incorporating several of the skills and concepts from the preceding portions of book 2.23
The snare drum pages include the rudiments five stroke roll, drag, flamacue, and
flam, as well as playing on the rim. The mallet part utilizes double stops, accents, and a
20 Pearson-Book 2, pages 5-7.
21 Pearson-Book 2, pages 8-10, 14.
22 Pearson-Book 2, pages 17-19.
23Pearson-Book 2, pages 20-3.


58
The content of this series of method book consists of 120-155 exercises and
musical example for both percussion and mallet percussion instruments. Each book
utilizes a double-page format, with snare drum/percussion on the left-hand side and mallet
instruments on the right
Skills, concepts and instruments are introduced in color boxes at the top of the
page, and are also demonstrated in special boxes at the bottom of the page, entitled
For Drums Only of For Mallets Only. Rudiments are typically included in musical
examples one to three pages after their introduction. Instruments are generally included
in musical examples on the same page as their introduction.
A prominent feature of these books is the manner in which rolls are presented.
The multiple bounce is introduced before double bounce, and all rolls are presented in
multiple bounce form when they are initially discussed. Starting with the special pages in
book 1 and the beginning of book 2, rolls are presented in both multiple bounce and
double bounce form.5
Each method book in this series contains special pages entitled Excellerators,
which include exercises for specific instruments. Examples of this include Excellerators
for Snare Drums Only, which includes exercises containing the previously covered five,
nine, and seventeen stroke rolls, and Excellerators for Mallets Only, which incorporate
scale studies, rolls, and sticking exercises 6
5 Bruce Pearson. Standard of Excellence: Comprehensive Band Method: Drums and
Mallet Percussion-Book 1. Neil A. Kjos Music Company Publisher, San Diego, CA, 1995,
pages 39-41.
6 Pearson-Book 1, page 41.


113
Table 5-2
Performance Techniques of Band Literature
Instrument
Technique
Frequency
Snare Drum
Solo
09%
(cont.)
On Rim
08%
4-Stroke Ruff
07%
9-Stroke Roll
06%
Rolls without release
05%
Rudimental Rolls
03%
Drag Tap
03%
6-Stroke Roll
02%
Flamacue
02%
Flam+Roll
02%
Rim Shot
02%
6-Stroke Ruff
01%
Muffled Head
01%
Ratamcue
01%
One Hand Sticking
01%
Lesson #25 (Inverted)
01%
Single Stroke Roll
01%
Flams played with brushes
01%
Roll with brushes
01%
Play on rim with butt end off bell mallets
01%
Bass Drum
Dampen
23%
Rolls
16%
Grace Notes
06%
Use of 2 beaters
06%
Muffled Head
03%
On Rim
03%
Play on center of head
01%
2 Players
01%
Play with timpani mallets
01%
Dampen head as taut as possible (pitch change)
01%
Lay flat and dampen
Table 5-2 (cont.)
Performance Techniques of Band Literature
01%
Instrument
Technique
Frequency
Timpani
Pitch Changes
43%
Dampen
34%
Rolls
18%
Muffle
03%
Solo
03%
Double Stops
03%


148
Band Literature-Level V (cont.)
Selection
Symphonic Variations:
In Dulci Jubilo
C.T. Smith)
Symphonic Variations
on a Theme of Purcell
(Edward J. Madden)
Serenade for Band
(Vincent Persichetti)
Toccata Marziale
(R Vaughan Williams)
Upon These Grounds
(John Tatgenhorst)
Valdres
(Johanees Hansen
arr. Cumow)
Variations on a
Shaker Melody
(Aaron Copland)
Armenian Dances
(Loris O. Chobanian)
Selection
Armies of Otserf
(David R. Holsinger)
Elayers Instruments
4-5 SD. BD, CC, Try
TBL (8) Tamb.
Gong, X
4 SD, BD. SC, CC, Tri,
FC. B, Timp (3)
Techmques
SD: Flams, Drags.
Tamb: ShakeX: DS (Ext).
CC: Choke
BD: Dampen (Ext). CC: Choke
B: Prominent (M)
Role
4
3
4-5 SD. BD FD, CC,
Timp (3)
4 SD. BD, CC, Tri.
Timp (2)
SD:Four-stroke Ruff
Timp: PC-3
SD: Drags. Flams, Timp:
Dampen (MD)
4
3
6
SD, FD. BD. CC. SC.
Tri, Tamb, Gong,
Timp (4). B. X, M,
TB
SD: Rolls (Ext), FD: Solo (E) 3
BD: 2 players (Rolls) (Ext),
Tri: Rolls, Tamb: Sixteenth notes
(Ext), On knee, CC: Choke. Timp: PC-6
Dampen (D), B: Melody, Prominent
(MD), M: Melody, Rolls (Ext) (E)
4 SD, BD, CC, X+
Hand Bells
SD: Solo (D)-Flams,
Rolls, X: Solo, Timp Dampen
Use of Hand Bells
3
5 Timp (3), Tri, B, X X: DS (Ext), B: Prominent
3
Band Literature-Level VI
6-7 SD, BD, CC, SC, Tri,
Tamb (2) SLB, WB,
Timp (4)
B, X, TB, Gong
SD: Rolls w/out release, snares on/ 4
off. Flams Drags (Ext), BD:Dampen
Roll, TT(2), TT(3), Lg Tamb on TT(2),
Tamb Timp (head), TTs: Flams, Prominent
(MD), Tamb: Shake, SLB. Dampen
Timp: PC-4 (MD), X. Gliss, Grace notes (D)
Players Instruments
8-10 SD, BD, SC (2) Tri (3)
sm m, lg, TT: 2 Sets
(6 total), FD. TD.CC,
CB, SZC TBL (5), FC,
Tri (3): Sm, med, lg,
Gong, Crotales, Tamb
Techniques
BD:Dampen, Tri: ad lib pattern,
Stick-noise tapping, (3 players)
SZC: Choke, Jingle Bell Jar:
Slowly roll over and over,
Water Gong: Strike and immerse
in tub of water, CC: After crash.
Role
4


