Natural resources study for Alachua County, Florida


Material Information

Natural resources study for Alachua County, Florida
Physical Description:
137 p. : ;
North Central Florida Regional Planning Council
The Council
Place of Publication:
Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date:


Subjects / Keywords:
Natural resources -- Florida -- Alachua County   ( lcsh )
Environmental management -- Florida -- Alachua County   ( lcsh )
Environmental monitoring -- Florida -- Alachua County   ( lcsh )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )


Bibliography: p. 133-137.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 027616257
oclc - 15362907
lcc - HC107.F6 A2 1975
System ID:

Full Text




i ftioftof this report was financed in part
A opaptabansive planning grant from the
10"hat1 or, Uomeing and Urban Development.

Q 114044aegional Planning Council
SpateestSecond Place thee Forida 32601
......... .


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c-cipient's Acct-_%sion No.

'I. lie por( DaEt:
Tt July, 1975
al e&ources Study for Alachua County, Florida 6.

S. I- 'crforming OrganizaElon Rvpt. No. -75-001
Alan L. CsontOs NCFRPC
i it, N' an! AldreSs 10. Proiuct Task-Vork 1:nit No.
tohtkal Plorida Regional Planning Council j$04thws't 11%econd Place 11. Contract Crant No.
0,11e, Flor*da 32601 CPA-FL-04-29-1068
0" ixavio* Xamc anA ALidrz ss, 13. TYpv of Rt.-purt & Pcriod
t of Housing and Urban Development
tvorqide Avenue 14.
Ule, Plorida 32204
=ry Nm;r.

e of this study is to identify and describe the major
il*ibUrdes of Alachua County, to define their areal extent,
the relative values and limitations of their comftla,-purpose is met by both a written text documenting
Ad'InMoUrces of the County and also a series of general
vtinq resource characteristics.

,.*A*s information, the study identifies some of the areas 711 AnA relationships between natural systems. It also
4 !M-siet k'iOOwltdqe upon which to better assess the short
is"cts between development and natural resources

,"a,, ftvironmental analysis,, Resource planning,
'140alysis", Ikesource inventory
4q, 4X*

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(41a M ix 21. t 4 Pav.(,s

vetstiV (Ah,,,;-, 22. Pricv I F I E 1)

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liIC IO##$ POR CMPLETING F~ttautNTIS-35 (10-70) (Bibliographic DataShebadonC AT
" $$tidststo Format Standards for Scientific and Technical Reports Prepared by or for the Federal Government,

1e R#pert Meeker. Each individually bound report shall carry a unique .alphanumeric dQesilnation -Alectt-] bi' the pecrf arming ognization or provided by the qponsoriqng organization. Use uppercase letters and \Arahic numerals only, Lxamples? ASCWhNS47 and FA A- RI'H8.-09.

statploe'sAccssxion Number. Reserved for u-se by catch report r cipi nt.

Idftiend0w Subside. T-itle should indicate clearl% and briefly thv subject coverage oif the report, knd be displayed 1pro)miattity. Set subtitle, if used, in smaller typo or Otherwise subordinated it tot main title, lihun a report is prepared in morv
.4, volpal, reea the. Primary tiladd volume number and include- quhtitlc tor the spvcif ic volume.

*o*0AlPh. Fiwb report shall carry a date indicating at least month and vuar. Indicate the basis on which it wais selected
Rq.-,dateof issue, slace of approval, dakte oif preparation.

Asseatetevetsaiescaoe Leave blank.

Jilfte ).Give iatands) in conventional order (e.g., John K. IDoe. or J.Robert Doe). List author's affiliation if it differs

ageson Repor $

Equipe~gl~gaptp~s Mee wed Address. Give name. street, c ity, -tate, and zip coldc. List no more than two levels of
attirpenir Iet hie-rarchy. Display the near of the organization exactly as it should appear in Government indexes such

Tirkillli I0Memer Use the project, task and work unit numbers under which the: repoKrt was prepared.

/Wage)} 4* %nerr contract or grant number under which report was prepAred.

WWWWW WMV %ow~pt Addres Int- ludc z ip v ode.

Of 14b"t #n *Pari4 Covered. Indicate interim, final, etc., and. if applicable, Jates covered.

p404 C040, Leave blank4E" information not iincluded elsewhvrc but useful, such as: Pirkpared in coopt ration wirb . Wilevspted at c onferener of .. To be publIis-;hed in -uprde suppivi. ills

V vtwii (*W *Wrs or les-s) f actual sumary of the mowst significant informatrion containtJ in Ohn re port.
signficnt iblngrphyor lirtrature .survey, mention it herc.

*10i, (oeo)g Deasipers Skwt from the Thsvs s of IEnginvvring and 'Cientili 0 thridetifthemajo coceptof he research n arc s'ufficiently specific and pro-L is, to bew Teams. U-sc udentifiers for project names, code names, equipment designators, on ( es i$sOr form for those SubiCCers for Which no decrCiplOr exis;tS, Fild iad (,roup assi$gaments ae to be taken from th- 1946S COSAT1 -Subject Catvgor'. I.
4 ggdreidrdscp#sn in imtert, thet primary Field, CGroup as;signmeint(s) will b ht,-i ,ptecit
eo Ad orfersype of, physeplobiers. The applications) will he cross-referenecJ with s oundary oha WAt f 0llNw the primary postings).

4tatou~rag)}iy o the pubktic or limitarian for evarsons- ther than securitry for example "RekII 94? e4hadre rki price.
A*', -tagg chwfe tprstoes ional Technical

ing ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~~~~u ga[brdtp, haighi n4J noerdpaeut-excuding distribution

& Alf g~aistaiou ttiat the Gotvervnnwait Printing (Mlr c, if known.



. . . . . . . . . . .
Table of Contents . . . . . . . .
List of Illustrations . . . . . . . iv
introduction . . . . . . . . . 1
Purpose and scope . .

"thodology .. . . . . . . . . 3
Introduction . . . . . 7
General GeoloW . . . . . . . 8
Map Preparation . . . . & . . 10
Rock &n4 Mineral Resources . . . . 13
ter Resouboes . . . . . . . . 28
Utroduction . . . . . . . . 28
tit #
Surface Water Resources . . . . . 28
Groun tqrResources . . . . . . 40
. . . . w . . . . 47
Natar Reclamation and Rouse . . . . 53
11144 56

. . . . . . 56
0 'AU4 plann, 9 56
. . 60
. . . 65
. . 66

191C top""Ohy 68





CA.. . . . . . . . . . . .. 73

General . . . . . . . . . . . 73
Climate in Alachua County . . . . .. 73
1s-fIdence of Climate . . ?.......... 75

V a io . ... . . . . . . 78
t4 .tlto. . . .. . . . . . . 788

ltf ResOUr4cets....... . . . . . 97

-tThtroduction . . . . . . . . . 97
Widlife* Habitats and Importance . . . . 97 e~tedmnination of Habitat Suitability . . . 100 6f Environmental Concern . . . . . . 104
A.Ao jtrottet ion .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 104

W-e-th EAvation and Conservation Programs . . . 104 *t,$,q Land Use . . . . . . . . . 109
dgNtural Systems . . . . . . 112
p the OIogy . . . . . . . . .. 11

e, AP . . .. 113

-W inge CbnsIde'rations . . . . . .116
. . . . . . . 119
. . . . . . . 122
. . . . . . . . 124

. . . . . . 133


0, 4 Page

21, ,10"ttonwMay Alachua County#, Florida.....a......... 6
eneral Geology ...................................... 12
3,General Rock and mineral Resources*.............. 27
14. Mtheett Water Resources................... 39
Owwenaal Groundwater ecag............. 44

T 7 eneral SaOUS...... ............^. 61
an wal Soilp Suitability for Community Development. 64
d al 4 agricultural Suitability ..................... 87
It Vegetation...................... 96

) Mt'likhdat Vatura]l Areas ............................ 108

"*064te Natural Resources.................... 118

04 Ai amd Water Pollution Control .11-3 Pollution of Waters; Criteria for
5 ... ... .,, .. ... ... ... ........ 122

rtaYe List of Vegetation in North Central

&o *0a Witalift species in Alachua County,
..., ,... ... .... ... .... ... .... ... 129

wim~d *uIson and atinction ....... 3


1.Average Range of Selected Chemical Characteristics
04 Streak in Alachua Cony.............31

41. Trophic State of Lakes in Alachua County..............9 37

Water 'Budget Sunnery ................. ........ 43

.Soil ASeociatidu$ in Alachua County............. 58

aoutiation Chart for Soils Suitability for Community
Deeomet.................................. 63

General slope use soig......,........70

*vtage Monthly Temperature and Rainfall for Alachua
(M y. .. .. .. .. .. .. .............. 75

ftreae and Value of Crops in Alachua County, 1974 .... 80
*,- toqiteral Capability Classes of Soils .........,..... 84

tonlbtral Capability Classes of Soils in Alachua

4 4 of Commrcial Forest Land by Porest Type ........ 90
t4* 9w 4 Conmenal Porest Land by Stocking Class
iWhdbyin Stook Tes.. ......... .....91

of OM p aa 1Forest in Ale4chuai County by S ite

OtheJ General Wildlife Suitability Map.... 101
Aenity Co aion......................10



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General Scoi2e and Puu2se V #

Residents of Florida depend on natural revouriows
4 t
services such as water supply, flood controlr purit,, of waster recreation,, votbeticsr fish and Ja* pr,%Uq*t0#* Moreover, if agricultural resources art iftluAtA, th",,-v*
upon this resource for our food supply. Too, Oft*nIn 4 past the spread of urban communities has rosulted *a tb*,, ?1 40 alterLtion of natural systems in preferen00 to systems-i0hich are often much more expenisivo in moneyr energy and mater ial s f an d oft en with d*b* 4to A small but excellent example could be cite'd A$, th*,of larqe shade trees in a development prior tO
conditioned hcxk s.

in addition, many times in the past,, pA*nning
been. based on economic, engineering, otber have considered natural or environmsntal protos
cidental to the primary project, In tl* ftoqumiat, between conservation and davolqMM"ti, MftWWV*ti9ft, Ji4t ol I
frequently won, not so much b*causo 4MULoo 0OAr's heed to environmental iseu*s but bez4u"
I -#r- .
are often complex and diffi*4t to -*cob*V4 iA. entirety and their long tori Abu"s **A
to quantify =d defenit.



00 ~4!hste I elrcino relcal eore
iiblne it oeta
Exm of suhlako
X *"dtf wdVl~etpoet b n l
A* 'r"mlx tet etoi ipratwllf
A c, omel add ncotolig lo
ty~aliriaeqaisplnes h

W# IFMWIPW W~ inf iadtht y~tti nlye o/h

l n t t/se rt hesnilpr
an ht fois omiti
iTIIPXIa rrIy m~tbo'gvnter-u

r r;t
Recently JMtervot TatmS bove beco m ,*I, 1*4W obwo-t et-rtain ability af cheap enwgy, ft, rfup 4WIA16
a0l Vol *h0v T
andbuoinesa tit
taUle, or practAosIv Im w, svoo#* t 10
no, 'i navgy availability", vouew
oixWots that our, laud, uow "Awt be Ord4eirod, of a Minimum of auppliod ute 'of bur natural life supptWt Oylgtoft 4V
lauds, -Wvport -to 14D.rd A,",r44" 1s*4 tuae activities r. 4 A**W TT

U*auto tbe Antemotioas 01
iA"111V4,"jP*"al tj 11 W, the WT iciaxy in eavio4polAij 'S

-via aima.,
1P V
'waft," (190),otttiwo 3b*9vWWO and Atftriba, -tba 40 *Otr wildlife and othm vosouro" number of brief, reports -*-AW;*t Ladividual resources vv


S UvaraWfacilitating a visual comparison of systems which
browerinposing any or a1,I of the maps. For ttr reprodwtion, it, was not possible to:. i nclude
yo,%,ViLth ea iginals
ch document; however, the.or
tf*r limpectioa at the.Council office s. 14
ISM" **Oft map utilizes up to six "AnocoasiM pattern density or intensity in.
I I 00ft *J W 46i clear sedtlons represent areas having

