|Table of Contents|
Front Cover 1
Front Cover 2
Table of Contents
Purpose and scope
Statement of problems
Obstructions to problem solving
Back Cover 1
Back Cover 2
Alachua 50 1971
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INITIAL HOUSING ELEMENT
Prepared by the North Central Florida Regional Planning Council under contract with the Department of Community Affairs, State of Florida. The preparation of
this report was financially aided through a Federal Grant from the Department of Housing and Urban Development, under the urban planning assistance program authorized by Section 701 of the Housing Act of 1954, as amended.
North Central Florida Regional Planning Council
Five Southwest Second Place Gainesville, Florida 32601
TITLE: Initial Housing Element
AUTHOR: North Central Florida Regini)!
SUBJECT: Initial Housing Element for A!a'mvu
DATE: July, 1971
LOCAL PLANNING AGENCY: North Central Florida Regionai
SOURCES OF COPIES: Clearinghouse for Federal Scil '.ic and Technical Information Washington, D. C.
North Central Florida Regionai PLfing Council
5 S. W. Second Place Gainesville, Florida 32601
For reference: HUD Regional Region IV
Peachtree Sv' 1t V building Atlanta, Geor a 70323
HUD PROJECT NO.: P-121-H
SERIES NO.: n.a.
NO. OF PAGES: 37
ABSTRACT: The intent of this study i s /y
general structural ConditJon q I o sing
in Alachua County, list proi! hic have
precipitated unsound housing objectives and recouxiend i actions which will alleviate problems within Alachua Count Aain
intent of this housing 1-ee ovide a base upon which a co S
ing program may be constructed -t h ultimate objective being to prO i'. a decent home for every residernL of iiacha County.
Abstract .................................................. ii
Introduction .............................................. 1
Purpose and Scope ......................................... 4
Methodology ............................................... 6
Statement of Problems ..................................... 10
Obstructions to Problem Solving ........................... 14
Planning Objectives ....................................... 17
Planning Activities ....................................... 20
Implementative Actions .................................... 24
Work Program .............................................. 28
Work Elements ............................................. 37
Alachua County is located in the North Central part of Florida and encompasses a land and water area of approximately 965 square miles. Prior to World War II, the County's economy was primarily agricultural in nature. Because Gainesville, the County seat, was located on Florida's first cross-state railroad, the City became a principal marketing place for a wide agricultural region. After World War II, the University of Florida became a significant economic factor in the County. Armed with the G. I. Bill, veterans returned to school and enrollment increased from an estimated 3,000 students in 1940 to nearly 10,000 students by 1950. Current 1970 enrollment is in excess of 22,000 students. The 1970 population for Alachua County is estimated at 104,000 people with approximately 64,000 people residing within the City of Gainesville.
Alachua County and its municipalities are presently experiencing the problems associated with other rapidly urbanizing areas. With the increase in urbanization, especially in the Gainesville Metropolitan Area, it became evident that problems were becoming regional in scope;
consequently the City of Gainesville and Alachua County formed a regional planning council. The North Central Florida Regional Planning Council was created by resolution of the Alachua County Commission and the Gainesville City Commission in December of 1968. The Regional Planning Council is responsible for identifying and recommending solutions to problems which have no respect for political boundaries. The regional planning concept recognizes that the various governmental units located within a contiguous geographical area usually share common problems and goals.
Housing and its related problems are regional in scope. Since people move from one place to another without regard to political boundaries, the causes of housing problems have similarities throughout the region. Unincorporated areas, cities large and small, all face the problems of deteriorating housing and its blighting influence. By studying housing problems on a regional basis, it is anticipated that a better understanding of the causes and the extent of inadequate housing in Alachua County will become evident. Plans may then be implemented to alleviate these problems.
A major portion of the substandard housing is located within the rural communities of Alachua County. These communities,
therefore, exhibit deteriorating conditions. This, in essence, signifies that eventually, unless something is done, these communities are likely to become inviahle.
ALACHUA COUNTY F L 0 R I D A
PURPOSE AND SCOPE
The initial housing element is a reflection of our nation's concern for housing every American citizen in a decent home. Therefore, the purpose of this element is to insure that housing and the problems and obstacles related to housing can then be more fully understood and incorporated into the comprehensive planning efforts of all agencies in the region. Once the characteristics of housing are compiled, it is the objective of this housing element to establish a sound program design. The Program Design will provide a comprehensive approach to the total housing problem.
