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The effects of information on counseling expectancies and willingness : a study of high school youth

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The effects of information on counseling expectancies and willingness : a study of high school youth
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Klopfer, Carol Lee, 1945--
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English
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xiv, 164 leaves : 28 cm.

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Career counseling ( jstor )
College students ( jstor )
High school students ( jstor )
Mental health ( jstor )
Psychological counseling ( jstor )
Psychology ( jstor )
Psychotherapy ( jstor )
Questionnaires ( jstor )
School counseling ( jstor )
School counselors ( jstor )
Counseling ( lcsh )
Counselor Education thesis Ph. D
Dissertations, Academic -- Counselor Education -- UF
Educational counseling ( lcsh )
Alachua County ( local )
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bibliography ( marcgt )
theses ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )

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Thesis:
Thesis--University of Florida.
Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references (leaves 117-126).
Additional Physical Form:
Also available online.
General Note:
Error in numeration of leaves: 152 left out of numbering.
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Typescript.
General Note:
Vita.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Carol Lee Klopfer.

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University of Florida
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0026311341 ( ALEPH )
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THE EFFECTS OF INFORMATION ON COUNSELING
EXPECTANCIES AND WILLINGNESS% A STUDY OF HIGH SCHOOL YOUTH








By

CAROL LEE KLOPFER








A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE COUNCIL OF
THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE
DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY






UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 1977






























Copyright

by

Carol Lee Klopfer

1977













To my family

To Alejo

And to Calvin, Karen, Chris, Richard, and Lynn, youngsters who taught me more about the art of counseling than any one else . and much about life and love












ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS



Upon completion of this study, appreciation is owed to a number of people who made the study possible.

To Dr. E. L. Tolbert, a man who has made genuineness,

empathy, and unconditional positive regard a way of life, for assisting me in the decision to earn the PhD degree, for serving as my doctoral committee chairperson, and for his inspiration.

To Dr. Larry Loesch, who also served on my supervisory

committee, for his incisive counsel, good humor, and friendship.

To Dr. Everette Hall, third member of my committee, for the benefit of his experience as a therapist, warmth, and support.

To the faculty of the Department of Counselor Education who provided the facilitative petri dish in which this

counselor grew.

To two friends, one new and one old: Barbara Rucker,

who gave many hours of help with computer programs, and Marie Dence, the only person from whom I can gracefully accept editorial criticism.

To Sharon Zahner for keypunching and to Arden Goettling for agreeing to do the typing from long distance.

To Linda Moni and the counselors of the Alachua County schools whose interest and time expenditure came when they iv








were desperately needed: Margaret Albritten, Art Stirrat, Wil Griffin, Bob Ream, and Phyllis George. And to Lee Rosenstein and Dean Mark Beard for the same reasons.
To the teachers who allowed me to work in their classrooms: Robert Ayer, Pat Powers, Mary Sharp, George Wilson, Patricia Robarts, Nancy Lakey, William Monahan, Albert Losch, and especially Pat Baxter and Barbara Allen.

To the students who participated in the study and welcomed me into their high schools. Also to Fitz Conners and the members of Young Life who participated in the development of the questionnaire.

And to two dear mentor/friends Dr. Margaret Korb and

Dr. Robert Lee--Pat and Bob--whose personal and professional example and whose caring and understanding have meant more than I can express.

Finally, to the others who in big and small ways shared the work: Alejo Vada, Gary Klopfer, Maggie Klopfer, Betty Jo Spoto, Mary Ganikos, Lyn Clawson, Nancy McGinness, and Louis Haynes.
















v











TABLE OF CONTENTS



Page

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ...................................... iv

LIST OF TABLES ........................................ x

LIST OF FIGURES ....................................... xii

ABSTRACT .............................................. xiii

CHAPTER

I INTRODUCTION .................................

The "Need" for Psychotherapy Versus the Use
of Psychotherapy ............................ 2

Factors Differentiating Therapy Seekers from
Nonseekers .................................. 4

The Relationship of Information to Therapy
Predisposition .............................. 6

The Present Study: Purpose and Overview .... 9 Notes on Terminology ........................ 10

Counseling and Psychotherapy ........... 10

Perceptions of Counselingi Expectancies
and Willingness ........................ 12

II REVIEW OF LITERATURE .......................... 14

Perceptions of Counseling ................... 15

Perceptions of College Counseling
Services ............................... 17

Perceptions of School Counselors ....... 21 Public Perceptions of Psychotherapy .... 25

Effects of Mental Health Information:
Nunnally's Findings ......................... 36


vi








CHAPTER Page

II continued

Acceptance of Information ................ 37

Major Variables in Message Transmission- 39 Other Communications Variables ........... 42

Permanence of Message Effects ............ 45

Methods of Preparing Clients for Counseling ... 47

Behavioral Techniques .................... 47

Procedures Related to Client Expectancies 49 Special Procedures for Orienting Clients. 51

Providing Information to Potential Help
Seekers .................................. 57

Summary ....................................... A

III METHODOLOGY ..................................... 61

Hypotheses .................................... 61

Subjects ...................................... 63

Measurement ................................... 64

Part I: Counseling Expectancies .......... 65 Part II: Counseling Willingness .......... 67

Procedures .................................... 68

Counseling Information Presentations ..... 69 Collection of Data ....................... 72

Pilot Study ................................... 72

Analysis ...................................... 73

IV FINDINGS ........................................ 75

Statistical Description of the Sample ......... 75 Analysis of Experimental Results .............. 76


vii








CHAPTER Page

IV continued

Expertise ................................ 78

Outcome .................................. 80

Trust .................................... 82

Genuineness .............................. 84

Acceptance ............................... 86

Understanding ............................ 88

Vocational-Educational Willingness (VE).. 91 Personal and Social Willingness (PS) ..... 92

Summary of Experimental Results ............... 95

Effects of Treatment on Expectancies ..... 96 Effects of Treatment on Willingness ...... 97 Effects of Grade Level ................... 97

Effects of Sex ........................... 98

Effects of Race .......................... 98

Interaction Effects ...................... 98

School Differences ............................ 99

Sample Norms .................................. 99

Participants' Subjective Responses ............ 100

V SUMMARY, DISCUSSION, LIMITATIONS, AND
RECOMMENDATIONS ................................. 103

Discussion .................................... 106

Limitations ................................... 111

Recommendations ............................... 113

Conclusions ................................... 115

REFERENCES .............................................. 117


viii










Page

APPENDIX A COUNSELING SURVEY ITEMS .................... 127

APPENDIX B EXPERIMENTAL SCHEDULE ...................... 131

APPENDIX C COUNSELING BOOKLET ......................... 134

APPENDIX D COUNSELOR TALK ............................. 139

APPENDIX E PARTICIPANTS' WRITTEN COMMENTS ............. 150

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH .................................... 164





































ix












LIST OF TABLES



Table Page

I Composition of Comparison Groups by Sex and Race,
Grade, and School .................................. 77

2 Expertise Score Factorial Analysis of Variance..... 79 3 Expertise Score Means by Treatment ................. 79
4 Expertise Score Means by Sex ....................... 80

5 Outcome Score Factorial Analysis of Variance ....... 81 6 Outcome Score Means by Treatment ................... 81

7 Outcome Score Means by Race ........................ 82

8 Trust Score Factorial Analysis of Variance ......... 83 9 Trust Score Means by Treatment ..................... 83

10 Trust Score Means by Sex ........................... 84

11 Genuineness Score Factorial Analysis of Variance ... 85 12 Genuineness Score Means by Treatment ............... 85

13 Genuineness Score Means by Sex and Race ............ 86

14 Acceptance Score Factorial Analysis of Variance .... 87 15 Acceptance Score Means for Treatment Groups Duncan's Multiple Range Test Comparisons ........... 87

16 Acceptance Score Means by Sex ...................... 88

17 Understanding Score Factorial Analysis of Variance. 89 18 Understanding Score Means by Treatment ............. 89

19 Understanding Score Means by Grade Duncan's Multiple Range Test Comparisons ........... go

20 Understanding Score Means by Sex and Race .......... go


X








Table Page

21 Vocational-Educational Willingness Score (VE) Factorial Analysis of Variance ................... 91

22 Vocational-Educational Willingness Score Means by Treatment ........................................ 92

23 Vocational-Educational Willingness Score Means by Race ............................................. 92

24 Personal-Social Willingness Score (PS) Factorial Analysis of Variance ............................. 93

25 Personal-Social Willingness Score Means for Treatment Groups Duncan's Multiple Range Test
Comparisons ...................................... 94

26 Personal-Social Willingness Score Means by Grade Duncan's Multiple Range Test Comparisons ......... 15 27 Personal-SDcial Willingness Score Means by Sex and Race ......................................... 95

28 Expectancy Scale Values .......................... 101

29 Willingness Scale Values ......................... 102



























xi












LIST OF FIGURES



Figure Page

1. Schedule followed for each set of four matched
classes ........................................... 69










































xii








Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate Council of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy

THE EFFECTS OF INFORMATION ON COUNSELING
EXPECTANCIES AND WILLINGNESS: A STUDY OF HIGH SCHOOL YOUTH

By

Carol Lee Klopfer

December, 1977

Chairman: Dr. E. L. Tolbert
Major Department: Counselor Education

The effects of counseling information on perceptions of counseling were investigated. It was hypothesized that three forms of information--written, oral, and a combination of written and oral--would favorably influence high school students' counseling expectancies and willingness to use counseling. Effects of sex, race, and grade level were also studied.

Twenty-eight high school classes, seven sets of four

matched classes, were selected by school counselors. Classes in each set differentially received four treatment conditions: a booklet discussing counseling, a talk by a counselor, both the booklet and the talk, or no information. From the total 645 students data were collected consisting of responses to questionnaire items assessing six types of counseling expectancy and two types of counseling willingness.

A series of factorial analyses of variance indicated that the effects of information were inconsistent and the experimental groups often, were not significantly different from the

control group. Across the four comparison groups, regardless x iii








of information, females responded more favorably to the measures of perceptions of counseling than males. Black students more often responded favorably than Caucasians, and underclassmen more often responded favorably than upperclassmen. Calculation of scale norms for the total sample showed that, on the average, students viewed counseling in a positive way. In their subjective written comments, however, some students were highly critical of school counseling.







































xiv











CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION



The delivery of mental health services, while improving, falls far short of its possibilities. In the field of counseling it is difficult to ignore that, of the many who could conceivably benefit from psychotherapy, most do not receive it. Disquieting social realities give this issue urgency: prisons full of individuals who have never had a single session with a personal counselor; numbers of unhappy people, destined for psychiatric institutions, who will not contemplate psychotherapy until forced into it by overwhelming dysfunction; men and women struggling and foundering in the face of rapidly changing culture and economic hard times.

Psychotherapy of course is not the sole solution to wasted human potential, but undoubtedly the goals of mental health would more adequately be served if larger segments of the population were reached--the severely disturbed as well as average people coping with the normal vicissitudes of life. Providing more effective public information is an important step toward abating what Ewalt (1960) has called "the vast unmet meed of the American people for help in recognizing and dealing with mental and emotional problems" (p. xxvi). If people understood counseling services better, perhaps they would use them more.






2

Users of psychotherapy generally go into it of their own

volition. It is estimated that fewer than 10 percent of clients experience heavy outside pressure to enter therapy (Kadushin, 1969). Szasz (1970) has argued most convincingly that, in a free society, this control must be kept in the hands of the individual. The decision to apply for professional help, however, requires that one's expectations of benefit not only justify the expenditure of time and effort but also override fear and resistance of many kinds. Currently most potential clients are not sufficiently knowledgeable about psychotherapy to perceive it as relevant to their concerns or to consider it an appropriate source of help. Without an informed public, then, democratic client self-selection becomes an unworkable process. "Inasmuch as present services tend to gravitate toward the best informed," Ewalt (1960) has written, "it would appear that the psychologically rich get richer and the poor get poorer" (p. xxvi).



The "Need" for Psychotherapy Versus the Use of Psychotherapy


Because of the "submerged" nature of psychological

phenomena and the absence of a standard measure for what is normal and what is abnormal, no satisfactory data exist on the mental health status of this, or any, society (Hollingshead & Redlich, 1958). The number of individuals in need of psychotherapy is equally inaccessible, but indications are strong that there are many more who could benefit from psychotherapy than receive it.






3

Comm-unity epidemiological research has attempted to assess mental. health needs; but as Goldberg's (1972) review of psychiatric case identification studies points up, varying screening methods and criteria have yielded disparate results. The extensive Midtown Manhattan Study (Srole, Langer, Michael, Opler, & Rennie, 1962) is often cited in discussions of prevalence of mental disorder. In this survey, 23.4 percent of respondents were designated as psychologically impaired to the extent that performance of adult roles was observed or inferred as deficient.

Of this one-fourth of their sample labeled impaired, the Manhattan researchers said,

On the criterion of observed or inferred performance
deficiencies in adult roles, these people in most cases can be assumed to need professional help of
some kind, at best, to relieve the distress implied
by their symptoms and to improve their capacities for adult functioning, and at the least, to reduce possibilities of future deterioration under normal
or crisis circumstances of life. (pp. 145-6)

The researchers made a rough assessment of orientation toward seeking professional help by asking respondents what they would advise two hypothetical friends with personal problems to do. Of the help-needy who had never had psychotherapy, nearly one-half did not indicate professionals as a source of help and, therefore, implied that they were unlikely to seek psychotherapy on their own initiative. The researchers state that their data appear consistent with estimates made in comparable big-city studies.

Other investigators have found evidence of large numbers of people disinclined to request psychotherapy. In a national






4

survey by Gurin, Veroff, and Feld (1960), 5 percent of adults said they "worried all the time," but less than one-fourth of them had gone to professional helpers and one-eighth said they "did not want" professional help. Also, of one-fifth who reported feelings of impending breakdown, only one-third sought psychotherapy. In Eilson, Padilla, and Perkins' (1965) study of New Yorkers, one-half could name a surgeon but only 15 percent, a psychologist. While 25 percent were able to name a mental health clinic, usually they could only cite Bellevue Hospital. In two other studies, approximately one-third of the clients judged to be in need of psychotherapy, and to whom it was offered, refused treatment (Garfield & Kurz, 1952; Rosenthal & Frank, 1958).

Studies of therapy duration reveal that an additional number of potential clients enter therapy but do not remain past an intake interview or the initial few sessions considered crucial for getting the therapeutic process under way, and many clients leave counseling without mutual agreement with their therapist or even discussion of termination (cf. Sullivan, Miller, & Smelser, 1958).



Factors Differentiating Therapy Seekers from Nonseekers


Since only an estimated two to four percent of the population go into therapy, the sheer infrequency of clients creates a difficulty in finding statistically comparable samples of nonclients for study of the factors differentiating the two groups. We can infer a general understanding of the characteristics







5

of therapy seekers and nonseekers by comparing actual clients with others who nearly accepted therapy but rejected referral or dropped out of therapy early. These studies reinforce the contention that it is not relative need for better psychological adjustment which draws people to therapy.

Socioeconomic variables have repeatedly been shown as

most significantly related to therapy orientation. Entrance into therapy, duration in therapy, and perceived satisfaction and improvement all rise concomminantly with socioeconomic level, whether measured in terms of income or status. Therapy is by and large an activity of middle-and-above class people who are relatively well educated and possess a degree of what is "success" in this society. This is despite statistics which indicate that the "need." for therapy is distributed in a diametrically opposite way (Auld & Myers, 1954; Cartwright, 1955; Cole, Branch, & Allison, 1962; Hollingshead & Redlich, 1954, 1958; Hunt, 1960; Redlich, Hollingshead, Roberts, Robinson, Freedman, & Myers, 1953; Robinson, Redlich, & Myers, 1954; Sullivan, Miller, & Smelser, 1958).

Intelligence, a related variable, is the only other

factor which has been found to predict therapy predisposition. Users of therapy produce higher intelligence test scores and also tend to be better educated than nonusers (Dana, 1954; Heilbrun, 1961a, 1961b, 1970; Kirtner & Cartwright, 1958; Rosenberg, 1954; Strickland & Crowne, 1963; Taulbee, 1958).

Attempts to use personality testing and assessments of

counseling readiness to predict client participation have not







6

provided a reliable indicator. It does appear from personality studies, however, that the most psychologically "needy" are less likely -to become clients than their better adjusted peers (Affleck & Mednick, 1959; Barron, 1953a, 1953b; Gallagher, 1954; Heilbrun, 1961a, 1961b, 1964, 1966; Heilbrun & Sullivan, 1962; Hiler, 1959; Libo, 1957; Resnikoff, Brady, & Zeller, 1959; Roberts, 1954; Rogers & Hammond, 1953; Rogers, Knauss, & Hammond, 1.951; Windle, 1952).



The Relationship of Information to Therapy Predisposition


The greater use of psychotherapy by socially advantaged

perople can be accounted. for, to a large degree, by this group's proximity to therapy-predisposing information. According to the sociological model of help seeking provided by Kadushin (1969), people are likely to move from the experience of personal distress toward the office of a therapist to the extent that their position in society exposes them to sources of information which promote the efficacy of professional help. Better educated and higher socioeconomic-level people, because of their schooling, the books they read, the lectures the attend, are prepared to accept psychodynamic explanations for their problems. Also, their circle of friends and associates is prone to discuss life issues in "mental" terms, and their acquaintances may include individuals who have undergone therapy as well as workers in mental health professions. Thus, advantaged people are socially situated to identify their problems as psychological, to receive answers to their questions about the process of therapy, and even to be directed to particular practitioners.






7

Quite a different orientation toward problems is found in the lower socioeconomic milieu. Living considerably at the mercy of the environment, an individual of little means is disposed to view life difficulties as beyond personal control. For a person with little education, there is no rationale for viewing stress psychodynamically. Friends and associates, who also have limited resources, are apt to share this externalized perspective and reinforce passive acceptance of "fate." Among unaffluent people, professional help is likely to be defined as the services of familiar agencies which provide physical rather than psychological assistance.

For the lower socioeconomic-level person, moreover, lack of knowledge and distance from sources of information are not the only barriers to psychotherapeutic help. Riessman and other writers have furnished extensive evidence that, in dozens of ways, psychotherapy is geared to and biased in favor of middle- and upper-class clients (Riessman, Cohen, & Pearl, 1964). If the poor are slow to recommend psychotherapy to their friends, this may be a result of the well-documented insensitivity of professionals to cultural orientations different from their own.

It would, however, be incorrect to assume that a propensity to use psychotherapy is inherent and widespread among people who are well off. Redlich, Hollingshead, and Bellis (1955) observed misunderstanding and hostility toward psychotherapy in all strata of society, including the supposedly well-informed: in panels of lawyers, clergymen, and teachers,






8

for example, and in over one-third of medical men. In pretherapy interviews with psychiatry applicants, Redlich and colleagues found little difference between the attitudes of middle-class people--small business proprietors, white collar workers, and skilled laborers--and the fear and reluctance of poorly educated unskilled and semiskilled workers from the most crowded sections of New York. Both groups were also largely ignorant about therapy. Although more of the middle-class applicants had some understanding of the treatment, their knowledge consisted of little more than that the -therapist employs "mental" techniques. Typical or both groups were such comments as, "Psychiatry is fine for crazy people but it can't help me."

Persons from all walks of life are disinclined, if not

hostile, toward psychotherapy. The infrequent use of therapy is a complex issue, but it is reasonable to assume that people are not quick to avail themselves of services which they only vaguely comprehend. Nunnally (1961) surveyed a large sample of the American population and concluded that the average citizen is not grossly misinformed about mental health, but certain groups--notably, the less educated--hold many beliefs that are inaccurate; furthermore, while not misinformed, most people are considerably uninformed. Gurin and others (1960), analyzing the help-seeking patterns of a national sample, found distribution of services to lower status people so inferior that it constitutes a "special social problem." Another finding was that nine percent of their sample at some time in their lives were "ready for self-referral" but did not






9

apply for psychotherapy. A major reason which these people gave for not seeking help was "lack of knowledge about where to go or what to do in order to get help."



The Present Study. Purpose aiid Overview


Writers on the subject of help seeking have repeatedly

said that potential clients need to be apprised of what occurs behind the therapist's closed door. Client constituencies also are entitled to information on when and how to apply for help. As Shertzer and Stone (1974) have expressed it, "an important objective for every counselor is enlightening our society as to the legitimate goals and realistic limitations of counseling" (P. 87).

The present study is one of the first research attempts

to assess the efficacy of disseminating counseling information to potential clients. Brief and economical presentations of information are given and the responses of the recipients analyzed. It is not expected that a single informational experience will have sweeping impact upon therapy-seeking behavior but that a presentation of information can facilitate the ongoing process of "learning about therapy" which Kadushin (1969) has called essential to the decision to enter therapy. One presentation of information, if effective, may incline an individual to seek and accept further information and predispose him or her to make an informed decision to use counseling, should it at some point in life be appropriate.






10

Participants in the study are school adolescents in their usual classroom settings. The presentations of counseling information they receive are in three forms: a booklet, a talk given by a counselor, and a combination of the booklet and -the talk. In general content, the booklet and the talk are identical, covering the following topics:

1. The range of appropriate uses of counseling

2. Types of counseling and counseling activities

3. The counseling process

4. How counseling help may be obtained.

Six hypotheses are tested by comparing the recipients of each form of information and a control group (receiving no presentation), using measures of counseling expectancies and willingness to use counseling. Results are discussed in terms of the usefulness of information in altering perceptions of counseling which may facilitate help seeking.



Notes on Terminology


Counseling and Psychothera-Dv

The use of the terms "counseling" and "psychotherapy" in this study requires explication. In general and theoretical discussions, the two terms are used interchangeably. In references to previous research, the term chosen by the investigator being reviewed is retained. In the experimental presentations of information delivered to high school youth, only counseling is mentioned.






11

In each case, the concept denoted is the same: the psychological helping process which aims "to help individuals toward overcoming obstacles to their personal growth . and toward achieving optimum development of their personal resources" (American Psychological Association, 1956).

For broad discussions of the delivery of mental health

services to the public, the choice of one term over the other could only be arbitrary. As Patterson (1966) writes,

There are no essential differences between counseling
and psychotherapy in the nature of the relationship,
in the process, in the methods or techniques, in
goals or outcomes (broadly defined), or even in the
kinds of clients involved. (p. 3)

The terms "counseling" and "psychotherapy" arise from two historical streams which have developed into present-day psychological services: "counselir%6" from the mental health and vocational guidance movements in our society and "psychotherapy" from the medical tradition. It was found, in reviewing the literature backgrounding this study, that investigators in hospital clinics most often referred to psychotherapy while those in educational and other nonmedical settings spoke of counseling.

Some writers (e.g., Tyler, 1958) restrict the focus of counseling to growth and actualization processes, removing from it the repair-of-damage implications associated with therapy. This emphasis on the positive makes an important point. There does exist a connotative difference between the terms "counseling" and "psychoth.erapy.11 Research into client views of differently titled help givers, for example, indicates that






12

counselors are seen as more understanding and warm, less probing and powerful. (See Chapter II.) Because of this benign counselor image, it was decided to refer only to counseling in the informational presentations used in this study with school youth.

Perceptions of Counseling: Expectancies and Willingness

COU11Seling perception, as the concept is used in this

study, simply refers to how an individual views counselors and their work, either generally or along specific dimensions. Perceptions, opinions, conceptions, attitudes, and feelings about counseling are kin concepts; all are used to describe level. of positive-negative disposition toward counseling, and all comprise both direct and intuitive cognitions. It is assumed that perceptions of counseling have two origins, actual experience with counselors and information received formally or informally from other sources.

Perceptions of counseling are explored in this study in

terms of two instrumentally defined types of counseling orientation, expectancies of counseling and willingness to use counseling. Expectancies (or expectations) of counseling are future-oriented beliefs about counseling. They are notions the potential client has of what will happen if he or she should enter counseling; for example, "I expect to get the help I need." The expectancy measure that is used is a list of positive expectancies related to eight dimensions of counseling. High degree of agreement with the items is taken to be an indication of positive orientation toward counseling.







13
Willingness to use counseling is an individual's readiness, receptiveness, or motivation toward making use of counseling services. The willingness measure is a list of topics often discussed in counseling. High degree of expressed willingness to discuss these issues with a counselor is taken as an indication of positive orientation toward counseling.

The meaningfulness of counseling perceptions is discussed in Chapter II. Details of the instrument used to measure expectancies and willingness are given in Chapter III.












CHAPTER II

REVIEW OF I]TERATURR,



In the field of counseling, little is known about the use of information to help potential clients understand the services available -to them. The first study evaluating the

influence of information upon people's perceptions of counseling appeared only a few years ago. The researchers, Gelso and McKenzie (1973), prefaced their report by saying,

No research heretofore has examined the efficacy of various modes of information dissemination in
correcting the miscommunications between counselors
and other groups. Thus, much time and effort have
been spent identifying the problem, but little
energy has been exerted in studying means of
remedying it. (p. 406)

Several related lines of investigati on, however, form a background against which the effectiveness of counseling

information can be assessed. Some surveys have been done to assess perceptions of therapy held by certain counseling constituencies and the general publl.c, showing that there is widespread inadequacy of knowledge regarding counselors and their work. Also, experiments on the transmission of mental health information have demonstrated the capability of sjinple communications to modify people's conceptions of psychological issues. Additionally, a number of pretherapy procedures designed -to rear-Jy counselees for their role have been found successful. The conclusions of these studies point to provision 14







15
of information as a promising method of facilitating help seeking.



Perceptions of Counseling


Psychotherapy literature has always contained the idea that the client's comprehension of therapy is essential to treatment. ifreud, in his writings, expressed his belief that the intelligent patient was most suited to psychoanalysis (cf., 1950, pp. 249-263). Subsequent attempts to identify the successful client have consistently pointed to the person who is quick to learn and perceptive of therapy as a source of relief. Carl Rogers (1951, 1957) in his client-centered therapy, emphasized the provision of therapeutic conditions which would work personality change with any client--but only within the context of "psychological contact," a relationship in which the client perceives the warmth, accurate empathy, and congruence emitted by the therapist.

Rotter (1954), Kelly (1955), Frank (1959, 1961), Lennard and Bernstein (1960), and Goldstein (1962a, 1962b) have most significantly spoken to the importance of the client's understanding as a determinant of the course of therapy. Rotter (1954) declared the necessity of what he called "successive structuring" of the therapy process, periodic discussion to clarify goals, roles, plans, responsibilities, and attitudes with the client. Kelly (1955) theorized that response to therapy is dependent upon the client's initial ways of conceptualizing the interaction, especially in terms of role







16
expectancies. Frank (1959, 1961) described the dynamics of the therapeutic relationship as related to the client's belief or faith in the power of the process. He was also among the first -to explain how divergent therapist anmd client expectancies can produce a breakdown in communication anrd lead to therapy failure. Lennard and Bernsteirn (1960) provided a systematic view of therapeutic communications as interrelated with expectations, showing that dissimilar client and therapist expectations produce strain, or disequilibrium, on the structure of communication. Goldstein (1962a, 1962b) extensively examined the accumulated theoretical and experimental work on patient and. therapist expectancies in the light of what is known about other forms of anticipatory himian behavior and confirmed expectancies to play "clearly . a significant

role in psychotherapeutic interaction, demonstrably accounting for a portion of improvement" (1962a, p. 79); specifically, his research review indicated that the most therapeutic change can be predicted in clients whose role expectancies are coinpatible with the therapist's and Whiose outcome expectancies are moderate and realistic.

Thus, clients approaching psychotherapy conceptualize

the process in differing ways, and it is generally accepted tfist early perception of therapy is atn important determinant of the course and outcome of treatment. Less is known, however, about the period prior to therapy entry, when the prospective client makes -the decision to seek help. Conceivably, cognitive variables have their strongest influence at this point,







17
when anticipation of benefit must win out over resistance to change and fear of self-confrontation. Perceptions of College Counseling Services

Part of our knowledge of potential clients' perceptions of counseling comes from a number of surveys conducted among student groups. Most of these were the efforts of college counseling center personnel and secondary school counselors, concerned that their image limited student use of their services. By the 1960's, the counseling profession had thoroughly outgrown its -traditional function of vocational and educational testing and advising; and counselors, trained in the psychology of personality and in psychotherapeutic theory and practice, made themselves available for work in personal development as well. Yet, as Bordin (1955) had pointed out earlier, student clients were making a distinction between "counseling" and "psychotherapy"; they saw counseling as an informationoriented resource, helpful in reasoning through a particular decision, but not appropriate for the in-depth exploration of personal problems and emotional issues. Bordin called for the use of campus media to clarify the counselor's role and recommended further study into client anticipations and expectations.

In one assessment of campus counseling views by King and Matteson (1959), a representative sample of students rated their willingness to take each of 40 problems to the university counseling center. The results supported Bordin's assertion; students preferred educational, vocational, social, and personal problems--in that order--for discussion at the center.







18

Individuals tended to select either educational and vocational types of' problems or social and personal types, but not both, as appropriate for counseling. The students who were most willing to use campus counseling facilities were those who had previously visited -the counseling center.

Similar conclusions were reached 'by Warman (1961). Using a check list of problems related to three factors--college routine, vocational choice, and personal-social adjustment-he compared several campus groups' perceptions of counseling topic appropriateness. Counseling center staff, college personnel workers, teaching faculty members, and counseled and uncounseled students, all agreed that vocational counseling was most appropriate for the university counseling center; but the counselors rated personal and social adjustment problems as significantly more appropriate for counseling than did any other group. Echoing Brodin, Warman suggested that practitioners orient other groups to the kinds of problems with which they feel they can be helpful.

A decade later, Resnick and Gelso (1971) replicated the Warman study to determine whether counselors were closing the communication gap between themselves and other university people. Using the revised Counseling Appropriateness Checklist (Warman, 1961), they found. that counselors still viewed personal and social adjustment as more appropriate for discussion at the counseling center than did other groups; however, the perceptions of others, particularly student personnel workers, had moved somewhat closer to those of the

counseling staff.







19
Two other surveys using Warman's check list have reconfirmed that the function of college counselors is not seen as they would like it to be seen. Student clients and nonclients (Gelso, Karl, & O'Connell, 1972) and several campus groups including students, parents (Wilcove & Sharp, 1971) all rated personal and social matters as appreciably less appropriate for the counseling center than did center staff.

Research on student perceptions of their university counseling services has also examined how the counselors themselves are seen. Bordin (1951) had called attention to the title "counselor" as distinguished in the student mind from the term "therapist.,, He reported that college students viewed the counselor as "fatherly, someone you could lean on . understanding and forgiving" but, at the same time, "impersonal and objective" (p. 17). This contradiction was not troublesome, Bordin explained, because students expected to discuss in counseling only rather superficial, decision-oriented issues and, therefore, assigned little importance to the counselor's personal characteristics.

Strong, Hendel, and Bratton (1971) have provided current data on college students, views of campus help givers. On a 100-item adjective check list and list of nine problem topics which might be discussed with helping persons, female undergraduates rated their perceptions of counselors, advisors, and psychiatrists. The women regarded counselors as more like advisors than like psychiatrists. They considered counselors to be friendly, polite, warm "nice guys," comfortable to be






20

with; but they felt psychiatrists were intelligent, decisive, analytical, cold, humorless, and rejecting. Vocational and educational problems might be taken to an advisor or a counselor; but -the psychiatrist, not the counselor, was clearly the most likely choice for such difficult personal concerns as getting along witn friends, uncomfortable feelings and emotions, and sexual distress.

Gel-so and Karl (1971.) extended the work of Strong et 2,.1., using more helper labels: high school counselor, advl, or, college counselor, counseling psychologist, clinical psychologist, and psychiatrist. Their use of the same 100-item check list and nine problem items with male and female students produced no "nice guy" distinction for the counselor. More difficult personal problems were again perceived to be within the domain of the psychiatrist first, with the two psychologists next likely to be consulted. These three professionals were described as more knowledgeable, inquisitive, and analytical than the counselor; the counseling psychologist was considered more casual and flighty; and the psychiatrist, more powerful, interesting, tactful, and accurate.

Since university counseling staff are often trained in clinical and counseling psychology and offer more than vocational and educational services, Gelso and Karl recommended that counselors more adequately inform the public of their role and clarify the meaning of their title.

The above studies imply that students are not aware of the full range of services available from their counseling






21

centers. Bearing this out further, a survey of reasons students do not use university counseling facilities (Snyder, Hill, & Derksen, 1972) found that undergraduates were generally in favor of the concept of counseling and unafraid of stigma attached to seeking therapy i; yet they reported little knowledge about their college counseling center or about the counseling process, and they preferred to turn to friends and close relatives for help with personal and social problems rather than to professionals. Related findings from a study of undergraduates, expectations of counseling (Tinsley & Harris, 1976) showed that students believe that counseling is in general a helpful service, but they are rather doubtful that it could be useful to them. They strongly believed in the expertise of counselors and that counselors are genuine, accepting, and trustworthy, but they did not expect that they could be understood or helped in counseling. Perceptions of School Counselors

The first school counselors were teachers; and, since the professionalization of the school counseling specialty. counselors in secondary schools have had a most difficult time establishing themselves as a resource for students with other than school-related matters. Especially during the 1960's, an outpouring of counseling literature declared the central concern of school counselors to be the developmental and emotional needs of the total youngster (e.g., American School Counselor Association, 1963; Wrenn, 1962). This prompted a number of studies into how the school counselor is perceived.






22

Dunlop (1965) surveyed opinions of what school counselors should do. Counselor educators, secondary school admilinistrators, counselors, teachers, college-preparatory and job-bound seniors, and mothers of students, all agreed that educational and vocational counseling were appropriate, snd a11 except job-bound students and their mothers were in favor of testing as a counse].or's task. Personal counseling received general approval, but students showed significantly less enthusiasm for this service. The college-bound seniors indicated by their remarks that the school counselor was "a good choice for personal counseling when no one else was available" (p, 1026). Furthermore, students, parents, and teachers rejected some behaviors which counselors consider integral to the therapist role. They did not want counselors to allow counselees to speak freely without fear of punishment or correction. They condoned advice-giving, and they felt that counselors should teach students the difference between right and wrong.

Dunlop concluded that the counselor is perceived in the school as merely "a helpful person whose function is largely one of providing assistance to students in their efforts to achieve academic success" (p. 1027). If counselors are to be distinguished from teachers, he wrote, they must educate other school personnel and the public about their competencies.

How the school counselor is regarded by colleagues is likely to influence student use of counseling services. A recent paper by Wittmer and Loesch (1975) described teachers'

lack of trust and respect for counselors as related to inadequate






23

understanding. Their survey revealed that a number of teachers view counselors as secretive and involved too little with disciplinary and teaching duties. Although teachers in elementary schools were more satisfied than secondary school teachers with the performance of counselors, many of the educators considered counselors to be privilegede" people and tended to wonder what counselors do with their time. With this evidence, the researchers stated that counselors could improve their relationships with teachers by applying their human relations skills to better role communication.

A group of school principals, Schmidt (1962) found, agreed that the counselor's main activity should be counseling students, rather than teaching or clerical tasks. In this study, principals and counselors concurred that school counseling is primarily vocational arid educational work, but both reported that they would prefer counseling to focus on personal and social problems.

Students themselves, s, however, have not perceived the

school counselor as a particularly good resource for personal matters. Surveys by Gibson (!962), Grant (1954), and Kennedy and Fredrickson (1969) have clearly shown that high school students are most willing to discuss educational and vocational planning with their counselors but would rather approach nonschool people, usually friends and family, for personal help. Graduating seniors responding to a questionnaire by Roemmich and Schmidt (1962) reported, moreover, that parents and family had given -them more assistance in selecting and planning for






24

college than had counselors. Junior high school students in a study by Van Riper (1971) said that, overall, counselors had been more helpful to them than other school personnel but less helpful than other students.