7
The results of the examination of band literature were then compared with
the curricula presented in the method books. This comparison is an essential part
of determining the degree to which early classroom instruction provides the essential
preparation for students to meet the performance requirements of moderate to difficult
band literature typically performed at the high school level.
It was also necessary to investigate whether elementary and intermediate
percussion curricula provide the foundation for students to be able to achieve a level
of performance suitable for the performance of high school band literature.
In order to accomplish this, a survey of percussion books used in selected middle
school band programs was implemented to determine what method books are currently
being used for beginning and intermediate percussion instruction.
Content analyses were performed on the percussion books of the selected band
methods. The categories examined included the amount of time devoted to each of the
four basic performance areas: snare drum, timpani, mallet percussion, and accessory
percussion. The sequence, practicality, and clarity of the material was also examined,
as were special pages devoted to a particular skill or instrument.
The final portion of the study is devoted to a discussion of suggestions for
improving the content of elementary to intermediate percussion method books.
Assumptions for the Study
1. While some probability exists that a small number of high school band directors
do use percussion method books for instruction, the assumption was made that the
percentage was negligible. This fact is supported by Andrew Preston (1975), whose
results indicate that the most prevalent shortcoming with regard to percussion instruction


39
Fred Grumley (1983) notes that beginning band method books frequently place
percussionists at a disadvantage with regard to developmental music skills compared with
brass and woodwind instrumentalist. He attributes this problem to a lack of training on
mallet percussion instruments in addition to an overemphasis on snare drum
technique and rudiments. Grumley further states that inclusion of melodic instruments
in the curriculum of beginning percussionist at the start of instruction provides a stable
harmonic and melodic foundation, thus contributing to the development of musical growth
and comprehensive musicianship among percussionists.81
The Percussive Arts Society is a strong advocate of the concept of comprehensive
percussion instruction in public schools. They maintain that students need to be trained in
all four major areas of percussion performance: snare drum, timpani, mallet/keyboard
percussion, and accessory percussion. They further state that this concept should pervade
all areas of percussion instruction, from the initial lesson in elementary school through
high school.82
According to The Percussive Arts Society's Education Committee, it is of
paramount importance to educate and inform students, teachers, as well as other musicians
of the musical benefits that result from the implementation of a comprehensive percussion
curriculum for all public school percussion students.83
81 Fred Grumley. Mallet Instruments Challenge Beginning Percussionists. Music
Educators Journal, 70: 55 nl 1983.
82 Percussion Education: A Source Book of Concepts and Information. Education
Committee of P.A S., Lawton, OK, 1990.
83Ibid.


143
Band Literature-Level m (cont.)
Selection
Players
Instruments
Techniques
Role
3
Hudson River
(John O'Reilly)
4-5
SD. BD, CC, SC, TT
Timp (3)
CC: Choke. Timp: PC-3, Rolls
Dampen. Prominent (MD)
Invincia Overture
(Jared Spears)
3-4
SD. BD. SC. TT (3)
Tri. Maracas, B
Timp (2)
SD: Flams. Drags, SC: On dome,
TT: Play on center of heads.
Timp: Play on center of heads, B: DS
3
Into The Storm
(Robert W. Smith)
7
SD. BD. CC (2 pr)
SC. Tamb. TT (4)
Timp (2), B. X. WC
BD: Rolls, CC: Choke (Ext), Tamb:
Shake (Ext), X: DS, Prominent (MD)
B: DS, WC: Extended Roll (Gliss)
TT: DS. Prominent
4
Night On
Bald Mountain
(Modest Mussorgsky/
arr. Conley)
4
SD, BD. CC. Gong,
Timp (2). TB, B
SD: One-hand sticking, 9-stroke rolls
BD: Dampen/Choke, Use of 2 beaters
CC: Choke, SC:Play w/s.d. stick+Choke.
Timp: PC-1, Dampen Solo (Ext)
4
Novena
(James Swearingen)
4-5
SD, BD, SC. Timp (3)
TB, B, Tamb
SD.Rim-shots, SC: Choke,
Timp: Solo (E), PC-2 Tamb: Shake
4
Richland Overture
(John O'Reilly)
3
SD, BD, CC. WB,
Tamb
SD: Flams, Rolls, CC: Choke
Tamb: Prominent
3
Tunbridge Overture
(James D. Ployhar)
4
SD. BD. CC, Timp (3), B SD Solo, CC: Choke, Timp: Dampen
3
Three Ayres
(Hugh M. Stuart)
3
SD. BD, Tri
SD: Flams, 4-stroke ruffs,
Rolls (Ext), Tri: Choke
3
Band Literature-Level IV
Adagio for Winds
(Elliot Del Borgo)
1
SC
SC: Roll
2
American Folk
Rhapsody #2
(Clare E. Grundman)
4-5
SD, BD, CC,
Timp (2), X, TB, B
SD Drags, Flams, Timp: Dampen
SC Roll, X: DS, Gliss
4
American Folk
Rhapsody #4
(Clare E. Grundman)
6
SD, BD. CC, SC, Tri,
WB, TBL, Timp (3), X
WB: Solo, CC: Choke, Timp:
Dampen (Ext), X: Solo w/picc (M)
4


