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God, guns, and guts

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God, guns, and guts religion and violence in Florida militias
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Religion and violence in Florida militias
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Akins, John Keith, 1964-
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African Americans ( jstor )
Jewish peoples ( jstor )
Militia ( jstor )
Militia movements ( jstor )
Racism ( jstor )
Religion ( jstor )
Social activism ( jstor )
War ( jstor )
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Anthropology thesis, Ph.D ( lcsh )
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Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of Florida, 1998.
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Includes bibliographical references (leaves 183-192).
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Typescript.
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Vita.
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by John Keith Akins.

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GOD, GUNS, AND GUTS:

RELIGION AND VIOLENCE IN FLORIDA MILITIAS










By

JOHN KEITH AKINS









A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT
OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF
DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY




UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA MAY 1998























Copyright 1998

by

John Keith Akins
















ACKNOWLEDGMENTS



This research would not have been possible without the assistance and support of many people, and it is to them that I offer my heartfelt thanks.

First and foremost, I want to thank my committee, including Drs. John Moore, Diedre Crumbley, Dennis Owen, David Chalmers, and, above all, Brian du Toit. It has been a long road, and they traveled it with tolerance, advice, and humor all the way. No one could ask for a better mentor than Dr. du Toit, nor a more supportive committee.

I also wish to thank Erika Morgan, Lisa Baker, St. "Big Dog" Bernard, Sandy,

Zeke, and the remainder of my associates for their generous funding and technical support.

Special thanks go to Aaron Feigenbaum for sharing his knowledge of both America's current economic situation and Jewish history and traditions.

My friends Matt Baker, Holly Blumenthal, Agazzi Negash, and Janis Weber all offered distraction, support, and advice throughout the entire process. A special thanks goes out to Rod Stubina and Helen Feussner for their invaluable assistance with my new computer. Thanks also to Jeff Lipham, Brian Zacker, Charlie Prieto, and the rest of the bouncers at the Purple Porpoise Oyster Pub for helping me avoid injury and giving me time off from work whenever I needed it.



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My undergraduate mentor, Dr. Robin Rhodes, and my former wife, Shelley Burke, provided the inspiration I needed to give both college and graduate school a try.

Susana Gonzalez, a ffiture attorney and currently one of the world's great

bartenders, provided invaluable proofreading and copy editing, and the text is more clear and concise because of her input.

Thanks also to Colonel Dan Daniels, USA, retired, and his colleagues at the

National Association for the Advancement of White People, to the Klanwatch Project of the Southern Poverty Law Center, and to the Anti-Defamation League of B'nai B'rith for providing me with vital information I would not have otherwise obtained.

Finally, none of this would have been possible without the assistance and support of Heather L. Hall. Heather helped me maintain a sense of perspective while in the field, helped me stay organized while analyzing the data, and ran errands and brought food while I was writing. Heather, you're the best fhend I've ever had, and I could not have done this without you.



















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TABLE OF CONTENTS


ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

ABSTRACT A

CHAPTERS

I INTRODUCTION .1

Definition of Terms .2
History of the Militia Movement .5
Government Responses .11
Review of Literature .12
Structure .14
Membership .19
Ideology .22
Activities. .27
Conclusions .29

2 SOCIAL CONTEXT .32

Economic Factors .33
Manufacturing Industries .33
Agriculture .36
Social Changes .37
Summary .38
Education .38
Political Factors .40
Gun Control .40
Surveillance of Citizens .41
Welfare .41
Affirmative Action .42
Separation of Church and State .42
Vietnam/Gulf War Veterans .44
The Farm Crisis .45



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Corruption .47
Fundamentalism .49
The Patriot Movement and the Far Right .52
Identity Christianity .52
The Liberty Lobby .54
Common-Law Courts. .54
The Turner Diaries .55
Summary .56

3 METHODS .57

Ethnography/Participant Observation .57
Interviews .59
Document Analysis .61
Correspondence .63
Internet .63

4 MILITIAS IN FLORIDA. .65

World Church of the Creator: The White Berets. .66
Templar Knights of the Ku. Klux Klan .69
NAAWP: The Spartan Legion Militia .70
North Central Florida Regional Militia .71
Central Florida Militia Association .72
Summary .73

5 STRUCTURE OF FLORIDA MILITIAS .74

World Church of the Creator .74
Founding .74
Organization .75
Communication .75
Templar Knights of the Ku Klux Klan .76
Organization .76
Communication .76
NAAWP: The Spartan Legion .77
Founding .77
Organization .77
Communication .80
Recent Developments .82
North Central Florida Regional Militia .84
Founding .84
Organization .84


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Communication ..84
Central Florida Militia Association . . .85
Founding .. .85
Organization . .85 Communication .86
Summary .86

6 MEMBERSHP OF FLORIDA MILITIAS .. .88

World Church of the Creator . .88
Templar Knights of the Ku Klux Klan . . .89 NAAWPT: The Spartan Legion .90
Leadership . .90
Rank and File .. .101
North Central Florida Regional Militia . .102
Leadership .. .102
Rank and File . .102
Central Florida Militia Association . .. .103
Summary .104

7 RELIGIOUS IDEOLOGY OF FLORIDA MILITIAS .106

World Church of the Creator . .107
Templar Knights of the Ku Klux Klan . .109 NAAWP: The Spartan Legion . .110
North Central Florida Regional Militia and Central Florida Militia
Association . . . .113
Summary .114

8 POLITICAL AM) RACIAL IDEOLOGY OF THE MILITIAS .117

World Church of the Creator . ..117
New World Order/ZOG .117
Race .. .118
Templar Knights of the Ku. Klux Klan . .119
New World Order/ZOG .119
Race .120
NAAWP: The Spartan Legion . .120
New World Order/ZOG . .120
Race .122
North Central Florida Regional Militia .125
New World Order/ZOG . .125
Race .128


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Central Florida Militia Association . . .130
New World Order/ZOG . .130
Race ..131
Summary .132
New World Order/ZOG . .132 Race .. .133

9 ACTIVITIES OF THE MILITIAS . .134

World Church of the Creator . . .134 Templar Knights of the Ku Klux Klan .136 NAAWP: The Spartan Legion .136
National .136 Florida .137
North Central Florida Regional Militia . . .139 Central Florida Militia Association . .141 Summary .141

10 DISCUSSION .144

Militia Conspiracy Theory: The Ideological Octopus. . .144 Potential Militia Recruits . . .147
General Population . .148
Economic Factors . .151 Political Factors . .152 Mechanism of Exposure . .154 Fundamentalism . .155
Timing .157
Conclusions . .159

APPENDICES

A MILITIAS IN FLORIDA: 1997 . .162

B WHITE SUPREMACIST ORGANIZATIONS IN FLORIDA: 1997 .165

C MAILING LISTS .. .167

D LIST OF INTERNET SITES .169

E PRINCIPLES OF THE NAAWP .170

F ABBREVIATIONS .182


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REFERENCES CITED .183

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH. .193












































ix














Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy


GOD, GUNS, AND GUTS:
RELIGION AND VIOLENCE IN FLORIDA MILITIAS By

JOHN KEITH AKINS

May 1998

Chairman: Brian M. du Toit, Professor Major Department: Anthropology

This research project was initiated in January 1995 in order to establish an

anthropological perspective on the Militia Movement, a social movement oriented around anti-government conspiracy theories. This movement is of interest because of the actions which have resulted from acceptance of its tenets, such as the bombing of Oklahoma City's Federal Building in April 1995 as well as attacks on Amtrak trains, harassment of government officials, and a string of vandalism, robberies, assaults, and murders.

The primary methods used for data collection were ethnographic participant observation and interviews. This was supplemented with data obtained from Militia publications and Internet sites, as well as from correspondence with Militia activists from diverse locations.

Analysis of data revealed that three of the more prevalent sociological theories,


x








education, massification, and socialization models, do not adequately account for participation in this movement. Education theory holds that right wing political extremism results from insufficient education; data reveal that militia members are actually equally, if not more, educated than the general population. Massification theory states that participation in social movements results from insufficient social connections; this study indicates that militia activists are closely connected to their communities through ties of government, religion, economics, and kinship. Finally, socialization theory claims that right wing extremists and white supremacists are indoctrinated into these perspectives by their parents- there is no evidence to support this model in this case.

Economic, political, and religious social factors do apply, however. Nfilitia

activists tend to be people from a variety of economic classes who are finding it difficult to compete in today's economy because of recent changes in the social structure. They have educated themselves with movement literature and "discovered" rampant corruption and incompetence in government. They blame the economic distress in their lives on corrupt or inept government officials. Recognizing the power of the federal government and the isolation of elected representatives from common citizens, they have determined that the only course of action remaining is to prepare for civil war.

These simplistic conclusions and plans result from the worldview of militia

activists, which is built upon fundamentalist perspective. The fundamentalist religious beliefs of activists in this movement lead them to perceive the world through a dualistic, conspiratorial, and millennial lens. This perspective has encouraged the formation of a movement best classified as one ofprojective politics, a concept pioneered by Richard xi








Hofstadter in 1962.

Once a person has accepted the basic tenets of the militia conspiracy theory, the

new activist realizes that it is a duty, an obligation, to attempt the overthrow of the federal government of the United States. An ethical person in this situation has no choice in the matter; in the eyes of God, the activist is required to oppose the evil, secretive cabal which has gained control of America.




































xii














CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION


Go up and look legislators in the.jace, because someday you may be
fired to blow it Off
-Samuel Sherwood; United States
Militia Association (Stern 1996: 165)



In October 1992 an assortment of right-wing political activists met in Colorado to discuss possible reactions to the arrest of white separatist Randy Weaver at Ruby Ridge, Idaho. From this meeting, the "Rocky Mountain Rendezvous," sprang the Militia Movement. The results of this movement have been varied, and include the bombing of the Federal Building in Oklahoma City, hundreds of lesser-known bombings, a string of murders and bank robberies, the prolonged siege of the "Freemen" compound in Montana, hundreds of cases of harassment of government officials, and, allegedly, the derailment of two Amtrak trains.

The central organizing principle of the Militia Movement is the belief that the Federal government of the United States has abandoned the Constitution because it has been usurped by a secret cabal of Jewish bankers. These bankers are operating through the United Nations in order to enslave the American people and force the unification of national governments into an oligarchical 'New World Order."




I








2

This research was undertaken to establish an anthropological perspective and

through this perspective to answer a key question: Why did the Militia Movement develop at this particular time? Because the movement is so geographically diffused, primary emphasis is placed upon the militias in the state of Florida. This paper will examine the Militia Movement's structure, the composition of membership of the various militias, the ideology of the groups, and the activities which grow out of that ideology. These factors will be compared to factors within the social structure, the context in which the movement developed.

The basic fact from which this study sprang is the existence of the Militia

Movement. In seeking answers to the research question, several independent variables were explored to discover whether common factors can be found in all or most militia members wl-&h explain the existence of this movement. For example, do they have similar education levels? Are they from the same socioeconomic class? What is their geographic dispersal? Age cohort? Gender? In which organizations, groups, or movements were militiamen active prior to joining the Militia Movement? What are their hobbies? Are they veterans? Are they suffering similar socioeconomic stress? What are their beliefs about race? Do they have similar religious practices?



Definition of Terms

In order to facilitate a better understanding of the Militia Movement, it is first necessary to clearly establish the parameters of this research project and to define the terms utilized.










This project was developed to gain a more thorough understanding of armed citizen militias, opposed to the federal government of the United States, and sharing a worldview which grew out of the October 1992 Rocky Mountain Rendezvous. These

groups are connected through a network of social relations, Internet, postal and fax communications, and literature. The Militia Movement can be defined as a subgroup of the larger "Patriot Movement." The Patriot Movement also includes the "common law court" movement, survivalists, theocrats, white supremacists, apocalyptic millenarianists, as well as several "separatist" communities such as the Freemen compound in Justis Township, Montana. A number of excellent studies of the larger Patriot Movement have been published including James Aho's The Politics of Righteousness: Idaho Christian Patriotism, David Bennett's The Party of Fear: T-he American Far Right from Nativism to the Militia Movement, and Philip Lamy's Millennium Rage: Survivalists, White Supremacists, and the Doomsday Prophecy. Although these books provide a description of the context in which the militias developed, they neither examine nor explain the existence of the Militia Movement.

This discussion will argue that the development of the Militia Movement is the result of several structural factors, including education, economics, and politics. These factors are interpreted by activists through a fundamentalist lens and coupled with an appropriate opportunity structure. The three key features of fundamentalism as it applies to this project are nmllenialism, dualism, and conspiratorialism. Working definitions of millenialism, dualism, and conspiratorialism are taken from James Aho's study of Christian Patriots in Idaho and a cross-cultural examination of fundamentalism sponsored by the








4

American Academy of Arts and Sciences (Aho 1990,- Marty & Appleby 199 1). For example, Aho defines millenialism in the context of the Militia Movement as the belief that "there is a pervading conviction of cosmic exigency, that the world and thus life itself is in dire emergency, and that the Second Coming is imminent" (Aho 1990: 220). Aho defines dualism in this manner:

Relative to the doctrine of divine transcendence, of a perfected, spiritualized
(male) Creator residing in distant heavens, the material (that is, feminine) world is profanity, unconsciousness, and death.. they represent, among other things, the
assertion of the feminine principle and the loss of masculine control, sensibility,
creativity, consciousness, aggressiveness, and rationality (Aho 1990: 220). Finally, conspiratorialism is defined here as "the psychologizing of history and the reduction of historical events to the conscious intentions of omniscient and all-powerful Benefactors and Malefactors" (Aho 1990: 220). The critical factors of millenialism, dualism, and conspiratorialism are the primary components of the "fundamentalist" worldview of the militiamen and, according to Aho, form the projective lenses through which militia adherents examine and judge the reality in which they find themselves.

At this point, two disclaimers are in order. First, there are misspelled words and errors of grammar present in many of the quotes from militia sources. These have not been corrected and are presented in their published form. Second, the names of militia activists who are not public figures have been altered in order to protect their privacy. Names of organizations and well-known activists, however, are not changed.

In order to more clearly define the Militia Movement as a phenomenon, it will be beneficial to review the history of the movement and the government's responses to its development.








5

History of the Militia Movement

In 1991, fear of the "New World Order," or "One-World Government," was

exacerbated by the publication of Pat Robertson's book The New World Order. This book expanded the pool of Far Right sympathizers by bringing their message to the Christian Coalition and other fundamentalist Christians (Stem 1996: 141). In this book, Robertson argues that the United States government is deliberately attempting to "outlaw" Christianity and destroy civil liberties. He also writes that the government is being controlled by liberal international elitists. Although Robertson does not label the elitists as Jews, he does make extensive use of 1he Protocols of the Learned Elders of Zion, an antiSemitic document written prior the Russian Revolution and publicized by Czarist secret police. This document purports to be the summation of a secret meeting of Jewish elders in which they plan to subvert the governments of the world and establish Jewish ascendancy.

During the same year, federal agents of the U.S. Marshal's Office, the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms (BATF), and Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) laid siege to the home of acknowledged white separatist and follower of Identity Christian doctrine Randy Weaver and his family. Weaver was accused of illegally modifying a shotgun and selling it to an undercover BATF agent. The BATT wanted Weaver to become an informant and gather information on the Aryan Nations and the Church of Jesus Christ Christian, but Weaver refused. During the siege, hundreds of "skinheads," neo-Nazis, and members of the Aryan Nations lined the road leading to the Weaver cabin to show their support.








6

In August of 1992, the siege at the Weaver cabin concluded. By the end of the incident, Weaver's sixteen-year-old son was shot in the back and his wife shot in the face by an FBI sniper.

Outraged at what he perceived as the heavy-handed and unlawful behavior of

federal officials, Christian Identity leader Pete Peters invited a wide and varied group of right-wing activists to a meeting in Estes Park, Colorado. The meeting in Estes Park, known as the "Rocky Mountain Rendezvous," was attended by:

... Richard Butler, head of the Aryan Nations; Louis Beam, another Aryan
Nations leader; anti-Semite Red Beckman; Larry Pratt of Gun Owners of America;
and Montana far-right activist Chris Temple ... (as well as) neo-Nazis, Christian
Identity adherents, anti-abortion activists, tax protesters, Ku Klux Klan members,
and others who saw each other as ideological and organizational adversaries
(Stem 1996: 36).

The primary sponsor of the meeting was an organization known as the Aryan Nations, a white supremacist group from Hayden Lake, Idaho. The Aryan Nations has a long history of violence in support of anti-Semitic and racist agendas. Aryan Nations members are believers in "Christian Identity," a virulently racist Christian sect which will be discussed at length later in this paper (Schwartz 1996: 188-189).

The Rendezvous, which lasted three days, unified the spokesmen of once disparate and competing factions who then published The Battle Planfor Future Conflicts (Stern 1996: 36). Another critical document circulated, adopted, and published at the Rocky Mountain Rendezvous was the article Leaderless Resistance authored by former Ku Klux Klan leader Louis Beam. At the Rocky Mountain Rendezvous, attendees compared and contrasted scores of conspiracy theories, recruiting techniques, and methods of








7

communication. The result was a synthetic conspiracy theory which explained many, if not all, of the "problems" of contemporary American culture.

The final months of the year saw the publication of Samuel Sherwood's The Little Republics and the organization of the "United States Militia Association" (USMA.) (Stern 1996: 166). This book provides guidelines for the organization of anti-government paramilitary forces; the USMA. became one of the largest of the early militias. It continues to provide information about organization, acquisition of weapons, and survivalismm."

On 19 April 1993, federal agents assaulted the compound of the Branch Davidians, a fringe Christian sect, in Waco, Texas. By the end of the assault, most of the members were dead. "Remember Waco" became a rallying cry among militiamen, and 19 April was designated as "Militia Day."

This year also saw the introduction of the "Brady Bill," a large-scale ban of

automatic and assault weapons and the imposition of a waiting period and background check when purchasing firearms. The publicity surrounding Waco and the Brady Bill brought the Militia Movement into the public eye as militia leaders began airing their views on radio and television talk shows. Most Americans who heard of the militias in this period dismissed the movement as ludicrous- however, many others began forming their own, or joining pre-existing, militias.

In 1993, most of the militiamen had a prior history of involvement in either white supremacist or militant anti-abortion groups. By 1994, however, the Militia Movement began to attract members of the middle class who had no previous association with these movements; many, in fact, who would not have considered associating with white








8

supremacists in the past.

On 15 February 1994, John Trochmann founded the Militia of Montana (MOM) (Stem 1996: 71). MOM was destined to become the largest clearing-house of militia doctrine and conspiracy theories as well as one of the three largest militias in the country. The largest militia to date, the Michigan Militia, was founded by Norman Olson in April; by the end of the year it had thousands of members scattered throughout dozens of individual units (Stem 1996: 97).

April 1994 also saw the self-appointment of Linda Thompson as the "Acting Adjutant-General of the Unorganized Militia of the United States" (Stern 1996: 133). Thompson, a lawyer, turned her law office into an information distribution center, and established the Patriot Fax Network. She edited and began distributing the videos Waco: 7he Big Lie and Waco H.- 7he Big Lie Continues. These videos criticized the government's activities at Waco and accused the agents of deliberately setting the compound on fire and burning the residents.

Several meetings were hold in 1994 in which militia leaders fleshed out their conspiracy theory, affirmed their ties, and brought new leaders and groups into the movement. For example, on 23 April militiamen and white supremacists held the "Idaho Liberty Network Conference," which was in effect a miniature version of the Rocky Mountain Rendezvous (Stern 1996: 168). In June, Pete Peters was the featured speaker at the "Constitutionalists Networking Center," and shared the podium with ". Xlan members, skinheads, and other racists, The CNC is a white supremacist organization (headed by former Arizona governor Evan Mecham)" (Stem 1996: 117-118).








9

On 4 July, militia members in Nye City, Nevada attacked Federal agents in the Toiyabe National Forest in a protest over Federal regulation of "disputed" land (Stem 1996: 125). This action inspired the militia-dominated City Council of Catron City, New Mexico, to order all of its white adult male citizens to arm themselves, form a county militia, and ban Federal law enforcement agents from its borders (Stem 1996: 122).

Members of the Virginia-based "Blue Ridge Hunt Club" were arrested in 1994 while in possession of a cache of guns, "homemade silencers, explosives, fuses, blasting caps, hand grenades. (Stern 1996: 136). They also had in their possession a plan for activity which stated ". hit and run tactics will be our method of fighting... We will destroy targets such as telephone relay centers, bridges, ffiel storage tanks, communications towers, radio stations, airports, etc.... human targets will be engaged... when it is beneficial to the cause to eliminate particular individuals who oppose us (troops, political figures, snitches, etc.)" (Stem 1996: 136).

On 8 September, bodyguards for Mark Koernke, a job once held by convicted

Oklahoma City bomber Timothy McVeigh, were stopped by police. In the car were ". . a loaded nine-millimeter clip ... gas masks, two-way radios, night-vision binoculars, and loaded semi-automatic rifles with seven hundred rounds of ammunition. They were also dressed in camouflage and had blackened their faces. Some of the ammunition was armorpiercing" (Stem 1996: 102-103).

"Citizens for Christ," another militia from the Midwest, saw several of its members arrested in September. At the time of their arrest the Citizens for Christ members were holding a "large supply of electric blasting caps, machine guns, ammunition, and








10

dynamite" (Stern 1996: 135).

In October, United Nations Day protests were held in several major cities. U.N. flags were burned, speeches were made, and the militias gained much-needed media attention (Stern 1996: 99). On 30 December, members of the North American Volunteer Militia of Montana sent a series of messages to various public officials threatening them with violence if the officials continued to carry out their duties (Stern 1996: 80).

The year 1995 was important to the militias because it saw the largest growth in membership and the most publicity for militia beliefs. It began with an armed stand-off between militia men and police officers at the office of Dr. Ellwanger, a veterinarian from Washington. Dr. Eliwanger owed back taxes and refused to pay; when government officials attempted to impound equipment from his office, militia members surrounded the property (Stern 1996: 86).

The same month saw a similar incident involving Calvin Greenup of Montana, who was accused of failure to pay his taxes. When he refused to appear for his court date and retreated to his ranch, officials chose to give him some time rather than attempt to capture him. Greenup sent armed friends to harass the town marshal's wife at home, planned to kidnap and execute public officials, and issued "arrest warrants" for the local judge, County Attorney, and town marshal (Stern 1996: 87-8 8).

Congresswoman Helen Chenoweth, a strong supporter of the Militia Movement issued a statement in February condemning the use of federal law enforcement officials in Idaho. She accused the government of infiltrating Idaho with "black helicopters" (Stern 1996: 213). On 19 April 1995, Timothy McVeigh and an as-yet-undetermined number of








I I

accomplices bombed the Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, killing at least 168 people in the most devastating act of domestic terrorism in American history. A few militiamen quit or went "underground-" despite this, militia membership skyrocketed.

During 1996, the militia movement continued evolving into ever smaller and more isolated units as the concept of "leaderless resistance" became more prevalent. The larger, publicity-seeking militias such as the Michigan Militia and the United States Militia Association splintered into smaller groups. More militias formed each month; by the end of the year there were more than 440 militias nationwide (Roy 1996: 5). The year saw the bombing of the Olympic Park in Atlanta as well as a substantial increase in abortion clinic bombings and mail bombs; FBI investigators have postulated a possible militia connection.

More recently, 1997 saw a continuation of militia growth, with a larger percentage of units going "underground" in "leaderless resistance cells" and fewer members actively courting the publicity of past years.



Government Responses

In response to the Militia Movement, the FBI hired five hundred new agents, and half of these agents are assigned full-time to investigating right-wing groups (Potok 1997a: 1). These agents are utilizing new "guidelines" which "allow more aggressive probes" (Potok 1997b: 4A). Finally, the Justice Department has authorized the FBI to deploy the largest and most extensive wire-tapping operation in American history. The Omnibus Anti-Terrorism Bill, passed in response to the Oklahoma City bombing,








12

authorized closer cooperation between various federal law-enforcement agencies, established a computer database to track suspected militia members, monitors the Internet, and permits law enforcement personnel to perform surveillance operations without the necessity of a court order. These actions are subject to varying interpretations, of course. On one hand, they can be seen as attempts by the government to protect its citizens from the potential violence of the militias. On the other, they can be seen as proof of the militias' fear of increasing government power. Regardless of the perspective, though, two things are clear. First, as a result of the Militia Movement the federal government has acquired substantially enhanced power to monitor and arrest citizens, with or without probable cause. Second, there are today more groups involved in anti-government activity than there were prior to these responses.

Now that the parameters of this project have been delineated, the terms defined, and the history of the movement explicated, it is time to began seeking an answer to the question of why the Militia Movement developed in this time and place. Has the question already been answered? A review of the published literature concerning the movement will provide valuable data yet, as will become apparent, will fail to answer the ultimate question.



Review of Literature

As of February 1998 there were four significant books in print concerning the Militia Movement. Each book is well-written and informative, yet each also presents a relatively narrow and sectarian perspective on the movement. They all, however, provide










data concerning the structure, membership, ideology, and activities of the Militia Movement.

The most in-depth, detailed, and informative of the four is Kenneth Stem's A

Force Upon the Plain (1996). In this book Stern argues that the movement is organized by and around anti-Sen-&es. Stem, of the American Jewish Committee and former Director of the National Organization Against Terrorism, does not argue that all militia members are anti-Semitic, nor does he argue that they are all racist; however, antiSemitism is at the core of his analysis, and this informs much of his work.

Similarly, Morris Dees' Gathering Storm: America's Militia Threat (1996) argues that militias are organized by and around white supremacists. His book is a detailed and informative source which primarily examines the illegal activities of militia members and their ties to such white supremacist groups as the Aryan Nations, the White Aryan Resistance (WAR), and the Ku Klux Klan (KKK). Dees is the founder and director of the Southern Poverty Law Center and its Klanwatch Project. His book, as could be expected, reflects and propagates the views of Klanwatch.

Richard Abanes, Director of the Religious Information Center of Southern

California, argues in American Militias: Rebellion, Racism and Religion (1996) that the Militia Movement is a result of a specific religious phenomenon. He believes that Identity Christian dogma has overwhelmed all other beliefs in the entire movement and has given the movement a white supremacist leaning. He also examines and attempts to debunk the web of conspiracy theories which lie at the heart of the movement. Because of his intense focus on religion, Abanes fails to examine structural phenomena which could shed further








14

light on the issue. In Abanes' view it is the nature of many Americans today to accept, with little or no supporting evidence, the message of whatever demagogues they choose to follow.

In Harvest ofRage (1997), Joel Dyer, a journalist from Colorado, traces the roots of the movement to the farm foreclosure crisis of the 1980s. Government mismanagement and corruption coupled with the realities of an evolving global market have forced small farmers off the land of their ancestors and destroyed their way of life. From this perspective, the militias should not be a surprise; they should have been predicted. Dyer, like the other authors, also limits his work by his pre-existing assumptions, and fails to explore militias and militia doctrines which do not arise from the farm crisis.

Each of these books has much to offer, but one can see the limited perspectives of each which grow out of the agendas or lifestyles of their authors. The overwhelming majority of their data were derived frorajournalistic or law-enforcement sources. None of them, according to my data, are inaccurate, they are merely limited in scope. It is important, therefore, to determine what they have to offer and apply it to this study. How can these four books help to answer the research question of this study?



Structure

Who first founded the movement, and how much control do they retain? How are militias organized? How do individual militias communicate with each other? How do militia leaders communicate with their followers? All four authors have attempted to answer these questions.








15

Founders

Abanes traces the roots of the movement back to various right-wing groups as

well as white supremacist organizations. Today's movement, though, started in October 1992, at a meeting in Colorado: "Between 150 and 175 'Christian men' hastily convened on October 23, 24 and 25, 1992, in Estes Park, Colorado, to discuss 'how to respond to the Weaver killings.' Presiding over this 'Rocky Mountain Rendezvous' was Pastor Pete Peters, a well-known white supremacist leader" (Abanes 1996: 22).

Kenneth Stem also attributes the birth of the Patriot Movement to the Rocky

Mountain Rendezvous. According to Stern, it was Pete Peters who called together more than 150 "leaders of the far right" (Stern 1996: 35). Peters was a minister of Identity Christianity, and he used the Ruby Ridge incident to call together:

'Men... who in the past would normally not be caught together under the same
roof'--neo-Nazis, Christian Identity adherents, anti-abortion activists, tax
protesters, Ku Klux Klan members, and other who either saw each other as
ideological and organizational adversaries, or would have worried about the effect on their 'mainstream' credentials from participating... Attendees included Richard
Butler, head of the Aryan Nations- Louis Beam, another Aryan Nations leaders;
anti-Semite Red Beckman; Larry Pratt of Gun Owners of America; and Montana
far-right activist Chris Temple (Stem 1996: 35-36).

Stern credits the meeting with laying "some of the groundwork for the militias' formation, not only in suggesting structure, but also in solidifying connections between longtime white supremacists and Identity followers, on the one hand, and others, such as Larry Pratt" (Stem 1996: 37).

In Harvest of Rage Joel Dyer also examines the Rocky Mountain Rendezvous as the launching point for the Patriot Movement. Like the other authors, he lists the








16

attendees, writing of them that "the Rendezvous brought together a collection of men who would normally never sit down together" (Dyer 1997: 83). Dyer quotes Louis Beam's speech which opened the meeting:

The two murders of the Weaver family have shown us all that our religious, our political, our ideological differences mean nothing to those who wish to make us
all slaves. We are viewed by the government as the same--the enemies of the state.
When they come for you, the federal will not ask if you are a Constitutionalist, a
Baptist, Church of Christ, Identity Covenant Believer, Klansman, Nazi,
homeschooler, Freeman New Testament believer, or fundamentalist... Those who wear badges, black boots, and carry automatic weapons and kick in doors already know all they need to know about you. You are enemies of the state (Dyer 1997:
83).

This speech set the tone for the entire meeting. Speaker after speaker talked of the need for unity among organizations of the Far Right and the allegedly criminal activities of the federal government.

Organization

According to Richard Abanes, "this loosely knit network of perhaps 5 to 12 million people may be one of the most diverse movements our nation has ever seen" (Abanes 1996: 2). He further states that "patriots have no single leader" (Abanes 1996: 2). After the Rocky Mountain Rendezvous, the movement grew rapidly: "By early April 1995, there were militia groups in at least thirty-six states. A few, such as the Militia of Montana, craved media attention. Many preferred to prepare for war quietly" (Stem 1996: 96).

The Patriot Movement is difficult to delineate with precision, which is precisely what its founders wanted. According to Stem, the guiding principle of the movement is the concept of "leaderless resistance:"

'Leaderless Resistance' meant something akin to what both the Communist








17

Party and the Nazis used to call cell structure--a legal, aboveground political group
(protected in the United States by the First Amendment) and an underground to
carry out illegal activities with minimum risk of exposing the entire organization to prosecution. . 'All individuals and groups... operate independently of each other,
and never report to a central headquarters or single leader for direction or
instruction' (Stem 1996: 36).

In Gathering Storm, Morris Dees also addresses militia organization. I-Es book

opens with a discussion of the Rocky Mountain Rendezvous and a speech delivered at that meeting by Louis Beam. Beam, a former Klansman, is now a proniinent leader in the Aryan Nations (Dees 1996: 1-2). Later in the text, Dees lists other notable attendees, categorizing them by their affiliations with white supremacist, anti-Semitic, gun control, Identity Christian, and other organizations (Dees 1996: 49-50). Clearly, according to Dees, the movement was initially launched by racists and anti-Semites:

During that weekend in the Rockies, a network of militant antigovernment
zealots was created. Alliances were formed from diverse factions: Identity, Posse
Comitatus, the Klan, Aryan Nations, reconstructionists and other fundamentalist
Christians, neo-Nazis, tax resisters, Second Amendment advocates, and
antiabortion extremists (Dees 1996: 67).

Dees is also of the opinion that white supremacists have maintained their control of the entire movement, and cites a message from Dr. William Pierce of the National Alliance to his members:

Some of the militia groups in the United States are being badly n misled in the
ideological realm and are in need of some Alliance input. Any member interested in working with a non-Alliance militia group should write to Dr. Pierce, detailing
any past or current contacts he has with a militia group and also mentioning
any opportunity of which he is aware for establishing a new contact with a militia
group in his area (Dees 1996: 202).

This supports Dees' thesis that white supremacists founded that movement and remain in control of the primary ideological sources. Furthermore, they are attempting to bring non-








18

racially motivated militias into their fold.

Communication

An essential element in any social movement is communication. When a

movement is "underground" and attempting to avoid infiltration by law enforcement, communication can become difficult. The Militia Movement has tackled this problem with shortwave radio, a fax network, and the Internet. The militiamen are also avid listeners of right-wing "talk radio" hosts. Shortwave radio has provided a venue for such Militia leaders as Mark Koemke and Linda Thompson. "This little-noticed band, usually associated with international programming, has become a magnet for America's far right, and Koernke was one of its biggest stars" (Stem 1996: 10 1). Stem addresses the issue of talk radio:

Clinton's criticisms of talk radio had some truth, however, AM and FM talk
radio had been helpful to the militias because some of the issues that drove
America's private armies also played well on talk shows. Mainstream media, for
instance, forgot the Branch Davidians after their fiery end. Not so talk radio.
Waco was a huge topic. The talk-show host Rush Limbaugh... also spoke about
concerns that overlapped the militias' agenda... The one mainstream talk-radio
host to whom militia members may listen is G. Gordon Liddy, heard on over two
hundred stations across America (Stern 1996: 222).

Of the Internet, Stern writes that-.

The main communication system of the militias is the computer. Computers, after
all, substitute for a fax machine with the installation of a fax board. But they can
do so much more; they can hook you up with like-minded people around the globe
through bulletin boards and newsgroups on the Internet... Militia members can
even sleep while their computers dial up and download the bulletin boards' news.
In the morning, new information awaits (Stem 1996: 225-226).

Where does this information come from? And where does it go? Linda Thompson runs a bulletin board through which she claims to reach 36,000 people. 'We're a news service,'








19

she says. 'We use the computer as the end of the fine, not the beginning. We get information in by Federal Express, faxes, and phone, then we put it on the bulletin boards for the widest possible distribution' (Stem 1996: 226). Summa y

In summary, all four authors are in agreement that the Militia Movement was bom at the Rocky Mountain Rendezvous in October 1992 in response to the Ruby Ridge incident. They all agree that old-guard white supremacists founded the movement and remain in control of the primary sources of ideology and information dissemination. All agree that the Internet, fax networks, shortwave radio, and talk radio are the methods of communication, and that of all these, the Internet is most important. Three of the four authors closely examine the concept of "leaderless resistance" which is so confounding to law enforcement personnel attempting to track the groups.



Membership

Who are the people who comprise the Militia Movement?

Abanes attempts to answer this question. According to Abanes, the adherents of militia ideology can best be classified on the basis of their religious and political orientations:

On the movement's moderate side are conservative Christians dissatisfied by the
current state of American politics. Their primary concern is changing the
government through political activism. More radical participants include both
Christians and non-Christians who deny their U.S. citizenship ... Interspersed
among these two groups are the most dangerous and unpredictable 'patriots-Klansmen, neo-Nazis, and Christian Identity believers (Abanes 1996: 2).








20

He further states that "within its ranks are college students, the unemployed, farmers, manual laborers, professionals, law enforcement personnel and members of the military." Abanes does not closely examine demographic factors, though, nor does he examine in any detail the economic factors underlying the movement.

According to Kenneth Stem, many members of the United States military are

involved with the Militia Movement (Stem 1996: 158) as are law enforcement personnel (Stern 1996: 236). Stern, much like Abanes, also sees diversity in the movement: "The militia movement is a mass social movement. People who have never given a thought to blacks or Jews were attracted to these groups because they cared about other things-guns, the environment, abortion" (Stern 1996: 246).

Dees, as well, sees a wide range of people in the rnilitias:

They are just the type of people racists and neo-Nazi leaders have long been after.
They are mainly white and middle class. Most hold jobs, own homes, wear their
hair short, don't use drugs, and, for one reason or another, they hate our
government... William Pierce pointed out to his followers in 1994 that 'most people aren't joiners, but millions of white Americans who five years ago felt
cowed by the government and the Jewish-controlled media that they were afraid to
agree with us are becoming fed up, and their exasperation is giving them courage'
(Dees 1996: 4-5).

Later, Dees gives a more comprehensive description of the movement:

With about five million followers, it is a movement that exists at the ftinge of
American life and politics. On its moderate side are the John Birch Society and the conspiratorial segment of televangelist Pat Robertson's audience... On the
movement's more militant side are groups promoting themes of white supremacy
and anti-Jewish bigotry (Dees 1996: 30).

Like Stem, Dees also writes about the militia members within the U.S. armed forces: "The clandestine group, the Special Forces Underground, is buried deep on the








21

fringes of America's military" (Dees 1996: 212).

Joel Dyer has a slightly different perspective on militia membership. In his view,

the movement grew out of the rural farm crisis and foreclosures of the 1980s:

In the late 1990s, after a decade and a half of crises, the people who live in
the nation's hinterland have finally reached the edge of the abyss. The fertilizer
and diesel ffiel that once enriched the soil and powered the machines that plant and harvest will now be used to destroy their perceived enemies, primary among them,
the federal government (Dyer 1997: 2).

In his research, Dyer spoke with militiamen across the Midwest, asking them about their

lives before the crisis compared to their lives now. He interviewed scores of militia

members, and reports the following:

There is one question I always ask the people I meet in the antigovernment
movement: "What was it that finally made you stop and say, 'This isn't right, I've got to do something about it?... The answers they have given are varied, yet in one
sense, the same: "They took my farm ... .. The IRS took everything I owned."
"Environmentalists wouldn't let me run my cows cause some damn little sparrow they said was endangered lived on my place." "They were going to put me in jail
because I didn't have the money to pay my tickets." "They took away my kids
because I can't pay my child support. I only make five bucks an hour. How can I
pay child support?" (Dyer 1997: 6).

In addition to farmers, Dyer also saw the diversity described by the other authors:

The cartoonish 'Bubba' character that media have chosen to use in their effort
to personify the antigovernment movement is misrepresenting truth and
creating a grave situation... The 'Bubbas' do exist, but they are only a small
feature on the real face of the movement. Doctors, lawyers, insurance agents, and
college professors were all in attendance at the meeting of the Third Continental
Congress in 1997 (Dyer 1997: 164).

Again, there are several points of agreement among the authors. Each states that

the movement draws diverse people and that the media stereotype of ignorant "rednecks"

is inaccurate. Each emphasizes a particular group, though; Dyer sees farmers at the core,








22

Abanes and Stem see Identity adherents, and Dees sees white supremacists,



Ideology

What do militia adherents actually believe? What is the motivation which draws them into this milieu? The motivations can be loosely divided into political and religious beliefs, although the distinction is not always clear, particularly to the believers themselves.

Religious beliefs

The religious beliefs of extremists within the Militia Movement, according to Abanes, lead militia members to the position that:

The end is near and (they) view Washington politicians as evil conspirators laying
the foundation for the soon-to-be-revealed Antichrist, whose reign of terror will end only when Jesus Christ returns to earth in glory. Many white supremacists
also feel the end is approaching. They, however, see the government as a Jewish pawn that must be destroyed in preparation for an Armageddon-like race war. In
this last days scenario, whites emerge victorious from the battle to establish an
Aryan republic in America (Abanes 1996: 3).

The primary religious motivation, though, is Identity Christianity:

Religion has been used for thousands of years to mask hate and prejudice.
'Spirituality' still serves as a convenient excuse for violence and other forms of antisocial behavior. All that is needed is a little false piety, coupled with liberal
doses of self-induced ignorance and blind devotion to 'the truth.' Even the most
loathsome attitudes and barbarous acts can then be attributed to 'serving God.
This holds especially true for believers in Christian Identity, a twentieth-century amalgamation of racism and pseudo-Christian ideas. .. Many Christian Identity
leaders and followers are closely affiliated with patriot movement groups and
various militia spokespersons (Abanes 1996: 154-155).

How influential is Identity in the movement? Abanes believes that Identity is at the core:








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By propagating and encouraging ... conspiracy theories within the
patriot/militia movement, Identity adherents have stirred up hatred for the
government, which they hope will galvanize discontented masses into a force able to topple the evil Jewish regime in power. .. In doing so, white supremacists have
created an elaborate maze of racists and non-racists who share a similar
conspiratorial worldview (Abanes 1996: 168).

Dees recognizes the influence of Identity doctrine and is concerned about the

"infiltration" of Identity into the growing fundamentalist movements: "At the time the

militia movement was born, Christian Identity was seeking to form coalitions with

fundamentalist Christians. Its leaders saw opposition to abortion and gay rights as well as

advocacy of home schooling and Bible-based laws as common ground for both groups"

(Dees 1996: 21).

Dyer echoes Dees' analysis of the convergence of fundamentalism and Identity

Christianity. In his view, the two together sit at the core of the Patriot Movement:

Most of the people in the antigovernment movement fall into two
categories: those claiming to be traditional Christian fundamentalists--composed of
the usual denominations--and those who adhere to some or all of the teachings of
the Christian Identity sect. .. The religious terminology used by both
fundamentalist and Identity believers can, at first hearing, give the outsider the
impression that the two groups are very similar. In truth, they are not (Dyer 1997:
79-80).

The behavior of the adherents of both of the systems, however, can be quite similar.

According to Dyer:

All of these groups... have one commonality--a belief that the Bible justifies or
even demands that they rebel against the current American government. This
belief that the Bible demands rebellion compels these rural warriors to see
themselves as an army of holy patriots rather than as a mutinous force attempting a
coup (Dyer 1997: 79).

All of the authors agree that political and religious beliefs have become deeply








24

intertwined in the Militia Movement. Further, they all agree that Identity and fundamentalism are being combined in new ways which promote violence.

Each has attempted to understand the conspiracy theory which leads to a belief in the New World Order; they all agree that such a theory exists and was developed primarily at the Rocky Mountain Rendezvous. There is slight disagreement as to the identification of the specific power group behind the New World Order, but this disagreement probably results from disagreement among the militia theoreticians themselves. Political beliefs

"The glue binding them together," according to Abanes, is:

... a noxious compound of four ingredients: (1) an obsessive suspicion of the
government; (2) belief in anti-government conspiracy theories; (3) a deep-seated
hatred of government officials; and (4) a feeling that the United States
Constitution, for all intents and purposes, has been discarded by Washington
bureaucrats (Abanes 1996: 2)

What else does Abanes have to say about the militia political beliefs? He is concerned about the lack of apparent rationality and the potential for violence.The picture grows more troubling when one takes into account the high levels
of paranoia that abound in the patriot/militia movement. Most patriots, for
example, believe that nearly everyone in the government is out to enslave U.S.
citizens as part of an insidious scheme hatched long ago by a secret cabal of
behind-the-scenes 'internationalists' whose ultimate goal is world domination
(Abanes 1996- 3).

Kenneth Stem also examines the militia belief system. The underlying political belief of the movement, according to Stem, is that the Constitution has been secretly and illegally suspended. How was this done? Through Executive Orders and international treaties: "Conspiracy theorists like the Trochmanns. . ascribed almost magical powers to








25

executive orders... If executive order were bad, treaties were worse... treaties are proof of a global conspiracy. . 'They've perverted the intent of the Constitution and come up with a bastardized form of illegitimate government"' (Stem 1996: 73-74).

In order to keep the American public from opposing the suspension of the

Constitution the government is attempting to ban firearm ownership, according to militia doctrine. Stern writes that Patriot theorists utilize examples from history to gain support from people concerned with gun control: "Part of the mythology of the militias was the exaltation of the gun into an icon of freedom. History was rewritten to this end" (Stern 1996: 116).

One aspect of militia ideology which is particularly appealing to white supremacists and to members concerned about immigration is the belief that only the original Constitution is legitimate. People granted citizenship through amendments are not legal citizens: ". . there was a fundamental legal distinction between white people, who were termed 'state citizens,' and minorities, who were 'Fourteenth Amendment' citizens" (Stem 1996: 81).

How has this seemingly strange and irrational ideology gained so many adherents? Why do middle-class professionals now associate with Klansmen? According to Stem:

In America in the mid-1990s it is taboo to express overt hatred of
minorities. Disagreement with government, however, is a fine and important
American tradition. What the Wise Use groups and militias accomplished was to
redirect the old-fashioned hatred onto an 'acceptable' target... When that type of
hatred is made acceptable by being transferred to our public servant... a new
strain of bigotry has the chance to thrive in the American mainstream (Stem 1996:
132).

He goes even further in his analysis, taking the perspective of an American concerned with








26

gun control:

You have gone to a few meetings when you start to understand that there is more
to this than a few troubling bills making their way through Congress. The
government is against you, coming to take your guns on behalf of hidden forces-Illuminati, elites, bankers, Jews, whoever--that are really in control. Gun control is
only the first step in their elaborate plot to take away your guns, then your rights,
then your freedoms. . ArmlJoads of documents follow to keep you moving further
into the militias' funnel of paranoia (Stern 1996: 142).

What is the basis for militia conspiracy theory? According to Stern, "The

conspiracy theories that underlie the movement are rooted in the Protocols of the Elders of Zion" (Stern 1996: 247).

Morris Dees also attempts to delineate the Patriot worldview. Dees believes that Identity doctrine is at the core:

Identity isn't just about race or white supremacy. Like the theology of many
fundamentalist and cult religious groups, Christian Identity's worldview
extends into the secular world of politics and provides a tent big enough to
incorporate the views of various extremist groups. It invites individuals who are
extremely antigovernment, anti-law enforcement, antitax, antiabortion, antigay,
antifemninist, anti-medical profession, antivaccination, pro-guns, pro-home
schooling, pro-states' rights, and believers in an international one-world
conspiracy that is about to take over America and the world (Dees 1996: 18).

Like Abanes and Stern, Dees also recognizes the power of gun control laws to

drive people into the Militia Movement: "It wasn't until later in 1993, when the Congress passed the Brady Bill, that the militia movement ignited into a nationwide brushfire" (Dees 1996: 73). "The only way for 'ordinary Americans' to prevent any future 'gun grabs' and atrocities such as Ruby Ridge and Waco, said Trochmann, was to come together under the banner of an unorganized militia" (Dees 1996: 80).

The government is attempting to control every aspect of citizens' lives, according








27

to militia theoreticians. Dees writes of one of their arguments: "In its various publications and pamphlets, MOM pointed to laws regarding abortion, taxation, and home schooling as further examples of a government out to destroy an honored way of life" (Dees 1996: 8 1).

Dees found a summary of the conspiracy beliefs in a shortwave broadcast by Mark Koernke, who stated that:

I . a secret national police force comprised of National Guardsmen, Los Angeles
street gangs, and Nepalese Gurkhas will disarm the public; a division of Russian troops are bivouacked in salt nines beneath Detroit awaiting orders to rise and
take over the United States; and before the United Nations takes control on behalf
of the New World Order, the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA)
will establish an interim government (Dees 1996: 85).

Dyer outlines several trends among the conspiracy theories found in Patriot Movement literature and summarizes them as follows:

Most of the antigovernment movement's conspiracy theories are used to explain
specific parts of its larger one-world government, aka the new world order
theory, In today's version of this conspiracy, the major players are as follows: the
banks, the Federal Reserve, the M (International Monetary Fund), the World
Bank, the federal government, communism (despite its collapse), the United
Nations, the Trilateral Commission, the IRS, the multinational corporations, the
media, and the world's Jewish population, which acts through various secret
organizations such as the Illuminati and Freemasons (Dyer 1997: 99). Activities

What do militia members actually do on a day-to-day basis? How are their beliefs actualized?

Abanes states early in his book that "each group of heavily armed 'freedom fighters' regularly holds paramilitary training exercises in preparation for what many patriots see as an inevitable showdown with the regime now controlling the nation" (Abanes 1996: 2). In a later chapter, he lists crimes committed by members of the Militia








28

Movement such as the "numerous individuals harassed and intimidated," "threatening phone calls in the night," and the placement of "contracts" on the lives ofjudges and law enforcement personnel (Abanes 1996: 224-227). He also opens American Militias with a detailed description of the carnage at the scene of the Oklahoma City bombing and warns that the attack by Timothy McVeigh was merely a precursor to more violence as the end of the millennium approaches (Abanes 1996-. 1).

Kenneth Stem chose to open A Force Upon the Plain in the same manner (Stem 1996: 9). In order to demonstrate the activities of militias, Stern first lists a series of incidents in which militia members threaten and harass government employees, making it difficult and sometimes impossible for them to do their jobs (Stem 1996: 94). He later devotes an entire chapter to the explication of felonies and violent acts which have been attributed to the Militia Movement (Stem 1996: 251-258).

Violent crimes committed by militiamen are the central focus of Dees' work. He lists several examples of harassment of public officials (Dees 1996: 119-122) and violent crime (Dees 1996: 209-2 13). He also takes his readers step-by-step through Timothy McVeigh's evolution from a decorated combat soldier in the U.S. Army to a terrorist who bombed a Federal Building (Dees 1996: 149).

Joel Dyer gives a little more detail regarding the non-violent behavior of Patriots, exploring the development of "common-law courts" and "sovereign citizenship." He also examines the Freemen and the well-known Montana Freemen stand-off with federal agents. In addition, Dyer describes the Republic of Texas and gives the details of interviews he held with its members shortly before their encounter with law enforcement








29

(Dyer 1997: 177-190). Finally, Dyer's book, much like the others, is interspersed with lists of violence and felonies committed in the name of the Patriot Movement.

All four of the authors agree that the movement inspires and incites violence. All agree that the violence thus far is simply a precursor to much greater violence to come. All agree that there is a spectrum of behaviors ranging from paramilitary training and terrorism to "discussion groups" who get together to complain about the government, and every imaginable behavior in between,



Conclusion

This paper will examine the structural relations between militia activists as well as those between activists and the general population. This examination will reveal that the research question (Why did the Militia Movement develop in this time and place?) can be answered through explication of two facets. The first facet concerns the socioeconomic factors which have created a pool of potential converts seething with fear and distrust of the federal government. The second facet concerns the opportunity structure through which these potential converts eventually become activists in the movement.

The pool of potential militia activists has been created through the confluence of three primary factors: educational, economic, and political, all interpreted through a fundamentalist perspective. Current methods used by America's public education systems have left many high school and college graduates without the necessary intellectual skills required for critical thinking. Even many formally educated people today are trained to think in a dualistic manner, leaving them easy prey for demagoguery and unable to grasp








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the multi-dimensional complexities of social issues. Economic stressors resulting from rapid technological change have left many Americans insecure about their economic future. Many of these people have been so marginalized by economic evolution that they are incapable of recovering; in turn, they have become resentful, paranoid, and confused. Governmental corruption and mismanagement have also led to a growing distrust of federal officials and contempt for their actions.

All of these issues can be interpreted in many ways, and one these is through a

fundamentalist perspective. As will be demonstrated, the fundamental perspective can be religious, secular, or both. Fundamentalism provides a lens consisting of dualism, conspiratorialism, and millenialism.

The first facet of the problem can demonstrate why many people resent the

government and would be inclined to oppose it. It fails, however, to explain why most people do not become militia members. The second facet of the problem, the opportunity structure, can provide a possible answer.

Without an available opportunity structure activism is unlikely. This is supported by the "Multi-step Mobilization Theory" used by Lazardsfeld, Berelson, and Gaudet in 1948 (Lazardsfeld et al 1948). Applying this model to Idaho Christian Patriots, Aho agrees that "individuals are not generally recruited directly by mass appeals--handbills, ads, or pamphlets--but indirectly through their ties with 'opinion leaders,' influential members of the same local groups as themselves" (Aho 1990: 186). This is true of the Militia Movement--each militia examined in this study had one or two critical members who knew most of the other members in arenas outside of the militia, such as their








31

churches or places of business. More activists become members after being invited to a meeting by a friend than by any other recruiting method.

In summary, structural factors related to education, economics, and politics, interpreted through a fundamentalist perspective, in combination with an available opportunity structure, have led to the development of the Militia Movement.














CHAPTER 2
SOCIAL CONTEXT


In the last year there literally have been hundreds of earthquakes in
several parts of the United States. They 're not even reporting all the earthquakes
that are taking place. .. .Part of a plan done by the New World Order advocates many years ago spe c ically spe cified that by the year 2 0 00 to maintain proper
control there must be an eradication of billions of people from the fice of the
earth in one way shape or manner or another... It was called the plan 2000. We
have five years and they will be at the 2 000 point... Talking about weather
control. .You can do devastating things worldwvide when you control the weather.

-Bob Fletcher, MVilitia of Montana
spokesman (Stem 1996: 145)


In order to frilly understand the rise and growth of the Militia Movement, one must first understand the social context from which it sprang. This chapter will examine several crucial aspects of American society which may have affected the Militia Movement; the militia perceptions of these changes will be reviewed in subsequent chapters. Among these are changes in the economy which have led to increasing uncertainty and insecurity among the working and entrepreneurial classes, changes in the academic preparation of young adults in the public schools, and increasing public awareness of government corruption and mismanagement. In addition, there has been a rise in fundamentalist thinking worldwide which provides a unique perspective through which to interpret the educational, economic, and political factors.




32








33

Economic Factors

Any viable economic system must continually evolve, adapting itself to new

technologies and new situations. The necessity of this change, however, does not mean that the new forms are equally beneficial to all participants in that economy. Those left behind by changes in the economy may become insecure about their future, leaving them resentful, angry, and even violent. This is occurring today in America as technological advances, corporate restructuring, and the trend toward globalization accelerate the shift in the American workplace as it changes from a manufacturing- to a service-based system. This economic insecurity, found in both manufacturing industries and agriculture, cuts across traditional class lines as workers, managers, and business owners find themselves unable to adapt.



Manufacturing Industries

The recent changes in America's economy which have led to insecurity and underemployment on the part of the industrial work force are pnmanly caused by technological advances, the "globalization" of markets, and increased investment in the stock market by the middle class.

Increased investment in the stock market, spurred on by the advent of middle-class participation due to lowered interest rates and mutual funds, has created pressure on corporations as investors demand increased short-term profits. The demand for shortterm profit fuels a drive for heightened efficiency in order to increase the rate of return for investors. This drive for efficiency has led to two significant types of changes:








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organizational and technological.

One method utilized by corporations in the quest for increased efficiency is the development and implementation of continual technological advances, which in turn lead to changing requirements and decreasing opportunities for labor in the manufacturing industries. Whereas the primary difference between management and labor was once mental as opposed to physical work, today's blue-collar worker is now required to have technical training and skills in order to function. This has led to increased competition between blue-collar workers, as those few who have the necessary training take higherpaying jobs from those without. It has also created decreased confidence in job security, according to economists- ". . recent years have been almost universally characterized as an era of rapid change... As change and uncertainty is now endemic in many organizations and settings, job insecurity is a major cause for concern in the future" (Hartley et al 1991: 199). The technological changes are advancing so rapidly, in fact, that both vital worker skills and methods of corporate organization of five to ten years ago are considered obsolete in today's market: "Organizations are restructuring, introducing new technologies, internationalizing their production, experiencing rapid changes in products, markets and fashions, and providing some employees with less secure employment" (Hartley et al 1991: 200).

Corporate restructuring, or "downsizing," has led to two major changes:
Outsourcing" or subcontracting work and a shift from full-time to part-time employment. This helps corporations save money by paying fewer or no benefits to their workers (Feigenbaum 1997: 1). The reduction in the amount of health-care benefits paid by








35

corporations coincided with skyrocketing medical insurance and health care costs. As a result, many workers today are unable to afford adequate coverage, this further increases economic and personal insecurity.

Another evolving aspect of the economy contributing to worker insecurity is the opening of global markets. Treaties, such as the North, American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) and the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), coupled with advances in transportation and communication technologies, have accelerated the trend for manufacturing companies to shift their factories to Third World countries, which is advantageous to the corporations in two ways. First, they are able to reduce labor costs by paying foreign labor substantially lower wages than demanded by American labor. Second, the corporations locating their factories in foreign countries are not subject to American laws concerning environmental protection and worker safety, which also combine to reduce production costs. This results in a further reduction in manufacturing jobs within the United States and aids in the shift from an industrial- to a service-based economy.

The drive for technological advances has, on the other hand, led to the

development of new "high-tech' 'industries. Although many of these maintain their manufacturing base in the U. S., the jobs available in these industries tend to be either "high-end" or "low-end-" employees are either very highly paid or paid subsistence wages, with few or no jobs in the middle.

All of these factors lead, ultimately, to insecurity on the part of the labor force.

One traditional method used by young adults to regain security and remain competitive in








36

the job market is to attend either college or technical school. The result is that America today has more "educated" or "skilled" laborers than ever before, though high-paying entry-level jobs are at their lowest level of availability. Most of these people, therefore, are still unable to find employment they consider suitable: "Most service industries had high concentrations of underemployment... resulting in lower overall earnings and wage rates, and higher underemployment rates" (Sheets et al 1987: 123) While unemployment is no higher than in the past, underemployment has become endemic.



Agriculture

Corporate restructuring and mergers have also led to significant changes in

agriculture. Farming combines such as Cargill, ConAgra, and Iowa Beef Packers have obtained a virtual monopoly in agriculture and are squeezing more and more small, independent farmers out of the market (Dyer 1997: 112). As early as 1980, seven companies controlled "96 percent of U.S. wheat exports, 95 percent of U.S. corn exports, 90 percent of U.S. oat exports, and 80 percent of all the sorghum leaving the United States" (Gilmore 1982: 24). This emerging monopoly, combined with a 46 percent drop in crop prices in 1985, rising interest rates during the later 1980s, and the implementation of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) agreement, led to a massive crisis among small farmers during the late 1980s which continues unabated to this day (Dyer 1997: 139-145). This farm crisis, long forgotten by many Americans, has led to the loss of "between 700,000 and 1 million small- to medium-sized family farms since 1980" (Dyer 1997: 15).








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Social Changes

At the same time that farmers are losing their land, blue-collar workers are losing their manufacturing jobs, and college graduates are increasingly underemployed, more efficient manufacturing methods and increased capital investment have made an increasing number of products available. The increase in products in combination with increasingly effective mass media and its concomitant advertising bombardment leads people to desire more and more items which they do not "need." Their inability to afford these luxury items leads to depression, anger, and resentment towards those who can afford them and those who produce them (Feigenbaum 1997: 2).

Resentment and depression stem from many other sources as well: "Gone are the old certainties and stabilities of family life, marriage, community, religion and work. Instead, many people face considerable change and uncertainty in their relationships, in their place of living, and in their employment" (Hartley et al 1991: 200). First and foremost, though, is the loss of hope that today's young adults will have the same opportunities as their parents. Most Americans probably shared the expectations of the Reagan Revolution that the policies of Presidents Reagan and Bush would result in an expansion of the middle class. However:

While President Reagan presented the nation's economy as improving people's
conditions, facts also pointed at a regression and declining economic strength. (By
1989, income distribution between rich and poor was back to the level it was in
1947). The assumption behind the 'supply-side' approach Reagan advocated did
not materialize, as the supply of goods and services did not result in the anticipated
increased consumption, new markets, and new prosperity (Kiewe & Houck 1991:
224).










summau

In summary, American manufacturing workers and farmers believe they are facing an insecure future. This insecurity is the result of rapid technological advances, increased pressure for short-term profits, the accelerating globalization of markets, and the continuing shift of America's economy from industrial- to service-based companies. Insecurity on the part of the middle and lower classes fills many workers with resentment, frustration, and anger.



Education

Evaluating the effectiveness of an educational system is difficult, if not impossible. It is almost always controversial. For the purposes of this study, the effectiveness of the system overall is not as important as the effectiveness of the system today compared with the same system in the decades prior to the advent of the Militia Movement. Are there significant changes in the education of American citizens which can help to explain the rise of this movement?

One possible standard of comparison is the Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT),

administered by the College Entrance Examination Board (CEEB), Scores on the SAT began dropping yearly in 1963; the pace of the mean scores' decline accelerated rapidly during the 1980s (Sowell 1994: 47).

By 1993, high school seniors were scoring so poorly that most did not qualify for college admission. Rather than make changes in the educational programs, the solution offered by CEEB was to modify the scoring process by raising the mean score. I 10 points








39

on each section, or 220 points overall (Associated Press 1995: A5; Editorial 1994: J4).

This is a clear indication that high school graduates today lack the basic skills in mathematics, reading, and writing demonstrated by high school graduates of ten years ago. More than that is implied; since the process of decline began in 1963, it is clear that the graduates of ten years ago lacked the skills of their predecessors twenty years in the past.

If high school graduates are entering college with less qualifications than in the

past, are colleges making up for their deficiencies? Not in Florida. Beginning in 1995, the Board of Regents of the Florida State University System initiated a program designed to force undergraduate students to rush through college as fast as possible. The core requirements were altered in such a manner that college graduates no longer receive the same breadth of courses and exposure to a variety of arts and sciences as students prior to the changes (Kenyon 1995: 8). Do they get a modified degree? No. Today's graduates receive the same degree as their more broadly educated predecessors.

Young adults are being forced into the job market with declining academic skills and with less training and preparation for critical thinking and decision-making than in the past. This is not to glorify the past and reminisce about a "golden age" of education which never existed; it is simply recognition that today's young adults are not as well-educated as those of yesterday. There are two results of this, one direct and the other indirect. First, the new graduates are less prepared to compete in today's economy, which leads to the frustration discussed in the previous section. Second, because graduates are poorly trained in the sciences and in critical thinking, young adults are more likely to accept








40

demagoguery and less likely to question issues of dogma.



Political Factors

Although the federal government has attempted to control, if not eliminate, the

militias, actions taken by all three branches have had some positive effect on the spread of the movement. Many law enforcement efforts to gather information on the Militia Movement and its activists have "proven" the synthetic conspiracy theory's veracity. For example, in the eyes of the militiamen, the government is attempting to infiltrate and destroy them. The fact that the government is actually attempting to infiltrate and destroy militias makes it difficult to argue with this perception. Other actions demonstrate to the Far Right that the government is under the control of sinister forces who want total control of the United States. Finally, some governmental actions have affected the movement by creating or amplifying divisions between ethnic or social groups within the population. This section will briefly review some of these actions.



Gun Control

On 3 0 November 1993, President Clinton enacted the Brady Handgun Violence Prevention Act (P. L. 103 -15 9), which sought to limit access to handguns and created a national waiting period between time of purchase and time of acquisition of handguns. This was followed the next year by the Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act (P. L. 104-208), signed into law on 30 September 1994. These laws represent the most recent examples of a trend initiated at the state level to restrict firearms ownership and to








41

reduce access to "assault" and automatic weapons.



Surveillance of Citizens

In 1995, President Clinton announced the introduction of the Omnibus AntiTerrorism Bill (H. R. 1710), which capitalized on the public's fear of domestic terrorism (Lacayo 1995: 1). This fear was instilled in the public by the bombings of the World Trade Center and the Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building in Oklahoma City (McGee 1995: W10). The bill is designed to give federal law enforcement agents increased ability to monitor private citizens through three primary means: First, the rights of accused criminals are reduced. Second, law enforcement agents are authorized to search property and monitor telephone lines without warrants. Finally, law enforcement personnel are authorized to arrest accused criminals with far less probable cause than previously required (Matthews 1995: 10). The bill was signed into law on 24 April 1996 and is designated P. L. 104- 132, the Antiterrorism and Effective Death Penalty Act of 1996



Welfare

Welfare reform has become a significant issue in recent election campaigns.

Politicians, particularly from the Republican Party, are using the issue to gain the support of increasingly disgruntled middle class taxpayers. The long-term effect of this seems to be a growing wedge between social classes and racial groups as politicians, such as Senator Jesse Helms and Speaker of the House Newt Gingrich, speak in public of "welfare queens" and "freeloaders" (King 1995). Former Presidential candidate Pat Buchanan








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gained support from many on the right wing, including militia members, when he railed against welfare. This has become such an important issue that the Democratic Party and President Clinton have jumped on the bandwagon and instituted "welfare reform' 'laws.



Affirmative Actio

An equally controversial topic is the repeal of Affirmative Action programs.

Portrayed by many Republican politicians as "reverse discrimination," Affirmative Action programs are under attack nationwide. The most notable action on this issue to date was Proposition 209 in California, which ended racial categories in the state. Nfinority admissions to California universities abruptly declined as a result, particularly to law schools and graduate programs.

This is another topic utilized by North Carolina Senator Jesse Helms to gain

support: In one of his campaigns he used a commercial which shows a white man with a dismissal slip from his factory. A narrator's voice states that the man lost his job and can no longer support his family because of unfair racial quota laws.

The question of Affirmative Action is stirring up racial animosity which cuts across socioeconomic class boundaries as a result of demagoguery on both sides of the issue.



Separation of Church and State

Numerous issues have been brought before the public concerning the relationship between church and state. Among these are abortion rights, prayer in public schools, the teaching of Biblical "Creation7' in science classes, and the teaching of the Bible in public








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schools.

In Florida, at least one school district has voted to begin teaching classes about the Bible in its public school system (Rosza 1997). The head of the local school board insists that this will be a challenge to the "artificial boundary between church and state" invented by "liberal secular humanists." The course will teach that the Bible is an authentic and valid history and will be used to proselytize among students, according to the school board's spokesman. The spokesman is a member of the American Family Association, a prominent Christian fundamentalist lobbying organization.

Several state legislators in Florida have attempted to instate policies which will, in effect, make Christian doctrine part of state's educational program. Among these legislators is Dan Miller, who opposes any federal educational guidelines and supports "local control" of the curriculum (White 1997). At a meeting of Christian activists, Miller promised to support them in their battle to teach "Creationism' 'instead of evolutionary theory.

Another relevant issue in Florida is the repeated attempt by the Legislature to mandate, or at least permit, Christian prayer in public schools (Kaplow 1997). Bills concerning this issue are introduced into the Legislature annually, Usually defeated by narrow margins, they are immediately invalidated by the judiciary as unconstitutional on those occasions when they are approved.

Perhaps the most divisive issue in the church/state arena is that of abortion rights. Recent Supreme Court decisions upholding the rights of women to abort their fetuses have enraged the "pro-life" movement. Some have responded with violence directed at








44

clinics which provide abortions and the doctors who perform them. The Christian Coalition, a leader in the anti-abortion movement, has recently adopted a new tactic for reducing the right to abortions: "The Coalition's executive director, Ralph Reed, determinedly 'surfed the mainstream,' to use his term, by suggesting that the GOP should not press for a constitutional ban on abortion, but instead should seek incremental legal steps to change abortion policies" (The Christian Century 1996). This reflects Reed's extremely successful "stealth candidate" policies to gain control of school boards at local levels. Use of these tactics has enabled the Christian Coalition to change political systems "from the bottom up" rather than the reverse.



Vietnam/Gulf War Veterans

Many veterans of the Vietnam War returned home to face a populace that did not support them and factions which actively opposed them. They were the first American soldiers to lose a war, despite the fact that they were far better equipped and armed than their adversaries. This has led many Vietnam veterans to conclude that they were "sold out" by America's political leaders who "would not let us win" the war. Lack of support and adequate leadership during the war, abuse from citizens upon their return, and inadequate medical care from the Veteran's Administration in the intervening years has created a pool of resentment toward the federal government among many Vietnam veterans.

Veterans of the Gulf War have also become resentful of their government. Sent overseas with the apparently overwhelming support of their peers and government, the








45

veterans returned home to face a mysterious array of illnesses designated "Gulf War Syndrome." The federal government and its Veteran's Administration have denied the existence of such a condition, claiming that the veterans' health problems are coincidental. When Congress investigated the Department of Defense to determine if chemical weapons were used against American soldiers, it was revealed that the Pentagon "lost or misplaced" its logs for the very days which veterans insist that chemical exposure occurred.

Most of these veterans were not Regular Army soldiers; they were Reservists and National Guardsmen who left their homes and careers behind to do their duty, with the promise that they would be compensated and cared for if they incurred injury. Their belief that this promise was broken by the federal government has created a deep sense of anger and resentment among many Gulf War veterans.



The Farm Crisis

During the 1970s the Department of Agriculture began advising independent

farmers to expand their farms, to take out huge loans to purchase more land and modem equipment: "The rate of inflation was running several percentage points above interest rates, so banks and government lenders, such as the Farm Home Administration (FmHA), were encouraging farmers to borrow as much money as possible" (Dyer 1997: 15). In 1979 the Chairman of the Federal Reserve, Paul Volcker, raised interest rates in order to slow inflation. As a result, "property values collapsed at the same time the interest rates on the farmer's loans climbed out of sight" (Dyer 1997: 15). This led to a massive crisis in which farmers lost property which, for many, had been in their family for








46

generations.

At the same time, a small coterie of agricultural conglomerates such as ConAgra and Cargill, in order to consolidate farms and increase their holdings, began paying farmers less money for their crops than it cost the farmers to grow them. This practice is a flagrant violation of both the Clayton and Sherman Anti-Trust Acts, the Packers and StocAyards Act, and the Robinson-Patman Act. Violations of these laws have enabled the conglomerates to control the industry and drive independent farmers from their land.

The federal government has failed to enforce its own laws regarding these matters. Lobbyists from "Cargill, Continental, ConAgra, Archer Daniels Nfidland, and the rest" have determined the policies of both Congress and the Department of Agriculture for years (Dyer 1997: 119). The monopolization of agriculture has continued unabated; coincidentally, the multi-national agricultural corporations are also substantial contributors to Congressional and Presidential election campaigns.

This has created enormous desperation, fear, anger, and resentment among

farmers. Midwestern farmers are committing suicide at a far higher rate then the general population (Dyer 1997: 32-33). They blame the government for their plight, and with good cause. These farmers do not need an elaborate conspiracy theory to explain what was done to them--they need only look at the reality of their lives. Whether through intent or incompetence, the federal government has permitted well over a million farming families to lose their property and their way of life (Dyer 1997: 15).








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Corruption

The term "corruption" is relatively broad and ambiguous when applied to political matters. It is used to describe both specific illegal acts and "business as usual" political behavior. In the context of this study, corruption applies to the trading ofpoliticalfavors for money or status by government officials. The term is applied here to illegal and secretive bribes, legal or quasi-legal campaign contributions, or even "gifts," which tend to result in laws which benefit a select few to the detriment of the population at large or in the selective enforcement of laws.

Corruption is a reality in government, but as far as this study is concerned what is vitally important is the perception of corruption, rather than the documentation of actual illegal or immoral acts. According to Frank Anechiarico: "Corruption is a problem and corruption control a constant challenge for all governments, Corruption undermines citizens' confidence in and commitment to the commonweal and can even destroy the legitimacy of the political system" (Anachiarico & Jacobs 1996: xiii). This loss of confidence in government has become endemic among most Americans. Norman Ornstein wrote in 1993, one year after the birth of the Militia Movement, that "ABC News asked voters in mid-1992, 'Do you think the overall level of ethics and honesty in politics has risen, fallen, or stayed the same during the past ten years?' A full 60 percent said it had fallen; only 9 percent believed it had risen" (Ornstein 1993: 7). This is echoed in another series of polls:

The most disturbing trend in American public life today is found in the answers to
a poll question asked regularly by the Roper organization: Do you think you can
trust the government in Washington to do what is right most of the time? In 1964,








48

76 percent of Americans polled answered yes. Today, that number has plunged to
an abysmal 19 percent (Sabato & Simpson 1996: ix).

It is not surprising that Americans are losing confidence in the integrity of their elected officials-, after all, we have a Senate which has refused to expel a single member since the Civil War, over 130 years ago, regardless of misbehavior or misconduct (Dewar 1995: v). Further, Time recently reported that twenty-three U.S. Army Generals have been accused of criminal activities since 1995. Of these, not a single officer was tried in court; all twenty-three were allowed to retire with full pay and benefits. Actions such as these demonstrate to a suspicious public that high-level government officials are free to disregard the laws of the land (Time 1998:8).

Americans are not only losing confidence for general reasons. They see specific acts in which government officials show marked favoritism to wealthy or high-status constituents. For example, studies indicate that "white-collar" crime causes far more damage to society than "street crime:"

The economic losses suffered by consumers and government as a result of
corporate crime... dwarfed the losses taken from street crime victims by the
nation's car thieves, burglars and robbers. As for physical hazards. . 'far more
persons are killed through corporate criminal activities than by individual criminal
homicides' (Burnham 1996: 212).

Despite this fact, the Department of Justice rarely prosecutes white-collar criminals. According to researcher David Burnham: "The record is clear. Political campaign contributions, personal bribes and other direct and indirect favors have frequently influenced important Justice Department decisions about the enforcement of law" (Burnham 1996- 233), This does not go unnoticed by members of society who are not so








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well connected.

Certain major scandals have rocked American government and demonstrated clearly to the American public that its leaders are exempt from the very laws that they create, enforce, and judge. The most recent significant disclosures revolved around the collapse of several savings and loan associations, of which researchers have stated: "Political corruption was at the very heart of the thrift debacle" (Calavita et al 1997: 86). Despite illegal and quasi-legal actions on the part of elected officials costing taxpayers millions of dollars, not a single Senator or Congressman was charged with a crime.

Whether governmental corruption has actually increased or whether corruption is simply being reported more frequently is a debatable point. What is clear, however, is that the American public is growing increasingly concerned about the corruption. Citizens are becoming distrustful and, some have become contemptuous to the point of insurrection.



Fundamentalism

Since the 1970s there has been a marked increase in fundamentalist thinking and religious practice worldwide (Caplan 1987: 5-6). Although the term "fundamentalism" was first applied to a specific religious movement within American Christianity, crosscultural studies have expanded the usage. According to Lionel Caplan, fundamentalism "may refer equally to militantly orthodox sections within the Jewish population in Israel, separatist and nationalist elements in the Sikh community, Tamil 'liberation' movements in Sri Lanka, or FEndu groups opposed to foreign missionary influences in India" (Caplan 1987: 1). Other scholars agree with Caplan and have attempted to delineate the specific








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factors of a belief system which can be used to classify systems as fundamentalist.

A five-year study commissioned by the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, T-he Fundamentalism Project, initially describes fundamentalism in terms of conflict. According to the authors, the conflicts of fundamentalists include five distinct aspects of fighting. First, they fight back: "fundamentalists begin as traditionalists who perceive some challenge or threat to their core identity, both social and personal. ... They react, they fight back with great innovative power." Second, theyfight for: "What they fight for begins with a worldview they have inherited or adopted and which they constantly reinforce." Third, theyfight with: "Fundamentalists fight with a particularly chosen repository of resources which one might think of as weapons." Fourth, they fight against: "Fundamentalists also fight against others. These may be generalized or specific enemies, but in all cases, whether they come from without or within the groups, they are the agents of assault on all that is held dear." Finally, they '~fight under God--in the case of theistic religions. .. Particularly potent are those fundamentalisms whose participants are convinced that they are called to carry out God's or Allah's purposes against challengers" (Marty & Appleby 1991; Vol. 1: ix-x).

The final volume of The Fundamentalist Prolect lists five ideological

characteristics of fundamentalism. The first of these is reactivity to the marginalization of religion: "to qualify as genuine fundamentalism in our understanding, a movement must be concerned first with the erosion of religion and its proper role in society." The second is selectivity. Fundamentalists select specific aspects of traditions to defend, specific aspects of modernity to embrace, and specific aspects of modernity to oppose. Next is "a








51

dualistic or Manichean woridview... in which reality is considered to be uncompromisingly divided into light, which is identified with the world of the spirit and of the good, and darkness, which is identified with matter and evil." Fourth is absolutism and inerrancy: "They steadfastly oppose hermeneutical methods developed by secularized philosophers or critics. .. fundamentalists employ their own distinctive strategies of interpretation, including 'hardened' and 'updated' traditional approaches, designed in part to reify and preserve the absolutist character of the sacred text or tradition." The final ideological characteristic is millenialism and messianism: "History has a miraculous culmination. The good will triumph over evil" (Marty & Appleby 1991; Vol.5: 405-407).

Other scholars have taken differing approaches to the study of fundamentalism. Mortimer Ostow, for example, examined fundamentalists from a psychological perspective. He concluded, among other things, that:

..fundamentalism may be described as a derivative of apocalyptic thinking, in
which the destructive phase consists of condemnation and rejection of the outside world and the rebirth phase consists of reorganization into an egalitarian, populist,
fraternal community inspired by a charismatic leader. .. Individual or group
discontent. .. frequently challenges self-love and self-esteem. The discontent
initiates a tendency to seek relief by invoking an illusion that the real present can be overcome, rejected, destroyed, and replaced by a reborn world (Cohen 1990:
124).

Richard Hofstadter also studied fundamentalism and its effects. He concluded that fundamentalism is at the core of most movements of projective politics, and that the phenomenon has three distinct features: dualism, conspiratorialism, and miillenialism (Hofstadter 1962).








52

For the purposes of this study, the key elements of fundamentalism are the

conspiratorialism described by Hofstadter and the dualism and millenarianism described by Hofstadter and The Fundamentalist Project. Additionally, The Fundamentalist Prqj ci' s conceptualization of perpetual conflict is vital to understanding the Militia Movement.



The Patriot Movement and the Far Right

As stated previously, the Militia Movement can be classified as a relatively recent development, a smaller, subordinate element of the larger and pre-existing "Patriot Movement." The Patriot Movement encompasses a variety of Far Right concerns, including the Christian Identity sect, the common-law court system, and several white supremacist organization. This section will explore some of the Patriot elements which were influential in the formation of the Militia Movement.



Identity Christianity

Christian Identity is a religious sect relatively unknown outside of the western states in which it thrives. There is no central body for either doctrinal dissemination or control, but a number of small, rival churches. The largest and most powerful of these is the Church of Jesus Christ Christian, led by Richard Butler of Hayden Lake, Idaho. The Church of Jesus Christ Christian is the religious body of the Aryan Nations, a militant white supremacist group with members nationwide but headquartered in a compound in Idaho.

The central precept of Identity is that the "Aryan" or "white" race is the group









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actually referred to in the Bible as the Israelites, God's "chosen people." Over time, the nefarious Jews have manipulated societies worldwide and insinuated themselves into this role. In reality, according to Identity doctrine, all people alive today are either descendants of Adam or of the "pre-Adamic" race. Aficans, of course, are the preAdamites and are therefore not truly human. Of the descendants of Adam there are two divisions--Jews and Aryans.

The "true" humans, God's chosen, are "white." Whites are the offspring of Adam and Eve after they were expelled from the Garden of Eden. Jews, on the other hand, are the offspring of Satan. In Identity doctrine, the story of Eve's temptation by Satan is a euphemism; what really happened was that Satan entered the Garden, raped Eve, and impregnated her with his spawn, Cain. Cain, of course, was the first murderer of the first true Israelite, Abel. All of history since the Garden of Eden has been a constant struggle between the children of God (whites) and the children of Satan (Jews). The children of Satan have enlisted the proto human blacks as their foot soldiers, as "cannon fodder" in the battle for ascendancy.