Perhaps students are reluctant to go to their counselors with emotional issues because they mistakenly believe that professional assistance is reserved for people who are very disturbed or dysfunctional. Heilfron (1960) found support for this contention. Using a questionnaire devised by Robinson (1953), Heilfron asked a group of high school students to rate brief descriptions of hypothetical adolescents, specifying the degree of counseling indicated in each case. The students recommended minimal counseling for attractive youngsters doing well in school and displaying no overt emotional handicaps. They prescribed more frequent counseling for youngsters with obvious problems, but they reached strong agreement for maximum counseling, regular sessions or referral to an outside therapist, only in the case of a boy who was clearly behavior disordered. Heilfron concluded that students associate intense counseling with extreme deviance and are unaware of the role developmental counseling might play in helping those who are functioning adequately.

Perrone, Weiking, and Nagel (1965) administered the same questionnaire to junior high school students, teachers, and parents. The resulting opinions of counseling need were similar to those found by Heilfron, but parents preferred somewhat more intensive counseling than did their children, while teachers







25

favored less. The counseling needs of student participants in the study, inferred from self-report on the Mooney Problem Checklist, were largely unrelated to their, or their parents', estimates of hypothetical youngsters' need for services.

Apparently, the school counseling specialist is not seen as an essential resource for the developmental and emotional needs of students. The studies cited show that the counselor is not highly regarded in the school, not trusted, not understood, and not sought out. School counselors are undoubtedly performing important, if not highly visible, functions. The fact remains, however, that lack of student recognition severely limits the counselor's capability to provide psychological help. It has been said that "word-of-mouth advertising"

is the primary mode of promoting the counselor's image in the school (Morgan, 1974). It seems this form of publicity is insufficiently conveying the message of counselor availability and competence.

Public Perceptions of Psychotheranpy

By cultural definition, psychotherapy is the designated

treatment in this society for certain forms of human distress. The public, however, is not of one mind in its perceptions of

therapy. People with dissimilar lifestyles and associates are likely to have divergent view of therapy. City dwellers, for

example, do not view therapy in the same way as rural inhabitants. Workers in the occupational fields of health, education, communications, and art often thinA differently about therapy than those in engineering, law, and busIness, Sophisticated







26

and well read people discuss therapy in ways that others might not comprehend.

Social influence is powerful in the formation of perceptions. It is particularly a determinant of perceptions regarding psychotherapy because, lacking firsthand knowledge, most people must rely -upon impressions gathered from others. An explanation of how social influence is related to therapy orientation is Kadushin's (1969) theory of the "Friends and

Supporters of Psychotherapy." In a Study of nearly fifteen hundred applicants to New York psychiatric clinics, Kadushin found that talking with others often precedes help seeking. Many applicants had several characteristics in common:

1. Knowing others with proble-mos similar to their own.

2. Knowing a friend who had been in therapy.

3. Having discussed going to a clinic with some other people.

4. Having asked friends for recommendations to clinics or practitioners.

Kadushin hypothesized the existence in urban society of indirect chains of acquaintance through which people become therapy "insiders," not necessarily users of psychotherapy themselves but sophisticated promoters of its efficacy. Insiders transmit their knowledge arid endorsement of psychotherapy to colleagues and social contacts, forming a bridge between potential clients and professional help.

Insiders share a number of perceptions related to therapy use. They see value in discussing personal matters with others







27
and perceive themselves as having problems for which a therapist might be sought. They do not dislike psychiatric patients and

are unafraid to admit that they themselves might benefit from therapy. Also, their expectations of therapy are in line with those of therapists. They do not thiA k of' th erpy as 'advice giving, and they feel that the client, not the therapist, should do most of the talking.

According to Kadushin, il3siders are usually well educated, successful people who move in social circles which support their high regard for therapy. Others, for example lower socioeconomic-level people, can become insiders as well, but they must enter therapy by some other means than through acquaintances and then become insiders due to the experience. It should be made clear, however, that the network of friends which Kadushin describes is a small phenomenon, relatively ineffectual in the total society. Most people are "outsiders" who have little familiarity with the use of psychotherapy.

Lower socioeconomic-level perceptions. The therapy

perceptions of lower socioeconomic-status people have received particular study because of this group's disinclination to use psychotherapy. Lack of knowledge anrd understanding of therapy is a probable factor in their reluctance. Incongruity between lower socioeconomic life experience and the basic concepts of therapy is another.

The irrelevance of traditional therapy for the concerns of the poor has been discussed in a number of papers (EBrager, 1964; Cole, Branch, & Allison, 1962; Hunt, 1960; Riessman,






28

Cohen, & Pearl, 1964). Psychotherapy has been, in Brager's (1964) words, "owned and operated by middle class persons" (p. 415) and inflexible to the style and needs of low-income culture. Lists of the characteristics of likely clients, compared with the qualities of low-income people, show this clearly. The persons for whom traditional therapy seems to have been designed, for example, tend to internalize their problems, blaming themselves and not their environment. They are active participants, not passive cooperators. They value self-control, ego strength, individual-ism, and motivation. They are, in short, upward-striving individuals imbued with middle-class mentality. People closer to the struggle for sheer survival are inore concerned with solutions to day-to-day matters. Often in crisis, the-\T are in need of immediate help offered in direct and forthright terms, not insight development.

Lower socioeconomic people's lack of information about therapy is no doubt related to their lower level of formal schooling. Nunnally's (1961) large-scale survey of American mental health conceptions showed that adults with less than a high school education are most likely to have inaccurate beliefs about psychological matters. Research on perceptions of psychotherapy, however, has not found lower socioeconomic-status people differing greatly from -the middle class.

Redlich et. al. (1955), comparing views of middle class and lower socioeconimic-level psychiatric patients in pretherapy interviews, found much similarity in the expectations of the two groups. Both groups were fearful and ashamed, associating







29

therapy with "craziness." The middle-class interviewees were only slightly more knowledgeable about therapy. Both groups presented somatic problems and asked for "pills and shots"; both lacked confidence in the "talking treatment" and wanted sympathy, authority, and practical advice. Followed thro-ugh the course of therapy, however, the middle-class clients more. often came to accept their therapists' notions of the therapeutic process, while lower socioeconomic-level patients tended

to remain dissatisfied.

Some years later, Overall and Aronson (1962) surveyed the therapy.expectations of 40 lower socioeconomic-level clients entering psychiatric clinics. The results were puzzling. The

respondents tended to answer positively to most of the 35 items of the questionnaire, indicating--at face value--simultaneous anticipations of active, medical, supportive, dynamic, and passive -therapist behavior. The researchers speculated that there might have been a general set among those surveyed to reply "Yes." A finding which especially surprised the investigators was that the potential clients reported strong expectations that they would deal with emotional and dynamic material in therapy.

Conceivably, the research over the years represents a trend in which psychiatric outpatient clinic applicants are becoming more sophisticated regarding treatment. In a recent survey, Lorion (1974) uncovered no significant differences in help-seeking orientation or treatment expectancies among clinic applicants of middle-, lower middle-, and lower socioeconomic







30

status. On a measure of help-seeking attitudes, all groups expressed confidence in the efficacy of treatment, recognized the need for help, perceived little stigma attached to therapy, and showed a willingness to discuss personal matters. On a questionnaire similar to that devised by Overall and Aronson, their scores showed that they did not anticipate a highly supportive, problem-solving therapist, that they could differentiate psychotherapy from medical care, and that they expected to focus on emotional issues.

General perceptions. Two extensive investigations of

perceptions related to therapy are Gurin, Veroff, and Feld's (1960) survey of mental health adjustment and help-seeking modalities and Nunnally's (1961) series of studies into popular conceptions of mental health.

Gurin, Veroff, and Feld (1960) examined the mental health orientation of 2,460 representative American adults. One focus of this study was to determine the methods people use to handle life problems, providing a broad perspective on the use of professional help. In general, the researchers concurred with what is found throughout the literature on help seeking,

The tendency to tGurn to professional help when
faced with personal problems was found to be
associated with introspection, with structuring
distress in personal and interpersonal rather than
external terms, with self-questioning more than a
dissatisfied or unhappy reaction toward life roles,
with psychological rather than physical symptoms.
(p. 298)

Their data show that desire for therapeutic change is not

wieped Only 14 percent of those interviewed reported that

at some time in their lives they had gone to a professional







31

resource for assistance with a personal problem. In two-thirds of these cases, the helper sought was not a mental health professional. Sources of help most often mentioned were clergymen and physicians. Respondents also recalled seeking counsel from lawyers, teachers, nurses, policemen, and judges. Choice of a professional was apparently dependent upon the content of the problem; for example, trouble with a child might prompt a parent to confer with a schoolteacher. Less than one-fourth of the help seekers considered themselves to be the locus of the problems they discussed; even a "nervous breakdown" was more often defined as a collapse in the face of some external stress than as a personal adjustment difficulty. Most who asked for help indicated that they wanted comfort, reassurance, or advice, not self-examination.

Aside from the help seekers, a segment of their sample which particularly interested Gurin and his colleagues was a "critical group" --rnine percent of respondents who said they believed that a professional could have been useful to them with a problem in the past, but did not go for help. The reasons these people gave for not applying for assistance were ones commonly cited by mental health experts as deterrents to the help-seeking process: lack of knowledge about where to go or what to do in order to get help, aversion to shame and stigma, and desire to work problems out alone. The critical group appeared to be as psycho.ogically accessible as the people who actually sought help, but they tended to have less money and less education and were more often from rural areas. Half







32
of them attempted in some way to solve their difficulties on their own. Others reported withdrawing from the distress situation or doing nothing.

Among the large group which had never made use of professional help, most stated that they probably would not use it in the future. This so-called "self help" group did not actually make unusual use of their own or informal resources for troubles, particularly if -they were old, uneducated, or poor; nor were they happier than help seekers. They were less introspective and less inclined to phrase problems in psychological terms. Like the critical group, they tended to have lower incomes than help seekers and to be rural people.

Examining the characteristics of the three groups--help

seekers, those who almost sought help, and those who would not seek help--the researchers identified two types of factors operating in the use of mental health resources. Psychological factors were subjective perceptions associated with the desirability of professional help: introspectiveness, phrasing of distress in terms of personal problems and self-questioning, focusing on personal and interpersonal aspects of life, and reporting psychological rather than physical symptoms. Facilitating factors were circumstantial considerations connected with help accessibility: actual availability of resources in the community, knowledge of these resources, and the extent to which going for help is the "thing to do" in one's social group.

Psychological and facilitating factors effect the helpseeking process in different ways. This can be seen if help







33
seeking is viewed as a sequence of three decisions:

1. Whether or not the problem will be defined as a mental health problem.

2. Whether or not to go for help with the problem.

3. Choosing where to go.

Psychological considerations, the researchers hypothesized, are most clearly relevant to the first decision point, while facilitating factors are more influential in the last two decisions. This analysis of psychological and facilitating factors implies that potential clients need -two types of mental health information, education on how to recognize mental health problems and instruction on how to obtain help.

The second large-scale examination of the mental health

orientation of the public is a series of investigations reported by Nunnally (1961). Nunnally and his research team applied diverse data-gathering methods to such topics as public knowledge of mental health matters, views of mental illness and treatment, and mass media presentations of mental health issues. Although -this work does not focus directly on the use of psychotherapy, the conclusions are helpful in understanding therapy perceptions and, it will be seen, provide important preliminary information for the second phase of Nunnally's research in which mental health communications variables are explored.

To study general mental health knowledge, the investigators administered a 50-item questionnaire of possible mental health beliefs to several groups considered to resemble a







34

cross-section of the general population. (In most of Nunnally's studies, subjects were selected from a pool approximating the United States population in terms of education, age, sex, and other demographic characteristics.) I.ridividual responses contained many inconsistencies, and overall responses produced low correlations under factor analysis, leading the researchers to conclude that the public's mental health information is not highly structured or crystalized and that people are tentative and uncertain in their opinions. As previously mentioned, although most people were not grossly misinformed on mental health issues, they were rather uninformed; and certain groups, notably the older and less well educated, did possess much erroneous knowledge.

Another group of studies assessed attitudes toward the

mentally ill, using rating scales, ranking methods, the Semantic Differential technique, and "free association" tests. The results revealed that the notion of stigma associated with mental illness is well entrenched in reality. Young and old, the well educated and the relatively unschooled, all tended'to regard the mentally ill person as comparatively dangerous, dirty, unpredictable, and worthless.

Using similar techniques, the researchers then examined attitudes toward psychological experts and treatment. They found that all types of professionals were highly regarded, particularly by less well educated people; but mental health professionals were held in less esteem 4 Chan those who treat physical problems. Reactions to mental health institutions







35
and treatment, including psychotherapy, were generally less favorable than attitudes toward physical treatment methods. Also, distinctions between the mental health subprofessions were poorly understood.

Before describing Nunnally's media studies, it should be noted that they were carried out in the mid-1950's and, no doubt, the situation today is changed. Through content analysis of television and radio broadcasts, national magazines, and daily newspapers, the researchers discovered a highly distorted view of mental health issues being propagated by commercial media. For example, presentations often suggested that a person with a psychological problem looks and acts in different ways than does a "normal" person. Especially in television dramas (which are more likely to be viewed than mental health educational programs), mentally ill persons were often portrayed with highly stylized and bizarre behavior, glassy eyes, uncontrollable laughter, and strange phobias and obsessions. The depicted causes of mental problems were frequently situational or organic: a single stressful incident, an old battle wound, physical privation such as hunger or thirst. The treatment was likely to be assistance from a professional-a psychiatrist, physician, or nurse--or, just as commonly, the application of timely advice or a bit of homespun philosophy.

The impact of -these media presentations, however, did not appear -to be critical. Public views of mental health matters found in Nunnally's other research were far less extreme than media depictions, reflecting the consumer's ability to withstand







36
the influence of unrealistic dramatic conventions. Furthermore, in the overall media, information concerning psychological issues was infrequent. The researchers found only 120 relevant items in 49 newspapers, 16 in a radio station's weekly output, 17 on one television channel watched for a week, and 49 Items in 91 issues of national magazines.



Effects of Mental Health Information: Nunnally's Findings


After their investigations of public mental health views, Nunnally and his colleagues conducted a series of pioneering studies in the field of mental health communications. The second half of Nunnally's (1961) report is an examination of the communication variables involved in attempts to expand popular knowledge and improve general attitudes regarding mental health issues. Its essential message was summarized as follows,

Communicating mental health information may, on first
thought, seem to be a relatively straight-forward
task--merely presenting facts in a clear and interesting manner. Unfortunately, the problem is much
more complicated than that, and there are many
stumbling blocks in the communication process. For
example, the attitudes that people have toward mental disorders and afflicted individuals make them resistant to certain kinds of new ideas and to some types
of communications. Because the direct approach
often fails to change people's attitudes and opinions in desired directions, new appeals and communication strategies must be found. (p. 2)

The following review of Nunnally's findings includes several focuses; (a) general acceptance of mental health information-public interest, discrimination of true from false information,







37

individual differences in receptiveness, effectiveness of types of information; (b) major variables in message transmission-anxiety, solution provision, message certainty, and negation effects; (c) other variables related to mental health communications; (d) permanence of message effects. Acceptance of Information

In their studies of mental health viewsNunnally and his research, team found popular knowledge of psychology space, unsystematically structured, and uncrystalized. Uncertain and eager to learn more, the public tends to be susceptible to any authoritatively presented mental health information. Despite their curiosity, however, people are likely to be frightened by such topics as mental disorder and resistant to unpleasant messages.

On an interest questionnaire, 200 raters indicated as

much willingness to receive information on mental health as on several other popular subjects, including physical health. Asked to rate interest in different aspects of mental health, respondents indicated more enthusiasm for information related to immediate personal issues; the more distant the topic from an individual's own concerns, the less interest it generated. Of particular interest was material related to the early stages of mental illness, causes and initial signs.

A further study of public interest in mental health used written information sheets describing treatment methods. The descriptions were designed with varying combinations of three message variables: high- or low-anxiety arousal, personal or







38
impersonal phrasing, and provision of solutions or no solution. Ranking the communications in order of preference, 288 participants in the experiment showed least interest in personal, highanxiety messages providing no solution and most interest in impersonal, low-anxiety messages including solutions. Receptivity to mental health messages, therefore, seems tied to the degree of threat produced.

False information may be as readily accepted as true. An experiment which demonstrated this used four written accounts of treatments for catatonic schizophrenia, two plausible in the light of current evidence and two concocted from the imaginations of the researchers. Four groups of college students read these reports, presented as expert explanations, while control groups read messages unrelated to mental health. The readers of both true and false reports made similar ratings of their information on convincingness, and more than 75 percent of each group answered "Yes" when asked whether they thought the treatment described to theya would work. Additionally, the four groups, compared with control groups, indicated more favorable attitudes on a Semantic Differential, both for the concept of "a person with catatonic schizophrenia" and for general mental health topics. Nunna11y suggested that even false information can serve a useful purpose.

Measuring the effects of types of information upon attitudes and knowledge, the researchers used 'Lour paragraphs designed to promote accurate understanding about four popular misconceptions: (a) that the mentally ill look and act different,







39
(b) that willpower is a deterrent to mental illness, (c) that avoidance of morbid thoughts brings relief, and (d) that the mentally disturbed are hopeless. Each of four groups of high school students read one message, and a control group was exposed to no message. On a mental health information test, students usually scored high on the factor to which they had been educated but not on others. (An exception was that most students, including controls, were convinced that the mentally ill are not hopeless.) The attitudes of informed students differed in a generalized way from those of the control group, but changes were often in a negative direction. The researchers attributed the worsening of attitudes to the content of the messages not having been controlled for such variables as arousal of anxiety.

In the course of their studies, the researchers attended to individual differences in respondents. The general finding was that there were large differences among people's attitudes and knowledge prior to communications experiments, but subjects tended to change by the same amounts when exposed to similar mental health messages. Initial differences in information corresponded strongly to years of formal schooling and intelligence test scores. Initial mental health attitudes, however, were not significantly related to educational sophistication, age, sex, and other prominent dimensions of individual difference. Major Variables in Message Transmission

Having found that nonthreatening mental health messages

are most acceptable to the public, Nunnally's group set out to







4o

determine how people's knowledge and attitudes are affected by several message variables: anxiety arousal, provision of solution, message certainty, and negation effects.

One study explored the inflLience of messages put in anxiety-arousing terms upon attitudes toward specific and general mental health concepts. For two topics, psychoanalysis and "shock therapy," written information was composed with combinations of high- or low-anxiety phrasing and provision of a solution or no solution. Each of 392 high school students read one of the eight messages, then reacted on a Semantic Differential to several concepts related to mental health. Highanxiety messages clearly produced more negative orientations toward all of the concepts. When a solution was provided, however, it promoted favorable attitudes in the high-anxiety condition. Because the researchers had surmised from pilot studies that mental health messages usually raise anxiety, they recommended inclusion of solutions whenever mental problems are brought up in public communications.

Nunnally also reported on the.effects of message certainty, the degree to which a message is delivered as proven "fact" rather than tentative belief. Message certainty is highly relevant to mental health communications because solid information in the field is considerably lacking, new data and ideas are continually appearing, and thus messages do tend to be tentative. From a number of studies, two of which are described below, Nunnally drew three general conclusions:







41

1. The more certainty with which mental health information is stated, the more favorable will be the attitudes toward concepts related to mental health.

2. Destruction of' information about mental health without

supplying new information results iv'i negative attitudes, toward related concepts.

3. Even if available information may turn out to be incorrect, it is better to give such information -to the public than to withhold it.

Experimenting with message certainty, the research team designed written descriptions of two psychological treatment methods, each explained to be effective in both high- and lowcertainty phrasing. Each of four classes of high school students read one of the four messages, and two other classes read control messages irrelevant to mental health. On a Semantic Differential, students who had received high-certainty communications demonstrated more favorable attitudes toward the treatment method described and toward general mental health concepts. Two weeks later, the investigators returned with new messages negating the information which had been supplied originally. When administration of the Semantic Differential was repeated, negating messages produced less favorable attitudes on specific and general mental health concepts for all groups, including controls; however, students who previously had read high- and low-cortainty messages did not differ in amount of attitude change.

Negation of information proved significant in further experimentation. Undergraduates read explanations of







42

schizophrenia which contained high-certainty assurance of effective treatment immediately followed by a statement casting doubt on the validity of the information. Compared with control groups who received no mental health informatio n, the message recipients indicated generally unfavorable attitudes toward mental health concepts on a Semantic Differential.

Other Communications Variables

To test the notion that contact with the mentally ill might improve attitudes toward mental health concepts, an experiment was conducted involving visitors to high school classrooms who made brief talks about mental illness. Each speaker presented herself in three ways, either beginning the talk by stating that she was a former mental patient or making this announcement at the end, or making no such statement. An additional experimental condition was that half of the talks were given in a personal way, enlisting active identification of the audience with ("he issues mentioned, while half were delivered impersonally, allowing the audience to feel remote from the events.

Later, as a supposedly unrelated event, a researcher administered the Semantic Differential to assess attitudes toward mental health concepts and an information test in each class. A clear finding was that late revelation of mental patient status affected attitude-s far more favorably than initial disclosure. Late disclosure also promoted slightly better attitudes than no disclosure. Information scores were







43

unaffected by disclosure, but were somewhat lowered by the personal, and presumably more anxiety-producing, approach.

In another study, the personal-impersonal variable was

found to have no impact. Experimenters used two versions of a paragraph about mental illness. One employed an impersonal approach ("What is mental illness . .?"); the other, a personal approach ("Have you ever thought how it would be if you were mentally ill?"). High school. students who read each paragraph did not differ in their attitudes expressed through the Semantic Differential.

Presentation style may affect the power of a message to change people. Using an elaborate factor analysis process on stylistic variables found in 70 diverse messages, the researchers determined two stylistic features of probable significance in mental health communications, easy versus difficult wording and negative versus positive tone. Messages judged to have average difficulty and neutral tone were presented in, five forms: the original version and variations combining easynegative, easy-positive, difficult-negative, and difficultpositive composition styles. Groups of college students each read one message in one form and responded on a Semantic Differential to "the message you have just read" and one concept related to their respective messages. They also rated the extent to which they would like to read more about the topic of the message and took a comprehension test on the material.

Although the college students in the study are unlikely

to represent the general population, attitudinal results were






44

interesting. Difficult negative messages induced more favorable ratings. Difficult negative messages also led to greater preference for further reading. On the comprehension test, however, the students showed they understood less from the negative versions of messages. The significant finding of the study was that larger differences occurred due to the style of the message than due to the ideas and other characteristics contained in it.

During the course of their research, Nunnally became

cognizant of a number of' problems in the terminology available to the general public for describing mental health phenomena. He identified four weaknesses in the language, which affect research as well as public communication) 3:

1. There is a shortage of terms. For the general public, there are no standard equivalents for such terms as "regression" and "catharsis." Thus, even though average people may be able to understand and discuss such matters, they are limited by having a inadequate psychological vocabulary.

2. The language suggests misleading explanations. A valid system for psychological understanding is hindered by the loose and biased usage of some terms in common parlance. The word "intelligence,, is inexactly used. Other terms suggest inco-crect causes, manifestations, and social effects of mental conditions.

3. The language is not well anchored semantically. Although most people use a word such as "neurotic," it is doubtful that they attach it to real-life behaviors. New







45
terms could be tied to sound, semantic referents, thus decreasing their possibility of misinterpretation.

4. The terms bear strong negative connotations. Some terms such as the word "insane" seem permanently linked with negative attitudes. The public should ben encouraLed to abandon such strongly unfavorable symbols and adopt new ones connotatively neutral.

To illustrate the contention that labels are important

to message communication, Nunnally's group conducted an experiment among 440 high school students. Two paragraphs were designed describing troubled men. Each description had four versions, one introducing the individual as simply "a man," the others referring to him as "mentally ill," "emotionally disturbed," and "insane." Each student read one of the eight versions and reacted to the man on a Semantic Differential. Predictably, labels had a decided effect on ratings, but the effect was less in -the case of the man whose description indicated less disturbance. The -esearchers drew two conclusions from the study:

1. Labels are more influential determinants of attitudes when applied to relatively unfamiliar phenomena.

2. Labels are more influential. determinants when they

are perceived as being realistically related to the phenomena described.

Permanence of Message Effects

When a communication appears to be producing the desired impact, the next consideration is the duration of its effects.







46
The Nunnally project was composed mainly of short-range investigations, usually the presentation of a very brief message followed immediately by outcome measures. The researchers chose to conduct multiple short--duration experiments, they said, for reasons of practicality and because the early stages of mental health communications research required careful control of variables and ongoing adjustment of experimental designs impossible in. longitudinal studies.

In order to investigate -the permanence of information

effects, the researchers performed a follow-up assessment of the change produced 'by high school psychology classes. Students from seven sections of a psychology course responded to information questiornaires and mental health attitude scales prior to the semester-long course, at the end of the semester, and again six months to one year later. Measured against themselves, the students gained in correct knowledge during the semester (they responded more like psychologists and psychiatrists), and they continued to gain in the following months. Findings were inconclusive, however, because a control group of art students showed approximately the same amount of improvement over the semester's time.

Attitudinal results were similar. Both psychology and art students developed more favorable zittitudes over the semester. On most significant concepts, change scores for the two groups were exactly the same. Tile researchers speculated that pre-test sensitization accounted for the nonpsychology students' increases. Sheer educational maturity was ruled out






47

as an explanation because correctness of information, but not attitudinal change, is believed to correlate with years of schooling.

The researchers also conducted a shorter term controlled experiment on permanence of attitude change. High school students' favorable mental health attitudes induced by highcertainty messages were found to be undiminished after two and one half months.

According to Nunnally, one way to regard the duration of communication effects is to think of each small message as a "dose." Administration of successive doses with known characteristics can produce powerful arid enduring results. Short messages which are compounded to take advantage of the differential effects of relevant content variables are likely to promote more desirable changes than communication bombardments which are heavy and continual but uncontrolled.



Methods of PreT)aring Clients for Counselin


A recent and promising line of counseling research is the development of systematic procedures for preparing people to understand and use therapy more beneficially. In the last dozen years, reports have been published covering a wide range of therapy-orientation techniques. By far, most of these approaches have been aimed at people already identified as clients, but they have relevance for potential clients as well. Behavioral Techniques

Behavioral techniques in several forms have been put to therapy use. Zarle and. Willis (1975) used "induced affect







4.8

training,' a desensitization procedure, with college volunteers to reduce neurotic response to stress in a subsequent eighthour marathon encounter group. Truax and colleagues (1965,

1966, 1968) found evidence that ,Jicarious therapy pretraining," exposure to tape recorded clients modeling high 'Levels of group therapy behavior, raised the "ideal. self concepts" of hospitalized psychiatric patients and incarcerated boys, thus conceivably

producing stronger motivation for therapy.

Behavioral modeling has also been employed to teach clients verbal skills useful in counseling. IVIIyrick (1969) designed a counseling orientation program for eighth graders, the main feature of which was a tape recording of a peer being directed to use self-referencing language. Youngsters exposed to the model, compared with others who received -the program with no tape, made more self-references in a thirty-minute interview. Stone and Stebbins (1975) used procedures similar to Myrick's in a study with college volunteers arid reported similar results. Marlatt, Jacobson, Johnson, and fMorrice (1970) employed a live model who was variously reinforced by a counselor for making problem statements. Neutral reinforcement of the model, and positive encouragement to a lesser extent, induc-ed more problem statements from volunteer clients than negative and discouraging response to the model.

Whalen (1969) compared modeling and instruction as methods of increasing personal openness and concluded that a filmed model preceded by detailed instructions facilitated personal

discussion in groups, while either -the film or detailed







49
instructions alone were no better than minimal instructions. Doster (1972) assessed the relative efficacy of three methods of eliciting desired client behavior. His results showed that detailed instruction was more effective in producing verbal self-expression than either a taped model client or pretherapy rehearsal through roleplay.

Procedures Related to Client Expectancies

Other approaches have focused on the client's initial anticipations for counseling. Greenberg (1969; Greenberg, Goldstein, & Perry, 1970) experimented with induced pretherapy expectancies by randomly telling clients that they would have therapists who were warm or cold, experienced or inexperienced. Both psychology student volunteers and hospitalized psychotics became more receptive to therapeutic influence when expecting to see warm, experienced counselors. Similarly, Savitsky, Zarle, and Keedy (1976) showed that undergraduate women were

more self-disclosing when they were persuaded to expect an interviewer who was eager to be helpful and from a stressful family background than when anticipating someone with a happy past but unwilling to help. Other researchers (Imber, Pande, Frank, Hoehn-Saric, Stone, & Wargo, 1970), however, attempted without success to manipulate perceptions of improvement by informing outpatients that, on the basis of "psychological tests," they would experience therapeutic change in either

four weeks or four months.

Heilbrun (1972) tested the effects of pretherapy briefing regarding therapist control. Briefing consisted of a booklet







50
designed to make the client aware that counselors use varying levels of directiveness, any of -y flicjj -an be highly effective, and to encourage the client to be flexible in expectation of

counselor control.. The booklets iere given to iioon and women, rather either high or iow on counseling readiness, likelihoodd of' remaining in therapy), as they applied to a university counseling center. Compared with a control group of clients who received no booklets, only women of high counseling readiness were inore satisfied with their first counseling inter-view, given preliminary briefing. However, briefed low-readiness men and women had less incidence of premature termination than their control counterparts.

Krause (1,968) tried early clarification of client expectations as a means of enhancing motivation for therapy. At the point of telephone intake, agency workers tried to modify client anticipations which were unrealistic and supplement those which were space, using restatement of problem descriptions and probing for implicit or additional problems. The technique did not increase the appearance of clients foxcounseling; nor did it produce high motivation or satisfaction ratings among those who kept their appointments, but therapists observed clients who received clarification to be slightly more open, informed, and responsive than others. In a second study, Krause, Fitzsimmons, and Wolf (1969) extended clarification procedures into the first 6 to 12 counseling sessions and found tentative evidence -that active focusing on positive and negative therapy experiences can raise client motivation.







51
Special Procedures for Orienting Clients

Research has demonstrated that systematic preparation of clients can help them remain in therapy longer and participate in it more productively. Some procedures were not specifically

designed for pretherapy use but have possble application prior to counseling; for example, teaching clients internalization behavior (Pierce, Schauble, & Farkas, 1970) and "focusing" (Gendlin, 1969; Gendlin & Olson, 1970). One especially elaborate means of assisting clients during therapy, intervention through "structuring and stabilizing," has shown effectiveness with low-prognosis clients. This process, described by Warren and Rice (1972), consists of two types of extratherapy meetings with the client: (a) brief stabilizing sessions, in which a second therapist encourages the client to discuss any problems occurring with the primary therapist or with the therapy, and

(b) structuring session, in which the client is generally informed about therapy procedures and roles and the nature of personality change and then taught, through practice with feedback, to perceive experiences in terms of immediacy and internal focus.

Warren and Rice found that stabilizing alone was highly
successful in preventing therapy defection in the low-prognosis clients but of no particular advantage to therapy results. Clients who received both structuring and stabilizing, however, not only remained in therapy longer b-ut also had high participation levels and experienced considerable therapeutic gain.

Systematic preparation of clients for group therapy has taken several forms: providing participants with written






52

material on groups (Martin & Shewmaker, 1962), inviting a potential member to attend a trial meeting (Bach, 1954), or using a series of lectures or an instrumental program to explicate therapy and insight (Bettis, Malamud, & Malamud, 1949; Malamud & Machover, 1965).

Yalom, Houts, Newell, and Rand (1967) tested the impact of a 25-minute orientation lecture on groups of middle socioeconomic level psychiatric outpatients. The informal lecture, which allowed for questions and comments, included a brief history of group therapy, research evidence of its effectiveness, general goals, a rationale for understanding the group as a microcosm of interpersonal life, a warning that group

therapy would sometimes be difficult, and advice to be honest and direct with other members. In addition, the participants

were told, deceptively, that their groups were composed of members chosen for maximum compatibility and liking. Compared with control. groups who attended only a 25-minute registration session prior to group therapy, the groups which had received orientation displayed significantly more here-and-now interpersonal interaction and indicated somewhat more faith in group therapy, but increased cohesiveness did not result from the suggestion of compatible group composition.

A seminal development in the preparation of clients for

psychotherapy was Orne's (Orne & Wender, 1968a, 1968b) "articipatory socialization" approach. Orne conceptualized readiness for therapy as a special form of socialization. That is, to use psychotherapy, one must have knowledge about the process







53

itself, beliefs about its effectiveness, shared values regarding its importance, and particular role expectations--just as it is necessary to have learned appropriate perceptions about one's culture in order to live successfully in it.

As a means of explicit socialization for the client anticipating therapy, Orne designed a pre-therapy interview with three major purposes: (a) to provide some rational basis for the client to accept therapy as a means of help with problems, (b) to clarify the roles of client and therapist, and (c) to provide a general outline of the course of therapy, including its vicissitudes.

The first step in Orne's interview is a rapport-establishing period. While taking a brief history, the therapist indicates sympathetic understanding for the client's problems and makes a few simple comments which would seem highly insightful to the client. The intent in being immediately helpful, reassuring, and supportive is to provide a basis for thp acceptance of the therapist's subsequent statements. This step in the interview, according to Orne, takes a short -time and, fits into the model of the medical relationship already familiar to the client.

Next, the therapist gives -the client an explanation of psychotherapy. In Orne's thinking, "It matters little what rationale is given to help the patient understand psychotherapy. It is important, however, that some rationale be given" (p. 1207). The main points to be covered are that therapy is a learning process and that the goal is to create permanent change rather than immediate, transitory effects. To get these ideas across,







54

the therapist may provide illustrations alluding to what the client has said earlier.

Questions which arise from the discussion of the therapy

process will undoubtedly lead to the thi-rd step, explicating the therapist's and client's roles. Alt -this stage it is important *to clarify the difference between a psychotherapist and a medical professional% psychotherapy is done not to the client but with the client. It should also be explained that the client's role is to be active, the Th1,erapist's job is to help but not -to advise, the client will always make the decisions, and the client should expect to discuss issues honestly, even though they may be painful, private, or embarrassing.

Before concluding the interview, it is particularly important to address those aspects of therapy which might terminate it permaturely during the early session-s. The client should be cautioned that it is common to feel hopeless or negativistic at times during -therapy and -that, although there may be occassions when it seems impossible to keep an appointment, it is unwise -to interrupt therapy or to end it without mutual discussion, The client, then, is primed to expect "ups and downs" and to bring dissatisfactions with therapy into -the sessions.

Orne's interview has been -the Dasi",s for several studies. One group of researchers modified the procedure, calling it the "Role Induction Interview," and used it experimentally with 20 psychiatric clinic patients (Hoehn--Saric, Frank, Imber, Nash, Stone, & Battle, 1964; Nash, hoehn-Saric, Battle, Stone, Imber, & Frank, 1965). In an extensive analysis of subsequent






55

therapy behavior and outcome, the clients who received role induction compared favorably with 20 other patients who had no preliminary interview. Major findings were significantly better therapy attendance, session participation patterns, and therapist relationship ratings, as well as higher therapistrated global improvement, self-rated symptom reduction, and social effectiveness as rated in independent interviews. A further investigation into therapist factors revealed that role induction was especially helpful in making clients, particularly males, more attractive to their therapists. The researchers did not determine whether clients are best prepared by their own -therapists or by others, but they did conclude

-that it is most effective to prepare a client specifically for the therapist who will be seen.