61
portion of the book also contains the introduction of the seventeen stroke roll for snare
drum, and double stops for mallet instruments.14
Sticking With It, a multiple percussion solo written for snare drum, occurs
75% into the method book. This pieces utilize rolls, accents, and sixteenth-eighth note
combination, as well as playing on the rim of the snare drum. The rim shot is also
introduced at this juncture.15
Double stops for mallet instruments and the seventeen stroke roll, a rudiment are
introduced simultaneously 80% through the text. Both skills are incorporated in musical
examples one page after their introduction, with seventeen stroke rolls featured in the
Just Fine, and double stops utilized in Lowell Masons Chorale.16
Specialized Pages
Following the conclusion of dual instruction, this method book features a
section consisting of advanced studies for both snare drum and mallet instruments entitled
Excellerators For Snare Drum Only and Excellerators For Mallets Only. This section
includes rhythmic studies and rudimental exercises for snare drum and
scale studies, along with sticking exercises for mallet instruments.17
The final pages of this method book include the International Drum Rudiments
of the Percussive Arts Society. These pages also contain color illustrations of bells,
14 Pearson-Book 1, pages 27-33.
13 Pearson-Book 1, pages 36-37.
16 Pearson-Book 1, pages 32-33.
17 Pearson-Book 1, pages 39-45.


86
Timpani are introduced 36% through this method book. A brief written
description, as well as their function as tonal percussion instruments is provided, and the
explanation that timpani parts are written in bass clef. The authors include suggestions for
tuning pedal timpani e g. Use an electronic tuner .lightly tap your fingers on the head
of one drum and compare . pitch(es) The authors include suggestions as to what type of
mallets are appropriate for timpani.92
Timpani appear in the musical example Shell Be Cornin Round The Mountain.
This piece is written for two timpani tuned to an interval of a perfect fifth. Students are
instructed to ask their teacher for assistance with pitch changes and tuning. One-half page
is devoted to instruction of this instrument.93
Special Techniques
Bass drum roll is introduced 12% into the text. The authors include suggestions
for performing this skill. Bass drum roll is included in the musical example Glow Worm.
One-half page is allocated to this skill.94
The triangle roll is introduced 46% into this method book. An explanation of how
to perform this skill is provided (.. .using rapid. .motion between the bottom and the side).
The triangle roll is incorporated in the musical example English Dance. One-half page is
allocated for this skill.95
92 Rhodes, et. al. Book 2, page 9-B.
93 Ibid.
94 Rhodes, et. al. Book 2, page 5-A.
95 Rhodes, et. al. Book 2, page 12-A.


51
The format of the matrix was similar to that employed by Larry Reeder (1994) in
his comparison of teaching methods used in undergraduate percussion skills classes. Data
from each percussion book and band work were arranged on the matrix according to
category.17 The information was then positioned on a grid-chart so that the data would be
accessible for examination.
For example, percussion books were examined for the specific snare drum
rudiments covered, as well as when they were introduced in the instructional sequence.
The point in the method book, at which mallet percussion instruments were introduced, as
well as key signatures, scales, etudes, and clefs were categorized in the matrix.
Prominent features with regard to percussion performance requirements and
instrumentation needs contained in the band literature were also included in the matrix.
Such features might be the number and type of non-traditional percussion instruments
such as Tibetan prayer rocks, Brazilian rainstick, or instruments requiring musical
instrument digital interface (MIDI) technology.
Analysis and Description of Data
The data categorized in the matrix were then examined for both similarities and
differences in the areas of content, sequence, amount of time spent on each area, and
clarity of presentation. This was done in order to determine which percussion method
books provided the best preparation for percussion performance requirements of medium
difficult and difficult high school band wind ensemble literature.
17 Reeder, page 13.


43
Casey further recommends survey studies as a logical choice when a researcher
examines a portion of the area in the belief that the section under scrutiny will provide
information that is relatively descriptive of the entire area of study. He states that studies
of this nature are properly termed surveys, and he cites two basic types: interview and
questionnaire. 4
Walter Borg and Meredith Gall (1989) note that information obtained from
descriptive studies can provide crucial insight as to what actually happens in public school
classrooms. They state that descriptive research is an appropriate investigation tool for
recording phenomena such as occur in public schools.5 They also note that certain types
of descriptive research such as surveys are valuable in exploring the relationships between
two or more variables.6
According to Babbie (1983), a survey is an appropriate research device when
the intent of the study is to describe, explain, or explore. He notes that surveys are
typically used in studies using individuals as the units of analysis, but also states that
surveys can be used for other units of analysis providing that some individuals are used
as respondents. Babbie notes that questionnaires are essential to and most directly
associated with survey research.7
4 Earl Babbie. The Practice of Social Research (Third Edition), Wadsworth Publishing
Company, Belmont, CA, 1983 pages 609-612.
5 Borg and Gall, page 419.
6 Ibid.
7 Babbie, page 209.