Identity adherents believe, therefore, that it is their duty to God to destroy the

seedline of Satan in the final battle of Armageddon, and members are expected to own and become proficient in the use of firearms in support of this goal. The Identity leader Richard Butler and his second-in-command Louis Beam were key organizers of the Rocky Mountain Rendezvous and were instrumental in the birth of the Militia Movement.

The belief that history has been guided by the forces of good in opposition to the forces of evil, and that there are real entities behind these forces, indicates the








54

conspiratorial nature of the belief system. The expectation of a final battle at the end of history demonstrates that the sect is millenarian. Finally, the belief in absolute good, represented by Aryans, and absolute evil, represented by Jews, shows that Identity doctrine is dualistic in nature.

For a more thorough examination of the Christian Identity movement, readers are referred to Michael Barkun's Religion and the Racist Right (Barkun 1997).



The Liberty Lobby

The Liberty Lobby is a right-wing organization founded in 1955 by former John Birch Society member Willis Carto (Schwartz 1996: 252). The Liberty Lobby has been a major influence on Far Right politics, particularly since the 1980s. The organization publicizes its radical anti-Semitic beliefs through a weekly newspaper, Ae Spotlight, as well as through the broadcast of a radio talk show, Radio Free America. In addition, the Liberty Lobby publishes the journal of a subsidiary organization, the Institute for Historical Review, a pseudo-academic group which argues that the "Holocaust" is a fraud perpetrated by Jews in order to gain money and sympathy. 7-he Spotlight has become the most widely circulated and cited source of information in the entire Militia Movement.



Common-Law Courts

Another element of the Patriot Movement is the "common-law court" system. Adherents of this system believe that English Common Law is the actual basis of all legitimate legal systems, and that the federal government is operating without lawful



I








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authority. They believe that the Magna Carta and other documents provide for a system of "citizen-controlled" courts which can issue warrants, judge cases, and dispense justice (usually in the form of death sentences). Common law, in their view, applies to "sovereign citizens," or "true" Americans who have renounced affiliation with the pretenders in Washington who have usurped the government. They believe that all federal law enforcement is illegal, and that the highest legal authority rests with county sheriffs.

In practice, the common-law court movement has led adherents to file false liens against government officials, liens which have destroyed credit and created legal nightmares in several counties. Followers refuse to use driver's licenses, to pay taxes, to use license plates on their vehicles, or to respond to the census. While most of this activity has occurred in western states, the movement has recently gained converts in Florida.



7 he Turner Diaries

The most important single document in the Patriot Movement is the novel The Turner Diaries, written by Dr. William Pierce of the National Alliance. The National Alliance is a white supremacist organization currently headquartered in West Virginia (Roy 1996: 3 7). -The Turner Diaries relates the story of a soldier in a revolutionary cell engaged in a guerilla war of liberationn' against the Zionist Occupation Government which is secretly controlling the United States. The guerillas use terrorism, torture, and bombings in order to further their cause, and fund their operations through theft.








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The book inspired a violent crime spree during the 1980s; the organization which committed these crimes, The Order, actually took its name from the novel. During the 1990s, The Turner Diaries became the favored reading material of Timothy McVeigh, who duplicated an incident from the novel when he bombed the Federal Building in Oklahoma City. It has virtually become required reading for militia activists.



Summgy

There is no single factor which can be said to have "caused" the development of the Militia Movement. Social behavior is too complex and society too intertwined for such a reductionist explanation. Various aspects of a culture, though, can contribute to the rise of social movements, and tl- s is certainly the case with the militias. All of the previously discussed factors, the pre-existing Patriot Movement, the rise of fundamentalism, awareness of governmental corruption and incompetence, declining educational standards, and the changing economy in America have all contributed in one way or another to the Militia Movement. The contributions of each of these cultural facets will be explored in the chapters that follow.














CHAPTER 3
METHODS


It is easy to go down into Hell; night and day, the gates of dark Death
stand wide; but to climb back again, to retrace one's steps to the upper air-there's the rub, the task.
-Virgil



Data for this study were collected through a variety of means, including

ethnography and participant-observation, ethnographic interviews, document analysis, and correspondence. Each of these methods will be discussed below.



Ethnography2articil2ant Observation

The most useful method employed for data collection in this study was participantobservation and ethnography. Participant-observation is the primary anthropological method for the collection of qualitative data, and provides a conceptual framework "for the elicitation and study of indigenous categories. Participant-observation is a global conception on the use of culturally and linguistically sensitive categories and interactions with the members of a society" (Herdt and Boxer 1991: 172). It is participant-observation which permits the anthropologist to understand both the efic and the emic perspectives of the subject population, to gain insights into the subject's view of him or herself (Harris 1991: 20). According to Heather Hall, ethnography is a method for the description of 57








58

culture and "has the primary goal of understanding the diversity of interpretation of experience as it is perceived by other people" (Hall 1996: 21). It is "a process of study in which the researcher discovers varying perceptions and interpretations of reality through the voice of the participant" (Spradley 1979- 3),

From March through November 1995, ethnographic data were collected from the North Central Florida Regional Militia, through participation in weekly meetings and through three episodes of participation in field training (Akins 1995: 14)

Data concerning the National Association for the Advancement of White People's Spartan Legion were collected from April 1996 through November 1997. This included attendance at biweekly field training and meetings, multiple social events (both formal and spontaneous), five rallies or protests, the NAAWP's Second Annual White Fights Rally, and attendance at "allied" groups' events, including a Ku Klux Klan Naturalization Ceremony. At all of these functions, I participated as a member. I joined the NAAWP Spartan Legion Militia in May 1996 and served as an officer of the organization from July 1996 until July 1997, and continued to associate with members on a social basis until November 1997.

The Ku Klux Klan group affiliated with the NAAWP was the Templar Knights of the Ku Klux Klan from Port St. Lucie, Florida; ethnographic data were collected from this group at a Naturalization Ceremony, two Klan rallies in White City, and three social gatherings.

Contact was made at one of the Klan rallies with members of the World Church of the Creator's White Berets Militia. Data were collected from this group at two social








59

gatherings, one Klan rally in which they participated, a protest, one weekend of field training, and a camping trip with several members. I joined this group and served as a member from October 1996 through June 1997.

The final group from which ethnographic data were collected in significant

quantity was the Congress of Florida Militias, centered in and around Winter Haven. Data from tl iis group were collected at two social gatherings, a White Rights Rally, a Militia Day function, and repeated attendance at a church in Tampa which is organized around the Patriot Movement.



Interviews

Ethnographic interviews differ from sociological or psychological interviews in their range and depth. The ethnographic interview is "designed to flow like a casual conversation, so that this form of interview leads to a more relaxed and open exchange. This semi-structured interview incorporates open-ended questions in order to facilitate interactive conversation, which will ultimately lead to a better understanding of the cultural reality through the more thoroughly detailed and explicit explanations acquired" (Hall 1996: 25),

The ethnographic interview does use a standardized format of questions, but the questions are not designed to glean "yes or no" answers. The format is constantly updated and revised with the accumulation of new data and insights, which frequently lead to unsuspected research topics. One potential problem with this method is that it can complicate comparative statements between subjects because new questions and topics








60

appear in later interviews which were not present earlier in the study.

During the period March through November 1995, ethnographic interviews were conducted with the official spokesman of the NCFRM, as well as with five rank-and-file members (Akins 1995: 14).

Between April 1996 and November 1997 ethnographic interviews were conducted with David Duke, the founder, Paul Allen, the current President, and Dan Daniels, the Field Commander of the NAAWP. Additional interviews were conducted with four of the Spartan Legion officers and four of the NAAWP Jacksonville's "local leaders." Further interviews were conducted with eleven rank-and-file members.

The Templar Knights of the Ku Klux Klan provided three ethnograph-ic interviews, one with the leader of the Klavern, one with a rank-and-file male member, and the last with the first woman initiated into this Klan.

Interviews were conducted with three members of the WCOTC; one with a

Reverend in the Church, one with the leader of the West Palm Beach White Berets, and one with a rank-and-file member of the White Berets.

Finally, interviews were conducted with four members of the Congress of Florida Militias. One was conducted over three sessions with Shelton Sizemore, a prominent leader of the movement in Florida. Another brief telephone interview was conducted with Mark Cody, the founder and leader of the Congress and author of its principle documents; the other two were with two rank-and-file members from Winter Haven.








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Document Analysis

Much of the communication between different factions of the Militia Movement is conducted through the U.S. Postal Service, as is the communication between the movement's leaders and followers. It is important, therefore, to gain access to this flux of mail, which includes newspapers, tabloids, newsletters, fliers, and magazines.

Study of each piece of mail can be tedious; it can also be rewarding. Not only can one glean the obvious data, such as ideology and scheduling, but one gains access to the letters written to editors by individual members. Further, a network can be traced by examination of advertisements for various groups in the circulars of other groups. During the period of study, mail was received from the list of groups appearing in Appendix C. By July of 1996 each day's post carried an average of 12 varied pieces of mai-l.

While studying the NCFRM in 1995, "circulars, fliers, underground newspapers, personal notes, and other unofficial documents" were provided by a number of members. In addition, "the unit's spokesman also provided a plethora of official doctrinal and publicity statements" (Akins 1995: 14).

The NAAWP's militia members receive two newspapers monthly. The first, NAA 9T News, is published in New Orleans by Paul Allen and sent to all NAAWP members. The second, The Eagle Forum: NAA WP Battleground, is published in Winter Haven by Dan Daniels; circulation was limited to militia members. In addition to these two newspapers, most of the local NAAWP groups publish a monthly newsletter. These were collected from the Tampa, Winter Haven, and Jacksonville NAAWP groups. Finally, as part of my duties while serving in the Spartan Legion Militia, 1 gained access to








62

enrollment records, training plans and reports, telephone lists, and mailing lists.

The Ku Klux Klan publishes a number of newspapers and newsletters. Among

these, The ff1hite Patriot and The Kourier stand out because of their wide circulation and comprehensive listing of events; subscriptions to both were obtained in May 1996 and continue to the present.

The WCOTC publishes a monthly tabloid, The Struggle, which was received from July 1996 through July 1997. In addition, anyone on their mailing list receives two to four additional mailings monthly; most of these are announcements of upcoming events, solicitations for funds, or announcements calling the followers' attention to current events of note.

No list of militia publications would be complete without mention of Dr. William Pierce's The Jurner Diaries or The Spotlight, a publication of The Liberty Lobby. The Turner Diaries is a novel written during the 1970s which details a militia-like guerilla war conducted by white "patriots" against the increasingly oppressive Federal government. It is widely circulated at gun shows and Preparedness Expos, and was the favorite book of convicted Oklahoma City bomber Timothy McVeigh. The most widely disseminated, widely cited, and widely discussed document in the entire movement, however, is The Spotlight. It captures the spirit of conspiracy theory, renders the theories into language anyone can comprehend, and ties the general, abstract aspect of the theories into concrete, real-life details. It lists events, advertises organizations, books, and videos. The Liberty Lobby sells its mailing lists to other "patriotic" groups, which helps weave the communications web tighter and tighter.








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Correspondence

Because the Patriot Movement is so dispersed geographically, it is all but

impossible to collect significant ethnographic data from each and every unit. Further, most of the units will break up within 18 months of their founding, and either evolve into something new, merge with another group, or split into two or more new groups. It is more practical, therefore, to communicate with large numbers of people through correspondence. This permits the researcher to take time preparing questions, and permits the informant to think about and fully answer the question (or to decline answering, which was not uncommon). Data collected through correspondence were not as in-depth, and lacked the qualitative aspects of interviews or participant-observation. They did, however, provide an opportunity to gather additional data.

During the period January 1995 through November 1997, correspondence was conducted on a regular basis with one member of the NCFRM, four leaders of the NAAWP, a leader of the WCOTC, and a leader of the TK/KKK.

Furthermore, isolated or sporadic correspondence occurred with a second member of the NCFRM, two members of the NAAWP, a leader of the WCOTC, two members of the Congress of Florida Militias, and a wide range of leaders and members of militias throughout both Florida and the entire United States.



Internet

It is impossible to overstate the importance of the Internet to the Patriot

Movement. The Internet has become the primary means of communication between








64

militias, and the primary source for the formulation and dissemination of movement ideology. Militia ideology is disseminated through home pages, chat lines, and BBSs. A partial listing of relevant home pages is found in Appendix D.

Data were downloaded from the Internet on a regular basis. This was the result of monthly monitoring of a list of websites, occasional visits to chat rooms, and weekly monitoring of BBSs.














CHAPTER 4
MILITIAS IN FLORIDA


We must secure the existence Of our people and afuture for white
children.

-'Tourteen Words; "David
Lane (Schwartz 1996:66)


According to the Kianwatch Project of the Southern Poverty Law Center militias first began appearing in Florida in early 1994 (Wood 1997: 1). During the last few months of 1994 and early 1995, several of the new militias began banding together for informational and logistical support and held a series of meetings which they designated the "Congresses of Florida Militias." These were held in Winter Haven and sponsored by the Central Florida Militia Association.

During 1995 and 1996 the militias began attracting the attention of both the public and of law enforcement. There were several arrests of militiamen in Florida. Some of these arrests were for robberies of banks and businesses, others for vandalism, assault, and murder. Still others involved the harassment of government officials. The movement has grown so rapidly in Florida that by the end of 1996 there were at least seventy-two separate and distinct militias of varying size operating within the state (Klanwatch 1997:

2 1-22).




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The militias in Florida are similar to each other in many aspects. They all subscribe to the New World Order conspiracy theory developed at the Rocky Mountain Rendezvous and communicate via Internet, mail, and social connections. The primary difference between the militias in Florida is in their attitudes and beliefs concerning racial and ethnic minorities, and they can therefore be classified by their position on an ideological spectrum with violent white supremacists on one end and integrated militias unconcerned with racism on the other end.

In order to understand the variety that exists within the Militia Movement in

Florida, five specific militias have been selected for close examination in this paper. These groups range from the racist and violent White Berets Militia of the World Church of the Creator (WCOTC), through the Templar Knights of the Ku Klux Klan (TK/KKK) and the National Association for the Advancement of White People (NAAVvT), all the way to the North Central Florida Regional Militia (NCFRM) and the racially inclusive Central Florida Militia Association (CFMA).

This chapter will serve as an introduction to each group by briefly describing the salient features of each militia in question; subsequent chapters will examine them in greater detail in order to examine the crucial factors which will aid in answering the research question.



World Church of the Creator: The White Berets

The West Palm Beach area of Florida is home to the local chapter of the World Church of the Creator, a "skinhead" organization which sponsors its own militia, This








67

tnilitia is known as the "White Berets," and its members have been repeatedly arrested on charges of vandalism, assault, and harassment. They are armed with standardized handguns supplemented by an assortment of rifles, shotguns, and, allegedly, at least one automatic weapon.

For those readers unfamiliar with the phenomenon, skinheads are young men (and, rarely, women) between thirteen and twenty-five years of age who shave their heads as a symbol of group unity. They typically congregate in "gangs" or "clubs" and have a history of violence. There is no central leadership, and skinhead gangs have recently been targeted for recruitment by such groups as the National Alliance, the Aryan Nations, and the Nationalist Movement who see the energy and youth of skinheads as a resource for the future (Schwartz 1996: 277). White Berets militiamen wear the standard skinhead uniform: white or black T-shirts with racist slogans, red suspenders, and black combat boots with white laces.

The WCOTC is a relatively new organization, built upon the ruins of former

Florida legislator Ben Klassen's Church of the Creator which gradually collapsed between 1993 and 1996 following Klassen's suicide and several devastating lawsuits initiated by the Southern Poverty Law Center. According to the Anti-Defamation League, at its peak between 1989 and 1992 "the Church of the Creator... was one of the most violent organizations on the radical right" (Schwartz 1996: 198).

Matt Hale, currently a law student at the Southern Illinois University, took the reins of the Church in 1995 (Nailen 1996: 9). In 1996 he changed the name by adding "World" and began re-asserting control of the local chapters. Hale reorganized the








68

WCOTC into five branch offices which serve as intermediates between the national office and the local groups.

The West Palm Beach chapter serves as both a local group and the Southeast Regional Branch office. It is headed by the Reverend Guy Lombardi. Lombardi's assistant, Thomas South, leads the White Berets Militia for the branch. South's Berets have a training compound near Tampa, built upon the farm of a member's family. This compound has an obstacle course, firing range, and wooded "training area."

Members of the WCOTC, or "Creators," absolutely reject Christianity, calling it a slave religion which aids in the domination of the "white race" by Jews. The founder, Ben Kiassen, explained this philosophy in his 1981 White Man's Bible:

Yes, it was the eternal parasite upon the back of mankind, the Jew, who wrote the
White Man's so called "Holy Book," invented his religion for him, disseminated
and propagated it first among the Romans, and now has poisoned the White Man's
mind with this primitive, poisonous superstition in order to control his mind,
control his destiny, and to destroy the great White Race itself (Klassen 1981: 3 01
302).

Klassen called for a new religion, "Creativity," based on race, built upon "facts" determined through "reason"' and the study of history. Creators believe that each race has its own distinctive nature and that combining or mixing these natures is disastrous. They believe that America is on the verge of a race war which they eagerly anticipate. The group's motto is "RAHOWA," an acronym for racial holy war. The WCOTC Creed states that "What is good for the White Race is the highest virtue; what is bad for the White Race is the ultimate sin"' (Klassen 198 1: 11). Of all the militias within Florida's borders, the White Berets appear the be the most violent racists and anti-Semites.








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Members have been charged repeatedly for attacks on minorities, they wear swastika and "SS" tattoos, and boycott minority-owned businesses.



Templar Knights of the Ku Klux Kla

The TK/KKK are located in Port St. Lucie and lead by J. D. Alder, who has

recently become familiar to many Americans through frequent appearances on The Jerry Springer Show, a daytime television talk show. The TKIKKK is an independent Klan unit, owing no allegiance to any national-level organization. Alder is in close contact with other notable Klan leaders, however, as well as other groups such as the NAAWP, the National Socialist White People's Party (NSWPP), the National Alliance, and the Nationalist Movement.

Although some of Alder's followers have been arrested for vandalism and

harassment, the primary activity of his group seems to be seeking publicity. As mentioned previously, he is a frequent guest of T'he Jerry Springer Show and has also appeared on talk shows hosted by Geraldo Rivera, Montel Williams, and Sally Jesse Raphael. The Klavern, or local group, hosts two annual events: The "White Khristmas in the Park" and the "White Pride Day." Both of these events are held in White City Park. Alder invites as many members of the press as he can contact to his events and appears on television news shows throughout Florida each year. Whenever possible, the TKJKKK also burns crosses at its ceremonies.

Alder's Kiavern was selected for examination in this project because Alder has formed his group into a militia, adopted standard militia rhetoric, and abandoned as








70

"useless and ineffective" old-style Klan doctrine. Although the beliefs and rhetoric of the TK/KKK is clearly of a racist and anti-Semitic nature, members only occasionally act upon these beliefs in any practical or violent manner.



NAAWP: The Spartan Legion Militia

The National Association for the Advancement of White People (NAAWP) is a national organization founded by David Duke and currently headed by Paul Allen. It is headquartered in New Orleans, Louisiana. It has chapters in several states including Florida. Until his recent replacement by Ray Thomas of Tampa, the Florida chapters were under the leadership of Dan Daniels of Winter Haven. Daniels also founded and commanded the "Spartan Legion Militia," the paramilitary wing of the NAAWP.

Florida is home to fifteen local NAAWP chapters which sponsor four significant units of the Spartan Legion. One of these units is the NAAWP's "airborne" unit which practices skydiving and "airmobile" operations from its base in the Eagle Lake/Winter Haven area. The Spartan Legion in Florida was an original member of the Central Florida Mlitia Association (CFMIA) and a participant in the Congress of Florida Mlitias. In 1995 the Spartan Legion was cast out of the CFMA because of its racist and anti-Semitic orientation.

The largest NAAWvP chapter in Florida is the Jacksonville group which carries eighty-five members on its rolls, including twenty members of its Spartan Legion unit. Jacksonville members attend all public meetings of the city government and avidly speak out on several issues. They have also gained media attention with several incidents. One








71

of these was the attempt to get the city's tourism department to sponsor and promote the Third Annual White Rights Rally. The city, of course, refused; NAAWP members protested and threatened to file suit in court. In another incident, a newspaper reported that the NAAWP was maintaining their telephone "hotline," complete with racist and antiSemitic messages, on the property of a local school without the school's knowledge or permission.

Although several members have police records and some have served time in either jail or prison, none have been charged with any crimes related to their involvement with the NAAWP. The public face of the NAAWP is not clearly racist. The organization claims to be concerned with white heritage and correcting the excesses of reverse discrimination which stem from Affirmative Action programs. In reality, it will be demonstrated, the NAAVVT is both racist and anti-Semitic, as are its members.



North Central Florida Regional Militia

In 1994 a splinter group from the Bradford County Nfilitia formed the North

Central Florida Regional Militia (NCFRM) in Gainesville. The NCFRM is organized in "membership circles," with the leaders and most militant members in the inner circle. The inner circle is surrounded by active paramilitary members, in turn surrounded by members who regularly attend the open and public "discussion" meetings. The outer circle is composed of sympathizers and fiends who occasionally attend the public meetings.

The NCFRM is composed of University of Florida faculty and staff, local

businessmen, farmers, and blue- and white-collar workers. Several members are also








72

jointly enrolled in another organization, Jews for the Preservation of Firearms Ownership (JPFO) which teaches that if Jews had been armed and organized the Holocaust could not have occurred. The NCFRM is also a member of the Central Florida Militia Association (CFMA) and participated in the Congresses of Florida Militias.

The NCFRM professes to be all-inclusive and tolerant, actively seeking minority members. Several members of the outer circles are reported to be Jewish, and other minorities have been observed at public meetings. However, the group's primary published source of information is the Liberty Lobby's Spotlight, referred to by the AntiDefamation League as the most anti-Sem-itic publication in America today.



Central Florida Militia Association

The CFMAk is an umbrella organization founded by Mark Cody in 1994. The Association has seventeen member units which operate independently but share information and consult on tactics and strategy (Daniels 1997b: 2). The annual Congress of Florida Militias (CFM[) is sponsored by the CFMA; this is a gathering in which member units discuss and agree on policies and doctrines.

The CFMA claims to be racially inclusive. One of the platforms members must swear to, in fact, is support for Israel. Members are generally devoutly religious and in opposition to most aspects of modernity, including abortion, homosexuality, evolutionary theory, and drugs. They teach that in order to effectively fight "the enemy" members must put aside their differences and seek the aid of men, women, children, minorities, nonChristians, and anyone else opposed to the New World Order.








7 3

Summary

These five units were selected for close examination in this project because they represent distinct points along the ideological spectrum of racism and anti-Semitism. At one end of the spectrum resides the White Berets, a notoriously racist and actively violent group. Farther along are the Templar Knights of the Ku Klux Klan, ostensibly racist but not actively so. Next comes the Spartan Legion, which publicly professes to be racially inclusive but is in actuality covertly racist and extremely anti-Semitic, although it has never been accused of actively participating in any form of racist violence. The next group is the NCFRM, which attempts to be inclusive and tolerant, yet circulates The Spotlight, a clearly and openly anti-Semitic publication. At the far end is the CFM which is racially and ethnically integrated and will refuse membership to units or individuals suspected of racist beliefs.

Subsequent chapters will examine in more detail the structure, ideologies,

membership, and activities of these groups, comparing and contrasting them with each other and examining their adherence to and interpretation of the standard militia conspiracy theories.













CHAPTER 5
STRUCTURE OF FLORIDA MILITIAS


Have any of us been told that the secretaries of state, the secretaries of the
treasury, the heads of the CIA, the heads of the National Security Council, the
heads of the Federal Reserve Board and countless others are in agreement that
American sovereignty is to be "eroded piece by piece "? When has there ever been a referendum for all of the people to decide whether they want to discard
our Constitution in favor of a one-world government ? The clear answer is
never.

-Pat Robertson (1991)


In order to answer the primary research question and determine why the Militia Movement developed, an understanding of the structure of militias is required. This chapter will examine the structure of each of the five selected militias to consider answers to the following questions: How was each militia founded? How are they internally organized? How do they communicate internally and with each other?



World Church of the Creator

Founding

The World Church of the Creator (WCOTC), heir to the Church of the Creator,

was initially founded in 1973 by Ben Klassen, a former Florida legislator. The WCOTC is a "sldnhead" organization--its members are almost all young, white males who shave their heads and wear jeans, combat boots with white laces, and red suspenders.


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75



Organization

Kiassen resigned as leader of the WCOTC in 1992 and appointed Mark Wilson as his successor. Wilson lead the group until 1993, when he was replaced by Richard McCar-ty. Shortly after appointing McCarty, Kiassen committed suicide. A lawsuit filed at that time by the Southern Poverty Law Center (SPLC) brought about the alleged dissolution of the group, but it was reorganized and resuscitated in 1995 by Matt Hale, a law student at Southern Illinois University (Nailen 1996: 9).

The WCOTC has five "branch offices" which control subordinate units in at least nine states. The local chapter in Florida is in West Palm Beach and is led by the Reverend Guy Lombardi, who also serves as leader of the "Southeast Branch."

Most of the chapters have a militia unit, the "White Berets." White Berets are alternately described as either a militia or as the "Security Element" of the chapter. The White Beret unit in West Palm Beach is led by Thomas South, who has established a training compound near Tampa complete with obstacle course, firing range, and wooded training area. South has arranged for his unit to be armed with a standardized handgun; in addition, most members own a second weapon such as a shotgun, rifle, or assault rifle.



Communication

The WCOTC communicates with its members and allies through the books of Ben Klassen, which include Nature 's Eternal Religion, The White Man 's Bible, and Salubrious Living, as well as the Church newsletters, The Imperium, The Struggle, and,








76

formerly, Racial Loyalty. Most of the local groups sporadically mail out their own newsletters concerned with local issues and events. The WCOTC has a website on the Internet, as does the West Palm Beach chapter.

On two occasions, members of the WCOTC were observed reading The Liberty Lobby's The Spotlight, which available data indicate is the primary source of information for the entire Militia Movement.



Templar Knights of the Ku Klux Klan

Organization

The Templar Knights of the Ku Klux Klan (TKIKKK) are located in Port St. Lucie, and are only one of approximately twenty Klaverns throughout Florida. The organization is headed by I D. Alder, who also holds the rank of Brigadier-General in the NAAWP's Spartan Legion. Alder has become familiar to many Americans through frequent appearances on The Jerry Springer Show, a daytime talk show.

The TK/KKK is an independent Klan unit owing no allegiance to any national-level organization. Alder rules his Klavern with an iron fist; no dissention is permitted. He has no chain of command, no assistants. It is simply Alder leading his followers.



Communication

Communication between Alder and his followers is through a newsletter titled The Fiery Summons and regularly scheduled meetings.









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Alder is in close contact with other notable Kians leaders in Florida, Georgia, and Tennessee. In addition to his Klan activities, Alder also works closely with groups such as the NAAWP, the National Socialist White People's Party (NSWPP), the National Alliance, and the Nationalist Movement. Rallies sponsored by the TKJKKK also feature the distribution of several publications, including The White Patriot, T-he Turner Diaries, and The Spotlight.



NAAWvP: The Spartan Legion

Founding

The National Association for the Advancement of White People (NAAWP) is a large organization, with chapters in all fifty states, Canada, and England. It was founded in 1980 by David Duke with the ostensible purpose of opposing Affirmative Action programs in order to restore "equal rights" for European-Americans (Schwartz 1996: 265). The motto of the NAAWP is "Equal rights for all--Special privileges for none."



Organization

The NAAWP is organized hierarchically. Local chapters are under the State-level leadership; these, in turn, are organized into Regional Leaders which report directly to the National Office and its President, Paul Allen. There is a further division into NAAWP chapters and Spartan Legion M\ilitias. The Spartan Legion is composed of members from several local chapters who also train as part of the militia, and falls under the command of either the State or Regional leadership. All Spartan Legion Militias are ultimately under








78

the command of the Field Commander, Lieutenant-General Dan Daniels, who also serves as the Vice President of the National Office. Nation

Paul Allen assumed the Presidency of the National Association for the

Advancement of White People in 1991 after the founder, David Duke, left the group in order to pursue his political career in Louisiana. For several years the National Office shared space with Duke's personal and campaign offices but eventually moved into its own office.

The National Office is responsible for recruiting new members through mass mailings, and therefore purchases mailing lists from a variety of right-wing and white supremacist groups and publications. Allen is in frequent communication with a wide range of white supremacist leaders and organizations; he often speaks at the rallies and meetings of other groups and invites their leaders to speak at NAAWP functions.

The National Office also produces and sells a variety of merchandise, including NAAWP caps, keychains, shirts, T-shirts and tanktops, sweatshirts, greeting cards, stickers, and books. Profits from the sale of this merchandise ostensibly go directly to the NAAWP coffers although Dan Daniels reported that evidence indicates Allen spends this money for his personal use.

From his National Office in New Orleans, Allen controls his Regional Leaders-,

they were known as the Western, Central, and Eastern Regions until recently. In October 1997 the Eastern Region was divided into a fourth, the Nfid-Atlantic Region, under the leadership of Reno Wolfe of Jacksonville, Florida. He also "manages all International








79

operations of the NAAWP (and) provides Policies" (Daniels 1997a: 3).

Allen's Vice President and Field Commander of the Spartan Legion Nfilitia is

Hiram "Dan" Daniels, who is located in Eagle Lake, Florida. Daniels organizes the Militia on both the national and local levels. He is responsible at the national level for creating and disseminating militia doctrine concerning recruiting, training, standardizing equipment and weaponry, and the appointment of officers. He makes frequent "inspection tours" about the country, visiting Spartan Legion Militias wherever they are located. Florida

Because he is located in Florida, Dan Daniels takes a close personal interest in the Spartan Legion units in this state and serves as State Director of the NAAWP Local Chapters as well as Local Leader for the Eagle Lake Chapter. He is also actively involved in the day-to-day operations of the Legion's "airborne" unit which is stationed in the Winter Haven/Eagle Lake area.

Within Florida's borders the NAAWP has local chapters in Auburndale, Eagle Lake, Gainesville, Jacksonville, Lakeland, Miami, Ocala, Pensacola, Pierson, St. Augustine, St. Petersburg, Tampa, West Palm Beach, White City, and Winter Haven. Each local chapter is headed by a "Local Leader" who reports to the State Director (Daniels' "second hat"). The state was initially under the supervision of the Eastern Regional Director; recent changes have left most of Florida in the Eastern Region but separated part of North Florida, particularly Jacksonville, into the newly formed MidAtlanticRegion.








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The Spartan Legion has significant militias in Fort Pierce/White City, Jacksonville, Ocala, Tampa, and Winter Haven/Eagle Lake. There are also smaller militias, still in the formative stages, in several other towns. The Spartan Legion was initially formed in late 1994, and at the time of its inception was a member unit of the Congress of Florida Militias (CFM). In late 1995 the Spartan Legion was asked to leave the CFM because of its alleged racist and anti-Semitic orientation.

The Jacksonville Chapter, where much of the ethnographic data were collected, has approximately eighty-five members, a typical meeting will see fifteen to twenty in attendance. The Jacksonville Militia carries twenty members on its roster; five to seven usually attend the bimonthly training session or meetings. The unit is armed with Chinesemanufactured SKS assault rifles, as well as personally-owned rifles and handguns.

The Jacksonville unit of the Spartan Legion Militia is commanded by a Colonel

appointed by Daniels. He is assisted by an Executive Officer with the rank of LieutenantColonel, a staff consisting of Medical, Public Relations, and Administrative Officers, all with the rank of Major, and two Platoon Leaders, both Lieutenants. The remaining members are all Sergeants and are divided evenly between the two platoons.



Communication

Communication between the President and his followers is primarily through The NAA WP News, a monthly newspaper published by Allen from the National Office in New Orleans, Louisiana. Ae NAA WP News is typically twelve or sixteen pages in length. It features editorials by Allen and Dan Daniels, updates on the activities of Duke, NAAWP








81

events listings, merchandise advertisements, and reprints of articles of interest from the mainstream media and a long list of white supremacist publications. It also features derogatory cartoons emphasizing the alleged low intelligence of blacks and the alleged corruption and insidious nature of Jews.

Typical headlines in The NAA WP News include the following:- 'Negroes whine if not in movies" (Issue 80), "The Gathering Storm: How White Americans- thru their unwisdom, carelessness and good nature--allowed the wicked to bring on the Coming American Race War" (Issue 90), "Black criminals forced into law-abiding White neighborhoods" (Issue 91), and "Black soldiers rape White women" (Issue 94).

Another line of communication between Allen and his followers is his book The Coming American RACE WAR, which is sold at rallies, meetings, and through the mail. The central theme of Allen's book is that liberal policies toward blacks have led blacks to become lazy, criminal, and dependent; he also cites "scientific proof" that blacks are genetically inferior, claiming that "the majority of blacks are mentally retarded." He further writes that "The NAAWP is necessary to defend White rights, take to the streets, call a general strike, shut this country down if necessary for white survival," and "NAAWP calls for White America to organize on a wartime basis (arm every white and unleash the police)" (Allen 1993: 208-210).

A final means of communication from the National Office is through the

NAAWP's website, located on the ange~firexcom server. This server is well-known for hosting white supremacist sites. The Internet is increasingly popular among NAAWP members, and several of the chapters in Florida have their own webpages as well.








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All members of the Spartan Legion receive, in addition to Ae NAA WP News, a

monthly mailing of The Eagle: NAA WP Battleground. This is published by Daniels and is much more virulently racist and anti-Sernitic than The NAA WP News. It typically runs eight pages in length and contains editorials, advertisements, event announcements, cartoons, and articles about current events. Typical headlines read "Equal Rights for Aryans" (Issue 85), "Israelis choose war and murder over peace" (Issue 86), "Communist Clinton's Black Hillary Substitute and Clinton's Look-alike Black Bastard Mullato Son" (Issue 89).

The NAAWP Jacksonville Chapter publishes a monthly newsletter which usually runs four pages, with six on occasion. This is circulated to all members of the groups, whether they are in the militia or not.

At the NAAWP's Second Annual White Rights Rally, several other publications

were distributed. Among these were the novels of Dr. William Pierce, The Turner Diaries and Hunter, 7-he Spotlight, The While Patriot, and Resistance.



Recent Developments

Near the end of this research project the NAAWP was forced to undergo

significant reorganization. A 14 May 1997 broadcast of the American Broadcasting Corporation's Primetime Live exposed several falsehoods promoted by the leaders. Among these were the group's close ties with KKK groups, the blatant racism expressed by some members in private, the criminal records of several key members, and the Spartan Legion's preparations for a race war. Exposure of the leaders on this show resulted in the










loss of approximately seventy percent of the organization's membership (Allen 1997b: 1). Further, law enforcement officials became much more interested in the activities of the Spartan Legion, which led to massive desertion from the ranks.

This data, therefore, reflects the NAAWP between April 1996 and OctoberNovember 1997 but may not reflect the current confusion in the group. Changes since this period include the firing of Dan Daniels and his replacement by Ray Thomas of Tampa, Florida, a lawsuit against Paul Allen for control of the group's finances; the "temporary" suspension of all Spartan Legion activities; the cancellation of the Third Annual White Rights Rally; massive loss of both membership and revenue; and the organization of a fourth Region.

Most of the group's activities at this point revolve around recruiting new members and attempting to draw former members back into the fold along with a new mass-mailed fund-raising campaign. It remains to be seen whether the NAAWP will remain a significant force of the Far Right or if it will dissolve from the force of its own organizational inadequacies.

In the meantime, the research results from prior to the shake-up remain indicative of the organization, membership, beliefs, and activities of the group's ideal state. The organization evolved into the state in which I found it over a period of several years, and the changes were not instigated by the NAAWP. Only the deliberate activities of a wellfunded and professional group of investigative journalists were able to infiltrate and disrupt the NAAWP.








84

North-Central Florida Regional Militia

Founding

The North Central Florida Regional Militia (NCFRM) was founded on 10

November 1994 in Gainesville, Florida. The NCFRM was initially formed as a splinter group from the Bradford County Militia (Johnson 1994- 1). The unit made its first public appearance on 17 December of that year in the plaza of the Alachua County Courthouse to protest United Nations Day.



Organization

The NCFRM is organized in concentric circles of membership. The inner circle is the leadership, surrounded closely by the actual armed and training militia members. The next circle includes members who attend the weekly meetings but do not participate in paramilitary training. The final circle includes sympathizers, friends, and guests who attend the meetings but have not committed to membership.



Communication

Members of the NCFRM are encouraged to subscribe to 7-he Spotlight, which has become the primary source for the dissemination of militia doctrine nationwide. Issues are distributed and circulated at meetings. The leaders are also frequent readers of most of the militia BBSs on the Internet; they download, copy, and distribute literature to both members and guests at their meetings. This has the effect of maintaining contact with militias nationwide and insures that the unit's doctrines do not stray from the remainder of








85

the movement.

The NCFRM is a member unit of the Central Florida Militia Association (CFMA), and both their leader and their official spokesperson have attended each of the Congresses of Florida Militias (CFM). As a result of their membership in the CFMA the NCFRM is in frequent communication with other militias throughout Florida.



Central Florida Militia Association

Founding

The Central Florida Militia Association (CFMA) is an umbrella organization with seventeen member militias (Daniels 1997b: 2). Founded in 1994 by Mark Cody, the CFMA is the sponsor of the Congress of Florida Militias (CFM), a regular gathering in which member militias agree on policies, share information about the New World Order, and coordinate activities.



Organization

The CFMA is not a commandnd" it is a cooperative organization which helps to

ensure that member units work together for a common cause. Because it is not commandoriented, the CFMA's fifteen to seventeen member militias retain autonomy.

One of the CFMA's members is the North Central Florida Regional Militia. The Spartan Legion of the NAAWP was once a member but was dismissed because of its racist and anti-Semitic orientation.









86

Communication

Communication between militias within the CFMA is primarily through Internet BBSs and regular personal meetings, augmented by the Congresses.



Summer

Three of the five militias examined were founded by apparently charismatic leaders: The WCOTC by Ben Kiassen, TK/KKK by J. D. Alder, and the NAAXVP by David Duke. The other two, the NCFR1\ and the CFMA, were founded by groups of men in response to the turmoil within the movement. NCFRM was a splinter group from the Bradford County Militia, and the CFMA was an attempt to bring ideological and organizational unity to disparate and quarreling militias in Central Florida.

Three of the five are organized hierarchically, with a strong leader at the top, assistants on a level beneath the leader, and followers or rank-and-file members at the bottom. The TK/KKK almost follows this same pattern; Alder merely skips the middle level of organization. The CFMA, primarily an umbrella organization, is organized as an information distribution center and sponsors meetings for open discussion and debate between equals. This method of organization reflects the pattern described by Anthony Wallace in his article "Revitalization Movements:" "Converts are made by the prophet... A small clique of special disciples clusters about the prophet and an embryonic campaign organization develops with three orders of personnel: the prophet, the disciples, and the followers" (Wallace 1956: 273).

Four of the five groups studied circulated The Spotlight and considered it a








87

significant source of information. The only exception to this was the CFMA. Its founder, Mark Cody, rejects The Spotlight because of its blatantly anti-Semitic orientation. Despite this, many members of CFMA units read The Spotlight regularly. While none of the groups directly distributed 7he Turner Diaries, individual members of each group were observed either reading or discussing the novel favorably.

Each of the five has established means of communication with other groups,

usually through attendance at other groups' meetings or rallies or through the exchange of newsletters. Each publishes its own newsletter or newspaper and distributes these internally. Each groups holds regularly-scheduled meetings at which the leaders lecture the rank and file.














CHAPTER 6
MEMBERSHIP OF FLORIDA MILITIAS


Let us make no mistake about it--there is a powerful deliberate crash
program in force to niggerize America! The niggerization of America is
undoubtedly the most important ominous fact of contemporary history and
strangely one of the least realized by the victims themselves--the White Race.

-Ben Klassen (Klassen 1981: 23)



In seeking an answer to the research question and attempting to determine why the Militia Movement developed at this point in time it is vital to understand who leads the militias as well as who joins them. This chapter will therefore examine militia membership and, where possible, demographic factors, in order to determine if the answer to the question lies with the nature of the activists themselves.



World Church of the Creator

The West Palm Beach chapter of the WCOTC has a fluctuating membership,

referred to as "Creators," of between twenty and thirty members. They are all males of European descent, ranging in age from sixteen to twenty-nine, with the mean at twentyone. At least two of the members are married; both have children. Most members are either unemployed or work in minimum-wage service-industry jobs.




88




Full Text
92
(Schwartz 1996: 37). While leading the NAAWP Duke continued to speak at KKK
rallies and also invited Klansmen to speak at NAAWP meetings.
In 1991, while a member of the Louisiana State Legislature, Duke decided to run
for governor. He left the NAAWP in the hands of Paul Allen, who remains the President
to this day. Since the unsuccessful bid for the governorship, Duke has remained active on
the right-wing and white supremacist speaking circuit and frequently contributes editorials
to The NAA WP News. He also attended the First Annual White Rights Rally sponsored by
the NAAWP in 1995 and planned to attend the Third Annual Rally before its cancellation
in 1997.
When asked if he would ever consider returning to the NAAWP Duke responded,
Not with the current leadership. Allens methods are not helpful (although Im not
criticizing him. .). He further agreed that Allen made an ass out of himself in his ABC
Primetime Live interview of 14 May 1997 and stated that he was disappointed by Allens
eventual firing of Dan Daniels. These comments were made during an interview.
Duke also stated that there are two major problems in the white separatist
movement today. First, he said, is the trivialization of racial differences: Its not just
about white rights. The biological, intellectual, and inherent moral differences between
the races need to be openly discussed. The second problem exists at the opposite end of
the spectrum, where whites reflect negative stereotypes. . violence, ignorance, and
hatefulness.
How popular is Duke in Louisiana? According to the Anti-Defamation League.
In September 1996, Duke again competed in Louisianas U. S. Senate open


52
For the purposes of this study, the key elements of fundamentalism are the
conspiratorialism described by Hofstadter and the dualism and millenarianism described by
Hofstadter and The Fundamentalist Project. Additionally, The Fundamentalist Project's
conceptualization of perpetual conflict is vital to understanding the Militia Movement.
The Patriot Movement and the Far Right
As stated previously, the Militia Movement can be classified as a relatively recent
development, a smaller, subordinate element of the larger and pre-existing Patriot
Movement. The Patriot Movement encompasses a variety of Far Right concerns,
including the Christian Identity sect, the common-law court system, and several white
supremacist organization. This section will explore some of the Patriot elements which
were influential in the formation of the Militia Movement.
Identity Christianity
Christian Identity is a religious sect relatively unknown outside of the western
states in which it thrives. There is no central body for either doctrinal dissemination or
control, but a number of small, rival churches. The largest and most powerful of these is
the Church of Jesus Christ Christian, led by Richard Butler of Hayden Lake, Idaho. The
Church of Jesus Christ Christian is the religious body of the Aryan Nations, a militant
white supremacist group with members nationwide but headquartered in a compound in
Idaho.
The central precept of Identity is that the Aryan or white race is the group


85
the movement.
The NCFRM is a member unit of the Central Florida Militia Association (CFMA),
and both their leader and their official spokesperson have attended each of the Congresses
of Florida Militias (CFM). As a result of their membership in the CFMA the NCFRM is in
frequent communication with other militias throughout Florida.
Central Florida Militia Association
Founding
The Central Florida Militia Association (CFMA) is an umbrella organization with
seventeen member militias (Daniels 1997b: 2). Founded in 1994 by Mark Cody, the
CFMA is the sponsor of the Congress of Florida Militias (CFM), a regular gathering in
which member militias agree on policies, share information about the New World Order,
and coordinate activities.
Organization
The CFMA is not a command; it is a cooperative organization which helps to
ensure that member units work together for a common cause. Because it is not command-
oriented, the CFMAs fifteen to seventeen member militias retain autonomy.
One of the CFMAs members is the North Central Florida Regional Militia. The
Spartan Legion of the NAAWP was once a member but was dismissed because of its
racist and anti-Semitic orientation.


55
authority. They believe that the Magna Carta and other documents provide for a system
of citizen-controlled courts which can issue warrants Judge cases, and dispense justice
(usually in the form of death sentences). Common law, in their view, applies to sovereign
citizens, or true Americans who have renounced affiliation with the pretenders in
Washington who have usurped the government. They believe that all federal law
enforcement is illegal, and that the highest legal authority rests with county sheriffs.
In practice, the common-law court movement has led adherents to file false liens
against government officials, liens which have destroyed credit and created legal
nightmares in several counties. Followers refuse to use drivers licenses, to pay taxes, to
use license plates on their vehicles, or to respond to the census. While most of this
activity has occurred in western states, the movement has recently gained converts in
Florida.
The Turner Diaries
The most important single document in the Patriot Movement is the novel 'The
Turner Diaries, written by Dr. William Pierce of the National Alliance. The National
Alliance is a white supremacist organization currently headquartered in West Virginia
(Roy 1996: 37). The Turner Diaries relates the story of a soldier in a revolutionary cell
engaged in a guerilla war of liberation against the Zionist Occupation Government
which is secretly controlling the United States. The guerillas use terrorism, torture, and
bombings in order to further their cause, and fund their operations through theft.


This dissertation was submitted to the Graduate Faculty of the Department of
Anthropology in the College of Liberal Arts and Sciences and to the Graduate School and
was accepted as partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of
Philosophy.
May 1998
Karen Holbrook
Dean, Graduate School


120
Bill of Rights is not a real citizen. Americans should not recognize the citizenship of
blacks, because they are Fourteenth Amendment citizens and thus not legitimate.
Race
The TK/KKK teaches that anyone of African descent is genetically inferior on both
intellectual and moral grounds to anyone of European descent. However, African-
Americans are seldom mentioned at Alders meetings because the inferiority of blacks is
considered so obvious that its a given. Attention is focused instead on the manner
through which the Jews are using the blacks as their pawns in the struggle to destroy the
Aryan race. This view is supported by a popular book circulated among militias, the
Citizens Ride Book (Adams 1993).
The Templar Knights of the Ku Klux Klan revere Adolph Hitler. In their
Naturalization Ceremonies, Hitler is referred to as the eternal father of our race. Hitler
is not merely adored because of his murder of Jews but because of his Aryan beliefs and
fascist political system.
NAAWP: The Spartan Legion
New World Order/ZOG
The J ewish control of media and government has suppressed the free speech of
whites and is the first step in the elimination of Christianity and the white race: All speech
on behalf of Whites or against our minority opponents has been proscribed from the
normal channels of public discourse. . Efforts of Whites to resist the threats to their


112
In the Jacksonville, Florida, chapter, some members were elected to the local
school boards. They set out immediately to block the teaching of evolutionary theory in
science classes, to stop or limit sexual education, to ban the distribution of condoms, to
institute vouchers for parents with children in parochial schools, and to bar homosexuals
from teaching positions.
At least five members have been identified as belonging to the Christian Coalition,
a well-known fundamentalist group. The NAAWP Chaplain, in fact, was once an official
of the Christian Coalition. In addition, three others were identified as members of the
militant anti-abortion group, Operation Rescue. Finally, I attended church with five
members in Tampa, Florida; the church was a fundamentalist and anti-government
congregation with a minister (Richard Mooneyhan) who has a history of arrests for
participation in militia activities, including an armed stand-off with Ocala police. He is
currently serving time in jail following a conviction for interfering with Florida authorities
in a child abuse investigation (Derickson 1998: 15).
Few, other than Sue Lamb, seem to take their religion seriously enough to let it
interfere with their recreation, however. For example, members make frequent trips to
topless bars, use profanity, consume high levels of alcohol, smoke, and promote violence.
In addition, several of the younger members regularly smoke marijuana.
One theme runs through almost all of their religious beliefs, though: Christianity is
a white religion and God wants whites to possess America by whatever means
necessary. This is reflected in an editorial by Lamb. In an issue of The Eagle: NAA WP
Battleground, she summarized the correlation between America, the white race, and


121
national and racial integrity have been proscribed by law or censored (Allen 1997: 9).
What is the ultimate goal of the Jewish-controlled government or Zionist Occupation
Government? Paul Allen explains: The real reason seems to be to divide & conquer
America thru race war so they can pick up the pieces for a new Jewish homeland safe from
the nuclear weapons and terrific birthrate of the angry Arabs surrounding tiny, vulnerable
Israel (Allen 1994: 3). According to the NAAWP, the plan of the Jews is to create racial
strife between American blacks and whites, goad them into a race war, and gain complete
control of the United States when it is all over.
The method used by the Jews to accomplish this goal is by causing, and then
denying the existence of, an explosion of Negro crime. They are doing this through use
of the media. The first step was to stop identifying the race of criminals in newspapers in
1960:
Before that, everybody knew who did the crime, and social control held it down. .
Social control became gone with the wind, and Negro crime skyrocketed straight
up. . the medias refusal to identity the race of criminals seems to have fathered,
permitted, provoked, caused the explosion of Negro crime destroying Christian
America, and by extension, the Christian religion (Allen 1994: 3).
The second step is to brainwash white Americans into believing that blacks are actually
equal despite the evidence of common sense:
Have you wondered why Negroes show up on TV and the movies far in excess of
their proportion of the population? Why they are never portrayed as inferiorbut
almost always perfectly equal, if not superior? Talk about Jewish propaganda!. .
Well, wonder no more. .Perfectly equal Negroes are thrust in our faces until they
come out our ears so we will regard them as perfectly equal. .Wake up
Christians! This is the wedge weapon of perfectly equal Negroes that Jews appear
to be using to destroy the Christian religion (Allen 1994: 3).


190
Mann, Martin
1997 International Bankers Push Radical, Worldwide Changes on Nations, The
Spotlight; 2 June. Washington, D.C.: The Liberty Lobby.
Marty, Martin E. And R. Scott Appleby
1991 The Fundamentalism Project. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.
Mathews, Clark
1995 Technology and Liberty, The Spotlight: 11 September. Washington, D. C.:
The Liberty Lobby.
McGee, Jim
1995 The Rise of the F. B. I, The Washington Post: 20 July. Washington, D. C.: The
Washington Post.
Moore, R. Laurence
1994 Selling God: American Religion in the Marketplace of Culture. New York:
Oxford University Press.
Morris, Roger
1994 Partners in Power: The Clintons and Their America. Washington, D.C.: The
Liberty Lobby.
Murphy, Troy
1994 The Knights of the Ku Klux Klan. North Salem, IN: Knights of the Ku Klux Klan.
Nailen, Dan
1996 White Hate: Neo-Nazi church hopes Superior conference is the spark for Racial
Holy War, Missoula Independent: 1-8 August.
New, Michael
1996 Court-Martialed Patriot Tells Supporters Fight to Continue, The Spotlight; 21
October. Washington, D.C.: The Liberty Lobby.
Nisbet, Robert
1953 The Quest for Community. New York: Harper and Bros.
North Central Florida Regional Militia
1995 Membership and Discipline Policy. Gainesville, FL.
Omstein, Norman J.
1993 Less Seems More: What to Do about Contemporary Political Corruption,
Responsive Community 4 (Winter 1993/19941.


CHAPTER 10
DISCUSSION
You say you want a revolution?
Well, you know. .
We all want to change the world.
-(Lennon & McCartney 1968: 770)
Militia Conspiracy Theory: The Ideological Octopus
The first step in understanding the Militia Movement is grasping the brilliance of
the conspiracy theory which lies at its heart and the means through which activists are
initially converted to belief in this theory. It is internally consistent, virtually impossible to
disprove, and explains a plethora of problems with American society and government.
The synthetic conspiracy theory devised at the Rocky Mountain Rendezvous can
be envisioned as an ideological octopus. In this analogy, the body of the octopus
represents the New World Order theory; each tentacle represents a specific concern, such
as firearm ownership, abortion, or prayer in public schools. Each tentacle of this
ideological octopus reaches into a pre-existing social movement, yet each connects with
the others at the body, the New World Order. Through this conspiracy theory the Militia
Movement draws upon white supremacists, anti-Semites, anti-abortionists, tax resisters,
gun-rights advocates, Identity adherents, theocrats, and survivalists.
144


90
NAAWP: The Spartan Legion
Leadership
The leadership of the NAAWP will be examined at both the national and local
levels. This discussion presents profiles of leaders who are public figures such as David
Duke, Paul Allen, and Dan Daniels, as well as a number of relatively unknown local
leaders.
Founder: David Duke
David Duke was born in Louisiana in 1950 and graduated from Tulane University
with a degree in history in 1974. While in college Duke was closely affiliated with the
National Socialist White Peoples Party (NSWPP). He became nationally known during
the 1970s because of his organizational skills and ability to bridge the gap between old-
style white supremacists and the middle class. Rather than simply ranting messages of
hatred, Duke couches the old ideas in new terms, explaining racial differences in
scientific terminology.
In ethnographic interviews and personal conversations Duke appears well-
educated and widely read. He is able to spontaneously discuss anthropological theories
with the ease and familiarity of most graduate students; the models with which he is most
knowledgeable and impressed, however, are those of Spencer, McDonald, and Shahak.
He is also an avid fan of Dr. Charles Murray, calling him the greatest social scientist of
our time. Spencer, McDonald, and Shahak are evolutionary anthropologists whose
theories have long since become obsolete; they taught that blacks and Jews were
genetically inferior to whites. Murray is the author of The Bell Curve, a book asserting


189
Klassen, Ben
1981 The White Mans Bible. East Peoria: The World Church of the Creator.
Kosmin, Barry & Seymour Lachman
1993 One Nation Under God: Religion in Contemporary American Society. New York:
Random House.
Kreyling, Edward G., Jr.
1994 Lowering the Standards, The Virginian-Pilot: 31 July.
Lacayo, Richard
1995 Niew Anti-Terrorism Law, Time Magazine.
Lamb, Sue
1996 Chaplains Corner, The Eagle: NAAWP Battleground: Issue 91. Eagle Lake, FL:
NAAWP.
Lazardsfeld, Paul F., Bernard Berelson, and Hazel Gaudet
1948 The Peoples Choice. New York: Columbia University Press.
Lennon, John and Paul McCartney
1968 John Lennon and Paul McCartney, Bartletts Familiar Quotations. 16th ed.
Justin Kaplan, ed. Boston: Little, Brown and Company.
Lessa, William & Evon Vogt
1979 Reader in Comparative Religion. 4th ed. New York: HarperCollins.
Linton, Ralph
1943 Nativistic Movements: American Anthropologist: XLV: 230-240.
Lohse, Benhard
1966 A Short History of Christian Doctrine. Philadelphia: Fortress Press.
Magnus, Alexander
1996 A Special Report on Vincent Fosters Death and His Involvement in the
Whitewater Affairs. Washington, D.C.: The Liberty Lobby.
Malabre, Alfred L., Jr.
1994 Lost Prophets: An Insiders Estory of the Modem Economists. Boston: Harvard
Business School Press.


94
prescribed psychoactive medication Allen takes as a result of his wartime injuries.
Field Commander: Dan Daniels
Hiram E. Dan Daniels was born in 1927 and graduated from high school in
Winter Haven, Florida. He went on to attend college at the University of Nebraska where
he earned a Bachelors Degree.
Daniels served in the United States Army from 1945 through his retirement in
1974 with the rank of Colonel. While in the Army, Daniels served stateside during the last
months of World War II and in combat in both Korea and Vietnam; he was heavily
decorated for bravery and outstanding service in both conflicts in addition to earning a
Purple Heart for wounds received in battle. He served as an infantryman and later as a
military policeman. While stationed in Germany during the American Occupation Daniels
befriended several members of the Waffen S. S. veterans association and was eventually
inducted as an honorary member.
Upon retirement Daniels went to work for the Florida Department of Corrections
where he served as a Prison Warden. After retiring from the state, he ran for and was
elected Sheriff of Polk County, Florida. Controversies surrounded his term of office as
Sheriff; a Grand Jury recommended his removal in late 1986 on multiple charges of
corruption and racial discrimination. In January 1987 Daniels resigned his post, narrowly
avoiding criminal prosecution.
During his time in Polk County, Daniels befriended many members of the Ku Klux
Klan; in fact, one of the charges against him as Sheriff was that he actively recruited
Klansmen into the Crime Watch and Sheriffs Auxiliary programs for the county. He was


80
The Spartan Legion has significant militias in Fort Pierce/White City, Jacksonville,
Ocala, Tampa, and Winter Haven/Eagle Lake. There are also smaller militias, still in the
formative stages, in several other towns. The Spartan Legion was initially formed in late
1994, and at the time of its inception was a member unit of the Congress of Florida
Militias (CFM). In late 1995 the Spartan Legion was asked to leave the CFM because of
its alleged racist and anti-Semitic orientation.
The Jacksonville Chapter, where much of the ethnographic data were collected,
has approximately eighty-five members; a typical meeting will see fifteen to twenty in
attendance. The Jacksonville Militia carries twenty members on its roster; five to seven
usually attend the bimonthly training session or meetings. The unit is armed with Chinese-
manufactured SKS assault rifles, as well as personally-owned rifles and handguns.
The Jacksonville unit of the Spartan Legion Militia is commanded by a Colonel
appointed by Daniels. He is assisted by an Executive Officer with the rank of Lieutenant-
Colonel, a staff consisting of Medical, Public Relations, and Administrative Officers, all
with the rank of Major, and two Platoon Leaders, both Lieutenants. The remaining
members are all Sergeants and are divided evenly between the two platoons.
Communication
Communication between the President and his followers is primarily through The
NAA WP News, a monthly newspaper published by Allen from the National Office in New
Orleans, Louisiana. The NAA WP News is typically twelve or sixteen pages in length. It
features editorials by Allen and Dan Daniels, updates on the activities of Duke, NAAWP


14
light on the issue. In Abanes view it is the nature of many Americans today to accept,
with little or no supporting evidence, the message of whatever demagogues they choose to
follow.
In Harvest of Rage (1997), Joel Dyer, a journalist from Colorado, traces the roots
of the movement to the farm foreclosure crisis of the 1980s. Government mismanagement
and corruption coupled with the realities of an evolving global market have forced small
farmers off the land of their ancestors and destroyed their way of life. From this
perspective, the militias should not be a surprise; they should have been predicted. Dyer,
like the other authors, also limits his work by his pre-existing assumptions, and fails to
explore militias and militia doctrines which do not arise from the farm crisis.
Each of these books has much to offer, but one can see the limited perspectives of
each which grow out of the agendas or lifestyles of their authors. The overwhelming
majority of their data were derived from journalistic or law-enforcement sources. None of
them, according to my data, are inaccurate; they are merely limited in scope. It is
important, therefore, to determine what they have to offer and apply it to this study. How
can these four books help to answer the research question of this study?
Structure
Who first founded the movement, and how much control do they retain? How are
militias organized? How do individual militias communicate with each other? How do
militia leaders communicate with their followers? All four authors have attempted to
answer these questions.


157
eliminated. Finally, they believe in the textual inerrancy and absolutism of the
Constitution.
Regardless of whether or not the term fundamentalism can be applied with surety
to secular belief systems, the parallels are clear. Whether accepting the doctrines of
Protestant Christianity, Identity Christianity, Creativity, or Thomas Paine and Thomas
Jefferson as absolute and inerrant, the militia activists in this study perceive their collective
reality as dualistic. They believe the driving force behind human history has been a
struggle between forces of good and forces of evil, and that the forces of evil have
operated behind the scenes as hidden manipulators. Finally, they believe that a massive,
all-encompassing war is rapidly approaching which will determine the future of humanity.
This Manichean, conspiratorial, and millenarian perspective is the primary
determinant of acceptance or rejection when directly exposed to the Militia Movement.
The synthetic conspiracy upon which the movement is based is geared toward
fundamentalism, and those who interpret the world in a non-fundamentalist manner are
unlikely to find answers to their questions from that source.
Timing
The final key to understanding the Militia Movement is understanding its timing.
Why did the Militia Movement develop now? This is a complex question, but the answer
can be partially explained through a review of six historical events, of which the first four
created a situation that the final two caused to explode. The initial groundwork was laid
by the collapse of the Soviet Union, the Gulf War, the election of President Clinton, and


2
This research was undertaken to establish an anthropological perspective and
through this perspective to answer a key question: Why did the Militia Movement develop
at this particular time? Because the movement is so geographically diffused, primary
emphasis is placed upon the militias in the state of Florida. This paper will examine the
Militia Movements structure, the composition of membership of the various militias, the
ideology of the groups, and the activities which grow out of that ideology. These factors
will be compared to factors within the social structure, the context in which the movement
developed.
The basic fact from which this study sprang is the existence of the Militia
Movement, in seeking answers to the research question, several independent variables
were explored to discover whether common factors can be found in all or most militia
members which explain the existence of this movement. For example, do they have similar
education levels? Are they from the same socioeconomic class? What is their geographic
dispersal? Age cohort? Gender? In which organizations, groups, or movements were
militiamen active prior to joining the Militia Movement? What are their hobbies? Are
they veterans? Are they suffering similar socioeconomic stress? What are their beliefs
about race? Do they have similar religious practices?
Definition of Terms
In order to facilitate a better understanding of the Militia Movement, it is first
necessary to clearly establish the parameters of this research project and to define the
terms utilized.


175
here, there would be screams of outrage and demands for an investigation, sunshine, free
speech.
If there, why not here? Why should we accept what Jews would not? We back
Nixons call for an investigation into Jewish media influence. Is it excessive or just right?
Have there been abuses?
We would be happy to have our suspicions proved wrong in the sunshine of open
debate.
Jewish influence is no secret, just unmentionable.
Jewish power and influence over Christian America is no secret. Jews are proud of
it and boast amongst themselves constantly. Its just that Christians cant talk about it. It
is unmentionable, because Jews have gagged the American people.
How? By denying the possibility that any question about Jewish influence can
come from legitimate concerns, honorable motives. Jews brand the forehead of every
questioner with A-S for Anti-Semite, whether they are or not. The A-S brand does
not go away, it is forever, which is why Jewish power to end careers is legendary.
The anti-Semitic brand is forever.
The media have brainwashed Christians so thoroughly that there is no possibility in
our minds that anyone they brand anti-Semitic is innocent.
For the rest of his days, any questioner of any Jew is treated as if he were Adolph
Hitler.
Jews have perfect mind-control over Christians.
ATTENTION! The fact that there is no space, no room in Christian Americas
mind for even the possibility that someone branded A-S could be innocent, is a
description of total mind-control, complete mind-control, perfect mind-control. This
puts Christianity in grave danger.
We actually live our national life with our head in the Jewish media lions mouth.
Are Jews Gods?~Beyond questioning?
Jews so perfectly control the Christian mind that they inhabit the lofty domain
reserved for Gods, high above all questioning, far beyond any inquiry. We dare not
object, because for a Christian to question a Jew in America is a sin, an awful display of
anti-Semitism and bigotry.
Our Jewish Gods hand down laws dictating what we Christians are permitted to
think, feel, bewith no input, no feedback from us. In this Christian country, Christians
are not consulted!
If this is not a description of a Though Police-State Dictatorship, what is? There
does not seem to be a dimes worth of difference between Hitler & Stalins Thought
Dictatorship & the Jewish one which, in our view, is the source of everything wrong with
America.


151
Describing militiamen as disaffected or resentful, however, still does not answer the
question.
What makes them disaffected or resentful? What is it that really makes a person
more likely to join a militia? Economics? The standard anthropological class-based
economic models also fail to explain militia activism. There is no identification of
militiamen with the ideology or needs of any particular social class. There is no social
class from which the majority or even a substantial percentage of its members participate
in the movement. The population in question is self-selected; they are not identified by the
general population as a particular class. There are representatives within the movement
from each socioeconomic classbusiness owners, managers and executives, intellectuals,
farm and industrial laborers, and workers in the service industry.
Economic Factors
Despite the fact that this is not a class-based phenomenon, there are economic
factors which can be used to predict the possibility of participation. These factors cut
across class lines and are therefore faction-based. The economic changes discussed in
Chapter Four have benefited some members of each social class; likewise, they have
injured some members of all the classes. There are people unable to adapt to the changing
economic conditions at all levels, from business owners down to the lowest-paid menial
laborers, and these are the people more likely than their fellow Americans to participate in
the Militia Movement.


22
Abanes and Stern see Identity adherents, and Dees sees white supremacists.
Ideology
What do militia adherents actually believe? What is the motivation which draws
them into this milieu? The motivations can be loosely divided into political and religious
beliefs, although the distinction is not always clear, particularly to the believers
themselves.
Religious beliefs
The religious beliefs of extremists within the Militia Movement, according to
Abanes, lead militia members to the position that:
The end is near and (they) view Washington politicians as evil conspirators laying
the foundation for the soon-to-be-revealed Antichrist, whose reign of terror will
end only when Jesus Christ returns to earth in glory. Many white supremacists
also feel the end is approaching. They, however, see the government as a Jewish
pawn that must be destroyed in preparation for an Armageddon-like race war. In
this last days scenario, whites emerge victorious from the battle to establish an
Aryan republic in America (Abanes 1996: 3).
The primary religious motivation, though, is Identity Christianity:
Religion has been used for thousands of years to mask hate and prejudice.
Spirituality still serves as a convenient excuse for violence and other forms of
antisocial behavior. All that is needed is a little false piety, coupled with liberal
doses of self-induced ignorance and blind devotion to the truth. Even the most
loathsome attitudes and barbarous acts can then be attributed to serving God.
This holds especially true for believers in Christian Identity, a twentieth-century
amalgamation of racism and pseudo-Christian ideas. . Many Christian Identity
leaders and followers are closely affiliated with patriot movement groups and
various militia spokespersons (Abanes 1996: 154-155).
How influential is Identity in the movement? Abanes believes that Identity is at
the core:


15
Founders
Abanes traces the roots of the movement back to various right-wing groups as
well as white supremacist organizations. Todays movement, though, started in October
1992, at a meeting in Colorado: Between 150 and 175 Christian men hastily convened
on October 23, 24 and 25, 1992, in Estes Park, Colorado, to discuss how to respond to
the Weaver killings. Presiding over this Rocky Mountain Rendezvous was Pastor Pete
Peters, a well-known white supremacist leader (Abanes 1996: 22).
Kenneth Stern also attributes the birth of the Patriot Movement to the Rocky
Mountain Rendezvous. According to Stern, it was Pete Peters who called together more
than 150 leaders of the far right (Stern 1996: 35). Peters was a minister of Identity
Christianity, and he used the Ruby Ridge incident to call together:
Men. . who in the past would normally not be caught together under the same
roofneo-Nazis, Christian Identity adherents, anti-abortion activists, tax
protesters, Ku Klux Klan members, and other who either saw each other as
ideological and organizational adversaries, or would have worried about the effect
on their mainstream credentials from participating. . Attendees included Richard
Butler, head of the Aryan Nations; Louis Beam, another Aryan Nations leaders;
anti-Semite Red Beckman; Larry Pratt of Gun Owners of America; and Montana
far-right activist Chris Temple (Stern 1996: 35-36).
Stern credits the meeting with laying some of the groundwork for the militias
formation, not only in suggesting structure, but also in solidifying connections between
longtime white supremacists and Identity followers, on the one hand, and others, such as
Larry Pratt (Stern 1996: 37).
In Harvest of Rage Joel Dyer also examines the Rocky Mountain Rendezvous as
the launching point for the Patriot Movement. Like the other authors, he lists the


192
Sowell, Thomas
1994 Please Dont Wake Me Until the Nightmares Over! Rocky Mountain News: 20
My.
Spradley, James
1979 The Ethnographic Interview. New York: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston.
Stern, Kenneth
1996 A Force Upon the Plain: The American Militia Movement and the Politics of Hate.
New York: Simon & Schuster.
Time
1998 Notebook. Volume 151; No. 8; 2 March.
Tyrrell, Heather
1994 Street Watch Crime-Busters Pioneer New Scheme, The Press Association.
Limited: 28 September.
Virgil (Publius Vergilius Maro)
15 BC The Aeneid: Book 4. Line 126.
Wald, Kenneth
1992 Religion and Politics in the United States: 2nd ed. Washington, DC: CQ Press.
Wallace, Anthony
1956 Revitalization Movements; American Anthropologist: LVIII: 264-281.
White, Dale
1997 Rep. Dan Miller says he favors local and state control of schools, The Sarasota
Herald and Tribune: 4 April.
Wood, Laurie
1997 Southern Poverty Law Center information summary.


141
The unit also engages in paramilitary training on a monthly basis; most of this
training is poorly organized and not rigorous, perhaps because of a lack of sufficient
military experience and the generally poor level of physical conditioning on the part of its
leadership. As of this date there have been no reports of violence or illegal activity on the
part of the NCFRM.
Central Florida Militia Association
The primary activities of the CFMA are sponsoring the CFM and collecting and
disseminating information about the New World Order. The Congresses of Florida
Militias involve weekends during which representatives from all of the member units come
together to share new information about the NWO, confirm the truth of the conspiracy
theory, suggest new training methods, and share ideas about equipment and arms.
Information about the NWO is disseminated on a variety of BBSs and websites on the
Internet and through regular mailings to the representatives of the member units.
Summary
All of the militias in this study train, either regularly or sporadically, for an eventual
armed conflict with the forces of the New World Order. The WCOTC and the Spartan
Legion expect the eventual war to be inter-racial, a Second Civil War between blacks
and whites. The TK/KKK is unsure who the enemy will be, but are convinced that a war
is coming. The NCFRM and the CFMA expect to fight United Nations troops and
possibly even the United States Army.


35
corporations coincided with skyrocketing medical insurance and health care costs. As a
result, many workers today are unable to afford adequate coverage; this further increases
economic and personal insecurity.
Another evolving aspect of the economy contributing to worker insecurity is the
opening of global markets. Treaties, such as the North American Free Trade Agreement
(NAFTA) and the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), coupled with
advances in transportation and communication technologies, have accelerated the trend for
manufacturing companies to shift their factories to Third World countries, which is
advantageous to the corporations in two ways. First, they are able to reduce labor costs
by paying foreign labor substantially lower wages than demanded by American labor.
Second, the corporations locating their factories in foreign countries are not subject to
American laws concerning environmental protection and worker safety, which also
combine to reduce production costs. This results in a further reduction in manufacturing
jobs within the United States and aids in the shift from an industrial- to a service-based
economy.
The drive for technological advances has, on the other hand, led to the
development of new high-tech industries. Although many of these maintain their
manufacturing base in the U.S., the jobs available in these industries tend to be either
high-end or low-end; employees are either very highly paid or paid subsistence wages,
with few or no jobs in the middle.
All of these factors lead, ultimately, to insecurity on the part of the labor force.
One traditional method used by young adults to regain security and remain competitive in


138
Battleground, includes copies of letters sent to local politicians containing attacks on the
politicians voting records. Rarely does a month pass in Jacksonville without the
publication of letters to the editor in the local newspaper from NAAWP members warning
of Jewish conspiracies and the New World Order.
Finally, the local groups frequently sponsor public protests. At an NAAWP
protest march, between five and ten members will arrive carrying signs and placards and
waving Confederate Battle Flags. They have protested the states refusal to permit
NAAWP participation in the Adopt-a-Highway program; the school boards removal of
an NAAWP hotline from school property; a convention centers refusal to rent space for
the Third Annual White Rights Rally; the conviction of member David Broome for hate
crimes; United Nations Day; and Martin Luther King, Jr., Day.
The paramilitary activities of the Spartan Legion are limited to general meetings
and training sessions. The general meetings are held on alternating Thursday nights.
Before the meetings begin, one or two members go inside and set up the room while the
rest wait outside, smoke, and socialize. Setting up the room entails arranging chairs facing
the front of the room, where a desk and two chairs face the rear. Two flags are placed in
stands on either side of the desk; one is an American flag, the other is a Confederate battle
flag. A United Nations flag is taped to the floor just inside of the entrance.
When the group enters, each member ceremonially wipes his feet on the United
Nations flag. After taking their seats, the members are called to attention by the
commander, who leads in a recitation of the Pledge of Allegiance followed by a prayer.
Visitors are greeted, introduced, and questioned. Later, members decide by majority vote


Ill
Much of the ideological force behind the formation of the Militia Movement was
derived from the teachings of Identity Christianity, a Christian sect which teaches that
whites are the true descendants of the Israelites, blacks are primitive proto-humans, and
Jews are the direct descendants of Satan after his rape of Eve (Barkun 1997). Many of
the white supremacist or white separatist groups in the movement espouse this belief
system. There do not appear to be any Christian Identity adherents in the NAAWP in
Florida, although there are numerous examples of the adoption of seemingly random
Identity principles and arguments. For example, there is an association of the United
States with the Promised Land of the Bible. This is not only an Identity precept, it is
also a further example of civil religion. Another Identity belief adopted by the NAAWP is
that Jews are the descendants of Satan and are engaged in an age-old war against
Christians. Finally, the absolute and unswerving belief in black inferiority, while not
directly derived from Identity, is indistinguishable from Identity doctrine.
Every member of the NAAWP interviewed during the course of this study simply
declared themselves Christian with the exception of one self-identified Baptist. The
majority seem to be fundamentalist or evangelical. This conclusion is based on the
observations of actions taken by NAAWP members who have been elected to school
boards and NAAWP members with joint memberships with fundamentalist groups. For
example, Sue Lamb is the NAAWP Chaplain and a member of the school board. She has
attempted to stop the development of magnet schools, stop the teaching of evolutionary
theory, and tried to institute morning prayers.


62
enrollment records, training plans and reports, telephone lists, and mailing lists.
The Ku Klux Klan publishes a number of newspapers and newsletters. Among
these, The White Patriot and The Kourier stand out because of their wide circulation and
comprehensive listing of events; subscriptions to both were obtained in May 1996 and
continue to the present.
The WCOTC publishes a monthly tabloid, The Struggle, which was received from
July 1996 through July 1997. In addition, anyone on their mailing list receives two to four
additional mailings monthly; most of these are announcements of upcoming events,
solicitations for funds, or announcements calling the followers attention to current events
of note.
No list of militia publications would be complete without mention of Dr. William
Pierces The Turner Diaries or The Spotlight, a publication of The Liberty Lobby. The
Turner Diaries is a novel written during the 1970s which details a militia-like guerilla war
conducted by white patriots against the increasingly oppressive Federal government. It
is widely circulated at gun shows and Preparedness Expos, and was the favorite book of
convicted Oklahoma City bomber Timothy McVeigh. The most widely disseminated,
widely cited, and widely discussed document in the entire movement, however, is The
Spotlight. It captures the spirit of conspiracy theory, renders the theories into language
anyone can comprehend, and ties the general, abstract aspect of the theories into concrete,
real-life details. It lists events, advertises organizations, books, and videos. The Liberty
Lobby sells its mailing lists to other patriotic groups, which helps weave the
communications web tighter and tighter.


26
gun control:
You have gone to a few meetings when you start to understand that there is more
to this than a few troubling bills making their way through Congress. The
government is against you, coming to take your guns on behalf of hidden forces
Illuminati, elites, bankers, Jews, whoeverthat are really in control. Gun control is
only the first step in their elaborate plot to take away your guns, then your rights,
then your freedoms. . Armloads of documents follow to keep you moving further
into the militias funnel of paranoia (Stern 1996: 142).
What is the basis for militia conspiracy theory? According to Stem, The
conspiracy theories that underlie the movement are rooted in the Protocols of the Elders
of Zion" (Stem 1996: 247).
Morris Dees also attempts to delineate the Patriot worldview. Dees believes that
Identity doctrine is at the core:
Identity isnt just about race or white supremacy. Like the theology of many
fundamentalist and cult religious groups, Christian Identitys worldview
extends into the secular world of politics and provides a tent big enough to
incorporate the views of various extremist groups. It invites individuals who are
extremely antigovernment, anti-law enforcement, antitax, antiabortion, antigay,
antifeminist, anti-medical profession, antivaccination, pro-guns, pro-home
schooling, pro-states rights, and believers in an international one-world
conspiracy that is about to take over America and the world (Dees 1996: 18).
Like Abanes and Stern, Dees also recognizes the power of gun control laws to
drive people into the Militia Movement: It wasnt until later in 1993, when the Congress
passed the Brady Bill, that the militia movement ignited into a nationwide brushfire (Dees
1996: 73). The only way for ordinary Americans to prevent any future gun grabs and
atrocities such as Ruby Ridge and Waco, said Trochmann, was to come together under the
banner of an unorganized militia (Dees 1996: 80).
The government is attempting to control every aspect of citizens lives, according


95
also an active member of the Spartan Aryan Society (SAS), a group of retired military
officers in Polk County who lobby and agitate for various white supremacist causes.
Realizing that the SAS was not accomplishing its goals and outraged by the
Rosewood Massacre settlement in 1994, Daniels surveyed all patriot organizations in
Florida, read their stuff, [and] decided on the NAAWP as closer to my level of racial
attitudes (Daniels 1997b: 4). He joined the NAAWP and established a local chapter and
militia; by this time he was already publishing The Eagle and The Dan Daniels Digest.
Daniels chapter grew rapidly into the largest local chapter in the nation. By mid-
1994 he was the State Director for Florida. In December 1994 he was appointed by Paul
Allen as Field Commander of the Spartan Legion and Vice President of the NAAWP.
During this period he established the Eagle Hotline which he updated faithfully each
Sunday, a telephone message of inspiration for white supremacists and militia members.
Despite being removed from the CFM in 1995, Daniels sees his role as that of a
coordinator of all far-right and militia activities in Florida and sees the Spartan Legion as
an umbrella organization for various like-minded groups. To this end he has established
close contact with KKK, neo-Nazi, and militia groups across the state, even hosting KKK
"Naturalization Ceremonies at his home. He has been successful in recruiting entire pre
existing militias into the Spartan Legion.
Daniels is remarkably fit and healthy for a man of seventy. He is alert and active,
friendly to his associates and terrifying to his foes. After internal dissension erupted after
ABCs Primetime Live broadcast, Allen made Daniels the fall guy for the fiasco and
fired him. Allen went a step fUrther and forced him not only out of office but out of the


Central Florida Militia Association
.130
New World Order/ZOG
.130
Race ......
.131
Summary ......
.132
New World Order/ZOG
.132
Race ......
.133
9
ACTIVITIES OF TE1E MILITIAS .
.134
World Church of the Creator ....
.134
Templar Rnights of the Ku Klux Klan
.136
NAAWP: The Spartan Legion
.136
National .....
.136
Florida .....
.137
North Central Florida Regional Militia
.139
Central Florida Militia Association
.141
Summary ......
.141
10
DISCUSSION
.144
Militia Conspiracy Theory: The Ideological Octopus.
.144
Potential Militia Recruits ....
.147
General Population ....
.148
Economic Factors ....
.151
Political Factors ....
.152
Mechanism of Exposure
.154
Fundamentalism ....
.155
Timing ......
.157
Conclusions ......
.159
APPENDICES
A
MILITIAS IN FLORIDA: 1997
.162
B
WHITE SUPREMACIST ORGANIZATIONS IN FLORIDA: 1997
.165
C
MAILING LISTS .
.167
D
LIST OF INTERNET SITES
.169
E
PRINCIPLES OF THE NAAWP
.170
F
ABBREVIATIONS
.182
viii


114
[for] His guidance, strength, and divine providential assistance to restore America to
righteousness and liberty (Cody 1995: 3).
Mark Cody, leader of the CFMA, also stated the following in a speech:
We owe it to ourselves, we owe it to our children and we owe it to our Creator to
reclaim that which we have lost. It is to this end that we have called you together
here today. . I will tell you without hesitation that I am a Christian. Jesus Christ
is my Lord and Savior. I feel that ours is a Holy War against the forces of evil
which seek to destroy all which is good. I believe, as I am sure that many of you
here today believe, that we are facing the coming of the Antichrist (Cody 1995: 1-
2).
There were no dissenting voices opposing these statements during the Congress; all
member units adopted the Statement of Praise...
Summary
The rank and file members of the TK/KKK, the NAAWP, the CFMA, and the
NCFRM tend to be predominantly fundamentalist Christians. Members of the WCOTC,
while not Christian, appear to exhibit the characteristics of fundamentalism delineated by
Hofstadter and the American Academy of Arts and Sciences Fundamentalism Project.
Their belief system is conspiratorial in nature, their worldview is clearly Manichean, and
they anticipate a form of millenarianism in their anticipated racial holy war.
The leaders of the TK/KKK, the NAAWP, and the CFMA are all fundamentalist
Christians. The official religious doctrines of these three groups are also fundamentalist,
although the CFMA recognizes the pragmatic need for unity among the citizenry in
opposition to the New World Order and has an official policy of toleration.