Following is a partial listing of those characteristics that comprise the scope of work covered in this initial housing element. The preparation of the housing element entailed the collection of data and assembly of information to provide for the following:
1. A preliminary listing of the existing
housing conditions in the area.
2. A preliminary listing and ranking of
problems that have precipitated unsound
3. A summary of all previous action implemented
toward solving housing problems within the area.
4. A preliminary statement of objectives
to improve the housing quality during
the next three to five years.
5. Establishment of an annual work program
relative to housing for the next three to
While undertaking this housing element, it was found that individuals most prone to residing in unsound housing were in the low and middle income sectors of the population. Therefore, the assumption is that these groups, regardless of ethnic background, are the ones most adversely affected by the existing housing conditions, spiraling interest latest and inflation.
This housing element will hopefully serve as a guide. It will call to the attention of all governmental jurisdictions the problems responsible for unsound housing within Alachua County.
Data on the condition of housing within Alachua County was compiled from various sources. Information was made available by the Department of Community Development for the City of Gainesville, while the Alachua County Health Department surveyed the seven smaller communities: Alachua, Archer, Hawthorne, High Springs, Micanopy, Newberry, and Waldo. Data was also supplemented by a wind-shield survey of the seven smaller communities by the Planning Council's staff. Due to staff limitations, it was infeasible to study scattered rural dwellings located in the unincorporated
areas of the County.
All segments of the various studies were correlated in order to evaluate housing conditions on a uniform basis. While the Alachua County Health Department study used only exterior structural conditions to classify housing, the Gainesville study used both exterior and interior conditions as their standards of classification. After careful consideration, the condition of a structure, for relevance in the initial housing element, is classified as either sound, deteriorating,
A sound housing structure is defined as one which has no defects, or possibly slight defects which are repaired as a part of normal and adequate maintenance on a structure. Examples of such defects are lack of paint, slight damage to porch or steps, inadequate mortar between bricks or other masonry, small cracks in walls, broken gutters or downspouts.
A deteriorating housing structure is one that requires more repair than would be provided in the course of regular maintenance. Housing in this category generally has one or more defects that must be corrected if the structure is to continue to provide adequate shelter. Examples of a deteriorating structure are open cracks in exterior members; rotted, loose or missing materials on the structure; shaky or unsafe porch; broken or missing windowpanes; structure is no longer adequate shelter from the elements. Such defects are signs of neglect which lead to serious structural deterioration or damage if not corrected.
A dilapidated structure is one that does not provide adequate shelter and is a detriment to the health, safety or well-being of the occupants. Housing in this category will have one or
more critical defects of such magnitude that they require considerable repair or rebuilding. Some structures are now dilapidated because of inadequate original construction. These defects are either so critical or widespread that the structure should be extensively repaired, rebuilt or torn down.
F --HOUSING CONDITIONS
o 0 0 0
within 0Alachua Co.00
Alachua 165 28 161 27 267 45 593
Archer 92 38 69 28 82 34 243
Gainesville 1879 56 1191 36 260 8 3330* Hawthorne 122 33 82 22 168 45 372 High Springs 309 38 23 0 27 288 35 827
Micanopy 22 11 94 48 82 41 198
Newberry 94 28 113 34 126 38 3 33%2
Waldo 35 15 98 42 99 43 232
Total Units 2718 45 2038 33 1372 22 6128
Total D. U.' In 33147
Current housing data for Alachua County's incorporated communities is summarized in Table I. As depicted in Table I, a large portion of Alachua County's housing falls in the deteriorated and dilapidated categories.
STATEMENT OF PROBLEMS
A number of different factors contribute to the quality of housing in an individual structure, or neighborhood, of the community. In surveying Alachua County, the physical and environmental conditions that affect the quality of housing covered a wide spectrum. A listing and ranking of problems and conditions which have precipitated the existence of unsound housing is emphasized. The following housing and housing related problems are listed in order of their importance.
1. Presently there are a large number of
deteriorating and dilapidated housing units
within Alachua County. Of the units surveyed in the County, approximately 2,038 or 33% were classified as deteriorating. The housing units
classified in the dilapidated condition numbered
approximately 1,372 or 22% of the total units
surveyed. (See Table I) The highest concentration of unsound housing outside the City of Gainesville
was found in the towns of Micanopy and Waldo,
where over 80% of all housing units were classi_10-
fied as deteriorating or dilapidated. It
was also evident that over 50% of all housing
in the seven smaller communities was classified
as either deteriorating or dilapidated.