AMU il"Notal tenvjL tivity '(Or areas most suited
Afti 0,10"aiati oi4 the dattest p4ttorms represent areas that
411"Wilamt W400 "Jol ly'seasitive or b4vet the highest
'4 4 '" i, -MtWMV- v*I Tboset patte=is, only represent VW *OU, Smaitivity or suitability of each land use
M O'k, i I Re 4k v*aAv*w to *bat par t i cu.L4x map t heme B e
-'4*0 bWgw -ANOPv -1qt, poss*bI#,,!nteractoiorxs between ,OQ atftmpt w MWLjOw,,tA> either assign Q.V t9 adjust the pattern OW-XeI*-iVO importance or Tbarelqrq .* each map
Iwo I lot -tv"iUon pof eaQU resgurce element

t"I4Wt*U*n* iMposed by the absence of quantitative
of Map *Verlayt "ployed allows the comparison ttiO# pesoorvox axd vi*ually dof ines areas having
*UitAbilfty for growth. This WiMs to be nade on
laod uim projected f or the

N 44

The map's themselvals, utitizod only foit qo*etal
*at dAly because 0-f- thog MftiCt because do-tailed i"fmV*tI often not available at tho ttS vf mod0vt v3il survey for ,AUOW* sit* g4liOing, unta 0 t*"
OUt ftp, available for tho, sow4Wi momot tw Ulf0t"Ation for apeeif ic-oktow+# VO *00
the WoMation cdhtaismd bereta anil -A gui& for obtal)4ing mom specify io, I 1 1-6 1-1 x 10, s, t 1, m 01 ACOW*tely ascertalft, any, lixtuttovw* W7

VhiA study represents ii Cohttal Florida gegim-al PlaraK44 MA&WWlliw 1 04416
of COOMM1, ty bevolopmelit -of tbo City Oj ,Vwd*OO*UAOA
Of concentration ar4 44hCAVA AWNAAW
is refirr" to" that, mtOdY Ift ite I.; No too
C000AX6ity 1XV01VPMlit eftIt, led, Iftwil Ak q.i p in %Gre#V*taiI* Virommat am natural Pao
Caineaville urban AZOA0,

+ 1# "1 #W %AP'T

4 qr raw


Map No. 1

5 her 9|

I, f


R A #--#



Beftoath that relatively thin the earth"S
8, 000 Xiles of rock S tliaio JI
thog;e fi6O rock fOr,%at-*ft*A,,,, for many i"rttnt and d#% elopment-. Therip arl Mby fOO*kVkA in a, of tbose rosouroes
fiormgwtious provi4e tl)e ffouxOation uPM wWAW-01111 A" be At but 'they aften,,cmt&An, ot -are r ala ulixch niAyr bo useful for, cre4t nq a wi4o VUi*ty 4; duct-A

T strwtural ohar4oteristic Qf wwd6xIy#w,; it, ce-qrqwtb a4d 4 ovejopftent by pr4%Vi4*;_ A !*;W wfxioh f4wIlitteaf may be, constructed.
ItIbn 4W, P# tsicaa charactmrtstia# 4*qw
to ofth* *;*4, ts
.# septic tank drain PI
4to terto of chemical const W #
yield 40*ful -aineral products such 4OW j lw
rook j,:e*4ucis include phospba
SUC4 geological products ore. tound in AU MOf wbigh,)have, been ained in t4e past and othww
#1 1 14
cially valuable in tbo fxkn
This section contains A AM; M -,I dd
AloahuaCouatrr its rock formation arA Also includedare the wre''
depo*A*,- with an evaluation of#

A uL


on the characte of rock formations is summa*j*Wft of other publications which are. noted in
thlo %IA!P*AAVhY. The reader is referred to those. documents

wit 0 :5 4 k
j Vwl;oVoc* forzations lying WXthin several hundred
Ia260 "'W'* Surfaee, May -be described collectively as
IVWW'r'- 4vftw 4
abd "W -cxmsolidated marine and non-marine deaarl,, limestone and, dolomite (a The individual rck*,forroationis diz.-...
*Uft**d&hq paragraphs Vill further describe these deptwit* in the arftr of bottom tO::tapr:.. 440Wj *jdkwt to youngeut. Rowever it should be
***"tio" ftearibed 41WO X*Ot X=tinUOUS in the.
.the Caftt 'IM are&I fttentof those ft 1,061 *t* the Owrth** Ourftce is depicte4. on Map #2.

I-Wobnow is the dIftst, formation from which I Mil 'A" ObtAll Thits -L tioft is Ais many beds of
OINW, A-oft *W ,*eaaw -ofpeat or lignite.
oear*at _*-'he eur face in lying apit$$ n in
** XtWNX W 14"d.o- 7* U ovorlai Ofta Park Xtoostow, a dense to porous V#4W*%V4WW**VWW avA-io near*'A the surface
Opt*44W 40AJ'Wjt:OMWr, I t I ft-IF-0 dW421 44,
14" 11 'jik_ '6a "99"k-I&W ow-tha -Qcala Group 10 "milt, 4iftilarity

no ilk


nn4'*-AnAa4o 44$ 4and',are dosceibod as such, 4w,
1 i eo OV#X t h e Avon kark ILIsm"WAw* VOW40 A poz,04 at the surface' within t)j# couft pe.2-? Ocala Group is describes a soft oo loWer portions consisting pf bard 'and The lirmstolies of th6 Ocala, O ,Oujolb of *y6aks'in the soutlhem* amd n
whoto thdy are 63;pose4 *t, County a limtotone rlwno has 'oen
by solution f4i atuti!m tvpj" J, 'b* -Xa*rs CaV6Msr! Prair ",, etc, f, r 40e U;,*, 0 no The GroUp Avon Pttk.
ti"s the overlying beft, of the JAN -a
tolothor as 'the rlorli4ao laqUifet bWavAo 044AW trl cellerit porosity, and paxvwability. -Tha imlawAz f6,r fresh water storaq* to desOr4W io tb* I' Resources"

The Su~t*e lizesto"" has been lound ,ta-OTO Group, iz the northwa*tAW*,:p*rti**,.*f 'th*40WOir ekmil*rity', it is oft,", Sovanr*e *,and Ocala Tho ftoa=ee reaches a *M
%n%Y 1romgai zed at tb*," 4=044W

Ifit 904thome, formations, ovel "&"AWV0*)
Sawavame limestone and northern and eastern Alachua


onion, oon

Aatio 0, tkWmess of 200 feet in the county and..-because
ttbbO UMMIly IOMS a gentle rolling gurface.

4*i 106MOI i 0109 ftragtion lies beneath the surface: in.
Alacbua County and is exposed only $A a AWV*4iti0* or I*W areas where overlying sediments have
IP-IWW-WF-WW__I_* IPOW14 ia thickAesses of from 10 to 30 feet, the of a fossiliferous clay and marl with W* OMM Th"Pha, e pebbles.

ei-ItotmotiQft f0me 100-roluivy hillsover the 0cala
f4diat2oftStern oorner of the County. This ibrzation
"A t6r*09,trial *and deposit which is often found
p4bbI*s and "ndy clayS. Thicknesses
*tM 25 to 35 feet, The phosphate occurrences in this
AStV"fUWat wWvill be further discussed in this

Modoodsod -in Aleahma, Ccnmty, not in
*'AM sails which.blanket the
*U* P"istocabo *and deposits. several wave formed
of oarine sediment4ti, which were deposited bpi a VIMn, Matt-of Florida was under L6 I
7- ouft, 1%*Iatecono deposits. Consisting S*Pd-vitIuIe**er amounts of
much of the
,**VbtCftIK of the V P"ty.

is *WNW, Y,
by,,, Xap #2-reprosents
a Avokofetwotion that


would be exposed ct 'the, aa9OWLS*rA
4 -T" "W!" Aunt Woot of $oil deposits wero reMye4 t it is noftastary to "siJ 4hawah
j* VOfttjvt v*jv
baoe4l", "th ellem9ut's s 4tgb LUt*VX bitOR
iztwmiti I*f land US*, TbeiX*Uz nikturv *ad is based upon a liattOkiOU *r Sensitivity of
1.3 t
its va;qe as a natural

#and;Aa&zits because* of their qemmlly qcod and e*001lent drainaqe 4*
or r1eO+rizt1O*s,_.tq i4tomim" I

I 44chua formtions aitboglt priparilx
is often intazboa4od with 4and 4 qXayA, W -*#-0 Beoauxe of the clays whjoh I 'gjXt m hinder d*v#, ,qpmMt,,*.4k 0
of the P*sgibillty ec(mvOft. -valuoof Vbmpb* t*, a" was 014tstif ied as having relatively..sligftt4j*i*#&

d 4 _Acl
I "rig
Ths,, fo
a A
er limited 4istr b ,-in thW SUALOY Prairie atmm,;ofAWLiftmft
its repovt* W" Do'

ThS Apft#QrM JCQX$WtiQP WAS pUojmd b0c*x4t40 vf Its wi,4o are*1 0.400 water 40KO and Cum, na


4L Mj

OglkgL. aully + .to ifteMap No. 2


4,, MAP



Lit,-1 Pleistocene
,'k Sands

S.Mle F,
ilk. Alechua

INC Chootewhatchie

: Formation


I 0 1 2 3 4 5 6

I , aScale in miles
PLO C7il Y 11:11 Ilin mach l


1,004tana, fol-wations of the Ocala Group were assigned the
eb4*wt 0001VO of soma tivity of the ive formations represented
Thi4 ovalvatiou is based on the degree to which ."U*A0t0A*-At the SurfaOa may restrict construction, particularly
__A IN 0 _M "'WIMLI-ities o on the, value of the limestone as.: a natUral Importantly on the potential af forded for 44611000W dfAtbe subaurfaee Floridan aquifer through this

d4mf4j4,WuIVkon does_.aot xWly that areas with rela-. Jimitations _shoulkbe barred to all construction
b"UtMk#wt. xather that in many cases a greater
*00 and'possibly extensive invest 6" tx ment in
AAMOM "Uld n*ed to J e expende4 to preclude Vftbaama *P4, hakiar4 to,. qr,, afforded by,, natural
AIN -Vftblem "used by these systems. Depth of soil
.4*v* *,SA* f&r*^tL4o* sa4 soil characteristics are only
**Or*, otbor emteamting Wlogical f actors can

4#V**4#0-q Itroo.K a conservation Fioubp Je
srooovwJ40 resource, s, i.e., require inoktain, or refine new
of the tr*,murges by our induswo r C4n .14Mt DO
ate rvsprves, of
MOOPAPA7aM Urw*te limIts within


a M


*f*d% 'Al 1 resOurce S it f a 1 00*rgft 19 i V 4rs*d by, deterioratilog 1 ronovi&I>I-o,'ze sources the future. Therefore,
in m4ttaining out V4y, Of &**W planning activities,;

Cett4in rock and miner4l deposits worthy and sig-nifi&,ifit tbi's,560iion is tio econcoil utiiizatioft -iiAd 4t6d, k*d The d6oftits to be 13MM
grand,, 'oil,, ind nAtU*WqA$;. *111, 51 + 14PN4

The St:a te of F16ridahas beeh aji years. tIntil 1923, Florida prodbc clay t4t any other state'.

By 10 as many, as 2 3 dif f *x*At iawlf l A PIarids.' Slincewthat timi#roth*-,*W"r
hU decreWsed and io' il'
tions Wo SSIth***
pitnto'bperating in rlorida*

tt* ik jdfAg- Inftstrok, i tr
41t Oilix mkt**iik IL tym
pant**, lh -Iploridd loft**


II T4 fcaywihaei~rth nFoia
r" ki i' Y*o lyIihltl lsiiy t
it |4M:a~ bechn gn eeuiie
*0t Iis'~ ~~ig'ges n a tmvoe
U4 din ef fingof intrl ad vgetale ils
itisuidt d-ikneiritan a n ditv
and tmocicids, cssetcs, dhesvescerin
44t ioe rdct' Xai i nohrclyprdc
t i, a II

to oroi' s hjth rae l~ ote' ale
A~ a~myuesi ddto t h mnfctrn

#p~ttry.Its argst u* isas filer pper
-*'oterberidsr n n h auatr


He reports these to be abur-4ant i1ft 't140
-Coi=t.y a -a number cAg,,d" for -the manufacture of oov" timo 9$ 4wvitjAg
brick m4nuflgq V ,
f9m"iky locwted 1/2 A4U "t"ttql
*1 ;- operat-ions Wert %I
C"x. That author 44so aitod bi tt Almilar deposits of ayo
of the Alachua for
dePoti =AtioA
6ta I -_ t w .4 ,
County t
L 4L,. L
8 ay a n;,I Mayan (193.5) dotoot ibe r Pf rullers I earth type clay in sev,4ri4 I I These ateas InclWe one'Oout one *fte nb6rti i U S. 41,,r as wo,11 as ii! No evidencee has boon f"nd *tk Fullerel earth deposits 44"IWJ *" 4,I4WR+.JI4 t4laC

Apparently the quality and quantity of cl,*y 4eppol county "W =t suf at the W0444t time no crowoerq

ports dealixkg tli it f togn if" compiled for _L t
whm."the Florida Geologi04clay inv*Otigation for Al"huat U
this t-pr wwqrk t"

of 00*44 9W


#r ttta

iittxPi'Or at ion was confined to tb I ht-of -way,
w6st of Gainesville. These examinations
PrAlmaitti-ly f-bur an(! one-half miles west of 1-,750
a, clay thicknesses varied frarrt two to
are I twenty
x-44 rWiAefi 1'7anging from zero totwenty feet::th'ick:.
ft 'i n6'hole displayed commercial potential
$4 ,iei cotitaited an excessive arp-ount of quartz

i1though Florida a Pullers' earth production
md'tiqhest in the nation in 1972, none of thib material
in Alachua County. However, because of the ex
t 4ail, Ut clAy depotits ih t e County there may:be
i&116i'clay pro'duction-&Ont'ingent upon :gurthdr of methoft' to Wish impurities from

ifidif -to mining because Ze4r ih & lamd'surface in western Alachua
'faiii4itf6t, Of, fhat' group h6s been diffo rcah generally be
chalky, coquina
fitio,'flift-e-triating layers of limes tonol%

400po,41t-ioft, thirg;INe ton6 is not suit4"1 f r*tse 'n construction
4,dr *to limestone mining iie*pend ve transportation.