141
APPENDIX A (cont.)
In order to complete the survey, please check the box representing the band
method currently used at your school and drop the stamped, self-addressed postcard
in the mail. There is a space provided for writing in a method title that is not listed.
I will be happy to send you a summary of the survey results. You may either
write or e-mail your request. Thank you very much for your time and consideration.
Sincerely,
James Ackman
University of Florida
ack3jjk@aol.com
Enclosure


115
Table 5-3 (cont.)
Performance Techniques of Band Literature
Instrument
Technique
Freauencv
Bells
Double Stops
12%
Solo
05%
Gliss
02%
Grace notes
02%
Double-stop Roll
01%
Xylophone
Double Stops
09%
Rolls
07%
Solo
06%
Gliss
04%
Grace notes
01%
Double-stop roll
01%
4-Mallets
01%
Vibraphone
Double Stops
06%
Pedaling
05%
Dampening
04%
4-Mallets
04%
Solo
04%
Rolls
02%
Double-stop roll
01%
Gliss
01%
Motor On
01%
Chimes
Double Stops
02%
Rolls
02%
4-Mallets
02%
Temple Blocks
Double Stops
02%
Solo
02%
Sleigh Bells
Shake
03%
Wind Chimes
Rolls/Shimmer
03%
Finger Cymbals
Flay with triangle beater
01%
Latin Percussion
Instrument
Technique
Frequency
Bongos
Roll
02%
Castanets
Sixteenth notes
01%


56
Yamaha Band Student used extensively in Massachusetts and Florida. Illinois results
indicated the use of Essential Elements and Accent on Achievement as the primary
band methods used for instruction of beginning to intermediate percussion students,
The ten band methods listed in the questionnaire were as follows:
1. Yamaha Batid Student: A Combined Percussion Method
2. Standard of Excellence
3. Band Today
4. Be twin 21st Century Band Method
5. Beginning Developing Band Book
6. Essential Elements
7. Band Encounters
8. Basic Band Method
9. Accent on Achievement
10. Now Go Home and Practice
Bruce Pearson's Standard of Excellence was the most used method book,
with 56% of those responding to the survey indicating the use of this text. Yamaha Band
Student: A Combined Method was cited in 16% of those surveyed, Essential Elements
14%, and Accent on Achievement used by 13% of those responding to the questionnaire.
Table 4-3 gives a summary of the percentages of each method cited in the survey.
Table 4-3
Percentage of Band Usage.
Totals From Returned Questionnaires
(N=85)
Listed 10 Methods:
Standard of Excellence
Yamaha Band Student (Combined)
Essential Elements
Percentage
56%
16%
14%


27
Presented in Bartlett and Holloway's (1973) text is the philosophy of a class
approach to teaching percussion at three levels: elementary, junior high, and high school.
They stipulate that mallet percussion instruments should not be introduced in the first year
of instruction. They state the position that first year percussionists should instead
concentrate on rhythms, sticking, and technical development. Thus, mallet/keyboard
percussion instruments are to be introduced beginning the second year of band
instruction.44
Bartlett and Holloway further recommend that beginning percussion students
receive private instruction on mallet/keyboard instruments. It is their view that beginning
percussionists benefit most from such a combination of homogeneous and heterogeneous
instructional formats, and private instruction.45
Matched Grip versus Traditional Grip
One of the central issues confronting today's public school band director and
college percussion instructor is the decision of which grip to use with beginning
percussionists: matched or traditional. This issue is pertinent to the study because it
effects public school percussion instruction not only at the beginning level but also at the
middle school and high school levels.
The relevance of this issue to comprehensive percussion instruction lies in the
reality that many high school marching band programs emulate the techniques of
contemporary drum corps, which incorporate traditional grip on snare drum. As
44 Bartlett tind Holloway, page 20
45 Ibid.


117
Summary of Performance Techniques
The information contained in Table 5-3 reveals that there are few advanced
techniques written for snare drum beyond flams and rolls, for bass drum (with the
exception of dampening), or for timpani (pitch changes), in the band works selected for
examination in this study. Mallet percussion instrument techniques are predominantly
restricted to double stops and rolls (e g. bells, xylophone, vibraphone, and marimba).
Other examples of limited technique requirements include vibraphone utilizing
pedaling (5%), the tambourine played on the knee (3%) tambourine thumb roll (2%),
double stops on timbales, and performing a roll on bongos (2%).
A large number of techniques were employed in only one percent of the selected
band works. Examples of this include the following:
-Snare Drum: Lesson #25, Single stroke roll
-Timpani: Play in center of head
-Bass Drum: Play in center of head
-Xylophone: Grace notes
-Crotales: Triple stops played with triangle beaters
This information suggests that composers of band music write percussion parts
with regard to a particular sound quality or color, rather than including percussion
instruments, concepts, and skills that have been thoroughly covered in typical band
method book series such as those examined in this study.
The commercial and financial obligations of band music composers and the
educational needs of public school band directors and instrumental music teachers
notwithstanding, the evidence uncovered in this study suggests an educational and
philosophical dichotomy between composers and educators. The eclectic and complex