2. The majority of deteriorating and dilapidated
housing is occupied by two economic minority
groups -- the Black and the elderly. Experience in Alachua County has demonstrated that unsound
housing is directly related to low incomes
caused by a complex interrelationship of social factors such as lack of education, unemployment,
underemployment and fixed incomes in an inflationary economy.
3. There exists a lack of adequate public facilities
in the communities located within the County. All
seven smaller communities are without a central sanitary sewer system. The City of Gainesville
does have a central sanitary sewer system, but to date many residents have been unable to afford the
cost of the initial hookup.
4. Many of the smaller communities in Alachua County
do not have up-to-date building codes, zoning
ordinances, and subdivision ordinances. Even in communities where codes have been enacted,
often there is a lack of trained personnel
necessary for effective code enforcement.
5. To date unpaved streets, inadequate drainage
facilities and poor subdivision platting
practices are factors found evident where unsound housing exists.
6. The absence of adequate neighborhood facilities
limits the amenities of the living environment
in the County. Many of the recreation facilities
need to be improved and/or expanded and new
facilities should be added.
7. Environmental deficiencies add to the blighting
influence in areas of unsound housing. There
were approximately 765 abandoned automobiles in the seven smaller communities, while in Gainesville there were approximately 691 abandoned
automobiles in 1967. The City of Gainesville has underway a program which eliminates approximately
200 abandoned automobiles a year while the stock
is constantly being replenished. (See Table II)
Local Rbih OldPrve
Community Rbih Autos Prve
Alachua 76 213 86
Archer 84 50 26
Hawthorne 92 91 43
High Springs 210 109 39
Micanopy 28 151 39
Newberry 65 55 101
Waldo 1 1 96 22
Totals** 566 765 353
OBSTRUCTIONS TO PROBLEM SOLVING
The obstructions influencing the perpetuation of unsound housing in the County must be analyzed as the first step in solving the housing problems. In the past, many obstructions have deterred the provision of a variety of housing types, employment opportunities and recreational space. A full understanding of these impediments is necessary before meaningful solutions can be developed.
1. A large portion of the deteriorating and
dilapidated housing units within the smaller communities can be directly attributed to the
lack of a minimum standard housing code.
2. There is a lack of current, in-depth information concerning housing and housing-related
problems. Studies have been completed that
give general indications as to the scope and
magnitude of housing problems, but specific
information detailing economic and social conditions, etc. causing these problems is needed.
3. There is currently no regional plan in existence
for a program of housing improvement. Due in
part to the above, there is no coordination among
the individual communities in the County toward establishing policies regarding the solution of
the housing problems.
4. While preliminary planning and engineering feasibility studies for public facilities have been
undertaken, little implementation has been accomplished. The increasing demand for municipal
facilities, and the absence of a corresponding
increase in revenues, has placed increasing responsibilities on many municipal budgets.
5. Problems attributed to minority groups and
solutions related to solving the quality and
quantity of housing have not received priority in funding. Again, in many communities, locai revenues are so encumbered that the community
cannot contribute its financial share toward a
6. Even in Gainesville where a Minimum Standard
Housing Code Program is in progress, the upgrading and renovation of substandard housing
is a slow process. This fact can be attributed
to the financial inability of many homeowners
to pay for needed repairs.
7. Although certain trends were derived from analysis
of available data, areawide data concerning the
supply and demand for low cost housing is
8. Many of the smaller communities lack the necessary
governmental machinery vital for planning and
implementation of various housing programs. In
addition, the smaller communities within the
County also lack the legal authority necessary to
construct needed housing.
9. Limitation on dwelling types throughout the County
is also a problem. Due to a lack of up-to-date
zoning ordinances in the smaller communities,
various types of housing, trailers, modules, etc.
are not allowed.