Unlike Orne's original anticipatory socialization interview, the Role Induction Interview had conveyed to clients the expectancy that -therapeutic improvement would occur within four months. To determine what part such a time-limited suggestion in itself might play in therapy gain, another group of researchers set up an experiment with four pretherapy conditions: Orne's procedure alone, induced expectation of better functioning in four months alone, both procedures, and no procedure (Sloane, Cristol, Pepernik, & Staples, 1970). Psychiatric clinic clients who received anticipatory socialization showed slightly but significantly more improvement after four months -than clients who were given the time expectation, on measures of social, sexual, and. work adjustment. There







56

was no difference among groups in symptomatic change or therapy attendance, but clients who received the four-months suggestion were rated by therapists as less likeable than those who did not.

Orne had proposed that other antic ipatory socia.iz~ation

procedures--for example, motion picture films or group methods-might prove helpful. Following this suggestion Strupp and. Bloxom (1973) developed a group version of the Role Induction Interview as well as a role induction film and found both to be highly successful with lower socioeconomic level clients.

The film Turning Point (black and white, 16 millimeter,

32 minutes), depicting a troubled truck driver who reluctantly turns to a mental health center and receives help, was aimed, at community people who were unlikely to seek or accept therapy. It was designed to serve the major purposes of anticipatory socialization outlined by Orne and, specifically, to encourage viewers to consider a number of concepts related -to mental health: that talking about difficulties can be helpful; that

personality change requires work one must do oneself; that some troubles are self-inflicted; that there are adaptive and maladaptive ways of expressing anger, hostility, resentment, and aggression; that peers are potential allies and friends; that personality change takes time and no miracles should be expected;

that medication provides no solutions to the problems of living; that life difficulties are common and can be dealt with by talking about them; and that -there are no "cures" for life stress, only more adequate ways of handling it.






57
Participants in the study were 122 clients of 12 community agencies, identified as needing psychological counseling in order to reach agency rehabilitation objectives, but minimally motivated to use mental health services. Most had multiple problems of long standing. One third viewed the role-induction film; another third received a group presentation patterned after the Role Induction Interview; and another third, serving as controls, viewed a film on the subject of early marriage.

There was consistent evidence from postinduction, intherapy, and outcome measures that the two role-induction procedures facilitated a more favorable therapy experience. Turning Point was superior to the group presentation on several measures. Prior -to -therapy, for example, both role-induction groups were rated by therapists as more attractive, more strongly motivated, and more likely to improve than control clients. Both groups also rated themselves better along such dimensions as willingness to begin therapy, anticipation of satisfaction with the first session, estimated global improvement, and realistic expectations of improvement. Furthermore, those who were in greatest need of help, according to therapist ratings of' severity of disturbance, tended to experience the most positive reaction to the role-induction procedures. ProvidingInformation to Potential Help Seekers

Research into large-scale provision of counseling information has been scarce, It has also been limited to the college campus. Findings, nevertheless, support the effectiveness of broad, information dissemination and point to the relative worth of several methods.







58

To evaluate the impact of general counseling center

brochures, Bigelow, Hendrix, and Jensen (1968) distributed brochures to a group of 599 first-year university students but not to a similar group of 865 housed dn a separate dormitory. After six weeks, the informed students had made four times as many counseling appointments as the uninformed students; and informed clients used counseling proportionately more for emotional issues rather than educational and vocational problems. The contents of the brochure, however, were not reported.

At another university, Gelso and McKenzie (1973) did the first comparison of methods for delivering counseling information to potential clients. They devised written and oral presentations to promote student use of their counseling center and, specifically, to underscore the appropriateness of presenting personal problems for counseling. Students living on selected dormitory floors received brief talks which emphasized the appropriateness of presenting both "normal" and "severe" personal problems at the counseling center. The day after, these students received in their mailboxes "a rather typical three-page counseling center brochure" along with a letter from the center's director reinforcing the main points of the oral presentation. A second, comparable group of students received this written matirdal but no oral presentation. A control group was given no information.

On Warman's (1961) Counse-Iii'L A
,L-qroW.at,en.ess Checklist,
the students who received both the tulk and the written







59

information indicated personal adjustment to be appropriate for counseling discussion, more than either other group. On additional questionnaire items, this group was also more in

favor of seeking help with severe peychological problems and, although this item did not attain statistical significance, normal problems; further, they expressed more willingness to seek counseling for personal problems.

During the next six weeks, counseling center records

showed that more students from each information group appeared for counseling than did those from the control group. Students who had received only written information, however, presented

fewer personal adjustment problems than those who received the combination oral and written information.

Duckro, Beal, and Moebes (1976), in a third study, assessed the persuasiveness of a written communication with a highly personal tone. Their study involved a month-long campus media campaign which focused on the services of? the counseling center and particularly on the appropriateness of taking personal and social problems to college counselors. A group of 240 student volunteers had been pretested on the Warman check list prior to the campaign. During the campaign, one-half of the volunteer group received letters similar in content~ to the media messages but more personal in tone. Posttested on the Warman instrument, the letter recipients were more in favor of discussing

personal problems at the counseling center than were the other volunteers.







60

S urm-a ar v


Although little previous research has explored the disseinination of information as a means of facilitating client self-referral, professional literature has pointed up -the need for reaching potential users of counseling and demonstrated that communications can play an important part in shaping perceptions related to help seeking. It has been shown that the public is not well informed on mental health matters in general or about sources of psychological help. Nor is the public favorably inclined toward psychotherapy. However, there are indications that people are amenable to information which will fill the gaps in their knowledge and that their attitudes can be changed. Specially designed materials and techniques, many of which are primarily informational, have been successfully employed in teaching psychological concepts, promoting positive attitudes regarding mental health issues, and preparing clients for therapy. On college campuses, beginning evidence has been found that presentations of information can influence students, use of counseling center services. Thus the foundation has been laid for the present investigation into the effects of information on potential clients' perceptions of counseling.












CHAPTER Ill

METHODOLOGY



This study assessed the effects of written and oral

information upon perceptions of counseling. Groups of high school students were exposed differentially to four treatment conditions:

1. Written information--a booklet describing counseling

2. Oral information--a talk presented by a counselor

3. Combination--both the booklet and the talk

4. Control--neither presentation

The students then completed a questionnaire reflecting their expectancies of counseling and their willingness to use counseling services. It was predicted that students receiving information would demonstrate more positive counseling expectancies and willingness.



Hypotheses


A review of the limited research previous to this study

has indicated that information can favorably influence orientation toward counseling. The literature on counseling perceptions shows that, while most individuals regard counselors as helpful people, they are reluctant to seek their services. The public's views of counseling, however, are generally lacking in firmness and clarity. As Nunnally (1961) wrote, such loosely formulated
6 L






62

ideas are subject of modification by communications posed in

an authoritative but nonthreatening way. Therefore, it was

predicted that the informational presentations used in this

study would favorably influence high school students' counseling expectancies and their willingness to use counseling,

as outlined in the following hypotheses:

1. Students receiving -the written presentation of
counseling information (counseling booklet) will
score significantly higher on six measures of
counseling expectancy than control students.

2. Students receiving the oral presentation of
counseling information (counselor talk) will
score significantly higher on six measures of
counseling expectancy than control students.

3. Students receiving the combination form of
counseling information (counseling booklet plus
counselor talk) will score significantly higher
on six measures of counseling expectancy than
control students.

4. Students receiving the written presentation of
counseling information will score significantly higher on two measures of counseling willingness
than control students.

5. Students receiving the oral presentation of
counseling information will score significantly higher on two measures of counseling willingness
than control students.

6. Students receiving the combination form of
counseling information will score significantly higher on two measures of counseling willingness
than control students.

The study also explored the comparative effectiveness of

the three forms of information and the main and interaction

effects of -the variables, sex, race, grade level, and school

membership.







63
Sub~jects


High school students were chosen as the experimental population because they are an easily accessible group who

represent all segments of a community. high school youngsters, it appears from previous research, hold ill-conceived and often unfavorable perceptions of counseling. They are similar to the general public in this regard.

Participating in the study were 28 classes of high school students, seven sets o:f 4, matched classes, comprising a total

of 645 ninth- through twelfth-grade youngsters. Selection and assignment to treatment groups proceeded by the following steps:

1. Permission to conduct the study in the public schools of Alachua County, Florida, was gained through the Assistant Superintendent's Office of Administration, School Board of Alachua County.

2. Administrators in each of the six county high schools were contacted for approval of the research proposal. Four

schools agreed to host the study: one large comprehensive high school in the urban center of Gainesville and three schools in outlying rural communities. A fifth school could not accommodate the research schedule but did permit the pilot study at an earlier date. The remaining school, whose administration opposed the use of classroom time for the research, was omitted

from the study.

3. In each of the four host schools, the opinion of a

school counselor familiar with the master class schedule determined






64

the selection of matched sets of four classes. Selecting counselors iised the following guidelines:

a. Select four classes which are approximately
equivalent in student composition.

b. Classes considered "typical" are desired, not
those composed of advanced or exceptional students. Insofar as possible, choose four sections
of a general course in which students are routinely enrolled; e.g., required English or science.

C. Check the four classes for approximate equivalence in sex, race, grade level, and age of
students.

Three schools contributed two sets of four matched classes, and the smallest school provided one set.

4. The four classes in each set were randomly assigned one to each of the four treatment conditions.

The resulting sample consisted of "typical" high school students, heterogeneous in sex, race, grade level, and age, and accessible in their regularly scheduled classes. Two sets of four matched classes were in one urban school, and five sets were in three rural schools. Within each set, the four classes were randomly assigned to the four treatment conditions. Thus, seven classes composed each experimental and control group.



Measurement


To assess the effects of counseling information, this study employed a questionnaire based closely on the work of previous researchers in the area of perceptions of counseling. Entitled "Counseling Survey," the questionnaire has two parts. Part I measures six differential expectancies of counseling,






65

and Part II measures two types of counseling willingness (see Appendix A).

Part I: Counseling Expectancies

Part I of the questionnaire consists of 37 statements which begin with either "If I went to a counselor, I would expect to . .11 or "If I went to a counselor, I would expect the counselor -to . ." The respondent is asked to rate each item on a 5-point scale from "not true" to "definitely true." The items represent expectancies of counseling along six dimensions:

1. Counselor Expertise (5 items; e.g., "I would
expect the counselor to know a lot about people
arid their problems. 11)

2. Outcome of Counseling (5 items; e.g., "I would
expect to get the help I want.")

3. Trust in Counseling (6 items; e.g., "I would
expect to speak freely about my problems.,,)

4. Counselor Genuineness (6 items; e.g., "I would
expect the counselor to be a 'real' person, not
just a person doing a job.,,)

5. Counselor Acceptance (7 items; e.g., "I would
expect the counselor to think I am worthwhile.")

6. Counselor Understanding (8 items; e.g., "I would
expect the counselor to know how I feel, at
times, without my having to speak.")

The 37 items were taken from Howard E. A. Tinsley's (1976) revised counseling expectancies questionnaire. Development of the Tinsley instrument was in three stages. Initially, Tinsley collected 88 statements related to counseling perception, a majority of which had been previously evaluated by Lazarus (1971), Truaz and Carkhuff (1967), and Volsky, Magoon, Norman, and Hoyt (1965). He arranged these items into several categories,







66

administered them as a questionnaire to 109 undergraduate college students, and then calculated the reliability index of each item and the internal consistency of each category. As a result of this analysis, Tinsley produced an 82-item questionnaire with eight scales, six corresponding to the dimensions of counseling expectancy listed above and two others related to counseling procedures and counseling directiveness.

Tinsley next conducted a study among 287 undergraduate

psychology students, using the 82-item instrument. For seven scales, excluding the Counseling Procedures scale, he found internal consistency reliabilities ranging from .69 to .89 and, applying a series of t-tests, determined the mean scale value for each to be significantly different from each other,

except in the case of Trust and Acceptance.

Finally, Tinsley performed an. extensTive item analysis, based on data obtained from 490 subjects, and produced a 43-item version of the instrument, consisting of seven scales having the following Alpha coefficient reliabilities: Expertise (.87), Outcome (.76), Trust (.88), Genuiness (.90), Acceptance (.92), Understanding (.87), Directiveness (.84).

Part I of the questionnaire used in the present study is

essentially Tinsley's short form, except that the Directiveness scale was omitted. To accommodate high-school-aged respondents, two minor deviations from Tinsley's version were made. The original 7-point Likert-type scale was reduced to a 5-point scale. Also, in three items, vocabulary was simplified: "Experience a significant change" was modified







67

to "have a big change"; "Speak frankly regarding" was changed

to "speak freely about"; "initiate" became "begin."

Fry's (1968) readability formula, applied to Part I,

found the items to be approximately at seventh-grade level of reading comprehensibility.

The questionnaire was subjected to a test of stability,

using the test-retest method, Participants in the reliability study were twenty-two members of a Young Life Christian Club, composed of adolescents attending two urban Gainesville high schools. Five boys and sixteen girls, ranging in age from 14 to 19 (mean age: 16.8), responded to 1.,he questionnaire on two occasions separated by a time interval of three weeks. Productmoment correlations calculated for each scale of the questionnaire resulted. in the following reliability coefficients for the six expectancy dimensions: Expertise (.79), Outcome (.85), Trust (.37), Genuineness (.75), Acceptance (.46), Understanding (.62).

Part Ha: Counseling Willingness

Part II of the questionnaire, evaluating willingness to use counseling, lists ten topics which people often discuss in counseling. Fiv\e items are vocational and educational issues: school work and grades, looking ahead and planning your life, how you feel about teachers and classes, jobs now and in the future, and money matters. Five are personal and social concerns, personal worries, knowingS and understanding yourself better, how you get along wilth your family, how you get along with others your age, and uncomfortable feelings







68

that you have. The respondent is asked, "If you were concerned with these -things, how willing would you be to talk each one over with a counselor?" For each item, the subject indicates willingness of a 5-point scale ranging from "not at all

willing" to ,very willing.",

This willingness measure, designed for the present study, was modeled after a list of nine problem topics developed and used by Strong, Hendel, and Bratton (1971) and again used by Gelso and Karl (1974) in studies of college student views of found less willingness to discuss personal and social problems with counselors than vocational and educational problems.

Test-retest reliabilities for the willingness scales were

determined by the same procedures described for the expectancies section of the questionnaire, using the same Young Life youngsters. The resulting reliability coefficients were .56 for, Vocational--Educational Willingness (yE) and .71 for Personal-Social Willingness (PS).



Procedures


The research was carried out during a period of two and one-half weeks in the last term of the public-school year (April 25-IMay 17, 1-977) following a timetable arranged with thie teachers of the participating classes in the four schools (see Appendix B).

Experimental activities for each set of four matched

classes (each set representing the four treatment conditions) required two days' time. On the first day, classroom teachers







69

distributed the counseling information booklet to two classes. On the second day, the researcher presented the counselor talk to two classes and gathered the questionnaire data in each of the four classes. Figure 1 details the two-day schedule for each four-class set.




Treatment Condition First Day Second Day


1. Written Information Booklet Questionnaire

2. Oral Information Talk, Questionnaire

3. Combination Booklet Talk, Questionnaire

4. Control Questionnaire


Figure 1. Schedule followed for each set of four matched
classes.


Counseling Information Presentations

The counseling booklet and talk used in the study were

designed to be brief, simple, economiical, and easily replicable, representing rather traditional counseling information presentations. Their aim is not to "sell" counseling or to persuade people to use it but to help potential clients to feel more comfortable and knowledgeable about counseling services, their availability, and their use. Counseling was realistically presented as a form of assistance for the person desiring to explore and clarify personal issues. In view of the range of

counseling situations which clients may encounter, information regarding therapeutic techniques and underlying theory is non,,pecif'ic.







70

Development of the information booklet and talk took into consideration the work of Orne and Wender (1968) and Strupp and Bloxom (1973) and the experience of counselors who have worked with youth. The researcher submitted a preliminary draft of

the booklet to five school counselors and several other experienced counselors for feedback, then revised it. The manuscript of the counseling talk also underwent revision, based on the responses of -the students in the pilot study.

The booklet, four typewritten pages illustrated with

line drawings, has a simple text and is entitled "Sometime You May Want to See a Counselor" (see Appendic C).

The content of the booklet is in four parts:

1. When to See a Counselor. The first section explains that a counselor can be consulted for a particular problem or simply to discuss living in general. It reflects the exploratory nature of couseling and emphasizes that whatever is important to the client is worthwhile material for counseling. The purpose is -to make the client feel welcome in counseling and to counter common misconceptions about the limitations of problem appropriateness. This part of the booklet is illustrated with examples of statements which might be made to counselors.

2. Kinds of Counseling. The second part of the booklet describes three types of counseling; one-to-one counseling, group counseling, and family counseling. It goes on to explain

that counseling focuses on both ideas and feelings and that counseling may include both quiet (e.g., talking) and active

(e~g., role-playing) experiences.







71
3. What Happens in Counseling. The next section gives the reader an outline of what generally occurs during the

course of counseling, from the initial building of a relationship through the final good-bye, an.] it- provides 12 "Do's and, Don'ts" for using counseling effectively (e.g., "Don't expect your counselor to do all the talking. Your counselor will want to do a lot of listening.'). Tjese instructions encourage the client to expect an open and honest interaction and to participate actively in the process.

4. How to Get Counseling. The final section discusses

self-referral. It encourages the individual to "ask around and shop around" in choosing a counselor and suggests three ways to find a counselor: through one's school counselor; by consulting family, friends, teachers, and others; by telephoning. The telephone number of a local free information and referral service is provided.

The booklet was distributed to designated classes on the

first day of the two-day experimental schedule, as explained above, by their classroom teachers. Teachers gave the booklet the following brief introduction: Here is a booklet that you

may find interesting. It is about personal counseling--what happens in counseling and how to gxet counseling if you should want to try it. Teachers provided their students wvith approximately 15 minutes of class time in which to read the material.

The 15-minute counseling information talk covered the same ideas as the booklet, with additional information on who a counselor is and how a counselor is trained (see Appendix







72

D). It was presented to designated classes, on the second experimental day, by the researcher herself, who was introduced as a counselor from the community who had come to inform the students about counseling. Following the prepared talk, the speaker requested comments and questions from the students and conducted a class discussion for 15 to 20 minutes. Collection of Data

In the classes which received the counselor talk, administration of the questionnaire immediately followed the discussion period. In other classes, it was the sole experimental activity of the second. day. The researcher presented the questionnaire as "a way that you can let us know how you feel about counseling," then explained the instructions and the use of the 5-point scale, and read the survey items aloud to the students. Students were also invited to make written comments at the end of the questionnaire form.



Pilot Stud


As a preliminary trial of the experimental procedures and materials, a pilot study was conducted with 92 students in four sections of a biology course in an urban Gainesville high school. Student participants were heterogeneous in race, sex, and grade level, and ranged in age from 14 to 19, with a mean age of 15. Each class section received one of the four treatment conditions (written, oral, combination, or control) and responded to the two-part questionnaire. One-way analysis of variance comparing







73
group responses on each of the 8 questionnaire scales found no significant treatment differences. It was felt that a study

involving a larger and more heterogeneous sample and more indepth statistical analysis warranted completion.

The experience with the pilot group led to three modifications in methodology:

1. A 7-point questionnaire scale had been used in**the

pilot study (as well as in the reliability tests and in Tinsley's original work with counseling expectancies). The scale was simplified to 5 points for easier comprehension by young respondents.

2. The counselor talk, which had been 20 minutes in duration, did not sustain the pilot group's attention well. Consequently, the prepared talk was reduced to 15 minutes followed by a 15- or 20-minute discussion period.

3. At the end of the questionnaire, a space was added for further written comments by the respondents.



Ana2ysis


Dependent variable scores were obtained from the questionnaire data by summation of the item scores for each scale, as follows:

Part I: Expectancies

Expertise Score Items 1, 26-29
Outcome Score Iitems 2-6
Trust Score Ttems 7-12
Genuinaness Score Items P3-18
Acceptance Score, Items 19-25
Understanding Scorye Izems 30-37






74

Part II: Willingness

VE Score Items 1, 3, 5, 8, 10
PS Score Items 2, 4, 6, 7, 9

For each of the eight dependent variables, a 4 x 4 x 2 x 2 multiple regression factorial analysis of variance was performed to determine the main and interaction effects of treatment, grade level, sex, and race. Where significance was found involving treatment or grade level, Duncan's new multiple range comparison test was applied to locate sources of difference among means. An alpha level of .10 was accepted for significance in all tests. While this level allowed greater potential for false conclusion than more traditional levels of confidence, the criterion was realistic and practical for the exploratory purpose of the research.

In addition, three other procedures were performed to

explain the data: (a) for each of the eight dependent variables, a 2 x 2 factorial analysis to assess treatment differences by school, (b) post hoc examination of the demographic characteristics of the sample and each treatment group, and (c) calculation of sample norms for each questionnaire scale, in terms of relative scale values.












CHAPTER IV

FINDINC S



The purpose of the research was to investigate the

effectiveness of three forms of information--written information, oral information, and the combination of written and oral information--on experimental participants' responses to measures of counseling expectancy and willingness. In addition, the study assessed the effects of grade level, sex, race, and school membership.

The data resulting from the study are presented as

follows: (a) statistical description of the sample, (b) analysis of the experimental results, (c) summary of the experimental results, (d) analysis of school differences, (e) report of sample norms for each questionnaire scale, and (f) summary of the participants' subjective responses.



Statistical Description of the Sample


A post hoc analysis of the demographic characteristics

of the experimental participants determined the composition of the sample by sex, race, grade level, school, and age. It should be noted that 25 students, or 3.9 percent of the sample, failed to provide all personal information requested by the questionnaire; therefore, cases are missing from the descriptive data.
75






76

Table I shows sex and race, school, and grade level breakdowns for tI)e four comparison groups. Of the 630 students reporting sex and race, 186 were male Caucasians, 105 were male ethnic minority group members, 217 were female Caucasians, and 122 were female ethnic minority group members. Minority students proved, with only two exceptions, to be Black Americans. Grade level was reported by 633 students. There were 183 participants from the ninth grade, 199 from the tenth grade, 178 from the eleventh grade, but only 73 from the twelfth grade. The disproportionately small numbe-r of twelfth-grade students was the result of school scheduling of mixed-graded classes. School representation was 181 students from School A (urban school) and 167, 199, and 98 students from Schools B, C, and D, respectively (rural schools). The lower number of students from School D reflects the participation of only one set of four classes in this smaller institution.

The mean age of the participants was 15.9. Mean ages

for the comparison groups were as follows: Written information group, 15.9; Oral information group, 15.3; Combination information group, 15.9; Control group, 15.4.



Analysis of Experimental Results


For each of the eight dependent variables, a separate 4 x 4 x 2 x 2 factorial analysis of variance (treatment by grade by sex by race) was performed, applying multiple regression procedures to correct-, for unequal cell size. Where factor effects were found to be significant at the chosen .10 confidence









77
Table 1
Composition of' Comparison Groups by Sex and Race, Grade, and School

Written Oral Coamb. Control Total

Sex-Race

Males 73' 86 78 54 291

Caucasian 53 51 49q 33 186

Minority 20 35 29 21 105

Females 89 73 87, 9039

Caucasian 55 44. 61 57 21.7

Minority 34 29 26 33 122

Grade Level,

Grade 9 40 4b 37 62 183

Grade 10 53 30 63 53 L'99g

Grade 11 28 72 52 26 178

Grade 12 40 15 1.5 3 73

School Membership

School A 47 51L4 41 181

School B 52 45 117 23 167

School C 4.o 50 56 53 199

School D 24 24 2-3 27 98







78
level, group means were assessed, and comparison tests employed as required, to locate sources of difference.

The following is a report of the data analysis for the

six expectancy variables--Expertise, Outcomre, Trust, Genuiieness, Acceptance, and Understanding--and two willingness variables--Vocational-Educational (VE) and Personal-Social

(PS). It should be noted that scores from subjects who did not complete all items of a que tionnaire scale were omitted from the analysis of that scale. Expertise

Ninety.-one percent of the sample completed the Expertise scale of the questionnaire. The highest possible Expertise score was 25, and the total sample score mean was 19.8.

For this dependent variable, the factorial analysis of variance indicated no significant main effects for treatment (F=1.795; df'=3; p> .10). A s ignii'icant difference was found for the main effect of sex (F=2.925; df=l; p<.10). There was also one significant interaction, treatment with sex (F=1.968; df=e; p. 1.0). The Expertise score f:actorial analysis of variance is presented in Table 2.

The absence of significant main effects for treatment

provided no support for the experintental prediction that information would affect counseling expectanci.es. Treatment means are reported in Table 3.

The sI gnificant effect of sex wa i further evaluated by referring to mean scores for males and females. As Table 4 shows, females' Expertise scores were. higher.






79
Table 2

Expertise Score Factorial Analysis of' Variance


Source of Variation SS df MS F

Main Effects 192.45 8 24.06 1.509
Treatment 85.81 3 28.60 1.795
Grade 4.44 3 1.48 0.093
Sex 46.61 1 46.61 2.925*
Race 4.86 1 4.86 0.305

Two--way Interactions 464.58 22 21.12 1.325
Treatment Grade 282.34 9 31.37 1.968*
Treatment Sex 12.17 3 4.o6 0.255
Treatment Race 33.47 3 11.16 0.700
Grade Sex 64.09 3 21.36 1.340
Grade Race 45.01 3 15.00 0.941
Sex Race 21.46 1 21.46 1.346

Explained 804.36 30 26.81 1.682

Residual 8876.98 557 15.94

Total 9681.34 587 16.49

*p (.10





Table 3

Expertise Score Means by Treatment


N

Written 157 20.01

Oral 155 19.52

Combination 161 18.93

Control 138 20.59







80

Table 4

Expertise Score Meajns by Sex




Males 275 19,37

Females 328 20.08



Outcome

Ninety-one percent of the sample completed the Outcome scale of the questionnaire. The highest possible Outcome score was 25, arnd the total sample score mean was 16.5.

For this dependent variable, the factorial analysis of

variance indicated no significant main effects for treatment (F=1.842; df'=3; p>.10). Significance was found for the main effect of race (F=14.308; df=l; p<.10). There were also two significant interactions, treatment by sex (F=4.252; df=3; p<.10) and grade by race (F=2.424; df=3; p <.10). The Outcome score factorial analysis of variance is presented in

Table 5.

The absence of significant main effects for treatment furnished no support for the experimental prediction that information would influerce counseling expectancies. Treatment means are reported in Table 6.

The significant effect of race was evaluated by referring

to score means for Caucasians and minority students. As shown in Table 7, minority students had higher Outcome scores.






81

Table 5

Outcome Score Factorial Analysis of Variance

Source of Variation SS df MS F

Main Effects 561.95 8 70.24 4.329
Treatment 89.67 3 29.89 1.842
Grade 80.58 3 26.86 1.655
Sex 27.45 1 27.45 1.692
Race 232.16 1 232.16 14.308*
Two-way Interactions 567.82 22 25.81 1.591
Treatment Grade 122.22 9 13.58 0.837
Treatment Sex 206.99 3 69.00 4.252*
Treatment Race 39.05 3 13.02 0.802
Grade Sex 91.26 3 30.42 1.875
Grade Race 118.01 3 39.34 2.424*
Sex Race 3.39 1 3.39 0.209
Explained 1309.56 30 43.65 2.690
Residual 9037.76 557 16.23
Total 10347.32 587 17.63

*p <. 10




Table 6
Outcome Score Means by Treatment


N X

Written 154 16.88
Oral 154 16.39

Combination 163 15.90
Control 139 16.68







82

Table 7

Outcome Score Meians by Race





Caucasian 392 15,91

Minority 207r 17.54



Trust

Ninety-two percent of the sample completed the Trust scale of the questionnaire. The highest possible Trust score was 30, and the total sample score mean was 22.2.

For this dependent variable, factorial analysis of variance revealed significant main effects for treatment (F=2.468; df=3; pA.10) and for sex QF=10.412; df=3; p<.10). There was one significant interaction, grade by sex (F=2.425; df~K3; p<.10). The Trust score factorial analysis of variance i0 presented in

Table 8.

Main effects of treatment were examined to locate sources of difference, using Duncan's new multiple range test; however, this procedure indicated no significant comparisons at the .10 level, due to an apparent psychometric idi osyncrasy related to the partitioning of variance in mult iple regression factorial analysis. A follow-up two-tailed t-test was performed, comnparing the highest and lowest mean. This test uncovered a significant difference favoring the control group over the written information group (t=1,645; p<.10). This result did not support the experimental prediction that information would






83
produce more positive counseling expectancies than the control condition, Treatment means are reported in Table 9.

Table 8
Trust Score Factorial Analysis of Variance


Source of Variation SS df MS F

Main Effects 593.30 8 74.16 3.276
Treatment 167-59 3 55.86 2.468*
Grade 27.95 3 9,32 0.412
Sex 235.68 1 235.68 10.412*
Race 31.60 1 31.60 1.396
Two-way Interactions 529.62 22 24.07 1.064
Treatment Grade 173.60 9 19.29 o.852
Treatment Sex 125.14 3 41.71 1.843
Treatment Race 42.23 3 14.08 0.622
Grade Sex 164.68 3 54.89 2.425*
Grade Race 65.46 3 21.82 0.964
Sex Grade 3.57 1 3.57 0.158
Explained 1151.29 30 38.38 1.695

Residual 12652.91 559 22.64
Total 13804.20 589 23.44

*p <.10

Table 9
Trust Score Means by Treatment


N

Written 158 22.45
Oral 159 21.75
Combination 161 21.73

Control 134 22.69







84

The significant main effect of sex was evaluated by referring to score means for males and females. As Table 10 shows, females, Trust scores were higher.


Table 10

Trust Score Means by Sex





Males 279 21.30

Females 32-5 22.96



Genuine ne ss

Ninety-three percent of the sample completed the Genuineness scale oft the qu.estionnaire. The highest possible Genuineness score was 30, and the total samiple score mean was 26.1.

For this dependent variable, factorial analysis of variance indicated no significant main effects for treatment (F=

0.446; df=3; pW-10). Significant main effects were found for sex (F=21.799; df~l; paC.10) and for race (F=5.182; dfl; p<.10). There was nio significant interaction. The Genuineness score factorial analysis of variance is presented in Table 11.

The absence of significant treatment effects provided no support for the experimental prediction that information would

affect counseling expectancies. Treatment means are reported in Table 12.

The significant effects of sex and race were evaluated by referring to group means. As Table 113 shows, females and Caucasians had higher Genuineness scores.






85
Table 11

Genuineness Score Factorial Analysis of Variance


Source of Variation SS df MS F

Main Effects 538.41 8 67.30 3.883
Treatment 23.17 3 7.72 0.446
Grade 14.64 3 4.88 0.282
Sex 377.88 1 337.88 21.799*
Race 89.82 1 89.82 5.182"
Two-way Interactions 275.93 22 12.54 0.724
Treatment Grade 137.01 9 ].5.22 0.878
Treatment Sex 12.15 3 4.05 0234
Treatment Race 2.75 3 0.92 0.053
Grade Sex 104.72 3 34.91 2.014
Grade Race 15.39 3 5.13 0.296
Sex Race 0.93 1 0.93 0.053
Explained I135.34 30 37.85 2.183
Residual 984,5.88 568 17.33
Total 10981.22 598 18,36

*p < .10




Table 12
Genuineness Score Means by Treatment


N

Written 161 26.40
Oral 156 25,61
Combination 163 26.11
Control 140 26.05






86

Table 13

Genuineness Score Means by Sex and Race


N

Male 279 24.97

Female 333 27-03

Caucasian 395 26.41

Minority 215 25.44



Acce-Ptance

Ninety-three percent of the sample completed the Acceptance scale of the questionnaire. The highest possible Acceptance score was 35, and the total sample score mean was 29.0.

For this dependent variable, factorial analysis of variance revealed significant main effects for treatment (F=2.874; df=3; p< .10) and for sex (F=20.055; df=l; p <.10). There was no significant interaction. The Acceptance score factorial analysis of variance is presented in Table 14.

Plain effects of treatment were examined to determine sources of difference, using Duncan's multiple range test. As Table 15 indicates, five pairwise comparisons were significant at the .10 level, No difference appeared between the scores of the control and the oral information groups; however, the written information group scored significantly higher than each other group, while -the combination group scored significantly lower than other groups. This provides support for the experimental prediction that information would favorably influence counseling expectancies in the case of written information only.




Full Text
50
designed to make the client aware that counselors use varying
levels of directiveness, any of which can be highly effective,
and to encourage the client to be flexible in expectation of
counselor control. The booklets were given to men and women,
rather either high or low on counseling readiness (liklihood
of remaining in therapy), as they applied to a university
counseling center. Compared with a control group of clients
who received no booklets, only women of high counseling readi
ness were more satisfied with their first counseling interview,
given preliminary briefing. However, briefed low-readiness
men and women had less incidence of premature termination than
their control counterparts.
Krause (.1968) tried early clarification of client expecta
tions as a means of enhancing motivation for therapy. At the
point of telephone intake, agency workers tried to modify
client anticipations which were unrealistic and supplement
those which were sparce, using restatement of problem descrip
tions and probing for implicit or additional problems. The
technique did not increase the appearance of clients for
counseling; nor did it produce high motivation or satisfaction
ratings among those who kept their appointments, but therapists
observed clients who received clarification to be slightly
more open, informed, and responsive than otilers. In a second
study, Krause, Fitzsimmons, and Wolf (1969) extended clarifica
tion procedures into the first 6 to 12 counseling sessions and
found tentative evidence that active focusing on positive and
negative therapy experiences can raise client motivation.


124
Schmidt, L. D. Concepts of the role of secondary school
counselors. Personnel and Guidance Journal, 1962, 40,
6OO-605.
Shertzer, B., & Stone, S. C. Fundamentals of counseling. (2nd
edition) Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company-) 19745
Sloane, R. B., Cristo!, A, H., Pepernik, M. C., & Staples,
F. R. Role preparation and expectation of improvement
in psychotherapy. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease,
1970, 10, 18-26.
Snyder, J. F., Hill, C. E., & Derksen, T. P. Why some stu
dents do not use university counseling facilities.
Journal of Counseling Psychology, 1972, 12., 263-268.
Srole, L., Langer, T. S., Michael, S. T., Opler, M. K., &
Rennie, T. A. Mental health in the metropolis, the mid
town Manhattan study. New Yorks McGraw-Hill Book Company,
Inc. 9"2)
Stone, G. L., & Stehbins, L. W. Effects of differential pre
training on client self-disclosure. Journal of Coun
seling Psychology, 1975 22, 17-20.
Strickland, B. R., & Crowne, D. P. Need for approval and the
premature termination of psychotherapy. Journal of
-Consulting Psychology, 1963, 22 95-101.
Strong, S. R., Hendel, D, D,, & Bratton, J. C. College
students' views of campus help givers: Counselors,
advisors, psychiatrists. Journal of Counseling Psycho
logy, 1971, 18, 234-238.
Strupp, H. H., & Bloxom, A. L. Preparing lower-class patients
for group psychotherapy: Development and evaluation of
a role-induction film. Journal of Consulting and Clinical
Psychology, 1973 4l, 373-384.
Sullivan, P. L., Miller, C., & Smelser, W. Factors in length
of stay and progress in psychotherapy. Journal of
Consulting Psychology, 1958, 22,1-9.
Szasz, T. S. The manufacture of madness. New York: Harper
and Row, 1970-
Taulbee, E. S. Relationship between certain personality
variables in psychotherapy. Journal of Consulting
Psychology, 1958, 22, 83-89.
Tinsley, H. E. A. Expectancies questionnaire. Unpublished
mimeographed paper, 1976.