104
Standard of Excellence-Timpani Book 2
Following a review section containing a detailed description of dampening
on timpani, the content of this method book consists primarily of musical examples
incorporating auxiliary percussion skills and timpani skills in a double-page format
Instruments and skills introduced in this text include bongos, cowbell, and the shake
roll on tambourine.124
Timpani are included in 41% of the exercises and musical examples contained
in this method book. There are also four lull-page arrangements and one two-page
arrangement devoted exclusively to timpani. An example of this is Sonatina for
Timpani, (Pearson/Elledge) a timpani solo in three movements incorporating
cross-sticking, double-bounce sticking, dampening, long rolls, and stick clicking.125
Standard of Excellence-Timpani Book 3
The final book in this method series is devoted to both auxiliary percussion and
timpani instruction and includes continuation of the concepts and skills covered in books
one and two of the series.126 Pearson reviews instruments previously covered as well
as introducing new instruments. Auxiliary percussion instruments are also examined in
this method book (e g. giro, bongos, castanets).127
124 Bruce Pearson. Standard of Excellence: Comprehensive Band Method: Timpani and
Auxiliary Percussion-Book 2. Neil A. Kjos Company, San Diego, CA, 1992, pages 1-3.
125 Pearson, Timpani/Auxiliary Percussion Book 2, page 38.
126 Bruce Pearson. Standard of Excellence: Comprehensive Band Method: Timpani and
Auxiliary Percussion-Book 3. Neil A. Kjos Company, San Diego, CA, 1992, pages 1-8.
127Ibid.


40
In summary-, the musical demands upon contemporary percussionists are more
rigorous constantly increasing and, the practice of assigning students with bad ears to
percussion instruments is no longer an educationally or musically responsible option.84
84 Colwell and Goolsby, page 472.


122
The results of the content analyses of the four method book series suggest that
percussion students, upon entering high school are adequately prepared on snare drum,
bass drum, and commonly required accessory percussion instruments e g. triangle, crash
cymbals. However, the data also suggests that percussion students are inadequately
prepared in the performances areas of mallet percussion and timpani.
For example, timpani were required in 86 of the examined band works, yet only
24% of those band directors responding to the survey indicated instruction on timpani as
part of their curriculum. However, this instrument was covered in only one of the four
selected method book series. In addition, nearly half of the band works analyzed in this
study required pitch changes on timpani.
Similarly, mallet percussion instruments, contained relatively little material specific
to the instruction of bells, xylophone, vibraphone, marimba, chimes, with the exception of
rolls and double stops. An example of this is the xylophone, which was required in more
than one-third of selected band works, yet was allocated less than
one page of instruction specific to this instrument in each of the four method book series.
Mallet pages generally included the same material as treble clef brass and woodwind
instruments.
These data suggest that student percussionists who have received their training
through one of the four method book series do not possess the necessary skills on timpani
and mallet percussion in order to successfully perform typical high school band literature
on this instrument.
2. What is the content of the beginning and intermediate band method books
in terms of percussion instruments?
The results of the content analyses of the percussion books from band methods
indicate that a disproportionate amount of time is spent on snare drum rudiments relative


79
and is devoted exclusively to non-keyboard percussion instruments. This series also
includes four supplementary pages under the heading Special Percussion Exercises,
which incorporate roll review exercises, as well as studies in advanced meters accents,
independence, and stick control. The final pages of these method books contain the
Percussive Arts Society's International Drum Rudiments.
Essential Elements-Book 1
Introductory Pages
This method book begins with a brief history of percussion. Mentioned in these
three paragraphs are pre-historic cultures, Turkish military bands, orchestral percussion,
and famous percussionists (e g. Buddy Rich) 69
Matched grip, which the authors refer to matched grip as a natural grip, and
traditional grip are explained in the next portion of the introductory pages. Illustrations
show the hand position and drum set-up for both grips:
2.) matched grip-right and left hands mirror each other, drum is flat
3.) traditional-right and left hands use different grips, drum is tilted70
The next page is entitled Basic Percussion Instruments, and consists of a list of
percussion instruments commonly used in instrumental music programs. This section
also includes suggestions concerning mallet and stick selection, as well as a list of general
accessory percussion instruments (e g. tambourine, cowbell).71
69 Tom C. Rhodes, Donald Bierschenk, and Tim Lautzenheiser. Essential Elements: A
Comprehensive Band Method-Percussion Book I. Hal Leonard Publishing Corporation,
Milwaukee, WI, 1997, pages 1-2.
70 Rhodes, et. al. Book 1, pages 2-3


80
Percussion cief is also demonstrated in the introductory pages, along with the letter
names of lines and spaces for both treble and bass clefs. The authors state that students
should practice all exercises in this method book in conjunction with Essential Elements
Keyboard Percussion Book, and should switch parts frequently. A double page format is
used in this method (e g. 5-A, 5-B), with content pertaining almost exclusively with
non-pitched percussion instruments. Overall content of this method book consists of 140
exercises and musical examples.72
Rudiments and Sticking
The concept of multiple bounce is introduced 11% through this method book, and
is taught in conjunction with eighth notes. The authors instruct students to let the stick
bounce freely on the drum head.
Also included in this portion of the method book is an explanation of the concept
of right hand lead. This refers to the use of right hand on all downbeats and left hand on
all upbeats. Right hand lead is incorporated in the musical example Old MacDonald Had
A Band one page after its introduction.73
The flam and the paradiddle are introduced 38% and 43% into the method book,
respectively, The authors include illustrated definitions of these rudiments. Two pages
are spent on instruction of flams, they are included in the musical example" Alouette.
One page is devoted to these rudiment.74
71 Rhodes, et. al. Book 1, page 4 A-B.
72 Rhodes, et. al. Book 1, page 5 A-B.
73 Rhodes, et. al. Book 1, pages 6-B to 7-B.
74 Rhodes, et. al. Book 1, pages 11-Ato 12-B.