Meaningful objectives for housing-related activiticbased on considerations of the entire County, are lisLed so that the accompanying work program can be designed to correct and alleviate the housing problems identified previously. In stating these objectives, it is important to remember that the Regional Planning Council does not serve one discrete governing body, but a conglomerate of such bodies who participate on a voluntary basis. Through this procedure it is envisioned that the Regional P)anning Council will function primarily in a coordinating (,. capacity. Through total coordination of all projects within the County, it is anticipated that the Council will be able to assist all communities in an advisory capacity, thus stressing the coordination function in hopes of eliminating unnecessary duplication and expense. The objectives set forth will help ameliorate housing problems by providing information to and aiding the local communities in meeting specific community housing objectives.
1. Encourage the elimination of all dilapidated
housing while simultaneously eliminating or
bringing up to standard as many deteriorating units as possible. An evaluation of the need,
not only for replacement housing, but also
additions to the housing stock should be provided.
Maintenance of a current file on housing stock
in the communities of the County will enable
continuous assessment of unsound housing.
2. Maintain current estimates of housing needs for
communities within the County. This file should
be coordinated so th at local community problems
may be readily matched with housing data.
3. Encourage solutions to the problem of inadequate
public facilities by urging local communities to
undertake comprehensive water and sewer plan
coordinated on a county-wide basis.
4. Provide guidance and assistance in drafting or
revising needed housing-related codes and ordinances. Such a program coordinated by the Regional
Planning Council would aid local communities in
developing modern community development standards which would insure a uniform level of development
throughout the county.
5. Make available local planning assistance, per
request, to the region's communities in their
assessment of their housing and housing-related
problems. This could be accomplished by such studies as a Neighborhood Analysis, CommunitV Facilities Plans, or various types of transportation and environmental studies.
6. Assist all local governments and applicable
private organizations in negotiations with the
federal government in securing housing funds.
7. Develop policies and techniques to stimulate
new construction of low and moderate income
housing units, when possible, in both the
sales and rental categories.
Local and regional planning organizations have completed or have underway the following programs that will directly or indirectly affect housing and the quality of the housing environment within Alachua County. A. Past Planning Activities
1. Creation of the North Central Florida Regional
Planning Council by joint resolutions of the Alachua County Commission and the Gainesville
City Commission, December 1968.
2. Alachua County has completed the following
a. Land Use: Survey and Analysis, Alachua
County Zoning Districts, January, 1963.
b. Population and Economic Study, Alachua
County Zoning Districts, February, 1963.
C. Major Road Plan, Alachua County Zoning
d. Land Use Plan, Alachua County Zoning Dist
e. A Comprehensive Areawide Plan for Water
and Sewer Development. (background studies)
f Comprehensive Areawide Plan for* water and Sewer
Development Part Two Comprehensive Water
and Sewerage Plan November, 1967 .
g. A Preliminary Study on a Comprehensive
Drainage and Flood Plain Designation for the
Metropolitan Gainesville Area November, 1969 h. Alachua County Health Department Community
Block Survey, Spring, 1969.
In addition to a complete housing inspection program now underway, the City of Gainesville's Department of Community Development has completed the following studies with relation to housing:
a. Physiographic Study b. Population Study
C. Community Facilities and Recreation d. Economic Base Study e. Land Use Analysis Study f. Land Use Classification Guide g. Commercial Study
h. Industrial Study
i. Housing Survey of Low and Moderate Income
j. Land Use Plan
B. Future Planning Activities
1. The following comprehensive planning activities
for Alachua County and its municipalities will be
administered by the North Central Florida Regional
a. A Comprehensive Planning Program is to be
undertaken in fiscal year 1970-71. This
program will include the development of an Overall Program Design. The Program Design will outline proposed activities and studies
to be undertaken by the Regional Planning
b. Begin a Base Mapping Program for each
municipality. Coordinate aerial and topographic mapping program for the Gainesville
C. Establishment of a data bank system, in conjunction with the transportation study, for
the metropolitan area. Hopefully this system
will be expanded to encompass the remainder
of the County.
d. Analyze the 1970 Census data. Special
emphasis will be directed towards housing and
e. Coordination of the Gainesville Urban
Area Transportation Study.
f. Coordination of the Gainesville'Urban
Area Drainage Study.
g. Development and maintenance of a Regional
h. Undertake a Future Housing Requirements
Study, directed towards the questions of housing demand by type, by income ranges
and sale or rental price as needed for
each local community.
i. Initiate and coordinate an Operation
Breakthrough project in Alachua County if and
when funds are allocated by the State and
Implementative actions which have taken place prior to this element and a list of future actions necessary to implement the planning process are outlined herein. These actions encourage the attainment of an overall reduction in the number of substandard housing units, while simultaneously striving for a decent home for every resident of the County.