5
History of the Militia Movement
In 1991, fear of the New World Order, or One-World Government, was
exacerbated by the publication of Pat Robertsons book The New World Order. This book
expanded the pool of Far Right sympathizers by bringing their message to the Christian
Coalition and other fundamentalist Christians (Stern 1996: 141). In this book, Robertson
argues that the United States government is deliberately attempting to outlaw
Christianity and destroy civil liberties. He also writes that the government is being
controlled by liberal international elitists. Although Robertson does not label the elitists as
Jews, he does make extensive use of The Protocols of the Learned Elders of Zion, an anti-
Semitic document written prior the Russian Revolution and publicized by Czarist secret
police. This document purports to be the summation of a secret meeting of Jewish elders
in which they plan to subvert the governments of the world and establish Jewish
ascendancy.
During the same year, federal agents of the U.S. Marshals Office, the Bureau of
Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms (BATF), and Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) laid
siege to the home of acknowledged white separatist and follower of Identity Christian
doctrine Randy Weaver and his family. Weaver was accused of illegally modifying a
shotgun and selling it to an undercover BATF agent. The BATF wanted Weaver to
become an informant and gather information on the Aryan Nations and the Church of
Jesus Christ Christian, but Weaver refused. During the siege, hundreds of skinheads,
neo-Nazis, and members of the Aryan Nations lined the road leading to the Weaver cabin
to show their support.


45
veterans returned home to face a mysterious array of illnesses designated Gulf War
Syndrome. The federal government and its Veteran's Administration have denied the
existence of such a condition, claiming that the veterans' health problems are coincidental.
When Congress investigated the Department of Defense to determine if chemical weapons
were used against American soldiers, it was revealed that the Pentagon lost or misplaced
its logs for the very days which veterans insist that chemical exposure occurred.
Most of these veterans were not Regular Army soldiers; they were Reservists and
National Guardsmen who left their homes and careers behind to do their duty, with the
promise that they would be compensated and cared for if they incurred injury. Their belief
that this promise was broken by the federal government has created a deep sense of anger
and resentment among many Gulf War veterans.
The Farm Crisis
During the 1970s the Department of Agriculture began advising independent
farmers to expand their farms, to take out huge loans to purchase more land and modern
equipment: The rate of inflation was running several percentage points above interest
rates, so banks and government lenders, such as the Farm Home Administration (FmHA),
were encouraging farmers to borrow as much money as possible (Dyer 1997: 15).
In 1979 the Chairman of the Federal Reserve, Paul Volcker, raised interest rates in order
to slow inflation. As a result, property values collapsed at the same time the interest
rates on the farmers loans climbed out of sight (Dyer 1997: 15). This led to a massive
crisis in which farmers lost property which, for many, had been in their family for


53
actually referred to in the Bible as the Israelites, Gods chosen people. Over time, the
nefarious Jews have manipulated societies worldwide and insinuated themselves into this
role. In reality, according to Identity doctrine, all people alive today are either
descendants of Adam or of the pre-Adamic race. Africans, of course, are the pre-
Adamites and are therefore not truly human. Of the descendants of Adam there are two
divisionsJews and Aryans.
The true humans, Gods chosen, are white. Whites are the offspring of Adam
and Eve after they were expelled from the Garden of Eden. Jews, on the other hand, are
the offspring of Satan. In Identity doctrine, the story of Eves temptation by Satan is a
euphemism; what really happened was that Satan entered the Garden, raped Eve, and
impregnated her with his spawn, Cain. Cain, of course, was the first murderer of the first
true Israelite, Abel. All of history since the Garden of Eden has been a constant struggle
between the children of God (whites) and the children of Satan (Jews). The children of
Satan have enlisted the proto human blacks as their foot soldiers, as cannon fodder in
the battle for ascendancy.
Identity adherents believe, therefore, that it is their duty to God to destroy the
seedline of Satan in the final battle of Armageddon, and members are expected to own and
become proficient in the use of firearms in support of this goal. The Identity leader
Richard Butler and his second-in-command Louis Beam were key organizers of the Rocky
Mountain Rendezvous and were instrumental in the birth of the Militia Movement.
The belief that history has been guided by the forces of good in opposition to the
forces of evil, and that there are real entities behind these forces, indicates the


13
data concerning the structure, membership, ideology, and activities of the Militia
Movement.
The most in-depth, detailed, and informative of the four is Kenneth Stems
Force Upon the Plain (1996). In this book Stern argues that the movement is organized
by and around anti-Semites. Stem, of the American Jewish Committee and former
Director of the National Organization Against Terrorism, does not argue that all militia
members are anti-Semitic, nor does he argue that they are all racist; however, anti-
Semitism is at the core of his analysis, and this informs much of his work.
Similarly, Morris Dees Gathering Storm: Americas Militia Threat (1996) argues
that militias are organized by and around white supremacists. His book is a detailed and
informative source which primarily examines the illegal activities of militia members and
their ties to such white supremacist groups as the Aryan Nations, the White Aryan
Resistance (WAR), and the Ku Klux Klan (KKK). Dees is the founder and director of the
Southern Poverty Law Center and its Klanwatch Project. His book, as could be expected,
reflects and propagates the views of Klanwatch.
Richard Abanes, Director of the Religious Information Center of Southern
California, argues in American Militias: Rebellion, Racism and Religion (1996) that the
Militia Movement is a result of a specific religious phenomenon. He believes that Identity
Christian dogma has overwhelmed all other beliefs in the entire movement and has given
the movement a white supremacist leaning. He also examines and attempts to debunk the
web of conspiracy theories which lie at the heart of the movement. Because of his intense
focus on religion, Abanes fails to examine structural phenomena which could shed further


41
reduce access to assault and automatic weapons.
Surveillance of Citizens
In 1995, President Clinton announced the introduction of the Omnibus Anti-
Terrorism Bill (H. R. 1710), which capitalized on the publics fear of domestic terrorism
(Lacayo 1995: 1). This fear was instilled in the public by the bombings of the World
Trade Center and the Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building in Oklahoma City (McGee 1995:
W10). The bill is designed to give federal law enforcement agents increased ability to
monitor private citizens through three primary means: First, the rights of accused criminals
are reduced. Second, law enforcement agents are authorized to search property and
monitor telephone lines without warrants. Finally, law enforcement personnel are
authorized to arrest accused criminals with far less probable cause than previously
required (Matthews 1995: 10). The bill was signed into law on 24 April 1996 and is
designated P. L. 104-132, the Antiterrorism and Effective Death Penalty Act of 1996.
Welfare
Welfare reform has become a significant issue in recent election campaigns.
Politicians, particularly from the Republican Party, are using the issue to gain the support
of increasingly disgruntled middle class taxpayers. The long-term effect of this seems to
be a growing wedge between social classes and racial groups as politicians, such as
Senator Jesse Helms and Speaker of the House Newt Gingrich, speak in public of welfare
queens and freeloaders (King 1995). Former Presidential candidate Pat Buchanan


47
Corruption
The term corruption is relatively broad and ambiguous when applied to political
matters. It is used to describe both specific illegal acts and business as usual political
behavior. In the context of this study, corruption applies to the trading ofpolitical favors
for money or status by government officials. The term is applied here to illegal and
secretive bribes, legal or quasi-legal campaign contributions, or even gifts, which tend to
result in laws which benefit a select few to the detriment of the population at large or in
the selective enforcement of laws.
Corruption is a reality in government, but as far as this study is concerned what is
vitally important is the perception of corruption, rather than the documentation of actual
illegal or immoral acts. According to Frank Anechiarico: Corruption is a problem and
corruption control a constant challenge for all governments. Corruption undermines
citizens confidence in and commitment to the commonweal and can even destroy the
legitimacy of the political system (Anachiarico & Jacobs 1996: xiii). This loss of
confidence in government has become endemic among most Americans. Norman Ornstein
wrote in 1993, one year after the birth of the Militia Movement, that ABC News asked
voters in mid-1992, Do you think the overall level of ethics and honesty in politics has
risen, fallen, or stayed the same during the past ten years? A full 60 percent said it had
fallen; only 9 percent believed it had risen (Ornstein 1993: 7). This is echoed in another
series of polls:
The most disturbing trend in American public life today is found in the answers to
a poll question asked regularly by the Roper organization: Do you think you can
trust the government in Washington to do what is right most of the time? In 1964,


139
whether or not to allow them to join. The decisions are made after an illegal background
check is performed by members who are police officers and discussion among members of
the group. The greeting of guests is followed by a discussion of current events and topics
of interest. Discussion is open to all attendees and revolves around the New World Order
conspiracy and examples of reverse discrimination in the news. A class is taught,
usually First Aid, disassembly/reassembly of various weapons, or Drill and Ceremony.
The last item on the typical agenda is the planning of upcoming training sessions. The
meetings close with another prayer, which is followed by a ceremony in which all of the
members stand in a circle and shake the hands of each other member. The circle
represents the teamwork necessary for overthrow of the New World Order, and
demonstrates that although there is a vital rank structure, all members are comrades.
Training sessions are held on the Saturday following each Thursday meeting.
Training generally includes a physical fitness test, Drill and Ceremony, First Aid, Combat
Patrolling, setting up ambushes, radio procedures, sniping operations, and camouflage
techniques. Although the training is of a paramilitary nature and is ostensibly designed to
prepare for war, it involves minimal physical effort. No one gets dirty and rarely do
members sweat. The sessions end with a barbeque dinner, washed down with liberal
amounts of Budweiser beer.
North Central Florida Regional Militia
The primary activity of the NCFRM is the maintenance of their public group or
outer circle, the Citizens for Better Government. This group holds weekly discussion


102
(Hoffer 1951: 17), and when people are ripe for a mass movement, they are usually ripe
for any effective movement, and not solely for one with a particular doctrine or program
(Hoffer 1951: 16).
Another unit of the Spartan Legion exists in the Winter Haven/Eagle Lake area.
This unit has eighteen members who are all former active-duty military veterans in their
mid- to late forties with the exception of their Commander, Dan Daniels. They are all
either local business owners or lawyers, many of whom have held prominent positions in
the local government. This is the airborne unit of the Spartan Legion; they skydive
together monthly.
North Central Florida Regional Militia
Leadership
The leader of the North Central Florida Regional Militia is Dr. Stan Ralle, a
prominent local neurosurgeon. He is assisted by his official spokesperson, Mike Johnson,
who holds a Masters Degree in Anthropology. Both are in their early forties, overweight,
and of European descent.
Rank and File
The rank and file of the NCFRM are a diverse group of men and women. In a
typical weekly meeting there will be between twenty and twenty-five members or guests
present, ranging in age from late teens and early twenties through the mid-sixties.


98
became so disruptive and confrontational that he was socially ostracized.
Fox was instrumental in the militias coup, which will be discussed below. When
his conflicts with other area leaders grew to the point where they would no longer work
together he began petitioning Allen to resolve the problem. Allen ignored the situation as
long as he could, but when mass desertions and internal dissents exploded after the ABC
broadcast he flew to Jacksonville to take charge. His resolution was to separate Foxs
chapter from the others and to give Fox his own region.
Ted Doubleton
The first Commander of the Jacksonville Spartan Legion was Ted Doubleton, who
promoted himself from the standard commanders rank of Colonel to Brigadier-General.
Doubleton is approximately forty years old and served in the Florida National Guard from
1976-1977. He is a high school graduate and is deeply religious. Members of his unit,
however, were contused by his religious practices: Doubleton consumed alcohol at every
gathering and was frequently intoxicated; when drunk he would often make sexual
overtures to the few females present. One female in particular was often targeted, despite
the fact that she was married. She complained repeatedly in meetings and in conversations
that he would call her and her husband up late at night while intoxicated and beg them to
have a threesome with him; he attended their wedding and actually tried to enter their
hotel room after the ceremony.
Doubleton has a regular girlfriend who is a local entrepreneur. She owns a pest
control company and allowed the militia to meet at the offices of her business. She also
spends a great deal of money on Doubleton and his dreams, one of which is to run for


CHAPTER 8
POLITICAL AND RACIAL IDEOLOGY OF THE MILITIAS
When whites organize, we can force an end to racial spoils system.
NAA WP demands an end to racial double standards that exempt inner-city blacks
from ordinary measures of decency. NAA WP demands a national inquiry into
whether it is even possible for white and black to live together peaceably.
NAA WP call for white America to organize on a wartime basis. If white America
has no other alternative, NAA WP calls for vigilante justice.
-Paul Allen, President of the National
Association for the Advancement of
White People (Allen 1993: 210)
This chapter examines the political beliefs of the Militia Movement; specifically, it
looks at how the various militias in the study interpret and teach the conspiracy theory
which is at the heart of the movement. In addition, the beliefs of each unit concerning race
are explored. Finally, some of the individual militias have a variety of specific teachings
which will also be reviewed under the category miscellaneous.
World Church of the Creator
New World Order/ZOG
The political ideology of the World Church of the Creator (WCOTC) follows
standard Militia Movement themes. The WCOTC teaches that a secret Jewish cabal
controls the corporate media, both news and entertainment, in America (Hale 1996: 5).
The result of this control? Hale writes: By permitting the Jews to control our news and
117


50
factors of a belief system which can be used to classify systems as fundamentalist.
A five-year study commissioned by the American Academy of Arts and Sciences,
The Fundamentalism Project, initially describes fundamentalism in terms of conflict.
According to the authors, the conflicts of fundamentalists include five distinct aspects of
fighting. First, they fight back: fundamentalists begin as traditionalists who perceive
some challenge or threat to their core identity, both social and personal. .They react, they
fight back with great innovative power. Second, they fight for. What they fight for
begins with a worldview they have inherited or adopted and which they constantly
reinforce. Third, they fight with'. Fundamentalists fight with a particularly chosen
repository of resources which one might think of as weapons. Fourth, they fight, against:
Fundamentalists also fight against others. These may be generalized or specific enemies,
but in all cases, whether they come from without or within the groups, they are the agents
of assault on all that is held dear. Finally, they fight under God in the case of theistic
religions. . Particularly potent are those fundamentalisms whose participants are
convinced that they are called to carry out Gods or Allahs purposes against challengers
(Marty & Appleby 1991; Vol.l: ix-x).
The final volume of The Fundamentalist Project lists five ideological
characteristics of fundamentalism. The first of these is reactivity to the marginalization of
religion: to qualify as genuine fundamentalism in our understanding, a movement must be
concerned first with the erosion of religion and its proper role in society. The second is
selectivity. Fundamentalists select specific aspects of traditions to defend, specific aspects
of modernity to embrace, and specific aspects of modernity to oppose. Next is a


TABLE OF CONTENTS
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS iii
ABSTRACT x
CHAPTERS
1 INTRODUCTION 1
Definition of Terms .2
History of the Militia Movement .5
Government Responses .11
Review of Literature .12
Structure .14
Membership .19
Ideology ...... .22
Activities. .27
Conclusions .29
2 SOCIAL CONTEXT 32
Economic Factors .33
Manufacturing Industries .33
Agriculture ....... .36
Social Changes .37
Summary ....... .38
Education ........ .38
Political Factors .40
Gun Control ....... .40
Surveillance of Citizens .41
Welfare 41
Affirmative Action . .42
Separation of Church and State .... .42
Vietnam/Gulf War Veterans .44
The Farm Crisis ...... .45
v


161
America has become in the twentieth century. Militia activists are engaged in the
fundamentalist revolt against modernity (Hofstadter 1962: 102, 103).
Although some people have always suffered economically and some Americans
have always distrusted the federal government, there has not always been such a large
segment of the population which is inclined to interpret its reality through a fundamentalist
perspective. In order to understand the Manichean style of thought, the apocalyptic
tendencies, the love of mystification, the intolerance of compromise that are observable in
the right-wing mind, we need to understand. . fundamentalism (Hofstadter 1962: 103).
The Militia Movement can be best explained as an outgrowth of the rising tide of
fundamentalism which has swept the world in the past two decades.
It is important when considering militia activists to remember that they are not evil
people, nor are they stupid. Neither are they crazy or ignorant. They are simply people
in distress, caught up in cultural events beyond their ability to control or comprehend.
Society has trapped them in a cycle from which it is difficult, if not impossible, for them to
escape. Fundamentalism is one-third of this cycle: fundamentalist thinking provides the
dualistic, conspiratorial, and millenarian perspective necessary to accept the Militia
Movements synthetic conspiracy theory. The second portion of the cycle is the synthetic
theory which explains economic change and governmental corruption and incompetence as
the result of a deliberate and coordinated international conspiracy. The final third of the
cycle is composed of events and situations occurring in the real worldthe economic
and political factors addressed by the conspiracy theory which cause the fundamentalists
to begin seeking answers to the problems in their lives.


73
Summary
These five units were selected for close examination in this project because they
represent distinct points along the ideological spectrum of racism and anti-Semitism. At
one end of the spectrum resides the White Berets, a notoriously racist and actively violent
group. Farther along are the Templar Knights of the Ku Klux Klan, ostensibly racist but
not actively so. Next comes the Spartan Legion, which publicly professes to be racially
inclusive but is in actuality covertly racist and extremely anti-Semitic, although it has never
been accused of actively participating in any form of racist violence. The next group is the
NCFRM, which attempts to be inclusive and tolerant, yet circulates The Spotlight, a
clearly and openly anti-Semitic publication. At the far end is the CFM which is racially
and ethnically integrated and will refuse membership to units or individuals suspected of
racist beliefs.
Subsequent chapters will examine in more detail the structure, ideologies,
membership, and activities of these groups, comparing and contrasting them with each
other and examining their adherence to and interpretation of the standard militia
conspiracy theories.


91
innate intellectual differentiation between races.
Dukes ability to spellbind crowds with his rhetoric and his popularity with non-
traditional pools of recruits made him invaluable to the Ku Klux Klan (KKK) resurgence
of the 1970s. In 1975 Duke ran unsuccessfully for the Louisiana Senate but captured
one-third of the votes. The following year he organized and led the largest KKK rally of
the decade in Walker, Louisiana.
By this time, Duke was the Imperial Wizard of the Knights of the Ku Klux Klan;
one of the modifications he instituted was changing the title to National Director. His
Klansmen no longer burned crosses; they held illuminations. They welcomed women
for the first time, as well as Catholics, into the ranks of the KKK. He also began
recruiting heavily on military bases during this period.
By 1980 it seemed as though Duke had established a solid base of support for his
political career among white supremacists, but his KKK affiliation was holding him back.
He abruptly left the KKK and founded the National Association for the Advancement of
White People. In interviews and public statements Duke claimed that he had left behind
the follies of his youth, such as the NSWPP and the KKK. He also claimed that the KKK
was too violent and racist. The NAAWP was necessary, Duke claimed, as a peaceful,
intellectual, non-violent white rights organization. An early recruiting letter, however,
told potential followers that the NAAWP was .simply a Klan without robes. He wrote
that the NAAWP avoids the Hollywood stereotypes and misconceptions about the Klan
and also stated that the messages of the two groups were essentially the same. The
NAAWP was housed in the former headquarters of the Knights of the KKK.


37
Social Changes
At the same time that farmers are losing their land, blue-collar workers are losing
their manufacturing jobs, and college graduates are increasingly underemployed, more
efficient manufacturing methods and increased capital investment have made an increasing
number of products available. The increase in products in combination with increasingly
effective mass media and its concomitant advertizing bombardment leads people to desire
more and more items which they do not need. Their inability to afford these luxury
items leads to depression, anger, and resentment towards those who can afford them and
those who produce them (Feigenbaum 1997: 2).
Resentment and depression stem from many other sources as well: Gone are the
old certainties and stabilities of family life, marriage, community, religion and work.
Instead, many people face considerable change and uncertainty in their relationships, in
their place of living, and in their employment (Hartley et al 1991: 200). First and
foremost, though, is the loss of hope that todays young adults will have the same
opportunities as their parents. Most Americans probably shared the expectations of the
Reagan Revolution that the policies of Presidents Reagan and Bush would result in an
expansion of the middle class. However:
While President Reagan presented the nations economy as improving peoples
conditions, facts also pointed at a regression and declining economic strength. (By
1989, income distribution between rich and poor was back to the level it was in
1947). The assumption behind the supply-side approach Reagan advocated did
not materialize, as the supply of goods and services did not result in the anticipated
increased consumption, new markets, and new prosperity (Kiewe & Houck 1991:
224).


28
Movement such as the numerous individuals harassed and intimidated, threatening
phone calls in the night, and the placement of contracts on the lives of judges and law
enforcement personnel (Abanes 1996: 224-227). He also opens American Militias with a
detailed description of the carnage at the scene of the Oklahoma City bombing and warns
that the attack by Timothy McVeigh was merely a precursor to more violence as the end
of the millennium approaches (Abanes 1996: 1).
Kenneth Stem chose to open A Force Upon the Plain in the same manner (Stern
1996: 9). In order to demonstrate the activities of militias, Stern first lists a series of
incidents in which militia members threaten and harass government employees, making it
difficult and sometimes impossible for them to do their jobs (Stern 1996: 94). He later
devotes an entire chapter to the explication of felonies and violent acts which have been
attributed to the Militia Movement (Stern 1996: 251-258).
Violent crimes committed by militiamen are the central focus of Dees work.
He lists several examples of harassment of public officials (Dees 1996: 119-122) and
violent crime (Dees 1996: 209-213). He also takes his readers step-by-step through
Timothy McVeighs evolution from a decorated combat soldier in the U.S. Army to a
terrorist who bombed a Federal Building (Dees 1996: 149).
Joel Dyer gives a little more detail regarding the non-violent behavior of Patriots,
exploring the development of common-law courts and sovereign citizenship. He also
examines the Freemen and the well-known Montana Freemen stand-off with federal
agents. In addition, Dyer describes the Republic of Texas and gives the details of
interviews he held with its members shortly before their encounter with law enforcement


APPENDIX C
MAILING LISTS
Between January 1995 and November 1997,1 received mail from a wide variety of
organizations. The following list contains many of the contacts I made in this manner.
Regular Mailing List
Angels Action Gear
Bedford Forrest Brigade, Knights of the Ku Klux Klan
Congress of Florida Militias
European American Educational Association
Florida Christian Leaders Coalition
Invisible Empire, Ku Klux Klan (Kathleen, FL)
Knights of the Ku Klux Klan (Thomas Robb)
Ku Klux Klan: The Florida Klansman
National Association for the Advancement of White People
National Association for the Advancement of White People Spartan Legion Militia
Nationalist Movement (Richard Barrett)
Order of the Ku Klux Klan
Resistance Records
Spartan Aryan Society
Templar Knights of the Ku Klux Klan
United States Militia Association
White Aryan Resistance
World Church of the Creator
Single or Sporadic Contacts
National Alliance
National Socialist White Peoples Party
New Order
167


23
By propagating and encouraging. .conspiracy theories within the
patriot/militia movement, Identity adherents have stirred up hatred for the
government, which they hope will galvanize discontented masses into a force able
to topple the evil Jewish regime in power. . In doing so, white supremacists have
created an elaborate maze of racists and non-racists who share a similar
conspiratorial worldview (Abanes 1996: 168).
Dees recognizes the influence of Identity doctrine and is concerned about the
infiltration of Identity into the growing fundamentalist movements: At the time the
militia movement was born, Christian Identity was seeking to form coalitions with
fundamentalist Christians. Its leaders saw opposition to abortion and gay rights as well as
advocacy of home schooling and Bible-based laws as common ground for both groups
(Dees 1996: 21).
Dyer echoes Dees analysis of the convergence of fundamentalism and Identity
Christianity. In his view, the two together sit at the core of the Patriot Movement:
Most of the people in the antigovernment movement fall into two
categories: those claiming to be traditional Christian fundamentalistscomposed of
the usual denominationsand those who adhere to some or all of the teachings of
the Christian Identity sect. . The religious terminology used by both
fundamentalist and Identity believers can, at first hearing, give the outsider the
impression that the two groups are very similar. In truth, they are not (Dyer 1997:
79-80).
The behavior of the adherents of both of the systems, however, can be quite similar.
According to Dyer:
All of these groups. . have one commonalitya belief that the Bible justifies or
even demands that they rebel against the current American government. This
belief that the Bible demands rebellion compels these rural warriors to see
themselves as an army of holy patriots rather than as a mutinous force attempting a
coup (Dyer 1997: 79).
All of the authors agree that political and religious beliefs have become deeply


49
well connected.
Certain major scandals have rocked American government and demonstrated
clearly to the American public that its leaders are exempt from the very laws that they
create, enforce, and judge. The most recent significant disclosures revolved around the
collapse of several savings and loan associations, of which researchers have stated:
Political corruption was at the very heart of the thrift debacle (Calavita et al 1997: 86).
Despite illegal and quasi-legal actions on the part of elected officials costing taxpayers
millions of dollars, not a single Senator or Congressman was charged with a crime.
Whether governmental corruption has actually increased or whether corruption is
simply being reported more frequently is a debatable point. What is clear, however, is that
the American public is growing increasingly concerned about the corruption. Citizens are
becoming distrustful and, some have become contemptuous to the point of insurrection.
Fundamentalism
Since the 1970s there has been a marked increase in fundamentalist thinking and
religious practice worldwide (Caplan 1987: 5-6). Although the term fundamentalism
was first applied to a specific religious movement within American Christianity, cross-
cultural studies have expanded the usage. According to Lionel Caplan, fundamentalism
may refer equally to militantly orthodox sections within the Jewish population in Israel,
separatist and nationalist elements in the Sikh community, Tamil liberation movements in
Sri Lanka, or Hindu groups opposed to foreign missionary influences in India (Caplan
1987: 1). Other scholars agree with Caplan and have attempted to delineate the specific


21
fringes of Americas military (Dees 1996: 212).
Joel Dyer has a slightly different perspective on militia membership. In his view,
the movement grew out of the rural farm crisis and foreclosures of the 1980s:
In the late 1990s, after a decade and a half of crises, the people who live in
the nations hinterland have finally reached the edge of the abyss. The fertilizer
and diesel fuel that once enriched the soil and powered the machines that plant and
harvest will now be used to destroy their perceived enemies, primary among them,
the federal government (Dyer 1997: 2).
In his research, Dyer spoke with militiamen across the Midwest, asking them about their
lives before the crisis compared to their lives now. He interviewed scores of militia
members, and reports the following:
There is one question I always ask the people I meet in the antigovernment
movement: What was it that finally made you stop and say, This isnt right; Ive
got to do something about it? The answers they have given are varied, yet in one
sense, the same: They took my farm. The IRS took everything I owned.
Environmentalists wouldnt let me run my cows cause some damn little sparrow
they said was endangered lived on my place. They were going to put me in jail
because I didnt have the money to pay my tickets. They took away my kids
because I cant pay my child support. I only make five bucks an hour. How can I
pay child support? (Dyer 1997: 6).
In addition to farmers, Dyer also saw the diversity described by the other authors:
The cartoonish Bubba character that media have chosen to use in their effort
to personify the antigovernment movement is misrepresenting truth and
creating a grave situation. . The Bubbas do exist, but they are only a small
feature on the real face of the movement. Doctors, lawyers, insurance agents, and
college professors were all in attendance at the meeting of the Third Continental
Congress in 1997 (Dyer 1997: 164).
Again, there are several points of agreement among the authors. Each states that
the movement draws diverse people and that the media stereotype of ignorant rednecks
is inaccurate. Each emphasizes a particular group, though; Dyer sees farmers at the core,


60
appear in later interviews which were not present earlier in the study.
During the period March through November 1995, ethnographic interviews were
conducted with the official spokesman of the NCFRM, as well as with five rank-and-file
members (Akins 1995: 14).
Between April 1996 and November 1997 ethnographic interviews were conducted
with David Duke, the founder, Paul Allen, the current President, and Dan Daniels, the
Field Commander of the NAAWP. Additional interviews were conducted with four of the
Spartan Legion officers and four of the NAAWP Jacksonvilles local leaders. Further
interviews were conducted with eleven rank-and-file members.
The Templar Knights of the Ku Klux Klan provided three ethnographic interviews,
one with the leader of the Klavern, one with a rank-and-file male member, and the last
with the first woman initiated into this Klan.
Interviews were conducted with three members of the WCOTC; one with a
Reverend in the Church, one with the leader of the West Palm Beach White Berets, and
one with a rank-and-file member of the White Berets.
Finally, interviews were conducted with four members of the Congress of Florida
Militias. One was conducted over three sessions with Shelton Sizemore, a prominent
leader of the movement in Florida. Another brief telephone interview was conducted with
Mark Cody, the founder and leader of the Congress and author of its principle documents;
the other two were with two rank-and-file members from Winter Haven.


58
culture and has the primary goal of understanding the diversity of interpretation of
experience as it is perceived by other people (Hall 1996: 21). It is a process of study in
which the researcher discovers varying perceptions and interpretations of reality through
the voice of the participant (Spradley 1979: 3).
From March through November 1995, ethnographic data were collected from the
North Central Florida Regional Militia, through participation in weekly meetings and
through three episodes of participation in field training (Akins 1995: 14).
Data concerning the National Association for the Advancement of White Peoples
Spartan Legion were collected from April 1996 through November 1997. This included
attendance at biweekly field training and meetings, multiple social events (both formal and
spontaneous), five rallies or protests, the NAAWPs Second Annual White Rights Rally,
and attendance at allied groups events, including a Ku Klux Klan Naturalization
Ceremony. At all of these functions, I participated as a member. I joined the NAAWP
Spartan Legion Militia in May 1996 and served as an officer of the organization from July
1996 until July 1997, and continued to associate with members on a social basis until
November 1997.
The Ku Klux Klan group affiliated with the NAAWP was the Templar Knights of
the Ku Klux Klan from Port St. Lucie, Florida; ethnographic data were collected from this
group at a Naturalization Ceremony, two Klan rallies in White City, and three social
gatherings.
Contact was made at one of the Klan rallies with members of the World Church of
the Creators White Berets Militia. Data were collected from this group at two social


GOD, GUNS, AND GUTS:
RELIGION AND VIOLENCE IN FLORIDA MILITIAS
By
JOHN KEITH AKINS
A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT
OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF
DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
MAY 1998

Copyright 1998
by
John Keith Akins

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
This research would not have been possible without the assistance and support of
many people, and it is to them that I offer my heartfelt thanks.
First and foremost, I want to thank my committee, including Drs. John Moore,
Diedre Crumbley, Dennis Owen, David Chalmers, and, above all, Brian du Toit. It has
been a long road, and they traveled it with tolerance, advice, and humor all the way. No
one could ask for a better mentor than Dr. du Toit, nor a more supportive committee.
I also wish to thank Erika Morgan, Lisa Baker, St. Big Dog Bernard, Sandy,
Zeke, and the remainder of my associates for their generous funding and technical support.
Special thanks go to Aaron Feigenbaum for sharing his knowledge of both
Americas current economic situation and Jewish history and traditions.
My friends Matt Baker, Holly Blumenthal, Agazzi Negash, and Janis Weber all
offered distraction, support, and advice throughout the entire process. A special thanks
goes out to Rod Stubina and Helen Feussner for their invaluable assistance with my new
computer. Thanks also to JefFLipham, Brian Zacker, Charlie Prieto, and the rest of the
bouncers at the Purple Porpoise Oyster Pub for helping me avoid injury and giving me
time off from work whenever I needed it.

My undergraduate mentor, Dr. Robin Rhodes, and my former wife, Shelley Burke,
provided the inspiration I needed to give both college and graduate school a try.
Susana Gonzalez, a future attorney and currently one of the worlds great
bartenders, provided invaluable proofreading and copy editing, and the text is more clear
and concise because of her input.
Thanks also to Colonel Dan Daniels, USA, retired, and his colleagues at the
National Association for the Advancement of White People, to the Klanwatch Project of
the Southern Poverty Law Center, and to the Anti-Defamation League of Bnai Brith for
providing me with vital information I would not have otherwise obtained.
Finally, none of this would have been possible without the assistance and support
of Heather L. Hall. Heather helped me maintain a sense of perspective while in the field,
helped me stay organized while analyzing the data, and ran errands and brought food while
I was writing. Heather, youre the best friend Ive ever had, and I could not have done
this without you.
IV

TABLE OF CONTENTS
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS iii
ABSTRACT x
CHAPTERS
1 INTRODUCTION 1
Definition of Terms .2
History of the Militia Movement .5
Government Responses .11
Review of Literature .12
Structure .14
Membership .19
Ideology ...... .22
Activities. .27
Conclusions .29
2 SOCIAL CONTEXT 32
Economic Factors .33
Manufacturing Industries .33
Agriculture ....... .36
Social Changes .37
Summary ....... .38
Education ........ .38
Political Factors .40
Gun Control ....... .40
Surveillance of Citizens .41
Welfare 41
Affirmative Action . .42
Separation of Church and State .... .42
Vietnam/Gulf War Veterans .44
The Farm Crisis ...... .45
v

Corruption . .47
Fundamentalism . .49
The Patriot Movement and the Far Right . .52
Identity Christianity .52
The Liberty Lobby . .54
Common-Law Courts .54
The Turner Diaries . .55
Summary ........ .56
3 METHODS 57
Ethnography/Participant Observation .57
Interviews ........ .59
Document Analysis .61
Correspondence . .63
Internet ........ .63
4 MILITIAS IN FLORIDA 65
World Church of the Creator: The White Berets. .66
Templar Knights of the Ku Klux Klan .69
NAAWP: The Spartan Legion Militia .... .70
North Central Florida Regional Militia .71
Central Florida Militia Association . .72
Summary ........ .73
5 STRUCTURE OF FLORIDA MILITIAS 74
World Church of the Creator . .74
Founding ....... .74
Organization .75
Communication .75
Templar Knights of the Ku Klux Klan .76
Organization .76
Communication . .76
NAAWP: The Spartan Legion ..... .77
Founding ....... .77
Organization .77
Communication .80
Recent Developments .82
North Central Florida Regional Militia . .84
Founding ....... .84
Organization .84
vi

Communication .84
Central Florida Militia Association .85
Founding ....... .85
Organization .85
Communication .86
Summary ........ .86
6 MEMBERSHIP OF FLORIDA MILITIAS 88
World Church of the Creator .88
Templar Knights of the Ku KluxKlan .89
NAAWP: The Spartan Legion .90
Leadership .90
Rank and File ....... .101
North Central Florida Regional Militia .102
Leadership ....... .102
Rank and File ....... .102
Central Florida Militia Association .103
Summary ........ .104
7 RELIGIOUS IDEOLOGY OF FLORIDA MILITIAS .106
World Church of the Creator .107
Templar Knights of the Ku Klux Klan .109
NAAWP: The Spartan Legion .110
North Central Florida Regional Militia and Central Florida Militia
Association . .113
Summary .114
8 POLITICAL AND RACIAL IDEOLOGY OF THE MILITIAS .117
World Church of the Creator .117
New World Order/ZOG 117
Race .118
Templar Knights of the Ku Klux Klan .119
New World Order/ZOG .119
Race ........ .120
NAAWP: The Spartan Legion ..... .120
New World Order/ZOG 120
Race ........ .122
North Central Florida Regional Militia .125
New World Order/ZOG 125
Race ........ .128
vii

Central Florida Militia Association
.130
New World Order/ZOG
.130
Race ......
.131
Summary ......
.132
New World Order/ZOG
.132
Race ......
.133
9
ACTIVITIES OF TE1E MILITIAS .
.134
World Church of the Creator ....
.134
Templar Rnights of the Ku Klux Klan
.136
NAAWP: The Spartan Legion
.136
National .....
.136
Florida .....
.137
North Central Florida Regional Militia
.139
Central Florida Militia Association
.141
Summary ......
.141
10
DISCUSSION
.144
Militia Conspiracy Theory: The Ideological Octopus.
.144
Potential Militia Recruits ....
.147
General Population ....
.148
Economic Factors ....
.151
Political Factors ....
.152
Mechanism of Exposure
.154
Fundamentalism ....
.155
Timing ......
.157
Conclusions ......
.159
APPENDICES
A
MILITIAS IN FLORIDA: 1997
.162
B
WHITE SUPREMACIST ORGANIZATIONS IN FLORIDA: 1997
.165
C
MAILING LISTS .
.167
D
LIST OF INTERNET SITES
.169
E
PRINCIPLES OF THE NAAWP
.170
F
ABBREVIATIONS
.182
viii

REFERENCES CITED
183
BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH .
.193
IX

Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida
in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the
Degree of Doctor of Philosophy
GOD, GUNS, AND GUTS:
RELIGION AND VIOLENCE IN FLORIDA MILITIAS
By
JOHN KEITH AKINS
May 1998
Chairman: Brian M. du Toit, Professor
Major Department: Anthropology
This research project was initiated in January 1995 in order to establish an
anthropological perspective on the Militia Movement, a social movement oriented around
anti-government conspiracy theories. This movement is of interest because of the actions
which have resulted from acceptance of its tenets, such as the bombing of Oklahoma
Citys Federal Building in April 1995 as well as attacks on Amtrak trains, harassment of
government officials, and a string of vandalism, robberies, assaults, and murders.
The primary methods used for data collection were ethnographic participant
observation and interviews. This was supplemented with data obtained from militia
publications and Internet sites, as well as from correspondence with militia activists from
diverse locations.
Analysis of data revealed that three of the more prevalent sociological theories,
x

education, massification, and socialization models, do not adequately account for
participation in this movement. Education theory holds that right wing political extremism
results from insufficient education; data reveal that militia members are actually equally, if
not more, educated than the general population. Massification theory states that
participation in social movements results from insufficient social connections; this study
indicates that militia activists are closely connected to their communities through ties of
government, religion, economics, and kinship. Finally, socialization theory claims that
right wing extremists and white supremacists are indoctrinated into these perspectives by
their parents; there is no evidence to support this model in this case.
Economic, political, and religious social factors do apply, however. Militia
activists tend to be people from a variety of economic classes who are finding it difficult to
compete in todays economy because of recent changes in the social structure. They have
educated themselves with movement literature and discovered rampant corruption and
incompetence in government. They blame the economic distress in their lives on corrupt
or inept government officials. Recognizing the power of the federal government and the
isolation of elected representatives from common citizens, they have determined that the
only course of action remaining is to prepare for civil war.
These simplistic conclusions and plans result from the worldview of militia
activists, which is built upon a fundamentalist perspective. The fundamentalist religious
beliefs of activists in this movement lead them to perceive the world through a dualistic,
conspiratorial, and millennial lens. This perspective has encouraged the formation of a
movement best classified as one of projective politics, a concept pioneered by Richard
xi

Hofstadter in 1962.
Once a person has accepted the basic tenets of the militia conspiracy theory, the
new activist realizes that it is a duty, an obligation, to attempt the overthrow of the federal
government of the United States. An ethical person in this situation has no choice in the
matter; in the eyes of God, the activist is required to oppose the evil, secretive cabal which
has gained control of America.
xii

CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION
Go up and look legislators in the face, because someday you may be
forced to blow it off.
-Samuel Sherwood; United States
Militia Association (Stern 1996: 165)
In October 1992 an assortment of right-wing political activists met in Colorado to
discuss possible reactions to the arrest of white separatist Randy Weaver at Ruby Ridge,
Idaho. From this meeting, the Rocky Mountain Rendezvous, sprang the Militia
Movement The results of this movement have been varied, and include the bombing of
the Federal Building in Oklahoma City, hundreds of lesser-known bombings, a string of
murders and bank robberies, the prolonged siege of the Freemen compound in Montana,
hundreds of cases of harassment of government officials, and, allegedly, the derailment of
two Amtrak trains.
The central organizing principle of the Militia Movement is the belief that the
Federal government of the United States has abandoned the Constitution because it has
been usurped by a secret cabal of Jewish bankers. These bankers are operating through
the United Nations in order to enslave the American people and force the unification of
national governments into an oligarchical New World Order.
1

2
This research was undertaken to establish an anthropological perspective and
through this perspective to answer a key question: Why did the Militia Movement develop
at this particular time? Because the movement is so geographically diffused, primary
emphasis is placed upon the militias in the state of Florida. This paper will examine the
Militia Movements structure, the composition of membership of the various militias, the
ideology of the groups, and the activities which grow out of that ideology. These factors
will be compared to factors within the social structure, the context in which the movement
developed.
The basic fact from which this study sprang is the existence of the Militia
Movement, in seeking answers to the research question, several independent variables
were explored to discover whether common factors can be found in all or most militia
members which explain the existence of this movement. For example, do they have similar
education levels? Are they from the same socioeconomic class? What is their geographic
dispersal? Age cohort? Gender? In which organizations, groups, or movements were
militiamen active prior to joining the Militia Movement? What are their hobbies? Are
they veterans? Are they suffering similar socioeconomic stress? What are their beliefs
about race? Do they have similar religious practices?
Definition of Terms
In order to facilitate a better understanding of the Militia Movement, it is first
necessary to clearly establish the parameters of this research project and to define the
terms utilized.

This project was developed to gain a more thorough understanding of armed
citizen militias, opposed to the federal government of the United States, and sharing a
worldview which grew out of the October 1992 Rocky Mountain Rendezvous. These
groups are connected through a network of social relations, Internet, postal and fax
communications, and literature. The Militia Movement can be defined as a subgroup of
the larger Patriot Movement. The Patriot Movement also includes the common law
court movement, survivalists, theocrats, white supremacists, apocalyptic millenarianists,
as well as several separatist communities such as the Freemen compound in Justis
Township, Montana. A number of excellent studies of the larger Patriot Movement have
been published including James Ahos The Politics of Righteousness: Idaho Christian
Patriotism, David Bennetts The Party of Fear: The American Far Right from Nativism
to the Militia Movement, and Philip Lamys Millennium Rage: Survivalists, White
Supremacists, and the Doomsday Prophecy. Although these books provide a description
of the context in which the militias developed, they neither examine nor explain the
existence of the Militia Movement.
This discussion will argue that the development of the Militia Movement is the
result of several structural factors, including education, economics, and politics. These
factors are interpreted by activists through a fundamentalist lens and coupled with an
appropriate opportunity structure. The three key features of fundamentalism as it applies
to this project are millenialism, dualism, and conspiratorialism. Working definitions of
millenialism, dualism, and conspiratorialism are taken from James Ahos study of Christian
Patriots in Idaho and a cross-cultural examination of fundamentalism sponsored by the

4
American Academy of Arts and Sciences (Aho 1990; Marty & Appleby 1991). For
example, Aho defines millenialism in the context of the Militia Movement as the belief that
there is a pervading conviction of cosmic exigency, that the world and thus life itself is in
dire emergency, and that the Second Coming is imminent (Aho 1990: 220). Aho defines
dualism in this manner:
Relative to the doctrine of divine transcendence, of a perfected, spiritualized
(male) Creator residing in distant heavens, the material (that is, feminine) world is
profanity, unconsciousness, and death. . they represent, among other things, the
assertion of the feminine principle and the loss of masculine control, sensibility,
creativity, consciousness, aggressiveness, and rationality (Aho 1990: 220).
Finally, conspiratorialism is defined here as the psychologizing of history and the
reduction of historical events to the conscious intentions of omniscient and all-powerful
Benefactors and Malefactors (Aho 1990: 220). The critical factors of millenialism,
dualism, and conspiratorialism are the primary components of the fundamentalist
worldview of the militiamen and, according to Aho, form the projective lenses through
which militia adherents examine and judge the reality in which they find themselves.
At this point, two disclaimers are in order. First, there are misspelled words and
errors of grammar present in many of the quotes from militia sources. These have not
been corrected and are presented in their published form. Second, the names of militia
activists who are not public figures have been altered in order to protect their privacy.
Names of organizations and well-known activists, however, are not changed.
In order to more clearly define the Militia Movement as a phenomenon, it will be
beneficial to review the history of the movement and the governments responses to its
development.

5
History of the Militia Movement
In 1991, fear of the New World Order, or One-World Government, was
exacerbated by the publication of Pat Robertsons book The New World Order. This book
expanded the pool of Far Right sympathizers by bringing their message to the Christian
Coalition and other fundamentalist Christians (Stern 1996: 141). In this book, Robertson
argues that the United States government is deliberately attempting to outlaw
Christianity and destroy civil liberties. He also writes that the government is being
controlled by liberal international elitists. Although Robertson does not label the elitists as
Jews, he does make extensive use of The Protocols of the Learned Elders of Zion, an anti-
Semitic document written prior the Russian Revolution and publicized by Czarist secret
police. This document purports to be the summation of a secret meeting of Jewish elders
in which they plan to subvert the governments of the world and establish Jewish
ascendancy.
During the same year, federal agents of the U.S. Marshals Office, the Bureau of
Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms (BATF), and Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) laid
siege to the home of acknowledged white separatist and follower of Identity Christian
doctrine Randy Weaver and his family. Weaver was accused of illegally modifying a
shotgun and selling it to an undercover BATF agent. The BATF wanted Weaver to
become an informant and gather information on the Aryan Nations and the Church of
Jesus Christ Christian, but Weaver refused. During the siege, hundreds of skinheads,
neo-Nazis, and members of the Aryan Nations lined the road leading to the Weaver cabin
to show their support.

6
In August of 1992, the siege at the Weaver cabin concluded. By the end of the
incident, Weavers sixteen-year-old son was shot in the back and his wife shot in the face
by an FBI sniper.
Outraged at what he perceived as the heavy-handed and unlawful behavior of
federal officials, Christian Identity leader Pete Peters invited a wide and varied group of
right-wing activists to a meeting in Estes Park, Colorado. The meeting in Estes Park,
known as the Rocky Mountain Rendezvous, was attended by:
...Richard Butler, head of the Aryan Nations; Louis Beam, another Aryan
Nations leader; anti-Semite Red Beckman; Larry Pratt of Gun Owners of America;
and Montana far-right activist Chris Temple...(as well as) neo-Nazis, Christian
Identity adherents, anti-abortion activists, tax protesters, Ku Klux Klan members,
and others who saw each other as ideological and organizational adversaries
(Stern 1996: 36).
The primary sponsor of the meeting was an organization known as the Aryan Nations, a
white supremacist group from Hayden Lake, Idaho. The Aryan Nations has a long history
of violence in support of anti-Semitic and racist agendas. Aryan Nations members are
believers in Christian Identity, a virulently racist Christian sect which will be discussed at
length later in this paper (Schwartz 1996: 188-189).
The Rendezvous, which lasted three days, unified the spokesmen of once disparate
and competing factions who then published The Battle Plan for Future Conflicts (Stern
1996: 36). Another critical document circulated, adopted, and published at the Rocky
Mountain Rendezvous was the article Leaderless Resistance authored by former Ku Klux
Klan leader Louis Beam. At the Rocky Mountain Rendezvous, attendees compared and
contrasted scores of conspiracy theories, recruiting techniques, and methods of

7
communication. The result was a synthetic conspiracy theory which explained many, if
not all, of the problems of contemporary American culture.
The final months of the year saw the publication of Samuel Sherwoods The Little
Republics and the organization of the United States Militia Association (USMA) (Stern
1996: 166). This book provides guidelines for the organization of anti-government
paramilitary forces; the USMA became one of the largest of the early militias. It continues
to provide information about organization, acquisition of weapons, and survivalism.
On 19 April 1993, federal agents assaulted the compound of the Branch Davidians,
a fringe Christian sect, in Waco, Texas. By the end of the assault, most of the members
were dead. Remember Waco became a rallying cry among militiamen, and 19 April was
designated as Militia Day.
This year also saw the introduction of the Brady Bill, a large-scale ban of
automatic and assault weapons and the imposition of a waiting period and background
check when purchasing firearms. The publicity surrounding Waco and the Brady Bill
brought the Militia Movement into the public eye as militia leaders began airing their
views on radio and television talk shows. Most Americans who heard of the militias in
this period dismissed the movement as ludicrous; however, many others began forming
their own, or joining pre-existing, militias.
In 1993, most of the militiamen had a prior history of involvement in either white
supremacist or militant anti-abortion groups. By 1994, however, the Militia Movement
began to attract members of the middle class who had no previous association with these
movements, many, in fact, who would not have considered associating with white

8
supremacists in the past.
On 15 February 1994, John Trochmann founded the Militia of Montana (MOM)
(Stem 1996: 71). MOM was destined to become the largest clearing-house of militia
doctrine and conspiracy theories as well as one of the three largest militias in the country.
The largest militia to date, the Michigan Militia, was founded by Norman Olson in April;
by the end of the year it had thousands of members scattered throughout dozens of
individual units (Stem 1996: 97).
April 1994 also saw the self-appointment of Linda Thompson as the Acting
Adjutant-General of the Unorganized Militia of the United States (Stern 1996: 133).
Thompson, a lawyer, turned her law office into an information distribution center, and
established the Patriot Fax Network. She edited and began distributing the videos Waco:
The Big Lie and Waco II: The Big Lie Continues. These videos criticized the
governments activities at Waco and accused the agents of deliberately setting the
compound on fire and burning the residents.
Several meetings were held in 1994 in which militia leaders fleshed out their
conspiracy theory, affirmed their ties, and brought new leaders and groups into the
movement. For example, on 23 April militiamen and white supremacists held the Idaho
Liberty Network Conference, which was in effect a miniature version of the Rocky
Mountain Rendezvous (Stern 1996: 168). In June, Pete Peters was the featured speaker
at the Constitutionalists Networking Center, and shared the podium with .Klan
members, skinheads, and other racists. The CNC is a white supremacist organization
(headed by former Arizona governor Evan Mecham) (Stem 1996: 117-118).

9
On 4 July, militia members in Nye City, Nevada attacked Federal agents in the
Toiyabe National Forest in a protest over Federal regulation of disputed land (Stern
1996: 125). This action inspired the militia-dominated City Council of Catron City, New
Mexico, to order all of its white adult male citizens to arm themselves, form a county
militia, and ban Federal law enforcement agents from its borders (Stem 1996: 122).
Members of the Virginia-based Blue Ridge Hunt Club were arrested in 1994
while in possession of a cache of guns, homemade silencers, explosives, fuses, blasting
caps, hand grenades. (Stern 1996: 136). They also had in their possession a plan for
activity which stated . . hit and run tactics will be our method of fighting. . We will
destroy targets such as telephone relay centers, bridges, fuel storage tanks,
communications towers, radio stations, airports, etc. . human targets will be engaged. .
when it is beneficial to the cause to eliminate particular individuals who oppose us (troops,
political figures, snitches, etc.) (Stem 1996: 136).
On 8 September, bodyguards for Mark Koernke, a job once held by convicted
Oklahoma City bomber Timothy McVeigh, were stopped by police. In the car were . . a
loaded nine-millimeter clip. .gas masks, two-way radios, night-vision binoculars, and
loaded semi-automatic rifles with seven hundred rounds of ammunition. They were also
dressed in camouflage and had blackened their faces. Some of the ammunition was armor
piercing (Stem 1996: 102-103).
Citizens for Christ, another militia from the Midwest, saw several of its members
arrested in September. At the time of their arrest the Citizens for Christ members were
holding a large supply of electric blasting caps, machine guns, ammunition, and

10
dynamite (Stern 1996: 135).
In October, United Nations Day protests were held in several major cities. U.N.
flags were burned, speeches were made, and the militias gained much-needed media
attention (Stern 1996: 99). On 30 December, members of the North American Volunteer
Militia of Montana sent a series of messages to various public officials threatening them
with violence if the officials continued to carry out their duties (Stern 1996: 80).
The year 1995 was important to the militias because it saw the largest growth in
membership and the most publicity for militia beliefs. It began with an armed stand-off
between militia men and police officers at the office of Dr. Ellwanger, a veterinarian from
Washington. Dr. Ellwanger owed back taxes and refused to pay; when government
officials attempted to impound equipment from his office, militia members surrounded the
property (Stem 1996: 86).
The same month saw a similar incident involving Calvin Greenup of Montana, who
was accused of failure to pay his taxes. When he refused to appear for his court date and
retreated to his ranch, officials chose to give him some time rather than attempt to capture
him. Greenup sent armed friends to harass the town marshals wife at home, planned to
kidnap and execute public officials, and issued arrest warrants for the local judge,
County Attorney, and town marshal (Stern 1996: 87-88).
Congresswoman Helen Chenoweth, a strong supporter of the Militia Movement
issued a statement in February condemning the use of federal law enforcement officials in
Idaho. She accused the government of infiltrating Idaho with black helicopters (Stern
1996: 213). On 19 April 1995, Timothy McVeigh and an as-yet-undetermined number of

11
accomplices bombed the Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma,
killing at least 168 people in the most devastating act of domestic terrorism in American
history. A few militiamen quit or went underground; despite this, militia membership
skyrocketed.
During 1996, the militia movement continued evolving into ever smaller and more
isolated units as the concept of leaderless resistance became more prevalent. The larger,
publicity-seeking militias such as the Michigan Militia and the United States Militia
Association splintered into smaller groups. More militias formed each month; by the end
of the year there were more than 440 militias nationwide (Roy 1996: 5). The year saw the
bombing of the Olympic Park in Atlanta as well as a substantial increase in abortion clinic
bombings and mail bombs; FBI investigators have postulated a possible militia connection.
More recently, 1997 saw a continuation of militia growth, with a larger percentage
of units going underground in leaderless resistance cells and fewer members actively
courting the publicity of past years.
Government Responses
In response to the Militia Movement, the FBI hired five hundred new agents, and
half of these agents are assigned full-time to investigating right-wing groups (Potok
1997a: 1). These agents are utilizing new guidelines which allow more aggressive
probes (Potok 1997b: 4A). Finally, the Justice Department has authorized the FBI to
deploy the largest and most extensive wire-tapping operation in American history. The
Omnibus Anti-Terrorism Bill, passed in response to the Oklahoma City bombing,

12
authorized closer cooperation between various federal law-enforcement agencies,
established a computer database to track suspected militia members, monitors the Internet,
and permits law enforcement personnel to perform surveillance operations without the
necessity of a court order. These actions are subject to varying interpretations, of course.
On one hand, they can be seen as attempts by the government to protect its citizens from
the potential violence of the militias. On the other, they can be seen as proof of the
militias fear of increasing government power. Regardless of the perspective, though, two
things are clear, First, as a result of the Militia Movement the federal government has
acquired substantially enhanced power to monitor and arrest citizens, with or without
probable cause. Second, there are today more groups involved in anti-government activity
than there were prior to these responses.
Now that the parameters of this project have been delineated, the terms defined,
and the history of the movement explicated, it is time to began seeking an answer to the
question of why the Militia Movement developed in this time and place. Has the question
already been answered? A review of the published literature concerning the movement
will provide valuable data yet, as will become apparent, will fail to answer the ultimate
question.
Review of Literature
As of February 1998 there were four significant books in print concerning the
Militia Movement. Each book is well-written and informative, yet each also presents a
relatively narrow and sectarian perspective on the movement. They all, however, provide

13
data concerning the structure, membership, ideology, and activities of the Militia
Movement.
The most in-depth, detailed, and informative of the four is Kenneth Stems
Force Upon the Plain (1996). In this book Stern argues that the movement is organized
by and around anti-Semites. Stem, of the American Jewish Committee and former
Director of the National Organization Against Terrorism, does not argue that all militia
members are anti-Semitic, nor does he argue that they are all racist; however, anti-
Semitism is at the core of his analysis, and this informs much of his work.
Similarly, Morris Dees Gathering Storm: Americas Militia Threat (1996) argues
that militias are organized by and around white supremacists. His book is a detailed and
informative source which primarily examines the illegal activities of militia members and
their ties to such white supremacist groups as the Aryan Nations, the White Aryan
Resistance (WAR), and the Ku Klux Klan (KKK). Dees is the founder and director of the
Southern Poverty Law Center and its Klanwatch Project. His book, as could be expected,
reflects and propagates the views of Klanwatch.
Richard Abanes, Director of the Religious Information Center of Southern
California, argues in American Militias: Rebellion, Racism and Religion (1996) that the
Militia Movement is a result of a specific religious phenomenon. He believes that Identity
Christian dogma has overwhelmed all other beliefs in the entire movement and has given
the movement a white supremacist leaning. He also examines and attempts to debunk the
web of conspiracy theories which lie at the heart of the movement. Because of his intense
focus on religion, Abanes fails to examine structural phenomena which could shed further

14
light on the issue. In Abanes view it is the nature of many Americans today to accept,
with little or no supporting evidence, the message of whatever demagogues they choose to
follow.
In Harvest of Rage (1997), Joel Dyer, a journalist from Colorado, traces the roots
of the movement to the farm foreclosure crisis of the 1980s. Government mismanagement
and corruption coupled with the realities of an evolving global market have forced small
farmers off the land of their ancestors and destroyed their way of life. From this
perspective, the militias should not be a surprise; they should have been predicted. Dyer,
like the other authors, also limits his work by his pre-existing assumptions, and fails to
explore militias and militia doctrines which do not arise from the farm crisis.
Each of these books has much to offer, but one can see the limited perspectives of
each which grow out of the agendas or lifestyles of their authors. The overwhelming
majority of their data were derived from journalistic or law-enforcement sources. None of
them, according to my data, are inaccurate; they are merely limited in scope. It is
important, therefore, to determine what they have to offer and apply it to this study. How
can these four books help to answer the research question of this study?
Structure
Who first founded the movement, and how much control do they retain? How are
militias organized? How do individual militias communicate with each other? How do
militia leaders communicate with their followers? All four authors have attempted to
answer these questions.

15
Founders
Abanes traces the roots of the movement back to various right-wing groups as
well as white supremacist organizations. Todays movement, though, started in October
1992, at a meeting in Colorado: Between 150 and 175 Christian men hastily convened
on October 23, 24 and 25, 1992, in Estes Park, Colorado, to discuss how to respond to
the Weaver killings. Presiding over this Rocky Mountain Rendezvous was Pastor Pete
Peters, a well-known white supremacist leader (Abanes 1996: 22).
Kenneth Stern also attributes the birth of the Patriot Movement to the Rocky
Mountain Rendezvous. According to Stern, it was Pete Peters who called together more
than 150 leaders of the far right (Stern 1996: 35). Peters was a minister of Identity
Christianity, and he used the Ruby Ridge incident to call together:
Men. . who in the past would normally not be caught together under the same
roofneo-Nazis, Christian Identity adherents, anti-abortion activists, tax
protesters, Ku Klux Klan members, and other who either saw each other as
ideological and organizational adversaries, or would have worried about the effect
on their mainstream credentials from participating. . Attendees included Richard
Butler, head of the Aryan Nations; Louis Beam, another Aryan Nations leaders;
anti-Semite Red Beckman; Larry Pratt of Gun Owners of America; and Montana
far-right activist Chris Temple (Stern 1996: 35-36).
Stern credits the meeting with laying some of the groundwork for the militias
formation, not only in suggesting structure, but also in solidifying connections between
longtime white supremacists and Identity followers, on the one hand, and others, such as
Larry Pratt (Stern 1996: 37).
In Harvest of Rage Joel Dyer also examines the Rocky Mountain Rendezvous as
the launching point for the Patriot Movement. Like the other authors, he lists the

16
attendees, writing of them that the Rendezvous brought together a collection of men who
would normally never sit down together (Dyer 1997: 83). Dyer quotes Louis Beams
speech which opened the meeting:
The two murders of the Weaver family have shown us all that our religious, our
political, our ideological differences mean nothing to those who wish to make us
all slaves. We are viewed by the government as the samethe enemies of the state.
When they come for you, the federis will not ask if you are a Constitutionalist, a
Baptist, Church of Christ, Identity Covenant Believer, Klansman, Nazi,
homeschooler, Freeman New Testament believer, or fundamentalist. . Those who
wear badges, black boots, and carry automatic weapons and kick in doors already
know all they need to know about you. You are enemies of the state (Dyer 1997:
83).
This speech set the tone for the entire meeting. Speaker after speaker talked of the need
for unity among organizations of the Far Right and the allegedly criminal activities of the
federal government.
Organization
According to Richard Abanes, this loosely knit network of perhaps 5 to 12 million
people may be one of the most diverse movements our nation has ever seen (Abanes
1996: 2). Fie further states that patriots have no single leader (Abanes 1996: 2). After
the Rocky Mountain Rendezvous, the movement grew rapidly: By early April 1995, there
were militia groups in at least thirty-six states. A few, such as the Militia of Montana,
craved media attention. Many preferred to prepare for war quietly (Stern 1996: 96).
The Patriot Movement is difficult to delineate with precision, which is precisely
what its founders wanted. According to Stem, the guiding principle of the movement is
the concept of leaderless resistance:
Leaderless Resistance meant something akin to what both the Communist

17
Party and the Nazis used to call cell structurea legal, aboveground political group
(protected in the United States by the First Amendment) and an underground to
carry out illegal activities with minimum risk of exposing the entire organization to
prosecution. . All individuals and groups. . operate independently of each other,
and never report to a central headquarters or single leader for direction or
instruction (Stern 1996: 36).
In Gathering Storm, Morris Dees also addresses militia organization. His book
opens with a discussion of the Rocky Mountain Rendezvous and a speech delivered at that
meeting by Louis Beam. Beam, a former Klansman, is now a prominent leader in the
Aryan Nations (Dees 1996: 1-2). Later in the text, Dees lists other notable attendees,
categorizing them by their affiliations with white supremacist, anti-Semitic, gun control,
Identity Christian, and other organizations (Dees 1996: 49-50). Clearly, according to
Dees, the movement was initially launched by racists and anti-Semites:
During that weekend in the Rockies, a network of militant antigovernment
zealots was created. Alliances were formed from diverse factions: Identity, Posse
Comitatus, the Klan, Aryan Nations, reconstructionists and other fundamentalist
Christians, neo-Nazis, tax resisters, Second Amendment advocates, and
antiabortion extremists (Dees 1996: 67).
Dees is also of the opinion that white supremacists have maintained their control of the
entire movement, and cites a message from Dr. William Pierce of the National Alliance to
his members:
Some of the militia groups in the United States are being badly misled in the
ideological realm and are in need of some Alliance input. Any member interested
in working with a non-Alliance militia group should write to Dr. Pierce, detailing
any past or current contacts he has with a militia group and also mentioning
any opportunity of which he is aware for establishing a new contact with a militia
group in his area (Dees 1996: 202).
This supports Dees thesis that white supremacists founded that movement and remain in
control of the primary ideological sources. Furthermore, they are attempting to bring non-

racially motivated militias into their fold.
Communication
18
An essential element in any social movement is communication. When a
movement is underground and attempting to avoid infiltration by law enforcement,
communication can become difficult. The Militia Movement has tackled this problem with
shortwave radio, a fax network, and the Internet. The militiamen are also avid listeners of
right-wing talk radio hosts. Shortwave radio has provided a venue for such militia
leaders as Mark Koernke and Linda Thompson. This little-noticed band, usually
associated with international programming, has become a magnet for Americas far right,
and Koernke was one of its biggest stars (Stem 1996: 101). Stem addresses the issue of
talk radio:
Clintons criticisms of talk radio had some truth, however, AM and FM talk
radio had been helpful to the militias because some of the issues that drove
Americas private armies also played well on talk shows. Mainstream media, for
instance, forgot the Branch Davidians after their fiery end. Not so talk radio.
Waco was a huge topic. The talk-show host Rush Limbaugh. . also spoke about
concerns that overlapped the militias agenda. . The one mainstream talk-radio
host to whom militia members may listen is G. Gordon Liddy, heard on over two
hundred stations across America (Stern 1996: 222).
Of the Internet, Stern writes that:
The main communication system of the militias is the computer. Computers, after
all, substitute for a fax machine with the installation of a fax board. But they can
do so much more; they can hook you up with like-minded people around the globe
through bulletin boards and newsgroups on the Internet. . Militia members can
even sleep while their computers dial up and download the bulletin boards news.
In the morning, new information awaits (Stern 1996: 225-226).
Where does this information come from? And where does it go? Linda Thompson runs a
bulletin board through which she claims to reach 36,000 people. Were a news service,

19
she says. We use the computer as the end of the line, not the beginning. We get
information in by Federal Express, faxes, and phone, then we put it on the bulletin boards
for the widest possible distribution (Stem 1996: 226).
Summary
In summary, all four authors are in agreement that the Militia Movement was bom
at the Rocky Mountain Rendezvous in October 1992 in response to the Ruby Ridge
incident. They all agree that old-guard white supremacists founded the movement and
remain in control of the primary sources of ideology and information dissemination. All
agree that the Internet, fax networks, shortwave radio, and talk radio are the methods of
communication, and that of all these, the Internet is most important. Three of the four
authors closely examine the concept of leaderless resistance which is so confounding to
law enforcement personnel attempting to track the groups.
Membership
Who are the people who comprise the Militia Movement?
Abanes attempts to answer this question. According to Abanes, the adherents of
militia ideology can best be classified on the basis of their religious and political
orientations:
On the movements moderate side are conservative Christians dissatisfied by the
current state of American politics. Their primary concern is changing the
government through political activism. More radical participants include both
Christians and non-Christians who deny their U.S. citizenship. .Interspersed
among these two groups are the most dangerous and unpredictable patriots
Klansmen, neo-Nazis, and Christian Identity believers (Abanes 1996: 2).

20
He further states that within its ranks are college students, the unemployed, farmers,
manual laborers, professionals, law enforcement personnel and members of the military.
Abanes does not closely examine demographic factors, though, nor does he examine in
any detail the economic factors underlying the movement.
According to Kenneth Stern, many members of the United States military are
involved with the Militia Movement (Stern 1996: 158) as are law enforcement personnel
(Stern 1996: 236). Stern, much like Abanes, also sees diversity in the movement: The
militia movement is a mass social movement. People who have never given a thought to
blacks or Jews were attracted to these groups because they cared about other things
guns, the environment, abortion (Stern 1996: 246).
Dees, as well, sees a wide range of people in the militias:
They are just the type of people racists and neo-Nazi leaders have long been after.
They are mainly white and middle class. Most hold jobs, own homes, wear their
hair short, dont use drugs, and, for one reason or another, they hate our
government. . William Pierce pointed out to his followers in 1994 that most
people arent joiners, but millions of white Americans who five years ago felt
cowed by the government and the Jewish-controlled media that they were afraid to
agree with us are becoming fed up, and their exasperation is giving them courage
(Dees 1996: 4-5).
Later, Dees gives a more comprehensive description of the movement:
With about five million followers, it is a movement that exists at the fringe of
American life and politics. On its moderate side are the John Birch Society and
the conspiratorial segment of televangelist Pat Robertsons audience. . On the
movements more militant side are groups promoting themes of white supremacy
and anti-Jewish bigotry (Dees 1996: 30).
Like Stern, Dees also writes about the militia members within the U.S. armed
forces: The clandestine group, the Special Forces Underground, is buried deep on the

21
fringes of Americas military (Dees 1996: 212).
Joel Dyer has a slightly different perspective on militia membership. In his view,
the movement grew out of the rural farm crisis and foreclosures of the 1980s:
In the late 1990s, after a decade and a half of crises, the people who live in
the nations hinterland have finally reached the edge of the abyss. The fertilizer
and diesel fuel that once enriched the soil and powered the machines that plant and
harvest will now be used to destroy their perceived enemies, primary among them,
the federal government (Dyer 1997: 2).
In his research, Dyer spoke with militiamen across the Midwest, asking them about their
lives before the crisis compared to their lives now. He interviewed scores of militia
members, and reports the following:
There is one question I always ask the people I meet in the antigovernment
movement: What was it that finally made you stop and say, This isnt right; Ive
got to do something about it? The answers they have given are varied, yet in one
sense, the same: They took my farm. The IRS took everything I owned.
Environmentalists wouldnt let me run my cows cause some damn little sparrow
they said was endangered lived on my place. They were going to put me in jail
because I didnt have the money to pay my tickets. They took away my kids
because I cant pay my child support. I only make five bucks an hour. How can I
pay child support? (Dyer 1997: 6).
In addition to farmers, Dyer also saw the diversity described by the other authors:
The cartoonish Bubba character that media have chosen to use in their effort
to personify the antigovernment movement is misrepresenting truth and
creating a grave situation. . The Bubbas do exist, but they are only a small
feature on the real face of the movement. Doctors, lawyers, insurance agents, and
college professors were all in attendance at the meeting of the Third Continental
Congress in 1997 (Dyer 1997: 164).
Again, there are several points of agreement among the authors. Each states that
the movement draws diverse people and that the media stereotype of ignorant rednecks
is inaccurate. Each emphasizes a particular group, though; Dyer sees farmers at the core,

22
Abanes and Stern see Identity adherents, and Dees sees white supremacists.
Ideology
What do militia adherents actually believe? What is the motivation which draws
them into this milieu? The motivations can be loosely divided into political and religious
beliefs, although the distinction is not always clear, particularly to the believers
themselves.
Religious beliefs
The religious beliefs of extremists within the Militia Movement, according to
Abanes, lead militia members to the position that:
The end is near and (they) view Washington politicians as evil conspirators laying
the foundation for the soon-to-be-revealed Antichrist, whose reign of terror will
end only when Jesus Christ returns to earth in glory. Many white supremacists
also feel the end is approaching. They, however, see the government as a Jewish
pawn that must be destroyed in preparation for an Armageddon-like race war. In
this last days scenario, whites emerge victorious from the battle to establish an
Aryan republic in America (Abanes 1996: 3).
The primary religious motivation, though, is Identity Christianity:
Religion has been used for thousands of years to mask hate and prejudice.
Spirituality still serves as a convenient excuse for violence and other forms of
antisocial behavior. All that is needed is a little false piety, coupled with liberal
doses of self-induced ignorance and blind devotion to the truth. Even the most
loathsome attitudes and barbarous acts can then be attributed to serving God.
This holds especially true for believers in Christian Identity, a twentieth-century
amalgamation of racism and pseudo-Christian ideas. . Many Christian Identity
leaders and followers are closely affiliated with patriot movement groups and
various militia spokespersons (Abanes 1996: 154-155).
How influential is Identity in the movement? Abanes believes that Identity is at
the core:

23
By propagating and encouraging. .conspiracy theories within the
patriot/militia movement, Identity adherents have stirred up hatred for the
government, which they hope will galvanize discontented masses into a force able
to topple the evil Jewish regime in power. . In doing so, white supremacists have
created an elaborate maze of racists and non-racists who share a similar
conspiratorial worldview (Abanes 1996: 168).
Dees recognizes the influence of Identity doctrine and is concerned about the
infiltration of Identity into the growing fundamentalist movements: At the time the
militia movement was born, Christian Identity was seeking to form coalitions with
fundamentalist Christians. Its leaders saw opposition to abortion and gay rights as well as
advocacy of home schooling and Bible-based laws as common ground for both groups
(Dees 1996: 21).
Dyer echoes Dees analysis of the convergence of fundamentalism and Identity
Christianity. In his view, the two together sit at the core of the Patriot Movement:
Most of the people in the antigovernment movement fall into two
categories: those claiming to be traditional Christian fundamentalistscomposed of
the usual denominationsand those who adhere to some or all of the teachings of
the Christian Identity sect. . The religious terminology used by both
fundamentalist and Identity believers can, at first hearing, give the outsider the
impression that the two groups are very similar. In truth, they are not (Dyer 1997:
79-80).
The behavior of the adherents of both of the systems, however, can be quite similar.
According to Dyer:
All of these groups. . have one commonalitya belief that the Bible justifies or
even demands that they rebel against the current American government. This
belief that the Bible demands rebellion compels these rural warriors to see
themselves as an army of holy patriots rather than as a mutinous force attempting a
coup (Dyer 1997: 79).
All of the authors agree that political and religious beliefs have become deeply

24
intertwined in the Militia Movement. Further, they all agree that Identity and
fundamentalism are being combined in new ways which promote violence.
Each has attempted to understand the conspiracy theory which leads to a belief in
the New World Order; they all agree that such a theory exists and was developed primarily
at the Rocky Mountain Rendezvous. There is slight disagreement as to the identification
of the specific power group behind the New World Order, but this disagreement probably
results from disagreement among the militia theoreticians themselves.
Political beliefs
The glue binding them together, according to Abanes, is:
. .a noxious compound of four ingredients: (1) an obsessive suspicion of the
government; (2) belief in anti-government conspiracy theories; (3) a deep-seated
hatred of government officials; and (4) a feeling that the United States
Constitution, for all intents and purposes, has been discarded by Washington
bureaucrats (Abanes 1996: 2)
What else does Abanes have to say about the militia political beliefs? He is concerned
about the lack of apparent rationality and the potential for violence:
The picture grows more troubling when one takes into account the high levels
of paranoia that abound in the patriot/militia movement. .Most patriots, for
example, believe that nearly everyone in the government is out to enslave U.S.
citizens as part of an insidious scheme hatched long ago by a secret cabal of
behind-the-scenes internationalists whose ultimate goal is world domination
(Abanes 1996: 3).
Kenneth Stem also examines the militia belief system. The underlying political
belief of the movement, according to Stern, is that the Constitution has been secretly and
illegally suspended. How was this done? Through Executive Orders and international
treaties: Conspiracy theorists like the Trochmanns. . ascribed almost magical powers to

25
executive orders. . If executive order were bad, treaties were worse. . treaties are proof
of a global conspiracy. . Theyve perverted the intent of the Constitution and come up
with a bastardized form of illegitimate government (Stern 1996: 73-74).
In order to keep the American public from opposing the suspension of the
Constitution the government is attempting to ban firearm ownership, according to militia
doctrine. Stern writes that Patriot theorists utilize examples from history to gain support
from people concerned with gun control: Part of the mythology of the militias was the
exaltation of the gun into an icon of freedom. History was rewritten to this end (Stern
1996: 116).
One aspect of militia ideology which is particularly appealing to white supremacists
and to members concerned about immigration is the belief that only the original
Constitution is legitimate. People granted citizenship through amendments are not legal
citizens: . . there was a fundamental legal distinction between white people, who were
termed state citizens, and minorities, who were Fourteenth Amendment citizens (Stern
1996: 81).
How has this seemingly strange and irrational ideology gained so many adherents?
Why do middle-class professionals now associate with Klansmen? According to Stern:
In America in the mid-1990s it is taboo to express overt hatred of
minorities. Disagreement with government, however, is a fine and important
American tradition. What the Wise Use groups and militias accomplished was to
redirect the old-fashioned hatred onto an acceptable target. . When that type of
hatred is made acceptable by being transferred to our public servant. . a new
strain of bigotry has the chance to thrive in the American mainstream (Stern 1996:
132).
He goes even further in his analysis, taking the perspective of an American concerned with

26
gun control:
You have gone to a few meetings when you start to understand that there is more
to this than a few troubling bills making their way through Congress. The
government is against you, coming to take your guns on behalf of hidden forces
Illuminati, elites, bankers, Jews, whoeverthat are really in control. Gun control is
only the first step in their elaborate plot to take away your guns, then your rights,
then your freedoms. . Armloads of documents follow to keep you moving further
into the militias funnel of paranoia (Stern 1996: 142).
What is the basis for militia conspiracy theory? According to Stem, The
conspiracy theories that underlie the movement are rooted in the Protocols of the Elders
of Zion" (Stem 1996: 247).
Morris Dees also attempts to delineate the Patriot worldview. Dees believes that
Identity doctrine is at the core:
Identity isnt just about race or white supremacy. Like the theology of many
fundamentalist and cult religious groups, Christian Identitys worldview
extends into the secular world of politics and provides a tent big enough to
incorporate the views of various extremist groups. It invites individuals who are
extremely antigovernment, anti-law enforcement, antitax, antiabortion, antigay,
antifeminist, anti-medical profession, antivaccination, pro-guns, pro-home
schooling, pro-states rights, and believers in an international one-world
conspiracy that is about to take over America and the world (Dees 1996: 18).
Like Abanes and Stern, Dees also recognizes the power of gun control laws to
drive people into the Militia Movement: It wasnt until later in 1993, when the Congress
passed the Brady Bill, that the militia movement ignited into a nationwide brushfire (Dees
1996: 73). The only way for ordinary Americans to prevent any future gun grabs and
atrocities such as Ruby Ridge and Waco, said Trochmann, was to come together under the
banner of an unorganized militia (Dees 1996: 80).
The government is attempting to control every aspect of citizens lives, according

27
to militia theoreticians. Dees writes of one of their arguments: In its various publications
and pamphlets, MOM pointed to laws regarding abortion, taxation, and home schooling as
further examples of a government out to destroy an honored way of life (Dees 1996: 81).
Dees found a summary of the conspiracy beliefs in a shortwave broadcast by Mark
Koemke, who stated that:
... a secret national police force comprised of National Guardsmen, Los Angeles
street gangs, and Nepalese Gurkhas will disarm the public; a division of Russian
troops are bivouacked in salt mines beneath Detroit awaiting orders to rise and
take over the United States; and before the United Nations takes control on behalf
of the New World Order, the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA)
will establish an interim government (Dees 1996: 85).
Dyer outlines several trends among the conspiracy theories found in Patriot
Movement literature and summarizes them as follows:
Most of the antigovernment movements conspiracy theories are used to explain
specific parts of its larger one-world government, aka the new world order
theory. In todays version of this conspiracy, the major players are as follows: the
banks, the Federal Reserve, the IMF (International Monetary Fund), the World
Bank, the federal government, communism (despite its collapse), the United
Nations, the Trilateral Commission, the ERS, the multinational corporations, the
media, and the worlds Jewish population, which acts through various secret
organizations such as the Illuminati and Freemasons (Dyer 1997: 99).
Activities
What do militia members actually do on a day-to-day basis? How are their beliefs
actualized?
Abanes states early in his book that each group of heavily armed freedom
fighters regularly holds paramilitary training exercises in preparation for what many
patriots see as an inevitable showdown with the regime now controlling the nation
(Abanes 1996: 2). In a later chapter, he lists crimes committed by members of the Militia

28
Movement such as the numerous individuals harassed and intimidated, threatening
phone calls in the night, and the placement of contracts on the lives of judges and law
enforcement personnel (Abanes 1996: 224-227). He also opens American Militias with a
detailed description of the carnage at the scene of the Oklahoma City bombing and warns
that the attack by Timothy McVeigh was merely a precursor to more violence as the end
of the millennium approaches (Abanes 1996: 1).
Kenneth Stem chose to open A Force Upon the Plain in the same manner (Stern
1996: 9). In order to demonstrate the activities of militias, Stern first lists a series of
incidents in which militia members threaten and harass government employees, making it
difficult and sometimes impossible for them to do their jobs (Stern 1996: 94). He later
devotes an entire chapter to the explication of felonies and violent acts which have been
attributed to the Militia Movement (Stern 1996: 251-258).
Violent crimes committed by militiamen are the central focus of Dees work.
He lists several examples of harassment of public officials (Dees 1996: 119-122) and
violent crime (Dees 1996: 209-213). He also takes his readers step-by-step through
Timothy McVeighs evolution from a decorated combat soldier in the U.S. Army to a
terrorist who bombed a Federal Building (Dees 1996: 149).
Joel Dyer gives a little more detail regarding the non-violent behavior of Patriots,
exploring the development of common-law courts and sovereign citizenship. He also
examines the Freemen and the well-known Montana Freemen stand-off with federal
agents. In addition, Dyer describes the Republic of Texas and gives the details of
interviews he held with its members shortly before their encounter with law enforcement

29
(Dyer 1997: 177-190). Finally, Dyers book, much like the others, is interspersed with
lists of violence and felonies committed in the name of the Patriot Movement.
All four of the authors agree that the movement inspires and incites violence. All
agree that the violence thus far is simply a precursor to much greater violence to come.
All agree that there is a spectrum of behaviors ranging from paramilitary training and
terrorism to discussion groups who get together to complain about the government, and
every imaginable behavior in between.
Conclusions
This paper will examine the structural relations between militia activists as well as
those between activists and the general population. This examination will reveal that the
research question (Why did the Militia Movement develop in this time and place?) can be
answered through explication of two facets. The first facet concerns the socioeconomic
factors which have created a pool of potential converts seething with fear and distrust of
the federal government. The second facet concerns the opportunity structure through
which these potential converts eventually become activists in the movement.
The pool of potential militia activists has been created through the confluence of
three primary factors: educational, economic, and political, all interpreted through a
fundamentalist perspective. Current methods used by Americas public education systems
have left many high school and college graduates without the necessary intellectual skills
required for critical thinking. Even many formally educated people today are trained to
think in a dualistic manner, leaving them easy prey for demagoguery and unable to grasp

30
the multi-dimensional complexities of social issues. Economic stressors resulting from
rapid technological change have left many Americans insecure about their economic
future. Many of these people have been so marginalized by economic evolution that they
are incapable of recovering; in turn, they have become resentful, paranoid, and confused.
Governmental corruption and mismanagement have also led to a growing distrust of
federal officials and contempt for their actions.
All of these issues can be interpreted in many ways, and one these is through a
fundamentalist perspective. As will be demonstrated, the fundamental perspective can be
religious, secular, or both. Fundamentalism provides a lens consisting of dualism,
conspiratorialism, and millenialism.
The first facet of the problem can demonstrate why many people resent the
government and would be inclined to oppose it. It fails, however, to explain why most
people do not become militia members. The second facet of the problem, the opportunity
structure, can provide a possible answer.
Without an available opportunity structure activism is unlikely. This is supported
by the Multi-step Mobilization Theory used by Lazardsfeld, Berelson, and Gaudet in
1948 (Lazardsfeld et al 1948). Applying this model to Idaho Christian Patriots, Aho
agrees that individuals are not generally recruited directly by mass appealshandbills,
ads, or pamphletsbut indirectly through their ties with opinion leaders, influential
members of the same local groups as themselves (Aho 1990: 186). This is true of the
Militia Movementeach militia examined in this study had one or two critical members
who knew most of the other members in arenas outside of the militia, such as their

31
churches or places of business. More activists become members after being invited to a
meeting by a friend than by any other recruiting method.
In summary, structural factors related to education, economics, and politics,
interpreted through a fundamentalist perspective, in combination with an available
opportunity structure, have led to the development of the Militia Movement.