106
Three further statistical procedures were used to examine
the data. A post hoc breakdown of demographic characteristics
determined the composition of the sample and. of each treatment
group by sex, race, school, grade, and age. For each scale of
the questionnaire, sample norms were calculated, and all were
found to exceed the median scale value of 2.5 Also, effects
of schools were assessed, showing a significant pattern of
school differences for three dependent variables. Additionally,
the written comments made by one-fifth of the participants were
recorded and reviewed.
D.i sous si, on
This research failed to provide evidence that information
can positively affect perceptions of counseling. Although a
number of the study's participants indicated by their remarks
to the researcher and by their written comments that the infor
mational presentations used in the investigation were worth
while, the responses of those who received the experimental
communications showed no appreciable differences from those of
control students on eight measures of counseling expectancy
and willingness.
What appears to have been gained is a confirmation of
Nunnally's observation that delivery of mental health informa
tion is not the relatively straightforward task it seems:
"Unfortunately, the problem is much more complicated . and
there are many stumbling blocks in the communication process"


5
of therapy seekers and nonseekers by comparing actual clients
with others who nearly accepted therapy but rejected referral
or dropped out of therapy early. These studies reinforce the
contention that it is not relative need for better psychological
adjustment which draws people to therapy.
Socioeconomic variables have repeatedly been shown as
most significantly related to therapy orientation. Entrance
into therapy, duration in therapy, and perceived satisfaction
and improvement all rise concommiriantly with socioeconomic
level, whether measured in terms of income or status. Therapy
is by and large an activity of middle-and-above class people
who are relatively well educated and possess a degree of what
is "success" in this society. This is despite statistics which
indicate that the "need" for therapy is distributed in a dia
metrically opposite way (Auld & Myers, 195^; Cartwright, 1955
Cole, Branch, & Allison, 1962; Hollingshead & Redlich, 195^
1958; Hunt, 190; Redlich, Hollingshead, Roberts, Robinson,
Freedman, & Myers, 1953; Robinson, Redlich, & Myers, 1954;
Sullivan, Miller, & Smelser, 1958).
Intelligence, a related variable, is the only other
factor which has been found to predict therapy predisposition.
Users of therapy produce higher intelligence test scores and
also tend to be better educated than nonusers (Dana, 1954;
Heilbrun, 1961a, 1961b, 1970; Kirtner & Cartwright, 1958;
Rosenberg, 1954; Strickland & Crowne, 1963 Taulbee, 1958).
Attempts to use personality testing and assessments of
counseling readiness to predict client participation have not


126
Windle, C. Psychological tests in psychotherapeutic prognosis.
Psychological Bulletin, 1952, 49, 451-482.
Wittmer, J., & Loesch, L. Teacher/counselor relationships: A
comparison of elementary and secondary schools. Ele
mentary School Guidance and Counseling, 1975, 4 188-
tfrenn, C. G. The counselor in a changing world. Washington,
D.G.: American Personnel and Guidance Association, 1962.
Yalom, I. D., Houts, P. S., Newell, A. B., & Rand, K. H.
Preparation of patients for group therapy. Archives of
General Psychiatry, 1967, 12 416-428.
Zarle, T. H., & Willis, S. A pregroup training technique for
encounter group stress. Journal of Counseling Psychology.
1975, 22, 49-53.


85
Table 11
Genuineness Score Factorial Analysis of Variance
Source of Variation
SS
df
MS
F
Main Effects
538.41
Q
67.30
3.883
Treatment
23.1?
3
7-72
6.446
Grade
14.64
3
4.88
0.282
Sex
377.88
1
337.88
21.799*
Race
89.82
1
89.82
5.182*
Two-way Interactions
275.93
22
12.54
0.724
Treatment
Grade
137.01
9
15.22
0.878
Treatment
Sex
12.15
3
4.05
0.234
Treatment
Race
2.75
3
0.92
0.053
Grade
Sex
104.72
O
J
34.91
2.014
Grade
Race
15-39
3
5.13
0.296
Sex
Race
0.93
1
0.93
O.053
Explained
1135.34
30
00
D-
f't
2.I83
Residual
9845.88
568
17.33
Total
10981.22
598
I8.36
*p <. 10
Table 12
Genuineness Score
Means by
Treatment
N
X
Written
16.1
26.40
Oral
156
25.61
Combinati on
163
26.11
Control
140
26.05


142
Counseling professors oversee this work to make sure the coun
selor is doing a good job. This is something like a teacher's
internship, except it's for counselors.
There are different kinds of counselors, of course. I
mention this because, if you ever go to a counselor, you should
know to check out the counselor to see if this is the right
counselor for you. More about this later.
Kinds of counseling. There are different kinds of counselings,
too, for you to choose from. "Standard" counseling (you might
call it) is one person and one counselor, meeting together,
privately. Another kind of counseling that youre probably
familiar with is group counseling. In group counseling, maybe
6 to 12 people meet with a counselor together. Often group
members have something in common, like being the same age or
being interested in the same issues.
Sometimes a counselor will form a counseling group for
a special purpose, like dealing with feelings about school or
thinking about marriage, jobs, and life planning. Some groups
are to teach people better skills for livings for example, a
group may learn how to be more assertive; that is, how to
stand up for your rights and get what you want. Or a group
may have no specific goal . just people coming together
to share ideas and feelings and see where it goes. This can
be called a "growth group."
A third kind of counseling is family counseling. One
type of family counseling is marriage counseling, a husband
and wife meeting with a counselor together. And, contrary to


39
(b) that willpower is a deterrent to mental illness, (c) that
avoidance of morbid thoughts brings relief, and (d) that the
mentally disturbed are hopeless. Each of four groups of high
school students read one message, and a control group was
exposed to no message. On a mental health information test,
students usually scored high on the factor to which they had
been educated but not on others. (A.n exception was that most
students, including controls, were convinced that the mentally
ill are not hopeless.) The attitudes of informed students
differed in a generalized way from those of the control group,
but changes were often in a negative direction. The researchers
attributed the worsening of attitudes to the content of the
messages not having been controlled for such variables as
arousal of anxiety.
In the course of their studies, the researchers attended
to individual differences in respondents. The general finding
was that there were large differences among people's attitudes
and knowledge prior to communications experiments, but subjects
tended to change by the same amounts when exposed to similar
mental health messages. Initial differences in information
corresponded strongly to years of formal schooling and intelli
gence test scores. Initial mental health attitudes, however,
were not significantly related to educational sophistication,
age, sex, and other prominent dimensions of individual difference.
Major Variables in Message Transmission
Having found that nonthreatening mental health messages
are most acceptable to the public, Nunnally's group set out to


33
seeking is viewed as a sequence of three decisions:
1. Whether or not the problem will he defined as a mental
health problem.
2. Whether or not to go for help with the problem.
3. Choosing where to go.
Psychological considerations, the researchers hypothesized, are
most clearly relevant to the first decision point, while facili
tating factors are more influential in the last two decisions.
This analysis of psychological and facilitating factors implies
that potential clients need two types of mental health infor
mation, education on how to recognize mental health problems
and instruction on how to obtain help.
The second large-scale examination of the mental health
orientation of the public is a series of investigations reported
by Nunnally (1961). Nunnally and his research team applied
diverse data-gathering methods to such topics as public knowl
edge of mental health matters, views of mental illness and
treatment, and mass media presentations of mental health issues.
Although this work does not focus directly on the use of
psychotherapy, the conclusions are helpful in understanding
therapy perceptions and, it will be seen, provide important
preliminary information for the second phase of Nunnally's
research in which mental health communications variables are
explored.
To study general mental health knowledge, the investi
gators administered a 50-item questionnaire of possible mental
health beliefs to several groups considered to resemble a


105
The results furnished little support for the experimental
hypotheses. Effects of treatment conditions were inconsistent
and often not statistically significant. Treatment main
effects appeared for only two expectancy variables: for Trust,
the control group was superior; while for Acceptance, the
written information group scored significantly higher than
other groups, but the combination information group scored
lowest of all groups. Treatment was also a significant factor
for the PS willingness variable, but only the oral information
group surpassed the control group.
Findings from the analyses of variance were more defini
tive for the three other independent variables: grade level,
sex, and race. Grade level effects showed underclassmen
responding more favorably than upperclassmen on two measures,
the Understanding expectancy scale and the PS willingness
scale. Sex differences revealed females consistently demon
strating more positive perceptions of counseling than males;
higher scores for females failed to reach significance in
only two analyses (Outcome and VE). Racial difference was a
significant factor on five measures. Caucasian students
scored significantly higher on the Genuineness scale while Black
students scored significantly higher on Outcome, Understanding,
VE, and PS.
The factorial analyses of variance also indicated that
6 from a possible 48 two-way interactions were significant:
however, these did not appear in any systematic pattern through
the eight analyses.


WHAT HAPPENS IN COUNSELING-
It Is hard to tell you exactly what happens in counseling. 8ut hare
is generally what you can expect. And here are some £>Qs and DOtf'Ts
to help make counseling work for you.
STARTING COUNSELING
To begin, you and the counselor
will get to know each other...
by talking about yourselves...
and you wilL talk about what
you want to do in counseling.
DO check the counselor out. Ask all the questions you want.
You need to know this person if you are going to trust him (or her)
DON1t think of the counselor as "over" you like a boss or teacher,
think of the counselor as Just a PERSON, a friend.
pp talk freely and honestly about what you think and what you feel.
And expect the counselor fco do the same.
Q£) know that the counselor is not supposed to tell others what you
say. Ask about this.
MIDDLE OF COUNSELING
You and your counselor will work together on whatever you feel is
Important. Talking or doing, quietly or actively. You may get Into
your Ideas and feelings deeper than usual, explore yourself, make
things clearer.
DO work with your counselor to decida what to do in counseling.
""Think of you and your counselor a3 partners, working together.
QONJJ expect your counselor to do ail the talking.
Your counselor will, want to do a lot of listening,
DON'T expect your counselor to give you a lot of advice. Or to
TfSTl you what to do. Or to tell you what is right and wrong.
Or to have all the answers,
DO expect your counselor to work with you, help you decide what
to do. Help you give yourself advice. Help you decide what
you think is right. Help you find your own answers,
M expect your counselor to suggest new things you might try.
And to tell you what he (or she) honestly feels about you.
¡50 tell your counselor when you disagree. Do say how you
honestly feel about your counselor. Do let your counselor
know how you think counseling is going.


4
survey by Gurin, Veroff, and Feld (i960), 5 percent of adults
said they "worried all the time," but less than one-fourth of
them had gone to professional helpers and one-eighth said they
"did not want" professional help. Also, of one-fifth who
reported feelings of impending breakdown, only one-third sought
psychotherapy. In Eilson, Padilla, and Perkins' (1965) study
of New Yorkers, one-half' could name a surgeon but only 15 per
cent, a psychologist. While 25 percent were able to name a
mental health clinic, usually they could only cite Bellevue
Hospital. In two other studies, approximately one-third of
the clients judged to be in need of psychotherapy, and to whom
it was offered, refused treatment (Garfield & Kurz, 1952;
Rosenthal & Frank, 1958).
Studies of therapy duration reveal that an additional
number of potential clients enter therapy but do not remain
past an intake interview or the initial few sessions considered
crucial for getting the therapeutic process under way, and many
clients leave counseling without mutual agreement with their
therapist or even discussion of termination (cf. Sullivan,
Miller, & Smelser, 1958).
Factors Differentiating Therapy Seekers from Nonseekers
Since only an estimated two to four percent of the popula
tion go into therapy, the sheer infrequency of clients creates
a difficulty in finding statistically comparable samples of
nonclients for study of the factors differentiating the two
groups. We can infer a general understanding of the characteristics


19
Two other surveys using Warman's check list have recon
firmed that the function of college counselors is not seen as
they would like it to be seen. Student clients and nonclients
(Gelso, Karl, & O'Connell, 1972) and several campus groups
including students' parents (Wilcove & Sharp, 1971) all rated
personal and social matters as appreciably less appropriate
for the counseling center than did center staff.
Research on student perceptions of their university coun
seling services has also examined how the counselors themselves
are seen. Bordin (1951) had called attention to the title
"counselor" as distinguished in the student mind from the term
"therapist." He reported that college students viewed the
counselor as "fatherly, someone you could lean on . under
standing and forgiving" but, at the same time, "impersonal and
objective" (p. 17). This contradiction was not troublesome,
Bordin explained, because students expected to discuss in
counseling only rather superficial, decision-oriented issues
and, therefore, assigned little importance to the counselor's
personal characteristics.
Strong, Hendel, and Bratton (1971) have provided current
data on college students' views of campus help givers. On a
100-item adjective check list and list of nine problem topics
which might be discussed with helping persons, female under
graduates rated their perceptions of counselors, advisors, and
psychiatrists. The women regarded counselors as more like
advisors than like psychiatrists. They considered counselors
to be friendly, polite, warm "nice guys," comfortable to be


121
Kelly, G. A. The psychology of personal constructs. New York:
Norton, 1955*
Kennedy, J. J., & Fredrickson, R. H. Student assessment of
counselor assistance in selected problem areas. Coun
selor Education and Supervision, 1969, .8, 206-212.
King, P. T., & Matteson, R. W. Student perceptions of cou-
seling center services. Personnel and Guidance Journal,
1959, 21, 358-364.
Kirtner, W., & Cartwright, D. S. Success and failure in
client-centered therapy as a function of client person
ality variables. Journal of Consulting Psychology, 1958,
22, 259-264.
Krause, M. S. Clarification at intake and motivation for
treatment. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 1968, 15,
576-577.
Krause, M. S., Fitzsimmons, M., & Wolf, N. Focusing on the
client's expectations of treatment: Brief report.
Psychological Reports, 1969, 24, 973-974.
Lazarus, A. Behavior therapy and beyond. New York: McGraw-
Hill, 1971.
Lennard, H. L., & Bernstein, A. The anatomy of psychotherapy,
systems of communication and expectation. New York:
ColumbiaUniversity Press, i960.
Libo, L. M. The projective expression of patient-therapist
attraction. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 1957, 13.
33-36.
Lorion, R. P. Social class, treatment attitudes, and expecta-
tions. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology,
1974, 42, 920.
Malamud, D. I., & Machover, S. Toward self-understanding:
Group techniques in self confrontation. Springfield,
Illinois: Charles C. Thomas, Publishers, 1965.
Marlatt, G. A., Jacobson, E. A., Johnson, D. L., & Morrice,
D. J. Effect of exposure to a model receiving evaluative
feedback upon subsequent behavior in an interview.
Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 1970, 34,
104-112.
Martin, H., & Shewmaker, K. Written instructions in group
psychotherapy. Group Psychotherapy, 1962, 1, 24.


80
Table 4
Expertise Score Means by Sex
N X
Males
2?5
19.37
Females
328
20.08
Outcome
Ninety-one percent of the sample completed the Outcome
scale of the questionnaire. The highest possible Outcome
score was 25 and the total sample score mean was I6.5.
For this dependent variable, the factorial analysis of
variance indicated no significant main effects for treatment
(F= 1.842; df=3; p>.10). Significance was found for the main
effect of race (F-14.308; df=l; p<.10). There were also two
significant interactions, treatment by sex (F=4,252; df=3;
p<.10) and grade by race (F=2.424; df=3 p<.10). The Out
come score factorial analysis of variance is presented in
Table 5.
The absence of significant main effects for treatment
furnished no support for the experimental prediction that
information would influence counseling expectancies. Treatment
means are reported in Table 6.
The significant effect of race was evaluated by referring
to score means for Caucasians and minority students. As shown
in Table 7, minority students had higher Outcome scores.


113
counseling information "booklets. (An extreme example: One
teacher forgot to make the distribution to a class; then later
in the day she went through the school finding the students
and giving them booklets:) Teachers also had differing atti
tudes toward providing class time for research. Additionally,
students' feelings toward the teacher and particular class
may have been important variables.
9. Finally, despite efforts to standardize the procedures,
during the class visits there were a number of the unforeseen
and extraneous occurrences which seem inherent to high schools.
These included loud noises from adjacent rooms, unscheduled
public-address announcements, a class cut short because of
student activities, and a class moved in order for its room
to be painted.
Recommends. Lions
Further investigation into the a.rea of counseling infor
mation should take into consideration the following:
1. New strategies for informing potential clients about
mental health services need to be developed and evaluated. A
promising direction for reaching school youth is the use of
experiential learning activities involving highly participa
tory interaction with counselors--j^erhaps by providing one-
session "sample counseling groups for large numbers of students.
Peer counseling programs and growth-oriented classes might be
investigated for their value in facilitating help seeking.


1 = 7
5&
Part two /of the questionnaire7 is very good and I
think I would like to contact a counselor in the near
future about everything in part two, (Cb,WM,12)
I think a counselor is a worthwhile person to be
involved with, and I wish I hope I can talk to a
counselor because I need one. They are very much
worth it if I can find the right one. (0,BF,11)
I am the kind of person who tries to work out his
problems by myself. I keep them bottled up until I
can see the problem clearly. (W,WM,12)
Yes, I may like to try it even if its just once.
(Cb,WF,9)
All I have to say is when I feel I should know some
thing and dont, I go and discuss it with my counselor
Mrs. A--. Some don't. Some don't even know her name.
(W,WF,-)
I think it's great for some people but not for me.
(Cb,WF,11)
I do not have these problems. (W,BM,11)
It's all right for those who want to run their jaw.
(Cb,WM,-)
Some students told what they consider important attributes
of counselors, sometimes alluding to items on the expectancies
scales of the questionnaire. Others made suggestions for
improving counseling services.
If I went to a counselor, I would expect he or she to
be completely honest. Because if the counselor isn't
honest, how can you expect the person to be honest.
(W,WF,10)
I think it is mostly important for a counselor to
be open-minded and recognize people as being unique.
(W,WF,12)
The main thing I would expect in a counselor is that
he or she accept me as I am and be honest with me!
(W,WF,12)
To keep what was spoken private. (Ct,WF,9)


114
The relative usefulness of different forms of media, particu
larly "cool" (involving) media such as film and live drama,
warrants research, as does the effectiveness of small group
and. individual approaches.
2. Also deserving of further research are individual dif
ferences among potential clients which may affect receptiveness
to information. Some recipient variables worthy of study are
initial perception:: of counseling, previous experience with
professional helpers, family and peer group attitudes, "need"
for psychological services, socioeconomic standing, general
intelligence and verbal ability, and responsiveness to various
type of communications.
3- Other information studies might employ different out
come criteria. In classroom studies, for example, willingness
could be assessed behaviorally by offering a follow-up "sample
counseling session" and counting the number of students who
sign up to participate. Development of instruments which more
precisely measure counseling perceptions would also facilitate
information research.
4. Extended use of subjective indicators would be help
ful in devising and evaluating informational approaches. In
the present study, students' written comments were valuable
in interpreting questionnaire data. Systematic use of inter
views or surveys with open-ended questions is suggested.
5. Other studies might investigate longer term effects
of information or the cumulative effect of a series of presenta
tions .


I certify that I have read this study and that in my
opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly
presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality,
as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.
E. L. Tolbert, Chairman
Associate Professor of
Counselor Education
I certify that I have read this study and that in my
opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly
presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality,
as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.
- / /O .X /
,,x# 4 y C y o/c
Larry/C. Loech
Assjtant Professor of
Counselor Education
I certify that I have read this study and that in my
opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly
presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality,
as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.
// .
Juc
Everette Hall
Associate Professor of
Psychology
This dissertation was submitted to the Graduate Faculty of the
Department of Counselor Education in the College of Education
and to the Graduate Council, and was accepted as partial ful
fillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of
Philosophy.
December 1977
Dean, Graduate School


CHAPTER Page
IIcontinued
Acceptance of Information. 37
Major Variables in Message Transmission.. 39
Other Communications Variables 42
Permanence of Message Effects 45
Methods of Preparing Clients for Counseling... 47
Behavioral Techniques 47
Procedures Related to Client Expectancies 49
Special Procedures for Orienting Clients. 51
Providing Information to Potential Help
Seekers 57
Summary 60
IIIMETHODOLOGY..... 6l
Hypotheses 6l
Subjects. 63
Measurement. 64
Part I: Counseling Expectancies 65
Part II: Counseling Willingness 67
Procedures 68
Counseling Information Presentations..... 69
Collection of Data 72
Pilot Study. 72
Analysis 73
IVFINDINGS 75
Statistical Description of the Sample ......... 75
Analysis of Experimental Results... 76
vii


Part lis Willingness
Items 1, 3, 5, 8, 10
Items 2, 4, 6, 7, 9
VE Score
PS Score
For each of the eight dependent variables, a4x4x2x2
multiple regression factorial analysis of variance was performed
to determine the main and interaction effects of treatment,
grade level, sex, and race. Where significance was found
involving treatment or grade level, Duncan's new multiple range
comparison test was applied to locate sources of difference
among means. An alpha level of .10 was accepted for signifi
cance in all tests. While this level allowed greater potential
for false conclusion than more traditional levels of confidence,
the criterion was realistic and practical for the exploratory
purpose of the research.
In addition, three other procedures were performed to
explain the data: (a) for each of the eight dependent variables,
a 2 x 2 factorial analysis to assess treatment differences by
school, (b) post hoc examination of the demographic character
istics of the sample and each treatment group, and (c) cal
culation of sample norms for each questionnaire scale, in terms
of relative scale values.


were desperately needed: Margaret Albritten, Art Stirrat,
Wil Griffin, Bod Ream, and Phyllis George. And to Lee
Rosenstein and Dean Mark Beard for the same reasons.
To the teachers who allowed me to work in their class
rooms: Robert Ayer, Pat Powers, Mary Sharp, George Wilson,
Patricia Robarts, Nancy Lakey, William Monahan, Albert Losch,
and especially Pat Baxter and Barbara Allen.
To the students who participated in the study and wel
comed me into their high schools. Also to Fitz Conners and
the members of Young Life who participated in the development
of the questionnaire.
And to two dear mentor/friends Dr. Margaret Korb and
Dr. Robert Lee--Pat and Bob--whose personal and professional
example and whose caring and understanding have meant more
than I can express.
Finally, to the others who in big and small ways shared
the work: Alejo Vada, Gary Klopfer, Maggie Klopfer, Betty Jo
Spoto, Mary Ganikos, Lyn Clawson, Nancy McGinness, and Louis
Haynes.
v


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
Upon completion of this study, appreciation is owed to a
number of people who made the study possible.
To Dr. E. L. Tolbert, a man who has made genuineness,
empathy, and unconditional positive regard a way of life, for
assisting me in the decision to earn the PhD degree, for
serving as my doctoral committee chairperson, and for his
inspiration.
To Dr. Larry Loesch, who also served on my supervisory
committee, for his incisive counsel, good humor, and friendship.
To Dr. Everette Hall, third member of my committee, for
the benefit of his experience as a therapist, warmth, and
support.
To the faculty of the Department of Counselor Education
who provided the facilitative petri dish in which this
counselor grew.
To two friends, one new and one old: Barbara Rucker,
who gave many hours of help with computer programs, and Marie
Dence, the only person from whom I can gracefully accept
editorial criticism.
To Sharon Zahner for keypunching and to Arden Goettling
for agreeing to do the typing from long distance.
To Linda Moni and the counselors of the Alachua County
schools whose interest and time expenditure came when they
iv


! FfV
1-55-
Counseling sometimes can be used very successfully
but sometimes being a counselor goes to their head
and they think of themselves as the top of the totem,
which is bull crap. (Ct,lVlW,10)
Well, most counselors I've been to such as school
counselors and a youth counselor, theyve always
told me what they think I should do instead of trying
to let me make up my own mind or really to come to a
decision or understand what in going on. (0,BF,12)
They should be more up to date people of all ages.
(0 BF, 11)
I feel counseling Is an excellent means of finding
out "who" you are and what you want to do with yourself.
But I feel that they shouldn't exert pressure in a
(We have a counselor here at this school that exerts
a lot of pressure.) (W,WF-)
Ive tried to talk to my counselor about bad teachers
I have and they won't even listen. They say it's all
the student's fault and you get the same routine--
teacher, right, student, wrong. They don't know how
a teacher can be. (Ct,WF,9)
Some counselors act as if its a job listening to
others' problems; others really get into trying to
help people. We need more like this. (W,WM,11)
A lot of times when you go to see a counselor about
a problem, you're knocked down before you've fully
explained what you want done. (W,WF,12)
Often counselors seem to have a plan which conflicts
with your interests already set up for you. (Ct,WM,ll)
Counselors shouldn't push themselves on people, usually
if a person doesn't have anyone to confide in, he or
she will go willingly. (Cb,WF,ll)
After a tragic thing has happened in the family or
with friends, I don't think a counselor should ask
you right away if you want to talk about it or discuss
it. They should wait a while or until you come to
them. (0,WF,11)
I guess It's okay. But from where I've been a lot of
counselors are just doing a job. To me you seem to be
a very caring person, (Cb,WF,9)


129
35.
Understand me so well that he (she) knows what I
am feeling, even when 1 am hiding my feelings
36.
Help me know myself better by pointing to feelings
within me that I had not been aware of
3?.
Understand exactly how I feel
Part II
Instructions! Here is a list of things that people often
discuss with counselors. If you were con
cerned with these things, how willing would
you be to talk each one over with a counselor?
Items (to he rated on a 5-point scale having the following
position labels: not at all willing, somewhat willing, 50-50
chance,
quite willing, very willing):
1.
School work and grades
2.
Personal worries
3-
Looking ahead and planning your life
4.
Knowing and understanding yourself better
5.
How you feel about teachers and classes
6.
How you get along with your family
7.
How you get along with others your age
8.
Jobs now and in the future
9.
Uncomfortable feelings that you have
10.
Money matters


90
The significance of grade was investigated to locate
sources of difference through the Duncan's multiple range test.
As Table 19 indicates, all differences between means were found
to be significant at the .10 level. Underclassmen had higher
scores on the Understanding measure than upperclassmen.
The significant effects of sex and race were evaluated by
referring to group means. As shown in Table 20, females and
minority students had higher Understanding scores.
Table 19
Understanding Score Means by Grade
Duncan's Multiple Range Test Comparisons
3 U
X2
X1
X3
(Grade 11) =
24.8
.8*
2.8*
4.0*
X4
(Grade 12) =
25.6
-
2.0*
3.2*
*2
(Grade 10) =
27.6
-
1.2*
(Grade 9) =
28.8
-
*p <.10
Table 20
Understanding
Score Means by Sex and Race
N
X
Male
269
26
57
Female
323
27
.33
Caucasian
387
25
.97
Minority
201
28
.74


I like the idea about counseling because some stu
dents need to talk out their mind and feelings.
(W,WF,9)
I feel that counseling is a good thing. It is good
for people to have someone to talk to when they have
a special problem about one thing or another. (W,WM,9)
I feel that counseling is very good for people that
have problems and can't live with them because they
bother me so much. (Cb,WF,9)
Counseling is a very good way to help a person find
out what they really want in life, at least to me.
(Ct,WF,10)
It's pretty fine and I dont dislike any of the guid
ance counselors I've known and also I like sitting
down and rapping with a counselor. (W,WF,9)
It's pretty nice for people who need help or need a
job. (W,WF,9)
I think that it is a great project because without
it there would be a lot of people in the wrong classes
and wouldnt understand anything, and there would be
some pretty depressed kids. (W,WM,9)
I took part in a couple of group counseling sessions
here at school and found it interesting. I think
counseling is very necessary in todays society.
(0,WF,11)
I am a counselor's aide and I enjoy being around and
helping people with their problems. I have talked with
our counselor many times about a good many things, not
only problems, and it's helped me feel much better about
myself. (Cb,WM,ll)
In the tenth grade I was a Peer counselor and I enjoyed
it a great deal. It helped me discover myself and I
learned to help others. I wish they had peer counseling
at this school. It would help many people. (W,WF,12)
I think that counseling is very good. I've been helped
very much by counseling. I think it's great if people
dont even know you and want to help. I really believe
it helps as long as they be honest. (Ct,WF,9)
Among the unfavorable comments, some were terse and
vehement.


56
was no difference among groups in symptomatic change or therapy
attendance, but clients who received the four-months suggestion
were rated by therapists as less likeable than those who did
not.
Orne had proposed that other anticipatory socialization
procedures--for example, motion picture films or group methods--
might prove helpful. Following this suggestion Strupp and
Bloxom (1973) developed a group version of the Role Induction
Interview as well as a role induction film and found both to
be highly successful with lower socioeconomic level clients.
The film Turning Point (black and white, 16 millimeter,
32 minutes), depicting a troubled truck driver who reluctantly
turns to a mental health center and receives help, was aimed
at community people who were unlikely to seek or accept therapy.
It was designed to serve the major purposes of anticipatory
socialization outlined by Orne and, specifically, to encourage
viewers to consider a number of concepts related to mental
health: that talking about difficulties can be helpful; that
personality change requires work one must do oneself; that some
troubles are self-inflicted; that there are adaptive and mal
adaptive ways of expressing anger, hostility, resentment, and
aggression; that peers are potential allies and friends; that
personality change takes time and no miracles should be expected;
that medication provides no solutions to the problems of living;
that life difficulties are common and can be dealt with by
talking about them; and that there are no "cures" for life
stress, only more adequate ways of handling it.


104
County, Florida. Seven sets of four classes, designated "by
school counselors as "being approximately equivalent, were
exposed differentially to four treatment conditions. One
class in each set read, a four-page "booklet discussing coun
seling; another class listened to a talk given "by a guest
speaker who was a counselor; a third class received "both the
"booklet and the talk; and the fourth class was given no informa
tion and served as a control group. All participants were then
posttested using a two-part questionnaire which asked them to
rate their agreement with 37 positive counseling expectancies
and their willingness to talk with a counselor regarding 10
topics.
Data were collected from 645 students. Data consisted of
scores on eight criterion variabless six types of counseling
expectancy--Expertise, Outcome, Trust, Genuiness, Acceptance,
and Understanding--and two types of counseling willingness,
willingness to discuss vocational and educational issues with
a counselor (VE) and willingness to discuss personal and
social issues (PS).
For each of the eight dependent variables, a4x4x2x2
multiple regression factorial analysis of variance was performed
to determine the effects of four independent variables: treat
ment and students' grade level, sex, and race. When factor
effects were found to be significant at the chosen .10 con
fidence level, reference was made to group means and, when
appropriate, Duncan's new multiple range comparison technique
was applied to assess differences.


?8
level, group means were assessed, and comparison tests employed
as required, to locate sources of difference.
The following is a report of the data analysis for the
six expectancy variables--Expertise, Outcome, Trust, Genuine
ness, Acceptance, and Understanding--and two willingness
variables--Vocational-Educational (VE) and Personal-Social
(PS). It should be noted that scores from subjects who did
not complete all items of a questionnaire scale were omitted
from the analysis of that scale.
Expertise
Ninety-one percent of the sample completed the Expertise
scale of the questionnaire. The highest; possible Expertise
score was 25, and the total sample score mean was 19.8.
For this dependent variable, the factorial analysis of
variance indicated no significant main effects for treatment
(F=1.795; df=3; p> .10). A significant difference was found
for the main effect of sex (F=2.925; df-1; pc.10). There was
also one significant interaction, treatment with sex (F=1.968;
df=e; p <.10). The Expertise score factorial analysis of
variance is presented in Table 2.
The absence of significant main effects for treatment
provided no support for the experimental prediction that infor
mation would affect counseling expectancies. Treatment means
are reported in Table 3*
The significant effect of sex was further evaluated by-
referring to mean scores for males and females. As Table 4
shows, females' Expertise scores were higher.


52
material on groups (Martin & Shewmaker, 1962), inviting a
potential member to attend a trial meeting (Bach, 195*0 or
using a series of lectures or an instrumental program to expli
cate therapy and insight (Bettis, Malamud, & Malamud, 19^9;
Malamud & D/Iachover, 1965)
Yalom, Houts, Newell, and Rand (1967) tested the impact
of a 25-minute orientation lecture on groups of middle socio
economic level psychiatric outpatients. The informal lecture,
which allowed for questions and comments, included a brief
history of group therapy, research evidence of its effective
ness, general goals, a rationale for understanding the group
as a microcosm of interpersonal life, a warning that group
therapy would sometimes be difficult, and advice to be honest
and direct with other members. In addition, the participants
were told, deceptively, that their groups were composed of
members chosen for maximum compatibility and liking. Compared
with control groups who attended only a 25-minute registration
session prior to group therapy, the groups which had received
orientation displayed significantly more here-and-now inter
personal interaction and indicated somewhat more faith in group
therapy, but increased cohesiveness did not result from the
suggestion of compatible group composition.
A seminal development in the preparation of clients for
psychotherapy was Orne's (Orne & Wender, 1968a, 1968b) "antici
patory socialization" approach. Orne conceptualized readiness
for therapy as a special form of socialization. That is, to
use psychotherapy, one must have knowledge about the process


8
for example, and in over one-third of medical men. In pretherapy
interviews with psychiatry applicants, Redlich and colleagues
found little difference between the attitudes of middle-class
people--small business proprietors, white collar workers, and
skilled laborersand the fear and reluctance of poorly educated
unskilled and semiskilled workers from the most crowded sections
of New York. Both groups were also largely ignorant about
therapy. Although more of the middle-class applicants had
some understanding of the treatment, their knowledge consisted
of little more than that the therapist employs "mental" tech
niques. Typical of both groups were such comments as, "Psychi
atry is fine for crazy people but it can't help me."
Persons from all walks of life are disinclined, if not
hostile, toward psychotherapy. The infrequent use of therapy
is a complex issue, but it is reasonable to assume that people
are not quick to avail themselves of services which they only
vaguely comprehend. Nunnally (1961) surveyed a large sample
of the American population and concluded that the average
citizen is not grossly misinformed about mental health, but
certain groups--notably, the less educated--hold many beliefs
that are inaccurate; furthermore, while not misinformed, most
people are considerably uninformed. Gurin and others (i960),
analyzing the help-seeking patterns of a national sample,
found distribution of services to lower status people so
inferior that it constitutes a "special social problem."
Another finding was that nine percent of their sample at some
time in their lives were "ready for self-referral" but did not


151
It can really help people. (0,WM,9)
I think counseling is really helpful and necessary
and I am grateful for it. I have been thinking about
going into counseling as a profession. (Ct,WF,10)
I think that counseling is a good way of helping
people with their problems and it has probably saved
someone's life. (Ct, BF,11)
I think it's a great help. (Cb, BF,ll)
I think counseling is helpful. (Cb,BM,10)
I think counselors are good because they help a lot
of people. (Cb, WF,9)
It helps a lot of people out. (W,WM,12)
I think counseling is a great thing. If only we
could get more and better counselors. (0,WF,11)
Other favorable comments were more thoughtful statements.
Often the students indicated that they simply appreciated the
idea of having someone available to talk to.
I feel that counseling is a very good program.
This way people do have someone they can turn to.
(Cb, WF,11)
I feel that counseling is really good for students.
When they have problems they will have someone to
talk to about them. (0,WF,9)
I like the counselor in our school. He understands
problems when you need him and if you have anything
to talk about. He is willing to help you. (Ct, BF,9)
I th nlc it is a good thing for people in need of
someone to talk to and help them with their worries.
(0,WM,10)
I think that counseling is a very interesting thing.
It shows that some people do care in the world. Be
sides, it's nice to talk to people about problems. It
can make your whole day seem happier. (0, BF,11)
I think counseling is all right. Its very nice to
have someone to talk to about what's on your mind.
(W, WF, 9)


110
counseling expectancies than upperclassmen. Their inability
to interpret this finding, Tinsley and Harris said, served
"to underline the relative paucity of research in the area"
(p. 1?6).
An encouraging outcome of the study was that high school
students, on the average, made ratings that were at the positive
ends of the scales. Sample norms were above the median on all
expectancy and willingness measures. Conceivably, this could
be indicative of the "acquiescence response set" in which
respondents tend to endorse positive statements (Isaac &
Michael, 1972). However, youngsters submitting written com
ments frequently showed no hesitation in giving negative
responses about counseling when they felt them, Tlius it may
be assumed that the students were responding honestly and as
intended.
Comparison of differential norms for the expectancy
scales reveals a pattern similar to that found by Tinsley and
Harris (197) in their study with college students. In both
studies, students demonstrated more faith in counselors'
genuineness, acceptance, expertise, and trustworthiness than
in counseling understanding and outcome.
Comparison of willingness norms showed the youngsters
agreeing with high school and college students in numerous
other studies who were more inclined to discuss vocational
and educational topics in counseling than personal and social
topics (cf., Dunlop, 1965; Gibson, 1962; Grant, 1952; Kennedy
& Fredrickson, 1969; King & Mattesor
1959; Resnick & Gelso,


57
Participants in the study were 122 clients of 12 community
agencies, identified as needing psychological counseling in
order to reach agency rehabilitation objectives, but minimally
motivated to use mental health services. Most had multiple
problems of long standing. One third viewed the role-induction
film; another third received a group presentation patterned
after the Role Induction Interview; and another third, serving
as controls, viewed a film on the subject of early marriage.
There was consistent evidence from, postinduction, in
therapy, and outcome measures that the two role-induction
procedures facilitated a more favorable therapy experience.
Turning Point was superior to the group presentation on several
measures. Prior to therapy, for example, both role-induction
groups were rated by therapists as more attractive, more
strongly motivated, and more likely to improve than control
clients. Both groups also rated themselves better along such
dimensions as willingness to begin therapy, anticipation of
satisfaction with the first session, estimated global improve
ment, and realistic expectations of improvement. Furthermore,
those who were in greatest need of help, according to therapist
ratings of severity of disturbance, tended to experience the
most positive reaction to the role-induction procedures.
Providing Information to Potential Help Seekers
Research into large-scale provision of counseling informa
tion has been scarce. It has also been limited to the college
campus. Findings, nevertheless, support the effectiveness of
broad information dissemination and point to the relative worth
of several methods.