A. Previous Actions
1. Creation of the Gainesville Public Housing
Authority by the City Commission in August
of 1966. To date, the Housing Authority
has completed 515 housing units within the
2. Recognized by the Department of Housing and
Urban Development in January 1969, the Alachua County Public Housing Authority has authorized
the construction of 200 single family units
within the County. The County Housing Author-24-
ity provides the smaller communities the
machinery for construction of low-cost
3. In May of 1965, the City of Gainesville
employed a full-time Housing Inspector
for the City of Gainesville.
4. Continued expansion of the recreational
facilities in the low-income areas has been
implemented by means of a Tot-Lot program.
5. The City of Gainesville has received recertification of its Workable Program for community improvement through the Department of Housing
and Urban Development. This is an asset to
the City of Gainesville since a certified
Workable Program is a prerequisite for many
HUD-assisted housing-related programs.
6. In all of the local communities codes and
ordinance programs pertaining to housing have been recognized. This is but one indication
of the desire of the citizens of the local
communities to better the community in which
7. Alachua County employed a full-time Zoning
Administrator who processes zoning applications and serves as staf f to the Alachua
County Planning and Zoning Commission.
B. Future Actions
1. The Alachua County Public Housing Authority
began construction on 200 housing units in
1970. The 200 units are located in the Cities
of Alachua, Hawthorne, Archer, Newberry and
2. Continued expansion of the housing supply
sponsored by the Gainesville Housing Authority. Leased housing, mobile homes, and turnkey projects will help increase the housing
supply for low-income groups.
3. Gainesville's Department of Community Development is currently in the initial stage of a
Community Renewal Program, CRP, for the City.
4. The Gainesville Housing Authority*will make
application for additional low-income housing
during fiscal year 1970-71.
5. The Alachua County Housing Authority expects
to request an additional 400 units, of which
100 units will be for the elderly. These
projects will be located throughout Alachua
6. Encourage private developers to provide
continuing production of low-moderate income
housing units for sale at the previously
established rate of 175 units annually.
This section of the Initial Housing Element provides a workable program which the Regional Planning Council and its participants can utilize as a guide during the years 1970-75. The program presented herein has as its basis the combined and interrelated analysis of the problems, obstructions, and planning objectives of the entire Alachua County area. It is designed in such a manner that the program reflects no arbitrary geographical division of the planning area and is purposefully intended to be regional in scope.
For easy reference, the work elements of the program are graphically illustrated by a chart appearing at the end of this study. The following housing-related elements are arranged in a sequential order constituting a five-year program that will be harmonious with the Regional Planning Council's Overall Work Program.
All weighting of the various work elements, with respect to estimated costs involved, were based on the anticipated utilization of the staff members of the North Central Florida Regional Planning Council. It should be noted that the
assigned dollar values and time periods involved are only estimated totals. The estimates therefore reflect the generalized proposals of the project scope, w ich have been outlined and discussed previously, and in no way reflect greatly detailed individual study guides. The costs figures are intended to serve only as broad indicators of needed budgetary resources.
The individual elements of the housing-related program are outlined and discussed in the following text.
Basic Work Elements
A. Regional Land Use Survey
B. A Regional Housing Data File
C. Individualized Studies
D. Population and Economic Study E. Analysis of 1970 Census Data
F. General Housing Plan
G. Continuing Phases
Regional Land Use Survey
During the first year of the program,.initial efforts should be directed towards undertaking a land use survey of Alachua County. The survey will locate, count and record the condition of all housing units in the County. The end result being a
color-coded inventory of all existing housing units and their relationship to other existing land uses.
In addition to the above information, interviews and other field work should be coordinated with the recent census information and included as part of the land use inventory classifications.
It is estimated that the staff, over a period of one year, can effectively and efficiently conduct this portion of the program. Budgetary requirements for this element should not exceed a cost of 18,000 dollars.
Regional Housing Data File
The various work elements outlined previously will serve as inputs to the regional housing data file. Information, both gathered and generated, will demonstrate where the housing and housing-related problems exist.