CHAPTER 2
SOCIAL CONTEXT
In the last year there literally have been hundreds of earthquakes in
several parts of the United States. They re not even reporting all the earthquakes
that are taking place. .Part of a plan done by the New World Order advocates
many years ago specifically specified that by the year 2000 to maintain proper
control there must be an eradication of billions of people from the face of the
earth in one way shape or manner or another. .It was called the plan 2000. We
have five years and they will be at the 2000 point. . Talking about weather
control. .You can do devastating things worldwide when you control the weather.
-Bob Fletcher, Militia of Montana
spokesman (Stem 1996: 145)
In order to fully understand the rise and growth of the Militia Movement, one must
first understand the social context from which it sprang. This chapter will examine several
crucial aspects of American society which may have affected the Militia Movement, the
militia perceptions of these changes will be reviewed in subsequent chapters. Among
these are changes in the economy which have led to increasing uncertainty and insecurity
among the working and entrepreneurial classes, changes in the academic preparation of
young adults in the public schools, and increasing public awareness of government
corruption and mismanagement. In addition, there has been a rise in fundamentalist
thinking worldwide which provides a unique perspective through which to interpret the
educational, economic, and political factors.
32

33
Economic Factors
Any viable economic system must continually evolve, adapting itself to new
technologies and new situations. The necessity of this change, however, does not mean
that the new forms are equally beneficial to all participants in that economy. Those left
behind by changes in the economy may become insecure about their future, leaving them
resentful, angry, and even violent. This is occurring today in America as technological
advances, corporate restructuring, and the trend toward globalization accelerate the shift
in the American workplace as it changes from a manufacturing- to a service-based system.
This economic insecurity, found in both manufacturing industries and agriculture, cuts
across traditional class lines as workers, managers, and business owners find themselves
unable to adapt.
Manufacturing Industries
The recent changes in Americas economy which have led to insecurity and
underemployment on the part of the industrial work force are primarily caused by
technological advances, the globalization of markets, and increased investment in the
stock market by the middle class.
Increased investment in the stock market, spurred on by the advent of middle-class
participation due to lowered interest rates and mutual funds, has created pressure on
corporations as investors demand increased short-term profits. The demand for short
term profit fuels a drive for heightened efficiency in order to increase the rate of return for
investors. This drive for efficiency has led to two significant types of changes:

34
organizational and technological.
One method utilized by corporations in the quest for increased efficiency is the
development and implementation of continual technological advances, which in turn lead
to changing requirements and decreasing opportunities for labor in the manufacturing
industries. Whereas the primary difference between management and labor was once
mental as opposed to physical work, todays blue-collar worker is now required to have
technical training and skills in order to function. This has led to increased competition
between blue-collar workers, as those few who have the necessary training take higher
paying jobs from those without. It has also created decreased confidence in job security,
according to economists: . recent years have been almost universally characterized as
an era of rapid change. . As change and uncertainty is now endemic in many
organizations and settings, job insecurity is a major cause for concern in the future
(Hartley et al 1991: 199). The technological changes are advancing so rapidly, in fact,
that both vital worker skills and methods of corporate organization of five to ten years ago
are considered obsolete in todays market: Organizations are restructuring, introducing
new technologies, internationalizing their production, experiencing rapid changes in
products, markets and fashions, and providing some employees with less secure
employment (Hartley et al 1991: 200).
Corporate restructuring, or downsizing, has led to two major changes:
outsourcing or subcontracting work and a shift from full-time to part-time employment.
This helps corporations save money by paying fewer or no benefits to their workers
(Feigenbaum 1997: 1). The reduction in the amount of health-care benefits paid by

35
corporations coincided with skyrocketing medical insurance and health care costs. As a
result, many workers today are unable to afford adequate coverage; this further increases
economic and personal insecurity.
Another evolving aspect of the economy contributing to worker insecurity is the
opening of global markets. Treaties, such as the North American Free Trade Agreement
(NAFTA) and the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), coupled with
advances in transportation and communication technologies, have accelerated the trend for
manufacturing companies to shift their factories to Third World countries, which is
advantageous to the corporations in two ways. First, they are able to reduce labor costs
by paying foreign labor substantially lower wages than demanded by American labor.
Second, the corporations locating their factories in foreign countries are not subject to
American laws concerning environmental protection and worker safety, which also
combine to reduce production costs. This results in a further reduction in manufacturing
jobs within the United States and aids in the shift from an industrial- to a service-based
economy.
The drive for technological advances has, on the other hand, led to the
development of new high-tech industries. Although many of these maintain their
manufacturing base in the U.S., the jobs available in these industries tend to be either
high-end or low-end; employees are either very highly paid or paid subsistence wages,
with few or no jobs in the middle.
All of these factors lead, ultimately, to insecurity on the part of the labor force.
One traditional method used by young adults to regain security and remain competitive in

36
the job market is to attend either college or technical school. The result is that America
today has more educated or skilled laborers than ever before, though high-paying
entry-level jobs are at their lowest level of availability. Most of these people, therefore,
are still unable to find employment they consider suitable: Most service industries had
high concentrations of underemployment. . resulting in lower overall earnings and wage
rates, and higher underemployment rates (Sheets et al 1987: 123).
While unemployment is no higher than in the past, underemployment has become endemic.
Agriculture
Corporate restructuring and mergers have also led to significant changes in
agriculture. Farming combines such as Cargill, ConAgra, and Iowa Beef Packers have
obtained a virtual monopoly in agriculture and are squeezing more and more small,
independent farmers out of the market (Dyer 1997: 112). As early as 1980, seven
companies controlled 96 percent of U.S. wheat exports, 95 percent of U.S. corn exports,
90 percent of U.S. oat exports, and 80 percent of all the sorghum leaving the United
States (Gilmore 1982: 24). This emerging monopoly, combined with a 46 percent drop
in crop prices in 1985, rising interest rates during the later 1980s, and the implementation
of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) agreement, led to a massive crisis
among small farmers during the late 1980s which continues unabated to this day (Dyer
1997: 139-145). This farm crisis, long forgotten by many Americans, has led to the loss
of between 700,000 and 1 million small- to medium-sized family farms since 1980"
(Dyer 1997: 15).

37
Social Changes
At the same time that farmers are losing their land, blue-collar workers are losing
their manufacturing jobs, and college graduates are increasingly underemployed, more
efficient manufacturing methods and increased capital investment have made an increasing
number of products available. The increase in products in combination with increasingly
effective mass media and its concomitant advertizing bombardment leads people to desire
more and more items which they do not need. Their inability to afford these luxury
items leads to depression, anger, and resentment towards those who can afford them and
those who produce them (Feigenbaum 1997: 2).
Resentment and depression stem from many other sources as well: Gone are the
old certainties and stabilities of family life, marriage, community, religion and work.
Instead, many people face considerable change and uncertainty in their relationships, in
their place of living, and in their employment (Hartley et al 1991: 200). First and
foremost, though, is the loss of hope that todays young adults will have the same
opportunities as their parents. Most Americans probably shared the expectations of the
Reagan Revolution that the policies of Presidents Reagan and Bush would result in an
expansion of the middle class. However:
While President Reagan presented the nations economy as improving peoples
conditions, facts also pointed at a regression and declining economic strength. (By
1989, income distribution between rich and poor was back to the level it was in
1947). The assumption behind the supply-side approach Reagan advocated did
not materialize, as the supply of goods and services did not result in the anticipated
increased consumption, new markets, and new prosperity (Kiewe & Houck 1991:
224).

38
Summary
In summary, American manufacturing workers and farmers believe they are facing
an insecure future. This insecurity is the result of rapid technological advances, increased
pressure for short-term profits, the accelerating globalization of markets, and the
continuing shift of Americas economy from industrial- to service-based companies.
Insecurity on the part of the middle and lower classes fills many workers with resentment,
frustration, and anger.
Education
Evaluating the effectiveness of an educational system is difficult, if not impossible.
It is almost always controversial. For the purposes of this study, the effectiveness of the
system overall is not as important as the effectiveness of the system today compared with
the same system in the decades prior to the advent of the Militia Movement. Are there
significant changes in the education of American citizens which can help to explain the rise
of this movement?
One possible standard of comparison is the Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT),
administered by the College Entrance Examination Board (CEEB). Scores on the SAT
began dropping yearly in 1963; the pace of the mean scores decline accelerated rapidly
during the 1980s (Sowell 1994: 47).
By 1993, high school seniors were scoring so poorly that most did not qualify for
college admission. Rather than make changes in the educational programs, the solution
offered by CEEB was to modify the scoring process by raising the mean score 110 points

39
on each section, or 220 points overall (Associated Press 1995: A5; Editorial 1994: J4).
This is a clear indication that high school graduates today lack the basic skills in
mathematics, reading, and writing demonstrated by high school graduates of ten years
ago. More than that is implied; since the process of decline began in 1963, it is clear that
the graduates of ten years ago lacked the skills of their predecessors twenty years in the
past.
If high school graduates are entering college with less qualifications than in the
past, are colleges making up for their deficiencies? Not in Florida. Beginning in 1995, the
Board of Regents of the Florida State University System initiated a program designed to
force undergraduate students to rush through college as fast as possible. The core
requirements were altered in such a manner that college graduates no longer receive the
same breadth of courses and exposure to a variety of arts and sciences as students prior to
the changes (Kenyon 1995: 8). Do they get a modified degree? No. Todays graduates
receive the same degree as their more broadly educated predecessors.
Young adults are being forced into the job market with declining academic skills
and with less training and preparation for critical thinking and decision-making than in the
past. This is not to glorify the past and reminisce about a golden age of education which
never existed; it is simply recognition that todays young adults are not as well-educated
as those of yesterday. There are two results of this, one direct and the other indirect.
First, the new graduates are less prepared to compete in todays economy, which leads to
the frustration discussed in the previous section. Second, because graduates are poorly
trained in the sciences and in critical thinking, young adults are more likely to accept

40
demagoguery and less likely to question issues of dogma.
Political Factors
Although the federal government has attempted to control, if not eliminate, the
militias, actions taken by all three branches have had some positive effect on the spread of
the movement. Many law enforcement efforts to gather information on the Militia
Movement and its activists have proven the synthetic conspiracy theorys veracity. For
example, in the eyes of the militiamen, the government is attempting to infiltrate and
destroy them. The fact that the government is actually attempting to infiltrate and destroy
militias makes it difficult to argue with this perception. Other actions demonstrate to the
Far Right that the government is under the control of sinister forces who want total
control of the United States. Finally, some governmental actions have affected the
movement by creating or amplifying divisions between ethnic or social groups within the
population. This section will briefly review some of these actions.
Gun Control
On 30 November 1993, President Clinton enacted the Brady Handgun Violence
Prevention Act (P. L. 103-159), which sought to limit access to handguns and created a
national waiting period between time of purchase and time of acquisition of handguns.
This was followed the next year by the Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act
(P. L. 104-208), signed into law on 30 September 1994. These laws represent the most
recent examples of a trend initiated at the state level to restrict firearms ownership and to

41
reduce access to assault and automatic weapons.
Surveillance of Citizens
In 1995, President Clinton announced the introduction of the Omnibus Anti-
Terrorism Bill (H. R. 1710), which capitalized on the publics fear of domestic terrorism
(Lacayo 1995: 1). This fear was instilled in the public by the bombings of the World
Trade Center and the Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building in Oklahoma City (McGee 1995:
W10). The bill is designed to give federal law enforcement agents increased ability to
monitor private citizens through three primary means: First, the rights of accused criminals
are reduced. Second, law enforcement agents are authorized to search property and
monitor telephone lines without warrants. Finally, law enforcement personnel are
authorized to arrest accused criminals with far less probable cause than previously
required (Matthews 1995: 10). The bill was signed into law on 24 April 1996 and is
designated P. L. 104-132, the Antiterrorism and Effective Death Penalty Act of 1996.
Welfare
Welfare reform has become a significant issue in recent election campaigns.
Politicians, particularly from the Republican Party, are using the issue to gain the support
of increasingly disgruntled middle class taxpayers. The long-term effect of this seems to
be a growing wedge between social classes and racial groups as politicians, such as
Senator Jesse Helms and Speaker of the House Newt Gingrich, speak in public of welfare
queens and freeloaders (King 1995). Former Presidential candidate Pat Buchanan

42
gained support from many on the right wing, including militia members, when he railed
against welfare. This has become such an important issue that the Democratic Party and
President Clinton have jumped on the bandwagon and instituted welfare reform laws.
Affirmative Action
An equally controversial topic is the repeal of Affirmative Action programs.
Portrayed by many Republican politicians as reverse discrimination, Affirmative Action
programs are under attack nationwide. The most notable action on this issue to date was
Proposition 209 in California, which ended racial categories in the state. Minority
admissions to California universities abruptly declined as a result, particularly to law
schools and graduate programs.
This is another topic utilized by North Carolina Senator Jesse Helms to gain
support: In one of his campaigns he used a commercial which shows a white man with a
dismissal slip from his factory. A narrators voice states that the man lost his job and can
no longer support his family because of unfair racial quota laws.
The question of Affirmative Action is stirring up racial animosity which cuts across
socioeconomic class boundaries as a result of demagoguery on both sides of the issue.
Separation of Church and State
Numerous issues have been brought before the public concerning the relationship
between church and state. Among these are abortion rights, prayer in public schools, the
teaching of Biblical Creation in science classes, and the teaching of the Bible in public

43
schools.
In Florida, at least one school district has voted to begin teaching classes about the
Bible in its public school system (Rosza 1997). The head of the local school board insists
that this will be a challenge to the artificial boundary between church and state invented
by liberal secular humanists. The course will teach that the Bible is an authentic and
valid history and will be used to proselytize among students, according to the school
boards spokesman. The spokesman is a member of the American Family Association, a
prominent Christian fundamentalist lobbying organization.
Several state legislators in Florida have attempted to instate policies which will, in
effect, make Christian doctrine part of states educational program. Among these
legislators is Dan Miller, who opposes any federal educational guidelines and supports
local control of the curriculum (White 1997). At a meeting of Christian activists, Miller
promised to support them in their battle to teach Creationism instead of evolutionary
theory.
Another relevant issue in Florida is the repeated attempt by the Legislature to
mandate, or at least permit, Christian prayer in public schools (Kaplow 1997). Bills
concerning this issue are introduced into the Legislature annually. Usually defeated by
narrow margins, they are immediately invalidated by the judiciary as unconstitutional on
those occasions when they are approved.
Perhaps the most divisive issue in the church/state arena is that of abortion rights.
Recent Supreme Court decisions upholding the rights of women to abort their fetuses
have enraged the pro-life movement. Some have responded with violence directed at

44
clinics which provide abortions and the doctors who perform them. The Christian
Coalition, a leader in the anti-abortion movement, has recently adopted a new tactic for
reducing the right to abortions: The Coalitions executive director, Ralph Reed,
determinedly surfed the mainstream, to use his term, by suggesting that the GOP should
not press for a constitutional ban on abortion, but instead should seek incremental legal
steps to change abortion policies (The Christian Century 1996). This reflects Reeds
extremely successful stealth candidate policies to gain control of school boards at local
levels. Use of these tactics has enabled the Christian Coalition to change political systems
from the bottom up rather than the reverse.
Vietnam/Gulf War Veterans
Many veterans of the Vietnam War returned home to face a populace that did not
support them and factions which actively opposed them. They were the first American
soldiers to lose a war, despite the fact that they were far better equipped and armed than
their adversaries. This has led many Vietnam veterans to conclude that they were sold
out by Americas political leaders who would not let us win the war. Lack of support
and adequate leadership during the war, abuse from citizens upon their return, and
inadequate medical care from the Veterans Administration in the intervening years has
created a pool of resentment toward the federal government among many Vietnam
veterans.
Veterans of the Gulf War have also become resentful of their government. Sent
overseas with the apparently overwhelming support of their peers and government, the

45
veterans returned home to face a mysterious array of illnesses designated Gulf War
Syndrome. The federal government and its Veteran's Administration have denied the
existence of such a condition, claiming that the veterans' health problems are coincidental.
When Congress investigated the Department of Defense to determine if chemical weapons
were used against American soldiers, it was revealed that the Pentagon lost or misplaced
its logs for the very days which veterans insist that chemical exposure occurred.
Most of these veterans were not Regular Army soldiers; they were Reservists and
National Guardsmen who left their homes and careers behind to do their duty, with the
promise that they would be compensated and cared for if they incurred injury. Their belief
that this promise was broken by the federal government has created a deep sense of anger
and resentment among many Gulf War veterans.
The Farm Crisis
During the 1970s the Department of Agriculture began advising independent
farmers to expand their farms, to take out huge loans to purchase more land and modern
equipment: The rate of inflation was running several percentage points above interest
rates, so banks and government lenders, such as the Farm Home Administration (FmHA),
were encouraging farmers to borrow as much money as possible (Dyer 1997: 15).
In 1979 the Chairman of the Federal Reserve, Paul Volcker, raised interest rates in order
to slow inflation. As a result, property values collapsed at the same time the interest
rates on the farmers loans climbed out of sight (Dyer 1997: 15). This led to a massive
crisis in which farmers lost property which, for many, had been in their family for

46
generations.
At the same time, a small coterie of agricultural conglomerates such as ConAgra
and Cargill, in order to consolidate farms and increase their holdings, began paying
farmers less money for their crops than it cost the farmers to grow them. This practice is a
flagrant violation of both the Clayton and Sherman Anti-Trust Acts, the Packers and
Stockyards Act, and the Robinson-Patman Act. Violations of these laws have enabled the
conglomerates to control the industry and drive independent farmers from their land.
The federal government has failed to enforce its own laws regarding these matters.
Lobbyists from Cargill, Continental, ConAgra, Archer Daniels Midland, and the rest
have determined the policies of both Congress and the Department of Agriculture for
years (Dyer 1997: 119). The monopolization of agriculture has continued unabated;
coincidentally, the multi-national agricultural corporations are also substantial contributors
to Congressional and Presidential election campaigns.
This has created enormous desperation, fear, anger, and resentment among
farmers. Midwestern farmers are committing suicide at a far higher rate then the general
population (Dyer 1997: 32-33). They blame the government for their plight, and with
good cause. These farmers do not need an elaborate conspiracy theory to explain what
was done to themthey need only look at the reality of their lives. Whether through intent
or incompetence, the federal government has permitted well over a million farming
families to lose their property and their way of life (Dyer 1997: 15).

47
Corruption
The term corruption is relatively broad and ambiguous when applied to political
matters. It is used to describe both specific illegal acts and business as usual political
behavior. In the context of this study, corruption applies to the trading ofpolitical favors
for money or status by government officials. The term is applied here to illegal and
secretive bribes, legal or quasi-legal campaign contributions, or even gifts, which tend to
result in laws which benefit a select few to the detriment of the population at large or in
the selective enforcement of laws.
Corruption is a reality in government, but as far as this study is concerned what is
vitally important is the perception of corruption, rather than the documentation of actual
illegal or immoral acts. According to Frank Anechiarico: Corruption is a problem and
corruption control a constant challenge for all governments. Corruption undermines
citizens confidence in and commitment to the commonweal and can even destroy the
legitimacy of the political system (Anachiarico & Jacobs 1996: xiii). This loss of
confidence in government has become endemic among most Americans. Norman Ornstein
wrote in 1993, one year after the birth of the Militia Movement, that ABC News asked
voters in mid-1992, Do you think the overall level of ethics and honesty in politics has
risen, fallen, or stayed the same during the past ten years? A full 60 percent said it had
fallen; only 9 percent believed it had risen (Ornstein 1993: 7). This is echoed in another
series of polls:
The most disturbing trend in American public life today is found in the answers to
a poll question asked regularly by the Roper organization: Do you think you can
trust the government in Washington to do what is right most of the time? In 1964,

48
76 percent of Americans polled answered yes. Today, that number has plunged to
an abysmal 19 percent (Sabato & Simpson 1996: ix).
It is not surprising that Americans are losing confidence in the integrity of their
elected officials; after all, we have a Senate which has refused to expel a single member
since the Civil War, over 130 years ago, regardless of misbehavior or misconduct (Dewar
1995: v). Further, Time recently reported that twenty-three U.S. Army Generals have
been accused of criminal activities since 1995. Of these, not a single officer was tried in
court; all twenty-three were allowed to retire with full pay and benefits. Actions such as
these demonstrate to a suspicious public that high-level government officials are free to
disregard the laws of the land {Time 1998:8).
Americans are not only losing confidence for general reasons. They see specific
acts in which government officials show marked favoritism to wealthy or high-status
constituents. For example, studies indicate that white-collar crime causes far more
damage to society than street crime:
The economic losses suffered by consumers and government as a result of
corporate crime. . dwarfed the losses taken from street crime victims by the
nations car thieves, burglars and robbers. As for physical hazards. . far more
persons are killed through corporate criminal activities than by individual criminal
homicides (Burnham 1996: 212).
Despite this fact, the Department of Justice rarely prosecutes white-collar criminals.
According to researcher David Burnham: The record is clear. Political campaign
contributions, personal bribes and other direct and indirect favors have frequently
influenced important Justice Department decisions about the enforcement of law
(Burnham 1996: 233). This does not go unnoticed by members of society who are not so

49
well connected.
Certain major scandals have rocked American government and demonstrated
clearly to the American public that its leaders are exempt from the very laws that they
create, enforce, and judge. The most recent significant disclosures revolved around the
collapse of several savings and loan associations, of which researchers have stated:
Political corruption was at the very heart of the thrift debacle (Calavita et al 1997: 86).
Despite illegal and quasi-legal actions on the part of elected officials costing taxpayers
millions of dollars, not a single Senator or Congressman was charged with a crime.
Whether governmental corruption has actually increased or whether corruption is
simply being reported more frequently is a debatable point. What is clear, however, is that
the American public is growing increasingly concerned about the corruption. Citizens are
becoming distrustful and, some have become contemptuous to the point of insurrection.
Fundamentalism
Since the 1970s there has been a marked increase in fundamentalist thinking and
religious practice worldwide (Caplan 1987: 5-6). Although the term fundamentalism
was first applied to a specific religious movement within American Christianity, cross-
cultural studies have expanded the usage. According to Lionel Caplan, fundamentalism
may refer equally to militantly orthodox sections within the Jewish population in Israel,
separatist and nationalist elements in the Sikh community, Tamil liberation movements in
Sri Lanka, or Hindu groups opposed to foreign missionary influences in India (Caplan
1987: 1). Other scholars agree with Caplan and have attempted to delineate the specific

50
factors of a belief system which can be used to classify systems as fundamentalist.
A five-year study commissioned by the American Academy of Arts and Sciences,
The Fundamentalism Project, initially describes fundamentalism in terms of conflict.
According to the authors, the conflicts of fundamentalists include five distinct aspects of
fighting. First, they fight back: fundamentalists begin as traditionalists who perceive
some challenge or threat to their core identity, both social and personal. .They react, they
fight back with great innovative power. Second, they fight for. What they fight for
begins with a worldview they have inherited or adopted and which they constantly
reinforce. Third, they fight with'. Fundamentalists fight with a particularly chosen
repository of resources which one might think of as weapons. Fourth, they fight, against:
Fundamentalists also fight against others. These may be generalized or specific enemies,
but in all cases, whether they come from without or within the groups, they are the agents
of assault on all that is held dear. Finally, they fight under God in the case of theistic
religions. . Particularly potent are those fundamentalisms whose participants are
convinced that they are called to carry out Gods or Allahs purposes against challengers
(Marty & Appleby 1991; Vol.l: ix-x).
The final volume of The Fundamentalist Project lists five ideological
characteristics of fundamentalism. The first of these is reactivity to the marginalization of
religion: to qualify as genuine fundamentalism in our understanding, a movement must be
concerned first with the erosion of religion and its proper role in society. The second is
selectivity. Fundamentalists select specific aspects of traditions to defend, specific aspects
of modernity to embrace, and specific aspects of modernity to oppose. Next is a

51
dualistic orManichean worldview. . in which reality is considered to be
uncompromisingly divided into light, which is identified with the world of the spirit and of
the good, and darkness, which is identified with matter and evil. Fourth is absolutism
and inerrancy. They steadfastly oppose hermeneutical methods developed by secularized
philosophers or critics. . fundamentalists employ their own distinctive strategies of
interpretation, including hardened and updated traditional approaches, designed in part
to reify and preserve the absolutist character of the sacred text or tradition. The final
ideological characteristic is millenialism and messianism. History has a miraculous
culmination. The good will triumph over evil (Marty & Appleby 1991; Vol.5: 405-407).
Other scholars have taken differing approaches to the study of fundamentalism.
Mortimer Ostow, for example, examined fundamentalists from a psychological
perspective. He concluded, among other things, that:
. .fundamentalism may be described as a derivative of apocalyptic thinking, in
which the destructive phase consists of condemnation and rejection of the outside
world and the rebirth phase consists of reorganization into an egalitarian, populist,
fraternal community inspired by a charismatic leader. . Individual or group
discontent. . frequently challenges self-love and self-esteem. The discontent
initiates a tendency to seek relief by invoking an illusion that the real present can
be overcome, rejected, destroyed, and replaced by a reborn world (Cohen 1990:
124).
Richard Hofstadter also studied fundamentalism and its effects. He concluded that
fundamentalism is at the core of most movements of projective politics, and that the
phenomenon has three distinct features: dualism, conspiratorialism, and millenialism
(Hofstadter 1962).

52
For the purposes of this study, the key elements of fundamentalism are the
conspiratorialism described by Hofstadter and the dualism and millenarianism described by
Hofstadter and The Fundamentalist Project. Additionally, The Fundamentalist Project's
conceptualization of perpetual conflict is vital to understanding the Militia Movement.
The Patriot Movement and the Far Right
As stated previously, the Militia Movement can be classified as a relatively recent
development, a smaller, subordinate element of the larger and pre-existing Patriot
Movement. The Patriot Movement encompasses a variety of Far Right concerns,
including the Christian Identity sect, the common-law court system, and several white
supremacist organization. This section will explore some of the Patriot elements which
were influential in the formation of the Militia Movement.
Identity Christianity
Christian Identity is a religious sect relatively unknown outside of the western
states in which it thrives. There is no central body for either doctrinal dissemination or
control, but a number of small, rival churches. The largest and most powerful of these is
the Church of Jesus Christ Christian, led by Richard Butler of Hayden Lake, Idaho. The
Church of Jesus Christ Christian is the religious body of the Aryan Nations, a militant
white supremacist group with members nationwide but headquartered in a compound in
Idaho.
The central precept of Identity is that the Aryan or white race is the group

53
actually referred to in the Bible as the Israelites, Gods chosen people. Over time, the
nefarious Jews have manipulated societies worldwide and insinuated themselves into this
role. In reality, according to Identity doctrine, all people alive today are either
descendants of Adam or of the pre-Adamic race. Africans, of course, are the pre-
Adamites and are therefore not truly human. Of the descendants of Adam there are two
divisionsJews and Aryans.
The true humans, Gods chosen, are white. Whites are the offspring of Adam
and Eve after they were expelled from the Garden of Eden. Jews, on the other hand, are
the offspring of Satan. In Identity doctrine, the story of Eves temptation by Satan is a
euphemism; what really happened was that Satan entered the Garden, raped Eve, and
impregnated her with his spawn, Cain. Cain, of course, was the first murderer of the first
true Israelite, Abel. All of history since the Garden of Eden has been a constant struggle
between the children of God (whites) and the children of Satan (Jews). The children of
Satan have enlisted the proto human blacks as their foot soldiers, as cannon fodder in
the battle for ascendancy.
Identity adherents believe, therefore, that it is their duty to God to destroy the
seedline of Satan in the final battle of Armageddon, and members are expected to own and
become proficient in the use of firearms in support of this goal. The Identity leader
Richard Butler and his second-in-command Louis Beam were key organizers of the Rocky
Mountain Rendezvous and were instrumental in the birth of the Militia Movement.
The belief that history has been guided by the forces of good in opposition to the
forces of evil, and that there are real entities behind these forces, indicates the

54
conspiratorial nature of the belief system. The expectation of a final battle at the end of
history demonstrates that the sect is millenarian. Finally, the belief in absolute good,
represented by Aryans, and absolute evil, represented by Jews, shows that Identity
doctrine is dualistic in nature.
For a more thorough examination of the Christian Identity movement, readers are
referred to Michael Barkuns Religion and the Racist Right (Barkun 1997).
The Liberty Lobby
The Liberty Lobby is a right-wing organization founded in 1955 by former John
Birch Society member Willis Carto (Schwartz 1996: 252). The Liberty Lobby has been a
major influence on Far Right politics, particularly since the 1980s. The organization
publicizes its radical anti-Semitic beliefs through a weekly newspaper, The Spotlight, as
well as through the broadcast of a radio talk show, Radio Free America. In addition, the
Liberty Lobby publishes the journal of a subsidiary organization, the Institute for
Historical Review, a pseudo-academic group which argues that the Holocaust is a fraud
perpetrated by Jews in order to gain money and sympathy. The Spotlight has become the
most widely circulated and cited source of information in the entire Militia Movement.
Common-Law Courts
Another element of the Patriot Movement is the common-law court system.
Adherents of this system believe that English Common Law is the actual basis of all
legitimate legal systems, and that the federal government is operating without lawful

55
authority. They believe that the Magna Carta and other documents provide for a system
of citizen-controlled courts which can issue warrants Judge cases, and dispense justice
(usually in the form of death sentences). Common law, in their view, applies to sovereign
citizens, or true Americans who have renounced affiliation with the pretenders in
Washington who have usurped the government. They believe that all federal law
enforcement is illegal, and that the highest legal authority rests with county sheriffs.
In practice, the common-law court movement has led adherents to file false liens
against government officials, liens which have destroyed credit and created legal
nightmares in several counties. Followers refuse to use drivers licenses, to pay taxes, to
use license plates on their vehicles, or to respond to the census. While most of this
activity has occurred in western states, the movement has recently gained converts in
Florida.
The Turner Diaries
The most important single document in the Patriot Movement is the novel 'The
Turner Diaries, written by Dr. William Pierce of the National Alliance. The National
Alliance is a white supremacist organization currently headquartered in West Virginia
(Roy 1996: 37). The Turner Diaries relates the story of a soldier in a revolutionary cell
engaged in a guerilla war of liberation against the Zionist Occupation Government
which is secretly controlling the United States. The guerillas use terrorism, torture, and
bombings in order to further their cause, and fund their operations through theft.

56
The book inspired a violent crime spree during the 1980s; the organization which
committed these crimes, The Order, actually took its name from the novel. During the
1990s, The Turner Diaries became the favored reading material of Timothy McVeigh,
who duplicated an incident from the novel when he bombed the Federal Building in
Oklahoma City. It has virtually become required reading for militia activists.
Summary
There is no single factor which can be said to have caused the development of
the Militia Movement. Social behavior is too complex and society too intertwined for
such a reductionist explanation. Various aspects of a culture, though, can contribute to
the rise of social movements, and this is certainly the case with the militias. All of the
previously discussed factors, the pre-existing Patriot Movement, the rise of
fundamentalism, awareness of governmental corruption and incompetence, declining
educational standards, and the changing economy in America have all contributed in one
way or another to the Militia Movement. The contributions of each of these cultural
facets will be explored in the chapters that follow.

CHAPTER 3
METHODS
It is easy to go down into Hell; night and day, the gates of dark Death
stand wide; but to climb back again, to retrace ones steps to the upper air
theres the rub, the task.
-Virgil
Data for this study were collected through a variety of means, including
ethnography and participant-observation, ethnographic interviews, document analysis, and
correspondence. Each of these methods will be discussed below.
Ethnography/Participant Observation
The most useful method employed for data collection in this study was participant-
observation and ethnography. Participant-observation is the primary anthropological
method for the collection of qualitative data, and provides a conceptual framework for
the elicitation and study of indigenous categories. Participant-observation is a global
conception on the use of culturally and linguistically sensitive categories and interactions
with the members of a society (Herdt and Boxer 1991: 172). It is participant-observation
which permits the anthropologist to understand both the etic and the emic perspectives of
the subject population, to gain insights into the subjects view of him or herself (Harris
1991: 20). According to Heather Hall, ethnography is a method for the description of
57

58
culture and has the primary goal of understanding the diversity of interpretation of
experience as it is perceived by other people (Hall 1996: 21). It is a process of study in
which the researcher discovers varying perceptions and interpretations of reality through
the voice of the participant (Spradley 1979: 3).
From March through November 1995, ethnographic data were collected from the
North Central Florida Regional Militia, through participation in weekly meetings and
through three episodes of participation in field training (Akins 1995: 14).
Data concerning the National Association for the Advancement of White Peoples
Spartan Legion were collected from April 1996 through November 1997. This included
attendance at biweekly field training and meetings, multiple social events (both formal and
spontaneous), five rallies or protests, the NAAWPs Second Annual White Rights Rally,
and attendance at allied groups events, including a Ku Klux Klan Naturalization
Ceremony. At all of these functions, I participated as a member. I joined the NAAWP
Spartan Legion Militia in May 1996 and served as an officer of the organization from July
1996 until July 1997, and continued to associate with members on a social basis until
November 1997.
The Ku Klux Klan group affiliated with the NAAWP was the Templar Knights of
the Ku Klux Klan from Port St. Lucie, Florida; ethnographic data were collected from this
group at a Naturalization Ceremony, two Klan rallies in White City, and three social
gatherings.
Contact was made at one of the Klan rallies with members of the World Church of
the Creators White Berets Militia. Data were collected from this group at two social

59
gatherings, one Klan rally in which they participated, a protest, one weekend of field
training, and a camping trip with several members. I joined this group and served as a
member from October 1996 through June 1997.
The final group from which ethnographic data were collected in significant
quantity was the Congress of Florida Militias, centered in and around Winter Haven. Data
from this group were collected at two social gatherings, a White Rights Rally, a Militia
Day function, and repeated attendance at a church in Tampa which is organized around
the Patriot Movement.
Interviews
Ethnographic interviews differ from sociological or psychological interviews in
their range and depth. The ethnographic interview is designed to flow like a casual
conversation, so that this form of interview leads to a more relaxed and open exchange.
This semi-structured interview incorporates open-ended questions in order to facilitate
interactive conversation, which will ultimately lead to a better understanding of the
cultural reality through the more thoroughly detailed and explicit explanations acquired
(Hall 1996: 25).
The ethnographic interview does use a standardized format of questions, but the
questions are not designed to glean yes or no answers. The format is constantly
updated and revised with the accumulation of new data and insights, which frequently lead
to unsuspected research topics. One potential problem with this method is that it can
complicate comparative statements between subjects because new questions and topics

60
appear in later interviews which were not present earlier in the study.
During the period March through November 1995, ethnographic interviews were
conducted with the official spokesman of the NCFRM, as well as with five rank-and-file
members (Akins 1995: 14).
Between April 1996 and November 1997 ethnographic interviews were conducted
with David Duke, the founder, Paul Allen, the current President, and Dan Daniels, the
Field Commander of the NAAWP. Additional interviews were conducted with four of the
Spartan Legion officers and four of the NAAWP Jacksonvilles local leaders. Further
interviews were conducted with eleven rank-and-file members.
The Templar Knights of the Ku Klux Klan provided three ethnographic interviews,
one with the leader of the Klavern, one with a rank-and-file male member, and the last
with the first woman initiated into this Klan.
Interviews were conducted with three members of the WCOTC; one with a
Reverend in the Church, one with the leader of the West Palm Beach White Berets, and
one with a rank-and-file member of the White Berets.
Finally, interviews were conducted with four members of the Congress of Florida
Militias. One was conducted over three sessions with Shelton Sizemore, a prominent
leader of the movement in Florida. Another brief telephone interview was conducted with
Mark Cody, the founder and leader of the Congress and author of its principle documents;
the other two were with two rank-and-file members from Winter Haven.

61
Document Analysis
Much of the communication between different factions of the Militia Movement is
conducted through the US. Postal Service, as is the communication between the
movements leaders and followers. It is important, therefore, to gain access to this flux of
mail, which includes newspapers, tabloids, newsletters, fliers, and magazines.
Study of each piece of mail can be tedious; it can also be rewarding. Not only can
one glean the obvious data, such as ideology and scheduling, but one gains access to the
letters written to editors by individual members. Further, a network can be traced by
examination of advertisements for various groups in the circulars of other groups. During
the period of study, mail was received from the list of groups appearing in Appendix C.
By July of 1996 each days post carried an average of 12 varied pieces of mail.
While studying the NCFRM in 1995, circulars, fliers, underground newspapers,
personal notes, and other unofficial documents were provided by a number of members.
In addition, the units spokesman also provided a plethora of official doctrinal and
publicity statements (Akins 1995: 14).
The NAAWPs militia members receive two newspapers monthly. The first,
NAAWP News, is published in New Orleans by Paul Allen and sent to all NAAWP
members. The second, The Eagle Forum: NAA WP Battleground, is published in Winter
Haven by Dan Daniels, circulation was limited to militia members. In addition to these
two newspapers, most of the local NAAWP groups publish a monthly newsletter. These
were collected from the Tampa, Winter Haven, and Jacksonville NAAWP groups. Finally,
as part of my duties while serving in the Spartan Legion Militia, I gained access to

62
enrollment records, training plans and reports, telephone lists, and mailing lists.
The Ku Klux Klan publishes a number of newspapers and newsletters. Among
these, The White Patriot and The Kourier stand out because of their wide circulation and
comprehensive listing of events; subscriptions to both were obtained in May 1996 and
continue to the present.
The WCOTC publishes a monthly tabloid, The Struggle, which was received from
July 1996 through July 1997. In addition, anyone on their mailing list receives two to four
additional mailings monthly; most of these are announcements of upcoming events,
solicitations for funds, or announcements calling the followers attention to current events
of note.
No list of militia publications would be complete without mention of Dr. William
Pierces The Turner Diaries or The Spotlight, a publication of The Liberty Lobby. The
Turner Diaries is a novel written during the 1970s which details a militia-like guerilla war
conducted by white patriots against the increasingly oppressive Federal government. It
is widely circulated at gun shows and Preparedness Expos, and was the favorite book of
convicted Oklahoma City bomber Timothy McVeigh. The most widely disseminated,
widely cited, and widely discussed document in the entire movement, however, is The
Spotlight. It captures the spirit of conspiracy theory, renders the theories into language
anyone can comprehend, and ties the general, abstract aspect of the theories into concrete,
real-life details. It lists events, advertises organizations, books, and videos. The Liberty
Lobby sells its mailing lists to other patriotic groups, which helps weave the
communications web tighter and tighter.

63
Correspondence
Because the Patriot Movement is so dispersed geographically, it is all but
impossible to collect significant ethnographic data from each and every unit. Further,
most of the units will break up within 18 months of their founding, and either evolve into
something new, merge with another group, or split into two or more new groups. It is
more practical, therefore, to communicate with large numbers of people through
correspondence. This permits the researcher to take time preparing questions, and permits
the informant to think about and fully answer the question (or to decline answering, which
was not uncommon). Data collected through correspondence were not as in-depth, and
lacked the qualitative aspects of interviews or participant-observation. They did, however,
provide an opportunity to gather additional data.
During the period January 1995 through November 1997, correspondence was
conducted on a regular basis with one member of the NCFRM, four leaders of the
NAAWP, a leader of the WCOTC, and a leader of the TK7KKK.
Furthermore, isolated or sporadic correspondence occurred with a second member
of the NCFRM, two members of the NAAWP, a leader of the WCOTC, two members of
the Congress of Florida Militias, and a wide range of leaders and members of militias
throughout both Florida and the entire United States.
Internet
It is impossible to overstate the importance of the Internet to the Patriot
Movement. The Internet has become the primary means of communication between

64
militias, and the primary source for the formulation and dissemination of movement
ideology. Militia ideology is disseminated through home pages, chat lines, and BBSs. A
partial listing of relevant home pages is found in Appendix D.
Data were downloaded from the Internet on a regular basis. This was the result of
monthly monitoring of a list of websites, occasional visits to chat rooms, and weekly
monitoring of BBSs.

CHAPTER 4
MILITIAS IN FLORIDA
We must secure the existence of our people and a future for white
children.
-Fourteen Words; David
Lane (Schwartz 1996:66)
According to the Klanwatch Project of the Southern Poverty Law Center militias
first began appearing in Florida in early 1994 (Wood 1997:1). During the last few months
of 1994 and early 1995, several of the new militias began banding together for
informational and logistical support and held a series of meetings which they designated
the Congresses of Florida Militias. These were held in Winter Haven and sponsored by
the Central Florida Militia Association.
During 1995 and 1996 the militias began attracting the attention of both the public
and of law enforcement. There were several arrests of militiamen in Florida. Some of
these arrests were for robberies of banks and businesses, others for vandalism, assault, and
murder. Still others involved the harassment of government officials. The movement has
grown so rapidly in Florida that by the end of 1996 there were at least seventy-two
separate and distinct militias of varying size operating within the state (Klanwatch 1997:
21-22).
65

66
The militias in Florida are similar to each other in many aspects. They all subscribe
to the New World Order conspiracy theory developed at the Rocky Mountain Rendezvous
and communicate via Internet, mail, and social connections. The primary difference
between the militias in Florida is in their attitudes and beliefs concerning racial and ethnic
minorities, and they can therefore be classified by their position on an ideological spectrum
with violent white supremacists on one end and integrated militias unconcerned with
racism on the other end.
In order to understand the variety that exists within the Militia Movement in
Florida, five specific militias have been selected for close examination in this paper. These
groups range from the racist and violent White Berets Militia of the World Church of the
Creator (WCOTC), through the Templar Knights of the Ku Klux Klan (TK/KKK) and the
National Association for the Advancement of White People (NAAWP), all the way to the
North Central Florida Regional Militia (NCFRM) and the racially inclusive Central Florida
Militia Association (CFMA).
This chapter will serve as an introduction to each group by briefly describing the
salient features of each militia in question; subsequent chapters will examine them in
greater detail in order to examine the crucial factors which will aid in answering the
research question.
World Church of the Creator: The White Berets
The West Palm Beach area of Florida is home to the local chapter of the World
Church of the Creator, a skinhead organization which sponsors its own militia. This

67
militia is known as the White Berets, and its members have been repeatedly arrested on
charges of vandalism, assault, and harassment. They are armed with standardized
handguns supplemented by an assortment of rifles, shotguns, and, allegedly, at least one
automatic weapon.
For those readers unfamiliar with the phenomenon, skinheads are young men (and,
rarely, women) between thirteen and twenty-five years of age who shave their heads as a
symbol of group unity. They typically congregate in gangs or clubs and have a history
of violence. There is no central leadership, and skinhead gangs have recently been
targeted for recruitment by such groups as the National Alliance, the Aryan Nations, and
the Nationalist Movement who see the energy and youth of skinheads as a resource for the
future (Schwartz 1996: 277). White Berets militiamen wear the standard skinhead
uniform: white or black T-shirts with racist slogans, red suspenders, and black combat
boots with white laces.
The WCOTC is a relatively new organization, built upon the ruins of former
Florida legislator Ben Klassens Church of the Creator which gradually collapsed between
1993 and 1996 following Klassens suicide and several devastating lawsuits initiated by
the Southern Poverty Law Center. According to the Anti-Defamation League, at its peak
between 1989 and 1992 the Church of the Creator. . was one of the most violent
organizations on the radical right (Schwartz 1996: 198).
Matt Hale, currently a law student at the Southern Illinois University, took the
reins of the Church in 1995 (Nailen 1996: 9). In 1996 he changed the name by adding
World and began re-asserting control of the local chapters. Hale reorganized the

68
WCOTC into five branch offices which serve as intermediates between the national office
and the local groups.
The West Palm Beach chapter serves as both a local group and the Southeast
Regional Branch office. It is headed by the Reverend Guy Lombardi. Lombardis
assistant, Thomas South, leads the White Berets Militia for the branch. Souths Berets
have a training compound near Tampa, built upon the farm of a members family. This
compound has an obstacle course, firing range, and wooded training area.
Members of the WCOTC, or Creators, absolutely reject Christianity, calling it a
slave religion which aids in the domination of the white race by Jews. The founder, Ben
Klassen, explained this philosophy in his 1981 White Mans Bible:
Yes, it was the eternal parasite upon the back of mankind, the Jew, who wrote the
White Mans so called Holy Book, invented his religion for him, disseminated
and propagated it first among the Romans, and now has poisoned the White Mans
mind with this primitive, poisonous superstition in order to control his mind,
control his destiny, and to destroy the great White Race itself (Klassen 1981: 301 -
302).
Klassen called for a new religion, Creativity, based on race, built upon facts
determined through reason and the study of history. Creators believe that each race has
its own distinctive nature and that combining or mixing these natures is disastrous. They
believe that America is on the verge of a race war which they eagerly anticipate. The
groups motto is RAHOWA, an acronym for racial holy war. The WCOTC Creed
states that What is good for the White Race is the highest virtue; what is bad for the
White Race is the ultimate sin (Klassen 1981: 11). Of all the militias within Floridas
borders, the White Berets appear the be the most violent racists and anti-Semites.

69
Members have been charged repeatedly for attacks on minorities, they wear swastika and
SS tattoos, and boycott minority-owned businesses.
Templar Knights of the Ku Klux Klan
The TK/KKK are located in Port St. Lucie and lead by J. D. Alder, who has
recently become familiar to many Americans through frequent appearances on The Jerry
Springer Show, a daytime television talk show. The TK/KKK is an independent Klan unit,
owing no allegiance to any national-level organization. Alder is in close contact with
other notable Klan leaders, however, as well as other groups such as the NAAWP, the
National Socialist White Peoples Party (NSWPP), the National Alliance, and the
Nationalist Movement.
Although some of Alders followers have been arrested for vandalism and
harassment, the primary activity of his group seems to be seeking publicity. As mentioned
previously, he is a frequent guest of The Jerry Springer Show and has also appeared on
talk shows hosted by Geraldo Rivera, Montel Williams, and Sally Jesse Raphael. The
Klavem, or local group, hosts two annual events: The White Khristmas in the Park and
the White Pride Day. Both of these events are held in White City Park. Alder invites as
many members of the press as he can contact to his events and appears on television news
shows throughout Florida each year. Whenever possible, the TK/KKK also bums crosses
at its ceremonies.
Alders Klavem was selected for examination in this project because Alder has
formed his group into a militia, adopted standard militia rhetoric, and abandoned as

70
useless and ineffective old-style Klan doctrine. Although the beliefs and rhetoric of the
TK/KKK is clearly of a racist and anti-Semitic nature, members only occasionally act upon
these beliefs in any practical or violent manner.
NAAWP: The Spartan Legion Militia
The National Association for the Advancement of White People (NAAWP) is a
national organization founded by David Duke and currently headed by Paul Allen. It is
headquartered in New Orleans, Louisiana. It has chapters in several states including
Florida. Until his recent replacement by Ray Thomas of Tampa, the Florida chapters were
under the leadership of Dan Daniels of Winter Haven. Daniels also founded and
commanded the Spartan Legion Militia, the paramilitary wing of the NAAWP.
Florida is home to fifteen local NAAWP chapters which sponsor four significant
units of the Spartan Legion. One of these units is the NAAWPs airborne unit which
practices skydiving and airmobile operations from its base in the Eagle Lake/Winter
Haven area. The Spartan Legion in Florida was an original member of the Central Florida
Militia Association (CFMA) and a participant in the Congress of Florida Militias. In 1995
the Spartan Legion was cast out of the CFMA because of its racist and anti-Semitic
orientation.
The largest NAAWP chapter in Florida is the Jacksonville group which carries
eighty-five members on its rolls, including twenty members of its Spartan Legion unit.
Jacksonville members attend all public meetings of the city government and avidly speak
out on several issues. They have also gained media attention with several incidents. One

71
of these was the attempt to get the citys tourism department to sponsor and promote the
Third Annual White Rights Rally. The city, of course, refused; NAAWP members
protested and threatened to file suit in court. In another incident, a newspaper reported
that the NAAWP was maintaining their telephone hotline, complete with racist and anti-
Semitic messages, on the property of a local school without the schools knowledge or
permission.
Although several members have police records and some have served time in either
jail or prison, none have been charged with any crimes related to their involvement with
the NAAWP. The public face of the NAAWP is not clearly racist. The organization
claims to be concerned with white heritage and correcting the excesses of reverse
discrimination which stem from Affirmative Action programs. In reality, it will be
demonstrated, the NAAWP is both racist and anti-Semitic, as are its members.
North Central Florida Regional Militia
In 1994 a splinter group from the Bradford County Militia formed the North
Central Florida Regional Militia (NCFRM) in Gainesville. The NCFRM is organized in
membership circles, with the leaders and most militant members in the inner circle. The
inner circle is surrounded by active paramilitary members, in turn surrounded by members
who regularly attend the open and public discussion meetings. The outer circle is
composed of sympathizers and friends who occasionally attend the public meetings.
The NCFRM is composed of University of Florida faculty and staff, local
businessmen, farmers, and blue- and white-collar workers. Several members are also

72
jointly enrolled in another organization, Jews for the Preservation of Firearms Ownership
(JPFO) which teaches that if Jews had been armed and organized the Holocaust could not
have occurred. The NCFRM is also a member of the Central Florida Militia Association
(CFMA) and participated in the Congresses of Florida Militias.
The NCFRM professes to be all-inclusive and tolerant, actively seeking minority
members. Several members of the outer circles are reported to be Jewish, and other
minorities have been observed at public meetings. However, the groups primary
published source of information is the Liberty Lobbys Spotlight, referred to by the Anti-
Defamation League as the most anti-Semitic publication in America today.
Central Florida Militia Association
The CFMA is an umbrella organization founded by Mark Cody in 1994. The
Association has seventeen member units which operate independently but share
information and consult on tactics and strategy (Daniels 1997b: 2). The annual Congress
of Florida Militias (CFM) is sponsored by the CFMA; this is a gathering in which member
units discuss and agree on policies and doctrines.
The CFMA claims to be racially inclusive. One of the platforms members must
swear to, in fact, is support for Israel. Members are generally devoutly religious and in
opposition to most aspects of modernity, including abortion, homosexuality, evolutionary
theory, and drugs. They teach that in order to effectively fight the enemy members must
put aside their differences and seek the aid of men, women, children, minorities, non-
Christians, and anyone else opposed to the New World Order.

73
Summary
These five units were selected for close examination in this project because they
represent distinct points along the ideological spectrum of racism and anti-Semitism. At
one end of the spectrum resides the White Berets, a notoriously racist and actively violent
group. Farther along are the Templar Knights of the Ku Klux Klan, ostensibly racist but
not actively so. Next comes the Spartan Legion, which publicly professes to be racially
inclusive but is in actuality covertly racist and extremely anti-Semitic, although it has never
been accused of actively participating in any form of racist violence. The next group is the
NCFRM, which attempts to be inclusive and tolerant, yet circulates The Spotlight, a
clearly and openly anti-Semitic publication. At the far end is the CFM which is racially
and ethnically integrated and will refuse membership to units or individuals suspected of
racist beliefs.
Subsequent chapters will examine in more detail the structure, ideologies,
membership, and activities of these groups, comparing and contrasting them with each
other and examining their adherence to and interpretation of the standard militia
conspiracy theories.

CHAPTER 5
STRUCTURE OF FLORIDA MILITIAS
Have any of us been told that the secretaries of state, the secretaries of the
treasury, the heads of the CIA, the heads of the National Security Council, the
heads of the Federal Reserve Board and countless others are in agreement that
American sovereignty is to be erodedpiece by piece ? When has there ever
been a referendum for all of the people to decide whether they want to discard
our Constitution infcnor of a one-world government? The clear answer is
never.
-Pat Robertson (1991)
In order to answer the primary research question and determine why the Militia
Movement developed, an understanding of the structure of militias is required. This
chapter will examine the structure of each of the five selected militias to consider answers
to the following questions: How was each militia founded? How are they internally
organized? How do they communicate internally and with each other?
World Church of the Creator
Founding
The World Church of the Creator (WCOTC), heir to the Church of the Creator,
was initially founded in 1973 by Ben Klassen, a former Florida legislator. The WCOTC is
a skinhead organizationits members are almost all young, white males who shave their
heads and wear jeans, combat boots with white laces, and red suspenders.
74

75
Organization
Klassen resigned as leader of the WCOTC in 1992 and appointed Mark Wilson as
his successor. Wilson lead the group until 1993, when he was replaced by Richard
McCarty. Shortly after appointing McCarty, Klassen committed suicide. A lawsuit filed
at that time by the Southern Poverty Law Center (SPLC) brought about the alleged
dissolution of the group, but it was reorganized and resuscitated in 1995 by Matt Hale, a
law student at Southern Illinois University (Nailen 1996: 9).
The WCOTC has five branch offices which control subordinate units in at least
nine states. The local chapter in Florida is in West Palm Beach and is led by the Reverend
Guy Lombardi, who also serves as leader of the Southeast Branch.
Most of the chapters have a militia unit, the White Berets. White Berets are
alternately described as either a militia or as the Security Element of the chapter. The
White Beret unit in West Palm Beach is led by Thomas South, who has established a
training compound near Tampa complete with obstacle course, firing range, and wooded
training area. South has arranged for his unit to be armed with a standardized handgun; in
addition, most members own a second weapon such as a shotgun, rifle, or assault rifle.
Communication
The WCOTC communicates with its members and allies through the books of Ben
Klassen, which include Natures Eternal Religion, The White Mans Bible, and
Salubrious Living, as well as the Church newsletters, The Imperium, The Struggle, and,

76
formerly, Racial Loyalty. Most of the local groups sporadically mail out their own
newsletters concerned with local issues and events. The WCOTC has a website on the
Internet, as does the West Palm Beach chapter.
On two occasions, members of the WCOTC were observed reading The Liberty
Lobbys The Spotlight, which available data indicate is the primary source of information
for the entire Militia Movement.
Templar Knights of the Ku Klux Klan
Organization
The Templar Knights of the Ku Klux Klan (TK/KKK) are located in Port St.
Lucie, and are only one of approximately twenty Klaverns throughout Florida. The
organization is headed by J. D. Alder, who also holds the rank of Brigadier-General in the
NAAWPs Spartan Legion. Alder has become familiar to many Americans through
frequent appearances on The Jerry Springer Show, a daytime talk show.
The TK/KKK is an independent Klan unit owing no allegiance to any national-level
organization. Alder rules his Klavem with an iron fist; no dissention is permitted. He has
no chain of command, no assistants. It is simply Alder leading his followers.
Communication
Communication between Alder and his followers is through a newsletter titled The
Fiery Summons and regularly scheduled meetings.

77
Alder is in close contact with other notable Klans leaders in Florida, Georgia, and
Tennessee. In addition to his Klan activities, Alder also works closely with groups such as
the NAAWP, the National Socialist White Peoples Party (NSWPP), the National
Alliance, and the Nationalist Movement. Rallies sponsored by the TK/KKK also feature
the distribution of several publications, including The White Patriot, The Turner Diaries,
and The Spotlight.
NAAWP: The Spartan Legion
Founding
The National Association for the Advancement of White People (NAAWP) is a
large organization, with chapters in all fifty states, Canada, and England. It was founded
in 1980 by David Duke with the ostensible purpose of opposing Affirmative Action
programs in order to restore equal rights for European-Americans (Schwartz 1996:
265). The motto of the NAAWP is Equal rights for allSpecial privileges for none.
Organization
The NAAWP is organized hierarchically. Local chapters are under the State-level
leadership; these, in turn, are organized into Regional Leaders which report directly to the
National Office and its President, Paul Allen. There is a further division into NAAWP
chapters and Spartan Legion Militias. The Spartan Legion is composed of members from
several local chapters who also train as part of the militia, and falls under the command of
either the State or Regional leadership. All Spartan Legion Militias are ultimately under

78
the command of the Field Commander, Lieutenant-General Dan Daniels, who also serves
as the Vice President of the National Office.
National
Paul Allen assumed the Presidency of the National Association for the
Advancement of White People in 1991 after the founder, David Duke, left the group in
order to pursue his political career in Louisiana. For several years the National Office
shared space with Dukes personal and campaign offices but eventually moved into its
own office.
The National Office is responsible for recruiting new members through mass
mailings, and therefore purchases mailing lists from a variety of right-wing and white
supremacist groups and publications. Allen is in frequent communication with a wide
range of white supremacist leaders and organizations; he often speaks at the rallies and
meetings of other groups and invites their leaders to speak at NAAWP functions.
The National Office also produces and sells a variety of merchandise, including
NAAWP caps, keychains, shirts, T-shirts and tanktops, sweatshirts, greeting cards,
stickers, and books. Profits from the sale of this merchandise ostensibly go directly to the
NAAWP coffers although Dan Daniels reported that evidence indicates Allen spends this
money for his personal use.
From his National Office in New Orleans, Allen controls his Regional Leaders;
they were known as the Western, Central, and Eastern Regions until recently. In October
1997 the Eastern Region was divided into a fourth, the Mid-Atlantic Region, under the
leadership of Reno Wolfe of Jacksonville, Florida. Fie also manages all International

79
operations of the NAAWP (and) provides Policies (Daniels 1997a: 3).
Allens Vice President and Field Commander of the Spartan Legion Militia is
Hiram Dan Daniels, who is located in Eagle Lake, Florida. Daniels organizes the militia
on both the national and local levels. He is responsible at the national level for creating
and disseminating militia doctrine concerning recruiting, training, standardizing equipment
and weaponry, and the appointment of officers. He makes frequent inspection tours
about the country, visiting Spartan Legion Militias wherever they are located.
Florida
Because he is located in Florida, Dan Daniels takes a close personal interest in the
Spartan Legion units in this state and serves as State Director of the NAAWP Local
Chapters as well as Local Leader for the Eagle Lake Chapter. He is also actively involved
in the day-to-day operations of the Legions airborne unit which is stationed in the
Winter Haven/Eagle Lake area.
Within Floridas borders the NAAWP has local chapters in Aubumdale, Eagle
Lake, Gainesville, Jacksonville, Lakeland, Miami, Ocala, Pensacola, Pierson, St.
Augustine, St. Petersburg, Tampa, West Palm Beach, White City, and Winter Haven.
Each local chapter is headed by a Local Leader who reports to the State Director
(Daniels second hat). The state was initially under the supervision of the Eastern
Regional Director; recent changes have left most of Florida in the Eastern Region but
separated part of North Florida, particularly Jacksonville, into the newly formed Mid-
Atlantic Region.

80
The Spartan Legion has significant militias in Fort Pierce/White City, Jacksonville,
Ocala, Tampa, and Winter Haven/Eagle Lake. There are also smaller militias, still in the
formative stages, in several other towns. The Spartan Legion was initially formed in late
1994, and at the time of its inception was a member unit of the Congress of Florida
Militias (CFM). In late 1995 the Spartan Legion was asked to leave the CFM because of
its alleged racist and anti-Semitic orientation.
The Jacksonville Chapter, where much of the ethnographic data were collected,
has approximately eighty-five members; a typical meeting will see fifteen to twenty in
attendance. The Jacksonville Militia carries twenty members on its roster; five to seven
usually attend the bimonthly training session or meetings. The unit is armed with Chinese-
manufactured SKS assault rifles, as well as personally-owned rifles and handguns.
The Jacksonville unit of the Spartan Legion Militia is commanded by a Colonel
appointed by Daniels. He is assisted by an Executive Officer with the rank of Lieutenant-
Colonel, a staff consisting of Medical, Public Relations, and Administrative Officers, all
with the rank of Major, and two Platoon Leaders, both Lieutenants. The remaining
members are all Sergeants and are divided evenly between the two platoons.
Communication
Communication between the President and his followers is primarily through The
NAA WP News, a monthly newspaper published by Allen from the National Office in New
Orleans, Louisiana. The NAA WP News is typically twelve or sixteen pages in length. It
features editorials by Allen and Dan Daniels, updates on the activities of Duke, NAAWP

81
events listings, merchandise advertisements, and reprints of articles of interest from the
mainstream media and a long list of white supremacist publications. It also features
derogatory cartoons emphasizing the alleged low intelligence of blacks and the alleged
corruption and insidious nature of Jews.
Typical headlines in The NAAWP News include the following: Negroes whine if
not in movies (Issue 80), The Gathering Storm: How White Americans- thru their un
wisdom, carelessness and good natureallowed the wicked to bring on the Coming
American Race War (Issue 90), Black criminals forced into law-abiding White
neighborhoods (Issue 91), and Black soldiers rape White women (Issue 94).
Another line of communication between Allen and his followers is his book The
Coming American RACE WAR, which is sold at rallies, meetings, and through the mail.
The central theme of Allens book is that liberal policies toward blacks have led blacks to
become lazy, criminal, and dependent; he also cites scientific proof that blacks are
genetically inferior, claiming that the majority of blacks are mentally retarded. He
further writes that The NAAWP is necessary to defend White rights, take to the streets,
call a general strike, shut this country down if necessary for white survival, and
NAAWP calls for White America to organize on a wartime basis (arm every white and
unleash the police) (Allen 1993: 208-210).
A final means of communication from the National Office is through the
NAAWPs website, located on the angelfire.com server. This server is well-known for
hosting white supremacist sites. The Internet is increasingly popular among NAAWP
members, and several of the chapters in Florida have their own webpages as well.

82
All members of the Spartan Legion receive, in addition to rThe NAA WP News, a
monthly mailing of The Eagle: NAA WP Battleground. This is published by Daniels and is
much more virulently racist and anti-Semitic than The NAA WP News. It typically runs
eight pages in length and contains editorials, advertisements, event announcements,
cartoons, and articles about current events. Typical headlines read Equal Rights for
Aryans (Issue 85), Israelis choose war and murder over peace (Issue 86), Communist
Clintons Black Hillary Substitute and Clintons Look-alike Black Bastard Mullato Son
(Issue 89).
The NAAWP Jacksonville Chapter publishes a monthly newsletter which usually
runs four pages, with six on occasion. This is circulated to all members of the groups,
whether they are in the militia or not.
At the NAAWPs Second Annual White Rights Rally, several other publications
were distributed. Among these were the novels of Dr. William Pierce, The Turner Diaries
and Hunter, The Spotlight, 'The White Patriot, and Resistance.
Recent Developments
Near the end of this research project the NAAWP was forced to undergo
significant reorganization. A 14 May 1997 broadcast of the American Broadcasting
Corporations Primetime Live exposed several falsehoods promoted by the leaders.
Among these were the groups close ties with KKK groups, the blatant racism expressed
by some members in private, the criminal records of several key members, and the Spartan
Legions preparations for a race war. Exposure of the leaders on this show resulted in the

83
loss of approximately seventy percent of the organizations membership (Allen 1997b: 1).
Further, law enforcement officials became much more interested in the activities of the
Spartan Legion, which led to massive desertion from the ranks.
This data, therefore, reflects the NAAWP between April 1996 and October-
November 1997 but may not reflect the current confusion in the group. Changes since
this period include the firing of Dan Daniels and his replacement by Ray Thomas of
Tampa, Florida; a lawsuit against Paul Allen for control of the groups finances; the
temporary suspension of all Spartan Legion activities; the cancellation of the Third
Annual White Rights Rally; massive loss of both membership and revenue; and the
organization of a fourth Region.
Most of the groups activities at this point revolve around recruiting new members
and attempting to draw former members back into the fold along with a new mass-mailed
fund-raising campaign. It remains to be seen whether the NAAWP will remain a
significant force of the Far Right or if it will dissolve from the force of its own
organizational inadequacies.
In the meantime, the research results from prior to the shake-up remain indicative
of the organization, membership, beliefs, and activities of the groups ideal state. The
organization evolved into the state in which I found it over a period of several years, and
the changes were not instigated by the NAAWP. Only the deliberate activities of a well-
funded and professional group of investigative journalists were able to infiltrate and
disrupt the NAAWP.

84
North Central Florida Regional Militia
Founding
The North Central Florida Regional Militia (NCFRM) was founded on 10
November 1994 in Gainesville, Florida. The NCFRM was initially formed as a splinter
group from the Bradford County Militia (Johnson 1994:1). The unit made its first public
appearance on 17 December of that year in the plaza of the Alachua County Courthouse
to protest United Nations Day.
Organization
The NCFRM is organized in concentric circles of membership. The inner circle is
the leadership, surrounded closely by the actual armed and training militia members. The
next circle includes members who attend the weekly meetings but do not participate in
paramilitary training. The final circle includes sympathizers, friends, and guests who
attend the meetings but have not committed to membership.
Communication
Members of the NCFRM are encouraged to subscribe to The Spotlight, which has
become the primary source for the dissemination of militia doctrine nationwide. Issues are
distributed and circulated at meetings. The leaders are also frequent readers of most of
the militia BBSs on the Internet, they download, copy, and distribute literature to both
members and guests at their meetings. This has the effect of maintaining contact with
militias nationwide and insures that the units doctrines do not stray from the remainder of

85
the movement.
The NCFRM is a member unit of the Central Florida Militia Association (CFMA),
and both their leader and their official spokesperson have attended each of the Congresses
of Florida Militias (CFM). As a result of their membership in the CFMA the NCFRM is in
frequent communication with other militias throughout Florida.
Central Florida Militia Association
Founding
The Central Florida Militia Association (CFMA) is an umbrella organization with
seventeen member militias (Daniels 1997b: 2). Founded in 1994 by Mark Cody, the
CFMA is the sponsor of the Congress of Florida Militias (CFM), a regular gathering in
which member militias agree on policies, share information about the New World Order,
and coordinate activities.
Organization
The CFMA is not a command; it is a cooperative organization which helps to
ensure that member units work together for a common cause. Because it is not command-
oriented, the CFMAs fifteen to seventeen member militias retain autonomy.
One of the CFMAs members is the North Central Florida Regional Militia. The
Spartan Legion of the NAAWP was once a member but was dismissed because of its
racist and anti-Semitic orientation.

86
Communication
Communication between militias within the CFMA is primarily through Internet
BBSs and regular personal meetings, augmented by the Congresses.
Summary
Three of the five militias examined were founded by apparently charismatic
leaders: The WCOTC by Ben Klassen, TK/KKK by J. D. Alder, and the NAAWP by
David Duke. The other two, the NCFRM and the CFMA, were founded by groups of
men in response to the turmoil within the movement. NCFRM was a splinter group from
the Bradford County Militia, and the CFMA was an attempt to bring ideological and
organizational unity to disparate and quarreling militias in Central Florida.
Three of the five are organized hierarchically, with a strong leader at the top,
assistants on a level beneath the leader, and followers or rank-and-file members at the
bottom. The TK/KKK almost follows this same pattern; Alder merely skips the middle
level of organization. The CFMA, primarily an umbrella organization, is organized as an
information distribution center and sponsors meetings for open discussion and debate
between equals. This method of organization reflects the pattern described by Anthony
Wallace in his article Revitalization Movements: Converts are made by the prophet. .
A small clique of special disciples clusters about the prophet and an embryonic campaign
organization develops with three orders of personnel: the prophet, the disciples, and the
followers (Wallace 1956: 273).
Four of the five groups studied circulated The Spotlight and considered it a

87
significant source of information. The only exception to this was the CFMA. Its founder,
Mark Cody, rejects The Spotlight because of its blatantly anti-Semitic orientation. Despite
this, many members of CFMA units read The Spotlight regularly. While none of the
groups directly distributed The Turner Diaries, individual members of each group were
observed either reading or discussing the novel favorably.
Each of the five has established means of communication with other groups,
usually through attendance at other groups meetings or rallies or through the exchange of
newsletters. Each publishes its own newsletter or newspaper and distributes these
internally. Each groups holds regularly-scheduled meetings at which the leaders lecture
the rank and file.

CHAPTER 6
MEMBERSHIP OF FLORIDA MILITIAS
Let us make no mistake about itthere is a powerful deliberate crash
program in force to niggerize America! The niggerization of America is
undoubtedly the most important ominous fact of contemporary history and
strangely one of the least realized by the victims themselvesthe White Race.
-Ben Klassen (Klassen 1981: 23)
In seeking an answer to the research question and attempting to determine why the
Militia Movement developed at this point in time it is vital to understand who leads the
militias as well as who joins them. This chapter will therefore examine militia membership
and, where possible, demographic factors, in order to determine if the answer to the
question lies with the nature of the activists themselves.
World Church of the Creator
The West Palm Beach chapter of the WCOTC has a fluctuating membership,
referred to as Creators, of between twenty and thirty members. They are all males of
European descent, ranging in age from sixteen to twenty-nine, with the mean at twenty-
one. At least two of the members are married; both have children. Most members are
either unemployed or work in minimum-wage service-industry jobs.
88

89
Several of the members are attending community college and at least one has
graduated with an Associates Degree.
Templar Knights of the Ku Klux Klan
J. D. Alder is the leader of the TK/KKK and is in close contact with other notable
Klans leaders in Florida, Georgia, and Tennessee, although he is not officially affiliated
with any other Klan. In addition to his Klan activities, Alder also works closely with
groups such as the NAAWP, the National Socialist White Peoples Party (NSWPP), the
National Alliance, and the Nationalist Movement.
The majority of his followers are blue-collar workers, part-time farm workers, or
unemployed. Among the members, one is a gunsmith, another is a prison guard; one is a
janitor; and it is reputed that a few are police officers but this remains unconfirmed. None
have graduated from college although at least two have attended. Most are male, but
there are two female members. Both female members were admitted at the behest of men:
One is a members wife and the other a members girlfriend. All are of European descent,
and range in age from teens through the late fifties. The mean is impossible to determine
with accuracy, but is estimated at the early- to mid-thirties.
At social functions, many of Alders male followers in their twenties and early
thirties brought dates who were between fourteen and sixteen. Most of these dates
appeared to be girls from small, rural towns who were enraptured with the glamour of
the Klan.

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NAAWP: The Spartan Legion
Leadership
The leadership of the NAAWP will be examined at both the national and local
levels. This discussion presents profiles of leaders who are public figures such as David
Duke, Paul Allen, and Dan Daniels, as well as a number of relatively unknown local
leaders.
Founder: David Duke
David Duke was born in Louisiana in 1950 and graduated from Tulane University
with a degree in history in 1974. While in college Duke was closely affiliated with the
National Socialist White Peoples Party (NSWPP). He became nationally known during
the 1970s because of his organizational skills and ability to bridge the gap between old-
style white supremacists and the middle class. Rather than simply ranting messages of
hatred, Duke couches the old ideas in new terms, explaining racial differences in
scientific terminology.
In ethnographic interviews and personal conversations Duke appears well-
educated and widely read. He is able to spontaneously discuss anthropological theories
with the ease and familiarity of most graduate students; the models with which he is most
knowledgeable and impressed, however, are those of Spencer, McDonald, and Shahak.
He is also an avid fan of Dr. Charles Murray, calling him the greatest social scientist of
our time. Spencer, McDonald, and Shahak are evolutionary anthropologists whose
theories have long since become obsolete; they taught that blacks and Jews were
genetically inferior to whites. Murray is the author of The Bell Curve, a book asserting

91
innate intellectual differentiation between races.
Dukes ability to spellbind crowds with his rhetoric and his popularity with non-
traditional pools of recruits made him invaluable to the Ku Klux Klan (KKK) resurgence
of the 1970s. In 1975 Duke ran unsuccessfully for the Louisiana Senate but captured
one-third of the votes. The following year he organized and led the largest KKK rally of
the decade in Walker, Louisiana.
By this time, Duke was the Imperial Wizard of the Knights of the Ku Klux Klan;
one of the modifications he instituted was changing the title to National Director. His
Klansmen no longer burned crosses; they held illuminations. They welcomed women
for the first time, as well as Catholics, into the ranks of the KKK. He also began
recruiting heavily on military bases during this period.
By 1980 it seemed as though Duke had established a solid base of support for his
political career among white supremacists, but his KKK affiliation was holding him back.
He abruptly left the KKK and founded the National Association for the Advancement of
White People. In interviews and public statements Duke claimed that he had left behind
the follies of his youth, such as the NSWPP and the KKK. He also claimed that the KKK
was too violent and racist. The NAAWP was necessary, Duke claimed, as a peaceful,
intellectual, non-violent white rights organization. An early recruiting letter, however,
told potential followers that the NAAWP was .simply a Klan without robes. He wrote
that the NAAWP avoids the Hollywood stereotypes and misconceptions about the Klan
and also stated that the messages of the two groups were essentially the same. The
NAAWP was housed in the former headquarters of the Knights of the KKK.