Thaxoppe, the pro4uvt UA"111

,in t#p weste,
part of th near transportatiOn Mutes

tq the Bureau, or
Alaq,hua County ha f Our quAt'O"4
_,4plomite. Prodwt1JO# in 7'
............. .........
7 . . .
too$ for a value of $1,59600 a #
2,1,q6,OOO short tons for 4 valut Of I # ja- I
1,6 ii f A wo ly about 4.3t of tho P"to"O tO -1
yolumo, in 1972.


BeCAU00 Of the 11arge vollute of nw, XwAily Alach
'4 Coun Y will probably cQAt' ston4i #pd. dolomite for so yo#
;S., 4 mineSj ljxeztonequar#*,z,,Aro not oesil
both a nuisance and liability to owne rir po;Osible to -ek limited extent by zu-ah B*ASUVW4W4 it& ncm-putrescible waste, such as
ion, OC 0",
'itas into Man4jrod x6a

Bapauq* 4of, t4e nature and vZolifer" Apa.
ve IOXO no simple remodi,41 ewq 104 1* redw4kthoIr detrimental a4v*4ts'., an4 pp4joat-ton tb;ough i#*
surf" 04149'41 4 Z'OrAI an4 naKm#*#ry for maintaining the 4mvi such A.
in, 1;hj' ; pty

I #

by the preceding section on geolocjy,,. sand isone.
ot 006-is4st Abundant surfAce materials in the Ccunty. Although
S have b"n mined in the past and new sites are utilized
renuires, this sand remaina a common variety, useful as
*Aikiglor to suit other general requirements. No specialty
is those having cQnsistent color, composition or
*ti6o vsod for glaso manufacture and similar products re-',,J,-h gh'-qr4de material, have been found within the Colfttcy.
A *chua County are therefoxe useful for general
but apotently not significant in ter= of economic

ind 4a* ftsources

.%At there has almst always been an interest in
ot pXodueing oil and gas isFlorida. Since 4the Floxida C4*I*giqaI Survey in 1907,
-4o4 -,*sKU tacveoord dtttalls of all exploratory hj*toriA *I, data *a previous explora41n-june' 194S, the Florida Legislalatin# thw ftitling of oil and gas.
-k*hat itfosmt-ion-collected be kept on file
(4O10)1*#*#a'*'$w"*'y'W- 4ftis Vrv=tod more actbo -vxootion vf a filing
-'V*f*4*hcoAnd:utilizat:Lon in

I*Ah&V*4A?*5*d 13kamqoly on general
4a topo
I'rrl graphic and physio
lacat4od in other areas.

7M W
W, L-4? k

4W or

From 1940 to the preseh-t th.0 been rath tensively 6ondi4q e
or ex no,
Althoulh wells have been 4XI"1104 &j
nufter in Alachu4, Comn Ojz ever found in thiscouatyi.

Duritq 1972t nine oil- fjel 4s ,vw -ok of f4bese "are looatod, Ln t-b ftn4ry and Lee Counti,". -The-, 40*r Sonta ftsa Cx>unty. ht hw M,
Art Oontinually beinj
to bt little evidence to &uqqeOt that oil be found beneath Alachua County.
n P,
Phosphate Resources ;PAYo ,,Umn n

Phosphate deposits of mertl*z n marind phosphatic aed.immtwT rockg-imadw,,doj te an&-a variety of, -,at1tv:Mti***, of by VeathdWing processes,. Tbe pj oqphate n no minevX14 of Florida 1jakve boon c1a,*aiOj Ad,.40t*jptq*9 categories: land pebbl#, rivervabbliet-4 A)'
rock Of these. only tho-UrA noObIo* 'AM is beiog vined in Flort
I or

nno 20no



4fo 6paOD1PSt
%" W iie W sap r nlyf rti etfem l rd
.4I ji o. n.1o.A!s~ei at6

rne i 3,83 fer i
tha nPtn en ~aridlclycnant
un fpopat n18,popaewsds
"IVAt1snwpr ftehadrc hsht: iarc
Il ntxoCut.FIlwn~h'ds eyo

*"*A$ iv r-rc hspaedpstinMaitCuto

llmznn evlpOrpdl ni 97 hntepo

OtI fv* c hsht nrot dta lrd ec ': kitiitfe ht ee45cmaispouighr
Ai1***tr1ah nrt enra roi., 10

tin I


The dePosits are highly irtre
from several feet t ovor 106 L
4 4
Nowbe-Xry Are* of WaSt6rul Allal* A ti V li,
is 00out 50 feet and reported that gray,, p4asphatio, feet.thickx cOvers M04t # rd r94 Op
', f, ol
rwtidvobly absent in soft
and High Springs wbere -a of thit eroded #Way.

The geojeq of the hard rock deposits 1i Inn'
deposits have been described as irregular npi#14 sand# Oberti, clay mineral, and carkgmate If "'PurWMN Pally in the form of colloph4two (Ca 5 7 (?04 3- a;,' # "' W41*0 ,$ost, investi4ato; %F Phosphate-ozich mineral.. s
general, hard rock Vhosphatedepqs#s cor asp
forgation described Of thi,
for*,,, hard rock deposit-g -4s t ,n4icated in as confoxiaiyig to the areal eXteUt t southwestern Alachui Co=ty nk
-.X # k7.
In tho 1990's and early 1,900's, UrdI flouxishpd because, with n#tVrOt11Y" Percentaiest it wits idealfor export a-, 1-14
rook An benef ication laxoe* 4oposits of lan4 Popble, tho
nn r I *A, 1 4Ai.
Renowed "iivity, U-bard tock
*0voral, faOtors which LA0140;


preq % BPI;
ent premium grades (74 and
*,bove), and quantities of land pebbld"deposits.
.2) a -qi:;ed transportation costs.
Ki from other sources of phosphates.

X4, rea between Newberry.and High Springs is con
# excellent prospecting potential. Should such
#ut ined above become satisfied, prospecting will
WJ olume
lasa y to accurately assess the distribution, v
t* j qf,,b#rd rock deposits before their ecohomic potenappreciated. However, such potential is

Pebble Phosphate Deposits

,,WP4 p"te pr6duced in Florida comes from the Bone
.f.j* f.,Ja Polk and Hillsborough Counties. These rich
(Phoahatic, clayey sand) beds of south Florid& pat blon phosphate deposits. This term has: 'a bA 6 tO he rich phos'phate beds of the Hawthorne

WN4rAi J#*-' #W #1
Pebblaz and gra4nis of phosphate minerals; #F I n #
izmts o f t e sawthorne formation and rations in l6nsek or other i'rr6gular on Uvoietant occurrences of 40"Or part
io tbo th $rAwthorne f ormat ion
J #
I This X*TW o f k-A, tic materials varies
4:?O A : howpha
f4o feet to *or 'fi 4i attd consists o f 066A*atia oinb6ddiad with Ohiiv as%& ca'rbohAtd twater ia 1 s

*6***t*A6S Vzoe



These Sed40ent$ are tover*4 )6t feet thiax.

Two axeas of heavy conctntz atfeftjA i '11
Icle, (1,957). Tht f "rot it *-ih "air" 4, # XIIII
50 aqu4re, -miles in the plateok rei At of Qaine;wU Ie and t $ ;ec 18 t
$f 4:
the towns of Grove, Park atod RA-wthoig* ,Aftr
investiat,03 report; thgtt pibb Ij e ts areas of the County. This tei is to 84ppor wyilai 41411. ,
outline-of a more extensive distribm on 4 in eastern Alachua county as shbwn 6,n Ai ;rI 411144011 1, 41!
need fox more extetstve eXploratton to 'tore"' L -Alt *AAW
the artal extent of the lithd peblAe & 44

The grade of Phosphate 1 ed by in"4 "lic
igo r es from 62. r
4A BPt
th* phosphate reserves iiI, I
*Ukchui *bou -i 0%,Cowazi of 3, Q to 50'Millioa ton's of recov r4* ler ib"
# 2- W,4bk
will exceed 501* BPL,. At the t i" 0k; et'#'w r that the land pebble phosphate deposits
of auff,$ciently high grade to, be nkined, a0wo, I ix av"PLAbla indicating,, that mine 6.*Milow pebble p", OMte a,
Aradfard Co=ty suggesting that tl4ii for Aut,4,re *ining in Alacbma, untjr#

In 4AYiev#AItr Phq#,ph&tA pFoduco grade A0Prial because it is A no, although tbwo io, a, Iro4t qw the Bono Volley District there is 4, for the developowmt of *4ditj*mj 4boavau of north antral VI*rIA&,* Hamilton, Brid&kd' clay *h4,o8)w


lo SOM~y, ebbl Oophaes a th to of he awtorn
ftrA't'J~o t te pat'eu aea o Alchu Couttydo ad sgni
t t te lw rad poshat rseresof loid
fta t b mrloke. herfoe,,the"ptenialIo ecno -m ft| O~to hsht eere nteftrpriual Of rsn ouainadice.e eadfrfo
90P I !eiiyWic utb oside ylcl

Aspopaei bandbysrpmnn ehius
Ur mIMinadmngmn ehiuswl lya n
4w*4qyipritpr nte niomna ot
rouiin-Teefrlclgvrnet n ln
-LAA 0 to ilb aldont sestecmaiiiyo
%iigwt rwhadladdvlpeti ot

Otttipcscue y itpopaemnsi


RO JAO MI-P-a Qat, t
M --, -" ,J 'Pitt
tv lik I
The resources map noted a
in the- t*** ii ;U 14" illustrate the general of topk OL-144
,, F t -,
sourr,%*4n the county. However, b 4Aust 6f, and tbq a4ifficulty jAvoj ro4 j;% ta:kin; 'Val 'V necAessaty to justify relative vaiuiwa b Vpon Ooolmm, v I
tentiAl this map is ndt uv4d a$ 'an ovorUy in 404*10pirw the
-=Wsite map of naturAl resgome$1.

7* vq#ft w1k, i#
4q ;AP -P I ks w no

44 1
# #




+ + ........Pebble
+ ~v; District


Alhuhtebscaon o ae nrob*r*1
uncaned ppuatongrwt ao uba a,4iv~w is,
de"dpen cntnue t pt nceain
suply Sriuswaershrtge i tt~ *~oeim |
Aper nikl, oeer t scoti tk i -4ti l'',"
waerwllnt eaviabeinsufcin qitils O
bai rhyrlgc rat flyxmtteptJt1,, th t wl b l cd onti esu c T erf r a

.. .. .. ..... ......
River forms the entire northern boundary.-of O Unty and drains an area extending three to fifteen
sRqk, A# 1 _,xiver, The Santa Fe River Basin, which..
MIN square miles has its headvaters in Santa
44 rm4 ,tjleaxtern Alachua County. Twenty-two pe.rceAt
of thts, baoin, or Omt, 300 square zftileA,, is in Alachua
COW1470 The hydrology of this basin is very complex. The
of t4e, river b#,ve flow _ch&rarterIstics showing a ndaknooe .,Pn surf ace waters. Humver,, downstream
to Paxk numerous, springs f eed the rivez Erom oqr ra"z the surface indicat#g a close betweez 9rdund andsurface water sources.