93
highest possible PS score was 25 and the total sample score
mean was 1?.3-
For this dependent variable, the factorial analysis of
variance revealed significant main effects for all factors:
treatment (F=2.116; df=3; p<.10)j grade (F--3.101, df=3; p< 10)
sex (F=3.198; df-1; p<.10); and race (F=.10.616, df=l; p<.10).
There was also one significant interaction, sex by race (F=
3-252; df=l, p^.10). The PS score factorial analysis of vari
ance is presented in Table 24,
Table 24
Personal-Social Willingness Score (PS)
Factorial Analysis of Variance
Source of Variation
SS
df
MS
F
Main Effects
624.19
8
78.02
3.627
Treatment
136.60
3
45-54
2.116*
Grade
200.14
3
66.71
3.101*
Sex
68.80
l
68.80
3.108*
Race
228.40
1
228.40
10.616*
Two-way Intel
'actions
595-79
22
27-08
1.259
Treatment
Grade
ISO.88
9
17.43
0.810
Treatment
Sex
105-39
3
35.13
I.633
Treatment
Race
80.02
3
26.67
1.240
Grade
Sex
105-81
3
35.27
1.639
Grade
Race
11.80
3
3.94
0.183
Sex
Race
69.97

69.97
3.252*
Explained
1382.03
30
46.07
2.1.41
Residual
12155-58
565
21.51
Total
13537-61
595
22.75
*p < .10
Main effects of treatment were investigated to locate
sources of difference using Duncan's multiple range test. As


148
you decide if you want to see a counselor or not and can help
you get an appointment with one.
You can call the Information and Referral Service any
time, day or night, even at four o'clock in the morning. If
they are very busy, they may ask you to call hack in a few
minutes, 'but they will always talk to you.
Now, I wonder what questions you have and what you think about
all this.


41
1. The more certainty with which mental health informa
tion is stated, the more favorable will be the attitudes toward
concepts related to mental health.
2. Destruction of information about mental health without
supplying new information results in negative attitudes toward
related concepts.
3. Even if available information may turn out to be incor
rect, it is better to give such information to the public than
to withhold it.
Experimenting with message certainty, the research team
designed written descriptions of two psychological treatment
methods, each explained to be effective in both high- and low-
certainty phrasing. Each of four classes of high school students
read one of the four messages, and two other classes read con
trol messages irrelevant to mental health. On a Semantic
Differential, students who had received high-certainty communi
cations demonstrated more favorable attitudes toward the
treatment method described and toward general mental health
concepts. Two weeks later, the investigators returned with new
messages negating the information which had been supplied
originally. When administration of the Semantic Differential
was repeated, negating messages produced less favorable atti
tudes on specific and general mental health concepts for all
groups, including controls; however, students who previously
had read high- and low-certainty messages did not differ in
amount of attitude change.
Negation of information proved significant in further
experimentation. Undergraduates read explanations of


9
apply for psychotherapy. A major reason which these people gave
for not seeking help was "lack of knowledge about where to go
or what to do in order to get help."
The Present Study; Purpose and Overview
Writers on the subject of help seeking have repeatedly
said that potential clients need to be apprised of what occurs
behind the therapist's closed door. Client constituencies also
are entitled to information on when and how to apply for help.
As Shertzer and Stone (1974) have expressed it, "an important
objective for every counselor is enlightening our society as
to the legitimate goals and realistic limitations of counseling"
(p. 8?).
The present study is one of the first research attempts
to assess the efficacy of disseminating counseling information
to potential clients. Brief and economical presentations of
information are given and the responses of the recipients
analyzed. It is not expected that a single informational
experience will have sweeping impact upon therapy-seeking
behavior but that a presentation of information can facilitate
the ongoing process of "learning about therapy" which Kadushin
(1969) has called essential to the decision to enter therapy.
One presentation of information, if effective, may incline an
individual to seek and accept further information and pre
dispose him or her to make an informed decision to use coun
seling, should it at some point in life be appropriate.


of information, females responded more favorably to the
measures of perceptions of counseling than males. Black
students more often responded favorably than Caucasians, and
underclassmen more often responded favorably than upperclass
men. Calculation of scale norms for the total sample showed
that, on the average, students viewed counseling in a positive
way. In their subjective written comments, however, some
students were highly critical of school counseling.
xiv


APPENDIX D
COUNSELOR TALK


125
Tinsley, H. E. A., & Harris, D. J. Client expectancies for
counseling. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 1976, 23,
1973-1977.
Truax, C. B., & Carkhuff, R. R. Personality change in
hospitalized mental patients during group psychotherapy
as a function of the use of alternate sessions and
vicarious therapy pretraining. Journal of Clinical
Psychology, 1965, 21, 225-228.
Tiuax, C. B., & Carkhuff, R. R. Toward effective counseling
and psychotherapy. Chicago: Aldine, I967".
Truax, C. B., Shapiro, J. G., & Wargo, D. G. The effects of
alternate sessions and vicarious therapy pretraining on
group psychotherapy. International Journal of Group
Psychotherapy, 1968, 18, 186-198.
Truax, C. B., Wargo, D. G., Carkhuff, R. R., Kodman, F., &
Moles, E. A. Changes in self-concept during group psycho
therapy as a function of alternate training sessions and
vicarious pretraining in institutionalized mental patients
and juvenile delinquents. Journal of Consulting Psychology,
1966, 30. 309-314.
Tyler, L. Theoretical principles underlying the counseling
process. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 1958,
3-10.
Van Riper, B, W. Student perception: The counselor is what
he does. The School Counselor, 1971, 12, 53~56.
Volsky, T., Magoon, T. M., Norman, W. T., & Hoyt, D. P.
The outcome of counseling and psychotherapy. Minneapolis:
University of Minnesota Press, 1965.
Warman, R. E. The counseling role of college and university
counseling centers. Journal of Counseling Psychology,
1961, 8, 231-238.
Warren, N. C., & Rice, L. N. Structuring and stabilizing of
psychotherapy for low-prognosis clients. Journal of
Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 1972, 22 173-181.
Whalen, C. Effect of a model and instructions on group verbal
behavior. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology,
1969, 15. 509-521.
Wilcove, G., & Sharp, W. H. Differential perceptions of a
college counseling center. Journal of Counseling
Psychology, 1971, 18, 60-63.


88
The significant main effect of sex was evaluated by refer
ring to mean scores for males and females. As shown in Table
16, females had higher Acceptance scores.
Table 16
Acceptance Score Means by Sex
N X
Males
276
27.86
Females
335
29.94
Understanding
Ninety percent of the sample completed the Understanding
scale of the questionnaire. The highest possible Understanding
score was 40, and the total sample score mean was 27.0,
For this dependent variable, factorial analysis of vari
ance indicated no significant main effects for treatment (F=
0.839; df=3; p.>.10). Significant main effects were found for
grade (F=7-339; df=3; p<;.10), for sex (F=:3-291, df=l; p<.10),
and for race (F= 14.552; df-1; p<^,10). There was no signifi
cant interaction. The Understanding score factorial analysis
of variance in presented in Table 17.
The absence of significant treatment effects gave no sup
port to the experimental prediction that information would
affect counseling expectancies. Treatment means are reported
in Table 18.


48
training," a desensitization procedure, with college volunteers
to reduce neurotic response to stress in a subsequent eight-
hour marathon encounter group. Truax and colleagues (1965,
1966, 1968) found evidence that "vicarious therapy pretraining,"
exposure to tape recorded clients modeling high '.Levels of group
therapy behavior, raised the "ideal self concepts" of hospital
ized psychiatric patients and incarcerated boys, thus conceivably
producing stronger motivation for therapy.
Behavioral modeling has also been employed to teach clients
verbal skills useful in counseling. Myrick (1969) designed a
counseling orientation program for eighth graders, the main
feature of which was a tape recording of a peer being directed
to use self-referencing language. Youngsters exposed to the
model, compared with others who received the program with no
tape, made more self-references in a thirty-minute interview.
Stone and Stebbins (1975) used procedures similar to Myricks
in a study with college volunteers and reported similar results.
Marlatt, Jacobson, Johnson, and Morrice (1970) employed a live
model who was variously reinforced by a counselor for making
problem statements. Neutral reinforcement of the model, and
positive encouragement to a lesser extent, induced more problem
statements from volunteer clients than negative and discouraging
response to the model.
Whalen (1969) compared modeling and instruction as methods
of increasing personal openness and concluded that a filmed
model preceded by detailed instructions facilitated personal
discussion in groups, while either the film or detailed


95
Table 26
Personal-Social Willingness
Duncan's Multiple Range
Score
Test
Means by Grade
Comparisons
X3
X2
X1
X4
(Grade 12 =
16.4 _
.5
7*
1.5*
X3
(Grade 11)
= 16.9

.2*
1.0*
X2
(Grade 10)
= 17.1
-
. 8*
X1
(Grade 9)
= 17.9
-
*P<.10
Table 27
Personal-Social Willingness Score Means by Sex and Race
N
X
Male
257
16.63
Female
336
17.76
Caucasian
392
16.74
Minority
21
18.02
Summary of Experimental Results
It was predicted that students v/ho received three types
of counseling information--written, oral, and combination of


3
Community epidemiological research has attempted to assess
mental health needs; hut as Goldberg's (1972) review of psychi
atric case identification studies points up, varying screening
methods and criteria have yielded disparate results. The
extensive Midtown Manhattan Study (Srole, Langer, Michael,
Opler, & Rennie, 1962) is often cited in discussions of pre
valence of mental disorder. In this survey, 23-4 percent of
respondents were designated as psychologically impaired to the
extent that performance of adult roles was observed or inferred
as deficient.
Of this one-fourth of their sample labeled impaired, the
Manhattan researchers said,
On the criterion of observed or inferred performance
deficiencies in adult roles, these people in most
cases can be assumed to need professional help of
some kind, at best, to relieve the distress implied
by their symptoms and to improve their capacities
for adult functioning, and at the least, to reduce
possibilities of future deterioration under normal
or crisis circumstances of life. (pp. 145-6)
The researchers made a rough assessment of orientation
toward seeking professional help by asking respondents what
they would advise two hypothetical friends with personal
problems to do. Of the help-needy who had never had psycho
therapy, nearly one-half did not indicate professionals as a
source of help and, therefore, implied that they were unlikely
to seek psychotherapy on their own initiative. The researchers
state that their data appear consistent with estimates made in
comparable big-city studies.
Other investigators have found evidence of large numbers
of people disinclined to request psychotherapy. In a national


97
significant comparisons among means. A follow-up t test com
paring the highest and lowest means found the control group
to he slightly superior to the written information group and
no different from the oral and combination groups. For the
Acceptance variable, the Duncan's test showed the written
information group scoring significantly higher than each
other group. However, the combination groiip scored signifi
cantly lower than other groups. Altogether, the results from
the six expectancy scales were inadequate to support the
experimental hypotheses which predicted favorable differences
for information groups.
Effects of Treatment on Willingness
Hypothesis A. Students receiving the written presen
tation of counseling information will score signifi
cantly higher on two measures of counseling willingness
than control students.
Hypothesis 5. Students receiving the oral presen
tation of counseling information will score signifi
cantly higher on measures of counseling willingness
than control students.
Hypothesis 6. Students receiving the combination
form of counseling information will score signifi
cantly higher on two measures of counseling willingness
than control students.
Of the two willingness scales, PS produced significant
treatment effects under factorial analysis, and YE did not.
Comparison of PS treatment-group means by Duncans procedure
indicated that only the oral information group surpassed the
control group--small support for the effectiveness of informa
tion upon counseling willingness.
Effects of Grade Level
Regardless of treatment, the total group of students
showed significant grade-level differences in two analyses,


81
Table 5
Outcome Score
Factorial Analysis
of Variance
Source of Variation
SS
df
MS
F
Main Effects
561.95
8
70.24
4.329
Treatment
89.67
3
29.89
1.842
Grade
80.58
3
26.86
1.655
Sex
27.45
1
27.45
I.692
Race
232.16
1
232.16
14.308*
Two-way Interactions
567.82
22
25.81
1.591
Treatment
Grade
122.22
9
13.58
O.837
Treatment
Sex
206.99
3
69.00
4.252*
Treatment
Race
39.05
3
13.02
0.802
Grade
Sex
91.26
3
30.42
1.875
Grade
Race
118.01
3
39.34
2.424*
Sex
Race
3.39
1
3.39
0.209
Explained
1309.56
30
43.65
2.690
Residual
9037-76
557
16.23
Total
IO347.32
587
17.63
*p < 10
Table 6
Outcome Score Means by Treatment
N
X
Written
154
16.88
Oral
154
16.39
Combination
I63
15.90
Control
139
16.68


143
what some people think, marriage counseling is not particularly
for people whose marriage is in trouble; a couple may want to
meet with a counselor to discuss decisions they are making--
for example, how many children they want to have--or they may
meet with a counselor to get to know each other in new ways.
Another type of family counseling involves the whole
family, mother, father, sisters, brothers, even a grandmother
or cousin--whoever is considered to be part of the family--
meeting with a counselor to discuss family issues.
What do you do in counseling? The first thing that comes to
my mind is that counseling can deal with ideas, thoughts: What
is happening? Who is it happening to? What do you want to do?
What do you want? What do you like and dislike? What would
you like to change? Things like that. This involves putting
together facts, thinking them through, planning, making decisions.
A second thing that comes up in counseling is feelings.
Emotions. Happiness . sadness . anger . joy . .
love . hate. What you feel. Sometimes even a headache or
stomach ache that is connected to something going on in your
life. Or even some fuzzy feeling that doesn't really have a
name.
The counselor sees feelings as signals that tell us what
to do, and the idea is to read the signals, see what they mean.
When you think of counseling, you may think of talking.
And counseling can be just that: sitting and talking things
through. Putting ideas and feelings into words is a way of
getting them clearer and exploring them further.


16
expectancies. Frank (1959. 19^1) described the dynamics of
the therapeutic relationship as related to the client's belief
or faith in the power of the process. He was also among the
first to explain how divergent therapist and client expect
ancies can produce a breakdown in communication and lead to
therapy failure. Lennard and Bernstein (i960) provided a
systematic view of therapeutic communications as interrelated
with expectations, showing that dissimilar client and therapist
expectations produce strain, or disequilibrium, on the structure
of communication. Goldstein (1962a, 1962b) extensively
examined the accumulated theoretical and experimental work
on patient and therapist expectancies in the light of what is
known about other forms of anticipatory human behavior and
confirmed expectancies to play "clearly ... a significant
role in psychotherapeutic interaction, demonstrably accounting
for a portion of improvement" (1962a, p. 79); specifically,
his research review indicated that the most therapeutic change
can be predicted in clients whose role expectancies are com
patible with the therapist's and whose outcome expectancies
are moderate and realistic.
Thus, clients approaching psychotherapy conceptualize
the process in differing ways, and it is generally accepted
that early perception of therapy is an important determinant
of the course and outcome of treatment. Less is known, however,
about the period prior to therapy entry, when the prospective
client makes the decision to seek help. Conceivably, cog
nitive variables have their strongest influence at this point,


115
6. Studies involving different populations and settings
should be conducted. In particular, reaching younger children
needs investigation. With adolescents, approaches outside the
schools might be studied.
7. The differential effectiveness of separate components
of informational presentations might be researched using the
methods employed by Nunnally (1961) to study message variables.
8. In view of the apparent impact of school counselors
on students' perceptions of professional help, research should
be continued into the image of the school counselor and how
it may be improved.
Conelusions
In this study of high school youth, written and oral
presentations of information demonstrated no capacity to
significantly influence expectations of counseling or willing
ness to use counseling. The broad implication of this result
is that mental health professionals who attempt to inform their
constituencies of their services cannot assume that their mes
sages are effective. In the absence of other research, except
studies with college students, strategies for reaching potential
help seekers remain poorly understood.
Several secondary findings of the study are worthy of
note. Whether they received counseling information or not,
female students consistently responded more positively on
measures of counseling expectancies and willingness. Whether


11
In each case, the concept denoted is the same: the psycho
logical helping process which aims "to help individuals toward
overcoming obstacles to their personal growth . and toward
achieving optimum development of their personal resources"
(American Psychological Association, 1956).
For broad discussions of the delivery of mental health
services to the public, the choice of one term over the other
could only be arbitrary. As Patterson (1966) writes,
There are no essential differences between counseling
and psychotherapy in the nature of the relationship,
in the process, in the methods or techniques, in
goals or outcomes (broadly defined), or even in the
kinds of clients involved. (p. 3)
The terms "counseling" and "psychotherapy" arise from two
historical streams which have developed into present-day
psychological services: "counseling" from the mental health
and vocational guidance movements in our society and "psycho
therapy" from the medical tradition. It was found, in reviewing
the literature backgrounding this study, that investigators in
hospital clinics most often referred to psychotherapy while
those in educational and other nonmedical settings spoke of
counseling.
Some writers (e.g., Tyler, 1958) restrict the focus of
counseling to growth and actualization processes, removing
from it the repair-of-damage implications associated with therapy.
This emphasis on the positive makes an important point. There
does exist a connotative difference between the terms "coun
seling" and "psychotherapy." Research into client views of
differently titled help givers, for example, indicates that


i Si
e-
I think counseling is great. After I finish school
I want to be a counselor too. I like people a lot.
I know people and how they feel. (Cb,BF,10)
I've always been interested in counseling, I've
really thought about being one. I'm sort of a
counselor now. My friends talk to me a lot about
their problems. The counselor here has helped me
with my problems more than anyone. (0,WF,11)
It seems like a very interesting job to do. Counseling
is something I want to do. (0,BMf-)
I am planning on a type of job that goes along with
counseling I want to be a counselor in a juvenile
detention center or places related to places like
that. I work in a halfway house for mostly people
who are on drugs and need help getting off, during
the summer. (C t,WF,9)
When I grow up I want to be psychiatrist. I think it
would be fun and interesting. I like helping people
or think I would. (Cb, WF,10)
I think that counselors have a good job because there
are a lot of people that need counseling. (W,BF,12)
I think counseling is a very good thing. I am thinking
about going into social work which will involve coun
seling so the discussion and survey helped. (Cb,BF,ll)
Is there a type of counselor that travels, be their-
self, get good money, but doesn't go to school more
than 4 years? (0,BF,10)
Finally, a few youngsters provided feedback to the researcher
regarding the experimental materials and procedures.
I think it's kind of boring to talk 45 minutes. (0,WM,9)
I think you did a good job on your presentation.
( -,WM,11)
I learned a lots about counseling. (Cb, WM,9)
Thanks for coming to our school. I really got a
better meaning. (0,BF,9)
It was a very good program. (Cb,BM,10)
Thank you for coming. It helped me a lot about what
counseling was and how it woi'ked. (C'b,WM, 11)


83
produce more positive counseling expectancies than the control
condition. Treatment means are reported in Table 9.
Table 8
Trust Score Factorial Analysis of Variance
Source of Variation SS df MS F
Main Effects
593-30
Treatment
167.59
Grade
27.95
Sex
235.68
Race
31.60
Two-way Interactions
529.62
Treatment
Grade
173.60
Treatment
Sex
12 5.14
Treatment
Race
42.23
Grade
Sex
164.68
Grade
Race
65.46
Sex
Grade
3-57
Explained
1151.29
Residual
12652.91
Total
13804.20
8
74.16
3.276
3
55.86
2.468*
3
9,32
0.412
l
235.68
10.412*
1
31.60
1-396
22
24.0?
1.064
9
19.29
0.852
3
41.71
1.843
3
14.08
0.622
3
54.89
2.425*
3
21.82
0.964
1
3-57
0.158
30
38.38
1.695
559
22.64
589
23.44
*p <. 10
Table 9
Trust Score Means by Treatment
N
X
Written
158
22.45
Oral
159
21.75
Combination
161
21.73
Control
134
22.69


i t- o
-ii
Very boring. (0,WM,10)
This was a dumb survey. (Ct,Â¥F,ll)
In this sheet the only way you can answer the questions
is to take 90% of your feelings for granted. (0,WF,11)
I think this would work better with people who have
been to a counselor because if you haven't been you
don't know what to expect. (0,-F,10)
Several recurring ideas run through the youngsters' comments,
making it possible to generalize somewhat regarding student
perceptions of professional help. For example, the commenters
very frequently referred to school counselors. Immediately
before writing their comments, most of the students had received
presentations of information which focused on counseling in
general and specifically discussed community counseling re
sources. Even so, the students seemed to equate counseling
with counseling in the schools. Personal experience, in the
form of contact with school counselors over the years, undoubtedly
overshadowed the effects of the brief information. Impressions
appeared to be based not only on experience in actual coun
seling sessions but also on casual encounters with school
counselors, scheduling and advisement conferences, and even
observations from afar. In several cases, moreover, a single
critical incident or a particular relationship with a school
counselor colored a youngster's overall impression of counseling.
In discussing their willingness to use counseling, the
students conveyed in their own language the difficulty which
comes with exposing one's inner self, the fears and doubts which
accompany disclosure, and the pleasure and relief which are
found when there is someone who will listen and be sensitive.


132
Date*/Setting
Period/Class
Experimental
Condition
May 12
2 Human Biology
Oral
School C
3 Biology
Combination
4 Human Biology
Written
5a Science
Control
5h Science
Written
6 Biology
Combination
May 1?
1 English I
Control
School D
2 English I
Written
5 English I
Combination
6 English I
Oral
*The date given is the day of counselor talks and data
collection (the second experimental day). Counseling "booklets
were distributed one school day "before to Written and Com
bination groups.


21
centers. Bearing this out further, a survey of reasons students
do not use university counseling facilities (Snyder, Hill, &
Derksen, 1972) found that undergraduates were generally in
favor of the concept of counseling and unafraid of stigma
attached to seeking therapy; yet they reported little knowledge
about their college counseling center or about the counseling
process, and they preferred to turn to friends and close
relatives for help with personal and social problems rather
than to professionals. Related findings from a study of
undergraduates' expectations of counseling (Tinsley & Harris,
1976) showed that students believe that counseling is in
general a helpful service, but they are rather doubtful that
it could be useful to them. They strongly believed in the
expertise of counselors and that counselors are genuine,
accepting, and trustworthy, but they did not expect that they
could be understood or helped in counseling.
Perceptions of School Counselors
The first school counselors were teachers; and, since the
professionalization of the school counseling specialty,
counselors in secondary schools have had a most difficult
time establishing themselves as a resource for students with
other than school-related matters. Expecially during the 1960's,
an outpouring of counseling literature declared the central
concern of school counselors to be the developmental and
emotional needs of the total youngster (e.g., American School
Counselor Association, 1963; Wrenn, 1962). This prompted a
number of studies into how the school counselor is perceived.


72
D). It was presented to designated classes, on the second
experimental day, by the researcher herself, who was intro
duced as a counselor from the community who had come to inform
the students about counseling. Following the prepared talk,
the speaker requested comments and questions from the students
and conducted a class discussion for 15 to 20 minutes.
Collection of Data
In the classes which received the counselor talk, adminis
tration of the questionnaire immediately followed the discussion
period. In other classes, it was the sole experimental activity
of the second day. The researcher presented the questionnaire
as "a way that you can let us know how you feel about coun
seling, then explained the instructions and the use of the
5-point scale, and read the survey items aloud to the students.
Students were also invited to make written comments at the end
of the questionnaire form.
Pilot Study
As a preliminary trial of the experimental procedures and
materials, a pilot study was conducted with 92 students in four
sections of a biology course in an urban Gainesville high school.
Student participants were heterogeneous in race, sex, and grade
level, and ranged in age from 14 to 19, with a mean age of 15.
Each class section received one of the four treatment conditions
(written, oral, combination, or control) and responded to the
two-part questionnaire. One-way analysis of variance comparing


69
distributed the counseling information booklet to two classes.
On the second day, the researcher presented the counselor talk
to two classes and gathered the questionnaire data in each of
the four classes. Figure 1 details the two-day schedule for
each four-class set.
Treatment Condition
First Day
Second Day
1.
Written Information
Booklet
Questionnaire
2.
Oral Information
Talk, Questionnaire
3-
Combination
Booklet
Talk, Questionnaire
4.
Control
Questionnaire
Figure 1. Schediale followed for each set of four matched
classes.
Counseling; Information Presentations
The counseling booklet and talk used in the study were
designed to be brief, simple, economical., and easily replicable
representing rather traditional counseling information presenta
tions. Their aim is not to "sell" counseling or to persuade
people to use it but to help potential clients to feel more
comfortable and knowledgeable about counseling services, their
availability, and their use. Counseling was realistically
presented as a form of assistance for the person desiring to
explore and clarify personal issues. In view of the range of
counseling situations which clients may encounter, .information
regarding therapeutic techniques and underlying theory is
nonspecific.


66
administered them as a questionnaire to 109 undergraduate
college students, and then calculated the reliability index
of each item and the internal consistency of each category.
As a result of this analysis, Tinsley produced an 82-item
questionnaire with eight scales, six corresponding to the
dimensions of coianseling expectancy listed above and two others
related to counseling procedures and counseling directiveness.
Tinsley next conducted a study among 287 undergraduate
psychology students, using the 82-item instrument. For seven
scales, excluding the Counseling Procedures scale, he found
internal consistency reliabilities ranging from .69 to .89
and, applying a series of t-tests, determined the mean scale
value for each to he significantly different from each other,
except in the case of Trust and Acceptance.
Finally, Tinsley performed an. extensive item analysis,
based on data obtained from 490 subjects, and produced a
43-item version of the instrument, consisting of seven scales
having the following Alpha coefficient reliabilities: Expert
ise (.87), Outcome (.76) Trust (.88), Genuiness (.90),
Acceptance (.92), Understanding ( .87), Directiveness (.84).
Part I of the questionnaire used in the present study is
essentially Tinsleys short form, except that the Directive
ness scale was omitted. To accommodate high-school-aged
respondents, two minor deviations from Tinsley's version were
made. The original 7-point Likert-type scale was reduced to
a 5-point scale. Also, in three items, vocabulary was
simplified: "Experience a significant change" was modified


27
and perceive themselves as having problems for which a therapist
might be sought. They do not dislike psychiatric patients and
are unafraid to admit that they themselves might benefit from
therapy. Also, their expectations of therapy are in line with
those of therapists. They do not think of therapy as advice
giving, and they feel that the client, not the therapist,
should do most of the talking.
According to Kadushin, insiders are usually well educated,
successful people who move in social circles which support
their high regard for therapy. Others, for example lower socio-
economic-level people, can become insiders as well, but they
must enter therapy by some other means than through acquaint
ances and then become insiders due to the experience. It
should be made clear, however, that the network of friends
which Kadushin describes is a small phenomenon, relatively
ineffectual in the total society. Most people are "outsiders"
who have little familiarity with the use of psychotherapy.
Lower socioeconomic-level perceptions. The therapy
perceptions of lower socioeconomic-status people have received
particular study because of this group's disinclination to use
psychotherapy. Lack of knowledge and understanding of therapy
is a probable factor in their reluctance. Incongruity between
lower socioeconomic life experience and the basic concepts of
therapy is another.
The irrelevance of traditional therapy for the concerns
of the poor has been discussed in a number of papers (Erager,
1964; Cole, Branch, & Allison, 1962; Hunt, I960; Riessman,


7
Quite a different orientation toward problems is found in
the lower socioeconomic milieu. Living considerably at the
mercy of the environment, an individual of little means is
disposed to view life difficulties as beyond personal control.
For a person with little education, there is no rationale for
viewing stress psychodynamically. Friends and associates, who
also have limited resources, are apt to share this externalized
perspective and reinforce passive acceptance of "fate." Among
unaffluent people, professional help is likely to be defined
as the services of familiar agencies which provide physical
rather than psychological assistance.
For the lower socioeconomic-level person, moreover, lack
of knowledge and distance from sources of information are not
the only barriers to psychotherapeutic help. Riessman and
other writers have furnished extensive evidence that, in
dozens of ways, psychotherapy is geared to and biased in favor
of middle- and upper-class clients (Riessman, Cohen, & Pearl,
1964). If the poor are slow to recommend psychotherapy to
their friends, this may be a result of the well-documented
insensitivity of professionals to cultural orientations dif
ferent from their own.
It would, however, be incorrect to assume that a pro
pensity to use psychotherapy is inherent and widespread among
people who are well off. Redlich, Hollingshead, and Beilis
(1955) observed misunderstanding and hostility toward psycho
therapy in all strata of society, including the supposedly
well-informed: in panels of lawyers, clergymen, and teachers,


14 O
When to see a counselor. Let me start by talking about when
to see a counselor. When you think of counseling, you
probably think of someone who has a problem of some sort and
goes to a counselor to work on this problem. That is right,
but that's not all there is to it.
Since problems are a normal part of life, something we
all have every day, since everyone has problems, questions,
decisions to make, who can go to a counselor?
The answer is anyone, anybody who wants to. All you have
to do is feel ready and find yourself a counselor.
Some people think that the only time to see a counselor
is when you have a pressing problem or a big problem or a
certain kind of problem. Actually, there is no certain kind
of problem to take to a counselor. Anything, whatever is
important to you, big or small, is worthwhile for a counselor
to deal with.
If you have a pressing problem or something that is
really big, a counselor is interested in dealing with that.
If you dont have a certain problem but just want to talk
in general about yourself and what's going on with you . .
or about a lot of little things ... or about a pvroblem you
might have in the future ... or about a decision youre
making . all of these are welcome in counseling.
Or if you have nothing clear in mind, but just think
talking with a counselor seems like something youd like to
do. Maybe you'd like to just get to know a counselor, in case
you might need one some time.


17
when anticipation of "benefit must win out over resistance to
change and fear of self-confrontation,
Perceptions of College Counseling Services
Part of our knowledge of potential clients' perceptions
of counseling comes from a number of surveys conducted among
student groups. Most of these were the efforts of college
counseling center personnel and secondary school counselors,
concerned that their image limited student use of their ser
vices. By the 1960's, the counseling profession had thoroughly
outgrown its traditional function of vocational and educational
testing and advising; and counselors, trained in the psychology
of personality and in psychotherapeutic theory and practice,
made themselves available for work in personal development as
well. Yet, as Bordin (1955) had pointed out earlier, student
clients were making a distinction between "counseling" and
"psychotherapy"; they saw counseling as an information-
oriented resource, helpful in reasoning through a particular
decision, but not appropriate for the in-depth exploration of
personal problems and emotional issues. Bordin called for the
use of campus media to clarify the counselors role and recom
mended further study into client anticipations and expectations.
In one assessment of campus counseling views by King and
Matteson (1959) a representative sample of students rated
their willingness to take each of 40 problems to the university
counseling center. The results supported Bordin's assertion;
students preferred educational, vocational, social, and per
sonal problems--in that order--for discussion at the center.


24
college than had counselors. Junior high school students in a
study by Van Riper (1971) said that, overall, counselors had
been more helpful to them than other school personnel but less
helpful than other students.
Perhaps students are reluctant to go to their counselors
with emotional issues because they mistakenly believe that
professional assistance is reserved for people who are very
disturbed or dysfunctional. Heilfron (i960) found support for
this contention. Using a questionnaire devised by Robinson
(1953). Heilfron asked a group of high school students to rate
brief descriptions of hypothetical adolescents, specifying the
degree of counseling indicated in each case. The students
recommended minimal counseling for attractive youngsters
doing well in school and displaying no overt emotional handi
caps. They prescribed more frequent counseling for youngsters
with obvious problems, but they reached strong agreement for
maximum counseling, regular sessions or referral to an outside
therapist, only in the case of a boy who was clearly behavior
disordered. Heilfron concluded that students associate intense
counseling with extreme deviance and are unaware of the role
developmental counseling might play in helping those who are
functioning adequately.
Perrone, Weiking, and Nagel (1965) administered the same
questionnaire to junior high school students, teachers, and
parents. The resulting opinions of counseling need were similar
to those found by Heilfron, but parents preferred somewhat more
intensive counseling than did their children, while teachers


The counselor should mainly CARE, By that I mean he
should want to help and do all he can to help. (0,BF,10)
Counseling doesn't have to he so the counselor solves
all of your problems and worries while you go carefree.
It should he so the person will he able to figure him
self out and learn how to care for himself and his
problems. (W,WF,10)
I feel that a counselor should he aware of people and
their problems and not just doing a job. (C,WF,11)
I would not expect a counselor to be a know-everything
type of person. (W,WF,12)
I think it could really help people if the counselor
was understanding mostly. I would like to be a coun
selor myself. (0,WF,9)
I think that they should have at least two types of
counselors in each school, one that will talk to you
about school problems and the other one to help you
with your personal problems and really try to help you
instead of playing games with you. (Cb,WF,ll)
I think that a counselor should be available at all
times because there is no telling when you will need
them. (Ct,WF,10)
I feel that the most important part of a counselors
job is career-related. Help you get into or out of
certain classes, college preparation, etc. (Ct,WF,ll)
I feel counseling is mainly dealing with the problems
of school. Family matters seem a little personal, but
if it's interfering with ones work at school, it's a
must. Its good if it's kept between the counselor
and the student and doesn't go any further than the
two people. (W.BF.ll)
Counseling has always been of benefit to me. Our school
has excellent counseling. I feel that Alachua County
needs more qualified counselors because there are a lot
of students in need. I think the counselor-student
relationship needs to get closer because if a student
knows his counselor is cool, he'll spill himself to
the counselor. (W,WF,12)
Several students wrote that they had career interests in
ounseling and related professions.