92
instrument 110 The concept of dampening notes on metallic mallet percussion instruments
is discussed 52% into the text of this method book. The authors instruct students to stop
the sound of the bar on orchestra bells with their hand, tempo permitting. One page is
allocated for instruction of this technique.111
Woodblock is introduced at the 54% point of this method book. It is notated with
regular note heads. This instrument is included in the musical example Chopsticks, a
duet including tambourine. One-half page is devoted to instruction of this instrument .112
Crash cymbals are the final instruments introduced in this method book, appearing
at the 80% point of the text. Students are advised to refer back to the photograph in the
introductory pages pertaining to this instrument. Notation of crash cymbals consists of
diamond shaped note heads and xs, and is placed in the first space below bass drum. This
instrument is included in the musical example Clarinet Climb. One-half page is allocated
for instruction of this instrument.113
Special Pages
Following the 134 exercises and musical examples of this method book, there are
six pages of exercises devoted to individual instruments. For example, Yankee Doodle
Drummer is a two page snare drum solo with piano accompaniment that utilizes five
110 OReilly/Williams-Book 1, page 18
111 OReilly/Williams-Book 1, page 20.
112 OReilly/Williams-Book 1, page 21.
113 OReilly/Williams-Book 1, pages 26, 28.


106
Accent On Achievement-Books 1-2 and Yamaha Band Student: Books 1-3
Timpani are not covered in book 1 of Accent on Achievement. Book 2 of
this method series was not yet in print at the time of this study. The Yamaha Band
Student: Combined Percussion method book series does not include instruction on
timpani, nor does it contain a supplementary book for timpani.
Summary of Timpani Books
Of the four method book series most frequently cited in the survey as being used
for instruction of public school percussionists, only Essential Elements (Rhodes, et al.)132
incorporates timpani into a combined percussion format. Pearsons Standard of
Excellence 133 series contains a supplementary method book for timpani and auxiliary
percussion instruction. The Yamaha Band Student (OReilly, et al.)134 method does not
include instruction on timpani in the Combined Percussion series, nor does it feature a
supplementary text for instruction in this area. Book one of Accent on Achievement
(OReillyAVilliams) does not include instruction on timpani.135 Book two in this series
was not in print at the time of the survey.
Book 2. Hal Leonard Publishing Corporation, Milwaukee, WI, 1991, page 9-B.
132 Tom C. Rhodes, Donald Bierschenk, and Tim Lautzenheiser Essential Elements:
Combined Percussion. Hal Leonard Publishing Corporation, Milwaukee, WI, 1991
133 Bruce Pearsoa Standard of Excellence: Comprehensive Band Method: Combined
Percussion. Neil A. Kjos Company, San Diego, CA, 1992.
134 Sandy Feld stein, John Kinyon, and JohnOReilly. Yamaha Band Student: Combined
Percussion-Books 1-3. Alfred Publishing Co., Inc., Van Nuys, CA, 1987-89.
135 John OReilly and MarkWilliams. Accent on Achievement: Combined
Percussion-Book 1. Alfred Publishing Co., Inc., Van Nuys, CA, 1997


97
e g. bells, xylophone. In these methods, scales, clefs, and key signatures are presented
at the beginning of book one of the series.
The exception is Essential Elements, which also introduces clefs and scales at the
beginning of book one. However, it provides neither formal nor consistent presentation
of mallet percussion instruction. In contrast to the other three percussion methods, this
method book series is the only one of the four that included instruction on timpani as part
of the basic percussion curriculum .
Accessory percussion instruments were covered in a more comprehensive manner
in Essential Elements in comparison with the other three method book series selected for
examination in this study. An example of this is the introduction of the tambourine on
page 13-A, in which a detailed description of basic playing techniques for this instrument
are included.
Table 4-4
Method Book Content
Standard of Excellence-Book 1
Skill/Technique
Introduced
Paaes Allotted Coveraee
Integrated in Music
Paradiddle
10%
1
Moderate
Frequently
Multiple Bounce
15%
1
Cursory
Frequently
Flam
23%
1
Thorough
Extensively
Flam tap
26%
1/2
Moderate
Seldom
Flam Accent
48%
1/2
Moderate
Seldom
Flam Paradiddle
55%
1/2
Moderate
Seldom
9-Stroke Roll
76%
1/2
Thorough
Frequently
5-Stroke Roll
79%
1
Thorough
Extensively
17-Stroke Roll
89%
1/2
Thorough
Occasionally
Rim Shot
95%
1
Thorough
Frequently
Double Strokes
98%
1
Thorough
Frequently


3
Orff-Schulwerk method, among others features percussion instruments as the basis of
musical instruction. Percussion education is appropriate for standard number 2, regarding
the students ability to play alone and with others, a wide variety of instruments7
This quandary facing modern percussionists and music educators is recognized
by Richard Colwell and Thomas Goolsby (1992) in The Teaching of Instrumental Musjc.
Their summary of the problem is found in the following quote:
In spite of their ancient age, the percussion instruments have
not been quite respectable until recently. They have had no
literature of their own, no good texts or method books,
and no systematic approach for learning the necessary
techniques.8
The perception of percussionists as musicians is diametrically opposed to their
traditional reputation as mere time-keepers, which has primeval roots. The perception
of the role duality of percussionists also provides an equitable starting point for the
examination of contemporary percussion education.9
Robert Buggert (1956) mentions his belief that instruction for percussion
instruments is by its nature different than instruction for woodwind and brass
instruments. He attributes this to brass and woodwind players receiving instruction in
7 National Standards for the Arts (Music). Music Educators National Conference
Reston, VA, 1996.
8 Richard Colwell and Thomas Goolsby. The Teaching of Instrumental Music.
(Second Edition). Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1992. page 323.
9 Cook, page 3.