92
(Schwartz 1996: 37). While leading the NAAWP Duke continued to speak at KKK
rallies and also invited Klansmen to speak at NAAWP meetings.
In 1991, while a member of the Louisiana State Legislature, Duke decided to run
for governor. He left the NAAWP in the hands of Paul Allen, who remains the President
to this day. Since the unsuccessful bid for the governorship, Duke has remained active on
the right-wing and white supremacist speaking circuit and frequently contributes editorials
to The NAA WP News. He also attended the First Annual White Rights Rally sponsored by
the NAAWP in 1995 and planned to attend the Third Annual Rally before its cancellation
in 1997.
When asked if he would ever consider returning to the NAAWP Duke responded,
Not with the current leadership. Allens methods are not helpful (although Im not
criticizing him. .). He further agreed that Allen made an ass out of himself in his ABC
Primetime Live interview of 14 May 1997 and stated that he was disappointed by Allens
eventual firing of Dan Daniels. These comments were made during an interview.
Duke also stated that there are two major problems in the white separatist
movement today. First, he said, is the trivialization of racial differences: Its not just
about white rights. The biological, intellectual, and inherent moral differences between
the races need to be openly discussed. The second problem exists at the opposite end of
the spectrum, where whites reflect negative stereotypes. . violence, ignorance, and
hatefulness.
How popular is Duke in Louisiana? According to the Anti-Defamation League.
In September 1996, Duke again competed in Louisianas U. S. Senate open

93
primary, in which the top vote-getters, regardless of party affiliation, face one
another in the November run-off. The primary took place as this report went to
press; David Duke placed fourth in the election among 15 candidates, receiving
140,910 votes. It is remarkable that despite the wide field of candidates, 11
percent of the Louisiana electorate nonetheless chose to vote for an overt
hatemonger and extremist. Duke furthermore carried several rural parishes
(Schwartz 1996: 40).
Although he eventually lost the race, Duke did come close to a seat in the U. S. Senate. It
is doubtful that the Louisiana electorate has heard the last of David Duke.
President: Paul Allen
Paul Allen, President of the NAAWP, has been a long-time associate and friend of
David Duke. He was Dukes campaign manager and accountant for years; Allen holds a
Bachelors Degree in accounting from the University of Wisconsin. He was investigated
for financial violations by the Louisiana Election Ethics Administration, which found that
there was impropriety, but not sufficient evidence to warrant prosecution. He is also
under investigation by the Internal Revenue Service for tax violations. According to Dan
Daniels, there is evidence to suggest that he diverts NAAWP funds, particularly those
gained through merchandizing, for his personal use.
Born in 1927, Allen is a U. S. Army veteran of the Korean War and was severely
wounded in combat while serving with an Infantry Rifle Company. He is the Editor-in-
Chief and publisher of The NAAWP News and author of The Coming American RACE
WAR, first published in 1993. In addition, he is a frequent speaker at white supremacist
gatherings and a free-lance tax consultant.
In person Allen is either charming, friendly, and witty or he is venomous,
aggressive, and duplicitous. A close associate of his blames the mood swings on VA-

94
prescribed psychoactive medication Allen takes as a result of his wartime injuries.
Field Commander: Dan Daniels
Hiram E. Dan Daniels was born in 1927 and graduated from high school in
Winter Haven, Florida. He went on to attend college at the University of Nebraska where
he earned a Bachelors Degree.
Daniels served in the United States Army from 1945 through his retirement in
1974 with the rank of Colonel. While in the Army, Daniels served stateside during the last
months of World War II and in combat in both Korea and Vietnam; he was heavily
decorated for bravery and outstanding service in both conflicts in addition to earning a
Purple Heart for wounds received in battle. He served as an infantryman and later as a
military policeman. While stationed in Germany during the American Occupation Daniels
befriended several members of the Waffen S. S. veterans association and was eventually
inducted as an honorary member.
Upon retirement Daniels went to work for the Florida Department of Corrections
where he served as a Prison Warden. After retiring from the state, he ran for and was
elected Sheriff of Polk County, Florida. Controversies surrounded his term of office as
Sheriff; a Grand Jury recommended his removal in late 1986 on multiple charges of
corruption and racial discrimination. In January 1987 Daniels resigned his post, narrowly
avoiding criminal prosecution.
During his time in Polk County, Daniels befriended many members of the Ku Klux
Klan; in fact, one of the charges against him as Sheriff was that he actively recruited
Klansmen into the Crime Watch and Sheriffs Auxiliary programs for the county. He was

95
also an active member of the Spartan Aryan Society (SAS), a group of retired military
officers in Polk County who lobby and agitate for various white supremacist causes.
Realizing that the SAS was not accomplishing its goals and outraged by the
Rosewood Massacre settlement in 1994, Daniels surveyed all patriot organizations in
Florida, read their stuff, [and] decided on the NAAWP as closer to my level of racial
attitudes (Daniels 1997b: 4). He joined the NAAWP and established a local chapter and
militia; by this time he was already publishing The Eagle and The Dan Daniels Digest.
Daniels chapter grew rapidly into the largest local chapter in the nation. By mid-
1994 he was the State Director for Florida. In December 1994 he was appointed by Paul
Allen as Field Commander of the Spartan Legion and Vice President of the NAAWP.
During this period he established the Eagle Hotline which he updated faithfully each
Sunday, a telephone message of inspiration for white supremacists and militia members.
Despite being removed from the CFM in 1995, Daniels sees his role as that of a
coordinator of all far-right and militia activities in Florida and sees the Spartan Legion as
an umbrella organization for various like-minded groups. To this end he has established
close contact with KKK, neo-Nazi, and militia groups across the state, even hosting KKK
"Naturalization Ceremonies at his home. He has been successful in recruiting entire pre
existing militias into the Spartan Legion.
Daniels is remarkably fit and healthy for a man of seventy. He is alert and active,
friendly to his associates and terrifying to his foes. After internal dissension erupted after
ABCs Primetime Live broadcast, Allen made Daniels the fall guy for the fiasco and
fired him. Allen went a step fUrther and forced him not only out of office but out of the

96
organization altogether. Daniels popularity with the rank and file made this one of
Allens biggest mistakes, though: Scores of members quit the group in protest of this
action.
Local Leaders
Bobby Seldom Jr.
Bobby Seldon, Jr., is a Local Leader in a small suburb outside of New Orleans. In
addition, he serves as State Director for Louisiana. He is approximately thirty years old,
married, with two children. Seldon is a huge man, although not very well conditioned,
with a reputation within the NAAWP for being aggressively violent and a great believer in
brute strength. He consumes large amounts of alcohol, particularly beer, and is prone to
violence when drunk. Seldon comes from a long line of Klansmen. In fact, he repeatedly
boasted in both meetings and interviews that his grandmother was buried in her robes.
During the course of this project several members of Seldons group reported that
he frequently got drunk and physically abused his wife; the same subjects also reported
that she had a long history of adultery. During the Second Annual White Rights Rally this
was a prime topic of conversation because he was unable to attend and deliver his
scheduled lecture. In 1996 she left him, and it is not known if she ever returned.
Seldons chapter has between ten and fifteen very young members, ranging in age
from eighteen to twenty-two. The neighborhood in which he lives is in Duke country:
almost every house has a David Duke campaign poster in a window.
The Spartan Legion unit commanded by Seldon is heavily armed with automatic
weaponry, assault rifles, gas masks, explosives, and night vision equipment. They

97
regularly practice night maneuvers in which they simulate planting bombs or attacking
buildings while other units create diversions.
Ronald Fox
Another Local Leader of the NAAWP is Ronald Fox, leader of a chapter outside
of Jacksonville, Florida. Fox was recently appointed Regional Director of the newly-
formed Mid-Atlantic Region. This region was organized because of constant internal
disputes among the leaders in Jacksonville. The other leaders wanted Fox removed from
the organization. Allen, however, would not agree with this. Perhaps Allens decision
was based on the fact that Foxs chapter is the most successful local group in the nation in
recruiting new members and collecting revenue.
Fox served in the United States Navy from 1959 through 1963. Fie is in his late
fifties and is rated 100% disabled by the VA for neurological problems in his extremities.
Through most of the 1960s and 1970s Fox was an active member of the Outlaws
Motorcycle Club, and still wears biker regalia and Outlaw T-shirts. He is tall and thin
with long, greying hair and beard. He lives with his wife and children in a nice double
wide trailer on his own property. They have their own swimming pool, chicken coop, and
heavily wooded lot (used by the local Spartan Legion Militia for training).
He was one of the founding members of the Jacksonville chapter of the NAAWP, a
member of the Third Annual White Rights Rally Committee, and was the original Chief of
Security (with the rank of Major) for the local Spartan Legion unit. From the very
beginning of the Jacksonville NAAWP, Fox argued with other leaders in the area,
accusing them of gross ineptitude at every turn. Beginning in January 1997 his behavior

98
became so disruptive and confrontational that he was socially ostracized.
Fox was instrumental in the militias coup, which will be discussed below. When
his conflicts with other area leaders grew to the point where they would no longer work
together he began petitioning Allen to resolve the problem. Allen ignored the situation as
long as he could, but when mass desertions and internal dissents exploded after the ABC
broadcast he flew to Jacksonville to take charge. His resolution was to separate Foxs
chapter from the others and to give Fox his own region.
Ted Doubleton
The first Commander of the Jacksonville Spartan Legion was Ted Doubleton, who
promoted himself from the standard commanders rank of Colonel to Brigadier-General.
Doubleton is approximately forty years old and served in the Florida National Guard from
1976-1977. He is a high school graduate and is deeply religious. Members of his unit,
however, were contused by his religious practices: Doubleton consumed alcohol at every
gathering and was frequently intoxicated; when drunk he would often make sexual
overtures to the few females present. One female in particular was often targeted, despite
the fact that she was married. She complained repeatedly in meetings and in conversations
that he would call her and her husband up late at night while intoxicated and beg them to
have a threesome with him; he attended their wedding and actually tried to enter their
hotel room after the ceremony.
Doubleton has a regular girlfriend who is a local entrepreneur. She owns a pest
control company and allowed the militia to meet at the offices of her business. She also
spends a great deal of money on Doubleton and his dreams, one of which is to run for

99
Mayor of Jacksonville. Doubleton attends all public City Council meetings and takes the
stand to complain about virtually every aspect of the city government. Before he was
deposed he would open each statement with the comment Im Brigadier-General Ted
Doubleton, NAAWP Militia. .
Doubleton does not appear to be strongly motivated by racist beliefs; he is much
more concerned about New World Order conspiracies. He reads conspiracy theories daily
and formulates elaborate plans to kidnap politicians and set em straight. After reading,
Doubleton would often call me on the telephone and ask me to clarify points he did not
understand. His comprehension of Constitutional law is tenuous at best, which leads him
to formulate increasingly confusing plans.
While Commander of the Spartan Legion he was unable to develop a training
program and relegated this duty to his Executive Officer. Because of his poor physical
conditioning and generally intoxicated state he was also unable to participate in the
training sessions. He would stand by, drinking, and watch his troops train, which led to a
high level of discontent among the militia members. Eventually the resentment grew so
extreme that Ronald Fox led a group which went to Dan Daniels in December 1996 and
asked that Doubleton be removed from command; Daniels agreed. Nonetheless,
Doubleton remains an active and prominent leader in the NAAWPs non-militia group.
David Reason
After Doubleton was deposed, David Reason assumed command of the
Jacksonville Spartan Legion. Reason is approximately thirty years old, married with two
daughters, and a high school graduate. He served in the United States Army and the

100
Army Reserve from 1982 through 1991. Reason was initially a Forward Observer of
Artillery and qualified Pathfinder who later, as a Reservist, underwent Reserve Special
Forces training.
He is an avid gun collector with an extensive personal armory including pistols,
shotguns, hunting rifles, a sniper rifle, assault rifles and at least one alleged automatic
weapon. Colonel Reason keeps his head clean-shaven but wears a beard. He is physically
strong but overweight; due to a knee injury his exercise program revolves around strength
training with weights. He generally wears fatigue pants, combat boots, and black T-shirts
with a variety of racist and extreme right-wing statements on the front.
When Reason assumed command of the Spartan Legion in Jacksonville he
immediately reorganized the command structure, instituted a more regular meeting and
training schedule, and pushed for each member to purchase a Chinese-manufactured SKS
assault rifle. He also instituted a physical exercise program. Training became more
militarily valid and rigorous, attendance at training sessions rapidly declined.
When Doubletons frequent and vociferous statements to the City Council began
drawing law enforcement attention toward the militia, Reason became extremely paranoid.
He instituted strange and seemingly random security measures, began refusing to talk on
the telephone except in code, and in April 1997 disappeared with a warning to the unit
to keep your heads down. He apparently left the state altogether shortly after the
Primetime Live broadcast, leaving the militia with no commander.

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Rank & File
Data presented here concerning the rank and file members of the Spartan Legion
Militia of the NAAWP will focus on the Jacksonville unit because this is the unit from
which the most data were obtained.
The Jacksonville unit carries twenty members on its roster. Eighteen members are
male, two are female. Both females are wives of male members. All are of European
descent and have a mean age of thirty-nine. Twelve are veterans, but four of these have
merely Reserve or National Guard service and only two have combat experience (both in
Vietnam). Five have some form of partial physical disability, three as a result of military
service. Three have attended college and two have graduated.
At least nine members own their own business. One owns a gun shop, one prints
T-shirts and his wife is a leather-crafter, one does landscaping and building maintenance,
one is an independent long-haul trucker, and the others are all subcontractors in the
construction industry. Of those who hold jobs, one is an accountant, one a janitor, and the
others are employed in either carpentry or in the building trades industry. Every member
is employed.
Three are members of, and two others closely affiliated with, the Ku Klux Klan.
Two are also members of the World Church of the Creator. Four are former members of
Liberty and Justice For All, a white separatist group in Jacksonville which dissolved
itself when all of its members joined the NAAWP. This tendency to join several different
fringe groups is not uncommon. According to Eric Hoffer, all mass movements draw
their adherents from the same types of humanity and appeal to the same types of mind

102
(Hoffer 1951: 17), and when people are ripe for a mass movement, they are usually ripe
for any effective movement, and not solely for one with a particular doctrine or program
(Hoffer 1951: 16).
Another unit of the Spartan Legion exists in the Winter Haven/Eagle Lake area.
This unit has eighteen members who are all former active-duty military veterans in their
mid- to late forties with the exception of their Commander, Dan Daniels. They are all
either local business owners or lawyers, many of whom have held prominent positions in
the local government. This is the airborne unit of the Spartan Legion; they skydive
together monthly.
North Central Florida Regional Militia
Leadership
The leader of the North Central Florida Regional Militia is Dr. Stan Ralle, a
prominent local neurosurgeon. He is assisted by his official spokesperson, Mike Johnson,
who holds a Masters Degree in Anthropology. Both are in their early forties, overweight,
and of European descent.
Rank and File
The rank and file of the NCFRM are a diverse group of men and women. In a
typical weekly meeting there will be between twenty and twenty-five members or guests
present, ranging in age from late teens and early twenties through the mid-sixties.

103
Approximately one-third of the members are affiliated with the University of
Florida in some capacity, whether as a student, faculty member, or staff. Most are staff.
The remainder of the group includes medical doctors, lawyers. . entrepreneurial business
owners, computer programmers, farmers, blue-collar workers, middle-echelon executives,
and other widely disparate people (Akins 1995: 40).
Of the thirty-five members encountered during the course of this study, twenty-
eight were male and seven were female. All were apparently of European descent. Two
or three are reputed to be Jewish, but this was impossible to verify because the alleged
Jews never attended meetings and no one could name or describe them. They ranged in
age from late teens to early sixties, with the average in the low thirties.
In conversation, the members of NCFRM appear intelligent, well-informed,
sincere, and paranoid. They are generally well-dressed and clean. Alcohol and illicit drugs
were barred from all meetings, and no member ever appeared intoxicated or under the
influence of mind-altering substances.
Central Florida Militia Association
The home unit of the CFMA is extremely secretive, which made it impossible to
gather adequate data on any member other than its founder and leader, Mark Cody. Cody
is in his mid-thirties, of European descent, and owns his own business. The business is
Codys Armory, a successful gun shop.

104
Summary
The paranoid and secretive nature of the Militia Movement makes it virtually
impossible to gather adequate demographic data through legal means. However, the
available data can be pieced together to present a relatively clear picture of the movement
in Florida.
First and foremost, it is a movement of white native-born American citizens. They
are overwhelmingly male; the few females are aberrations and typically present at the
behest of a husband or boyfriend.
Socioeconomically the movement is diverse, although each unit is not.
Interestingly, the lower the general level of employment within a particular militia, the
more likely that militia is to be oriented around racist beliefs. The WCOTC, for example,
consists of minimum-wage workers or the unemployed. The TK7KKK consists of blue-
collar workers, farm laborers, the unemployed, and low-level government employees.
This reflects the typology of activists expected by Eric Hoffer, author of The True
Believer. The present-day workingman in the Western world feels unemployment as a
degradation. He sees himself disinherited and injured by an unjust order of things, and is
willing to listen to those who call for a new deal (Hoffer 1951: 27).
On the other hand, the NAAWP has no unemployed members; almost half are
business owners. The remainder work at a diverse assortment of jobs, ranging from an
accountant to a janitor. The NCFRM is widely diverse, including virtually every level of
employment from neurologist to university professor to farm laborer. Some of these
people appear to represent what H. G. Barnett referred to as the resentful or the

105
disaffected in Innovation: The Basis of Social Change (Barnett 1953). For example,
recent cultural changes have created frustration among many Americans. According to
Barnett, these people can become disaffected, or opposed to their culture, despite their
continued economic success. Others maintain steady employment, but not in the career or
job of choice. These people can easily acquire the aspects of resentment described by
Barnett.
Educational diversity is also present. The percentage of professional or graduate
degrees is slightly lower than that of the general population, as is the percentage of college
graduates. However, the percentage of high school graduates far exceeds that of the
general population (Department of Commerce 1990). Leaders typically have a higher
level of education than their followers. There is also variation in age between groups, but
the largest age grouping is the range from twenty-five to thirty-five. Leaders are usually
older than followers.

CHAPTER 7
RELIGIOUS IDEOLOGY OF FLORIDA MILITIAS
They have kept us in submission because they have talked about the
separation of church and stale. There is no such thing in the Constitution. Its a
lie of the left, and we re not going to take it anymore.
-Pat Robertson (1991)
Much of the rhetoric heard at Militia Movement rallies and meetings and printed in
movement publications is of a religious nature. As stated previously, the differences
between the religious and political aspects of the militia belief system are not always clear
or easily separable. The difficulty separating these factors stems from two core reasons.
First, in the peculiar worldview of militia activists, the sacred or spiritual world is all
around us. God and Satan are actively engaged in the worlds affairs. America is Gods
Promised Land and Americans the Chosen People. Second, militia leaders use
religious language to describe what most people would not consider religious issues; this
can make it difficult to classify certain specific aspects of the ideology. There is therefore
a blending of religion with economic, political, moral, and pragmatic concepts. This is not
a phenomenon exclusive to militia activists, according to Mircea Eliade. Eliade writes that
in modem forms of religion, historical facts thus become situations of man in respect go
God, and as such they acquire a religious value that nothing had previously been able to
confer upon them (Eliade 1959: 104).
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Despite these difficulties, a degree of separation can be made in order to discuss
the issues with greater clarity. Examination of both the official religious doctrines of each
militia (where they exist) as well as the religious beliefs and practices of individual militia
activists is necessary in order to determine why the Militia Movement developed when it
did. The previous chapter examined the question of who joins militias; this chapter will
begin exploring the reason why they join. What are the ideological underpinnings of the
militia world?
World Church of the Creator
The ideological aspect of the WCOTC which sets it apart from other groups in the
Militia Movement is its absolute rejection of Christianity:
Yes, it was the eternal parasite upon the back of mankind, the Jew, who wrote the
White Mans so called Holy Book, invented his religion for him, disseminated
and propagated it first among the Romans, and now has poisoned the White Mans
mind with this primitive, poisonous superstition in order to control his mind,
control his destiny, and to destroy the great White Race itself (Klassen 1981: 301 -
302).
Christianity is called a slave religion, invented by Jews to destroy the Roman Empire and
still useful in dominating all white nations. This is, interestingly, the exact term used by
Malcolm X when he referred to Christianity in his Autobiography. Like Malcolm X,
Klassen called for an alternative system. Klassens offering was a new religion,
Creativity, based on race, built upon facts determined through reason and the study
of history.

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The basis of Creativity is the concept that each race has its own distinctive
history and culture, and that to combine or mix the races is disastrous to all involved. This
black and white dualism runs through Creativity: White is good; black is bad. Europeans
are good; all others are bad. Men are strong; women are weak.
Creators believe that there is no god; the concept of God was invented by Jews
and represents the superstitious and primitive aspects of Christianity. Jews have used
to false doctrines of Christianity to manipulate and control whites for two thousand years,
first to defeat Rome, then to maintain a brutal feudal system, and now to achieve their goal
of total world domination. As there is no god, and religion should be based on racial
affiliation, there are no commandments as such. The WCOTC Creed is simplicity itself:
What is good for the White Race is the highest virtue; what is bad for the White Race is
the ultimate sin (Klassen 1981: 11).
What is good for the White Race, according to Klassen, is health and strength.
The lifestyle recommended by the WCOTC is known as salubrious living; adherents
strive for the four goals of a sound mind in a sound body in a sound society in a sound
environment (Klassen 1981: 11). Creators are encouraged to go to school, to exercise
and eat a vegetarian diet, to strive to create an all-white, well-disciplined society, and to
recycle. Salubrious living will strengthen the white race, and enable it to defeat the other
races when the racial holy war arrives.
Why must whites fight other races? The answer goes back to Klassens
euphemism for Creativity: Natures Religion. It was Klassens belief that in a natural
state each species competes with other species for resources such as food, water, or

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space. Because Creators believe that races are in actuality separate species, the natural
state between races should be, and in fact is, conflict. Creators and their militant branch,
the White Berets, firmly believe that the separation of races is both necessary and
inevitable. The coming separation will follow the eagerly anticipated racial holy war,
foretold by Ben Klassen. This is so central to their beliefs that it provides their motto:
RAHOWA, meaning RAcial HOly WAr.
Templar Knights of the Ku Klux Klan
An article in a recent recruiting publication distributed at one of Alders rallies was
titled Holy Bible Condemns Integration. It states that Gods laws condemn interracial
marriage but integrationists still advocate the cross breeding of the races. . Purity of race
is a gift from God, but it is a gift which man can destroy (Murphy 1994: 5). The
members of TK/KKK are all fundamentalist Protestant Christians who quote selections
from the Bible in almost all public speeches and in most of their literature.
In addition, several members are also members of the Christian Coalition and
Operation Rescue. At least one, and probably others, regularly watch Pat Robertsons
700 Club on television. At each rally, meeting, or ceremony observed in this study, Alder
opened with a prayer offered up to the Lord God, His Son, Jesus Christ, and Adolph
Hitler, immortal father of our race.
None appear to be Identity believers, but they have adopted several Identity tenets.
Among these is the belief that Jews are descendants of Satan, engaged in an eternal
struggle against the White Race for domination of the planet. Another is that blacks are

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primitive forms of humans who have not evolved to a higher state, as have whites. Finally,
prayers by Alder at various ceremonies indicate that the TK/KKK is expecting
Armageddon soon and that Alder expects Gods help in winning the final battle.
NAAWP: The Spartan Legion
The official religion of the National Association for the Advancement of White
People (NAAWP) is Christianity, with no specific denomination required. The Chaplain
of the NAAWP, Sue Lamb, is a fundamentalist Protestant and former official of the
evangelical Christian Coalition. All meetings of the Spartan Legion Militia open with the
Pledge of Allegiance and a prayer, usually conducted by the groups commander. The
prayers inevitably end with the words In Jesus name we pray, Amen.
Many aspects of what various scholars have termed civil religion, or the
integration of Christianity and American patriotism into an amalgam in which America is
identified as a Christian nation ordained by God, are practiced both ritually and
symbolically in the militia and the non-militant NAAWP gatherings (Rouner 1986). For
example, the NAAWP clearly equates Christianity with America and the white race.
This can be seen repeatedly in such statements as:
Jews cant be Americans. They owe their allegiance to Israel. Same with
Muslimstheyre all really Arabs just trying to take over America. Atheists have
no moral code, and America is based on Christian morals, so atheists cant be
Americans, either. The bottom line is this: You cant be an American if youre not
a Christian! (Pastor Richard Mooneyhan).
In addition, the Pledge of Allegiance and a Christian prayer are the two halves of the
opening ritual at any NAAWP meeting.

Ill
Much of the ideological force behind the formation of the Militia Movement was
derived from the teachings of Identity Christianity, a Christian sect which teaches that
whites are the true descendants of the Israelites, blacks are primitive proto-humans, and
Jews are the direct descendants of Satan after his rape of Eve (Barkun 1997). Many of
the white supremacist or white separatist groups in the movement espouse this belief
system. There do not appear to be any Christian Identity adherents in the NAAWP in
Florida, although there are numerous examples of the adoption of seemingly random
Identity principles and arguments. For example, there is an association of the United
States with the Promised Land of the Bible. This is not only an Identity precept, it is
also a further example of civil religion. Another Identity belief adopted by the NAAWP is
that Jews are the descendants of Satan and are engaged in an age-old war against
Christians. Finally, the absolute and unswerving belief in black inferiority, while not
directly derived from Identity, is indistinguishable from Identity doctrine.
Every member of the NAAWP interviewed during the course of this study simply
declared themselves Christian with the exception of one self-identified Baptist. The
majority seem to be fundamentalist or evangelical. This conclusion is based on the
observations of actions taken by NAAWP members who have been elected to school
boards and NAAWP members with joint memberships with fundamentalist groups. For
example, Sue Lamb is the NAAWP Chaplain and a member of the school board. She has
attempted to stop the development of magnet schools, stop the teaching of evolutionary
theory, and tried to institute morning prayers.

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In the Jacksonville, Florida, chapter, some members were elected to the local
school boards. They set out immediately to block the teaching of evolutionary theory in
science classes, to stop or limit sexual education, to ban the distribution of condoms, to
institute vouchers for parents with children in parochial schools, and to bar homosexuals
from teaching positions.
At least five members have been identified as belonging to the Christian Coalition,
a well-known fundamentalist group. The NAAWP Chaplain, in fact, was once an official
of the Christian Coalition. In addition, three others were identified as members of the
militant anti-abortion group, Operation Rescue. Finally, I attended church with five
members in Tampa, Florida; the church was a fundamentalist and anti-government
congregation with a minister (Richard Mooneyhan) who has a history of arrests for
participation in militia activities, including an armed stand-off with Ocala police. He is
currently serving time in jail following a conviction for interfering with Florida authorities
in a child abuse investigation (Derickson 1998: 15).
Few, other than Sue Lamb, seem to take their religion seriously enough to let it
interfere with their recreation, however. For example, members make frequent trips to
topless bars, use profanity, consume high levels of alcohol, smoke, and promote violence.
In addition, several of the younger members regularly smoke marijuana.
One theme runs through almost all of their religious beliefs, though: Christianity is
a white religion and God wants whites to possess America by whatever means
necessary. This is reflected in an editorial by Lamb. In an issue of The Eagle: NAA WP
Battleground, she summarized the correlation between America, the white race, and

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Christianity:
Part of the work of the NAAWP is to preserve our White European Christian
heritage. It is the foundation stone of our democracy. No other world religion
could have produced it. Christianitys most unique feature is the absolute value it
places on the individual. In it, salvation is to the individual through Jesus Christ.
Other religions, including Judaism and Islam, focus on the group or tribe;
individuals are secondary. Far Eastern and New Age religions extol universal
consciousness by obliteration the individual personality.
Christianity is the only non-socialist religion. True liberty requires
Christian faith.
Thus to destroy Christianity in America is one of the top goals of the
NAAWPs enemies. They seek to set up an undemocratic, socialist, totalitarian
tyranny in place of our constitutional republic. It will be Satans kingdom, if they
succeed (Lamb 1996: 3).
North Central Florida Regional Militia and Central Florida Militia Association
Religious orientations in the NCFRM are diverse. Virtually all of the members are
Protestant Christians, but none appear to be Identity followers. 1 was unable to verify the
unit spokespersons claim that there were between one and three Jewish members.
There are a number of fundamentalists, who often speak of the coming millennial
apocalypse and the End Times forecast in the Bible. They circulate copies of Pat
Robertsons The New World Order. Many people present, however, tend to ignore these
speeches, and some even scoff at them (Akins 1995: 45).
The CFMA is strongly motivated by fundamentalist Protestant Christian beliefs,
although there is a conscious effort to be tolerant and inclusive. This tolerance is reflected
in several member units, and explains the continuing presence of the NCFRM. A
Statement of Praise, Thanksgiving and Confession to our Lord and Savior Jesus Christ
was adopted by almost unanimous vote at the First Congress of Florida Militias, asking

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[for] His guidance, strength, and divine providential assistance to restore America to
righteousness and liberty (Cody 1995: 3).
Mark Cody, leader of the CFMA, also stated the following in a speech:
We owe it to ourselves, we owe it to our children and we owe it to our Creator to
reclaim that which we have lost. It is to this end that we have called you together
here today. . I will tell you without hesitation that I am a Christian. Jesus Christ
is my Lord and Savior. I feel that ours is a Holy War against the forces of evil
which seek to destroy all which is good. I believe, as I am sure that many of you
here today believe, that we are facing the coming of the Antichrist (Cody 1995: 1-
2).
There were no dissenting voices opposing these statements during the Congress; all
member units adopted the Statement of Praise...
Summary
The rank and file members of the TK/KKK, the NAAWP, the CFMA, and the
NCFRM tend to be predominantly fundamentalist Christians. Members of the WCOTC,
while not Christian, appear to exhibit the characteristics of fundamentalism delineated by
Hofstadter and the American Academy of Arts and Sciences Fundamentalism Project.
Their belief system is conspiratorial in nature, their worldview is clearly Manichean, and
they anticipate a form of millenarianism in their anticipated racial holy war.
The leaders of the TK/KKK, the NAAWP, and the CFMA are all fundamentalist
Christians. The official religious doctrines of these three groups are also fundamentalist,
although the CFMA recognizes the pragmatic need for unity among the citizenry in
opposition to the New World Order and has an official policy of toleration.

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In addition to the strong vein of fundamentalism running through the militias
beliefs, there is also an undercurrent of civil religion. In all of the militias except the
WCOTC, members equate America with the Promised Land of the Bible. Americans
are perceived, in varying degrees, as the Chosen People. Anti-Semitism runs through all
of the militias; Jews are seen not only as international bankers, but as the killers of
Christ. White Americans, on the other hand, are soldiers of Christ.
Why is religion so important to these groups? The religious ideologies provide
several things to the activists. For example, group cohesion is enhanced by the sharing of
a common worldview: Religion is one of the holdings that links every human being to
others. . It is the great power of religious belief and affiliation for the individual that has
underpinned the great power of religion in the social and political history of every society
(Isaacs 1975: 144-149). Religion does more than that, though. It also answers some of
the perplexing problems of our time. It is a source of authority, of commanding law to
be obeyed, God as executor of punishment, even vengeance, upon the wayward and the
sinning, the only sometimes-forgiving model of hard uprightness, unbendingness,
inevitability (Isaacs 1975: 148).
The eminent sociologist Emile Durkheim examined the functions of religion in a
society. According to Durkheim, the real function of religion. . is to make us act, to aid
us to live. The believer who has communicated with his god is not merely a man who sees
new truths of which the unbeliever is ignorant; he is a man who is stronger (Durkheim
1965: 463-464). Durkheim also explains the convergence of political and religious
thought: If religion has given birth to all that is essential in society, it is because the idea

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of society is the soul of religion (Durkheim 1965: 466).
In summary, it can be concluded that in Florida, at least, fundamentalism is the
foundation of religious ideology for the overwhelming majority of activists in the Militia
Movement, although it is not mandatory for participation. Further, it is also apparent that
religion plays a key role in militia activism, providing a significant motivating factor for
militiamen.

CHAPTER 8
POLITICAL AND RACIAL IDEOLOGY OF THE MILITIAS
When whites organize, we can force an end to racial spoils system.
NAA WP demands an end to racial double standards that exempt inner-city blacks
from ordinary measures of decency. NAA WP demands a national inquiry into
whether it is even possible for white and black to live together peaceably.
NAA WP call for white America to organize on a wartime basis. If white America
has no other alternative, NAA WP calls for vigilante justice.
-Paul Allen, President of the National
Association for the Advancement of
White People (Allen 1993: 210)
This chapter examines the political beliefs of the Militia Movement; specifically, it
looks at how the various militias in the study interpret and teach the conspiracy theory
which is at the heart of the movement. In addition, the beliefs of each unit concerning race
are explored. Finally, some of the individual militias have a variety of specific teachings
which will also be reviewed under the category miscellaneous.
World Church of the Creator
New World Order/ZOG
The political ideology of the World Church of the Creator (WCOTC) follows
standard Militia Movement themes. The WCOTC teaches that a secret Jewish cabal
controls the corporate media, both news and entertainment, in America (Hale 1996: 5).
The result of this control? Hale writes: By permitting the Jews to control our news and
117

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entertainment media, we are doing more than merely giving them a decisive influence on
our political system and virtual control of our government; we are also giving them
control of the minds and souls of our children, whose attitudes and ideas are shaped more
by Jewish television and Jewish films than by their parents, their schools, or any other
influence (Hale 1996: 9). Evidence of Jewish control is found, according to the
WCOTC, in President Clintons government appointees: When he was first elected, Bill
Clinton promised the American people that the makeup of his administration would mirror
the face of America. In truth, it mirrors the face of Israel. Even though Jews only make
up 2.9% of the countrys population, an astounding 56% of all of Clintons appointments
have been Jews. (Hale 1996: 13).
The WCOTC teaches its members that the Zionist Occupation Government
(ZOG), the cabal which secretly controls the American government, cannot be defeated
through voting: The right to vote is of little effect. It makes our people think that they
have power, when in reality they are simply pawns in the chess game. It hasnt saved our
people in the past from our enemies, and nor will it guarantee our peoples future (Hale
1996b: 1). The solution? Join the WCOTC, recruit more members, teach them the
truth, and arm for the predicted and inevitable war against ZOG.
Race
The Jews are a primary focus of WCOTC doctrine, but they are not the only focus.
The WCOTC is also opposed to immigration (Hale 1996: 17), homosexuality, and above
all, to African-Americans. Blacks, according to the WCOTC, are 12.3 times as likely to

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commit murder as a white person (Hale 1996: 18). They have also been scientifically
proven to be less intelligent: The difference in raw brainpower is not the only mental
difference between Whites and Blacks. . Blacks are more excitable, more violent, less
sexually restrained, more impulsive, more prone to crime, less altruistic, less inclined to
follow rules, and less cooperative. .Mentally, the Negro is inferior to the White (Hale
1996: 23-24). The alleged inferiority of blacks and their propensity to crime are repeated
themes in WCOTC literature.
Templar Knights of the Ku Klux Klan
New World Order/ZOG
J. D. Alder also teaches that America is controlled by the New World Orders
ZOG, which is deliberately polluting the white race by encouraging miscegenation,
homosexuality, and drug abuse. He states directly and clearly that Jews are behind the
conspiracy, and are using blacks as their pawns in the struggle for world domination.
The appropriate response to ZOG, according to Alder, is the formation and
training of militias. A speaker at the 1996 Klan Khristmas rally in White City, Florida, put
it succinctly: If we cant win with ballots, well have to win with bullets. This is the only
way to destroy the Jewish conspiracy and to create a new orderly society.
Further, Alder teaches that the original or organic Constitution of the United
States is the only valid law. By organic he means the Constitution and the first ten
Amendments, the Bill of Rights. Any change to the original Constitution is invalid;
therefore, anyone whose citizenship has been granted by Amendments subsequent to the

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Bill of Rights is not a real citizen. Americans should not recognize the citizenship of
blacks, because they are Fourteenth Amendment citizens and thus not legitimate.
Race
The TK/KKK teaches that anyone of African descent is genetically inferior on both
intellectual and moral grounds to anyone of European descent. However, African-
Americans are seldom mentioned at Alders meetings because the inferiority of blacks is
considered so obvious that its a given. Attention is focused instead on the manner
through which the Jews are using the blacks as their pawns in the struggle to destroy the
Aryan race. This view is supported by a popular book circulated among militias, the
Citizens Ride Book (Adams 1993).
The Templar Knights of the Ku Klux Klan revere Adolph Hitler. In their
Naturalization Ceremonies, Hitler is referred to as the eternal father of our race. Hitler
is not merely adored because of his murder of Jews but because of his Aryan beliefs and
fascist political system.
NAAWP: The Spartan Legion
New World Order/ZOG
The J ewish control of media and government has suppressed the free speech of
whites and is the first step in the elimination of Christianity and the white race: All speech
on behalf of Whites or against our minority opponents has been proscribed from the
normal channels of public discourse. . Efforts of Whites to resist the threats to their

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national and racial integrity have been proscribed by law or censored (Allen 1997: 9).
What is the ultimate goal of the Jewish-controlled government or Zionist Occupation
Government? Paul Allen explains: The real reason seems to be to divide & conquer
America thru race war so they can pick up the pieces for a new Jewish homeland safe from
the nuclear weapons and terrific birthrate of the angry Arabs surrounding tiny, vulnerable
Israel (Allen 1994: 3). According to the NAAWP, the plan of the Jews is to create racial
strife between American blacks and whites, goad them into a race war, and gain complete
control of the United States when it is all over.
The method used by the Jews to accomplish this goal is by causing, and then
denying the existence of, an explosion of Negro crime. They are doing this through use
of the media. The first step was to stop identifying the race of criminals in newspapers in
1960:
Before that, everybody knew who did the crime, and social control held it down. .
Social control became gone with the wind, and Negro crime skyrocketed straight
up. . the medias refusal to identity the race of criminals seems to have fathered,
permitted, provoked, caused the explosion of Negro crime destroying Christian
America, and by extension, the Christian religion (Allen 1994: 3).
The second step is to brainwash white Americans into believing that blacks are actually
equal despite the evidence of common sense:
Have you wondered why Negroes show up on TV and the movies far in excess of
their proportion of the population? Why they are never portrayed as inferiorbut
almost always perfectly equal, if not superior? Talk about Jewish propaganda!. .
Well, wonder no more. .Perfectly equal Negroes are thrust in our faces until they
come out our ears so we will regard them as perfectly equal. .Wake up
Christians! This is the wedge weapon of perfectly equal Negroes that Jews appear
to be using to destroy the Christian religion (Allen 1994: 3).

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Race
The central theme that runs through all of the NAAWPs doctrines is the belief that
America is soon to be engaged in a race war, a Second Civil War which will be far more
devastating than the first. This belief preceded the development of the Militia Movement
but has totally incorporated the movements standard conspiracy theories. The official
Principles of the NAAWP are reprinted in Appendix E; this section will delineate and
explicate the salient features, tying them into Militia Movement theories.
This race war is to be the result of two conditions: out-of-control black criminals
and media- and government-controlling Jews. Allen wrote of this in Issue 97 of The
NAA WP News: Everybody knows, but does not say, that skyrocketing black crime has
driven Americans inside behind locked doors; many people are starting to realize that
several Zionist Jews who control the media are deliberately heading this country over a
cliff (Allen 1997: 1). Black crime and Jewish control of the media and government are
two of the three primary themes in NAAWP literature. The other is the biologically-
determined low intelligence and low moral standards of blacks: 65 percent, or 13 out of
20 American blacks, may be clinically diagnosed as either feeble-minded or morons (it is
much worse for African blacks) (Allen 1997: 7), and Moral reasoning is closely
associated with intelligence (Allen 1997: 5).
There is little doubt about the NAAWP position toward African Americans. For
example, Dan Daniels wrote:
Tupac Shakur, the Gansta Rapper who liked to spit on camera people and people
attending his crazy press conferences, has been shot by one of his own rappers
and darned if he didnt finally die. Hey, the world is a better place for it. Hope

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more Rappers do more Rappersand rid the world of singers who urge Niggers to
kill policemen and rape white women (Daniels 1996: 8).
Daniels also commented on the Clinton Inauguration:
I watched 15 minutes of the Bolshevik Clinton Inauguration and turned off my TV.
Color the event BLACK; thought I was in South Africa Mandela country,
Sickening! America. . great country. . with a president who is a proven crook,
liar, whoremaster molester of women, communist sympathizer, jew lover, whigger,
and father of a black baby via a black prostitute! (Daniels 1996: 9).
Why are blacks such a problem? In Issue 91 of The Eagle: NAA WP Battleground,
Daniels explained:
The FBI says that the black crime rate in AmeriKa is almost vertical, going out of
sight, upwards like crazy. You dont read about that in the JooMedia, do you?
Noand you wont. And, the white crime rate is remaining level, no increases.
Fact. Truth. You wont read about that in the hooknose, olive oil media, either.
Truth? If you eliminated black criminals from our country, there would not be
enough crime to report in newspapers, and we could all take the bars off our
home windows (Daniels 1996: 11).
He echoes again the twin themes of black crime and Jewish-controlled media.
The NAAWPs recommended response to these problems is clear: Dont sell
White people short. Dont judge us by our current cowardly leaders. As soon as the
shooting starts, the whoring white man trying to win black favor will turn into a tiger
thirsty for black blood (Allen 1997: 13). . As for the right to overturn the government,
we do and always have had that right (Allen 1997: 10). How are whites to win this war?
The NAAWP is standing by to help: The National Association for the Advancement of
White People has formed a Citizens Militia (The Spartan Legion). Patriots concerned
about the defense of and future of their majority race are urged to ask for an application to
become a member of the Elite group (Daniels 1996: 4). The NAAWP expects its

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Spartan Legion Militia to both lead and win the Second Civil War in America; whites
must participate or die: We have a natural right to secure our existence as a people, and
secure the future for white children (Allen 1995: 4). This is a reflection of the Fourteen
Words of David Lane, a leader of The Order and the White Aryan Resistance (WAR), a
significant organization in the white supremacy movement which has, of late, become a
major distributor of militia doctrine. An NAAWP member summed up his feelings about
the race war at a meeting: The only way to win the war is to eliminate the enemy.
Before the race war starts, the NAAWP has other options for it members. The
first of these is vigilantism:
The dictionary describes Vigilantes as Ever Vigilant. Nice words. Considering
the black crime rampage and the total corruption of the AmeriKan criminal
injustice system, expensive and useless, it is time for the Vigs to return to the
scene.
They have two enemies to fight. One, the negroid criminal class, an
underclass of pure Niggers if you will, and the Federal Beast which protect them
(Daniels 1996: 11).
In addition to vigilantism, the NAAWP also recommends political activism. Allen has
listed the groups demands for politicians:
Declare martial law in high-crime areas. Establish a Police-State and string lawless
neighborhoods with barbed wire. Use vacant facilities as prisons/re-education
centers, & already-on-the-payroll military as guards. Multiply the criminal justice
system & police by five. Pay for it by ending welfare for the able-bodied. Require
media resume identifying criminals by race. Stop secret Negro rape warfare by
making interracial rape a hate crime, punishable by castration & a triple term in
prison (Allen 1995: 4).
Allen does not believe that politicians will ever see things his way, though: The same
America you and I grew up in is going down a giant black hole dug by politicians bought
fair & square in Washington, D.C. auctions. Most have betrayed the Constitution, are

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enemies of normal people, should be arrested by citizen militias and tried in the peoples
courts for treason (Allen 1995: 4). This ties the NAAWP in with the remainder of the
Militia Movements doctrine, in particular with the common law courts.
North Central Florida Regional Militia
New World Order/ZOG
The primary justification behind the militias use of military force to oppose the
federal government is the belief that the government has effectively usurped the
Constitution and is acting on behalf of a group of international elites to oppress and
eventually enslave the American people. These international elites are the power behind
the mysterious New World Order which seeks to eliminate national governments and
unify the world under the auspices of the United Nations. Evidence for the existence of
the New World Order is found in many arenas, which include the placement of American
armed forces under foreign commanders, the Gulf War, the increasingly stringent gun
control laws, the Omnibus Anti-Terrorism Bill, the apparent cooperation between
government and the corporate media, and changing social conditions.
During the Gulf War, American troops were placed, for only the second time in
their history, under the command of foreign officers. This trend has continued in most, if
not all. United Nations Peace-Keeping operations (Howe 1995: 47). The same war saw
the largest mobilization of National Guard units in American history (Scales 1993: 391)
which, in the view of the NCFRM, demonstrates the willingness of the federal government
to utilize the states military for its own ends. In this case, the end in question was the

126
lease of American troops and equipment to international oil companies in order to defend
their oil fields (Gause 1995: 175-177). When the troops returned home, many of them
were ill, their health apparently ruined by exposure to chemical weapons. The government
denied this exposure, claiming that vital logs concerning chemical attacks were lost or
misplaced. The Department of Veteran Affairs continues to deny benefits or treatment
to these veterans, demonstrating a callous lack of concern and an unwillingness to spend
New World Order money on soldiers who are no longer of any use.
Gun control laws are seen as attempts to disarm the American public in
preparation for increasing oppression. One popular circular distributed at NCFRM
meetings compares the Brady Bill with Adolph Hitlers attempts to disarm the German
and Austrian masses in the 1930s. This is titled Gun Control: Gateway to Tyranny and
argues that the Holocaust would not have occurred if the Jewish people had their own
well-armed militias.
During the period of research with the NCFRM, a significant concern was the
Omnibus Anti-Terrorism Bill, which militia members believed to be the next major step on
the path to their disarmament. This bill was discussed in detail in Chapter Four; suffice it
here to say that it proved to the NCFRM that the federal government was coming after
their guns and would use any method available to monitor them. The bill called for
implementation of many programs which could easily be interpreted as unconstitutional;
the question in the minds of the militia members was this: Why would freedom-loving
Americans permit this bill to pass? The answer, simply, was that the corporate media has
cooperated with the New World Order-controlled government to convince the majority of

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the people that the bill is necessary.
Cooperation between the government and the media is demonstrated for the
NCFRM by the medias representations of militia members. The corporate media has
created an image of militiamen as drunken, uneducated peasants; the NCFRM sees itself as
a collection of educated, law-abiding, hard-working patriots. If the media, with all of its
capabilities, is not presenting an accurate image, the argument goes, then it must be
deliberately distorting the truth. Why would it do so? Because it is under New World
Order control.
Another political belief held by members of the NCFRM is that the United States
Constitution is the absolute and only legitimate law of the land. It is inerrant, and should
not be altered in any way. All of the Amendments, therefore, are invalid. This includes
the Thirteenth (anti-slavery), the Fourteenth (citizenship granted to former slaves), the
Fifteenth (voting rights), the Sixteenth (income tax), the Seventeenth (direct election of
federal representatives), and the Nineteenth (suffrage for women) (Current et al 1983:
451; 459; 460; 579; 636). None of these Amendments are considered legal, but members
are not equally concerned with all of them. The Sixteenth and Seventeenth are the two
most often attacked in NCFRM speeches.
The NCFRM also teaches that it is the latest in a long line of citizen militias
originating with the Saxon defenders of England in the 10th century A.D. (Johnson 1995b:
1). According to the NCFRM, the tradition of citizen militias was place in America prior
to the Revolutionary War. It cites the militias led by George Washington against Native
Americans in the French and Indian War and later, in 1774, in Fairfax County, Virginia

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(Halbrook 1984: 60).
According to NCFRM doctrine, the federal government attempted to usurp the
rightful power of the people through the National Defense Act of 1916 and the National
Guard Act of 1933, both of which placed the militias of each state under federal
supervision. With these new laws, the states, and therefore the people, lost a significant
check on federal power (Jasper 1995: 21).
Officials of the NCFRM often quote the Declaration of Independence: . When
a long Train of Abuses and Usurpations, pursuing invariably the same Object, evinces a
design to reduce them under absolute Despotism, it is their Right, it is their Duty, to throw
off such Government, and to provide new Guards for their future Security (Current et al
1983: i). After the events at Ruby Ridge and Waco, American citizens again began
banding together in order to protect themselves from the oppressive federal government
(Tyrrell 1994: 1).
Finally, members of the NCFRM are opposed to several aspects of todays society.
These include the acceptance of homosexuality as a valid lifestyle, the public funding of
abortion, tax dollars spent on AIDS research, and the increasing rates of violent crime and
divorce. All of these are ultimately interpreted as results of government plots to divide the
population against itself and to weaken the public through the promotion of immorality.
Race
According to the North Central Florida Regional Militias spokesperson, the unit is
open to members of all races. The NCFRM is opposed to government tyranny, and all

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Americans are victims of oppression. It is counter-productive, therefore, to deny
membership to any particular race or to pit one race against another. The unit has no
guaranteed method for screening out racist individuals, but once a racist member is
discovered, he is censured: It is often the militia leaders themselves who are most acutely
aware of this problem, and who are working conscientiously to weed out the real
extremists, racists, and hatemongers (Jasper 1995: 6).
A NCFRM document states that their admission policy permits membership to all
who would fight the government: . . all citizens of the United States and citizens of
Florida who are 18 years of age or older are welcome to join. There are no barriers due to
religious beliefs, ethnic heritage, racial background or physical condition (North Central
Florida Regional Militia 1995c: 1). The NCFRM is also a member unit of the Congress of
Florida Militias which has publicly stated that we must not allow any form of
discrimination within our ranks. We need the assistance of every man, woman, and child
who dares take up the heavy mantle of freedom (Cody 1995: 2). Finally, many members
of the NCFRM are also members of a group called Jews for the Preservation of Firearms
Ownership (JPFO). This group is ostensibly organized for and by Jews who believe that
they are required by Talmudic Law to defend themselves and resist pogrom. Membership
in the JPFO is open to non-Jews. Despite affiliations with the JPFO, the NCFRM does
not appear to have any Jewish members.
Despite all of these official statements, however, three things are clear. First, there
are no members who are not of European descent. Second, the militia distributes
unedited, ideological statements issued by other groups which are clearly either tied to or

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dominated by white supremacists. Finally, the NCFRM actively distributes, and lectures
from, 7'he Spotlight. This newspaper, published weekly, regularly features anti-Semitic
and white supremacist articles, advertisements, and event announcements. The Anti-
Defamation League has called The Liberty Lobby, publisher of The Spotlight, the most
significant anti-Semitic propaganda organization in the United States (Schwartz 1996:
37).
Central Florida Militia Association
New World Order/ZOG
The CFMA teaches its members that Congress usurped the Constitution in 1933
with the passage of former President Roosevelts New Deal programs and has been
acting illegally since that year. The real power behind the federal government today is
an international conspiracy of bankers and investors who are secretly pulling the strings of
Americas politicians. This group is the New World Order. The New World Order is also
behind the news and entertainment industries, and is using its influence in these media to
brainwash the American public into accepting its policies. Who is behind the New
World Order? Cody offers an answer:
The New World Order is not a Jewish conspiracy. It is not a racial order of any
kind. Do not point an accusing finger at the black man, or the European or the
wealth. We are not talking about class struggle. . The enemy we face is world
government. Totalitarian control over every aspect of our live by a handful of
power mad ultra elite who have been manipulating the governments of the world
for decades (Cody 1995: 2).

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The CFMA, like the NCFRM, believes that it is part of a thousand-year-old
tradition in the West of citizen militias banding together for self-protection, tracing their
roots from the Saxon defenders of England to the Minutemen of the American Revolution.
The CFMA doctrine holds that Congress usurped the rights of the people and of the states
when it adopted the National Defense Act of 1916 and the National Guard Act of 1933
(Jasper 1995: 21). Thus began the New Deal, or the complete revocation and suspension
of the Constitution. This opened the way for a continuing series of abuses of power by
Congress and the President. According to the CFMA, as with the NCFRM, the proper
response to these abuses is found in the Declaration of Independence. The principles
guiding the Founding Fathers should still be recognized and upheld today, according to
the CFMA.
Race
Mark Codys opening remarks of the First Congress of Florida Militias included
this statement: We must not allow any form of discrimination within our ranks. We need
the assistance of every man, woman and child who dares to take up the heavy mantle of
freedom (Cody 1995: 2). The CFMA not only encourages racial cooperation in the
Militia Movement, it will dismiss as a member any unit which it suspects of discriminatory
practices or orientations. This was demonstrated when Cody expelled the NAAWPs
Spartan Legion.
Despite this policy, several members of the CFMA read The Spotlight. As
discussed previously, this newspaper has become the most popular source of information

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and communication in the entire Militia Movement; it is also virulently anti-Semitic
(Schwartz 1996: 37).
Summary
New World Order/ZOG
Each militia in this study teaches that the United States government has been
usurped by a mysterious group referred to as the New World Order (NWO) which has as
its goal the unification of world government under its control. The WCOTC, TK/KKK,
and NAAWP all teach that the New World Order consists of Jews and also refer to it as
the Zionist Occupation Government (ZOG). Several members of the NCFRM share this
belief, although the leaders of the group are less specific as to the identities of the NWO.
The CFMA rejects Jews as the source of the NWO, focusing instead on unidentified
wealthy elitists. The Spotlight has been observed among members of each group; the only
group which does not actively disseminate this journal is the CFMA.
Whenever facts are cited in support of the conspiracy theories, they are
presented in two steps. First, a problem in society is delineated, complete with
supporting evidence. Second, blame is cast. All of the political beliefs in the militias
examined for this project were oriented around a scapegoat theme.
Finally, all of the militias support a belief in the inerrancy and absolute legitimacy
of the Constitution of the United States, and argue that all of the Amendments subsequent
to the Bill of Rights are invalid.

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Race
The WCOTC and the TK/KKK are overtly racist and are opposed to equality
among races in any form. The NAAWP publicly denies that it is racist, claiming to be
concerned with preserving white heritage. Ethnographic data, however, clearly indicate
that this claim is false.
The NCFRM claims to be all-inclusive and unconcerned with race and its official
doctrinal statements and rules support this claim. It is not, however, integrated in any
way. The CFMA, on the other hand, claims to be racially inclusive and its actions support
this claim. The CFMA expelled the NAAWP in 1995 because of its racist orientation.
Despite the facts that the NCFRM is not integrated and circulates The Spotlight it remains
a member in good standing of the CFMA. Apparently the CFMA is concerned that its
member units agree to be tolerant and have the overt appearance of tolerance; they are not
required to actually eliminate all racist and/or anti-Semitic members.

CHAPTER 9
ACTIVITIES OF FLORIDA MILITIAS
Hit and run tactics will be our method of fighting. . We will destroy
targets such as telephone relay centers, bridges, fuel storage tanks,
communications towers, radio stations, airports, etc. . human targets will be
engaged when it is beneficial to the cause to eliminate particular individuals who
oppose us (troops, political figures, snitches, etc.).
-James Roy Mullins, of the Blue
Ridge Hunt Club (Stem 1996: 36)
Chapter Six examined the people who join militias, and the preceding two chapters
explored some of the reasons for their enlistment. This chapter will begin to look at the
things militia activists actually do. What are the activities which result from the religious,
political, and racial ideologies of each group? This chapter will examine the activities
observed during the course of this project to see how the beliefs of militia members are
actualized.
World Church of the Creator
The activities of the White Berets in West Palm Beach include paramilitary training
at a camp they have constructed, listening to skinhead rock music, vandalizing
property, and assaulting minorities.
134

135
The training camp is located on the farm of a members family near Tampa. The
WCOTC militiamen drive out for weekend camping trips in which they practice shooting
on the gun range, running the obstacle course, and practicing basic squad-level patrolling
techniques in preparation for the coming racial holy war. They are all armed with a
standard nine-millimeter automatic pistol, and most have back-up weapons such as
shotguns and rifles.
For recreation, White Berets listen to a unique form of musicskinhead rock.
One of the most popular songs of this genre, produced by a band composed of WCOTC
members, is a rewrite of the Nancy Sinatra song These Boots Are Made for Walking. In
the skinhead version, the lyrics are:
These boots are made for stompin
And thats just what they ll do.
One of these days these boots are gonna stomp all over Jews (Schwartz 1996:
200).
The music is distributed through Resistance Records, a company affiliated with the
WCOTC.
Another popular form of recreation for members is gathering together and
vandalizing property; many have been arrested for this activity. The most common targets
are black churches and Jewish businesses; during the period of this research, two members
were arrested for painting swastikas on a Jewish-owned law firm. Another common
activity involves White Berets driving around in groups and locating individual minorities
to assault. This has led to several arrests and to at least one murder (Schwartz 1996:
198).

136
Templar Knights of the Ku Klux Klan
The primary activity of the TK/KKK seems to be seeking publicity. Alder, as
previously stated, is a frequent guest on The Jerry Springer Show. He has also appeared
on talk shows hosted by Geraldo Rivera, Sally Jesse Raphael, and Montel Williams. In
addition, the TK/KKK holds two annual rallies in the White City Park. The first is held
each February and is known as White Pride Day. The second is held in November and
is called the Klan Khristmas; it features a visit from Klanta Klaus, who brings gifts for
all of the children present. These two events are covered by both local and national media,
present at Alders invitation.
The TK/KKK also holds occasional cross burnings, primarily at Naturalization
Ceremonies when new Klansmen and Klanswomen are initiated into the group. At least
one of these ceremonies was conducted at the home of Dan Daniels, Field Commander of
the National Association for the Advancement of White People. Finally, the TK/KKK
sporadically holds paramilitary training, but these training sessions were never observed
during the period of study.
NAAWP: Spartan Legion Militia
National
The primary activities of the National Office are recruitment of new members,
establishment of policies and principles, merchandizing, and coordination of Regional and
State offices. Recruiting is primarily performed through announcements sent through the
U. S. mail. Mailing lists are exchanged with and purchased from other right-wing groups

137
despite the fact Allen states in each mailing that his lists are confidential.
Policies and principles are updated periodically, and each issue of The NAA WP
News carries an insert titled N.A. A.W.P. Principles. They are created by Paul Allen with
input from his Regional Directors and other advisors. These principles provide the official
guidance for all NAAWP activities and are reprinted in their entirety in Appendix E.
Florida
NAAWP activities in Florida can be divided into two categories: the political
activities of NAAWP chapters and the paramilitary activities of the Spartan Legion.
Political activities include attending city and county council meetings, running for local
office, writing letters to politicians and editors of newspapers, and public protests. In
Jacksonville, members of the NAAWP chapter attend all City Council meetings. They
typically arrive in a group of two to seven members; each is well-informed about the local
governments actions of the month. They take turns making statements critical of the
governments behavior, make suggestions for improvement, and frequently threaten to file
lawsuits. NAAWP members are notorious for suing local governments and losing, despite
this track record, though, they always seem to find another lawyer willing to take their
cases.
Sue Lamb, Chaplain of the NAAWP, was elected to the local school board in
Jacksonville, as have her colleagues in other locales in Florida. Ted Doubleton, former
commander of the local Spartan Legion, is planning to run for Mayor. Each issue of the
local newsletter from Jacksonville, as well as each issue of The Eagle: NAA WP

138
Battleground, includes copies of letters sent to local politicians containing attacks on the
politicians voting records. Rarely does a month pass in Jacksonville without the
publication of letters to the editor in the local newspaper from NAAWP members warning
of Jewish conspiracies and the New World Order.
Finally, the local groups frequently sponsor public protests. At an NAAWP
protest march, between five and ten members will arrive carrying signs and placards and
waving Confederate Battle Flags. They have protested the states refusal to permit
NAAWP participation in the Adopt-a-Highway program; the school boards removal of
an NAAWP hotline from school property; a convention centers refusal to rent space for
the Third Annual White Rights Rally; the conviction of member David Broome for hate
crimes; United Nations Day; and Martin Luther King, Jr., Day.
The paramilitary activities of the Spartan Legion are limited to general meetings
and training sessions. The general meetings are held on alternating Thursday nights.
Before the meetings begin, one or two members go inside and set up the room while the
rest wait outside, smoke, and socialize. Setting up the room entails arranging chairs facing
the front of the room, where a desk and two chairs face the rear. Two flags are placed in
stands on either side of the desk; one is an American flag, the other is a Confederate battle
flag. A United Nations flag is taped to the floor just inside of the entrance.
When the group enters, each member ceremonially wipes his feet on the United
Nations flag. After taking their seats, the members are called to attention by the
commander, who leads in a recitation of the Pledge of Allegiance followed by a prayer.
Visitors are greeted, introduced, and questioned. Later, members decide by majority vote

139
whether or not to allow them to join. The decisions are made after an illegal background
check is performed by members who are police officers and discussion among members of
the group. The greeting of guests is followed by a discussion of current events and topics
of interest. Discussion is open to all attendees and revolves around the New World Order
conspiracy and examples of reverse discrimination in the news. A class is taught,
usually First Aid, disassembly/reassembly of various weapons, or Drill and Ceremony.
The last item on the typical agenda is the planning of upcoming training sessions. The
meetings close with another prayer, which is followed by a ceremony in which all of the
members stand in a circle and shake the hands of each other member. The circle
represents the teamwork necessary for overthrow of the New World Order, and
demonstrates that although there is a vital rank structure, all members are comrades.
Training sessions are held on the Saturday following each Thursday meeting.
Training generally includes a physical fitness test, Drill and Ceremony, First Aid, Combat
Patrolling, setting up ambushes, radio procedures, sniping operations, and camouflage
techniques. Although the training is of a paramilitary nature and is ostensibly designed to
prepare for war, it involves minimal physical effort. No one gets dirty and rarely do
members sweat. The sessions end with a barbeque dinner, washed down with liberal
amounts of Budweiser beer.
North Central Florida Regional Militia
The primary activity of the NCFRM is the maintenance of their public group or
outer circle, the Citizens for Better Government. This group holds weekly discussion

140
meetings in a reserved room at a local restaurant. In these meetings, the groups leader,
Dr. Ralle, opens with the Pledge of Allegiance and then makes a speech about current
events, tying them into militia conspiracy theory. After Dr. Ralle is finished, Mr. Johnson,
the groups official spokesperson, gives a slightly longer lecture about information he has
gleaned from the Internet during the week. Mr. Johnsons lectures raise many questions,
and he offers few answers. He merely points to current events which seem to have
underlying causes related to various conspiracy theories and leaves interpretation to his
listeners.
When Mr. Johnsons lecture is completed, he opens the floor for discussion.
People around the room stand and address the group with various political, economic, or
religious concerns:
Speeches. . rage against mandated politically correct behavior, against
homosexuals in public schools and military units, against the revolving door
policy of Americas penal system, and against a myriad of other topics too
numerous to detail. . Frequent mention is made at meetings about the approach of
Armageddon, the endtimes that televangelists say we are living in, and the
quickly-approaching millennium. .(Akins 1995: 45).
These speeches are always filled with newly discovered pieces of evidence supporting
the New World Order conspiracy theory. On occasion there will be a guest speaker;
these are usually local politicians from the Republican Party seeking to gain militia support
for their campaigns.
Each year the unit musters for a public protest of United Nations Day. The protest
is preceded by numerous letters to the editor of the local newspaper complaining about the
display of the U. N. flag over the City Hall.

141
The unit also engages in paramilitary training on a monthly basis; most of this
training is poorly organized and not rigorous, perhaps because of a lack of sufficient
military experience and the generally poor level of physical conditioning on the part of its
leadership. As of this date there have been no reports of violence or illegal activity on the
part of the NCFRM.
Central Florida Militia Association
The primary activities of the CFMA are sponsoring the CFM and collecting and
disseminating information about the New World Order. The Congresses of Florida
Militias involve weekends during which representatives from all of the member units come
together to share new information about the NWO, confirm the truth of the conspiracy
theory, suggest new training methods, and share ideas about equipment and arms.
Information about the NWO is disseminated on a variety of BBSs and websites on the
Internet and through regular mailings to the representatives of the member units.
Summary
All of the militias in this study train, either regularly or sporadically, for an eventual
armed conflict with the forces of the New World Order. The WCOTC and the Spartan
Legion expect the eventual war to be inter-racial, a Second Civil War between blacks
and whites. The TK/KKK is unsure who the enemy will be, but are convinced that a war
is coming. The NCFRM and the CFMA expect to fight United Nations troops and
possibly even the United States Army.

142
None of the training observed appears to be particularly rigorous nor does it
appear to have a valid military basis. The overwhelming majority of the militia activists
are in such poor physical condition, are such poor marksmen, and are so ill-equipped that
to enter combat against trained soldiers would be utterly disastrous; however, few of the
militiamen seem to recognize this fact. This is probably because of the paucity of trained
and experienced combat veterans in the movementmost of the veterans are National
Guardsmen or Reservists with skills which would be irrelevant in the anticipated type of
guerilla warfare against the United States Army, such as Clerk/Typist, Radio
Operator, or Medic. On the other hand, the non-paramilitary activities of the WCOTC
can, and often do, lead to both property damage and personal injury among their foes.
Other than the WCOTC, none of the militia activists examined in this project were
observed or reputed to be involved in illegal activities related to violence; they simply
talked about it all the time.
Each militia holds regular meetings in which the outlines of the synthetic
conspiracy theory are discussed and correlated with current events. At most of these
meetings, all members are given the opportunity to take the floor and express their
opinions. The meetings serve to create a free space in which people are able to learn a
new self-respect, a deeper and more assertive group identity, public skills, and values of
cooperation and civic virtue (Couto 1993: 58). In the free space, leaders and followers
alike are able to carry on narratives in which they express their sense of persecution by the
dominant society, not unlike the narratives of the Civil Rights Movement of the 1960s.
Narratives serve to transmit and continue a belief in the virtue of the oppressed and to

143
assert a social life or at least better understanding of (the) groups social condition than
that which prevails in the dominant culture (Couto 1993: 58). The primary movement
building activity of each militia, therefore, is the creation of free space and the use of
narrative to create a feeling of group cohesion, to reinforce the belief system, and to
demonize the dominant authority to which the group stands in opposition.

CHAPTER 10
DISCUSSION
You say you want a revolution?
Well, you know. .
We all want to change the world.
-(Lennon & McCartney 1968: 770)
Militia Conspiracy Theory: The Ideological Octopus
The first step in understanding the Militia Movement is grasping the brilliance of
the conspiracy theory which lies at its heart and the means through which activists are
initially converted to belief in this theory. It is internally consistent, virtually impossible to
disprove, and explains a plethora of problems with American society and government.
The synthetic conspiracy theory devised at the Rocky Mountain Rendezvous can
be envisioned as an ideological octopus. In this analogy, the body of the octopus
represents the New World Order theory; each tentacle represents a specific concern, such
as firearm ownership, abortion, or prayer in public schools. Each tentacle of this
ideological octopus reaches into a pre-existing social movement, yet each connects with
the others at the body, the New World Order. Through this conspiracy theory the Militia
Movement draws upon white supremacists, anti-Semites, anti-abortionists, tax resisters,
gun-rights advocates, Identity adherents, theocrats, and survivalists.
144

145
Each of these groups has its own social movement, its own organizations; the
Militia Movements theory ties these together by focusing blame for all of the individual
problems on the United States government and the United Nations. For example,
economic changes are the result of an international banking conspiracy enabled through
federal cooperation with the conspirators (Mann 1997; Arnold & OConnor 1997).
Financial and military support for Israel is redistributed to Americas enemies (Blari 1997).
Environmental laws are attempts to limit the free and wise use of Americas resources
by Americans and create dependency on international corporations (Dyer 1997: 16;
Salaman 1996: 26). Abortion is government-funded population control (Katson 1996:
18). United Nations Peace-Keeping Operations are attempts to subvert the United States
military by incorporating them into a New World Order police force (New 1996: 16).
Guns are confiscated so that citizens cannot protect themselves.
Once these tentacles have reached into non-militia populations, recruitment can
proceed. Typical militia recruiting occurs through personal relationships. For example, a
person may be involved in a discussion with a friend concerning firearm ownership in
which he expresses his growing disgust with government firearm restrictions. I thought
the Constitution guaranteed the right to own guns, he might say. How can they say I
cant buy a gun? If the friend is a militia activist, he might respond with an invitation to
attend a meeting in which the first mans questions will be answered. Once the man
attends his first meeting, he learns that confiscation of privately-owned guns is usually one
of the first steps in establishing a totalitarian government; examples from Nazi Germany
and the Soviet Union are offered in support of this thesis.

146
The first tentacle of the octopus has touched him, and then others begin to reach
out in an attempt to grasp him. It is pointed out how many other rights are being revoked,
such as the right of his children to pray in school, the right to protect unborn children from
a hideous, government-funded murder, or the right to have access to his so-called
representatives in government. It is also demonstrated that other spurious rights
which liberals are claiming for themselves are not truly rights at allthe Constitution does
not guarantee the right to make and distribute pornography (which leads directly to child
abuse and the collapse of the nuclear family), nor the right of homosexual perverts to
marry, adopt children, or teach in public schools, nor the right of government bureaucrats
to take his hard-earned money through the illegal and unconstitutional income tax. Each
of these issues represents a tentacle of the octopus.
If he finds himself interested enough to attend more meetings, he hears about
federal agents kicking in doors and shooting innocent citizens, burning the children at
Waco to death, ruthlessly murdering the wife of Randy Weaver as she held her baby in her
arms. He is told about the firing of teachers who try to tell their students about the Bible
instead of this ridiculous, Satanic evolutionary theory. He is given pamphlets, newsletters,
newspapers, and magazines to take home so that he can read about what is really going
on.
Eventually he learns that all of this is related: Someone is deliberately destroying
Americas economy, disarming and illegally surveilling its citizens, murdering those who
step out of line, and turning groups of Americans against each other. Someone is
poisoning the minds of its children through schools and television. Someone is trying to

147
ban the practice of Christianity. Someone is making American soldiers go fight under
foreign commanders in wars which have no connection to American interests and then
refusing them medical care when they return. Someone is taking American industry
overseas and driving American farmers off of their land. Someone has purchased
American Congressmen and now controls their votes. Someone is well down the road to
establishing a totalitarian government in the former land of the free. All of these things
are happening-so/wco/re must be at the heart of it all.
These various arms of the octopus keep pulling him closer to the body, and he
eventually learns who that someone is: The New World Order. He may find some aspects
of the theory ludicrous, others mildly interesting, yet others captivating. Few activists give
credibility to all of the tentacles, but even one or two are usually sufficient. What is
important is that he accept the body of the octopus, the existence of the New World
Order.
Potential Militia Recruits
Many people in this country are concerned about the very topics which the Militia
Movement discusses in order to recruit its activists, but only a minute fragment of
Americans will join a militia. The second step in understanding the Militia Movement is
determining who the movements activists are. What are the factors which separate those
who buy into this conspiracy theory from those who laugh at it? Specifically, what
cultural elements at work in America create a pool of potential sympathizers? What
separates the sympathizers into those who will tentatively attend meetings from those who

148
will not? What separates those who attend into those who will join and those who will
never return?
There are as many personal and psychological reasons for joining militias as there
are militiamen. It is not the function of anthropology to determine the exact reason why
each individual joins the movement; rather, it is to determine those pre-existing factors
within the social structure which tend to make it either more or less likely that a person
exposed to militia doctrine will choose to reject or to tentatively accept the theory.
General Population
The largest pool of potential recruits is the population of native-born American
citizens. There is no evidence to indicate the participation of either foreigners or recent
immigrants, nor the participation of first-generation Americans. There is reason to
believe, in fact, that foreigners, immigrants, or the children of immigrants would be
extremely unwelcome at most, if not all, militia gatherings. It is obvious, however, that
the overwhelming majority of native-born Americans are not militia activists. The
questions to ask, therefore, are: What factors begin narrowing the field? What makes it
more or less likely that an American will become a militiaman?
One model commonly used to explain participation in extremist political
movements is massification theory. According to massification theory, there is a negative
association between a persons structural connections with mainstream society and that
persons likelihood to become an activist in any extremist movement. In other words, the
less connected an individual feels with the larger society, the more likely that person is to

149
turn against it through a movement of this nature.
This does not appear to be the case with the Militia Movement, however. Militia
members are usually activists in some way, shape, or form prior to their commitment to
this movement. Many militiamen participated in the anti-abortion crusade, for instance.
The subjects of this study appear to be connected to their society in many other ways, as
well. For example, most are married and many have children. Many are active
participants in local government; some have even been elected to public office. Others are
active in their churches, serving as deacons, committee members, and Sunday School
teachers.
Another standard model, education theory, holds that there should be a negative
association between years of formal education and participation in right-wing social
movements. While it would be comforting to attribute militia activism to ignorance or
illiteracy, this theory also fails to explain the Militia Movement. Militia activists tend to
fall slightly behind the general population of the United States in the percentage of
professional or graduate degrees and substantially behind in college graduates, but they are
far better educated than their peers in terms of high school diplomas. According to census
data, one third of all Americans fail to complete high school. Through the course of this
project, only one high school dropout was discovereda member of the Templar Knights
of the Ku Klux Klan. There is no way, of course, to test the quality of education received,
but it is clear that years of formal education cannot be used as a determinant to predict
participation in the Militia Movement. It is entirely possible, though, that the
demonstrably decreased standards of public education may play a part in militia

150
participation, but there is no way to either confirm or deny this within the confines of this
study.
H. G. Barnett offered various typologies of potential acceptors for new social
movements in his book Innovation: The Basis of Cultural Change (1953). The
typologies, however, are difficult to determine with accuracy without extensive
psychological examination of individual militia activists. It can be stated here, though, that
his categories of the disaffected and the resentfid seem to provide a general description of
many militiamen encountered through this project. Of the disaffected Barnett wrote:
Some people start out by being active participants in certain aspects of their culture but
later acquire a distaste for them. Many experience a change from a positive to a negative
attitude as a result of some personalized event or series of events (Barnett 1953 : 389).
The resentfid, on the other hand, are people who feel they have been unfairly treated and
never really accept their assignment and the lesser prizes that go with it. . they are
dissatisfied not because they object to the values of their group but because they are
denied those that are esteemed the most (Barnett 1953: 401).
As stated previously, most militia members were activists in their communities
prior to the Militia Movement. They are attempting to take part in society, but find
society increasingly at variance to their ideals. This can lead to disaffection on the part of
people who can not or will not adapt to the changes in American society. Other
militiamen seem to be complaining about economic and political changes, not because they
do not believe in business and profit, but because the profits are going to someone else:
immigrants, minorities, foreigners, corporations, Jews, or international bankers.

151
Describing militiamen as disaffected or resentful, however, still does not answer the
question.
What makes them disaffected or resentful? What is it that really makes a person
more likely to join a militia? Economics? The standard anthropological class-based
economic models also fail to explain militia activism. There is no identification of
militiamen with the ideology or needs of any particular social class. There is no social
class from which the majority or even a substantial percentage of its members participate
in the movement. The population in question is self-selected; they are not identified by the
general population as a particular class. There are representatives within the movement
from each socioeconomic classbusiness owners, managers and executives, intellectuals,
farm and industrial laborers, and workers in the service industry.
Economic Factors
Despite the fact that this is not a class-based phenomenon, there are economic
factors which can be used to predict the possibility of participation. These factors cut
across class lines and are therefore faction-based. The economic changes discussed in
Chapter Four have benefited some members of each social class; likewise, they have
injured some members of all the classes. There are people unable to adapt to the changing
economic conditions at all levels, from business owners down to the lowest-paid menial
laborers, and these are the people more likely than their fellow Americans to participate in
the Militia Movement.