# 4
'treek drainage basin is only a =all part of the
_veXftsjz. Xt dr#inL* rough the tw 64! Johpsl R# r then to #the Atlantic tw-t-hizOls, (4 the Pronge Creek Basin, ig, c"ted within Alachua a",,4ttle Hatqhet Creeks
4 of
tMM9 9':,t 60-1 IM '-**i
J&"' I ;

The 44
sorow 4* 45,711 acres, and the otaj 1q:Ke

the Q ..... ty



tabulation of the names. and lodation-M found in the Water and SMME RgnkM!!9at- "Pill" t I& PIUM a d - - $ I
,14 ip Aovoj6 baii VIMV44 O Ak
It is app arent from ftp # 4 1*ki tb* are not utifbTx ly'4i*t*1b situot6o :'M the major J'Aes !Qcated'in twjw V;

!*M nUmb*er and diVortity of w- ifil JkxAh" MOW ib x'dant Opportunities water cofitaot tporis to visitors throughout the ya4t; thitOf6xipp of this' fresb water regburat -is 'wPb*iik4 IL
as well as to the quality of life in the County.

Surface Water Quality
All watorg in Alachua Comty'bavO 11 *i"Wilkto& Ill Recreation aviation AZA
Wildlife by the Floi Ua tion. 'Ai 'Indicated, 74
i.6g any 'Ibf the sur:fac*""watir'bddi*-i 'iii'AI not iuq r the functions of tbo tiv required' for that classic icatiou, The requirsmw0t# for,' Cl"s Ill waters are repX*44ced 1,14M 1---- 44 1 Rulos of the Department of 4*1, AMqOUt1*1t A*
dix 11
r 4 i;YA4; -lip
fteause of their expoAsri *to nat=xi systems, 8=000 q"1itx Mve than giPUr4 tend to be sPft*rv L*. 0, IM4

to mde* z diinohr!~l eesvr
-a hAtmcrtr hihvrp ihsain
;:A!*p64o hrce sis ftewtrbd.Vp hch

!i ye ,i f,:n
i$*Vt olbcc-net igle



69G o 6
.2 oJ. o/
1. o M/
.. ... ....

1.l 10 t!. i

tt 4, "',


it; jPTF1 x
7 D
4*4 i*
objAwt Oblo oharavt Hilh color is a4so vemoot MaterW,
t* OW "tslrbody. TZVP C? ;ktA% 4 ba-.# chara4l"41,stic 'bec-MAX" COlor of- surface waterx. Other considerably and depend upon a v" Oty Of In sus"ry, however, with thd 46 W Ption of itia tion Ift Strikaz turf $44, generally good. # 4 ak 41

Althouqb,-vatar quality in lakex of AladhvkiICJ '
,erally Ull within the chataical parameter$ 0 because 9f their limited circulation, depi and ,attributoa, the. lakes are more susceptible to at4 esses whAch mikka them more Vulnerable to 4ater slower to recovor than flowtogtvAter bqdi s. The
iM9 dis9ko*iOn PUMArizef ame qf the More
of lake watikr quality.

Over the couriso of many years, it bacme gradually enricbed with 'nutiJ4 atsi SMO"soas then, subsequently quality- gradually to
dry I and. in re;wnt, yoex* ibi M -dw- W, 110004
t*z*e agriculture I" # A"1
nutrient loads to lake,*, T40 Orm tho *o9iPq* of surfaoe w*ter lives of Uken and general
to the mild climate in F1

I Wte)S*rs'prtienlarly Ssceptible to the effects of a
Wh 'iaeasveuse of the land and accelerated aging processes.

tf$pt@@tt of natural deterioration or aging of lakes is $d 44A*64%ttophdati'on and generally involves the response i ake to neerient enrichment. This response is reflected a Idhke's trophic state (eutrophic condition) which is de-4OVeriety of physical, chemical and biological

9$pioa by which a lake becomes enriched in nutrients and a A ogutlypasases through stages of deteriora-tingwtr ult
is obo'1 i ge 1 where ttophic states are indicated as a Ah thho t~Ae "a# veetative, product ion.




There are several terms whiob 44f it%* tir404

I Oligptrophic; The yQuagost.,"r
lit, *of a laks
q"Jityo good dl'ar#y '4 "'twoAn*Ikk
41A OL small but
11" h6k WA
2) MOxOtrophic: An iAiorgwdiA
Pligotrophic and eutropbic aM, dofiv*4, bys.
nutrient levels a,,nd' biol

## A
3) Eutrophic The third ata",
Oter mesottophio, typOUA-11by
nutrients'r larq6-quauti' a, 00A.species, low watvr tramspareacy *A4

4) Hyp*reutrophicz A lake'-00nditi0*1* jWjAUOq MW
1 ## I 11 #' tiv -ty is at its highest level!g,' Containa0w )"boot ar;P t MOM
nutrient leveljopf aAd iacr_" tg

5) &miescent: Refers to the last ittagev.4.
its total loss of identity aoAt wat4W boft*
tiounearly complete, 4 gen Ily 4th a "OW4
and weed chokz4.

-2 A*.
6) Dystrophic: A lj c* exh ibl
color with much dIx*oIv*4t4;,
to trophic stats L

ductivIty and the relative during the initial lift u

and mesotrophic stages) there is only a gradual increase in productivity. As the lake'enters the e6utrophxc stage the rate 'of biological productivity increases tremendously in a short period of time. Of special concern -is the lake's relatively rapid change toward senescence and eventual extinction 4pon the addition of artificial nutrients as illustrated in Figure 2. this then is the essence of the problem associated vtth *Cultural' pollutants. And because fresh water is Vital to the total environment as well as to the-provision of recreat-ion lal and mothetic benefitsr,lake trophic status is significast to the total quality of life.


Efect of Fertilizers.
tificial1 or Domesti


*%-Natural Eutrophication

Table 2 summarizes the locatioph atibas4Ehat e 33 of the larger lakes -in AIAchua"Count .Lakei r9od at* numbered on Map #4.

As evident from Table .2, Santa Pe LakO, Little S&a o uk and Lake Altho represent the few oligotroggIc lakes it l chua County. Of particular concern are those lakes classced as either eutrophic or senescent. Newnahs# Orange 4hd 26loosa Lakes, all in teOrange Crtek Draibage'Bas'in'k gdv considerable evidence of chtroph cation And are signifJicahit in that they represent not only the largest lakes in Alacha County but also those which have some of the greatest rOcreational and wildlife values. 'Because of the importance of Il
these lakes to the overall quality 6f life in Aiaehua County, including not only their economici ,and recreation 'pot Etiql but also their Value as wildlife habitats and esthetic open
spaces, :all perforM an important -function, to those living( aj visiting Alachua.'County. Therefore, conservation of thesia water re"odrces is essential if they are to remain in a at c6ndit ion. J

it has been shown that in many cases the pro<;ess of 'tr cation may be reduced, arrested and phasibly even rever, with adequate management techniques.- In instances where; deterioration of a lake is considered to be s ignificanm loss, a number of state and local agenche ga be k direct 0
to devise# through cooperative planning,. a pkogram-to fu assess the quality and character of the wati*) 1a F. mendations could then be made to dea1 ppeqiftal tA actions to retard lake deteripration,%-An ongoing program for collecting data on the trophic afa te 6f fakes in )Wat*' County, such as that of theASba.epy i CM
Board, should be encouraged. SUdh inform oni EU fM



Go 4" (4 o m V 00 40 M V W CC 0 CK) -tr W C4 r- OD iLn m
co rq d% tn C14 r-I ON N N m 0 9(X q-4 fn
C). C-i 0

ul Ln 4n &n tn Ln
0 a lp e
.0 C4 C-c" H

4) 4)
14 0 m-4 a)
4P 00 A H rq r.-I
34 14 go >00% 9-4. 4) 0 4) -A 4) Y-4
V-1 c-4 000 6 -4 v-4 v-4 r-I > -H
0 P-4 >
-H -ri 0 -r4 :3 4) M 0 01 4) > > C > Od r-I 4)
'44 44 4 tj r) goo -ri 0 6: r-4 a
'D 0 fo U 1-14 0 9) (1) -ri -ri
Mol, Od 4 4J VA 0 44 44 Z r q sz 0 a lu P.
4*4 :A4 41 41 4) a; oo C-2 -H -H -H -.4 in
4444 2 AJ 04 9 d%4 444 44 90 tO 844 10 0
0 44 4W 0 r. 00 14 = 0 -4 0 44 V 4J 0 44 0 0 rm 944
00 a 0 1 0 14 $4 0 0
.4 8 4 %W
4) ojjW4 440 4114,44
0 41 0 4) -0 04 M 000 ov oov
M 4po 14
z0 0 0
h 04 40 w oj ca 0 w va Z w En M to 2c

441 '0
o r'a
ck 0 4.0 0 14
A4 -rf 0 4.1 0 go
0 -f-I rg (D
4-) Id J4, 9 k J 4I 4-4 1 "1 2 0 k tv to w L) fu 0
A4 "4 40 "4 004.1 g > -H 4) 9
"14 '04 r4 404 tio -V4
$4 H r-4'g
ft to E-44)


V4, 0* fn OD 01 0 r-4 N M MV,-An
'40 kQ r
04 VO V4 r14 "4, r-I W-4 N Cq r4a C4 44 fq



%0 ch C4 %0 4) 4 rwitn N

Q4 Ln tn
in H c,4 H Ln c4


OR r.4

.0 >1 0 4 U 0: _Fq
P4 id 13 -4 0
0 0 0 4
> > Q) u 0 0
9) 0 0 0 id
0) 4J
_4 r: 44 r4 Cd to W 0
_rj 0 2: 4 0
44 fd 10 -04 0 0) 4 in To 4
0 0 0 4w 0 11 11 N V H 11 11
4.) tW 44 Id 44
(a 4j 0 0 04 44 0 o :2: Ta cl t)
0 0


td :3
0 TO f 4
(a r4 r4 0' O-L
$0 44 tm4l 44
41 0
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0 ;A 3r 4k

C4 A 04 m m M"

R 18E RI I R29 E + +Map No.4
COUNY 4-C'M~h I. + .t~h iI, 4
MItai -4"-" FLORIDA


reports prepared by other agencies could be Incorporated into general planningatvie providing for the overall development and-conservation of the County's surface water resources.

Groundwater is probably the single most important natural resource available to the citizens of Alachua County. Altbough its highest: function is as a source of potable water, it also serves to maintain water levels in lakes and streams. Where groundwater-discharges at ground surface through springs, T.e0reiational sites also become possible.

.Votable water supplies Come fromtwo major sources: the. Floridan-aquifer and what may be termed the upper or seconAbuqr aquifers. The-upper ,aquifers are..those water containing rock ex..sand formations lying physically above the limestones of the Floridan aquifer. These aquifers usually consist of a watax table aquifer found close to land surface in sur4h $-and or soil-deposits and other secondary aquifers. ag~fgbM;foun4d in thin layers of limestone or other porous aterief lying between the water table aquifer and the FloriAM tosauiex belaw.

T*@) Star table equifer is usually comprised of sands of the
48 099R teracedepo~tsand thp sand and limestone layers
at )ag)# to awtherne formation. The water table aquifer WA hapg $@4.4 -P a p10 guar* mile area in Southwestern Alachua 44ag uptha liPpstenes of aquifer are very
mm-iosaeote rein ~.,tewtrwti

mmU" rsuo W rmtvt ~wthog el tln


surf ace. They occur principally in the lUmstoa* walid
layers in the lower part of bt*'Rj4ihioraO
northeastern Alachua Couhti,, in
Prob4bly'mora wells in Alachua
artesian aquifer for potable water supplies than "y *,tbot
source. However, in most areas of Ali"""
the water table aquifer nor the secondary aquifer YLW14
sufficient water for large supplits.'

The Ocala Group of limestonee and postibly the
Of the Hawthorne formation Make up t he Plor'iftt -#4kV*VA*
throughout the region. it is one of the Mos t
and extensive groundwater bearing formation* in tho VAjt0A States and easily transmits and stores more waterthan any
Other aquifer in north central Florida. in thO vitatii*!666
Southwestern portions of Alachua County where th*rdjs4,#6,4
confining layer, the aquifer is under water tAbli dft41t*660o
In the rest -*f the County the Ploridan aquifer is uMoi 'Wlz
artesian conditions and will flow through a v*11 4i tbi
earth's*surface if the artesian or
level exceeds the ground surfaCt euvation. fte ribiusAl aquif er is recharged by vaters sloWly f lowinq, 6601 010*0overlying and confining beds of the ftawthotne-ftftitiW #
by percolating directly into the aquifer Aart
4 #
beds are present such as in southwesteft AlachUft Co"ty* t
Although the entire County is consid6redto bo 4aliki** Ott I 1V
ge, of special interest axe areas
rechar W"PVW-A 4,
111 41
in the County such as Haile Sink at tbe b,**e of '*O#t**'
and Alachua Sink in Paynes Ptairie. The'460
area in the southwestern portion of *the
wh*re the highest recharge occurs beca 20* 6f tAi1'#*b*44;,P
absence of significant overlying material.
n4 q.11


....... ......