APPENDIX A
Form Letter
James Ackman
60 Oakdale St. #22
Attleboro MA 02703
January 7, 1998
Churchill Jr. High School
905 Maple Avenue
Galesburg IL 61401
Dear Music Educator:
The enclosed postcard survey is a portion of my PhD dissertation in the music
education program at the University of Florida. My dissertation is an examination of the
relationship between percussion books of elementary/secondary band methods and
percussion performance requirements in programmed band literature.
It is a matter of prime importance to obtain your response to the survey as the
results of this study will be used to help facilitate the advancement of percussion education
in elementary and secondary schools.
It will be greatly appreciated if you could complete and return the enclosed survey
prior to January 20 The reason for this request is because other sections of this study
cannot be completed until the results of the survey are received.
140


26
crucial areas of elementary percussion instruction including scales and melodies for
mallet/keyboard percussion instruments, as well as timpani fundamentals such as
ear-training and pitch changes, in his own method book Flexible Percussion Ensembles40
Gary Cook (1989) states that thorough beginning level percussion training cannot
be adequately established through use of a heterogeneous class approach. He goes on to
mention that many music educators believe in a homogeneous class setting for the initial
stages of percussion instruction.41 Cook also states that heterogeneous band methods,
when used in conjunction with a method designed exclusively for percussion instruments,
are useful in the education of percussionists as part of the overall band program. He also
suggests the use of different instrument parts to be played by percussionists e g. flute,
oboe, trombone, as useful sources of sight-reading for bells, marimba, and xylophone.42
Robert Buggert (1956), referring to a difference in the nature of drum instruction
compared with brass and wind instruments, cites the rhythmic and rudimental nature of
percussion instruments versus the emphasis on notes, scales, and tone production of
wind instruments. He suggests that, because of this distinction in percussion education
as compared with other instruments, it is wise if the beginning drummers meet in a
separate, homogeneous group. He maintains that this method appears to reinforce the
traditional concept of percussionists as not included in the essential core of the band as
a whole. 43
40 Preston, page 20.
41 Cook, page 21.
42 Ibid.
43 Robert Buggert. The Beginning Drummer. The Instrumentalist, 11: 67-8 n3 1956.
page 67.


89
Another feature of this method book is Accent on Performance, a series of full
page arrangements appearing at regular intervals throughout the book (e g. pages 11, 17,
23, 29, 36) The musical examples on these pages utilize skills, concepts, and instruments
covered in previous pages.
The final portion of this method book consists of a series of advanced exercises for
snare drum and mallet percussion instruments. Exercises include rhythm studies for
both snare drum and mallet percussion, as well as accent, and rudiment studies for snare
drum. Also included are scale studies for mallet percussion instruments.101
Rudiments and Sticking
The first rudiment introduced in this method book is the single paradiddle, and
occurs 16% into the text. The authors include an illustration as well as a written
definition. Single paradiddles are featured in the musical example Mary Ann. One-half
page is devoted to this rudiment.102
Flams and flam taps are the next rudiments covered in this method book. They are
introduced at 30% and 40% through the text, respectively. Flams are incorporated in an
excerpt from Southern Roses (Johann Strauss, Jr ). Flam taps are featured in Minka,
Minka A total of one page is allocated to instruction of these rudiments.103
The flam accent, occurs at 52% into the text. It is incorporated into the musical
example Bella Bimba one page after its introduction. One-half page is devoted to this
101 OReilly/Williams-Book 1, pages 11, 17, 23, 29, 36.
102 OReilly/Williams-Book 1, pages 9, 10.
103 OReilly/Williams-Book 1, pages 13, 14, 16, 18.


57
Table 4-3 (cont)
Percentage of Band Usage
Listed 10 Methods
Percentage
Accent on Achievement
13%
Band Today
03%
Belwin 21st Century Band Method
01%
Band Encounters
0%
Basic Band Method
0%
Beginning/Developing Band Book
0%
Now Go Home and Practice 0%
Qiheu
Breeze Easy
02%
Best in Class
01%
Recommend
01%
Analysis of
Percussion Books from Band Methods
This portion of the study is an analysis of the content of the four method book
series most frequently cited in the survey for use in the instruction of elementary to
intermediate public school percussionists. Method books were examined for skills,
concept, and instruments introduced in each book. These books were also examined
for scope and sequence of content.
Standard of Excellence: Combined Percussion-Drums
and Mallet Percussion (Bruce Pearson)
This method series contains three levels of instruction for percussionists:
-Book 1: Drums and Mallet Percussion
-Book 2: Drums and Mallet Percussion
-Book 3. Drums and Mallet Percussion