Once established, the continuing maintenance of this fundamental file of information, coupled with the formulation of a general housing plan, will enable the Regional Planning Council to keep constantly abreast of the housing situation in the County. The file will provide the local communities with information on their housing needs. it
will also provide information on what programs are available for housing, what the requirements might be and the eligibility of the local community for such a-project.
organizations, housing authorities and private developers seeking to sponsor housing development by utilizing governmental supplement programs can be given positive and accurate guidance in determining the housing demand.
The initial work involved in establishing the recommended regional housing data file should require an expenditure of some 4,500 dollars. Once operational, the continually maintenance of the file should be absorbed in the clerical portion of the Council's budget.
As has been the policy in the past, the Regional Planning Council will continue to aid local communities in special studies and grant information. With the continuation of the Data File, acting as a source of information, the Regional Planning Council will be in a position to aid the County and its local communities in establishing practical, housingrelated objectives. Individual studies might include neighborhood analysis, environmental studies, detailed land use
studies of special areas, and possible community facilities plans. The Planning Council could also develop a set of criteria on site locations and possibly establish guidelines for residential land utilization. These guidelines could possibly supplement subdivision regulations depending upon the individual communities needs.
It is impossible to assign a dollar value to this element. This service is to be performed by the Regional Planning Council staff when the local communities request assistance. With the refinement of the data, undoubtedly major study points will be uncovered and work can begin on these critical areas of concentration.
Population and Economic Study
In the preliminary investigations, it became evident that there is currently a lack of usable information concerning the population and economic status of the smaller communities. As part of the Regional Planning Council's overall work program design, a regional population and economic study is proposed. Strong emphasis will be directed towards the root causes affecting unsound housing. By means of employment forecasts and opportunities, economic activity forecasts, various population projections, the need for better housing within the County should become more apparent. Included in
the economic study will be an investigation of the local communities ability to finance future projects. This should be compared with their current financial aids'programs to determine that housing projects could be reasonably undertaken.
The scheduling of such studies should occur about midway through the program and entail a year's work. Total costs for this element should run approximately 20,000 dollars.
Analysis of 1970 Census Data
Early in 1971 and continuing through the year, final tabulations and various other census data will be made available to the North Central Florida Regional Planning Council and other groups requesting it. The Census results should provide the staff with rent levels, accompanying economic factors, population base, housing costs, and housing unit values for the County and several communities in Alachua County. Hopefully, the Census information will provide known base information and will serve as a cross check on information gathered by the staff.
A staff member should be ready to begin work on the Census data when it is made available. In working coordinately on other aspects of data gathering, an initial outlay of some
10,000 dollars will be required.
General Housing Plan
The General Housing Plan as it is presently perceived will be produced at the end of the five year work program. During the years proceeding the General Housing Plan, a series of "white papers" should be circulated for the purpose of publicizing the past and current housing-related information and recommendations developed to date.
The Plan itself should present an assessment of the total regional housing situation, as reflected by current progress on updating the Housing Data File and other obtainable information. It should point the way to achieving goals such as adequate housing for all residents of the County, elimination of housing deficiencies, and provide for livable communities with open space.
In assessing the value of such a project, it is important to remember that, unlike Gainesville, Alachua County and its seven smaller communities now lack up to date development plans to guide harmonious growth in the future.
Since the final plan is, in reality, an accumulation of the
previous work elements, the timing of the final product will begin with the field work. Costs through the first four years of the project, therefore, will be absorbed in the previous work elements. During the final year, a cost of some 10,000 dollars should be allocated for the final summary.
In order to adequately serve Alachua County and its communities, it is of necessity that the continuing phases of all the work elements discussed previously be kept up to date. Housing problems within the County will not terminate with the conclusion of the five year work program. Re-evaluation of all work, completed and proposed, must be a continuing process.
In order to keep abreast of the housing problems in the region, the Regional Planning Council proposes to continue the various elements, along with the additional timely projects to help alleviate the housing and housing-related problems in Alachua County.
Included in the continuing phase will be the added assistance to the local communities in securing the necessary Federal funding. Through work accomplished and proposed, it is
anticipated that the local communities will be capable of contributing towards the needed improvement of the housing stock within the County.
*Units surveyed were suspect to poor housing in area and
surveyed for purpose of justifying urban renewal treatment. "Florida Statistical Abstract, University of Florida, 1969, P. 194.
***PICommunity Block Survey," Alachua County Health Department,
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