Because of the importance of this resource the recharge capabilities of the County must belconsidered during the land use planning process to ensure the comnpatibility of future land uses with recharge potential. From Map #5 it may be observed that the highest recharge in .the County occurs in areas where the Ocala limestones are nearest the Surface and in sinkholes discharging directly into the Floridan aquifer. Areas with poorest recharge potential correspond to the areal extent of the Hawthorne formation which because of its clayey nature almost precludes the flow of water down to the aquifer. Intermediate recharge potenial is exhibited in those areas having only a thin layer of permeable overburden over the Ocala limestones Oudfv s that area covered by sands of the Alachua formation.

Water Budget

VOW v4y general water budget for Alachua County has been comptleA f rom data contained, in, the Report of Investigatigap #3,5 of the Florida Bureau of Geology and a summary of 4 4 alankations presented in Table 3. It is apparent that approximately 190 MGD (million gallons per day) of
MtW980ahdorlies and flows through Alachua County over and adh rt' ,Which is utilized through industry, agricultural
C0 co'sumption. These figures, however, are only
& tions de tote-limitations imposed by available
fta a are only intended to show the approximate magnitude
jkYw 71 resources in the t'ttkCmae ote2 G
ptl uedin the County, the remaining amount of water 6 Utilization ih terms of volume is appreciable.
Uct inoxhaustable, the general magnitude of water
)aoto offer fe* limitations except as might be
6 a kg@he wW~ysuch as phosphate mining. In



Water Gain

Rainfall, 2,395

subq4rf 9 Inflow 20

Surface or Stream Xnflow 0
2r41% MOD


Evapotranapir*tiqn. If843

Surface outflow

sAnta Fe Basin 281

Orange 'Croox sosin SW Area of County,

Total Water Gain TOOLI Water Loss TOTAL, WN

Lovs to fftnicipAl,, IndustxUl and
Agricultural Users

Not Gain WKIO


4 UAU +4

COUNY C'11 3- m~c Hi. +Map No. 5




.4~~~. .. .i ....... ..~ (gi

*4R$39~SM.S F,

+ ; N R T I C EN A IN OG D E I N A L N I N O N I L J l 7

as, the Euwannee River Water Management. District or
jahlls,,River water Management District, charged with
_=qmpti e water use within their respective
jur " would evaluate groundwater withdrawals.

S Sting hYftological systems indicate a gross water pro4 Wt' on of about 200 MGD. This number is only a roug Ap4pa)pnd vagy rise or fall depending upon the manage4
ApO Affects of recharge alterations or modifications
itifxoAce of large scale water.withdravals. should

V ;ilzg or oVier large scale consumptivt industry
4 bamod %Tc!% ep9inoerinti, 4ata,, the political forum.
tog I'd I Lve, to be- utilized to evaluate trade-of f s between
use of this resou=e with respect to any detrimental
"Mltx *xpectod from that consumption.

of water b"ath the County does..not neces
ivfay that all, that water is iwailable for use in the
_OJW also arise when the A*$F*V9* potential *;p',*V&1u4ted in terms of Florida of ot W areas of the state on
*qvifer, Tbase canxJ44prations are beyond the iA sumary, water supply
*Vp*" ttka be, am* problems of quality

UAW #04-ptWes, dissolved in
of similar
mzr- ,Fv 0 fcw the water
7W 7,* mrrwpw
%IIIJIF WWI from, tbo Nr,7-,T-5
ano low value$;

of turbidity and' color. co
with biaaibohateg and su. lp
two latter values can Vary ",AIIV
quality'vithiii the a x avro
factors with the concentration of dissalvvd 0ally indieasing progressiiVlely',1 6

The chemical quality of'thO Up i4 141
more variable with the Mbk
teristics being iront t alc nitrate in some localitits.
in the ixpper aquif ers, howtVir,
Flor idan aquif er in somi 4keas' 6,f hi t6uhtr"
I -It 2 P 0, Springs and around Paynes Prairie.
AID, M V;4**p

In'terms of water quality, groundwater is gooerally Oar"',
sidered to be excellent. ftlyln f iW"ItIAt
groundwater been f ound to he of"
of exdeaWive mineral dono'eiitratift
tamination Instaneez 'of
have beet, documented in past*
itv olviftg public water sup-pIi*ss74,fi*1 e bei&
However# in recent yeaks an intio"Ihq
supplies, have been fotiid "to 'be "b,&Otbrf4##t
the Alacbua County Health Department.

4 Oak;
Althougbadequately hAndled and provi4odl*6k U 4
provision for the proper m4na eswnnt of
wastwatior dischar-ges t-o Oou 1.4" AWW
future y4are not only thrtsi#b
county PiAlutibn Cojitkol'U4141"bit
reeponsike for in66ripoialt
pr*hensive planning V roeoisi,*,i

. .................... ... .... . .............. ..................

,,;qfteu ip past years, wetlands, in the form of swamps
4A4,4"gl, ,atl -marobes either of fresh or rial.t water,,: were
as worthless land suitable only for landfilling or Y,,,-cb*nn44ized and drajned, agricultural uses,. Ir
sthe natural values of these wetlands have beerx
UW** by a number of researchers and found to be, trejaeo*wsly iaportant to the maintenance of natural systems...

of th e 1972 Florida Wildlife Federation LegisUt4V*40aX*;rAmq* wa s a statw2ent recogni4ng the values
*oMtove of the state's wetlands. Wetlands were noted

,2*actioA qf xqqatically d"'adent vegetation and

"P"j? Ma! ian 9f food 4UP
t**JAt*ft*ftv* Of p"toativo barriers o9ainst floods,
md Q*Aer fqr the prevention of
Shor 01 Ineta
*6n-of SAItWatot4ttrusion inooastal areas;

V*IU* As surfave water storage and recharge areas.;

itad future citizens it clu4ing historic
w r
ka- OW-1 O's" yme
'tic eAjO 6 nt.

iid' th4t the protection #1td",Saty to inslite 4!04 ihs Ua 1-th, SAf ety vo 1 1, t 1'r
j# '7 -Ai-I

An earlier report by the North Central Florida JReq4*tAI,Planning Council staff entitled "Areat ,"-of Concern i Plarining District IiXft f*0 VII&-Aut of
one such wetland area, OUI-hto6t bok-'
der of 146wnan's Lake. This 4k*4 wa* i*4*014ied d* ioittUng great i4tural value as protection for root gws 6p, like many o"ir watlaxid# in'klachia ftflAty-din-ad the region, not only acts as a viluabl'e natural filttfl4y reftoVing dissolved nutrietts fr= surfac6 ruAorfj but may be significant as a groundwater recharge area, The swamp is alto used for habitats and/or spawning areas f6r-ft4h''
and wildlife. The value of sitch ar eas to WnimiZ6 thd shock or impact of cultUral inftOjn *s on surface'wttir bodies in Alachua County cannot be minimized.

Land use planning and subsequent development'sh ould oftsid w such concepts as wetland ecology and resources as a'viable
elemeAt in the planning prooess. Dovelopmtftt p3ecq dsgls f 4ii WatlarAd a: eas should h4vo tho Of
the rli6fida Game and rreshi a* Ottksh O*wis# *Oft a0,-V*II as other environment related age=i0l; U ord*r to piv ride lo"I qovernment with the ability*t,6 fully assoos eadh vttf*M
system with respect tQ its a*"ibRt" 414 IPP*rt*n;wA* vt*ow related watems,

Watland Systatm in Alach"
map #S. Informaticz contain4 o4 *#4 -mikV because of data lixitatioll$ V* b it I
the map was prepared. The bas# intoma" W&O Axw"'frM MO 014
7 1/2 topo ALAI
77.7 LA
of Aiaa4 & Cos4.pty, ta4a nAQ permanaotly Wet r'PP,"X41qt 00"$ 4.W according to that inftzmtim An AY
X t
1.14 'IM-1

4 A 19 E + Rift + F + f I f
ravilry + m3tcb lini Map No. 6



WA 00 ALAI H 441

F Predominately

Intermittently SENSITIVITY

Permanently Wet



Aw 7: to. A"NER 1911

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 coo":

Scale In miles
SAMOA Nlry q1th ling nulch I-/

state. Areas defined as intermittently Wtt-JncjkdO, sywwv lands, wet prairies and some lakes which because of weed choked appearance or available information, appeitr only to be intermittent water bodies.

Areas not indicated on'are assumed to be generA,11,y, dry land. Because of the naturo of eastern Alaphua Clounty, with its many small swamp areas scattered throughout the areaj, .it is not possible to indicate every small wetlatd area'; therefore, the map must be considered general in nature. In addition, because the aerial photograph utilized was tak"o during a "dry" season, some potentially wet areas are undoubt4 edly omitted or their areas minimized, thereforer the map Ilk as presented is also conservative.

Because wetlands are a valuable natural resource, they are indicated oft the map by darker patterns and, therefore, are considered to provide limitations to development in the fInal natural-resource analysis.

Flood Plains

Flood plains, although perhaps not easily identifiableas, natural resources, are an important, it not indivisible, part of our natural surface water systems. Theky, often aorrespond to a broad belt surrounding the existing stroaft channels or isolated depressions and are shaped in paxtby
topography, storm water volume, vegetation and othor fttwoj and manmade f orces .

Flood plains cc=only include* all tho so areas, iwlWi"
depressions, that are indunat*A follow4,nq a staris vho**, severity in often judged by th* water l*vOIA VUOh VOU$4


ed',faltowing a storm of a, certain stated rainf all
Tbey are usually def ined as that area which is
result of a rainfall whose magnitude, and
60cuts-on the average only oat -.e in each 100 yeakrs.
sueam channels are often defined by that
r4i t ijk is, iiiduiMtod by a storm which occurs on the averiliery ten year period.

i*16t, ovid* valuable services if ief t in a natural
"my aot only provide flood ways to remove storm..
Vhen not satisfying this prime function, they
Vrovid* useful open space areas near urban centers.
fir4d;refuqe im vegetation often
*car ve.11 watered areas, ground water
tocou* tbrmqhxq4Is *Ar* bigh water levels, and it AatUrally viable settings,

ilitf roquency, of Aajox storms and the beneAT'*'qikft'Y AlvPilq tOPQ'qx*PhY# development
lift Otte* -opp(mrs Ihighly f easibl, a
b"au, 404 Sconmia loas is usuolly #t
a z*timally Aqb flood, potential eanw&icht in effect, would 4''*)W Ups 1*4v bo absorb water and
Flood volume and
by j*V*I,,opP*nt within baxaxAx* The con'struc4L
MI Z Ia 1 Aft1 X pr-44b
lip #
-MMAMU ont 4ar4kinage
g" M
V Rol MW 0 fjoQd jag
th^, anowit; and,


Proper: *anaqA0Amt of tant
dam496 #d 10*0 of life.

regulatiatis liakitinq late City df Gairiesvilleto flo*4,
Alachua County Comission'o *ffor*w,,,, to woo0iWat for the County illustrate tho p4lic rogppitimw fAv" vr6bIfts and of the out'Alachug'Countv. 4, J k z # -e
It 44d L,4gjP" AW

]Detailed flood plAto "p,! bA**,, beeo prOVA*Ad, UrbWi Axoa through the Nat-or miA*jemwm gtvb! The N,
North C64tral Florida Rdqi6ftal -Ptanftloq t0uwkb*:by V aree I tne U t i I i nation 4 f 044, 14" OthW Itz cif i a general map of the flood p1a jns with: n;thiit, 4x "i' t* This map is presentod,;-ft the'$tv* Atftti004 1-1 1 i Mig "Wo Areaor 1374 e prepared by the Oraintivtllle 4)4% a unity Vevelopment. *OPOAAII
propaltedby the U.S. Geoloqkftl S6*v6j*,d% I&WX quadraA#10 %aps -for hlac'huzi C*U*ty.-. AM4ft**0I*f df the V 6 0 .16 maps *Ad tth* 40*" ft 10,11 be lost' h reductio0' tU6d--pla fti for lnalu5ion in thio-rof *;
omewbat 4ccounted fdr
-*hioh apVtQXimates plain At"s athiv mift nOW informatitft bdoo*Wl 4v**X0MWa, *M,%
f 1004 ipla in maps at A vft,14 *owtia Vjjjjft T-- 7, 'I j-
in Or4er t thoy my be natural systems .
# 'o I