135
Mueller, Kenneth A. Teaching Total Percussion. Parker Publishing Company,
Inc., West Nyack, NJ, 1972.
Moore, Paul B. Instrumental Music Teaching Techniques for College Methods
Classes. Ed.D. Thesis: Music. University of Oregon. Portland, Oregon. 1963.
Nelson, Judy. Teaching Percussion With Bach and Zappa: An Interview with
Jonathan Haas. The Instrumentalist, 50: 18-22 n4 1995
Olson, Rees G. A Beginning Percussion Class. The Instrumentalist, 23: 88 n2
1968.
OReilly, John and Williams, Mark. Accent on Achievement: Combined
Percussion-Book 1. Alfred Publishing Co., Inc., Van Nuys, CA, 1997.
OReilly, John and Williams, Mark. Accent on Achievement: Combined
Percussion-Book 2. Alfred Publishing Co., Inc., Van Nuys, CA, 1998.
OReilly, John and Kinyon, John. Yamaha Band Student: Combined
Percussion-Book 3. Alfred Publishing Co., Inc., Van Nuys, CA, 1991
Papastefan, John. How to Practice on Percussion Instruments. The
Instrumentalist, 28: 38-41 n4 1990.
Papastefan, John. The Mallets Make a Difference. The Instrumentalist,
44: 48 nl2 1989.
Paxcia, Vincent Kerry. The Effect of Melodic Training on the Musical
Development of Beginning Percussionists in Selected Midwest Communities
Ph D. Dissertation: Music Education. University of Iowa. Iowa City, Iowa. 1973
Pearson, Bruce. Standard of Excellence: Comprehensive Band Method-Drums
and Mallet Percussion Book 1. Neil A. Kjos Music Company, Publisher,
San Diego, CA, 1992.
Pearson, Bruce. Standard of Excellence: Comprehensive Band Method-Efrums
and Mallet Percussion Book 2. Neil A. Kjos Music Company, Publisher,
San Diego, CA, 1993


19
Steve Rehbein (1996) cites a recurring problem among incoming university
freshmen and first year percussion students as lack of versatility. He observes that these
students often possess a working knowledge of only one instrument, usually snare drum.
Rehbein attributes this lack of adaptability to students' public school percussion training, in
which specialization is the norm.20
Comprehensive Percussion Curriculum
Dave Black (1996) notes that percussionists are often ignored by band directors
except to correct major errors. He mentions the fact that percussionists are often not
given the same kind of specific instructions regarding dynamics, phrasing, and overall
musical expression as woodwind and brass players.21
Bruce Dalby (1974) provides insight into the cause of this lack of overall musical
skill on the part of percussionists. He notes that many band directors are unsure how to
have percussionists participate in warm-ups. He also maintains that in rehearsal, it is often
the case that wind players learn new notes and scales, while percussionists are left
to accompany the band with quarter and eighth-note patterns.22
Dalby's view that potential instrumental music educators lack fundamental training
in percussion is supported by Breithaupt (1991) and Albin (1979), who both cite a crucial
20 Steve Rehbein. Versatility and Specialization: The Anthem of the Contemporary
Percussionist. Percussive Notes, 34: 47 n6 1966.
21 Dave Black. Of Musicians and Percussionists. The Instrumentalist, 51: 17-22 n2
1996.
22 Bruce Dalby. Challenging Percussionists. The Instrumentalist, 4: 56-8 n2 1994.


153
BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH
James Ademan, candidate for the Doctor of Philosophy degree in music education
from the University of Florida, received a Bachelor of Music from Southern Illinois
University (1977) and a Master of Music degree in instrumental music conducting from
Eastern Illinois University (1986). He was active in all major performing ensembles
during his undergraduate and graduate studies.
Mr. Ackman taught for thirteen years as a high school band director in Illinois
and Massachusetts. He also directed the athletic bands at Boston University and the jazz
ensemble at Regis College for two years before entering the doctoral program in music
education at the University of Florida in January 1994.
Mr. Ackman taught the percussion skills class for undergraduate music education
majors at the University of Florida, where he was also a teaching assistant with the
University Band program: Pride of the Sunshine Marching Band, University Wind
Ensemble, University Orchestra, and Gator Pep Band.
He received the David Wilmot Prize for Excellence in Music Education for
1995-96. Mr. Ackman has performed with the Gainesville Symphony Orchestra as well
as various other music ensembles in the Alachua County area, and is a member of the
Unitarian Universalist Fellowship of Gainesville. He is married with one daughter, two
cats, and a yellow Labrador retriever.


102
Table 4-4 (cont.)
Band Method Content
Essential Elements-Book 3
Instrument Introduced Pages Allotted Coverage Integrated in Music
Giro
06%
1/2
Moderate
Seldom
Timpani
36%
1
Moderate
Frequently
Bongos
98%
0
None
Occasionally
Wind Chimes
98%
0
None
Occasionally
Shaker
98%
0
None
Seldom
Cowbell
98%
0
None
Occasionally
Table 4-4 (cont.)
Band Method Content
Accent on Achievement-Book 1
Technique Introduced
Pages Allotted
Coverage Integrated in Music
Snares OIF
07%
1/2
Cursory
Frequently
Paradiddle
16%
1/2
Cursory
Seldom
Flam
28%
1/2
Moderate
Extensively
Flam Accent
52%
1/2
Cursory
Occasionally
9-Stroke Roll w/
Double Bounce
77%
1/2
Moderate
Extensively
5-Stroke Roll
90%
1
Cursory
Extensively
Mallets
Double Stops
33%
1
Moderate
Frequently
Dampening Notes
52%
1
Cursory
Frequently
Rolls
77%
1
Thorough
Extensively
Instruments
Snare Drum
Beginning
1
Thorough
Extensively
Triangle
20%
1
Thorough
Extensively
Suspended Cymbal
33%
1
Thorough
Extensively
Tambourine
45%
1
Thorough
Extensively
Woodblock
56%
1
Thorough
Frequently
Crash Cymbals
0%
1
Thorough
Frequently
Special Technique
Susp Cymbal Roll
37%
1/2
Thorough
Frequently