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The economic concerns of the Militia Movement are apparent when reading any
issue of The Spotlight or listening to most militia speeches (Arnold & OConnor 1997;
Hough 1995). Several rallies featured lectures about jobs being moved south because of
NAFTA and government set-aside programs which take jobs from decent, hard
working people and give them to unqualified minorities. From the perspective of people
suffering from economic change, they are living in the period of cultural distortion
described by Anthony Wallace in the article Revitalization Movements (Wallace 1956:
270)
Most of the people who have been left behind by Americas economic evolution,
however, will not join a militia. Most of them are too busy working and trying to survive
to concern themselves with the larger issues of a modern service-oriented economy.
While the pool of native-born Americans can be narrowed through identification of an
economic faction which is in distress, this is still not fully explanatory. The pool needs to
be narrowed even further.
Political Factors
People in economic crisis tend to react in a variety of ways. Some will work
harder while others will give up and accept their status. Some will strive to learn the new
requirements and adapt. Some will turn their frustration inward; many of these either
commit suicide or become clinically depressed. Still others begin seeking someone to
blame, to hold responsible. The search for scapegoats is often tied to personal views of
morality and social behavior and can lead in many directions. The economic changes of

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the past decade have created a large faction of people actively seeking someone to blame
for the new unfair conditions.
One direction in which this search has led is toward government; many Americans
have begun to pay close attention to their elected representatives. People are becoming
increasingly aware of corruption and incompetence in the federal government, and this
serves to make the government an obvious and convenient scapegoat. As this is occurring
politicians such as Pat Buchanon and Jesse Helms speak of culture wars while religious
activists are bombing abortion clinics in the name of Jesus (Hallow 1996). Divisive social
policies are creating divisive movements in their wake, such as the family values, anti
abortion, anti-tax, anti-homosexual, gun rights, and survivalist organizations. Each of
these movements has an ideology which can, with the proper manipulation, place the
blame for whatever problem with which it is concerned on the federal government.
At this point, the pool of potential recruits has been reduced somewhat. Persons
likely to adopt the militia conspiracy theory are typically disaffected or resentful native-
born American citizens. They are suffering economically because of structural changes
which have occurred in their lifetime. They have come to associate the federal
government with both their personal problems and with the larger problems in society.
However, this description still fits many people who will never participate in militia
activism. In other words, they are unhappy with the conditions of their lives, and are
blaming others for their unhappiness. Eric Hoffer argues that this is a critical emotional
prerequisite for participation in social movements: A man is likely to mind his own
business when it is worth minding. When it is not, he takes his mind off his own

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meaningless affairs by minding other peoples business (Hoffer 1951: 14).
Mechanism of Exposure
Assuming that the group of people most likely to join a militia are native-born
Americans suffering economic distress, distrustful of the federal government, and unhappy
with their lives, another question remains unanswered: Why do most of the people fitting
this description still fail to join militias? They do not join, in large part, because they have
not been exposed to the appropriate opportunity structure.
According to the multi-step mobilization model, participation in extremist political
movements is initiated by the same mechanism found in virtually all other group
phenomena. This model, which is folly supported by the data collected in this study,
indicates that mass appeal recruiting efforts such as advertizing, publicity, flyers, and other
methods are rarely effective in the early stages of a movement. Instead, potential activists
are recruited personally, through pre-existing connections. These connections may be
friends, family members, co-workers, or even casual acquaintances, but the connections
are necessary.
To put this into perspective, imagine hearing about the Militia Movement on a
television news show. Even if you agreed with what you heard and wanted to participate,
how would you go about it? You would have an extremely tough time even finding a
militia; when you did, you would immediately be accused of attempting to infiltrate and
spy upon the group. Militias do not advertize in the telephone bookalmost every militia
member in this study was introduced to the movement through a personal invitation. The

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few who entered without a personal invitation had to go through a difficult search to find
the group, then find a member to befriend and eventually sponsor him for membership.
Without this personal connection there can be no militia participation, regardless of pre
existing structural conditions.
This is where the race of the potential recruit enters the picture. For a variety of
reasons, the overwhelming majority of individuals invited into the Militia Movement are
white, of European descent. This is, in part, because most of the militias and militiamen
can be ideologically classified as either white supremacists or racialists. In part it is the
natural consequence of multi-step mobilization-people invite their associates, and most
people associate with members of their own race. In part it is because of the media
attention which has been focused on the Militia Movement, publicity which would
discourage most well-informed minorities from attending militia meetings if invited.
However, many European-Americans suffering economic distress, blaming the
government, and within a social network leading to close exposure to the Militia
Movement, will not join a militia. What factor or factors indicate whether a person in this
position will reject, sympathize with, or embrace the Militia Movement?
Fundamentalism
Evidence accumulated in the course of this study indicates that the primary factor
leading to acceptance or rejection of militia ideology for a person in this position is the
presence of a fundamentalist worldview. Whether the individuals in question hold this
worldview throughout adulthood or adopt it as a result of their economic distress or

156
political ideology is debatable. What is clear, however, is that potential recruits invited to
meetings are far more likely to accept the militia conspiracy theory as valid if they have a
fundamentalist perspective at the time of their exposure.
Identity Christianity, which was the driving ideological force in the creation of the
Militia Movement, meets the criteria for classification as a fundamentalist movement.
Even the anti-Christian doctrines of the World Church of the Creator are dualistic,
conspiratorial, millenarian, and aggressively non-compromising. Fundamentalist
Christianity, as was stated previously, is the most prevalent religious orientation among
militiamen in Florida.
But what of the rare atheists, agnostics, or religiously non-committed militia
members? The political and social ideologies of these rare minority members of the
movement can be examined and classified by most of the criteria established by The
Fundamentalist Project as fundamentalist in nature. While secular fundamentalism
may appear to be an oxymoron, the designation has some arguable validity. For example,
non-religious members of the North Central Florida Regional Militia believe that there is a
fast-approaching war which will lead to the overthrow and destruction of the New World
Order and establish a reign of freedom and democracy worldwide; this could be
interpreted as millenarianism. They believe that the world is under attack from a secret
cabal of evil oppressive oligarches which has operated throughout history; this is
conspiratorialism. They do not accept the complexity of social issues but see each
question of morality as a right or wrong proposition; this is dualism. They believe that
there can be no compromise with the New World Order and that the oligarches must be

157
eliminated. Finally, they believe in the textual inerrancy and absolutism of the
Constitution.
Regardless of whether or not the term fundamentalism can be applied with surety
to secular belief systems, the parallels are clear. Whether accepting the doctrines of
Protestant Christianity, Identity Christianity, Creativity, or Thomas Paine and Thomas
Jefferson as absolute and inerrant, the militia activists in this study perceive their collective
reality as dualistic. They believe the driving force behind human history has been a
struggle between forces of good and forces of evil, and that the forces of evil have
operated behind the scenes as hidden manipulators. Finally, they believe that a massive,
all-encompassing war is rapidly approaching which will determine the future of humanity.
This Manichean, conspiratorial, and millenarian perspective is the primary
determinant of acceptance or rejection when directly exposed to the Militia Movement.
The synthetic conspiracy upon which the movement is based is geared toward
fundamentalism, and those who interpret the world in a non-fundamentalist manner are
unlikely to find answers to their questions from that source.
Timing
The final key to understanding the Militia Movement is understanding its timing.
Why did the Militia Movement develop now? This is a complex question, but the answer
can be partially explained through a review of six historical events, of which the first four
created a situation that the final two caused to explode. The initial groundwork was laid
by the collapse of the Soviet Union, the Gulf War, the election of President Clinton, and

158
the approach of the end of the twentieth century.
For the past half century, American politics have revolved around the Cold War,
which has presented a clear duality between the evil empire and America. With the
destruction of the Communist system, Americans lost a vital enemy. There is no longer an
obviously inferior socioeconomic system with which to compare American capitalism, no
longer a big, bad wolf in Russia for American politicians to use to divert the attention of
their constituents (Bennett 1995: 469). With the effective end of Communism, Americans
began to pay more attention to their own situation, and the flaws inherent in capitalism
began to draw increased notice.
The Gulf War was important for three reasons. First, it was a war fought under
the auspices of the United Nations. It was not America vs. Iraq; rather, it was American
troops and money subordinated to the command and control, and for the benefit, of
foreigners. Second, in speeches about the coalition, former President Bush repeatedly
referred to the New World Order which was being constructed by the United Nations.
Finally, the American troops who fought the war returned to suffer Gulf War Syndrome,
and the governments treatment of these veterans enraged many Patriots (Croke 1996:6).
President Clinton was elected by a relatively narrow margin, demonstrating the
bifurcated nature of the American body politic. His detractors consider his election a
victory of sexual degenerates, minorities, the intellectual elite, and east-coast liberals.
Bumper stickers reading Dont Blame MeI Voted for Bush appeared almost
immediately and still remain proudly displayed on cars across the nation. Clinton has
become a symbol representing everything opposed by right-wing factions in America

159
today (Graham 1995; Morris 1994; Magnus 1996).
Finally, what could encourage a millenarian movement more than the end of a
millennium? A poll conducted by U. S. News and World Report indicated that in 1994
61% of Americans believed that Jesus Christ will return, 44% believed that there will be a
final battle of Armageddon, and 49% believed there will be an Antichrist. Of the 61%
who believed Jesus will return, almost half believed that this will occur at or near the end
of this century (Associated Press 1994).
These four events, in combination with the economic, political, and religious
factors delineated previously, were capped with the incidents at Ruby Ridge and Waco.
Ruby Ridge went unnoticed by most Americans, but some people were paying attention.
Waco, on the other hand, was broadcast live into living rooms nationwide. People were
able to observe, live, the government tanks that smashed the walls of Koreshs compound
and the flames which engulfed and killed the inhabitants. For people in economic crisis,
focusing their attention on government mismanagement and corruption, and interpreting
their observations through a fundamentalist worldview, the message was clear: Step out of
line and Uncle Sam will bum you down.
Conclusions
This project was initiated to determine why the Militia Movement developed, and
further, why it developed when it did. Because the Militia Movement is such a complex
social phenomenon the answer is equally complex and multifactorial, and the answer is
composed of several explanatory strands which must be considered both independently

160
and in combination. The exploration of these various factors can be coordinated through
the use of Richard Hofstadters proposed theory of projective politics.
In 1962 Hofstadter wrote the following:
We are still confronted from time to time with a wide range of behavior for which
the economic interpretation of politics seems to be inadequate or misleading or
altogether irrelevant. . There have always been certain types of cultural issues,
questions of faith and morals, tone and style, freedom and coercion, which become
fighting issues. . at times politics becomes an arena into which the wildest fancies
are projected, the most paranoid suspicions, the most absurd superstitions, the
most bizarre apocalyptic fantasies. . the true believers in a movement of this sort
project into the arena of politics utterly irrelevant fantasies and disorders of a
purely personal kind. . They represent a kind of politics that is not exactly status
politics or cultural politics, but that might be called projective politics. It
involves the projection of interests and concerns, not only largely private but
essentially pathological, into the public scene (Hofstadter 1962: 98-100).
Hofstadter seems strangely prophetiche was describing, in frightening detail, a
movement which would not develop for another thirty years.
The Militia Movement is a social movement comprised of people in distress, and
this distress stems from several sources. Most militia members have suffered because of
the inevitable changes in an evolving economic system; others have suffered economically
because of deliberate governmental actions. Most are more aware than their peers of the
actual levels of both incompetence and corruption in government and the relative inability
of common people to gain access to their elected representatives. They have
educated themselves through their active search for explanations and scapegoats. They
are distressed at social changes which challenge the validity of their mores, such as
abortion, pornography, and the decline in church attendance. In other words, the group in
question really suffers not from the policies of this or that administration, but from what

161
America has become in the twentieth century. Militia activists are engaged in the
fundamentalist revolt against modernity (Hofstadter 1962: 102, 103).
Although some people have always suffered economically and some Americans
have always distrusted the federal government, there has not always been such a large
segment of the population which is inclined to interpret its reality through a fundamentalist
perspective. In order to understand the Manichean style of thought, the apocalyptic
tendencies, the love of mystification, the intolerance of compromise that are observable in
the right-wing mind, we need to understand. . fundamentalism (Hofstadter 1962: 103).
The Militia Movement can be best explained as an outgrowth of the rising tide of
fundamentalism which has swept the world in the past two decades.
It is important when considering militia activists to remember that they are not evil
people, nor are they stupid. Neither are they crazy or ignorant. They are simply people
in distress, caught up in cultural events beyond their ability to control or comprehend.
Society has trapped them in a cycle from which it is difficult, if not impossible, for them to
escape. Fundamentalism is one-third of this cycle: fundamentalist thinking provides the
dualistic, conspiratorial, and millenarian perspective necessary to accept the Militia
Movements synthetic conspiracy theory. The second portion of the cycle is the synthetic
theory which explains economic change and governmental corruption and incompetence as
the result of a deliberate and coordinated international conspiracy. The final third of the
cycle is composed of events and situations occurring in the real worldthe economic
and political factors addressed by the conspiracy theory which cause the fundamentalists
to begin seeking answers to the problems in their lives.

APPENDIX A
MILITIAS IN FLORIDA: 1997
The following was compiled by researchers at the Klanwatch Project of the
Southern Poverty Law Center, supplemented with data from the Florida Department of
Law Enforcement and ethnographic information gathered in the course of this study, and
represents the most comprehensive available listing of militias in Florida. Militias are
listed in the alphabetical order of their respective home towns.
Alachua
Union County Militia
Avon Park
Florida State Militia
Avon Park
Florida State Militia 7th Regiment
Belleview
Marion County Citizens Militia
Bradenton
Manatee Minutemen Citizens Militia
Brevard County
Constitutional Militia of Florida
Camp Bradley
U. S. Field Forces National Militia
Daytona Beach
American Citizens Alliance
Daytona Beach
Liberty Group
Deerfield Beach
U. S. Taxspayers Party
Eagle Lake
Spartan Legion (NAAWP)
Eaton Park
27th Regiment
Englewood
Florida State Militia; 1st Florida Regiment
Escambia County
Panhandle Patriots, Inc.
Fort Myers
Lords of Chaos
Fort Pierce
Constitutional Militia of Florida
Fort Pierce
Constitutional Militia of Florida
Fort Pierce
Florida State Militia
Fort Walton Beach
Okaloosa County Militia
Fort Walton Beach
Panhandle Patriots, Inc.
Gainesville
North Central Florida Regional Militia
Highlands County
*Militia name unknown
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Hillsborough County
Jacksonville
Jacksonville
Jacksonville
Jensen Beach
Key Largo
Lee County
Maitland
Melbourne
Melbourne
Miami
Middleburg
Navarre
New Smyrna Beach
Orange County
Orange County
Orlando
Orlando
Orlando
Pace
Pace
Palm Bay
Palm Bay
Palm Bay
Pasco County
Pensacola
Pensacola
Pinellas County
Plant City
Polk County
Pompano Beach
Silver Springs
St. Petersburg
St. Petersburg
Starke
Tallahassee
Tampa
Tampa
Tampa
Tampa
Tampa
Tampa
Volusia County
* Militia name unknown
North Florida Militia
Spartan Legion (NAAWP) (North)
Spartan Legion (NAAWP) (South)
Martin County Militia
1st Regiment Florida State Militia/United States Militia
Lee County militia
Operation Freedom
19th Regiment
John Birch Society Militia
Privacy Consultants International
Middleburg Militia
Panhandle Patriots, Inc.
American Constitutional Society
Common Law Court
Orange County Common Law Court
18th Regiment
Christian Jural Society of Florida
Florida Unorganized Militia
Santa Rosa County Militia
Santa Rosa Militia
Brevard County Militia, 19th Regiment
Constitutional Militia of Florida
Restoration Township Jural Society
*Militia name unknown
Alligator Brigade
Escambia County Militia
*Militia name unknown
Hillsboro County Militia
*Militia name unknown (affiliated with NAAWP)
People for Sovereignty and Restoration
2nd Regiment Ocala
48 th Regiment
77th Regiment of Pinellas County
Bradford County Militia
Minuteman Press
55 th Regiment
82nd Regiment
Constitutional Common Law Militia
Constitutional Court of We the People
Pro Se Litigants of America, Inc.
Council of Conservative Citizens
Common Law Court

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West Palm Beach
West Palm Beach
West Palm Beach
White Springs
Winter Haven
Youngstown
^Location unknown
^Location unknown
* Location unknown
^Location unknown
^Location unknown
3rd Regiment
Constitutional Militia of Florida
White Berets (World Church of the Creator)
For the People
Central Florida Militia Association
Northwest Florida Militia
Citizens Intelligence Agency
Florida State Militia, 7th Regiment
Republic of Florida
10th Amendment Militia
United States Special Forces Militia

APPENDIX B
WHITE SUPREMACIST ORGANIZATIONS IN FLORIDA: 1997
The following was compiled by researchers at the Klanwatch Project of the
Southern Poverty Law Center, and enhanced by additional ethnographic data. It
represents the most comprehensive available listing of white supremacist groups in
Florida. Organizations are listed by category in the alphabetical order of their respective
home towns.
Chiefland
Christmas
Davie
Deland
Deltona
Gainesville
Grandin
Holder
Interlachen
Kathleen
Lake City
Lantana
McDavid
Micanopy
Monticello
New Port Richey
Ocala
Orlando
Port St. Lucie
Valrico
Ku Klux Klan
Suwannee River Knights of the Ku Klux Klan
Commonwealth Knights
International Keystone Knights of the Ku Klux Klan
Rangers of the Cross
Royal Knights of the Ku Klux Klan
Nathan Bedford Forrest Brigade
Klay Kounty Klavern
Confederate Independent Klansmen
United Klan of the Confederacy
Invisible Empire: Knights of the Ku Klux Klan
Florida Knights of the Ku Klux Klan
Fraternal White Knights of the Ku Klux Klan
Bayou Knights
Florida Black Knights of the Ku Klux Klan
Southern Knights of the Ku Klux Klan
Knights of the Ku Klux Klan
Knights of the Forest Ku Klux Klan
Knights of Lockhart Ku Klux Klan
Templar Knights of the Ku Klux Klan
Knights of the Apocalypse
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166
Neo-Nazi
Largo
Orlando
Pensacola
Aryan Nations
National Alliance
German American Nationalist PAC
Jacksonville
Lakewood
Miami Beach
West Pam Beach
^Location unknown
Skinhead
Confederate Hammer Skins
Children of the Reich
South Miami Aryan Skinheads
World Church of the Creator
International Posse
St. Petersburg
Identity
Christian Education Association
Eagle Lake
Eagle Lake
Fort Lauderdale
Fort Myers
Jacksonville
Miami
Nokomis
Ocala
Palm City
Pensacola
Tampa
Other
NAAWP
Spartan Aryan Society
World Church of the Creator
Lords of Chaos
NAAWP
America First Party
United American Guard
NAAWP
Free America
NAAWP
NAAWP

APPENDIX C
MAILING LISTS
Between January 1995 and November 1997,1 received mail from a wide variety of
organizations. The following list contains many of the contacts I made in this manner.
Regular Mailing List
Angels Action Gear
Bedford Forrest Brigade, Knights of the Ku Klux Klan
Congress of Florida Militias
European American Educational Association
Florida Christian Leaders Coalition
Invisible Empire, Ku Klux Klan (Kathleen, FL)
Knights of the Ku Klux Klan (Thomas Robb)
Ku Klux Klan: The Florida Klansman
National Association for the Advancement of White People
National Association for the Advancement of White People Spartan Legion Militia
Nationalist Movement (Richard Barrett)
Order of the Ku Klux Klan
Resistance Records
Spartan Aryan Society
Templar Knights of the Ku Klux Klan
United States Militia Association
White Aryan Resistance
World Church of the Creator
Single or Sporadic Contacts
National Alliance
National Socialist White Peoples Party
New Order
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168
Right as Reina (Skinhead)
Truth At Last
Valhalla Aryan Unity

APPENDIX D
LIST OF INTERNET SITES
The following is a partial listing of Internet home pages, or websites, of interest to
anyone seeking information about the Patriot Movement or white supremacist groups.
http: // angelfire. com/fl/ naawp4usa
http: //angelfire. com/fl/naawpofcallahan/
http://angelfire.com/fl/naawpofneflorida/
http: //angelfire. com/fl/naawpofheflorida/notguilty. html
http: //angelfire. com/hi/naawpofhawaii/
http: // angelfire. com/tn/naawpoftennessee
http://logoplex. com/ shops/mom/
http://panther.gsu.edu/ gsu2jwb
http: //pw2. netcom/~tlemire/naawpmic. html
http://stormfront. wat. com/stormfr ont/
http ://www. acsys. com/ sins/revoluti on/militia, html
http:// www. cns. caltech. edu/info/guide, html
http:// www. creator, org/
http://www.cris.com/ Chrident
http://www.cs.vit.no/~paalde/NazismExposed/Scripts/nlinks.html
http://www.duke.org/data/
http: //www. flash. net/~guardian/index. html
http://www.io.com/ rolgsdon/
http://www.ipser.com/usmilitia/minuteman/1996fall/doctrine.htm
http: //www. newswest .com/ cro ssingline/group 15. html
http: //www. nizkor. org/hweb/orgs/american/ adl/paranoia-as-patriotism/
http://www.resistance.com/
http:// www. splcenter. org / centerinfo. html
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APPENDIX E
PRINCIPLES OF THE NAAWP
Principles Part One: Why is the NAAWP Necessary?
Jewish control of the media is the single most dangerous threat to Christianity.
ZOG, Zionist Owned Government, has ordered Hollywood and TV to pollute
Christian family values.
If you lack soldiers, you conquer with media.
QUIZ: If youre a Zionist Jew and want to control the largest Christian country on
earthbut dont have the soldiers for military conquestwhat do you do? You gain
control of every news, entertainment, and educational medium of thought and expression
(hereinafter shortened to media.)
This control allows you to create a though-shaping dictatorship that dominates the
minds of the Christian people with the Jewish agenda.
Jewish control of the media is no secret.
Jewish control of the media can be verified by the reference section of any large
public library. Look into current editions of yearbooks on the radio and TV industries;
into directories of newspapers and magazines; into registers of corporations and their
officers, such as Standard and Poors and Dunn and Bradstreet, and into standard
biographical reference works. It is all there, nothing is hidden.
Jews dominate though-shaping professions.
You will find that Jews have taken care to dominate the crucial though-shaping
professions in this country. Hollywood, NBC, ABC, CBS, newspapers, magazines,
books, TV, most of radioall are now in one or two Jewish hands.
Few items escape the Jewish net. To those who cry Ted Turner of CNN isnt a
Jew, Turner has never taken a public position opposed to the Jewish stockholders who
control him. Regarding the few media outlets owned by Asians & others, they have never
interfered with their disproportionately Jewish management. Most important of all, Jews
are vastly over-represented in the key positions within the educational world and control
the publication of all school materials, including textbooks that shape Christian childrens
thoughts! The transmission of Christian culture is in Jewish hands!
AH media speak with a single Jewish voice.
Thus, one way or another, Jews have constructed a vertically integrated media
monopoly that dominates almost every single medium of thought and expression. Each
individual mediums voice reinforces the voice of all the other mediums. TV, radio,
newspapers, magazines, books, motion pictures, educationall the thought shaping
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171
professionsspeak with a single Jewish voice. It controls what the American people see
and read and hearin other wordsour minds.
This Jewish mind-control is pumped into captive Christians night & day, shaping
and molding the opinions and values of virtually everybody, young or old, simple or
sophisticated.
Jewish ideas are anti-American and anti-Christian.
If the ideas shaped by Jewish mind-control are fair, balanced, middle American,
pro-Christianno problem. But that is not the case.
The Jewish mind-control monopoly puts out ideas that seem to be un-fair to white
people, un-balanced, biased, anti-American & anti-Christian. This appears to be a grave
danger to Christianity.
President Nixon warned about Jewish threat.
President Richard Nixon warned about the terrible problem arising from the total
Jewish domination of the media.
In his last press conference, Nixon said the media should be investigated, warning
that the media would not have doctors or politicians investigate themselves, but we are
taught to expect that editors, reporters and broadcasters have a unique capacity to unsure
that they themselves act responsibly.
Pat Buchanan warns about Jewish cultural war.
Republican Presidential Candidate Pat Buchanan says there is a secret religious
and cultural war going on for the soul of America. Buchanan cant say the word Jew
and stay on TV, but we take his words to mean that Jews are THE ENEMY.
American Jews are OK, Zionist Jews no!
Ail Jews in this country are good, patriotic Americans except the few standing at
the top of the media monopoly. They seem to have a hidden agenda to divide & conquer
America thru race war so they can pick up the pieces for a new Jewish homeland safe from
the angry Arabs surrounding tiny, vulnerable Israel. This may be why they order
Hollywood and TV to destroy the Christian family values glue holding this country
together,
We would be happy to be proven wrong in open debate with our Jewish brothers
and sisters.
When we say Jew, we refer strictly to the few Jews at the top of the media
pyramid.
Jewish mind control is silent, slick & invisible.
The Jewish attack on Christianity is not out in the open, but under the covers. It is
silent, slick and almost invisible. No billboard descends before your eyes waning that you
are about to be brainwashed against Jesus. Instead, our minds are controlled very subtly,
below the level of our awareness.

172
The most powerful tool Jews use is omission. If it is not omitted, it is twisted and
distorted by the way it is covered: which items are emphasized, which are played down,
the choice of words, tone of voice, & facial expression; the wording of headlines, choice
of illustrations, etc.
All of these things are so subtle they are almost impossible to detect, yet they can
make day into night, make left look like right, and so on.
Brainwashing by contextthe situation controls.
The main technique Jewish dominated Hollywood and TV use to brainwash us is
the context of the program. Context, the situation, is not everythingit is the ONLY
thing. It controls all. Jews are masters at manipulating us in this way. For example, a
Negro will ed a white girl. The context in which this happens could be shown in one of
three ways: a) negative; b) neutral; or c) positive.
But notice the context is almost always positiveall their friends on both sides will
be shown laughing with joy and applauding with approval. The racially mixed couple will
be respected, liked, & socially sought after by other characters, as will a take charge
Negro scholar or businessman, or a sensitive & talented homosexual, or a poor but honest
& hard-working illegal alien from Mexico.
On the other hand, a racistthat is, any white person who disagrees with the
attitude the Jewish Thought Police say he should haveis portrayed as a despicable bigot.
How? Just make the context negative this time. Show the other characters reviling &
sneering at him, avoiding his company, etc.
Another example is gun control. Jews want to get guns out of the hands of
Christians in case we wake up to their hidden agenda and come for revenge. This is done
by having the context show a white man as a dangerous psychopath fascinated by firearms
and a menace to all law-abiding citizens. This negative context is so familiar that the
white racist gun nut has become a stereotype.
Christians are unconscious to Jewish threat.
The average American is able to distinguish between these fictional contexts and
the real world only with difficulty, if at all. Why? Because it takes concentration, study,
awareness to do sothings Joe Six-pack is trying to avoid by looking at the boob tube in
the first place. He doesnt want to work at studying Jewish propaganda techniques. After
a hard days work, he wants to let his mind slide, go unconscious, and be entertained.
Unconsciousness to the Jewish threat is why most Christians respond to the
actions, statements, and attitudes of characters in the play, movie, TV, book, etc., much as
they do to real life. They let the real world be replaced by the false world of Jewish
context. This means the anti-American, anti-Christian brainwashing goes straight in, un
filtered and un-questioned.
Tyranny of the Jewish Shoulds.
It is to the false Jewish context that our urge to conform responds. For example,
when Jews arrange the context to have the characters believe and approve of Christian

173
family values being horribly out of date, they exert a powerful, secret, invisible social
pressure on millions of viewers to agree. This psychic pressure is known as the Tyranny
of the Jewish Should. It is a tyrannical, irresistible pressure on your mind saying you
should feel the same as the context instructs you to, or you are a sinner, a bigot, someone
unworthy, an undesirable, unfit person.
Jewish Shoulds brainwash Christians into a suicidal, self-destructive mindset.
The Tyranny of the Jewish Shoulds is why a whole generation of Christians feel
tremendous pressure on their minds to believe that all Christian preachers and priests
are corrupt; Christians on the political right are all bigoted, false Christians; all Christian
family values are hopelessly out of date; homosexuality is a normal, acceptable and
morally equivalent was of life; children know better than their parents so they shouldn't
listen to them; all questions about Jewish influence are proof of anti-Semitism; no white
Christian civil rights group has legitimate concerns or honorable motives; all efforts by
whites at racial self-preservation are reprehensible bigotry and racism; it is wicked to try
and halt a flood of non-white aliens from pouring across our borders; it is always too
dangerous for citizens to bear arms; a pluralistic, cosmopolitan, multi-cultural society is
always more desirable than a single culture; there is nothing at all wrong with white
women bedding low IQ Negroes; America is a racist country built on the backs of blacks;
all whites are guilty for the failure of perfectly equal blacks in this society...
This suicidal, self-destructive pressure on our minds takes the place of Jewish
soldiers.
Jews divide and conquer Christian America.
As we have shown, one divides and conquers a country without soldiers by putting
pressure on the peoples minds and manipulating them into a suicidal, divisive mind-set
so they fight among themselves and self-destruct.
This ancient game of Divide and Conquer turns the people into puppets so
fractured like Humpty-Dumpty into groups fighting one another, they dont have time to
look up and see the hidden hand of the Puppet Master pulling their strings, our all-
powerful Jewish Media Masters.
ZOG, Zionist Owned Government.
There seems to be two separate and distinct governmentsone visible, the other
invisible. The visible government is the one we vote for. The hidden hand we assert pulls
the visible governments stringsnot for the benefit of American Christiansbut for the
benefit of International Zionist Jews, the TMew World Order.
The NAAWP News would be happy to be proven wrong in the open debate with
our Jewish Media Masters that President Nixon called for. What is wrong with free
speech, anyway? Is there something to hide? Is Pat Buchanan right, is Washington, D.C.
Israeli occupied territory?

174
ZOG rules world thru New World Order.
The most powerful men in the world are not presidents or kings or generals, but
one or two Jews standing at the top of Americas media pyramid. There is no greater
power on earth today than in their hands. No king or pope of old, no conquering general
or high priest masquerading as God, ever enjoyed power even remotely approaching that
of the Jewish Though Police who appear to control the American government.
If this control were pro-American, no problem. But many, many people are
starting to think ZOG is a vampire bat sucking Americas blood. Again, we would be
happy to have our suspicions proved wrong thru Nixons call for an investigation.
Jews dont have to own to control.
Our Jewish Media Masters do not have to own something to rule it. For example,
newspapers are not supported by their subscribers, but by their advertisers. It is
advertising revenuenot the small change collected from a newspapers readersthat
largely pays the editors salary and yields owners profit. This si why a newspaper, TV
station, etc., may be owned by Christians, but it is so thoroughly dependent upon Jewish
advertising revenue that its editorial and news reporting policies are controlled by Jewish
likes and dislikes.
Jews are very cunning. Nothing is written down, they leave no paper trail to
follow, no fingerprints appear anywhere. Everything will be verbaldo what we like or
well cancel our ads.
Faced with no large ad money coming in, suddenly, mysteriously being inundated
with labor & legal troubles, etc., virtually all media outlets cave in to Jewish domination.
In the media as elsewhere, he who pays the piper calls the tune.
The Jewish Thought Police-State dictatorship.
Jews routinely deny they dominate the media. Even when they admit to some little
influence, they claim they are not a distinct nation within this nation, and do not have a
hidden Zionist agenda. They claim they are merely a religion.
What a joke! Jews may differ among themselves about many things, but in the
matter of protecting their control of America, they come together and act like a secret,
well-disciplined army.
Jews have constructed in this nation the same organization, iron discipline and
rigid control that allows tiny Israel to thumb its nose at angry Arab move outnumbering
them 100 to one. To secretly replicate the state of Israels effective crowd-control in
America is a task so enormous that it proves Jews are not merely a religion as claimed,
but an invisible nation within a nation.
It is impossible for our Jewish Media Masters to have imposed the Though
Dictatorship they have over Christians without being an invisible, secret, well-disciplined
army in civilian clothes.
Jewish domination should be investigated.
If Christians had the same Thought Police-State Dictatorship in Israel as Jews do

175
here, there would be screams of outrage and demands for an investigation, sunshine, free
speech.
If there, why not here? Why should we accept what Jews would not? We back
Nixons call for an investigation into Jewish media influence. Is it excessive or just right?
Have there been abuses?
We would be happy to have our suspicions proved wrong in the sunshine of open
debate.
Jewish influence is no secret, just unmentionable.
Jewish power and influence over Christian America is no secret. Jews are proud of
it and boast amongst themselves constantly. Its just that Christians cant talk about it. It
is unmentionable, because Jews have gagged the American people.
How? By denying the possibility that any question about Jewish influence can
come from legitimate concerns, honorable motives. Jews brand the forehead of every
questioner with A-S for Anti-Semite, whether they are or not. The A-S brand does
not go away, it is forever, which is why Jewish power to end careers is legendary.
The anti-Semitic brand is forever.
The media have brainwashed Christians so thoroughly that there is no possibility in
our minds that anyone they brand anti-Semitic is innocent.
For the rest of his days, any questioner of any Jew is treated as if he were Adolph
Hitler.
Jews have perfect mind-control over Christians.
ATTENTION! The fact that there is no space, no room in Christian Americas
mind for even the possibility that someone branded A-S could be innocent, is a
description of total mind-control, complete mind-control, perfect mind-control. This
puts Christianity in grave danger.
We actually live our national life with our head in the Jewish media lions mouth.
Are Jews Gods?~Beyond questioning?
Jews so perfectly control the Christian mind that they inhabit the lofty domain
reserved for Gods, high above all questioning, far beyond any inquiry. We dare not
object, because for a Christian to question a Jew in America is a sin, an awful display of
anti-Semitism and bigotry.
Our Jewish Gods hand down laws dictating what we Christians are permitted to
think, feel, bewith no input, no feedback from us. In this Christian country, Christians
are not consulted!
If this is not a description of a Though Police-State Dictatorship, what is? There
does not seem to be a dimes worth of difference between Hitler & Stalins Thought
Dictatorship & the Jewish one which, in our view, is the source of everything wrong with
America.

176
NAAWP paid Wood for right to question Jews.
To keep the country we grew up in, Jewish influence must be subject to free
speech. NAAWP Field Commander Lt. Gen. Dan Daniels and Paul Alen got shot at and
hit defending Americas right to free speech. Alen was just an ordinary soldier. Gen.
Daniels is one of the most highly decorated, most wounded war veterans in his native Polk
County, Florida. He is so well regarded locally that he was elected sheriff.
Both Daniels and Allen are disable veterans from gunshot wounds in the service of
their country. They have a right to inquire about Jewish influence in America. They
utterly reject the Jewish smear that their questions are illegitimate, their motives
dishonorable. They utterly reject the Jewish lie that exercising their Constitutionally
protected right of free speech makes the racist or anti-Semitic.
They are not bigots, just two Christians concerned about attacks by Jewish owned
Hollywood and TV on Christian family values.
Their concerns are not for themselves. They are senior citizens who have groveled
on their bellies under on-too-many artillery barrages. Theyve been blown around the
bend to a place where you arent much concerned about anything.
Their concerns are for the future of the children! Let the inquiry begin! Onward
Christian soldiers!
Jews stopped identifying the race of criminals to destroy the Christian religion.
The NAAWPs first question is: why did the media stop identifying the race of
criminals in 1960?
Before that, everybody knew who did the crime, and social control held it down.
But in 1960 the media suddenly stopped identifying criminals by race. There was no law
passed, they just did it on their own. Social control became gone with the wind, and
Negro crime skyrocketed straight up.
QUIZ: How can you fight crime if you are not permitted to identify the criminal?
If the cancer is not identified, how can you treat and remove it?
You cant, of course, which is why the medias refusal to identify the race of
criminals seems to have fathered, permitted, provoked, caused the explosion of Negro
crime destroying Christian America, and by extension, the Christian religion.
The only questionis the medias refusal to identify the race of criminals prima
facie evidence of a Jewish hidden agenda to destroy the Christian religion? The NAAWP
News says Yes!
We would be happy to be proved wrong in open debate. Whatever happened to
free speech anyway? Is there something to hide?
Middle class Negroes are equal, Underclass no!
All middle class, law-abiding, patriotic Negroes are equal to whites. Many
Underclass Negroes with low IQ are not. Their IQ seems to be sinking like a stone,
inviting them to do crime to make up for it. If their anti-American attitude is not adjusted
by Negoresit will be adjusted by whites, and it wont be pretty. When we say Negro,
we refer strictly to underclass Negroes Jews seem to be using to attack Christian America

177
and religion.
Christianity is glue holding America together.
1) The direct assault on Christianity seems to be by underclass Negroes Jews
appear to use as crime puppets. 2) The first indirect assault on Christianity is the pollution
of Christian family values by Hollywood and TV. Ancient wisdom teaches that the
stronger a peoples religion, the harder it si to control them. But the more you can
weaken the religious glue holding a people together, the easier it is to divide and conquer
them. Therefore the more this Christian nation can be made Godless, the more we can be
made to disintegrate into a morally lost people, the easier ZOG can control us. There is
no civilization in the history of the world that has been able to survive the meltdown of
values that Hollywood & TV have inflicted upon us in the cultural war going on. The
story of mankind is littered with carcasses of great nations that have fallen from this cause.
3) The second indirect assault appears to be the Jewish wedge weapon of racial equality.
Jeffersons all men are created equal meant political equality, not mental/moral
equality.
Thomas Jeffersons said in the Declaration of Independence that all men are
created equal.
The enemy media are careful not to tell you that Jefferson was talking about
political equality-not mental, physical, moral or civilization equality. It must be
remembered that Jefferson was talking revolution, not racial equality. He was trying to
get lower-class white people to revolt against the white English Lords & nobles governing
them.
In other words, what Jefferson was really saying isall white men are created
politically equalthere are no commoners sitting at the feet of nobles. Despite the
propaganda put out by the enemy media, his statement of political equality had absolutely
nothing to do with racial equality. On the contrary, Jefferson thought Negroes were
much inferior mentally and morally.
Darwinist white superiority/Negro inferiority.
In 1871 Charles Darwins Theory of Evolution burst upon the world with one of
the most powerful scientific theories of all time to explain why white civilization was so
advanced and black civilization so backward. It states that because of superior
intelligence, whites have evolved up the civilization latter, as proved by the wonders of
Western civilization. Negroes, on the other hand, because of inferior intelligence, stand
far down the civilization ladder, which is why Pres. Richard Nixon said there has never in
history been an adequate black nation, and they are the only race of which this is true.
This is why Africa is hopeless.
Hitlers revenge made Negroes equal.
Darwinist Negro inferiority did not die at the hand of reasoned judgement. It was
murdered by Adolph Hitler.

178
WWII was a godsend to Zionist Jews, who had long looked at America with
hungry eyes. But they could not use the wedge weapon of racial equality to kill
Christianity as long as Negro inferiority was the basis of public policy. Then Hitler came
along, and murdered it with reductio ad Hitleruman argument is necessarily false if
Hitler happened to share the same view. Since Hitler believed in Negro inferiority,
reductio ad Hitlerum made in necessarily false, & thus the dagger of racial equality was
stuck in the heart of Christianity. Despite the fact that reductio ad Hitlerum is obviously
nonsense (is God necessarily false if Hitler believed in God?, in the midst of WWII
hysteria, nonsense carried the day--& still does!
Jewish Relativism says races are equal.
Jewish Cultural Relativism replaced Darwinist Negro inferiority. Relativism says
that no race is more advanced or backward, no culture is better or worse than any other-
all are perfectly equal. Now, commonsense fairly screams at the thought that Eskimos
paddling skin boats are perfectly equal with whites flying jet planes, that neither race is
more advanced or backward. This is such an assault on commonsense and the evidence of
ones eyes, that nothing but the awesome power of Jewish Though Police-State
Dictatorship could have hammered it into America. How? By painting Hitlers face on
anyone who objects to racial equality, of course.
Jewish lie of perfectly equal Negroes.
Have you wondered why Negroes show up on TV and the movies far in excess of
their proportion of the population? Why they are never portrayed as inferiorbut almost
always perfectly equal, if not superior? Talk about Jewish propaganda! The reality is that
50 percent of all American Negroes may be clinically diagnosed as feeble-minded, and
another 15 percent diagnosed as morons. This awful arithmetic means 65 percent, or 13
out of 20, are either feeble-minded or morons.
It is no secret that the average underclass Negro has low IQ, yet they are almost
always portrayed as intelligent, articulate, morally above whites, looking down on us,
ordering us around, sacrificing themselves, dying for us.
Have you ever wondered why there is such a disconnect between media portrayal
and reality? Well, wonder no more. Say hello to the Nazi propaganda technique of the
Big Lie. Perfectly equal Negroes are thrust in our faces until they come out our ears so
we will regard them as perfectly equal. So we will think that the only difference between a
white and a Negro is a dark skin; that inside every Negro is a perfectly equal middle class
white person screaming to get out.
Wake up Christians! This is the wedge weapon of perfectly equal Negroes that
Jews appear to be using to destroy the Christian religion.
Jews want to divide & conquer thru race war.
By thrusting perfectly equal Negroes in our face far in excess of their proportion of
the population, TV and the movies pound the racial equality wedge weapon deep into
us. The media say they over-expose Negroes to promote positive role models. The real

179
reason seems to be to divide & conquer America thru race war so they can pick up the
pieces for a new Jewish homeland safe from the nuclear weapons and terrific birthrate of
the angry Arabs surrounding tiny, vulnerable Israel.
Jews promote Negro hatred of whites.
This appears to by why the media do not tell underclass Negroes the truththeir
low IQ is the cause of their failure. By covering up this scientific truth, the media take
Negroes off the hard hook of being responsible for their condition. Who then is left to
blame? White people, of course! In this way our Jewish Media Masters brainwash
Negroes into thinking that their failure is due to evil whites, and they should hate them.
And they do! This is why the Negro steam in the racial boiler is rising toward explosion,
just as the Jewish hidden agenda seems to call for. Again, we would be happy to be
proved wrong in open debate.
Jews promote rising white backlash.
The more so-called perfectly equal Negroes fail, the more the media brainwash
whites that they should feel guilty for being the evil cause, and the more whites owe
Negroes. The bigger our debt, the more we should give up white civil rights & hand them
to Negroes. Thus the media guilt-trips us into taking more steps down the path of
national suicide. This is not without cost.
Each unjust step causes white steam in the racial boiler to rise toward explosion,
just as the Jewish hidden agenda seems to call for. Once more, we would be happy to be
proven wrong in open debate.
Jews use Racial equality to cause race war.
Few people understand the devastating impact upon this nation hidden in the
words racial equality. It is a wonderful wedge weapon to divide & conquer with, a
perfectly safe con game. Who can question such a praiseworthy idea as racial equality?
We assert that it is the secret poison killing Christianity. The more racial
equality causes steam to build in the racial boiler, the more we pay attention to it, leaving
less attention to look up and see the Jewish Puppet Master pulling the strings in an
apparent attempt to incite race war.
Please prove us wroeg in open debate.
Principles Part Two: NAAWP white rights political platform
We recommend voting for politicians who support the following principles:
Racial equality needs to be questioned.
The Jewish Cultural Relativist idea that all cultures and races are perfectly equal is
highly questionableif not outright Loony Tunes. It insults ones commonsense and the
evidence of ones eyes to call black Africans eating one another perfectly equal to white

180
Americans eating pizza.
The NAAWP calls for a national debate on the subject, starting with the following
questions:
1) Why did all four Presidents on Mt. Rushmore think Negroes were mentally
and morally inferior? Commonsense says that if they were smart enough to be that
famous, they were smart enough to be right about Negro inferiority. Why do the media
now insist they were ignorant bigots? Is this evidence of a media hidden agenda?
2) Why does the fact that Hitler believed Negroes inferior make them equal?
Why does Hitlers agreement with Darwins Theory of Evolution & Negro inferiority
invalidate one of the strongest scientific theories of all time? What is the scientific
evidence that makes it wrong (the skyrocketing Negro crime rate, massive illegitimacy &
welfare rates, perhaps?)
If no proof can be provided, then Negro underclass inferiority is the cause of their
failurenot white racism. Period. Get out of our face!
Regulate the media like a public utility.
Since the media have virtually the same unlimited monopoly power over the
American mind as a public utility has over electricity, they should be regulated like a
public utility. Set national standards for media balance & fairness. Not confiscation or
censorshipmerely elimination of the bias against white Christians, the one prejudice still
permitted.
Why is anti-Christian bias permitted? Is this evidence of a media hidden agenda?
Establish Police-State in high crime areas.
Desperate measures are needed to control disproportionately Negro crime. As
Jefferson said, we dont like having to hold the Negro wolf by the ears, but self-
preservation leaves us no choice. Declare martial law in high crime areas. Establish a
Police-State and string lawless neighborhoods with barbed wire. Use vacant facilities as
prisons/re-education centers, & already-on-the-payroll military as guards. Multiply the
criminal justice system & police by five. Pay for it by ending welfare for the able-bodied.
Require media resume identifying criminals by race. Stop secret Negro rape warfare by
making interracial rape a hate crime, punishable by castration & a triple term in prison.
Jail able-bodied parents who wont work.
Despite what the enemy media say, there is plenty of work in every inner city. If
able-bodied people wont work, let them go hungry. Jail fathers who refuse to pay child
support. Jail mothers who refuse to work, and put the children in orphanages.
Rein in run-away judiciary.
Term-limit all judges. Re-confirm periodically. Impeach by simple majority.

181
Re-segregate the schools.
To save public education, return control to local school boards. End busing and
forced integration. Allow natural re-segregation of schools based on housing patterns.
Require adoption of American middle class values, expel violators.
End all immigration.
End the immigration white people never voted for that is making us a minority in
our own country. We have a natural right to secure our existence as a people, and secure
the future for white children.
NAAWP advocates separatism.
Separatism is the opposite of integration, which has not workedand will not
workany more than mixing oil and water will work. Separatism is based the civil right of
free associationyou are free to separate yourself from people you dont want to associate
with. Americans greatest Negro, Booker T. Washington, recognized this when he said:
In all things purely social, we can be as separate as the fingers, yet one as the hand in all
things essential to mutual progress.
Americas greatest men advocated separatism.
Thomas Jefferson, George Washington and virtually every other Founding Father,
plus Abraham Lincoln, though the Negro was an alien presence in American society, so
inferior mentally and morally they could not be treated as equal citizens without destroying
this nation, or at least dismembering it. Their solution? Forced deportation of every
Negro on the North American continent.
Jefferson predicted race war of extermination.
Jefferson wrote: White people had the Negro wolf by the ears, and could neither
safely hold him in slavery, nor let him go in freedom. The two racesequally freecould
not live together. If they were forced to, it would produce convulsions, violent social
upheavals, which will probably never end, but lead to a race war of extermination.
Every day that passes proves our Founding Fathers more right. Either we separate
or exterminate. Let us try separation while there is still time. Once the shooting starts, it
will not stop until all Negroes are dead or all whites are dead.
/

APPENDIX F
ABBREVIATIONS
BATF:
CFM:
CFMA:
FBI:
KKK:
MOM:
NAACP:
NAAWP:
NCFRM:
SPLC:
TK/KKK:
USA:
USMA:
WAR:
WCOTC:
Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms
Congress of Florida Militias
Central Florida Militia Association
Federal Bureau of Investigation
Ku Klux Klan
Militia of Montana
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People
National Association for the Advancement of White People
North Central Florida Regional Militia
Southern Poverty Law Center
Templar Knights of the Ku Klux Klan
United States Army
United States Militia Association
White Aryan Resistance
World Church of the Creator
182

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BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH
J. Keith Akins was bom in Marietta, Georgia, on 25 April 1964. He lived in eight
different states, served in the U.S. Army (from which he was medically retired), bopped
around from state to state and job to job, and then attended Florida State University.
While in graduate school at the University of Florida he grew interested in the
manipulation of religious beliefs for political and economic gain, which eventually led to
this study of the Militia Movement.
His anthropological interests include religion and politics, marginalized groups in
industrial societies, coalitional violence, and medical anthropology.
193

I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it conforms to
acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality,
as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.
H&JUL
iran ml. du-XoivGhairman
Professor of Anthropology
I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it conforms to
acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality,
as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.
I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it conforms to
acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality,
as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.
OX
Deidre H. Crumbley
Assistant Professor of Anthropology
I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it conforms to
acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality,
as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.
David M. Chalmers
Professor Emeritus of History
I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it conforms to
acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality,
as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.
Dennis E.uwen
Assistant Professor of Religion

This dissertation was submitted to the Graduate Faculty of the Department of
Anthropology in the College of Liberal Arts and Sciences and to the Graduate School and
was accepted as partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of
Philosophy.
May 1998
Karen Holbrook
Dean, Graduate School



64
militias, and the primary source for the formulation and dissemination of movement
ideology. Militia ideology is disseminated through home pages, chat lines, and BBSs. A
partial listing of relevant home pages is found in Appendix D.
Data were downloaded from the Internet on a regular basis. This was the result of
monthly monitoring of a list of websites, occasional visits to chat rooms, and weekly
monitoring of BBSs.


81
events listings, merchandise advertisements, and reprints of articles of interest from the
mainstream media and a long list of white supremacist publications. It also features
derogatory cartoons emphasizing the alleged low intelligence of blacks and the alleged
corruption and insidious nature of Jews.
Typical headlines in The NAAWP News include the following: Negroes whine if
not in movies (Issue 80), The Gathering Storm: How White Americans- thru their un
wisdom, carelessness and good natureallowed the wicked to bring on the Coming
American Race War (Issue 90), Black criminals forced into law-abiding White
neighborhoods (Issue 91), and Black soldiers rape White women (Issue 94).
Another line of communication between Allen and his followers is his book The
Coming American RACE WAR, which is sold at rallies, meetings, and through the mail.
The central theme of Allens book is that liberal policies toward blacks have led blacks to
become lazy, criminal, and dependent; he also cites scientific proof that blacks are
genetically inferior, claiming that the majority of blacks are mentally retarded. He
further writes that The NAAWP is necessary to defend White rights, take to the streets,
call a general strike, shut this country down if necessary for white survival, and
NAAWP calls for White America to organize on a wartime basis (arm every white and
unleash the police) (Allen 1993: 208-210).
A final means of communication from the National Office is through the
NAAWPs website, located on the angelfire.com server. This server is well-known for
hosting white supremacist sites. The Internet is increasingly popular among NAAWP
members, and several of the chapters in Florida have their own webpages as well.


152
The economic concerns of the Militia Movement are apparent when reading any
issue of The Spotlight or listening to most militia speeches (Arnold & OConnor 1997;
Hough 1995). Several rallies featured lectures about jobs being moved south because of
NAFTA and government set-aside programs which take jobs from decent, hard
working people and give them to unqualified minorities. From the perspective of people
suffering from economic change, they are living in the period of cultural distortion
described by Anthony Wallace in the article Revitalization Movements (Wallace 1956:
270)
Most of the people who have been left behind by Americas economic evolution,
however, will not join a militia. Most of them are too busy working and trying to survive
to concern themselves with the larger issues of a modern service-oriented economy.
While the pool of native-born Americans can be narrowed through identification of an
economic faction which is in distress, this is still not fully explanatory. The pool needs to
be narrowed even further.
Political Factors
People in economic crisis tend to react in a variety of ways. Some will work
harder while others will give up and accept their status. Some will strive to learn the new
requirements and adapt. Some will turn their frustration inward; many of these either
commit suicide or become clinically depressed. Still others begin seeking someone to
blame, to hold responsible. The search for scapegoats is often tied to personal views of
morality and social behavior and can lead in many directions. The economic changes of


27
to militia theoreticians. Dees writes of one of their arguments: In its various publications
and pamphlets, MOM pointed to laws regarding abortion, taxation, and home schooling as
further examples of a government out to destroy an honored way of life (Dees 1996: 81).
Dees found a summary of the conspiracy beliefs in a shortwave broadcast by Mark
Koemke, who stated that:
... a secret national police force comprised of National Guardsmen, Los Angeles
street gangs, and Nepalese Gurkhas will disarm the public; a division of Russian
troops are bivouacked in salt mines beneath Detroit awaiting orders to rise and
take over the United States; and before the United Nations takes control on behalf
of the New World Order, the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA)
will establish an interim government (Dees 1996: 85).
Dyer outlines several trends among the conspiracy theories found in Patriot
Movement literature and summarizes them as follows:
Most of the antigovernment movements conspiracy theories are used to explain
specific parts of its larger one-world government, aka the new world order
theory. In todays version of this conspiracy, the major players are as follows: the
banks, the Federal Reserve, the IMF (International Monetary Fund), the World
Bank, the federal government, communism (despite its collapse), the United
Nations, the Trilateral Commission, the ERS, the multinational corporations, the
media, and the worlds Jewish population, which acts through various secret
organizations such as the Illuminati and Freemasons (Dyer 1997: 99).
Activities
What do militia members actually do on a day-to-day basis? How are their beliefs
actualized?
Abanes states early in his book that each group of heavily armed freedom
fighters regularly holds paramilitary training exercises in preparation for what many
patriots see as an inevitable showdown with the regime now controlling the nation
(Abanes 1996: 2). In a later chapter, he lists crimes committed by members of the Militia


154
meaningless affairs by minding other peoples business (Hoffer 1951: 14).
Mechanism of Exposure
Assuming that the group of people most likely to join a militia are native-born
Americans suffering economic distress, distrustful of the federal government, and unhappy
with their lives, another question remains unanswered: Why do most of the people fitting
this description still fail to join militias? They do not join, in large part, because they have
not been exposed to the appropriate opportunity structure.
According to the multi-step mobilization model, participation in extremist political
movements is initiated by the same mechanism found in virtually all other group
phenomena. This model, which is folly supported by the data collected in this study,
indicates that mass appeal recruiting efforts such as advertizing, publicity, flyers, and other
methods are rarely effective in the early stages of a movement. Instead, potential activists
are recruited personally, through pre-existing connections. These connections may be
friends, family members, co-workers, or even casual acquaintances, but the connections
are necessary.
To put this into perspective, imagine hearing about the Militia Movement on a
television news show. Even if you agreed with what you heard and wanted to participate,
how would you go about it? You would have an extremely tough time even finding a
militia; when you did, you would immediately be accused of attempting to infiltrate and
spy upon the group. Militias do not advertize in the telephone bookalmost every militia
member in this study was introduced to the movement through a personal invitation. The


54
conspiratorial nature of the belief system. The expectation of a final battle at the end of
history demonstrates that the sect is millenarian. Finally, the belief in absolute good,
represented by Aryans, and absolute evil, represented by Jews, shows that Identity
doctrine is dualistic in nature.
For a more thorough examination of the Christian Identity movement, readers are
referred to Michael Barkuns Religion and the Racist Right (Barkun 1997).
The Liberty Lobby
The Liberty Lobby is a right-wing organization founded in 1955 by former John
Birch Society member Willis Carto (Schwartz 1996: 252). The Liberty Lobby has been a
major influence on Far Right politics, particularly since the 1980s. The organization
publicizes its radical anti-Semitic beliefs through a weekly newspaper, The Spotlight, as
well as through the broadcast of a radio talk show, Radio Free America. In addition, the
Liberty Lobby publishes the journal of a subsidiary organization, the Institute for
Historical Review, a pseudo-academic group which argues that the Holocaust is a fraud
perpetrated by Jews in order to gain money and sympathy. The Spotlight has become the
most widely circulated and cited source of information in the entire Militia Movement.
Common-Law Courts
Another element of the Patriot Movement is the common-law court system.
Adherents of this system believe that English Common Law is the actual basis of all
legitimate legal systems, and that the federal government is operating without lawful


129
Americans are victims of oppression. It is counter-productive, therefore, to deny
membership to any particular race or to pit one race against another. The unit has no
guaranteed method for screening out racist individuals, but once a racist member is
discovered, he is censured: It is often the militia leaders themselves who are most acutely
aware of this problem, and who are working conscientiously to weed out the real
extremists, racists, and hatemongers (Jasper 1995: 6).
A NCFRM document states that their admission policy permits membership to all
who would fight the government: . . all citizens of the United States and citizens of
Florida who are 18 years of age or older are welcome to join. There are no barriers due to
religious beliefs, ethnic heritage, racial background or physical condition (North Central
Florida Regional Militia 1995c: 1). The NCFRM is also a member unit of the Congress of
Florida Militias which has publicly stated that we must not allow any form of
discrimination within our ranks. We need the assistance of every man, woman, and child
who dares take up the heavy mantle of freedom (Cody 1995: 2). Finally, many members
of the NCFRM are also members of a group called Jews for the Preservation of Firearms
Ownership (JPFO). This group is ostensibly organized for and by Jews who believe that
they are required by Talmudic Law to defend themselves and resist pogrom. Membership
in the JPFO is open to non-Jews. Despite affiliations with the JPFO, the NCFRM does
not appear to have any Jewish members.
Despite all of these official statements, however, three things are clear. First, there
are no members who are not of European descent. Second, the militia distributes
unedited, ideological statements issued by other groups which are clearly either tied to or


Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida
in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the
Degree of Doctor of Philosophy
GOD, GUNS, AND GUTS:
RELIGION AND VIOLENCE IN FLORIDA MILITIAS
By
JOHN KEITH AKINS
May 1998
Chairman: Brian M. du Toit, Professor
Major Department: Anthropology
This research project was initiated in January 1995 in order to establish an
anthropological perspective on the Militia Movement, a social movement oriented around
anti-government conspiracy theories. This movement is of interest because of the actions
which have resulted from acceptance of its tenets, such as the bombing of Oklahoma
Citys Federal Building in April 1995 as well as attacks on Amtrak trains, harassment of
government officials, and a string of vandalism, robberies, assaults, and murders.
The primary methods used for data collection were ethnographic participant
observation and interviews. This was supplemented with data obtained from militia
publications and Internet sites, as well as from correspondence with militia activists from
diverse locations.
Analysis of data revealed that three of the more prevalent sociological theories,
x


42
gained support from many on the right wing, including militia members, when he railed
against welfare. This has become such an important issue that the Democratic Party and
President Clinton have jumped on the bandwagon and instituted welfare reform laws.
Affirmative Action
An equally controversial topic is the repeal of Affirmative Action programs.
Portrayed by many Republican politicians as reverse discrimination, Affirmative Action
programs are under attack nationwide. The most notable action on this issue to date was
Proposition 209 in California, which ended racial categories in the state. Minority
admissions to California universities abruptly declined as a result, particularly to law
schools and graduate programs.
This is another topic utilized by North Carolina Senator Jesse Helms to gain
support: In one of his campaigns he used a commercial which shows a white man with a
dismissal slip from his factory. A narrators voice states that the man lost his job and can
no longer support his family because of unfair racial quota laws.
The question of Affirmative Action is stirring up racial animosity which cuts across
socioeconomic class boundaries as a result of demagoguery on both sides of the issue.
Separation of Church and State
Numerous issues have been brought before the public concerning the relationship
between church and state. Among these are abortion rights, prayer in public schools, the
teaching of Biblical Creation in science classes, and the teaching of the Bible in public


172
The most powerful tool Jews use is omission. If it is not omitted, it is twisted and
distorted by the way it is covered: which items are emphasized, which are played down,
the choice of words, tone of voice, & facial expression; the wording of headlines, choice
of illustrations, etc.
All of these things are so subtle they are almost impossible to detect, yet they can
make day into night, make left look like right, and so on.
Brainwashing by contextthe situation controls.
The main technique Jewish dominated Hollywood and TV use to brainwash us is
the context of the program. Context, the situation, is not everythingit is the ONLY
thing. It controls all. Jews are masters at manipulating us in this way. For example, a
Negro will ed a white girl. The context in which this happens could be shown in one of
three ways: a) negative; b) neutral; or c) positive.
But notice the context is almost always positiveall their friends on both sides will
be shown laughing with joy and applauding with approval. The racially mixed couple will
be respected, liked, & socially sought after by other characters, as will a take charge
Negro scholar or businessman, or a sensitive & talented homosexual, or a poor but honest
& hard-working illegal alien from Mexico.
On the other hand, a racistthat is, any white person who disagrees with the
attitude the Jewish Thought Police say he should haveis portrayed as a despicable bigot.
How? Just make the context negative this time. Show the other characters reviling &
sneering at him, avoiding his company, etc.
Another example is gun control. Jews want to get guns out of the hands of
Christians in case we wake up to their hidden agenda and come for revenge. This is done
by having the context show a white man as a dangerous psychopath fascinated by firearms
and a menace to all law-abiding citizens. This negative context is so familiar that the
white racist gun nut has become a stereotype.
Christians are unconscious to Jewish threat.
The average American is able to distinguish between these fictional contexts and
the real world only with difficulty, if at all. Why? Because it takes concentration, study,
awareness to do sothings Joe Six-pack is trying to avoid by looking at the boob tube in
the first place. He doesnt want to work at studying Jewish propaganda techniques. After
a hard days work, he wants to let his mind slide, go unconscious, and be entertained.
Unconsciousness to the Jewish threat is why most Christians respond to the
actions, statements, and attitudes of characters in the play, movie, TV, book, etc., much as
they do to real life. They let the real world be replaced by the false world of Jewish
context. This means the anti-American, anti-Christian brainwashing goes straight in, un
filtered and un-questioned.
Tyranny of the Jewish Shoulds.
It is to the false Jewish context that our urge to conform responds. For example,
when Jews arrange the context to have the characters believe and approve of Christian


8
supremacists in the past.
On 15 February 1994, John Trochmann founded the Militia of Montana (MOM)
(Stem 1996: 71). MOM was destined to become the largest clearing-house of militia
doctrine and conspiracy theories as well as one of the three largest militias in the country.
The largest militia to date, the Michigan Militia, was founded by Norman Olson in April;
by the end of the year it had thousands of members scattered throughout dozens of
individual units (Stem 1996: 97).
April 1994 also saw the self-appointment of Linda Thompson as the Acting
Adjutant-General of the Unorganized Militia of the United States (Stern 1996: 133).
Thompson, a lawyer, turned her law office into an information distribution center, and
established the Patriot Fax Network. She edited and began distributing the videos Waco:
The Big Lie and Waco II: The Big Lie Continues. These videos criticized the
governments activities at Waco and accused the agents of deliberately setting the
compound on fire and burning the residents.
Several meetings were held in 1994 in which militia leaders fleshed out their
conspiracy theory, affirmed their ties, and brought new leaders and groups into the
movement. For example, on 23 April militiamen and white supremacists held the Idaho
Liberty Network Conference, which was in effect a miniature version of the Rocky
Mountain Rendezvous (Stern 1996: 168). In June, Pete Peters was the featured speaker
at the Constitutionalists Networking Center, and shared the podium with .Klan
members, skinheads, and other racists. The CNC is a white supremacist organization
(headed by former Arizona governor Evan Mecham) (Stem 1996: 117-118).


GOD, GUNS, AND GUTS:
RELIGION AND VIOLENCE IN FLORIDA MILITIAS
By
JOHN KEITH AKINS
A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT
OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF
DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
MAY 1998


79
operations of the NAAWP (and) provides Policies (Daniels 1997a: 3).
Allens Vice President and Field Commander of the Spartan Legion Militia is
Hiram Dan Daniels, who is located in Eagle Lake, Florida. Daniels organizes the militia
on both the national and local levels. He is responsible at the national level for creating
and disseminating militia doctrine concerning recruiting, training, standardizing equipment
and weaponry, and the appointment of officers. He makes frequent inspection tours
about the country, visiting Spartan Legion Militias wherever they are located.
Florida
Because he is located in Florida, Dan Daniels takes a close personal interest in the
Spartan Legion units in this state and serves as State Director of the NAAWP Local
Chapters as well as Local Leader for the Eagle Lake Chapter. He is also actively involved
in the day-to-day operations of the Legions airborne unit which is stationed in the
Winter Haven/Eagle Lake area.
Within Floridas borders the NAAWP has local chapters in Aubumdale, Eagle
Lake, Gainesville, Jacksonville, Lakeland, Miami, Ocala, Pensacola, Pierson, St.
Augustine, St. Petersburg, Tampa, West Palm Beach, White City, and Winter Haven.
Each local chapter is headed by a Local Leader who reports to the State Director
(Daniels second hat). The state was initially under the supervision of the Eastern
Regional Director; recent changes have left most of Florida in the Eastern Region but
separated part of North Florida, particularly Jacksonville, into the newly formed Mid-
Atlantic Region.


132
and communication in the entire Militia Movement; it is also virulently anti-Semitic
(Schwartz 1996: 37).
Summary
New World Order/ZOG
Each militia in this study teaches that the United States government has been
usurped by a mysterious group referred to as the New World Order (NWO) which has as
its goal the unification of world government under its control. The WCOTC, TK/KKK,
and NAAWP all teach that the New World Order consists of Jews and also refer to it as
the Zionist Occupation Government (ZOG). Several members of the NCFRM share this
belief, although the leaders of the group are less specific as to the identities of the NWO.
The CFMA rejects Jews as the source of the NWO, focusing instead on unidentified
wealthy elitists. The Spotlight has been observed among members of each group; the only
group which does not actively disseminate this journal is the CFMA.
Whenever facts are cited in support of the conspiracy theories, they are
presented in two steps. First, a problem in society is delineated, complete with
supporting evidence. Second, blame is cast. All of the political beliefs in the militias
examined for this project were oriented around a scapegoat theme.
Finally, all of the militias support a belief in the inerrancy and absolute legitimacy
of the Constitution of the United States, and argue that all of the Amendments subsequent
to the Bill of Rights are invalid.


113
Christianity:
Part of the work of the NAAWP is to preserve our White European Christian
heritage. It is the foundation stone of our democracy. No other world religion
could have produced it. Christianitys most unique feature is the absolute value it
places on the individual. In it, salvation is to the individual through Jesus Christ.
Other religions, including Judaism and Islam, focus on the group or tribe;
individuals are secondary. Far Eastern and New Age religions extol universal
consciousness by obliteration the individual personality.
Christianity is the only non-socialist religion. True liberty requires
Christian faith.
Thus to destroy Christianity in America is one of the top goals of the
NAAWPs enemies. They seek to set up an undemocratic, socialist, totalitarian
tyranny in place of our constitutional republic. It will be Satans kingdom, if they
succeed (Lamb 1996: 3).
North Central Florida Regional Militia and Central Florida Militia Association
Religious orientations in the NCFRM are diverse. Virtually all of the members are
Protestant Christians, but none appear to be Identity followers. 1 was unable to verify the
unit spokespersons claim that there were between one and three Jewish members.
There are a number of fundamentalists, who often speak of the coming millennial
apocalypse and the End Times forecast in the Bible. They circulate copies of Pat
Robertsons The New World Order. Many people present, however, tend to ignore these
speeches, and some even scoff at them (Akins 1995: 45).
The CFMA is strongly motivated by fundamentalist Protestant Christian beliefs,
although there is a conscious effort to be tolerant and inclusive. This tolerance is reflected
in several member units, and explains the continuing presence of the NCFRM. A
Statement of Praise, Thanksgiving and Confession to our Lord and Savior Jesus Christ
was adopted by almost unanimous vote at the First Congress of Florida Militias, asking


APPENDIX D
LIST OF INTERNET SITES
The following is a partial listing of Internet home pages, or websites, of interest to
anyone seeking information about the Patriot Movement or white supremacist groups.
http: // angelfire. com/fl/ naawp4usa
http: //angelfire. com/fl/naawpofcallahan/
http://angelfire.com/fl/naawpofneflorida/
http: //angelfire. com/fl/naawpofheflorida/notguilty. html
http: //angelfire. com/hi/naawpofhawaii/
http: // angelfire. com/tn/naawpoftennessee
http://logoplex. com/ shops/mom/
http://panther.gsu.edu/ gsu2jwb
http: //pw2. netcom/~tlemire/naawpmic. html
http://stormfront. wat. com/stormfr ont/
http ://www. acsys. com/ sins/revoluti on/militia, html
http:// www. cns. caltech. edu/info/guide, html
http:// www. creator, org/
http://www.cris.com/ Chrident
http://www.cs.vit.no/~paalde/NazismExposed/Scripts/nlinks.html
http://www.duke.org/data/
http: //www. flash. net/~guardian/index. html
http://www.io.com/ rolgsdon/
http://www.ipser.com/usmilitia/minuteman/1996fall/doctrine.htm
http: //www. newswest .com/ cro ssingline/group 15. html
http: //www. nizkor. org/hweb/orgs/american/ adl/paranoia-as-patriotism/
http://www.resistance.com/
http:// www. splcenter. org / centerinfo. html
169


93
primary, in which the top vote-getters, regardless of party affiliation, face one
another in the November run-off. The primary took place as this report went to
press; David Duke placed fourth in the election among 15 candidates, receiving
140,910 votes. It is remarkable that despite the wide field of candidates, 11
percent of the Louisiana electorate nonetheless chose to vote for an overt
hatemonger and extremist. Duke furthermore carried several rural parishes
(Schwartz 1996: 40).
Although he eventually lost the race, Duke did come close to a seat in the U. S. Senate. It
is doubtful that the Louisiana electorate has heard the last of David Duke.
President: Paul Allen
Paul Allen, President of the NAAWP, has been a long-time associate and friend of
David Duke. He was Dukes campaign manager and accountant for years; Allen holds a
Bachelors Degree in accounting from the University of Wisconsin. He was investigated
for financial violations by the Louisiana Election Ethics Administration, which found that
there was impropriety, but not sufficient evidence to warrant prosecution. He is also
under investigation by the Internal Revenue Service for tax violations. According to Dan
Daniels, there is evidence to suggest that he diverts NAAWP funds, particularly those
gained through merchandizing, for his personal use.
Born in 1927, Allen is a U. S. Army veteran of the Korean War and was severely
wounded in combat while serving with an Infantry Rifle Company. He is the Editor-in-
Chief and publisher of The NAAWP News and author of The Coming American RACE
WAR, first published in 1993. In addition, he is a frequent speaker at white supremacist
gatherings and a free-lance tax consultant.
In person Allen is either charming, friendly, and witty or he is venomous,
aggressive, and duplicitous. A close associate of his blames the mood swings on VA-


63
Correspondence
Because the Patriot Movement is so dispersed geographically, it is all but
impossible to collect significant ethnographic data from each and every unit. Further,
most of the units will break up within 18 months of their founding, and either evolve into
something new, merge with another group, or split into two or more new groups. It is
more practical, therefore, to communicate with large numbers of people through
correspondence. This permits the researcher to take time preparing questions, and permits
the informant to think about and fully answer the question (or to decline answering, which
was not uncommon). Data collected through correspondence were not as in-depth, and
lacked the qualitative aspects of interviews or participant-observation. They did, however,
provide an opportunity to gather additional data.
During the period January 1995 through November 1997, correspondence was
conducted on a regular basis with one member of the NCFRM, four leaders of the
NAAWP, a leader of the WCOTC, and a leader of the TK7KKK.
Furthermore, isolated or sporadic correspondence occurred with a second member
of the NCFRM, two members of the NAAWP, a leader of the WCOTC, two members of
the Congress of Florida Militias, and a wide range of leaders and members of militias
throughout both Florida and the entire United States.
Internet
It is impossible to overstate the importance of the Internet to the Patriot
Movement. The Internet has become the primary means of communication between


7
communication. The result was a synthetic conspiracy theory which explained many, if
not all, of the problems of contemporary American culture.
The final months of the year saw the publication of Samuel Sherwoods The Little
Republics and the organization of the United States Militia Association (USMA) (Stern
1996: 166). This book provides guidelines for the organization of anti-government
paramilitary forces; the USMA became one of the largest of the early militias. It continues
to provide information about organization, acquisition of weapons, and survivalism.
On 19 April 1993, federal agents assaulted the compound of the Branch Davidians,
a fringe Christian sect, in Waco, Texas. By the end of the assault, most of the members
were dead. Remember Waco became a rallying cry among militiamen, and 19 April was
designated as Militia Day.
This year also saw the introduction of the Brady Bill, a large-scale ban of
automatic and assault weapons and the imposition of a waiting period and background
check when purchasing firearms. The publicity surrounding Waco and the Brady Bill
brought the Militia Movement into the public eye as militia leaders began airing their
views on radio and television talk shows. Most Americans who heard of the militias in
this period dismissed the movement as ludicrous; however, many others began forming
their own, or joining pre-existing, militias.
In 1993, most of the militiamen had a prior history of involvement in either white
supremacist or militant anti-abortion groups. By 1994, however, the Militia Movement
began to attract members of the middle class who had no previous association with these
movements, many, in fact, who would not have considered associating with white


143
assert a social life or at least better understanding of (the) groups social condition than
that which prevails in the dominant culture (Couto 1993: 58). The primary movement
building activity of each militia, therefore, is the creation of free space and the use of
narrative to create a feeling of group cohesion, to reinforce the belief system, and to
demonize the dominant authority to which the group stands in opposition.


66
The militias in Florida are similar to each other in many aspects. They all subscribe
to the New World Order conspiracy theory developed at the Rocky Mountain Rendezvous
and communicate via Internet, mail, and social connections. The primary difference
between the militias in Florida is in their attitudes and beliefs concerning racial and ethnic
minorities, and they can therefore be classified by their position on an ideological spectrum
with violent white supremacists on one end and integrated militias unconcerned with
racism on the other end.
In order to understand the variety that exists within the Militia Movement in
Florida, five specific militias have been selected for close examination in this paper. These
groups range from the racist and violent White Berets Militia of the World Church of the
Creator (WCOTC), through the Templar Knights of the Ku Klux Klan (TK/KKK) and the
National Association for the Advancement of White People (NAAWP), all the way to the
North Central Florida Regional Militia (NCFRM) and the racially inclusive Central Florida
Militia Association (CFMA).
This chapter will serve as an introduction to each group by briefly describing the
salient features of each militia in question; subsequent chapters will examine them in
greater detail in order to examine the crucial factors which will aid in answering the
research question.
World Church of the Creator: The White Berets
The West Palm Beach area of Florida is home to the local chapter of the World
Church of the Creator, a skinhead organization which sponsors its own militia. This


118
entertainment media, we are doing more than merely giving them a decisive influence on
our political system and virtual control of our government; we are also giving them
control of the minds and souls of our children, whose attitudes and ideas are shaped more
by Jewish television and Jewish films than by their parents, their schools, or any other
influence (Hale 1996: 9). Evidence of Jewish control is found, according to the
WCOTC, in President Clintons government appointees: When he was first elected, Bill
Clinton promised the American people that the makeup of his administration would mirror
the face of America. In truth, it mirrors the face of Israel. Even though Jews only make
up 2.9% of the countrys population, an astounding 56% of all of Clintons appointments
have been Jews. (Hale 1996: 13).
The WCOTC teaches its members that the Zionist Occupation Government
(ZOG), the cabal which secretly controls the American government, cannot be defeated
through voting: The right to vote is of little effect. It makes our people think that they
have power, when in reality they are simply pawns in the chess game. It hasnt saved our
people in the past from our enemies, and nor will it guarantee our peoples future (Hale
1996b: 1). The solution? Join the WCOTC, recruit more members, teach them the
truth, and arm for the predicted and inevitable war against ZOG.
Race
The Jews are a primary focus of WCOTC doctrine, but they are not the only focus.
The WCOTC is also opposed to immigration (Hale 1996: 17), homosexuality, and above
all, to African-Americans. Blacks, according to the WCOTC, are 12.3 times as likely to


CHAPTER 5
STRUCTURE OF FLORIDA MILITIAS
Have any of us been told that the secretaries of state, the secretaries of the
treasury, the heads of the CIA, the heads of the National Security Council, the
heads of the Federal Reserve Board and countless others are in agreement that
American sovereignty is to be erodedpiece by piece ? When has there ever
been a referendum for all of the people to decide whether they want to discard
our Constitution infcnor of a one-world government? The clear answer is
never.
-Pat Robertson (1991)
In order to answer the primary research question and determine why the Militia
Movement developed, an understanding of the structure of militias is required. This
chapter will examine the structure of each of the five selected militias to consider answers
to the following questions: How was each militia founded? How are they internally
organized? How do they communicate internally and with each other?
World Church of the Creator
Founding
The World Church of the Creator (WCOTC), heir to the Church of the Creator,
was initially founded in 1973 by Ben Klassen, a former Florida legislator. The WCOTC is
a skinhead organizationits members are almost all young, white males who shave their
heads and wear jeans, combat boots with white laces, and red suspenders.
74


84
North Central Florida Regional Militia
Founding
The North Central Florida Regional Militia (NCFRM) was founded on 10
November 1994 in Gainesville, Florida. The NCFRM was initially formed as a splinter
group from the Bradford County Militia (Johnson 1994:1). The unit made its first public
appearance on 17 December of that year in the plaza of the Alachua County Courthouse
to protest United Nations Day.
Organization
The NCFRM is organized in concentric circles of membership. The inner circle is
the leadership, surrounded closely by the actual armed and training militia members. The
next circle includes members who attend the weekly meetings but do not participate in
paramilitary training. The final circle includes sympathizers, friends, and guests who
attend the meetings but have not committed to membership.
Communication
Members of the NCFRM are encouraged to subscribe to The Spotlight, which has
become the primary source for the dissemination of militia doctrine nationwide. Issues are
distributed and circulated at meetings. The leaders are also frequent readers of most of
the militia BBSs on the Internet, they download, copy, and distribute literature to both
members and guests at their meetings. This has the effect of maintaining contact with
militias nationwide and insures that the units doctrines do not stray from the remainder of


19
she says. We use the computer as the end of the line, not the beginning. We get
information in by Federal Express, faxes, and phone, then we put it on the bulletin boards
for the widest possible distribution (Stem 1996: 226).
Summary
In summary, all four authors are in agreement that the Militia Movement was bom
at the Rocky Mountain Rendezvous in October 1992 in response to the Ruby Ridge
incident. They all agree that old-guard white supremacists founded the movement and
remain in control of the primary sources of ideology and information dissemination. All
agree that the Internet, fax networks, shortwave radio, and talk radio are the methods of
communication, and that of all these, the Internet is most important. Three of the four
authors closely examine the concept of leaderless resistance which is so confounding to
law enforcement personnel attempting to track the groups.
Membership
Who are the people who comprise the Militia Movement?
Abanes attempts to answer this question. According to Abanes, the adherents of
militia ideology can best be classified on the basis of their religious and political
orientations:
On the movements moderate side are conservative Christians dissatisfied by the
current state of American politics. Their primary concern is changing the
government through political activism. More radical participants include both
Christians and non-Christians who deny their U.S. citizenship. .Interspersed
among these two groups are the most dangerous and unpredictable patriots
Klansmen, neo-Nazis, and Christian Identity believers (Abanes 1996: 2).


CHAPTER 2
SOCIAL CONTEXT
In the last year there literally have been hundreds of earthquakes in
several parts of the United States. They re not even reporting all the earthquakes
that are taking place. .Part of a plan done by the New World Order advocates
many years ago specifically specified that by the year 2000 to maintain proper
control there must be an eradication of billions of people from the face of the
earth in one way shape or manner or another. .It was called the plan 2000. We
have five years and they will be at the 2000 point. . Talking about weather
control. .You can do devastating things worldwide when you control the weather.
-Bob Fletcher, Militia of Montana
spokesman (Stem 1996: 145)
In order to fully understand the rise and growth of the Militia Movement, one must
first understand the social context from which it sprang. This chapter will examine several
crucial aspects of American society which may have affected the Militia Movement, the
militia perceptions of these changes will be reviewed in subsequent chapters. Among
these are changes in the economy which have led to increasing uncertainty and insecurity
among the working and entrepreneurial classes, changes in the academic preparation of
young adults in the public schools, and increasing public awareness of government
corruption and mismanagement. In addition, there has been a rise in fundamentalist
thinking worldwide which provides a unique perspective through which to interpret the
educational, economic, and political factors.
32


38
Summary
In summary, American manufacturing workers and farmers believe they are facing
an insecure future. This insecurity is the result of rapid technological advances, increased
pressure for short-term profits, the accelerating globalization of markets, and the
continuing shift of Americas economy from industrial- to service-based companies.
Insecurity on the part of the middle and lower classes fills many workers with resentment,
frustration, and anger.
Education
Evaluating the effectiveness of an educational system is difficult, if not impossible.
It is almost always controversial. For the purposes of this study, the effectiveness of the
system overall is not as important as the effectiveness of the system today compared with
the same system in the decades prior to the advent of the Militia Movement. Are there
significant changes in the education of American citizens which can help to explain the rise
of this movement?
One possible standard of comparison is the Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT),
administered by the College Entrance Examination Board (CEEB). Scores on the SAT
began dropping yearly in 1963; the pace of the mean scores decline accelerated rapidly
during the 1980s (Sowell 1994: 47).
By 1993, high school seniors were scoring so poorly that most did not qualify for
college admission. Rather than make changes in the educational programs, the solution
offered by CEEB was to modify the scoring process by raising the mean score 110 points


163
Hillsborough County
Jacksonville
Jacksonville
Jacksonville
Jensen Beach
Key Largo
Lee County
Maitland
Melbourne
Melbourne
Miami
Middleburg
Navarre
New Smyrna Beach
Orange County
Orange County
Orlando
Orlando
Orlando
Pace
Pace
Palm Bay
Palm Bay
Palm Bay
Pasco County
Pensacola
Pensacola
Pinellas County
Plant City
Polk County
Pompano Beach
Silver Springs
St. Petersburg
St. Petersburg
Starke
Tallahassee
Tampa
Tampa
Tampa
Tampa
Tampa
Tampa
Volusia County
* Militia name unknown
North Florida Militia
Spartan Legion (NAAWP) (North)
Spartan Legion (NAAWP) (South)
Martin County Militia
1st Regiment Florida State Militia/United States Militia
Lee County militia
Operation Freedom
19th Regiment
John Birch Society Militia
Privacy Consultants International
Middleburg Militia
Panhandle Patriots, Inc.
American Constitutional Society
Common Law Court
Orange County Common Law Court
18th Regiment
Christian Jural Society of Florida
Florida Unorganized Militia
Santa Rosa County Militia
Santa Rosa Militia
Brevard County Militia, 19th Regiment
Constitutional Militia of Florida
Restoration Township Jural Society
*Militia name unknown
Alligator Brigade
Escambia County Militia
*Militia name unknown
Hillsboro County Militia
*Militia name unknown (affiliated with NAAWP)
People for Sovereignty and Restoration
2nd Regiment Ocala
48 th Regiment
77th Regiment of Pinellas County
Bradford County Militia
Minuteman Press
55 th Regiment
82nd Regiment
Constitutional Common Law Militia
Constitutional Court of We the People
Pro Se Litigants of America, Inc.
Council of Conservative Citizens
Common Law Court


59
gatherings, one Klan rally in which they participated, a protest, one weekend of field
training, and a camping trip with several members. I joined this group and served as a
member from October 1996 through June 1997.
The final group from which ethnographic data were collected in significant
quantity was the Congress of Florida Militias, centered in and around Winter Haven. Data
from this group were collected at two social gatherings, a White Rights Rally, a Militia
Day function, and repeated attendance at a church in Tampa which is organized around
the Patriot Movement.
Interviews
Ethnographic interviews differ from sociological or psychological interviews in
their range and depth. The ethnographic interview is designed to flow like a casual
conversation, so that this form of interview leads to a more relaxed and open exchange.
This semi-structured interview incorporates open-ended questions in order to facilitate
interactive conversation, which will ultimately lead to a better understanding of the
cultural reality through the more thoroughly detailed and explicit explanations acquired
(Hall 1996: 25).
The ethnographic interview does use a standardized format of questions, but the
questions are not designed to glean yes or no answers. The format is constantly
updated and revised with the accumulation of new data and insights, which frequently lead
to unsuspected research topics. One potential problem with this method is that it can
complicate comparative statements between subjects because new questions and topics


CHAPTER 9
ACTIVITIES OF FLORIDA MILITIAS
Hit and run tactics will be our method of fighting. . We will destroy
targets such as telephone relay centers, bridges, fuel storage tanks,
communications towers, radio stations, airports, etc. . human targets will be
engaged when it is beneficial to the cause to eliminate particular individuals who
oppose us (troops, political figures, snitches, etc.).
-James Roy Mullins, of the Blue
Ridge Hunt Club (Stem 1996: 36)
Chapter Six examined the people who join militias, and the preceding two chapters
explored some of the reasons for their enlistment. This chapter will begin to look at the
things militia activists actually do. What are the activities which result from the religious,
political, and racial ideologies of each group? This chapter will examine the activities
observed during the course of this project to see how the beliefs of militia members are
actualized.
World Church of the Creator
The activities of the White Berets in West Palm Beach include paramilitary training
at a camp they have constructed, listening to skinhead rock music, vandalizing
property, and assaulting minorities.
134


6
In August of 1992, the siege at the Weaver cabin concluded. By the end of the
incident, Weavers sixteen-year-old son was shot in the back and his wife shot in the face
by an FBI sniper.
Outraged at what he perceived as the heavy-handed and unlawful behavior of
federal officials, Christian Identity leader Pete Peters invited a wide and varied group of
right-wing activists to a meeting in Estes Park, Colorado. The meeting in Estes Park,
known as the Rocky Mountain Rendezvous, was attended by:
...Richard Butler, head of the Aryan Nations; Louis Beam, another Aryan
Nations leader; anti-Semite Red Beckman; Larry Pratt of Gun Owners of America;
and Montana far-right activist Chris Temple...(as well as) neo-Nazis, Christian
Identity adherents, anti-abortion activists, tax protesters, Ku Klux Klan members,
and others who saw each other as ideological and organizational adversaries
(Stern 1996: 36).
The primary sponsor of the meeting was an organization known as the Aryan Nations, a
white supremacist group from Hayden Lake, Idaho. The Aryan Nations has a long history
of violence in support of anti-Semitic and racist agendas. Aryan Nations members are
believers in Christian Identity, a virulently racist Christian sect which will be discussed at
length later in this paper (Schwartz 1996: 188-189).
The Rendezvous, which lasted three days, unified the spokesmen of once disparate
and competing factions who then published The Battle Plan for Future Conflicts (Stern
1996: 36). Another critical document circulated, adopted, and published at the Rocky
Mountain Rendezvous was the article Leaderless Resistance authored by former Ku Klux
Klan leader Louis Beam. At the Rocky Mountain Rendezvous, attendees compared and
contrasted scores of conspiracy theories, recruiting techniques, and methods of


191
Potok, Mark
1997a Officials bolster action vs. far right, USA Today: 5 March.
1997b FBI turns aggressive on terror, USA Today: 5 March.
Robertson, Pat
1991 The New World Order. Dallas: Word Publishing.
Rosza, Lori
1997 Bible Class Approved by Florida District, The Miami Herald: 26 October.
Rouner, Leroy S.
1986 Civil Religion and Political Theology. Notre Dame, IN: University of Notre Dame
Press.
Rowan, Carl
1996 The Coming Race War in America. Boston: Little, Brown and Company.
Roy, Joseph T., ed.
1996 False Patriots: The Threat of Antigovemment Extremists. Montgomery, AL: The
Southern Poverty Law Center.
Sabato, Larry J. And Glenn R. Simpson
1996 Dirty Little Secrets: The Persistence of Corruption in American Politics. New
York: Random House.
Salaman, Maureen Kennedy
1996 A1 Gore and His Eco-Terrorists Threaten Economy and Freedom, The
Spotlight: 21 October. Washington, D.C.: The Liberty Lobby.
Scales, Brigadier-General Robert H., Jr.
1993 Certain Victory: U. S. Army in the Gulf War. Washington, D. C.: Office of the
Chief of Staff, U. S. Army.
Schwartz, Alan M.
1996 Danger: Extremism...The Major Vehicles and Voices on Americas Far-Right
Fringe. New York: Anti-Defamation League.
Sheets, Robert G., Stephen Nord, and John Ja Phelps
1987 The Impact of Service Industries on Underemployment in Metropolitan
Economies. Lexington, Massachusetts: Lexington Books.