~I tanIo an Res
! wspl ead n eesicesterueo
"rwl eoeamr trcieatraie
AIcu onyhs tth rsn ie bn
Aw '#**ftr'esuc ,toersucsaefnt.I
fuue eas ficesdgot n e
irttyVtrrcwtto ree es a
AI''fapatclrtp ta yohtclpolm
"14A f'Itwtrfrres sntanwcnet .A-A
of b';ml icuigteUitdSaepr
Wln7n arahv idtoal ipsdo reae 0, I
_*f vAt s nirigtonsppyfo riin vr e
4V4s. ~myCites n nrthcenralFloidacuren l
4 rW ~tqai~ x Vthd f ateatr f lun
!;,asi*Aat~aCut a lobe ato
I~lto foUfra ubro er na
Ureprcwae fte rud
Ifw4*8i A4idsxa cnupini

-04*!hW4AMtr f utsadsp
,lia"OiiU fA rsr) lv o xmlef



54 4491""A
instances can occur again if qrcundwwtoi sources are
4"h' 4
Although prograqq has been relAtivfj'v,' State, th'*;'S#*te' of Pal$Lfo. %Ja hato
Californi# 4
%,Water ResoUrCe
approvedvoclaimed water fora4 w#tar as fishing, boating, swimming and, water ii examplwo-it appears that tUS',fU".r*',q IL
is opt,*vigtjc; however,,there 0
and drawbacks of water reclamation,:whipb OppQUOAtA re

to wastewater reclam ion AA4,z
1 7
proble= encountered in Furape gf AerWb#o and II, wj ere outbreaks of d' from wazt wgatqx irrigation of f4:e ldq- Zfi ti re*oa Of
rcb bjs q shown that the infectious vir"eq ,Is extxemely low; OA916h vi': average r,,,*ty Wtor supply to pxo4uce Asl wxd non-cl4aical infeatiopo 4414,. 4aq;" has ravoa .W, *uqb tbUq# 4w the resistant,,bActex4At s,194 f, "4t primary purifying agent in water trl"tmeat.'
n"essary to allow waste water use for hi w" contact acti,44*s Thj
IT7- T7
their utilization. 4' At 6" 14 *Ihop

Despite those problm*4, there
gonswv4tion, 2
currently urkder rasoamb *4h county should the neW boom*


lude vegetation management,, whigh would conserve
thoso ty _Qsses of
%ws of, vwjetatiou contributing to lower
000011. M da*,to evapotranspiration. Water conservation methods #X04mamoxoUs wid would include modification and landscaping
Ohar4*x x municipal operations sueb as...street
offective water metering and redesiqn.. ::.of appli-*,*t*A**4,V4dUC* wtt4M consumption# long rartge forecasting:..:Of resulting advarsce planniiiq aLnd Of-izwl"tiou tecftiquos. Tho',consideration
.4,an be facilitated by a reasortable regional
1.4,e froluw uLwming oan reducie- costs in the number
&OUJtioa *nd personnel, as wll as toaximum pollution

,MA__*vw* t, OmW*e a*t4xip*.W that agencies ruch
A*44b*t C**Oty Pollution Coatrolaoard, the Suwannee
1 ft Ui"r4ot, -tho St,*, JQfts giver Water M**WAOtWA VriVj*!pIMMMInq agenCies will take
**IV An *ftt4w ve a** pla=iaq including

P4 .4

P, P if

SOILS acolliht*Voy As*
j two, 0 *3CjVq:PWVM
IntrC42.0t. C Ck tiv o V*
soils may be de f-in*d as Ai xl
of naterUlAyinq 4t -'tba -0afthu

belcw aVA vther soil Udi*4 as a ftvuli of
procoosed and have beeti. oan41&1xem&'d Wle41IN time, to fotm a mixture orgOniC twitter, water orid air- in -v

Soils are demonstrably important in all foxval ard "'Alto, MI-4 m A, planning activities because almost evory aoti-Vity necessarily limited to a bmsU ass=ikted with soils ov*b aw clay c*wbent, thickndvW,-v4ad 'Vott paramet *is limit ttw '"00 #to -,WkiW 1* A*>01ba" 45* Theref"wr because -ther* ',A, go* be ut il ized to asv*so tk* U*W AMwq*V009W literally hundreds of stations are possible fpr each 004& orj

Soils ElanniLa

Parly iwresti"tions into soil ty 00400ror 1*ft4"
tho'growth of our agrioult=*1 0944 k the ne*4* of an expandlzg nation W* Further IAP*tUx for use of soils W OU"vWx V". about durinq World war 1Z of soil Capalpilition W*X* military C*;xst)=t4on ao


AWIy ope ihi-eph5iIaayi-- n
i1 MW4Ahv hl hts~l noain svlal //~ladoeaioa lnig ar clry.A
,04a4 4t ,ntrrttoshv bwpeae ysi Vb A~,~t4e olsre n lcu onywscn~ce
AA1 j 0P h iiino!Si uvy ueu.o ln
q#US eprmn
|O n giutua niern
4tteFoiaArcluD. xeietSt
*avs retdtoadaasig sollcp4qrclua ueadsl ol vlae
34ice.A rsn, h olCnevto
!v erpormtocmlt e
I4*nsi uvyfrAacu ony uigti

MJii sk 'lnnn mouete
ik*WX **fmJOzfsl cpblte al

a caref ul qwalvatii= 'of eAft '-SONOW-060440M asseasmants of value f6t Ment, water management, re4 rfttqthihabitat, and sources of construction =at suitability classes*wag fdrWlated gp 4C to
information to cotiduct on- erA of laiw uses.

-IM2 m7p
Table 4 below lists -abd d*9tteib4# foubd in the "neral, vbils ift* 'of AIIA61A

'MUR" 4
SOIL MSOMT10", or PiAeg"q
Area* ddminiAted by smkiidy 4itbuotty itonv *W # Orr
1. CaAdlet-Aporka asvo6j4tien: p I earl V s1bo$Aig e*ceo*1Ve1*P
liky6rs underlaj^-by-, *w4ycJar, met$ I ';aJor sandy loam lanalla, and well
thick sandy layers over 1dA*Y#SUbi4JJ. 20 qdi%68ville-Chiefland-Aicber *049clat, t6-**1dpinq
,Xavyj4yers ovor
wo drained sandysoils with 1I
Undotlain by liw*itoni ;,"

Areas dakinated by well.
3. Ar 0 Zuber aLSOOmiat$,QA;,
Oro Alned *oil* *1tk*"!f
Uyeti ovor 'loamy or al SAW 'r %N#1


5, eagrick-Negue-Zuber association: Nearly level to
sloping well drained soils with very thick sandy layers
Scet loamy Pubsoil and well drained soils with thin i _an y layers over clayey subsoil.
Areas dominated by moderately well to poorly drained soils ge t#It subject to flooding:

4,Tirere-M~yakkam-Basinger association: Nearly level to
ggaklg sloping moderately well drained soils sandy
throughout and poorly drained sandy soils with weakly comented sandy subsoil and poorly drained soils, sandy

71. Stilson-Pelham-Mascotte association: Nearly level modaertely well1 and poorly drained sandy soils with loaysb Poorly drained sandy soils with A weakly cemented
*Andy subsoil layer underlain by loamy subsoil.
$. $ tr-Lochloosa-Tavares association: Nearly level to
a Ag somewhat poorly drained soils with very thick
or, thk sandy layers over loamy subsoil and moderately
wel4XAined soils, sandy throughout ......
S11skton-F jeming ton- Karapsha association: Nearly level
Ap-stroglY $lop=ng, poorly drained soils with thick
gany Wyers over loamy or clayey subsoil and poorly
Araized soils with very thick sandy layers over loamy

ftta$ gypaingeXr-Myakka association:- Nearly level to
qgM$y sloping somewhat poorly drained very thick sandy
hteaksurfaces, poorly drained soils sandy throughout
:~ ~ l pI"S gained sandy soils with weakly cemented
Ca-4mba-Popeno association: Nearly level poorly
OF -deedy soils with a weakly cemented sandy subI *,~runderlain by loamy or clayey subsoil and
ined soils sandy throughout.
a-91bid stoiatin: early level poorly VFW abkthwithrweakly cemented sandy subsoil
4 piped A P4 il vih he weakly cemented averun Slain by loamy subsoil and ttw4r44> sbtle, hiandy thteaghout.

13. Meggettl Var.-Wauchula-Clxobee tty !J V
poorly drained soils with thift-45Ahd* 4A
substoil and poorly dralne, i
d ihdl
cemented sandy subsoll laydr urid4ft-la Lift' by '
and Very poorly drained soils with very thxci,,1
layers,, over'tahd.

14, Eureka-Paisley-Eaton association rt ly lev*1
drained soils with thin sandy layers viar d'Uy'O sub*o #
andpoorly drained soils wit h th I c, k i A" d 14#4*4 ovex,
clayey subsoil.

Areas dominated by poorly and very poorly drt1nea,$61,1s subjeot, to flooding:

15, PluMmert Var-Rutlege Var. ass,6ciationz, iltiexly -Tbve 1
poorly drained soils with very thioX sandy la*,*t0 ovor
loa-my subsoil and very poorly drained soi1z,,'-9A*Ay
1.6. Martel-Placid association: Nearly level voky poorly
drained soils with thinloamy player OVerr'C1'&Yel Sub.
soil and very poorly drained soils sandy throuq out.

17. Okdechobee-Terra C61a-Tomoka a8so'ciationt Rterlly 10*61,
very pooily drained soils, organic material moro than
50 inches thick, or organic materials 16, +.o 40,*Uches
thick over sand.

18. Fresh Water Swamp association: Nearly Uvel vo'q' 'Poot,'ly
drained soils Subject to prolonged fl6o44AT%,Source: Gefneral Soils Atlas for PlOhniftq,
Districts III and -IV.


For the purpose of assessing the suitabili-1-y of soils for community developmnt a vail zcioatiAt frpw C 'tow
office of the Uo&. Sqtl C*zs*m^kiow*4xrV04,4t' tu* 10, soil types of Ala6hua County Jzto *U, voo;y 004r* A, ".'or
based on suitability f or covw ;O, ty dtvell 41 -t In'this 04" assessing soils suitability f, 'vomm=ity, 401-1 P".9m Mot *AQI,4401


0 U)
r IL




Ito i 4


a conai4eration-of soil properties that effect-footings and foundations for housing and other light weight buildings,, a
consideration of soil properties that affect growth of plants used for landscaping and those that affect trafficability of streets, as well as consideration of wetness, available water
Capability, fertility, weight bearing capacity and flood
hazards. In addition, septic tank'suitability closely parallels
commmity development potential.

A %Onerefore,, for the purposes of this section soils are mapped according to their general suitability for.coNmunity developOW-At. It =I t be noted, however, that in many instances
lioitations for such development can be overcome by modern
engineering technology. In addition,, soils suitability maps
*ay be revised and updated'as the current soil survey reaches

Vu the other hand, with large areas of soils generally suitable for community development, sound land use planning

14 nAWy aid in directing growth away from many areas with poor
'Is suitability in future years. Therefore, provision for
$%oft ar"s mist be am important consideration in planning for
9V40th and development of the county.
PAP #9 has been prepared to illustrate the general distribu*,UW Of soils types in Alachua County as they relate to their for cc aty development. Such a guide is lioited to the level of sophistication or to Which the general soils map of Alachua County was
Therefore., this map like other maps prepared In
t4Wt is oaly suitable for general planning activities.
40 004q'*Ite 4Otails the use of an up-to-date modern soil Mir


Table 5 summarized the groupings of soil associations that
utilized in the preparation of the aoils 6oftitiffty'rap
for community noted -as*MM1#48 in the-6i*t.TABLE 5

Soil Association GrouyComposite Cor ponen&s rrom C-4neratl
Oroup Number Name Soil$ 14ap
er,, lo 2
Mandl "Jonesville,,
Arrendqndo Association

2 Hernando,' Kendrick 4x 5

3 Tavares, Stilson, Sparr 4, 71' 8

4 Scranton, Lynne, Mqakka 100, 11F '12

5 Blichton, Maggett, ftreka 16
Plummerr MartelAsaoc4ation

6 Okeechobee, Swamp Association 171,19

*In order of decreasing suitability for
community development


50 r1A




J Chandler,
A LJV HJonesville, m.r.* Arredondo
.... . Assn.

aa. v.Hernando, can Kendrick

SUITABILITY ;}:l:::..Assn. FOR
CO MNT Scranton,


Ic Martel Assn.