145
return. As you get to know your counselor, you should feel
you can talk freely with him or her, just the way you would be
with a friend. Even if the counselor is older than you, you
shouldnt have to worry about being too "polite" or making a
good impression. The idea is to come out and say what you
mean, what you really want to say. And the counselor should
be that way with you too.
By the way, the counselor is not supposed to tell other
people what you say together. To make sure about this, ask
the counselor about confidentiality.
Then ... as counseling goes on, you and your counselor
will work together to decide what you want to do in counseling,
what you want to talk about or what you want to accomplish.
You and your counselor should decide this as partners, and the
counselor will probably leave it mostly up to you.
Don't expect your counselor to do a lot of the talking.
Some counselors like to do a lot of listening.
Also, dont expect your counselor to give you a lot of
advice, to tell you what is right and wrong, to tell you all
the answers. Instead, counseling may work like this. The
counselor will work with you to help you sort through your own
feelings and ideas ... to get them clearer, maybe, to help
you lay them all out so you can look at them . and then
help you figure out what to do and what is right for you, help
you find your own answers.
Your counselor may give you an opinion now and then and
will tell you what he or she is thinking. But your counselor


APPENDIX B
EXPERIMENTAL SCHEDULE


82
Table ?
Outcome Score Means by Race
N
X
Caucasian
392
15.91
Minority
20?
-3*
O-
11
Trust
Ninety-two percent of the sample completed the Trust scale
of the questionnaire. The highest possible Trust score was 30,
and the total sample score mean was 22.2.
For this dependent variable, factorial analysis of variance
revealed significant main effects for treatment (F=2.468; df=3;
p<^.10) and for sex (F=10.4l2; df~3> p<10). There was one
significant interaction, grade by sex (P=2.425; df=3; p<.10).
The Trust score factorial analysis of variance is presented in
Table 8.
Main effects of treatment were examined to locate sources
of difference, using Duncan's new multiple range test; however,
this procedure indicated no significant comparisons at the .10
level, due to an apparent psychometric idiosyncrasy related to
the partitioning of variance in multiple regression factorial
analysis. A follow-up two-tailed t-test was performed, com
paring the highest and lowest means. This test uncovered a
significant difference favoring the control group over the
written information group (t-1,645; p<.10). This result did
not support the experimental prediction that information would


14?
to find a counselor is to ask people you know. Your friends
or family or anyone you are close to may know a good counselor
that they can recommend. Or, any person who works with people
is likely to know some good counselors. You can ask a teacher,
your coach, the minister of a church, a doctor, nurse, social
worker, club leader. Any of these people who work with people
may help you find a counselor.
A third way to get counseling is by telephone. There are
several places that you can call to talk about counseling. One
is(written on blackboard) the Information and Referral Service,
375-^636. You can ca-H this number and tell them what you
have in mind and they can discuss with you some different ways
to get a counselor.
In this county there are many, many agencies that provide
counseling services. Some specialize in counseling young people.
Some deal with particular areas, such as jobs, drugs, planning
your life. And many provide general counseling for anyone who
wants it. These agencies are often free or very low in cost.
The Information and Referral. Service, if you call them, will
discuss these agencies with you and help you decide which ones
are right for you.
Another idea is to call the service and ask to speak
directly to a counselor. They can connect you, right then
over the phone, to a counseling volunteer who will talk to
you for a while. You can tell what is on your mind and talk
it through with the volunteer. You don't have to give your
name, if you don't want to. This volunteer counselor can help


To my family
To Alejo
And to Calvin, Karen, Chris, Richard, and Lynn, youngsters
who taught me more about the art of counseling than any one
else . and much about life and love


BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH
Carol Lee Klopfer vas Lorn in Alexandria, Virginia, on
July 30, 1945, the daughter of Virgil Jay Klopfer and Margaret
Houchens Klopfer. She grew up in east Tennessee and attended
the University of Tennessee, Knoxville, graduating in 196?
with a Bachelor of Arts degree in English and speech. From
1967 to 1970 she was a secondary school English teacher in
Georgia and Florida, and from 1970 to 1972 she was a communi
cations teacher at the Career Education Center, an alternative
school for disadvantaged and drop-out-prone youth in Jackson
ville, Florida. In 1972 she began work toward the Specialist
in Education degree in the Department of Counselor Education
of the University of Florida. Upon receiving this degree in
1974, she entered the doctoral program in Counselor Education.
Since 1972, she has been on the staff of Counseling,
Research, and Education Specialist Teams (Project CREST), and
she is currently CREST Team Leader in Alachua County.
She is a member of the American Personnel and Guidance
Association, the Association for Humanistic Psychology, the
Alachua County Juvenile Committee, and the Coordinating Staff
of Olecranon Growth Center and Learning Community.
164


10
Participants in the study are school adolescents in their
usual classroom settings. The presentations of counseling
information they receive are in three forms: a booklet, a talk
given by a counselor, and a combination of the booklet and the
talk. In general content, the booklet and the talk are identi
cal, covering the following topics:
1. The range of appropriate uses of counseling
2. Types of counseling and counseling activities
3- The counseling process
4. How counseling help may be obtained.
Six hypotheses are tested by comparing the recipients of each
form of information and a control group (receiving no presenta
tion) using measures of counseling expectancies and willingness
to use counseling. Results are discussed in terms of the use
fulness of information in altering perceptions of counseling
which may facilitate help seeking.
Notes on Terminology
Counseling and Psychotherapy
The use of the terms "counseling" and "psychotherapy" in
this study requires explication. In general and theoretical
discussions, the two terms are used interchangeably. In
references to previous research, the term chosen by the investi
gator being reviewed is retained. In the experimental presenta
tions of information delivered to high school youth, only
counseling is mentioned.


CHAPTER II
REVIEW OF LITERATURE
In the field of counseling, little is known about the
use of information to help potential clients understand the
services available to them. The first study evaluating the
influence of information upon people's perceptions of coun
seling appeared only a few years ago. The researchers, Gelso
and McKenzie (1973). prefaced their report by saying,
No research heretofore has examined the efficacy
of various inodes of information dissemination in
correcting the miscommunications between counselors
and other groups. Thus, much time and effort have
been spent identifying the problem, but little
energy has been exerted in studying means of
remedying it. (p. 406)
Several related lines of investigation, however, form
a background against which the effectiveness of counseling
information can be assessed. Some surveys have been done to
assess perceptions of therapy held by certain counseling con
stituencies and the general public, showing that there is
widespread inadequacy of knowledge regarding counselors and
their work. Also, experiments on the transmission of mental
health information have demonstrated the capability of simple
communications to modify peoples conceptions of psychological
issues. Additionally, a number of pretherapy procedures
designed to ready counselees for their role have been found
successful. The conclusions of these studies point to provision
14


REFERENCES
Affleck, D. C., & Mednick, S. A. The use of the Rorschach
test in the prediction of the abrupt terminator in
individual psychotherapy. Journal of Consulting Psycho
logy. 1959, 23, 125-128.
American Psychological Association, Division of Counseling
Psychology Committee on Definition, Counseling psycho
logy as a specialty. American 1's,ychologist, 1956, 11,
282-285.
American School Counselor Association. Tentative statement
of policy for secondary school counselors. Personnel
and Guidance Journal, 1963, 42, 3-94-198.
Auld, F., & Myers, J. K. Contributions to a theory for
selecting psychotherapy patients. Journal of Clinical
Psychology, 1954, 10, 5o~6o.
Bach, G. R. Intensive group psychotherapy. New Yorks Ronald
Press, 1954.
Barron, F. An ego-strength scale which predicts response to
psychotherapy. Journal of Consulting Psychology, 1953,
1?, 327-333. (a)"'
Barron, F. Some test correlates of response to psychotherapy.
Journal of Consulting, Psyo ho logy, 1953, 1?. 235-241. (b)
Bettis, M. D., Malamud, D. I., & Malamud, R. F. Deepening a
group's insight into human relationships. Journal of
Clinical Psychology, 1949, _5, 114-122.
Bigelow, G. S., Hendrix, L. R., & Jensen, V. H, Impact of
counseling center brochures. Journal of College Student
Personnel, 1968, £, 97-99.
Bordin, E. S. The implications of client expectations for
the counseling process. Journal of Counseling Psychology,
1955, 2, 17-21.
Brager, G. New concepts and patterns of service: The Mobili
zation for Youth program. In F. Riessman, J. Cohen, &
A. Pearl (Eds.), Mental health of the poor. New York:
The Free Press, 19&4, PpT 412-521.


44
Interesting. Difficult negative messages induced more favor
able ratings. Difficult negative messages also led to greater
preference for further reading. On the comprehension test,
however, the students showed they understood less from the
negative versions of messages. The significant finding of
the study was that larger differences occurred due to the style
of the message than due to the ideas and other characteristics
contained in it.
During the course of their research, Nunnally became
cognizant of a number of problems in the terminology available
to the general public for describing mental health phenomena.
He identified four weaknesses in the language, which affect
research as well as public communications:
1. There is a shortage of terms. For the general public,
there are no standard equivalents for such terms as "regression"
and "catharsis." Thus, even though average people may be able
to understand and discuss such matters, they are limited by
having a inadequate psychological vocabulary.
2. The language suggests misleading explanations. A
valid system for psychological understanding is hindered by
the loose and biased usage of some terms In common parlance.
The word "intelligence" is inexactly used. Other terms sug
gest incorrect causes, manifestations, and social effects of
mental conditions.
3. The language is not well anchored semantically.
Although most people use a word such as "neurotic," it is
doubtful that they attach it to real-life behaviors. New


37
individual differences in receptiveness, effectiveness of types
of information; (Id) major variadles in message transmission--
anxiety, solution provision, message certainty, and negation
effects; (c) other variables related to mental health communi
cations; (d) permanence of message effects.
Acceptance of Information
In their studies of mental health views, Nunnally and his
research team found popular knowledge of psychology sparce,
unsystematically structured, and uncrystalized. Uncertain and
eager to learn more, the public tends to be susceptible to any
authoritatively presented mental health information. Despite
their curiosity, however, people are likely to be frightened by
such topics as mental disorder and resistant to unpleasant
messages.
On an interest questionnaire, 200 raters indicated as
much willingness to receive information on mental health as on
several other popular subjects, including physical health.
Asked to rate interest in different aspects of mental health,
respondents indicated more enthusiasm for information related
to immediate personal issues; the more distant the topic from
an individual's own concerns, the less interest it generated.
Of particular interest was material related to the early stages
of mental illness, causes and initial signs.
A further study of public interest in mental health used
written information sheets describing treatment methods. The
descriptions were designed with varying combinations of three
message variables: high- or low-anxiety arousal, personal or


LIST OF FIGURES
Figure Page
1. Schedule followed for each set of four matched
classes 69
Xll


96
written and oralwould score significantly higher on measures
of counseling expectancy and willingness, compared with con
trol students. The data, however, furnished little support
for the experimental hypotheses. The effects of the Informa
tion were inconsistent, and the experimental groups were often
not significantly different from the control group.
Irrespective of treatment, examination of results for the
total sample (experimental and control groups pooled together)
revealed significant differences in counseling expectancies
and willingness related to sex, race, and, to a lesser extent,
grade level.
Effects of Treatment on Expectancies
Hypothesis 1. Students receiving the written presen
tation of counseling information (counseling booklet)
will score significantly higher on six measures of
counseling expectancy than control students.
Hypothesis 2. Students receiving the oral presen
tation of counseling information (counselor talk)
will score significantly higher on six measures of
counseling expectancy than control students.
Hypothesis H. Students receiving the combination
form of counseling information (counseling booklet
plus counselor talk) will score significantly
higher on six measures of counseling expectancy
than control students.
A series of factorial analyses of variance, corrected
for unequal cell size by multiple regression procedures, indi
cated no treatment main effects significant at the .10 level
of confidence for four of the expectancy scales: Expertise,
Outcome, Genuineness, and Understanding. Significant main
effects for the Trust and Acceptance scales were evaluated
for sources of difference, using Duncans multiple range tech
nique. For Trust, the Duncans procedure resulted in no


It stinks. (0,1/M, 9)
Sorry counseling: (W,MM,10)
Man, it's a bummer. (W,WM,10)
I like to stay as far away as possible. (0,WF,11)
Other unfavorable comments cited specific complaints and
dissatisfactions. Students were most critical of breeches of
confidentiality and counselors' lack of sincerity and concern.
I'm not sure if I can trust a counselor because I
went to one once and talked to her about my Mom and
Dad and she told them everything. (Ct,WF,9)
We had a counselor one time that told my parents
everything that I told her in confidence. I dont
think that a counselor should do that. (Ct, WF,9)
I think they should have counseling but I don't like
the way they go and tell your parents what you have
talked about. But I guess if you don't want your
parents to know you wouldn't tell the counselors.
(Ct.WF,9)
If its a true confidential person. Here it seems
that they are only out to do it the easy way without
changes and for the educational point of view. Not
really willing to give a about my part. They
always know what I need and supposedly want. HA:
(W,BF,12)
I knew a few counselors but most of them were bleeding
hearts. (W,WM,10)
I think these questions are put forth in an extremely
poor manner. Of course, you would expect a counselor
to be competent in all these areas. The trouble is
they very seldom are. You come to a counselor with
expectations of being helped. One should expect that
a counselor would be apt in these areas, but unfortu
nately they seldom are. (W,WF,12)
I believe if assigned a counselor and dont think he
or she is helping or even trying to help, there should
be a way to change counselors. P.S, I have a counselor
and he doesn't really talk about nothing but how good
his son and his grandson is. (ct,WF,10)


12, Express openly any disagreement I have with the
counselor
If I went to a counselors I would expect the counselor to
13.
Be a sincere person
14,
Be a "real" person, not just a person doing a joh
15.
Be honest with me
16,
Tell me what he (she) is honestly thinking
1?.
Be "the person that he (she) really is" with me
18.
Let me know what he (she) is honestly feeling
19.
Think I am worthwhile
20.
Take a special interest in me and my problems
21.
Accept me
22.
Be friendly and warm towards me
23.
Make me feel free to say whatever I think
24,
Respect me as a person
25.
Be genuinely interested in me as a person
26.
Know how to help me
27.
Know a lot about people and their problems
28.
Be experienced in helping people with many kinds
of personal problems
29-
Help me solve my problems
30.
Know how I feel even when I cannot say quite what
I mean
31.
Help me to know how I am feeling by putting my
feelings into words for me
32.
Lead me into talking about some of my deepest
feelings
33
Help me learn a lot about myself
34.
Know how I feel, at times, without my having to
speak


123
Reznikoff, M., Brady, J. P., & Zeller, W. W. The psychiatric
attitudes battery; A procedure for assessing attitudes
toward psychiatric treatment and hospitals. Journal of
Clinical Psychology, 1959 1, 260-266.
Riessman, F., Cohen, J., & Pearl, A. (Eds.). Mental health
of the poor. New York: The Free Press, 1964.
Roberts, L. K. The failure of some Rorschach indices to
predict the outcome of psychotherapy. Journal of Coun-
sulting Psychology, 1954, 18, 96-89.
Robinson, F. P. Guidance for all: In principle and practice.
Personnel and Guidance Journal, 1953. jil, 500-504.
Robinson, H. A., Redlich, F. C., & Myers, J. K. Social
structure and psychiatric treatment. American Journal
of Orthopsychiatry, 1954, 24, 30?.
Roemmich, H., & Schmidt, J. L. Student perceptions of assist
ance provided by counselors in college planning. Per
sonnel and Guidance Journal, 1962, 41 157-158.
Rogers, C. R. Client-centered therapy. Boston: Houghton
Mifflin, 1951.
Rogers, C. R. The necessary and sufficient conditions of
therapeutic personality change. Journal of Consulting
Psychology, 1957 21, 95-103.
Rogers, L. S., & Hammond, K. R. Predicting the results of
therapy by means of the Rorschach test. Journal of
Consulting Psychology, 1953, 17, 8-I5.
Rogers, L. S., Knauss, J., & Hammond, K. R. Predicting
continuation in therapy by means of the Rorschach test.
Journal of Consulting Psychology, 1951, 1, 368-371.
Rosenberg, S. The relationship of certain personality factors
to prognosis in psychotherapy. Journal of Clinical
Psychology, 1954, 10, 341-345.
Rosenthal, D., & Frank, J. D. The fate of psychiatric clinic
outpatients assigned to psychotherapy. Journal of
Nervous and Mental Disease, 1958, 127, 330-343.
Rotter, J. B. Social learning and clinical psychology. New
York: Prentice-Hall, 1954.
Savitsky, J. C., Zarle, T. H., & Keedy, N. S. The effect of
information, about an interviewer on interviewee per
ceptions. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 1975, 23.
97-98.


Table 13
Genuineness Score Means by Sex and Race
86
N
X
Male
279
24.97
Female
333
27-03
Caucasian
395
26.41
Minority
215
25.44
Acceptance
Ninety-three percent of the sample completed the Acceptance
scale of the questionnaire. The highest possible Acceptance
score was 35 and the total sample score mean was 29.0.
For this dependent variable, factorial analysis of vari
ance revealed significant main effects for treatment (F=2.874;
df=3; p<.10) and for sex (F=20.055; df=l; p<1.10). There was
no significant interaction. The Acceptance score factorial
analysis of variance is presented in Table 14.
Wlain effects of treatment were examined to determine sources
of difference, using Duncan's multiple range test. As Table 15
indicates, five pairwise comparisons were significant at the
.10 level. No difference appeared between the scores of the
control and the oral information groups; however, the written
information group scored significantly higher than each other
group, while the combination group scored significantly lower
than other groups. This provides support for the experimental
prediction that information would favorably influence counseling
expectancies in the case of written information only.


CHAPTER V
SUMMARY, DISCU
Uoo
c'I0N,
LIMITAT]ONS, AND RECOMMENDATIONS
This study 'began with the assumption that there are
numbers of people who could benefit from counseling services
but are disinclined to seek psychological help. Since orien
tation toward help seeking is to a large extent a function
of an individual's beliefs and attitudes, it was asserted
that information which leads to favorable perceptions about
counseling should prove an effective tool in the delivery of
mental health services. The use of information to reach
potential clients, however, had heretofore been the subject
of little research.
To investigate the efficacy of counseling information,
two brief informational presentations, one written and one oral,
were designed and tested on a large heterogeneous group of high
school students. The purpose was to determine whether these
communications would positively influence perceptions of
counseling. Specifically, the study posed six directional
hypotheses predicting that students receiving the oral informa
tion, the written information, or a combination of the two
would exceed a control group in favorable responses to measures
of counseling expectancies and willingness to use counseling.
Participating in the study were 28 classes of ninth-
through twelfth-grade students from four schools in Alachua


29
therapy with "craziness. The middle-class interviewees were
only slightly more knowledgeable about therapy. Both groups
presented somatic problems and asked for "pills and shots";
both lacked confidence in the "talking treatment" and wanted
sympathy, authority, and practical advice. Followed through
the course of therapy, however, tiie middle-class clients more
often came to accept their therapists' notions of the thera
peutic process, while lower socioeconomic-level patients tended
to remain dissatisfied.
Some years later, Overall and Aronson (1962) surveyed the
therapy expectations of 40 lower socioeconomic-level clients
entering psychiatric clinics. The results were puzzling. The
respondents tended to answer positively to most of the 35 items
of the questionnaire, indicateng-~at face value--simu.ltaneous
anticipations of active, medical, supportive, dynamic, and
passive therapist behavior. The researchers speculated that
there might have been a general set among those surveyed to
reply "Yes." A finding which especially surprised the investi
gators was that the potential clients reported strong expectations
that they would deal with emotional and dynamic material in
therapy.
Conceivably, the research over the years represents a
trend in which psychiatric outpatient clinic applicants are
becoming more sophisticated regarding treatment. In a recent
survey, Lorion (1974) uncovered no significant differences in
help-seeking orientation or treatment expectancies among clinic
applicants of middle-, lower middle-, and lower socioeconomic


62
ideas are subject of modification by communications posed in
an authoritative but nonthreatening way. Therefore, it was
predicted that the informational presentations used in this
study would favorably influence high school students coun
seling expectancies and their willingness to use counseling,
as outlined in the following hypotheses:
1. Students receiving the written presentation of
counseling information (counseling booklet) will
score significantly higher on six measures of
counseling expectancy than control students.
2. Students receiving the oral presentation of
counseling information (counselor talk) will
score significantly higher on six measures of
counseling expectancy than control students.
3- Students receiving the combination form of
counseling infomation (counseling booklet plus
counselor talk) will score significantly higher
on six measures of counseling expectancy than
control students.
4. Students receiving the
counseling information
higher on two measures
than control students.
5- Students receiving the
counseling information
higher on two measures
than control students.
6. Students receiving the
counseling information
higher on two measures
than control students.
written presentation of
will score significantly
of counseling willingness
oral presentation of
will score significantly
of counseling willingness
combination form of
will score significantly
of counseling willingness
The study also explored the comparative effectiveness of
the three forms of information and the main and interaction
effects of the variables, sex, race, grade level, and school
membership.


70
Development of the information booklet and talk took into
consideration the work of Orne and Wender (1968) and Strupp and
Bloxom (1973) and the experience of counselors who have worked
with youth. The researcher submitted a preliminary draft of
the booklet to five school counselors and several other experi
enced counselors for feedback, then revised it. The manuscript
of the counseling talk also underwent revision, based on the
responses of the students in the pilot study.
The booklet, four typewritten pages illustrated with
line drawings, has a simple text and is entitled "Sometime You
May Want to See a Counselor" (see Appendic C).
The content of the booklet is in four parts:
1. When to See a Counselor. The first section explains
that a counselor can be consulted for a particular problem or
simply to discuss living in general. It reflects the explora
tory nature of couseling and emphasizes that whatever is
important to the client is worthwhile material for counseling.
The purpose is to make the client feel welcome in counseling
and to counter common misconceptions about the limitations of
problem appropriateness. This part of the booklet is illustrated
with examples of statements which might be made to counselors.
2. Kinds of Counseling. The second part of the booklet
describes three types of counseling; one-to-one counseling,
group counseling, and family counseling. It goes on to explain
that counseling focuses on both ideas and feelings and that
counseling may include both quiet (e.g., talking) and active
(e.g., role-playing) experiences.


84
The significant main effect of sex was evaluated by refer
ring to score means for males and females. As Table 10 shows,
females' Trust scores were higher.
Table 10
Trust Score Means by Sex
N
X
Males
279
21.30
Females
325
22.96
Genuineness
Ninety-three percent of the sample completed the Genuine
ness scale of the questionnaire. The highest possible Genuine
ness score was 30 and the total sample score mean was 26.1.
For this dependent variable, factorial analysis of vari
ance indicated no significant main, effects for treatment (F=
0.446; df=3; P> .10). Significant main effects were found for
sex (F=21.799; df=l; p<.10) and for race (F=5.l82; df=l; p<.10).
There was no significant interaction. The Genuineness score
factorial analysis of variance is presented in Table 11.
The absence of significant treatment effects provided no
support for the experimental prediction that information would
affect counseling expectancies. Treatment means are reported
in Table 12.
The significant effects of sex and race were evaluated by
referring to group means. As Table 13 shows, females and
Caucasians had higher Genuineness scores.


Table 28
Expectancy Scale Values
Total
Sample
Males
Females
N
Scale
Value
N
Scale
Value
N
Scale
Value
Genuineness
612
4.4
279
4.2
333
4.5
Acceptance
611
4.1
276
4.0
335
4.3
Expertise
603
4.0
275
3.9
328
4.0
Trust
604
3.7
279
3.6
325
3.8
Understanding
592
3-4
269
3.3
323
3.4
Outcome
602
3.3
373
3-2
329
3.4
Note.--Missing cases indicate incomplete questionnaire data.


94
Table 25 indicates, five pairwise comparisons were significant
at the .10 level. No difference was shown between the control
and the combination information groups, while the oral informa
tion group scored significantly higher than each other group
and the written information group scored significantly lower
than other groups. This furnishes support for the experi
mental prediction that information would favorably influence
counseling willingness in the case of oral information only.
Table 25
Personal-Social Willingness Score Means for Treatment Groups
Duncan' i
3 Multiple Range
Test Comparisons
X1
Xi. L
4 5
X2
X1
(Written)
= 16.
.8
.1* .6*
'S'
o
*i
X4
(Control)
if
11
9
if
J)
.9
x3
(Comb.)
= 1?.
.4
-
.4*
X2
(Oral)
= 17.
.8
-
*p <. 10
Main effects of grade level were also examined for sources
of difference between means by the Duncan test. As Table 26
shows, only the comparison between twelfth- and eleventh-grade
means proved nonsignificant at the .10 level of confidence.
Underclassmen again had higher scores than upperclassmen.
The significant effects of sex and race were evaluated by
referring to group means. As reported in Table 27, females and
minority students had higher PS scores.


87
Table 14
Acceptance Score Factorial Analysis of Variance
Source of Variation
SS
df
MS
F
Main Effects
782.04
8
97-75
3.835
Treatment
219.80
3
3.98
2.974*
Grade
11.95
3
0.16
0.156
Sex
511.20
1
a..
511.20
20.055*
Race
43.84
1
43.84
1.720
Two-way Interactions
503.76
22
22.90
0.898
Treatment
Grade
367.74
9
40.86
1.603
Treatment
Sex
16.12
3
5-37
0.211
Treatment
Race
7.94
3
2.65
0.104
Grade
Sex
19.17
3
6.39
0.251
Grade
Race
78.61
3
26.20
1.028
Sex
Race
5.95
1
5.95
0.233
Explained
1412.73
30
47.09
1.847
Residual
14427-08
566
25.49
Total
15839.81
596
26.58
*p < 10
Table
15
Acceptance
Score Means
for Treatment Groups
Duncan's Multiple Range Test
Comparisons
X3
X4
x0
*1
X3 (Comb.)
= 28.5
-
. 2*
.5*
1.1*
X^ (Control)
= 28.7
-
.3
9*
X2 (Oral)
= 29.0
-
.6*
X-^ (Written)
= 29-6
-
*P< .10


64
the selection of matched sets of four classes. Selecting
counselors used the following guidelines:
a. Select four classes which are approximately
equivalent in student composition.
b. Classes considered "typical1 are desired, not
those composed of advanced or exceptional stu
dents. Insofar as possible, choose four sections
of a general course in which students are rou
tinely enrolled; e.g., required English or science.
c. Check the four classes for approximate equiva
lence in sex, race, grade level, and age of
students.
Three schools contributed two sets of four matched classes,
and the smallest school provided one set.
4. The four classes in each set were randomly assigned
one to each of the four treatment conditions.
The resulting sample consisted of "typical" high school
students, heterogeneous in sex, race, grade level, and age,
and accessible in their regularly scheduled classes. Two sets
of four matched classes were in one urban school, and five sets
were in three rural schools. Within each set, the four classes
were randomly assigned to the four treatment conditions. Thus,
seven classes composed each experimental and control group.
Measurement
To assess the effects of counseling information, this
study employed a questionnaire based closely on the work of
previous researchers in the area of perceptions of counseling.
Entitled "Counseling Survey," the questionnaire has two parts.
Part I measures six differential expectancies of counseling,


108
extremely negative predisposition. It is possible that students
of these two types were unaffected by the information for dif
ferent reasons--the former group, because they already agreed
with the presentations and the latter, because information
designed for '"typical" students was not specialized enough to
reach through their particular resistance. Previous experi
ence with counselors, apparently a factor related to initial
attitudes, is another possibly significant source of individual
difference. Also, while psychological "need" is not thought
to be the major motivation in help seeking, this factor might
well be important in acceptance of information about helping
services. The "shotgun" approach of this study contrasts
with the more focused work of Strupp and Bloxom (1973) who
successfully reached a more homogeneous group (largely uninformed
clients of rehabilitation agencies who wore about to enter
therapy) with information designed especially to be relevant
to their way of life.
Second, in attempting to provide a comprehensive under
standing of counseling, the presentations may have had less
impact than if they had been limited to one or two specific
points. Previous researchers have obtained successful results
by disseminating single-purpose communications and then measuring
message persuasiveness along particular corresponding dimensions
(cf. Duckro, Beal, & Moebes, 19?6; Gelso & McKenzie, 1972;
Nunnally, 1961).
That the presentations did not require active involvement
on the part of the youngsters may have attenuated their effect.


THE EFFECTS OF INFORMATION ON COUNSELING
EXPECTANCIES AND WILLINGNESS:
A STUDY OF HIGH SCHOOL YOUTH
By
CAROL LEE KLOPFER
A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE COUNCIL OF
THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE
DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
1977


53
itself, beliefs about its effectiveness, shared values regarding
its importance, and particular role expectations--just as it
is necessary to have learned appropriate perceptions about
one's culture in order to live successfully in it.
As a means of explicit socialization for the client antici
pating therapy, Orne designed a pretherapy interview with three
major purposes: (a) to provide some rational basis for the
client to accept therapy as a means of help with problems, (b)
to clarify the roles of client and therapist, and (c) to provide
a general outline of the course of therapy, including its
vicissitudes.
The first step in Orne' s interview' is a rapport-establishing
period. While taking a brief history, the therapist indicates
sympathetic understanding for the client's problems and makes
a few simple comments which would seem highly insightful to the
client. The intent in being immediately helpful, reassuring,
and supportive is to provide a basis for the acceptance of the
therapist's subsequent statements. This step in the interview,
according to Orne, takes a short; time and fits into the model
of the medical relationship already familiar to the client.
Next, the therapist gives the client an explanation of
psychotherapy. In Orne's thinking, "It matters little what
rationale is given to help the patient understand psychotherapy.
It is important, however, that some rationale be given" (p. 1207).
The main points to be covered are that therapy is a learning
process and that the goal is to create permanent change rather
than immediate, transitory effects. To get these ideas across,


Dunlop (1965) surveyed opinions of what school counselors
should do. Counselor educators, secondary school administra
tors, counselors, teachers, college-preparatory and job-hound
seniors, and mothers of students, all agreed that educational
and vocational counseling were appropriate, and all except
jot-hound students and their mothers were in favor of testing
as a counselor's task. Personal counseling received general
approval, but students showed significantly less enthusiasm
for this service. The college-hound seniors indicated hy
their remarks that the school counselor was "a good choice
for personal counseling when no one else was available" (p. 1026).
Furthermore, students, parents, and teachers rejected some
behaviors which counselors consider integral to the therapist
role. They did not want counselors to allow counselees to
speak freely without fear of punishment or correction. They
condoned advice-giving, and they felt that counselors should
teach students the difference between right and wrong.
Dunlop concluded that the counselor is perceived in the
school as merely "a helpful person whose function is largely
one of providing assistance to students in their efforts to
achieve academic success" (p. 102?). If counselors are to be
distinguished from teachers, he wrote, they must educate other
school personnel and the public about their competencies.
How the school counselor is regarded by colleagues is
likely to influence student use of counseling services. A
recent paper by Wittmer and Loesch (1975) described teachers'
lack of trust and respect for counselors as related to inadequate


91
Vocational-Educational Willingness (VE)
Ninety-two percent of the sample completed the Vocational-
Educational Willingness (VE) scale of the questionnaire. The
highest possible VE score was 25* and the total sample score
mean was 20.0.
For this dependent variable, factorial, analysis of vari
ance indicated to significant main effects for treatment (F=
1.379; df = 3; p>.10). A significant difference was found for
the main effect of race (F=6.259* df-1; p<£.10). The VE score
factorial analysis of variance is presented in Table 21.
Table 21
Vocational-Educational Willingness Score (VE)
Factorial Analysis of Variance
Source of Variation
SS
df
MS
F
Main Effects
228.93
8
28.62
1.791
Treatment
66.12
3
22.04
1.379
Grade
5.66
O
J
1.89
0.118
Sex
41.20
1
41.20
2.579
Race
100.00
1
100.00
6.259*
Two-way Interactions
40 3.4?
22
18.34
1.148
Treatment
Grade
76.94
Q
s
8.55
0.535
Treatment
Sex
70.33
3
23.45
1.468
Treatment
Race
15.07
3
5.02
0.314
Grade
Sex
44.62
3
14.87
0.931
Grade
Race
123.12
3
41.04
2.569*
Sex
Race
20.00
I
20.00
1.252
Explained
695.94
30
23-20
1.452
Residual
8962.54
561
co
ON
1!
Total
9658.48
591
16.34
*p <". 10


122
Morgan, L. B. The many publics of the counselor: A dialogue.
Personnel and Guidance Journal, 1974, 2, 665-669.
Myrick, R. D. Effect of a model on verbal behavior in coun
seling. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 1969, 16,
I85-I9O.
Nash, E. H., Hoehn-Saric, R,, Battle, C. C., Stone, A. R.,
Imber, S, D., & Frank, J. D. Systematic preparation of
patients for short term psychotherapy--II. Relation to
characteristics of patient, therapist and the psycho
therapeutic process. Journal of Nervous and Mental
Disease, 1965, 140, 374-383.
Nunnally, J. G. Popular conceptions of mental health. New
York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, Inc.j 1961.
Orne, M. T., & Wender, P. H. Anticipatory socialization for
psychotherapy: Method and rationale. American Journal of
Psychiatry, 1968, 124, 1202-1212. (a)
Orne, M. T., & Wender, P. H. Appendix to anticipatory sociali
zation for psychotherapy: Method and rationale. Washington,
D.C.: Library of Congress: American Documentation Institute
Auxiliary Publications Project, 1968. (b)
Overall, B., & Aronson, H. Expectations of psychotherapy in
lower socioeconomic class patients. American Journal of
Orthopsychiatry, 1962, 271-272.
Patterson, C. H. Theories of counseling and psychotherapy.
New York: Harper and Row, 19647
Perrone, P. A., Weiking, M. L., & Nagel, E. H. The coun
seling function as seen by students, parents, and teachers.
Journal of Counseling Psychology, 1965, 12, 148-152.
Pierce, R. II., Schauble, P. G., & Farkas, A. Teaching inter
nalization behavior to clients. Psychotherapy. Theory,
Research, and Practice, 1970, 2 217-220.
Redlich, F. G., Hollingshead, A. B., & Beilis, E. Social
class differences in attitudes toward psychiatry.
American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 1955 2J)> 60-70.
Redlich, F. C., Hollingshead, A. B., Roberts, B. H., Robinson,
H. A., Freedman, L. Z., & Myers, J. K. Social structure
and psychiatric disorder. American Journal of Psychiatry,
1953, 102, 729-734.
Resnick, H., & Gelso, C. J. Differential perceptions of
counseling role: A reexamination. Journal of Counseling
Psychology, 1971. 18, 549-553-


46
The Nunnally project was composed mainly of short-range inves
tigations, usually the presentation of a very "brief message
followed immediately by outcome measures. The researchers
chose to conduct multiple short-duration experiments, they
said, for reasons of practicality and because the early stages
of mental health communications research required careful con
trol of variables and ongoing adjustment of experimental
designs impossible in longitudinal studies.
In order to investigate the permanence of information
effects, the researchers performed a follow-up assessment of
the change produced by high school psychology classes. Stu
dents from seven sections of a psychology course responded
to information questionnaires and mental health attitude scales
prior to the semester-long course, at the end of the semester,
and again six months to one year later. Measured against
themselves, the students gained in correct knowledge during
the semester (they responded more like psychologists and
psychiatrists), and they continued to gain in the following
months. Findings were inconclusive, however, because a
control group of art students showed approximately the same
amount of improvement over the semester's time.
Attitudinal results were similar. Both psychology and
art students developed more favorable attitudes over the
semester. On most significant concepts, change scores for
the two groups were exactly the same. The researchers specu
lated that pretest sensitization accounted for the nonpsychology
students increases. Sheer educational maturity was ruled out


6
provided a reliable indicator. It does appear from personality
studies however, that the most psychologically "needy" are
less likely to become clients than their better adjusted peers
(Affleck & Mednick, 1959; Barron, 1953a, 1953b; Gallagher, 1954;
Heilbrun, 1961a, 1961b, 1964, 1966; Heilbrun & Sullivan, 1962;
Hiler, 1959; Libo, 1957; Resnikoff, Brady, & Zeller, 1959;
Roberts, 1954; Rogers & Hammond, 1953; Rogers, Knauss, &
Hammond, 1951; Windle, 1952).
The Relationship of Information to Therapy Predisposition
The greater use of psychotherapy by socially advantaged
perople can be accounted for, to a large degree, by this group's
proximity to therapy-predisposing information. According to
the sociological model of help seeking provided by Kadushin
(1969), people are likely to move from the experience of per
sonal distress toward the office of a therapist to the extent
that their position in society exposes them to sources of infor
mation which promote the efficacy of professional help. Better
educated and higher socioeconomic-level people, because of their
schooling, the books they read, the lectures the attend, are
prepared to accept psychodynamic explanations for their problems.
Also, their circle of friends and associates is prone to discuss
life issues in "mental" terms, and their acquaintances may
include individuals who have undergone therapy as well as
workers in mental health professions. Thus, advantaged people
are socially situated to identify their problems as psychological,
to receive answers to their questions about the process of
therapy, and even to be directed to particular practitioners.


CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION
The delivery of mental health services, while improving,
falls far short of Its possibilities. In the field of coun
seling it is difficult to ignore that, of the many who could
conceivably benefit from psychotherapy, most do not receive it.
Disquieting social realities give this issue urgency: prisons
full of individuals who have never had a single session with
a personal counselor; numbers of unhappy people, destined for
psychiatric institutions, who will not contemplate psychotherapy
until forced into it by overwhelming dysfunction; men and women
struggling and foundering in the face of rapidly changing
culture and economic hard times.
Psychotherapy of course is not the sole solution to wasted
human potential, but undoubtedly the goals of mental health
would more adequately be served if larger segments of the
population were reached--the severely disturbed as well as
average people coping with the normal vicissitudes of life.
Providing more effective public information is an important
step toward abating what Ewalt (i960) has called "the vast
unmet meed of the American people for help in recognizing and
dealing with mental and emotional problems" (p. xxvi). If
people understood counseling services better, perhaps they
would use them more.
1


ICO
-KUT
I don't think that I would go to a counselor nor do
I think it would help me. I have a good relationship
with my parents and can go to them for any help I need
instead of going to a perfect stranger. (W,WF,12)
Well, in a way I think that a counselor just helps you
with your problems but doesn't really get involved
because they have a lot more people than you to help.
So this is what I feel. Although I would like to see
a counselor about my future, but I don't think I could
be as open with my problems dealing with guys and
dating. So I guess that's all. (W,WF,9)
I doubt I would intentionally seek counseling (from
a designated counselor) of any special type. If, how
ever, the opportunity presented itself, a counselor
was around and I felt I could tak with him/her, I
would take advantage of the opportunity. (0,WM,12)
I have never been counseled or been to a counselor and
doubt I will because I don't have trust in them for ray
personal problems. (W.WM.9)
I am the kind of person that's always willing to talk
about my problems even if it may hurt me a little.
(Ct,BF,11)
I think that this survey is hard to answer because
you would not be able to answer it unless you had
experienced it. Some people cant just come right out
and tell a person (no matter who the pei'son is) certain
problems. (0,WM,11)
I've had two different psychiatrists before which have
helped me in some ways. I don't mind going to a coun
selor for help, but I am just worried about people
finding out. (0,WM,9)
Well, I think counseling is important but I think I
would have a hard time talking about certain problems
with a person I don't know. (Cb,WF,9)
That was very nice of you to come talk to our class,
but I still would feel dumb going to a counselor about
sex, drugs, and my family. (0,WF,10)
I can't be helped. (W,WM.ll)
At times there would possibly be subjects I wouldn't
particularly care to discuss with anyone (and would
feel I didnt need to). (W,WF,12)


Sometime,
rou
io
This booklet i3 to help you know more about counseling
so you. can decide whether it is something you would like to try.
6la the ri&ht/ What ara the
e to see a different kinds
ounselor? V of counselors?
...If you have a PARTICULAR PROBLEM or question or decision to
make and want some help getting it clear or sorting through
the answers
-OR-
, ..If you have NO PARTICULAR PROBLEM hut would Ilka to know more
about yourealf, explore how you are living your life, talk
about your future, or discuss a lot of little questions that
are on your mind
-0R-
...You may simply want to get to know a. counselor in case you
need him or her some time
I win t to\
arstand myself^
be t toi
My prente are
getting a divorce
and I'm worried
I'm having trouble]
with school
Y
c
wonder
lot of
r
I want to gee
what cou.fiHiiling^
"lis like
y~
In other word3.,.
You can 3ee a counselor
whenever you're ready.
A counselor is there to deal
with. WHATEVER IS IMPORTANT TO
YOU. big or small. And you don't
have to have a certain problem
You may just want to talk about
"things" in general.
about
things
134


38
impersonal phrasing, and provision of solutions or no solution.
Ranking the communications in order of preference, 288 partici
pants in the experiment showed least interest in personal, high-
anxiety messages providing no solution and most interest in
impersonal, low-anxiety messages including solutions. Recep
tivity to mental health messages, therefore, seems tied to the
degree of threat produced.
False information may be as readily accepted as true. An
experiment which demonstrated this used four written accounts
of treatments for catatonic schizophrenia, two plausible in
the light of current evidence and two concocted from the imagi
nations of the researchers. Four groups of college students
read these reports, presented as expert explanations, while
control groups read messages unrelated to mental health. The
readers of both true and false .repoi'ts made similar ratings of
their information on convincingness, and more than 75 percent
of each group answered "Yes" when asked whether they thought
the treatment described to them would work. Additionally, the
four groups, compared with control groups, indicated more
favorable attitudes on a Semantic Differential, both for the
concept of "a person with catatonic schizophrenia" and for
general mental health topics. Nunnally suggested that even
false information can serve a useful purpose.
Measuring the effects of types of information upon atti
tudes and knowledge, the researchers used four paragraphs
designed to promote accurate understanding about four popular
misconceptions: (a) that the mentally ill look and act different,


TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS iv
LIST OF TABLES x
LIST OF FIGURES. xii
ABSTRACT xiii
CHAPTER
I INTRODUCTION 1
The "Need" for Psychotherapy Versus the Use
of Psychotherapy. 2
Factors Differentiating Therapy Seekers from
Nonseekers 4
The Relationship of Information to Therapy
Predisposition. 6
The Present Studys Purpose and Overview.... 9
Notes on Terminology 10
Counseling and Psychotherapy 10
Perceptions of Counselings Expectancies
and Willingness 12
II REVIEW OF LITERATURE 14
Perceptions of Counseling 15
Perceptions of College Counseling
Services 17
Perceptions of School Counselors 21
Puhlic Perceptions of Psychotherapy.... 25
Effects of Mental Health Information:
Nunnally's Findings 36
vi


6?
to "have a big change"; "Speak frankly regarding" was changed
to "speak freely about"; "initiate" became "begin."
Fry's (1968) readability formula, applied to Part I,
found the items to be approximately at seventh-grade level of
reading comprehensibility.
The questionnaire was subjected to a test of stability,
using the test-retest method. Participants in the reliability
study were twenty-two members of a Young Life Christian Club,
composed of adolescents attending two urban Gainesville high
schools. Five boys and sixteen girls, ranging in age from 14
to 19 (mean age: 16.8), responded to the questionnaire on two
occasions separated by a time interval of three weeks. Product-
moment correlations calculated for each scale of the question
naire resulted in the following reliability coefficients for
the six expectancy dimensions: Expertise (.79) Outcome (.85),
Trust (.37). Genuineness (.75) Acceptance (.46), Understanding
(.62).
Part II: Counseling Willingness
Part II of the questionnaire, evaluating willingness to
use counseling, lists ten topics which people often discuss
in counseling. Five items are vocational and educational
issues: school work and grades, looking ahead and planning
your life, how you feel about teachers and classes, jobs now
and in the future, and money matters. Five are personal and
social concerns: personal worries, knowing and understanding
yourself better, how you get along with your family, how you
get along with others your age, and uncomfortable feelings


25
favored less. The counseling needs of student participants
in the study, inferred from self-report on the Mooney Problem
Checklist, were largely unrelated to their, or their parents',
estimates of hypothetical youngsters' need for services.
Apparently, the school counseling specialist is not seen
as an essential resource for the developmental and emotional
needs of students. The studies cited show that the counselor
is not highly regarded in the school, not trusted, not under
stood, and not sought out. School counselors are undoubtedly
performing important, if not highly visible, functions. The
fact remains, however, that lack of student recognition
severely limits the counselor's capability to provide psycho
logical help. It has been said that "word-of-mouth advertising"
is the primary mode of promoting the counselor's image in the
school (Morgan, 1974) It seems this form, of publicity is
insufficiently conveying the message of counselor availability
and competence.
Public Perceptions of Psychotherapy
By cultural definition, psychotherapy is the designated
treatment in this society for certain forms of human distress.
The public, however, is not of one mind in its perceptions of
therapy. People with dissimilar lifestyles and associates are
likely to have divergent view of therapy. City dwellers, for
example, do not view therapy in the same way as rural inhab
itants. Workers in the occupational fields of health, education,
communications, and art often think differently about therapy
than those in engineering, law, and business. Sophisticated


36
the influence of unrealistic dramatic conventions. Furthermore,
in the overall media, information concerning psychological
issues was infrequent. The researchers found only 120 relevant
items in 49 newspapers, 16 in a radio station's weekly output,
17 on one television channel watched for a week, and 49 items
in 91 issues of national magazines.
Effects of Mental Health Information; Nunnally's Findings
After their investigations of public mental health views,
Nunnally and his colleagues conducted a series of pioneering
studies in the field of mental health communications. The
second half of Nunnally's (1961) report is an examination of
the communication variables involved in attempts to expand
popular knowledge and improve general attitudes regarding
mental health issues. Its essential message was summarized
as follows,
Communicating mental health information may, on first
thought, seem to be a relatively straight-forward
task--merely presenting facts in a clear and inter
esting manner. Unfortunately, the problem is much
more complicated than that, and there are many
stumbling blocks in the communication process. For
example, the attitudes that people have toward mental
disorders and afflicted individuals make them resist
ant to certain kinds of new ideas and to some types
of communications. Because the direct approach
often fails to change people's attitudes and opin
ions in desired directions, new appeals and communica
tion strategies must be found. (p. 2)
The following review of Nunnally's findings includes several
focuses: (a) general acceptance of mental health information--
public interest, discrimination of true from false information,


144
Counseling doesn't have to be only talking, though. Some
times there are counseling activities, designed to work with
ideas and feelings. With your counselor, you might do special
exercises which are like games. Or you might do role-playing,
which is acting out situations to see how they feel or to try
out new things. Or you might do some drawing or writing, use
music, dancing, poetry. Or make lists or charts or tape
record yourself and play it back to see how you sound.
It is important for you to know that there are different
types and ways of counseling because you can help your coun
selor know what you would like to do in counseling, what would
be most interesting, helpful, and comfortable for you.
What is counseling like? I can't tell you exactly v/hat will
happen if you go to a counselor, but I can give you a general
idea and tell you some things you can do to help counseling go
well.
First . Let's say that you go to a counselor sometime.
When you and your counselor first meet, you will probably start
off by getting to know each other, telling about yourselves.
The counselor may ask you some questions and you can ask the
counselor some questions. And, as you are getting to know the
counselor, you should be chacking out the counselor to see if
this is someone you can trust and feel comfortable with. You
may want to ask the counselor questions to help you know where
he or she is coming from and how the counselor feels about
certain things.
Expect the counselor to be very open and honest with you.
And see if you can be open and honest with the counselor in


2
Users of psychotherapy generally go into it of their own
volition. It is estimated that fewer than 10 percent of clients
experience heavy outside pressure to enter therapy (Kadushin,
1969). Szasz (1970) has argued most convincingly that, in a
free society, this control must he kept in the hands of the
individual. The decision to apply for professional help, how
ever, requires that one's expectations of benefit not only
justify the expenditure of time and effort but also override
fear and resistance of many kinds. Currently most potential
clients are not sufficiently knowledgeable about psychotherapy
to perceive it as relevant to their concerns or to consider it
an appropriate source of help. Without an informed public,
then, democratic client self-selection becomes an unworkable
process. "Inasmuch as present services tend to graviatate
toward the best informed," Ewalt (i960) has written, "it would
appear that the psychologically rich get richer and the poor
get poorer" (p. xxvi).
The "Need" for Psychotherapy Versus the Use of
Psychotherapy
Because of the "submerged" nature of psychological
phenomena and the absence of a standard measure for what is
normal and what is abnormal, no satisfactory data exist on the
mental health status of this, or any, society (Hollingshead &
Redlich, 1958). The number of individuals in need of psycho
therapy is equally inaccessible, but indications are strong
that there are many more who could benefit from psychotherapy
than receive it.


10?
(196.1, p. 2). Also, the study has furnished some insight into
what is not effective.
Examination of the data suggests three probadle flaws in
the experimental presentations. They were too brief, too
general, and too uninvolving. Inasmuch as the messages were
designed to represent "typical" counseling information communi
cations, these weaknesses undoubtedly are present in similar
written and oral presentations currently being provided by
counselors to potential clients.
The brevity of the messages can be seen as a detriment
when considered in the light of the questionnaire respondents'
subjective comments. From these written comments it was clear
that the youngsters' perceptions were the cumulative result of
impressions and experiences gathered over the course of years.
Lasting less than an hour, the experimental presentations may
have reinforced notions already held, but they did not alter
them.
The general nature of the presentations can be criticized
on two counts. First, the messages were designed for "typical"
high school students and perhaps were not adequately sensitive
to individual differences among recipients. Although statis
tical analysis showed that the variables of sex, race, and
grade level did not substantially interact with treatment,
other personal factors may have come into play. One such
factor is initial attitude. Judging from the youngsters
written comments, some students were quite amenable to coun
seling before receiving presentations and others had an


APPENDIX A
COUNSELING SURVEY ITEMS*
Part I
Instructions: Suppose that at some time you go to a counselor.
What do you think it would he like? Mark each
of these statements as to how true you think
it is.
Items (to he rated on a 5-point scale having the following
position labels: not true, somewhat true, fairly true, quite
true, definitely true):
If I went to a counselor, I would expect to . .
1. See an experienced counselor
2. Discover the cause of my problems
3. Get an understanding of my strengths
4. Have a big change in my life
5. See myself differently after counseling
6. Get the help I want
7. Speak freely about my problems
8. Openly express my feelings about myself and my
problems
9. Openly express my feelings about my counselor
10. Begin discussion of my concerns
11. Cooperate with the counselor In developing a
plan of action
*Items In Part I. were adapted from Tinsley's revised
Expectations Questionnaire used by permission of Dr. Howard E.
A. Tinsley, Southern Illinois University at Carbondale, in
personal communication dated November 22, 1976.
127


42
schizophrenia which contained high-certainty assurance of
effective treatment immediately followed by a statement
casting doubt on the validity of the information. Compared
with control groups who received no mental health informa
tion, the message recipients indicated generally unfavorable
attitudes toward mental health concepts on a Semantic
Differential.
Other Communications Variables
To test the notion that contact with the mentally ill
might improve attitudes toward mental health concepts, an
experiment was conducted involving visitors to high school
classrooms who made brief talks about mental illness. Each
speaker presented herself in three ways, either beginning
the talk by stating that she was a former mental patient
or making this announcement at the end, or making no such
statement. An additional experimental condition was that
half of the talks were given in a personal way, enlisting
active identification of the audience with the issues
mentioned, while half were delivered impersonally, allowing
the audience to feel remote from the events.
Later, as a supposedly unrelated event, a researcher
administered the Semantic Differential to assess attitudes
toward mental health concepts and an information test in each
class. A clear finding was that late revelation of mental
patient status affected attitudes far more favorably than
initial disclosure. Late disclosure also promoted slightly
better attitudes than no disclosure. Information scores were


35
and treatment, including psychotherapy, were generally less
favorable than attitudes toward physical treatment methods.
Also, distinctions between the mental health subprofessions
were poorly understood.
Before describing Nunnally's media studies, it should be
noted that they were carried out in the mid-1950's and, no
doubt, the situation today is changed. Through content analy
sis of television and radio broadcasts, national magazines,
and daily newspapers, the researchers discovered a highly
distorted view of mental health issues being propagated by
commercial media. For example, presentations often suggested
that a person with a psychological problem looks and acts in
different ways than does a "normal" person. Especially in
television dramas (which are more likely to be viewed than
mental health educational programs), mentally ill persons were
often portrayed with highly stylized and bizarre behavior,
glassy eyes, uncontrollable laughter, and strange phobias and
obsessions. The depicted causes of mental problems were fre
quently situational or organic: a single stressful incident,
an old battle wound, physical privation such as hunger or thirst.
The treatment was likely to be assistance from a professional--
a psychiatrist, physician, or nurse--or, just as commonly, the
application of timely advice or a bit of homespun philosophy.
The impact of these media presentations, however, did not
appear to be critical. Public views of mental health matters
found in Nunnally's other research were far less extreme than
media depictions, reflecting the consumer's ability to withstand


31
resource for assistance with a personal problem. In two-thirds
of these cases, the helper sought was not a mental health pro
fessional. Sources of help most often mentioned were clergymen
and physicians. Respondents also recalled seeking counsel from
lawyers, teachers, nurses, policemen, and judges. Choice of a
professional was apparently dependent; upon the content of the
problem; for example, trouble with a child might prompt a
parent to confer with a schoolteacher. Less than one-fourth of
the help seekers considered themselves to be the locus of the
problems they discussed; even a "nervous breakdown" was more
often defined as a collapse in the face of some external stress
than as a personal adjustment difficulty. Most who asked for
help indicated that they wanted comfort, reassurance, or advice,
not self-examination.
Aside from the help seekers, a segment of their sample
which particularly interested Gurin and his colleagues was a
"critical group"--nine percent of respondents who said they
believed that a professional could have been useful to them
with a problem in the past, but did not go for help. The
reasons these people gave for not applying for assistance were
ones commonly cited by mental health experts as deterrents to
the help-seeking process; lack of knowledge about where to go
or what to do in order to get help, aversion to shame and
stigma, and desire to work problems out alone. The critical
group appeared to be as psychologically accessible as the people
who actual]y sought help, but they tended to have less money
and less education and were more often from rural areas. Half


98
for the Understanding expectancy scale and the PS willingness
scale. In each case, ninth-grade students scored highest, and
ninth- and tenth-grade students responded more favorably than
eleventh- and twelfth-grade students. The pattern of under
classmen scoring higher than upperclassmen was also carried
out for nonsignificant grade level effects.
Effects of Sex
Score means for females were consistently higher than for
males in each of the eight analyses. In Outcome and VE, this
difference did not reach statistical significance. Clearly,
female students demonstrated more positive perceptions of
counseling than males.
Effects of Race
Racial difference was a significant factor in five of
the analyses. Caucasian students had higher scores on one
expectancy scale, Genuineness. Ethnic minority students
(essentially, Black students) scored higher on the two expect
ancy scales of Outcome and Understanding and on both VE and PS
willingness scales.
Interaction Effects
Several significant two-way interactions were noted (6
from a possible 48); however, these effects were not explored
further because they did not appear systematically through
the eight analyses. Third- and fourth-order interactions were
suppressed in the multiple regression procedure due to empty
cells or a singular matrix.


73
group responses on each of the 8 questionnaire scales found no
significant treatment differences. It was felt that a study
involving a larger and more heterogeneous sample and more .in-
depth statistical analysis warranted completion.
The experience with the pilot group led to three modifica
tions in methodology:
1. A 7-point questionnaire scale had been used in the
pilot study (as well as in the reliability tests and in Tinsley's
original work with counseling expectancies). The scale was
simplified to 5 points for easier comprehension by young
respondents.
2. The counselor talk, which had been 20 minutes in
duration, did not sustai.n the pilot group's attention well.
Consequently, the prepared talk was reduced to 15 minutes
followed by a 15- or 20-minute discussion period.
3- At the end of the questionnaire, a space was added
for further written comments by the respondents.
Analysis
Dependent variable scores were obtained from the question
naire data by summation of the item scores for each scale, as
follows:
Part I: Expectancies
Expertise Score
Outcome Score
Trust Score
Genuineness Score
Acceptance Score
Ur 1 d e r s t an d i ng S c o re
Items 1, 2.6-29
Items 2-6
Items 7-12
Items I3-I8
Items 19-25
Teems 30-37


99
School Differences
To determine whether school membership had any systematic
effect on the data, a 4 x 4 factorial analysis of variance
(treatment by school) was performed for each of the eight
dependent variables. Interaction of treatment with school was
found to be significant for only one questionnaire scale,
Expertise (F~l.?27; df=9; p<.10).
Main effects for school were found for three of the
expectancy scales, Expertise (F=6.2?7; df=3> p<*10), Outcome
(F= 11.150 ; df=3; p<.10), and Understanding (1-13.104; df=3;
p<.10). This showed that for these three variables, regard
less of treatment, school differences occurred across the
comparison groups. In each case, School C had the highest
mean, and school means fell in the same rank order: > Xf-k
v > v When the Duncan's multiple range comparison tech-
XA
ique was applied, all school mean differences proved signifi
cant at the .10 level for Outcome and Understanding, but for
Expertise only School B was significantly different from the
other three schools.
No school effects were found for the two willingness
scales.
Sample Norms
To determine the experimental participants' relative
responses to the eight questionnaire measures, norms were cal
culated in terms of their scale value from one to five.


Tatole 1 shows sex and race, school, and grade level break
downs for the four comparison groups. Of the 630 students
reporting sex and race, 186 were male Caucasians, 105 were
male ethnic minority group members, 217 were female Caucasians,
and 122 were female ethnic minority group members. Minority
students proved, with only two exceptions, to be Black Americans
Grade level was reported by 633 students. There were I83
participants from the ninth grade, 199 from the tenth grade,
178 from the eleventh grade, but only 73 from the twelfth grade.
The disproportionately small number of twelfth-grade students
was the result of school scheduling of mixed-graded classes.
School representation was 181 students from School A (urban
school) and 167, 199, and 98 students from Schools B, C, and
D, respectively (rural schools). The lower number of students
from School D reflects the participation of only one set of
four classes in this smaller institution.
The mean age of the participants was 15.9 Mean ages
for the comparison groups were as follows: Written informa
tion group, 15-9; Oral information group, 15- 3; Combination
information group, 1595 Control group, 15-4.
Analysis of Experimental Results
For each of the eight dependent variables, a separate
4 x 4 x 2 x 2 factorial analysis of variance (treatment by
grade by sex by race) was performed, applying multiple regres
sion procedures to correct for unequal cel.1 size. Where factor
effects were found to be significant at the chosen .10 confidenc


137
EUO'SNG COUNSEL!MG
You and your counselor will
decida together when counseling
IS finished. You will probably
end by talking ovar whafc has
happened.
POd1 T drop out of counseling without telling your counselor.
Ending together Is an Important part of counseling.
DO faal free to coma back to your counselor (or another counselor)
later, If you want to.
HOW TO SET COUNSELING-
There are a number of counselors.
Different types. With different ways of doing things.
Shop around. Ask around.
Choose a counselor you feel you can trust and be comfortable with.
Here are three ways you can find a counselor.
1. A3K YOUR SCHOOL COUNSELOR. Your school counselor can either be
your counsel or... or can help you find
another counselor.
Your school counselor can answer any
more questions you have about
counseling, too.
2. ASK OTHER PEOPLE YOU KNOW. Your friends or family (or anyone
else you are close to) may Know a
good counselor.
A person who works with people
(a. teacher, coach, minister, doctor,
nurse, club leader, social worker)
is likely to know how to find a
coun selor.
J. ASK GY TELEPHONE.
There are several places in Alachua. County
that you can call to talk about counseling.
One of them is...
THE INFORMATION- A REFERRAL SERVICE
375-4636
You can call them any time, day or night.
They can answer your questions about
counseling or help you find a counselor.


CHAPTER Page
IV continued
Expertise 78
Outcome 80
Trust 82
Genuineness 84
Acceptance 86
Understanding 88
Vocational-Educational Willingness (VE).. 91
Personal and Social Willingness (PS) 92
Summary of Experimental Results 95
Effects of Treatment on Expectancies..... 96
Effects of Treatment on Willingness. 97
Effects of Grade Level 97
Effects of Sex 98
Effects of Race 98
Interaction Effects. 98
School Differences 99
Sample Norms. 99
Participants' Subjective Responses 100
V SUMMARY, DISCUSSION, LIMITATIONS, AND
RECOMMENDATIONS 103
Discussion. 106
Limitations Ill
Recommendations 113
Conclusions 115
REFERENCES.. 117
viii


LIST OF TABLES
Table Page
1 Composition of Comparison Groups by Sex and Race,
Grade, and School. 77
2 Expertise Score Factorial Analysis of Variance 79
3 Expertise Score Means by Treatment 79
4 Expertise Score Means by Sex 80
5 Outcome Score Factorial Analysis of Variance 81
6 Outcome Score Means by Treatment. 81
7 Outcome Score Means by Race 82
8 Trust Score Factorial Analysis of Variance 83
9 Trust Score Means by Treatment 83
10 Trust Score Means by Sex 84
11 Genuineness Score Factorial Analysis of Variance... 85
12 Genuineness Score Means by Treatment 85
13 Genuineness Score Means by Sex and Race 86
14 Acceptance Score Factorial Analysis of Variance.... 87
15 Acceptance Score Means for Treatment Groups
Duncan's Multiple Range Test Comparisons...., 87
1.6 Acceptance Score Means by Sex 88
17 Understanding Score Factorial Analysis of Variance. 89
18 Understanding Score Means by Treatment 89
19 Understanding Score Means by Grade
Duncan's Multiple Range Test Comparisons 90
20 Understanding Score Means by Sex and Race 90
x


112
4. Restriction of the study to "typical" classes precludes
generalizability of the findings to exceptional youth. Further
more, when the researcher visited the classes, she did encounter
some atypical students. For example, several youngsters were
unable to read and writea factor which surely had bearing
on the efficacy of the written information.
5- There were a few students absent from class on the
day booklets were distributed but present during data collec
tion. Usually teachers unobtrusively eliminated these students
from the study, but some of them turned in questionnaires.
6. In its present form, the counseling questionnaire
had never before been used in research, and its accuracy of
measurement should be considered in that light. Perhaps the
instrument was inadequately sensitive to detect subtle changes
in perceptions.
The low test-retest reliability coefficients obtained for
the Trust and Acceptance scales (.37 and .47, respectively)
particularly cast doubts on their precision.
7. Because the researcher herself delivered the counseling
talks arid administered the questionnaire, experimenter effects
may have occurred. As she was a representative of the coun
seling profession, the researcher's presence alone could have
been influential, as well as her appearance, demeanor, inter
active style, and the fact of her being a white female.
8. Variations in teachers and classroom situations were
likely to have affected student responses. Teachers did not
always follow the standardized procedures for distributing


135
KXHOi) Of COUNSEL! HO
There are three main kinds of counseling.
0g-T0-0'JK COUNSELING
Just you and the
comisa Lor, meeting
privately
GHOUP COUNSELING
Several people meeting
with a counselor. Often
groups have a special
purpose ... 1Ike dealing
with career plans
FAMILY COUNSELING
Tha counselor meets
with your whole family
(or part of it) to '
work on family issues
There are also several different ways that counseling can operate.
(And most counselors use all of them from time to time,)
Counseling can deal with IDEAS. You deal with
what's happening... who It1sTvappenlng with...
and what can be dona about It. You use facts,
thinking, planning, and decision making. Maybe
you will decide to taka a test and then discuss
what the test results mean.
What arc some tilings
that make you feel bad
.and good?
Counseling can deal with FEELINGS. Anger.,.
Warn feel)nas... Joy...Sadness.,.Happiness.
The counselor sees feelings as "signs" that
tell you what to do. And the counselor can
help you read the signs.
Counseling can be QUIET. Someticas It is mostly
sitting and talking. Putting Ideas and feelings
Into words (talking them over) Is a way of
getting then clearer and exploring them.
Counseling can be ACTIVE. Sometimes you want
to do more than talk. Counselors can use
activities and even games to work with Ideas
and feelings. For example, you might do some
acting (role-playing) or drawing...or make
lists, charts, or tape recordings.
It is Itiportaut to know that there are different kinds and way3
of counseling so you can pick a type of counseling that suits YOU.
You can discuss with your counselor what kind of counseling you want.


Table Page
21 Vocational-Educational Willingness Score (VE)
Factorial Analysis of Variance 91
22 Vocational-Educational Willingness Score Means by
Treatment 92
23 Vocational-Educational Willingness Score Means by
Race 92
24 Personal-Social Willingness Score (PS) Factorial
Analysis of Variance 93
25 Personal-Social Willingness Score Means for
Treatment Groups Duncan's Multiple Range Test
Comparisons 94
26 Personal-Social Willingness Score Means by Grade
Duncan's Multiple Range Test Comparisons 9.5
27 Personal-Social Willingness Score Means by Sex
and Race 95
28 Expectancy Scale Values 101
29 Willingness Scale Values 102
xi


12
counselors are seen as more understanding and warm, less probing
and powerful. (See Chapter II.) Because of this benign coun
selor image, it was decided to refer only to counseling in the
informational presentations used in this study with school
youth.
Perceptions of Counselings Expectancies and Willingness
Counseling perception, as the concept is used in this
study, simply refers to how an individual views counselors and
their work, either generally or along specific dimensions.
Perceptions, opinions, conceptions, attitudes, and feelings
about counseling are kin concepts; all are used to describe
level of positive-negative disposition toward counseling, and
all comprise both direct and intuitive cognitions. It is
assumed that perceptions of counseling have two origins,
actual experience with counselors and information received
formally or informally from other sources.
Perceptions of counseling are explored in this study in
terms of two instrumentally defined types of counseling orienta
tion, expectancies of counseling and willingness to use coun
seling. Expectancies (or expectations) of counseling are
future-oriented beliefs about counseling. They are notions
the potential client has of what will happen if he or she
should enter counseling; for example, "I expect to get the
help I need." The expectancy measure that is used is a list
of positive expectancies related to eight dimensions of coun
seling. High degree of agreement with the items is taken to
be an indication of positive orientation toward counseling.


71
3. What Happens in Counseling, The next section gives
the reader an outline of what generally occurs during the
course of counseling, from the initial building of a relation
ship through the final good-bye, and it provides 12 "Do's and
Don'ts" for using counseling effectively (e.g., "Don't expect
your counselor to do all the talking. Your counselor will
want to do a lot of listening."). These instructions encour
age the client to expect an open and honest interaction and to
participate actively in the process.
4. How to Get Counseling. The final section discusses
self-referral. It encourages the individual to "ask around and
shop around" in choosing a counselor and suggests three ways to
find a counselor: through one's school counselor; by consulting
family, friends, teachers, and others; by telephoning. The
telephone number of a local free information and referral
service is provided.
The booklet was distributed to designated classes on the
first day of the two-day experimental schedule, as explained
above, by their classroom teachers. Teachers gave the booklet
the following brief introduction: Here is a booklet that you
may find interesting. It is about personal counselingwhat
happens in counseling and how to get counseling if you should
want to try it. Teachers provided their students with approxi
mately 15 minutes of class time in which to read the material.
The 15-minute counseling information talk covered the
same ideas as the booklet, with additional information on
who a counselor is and how a counselor is trained (see Appendix


APPENDIX C
COUNSELING BOOKLET


141
What kind of person is a counselor? As you know, each person,
each of us, has certain interests and types of things we are
especially good at. Some people are rather artistic and
creative. Some like books and studying. Some like activity,
to be outdoors, to work with mechanical things, and so forth.
The counselor is usually someone who enjoys people. Take me.
I know that for as long as I can remember, I have been fascin
ated with people, talking with people, meeting people, wondering
about other people and what they think and how they do things.
Just liking people. So it was pretty natural for me to wind
up working with people as a counselor. And I think this is
the way it is with a lot of counselors.
Aside from being interested in people, a counselor has
got to be trained in order to know how to help people. Coun
selor training has two partss one is school, books, research;
the other is experience working with people.
The school part of counselor training came for me after
four years of college, in graduate school. This is usually
the way it is, though not always. School for a counselor
includes a lot of psychology, the study of human behavior, as
well as special counseling classes on such things as how to
lead groups, how to communicate with people, how to relate to
people. There are also specialized counseling classes: drug
counseling, counseling small children, and school counseling,
for example. And classes in particular methods of counseling.
The experience part of counselor training consists of
going out and working with people, in groups or one-to-one.


30
status. On a measure of help-seeking attitudes, all groups
expressed confidence in the efficacy of treatment, recognized
the need for help, perceived little stigma attached to therapy,
and showed a willingness to discuss personal matters. On a
questionnaire similar to that devised by Overall and Aronson,
their scores showed that they did not anticipate a highly sup
portive, problem-solving therapist, that they could differentiate
psychotherapy from medical care, and that they expected to focus
on emotional issues.
General perceptions. Two extensive investigations of
perceptions related to therapy are Gurin, Yeroff, and Feld's
(i960) survey of mental health adjustment and help-seeking
modalities and Nunnally's (1961) series of studies into popular
conceptions of mental health.
Gurin, Yeroff, and Feld (i960) examined the mental health
orientation of 2,460 representative American adults. One focus
of this study was to determine the methods people use to handle
life problems, providing a broad perspective on the use of
professional help. In general, the researchers concurred with
what is found throughout the literature on help seeking,
The tendency to turn to professional help when
faced with personal problems was found to be
associated with introspection, with structuring
distress in personal and interpersonal rather than
external terms, with self-questioning more than a
dissatisfied or unhappy reaction toward life roles,
with psychological rather than physical symptoms.
(p. 298)
Their data show that desire for therapeutic change is not
widespread. Only 14 percent of those interviewed reported that
at some time in their lives they had gone to a professional


18
Individuals tended to select either educational and vocational
types of problems or social and personal types, but not both,
as appropriate for counseling. The students who were most
willing to use campus counseling facilities were those who
had previously visited the counseling center.
Similar conclusions were reached by Warman (1961). Using
a check list of problems related to three fa.ctors--college
routine, vocational choice, and personal-social adjustment--
he compared several campus groups' perceptions of counseling
topic appropriateness. Counseling center staff, college
personnel workers, teaching faculty members, and counseled
and uncounseled students, all agreed that vocational counseling
was most appropriate for the university counseling center; but
the counselors rated personal and social adjustment problems
as significantly more appropriate for counseling than did any
other group. Echoing Brodin, Warman suggested that practi
tioners orient other groups to the kinds of problems with
which they feel they can be helpful.
A decade later, Resnick and Gelso (1971) replicated the
Warman study to determine whether counselors were closing the
communication gap between themselves and other university
people. Using the revised Counseling Appropriateness Check
list (Warman, 1961), they found that counselors still viewed
personal and social adjustment as more appropriate for dis
cussion at the counseling center than did other groups;
however, the perceptions of others, particularly student
personnel workers, had moved somewhat closer to those of the
counseling staff.


Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate Council
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy
THE EFFECTS OF INFORMATION ON COUNSELING
EXPECTANCIES AND WILLINGNESS:
A STUDY OF HIGH SCHOOL YOUTH
By
Carol Lee Klopfer
December, 1977
Chairman: Dr. E. L. Tolbert
Major Department: Counselor Education
The effects of counseling information on perceptions of
counseling were investigated. It was hypothesized that three
forms of information--written, oral, and a combination of
written and oral--would favorably influence high school stu
dents' counseling expectancies and willingness to use counseling.
Effects of sex, race, and grade level were also studied.
Twenty-eight high school classes, seven sets of four
matched classes, were selected by school counselors. Classes
in each set differentially received four treatment conditions:
a booklet discussing counseling, a talk by a counselor, both
the booklet and the talk, or no information. From the total
645 students data were collected consisting of responses to
questionnaire items assessing six types of counseling expectancy
and two types of counseling willingness.
A series of factorial analyses of variance indicated that
the effects of information were inconsistent and the experi
mental groups often were not significantly different from the
control group. Across the four comparison groups, regardless
xiii


Talle 29
Willingness Scale Values
Total
Sample
Males
Females
Scale
Scale
Scale
N
Value
N
Value
N
Value
VE
605
3-9
269
3.8
323
4.0
PS
611
3-5
275
3-3
336
3.6
Note,Missing cases indicate incomplete questionnaire data.