46
generations.
At the same time, a small coterie of agricultural conglomerates such as ConAgra
and Cargill, in order to consolidate farms and increase their holdings, began paying
farmers less money for their crops than it cost the farmers to grow them. This practice is a
flagrant violation of both the Clayton and Sherman Anti-Trust Acts, the Packers and
Stockyards Act, and the Robinson-Patman Act. Violations of these laws have enabled the
conglomerates to control the industry and drive independent farmers from their land.
The federal government has failed to enforce its own laws regarding these matters.
Lobbyists from Cargill, Continental, ConAgra, Archer Daniels Midland, and the rest
have determined the policies of both Congress and the Department of Agriculture for
years (Dyer 1997: 119). The monopolization of agriculture has continued unabated;
coincidentally, the multi-national agricultural corporations are also substantial contributors
to Congressional and Presidential election campaigns.
This has created enormous desperation, fear, anger, and resentment among
farmers. Midwestern farmers are committing suicide at a far higher rate then the general
population (Dyer 1997: 32-33). They blame the government for their plight, and with
good cause. These farmers do not need an elaborate conspiracy theory to explain what
was done to themthey need only look at the reality of their lives. Whether through intent
or incompetence, the federal government has permitted well over a million farming
families to lose their property and their way of life (Dyer 1997: 15).


140
meetings in a reserved room at a local restaurant. In these meetings, the groups leader,
Dr. Ralle, opens with the Pledge of Allegiance and then makes a speech about current
events, tying them into militia conspiracy theory. After Dr. Ralle is finished, Mr. Johnson,
the groups official spokesperson, gives a slightly longer lecture about information he has
gleaned from the Internet during the week. Mr. Johnsons lectures raise many questions,
and he offers few answers. He merely points to current events which seem to have
underlying causes related to various conspiracy theories and leaves interpretation to his
listeners.
When Mr. Johnsons lecture is completed, he opens the floor for discussion.
People around the room stand and address the group with various political, economic, or
religious concerns:
Speeches. . rage against mandated politically correct behavior, against
homosexuals in public schools and military units, against the revolving door
policy of Americas penal system, and against a myriad of other topics too
numerous to detail. . Frequent mention is made at meetings about the approach of
Armageddon, the endtimes that televangelists say we are living in, and the
quickly-approaching millennium. .(Akins 1995: 45).
These speeches are always filled with newly discovered pieces of evidence supporting
the New World Order conspiracy theory. On occasion there will be a guest speaker;
these are usually local politicians from the Republican Party seeking to gain militia support
for their campaigns.
Each year the unit musters for a public protest of United Nations Day. The protest
is preceded by numerous letters to the editor of the local newspaper complaining about the
display of the U. N. flag over the City Hall.


39
on each section, or 220 points overall (Associated Press 1995: A5; Editorial 1994: J4).
This is a clear indication that high school graduates today lack the basic skills in
mathematics, reading, and writing demonstrated by high school graduates of ten years
ago. More than that is implied; since the process of decline began in 1963, it is clear that
the graduates of ten years ago lacked the skills of their predecessors twenty years in the
past.
If high school graduates are entering college with less qualifications than in the
past, are colleges making up for their deficiencies? Not in Florida. Beginning in 1995, the
Board of Regents of the Florida State University System initiated a program designed to
force undergraduate students to rush through college as fast as possible. The core
requirements were altered in such a manner that college graduates no longer receive the
same breadth of courses and exposure to a variety of arts and sciences as students prior to
the changes (Kenyon 1995: 8). Do they get a modified degree? No. Todays graduates
receive the same degree as their more broadly educated predecessors.
Young adults are being forced into the job market with declining academic skills
and with less training and preparation for critical thinking and decision-making than in the
past. This is not to glorify the past and reminisce about a golden age of education which
never existed; it is simply recognition that todays young adults are not as well-educated
as those of yesterday. There are two results of this, one direct and the other indirect.
First, the new graduates are less prepared to compete in todays economy, which leads to
the frustration discussed in the previous section. Second, because graduates are poorly
trained in the sciences and in critical thinking, young adults are more likely to accept


130
dominated by white supremacists. Finally, the NCFRM actively distributes, and lectures
from, 7'he Spotlight. This newspaper, published weekly, regularly features anti-Semitic
and white supremacist articles, advertisements, and event announcements. The Anti-
Defamation League has called The Liberty Lobby, publisher of The Spotlight, the most
significant anti-Semitic propaganda organization in the United States (Schwartz 1996:
37).
Central Florida Militia Association
New World Order/ZOG
The CFMA teaches its members that Congress usurped the Constitution in 1933
with the passage of former President Roosevelts New Deal programs and has been
acting illegally since that year. The real power behind the federal government today is
an international conspiracy of bankers and investors who are secretly pulling the strings of
Americas politicians. This group is the New World Order. The New World Order is also
behind the news and entertainment industries, and is using its influence in these media to
brainwash the American public into accepting its policies. Who is behind the New
World Order? Cody offers an answer:
The New World Order is not a Jewish conspiracy. It is not a racial order of any
kind. Do not point an accusing finger at the black man, or the European or the
wealth. We are not talking about class struggle. . The enemy we face is world
government. Totalitarian control over every aspect of our live by a handful of
power mad ultra elite who have been manipulating the governments of the world
for decades (Cody 1995: 2).


REFERENCES CITED
183
BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH .
.193
IX


Hofstadter in 1962.
Once a person has accepted the basic tenets of the militia conspiracy theory, the
new activist realizes that it is a duty, an obligation, to attempt the overthrow of the federal
government of the United States. An ethical person in this situation has no choice in the
matter; in the eyes of God, the activist is required to oppose the evil, secretive cabal which
has gained control of America.
xii


83
loss of approximately seventy percent of the organizations membership (Allen 1997b: 1).
Further, law enforcement officials became much more interested in the activities of the
Spartan Legion, which led to massive desertion from the ranks.
This data, therefore, reflects the NAAWP between April 1996 and October-
November 1997 but may not reflect the current confusion in the group. Changes since
this period include the firing of Dan Daniels and his replacement by Ray Thomas of
Tampa, Florida; a lawsuit against Paul Allen for control of the groups finances; the
temporary suspension of all Spartan Legion activities; the cancellation of the Third
Annual White Rights Rally; massive loss of both membership and revenue; and the
organization of a fourth Region.
Most of the groups activities at this point revolve around recruiting new members
and attempting to draw former members back into the fold along with a new mass-mailed
fund-raising campaign. It remains to be seen whether the NAAWP will remain a
significant force of the Far Right or if it will dissolve from the force of its own
organizational inadequacies.
In the meantime, the research results from prior to the shake-up remain indicative
of the organization, membership, beliefs, and activities of the groups ideal state. The
organization evolved into the state in which I found it over a period of several years, and
the changes were not instigated by the NAAWP. Only the deliberate activities of a well-
funded and professional group of investigative journalists were able to infiltrate and
disrupt the NAAWP.


109
space. Because Creators believe that races are in actuality separate species, the natural
state between races should be, and in fact is, conflict. Creators and their militant branch,
the White Berets, firmly believe that the separation of races is both necessary and
inevitable. The coming separation will follow the eagerly anticipated racial holy war,
foretold by Ben Klassen. This is so central to their beliefs that it provides their motto:
RAHOWA, meaning RAcial HOly WAr.
Templar Knights of the Ku Klux Klan
An article in a recent recruiting publication distributed at one of Alders rallies was
titled Holy Bible Condemns Integration. It states that Gods laws condemn interracial
marriage but integrationists still advocate the cross breeding of the races. . Purity of race
is a gift from God, but it is a gift which man can destroy (Murphy 1994: 5). The
members of TK/KKK are all fundamentalist Protestant Christians who quote selections
from the Bible in almost all public speeches and in most of their literature.
In addition, several members are also members of the Christian Coalition and
Operation Rescue. At least one, and probably others, regularly watch Pat Robertsons
700 Club on television. At each rally, meeting, or ceremony observed in this study, Alder
opened with a prayer offered up to the Lord God, His Son, Jesus Christ, and Adolph
Hitler, immortal father of our race.
None appear to be Identity believers, but they have adopted several Identity tenets.
Among these is the belief that Jews are descendants of Satan, engaged in an eternal
struggle against the White Race for domination of the planet. Another is that blacks are


178
WWII was a godsend to Zionist Jews, who had long looked at America with
hungry eyes. But they could not use the wedge weapon of racial equality to kill
Christianity as long as Negro inferiority was the basis of public policy. Then Hitler came
along, and murdered it with reductio ad Hitleruman argument is necessarily false if
Hitler happened to share the same view. Since Hitler believed in Negro inferiority,
reductio ad Hitlerum made in necessarily false, & thus the dagger of racial equality was
stuck in the heart of Christianity. Despite the fact that reductio ad Hitlerum is obviously
nonsense (is God necessarily false if Hitler believed in God?, in the midst of WWII
hysteria, nonsense carried the day--& still does!
Jewish Relativism says races are equal.
Jewish Cultural Relativism replaced Darwinist Negro inferiority. Relativism says
that no race is more advanced or backward, no culture is better or worse than any other-
all are perfectly equal. Now, commonsense fairly screams at the thought that Eskimos
paddling skin boats are perfectly equal with whites flying jet planes, that neither race is
more advanced or backward. This is such an assault on commonsense and the evidence of
ones eyes, that nothing but the awesome power of Jewish Though Police-State
Dictatorship could have hammered it into America. How? By painting Hitlers face on
anyone who objects to racial equality, of course.
Jewish lie of perfectly equal Negroes.
Have you wondered why Negroes show up on TV and the movies far in excess of
their proportion of the population? Why they are never portrayed as inferiorbut almost
always perfectly equal, if not superior? Talk about Jewish propaganda! The reality is that
50 percent of all American Negroes may be clinically diagnosed as feeble-minded, and
another 15 percent diagnosed as morons. This awful arithmetic means 65 percent, or 13
out of 20, are either feeble-minded or morons.
It is no secret that the average underclass Negro has low IQ, yet they are almost
always portrayed as intelligent, articulate, morally above whites, looking down on us,
ordering us around, sacrificing themselves, dying for us.
Have you ever wondered why there is such a disconnect between media portrayal
and reality? Well, wonder no more. Say hello to the Nazi propaganda technique of the
Big Lie. Perfectly equal Negroes are thrust in our faces until they come out our ears so
we will regard them as perfectly equal. So we will think that the only difference between a
white and a Negro is a dark skin; that inside every Negro is a perfectly equal middle class
white person screaming to get out.
Wake up Christians! This is the wedge weapon of perfectly equal Negroes that
Jews appear to be using to destroy the Christian religion.
Jews want to divide & conquer thru race war.
By thrusting perfectly equal Negroes in our face far in excess of their proportion of
the population, TV and the movies pound the racial equality wedge weapon deep into
us. The media say they over-expose Negroes to promote positive role models. The real


104
Summary
The paranoid and secretive nature of the Militia Movement makes it virtually
impossible to gather adequate demographic data through legal means. However, the
available data can be pieced together to present a relatively clear picture of the movement
in Florida.
First and foremost, it is a movement of white native-born American citizens. They
are overwhelmingly male; the few females are aberrations and typically present at the
behest of a husband or boyfriend.
Socioeconomically the movement is diverse, although each unit is not.
Interestingly, the lower the general level of employment within a particular militia, the
more likely that militia is to be oriented around racist beliefs. The WCOTC, for example,
consists of minimum-wage workers or the unemployed. The TK7KKK consists of blue-
collar workers, farm laborers, the unemployed, and low-level government employees.
This reflects the typology of activists expected by Eric Hoffer, author of The True
Believer. The present-day workingman in the Western world feels unemployment as a
degradation. He sees himself disinherited and injured by an unjust order of things, and is
willing to listen to those who call for a new deal (Hoffer 1951: 27).
On the other hand, the NAAWP has no unemployed members; almost half are
business owners. The remainder work at a diverse assortment of jobs, ranging from an
accountant to a janitor. The NCFRM is widely diverse, including virtually every level of
employment from neurologist to university professor to farm laborer. Some of these
people appear to represent what H. G. Barnett referred to as the resentful or the


136
Templar Knights of the Ku Klux Klan
The primary activity of the TK/KKK seems to be seeking publicity. Alder, as
previously stated, is a frequent guest on The Jerry Springer Show. He has also appeared
on talk shows hosted by Geraldo Rivera, Sally Jesse Raphael, and Montel Williams. In
addition, the TK/KKK holds two annual rallies in the White City Park. The first is held
each February and is known as White Pride Day. The second is held in November and
is called the Klan Khristmas; it features a visit from Klanta Klaus, who brings gifts for
all of the children present. These two events are covered by both local and national media,
present at Alders invitation.
The TK/KKK also holds occasional cross burnings, primarily at Naturalization
Ceremonies when new Klansmen and Klanswomen are initiated into the group. At least
one of these ceremonies was conducted at the home of Dan Daniels, Field Commander of
the National Association for the Advancement of White People. Finally, the TK/KKK
sporadically holds paramilitary training, but these training sessions were never observed
during the period of study.
NAAWP: Spartan Legion Militia
National
The primary activities of the National Office are recruitment of new members,
establishment of policies and principles, merchandizing, and coordination of Regional and
State offices. Recruiting is primarily performed through announcements sent through the
U. S. mail. Mailing lists are exchanged with and purchased from other right-wing groups


10
dynamite (Stern 1996: 135).
In October, United Nations Day protests were held in several major cities. U.N.
flags were burned, speeches were made, and the militias gained much-needed media
attention (Stern 1996: 99). On 30 December, members of the North American Volunteer
Militia of Montana sent a series of messages to various public officials threatening them
with violence if the officials continued to carry out their duties (Stern 1996: 80).
The year 1995 was important to the militias because it saw the largest growth in
membership and the most publicity for militia beliefs. It began with an armed stand-off
between militia men and police officers at the office of Dr. Ellwanger, a veterinarian from
Washington. Dr. Ellwanger owed back taxes and refused to pay; when government
officials attempted to impound equipment from his office, militia members surrounded the
property (Stem 1996: 86).
The same month saw a similar incident involving Calvin Greenup of Montana, who
was accused of failure to pay his taxes. When he refused to appear for his court date and
retreated to his ranch, officials chose to give him some time rather than attempt to capture
him. Greenup sent armed friends to harass the town marshals wife at home, planned to
kidnap and execute public officials, and issued arrest warrants for the local judge,
County Attorney, and town marshal (Stern 1996: 87-88).
Congresswoman Helen Chenoweth, a strong supporter of the Militia Movement
issued a statement in February condemning the use of federal law enforcement officials in
Idaho. She accused the government of infiltrating Idaho with black helicopters (Stern
1996: 213). On 19 April 1995, Timothy McVeigh and an as-yet-undetermined number of


44
clinics which provide abortions and the doctors who perform them. The Christian
Coalition, a leader in the anti-abortion movement, has recently adopted a new tactic for
reducing the right to abortions: The Coalitions executive director, Ralph Reed,
determinedly surfed the mainstream, to use his term, by suggesting that the GOP should
not press for a constitutional ban on abortion, but instead should seek incremental legal
steps to change abortion policies (The Christian Century 1996). This reflects Reeds
extremely successful stealth candidate policies to gain control of school boards at local
levels. Use of these tactics has enabled the Christian Coalition to change political systems
from the bottom up rather than the reverse.
Vietnam/Gulf War Veterans
Many veterans of the Vietnam War returned home to face a populace that did not
support them and factions which actively opposed them. They were the first American
soldiers to lose a war, despite the fact that they were far better equipped and armed than
their adversaries. This has led many Vietnam veterans to conclude that they were sold
out by Americas political leaders who would not let us win the war. Lack of support
and adequate leadership during the war, abuse from citizens upon their return, and
inadequate medical care from the Veterans Administration in the intervening years has
created a pool of resentment toward the federal government among many Vietnam
veterans.
Veterans of the Gulf War have also become resentful of their government. Sent
overseas with the apparently overwhelming support of their peers and government, the


150
participation, but there is no way to either confirm or deny this within the confines of this
study.
H. G. Barnett offered various typologies of potential acceptors for new social
movements in his book Innovation: The Basis of Cultural Change (1953). The
typologies, however, are difficult to determine with accuracy without extensive
psychological examination of individual militia activists. It can be stated here, though, that
his categories of the disaffected and the resentfid seem to provide a general description of
many militiamen encountered through this project. Of the disaffected Barnett wrote:
Some people start out by being active participants in certain aspects of their culture but
later acquire a distaste for them. Many experience a change from a positive to a negative
attitude as a result of some personalized event or series of events (Barnett 1953 : 389).
The resentfid, on the other hand, are people who feel they have been unfairly treated and
never really accept their assignment and the lesser prizes that go with it. . they are
dissatisfied not because they object to the values of their group but because they are
denied those that are esteemed the most (Barnett 1953: 401).
As stated previously, most militia members were activists in their communities
prior to the Militia Movement. They are attempting to take part in society, but find
society increasingly at variance to their ideals. This can lead to disaffection on the part of
people who can not or will not adapt to the changes in American society. Other
militiamen seem to be complaining about economic and political changes, not because they
do not believe in business and profit, but because the profits are going to someone else:
immigrants, minorities, foreigners, corporations, Jews, or international bankers.


124
Spartan Legion Militia to both lead and win the Second Civil War in America; whites
must participate or die: We have a natural right to secure our existence as a people, and
secure the future for white children (Allen 1995: 4). This is a reflection of the Fourteen
Words of David Lane, a leader of The Order and the White Aryan Resistance (WAR), a
significant organization in the white supremacy movement which has, of late, become a
major distributor of militia doctrine. An NAAWP member summed up his feelings about
the race war at a meeting: The only way to win the war is to eliminate the enemy.
Before the race war starts, the NAAWP has other options for it members. The
first of these is vigilantism:
The dictionary describes Vigilantes as Ever Vigilant. Nice words. Considering
the black crime rampage and the total corruption of the AmeriKan criminal
injustice system, expensive and useless, it is time for the Vigs to return to the
scene.
They have two enemies to fight. One, the negroid criminal class, an
underclass of pure Niggers if you will, and the Federal Beast which protect them
(Daniels 1996: 11).
In addition to vigilantism, the NAAWP also recommends political activism. Allen has
listed the groups demands for politicians:
Declare martial law in high-crime areas. Establish a Police-State and string lawless
neighborhoods with barbed wire. Use vacant facilities as prisons/re-education
centers, & already-on-the-payroll military as guards. Multiply the criminal justice
system & police by five. Pay for it by ending welfare for the able-bodied. Require
media resume identifying criminals by race. Stop secret Negro rape warfare by
making interracial rape a hate crime, punishable by castration & a triple term in
prison (Allen 1995: 4).
Allen does not believe that politicians will ever see things his way, though: The same
America you and I grew up in is going down a giant black hole dug by politicians bought
fair & square in Washington, D.C. auctions. Most have betrayed the Constitution, are


184
Bark, Ed
1997 All the news that titillates, The Orange Countv Register: 7 December.
Barkun, Michael
1997 Religion and the Racist Right. Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina
Press.
Barnett, H. G.
1953 Innovation: The Basis of Cultural Change. New York: McGraw-Hill Book
Company, Inc.
Bennett, David H.
1995 The Party of Fear: From Nativist Movements to the New Right in American
History; 2nd ed. New York: Vintage Books.
Blair, Mike
1997 Israel Caught Red-Handed: U.S. Technology Given to Red China, The
Spotlight; 19 May. Washington, D.C.: The Liberty Lobby.
Burnham, David
1996 Above the Law: Secret Deals. Political Fixes and Other Misadventures of the U. S
Department of Justice. New York: Scribner.
Calavita, Kitty, Henry N. Pontell, and Robert H. Tillman
1997 Big Money Crime: Fraud and Politics in the Savings and Loan Crisis. Berkeley:
University of California Press.
Caplan, Lionel, ed.
1987 Studies in Religious Fundamentalism. Albany: State University of New York
Press.
Chalmers, David M.
1987 Hooded Americanism: the History of the Ku Klux Klan; 3rd ed. Durham: Duke
University Press.
Christian Century, The
1996 Top Religion Stories of 1996, The Christian Century: 18 December.
Cody, Mark
1995 Opening address to the First Congress of Florida Militias, 11 February.


69
Members have been charged repeatedly for attacks on minorities, they wear swastika and
SS tattoos, and boycott minority-owned businesses.
Templar Knights of the Ku Klux Klan
The TK/KKK are located in Port St. Lucie and lead by J. D. Alder, who has
recently become familiar to many Americans through frequent appearances on The Jerry
Springer Show, a daytime television talk show. The TK/KKK is an independent Klan unit,
owing no allegiance to any national-level organization. Alder is in close contact with
other notable Klan leaders, however, as well as other groups such as the NAAWP, the
National Socialist White Peoples Party (NSWPP), the National Alliance, and the
Nationalist Movement.
Although some of Alders followers have been arrested for vandalism and
harassment, the primary activity of his group seems to be seeking publicity. As mentioned
previously, he is a frequent guest of The Jerry Springer Show and has also appeared on
talk shows hosted by Geraldo Rivera, Montel Williams, and Sally Jesse Raphael. The
Klavem, or local group, hosts two annual events: The White Khristmas in the Park and
the White Pride Day. Both of these events are held in White City Park. Alder invites as
many members of the press as he can contact to his events and appears on television news
shows throughout Florida each year. Whenever possible, the TK/KKK also bums crosses
at its ceremonies.
Alders Klavem was selected for examination in this project because Alder has
formed his group into a militia, adopted standard militia rhetoric, and abandoned as


48
76 percent of Americans polled answered yes. Today, that number has plunged to
an abysmal 19 percent (Sabato & Simpson 1996: ix).
It is not surprising that Americans are losing confidence in the integrity of their
elected officials; after all, we have a Senate which has refused to expel a single member
since the Civil War, over 130 years ago, regardless of misbehavior or misconduct (Dewar
1995: v). Further, Time recently reported that twenty-three U.S. Army Generals have
been accused of criminal activities since 1995. Of these, not a single officer was tried in
court; all twenty-three were allowed to retire with full pay and benefits. Actions such as
these demonstrate to a suspicious public that high-level government officials are free to
disregard the laws of the land {Time 1998:8).
Americans are not only losing confidence for general reasons. They see specific
acts in which government officials show marked favoritism to wealthy or high-status
constituents. For example, studies indicate that white-collar crime causes far more
damage to society than street crime:
The economic losses suffered by consumers and government as a result of
corporate crime. . dwarfed the losses taken from street crime victims by the
nations car thieves, burglars and robbers. As for physical hazards. . far more
persons are killed through corporate criminal activities than by individual criminal
homicides (Burnham 1996: 212).
Despite this fact, the Department of Justice rarely prosecutes white-collar criminals.
According to researcher David Burnham: The record is clear. Political campaign
contributions, personal bribes and other direct and indirect favors have frequently
influenced important Justice Department decisions about the enforcement of law
(Burnham 1996: 233). This does not go unnoticed by members of society who are not so


126
lease of American troops and equipment to international oil companies in order to defend
their oil fields (Gause 1995: 175-177). When the troops returned home, many of them
were ill, their health apparently ruined by exposure to chemical weapons. The government
denied this exposure, claiming that vital logs concerning chemical attacks were lost or
misplaced. The Department of Veteran Affairs continues to deny benefits or treatment
to these veterans, demonstrating a callous lack of concern and an unwillingness to spend
New World Order money on soldiers who are no longer of any use.
Gun control laws are seen as attempts to disarm the American public in
preparation for increasing oppression. One popular circular distributed at NCFRM
meetings compares the Brady Bill with Adolph Hitlers attempts to disarm the German
and Austrian masses in the 1930s. This is titled Gun Control: Gateway to Tyranny and
argues that the Holocaust would not have occurred if the Jewish people had their own
well-armed militias.
During the period of research with the NCFRM, a significant concern was the
Omnibus Anti-Terrorism Bill, which militia members believed to be the next major step on
the path to their disarmament. This bill was discussed in detail in Chapter Four; suffice it
here to say that it proved to the NCFRM that the federal government was coming after
their guns and would use any method available to monitor them. The bill called for
implementation of many programs which could easily be interpreted as unconstitutional;
the question in the minds of the militia members was this: Why would freedom-loving
Americans permit this bill to pass? The answer, simply, was that the corporate media has
cooperated with the New World Order-controlled government to convince the majority of


123
more Rappers do more Rappersand rid the world of singers who urge Niggers to
kill policemen and rape white women (Daniels 1996: 8).
Daniels also commented on the Clinton Inauguration:
I watched 15 minutes of the Bolshevik Clinton Inauguration and turned off my TV.
Color the event BLACK; thought I was in South Africa Mandela country,
Sickening! America. . great country. . with a president who is a proven crook,
liar, whoremaster molester of women, communist sympathizer, jew lover, whigger,
and father of a black baby via a black prostitute! (Daniels 1996: 9).
Why are blacks such a problem? In Issue 91 of The Eagle: NAA WP Battleground,
Daniels explained:
The FBI says that the black crime rate in AmeriKa is almost vertical, going out of
sight, upwards like crazy. You dont read about that in the JooMedia, do you?
Noand you wont. And, the white crime rate is remaining level, no increases.
Fact. Truth. You wont read about that in the hooknose, olive oil media, either.
Truth? If you eliminated black criminals from our country, there would not be
enough crime to report in newspapers, and we could all take the bars off our
home windows (Daniels 1996: 11).
He echoes again the twin themes of black crime and Jewish-controlled media.
The NAAWPs recommended response to these problems is clear: Dont sell
White people short. Dont judge us by our current cowardly leaders. As soon as the
shooting starts, the whoring white man trying to win black favor will turn into a tiger
thirsty for black blood (Allen 1997: 13). . As for the right to overturn the government,
we do and always have had that right (Allen 1997: 10). How are whites to win this war?
The NAAWP is standing by to help: The National Association for the Advancement of
White People has formed a Citizens Militia (The Spartan Legion). Patriots concerned
about the defense of and future of their majority race are urged to ask for an application to
become a member of the Elite group (Daniels 1996: 4). The NAAWP expects its


153
the past decade have created a large faction of people actively seeking someone to blame
for the new unfair conditions.
One direction in which this search has led is toward government; many Americans
have begun to pay close attention to their elected representatives. People are becoming
increasingly aware of corruption and incompetence in the federal government, and this
serves to make the government an obvious and convenient scapegoat. As this is occurring
politicians such as Pat Buchanon and Jesse Helms speak of culture wars while religious
activists are bombing abortion clinics in the name of Jesus (Hallow 1996). Divisive social
policies are creating divisive movements in their wake, such as the family values, anti
abortion, anti-tax, anti-homosexual, gun rights, and survivalist organizations. Each of
these movements has an ideology which can, with the proper manipulation, place the
blame for whatever problem with which it is concerned on the federal government.
At this point, the pool of potential recruits has been reduced somewhat. Persons
likely to adopt the militia conspiracy theory are typically disaffected or resentful native-
born American citizens. They are suffering economically because of structural changes
which have occurred in their lifetime. They have come to associate the federal
government with both their personal problems and with the larger problems in society.
However, this description still fits many people who will never participate in militia
activism. In other words, they are unhappy with the conditions of their lives, and are
blaming others for their unhappiness. Eric Hoffer argues that this is a critical emotional
prerequisite for participation in social movements: A man is likely to mind his own
business when it is worth minding. When it is not, he takes his mind off his own


education, massification, and socialization models, do not adequately account for
participation in this movement. Education theory holds that right wing political extremism
results from insufficient education; data reveal that militia members are actually equally, if
not more, educated than the general population. Massification theory states that
participation in social movements results from insufficient social connections; this study
indicates that militia activists are closely connected to their communities through ties of
government, religion, economics, and kinship. Finally, socialization theory claims that
right wing extremists and white supremacists are indoctrinated into these perspectives by
their parents; there is no evidence to support this model in this case.
Economic, political, and religious social factors do apply, however. Militia
activists tend to be people from a variety of economic classes who are finding it difficult to
compete in todays economy because of recent changes in the social structure. They have
educated themselves with movement literature and discovered rampant corruption and
incompetence in government. They blame the economic distress in their lives on corrupt
or inept government officials. Recognizing the power of the federal government and the
isolation of elected representatives from common citizens, they have determined that the
only course of action remaining is to prepare for civil war.
These simplistic conclusions and plans result from the worldview of militia
activists, which is built upon a fundamentalist perspective. The fundamentalist religious
beliefs of activists in this movement lead them to perceive the world through a dualistic,
conspiratorial, and millennial lens. This perspective has encouraged the formation of a
movement best classified as one of projective politics, a concept pioneered by Richard
xi


20
He further states that within its ranks are college students, the unemployed, farmers,
manual laborers, professionals, law enforcement personnel and members of the military.
Abanes does not closely examine demographic factors, though, nor does he examine in
any detail the economic factors underlying the movement.
According to Kenneth Stern, many members of the United States military are
involved with the Militia Movement (Stern 1996: 158) as are law enforcement personnel
(Stern 1996: 236). Stern, much like Abanes, also sees diversity in the movement: The
militia movement is a mass social movement. People who have never given a thought to
blacks or Jews were attracted to these groups because they cared about other things
guns, the environment, abortion (Stern 1996: 246).
Dees, as well, sees a wide range of people in the militias:
They are just the type of people racists and neo-Nazi leaders have long been after.
They are mainly white and middle class. Most hold jobs, own homes, wear their
hair short, dont use drugs, and, for one reason or another, they hate our
government. . William Pierce pointed out to his followers in 1994 that most
people arent joiners, but millions of white Americans who five years ago felt
cowed by the government and the Jewish-controlled media that they were afraid to
agree with us are becoming fed up, and their exasperation is giving them courage
(Dees 1996: 4-5).
Later, Dees gives a more comprehensive description of the movement:
With about five million followers, it is a movement that exists at the fringe of
American life and politics. On its moderate side are the John Birch Society and
the conspiratorial segment of televangelist Pat Robertsons audience. . On the
movements more militant side are groups promoting themes of white supremacy
and anti-Jewish bigotry (Dees 1996: 30).
Like Stern, Dees also writes about the militia members within the U.S. armed
forces: The clandestine group, the Special Forces Underground, is buried deep on the


89
Several of the members are attending community college and at least one has
graduated with an Associates Degree.
Templar Knights of the Ku Klux Klan
J. D. Alder is the leader of the TK/KKK and is in close contact with other notable
Klans leaders in Florida, Georgia, and Tennessee, although he is not officially affiliated
with any other Klan. In addition to his Klan activities, Alder also works closely with
groups such as the NAAWP, the National Socialist White Peoples Party (NSWPP), the
National Alliance, and the Nationalist Movement.
The majority of his followers are blue-collar workers, part-time farm workers, or
unemployed. Among the members, one is a gunsmith, another is a prison guard; one is a
janitor; and it is reputed that a few are police officers but this remains unconfirmed. None
have graduated from college although at least two have attended. Most are male, but
there are two female members. Both female members were admitted at the behest of men:
One is a members wife and the other a members girlfriend. All are of European descent,
and range in age from teens through the late fifties. The mean is impossible to determine
with accuracy, but is estimated at the early- to mid-thirties.
At social functions, many of Alders male followers in their twenties and early
thirties brought dates who were between fourteen and sixteen. Most of these dates
appeared to be girls from small, rural towns who were enraptured with the glamour of
the Klan.


116
of society is the soul of religion (Durkheim 1965: 466).
In summary, it can be concluded that in Florida, at least, fundamentalism is the
foundation of religious ideology for the overwhelming majority of activists in the Militia
Movement, although it is not mandatory for participation. Further, it is also apparent that
religion plays a key role in militia activism, providing a significant motivating factor for
militiamen.


77
Alder is in close contact with other notable Klans leaders in Florida, Georgia, and
Tennessee. In addition to his Klan activities, Alder also works closely with groups such as
the NAAWP, the National Socialist White Peoples Party (NSWPP), the National
Alliance, and the Nationalist Movement. Rallies sponsored by the TK/KKK also feature
the distribution of several publications, including The White Patriot, The Turner Diaries,
and The Spotlight.
NAAWP: The Spartan Legion
Founding
The National Association for the Advancement of White People (NAAWP) is a
large organization, with chapters in all fifty states, Canada, and England. It was founded
in 1980 by David Duke with the ostensible purpose of opposing Affirmative Action
programs in order to restore equal rights for European-Americans (Schwartz 1996:
265). The motto of the NAAWP is Equal rights for allSpecial privileges for none.
Organization
The NAAWP is organized hierarchically. Local chapters are under the State-level
leadership; these, in turn, are organized into Regional Leaders which report directly to the
National Office and its President, Paul Allen. There is a further division into NAAWP
chapters and Spartan Legion Militias. The Spartan Legion is composed of members from
several local chapters who also train as part of the militia, and falls under the command of
either the State or Regional leadership. All Spartan Legion Militias are ultimately under


Corruption . .47
Fundamentalism . .49
The Patriot Movement and the Far Right . .52
Identity Christianity .52
The Liberty Lobby . .54
Common-Law Courts .54
The Turner Diaries . .55
Summary ........ .56
3 METHODS 57
Ethnography/Participant Observation .57
Interviews ........ .59
Document Analysis .61
Correspondence . .63
Internet ........ .63
4 MILITIAS IN FLORIDA 65
World Church of the Creator: The White Berets. .66
Templar Knights of the Ku Klux Klan .69
NAAWP: The Spartan Legion Militia .... .70
North Central Florida Regional Militia .71
Central Florida Militia Association . .72
Summary ........ .73
5 STRUCTURE OF FLORIDA MILITIAS 74
World Church of the Creator . .74
Founding ....... .74
Organization .75
Communication .75
Templar Knights of the Ku Klux Klan .76
Organization .76
Communication . .76
NAAWP: The Spartan Legion ..... .77
Founding ....... .77
Organization .77
Communication .80
Recent Developments .82
North Central Florida Regional Militia . .84
Founding ....... .84
Organization .84
vi


82
All members of the Spartan Legion receive, in addition to rThe NAA WP News, a
monthly mailing of The Eagle: NAA WP Battleground. This is published by Daniels and is
much more virulently racist and anti-Semitic than The NAA WP News. It typically runs
eight pages in length and contains editorials, advertisements, event announcements,
cartoons, and articles about current events. Typical headlines read Equal Rights for
Aryans (Issue 85), Israelis choose war and murder over peace (Issue 86), Communist
Clintons Black Hillary Substitute and Clintons Look-alike Black Bastard Mullato Son
(Issue 89).
The NAAWP Jacksonville Chapter publishes a monthly newsletter which usually
runs four pages, with six on occasion. This is circulated to all members of the groups,
whether they are in the militia or not.
At the NAAWPs Second Annual White Rights Rally, several other publications
were distributed. Among these were the novels of Dr. William Pierce, The Turner Diaries
and Hunter, The Spotlight, 'The White Patriot, and Resistance.
Recent Developments
Near the end of this research project the NAAWP was forced to undergo
significant reorganization. A 14 May 1997 broadcast of the American Broadcasting
Corporations Primetime Live exposed several falsehoods promoted by the leaders.
Among these were the groups close ties with KKK groups, the blatant racism expressed
by some members in private, the criminal records of several key members, and the Spartan
Legions preparations for a race war. Exposure of the leaders on this show resulted in the


174
ZOG rules world thru New World Order.
The most powerful men in the world are not presidents or kings or generals, but
one or two Jews standing at the top of Americas media pyramid. There is no greater
power on earth today than in their hands. No king or pope of old, no conquering general
or high priest masquerading as God, ever enjoyed power even remotely approaching that
of the Jewish Though Police who appear to control the American government.
If this control were pro-American, no problem. But many, many people are
starting to think ZOG is a vampire bat sucking Americas blood. Again, we would be
happy to have our suspicions proved wrong thru Nixons call for an investigation.
Jews dont have to own to control.
Our Jewish Media Masters do not have to own something to rule it. For example,
newspapers are not supported by their subscribers, but by their advertisers. It is
advertising revenuenot the small change collected from a newspapers readersthat
largely pays the editors salary and yields owners profit. This si why a newspaper, TV
station, etc., may be owned by Christians, but it is so thoroughly dependent upon Jewish
advertising revenue that its editorial and news reporting policies are controlled by Jewish
likes and dislikes.
Jews are very cunning. Nothing is written down, they leave no paper trail to
follow, no fingerprints appear anywhere. Everything will be verbaldo what we like or
well cancel our ads.
Faced with no large ad money coming in, suddenly, mysteriously being inundated
with labor & legal troubles, etc., virtually all media outlets cave in to Jewish domination.
In the media as elsewhere, he who pays the piper calls the tune.
The Jewish Thought Police-State dictatorship.
Jews routinely deny they dominate the media. Even when they admit to some little
influence, they claim they are not a distinct nation within this nation, and do not have a
hidden Zionist agenda. They claim they are merely a religion.
What a joke! Jews may differ among themselves about many things, but in the
matter of protecting their control of America, they come together and act like a secret,
well-disciplined army.
Jews have constructed in this nation the same organization, iron discipline and
rigid control that allows tiny Israel to thumb its nose at angry Arab move outnumbering
them 100 to one. To secretly replicate the state of Israels effective crowd-control in
America is a task so enormous that it proves Jews are not merely a religion as claimed,
but an invisible nation within a nation.
It is impossible for our Jewish Media Masters to have imposed the Though
Dictatorship they have over Christians without being an invisible, secret, well-disciplined
army in civilian clothes.
Jewish domination should be investigated.
If Christians had the same Thought Police-State Dictatorship in Israel as Jews do


166
Neo-Nazi
Largo
Orlando
Pensacola
Aryan Nations
National Alliance
German American Nationalist PAC
Jacksonville
Lakewood
Miami Beach
West Pam Beach
^Location unknown
Skinhead
Confederate Hammer Skins
Children of the Reich
South Miami Aryan Skinheads
World Church of the Creator
International Posse
St. Petersburg
Identity
Christian Education Association
Eagle Lake
Eagle Lake
Fort Lauderdale
Fort Myers
Jacksonville
Miami
Nokomis
Ocala
Palm City
Pensacola
Tampa
Other
NAAWP
Spartan Aryan Society
World Church of the Creator
Lords of Chaos
NAAWP
America First Party
United American Guard
NAAWP
Free America
NAAWP
NAAWP


137
despite the fact Allen states in each mailing that his lists are confidential.
Policies and principles are updated periodically, and each issue of The NAA WP
News carries an insert titled N.A. A.W.P. Principles. They are created by Paul Allen with
input from his Regional Directors and other advisors. These principles provide the official
guidance for all NAAWP activities and are reprinted in their entirety in Appendix E.
Florida
NAAWP activities in Florida can be divided into two categories: the political
activities of NAAWP chapters and the paramilitary activities of the Spartan Legion.
Political activities include attending city and county council meetings, running for local
office, writing letters to politicians and editors of newspapers, and public protests. In
Jacksonville, members of the NAAWP chapter attend all City Council meetings. They
typically arrive in a group of two to seven members; each is well-informed about the local
governments actions of the month. They take turns making statements critical of the
governments behavior, make suggestions for improvement, and frequently threaten to file
lawsuits. NAAWP members are notorious for suing local governments and losing, despite
this track record, though, they always seem to find another lawyer willing to take their
cases.
Sue Lamb, Chaplain of the NAAWP, was elected to the local school board in
Jacksonville, as have her colleagues in other locales in Florida. Ted Doubleton, former
commander of the local Spartan Legion, is planning to run for Mayor. Each issue of the
local newsletter from Jacksonville, as well as each issue of The Eagle: NAA WP


APPENDIX B
WHITE SUPREMACIST ORGANIZATIONS IN FLORIDA: 1997
The following was compiled by researchers at the Klanwatch Project of the
Southern Poverty Law Center, and enhanced by additional ethnographic data. It
represents the most comprehensive available listing of white supremacist groups in
Florida. Organizations are listed by category in the alphabetical order of their respective
home towns.
Chiefland
Christmas
Davie
Deland
Deltona
Gainesville
Grandin
Holder
Interlachen
Kathleen
Lake City
Lantana
McDavid
Micanopy
Monticello
New Port Richey
Ocala
Orlando
Port St. Lucie
Valrico
Ku Klux Klan
Suwannee River Knights of the Ku Klux Klan
Commonwealth Knights
International Keystone Knights of the Ku Klux Klan
Rangers of the Cross
Royal Knights of the Ku Klux Klan
Nathan Bedford Forrest Brigade
Klay Kounty Klavern
Confederate Independent Klansmen
United Klan of the Confederacy
Invisible Empire: Knights of the Ku Klux Klan
Florida Knights of the Ku Klux Klan
Fraternal White Knights of the Ku Klux Klan
Bayou Knights
Florida Black Knights of the Ku Klux Klan
Southern Knights of the Ku Klux Klan
Knights of the Ku Klux Klan
Knights of the Forest Ku Klux Klan
Knights of Lockhart Ku Klux Klan
Templar Knights of the Ku Klux Klan
Knights of the Apocalypse
165


185
Cohen, Norman J., ed.
1990 The Fundamentalist Phenomenon: A View From Within: A Response From
Without. Grand Rapids, MI: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company.
Corry, John
1997 Ten Suggestions on How to Save Journalism from Itself, The American
Spectator: October.
Couto, Philip
1993 Narrative, Free Space, and Political Leadership in Social Movements; Journal of
Politics: Vol. 55, #1: 57-79.
Crain, Robert L., Elihu Katz, and Donald B. Rosenthal
1969 The Politics of Community Conflict: The Flouridation Decision. New York:
Bobbs-Merrill.
Croke, Paul J.
1996 Editorial: Here We Go Again, The Spotlight: 16 September. Washington, D.C.:
The Liberty Lobby.
Current, Richard N., T. Harry Williams, Frank Freidel, and Alan Brinkley
1983 American History: A Survey: Volume IL 6th ed. New York: Alfred A. Knopf.
Daniels, Hiram Dan
1996 NAAWP Militia volunteers wanted, The Eagle: NAAWP Battleground: Issue
91- Eagle Lake, FL: NAAWP.
1997a 18 February: Personal communication.
1997b 21 February: Personal communication.
Dees, Morris
1996 Gathering Storm: Americas Militia Threat. New York: HarperCollins Publishers.
Department of Commerce
1990 Census of Population. General Social and Economic Characteristics. Washington,
D. C.: Government Printing Office.
Derickson, Glen
1998 Reverend Richard Mooneyhan in Prison, North Florida Advocate: January.
High Springs, Florida: The Advocate.
Dewar, Helen, ed.
1995 The Packwood Report: The Senate Ethics Counsel on Senator Robert Packwood.
New York: Random House.


125
enemies of normal people, should be arrested by citizen militias and tried in the peoples
courts for treason (Allen 1995: 4). This ties the NAAWP in with the remainder of the
Militia Movements doctrine, in particular with the common law courts.
North Central Florida Regional Militia
New World Order/ZOG
The primary justification behind the militias use of military force to oppose the
federal government is the belief that the government has effectively usurped the
Constitution and is acting on behalf of a group of international elites to oppress and
eventually enslave the American people. These international elites are the power behind
the mysterious New World Order which seeks to eliminate national governments and
unify the world under the auspices of the United Nations. Evidence for the existence of
the New World Order is found in many arenas, which include the placement of American
armed forces under foreign commanders, the Gulf War, the increasingly stringent gun
control laws, the Omnibus Anti-Terrorism Bill, the apparent cooperation between
government and the corporate media, and changing social conditions.
During the Gulf War, American troops were placed, for only the second time in
their history, under the command of foreign officers. This trend has continued in most, if
not all. United Nations Peace-Keeping operations (Howe 1995: 47). The same war saw
the largest mobilization of National Guard units in American history (Scales 1993: 391)
which, in the view of the NCFRM, demonstrates the willingness of the federal government
to utilize the states military for its own ends. In this case, the end in question was the


135
The training camp is located on the farm of a members family near Tampa. The
WCOTC militiamen drive out for weekend camping trips in which they practice shooting
on the gun range, running the obstacle course, and practicing basic squad-level patrolling
techniques in preparation for the coming racial holy war. They are all armed with a
standard nine-millimeter automatic pistol, and most have back-up weapons such as
shotguns and rifles.
For recreation, White Berets listen to a unique form of musicskinhead rock.
One of the most popular songs of this genre, produced by a band composed of WCOTC
members, is a rewrite of the Nancy Sinatra song These Boots Are Made for Walking. In
the skinhead version, the lyrics are:
These boots are made for stompin
And thats just what they ll do.
One of these days these boots are gonna stomp all over Jews (Schwartz 1996:
200).
The music is distributed through Resistance Records, a company affiliated with the
WCOTC.
Another popular form of recreation for members is gathering together and
vandalizing property; many have been arrested for this activity. The most common targets
are black churches and Jewish businesses; during the period of this research, two members
were arrested for painting swastikas on a Jewish-owned law firm. Another common
activity involves White Berets driving around in groups and locating individual minorities
to assault. This has led to several arrests and to at least one murder (Schwartz 1996:
198).


103
Approximately one-third of the members are affiliated with the University of
Florida in some capacity, whether as a student, faculty member, or staff. Most are staff.
The remainder of the group includes medical doctors, lawyers. . entrepreneurial business
owners, computer programmers, farmers, blue-collar workers, middle-echelon executives,
and other widely disparate people (Akins 1995: 40).
Of the thirty-five members encountered during the course of this study, twenty-
eight were male and seven were female. All were apparently of European descent. Two
or three are reputed to be Jewish, but this was impossible to verify because the alleged
Jews never attended meetings and no one could name or describe them. They ranged in
age from late teens to early sixties, with the average in the low thirties.
In conversation, the members of NCFRM appear intelligent, well-informed,
sincere, and paranoid. They are generally well-dressed and clean. Alcohol and illicit drugs
were barred from all meetings, and no member ever appeared intoxicated or under the
influence of mind-altering substances.
Central Florida Militia Association
The home unit of the CFMA is extremely secretive, which made it impossible to
gather adequate data on any member other than its founder and leader, Mark Cody. Cody
is in his mid-thirties, of European descent, and owns his own business. The business is
Codys Armory, a successful gun shop.


107
Despite these difficulties, a degree of separation can be made in order to discuss
the issues with greater clarity. Examination of both the official religious doctrines of each
militia (where they exist) as well as the religious beliefs and practices of individual militia
activists is necessary in order to determine why the Militia Movement developed when it
did. The previous chapter examined the question of who joins militias; this chapter will
begin exploring the reason why they join. What are the ideological underpinnings of the
militia world?
World Church of the Creator
The ideological aspect of the WCOTC which sets it apart from other groups in the
Militia Movement is its absolute rejection of Christianity:
Yes, it was the eternal parasite upon the back of mankind, the Jew, who wrote the
White Mans so called Holy Book, invented his religion for him, disseminated
and propagated it first among the Romans, and now has poisoned the White Mans
mind with this primitive, poisonous superstition in order to control his mind,
control his destiny, and to destroy the great White Race itself (Klassen 1981: 301 -
302).
Christianity is called a slave religion, invented by Jews to destroy the Roman Empire and
still useful in dominating all white nations. This is, interestingly, the exact term used by
Malcolm X when he referred to Christianity in his Autobiography. Like Malcolm X,
Klassen called for an alternative system. Klassens offering was a new religion,
Creativity, based on race, built upon facts determined through reason and the study
of history.


24
intertwined in the Militia Movement. Further, they all agree that Identity and
fundamentalism are being combined in new ways which promote violence.
Each has attempted to understand the conspiracy theory which leads to a belief in
the New World Order; they all agree that such a theory exists and was developed primarily
at the Rocky Mountain Rendezvous. There is slight disagreement as to the identification
of the specific power group behind the New World Order, but this disagreement probably
results from disagreement among the militia theoreticians themselves.
Political beliefs
The glue binding them together, according to Abanes, is:
. .a noxious compound of four ingredients: (1) an obsessive suspicion of the
government; (2) belief in anti-government conspiracy theories; (3) a deep-seated
hatred of government officials; and (4) a feeling that the United States
Constitution, for all intents and purposes, has been discarded by Washington
bureaucrats (Abanes 1996: 2)
What else does Abanes have to say about the militia political beliefs? He is concerned
about the lack of apparent rationality and the potential for violence:
The picture grows more troubling when one takes into account the high levels
of paranoia that abound in the patriot/militia movement. .Most patriots, for
example, believe that nearly everyone in the government is out to enslave U.S.
citizens as part of an insidious scheme hatched long ago by a secret cabal of
behind-the-scenes internationalists whose ultimate goal is world domination
(Abanes 1996: 3).
Kenneth Stem also examines the militia belief system. The underlying political
belief of the movement, according to Stern, is that the Constitution has been secretly and
illegally suspended. How was this done? Through Executive Orders and international
treaties: Conspiracy theorists like the Trochmanns. . ascribed almost magical powers to


racially motivated militias into their fold.
Communication
18
An essential element in any social movement is communication. When a
movement is underground and attempting to avoid infiltration by law enforcement,
communication can become difficult. The Militia Movement has tackled this problem with
shortwave radio, a fax network, and the Internet. The militiamen are also avid listeners of
right-wing talk radio hosts. Shortwave radio has provided a venue for such militia
leaders as Mark Koernke and Linda Thompson. This little-noticed band, usually
associated with international programming, has become a magnet for Americas far right,
and Koernke was one of its biggest stars (Stem 1996: 101). Stem addresses the issue of
talk radio:
Clintons criticisms of talk radio had some truth, however, AM and FM talk
radio had been helpful to the militias because some of the issues that drove
Americas private armies also played well on talk shows. Mainstream media, for
instance, forgot the Branch Davidians after their fiery end. Not so talk radio.
Waco was a huge topic. The talk-show host Rush Limbaugh. . also spoke about
concerns that overlapped the militias agenda. . The one mainstream talk-radio
host to whom militia members may listen is G. Gordon Liddy, heard on over two
hundred stations across America (Stern 1996: 222).
Of the Internet, Stern writes that:
The main communication system of the militias is the computer. Computers, after
all, substitute for a fax machine with the installation of a fax board. But they can
do so much more; they can hook you up with like-minded people around the globe
through bulletin boards and newsgroups on the Internet. . Militia members can
even sleep while their computers dial up and download the bulletin boards news.
In the morning, new information awaits (Stern 1996: 225-226).
Where does this information come from? And where does it go? Linda Thompson runs a
bulletin board through which she claims to reach 36,000 people. Were a news service,


CHAPTER 3
METHODS
It is easy to go down into Hell; night and day, the gates of dark Death
stand wide; but to climb back again, to retrace ones steps to the upper air
theres the rub, the task.
-Virgil
Data for this study were collected through a variety of means, including
ethnography and participant-observation, ethnographic interviews, document analysis, and
correspondence. Each of these methods will be discussed below.
Ethnography/Participant Observation
The most useful method employed for data collection in this study was participant-
observation and ethnography. Participant-observation is the primary anthropological
method for the collection of qualitative data, and provides a conceptual framework for
the elicitation and study of indigenous categories. Participant-observation is a global
conception on the use of culturally and linguistically sensitive categories and interactions
with the members of a society (Herdt and Boxer 1991: 172). It is participant-observation
which permits the anthropologist to understand both the etic and the emic perspectives of
the subject population, to gain insights into the subjects view of him or herself (Harris
1991: 20). According to Heather Hall, ethnography is a method for the description of
57


176
NAAWP paid Wood for right to question Jews.
To keep the country we grew up in, Jewish influence must be subject to free
speech. NAAWP Field Commander Lt. Gen. Dan Daniels and Paul Alen got shot at and
hit defending Americas right to free speech. Alen was just an ordinary soldier. Gen.
Daniels is one of the most highly decorated, most wounded war veterans in his native Polk
County, Florida. He is so well regarded locally that he was elected sheriff.
Both Daniels and Allen are disable veterans from gunshot wounds in the service of
their country. They have a right to inquire about Jewish influence in America. They
utterly reject the Jewish smear that their questions are illegitimate, their motives
dishonorable. They utterly reject the Jewish lie that exercising their Constitutionally
protected right of free speech makes the racist or anti-Semitic.
They are not bigots, just two Christians concerned about attacks by Jewish owned
Hollywood and TV on Christian family values.
Their concerns are not for themselves. They are senior citizens who have groveled
on their bellies under on-too-many artillery barrages. Theyve been blown around the
bend to a place where you arent much concerned about anything.
Their concerns are for the future of the children! Let the inquiry begin! Onward
Christian soldiers!
Jews stopped identifying the race of criminals to destroy the Christian religion.
The NAAWPs first question is: why did the media stop identifying the race of
criminals in 1960?
Before that, everybody knew who did the crime, and social control held it down.
But in 1960 the media suddenly stopped identifying criminals by race. There was no law
passed, they just did it on their own. Social control became gone with the wind, and
Negro crime skyrocketed straight up.
QUIZ: How can you fight crime if you are not permitted to identify the criminal?
If the cancer is not identified, how can you treat and remove it?
You cant, of course, which is why the medias refusal to identify the race of
criminals seems to have fathered, permitted, provoked, caused the explosion of Negro
crime destroying Christian America, and by extension, the Christian religion.
The only questionis the medias refusal to identify the race of criminals prima
facie evidence of a Jewish hidden agenda to destroy the Christian religion? The NAAWP
News says Yes!
We would be happy to be proved wrong in open debate. Whatever happened to
free speech anyway? Is there something to hide?
Middle class Negroes are equal, Underclass no!
All middle class, law-abiding, patriotic Negroes are equal to whites. Many
Underclass Negroes with low IQ are not. Their IQ seems to be sinking like a stone,
inviting them to do crime to make up for it. If their anti-American attitude is not adjusted
by Negoresit will be adjusted by whites, and it wont be pretty. When we say Negro,
we refer strictly to underclass Negroes Jews seem to be using to attack Christian America


My undergraduate mentor, Dr. Robin Rhodes, and my former wife, Shelley Burke,
provided the inspiration I needed to give both college and graduate school a try.
Susana Gonzalez, a future attorney and currently one of the worlds great
bartenders, provided invaluable proofreading and copy editing, and the text is more clear
and concise because of her input.
Thanks also to Colonel Dan Daniels, USA, retired, and his colleagues at the
National Association for the Advancement of White People, to the Klanwatch Project of
the Southern Poverty Law Center, and to the Anti-Defamation League of Bnai Brith for
providing me with vital information I would not have otherwise obtained.
Finally, none of this would have been possible without the assistance and support
of Heather L. Hall. Heather helped me maintain a sense of perspective while in the field,
helped me stay organized while analyzing the data, and ran errands and brought food while
I was writing. Heather, youre the best friend Ive ever had, and I could not have done
this without you.
IV


105
disaffected in Innovation: The Basis of Social Change (Barnett 1953). For example,
recent cultural changes have created frustration among many Americans. According to
Barnett, these people can become disaffected, or opposed to their culture, despite their
continued economic success. Others maintain steady employment, but not in the career or
job of choice. These people can easily acquire the aspects of resentment described by
Barnett.
Educational diversity is also present. The percentage of professional or graduate
degrees is slightly lower than that of the general population, as is the percentage of college
graduates. However, the percentage of high school graduates far exceeds that of the
general population (Department of Commerce 1990). Leaders typically have a higher
level of education than their followers. There is also variation in age between groups, but
the largest age grouping is the range from twenty-five to thirty-five. Leaders are usually
older than followers.


131
The CFMA, like the NCFRM, believes that it is part of a thousand-year-old
tradition in the West of citizen militias banding together for self-protection, tracing their
roots from the Saxon defenders of England to the Minutemen of the American Revolution.
The CFMA doctrine holds that Congress usurped the rights of the people and of the states
when it adopted the National Defense Act of 1916 and the National Guard Act of 1933
(Jasper 1995: 21). Thus began the New Deal, or the complete revocation and suspension
of the Constitution. This opened the way for a continuing series of abuses of power by
Congress and the President. According to the CFMA, as with the NCFRM, the proper
response to these abuses is found in the Declaration of Independence. The principles
guiding the Founding Fathers should still be recognized and upheld today, according to
the CFMA.
Race
Mark Codys opening remarks of the First Congress of Florida Militias included
this statement: We must not allow any form of discrimination within our ranks. We need
the assistance of every man, woman and child who dares to take up the heavy mantle of
freedom (Cody 1995: 2). The CFMA not only encourages racial cooperation in the
Militia Movement, it will dismiss as a member any unit which it suspects of discriminatory
practices or orientations. This was demonstrated when Cody expelled the NAAWPs
Spartan Legion.
Despite this policy, several members of the CFMA read The Spotlight. As
discussed previously, this newspaper has become the most popular source of information


156
political ideology is debatable. What is clear, however, is that potential recruits invited to
meetings are far more likely to accept the militia conspiracy theory as valid if they have a
fundamentalist perspective at the time of their exposure.
Identity Christianity, which was the driving ideological force in the creation of the
Militia Movement, meets the criteria for classification as a fundamentalist movement.
Even the anti-Christian doctrines of the World Church of the Creator are dualistic,
conspiratorial, millenarian, and aggressively non-compromising. Fundamentalist
Christianity, as was stated previously, is the most prevalent religious orientation among
militiamen in Florida.
But what of the rare atheists, agnostics, or religiously non-committed militia
members? The political and social ideologies of these rare minority members of the
movement can be examined and classified by most of the criteria established by The
Fundamentalist Project as fundamentalist in nature. While secular fundamentalism
may appear to be an oxymoron, the designation has some arguable validity. For example,
non-religious members of the North Central Florida Regional Militia believe that there is a
fast-approaching war which will lead to the overthrow and destruction of the New World
Order and establish a reign of freedom and democracy worldwide; this could be
interpreted as millenarianism. They believe that the world is under attack from a secret
cabal of evil oppressive oligarches which has operated throughout history; this is
conspiratorialism. They do not accept the complexity of social issues but see each
question of morality as a right or wrong proposition; this is dualism. They believe that
there can be no compromise with the New World Order and that the oligarches must be


Copyright 1998
by
John Keith Akins


164
West Palm Beach
West Palm Beach
West Palm Beach
White Springs
Winter Haven
Youngstown
^Location unknown
^Location unknown
* Location unknown
^Location unknown
^Location unknown
3rd Regiment
Constitutional Militia of Florida
White Berets (World Church of the Creator)
For the People
Central Florida Militia Association
Northwest Florida Militia
Citizens Intelligence Agency
Florida State Militia, 7th Regiment
Republic of Florida
10th Amendment Militia
United States Special Forces Militia


180
Americans eating pizza.
The NAAWP calls for a national debate on the subject, starting with the following
questions:
1) Why did all four Presidents on Mt. Rushmore think Negroes were mentally
and morally inferior? Commonsense says that if they were smart enough to be that
famous, they were smart enough to be right about Negro inferiority. Why do the media
now insist they were ignorant bigots? Is this evidence of a media hidden agenda?
2) Why does the fact that Hitler believed Negroes inferior make them equal?
Why does Hitlers agreement with Darwins Theory of Evolution & Negro inferiority
invalidate one of the strongest scientific theories of all time? What is the scientific
evidence that makes it wrong (the skyrocketing Negro crime rate, massive illegitimacy &
welfare rates, perhaps?)
If no proof can be provided, then Negro underclass inferiority is the cause of their
failurenot white racism. Period. Get out of our face!
Regulate the media like a public utility.
Since the media have virtually the same unlimited monopoly power over the
American mind as a public utility has over electricity, they should be regulated like a
public utility. Set national standards for media balance & fairness. Not confiscation or
censorshipmerely elimination of the bias against white Christians, the one prejudice still
permitted.
Why is anti-Christian bias permitted? Is this evidence of a media hidden agenda?
Establish Police-State in high crime areas.
Desperate measures are needed to control disproportionately Negro crime. As
Jefferson said, we dont like having to hold the Negro wolf by the ears, but self-
preservation leaves us no choice. Declare martial law in high crime areas. Establish a
Police-State and string lawless neighborhoods with barbed wire. Use vacant facilities as
prisons/re-education centers, & already-on-the-payroll military as guards. Multiply the
criminal justice system & police by five. Pay for it by ending welfare for the able-bodied.
Require media resume identifying criminals by race. Stop secret Negro rape warfare by
making interracial rape a hate crime, punishable by castration & a triple term in prison.
Jail able-bodied parents who wont work.
Despite what the enemy media say, there is plenty of work in every inner city. If
able-bodied people wont work, let them go hungry. Jail fathers who refuse to pay child
support. Jail mothers who refuse to work, and put the children in orphanages.
Rein in run-away judiciary.
Term-limit all judges. Re-confirm periodically. Impeach by simple majority.


188
Howe, Jonathan
1995Rethinking Peacekeeping. The Washington Quarterly: Volume 18, Number 3.
Summer.
Howland, Marie
1988 Plant Closings and Worker Displacement: The Regional Issues. Kalamazoo, MI:
W. E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research.
Isaacs, Harold R.
1975 Idols of the Tribe: Groups Identity and Political Change. New York: Harper &
Row, Publishers.
Jasper, William F.
1995 The Rise of Citizen Militias. The New American: 6 February. Appleton, WI:
American Opinion Publishing, Inc.
Johnson, Mike
1994 Militia Update; circulated to NCFRM members. 11 November.
1995 Modem Militias. Unpublished manuscript; circulated on the Internet.
Kaplow, Larry
1997 Politics of Prayer Dividing Lawmakers, The Palm Beach Post: 10 March.
Katson, Trisha
1996 House Gives Nod to Override of Clintons Abortion Bill Veto, The Spotlight:
7 October. Washington, D.C.: The Liberty Lobby.
Kenyon, Jim
1995 Regents Order Course Load Reduction, The Tampa Tribune: 11 March. Tampa,
Florida.
Kiewe, Amos and Davis W. Houck
1991 A Shining City on a Hill: Ronald Reagans Economic Rhetoric. 1951-1989. New
York: Praeger.
King, John
1995 Welfare Reform is the Tie that Binds Potential Political Rivals, The Rocky
Mountain News: 1 October: 97A.
Klanwatch
1997Intelligence Report: Issue 86. Spring. Montgomery, AL; The Southern Poverty
Law Center.


115
In addition to the strong vein of fundamentalism running through the militias
beliefs, there is also an undercurrent of civil religion. In all of the militias except the
WCOTC, members equate America with the Promised Land of the Bible. Americans
are perceived, in varying degrees, as the Chosen People. Anti-Semitism runs through all
of the militias; Jews are seen not only as international bankers, but as the killers of
Christ. White Americans, on the other hand, are soldiers of Christ.
Why is religion so important to these groups? The religious ideologies provide
several things to the activists. For example, group cohesion is enhanced by the sharing of
a common worldview: Religion is one of the holdings that links every human being to
others. . It is the great power of religious belief and affiliation for the individual that has
underpinned the great power of religion in the social and political history of every society
(Isaacs 1975: 144-149). Religion does more than that, though. It also answers some of
the perplexing problems of our time. It is a source of authority, of commanding law to
be obeyed, God as executor of punishment, even vengeance, upon the wayward and the
sinning, the only sometimes-forgiving model of hard uprightness, unbendingness,
inevitability (Isaacs 1975: 148).
The eminent sociologist Emile Durkheim examined the functions of religion in a
society. According to Durkheim, the real function of religion. . is to make us act, to aid
us to live. The believer who has communicated with his god is not merely a man who sees
new truths of which the unbeliever is ignorant; he is a man who is stronger (Durkheim
1965: 463-464). Durkheim also explains the convergence of political and religious
thought: If religion has given birth to all that is essential in society, it is because the idea


67
militia is known as the White Berets, and its members have been repeatedly arrested on
charges of vandalism, assault, and harassment. They are armed with standardized
handguns supplemented by an assortment of rifles, shotguns, and, allegedly, at least one
automatic weapon.
For those readers unfamiliar with the phenomenon, skinheads are young men (and,
rarely, women) between thirteen and twenty-five years of age who shave their heads as a
symbol of group unity. They typically congregate in gangs or clubs and have a history
of violence. There is no central leadership, and skinhead gangs have recently been
targeted for recruitment by such groups as the National Alliance, the Aryan Nations, and
the Nationalist Movement who see the energy and youth of skinheads as a resource for the
future (Schwartz 1996: 277). White Berets militiamen wear the standard skinhead
uniform: white or black T-shirts with racist slogans, red suspenders, and black combat
boots with white laces.
The WCOTC is a relatively new organization, built upon the ruins of former
Florida legislator Ben Klassens Church of the Creator which gradually collapsed between
1993 and 1996 following Klassens suicide and several devastating lawsuits initiated by
the Southern Poverty Law Center. According to the Anti-Defamation League, at its peak
between 1989 and 1992 the Church of the Creator. . was one of the most violent
organizations on the radical right (Schwartz 1996: 198).
Matt Hale, currently a law student at the Southern Illinois University, took the
reins of the Church in 1995 (Nailen 1996: 9). In 1996 he changed the name by adding
World and began re-asserting control of the local chapters. Hale reorganized the


56
The book inspired a violent crime spree during the 1980s; the organization which
committed these crimes, The Order, actually took its name from the novel. During the
1990s, The Turner Diaries became the favored reading material of Timothy McVeigh,
who duplicated an incident from the novel when he bombed the Federal Building in
Oklahoma City. It has virtually become required reading for militia activists.
Summary
There is no single factor which can be said to have caused the development of
the Militia Movement. Social behavior is too complex and society too intertwined for
such a reductionist explanation. Various aspects of a culture, though, can contribute to
the rise of social movements, and this is certainly the case with the militias. All of the
previously discussed factors, the pre-existing Patriot Movement, the rise of
fundamentalism, awareness of governmental corruption and incompetence, declining
educational standards, and the changing economy in America have all contributed in one
way or another to the Militia Movement. The contributions of each of these cultural
facets will be explored in the chapters that follow.


160
and in combination. The exploration of these various factors can be coordinated through
the use of Richard Hofstadters proposed theory of projective politics.
In 1962 Hofstadter wrote the following:
We are still confronted from time to time with a wide range of behavior for which
the economic interpretation of politics seems to be inadequate or misleading or
altogether irrelevant. . There have always been certain types of cultural issues,
questions of faith and morals, tone and style, freedom and coercion, which become
fighting issues. . at times politics becomes an arena into which the wildest fancies
are projected, the most paranoid suspicions, the most absurd superstitions, the
most bizarre apocalyptic fantasies. . the true believers in a movement of this sort
project into the arena of politics utterly irrelevant fantasies and disorders of a
purely personal kind. . They represent a kind of politics that is not exactly status
politics or cultural politics, but that might be called projective politics. It
involves the projection of interests and concerns, not only largely private but
essentially pathological, into the public scene (Hofstadter 1962: 98-100).
Hofstadter seems strangely prophetiche was describing, in frightening detail, a
movement which would not develop for another thirty years.
The Militia Movement is a social movement comprised of people in distress, and
this distress stems from several sources. Most militia members have suffered because of
the inevitable changes in an evolving economic system; others have suffered economically
because of deliberate governmental actions. Most are more aware than their peers of the
actual levels of both incompetence and corruption in government and the relative inability
of common people to gain access to their elected representatives. They have
educated themselves through their active search for explanations and scapegoats. They
are distressed at social changes which challenge the validity of their mores, such as
abortion, pornography, and the decline in church attendance. In other words, the group in
question really suffers not from the policies of this or that administration, but from what


147
ban the practice of Christianity. Someone is making American soldiers go fight under
foreign commanders in wars which have no connection to American interests and then
refusing them medical care when they return. Someone is taking American industry
overseas and driving American farmers off of their land. Someone has purchased
American Congressmen and now controls their votes. Someone is well down the road to
establishing a totalitarian government in the former land of the free. All of these things
are happening-so/wco/re must be at the heart of it all.
These various arms of the octopus keep pulling him closer to the body, and he
eventually learns who that someone is: The New World Order. He may find some aspects
of the theory ludicrous, others mildly interesting, yet others captivating. Few activists give
credibility to all of the tentacles, but even one or two are usually sufficient. What is
important is that he accept the body of the octopus, the existence of the New World
Order.
Potential Militia Recruits
Many people in this country are concerned about the very topics which the Militia
Movement discusses in order to recruit its activists, but only a minute fragment of
Americans will join a militia. The second step in understanding the Militia Movement is
determining who the movements activists are. What are the factors which separate those
who buy into this conspiracy theory from those who laugh at it? Specifically, what
cultural elements at work in America create a pool of potential sympathizers? What
separates the sympathizers into those who will tentatively attend meetings from those who


78
the command of the Field Commander, Lieutenant-General Dan Daniels, who also serves
as the Vice President of the National Office.
National
Paul Allen assumed the Presidency of the National Association for the
Advancement of White People in 1991 after the founder, David Duke, left the group in
order to pursue his political career in Louisiana. For several years the National Office
shared space with Dukes personal and campaign offices but eventually moved into its
own office.
The National Office is responsible for recruiting new members through mass
mailings, and therefore purchases mailing lists from a variety of right-wing and white
supremacist groups and publications. Allen is in frequent communication with a wide
range of white supremacist leaders and organizations; he often speaks at the rallies and
meetings of other groups and invites their leaders to speak at NAAWP functions.
The National Office also produces and sells a variety of merchandise, including
NAAWP caps, keychains, shirts, T-shirts and tanktops, sweatshirts, greeting cards,
stickers, and books. Profits from the sale of this merchandise ostensibly go directly to the
NAAWP coffers although Dan Daniels reported that evidence indicates Allen spends this
money for his personal use.
From his National Office in New Orleans, Allen controls his Regional Leaders;
they were known as the Western, Central, and Eastern Regions until recently. In October
1997 the Eastern Region was divided into a fourth, the Mid-Atlantic Region, under the
leadership of Reno Wolfe of Jacksonville, Florida. Fie also manages all International


100
Army Reserve from 1982 through 1991. Reason was initially a Forward Observer of
Artillery and qualified Pathfinder who later, as a Reservist, underwent Reserve Special
Forces training.
He is an avid gun collector with an extensive personal armory including pistols,
shotguns, hunting rifles, a sniper rifle, assault rifles and at least one alleged automatic
weapon. Colonel Reason keeps his head clean-shaven but wears a beard. He is physically
strong but overweight; due to a knee injury his exercise program revolves around strength
training with weights. He generally wears fatigue pants, combat boots, and black T-shirts
with a variety of racist and extreme right-wing statements on the front.
When Reason assumed command of the Spartan Legion in Jacksonville he
immediately reorganized the command structure, instituted a more regular meeting and
training schedule, and pushed for each member to purchase a Chinese-manufactured SKS
assault rifle. He also instituted a physical exercise program. Training became more
militarily valid and rigorous, attendance at training sessions rapidly declined.
When Doubletons frequent and vociferous statements to the City Council began
drawing law enforcement attention toward the militia, Reason became extremely paranoid.
He instituted strange and seemingly random security measures, began refusing to talk on
the telephone except in code, and in April 1997 disappeared with a warning to the unit
to keep your heads down. He apparently left the state altogether shortly after the
Primetime Live broadcast, leaving the militia with no commander.


70
useless and ineffective old-style Klan doctrine. Although the beliefs and rhetoric of the
TK/KKK is clearly of a racist and anti-Semitic nature, members only occasionally act upon
these beliefs in any practical or violent manner.
NAAWP: The Spartan Legion Militia
The National Association for the Advancement of White People (NAAWP) is a
national organization founded by David Duke and currently headed by Paul Allen. It is
headquartered in New Orleans, Louisiana. It has chapters in several states including
Florida. Until his recent replacement by Ray Thomas of Tampa, the Florida chapters were
under the leadership of Dan Daniels of Winter Haven. Daniels also founded and
commanded the Spartan Legion Militia, the paramilitary wing of the NAAWP.
Florida is home to fifteen local NAAWP chapters which sponsor four significant
units of the Spartan Legion. One of these units is the NAAWPs airborne unit which
practices skydiving and airmobile operations from its base in the Eagle Lake/Winter
Haven area. The Spartan Legion in Florida was an original member of the Central Florida
Militia Association (CFMA) and a participant in the Congress of Florida Militias. In 1995
the Spartan Legion was cast out of the CFMA because of its racist and anti-Semitic
orientation.
The largest NAAWP chapter in Florida is the Jacksonville group which carries
eighty-five members on its rolls, including twenty members of its Spartan Legion unit.
Jacksonville members attend all public meetings of the city government and avidly speak
out on several issues. They have also gained media attention with several incidents. One


119
commit murder as a white person (Hale 1996: 18). They have also been scientifically
proven to be less intelligent: The difference in raw brainpower is not the only mental
difference between Whites and Blacks. . Blacks are more excitable, more violent, less
sexually restrained, more impulsive, more prone to crime, less altruistic, less inclined to
follow rules, and less cooperative. .Mentally, the Negro is inferior to the White (Hale
1996: 23-24). The alleged inferiority of blacks and their propensity to crime are repeated
themes in WCOTC literature.
Templar Knights of the Ku Klux Klan
New World Order/ZOG
J. D. Alder also teaches that America is controlled by the New World Orders
ZOG, which is deliberately polluting the white race by encouraging miscegenation,
homosexuality, and drug abuse. He states directly and clearly that Jews are behind the
conspiracy, and are using blacks as their pawns in the struggle for world domination.
The appropriate response to ZOG, according to Alder, is the formation and
training of militias. A speaker at the 1996 Klan Khristmas rally in White City, Florida, put
it succinctly: If we cant win with ballots, well have to win with bullets. This is the only
way to destroy the Jewish conspiracy and to create a new orderly society.
Further, Alder teaches that the original or organic Constitution of the United
States is the only valid law. By organic he means the Constitution and the first ten
Amendments, the Bill of Rights. Any change to the original Constitution is invalid;
therefore, anyone whose citizenship has been granted by Amendments subsequent to the


CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION
Go up and look legislators in the face, because someday you may be
forced to blow it off.
-Samuel Sherwood; United States
Militia Association (Stern 1996: 165)
In October 1992 an assortment of right-wing political activists met in Colorado to
discuss possible reactions to the arrest of white separatist Randy Weaver at Ruby Ridge,
Idaho. From this meeting, the Rocky Mountain Rendezvous, sprang the Militia
Movement The results of this movement have been varied, and include the bombing of
the Federal Building in Oklahoma City, hundreds of lesser-known bombings, a string of
murders and bank robberies, the prolonged siege of the Freemen compound in Montana,
hundreds of cases of harassment of government officials, and, allegedly, the derailment of
two Amtrak trains.
The central organizing principle of the Militia Movement is the belief that the
Federal government of the United States has abandoned the Constitution because it has
been usurped by a secret cabal of Jewish bankers. These bankers are operating through
the United Nations in order to enslave the American people and force the unification of
national governments into an oligarchical New World Order.
1


68
WCOTC into five branch offices which serve as intermediates between the national office
and the local groups.
The West Palm Beach chapter serves as both a local group and the Southeast
Regional Branch office. It is headed by the Reverend Guy Lombardi. Lombardis
assistant, Thomas South, leads the White Berets Militia for the branch. Souths Berets
have a training compound near Tampa, built upon the farm of a members family. This
compound has an obstacle course, firing range, and wooded training area.
Members of the WCOTC, or Creators, absolutely reject Christianity, calling it a
slave religion which aids in the domination of the white race by Jews. The founder, Ben
Klassen, explained this philosophy in his 1981 White Mans Bible:
Yes, it was the eternal parasite upon the back of mankind, the Jew, who wrote the
White Mans so called Holy Book, invented his religion for him, disseminated
and propagated it first among the Romans, and now has poisoned the White Mans
mind with this primitive, poisonous superstition in order to control his mind,
control his destiny, and to destroy the great White Race itself (Klassen 1981: 301 -
302).
Klassen called for a new religion, Creativity, based on race, built upon facts
determined through reason and the study of history. Creators believe that each race has
its own distinctive nature and that combining or mixing these natures is disastrous. They
believe that America is on the verge of a race war which they eagerly anticipate. The
groups motto is RAHOWA, an acronym for racial holy war. The WCOTC Creed
states that What is good for the White Race is the highest virtue; what is bad for the
White Race is the ultimate sin (Klassen 1981: 11). Of all the militias within Floridas
borders, the White Berets appear the be the most violent racists and anti-Semites.