2%w. :.A: Scale in miles
coAP T CO ITY elichklinemc1@'


ttq graphic information is of critical, importance to planning 4pagx~ topographic features, reflecting variations in height A 040 q,egref slope, affect the ecology of an area and the suitaAt1ty-of the land -for development. 'More specifically, topography often greatly influences the type and cost of development, con+ots* the rate and direction of water runoff, contributes to UAndhepe esthetics, influences weather and climate and Affects OMd 5 ad amunt -of vegetation and wild-life.

10# @V*Pic information can be obtained from. several sources "A 4V*tlky~in the form of maps or aerial photographs. The most O*A~4, available aps are from the United.States Geological App JUSOS),., a division of the Department.-of the Interior.
#44ha1,Survey Ofiepoduces standard topog.raphic maps
M gthe.6atite,Vnited States. Each map is boundel by
*"ls, Of lattde and meridians of longitude. These
adrabgleq1* maps are produced in three series: a 7 1/2 minute Ov4@ madg 7 1/2 minutes of latitude and longitude at a scale
43 Sta*,5m;inute series covering 15 minutes of latitude
SW at a scale of 1;62,500; and a 30 minute. series
#fte# of latitude and longitude at sale of .1:125,000.

-7 *Mntaia three basic types of data.: cultural features,
greed~~ toorah o lief, Cultural features inilgads4pthe $-d wns Water features include
gorws s major intermittent channels. Topo#:@bp@@ ~wkth voatege lines and so lvtos
Mia4449444:,4toago stuch as woodland areas,

24aps which show topography and other feature$ fo r *=-h of Alachua Countyt in addition to the USGS maps, can bo dbtairW4 from the Florida Department of TranspOrtatione an,
Central Florida Regional Planning Council. Aerial photogr&10 141181 are available for purchase or examination for many a-,." the County through the North Central Florida Regional KAAning Council, the office of the County Voitstiar Or thd house. Such photos are often quite usef u I in a$41014slitwolt6surface structures,, drainage''patteinst v6getatiOA c0#0ka *r and land use.

County 1220graphy

Alachua County is located in the topographic divisidw'bf Vlori&A known as the Central Highlands and may be divided into two major land resource areas each typified by a char aeftr'"iL's t- ic physiography. The North-'Central Florida'Ridge area-io,4oserj
as having a gently undulating land surface. In cont-taot',".1"'the Atlantic,-Coast Flatteioods area is generally *of low,, so0WAUW fl*t terrain having numerous iwarrLps and large shallo*,lskei. in Alachua County generally range between 50 and 21e -footlobov* sea level.

The -Eopogr4hy of the County owes its -charactv r to twok 041br, factors. The first involves alternatir4 advances of the sea during each of the major Pliistocen4414#000't"W 2,000,000 year ago) ice ages. Terraces4ok wa*e- ut tWAdhW8 eroded into local land surfaces wherever each advimco remin,",
stationary before ultimately -retreating. As 090tf ao- ft*Wf terraces represented as hills 6r ris4o iii'loctal: Im4 outSmoo ranging to over 200 f Ott in elevation ha'00 Wien i4"'ilgg "A in Florida. At least two of thoo terraea*, fte t,0k*f#nd*"v4*t & -4 about 150 feet elevatioh, aftd, #4ie"Wic6Mi=r: elevation have been iftntified'iti Ala,664 ftunty'04-00-" adft t
T#t ttA0*J 44

.4 6 ........... . . . . .

i 4- It "d

the second f actor: is the Solution by ground and surf ace waters of the relatively soft limestone formations underlying much of
searea, The term karst. topography is used where such solution
has se-red to divert waters to underground routes or create
iakbs by forming depressions in the limestone down to the ground .water level. Such differential solution has been a significant
E44dtor in ertating lakes, el1iminating surface drainage by,
stream, and forming sinkholes in some parts of the County.

Whtch of the north and northeastern portion of Alachua County
pa nearly level plateau-like area varying in elevation of
4to 2900 feet. Relatively: impermeable. clayey ta~hds beneath ao* MY Khtfate soil.9 have caused stream drainage to develop
4aj 411ify outward from the plateau most likely served as a tip.M Ak 'tainage divide between the Alantia Ocean and-the
t~a'i4d Metico. Some of the present drainawge still..reaches 41- Oalf by Way of the Santa Fe River to the Suwannee River
4. A-l tan to the Gulf. Many swapy areas occur throughout. -the
Mi.ihhs areas owe their water retention capabilities
eck~ogis smebleclays beneath the surface sands.

1"emn portion of Alachua county is a plains region having
raring from approximately 50 to 10:0 f eet and notably
WJL*Mk by theo lack of a surf ace drainage: system.: The
formation, vbiah probably overlaid this area in
1)@6 *has bew enve by erosion or carried away
4 ~ 440W leaving the deeply pitted and eroded Ocala
W~ita tew fe de of the surf-ace, covered with -a
th ur" VM Whdd." ho, 44ds of olayey sands lying above the
$20 stb t t to twme ida irregularities of the limeSt~gg p*tWAdft* 6ttdrasandhills or ridges in the
Mah tays port of the #,ounty. The solvent action of ground

The south central and southeastern portl=4 of Alachua County
....are characterized by flat bottom laXes, pra*r*4', An,4,.,VrQ V4
remnants of the plateau. Paynes'Prairia#'payy, z4ke a44,
Kanapaha Prairie are examples of this area ThO le'vel, b9p "'OM,
of: the prairies and lakes haV4 been observed, to occur *M
unitormly at elevations slightly beloiO, 60 foot above ft 'a, e a
level (MSL). The three different types of', Iat battlomd,-- ,
depressions all appear to be dependent, upon jocal grround, Waite-r

I4fluence of Topq Eaphy.

Urban development tends. to follow the directiQap c f leax t .0 gVaphi.0 re'sistence: depandent, only on limitations 'imposed by modern technology.. It,,..,may often be observed that rivers and
Valleys tend to: chanhel urban expansion,;''major 1Uhw.%yA i W .railroads tend to follow river chamRel, routes because ol the generally gradual continuous grades; and bridqot that ofl p open up new areas for development tend to be constructed-It
the narrowest points of rivers of where the river is ShA116W
and exhibits a hard bottom and easy access grades. 'lu'reforet
topography to a large extent helps shape patterns of growth,

Totography,, or land form,, interaots vit4 thosa p44,pAl
charactqLri$tiCS that help shape or form it,, vur.)x A$ type Of soils, drainage pattern, climatt, and vegetation. -Thox I .9-IRS
because of its imposition on the natural environ _nt,, I
development must ins ure the stability Of tqV*qrAPh
the physical development of'sitevby provide# ,o
grading (slope stabilization) P drajAaqe
structures in order to miLke the beat Vae, of,* #he qp4squFtAlon
site within the limitations "t'by th r

-6 A 4W

There are almost no areas in the County 'that possess topographic Lipitations so great as to preclude specific types of developvoot. Modern engineering practices can override almost all
~Itations if economics are no~t a problem. However, there are !aus which do lend themselves to particular uses because of

ye oncept specifically concerned with the limitations to de-444gment as imposed by topography is referred to as slope use
aggngThis concept revolves around the maxim which maintains u*tipithin the~framework of construction practices and techegythee are certain slopes, or ranges of slopes, upon which
4types of 4-onstruation can be most economically underbeen observed that on certain specific slopes the cost
tratip;bomet the comon Deeds of certain land use~s
#i _nimised. This cost of construction, as reflected in
a cost, includes not only the cost of the structure,
o' the aosts of site preparation, site development,
'yServices and the provision of necessary drainage facilPR Mcess roadS. Some of the basic provisions of the
sening concept are outlined in Table 6.

is referred to'the report entitled "Housing, 1974"1,
'by the Ntrth Central Florida Regional' Planning Counfcil
l$i4tesion ob slop* use zoning and limiting effects

,4 -evel7pheatr




0-1% t rainage problems' Mb4 e
development UnstZitable., ing and large scale lineal p;r0d=tion
ly 164 11
industry are often ecanomiCaj-T- b.1

Commerc4l, an4,zesideIntal developmentg of, all type's are f6a'8iblb bec&tis 'good natural dTainage-and Good general farming, potential. I R,6 ads N begin to'follow't,6p bgrap-fiit cohttottrAr. tv

5-12% Small sc4le commercial structures 'nd
intens'ive sma ii indu8'try eAatl Terrace type. landscepinq,-f ed single family residences on large lots
and roads are generally pil rallel'*o covjtours. General farming from 5-8W, speciali4ed farmingto 12%.

-over 12% Industry and commercetusually.ecqnwi
impractical. Tsolated single fa't 41Y
residences on large'lots. are b6aifb1e, All types of roads becQme expensi "nd, only specialized f arming is prakcilclil,,

The effects of erosion increase.directly.with degree aifid length, of sloDe; therefore, it i, s sometimes desirable to 'tap tablisht Icontraints to development based upon 'slope.C; As eXhibite4 on Table 6, law slopes are usually highly desirable for president oovelopl ment because they are usually, well draine eas er to up*
than steeper slopes, and do not impose 1 m
1 it#t- ion's to 44 4*
access. However, even on low to moderate slopes prtcAfAt 01fts may need to be taken to retard or prevent'serious erosioln cially during construction stages of development.

7 Q


CoMatgent upon soil and bedrock conditions, slopes over 10% #ederally impose greater construction problems and costs in eahutrix insure slope integrity and the stability of struc*utts On such slopes. While steep slopes do-provide opportu*niti6* for creative architecture and site planning and may be 448$rable from an esthetic point of view, increasing density of Siie often.creates other potentially hazardous conditions' v Adh east be anticipated early in the planning process.

Ea herlvery steep slopes are unsuitable for any form of utheo, agricultural or forestry use because removal of trees
g EOther Ygetation produces: rapid erosion,-.resulting in 4MQO)vtAtion in Streams and heightening of flood peaks. $@$I43Aopes are most appropriately reserved for limited re####90 SQtnty slopes are not generally found in extremes.
greaesttopgrahicproblem a-reas in. the County are
battag very low or flat slopes exhibiting poor drainageih often appear as wetlands on topographic maps. only **0"s appear to have excessively steep slopes, and those
iy GOcat along narrow stream margins. Moderate to steep
4tre generally found in those areas of the County where
Acally higher *adtraedposits grade westto, the Hawthorne f ormation and subsequently to
WpAAi* of western Alachua County.

40$ $VABA & mags~eeepepsof slope does not impair
W~s ee t~aodrs engineering -technology 9~~-'t S*00%Md dh*anetthtJLaXly pleasing environment,. limi ted

observed during development and in early planning staqos,
limited areas of -moderate -t(5'stO4 p olopes pose serious threats when ',located, or &L-veloped as'to create'uhdue adverse*'Onvirorantntal could' result in part from the, d6stiudtion Of tatUral VogOt4ttion causing increased erosion and sedimOntat kpn I the, A"tltu"A#A, Of valuable areas, of unique river foreSLt provisions for surfaoo rufioff'irt terins of both quantity into natural Water coUrses, caused by a poor accounting of soil, water--table-andbedrock properties::during the planning process'.

Areas of very flat:'slopes cover significantly:1arge arq4p the County and i1suAlly exhibit other properties which thi m as-having poor or limited development potentiWj,, Tht,"might include poor soil suitability for development, ,floo4v , plain designation, low relief with typical lowland,-topographic
character istics. such as a high water table and tive species." Areas such as these are readily appairftatJn*-t*e
C mnty-,and incltde -those large- areas of prairie Alachua County and'also include tignif icant,,areas' *f such as exhibited in theheadwaters artas of, Hatichet--Cre
northern portion of the, Gainesville Tithan hrew4

For the purposes of this publication no, map hag bgea pr"4##4 illustrating topographic feAttrt s in +M COunt-yfor this exclusion concerns prohloms "of map, AX*A# 4 the County having steep slopes are of such limited area-l"exteAt, as to make them almost indistingoishable ch in this report. Large areas of relatively' Low, 010postoW0040 other haTtd, art readily identified on, available; topoqr*pWp,,$*V* and in most cases, because of-other' as their vegetative or wetlarA natuxer graphic influence.

_720. V

gAato is a natural resource in that it permits or facilitates eaytypes of activities or Land-use~s otherwise restricted to
9phe"r geolographic localities. The impact of climate is exempliLd by a consideration of its impa-ct on outdoor activities,. such as year round recreation and farming which are quite apparent
others such as energy consumption which are not as apparent
e0 qually significant. Climate. then Is an integral resource thop Area becanoe it helps shape or modify virtually every A~kr xasrce as well a* human activity and environment..

asciptonof the climate a;d sources-of climatological
in hn A county was include in the Water and Sewer Develop14for Alachua County (1974) and is incorporated herein as

tho in Alachua County is mild, with a mean annual. temp=' O*70.2 degrees and an Average yearly rainfall of hty52 inchee. Precipitation varies widely from year
p footictlarly in the seamer months. Alternating wet and
6% W*veral Years duration are observed. Most of the
VW'4,-Orage of about 36 inches per year, is tropical in
W*th la 0tOuing the ausser months as thunder showers.
AMMMM 1 44"b of the yearly avetage comes as winter rain of
Ojovviateor froealat type, usually slow and drizzly and

The yearly average temperature for the avomer little from year to year, but wider variationa is during the winter, when cyclooic storms fre0ently b;tlr4q -004a weather from the north. Frost depends upon 'these, stoklo' Killing frost can be expected,, on the average,,, owx an, 90"dA:r; period each -year, from 6e6eiiber 4 tb'reblrixw* 22. during 30 to 40 days eacl year, gdnetalf in the 'WANAIr *0"Uxij and winter. ThVr area has never tmc i e v6d s4tib
hurricanes and chances for a )4urricarse'-dithin Axiy tq y**ilare considered to be in the 3 to 4 p6re4h+_ xange,.

Climatological'data can be obtained from the U.'S-. WAthe*P" Bureau Publications for f iVO_ stiitibns within the tOunt K Iwo of these stations are in' the'-Gaknetville, Area* sitd 'tbk bk*OW 10 .three are located in High Springs, Melrose and Island Gro", The one station at Gainesville, 3 WSW, kepps recot"tc cipitation, temperature, and evaporation and has both rofto*rdir4o
and 'non -re cording gages. This 'station, alsio keiep g,_,1461 40t, soil temperatuMs. at various depths'. Revords doVet A Pft'i years, beginning in 1053. Vrecipitation'and tepeVatUr6w-**VOVdO
for the area. are also available for a period, of years up to and including 1956 front 'the old University, Ot Florida Station at Gainesville Table;'Thas 'b6ft r4pid from the above referOtded publicAtion-and show's the AvetwO
monthly temperature and rainfall in CAinemsville.

IS 11 1 tow I

2* t 1 wit





Avorage Average..
Temperature Rainf all
(degree F) (inches)

58.0 2.60
59.6 .3.27
63.,6 4.11
69.5 3.72
7 8 3 48
SO."i 6:64
81.1 7.49
'r. 12.1 4.23
73.7 1.75

*Wi4, 044*f'Dwelopiont Plan for Alachua

Apterminants of climate
-wb" otrw*ora, a, no 4evelopment
_Jaxo tog
POO as waterbodies;
(a) "Preciptation. 0&*vwU,, air quality,,,, war464
,_qf 'these detexmirtants V ot to ou I climatic conditions.

09*0 4t 1*titUde 4etermines the amount of
,AW oo*_4dA* on aAy d4y of the year


wo 4$


Xn general, latit Jt
directly related to aver"OV, 'A444
7=*t Z
with elevatioaar *
factor in modifying c.11 til

where all other influence tion of landform will result, Jn va; tnff
pri'nJ Ulf'ki determinant is A J*t*tnt 4p

Water bodies such as rivers and IaXes ho-VI # %VOWt, on climate. Because water t*wveratures fluctuate air temperatures, bodies c f- 4ter tend to 04 extremes., Temperature is ,; qtr only 4afluenced- b b the nature of wd 4ce UpCQ W)40 dq plac The heat absorbativ!arqualit 00 of IaF,4,fq t is significant in plapi i q local OnVi

Wind has a decided affect 'the, to huma bo4 -is cooled Uy 04, AVAPQ W
by air Movement and low air humi4iW# Xft WOM I",, that i duces air movement or inci .44
impression of greater heat. The ho4t, -ZOW both people and buildings is aliOAkff#C"4 lAndvrc*pInj,, vegetate m xftd' rvlt of win&'Oh local ehvironmtMi VWA4 CtAa*irAY,*Oignif icant in hovi thiW Ii6ftr,*)I ,J*w devOldo ii*. However,, the point wtere these f act*t* iTftftVA0AAMWt* be st4nilicantity influenood DIT

-it keA *,Lt A too#*



r olto ntefr fvhcua olto n at

iz 0ra n oe lnsa wl sn4swihi en 40e samjrpluatmgtas ecniee
0 xxoet.Fruaeyhweenihri igii
Prbe oAacu ony
Imlt iepanu rete icsino hs atr in h;pbiainette oanv-93peae
:Nrh eta Ford einlPanigCucl.Ta
U0 40ie h oeiprtn fteeapcsta
prs iyt ma lmtccnieain nFoia
awet mniuce ti motntt egnrly
uM hJ*t~J-&c 4 fet.Hwvr eas
iaarltvl ie rcosatrsuc n eas
VJidUa~~ ai e~eaol eeooial

IT 4

2L 4w&it

II rr
........ ....


ture n a apidy chn In
subsquef't mnageent 'Of''thi la** ";4. N
ourquliy f j feah ,th
*d 4400t
th goin dmnd'frjWjcjvrj
pandin fp~uatio-

--lvaeJn Aaha cut
in pouainadischnigcaatt
4% *A nphcadi sdinti-einhscagd
ladaei lcu ony uigteery10'
-i;lue Attepeettmhwvr-hr r w
iAHuepten oudwti h ontiearcl
ura.Arclutltduehsrtie t oiac

V i

..... . .. .
ACRE" AN VALE',011 AM0 W44



A a
sugarc~ne 700
Hay 1A
Citrus 6
Foresry 10'rI
Beef Cattl
Hog~s IV
Hor*0 4 at,, hep.
D4Lir. Vr~uct

". I
44 i14 aua ad o giutrl|ssnt is4' lae wyadcoppat anandi hi M* i1feantual ies omuiyi elie
IM1 dk outr."iie n netcdsaedmol
t _inanadotmz h rwho e rfre
iIe,&d ohl rvn heruiiain raim
i!i~ t ~ueiilt a.A h ie0 arclua !h n~n yo hi mngmn nrae hi
;io ote hnmnd'iihe.Feuftytesd
-iio th adbigmngd.Th s n te
toftMn rsn oeta aad onih

iii m eue s w xmls oilsrt

44Y UtlPd 4alt'a oto n
0 6 eiaetaoigo l yrlgo
Wiii rhds utvto
of lvIit I
i *as w r osnilrgr o ae


Although there is ltt lef44,'' use may 4ave an adverse
S V.
forest 4#4 proirieof'

to, agr4oultupLI 14nd T b duct Ased t m4 deZapd 444 t404 4t 9
r.thi uv, ep, qonservati m OQpf

is beipi 4movided in Alachu;k P. y
sil" service, t,", $pi s 9pselml -4 0
and $t4bili;mti" fV 'elemots, .9f, the resource b ",t 'has u0come an unportant aspeFt -9f thl the rqteotioa of well m, pK0 V
be Cone.ideXed equallyimport

1A a4ditton to the problems ddw=ibed as indiqeftou*
P=Per ni mlqement of f arm laz4qs-uq' 44 t"
erqsiQn,, Irrigation and amxxc'41t; ;r' i
probl" hikve, been identif,klMa 1) 4 f
AgricotturaI Agent Th,,eqe to All Umeras must be uae p,,,UAAinq in order t#4,t P Fpppj ,,O, n wherWoX pasible through the 'C,9*P ')kS Th*4* prWeas include-,

le xvcreasing fexml
y& mq people to
have q=Vn up On
2. i'st a need for ji
on ,
agr4cult=aLk' I au"40

10 IF

4.Ln'pie a oetandul uigtenx e
'vr ffiul rfamr
--hi okn ae

#11tiY lt aeatiiae~o obedrn h
*tfv yasan rpei h nx eiyas

04, ftwiq otoso arln n lchaCutwl
*Itgtd10ftieYas hsiaigi eesr
toisr dqaewtralcto"frirgto
tIr*q waI eore lnig

"":4 0 tr n ol
an u|t fayvgtto eed

14gri upntetp fsi : hj: htvgtto

inq arudsi ye sitga ogo gI'"

40 i Co evto evc a etbihdacpblt
*f-fwsa hf Oilgop r aeoie
*,Al. utbu qiutrlue hsi
4toeit twe upnIittto ftesis h

44u he i te esodt
amd'intdb oa

-': -*n:


I A00114 have few 11144

11 Solis tha t have, wm6 1,b

vr it tx in
111 Soila have *w, mxw,,Uo
of plant-$ or tAsAtt
iX qqok"
tl.ces or both.: 4t fn -W '4% '-ft 1 -.'o n A of j ot

IV Soils that have very gavere liftitAt
the choice of plant#, dr that ko; -O'lWW
maxiagrement or both.

V Soils that -are n6t li)mby to A but4aft-~
their use taxqe to pas tulm', *CkAlai 4
thd cover f6v 4,ILL

V1 Soils that have severe limitat,"-i thkt
r 'BuitAble
qene ally Uft r
their use lax9ely to pasture# ,r *#n "9ql
wildlife. #

VU $*ils that h4vw vory Iwv Ww
4em generally unsuith,
kilstriet ulsor I
Vildlif a.,

Vill* ifoile and landfotvit-*h4) ,
,U4e' their use for.,
thpir Use tO r ",AA
to Osth4tic
4 o
# #

I I I *atd


ni #;

n on

vurpo ses of'broadly recognizing whichAreas of Alachua agriculture variou,' qualities or potential f7o
OL t- ii,
soil types described in the general soil:atirvey for
pqa County were divided into groups corresponding to" the
groUpings of the Soil Conservation Service. Table
Zes eneral capability grouping of thie' Soil
yttnto as hey correspond t'o'those soils on the general
of 'AlkcbUa County.


1, !+ ag, S Soil Associations
(From Table 4)
4 r 5

Ad*Ptadfrom Generel Soils Atlas for Planning,
Oiftriota IXI and 1#, 1,974.

Map 09 was preparted to illustrate those
44 the Cowtty which. according to soil suitability,
axd loast potagtial for agricultural utilizat f n4 ul'tore tn Aloohvw County is essential to its

M4 40%*rt*Twt to 'm"t the growing demand
4. AlthnVh poor agricultural managehvft aorious 04.1nots upon surrounding


as -r ltr jr
5ttf I
ec s s e s we lt o a 4

tanc of otgo pan~mwI 41 V04

Couny an encuragd by, "e Oa
in srmay, t j~ esental tatp. ovlzppwbo *do ~d roe
nize Iorthe aintriaoe pf ,Wcujtr A
Couny. Een houg tecnolgy i, prgr~sinq atp 'r at I

1 14

+ + R.l + Map No.9






... F General Agricultural
Capability Class

1 Lo IV Vi
.............. ...... .

... .... .. . .

LE V Y o .... ..V0
7 EE1lN C T Fi l U


... .. ......
.. ... ... ....
... ... ... ....

,to, fully -4ppreciate the need foriconservation practices
is fnec-essary to conduct an appraisal qf. the con441" and-capability of that resource in terms of probable
'I 12407904-& for 1uture titize-na. Yactors of inc.;easingr populationn'.

4#*# st"dard of liviAg aad the deielopment of an even of farest,,pr9duqta are iadicative of:the Placod upon.our current forest resources,

AW **14ftced by -rapioly rising Prices for forest products, the tdreAt; proftctiVity is inadequate to meet Odvev",r x*;udi" by ,the U.S, Forest Service cxm be Aade sustain much Mli4sts tAawot Pres"t's It appears that the
*&t ftm primarily *L p mvid$aq more space but
Ov f02*A't Alt the present time only
ftresters and, private owners are actually
of 4uring A period which
Oijai ficimt AWAmol cqam qaencea,
-4 it

by iihe Florida
141 to 04 Oa the forest resources
-1"4 ba*J P, ThA region con
it eoooprised *f those counties within the couhties of Alachua, ichrist, Dixie, Lafayette, #'ji44jUitA" a A iaker. Within this bf the forest industry
AMAJO it" dA ft"st Und followed by 18% Ulf