4
American Academy of Arts and Sciences (Aho 1990; Marty & Appleby 1991). For
example, Aho defines millenialism in the context of the Militia Movement as the belief that
there is a pervading conviction of cosmic exigency, that the world and thus life itself is in
dire emergency, and that the Second Coming is imminent (Aho 1990: 220). Aho defines
dualism in this manner:
Relative to the doctrine of divine transcendence, of a perfected, spiritualized
(male) Creator residing in distant heavens, the material (that is, feminine) world is
profanity, unconsciousness, and death. . they represent, among other things, the
assertion of the feminine principle and the loss of masculine control, sensibility,
creativity, consciousness, aggressiveness, and rationality (Aho 1990: 220).
Finally, conspiratorialism is defined here as the psychologizing of history and the
reduction of historical events to the conscious intentions of omniscient and all-powerful
Benefactors and Malefactors (Aho 1990: 220). The critical factors of millenialism,
dualism, and conspiratorialism are the primary components of the fundamentalist
worldview of the militiamen and, according to Aho, form the projective lenses through
which militia adherents examine and judge the reality in which they find themselves.
At this point, two disclaimers are in order. First, there are misspelled words and
errors of grammar present in many of the quotes from militia sources. These have not
been corrected and are presented in their published form. Second, the names of militia
activists who are not public figures have been altered in order to protect their privacy.
Names of organizations and well-known activists, however, are not changed.
In order to more clearly define the Militia Movement as a phenomenon, it will be
beneficial to review the history of the movement and the governments responses to its
development.


40
demagoguery and less likely to question issues of dogma.
Political Factors
Although the federal government has attempted to control, if not eliminate, the
militias, actions taken by all three branches have had some positive effect on the spread of
the movement. Many law enforcement efforts to gather information on the Militia
Movement and its activists have proven the synthetic conspiracy theorys veracity. For
example, in the eyes of the militiamen, the government is attempting to infiltrate and
destroy them. The fact that the government is actually attempting to infiltrate and destroy
militias makes it difficult to argue with this perception. Other actions demonstrate to the
Far Right that the government is under the control of sinister forces who want total
control of the United States. Finally, some governmental actions have affected the
movement by creating or amplifying divisions between ethnic or social groups within the
population. This section will briefly review some of these actions.
Gun Control
On 30 November 1993, President Clinton enacted the Brady Handgun Violence
Prevention Act (P. L. 103-159), which sought to limit access to handguns and created a
national waiting period between time of purchase and time of acquisition of handguns.
This was followed the next year by the Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act
(P. L. 104-208), signed into law on 30 September 1994. These laws represent the most
recent examples of a trend initiated at the state level to restrict firearms ownership and to


142
None of the training observed appears to be particularly rigorous nor does it
appear to have a valid military basis. The overwhelming majority of the militia activists
are in such poor physical condition, are such poor marksmen, and are so ill-equipped that
to enter combat against trained soldiers would be utterly disastrous; however, few of the
militiamen seem to recognize this fact. This is probably because of the paucity of trained
and experienced combat veterans in the movementmost of the veterans are National
Guardsmen or Reservists with skills which would be irrelevant in the anticipated type of
guerilla warfare against the United States Army, such as Clerk/Typist, Radio
Operator, or Medic. On the other hand, the non-paramilitary activities of the WCOTC
can, and often do, lead to both property damage and personal injury among their foes.
Other than the WCOTC, none of the militia activists examined in this project were
observed or reputed to be involved in illegal activities related to violence; they simply
talked about it all the time.
Each militia holds regular meetings in which the outlines of the synthetic
conspiracy theory are discussed and correlated with current events. At most of these
meetings, all members are given the opportunity to take the floor and express their
opinions. The meetings serve to create a free space in which people are able to learn a
new self-respect, a deeper and more assertive group identity, public skills, and values of
cooperation and civic virtue (Couto 1993: 58). In the free space, leaders and followers
alike are able to carry on narratives in which they express their sense of persecution by the
dominant society, not unlike the narratives of the Civil Rights Movement of the 1960s.
Narratives serve to transmit and continue a belief in the virtue of the oppressed and to


110
primitive forms of humans who have not evolved to a higher state, as have whites. Finally,
prayers by Alder at various ceremonies indicate that the TK/KKK is expecting
Armageddon soon and that Alder expects Gods help in winning the final battle.
NAAWP: The Spartan Legion
The official religion of the National Association for the Advancement of White
People (NAAWP) is Christianity, with no specific denomination required. The Chaplain
of the NAAWP, Sue Lamb, is a fundamentalist Protestant and former official of the
evangelical Christian Coalition. All meetings of the Spartan Legion Militia open with the
Pledge of Allegiance and a prayer, usually conducted by the groups commander. The
prayers inevitably end with the words In Jesus name we pray, Amen.
Many aspects of what various scholars have termed civil religion, or the
integration of Christianity and American patriotism into an amalgam in which America is
identified as a Christian nation ordained by God, are practiced both ritually and
symbolically in the militia and the non-militant NAAWP gatherings (Rouner 1986). For
example, the NAAWP clearly equates Christianity with America and the white race.
This can be seen repeatedly in such statements as:
Jews cant be Americans. They owe their allegiance to Israel. Same with
Muslimstheyre all really Arabs just trying to take over America. Atheists have
no moral code, and America is based on Christian morals, so atheists cant be
Americans, either. The bottom line is this: You cant be an American if youre not
a Christian! (Pastor Richard Mooneyhan).
In addition, the Pledge of Allegiance and a Christian prayer are the two halves of the
opening ritual at any NAAWP meeting.


30
the multi-dimensional complexities of social issues. Economic stressors resulting from
rapid technological change have left many Americans insecure about their economic
future. Many of these people have been so marginalized by economic evolution that they
are incapable of recovering; in turn, they have become resentful, paranoid, and confused.
Governmental corruption and mismanagement have also led to a growing distrust of
federal officials and contempt for their actions.
All of these issues can be interpreted in many ways, and one these is through a
fundamentalist perspective. As will be demonstrated, the fundamental perspective can be
religious, secular, or both. Fundamentalism provides a lens consisting of dualism,
conspiratorialism, and millenialism.
The first facet of the problem can demonstrate why many people resent the
government and would be inclined to oppose it. It fails, however, to explain why most
people do not become militia members. The second facet of the problem, the opportunity
structure, can provide a possible answer.
Without an available opportunity structure activism is unlikely. This is supported
by the Multi-step Mobilization Theory used by Lazardsfeld, Berelson, and Gaudet in
1948 (Lazardsfeld et al 1948). Applying this model to Idaho Christian Patriots, Aho
agrees that individuals are not generally recruited directly by mass appealshandbills,
ads, or pamphletsbut indirectly through their ties with opinion leaders, influential
members of the same local groups as themselves (Aho 1990: 186). This is true of the
Militia Movementeach militia examined in this study had one or two critical members
who knew most of the other members in arenas outside of the militia, such as their


76
formerly, Racial Loyalty. Most of the local groups sporadically mail out their own
newsletters concerned with local issues and events. The WCOTC has a website on the
Internet, as does the West Palm Beach chapter.
On two occasions, members of the WCOTC were observed reading The Liberty
Lobbys The Spotlight, which available data indicate is the primary source of information
for the entire Militia Movement.
Templar Knights of the Ku Klux Klan
Organization
The Templar Knights of the Ku Klux Klan (TK/KKK) are located in Port St.
Lucie, and are only one of approximately twenty Klaverns throughout Florida. The
organization is headed by J. D. Alder, who also holds the rank of Brigadier-General in the
NAAWPs Spartan Legion. Alder has become familiar to many Americans through
frequent appearances on The Jerry Springer Show, a daytime talk show.
The TK/KKK is an independent Klan unit owing no allegiance to any national-level
organization. Alder rules his Klavem with an iron fist; no dissention is permitted. He has
no chain of command, no assistants. It is simply Alder leading his followers.
Communication
Communication between Alder and his followers is through a newsletter titled The
Fiery Summons and regularly scheduled meetings.


186
Durkheim, Emile
1965 The Elementary Forms of the Religious Life. New York: The Free Press
Dyer, Joel
1997 Harvest of Rage: Why Oklahoma City Is Only the Beginning. Boulder, CO:
Westview Press.
Eliade, Mircea
1959 The Myth of the Eternal Return: Or. Cosmos and History. New York: Harper
Torchbooks.
Ezekial, Raphael S.
1995 The Racist Mind: Portraits of American neo-Nazis and Klansmen. New York:
Penguin Books.
Feigenbaum, Aaron D.
1997 Americas Economic Changes: 1980-1997. Unpublished term paper.
Flerion, Frederic J., Jr.
1968 The Malevolent Leader: Political Socialization in American Subculture,
American Political Science Review: Vol.62: 564-575.
Gause, Gregory F., Ill
1995 Oil Monarchies: Domestic and Security Challenges in the Arab Gulf States New
York: Council on Foreign Relations Press.
Gilmore, Richard
1982 A Poor Harvest: The Clash of Policies and Interests in the Grain Trade New
York: Longman.
Geertz, Clifford
1973 Religion as a Cultural System, The Interpretation of Cultures. New York:
HarperCollins.
Graham, Daniel, Jr.
1995 The Politics of Meaning: A Dark Comedy About Todays Politics. Washington,
D.C.: The Liberty Lobby.
Halbrook, Stephen P.
1984 That Every Man Be Armed: The Evolution of a Constitutional Right.
Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press.


I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it conforms to
acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality,
as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.
H&JUL
iran ml. du-XoivGhairman
Professor of Anthropology
I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it conforms to
acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality,
as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.
I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it conforms to
acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality,
as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.
OX
Deidre H. Crumbley
Assistant Professor of Anthropology
I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it conforms to
acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality,
as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.
David M. Chalmers
Professor Emeritus of History
I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it conforms to
acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality,
as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.
Dennis E.uwen
Assistant Professor of Religion


ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
This research would not have been possible without the assistance and support of
many people, and it is to them that I offer my heartfelt thanks.
First and foremost, I want to thank my committee, including Drs. John Moore,
Diedre Crumbley, Dennis Owen, David Chalmers, and, above all, Brian du Toit. It has
been a long road, and they traveled it with tolerance, advice, and humor all the way. No
one could ask for a better mentor than Dr. du Toit, nor a more supportive committee.
I also wish to thank Erika Morgan, Lisa Baker, St. Big Dog Bernard, Sandy,
Zeke, and the remainder of my associates for their generous funding and technical support.
Special thanks go to Aaron Feigenbaum for sharing his knowledge of both
Americas current economic situation and Jewish history and traditions.
My friends Matt Baker, Holly Blumenthal, Agazzi Negash, and Janis Weber all
offered distraction, support, and advice throughout the entire process. A special thanks
goes out to Rod Stubina and Helen Feussner for their invaluable assistance with my new
computer. Thanks also to JefFLipham, Brian Zacker, Charlie Prieto, and the rest of the
bouncers at the Purple Porpoise Oyster Pub for helping me avoid injury and giving me
time off from work whenever I needed it.


31
churches or places of business. More activists become members after being invited to a
meeting by a friend than by any other recruiting method.
In summary, structural factors related to education, economics, and politics,
interpreted through a fundamentalist perspective, in combination with an available
opportunity structure, have led to the development of the Militia Movement.


12
authorized closer cooperation between various federal law-enforcement agencies,
established a computer database to track suspected militia members, monitors the Internet,
and permits law enforcement personnel to perform surveillance operations without the
necessity of a court order. These actions are subject to varying interpretations, of course.
On one hand, they can be seen as attempts by the government to protect its citizens from
the potential violence of the militias. On the other, they can be seen as proof of the
militias fear of increasing government power. Regardless of the perspective, though, two
things are clear, First, as a result of the Militia Movement the federal government has
acquired substantially enhanced power to monitor and arrest citizens, with or without
probable cause. Second, there are today more groups involved in anti-government activity
than there were prior to these responses.
Now that the parameters of this project have been delineated, the terms defined,
and the history of the movement explicated, it is time to began seeking an answer to the
question of why the Militia Movement developed in this time and place. Has the question
already been answered? A review of the published literature concerning the movement
will provide valuable data yet, as will become apparent, will fail to answer the ultimate
question.
Review of Literature
As of February 1998 there were four significant books in print concerning the
Militia Movement. Each book is well-written and informative, yet each also presents a
relatively narrow and sectarian perspective on the movement. They all, however, provide


148
will not? What separates those who attend into those who will join and those who will
never return?
There are as many personal and psychological reasons for joining militias as there
are militiamen. It is not the function of anthropology to determine the exact reason why
each individual joins the movement; rather, it is to determine those pre-existing factors
within the social structure which tend to make it either more or less likely that a person
exposed to militia doctrine will choose to reject or to tentatively accept the theory.
General Population
The largest pool of potential recruits is the population of native-born American
citizens. There is no evidence to indicate the participation of either foreigners or recent
immigrants, nor the participation of first-generation Americans. There is reason to
believe, in fact, that foreigners, immigrants, or the children of immigrants would be
extremely unwelcome at most, if not all, militia gatherings. It is obvious, however, that
the overwhelming majority of native-born Americans are not militia activists. The
questions to ask, therefore, are: What factors begin narrowing the field? What makes it
more or less likely that an American will become a militiaman?
One model commonly used to explain participation in extremist political
movements is massification theory. According to massification theory, there is a negative
association between a persons structural connections with mainstream society and that
persons likelihood to become an activist in any extremist movement. In other words, the
less connected an individual feels with the larger society, the more likely that person is to


181
Re-segregate the schools.
To save public education, return control to local school boards. End busing and
forced integration. Allow natural re-segregation of schools based on housing patterns.
Require adoption of American middle class values, expel violators.
End all immigration.
End the immigration white people never voted for that is making us a minority in
our own country. We have a natural right to secure our existence as a people, and secure
the future for white children.
NAAWP advocates separatism.
Separatism is the opposite of integration, which has not workedand will not
workany more than mixing oil and water will work. Separatism is based the civil right of
free associationyou are free to separate yourself from people you dont want to associate
with. Americans greatest Negro, Booker T. Washington, recognized this when he said:
In all things purely social, we can be as separate as the fingers, yet one as the hand in all
things essential to mutual progress.
Americas greatest men advocated separatism.
Thomas Jefferson, George Washington and virtually every other Founding Father,
plus Abraham Lincoln, though the Negro was an alien presence in American society, so
inferior mentally and morally they could not be treated as equal citizens without destroying
this nation, or at least dismembering it. Their solution? Forced deportation of every
Negro on the North American continent.
Jefferson predicted race war of extermination.
Jefferson wrote: White people had the Negro wolf by the ears, and could neither
safely hold him in slavery, nor let him go in freedom. The two racesequally freecould
not live together. If they were forced to, it would produce convulsions, violent social
upheavals, which will probably never end, but lead to a race war of extermination.
Every day that passes proves our Founding Fathers more right. Either we separate
or exterminate. Let us try separation while there is still time. Once the shooting starts, it
will not stop until all Negroes are dead or all whites are dead.
/


158
the approach of the end of the twentieth century.
For the past half century, American politics have revolved around the Cold War,
which has presented a clear duality between the evil empire and America. With the
destruction of the Communist system, Americans lost a vital enemy. There is no longer an
obviously inferior socioeconomic system with which to compare American capitalism, no
longer a big, bad wolf in Russia for American politicians to use to divert the attention of
their constituents (Bennett 1995: 469). With the effective end of Communism, Americans
began to pay more attention to their own situation, and the flaws inherent in capitalism
began to draw increased notice.
The Gulf War was important for three reasons. First, it was a war fought under
the auspices of the United Nations. It was not America vs. Iraq; rather, it was American
troops and money subordinated to the command and control, and for the benefit, of
foreigners. Second, in speeches about the coalition, former President Bush repeatedly
referred to the New World Order which was being constructed by the United Nations.
Finally, the American troops who fought the war returned to suffer Gulf War Syndrome,
and the governments treatment of these veterans enraged many Patriots (Croke 1996:6).
President Clinton was elected by a relatively narrow margin, demonstrating the
bifurcated nature of the American body politic. His detractors consider his election a
victory of sexual degenerates, minorities, the intellectual elite, and east-coast liberals.
Bumper stickers reading Dont Blame MeI Voted for Bush appeared almost
immediately and still remain proudly displayed on cars across the nation. Clinton has
become a symbol representing everything opposed by right-wing factions in America


75
Organization
Klassen resigned as leader of the WCOTC in 1992 and appointed Mark Wilson as
his successor. Wilson lead the group until 1993, when he was replaced by Richard
McCarty. Shortly after appointing McCarty, Klassen committed suicide. A lawsuit filed
at that time by the Southern Poverty Law Center (SPLC) brought about the alleged
dissolution of the group, but it was reorganized and resuscitated in 1995 by Matt Hale, a
law student at Southern Illinois University (Nailen 1996: 9).
The WCOTC has five branch offices which control subordinate units in at least
nine states. The local chapter in Florida is in West Palm Beach and is led by the Reverend
Guy Lombardi, who also serves as leader of the Southeast Branch.
Most of the chapters have a militia unit, the White Berets. White Berets are
alternately described as either a militia or as the Security Element of the chapter. The
White Beret unit in West Palm Beach is led by Thomas South, who has established a
training compound near Tampa complete with obstacle course, firing range, and wooded
training area. South has arranged for his unit to be armed with a standardized handgun; in
addition, most members own a second weapon such as a shotgun, rifle, or assault rifle.
Communication
The WCOTC communicates with its members and allies through the books of Ben
Klassen, which include Natures Eternal Religion, The White Mans Bible, and
Salubrious Living, as well as the Church newsletters, The Imperium, The Struggle, and,


187
Hale, Matt
1996a Facts That the Government and the Media Dont Want You To Know. East
Peoria, IL: The Creativity Movement World Headquarters.
1996b The Right to VoteThe Most Ineffectual Right We have, The Struggle:
September. East Peoria, IL: The Creativity Movement World Headquarters.
Hall, Heather L.
1996 HIV-Related Beliefs and Behaviors Among Long-Haul Truckers in South Florida.
University of Florida Masters Thesis.
Hallow, Ralph Z.
1996 Outcome Hinged on Social Issues, The Washington Times: 13 February. Des
Moines, Iowa.
Harris, Marvin
1991 Cultural Anthropology: 3rd Ed. New York: HarperCollins Publishers, Inc.
Hartley, Jean, Dan Jacobson, Bert Klandermans, and Tinka van Vuuren
1991 Job Insecurity: Coping With Jobs at Risk. London: Sage Publications.
Hatch, Nathan O.
1989 The Democratization of American Christianity. New Haven: Yale University
Press.
Herdt, Gilbert and Andrew M. Boxer
1991 Ethnographic Issues in the Study of AIDS, The Journal of Sex Research: Vol.
28. Mav: 171-187
Hobsbawm, E. J.
1963 Primitive Rebels: Studies in Archaic Forms of Social Movement in the 19th and
20th Centuries. New York: Praeger.
Hoffer, Eric
1951 The True Believer: Thoughts on the Nature of Mass Movements. New York:
Harper & Row, Publishers.
Hofstadter, Richard
1962 Pseudo-Conservativism Revisited: A Postscript. The Radical Right. Daniel
Bell, ed. Garden City, NY: Anchor Books.
Hough, Warren
1995 Mexican Bankers Terrorize Peasants, The Spotlight: 11 September.
Washington, D.C.: The Liberty Lobby.


145
Each of these groups has its own social movement, its own organizations; the
Militia Movements theory ties these together by focusing blame for all of the individual
problems on the United States government and the United Nations. For example,
economic changes are the result of an international banking conspiracy enabled through
federal cooperation with the conspirators (Mann 1997; Arnold & OConnor 1997).
Financial and military support for Israel is redistributed to Americas enemies (Blari 1997).
Environmental laws are attempts to limit the free and wise use of Americas resources
by Americans and create dependency on international corporations (Dyer 1997: 16;
Salaman 1996: 26). Abortion is government-funded population control (Katson 1996:
18). United Nations Peace-Keeping Operations are attempts to subvert the United States
military by incorporating them into a New World Order police force (New 1996: 16).
Guns are confiscated so that citizens cannot protect themselves.
Once these tentacles have reached into non-militia populations, recruitment can
proceed. Typical militia recruiting occurs through personal relationships. For example, a
person may be involved in a discussion with a friend concerning firearm ownership in
which he expresses his growing disgust with government firearm restrictions. I thought
the Constitution guaranteed the right to own guns, he might say. How can they say I
cant buy a gun? If the friend is a militia activist, he might respond with an invitation to
attend a meeting in which the first mans questions will be answered. Once the man
attends his first meeting, he learns that confiscation of privately-owned guns is usually one
of the first steps in establishing a totalitarian government; examples from Nazi Germany
and the Soviet Union are offered in support of this thesis.


86
Communication
Communication between militias within the CFMA is primarily through Internet
BBSs and regular personal meetings, augmented by the Congresses.
Summary
Three of the five militias examined were founded by apparently charismatic
leaders: The WCOTC by Ben Klassen, TK/KKK by J. D. Alder, and the NAAWP by
David Duke. The other two, the NCFRM and the CFMA, were founded by groups of
men in response to the turmoil within the movement. NCFRM was a splinter group from
the Bradford County Militia, and the CFMA was an attempt to bring ideological and
organizational unity to disparate and quarreling militias in Central Florida.
Three of the five are organized hierarchically, with a strong leader at the top,
assistants on a level beneath the leader, and followers or rank-and-file members at the
bottom. The TK/KKK almost follows this same pattern; Alder merely skips the middle
level of organization. The CFMA, primarily an umbrella organization, is organized as an
information distribution center and sponsors meetings for open discussion and debate
between equals. This method of organization reflects the pattern described by Anthony
Wallace in his article Revitalization Movements: Converts are made by the prophet. .
A small clique of special disciples clusters about the prophet and an embryonic campaign
organization develops with three orders of personnel: the prophet, the disciples, and the
followers (Wallace 1956: 273).
Four of the five groups studied circulated The Spotlight and considered it a


99
Mayor of Jacksonville. Doubleton attends all public City Council meetings and takes the
stand to complain about virtually every aspect of the city government. Before he was
deposed he would open each statement with the comment Im Brigadier-General Ted
Doubleton, NAAWP Militia. .
Doubleton does not appear to be strongly motivated by racist beliefs; he is much
more concerned about New World Order conspiracies. He reads conspiracy theories daily
and formulates elaborate plans to kidnap politicians and set em straight. After reading,
Doubleton would often call me on the telephone and ask me to clarify points he did not
understand. His comprehension of Constitutional law is tenuous at best, which leads him
to formulate increasingly confusing plans.
While Commander of the Spartan Legion he was unable to develop a training
program and relegated this duty to his Executive Officer. Because of his poor physical
conditioning and generally intoxicated state he was also unable to participate in the
training sessions. He would stand by, drinking, and watch his troops train, which led to a
high level of discontent among the militia members. Eventually the resentment grew so
extreme that Ronald Fox led a group which went to Dan Daniels in December 1996 and
asked that Doubleton be removed from command; Daniels agreed. Nonetheless,
Doubleton remains an active and prominent leader in the NAAWPs non-militia group.
David Reason
After Doubleton was deposed, David Reason assumed command of the
Jacksonville Spartan Legion. Reason is approximately thirty years old, married with two
daughters, and a high school graduate. He served in the United States Army and the


146
The first tentacle of the octopus has touched him, and then others begin to reach
out in an attempt to grasp him. It is pointed out how many other rights are being revoked,
such as the right of his children to pray in school, the right to protect unborn children from
a hideous, government-funded murder, or the right to have access to his so-called
representatives in government. It is also demonstrated that other spurious rights
which liberals are claiming for themselves are not truly rights at allthe Constitution does
not guarantee the right to make and distribute pornography (which leads directly to child
abuse and the collapse of the nuclear family), nor the right of homosexual perverts to
marry, adopt children, or teach in public schools, nor the right of government bureaucrats
to take his hard-earned money through the illegal and unconstitutional income tax. Each
of these issues represents a tentacle of the octopus.
If he finds himself interested enough to attend more meetings, he hears about
federal agents kicking in doors and shooting innocent citizens, burning the children at
Waco to death, ruthlessly murdering the wife of Randy Weaver as she held her baby in her
arms. He is told about the firing of teachers who try to tell their students about the Bible
instead of this ridiculous, Satanic evolutionary theory. He is given pamphlets, newsletters,
newspapers, and magazines to take home so that he can read about what is really going
on.
Eventually he learns that all of this is related: Someone is deliberately destroying
Americas economy, disarming and illegally surveilling its citizens, murdering those who
step out of line, and turning groups of Americans against each other. Someone is
poisoning the minds of its children through schools and television. Someone is trying to


149
turn against it through a movement of this nature.
This does not appear to be the case with the Militia Movement, however. Militia
members are usually activists in some way, shape, or form prior to their commitment to
this movement. Many militiamen participated in the anti-abortion crusade, for instance.
The subjects of this study appear to be connected to their society in many other ways, as
well. For example, most are married and many have children. Many are active
participants in local government; some have even been elected to public office. Others are
active in their churches, serving as deacons, committee members, and Sunday School
teachers.
Another standard model, education theory, holds that there should be a negative
association between years of formal education and participation in right-wing social
movements. While it would be comforting to attribute militia activism to ignorance or
illiteracy, this theory also fails to explain the Militia Movement. Militia activists tend to
fall slightly behind the general population of the United States in the percentage of
professional or graduate degrees and substantially behind in college graduates, but they are
far better educated than their peers in terms of high school diplomas. According to census
data, one third of all Americans fail to complete high school. Through the course of this
project, only one high school dropout was discovereda member of the Templar Knights
of the Ku Klux Klan. There is no way, of course, to test the quality of education received,
but it is clear that years of formal education cannot be used as a determinant to predict
participation in the Militia Movement. It is entirely possible, though, that the
demonstrably decreased standards of public education may play a part in militia


CHAPTER 7
RELIGIOUS IDEOLOGY OF FLORIDA MILITIAS
They have kept us in submission because they have talked about the
separation of church and stale. There is no such thing in the Constitution. Its a
lie of the left, and we re not going to take it anymore.
-Pat Robertson (1991)
Much of the rhetoric heard at Militia Movement rallies and meetings and printed in
movement publications is of a religious nature. As stated previously, the differences
between the religious and political aspects of the militia belief system are not always clear
or easily separable. The difficulty separating these factors stems from two core reasons.
First, in the peculiar worldview of militia activists, the sacred or spiritual world is all
around us. God and Satan are actively engaged in the worlds affairs. America is Gods
Promised Land and Americans the Chosen People. Second, militia leaders use
religious language to describe what most people would not consider religious issues; this
can make it difficult to classify certain specific aspects of the ideology. There is therefore
a blending of religion with economic, political, moral, and pragmatic concepts. This is not
a phenomenon exclusive to militia activists, according to Mircea Eliade. Eliade writes that
in modem forms of religion, historical facts thus become situations of man in respect go
God, and as such they acquire a religious value that nothing had previously been able to
confer upon them (Eliade 1959: 104).
106


159
today (Graham 1995; Morris 1994; Magnus 1996).
Finally, what could encourage a millenarian movement more than the end of a
millennium? A poll conducted by U. S. News and World Report indicated that in 1994
61% of Americans believed that Jesus Christ will return, 44% believed that there will be a
final battle of Armageddon, and 49% believed there will be an Antichrist. Of the 61%
who believed Jesus will return, almost half believed that this will occur at or near the end
of this century (Associated Press 1994).
These four events, in combination with the economic, political, and religious
factors delineated previously, were capped with the incidents at Ruby Ridge and Waco.
Ruby Ridge went unnoticed by most Americans, but some people were paying attention.
Waco, on the other hand, was broadcast live into living rooms nationwide. People were
able to observe, live, the government tanks that smashed the walls of Koreshs compound
and the flames which engulfed and killed the inhabitants. For people in economic crisis,
focusing their attention on government mismanagement and corruption, and interpreting
their observations through a fundamentalist worldview, the message was clear: Step out of
line and Uncle Sam will bum you down.
Conclusions
This project was initiated to determine why the Militia Movement developed, and
further, why it developed when it did. Because the Militia Movement is such a complex
social phenomenon the answer is equally complex and multifactorial, and the answer is
composed of several explanatory strands which must be considered both independently


97
regularly practice night maneuvers in which they simulate planting bombs or attacking
buildings while other units create diversions.
Ronald Fox
Another Local Leader of the NAAWP is Ronald Fox, leader of a chapter outside
of Jacksonville, Florida. Fox was recently appointed Regional Director of the newly-
formed Mid-Atlantic Region. This region was organized because of constant internal
disputes among the leaders in Jacksonville. The other leaders wanted Fox removed from
the organization. Allen, however, would not agree with this. Perhaps Allens decision
was based on the fact that Foxs chapter is the most successful local group in the nation in
recruiting new members and collecting revenue.
Fox served in the United States Navy from 1959 through 1963. Fie is in his late
fifties and is rated 100% disabled by the VA for neurological problems in his extremities.
Through most of the 1960s and 1970s Fox was an active member of the Outlaws
Motorcycle Club, and still wears biker regalia and Outlaw T-shirts. He is tall and thin
with long, greying hair and beard. He lives with his wife and children in a nice double
wide trailer on his own property. They have their own swimming pool, chicken coop, and
heavily wooded lot (used by the local Spartan Legion Militia for training).
He was one of the founding members of the Jacksonville chapter of the NAAWP, a
member of the Third Annual White Rights Rally Committee, and was the original Chief of
Security (with the rank of Major) for the local Spartan Legion unit. From the very
beginning of the Jacksonville NAAWP, Fox argued with other leaders in the area,
accusing them of gross ineptitude at every turn. Beginning in January 1997 his behavior


36
the job market is to attend either college or technical school. The result is that America
today has more educated or skilled laborers than ever before, though high-paying
entry-level jobs are at their lowest level of availability. Most of these people, therefore,
are still unable to find employment they consider suitable: Most service industries had
high concentrations of underemployment. . resulting in lower overall earnings and wage
rates, and higher underemployment rates (Sheets et al 1987: 123).
While unemployment is no higher than in the past, underemployment has become endemic.
Agriculture
Corporate restructuring and mergers have also led to significant changes in
agriculture. Farming combines such as Cargill, ConAgra, and Iowa Beef Packers have
obtained a virtual monopoly in agriculture and are squeezing more and more small,
independent farmers out of the market (Dyer 1997: 112). As early as 1980, seven
companies controlled 96 percent of U.S. wheat exports, 95 percent of U.S. corn exports,
90 percent of U.S. oat exports, and 80 percent of all the sorghum leaving the United
States (Gilmore 1982: 24). This emerging monopoly, combined with a 46 percent drop
in crop prices in 1985, rising interest rates during the later 1980s, and the implementation
of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) agreement, led to a massive crisis
among small farmers during the late 1980s which continues unabated to this day (Dyer
1997: 139-145). This farm crisis, long forgotten by many Americans, has led to the loss
of between 700,000 and 1 million small- to medium-sized family farms since 1980"
(Dyer 1997: 15).


33
Economic Factors
Any viable economic system must continually evolve, adapting itself to new
technologies and new situations. The necessity of this change, however, does not mean
that the new forms are equally beneficial to all participants in that economy. Those left
behind by changes in the economy may become insecure about their future, leaving them
resentful, angry, and even violent. This is occurring today in America as technological
advances, corporate restructuring, and the trend toward globalization accelerate the shift
in the American workplace as it changes from a manufacturing- to a service-based system.
This economic insecurity, found in both manufacturing industries and agriculture, cuts
across traditional class lines as workers, managers, and business owners find themselves
unable to adapt.
Manufacturing Industries
The recent changes in Americas economy which have led to insecurity and
underemployment on the part of the industrial work force are primarily caused by
technological advances, the globalization of markets, and increased investment in the
stock market by the middle class.
Increased investment in the stock market, spurred on by the advent of middle-class
participation due to lowered interest rates and mutual funds, has created pressure on
corporations as investors demand increased short-term profits. The demand for short
term profit fuels a drive for heightened efficiency in order to increase the rate of return for
investors. This drive for efficiency has led to two significant types of changes:


155
few who entered without a personal invitation had to go through a difficult search to find
the group, then find a member to befriend and eventually sponsor him for membership.
Without this personal connection there can be no militia participation, regardless of pre
existing structural conditions.
This is where the race of the potential recruit enters the picture. For a variety of
reasons, the overwhelming majority of individuals invited into the Militia Movement are
white, of European descent. This is, in part, because most of the militias and militiamen
can be ideologically classified as either white supremacists or racialists. In part it is the
natural consequence of multi-step mobilization-people invite their associates, and most
people associate with members of their own race. In part it is because of the media
attention which has been focused on the Militia Movement, publicity which would
discourage most well-informed minorities from attending militia meetings if invited.
However, many European-Americans suffering economic distress, blaming the
government, and within a social network leading to close exposure to the Militia
Movement, will not join a militia. What factor or factors indicate whether a person in this
position will reject, sympathize with, or embrace the Militia Movement?
Fundamentalism
Evidence accumulated in the course of this study indicates that the primary factor
leading to acceptance or rejection of militia ideology for a person in this position is the
presence of a fundamentalist worldview. Whether the individuals in question hold this
worldview throughout adulthood or adopt it as a result of their economic distress or


122
Race
The central theme that runs through all of the NAAWPs doctrines is the belief that
America is soon to be engaged in a race war, a Second Civil War which will be far more
devastating than the first. This belief preceded the development of the Militia Movement
but has totally incorporated the movements standard conspiracy theories. The official
Principles of the NAAWP are reprinted in Appendix E; this section will delineate and
explicate the salient features, tying them into Militia Movement theories.
This race war is to be the result of two conditions: out-of-control black criminals
and media- and government-controlling Jews. Allen wrote of this in Issue 97 of The
NAA WP News: Everybody knows, but does not say, that skyrocketing black crime has
driven Americans inside behind locked doors; many people are starting to realize that
several Zionist Jews who control the media are deliberately heading this country over a
cliff (Allen 1997: 1). Black crime and Jewish control of the media and government are
two of the three primary themes in NAAWP literature. The other is the biologically-
determined low intelligence and low moral standards of blacks: 65 percent, or 13 out of
20 American blacks, may be clinically diagnosed as either feeble-minded or morons (it is
much worse for African blacks) (Allen 1997: 7), and Moral reasoning is closely
associated with intelligence (Allen 1997: 5).
There is little doubt about the NAAWP position toward African Americans. For
example, Dan Daniels wrote:
Tupac Shakur, the Gansta Rapper who liked to spit on camera people and people
attending his crazy press conferences, has been shot by one of his own rappers
and darned if he didnt finally die. Hey, the world is a better place for it. Hope


17
Party and the Nazis used to call cell structurea legal, aboveground political group
(protected in the United States by the First Amendment) and an underground to
carry out illegal activities with minimum risk of exposing the entire organization to
prosecution. . All individuals and groups. . operate independently of each other,
and never report to a central headquarters or single leader for direction or
instruction (Stern 1996: 36).
In Gathering Storm, Morris Dees also addresses militia organization. His book
opens with a discussion of the Rocky Mountain Rendezvous and a speech delivered at that
meeting by Louis Beam. Beam, a former Klansman, is now a prominent leader in the
Aryan Nations (Dees 1996: 1-2). Later in the text, Dees lists other notable attendees,
categorizing them by their affiliations with white supremacist, anti-Semitic, gun control,
Identity Christian, and other organizations (Dees 1996: 49-50). Clearly, according to
Dees, the movement was initially launched by racists and anti-Semites:
During that weekend in the Rockies, a network of militant antigovernment
zealots was created. Alliances were formed from diverse factions: Identity, Posse
Comitatus, the Klan, Aryan Nations, reconstructionists and other fundamentalist
Christians, neo-Nazis, tax resisters, Second Amendment advocates, and
antiabortion extremists (Dees 1996: 67).
Dees is also of the opinion that white supremacists have maintained their control of the
entire movement, and cites a message from Dr. William Pierce of the National Alliance to
his members:
Some of the militia groups in the United States are being badly misled in the
ideological realm and are in need of some Alliance input. Any member interested
in working with a non-Alliance militia group should write to Dr. Pierce, detailing
any past or current contacts he has with a militia group and also mentioning
any opportunity of which he is aware for establishing a new contact with a militia
group in his area (Dees 1996: 202).
This supports Dees thesis that white supremacists founded that movement and remain in
control of the primary ideological sources. Furthermore, they are attempting to bring non-


APPENDIX F
ABBREVIATIONS
BATF:
CFM:
CFMA:
FBI:
KKK:
MOM:
NAACP:
NAAWP:
NCFRM:
SPLC:
TK/KKK:
USA:
USMA:
WAR:
WCOTC:
Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms
Congress of Florida Militias
Central Florida Militia Association
Federal Bureau of Investigation
Ku Klux Klan
Militia of Montana
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People
National Association for the Advancement of White People
North Central Florida Regional Militia
Southern Poverty Law Center
Templar Knights of the Ku Klux Klan
United States Army
United States Militia Association
White Aryan Resistance
World Church of the Creator
182


APPENDIX A
MILITIAS IN FLORIDA: 1997
The following was compiled by researchers at the Klanwatch Project of the
Southern Poverty Law Center, supplemented with data from the Florida Department of
Law Enforcement and ethnographic information gathered in the course of this study, and
represents the most comprehensive available listing of militias in Florida. Militias are
listed in the alphabetical order of their respective home towns.
Alachua
Union County Militia
Avon Park
Florida State Militia
Avon Park
Florida State Militia 7th Regiment
Belleview
Marion County Citizens Militia
Bradenton
Manatee Minutemen Citizens Militia
Brevard County
Constitutional Militia of Florida
Camp Bradley
U. S. Field Forces National Militia
Daytona Beach
American Citizens Alliance
Daytona Beach
Liberty Group
Deerfield Beach
U. S. Taxspayers Party
Eagle Lake
Spartan Legion (NAAWP)
Eaton Park
27th Regiment
Englewood
Florida State Militia; 1st Florida Regiment
Escambia County
Panhandle Patriots, Inc.
Fort Myers
Lords of Chaos
Fort Pierce
Constitutional Militia of Florida
Fort Pierce
Constitutional Militia of Florida
Fort Pierce
Florida State Militia
Fort Walton Beach
Okaloosa County Militia
Fort Walton Beach
Panhandle Patriots, Inc.
Gainesville
North Central Florida Regional Militia
Highlands County
*Militia name unknown
162


87
significant source of information. The only exception to this was the CFMA. Its founder,
Mark Cody, rejects The Spotlight because of its blatantly anti-Semitic orientation. Despite
this, many members of CFMA units read The Spotlight regularly. While none of the
groups directly distributed The Turner Diaries, individual members of each group were
observed either reading or discussing the novel favorably.
Each of the five has established means of communication with other groups,
usually through attendance at other groups meetings or rallies or through the exchange of
newsletters. Each publishes its own newsletter or newspaper and distributes these
internally. Each groups holds regularly-scheduled meetings at which the leaders lecture
the rank and file.


CHAPTER 4
MILITIAS IN FLORIDA
We must secure the existence of our people and a future for white
children.
-Fourteen Words; David
Lane (Schwartz 1996:66)
According to the Klanwatch Project of the Southern Poverty Law Center militias
first began appearing in Florida in early 1994 (Wood 1997:1). During the last few months
of 1994 and early 1995, several of the new militias began banding together for
informational and logistical support and held a series of meetings which they designated
the Congresses of Florida Militias. These were held in Winter Haven and sponsored by
the Central Florida Militia Association.
During 1995 and 1996 the militias began attracting the attention of both the public
and of law enforcement. There were several arrests of militiamen in Florida. Some of
these arrests were for robberies of banks and businesses, others for vandalism, assault, and
murder. Still others involved the harassment of government officials. The movement has
grown so rapidly in Florida that by the end of 1996 there were at least seventy-two
separate and distinct militias of varying size operating within the state (Klanwatch 1997:
21-22).
65


71
of these was the attempt to get the citys tourism department to sponsor and promote the
Third Annual White Rights Rally. The city, of course, refused; NAAWP members
protested and threatened to file suit in court. In another incident, a newspaper reported
that the NAAWP was maintaining their telephone hotline, complete with racist and anti-
Semitic messages, on the property of a local school without the schools knowledge or
permission.
Although several members have police records and some have served time in either
jail or prison, none have been charged with any crimes related to their involvement with
the NAAWP. The public face of the NAAWP is not clearly racist. The organization
claims to be concerned with white heritage and correcting the excesses of reverse
discrimination which stem from Affirmative Action programs. In reality, it will be
demonstrated, the NAAWP is both racist and anti-Semitic, as are its members.
North Central Florida Regional Militia
In 1994 a splinter group from the Bradford County Militia formed the North
Central Florida Regional Militia (NCFRM) in Gainesville. The NCFRM is organized in
membership circles, with the leaders and most militant members in the inner circle. The
inner circle is surrounded by active paramilitary members, in turn surrounded by members
who regularly attend the open and public discussion meetings. The outer circle is
composed of sympathizers and friends who occasionally attend the public meetings.
The NCFRM is composed of University of Florida faculty and staff, local
businessmen, farmers, and blue- and white-collar workers. Several members are also


51
dualistic orManichean worldview. . in which reality is considered to be
uncompromisingly divided into light, which is identified with the world of the spirit and of
the good, and darkness, which is identified with matter and evil. Fourth is absolutism
and inerrancy. They steadfastly oppose hermeneutical methods developed by secularized
philosophers or critics. . fundamentalists employ their own distinctive strategies of
interpretation, including hardened and updated traditional approaches, designed in part
to reify and preserve the absolutist character of the sacred text or tradition. The final
ideological characteristic is millenialism and messianism. History has a miraculous
culmination. The good will triumph over evil (Marty & Appleby 1991; Vol.5: 405-407).
Other scholars have taken differing approaches to the study of fundamentalism.
Mortimer Ostow, for example, examined fundamentalists from a psychological
perspective. He concluded, among other things, that:
. .fundamentalism may be described as a derivative of apocalyptic thinking, in
which the destructive phase consists of condemnation and rejection of the outside
world and the rebirth phase consists of reorganization into an egalitarian, populist,
fraternal community inspired by a charismatic leader. . Individual or group
discontent. . frequently challenges self-love and self-esteem. The discontent
initiates a tendency to seek relief by invoking an illusion that the real present can
be overcome, rejected, destroyed, and replaced by a reborn world (Cohen 1990:
124).
Richard Hofstadter also studied fundamentalism and its effects. He concluded that
fundamentalism is at the core of most movements of projective politics, and that the
phenomenon has three distinct features: dualism, conspiratorialism, and millenialism
(Hofstadter 1962).


25
executive orders. . If executive order were bad, treaties were worse. . treaties are proof
of a global conspiracy. . Theyve perverted the intent of the Constitution and come up
with a bastardized form of illegitimate government (Stern 1996: 73-74).
In order to keep the American public from opposing the suspension of the
Constitution the government is attempting to ban firearm ownership, according to militia
doctrine. Stern writes that Patriot theorists utilize examples from history to gain support
from people concerned with gun control: Part of the mythology of the militias was the
exaltation of the gun into an icon of freedom. History was rewritten to this end (Stern
1996: 116).
One aspect of militia ideology which is particularly appealing to white supremacists
and to members concerned about immigration is the belief that only the original
Constitution is legitimate. People granted citizenship through amendments are not legal
citizens: . . there was a fundamental legal distinction between white people, who were
termed state citizens, and minorities, who were Fourteenth Amendment citizens (Stern
1996: 81).
How has this seemingly strange and irrational ideology gained so many adherents?
Why do middle-class professionals now associate with Klansmen? According to Stern:
In America in the mid-1990s it is taboo to express overt hatred of
minorities. Disagreement with government, however, is a fine and important
American tradition. What the Wise Use groups and militias accomplished was to
redirect the old-fashioned hatred onto an acceptable target. . When that type of
hatred is made acceptable by being transferred to our public servant. . a new
strain of bigotry has the chance to thrive in the American mainstream (Stern 1996:
132).
He goes even further in his analysis, taking the perspective of an American concerned with


108
The basis of Creativity is the concept that each race has its own distinctive
history and culture, and that to combine or mix the races is disastrous to all involved. This
black and white dualism runs through Creativity: White is good; black is bad. Europeans
are good; all others are bad. Men are strong; women are weak.
Creators believe that there is no god; the concept of God was invented by Jews
and represents the superstitious and primitive aspects of Christianity. Jews have used
to false doctrines of Christianity to manipulate and control whites for two thousand years,
first to defeat Rome, then to maintain a brutal feudal system, and now to achieve their goal
of total world domination. As there is no god, and religion should be based on racial
affiliation, there are no commandments as such. The WCOTC Creed is simplicity itself:
What is good for the White Race is the highest virtue; what is bad for the White Race is
the ultimate sin (Klassen 1981: 11).
What is good for the White Race, according to Klassen, is health and strength.
The lifestyle recommended by the WCOTC is known as salubrious living; adherents
strive for the four goals of a sound mind in a sound body in a sound society in a sound
environment (Klassen 1981: 11). Creators are encouraged to go to school, to exercise
and eat a vegetarian diet, to strive to create an all-white, well-disciplined society, and to
recycle. Salubrious living will strengthen the white race, and enable it to defeat the other
races when the racial holy war arrives.
Why must whites fight other races? The answer goes back to Klassens
euphemism for Creativity: Natures Religion. It was Klassens belief that in a natural
state each species competes with other species for resources such as food, water, or


16
attendees, writing of them that the Rendezvous brought together a collection of men who
would normally never sit down together (Dyer 1997: 83). Dyer quotes Louis Beams
speech which opened the meeting:
The two murders of the Weaver family have shown us all that our religious, our
political, our ideological differences mean nothing to those who wish to make us
all slaves. We are viewed by the government as the samethe enemies of the state.
When they come for you, the federis will not ask if you are a Constitutionalist, a
Baptist, Church of Christ, Identity Covenant Believer, Klansman, Nazi,
homeschooler, Freeman New Testament believer, or fundamentalist. . Those who
wear badges, black boots, and carry automatic weapons and kick in doors already
know all they need to know about you. You are enemies of the state (Dyer 1997:
83).
This speech set the tone for the entire meeting. Speaker after speaker talked of the need
for unity among organizations of the Far Right and the allegedly criminal activities of the
federal government.
Organization
According to Richard Abanes, this loosely knit network of perhaps 5 to 12 million
people may be one of the most diverse movements our nation has ever seen (Abanes
1996: 2). Fie further states that patriots have no single leader (Abanes 1996: 2). After
the Rocky Mountain Rendezvous, the movement grew rapidly: By early April 1995, there
were militia groups in at least thirty-six states. A few, such as the Militia of Montana,
craved media attention. Many preferred to prepare for war quietly (Stern 1996: 96).
The Patriot Movement is difficult to delineate with precision, which is precisely
what its founders wanted. According to Stem, the guiding principle of the movement is
the concept of leaderless resistance:
Leaderless Resistance meant something akin to what both the Communist


Communication .84
Central Florida Militia Association .85
Founding ....... .85
Organization .85
Communication .86
Summary ........ .86
6 MEMBERSHIP OF FLORIDA MILITIAS 88
World Church of the Creator .88
Templar Knights of the Ku KluxKlan .89
NAAWP: The Spartan Legion .90
Leadership .90
Rank and File ....... .101
North Central Florida Regional Militia .102
Leadership ....... .102
Rank and File ....... .102
Central Florida Militia Association .103
Summary ........ .104
7 RELIGIOUS IDEOLOGY OF FLORIDA MILITIAS .106
World Church of the Creator .107
Templar Knights of the Ku Klux Klan .109
NAAWP: The Spartan Legion .110
North Central Florida Regional Militia and Central Florida Militia
Association . .113
Summary .114
8 POLITICAL AND RACIAL IDEOLOGY OF THE MILITIAS .117
World Church of the Creator .117
New World Order/ZOG 117
Race .118
Templar Knights of the Ku Klux Klan .119
New World Order/ZOG .119
Race ........ .120
NAAWP: The Spartan Legion ..... .120
New World Order/ZOG 120
Race ........ .122
North Central Florida Regional Militia .125
New World Order/ZOG 125
Race ........ .128
vii


133
Race
The WCOTC and the TK/KKK are overtly racist and are opposed to equality
among races in any form. The NAAWP publicly denies that it is racist, claiming to be
concerned with preserving white heritage. Ethnographic data, however, clearly indicate
that this claim is false.
The NCFRM claims to be all-inclusive and unconcerned with race and its official
doctrinal statements and rules support this claim. It is not, however, integrated in any
way. The CFMA, on the other hand, claims to be racially inclusive and its actions support
this claim. The CFMA expelled the NAAWP in 1995 because of its racist orientation.
Despite the facts that the NCFRM is not integrated and circulates The Spotlight it remains
a member in good standing of the CFMA. Apparently the CFMA is concerned that its
member units agree to be tolerant and have the overt appearance of tolerance; they are not
required to actually eliminate all racist and/or anti-Semitic members.


REFERENCES CITED
Abanes, Richard
1996 American Militias: Rebellion. Racism and Religion. Downers Grove, IL:
InterVarsity Press.
Adams, Webster, ed.
1993Citizens Rule Book: A Palladium of Liberty. Phoenix, AZ: Paper-House
Publications.
Aho, James A.
1990 The Politics of Righteousness: Idaho Christian Patriotism. Seattle: University of
Washington Press.
Akins, J. Keith
1995 The Patriots Militia: An Analysis of Conflicting Presentations. University of
Florida Masters Thesis.
Allen, Paul R.
1993 The Coming American RACE WAR. New Orleans: P & M Partnership.
1994 NAAWP Principles. New Orleans: NAAWP.
1997 Editorial policy, The NAAWP News: Issue 97. New Orleans: NAAWP.
1997b Personal communication.
Anechiarico, Frank and James B. Jacobs
1996 The Pursuit of Absolute Integrity: How Corruption Control Makes Government
Ineffective. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.
Arnold, Andrew and T. J. OConnor
1997 NAFTA Absorbs Boundaries. The Spotlight: 2 June. Washington, D.C.: The
Liberty Lobby.
Associated Press
1994 Poll: Most anticipate 2nd coming, The Gainesville Sun: 11 December.
Gainesville, Florida.
1995 SAT Numbers Reshuffled, and Students Look Brighter, The Trenton fNYl
Record: 18 May.
183


61
Document Analysis
Much of the communication between different factions of the Militia Movement is
conducted through the US. Postal Service, as is the communication between the
movements leaders and followers. It is important, therefore, to gain access to this flux of
mail, which includes newspapers, tabloids, newsletters, fliers, and magazines.
Study of each piece of mail can be tedious; it can also be rewarding. Not only can
one glean the obvious data, such as ideology and scheduling, but one gains access to the
letters written to editors by individual members. Further, a network can be traced by
examination of advertisements for various groups in the circulars of other groups. During
the period of study, mail was received from the list of groups appearing in Appendix C.
By July of 1996 each days post carried an average of 12 varied pieces of mail.
While studying the NCFRM in 1995, circulars, fliers, underground newspapers,
personal notes, and other unofficial documents were provided by a number of members.
In addition, the units spokesman also provided a plethora of official doctrinal and
publicity statements (Akins 1995: 14).
The NAAWPs militia members receive two newspapers monthly. The first,
NAAWP News, is published in New Orleans by Paul Allen and sent to all NAAWP
members. The second, The Eagle Forum: NAA WP Battleground, is published in Winter
Haven by Dan Daniels, circulation was limited to militia members. In addition to these
two newspapers, most of the local NAAWP groups publish a monthly newsletter. These
were collected from the Tampa, Winter Haven, and Jacksonville NAAWP groups. Finally,
as part of my duties while serving in the Spartan Legion Militia, I gained access to


127
the people that the bill is necessary.
Cooperation between the government and the media is demonstrated for the
NCFRM by the medias representations of militia members. The corporate media has
created an image of militiamen as drunken, uneducated peasants; the NCFRM sees itself as
a collection of educated, law-abiding, hard-working patriots. If the media, with all of its
capabilities, is not presenting an accurate image, the argument goes, then it must be
deliberately distorting the truth. Why would it do so? Because it is under New World
Order control.
Another political belief held by members of the NCFRM is that the United States
Constitution is the absolute and only legitimate law of the land. It is inerrant, and should
not be altered in any way. All of the Amendments, therefore, are invalid. This includes
the Thirteenth (anti-slavery), the Fourteenth (citizenship granted to former slaves), the
Fifteenth (voting rights), the Sixteenth (income tax), the Seventeenth (direct election of
federal representatives), and the Nineteenth (suffrage for women) (Current et al 1983:
451; 459; 460; 579; 636). None of these Amendments are considered legal, but members
are not equally concerned with all of them. The Sixteenth and Seventeenth are the two
most often attacked in NCFRM speeches.
The NCFRM also teaches that it is the latest in a long line of citizen militias
originating with the Saxon defenders of England in the 10th century A.D. (Johnson 1995b:
1). According to the NCFRM, the tradition of citizen militias was place in America prior
to the Revolutionary War. It cites the militias led by George Washington against Native
Americans in the French and Indian War and later, in 1774, in Fairfax County, Virginia


11
accomplices bombed the Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma,
killing at least 168 people in the most devastating act of domestic terrorism in American
history. A few militiamen quit or went underground; despite this, militia membership
skyrocketed.
During 1996, the militia movement continued evolving into ever smaller and more
isolated units as the concept of leaderless resistance became more prevalent. The larger,
publicity-seeking militias such as the Michigan Militia and the United States Militia
Association splintered into smaller groups. More militias formed each month; by the end
of the year there were more than 440 militias nationwide (Roy 1996: 5). The year saw the
bombing of the Olympic Park in Atlanta as well as a substantial increase in abortion clinic
bombings and mail bombs; FBI investigators have postulated a possible militia connection.
More recently, 1997 saw a continuation of militia growth, with a larger percentage
of units going underground in leaderless resistance cells and fewer members actively
courting the publicity of past years.
Government Responses
In response to the Militia Movement, the FBI hired five hundred new agents, and
half of these agents are assigned full-time to investigating right-wing groups (Potok
1997a: 1). These agents are utilizing new guidelines which allow more aggressive
probes (Potok 1997b: 4A). Finally, the Justice Department has authorized the FBI to
deploy the largest and most extensive wire-tapping operation in American history. The
Omnibus Anti-Terrorism Bill, passed in response to the Oklahoma City bombing,


34
organizational and technological.
One method utilized by corporations in the quest for increased efficiency is the
development and implementation of continual technological advances, which in turn lead
to changing requirements and decreasing opportunities for labor in the manufacturing
industries. Whereas the primary difference between management and labor was once
mental as opposed to physical work, todays blue-collar worker is now required to have
technical training and skills in order to function. This has led to increased competition
between blue-collar workers, as those few who have the necessary training take higher
paying jobs from those without. It has also created decreased confidence in job security,
according to economists: . recent years have been almost universally characterized as
an era of rapid change. . As change and uncertainty is now endemic in many
organizations and settings, job insecurity is a major cause for concern in the future
(Hartley et al 1991: 199). The technological changes are advancing so rapidly, in fact,
that both vital worker skills and methods of corporate organization of five to ten years ago
are considered obsolete in todays market: Organizations are restructuring, introducing
new technologies, internationalizing their production, experiencing rapid changes in
products, markets and fashions, and providing some employees with less secure
employment (Hartley et al 1991: 200).
Corporate restructuring, or downsizing, has led to two major changes:
outsourcing or subcontracting work and a shift from full-time to part-time employment.
This helps corporations save money by paying fewer or no benefits to their workers
(Feigenbaum 1997: 1). The reduction in the amount of health-care benefits paid by


96
organization altogether. Daniels popularity with the rank and file made this one of
Allens biggest mistakes, though: Scores of members quit the group in protest of this
action.
Local Leaders
Bobby Seldom Jr.
Bobby Seldon, Jr., is a Local Leader in a small suburb outside of New Orleans. In
addition, he serves as State Director for Louisiana. He is approximately thirty years old,
married, with two children. Seldon is a huge man, although not very well conditioned,
with a reputation within the NAAWP for being aggressively violent and a great believer in
brute strength. He consumes large amounts of alcohol, particularly beer, and is prone to
violence when drunk. Seldon comes from a long line of Klansmen. In fact, he repeatedly
boasted in both meetings and interviews that his grandmother was buried in her robes.
During the course of this project several members of Seldons group reported that
he frequently got drunk and physically abused his wife; the same subjects also reported
that she had a long history of adultery. During the Second Annual White Rights Rally this
was a prime topic of conversation because he was unable to attend and deliver his
scheduled lecture. In 1996 she left him, and it is not known if she ever returned.
Seldons chapter has between ten and fifteen very young members, ranging in age
from eighteen to twenty-two. The neighborhood in which he lives is in Duke country:
almost every house has a David Duke campaign poster in a window.
The Spartan Legion unit commanded by Seldon is heavily armed with automatic
weaponry, assault rifles, gas masks, explosives, and night vision equipment. They


This project was developed to gain a more thorough understanding of armed
citizen militias, opposed to the federal government of the United States, and sharing a
worldview which grew out of the October 1992 Rocky Mountain Rendezvous. These
groups are connected through a network of social relations, Internet, postal and fax
communications, and literature. The Militia Movement can be defined as a subgroup of
the larger Patriot Movement. The Patriot Movement also includes the common law
court movement, survivalists, theocrats, white supremacists, apocalyptic millenarianists,
as well as several separatist communities such as the Freemen compound in Justis
Township, Montana. A number of excellent studies of the larger Patriot Movement have
been published including James Ahos The Politics of Righteousness: Idaho Christian
Patriotism, David Bennetts The Party of Fear: The American Far Right from Nativism
to the Militia Movement, and Philip Lamys Millennium Rage: Survivalists, White
Supremacists, and the Doomsday Prophecy. Although these books provide a description
of the context in which the militias developed, they neither examine nor explain the
existence of the Militia Movement.
This discussion will argue that the development of the Militia Movement is the
result of several structural factors, including education, economics, and politics. These
factors are interpreted by activists through a fundamentalist lens and coupled with an
appropriate opportunity structure. The three key features of fundamentalism as it applies
to this project are millenialism, dualism, and conspiratorialism. Working definitions of
millenialism, dualism, and conspiratorialism are taken from James Ahos study of Christian
Patriots in Idaho and a cross-cultural examination of fundamentalism sponsored by the


171
professionsspeak with a single Jewish voice. It controls what the American people see
and read and hearin other wordsour minds.
This Jewish mind-control is pumped into captive Christians night & day, shaping
and molding the opinions and values of virtually everybody, young or old, simple or
sophisticated.
Jewish ideas are anti-American and anti-Christian.
If the ideas shaped by Jewish mind-control are fair, balanced, middle American,
pro-Christianno problem. But that is not the case.
The Jewish mind-control monopoly puts out ideas that seem to be un-fair to white
people, un-balanced, biased, anti-American & anti-Christian. This appears to be a grave
danger to Christianity.
President Nixon warned about Jewish threat.
President Richard Nixon warned about the terrible problem arising from the total
Jewish domination of the media.
In his last press conference, Nixon said the media should be investigated, warning
that the media would not have doctors or politicians investigate themselves, but we are
taught to expect that editors, reporters and broadcasters have a unique capacity to unsure
that they themselves act responsibly.
Pat Buchanan warns about Jewish cultural war.
Republican Presidential Candidate Pat Buchanan says there is a secret religious
and cultural war going on for the soul of America. Buchanan cant say the word Jew
and stay on TV, but we take his words to mean that Jews are THE ENEMY.
American Jews are OK, Zionist Jews no!
Ail Jews in this country are good, patriotic Americans except the few standing at
the top of the media monopoly. They seem to have a hidden agenda to divide & conquer
America thru race war so they can pick up the pieces for a new Jewish homeland safe from
the angry Arabs surrounding tiny, vulnerable Israel. This may be why they order
Hollywood and TV to destroy the Christian family values glue holding this country
together,
We would be happy to be proven wrong in open debate with our Jewish brothers
and sisters.
When we say Jew, we refer strictly to the few Jews at the top of the media
pyramid.
Jewish mind control is silent, slick & invisible.
The Jewish attack on Christianity is not out in the open, but under the covers. It is
silent, slick and almost invisible. No billboard descends before your eyes waning that you
are about to be brainwashed against Jesus. Instead, our minds are controlled very subtly,
below the level of our awareness.


APPENDIX E
PRINCIPLES OF THE NAAWP
Principles Part One: Why is the NAAWP Necessary?
Jewish control of the media is the single most dangerous threat to Christianity.
ZOG, Zionist Owned Government, has ordered Hollywood and TV to pollute
Christian family values.
If you lack soldiers, you conquer with media.
QUIZ: If youre a Zionist Jew and want to control the largest Christian country on
earthbut dont have the soldiers for military conquestwhat do you do? You gain
control of every news, entertainment, and educational medium of thought and expression
(hereinafter shortened to media.)
This control allows you to create a though-shaping dictatorship that dominates the
minds of the Christian people with the Jewish agenda.
Jewish control of the media is no secret.
Jewish control of the media can be verified by the reference section of any large
public library. Look into current editions of yearbooks on the radio and TV industries;
into directories of newspapers and magazines; into registers of corporations and their
officers, such as Standard and Poors and Dunn and Bradstreet, and into standard
biographical reference works. It is all there, nothing is hidden.
Jews dominate though-shaping professions.
You will find that Jews have taken care to dominate the crucial though-shaping
professions in this country. Hollywood, NBC, ABC, CBS, newspapers, magazines,
books, TV, most of radioall are now in one or two Jewish hands.
Few items escape the Jewish net. To those who cry Ted Turner of CNN isnt a
Jew, Turner has never taken a public position opposed to the Jewish stockholders who
control him. Regarding the few media outlets owned by Asians & others, they have never
interfered with their disproportionately Jewish management. Most important of all, Jews
are vastly over-represented in the key positions within the educational world and control
the publication of all school materials, including textbooks that shape Christian childrens
thoughts! The transmission of Christian culture is in Jewish hands!
AH media speak with a single Jewish voice.
Thus, one way or another, Jews have constructed a vertically integrated media
monopoly that dominates almost every single medium of thought and expression. Each
individual mediums voice reinforces the voice of all the other mediums. TV, radio,
newspapers, magazines, books, motion pictures, educationall the thought shaping
170


168
Right as Reina (Skinhead)
Truth At Last
Valhalla Aryan Unity


177
and religion.
Christianity is glue holding America together.
1) The direct assault on Christianity seems to be by underclass Negroes Jews
appear to use as crime puppets. 2) The first indirect assault on Christianity is the pollution
of Christian family values by Hollywood and TV. Ancient wisdom teaches that the
stronger a peoples religion, the harder it si to control them. But the more you can
weaken the religious glue holding a people together, the easier it is to divide and conquer
them. Therefore the more this Christian nation can be made Godless, the more we can be
made to disintegrate into a morally lost people, the easier ZOG can control us. There is
no civilization in the history of the world that has been able to survive the meltdown of
values that Hollywood & TV have inflicted upon us in the cultural war going on. The
story of mankind is littered with carcasses of great nations that have fallen from this cause.
3) The second indirect assault appears to be the Jewish wedge weapon of racial equality.
Jeffersons all men are created equal meant political equality, not mental/moral
equality.
Thomas Jeffersons said in the Declaration of Independence that all men are
created equal.
The enemy media are careful not to tell you that Jefferson was talking about
political equality-not mental, physical, moral or civilization equality. It must be
remembered that Jefferson was talking revolution, not racial equality. He was trying to
get lower-class white people to revolt against the white English Lords & nobles governing
them.
In other words, what Jefferson was really saying isall white men are created
politically equalthere are no commoners sitting at the feet of nobles. Despite the
propaganda put out by the enemy media, his statement of political equality had absolutely
nothing to do with racial equality. On the contrary, Jefferson thought Negroes were
much inferior mentally and morally.
Darwinist white superiority/Negro inferiority.
In 1871 Charles Darwins Theory of Evolution burst upon the world with one of
the most powerful scientific theories of all time to explain why white civilization was so
advanced and black civilization so backward. It states that because of superior
intelligence, whites have evolved up the civilization latter, as proved by the wonders of
Western civilization. Negroes, on the other hand, because of inferior intelligence, stand
far down the civilization ladder, which is why Pres. Richard Nixon said there has never in
history been an adequate black nation, and they are the only race of which this is true.
This is why Africa is hopeless.
Hitlers revenge made Negroes equal.
Darwinist Negro inferiority did not die at the hand of reasoned judgement. It was
murdered by Adolph Hitler.


72
jointly enrolled in another organization, Jews for the Preservation of Firearms Ownership
(JPFO) which teaches that if Jews had been armed and organized the Holocaust could not
have occurred. The NCFRM is also a member of the Central Florida Militia Association
(CFMA) and participated in the Congresses of Florida Militias.
The NCFRM professes to be all-inclusive and tolerant, actively seeking minority
members. Several members of the outer circles are reported to be Jewish, and other
minorities have been observed at public meetings. However, the groups primary
published source of information is the Liberty Lobbys Spotlight, referred to by the Anti-
Defamation League as the most anti-Semitic publication in America today.
Central Florida Militia Association
The CFMA is an umbrella organization founded by Mark Cody in 1994. The
Association has seventeen member units which operate independently but share
information and consult on tactics and strategy (Daniels 1997b: 2). The annual Congress
of Florida Militias (CFM) is sponsored by the CFMA; this is a gathering in which member
units discuss and agree on policies and doctrines.
The CFMA claims to be racially inclusive. One of the platforms members must
swear to, in fact, is support for Israel. Members are generally devoutly religious and in
opposition to most aspects of modernity, including abortion, homosexuality, evolutionary
theory, and drugs. They teach that in order to effectively fight the enemy members must
put aside their differences and seek the aid of men, women, children, minorities, non-
Christians, and anyone else opposed to the New World Order.


CHAPTER 6
MEMBERSHIP OF FLORIDA MILITIAS
Let us make no mistake about itthere is a powerful deliberate crash
program in force to niggerize America! The niggerization of America is
undoubtedly the most important ominous fact of contemporary history and
strangely one of the least realized by the victims themselvesthe White Race.
-Ben Klassen (Klassen 1981: 23)
In seeking an answer to the research question and attempting to determine why the
Militia Movement developed at this point in time it is vital to understand who leads the
militias as well as who joins them. This chapter will therefore examine militia membership
and, where possible, demographic factors, in order to determine if the answer to the
question lies with the nature of the activists themselves.
World Church of the Creator
The West Palm Beach chapter of the WCOTC has a fluctuating membership,
referred to as Creators, of between twenty and thirty members. They are all males of
European descent, ranging in age from sixteen to twenty-nine, with the mean at twenty-
one. At least two of the members are married; both have children. Most members are
either unemployed or work in minimum-wage service-industry jobs.
88


9
On 4 July, militia members in Nye City, Nevada attacked Federal agents in the
Toiyabe National Forest in a protest over Federal regulation of disputed land (Stern
1996: 125). This action inspired the militia-dominated City Council of Catron City, New
Mexico, to order all of its white adult male citizens to arm themselves, form a county
militia, and ban Federal law enforcement agents from its borders (Stem 1996: 122).
Members of the Virginia-based Blue Ridge Hunt Club were arrested in 1994
while in possession of a cache of guns, homemade silencers, explosives, fuses, blasting
caps, hand grenades. (Stern 1996: 136). They also had in their possession a plan for
activity which stated . . hit and run tactics will be our method of fighting. . We will
destroy targets such as telephone relay centers, bridges, fuel storage tanks,
communications towers, radio stations, airports, etc. . human targets will be engaged. .
when it is beneficial to the cause to eliminate particular individuals who oppose us (troops,
political figures, snitches, etc.) (Stem 1996: 136).
On 8 September, bodyguards for Mark Koernke, a job once held by convicted
Oklahoma City bomber Timothy McVeigh, were stopped by police. In the car were . . a
loaded nine-millimeter clip. .gas masks, two-way radios, night-vision binoculars, and
loaded semi-automatic rifles with seven hundred rounds of ammunition. They were also
dressed in camouflage and had blackened their faces. Some of the ammunition was armor
piercing (Stem 1996: 102-103).
Citizens for Christ, another militia from the Midwest, saw several of its members
arrested in September. At the time of their arrest the Citizens for Christ members were
holding a large supply of electric blasting caps, machine guns, ammunition, and


BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH
J. Keith Akins was bom in Marietta, Georgia, on 25 April 1964. He lived in eight
different states, served in the U.S. Army (from which he was medically retired), bopped
around from state to state and job to job, and then attended Florida State University.
While in graduate school at the University of Florida he grew interested in the
manipulation of religious beliefs for political and economic gain, which eventually led to
this study of the Militia Movement.
His anthropological interests include religion and politics, marginalized groups in
industrial societies, coalitional violence, and medical anthropology.
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101
Rank & File
Data presented here concerning the rank and file members of the Spartan Legion
Militia of the NAAWP will focus on the Jacksonville unit because this is the unit from
which the most data were obtained.
The Jacksonville unit carries twenty members on its roster. Eighteen members are
male, two are female. Both females are wives of male members. All are of European
descent and have a mean age of thirty-nine. Twelve are veterans, but four of these have
merely Reserve or National Guard service and only two have combat experience (both in
Vietnam). Five have some form of partial physical disability, three as a result of military
service. Three have attended college and two have graduated.
At least nine members own their own business. One owns a gun shop, one prints
T-shirts and his wife is a leather-crafter, one does landscaping and building maintenance,
one is an independent long-haul trucker, and the others are all subcontractors in the
construction industry. Of those who hold jobs, one is an accountant, one a janitor, and the
others are employed in either carpentry or in the building trades industry. Every member
is employed.
Three are members of, and two others closely affiliated with, the Ku Klux Klan.
Two are also members of the World Church of the Creator. Four are former members of
Liberty and Justice For All, a white separatist group in Jacksonville which dissolved
itself when all of its members joined the NAAWP. This tendency to join several different
fringe groups is not uncommon. According to Eric Hoffer, all mass movements draw
their adherents from the same types of humanity and appeal to the same types of mind


179
reason seems to be to divide & conquer America thru race war so they can pick up the
pieces for a new Jewish homeland safe from the nuclear weapons and terrific birthrate of
the angry Arabs surrounding tiny, vulnerable Israel.
Jews promote Negro hatred of whites.
This appears to by why the media do not tell underclass Negroes the truththeir
low IQ is the cause of their failure. By covering up this scientific truth, the media take
Negroes off the hard hook of being responsible for their condition. Who then is left to
blame? White people, of course! In this way our Jewish Media Masters brainwash
Negroes into thinking that their failure is due to evil whites, and they should hate them.
And they do! This is why the Negro steam in the racial boiler is rising toward explosion,
just as the Jewish hidden agenda seems to call for. Again, we would be happy to be
proved wrong in open debate.
Jews promote rising white backlash.
The more so-called perfectly equal Negroes fail, the more the media brainwash
whites that they should feel guilty for being the evil cause, and the more whites owe
Negroes. The bigger our debt, the more we should give up white civil rights & hand them
to Negroes. Thus the media guilt-trips us into taking more steps down the path of
national suicide. This is not without cost.
Each unjust step causes white steam in the racial boiler to rise toward explosion,
just as the Jewish hidden agenda seems to call for. Once more, we would be happy to be
proven wrong in open debate.
Jews use Racial equality to cause race war.
Few people understand the devastating impact upon this nation hidden in the
words racial equality. It is a wonderful wedge weapon to divide & conquer with, a
perfectly safe con game. Who can question such a praiseworthy idea as racial equality?
We assert that it is the secret poison killing Christianity. The more racial
equality causes steam to build in the racial boiler, the more we pay attention to it, leaving
less attention to look up and see the Jewish Puppet Master pulling the strings in an
apparent attempt to incite race war.
Please prove us wroeg in open debate.
Principles Part Two: NAAWP white rights political platform
We recommend voting for politicians who support the following principles:
Racial equality needs to be questioned.
The Jewish Cultural Relativist idea that all cultures and races are perfectly equal is
highly questionableif not outright Loony Tunes. It insults ones commonsense and the
evidence of ones eyes to call black Africans eating one another perfectly equal to white


128
(Halbrook 1984: 60).
According to NCFRM doctrine, the federal government attempted to usurp the
rightful power of the people through the National Defense Act of 1916 and the National
Guard Act of 1933, both of which placed the militias of each state under federal
supervision. With these new laws, the states, and therefore the people, lost a significant
check on federal power (Jasper 1995: 21).
Officials of the NCFRM often quote the Declaration of Independence: . When
a long Train of Abuses and Usurpations, pursuing invariably the same Object, evinces a
design to reduce them under absolute Despotism, it is their Right, it is their Duty, to throw
off such Government, and to provide new Guards for their future Security (Current et al
1983: i). After the events at Ruby Ridge and Waco, American citizens again began
banding together in order to protect themselves from the oppressive federal government
(Tyrrell 1994: 1).
Finally, members of the NCFRM are opposed to several aspects of todays society.
These include the acceptance of homosexuality as a valid lifestyle, the public funding of
abortion, tax dollars spent on AIDS research, and the increasing rates of violent crime and
divorce. All of these are ultimately interpreted as results of government plots to divide the
population against itself and to weaken the public through the promotion of immorality.
Race
According to the North Central Florida Regional Militias spokesperson, the unit is
open to members of all races. The NCFRM is opposed to government tyranny, and all


43
schools.
In Florida, at least one school district has voted to begin teaching classes about the
Bible in its public school system (Rosza 1997). The head of the local school board insists
that this will be a challenge to the artificial boundary between church and state invented
by liberal secular humanists. The course will teach that the Bible is an authentic and
valid history and will be used to proselytize among students, according to the school
boards spokesman. The spokesman is a member of the American Family Association, a
prominent Christian fundamentalist lobbying organization.
Several state legislators in Florida have attempted to instate policies which will, in
effect, make Christian doctrine part of states educational program. Among these
legislators is Dan Miller, who opposes any federal educational guidelines and supports
local control of the curriculum (White 1997). At a meeting of Christian activists, Miller
promised to support them in their battle to teach Creationism instead of evolutionary
theory.
Another relevant issue in Florida is the repeated attempt by the Legislature to
mandate, or at least permit, Christian prayer in public schools (Kaplow 1997). Bills
concerning this issue are introduced into the Legislature annually. Usually defeated by
narrow margins, they are immediately invalidated by the judiciary as unconstitutional on
those occasions when they are approved.
Perhaps the most divisive issue in the church/state arena is that of abortion rights.
Recent Supreme Court decisions upholding the rights of women to abort their fetuses
have enraged the pro-life movement. Some have responded with violence directed at


29
(Dyer 1997: 177-190). Finally, Dyers book, much like the others, is interspersed with
lists of violence and felonies committed in the name of the Patriot Movement.
All four of the authors agree that the movement inspires and incites violence. All
agree that the violence thus far is simply a precursor to much greater violence to come.
All agree that there is a spectrum of behaviors ranging from paramilitary training and
terrorism to discussion groups who get together to complain about the government, and
every imaginable behavior in between.
Conclusions
This paper will examine the structural relations between militia activists as well as
those between activists and the general population. This examination will reveal that the
research question (Why did the Militia Movement develop in this time and place?) can be
answered through explication of two facets. The first facet concerns the socioeconomic
factors which have created a pool of potential converts seething with fear and distrust of
the federal government. The second facet concerns the opportunity structure through
which these potential converts eventually become activists in the movement.
The pool of potential militia activists has been created through the confluence of
three primary factors: educational, economic, and political, all interpreted through a
fundamentalist perspective. Current methods used by Americas public education systems
have left many high school and college graduates without the necessary intellectual skills
required for critical thinking. Even many formally educated people today are trained to
think in a dualistic manner, leaving them easy prey for demagoguery and unable to grasp


173
family values being horribly out of date, they exert a powerful, secret, invisible social
pressure on millions of viewers to agree. This psychic pressure is known as the Tyranny
of the Jewish Should. It is a tyrannical, irresistible pressure on your mind saying you
should feel the same as the context instructs you to, or you are a sinner, a bigot, someone
unworthy, an undesirable, unfit person.
Jewish Shoulds brainwash Christians into a suicidal, self-destructive mindset.
The Tyranny of the Jewish Shoulds is why a whole generation of Christians feel
tremendous pressure on their minds to believe that all Christian preachers and priests
are corrupt; Christians on the political right are all bigoted, false Christians; all Christian
family values are hopelessly out of date; homosexuality is a normal, acceptable and
morally equivalent was of life; children know better than their parents so they shouldn't
listen to them; all questions about Jewish influence are proof of anti-Semitism; no white
Christian civil rights group has legitimate concerns or honorable motives; all efforts by
whites at racial self-preservation are reprehensible bigotry and racism; it is wicked to try
and halt a flood of non-white aliens from pouring across our borders; it is always too
dangerous for citizens to bear arms; a pluralistic, cosmopolitan, multi-cultural society is
always more desirable than a single culture; there is nothing at all wrong with white
women bedding low IQ Negroes; America is a racist country built on the backs of blacks;
all whites are guilty for the failure of perfectly equal blacks in this society...
This suicidal, self-destructive pressure on our minds takes the place of Jewish
soldiers.
Jews divide and conquer Christian America.
As we have shown, one divides and conquers a country without soldiers by putting
pressure on the peoples minds and manipulating them into a suicidal, divisive mind-set
so they fight among themselves and self-destruct.
This ancient game of Divide and Conquer turns the people into puppets so
fractured like Humpty-Dumpty into groups fighting one another, they dont have time to
look up and see the hidden hand of the Puppet Master pulling their strings, our all-
powerful Jewish Media Masters.
ZOG, Zionist Owned Government.
There seems to be two separate and distinct governmentsone visible, the other
invisible. The visible government is the one we vote for. The hidden hand we assert pulls
the visible governments stringsnot for the benefit of American Christiansbut for the
benefit of International Zionist Jews, the TMew World Order.
The NAAWP News would be happy to be proven wrong in the open debate with
our Jewish Media Masters that President Nixon called for. What is wrong with free
speech, anyway? Is there something to hide? Is Pat Buchanan right, is Washington, D.C.
Israeli occupied territory?