43
unaffected by disclosure, but were somewhat lowered by the
personal, and presumably more anxiety-producing, approach.
In another study, the personal-impersonal variable was
found to have no impact. Experimenters used two versions of
a paragraph about mental illness. One employed an impersonal
approach ("What is mental illness . the other, a
personal approach ("Have you ever thought how it would be if
you were mentally ill?"). High school students who read each
paragraph did not differ in their attitudes expressed through
the Semantic Differential.
Presentation style may affect the power of a message to
change people. Using an elaborate factor analysis process on
stylistic variables found in ?0 diverse messages, the researchers
determined two stylistic features of probable significance in
mental health communications, easy veraus difficult wording
and negative versus positive tone. Messages judged to have
average difficulty and neutral tone were presented in five
forms: the original version and variations combining easy-
negative, easy-positive, difficult-negative, and difficult
positive composition styles. Groups of college students each
read one message in one form and responded on a Semantic Dif
ferential to "the message you have just read" and one concept
related to their respective messages. They also rated the
extent to which they would like to read more about the topic
of the message and took a comprehension test on the material.
Although the college students in the study are unlikely
to represent the general population, attitudinal results were


20
with; but they felt psychiatrists were intelligent, decisive,
analytical, cold, humorless, and rejecting. Vocational and
educational problems might be taken to an advisor or a coun
selor; but the psychiatrist, not the counselor, was clearly
the most likely choice for such difficult personal concerns as
getting along; with friends, uncomfortable feelings and emotions,
and sexual distress.
Gelso and Karl (1971) extended the work of Strong et al.,
using more helper labels; high school counselor, advisor,
college counselor, counseling psychologist, clinical psycholo
gist, and psychiatrist. Their use of the same 100-item check
list and nine problem items with male and female students
produced no "nice guy" distinction for the counselor. More
difficult personal problems were again perceived to be within
the domain of the psychiatrist first, with the two psycholo
gists next likely to be consulted. These three professionals
were described as more knowledgeable, inquisitive, and
analytical than the counselor; the counseling psychologist
was considered more casual and flighty; and the psychiatrist,
more powerful, interesting, tactful, and accurate.
Since university counseling staff are often trained in
clinical and counseling psychology and offer more than voca
tional and educational services, Gelso and Karl recommended
that counselors more adequately inform the public of their role
and clarify the meaning of their title.
The above studies imply that students are not aware of
the full range of services available from their counseling


49
instructions alone were no letter than minimal instructions.
Doster (1972) assessed the relative efficacy of three methods
of eliciting desired client behavior. His results showed that
detailed instruction was more effective in producing verbal
self-expression than either a taped model client or pretherapy
rehearsal through roleplay.
Procedures Related to Client Expectancies
Other approaches have focused on the client's initial
anticipations for counseling. Greenberg (1969; Greenberg,
Goldstein, & Perry, 1970) experimented with induced pretherapy
expectancies by randomly telling clients that they would have
therapists who were warm or cold, experienced or inexperienced.
Both psychology student volunteers and hospitalized psychotics
became more receptive to therapeutic influence when expecting
to see warm, experienced counselors. Similarly, Savitsky,
Zarle, and Keedy (1976) showed that undergraduate women were
more self-disclosing when they were persuaded to expect an
interviewer who was eager to be helpful and from a stressful
family background than when anticipating someone with a happy
past but unwilling to help. Other researchers (Imber, Pande,
Frank, Hoehn-Saric, Stone, & Wargo, 1970), however, attempted
without success to manipulate perceptions of improvement by
informing outpatients that, on the basis of "psychological
tests, they would experience therapeutic change in either
four weeks or four months.
Heilbrun (1972) tested the effects of pretherapy briefing
regarding therapist control. Briefing consisted of a booklet


77
Table 1
Composition
of
Comparison
Grade, and
Groups by
. Soil00.1
Sex and
Race,
Written Oral
Comb.
Control
L Total
Sex-Race
Males
73
86
->0
CO
54
291
Caucasian
53
51
49
33
186
Minority
20
35
29
21
105
Females
89
73
87
90
339
Caucasian
55
44
61
57
217
Minority
34
29
26
33
122
Grade Level
Grade 9
40
44
37
62
I83
Grade 10
53
30
63
53
199
Grade 11
28
72
52
26
00
O-
i1
Grade 12
40
15
15
3
73
School Membership
School A
4?
51
' 42
4l
181
School B
52
45
4?
23
167
School C
40
50
56
53
199
School D
24
24
23
27
98


APPENDIX E
PARTICIPANTS' WRITTEN COMMENTS


4o
determine how people's knowledge and attitudes are affected by
several message variables: anxiety arousal, provision of solu
tion, message certainty, and negation effects.
One study explored the influence of messages put in
anxiety-arousing terms upon attitudes toward specific and
general mental health concepts. For two topics, psychoanalysis
and "shock therapy," written information was composed with com
binations of high- or low-anxiety phrasing and provision of a
solution or no solution. Each of 392 high school students read
one of the eight messages, then reacted on a Semantic Differ
ential to several concepts related to mental health. High-
anxiety messages clearly produced more negative orientations
toward all of the concepts. When a solution was provided,
however, it promoted favorable attitudes in the high-anxiety
condition. Because the researchers had surmised from pilot
studies that mental health messages usually raise anxiety, they
recommended inclusion of solutions whenever mental problems are
brought up in public communications.
Nunnally also reported on the effects of message cer
tainty, the degree to which a message is delivered as proven
"fact" rather than tentative belief. Message certainty is
highly relevant to mental health communications because solid
information in the field is considerably lacking, new data and
ideas are continually appearing, and thus messages do tend to
be tentative. From a number of studies, two of which are
described below, Nunnally drew three general conclusions:


26
and well read people discuss therapy in ways that others might
not comprehend.
Social influence is powerful in the formation of per
ceptions. It is particularly a determinant of perceptions
regarding psychotherapy "because, lacking firsthand knowledge,
most people must rely upon impressions gathered from others.
An explanation of how social influence is related to therapy
orientation is Kadushins (1969) theory of the "Friends and
Supporters of Psychotherapy." In a study of nearly fifteen
hundred applicants to New York psychiatric clinics, Kadushin
found that talking with others often precedes help seeking.
Many applicants had several characteristics in common:
1. Knowing others with problems similar to their own.
2. Knowing a friend who had been in therapy.
3. Having discussed going to a clinic with some other
people.
4. Having asked friends for recommendations to clinics
or practitioners.
Kadushin hypothesized the existence in urban society of
indirect chains of acquaintance through which people "become
therapy "insiders," not necessarily users of psychotherapy
themselves but sophisticated promoters of its efficacy. Insiders
transmit their knowledge and endorsement of psychotherapy to
colleagues and social contacts, forming a bridge between
potential clients and professional help.
Insiders share a number of perceptions related to therapy
use. They see value in discussing personal matters with others


Page
APPENDIX A COUNSELING SURVEY ITEMS.... 127
APPENDIX B EXPERIMENTAL SCHEDULE 131
APPENDIX C COUNSELING BOOKLET....... 134
APPENDIX D COUNSELOR TALK 139
APPENDIX E PARTICIPANTS WRITTEN COMMENTS 150
BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH 164
ix


63
Subjects
High school students were chosen as the experimental
population because they are an easily accessible group who
represent all segments of a community. High school youngsters,
it appears from previous research, hold ill-conceived and
often unfavorable perceptions of counseling. They are similar
to the general public in this regard.
Participating in the study were 28 classes of high school
students, seven sets of 4 matched classes, comprising a total
of 645 ninth- through twelfth-grade youngsters. Selection and
assignment to treatment groups proceeded by the following steps:
1. Permission to conduct the study in the public schools
of Alachua County, Florida, was gained through the Assistant
Superintendent's Office of Administration, School Board of
Alachua County.
2. Administrators in each of the six county high schools
were contacted for approval of the research proposal. Four
schools agreed to host the study: one large comprehensive high
school in the urban center of Gainesville and three schools in
outlying rural communities. A fifth school could not accommo
date the research schedule but did permit the pilot study at
an earlier date. The remaining school, whose administration
opposed the use of classroom time for the research, was omitted
from the study.
3- In each of the four host schools, the opinion of a
school counselor familiar with the master class schedule determined


68
that you have. The respondent is asked, "If you were concerned
with these things, how willing would you he to talk each one
over with a counselor?" For each item, the subject indicates
willingness of a 5-point scale ranging from "not at all
willing" to "very willing."
This willingness measure, designed for the present study,
was modeled after a list of nine problem topics developed and
used by Strong, Hendel, and Bratton (1971) and again used by
Gelso and Karl (1974) in studies of college student views of
found less willingness to discuss personal and social problems
with counselors than vocational and educational problems.
Test-retest reliabilities for the willingness scales were
determined by the same procedures described for the expectancies
section of the questionnaire, using the same Young Life
youngsters. The resulting reliability coefficients were
.56 for Vocational-Educational Willingness (VE) and .71 for
Personal-Social Willingness (PS).
Procedures
The research was carried out during a period of two and
one-half weeks in the last term of the public-school year
(April 25-May 17, 1977) following a timetable arranged with
the teachers of the participating classes in the four schools
(see Appendix B).
Experimental activities for each set of four matched
classes (each set representing the four treatment conditions)
required two days' time. On the first day, classroom teachers


Willingness to use counseling is an individual's readiness,
receptiveness, or motivation toward making use of counseling
services. The willingness measure is a list of topics often
discussed in counseling. High degree of expressed willingness
to discuss these issues with a counselor is taken as an indica
tion of positive orientation toward counseling.
The meaningfulness of counseling perceptions is discussed
in Chapter II. Details of the instrument used to measure
expectancies and willingness are given in Chapter III.


109
Allowing information recipients to remain passive might he less
threatening hut it could also buffer the capacity of messages
to achieve their purpose. A few youngsters wrote that the
oral presentations were long and boring. Further, it was
observed that a majority did not speak up during the follow-up
discussions despite efforts by the researcher to include more
students. Since direct experience is apparently the strongest
determinant of counseling perceptions, better results might
have been attained if experiential learning activities had
been combined with verbal information.
The more definitive findings of the study are unrelated
to the experimental hypotheses; they concern differences in
perceptions of counseling on the basis of sex, race, and grade
level, irrespective of information received. The consistently
higher scores of girls over boys on expectancy and willingness
measures is noteworthy as sex differences have not much been
focused on in help-seeking research. Also of import is the
fact that Black students indicate more amenability to coun
seling than Caucasian students--a result which contradicts
the popular but not well-substantiated notion that Blacks,
because they are less well ensconced in the mainstream of
society, are less likely to make use of the culturally desig
nated resource for psychological help.
That ninth and tenth graders showed somewhat more favor
able perceptions of counseling than eleventh and twelfth
graders is reminiscent of Tinsley and Harris' (19?6) finding
that freshman and sophomore college students had higher


45
terms could be tied to sound semantic referents, thus decreasing
their possibility of misinterpretation.
4. The terms bear strong negative connotations. Some
terms such as the word "insane" seem permanently linked with
negative attitudes. The public should be encouraged to abandon
such strongly unfavorable symbols and adopt new ones connota-
tively neutral.
To illustrate the contention that labels are important
to message communication, Nunnallys group conducted an experi
ment among 440 high school students. Two paragraphs were
designed describing troubled men. Each description had four
versions, one introducing the individual as simply "a man,"
the others referring to him as "mentally ill," "emotionally
disturbed," and "insane." Each student read one of the eight
versions and reacted to the man on a Semantic Differential.
Predictably, labels had a decided effect on ratings, but the
effect was less in the case of the man whose description
indicated less disturbance. The researchers drew two conclu
sions from the study:
1. Labels are more influential determinants of attitudes
when applied to relatively unfamiliar phenomena.
2. Labels are more influential determinants when they
are perceived as being realistically related to the phenomena
described.
Permanence of Message Effects
When a communication appears to be producing the desired
impact, the next consideration is the duration of its effects.


15
of information as a promising method of facilitating help
seeking.
Perceptions of Counseling
Psychotherapy literature has always contained the idea
that the client's comprehension of therapy is essential to
treatment. Freud, in his writings, expressed his belief that
the intelligent patient was most suited to psychoanalysis (cf.,
1950 pp. 249-263). Subsequent attempts to identify the suc
cessful client have consistently pointed to the person who is
quick to learn and perceptive of therapy as a source of relief.
Carl Rogers (1951 1957). in his client-centered therapy,
emphasized the provision of therapeutic conditions which would
work personality change with any client--but only within the
context of "psychological contact," a relationship in which
the client perceives the warmth, accurate empathy, and congru
ence emitted by the therapist.
Rotter (1954), Kelly (1955), Frank (1959, 1961), Lennard
and Bernstein (i960), and Goldstein (1962a, 1962b) have most
significantly spoken to the importance of the client's under
standing as a determinant of the course of therapy. Rotter
(195^) declared the necessity of what he called "successive
structuring" of the therapy process, periodic discussion to
clarify goals, roles, plans, responsibilities, and attitudes
with the client. Kelly (1955) theorized that response to
therapy is dependent upon the client's initial ways of con
ceptualizing the interaction, especially in terms of role


79
Table 2
Expertise Score Factorial Analysis of Variance
Source of Variation
SS
df
MS
F
Main Effects
192.45
8
24.06
1.509
Treatment
85.81
3
28.60
1.795
Grade
4.44
3
1.48
0.093
Sex
46.6l
1
46.61
2.925*
Race
4.86
1
4.86
0.305
Two-way Interactions
464.58
22
21.12
1.325
Treatment
Grade
282.34
9
31.37
1.968*
Treatment
Sex
12.17
3
4.06
0.255
Treatment
Race
33-47
3
11.16
0.700
Grade
Sex
64.09
3
21.36
1.340
Grade
Race
45.01
3
15.00
0.941
Sex
Race
21.46
1
21.46
1.346
Explained
804.36
30
26.81
1.682
Residual
8876.98
557
15.94
Total
9681.34
587
l6.49
*p <110
Table 3
Expertise
Score Means
by Treatment
N
X
Written
157
20.01
Oral
155
19.52
Combination
l6l
18.93
Control
138
20.59


It was apparent that the student commenters were more concerned
with human and relationship factors than with counselor's
skills, competence, training, and professionalism. Although
they felt that counselors should he able to help them, they
mainly wanted someone accessible and easy to be with, not quick
solutions and advice. As one girl wrote, "Counseling doesnt
have to be so the counselor solves all your problems. ... It
should be so the person will be able to figure himself out and
learn how to care for himself and his problems." The comments
echo the necessary and sufficient conditions for therapy deline
ated by Carl Rogers: Clients are attracted to counselors who
project caring, acceptance, understanding, honesty, and
sincerity.
Unfortunately, perceptions of school counselors were not
always favorable. As many of the students comments were nega
tive as were positive. In the eyes of some youngsters,
counselors were insensitive and deceitful, untrustworthy and
manipulative, "fake," "pushy," and "nosey"--more interested in
keeping the institution running smoothly than in helping
students.
For better or worse, the impact of school counselors is
evident. Though there have been many discussions of the school
counselor's role and function, little attention has been given
to the importance of school counseling in the formulation of
early attitudes toward help seeking, which may well carry over
into youngsters' adult lives. For students coming through the
public schools today, the high school counselor may be not only


34
cross-section of the general population. (In most of Nunnally's
studies, subjects were selected from a pool approximating the
United States population in terms of education, age, sex, and
other demographic characteristics.) Individual responses con
tained many inconsistencies, and overall responses produced
low correlations under factor analysis, leading the researchers
to conclude that the public's mental health information is not
highly structured or crystalized and that people are tentative
and uncertain in their opinions. As previously mentioned,
although most people were not grossly misinformed on mental
health issues, they were rather uninformed; and certain groups,
notably the older and less well educated, did possess much
erroneous knowledge.
Another group of studies assessed attitudes toward the
mentally ill, using rating scales, ranking methods, the Semantic
Differential technique, and "free association" tests. The
results revealed that the notion of stigma associated with
mental illness is well entrenched in reality. Young and old,
the well educated and the relatively unschooled, all tended to
regard the mentally ill person as comparatively dangerous, dirty,
unpredictable, and worthless.
Using similar techniques, the researchers then examined
attitudes toward psychological experts and treatment. They
found that all types of professionals were highly regarded,
particularly by less well educated people; but mental health
professionals were held in less esteem than those who treat
physical problems. Reactions to mental health institutions


S Sbrs
45-6-
I personally would not go to a counselor. The whole
thing is really dumb. Most of them could care less
about you. And a few are pushy and overly nosey and
turn you off before you say anything. If you want
counseling you should go to them, not them say any
thing to you, especially about your personal life
because its none of their business. (0,WF,11)
I don't really get what I'm looking for in counseling.
(W,WM,11)
I dont have much faith in counselors probably because
the ones I've been around are fake and they seem to
be very mosey instead of trying to help and understand
yo u. (W,WF,-)
With the experiences I've had with counselors (mostly
high school) I find that they really dont care about
me as a person with a future. They only say and do
that which they think or want for me. They are care
less and dont really keep you up to date. (W,WF,12)
I really am not pleased with counselors. Maybe its
because when you are discussing problems with them
they like to vary away the problem into more personal
matters that have no connection with your problem.
One of my middle school counselors would call students
in the office just to be nosey and ask questions about
personal and family matters that weren't any of her
concern. (Ct,BF,10)
I think that you can talk to them and they won't go
telling everybody. I don't like it when they trick
you into things that you don't want to do. (Ct,WF,9)
I dont have any confidence in counseling for myself
personally. From my experience, I have found that
the counselors I have come in contact with are not
interested in me as a person or my problems and ques
tions. They are merely interested in doing their jobs
to the minimum and putting on a "good" front. (W,WF,12)
At present my counselor helps me a great deal but some
times I feel as if she's not helping me at all, sometimes
even against me. (Ct,-F,ll)
Another group of students discussed their willingness to
use counseling. Many were quite introspective and some dis
closed particular apprehensions and doubts. A few expressed
the attitude, "Its fine for someone else."


58
To evaluate the impact of general counseling center
hrochures, Bigelow, Hendrix, and Jensen (1968) distributed
brochures to a group of 599 first-year university students
but not to a similar group of 865 housed in a separate dormi
tory. After six weeks, the informed students had made four
times as many counseling appointments as the uninformed
students; and informed clients used counseling proportionately
more for emotional issues rather than educational and voca
tional problems. The contents of the brochure, however, were
not reported.
At another university, Gelso and McKenzie (1973) did the
first comparison of methods for delivering counseling informa
tion to potential clients. They devised written and oral
presentations to promote student use of their counseling
center and, specifically, to underscore the appropriateness
of presenting personal problems for counseling. Students
living on selected dormitory floors received brief talks which
emphasized the appropriateness of presenting both "normal" and
"severe" personal problems at the counseling center. The day
after, these students received in their mailboxes "a rather
typical three-page counseling center brochure" along with a
letter from the centers director reinforcing the main points
of the oral presentation. A second, comparable group of
students received this written material but no oral presenta
tion. A control group was given no information.
On Warm an s (1961) Counseling Apuropri ateness Checklist.,
the students who received both the talk and the written


6o
Summary
Although little previous research has explored the dis
semination of information as a means of facilitating client
self-referral, professional literature has pointed up the need
for reaching potential users of counseling and demonstrated
that communications can play an important part in shaping
perceptions related to help seeking. It has been shown that
the public is not well informed on mental health matters in
general or about sources of psychological help. Nor is the
public favorably inclined toward psychotherapy. However, there
are indications that people are amenable to information which
will fill the gaps in their knowledge and that their attitudes
can be changed. Specially designed materials and techniques,
many of which are primarily informational, have been success
fully employed in teaching psychological concepts, promoting
positive attitudes regarding mental health issues, and pre
paring clients for therapy. On college campuses, beginning
evidence has been found that presentations of information can
influence students use of counseling center services. Thus
the foundation has been laid for the present investigation
into the effects of information on potential clients' per
ceptions of counseling.


59
information indicated personal adjustment to be appropriate
for counseling discussion, more than either other group. On
additional questionnaire items, this group was also more in
favor of seeking help with severe psychological problems and,
although this item did not attain statistical significance,
normal problems; further, they expressed more willingness to
seek counseling for personal problems.
During the next six weeks, counseling center records
showed that more students from each information group appeared
for counseling than did those from the control group. Students
who had received only written information, however, presented
fewer personal adjustment problems than those who received the
combination oral and written information.
Duckro, Beal, and Moebes (19?6), in a third study, assessed
the persuasiveness of a written communication with a highly
personal tone. Their study involved a month-long campus media
campaign which focused on the services of the counseling center
and particularly on the appropriateness of taking personal and
social problems to college counselors. A group of 240 student
volunteers had been pretested cn the Warman check list prior
to the campaign. During the campaign, one-half of the volunteer
group received letters similar in content to the media messages
but more personal in tone. Posttested on the Warman instru
ment, the letter recipients were more in favor of discussing
personal problems at the counseling center than were the
other volunteers.


120
Heilbrun, A, B. Male and female personality correlates of
early termination in counseling. Journal of Counseling
Psychology, 1961, ¡8, 31-36. (h)
Heilbrun, A. B. Further validation of a counseling readiness
scale. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 1964, 11, 290-
293.
Heilbrun, A. B. On predicting defection from psychotherapy.
Psychological Reports, 1966, 1£, 61-62.
Heilbrun, A. B. Toward resolution of the dependency-premature
termination paradox for females in psychotherapy. Journal
of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 1970, 34, 382-386.
Heilbrun, A. B., & Sullivan, D. J. The prediction of coun
seling readiness. Personnel and Guidance Journal, 1962,
41, 112-117.
Heilfron, M. The function of counseling as perceived by high
school students, Personnel and Guidance Journal, i960,
2, 133-136.
Hiler, E. W. The sentence completion test as a predictor of
continuation in psychotherapy. Journal of Consulting
Psychology, 1959, 22, 544-549.
Hoehn-Saric, R., Frank, J. D., Imber, S. D., Nash, E. H.,
Stone, A. R., & Battle, C. C. Systematic preparation
of patients for psychotherapy--I. Effects on therapy
behavior and outcome. Journal of Psychiatric Research,
1964, 2, 267-281.
Hollingshead, A. B., & Redlich, F. C. Schizophrenia and social
structure. American Journal of Psychiatry, 1954, 110,
695-701.
Hollingshead, A. B., & Redlich, F. C. Social class and mental
illness; A community study. New York; John Wiley &
Sons, Inc., 1958.
Hunt, R. G. Social class and mental illness; Some implica
tions for clinical theory and practice. American Journal
of Psychiatry, i960, 116, 1065-1070.
Imber, S. D., Pande, S. K. Frank, J. D. Hoehn-Sari.e, R.,
Stone, A. R., & Wargo, D. G. Time-focused role induction.
Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease. 1970, 150, 27-30.
Isaac, S., Sc Michael, B. M. Handbook in research and evalua
tion. San Diego; Robert R. Knapp, 1972.
Kadushin, C. Why people go to psychiatrists. New York;
Atherton Press, 1969.


116
they received information or not, Black students indicated
more willingness to discuss both vocational and educational
and personal and social topics with counselors; they also
showed higher expectancies than Caucasians on two measures.
There was additionally some indication that underclassmen had
more favorable perceptions of counseling than upperclassmen.
Written comments provided by some of the students revealed
that a number of youngsters have strong feelings about coun
seling, both negative and positive, and that their perceptions
of counseling are largely the result of personal experience,
usually with school counselors.
It is concluded that individual differences and the impact
of experience may attenuate the effects of small doses of
information which are general in nature. Additional research
is required to clarify the means by which potential counseling
clients may be reached.


CHAPTER III
METHODOLOGY
This study assessed the effects of written and oral
information upon perceptions of counseling. Groups of high
school students were exposed differentially to four treatment
conditions:
1. Written information--a hooklet describing counseling
2. Oral informati.on--a talk presented by a counselor
3* Combination--both the booklet and the talk
4. Control---neither presentation
The students then completed a questionnaire reflecting their
expectancies of counseling and their willingness to use coun
seling services. It was predicted that students receiving
information would demonstrate more positive counseling expect
ancies and willingness.
Hypothesos
A review of the limited research previous to this study
has indicated that information can favorably influence orienta
tion toward counseling. The literature on counseling perceptions
shows that, while most individuals regard counselors as helpful
people, they are reluctant to seek their services. The public's
views of counseling, however, are generally lacking in firmness
and clarity. is Nunnally (1961) wrote, such loosely formulated
6 L


146
wants you to take it or leave it. To f'eel free to disagree
and to say exactly what you think about the opinion.
Also, its important to let your counselor know what you
think about what goes on in counseling, whether you think it's
going in the right direction and whether you are getting what
you want from counseling.
Ending counseling ... At some point you and your coun
selor will decide that counseling is finished, that you have
done what you wanted to do. You will probably end by talking
over what you've done in counseling and talking about what
you will do next. And say good-bye. But you should know that
after counseling you can always come back later or go to another
counselor.
How to get counseling. Suppose at some time you decide you
would like to try counseling, where can you find a counselor?
I am going to tell you several ways to find a counselor. The
important thing to remember is that there are a lot of coun
selors to choose from. Different types with different ways of
doing things. And you can shop around, ask around, and find a
counselor you feel you can trust and feel comfortable with; your
type of counselor.
One way to get into counseling is through your school
counselor. You school counselor can either be your personal
counselor or can help you find another counselor outside the
school. Your school counselor can, of course, also answer any
questions about counseling that you may have.
Or, suppose it's summer or you're not in school or that
you don't want to go to your school counselor. Another way


Counselor Talk
Hello. My name is and I'm a counselor.
For the last five years, I have been working with high-school-
aged people and their families as a community agency counselor.
My purpose in being here is to talk a bit about coun
seling. I have a brief prepared talk--it takes about fifteen
minutes--and then I hope youll have comments or questions and
that we can open up a discussion back and forth, that you'll
tell what you think.
As a counselor, one thing I've discovered is that most
people don't know as much as they'd like to know about coun
seling. And without understanding it, it's hard to know how
ot use counseling or when, or even whether, you want to use
the services.
You see, counseling is a relatively new thing, just
beginning to catch on. And in the short time that counseling
has been around, we counselors have not done all we could in
getting the message around what it is that we do. I hope
that this talk will help you understand counseling, in case
you or someone you know might want to use counseling services
sometime.
I am talking about a lot of different kinds of counselors,
not just the school counselors you may be familiar with: school
counselors as well as counselors outside the schools, coun
selors in community agencies and sometimes private counselors.
More about this later.
139


65
and Part II measures two types of counseling willingness (see
Appendix A).
Part I; Counseling Expectancies
Part I of the questionnaire consists of 37 statements
which begin with either "If I went to a counselor, I would
expect to . ."or "If I went to a counselor, I would expect
the counselor to . ." The respondent is asked to rate each
item on a 5-point scale from "not true" to "definitely true."
The items represent expectancies of counseling along six
dimensions:
1. Counselor Expertise (5 items; e.g., "I would
expect the counselor to know a lot about people
and their problems.")
2. Outcome of Counseling (5 items; e.g., "I would
expect to get the help I want.")
3 Trust in Counseling (6 items; e.g., "I would
expect to speak freely about my problems.")
4. Counselor Genuineness (6 items; e.g., "I would
expect the counselor to be a 'real' person, not
just a person doing a job.")
5- Counselor Accejjtance (7 items; e.g., "I would
expect the counselor to think I am worthwhile.")
6. Counselor Understanding (8 items; e.g., "I would
expect the counselor to know how I feel, at
times, without my having to speak.")
The 37 items were taken from Howard E. A. Tinsley's (1976)
revised counseling expectancies questionnaire. Development of
the Tinsley instrument was in three stages. Initially, Tinsley
collected 88 statements related to counseling perception, a
majority of which had been previously evaluated by Lazarus
(1971) Truaz and Carkhuff (1967), and Volsky, Magoon, Norman,
and Hoyt (1965). He arranged these items into several categories,


32
of them attempted in some way to solve their difficulties on
their own. Others reported withdrawing from the distress situ
ation or doing nothing.
Among the large group which had never made use of profes
sional help, most stated that they probably would not use it
in the future. This so-called "self help" group did not
actually make unusual use of their own or informal resources
for troubles, particularly if they were old, uneducated, or
poor; nor were they happier than help seekers. They were less
introspective and less inclined to phrase problems in psycho
logical terms. Like the critical group, they tended to have
lower incomes than help seekers and to be rural people.
Examining the characteristics of the three groups--help
seekers, those who almost sought help, and those who would not
seek help--the researchers identified two types of factors
operating in the use of mental health resources. Psychological
factors were subjective perceptions associated with the desir
ability of professional help: introspectiveness, phrasing of
distress in terms of personal problems and self-questioning,
focusing on personal and interpersonal aspects of life, and
reporting psychological rather than physical symptoms. Facili
tating factors were circumstantial considerations connected
with help accessibility: actual availability of resources in
the community, knowledge of these resources, and the extent
to which going for help is the "thing to do" in one's social
group.
Psychological and facilitating factors effect the help
seeking process in different ways. This can be seen if help


89
Table 1?
Understanding Score Factorial Analysis of Variance
Source of Variation
OQ
O KJ
df
MS
F
Main Effects
2359.66
8
294.96
5.473
Treatment
135.62
3
45.21
0.839
Grade
1186.72
3
395.57
7339*
Sex
177.38
1
177.38
3.291*
Race
784.29
'5
.L
784.29
14.552*
Two-way Interactions
600.02
22
27.27
O.506
Treatment
Grade
331-27
9
36.81
0.683
Treatment
Sex
29.45
"j
J
9.82
0.182
Treatment
Race
68.74
3
22.91
0.425
Grade
Sex
23. 38
3
7.79
0.145
Grade
Race
133.10
3
44.37
0.823
Sex
Race
4.00
1
4.00
0.074
Explained
3449.40
30
144.98
2.133
Residual
29427-77
546
53.90
Total
32877.16
i
^
-nJ
ON
57-08
o
V
ft
Tablf
? 18
Understanding Score
Means by
Treatment
N
X
Wri tten
157
26.76
Oral
132
27.41
Combination
153
26.31
Con trol
137
27.58


tfo£.
'1-^3-
the primary purveyor of the counseling image hut also a most
powerful influence on overall attitudes toward the use of
mental health services.


100
o group mean for scale
Scale value = 7 = r-r
number of scale items
Tables 28 and 29 show the resultant scale values of each expect
ancy and willingness scale for the total sample and by sex.
All scale values exceeded the median of 2.5
Participants Subjective Responses
One-fifth of the 645 students in the study wrote additional
comments at the end of the questionnaire. These subjective
responses, along with a discussion of their content, are
recorded in Appendix E. The following is a summary of the
main ideas arising from the students remarks:
1. The students expressed as many negative as positive
pex-ceptions of counseling.
2. They often shared personal reasons for their views
and alluded to past experiences with counselors.
3. Their comments focused on counseling in the schools
more than counseling as a general type of service.
4. They emphasized personal characteristics of counselors
and interpersonal aspects of counseling.
5. Only a few students remarked on the experimental
materials and procedures.


55
therapy behavior and outcome, the clients who received role
induction compared favorably with 20 other patients who had
no preliminary interview. Major findings were significantly
better therapy attendance, session participation patterns, and
therapist relationship ratings, as well as higher therapist
rated global improvement, self-rated symptom reduction, and
social effectiveness as rated in independent interviews. A
further investigation into therapist factors revealed that
role induction was especially helpful in making clients,
particularly males, more attractive to their therapists. The
researchers did not determine whether clients are best prepared
by their own therapists or by others, but they did conclude
that it is most effective to prepare a client specifically
for the therapist who will be seen.
Unlike Orne's original anticipatory socialization inter
view, the Role Induction Interview had conveyed to clients
the expectancy that therapeutic improvement would occur within
four months. To determine what part such a time-limited sug
gestion in itself might play in therapy gain, another group
of researchers set up an experiment with four pretherapy
conditions! Orne's procedure alone, induced expectation of
better functioning in four months alone, both procedures, and
no procedure (Sloane, Cristol, Pepernik, & Staples, 1970).
Psychiatric clinic clients who received anticipatory sociali
zation showed slightly but significantly more improvement after
four months than clients who were given the time expectation,
on measures of social, sexual, and work adjustment. There


54
the therapist may provide illustrations alluding to what the
client has said earlier.
Questions which arise from the discussion of the therapy
process will undoubtedly lead to the third step, explicating
the therapists and client's roles. At this stage it is
important to clarify the difference between a psychotherapist
and a medical professional: psychotherapy is done not to the
client but with the client. It should also be explained that
the client's role is to be active, the therapist's job is to
help but not to advise, the client will always make the deci
sions, and the client should expect to discuss issues honestly,
even though they may be painful, private, or embarrassing.
Before concluding the interview, it is particularly impor
tant to address those aspects of therapy which might terminate
it permaturely during the early sessions. The client should
be cautioned that it is common to feel hopeless or negativistic
at times during therapy and that, although there may be occas-
sions when it seems impossible to keep an appointment, it is
unwise to interrupt therapy or to end it without mutual dis
cussion. The client, then, is primed to expect "ups and downs"
and to bring dissatisfactions with therapy into the sessions.
Orne's interview has been the basis for several studies.
One group of researchei-s modified the procedure, calling it
the "Role Induction Interview," and used it experimentally
with 20 psychiatric clinic patients (Hoehn-Saric, Frank, Imber,
Nash, Stone, & Battle, 1964; Nash, Hoehn-Saric, Battle, Stone,
Imber, & Frank, 1965) In an extensive analysis of subsequent


THE EFFECTS OF INFORMATION ON COUNSELING
EXPECTANCIES AND WILLINGNESS:
A STUDY OF HIGH SCHOOL YOUTH
By
CAROL LEE KLOPFER
A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE COUNCIL OF
THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE
DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
1977

Copyright
by
Carol Lee Klopfer
1977

To my family
To Alejo
And to Calvin, Karen, Chris, Richard, and Lynn, youngsters
who taught me more about the art of counseling than any one
else . and much about life and love

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
Upon completion of this study, appreciation is owed to a
number of people who made the study possible.
To Dr. E. L. Tolbert, a man who has made genuineness,
empathy, and unconditional positive regard a way of life, for
assisting me in the decision to earn the PhD degree, for
serving as my doctoral committee chairperson, and for his
inspiration.
To Dr. Larry Loesch, who also served on my supervisory
committee, for his incisive counsel, good humor, and friendship.
To Dr. Everette Hall, third member of my committee, for
the benefit of his experience as a therapist, warmth, and
support.
To the faculty of the Department of Counselor Education
who provided the facilitative petri dish in which this
counselor grew.
To two friends, one new and one old: Barbara Rucker,
who gave many hours of help with computer programs, and Marie
Dence, the only person from whom I can gracefully accept
editorial criticism.
To Sharon Zahner for keypunching and to Arden Goettling
for agreeing to do the typing from long distance.
To Linda Moni and the counselors of the Alachua County
schools whose interest and time expenditure came when they
iv

were desperately needed: Margaret Albritten, Art Stirrat,
Wil Griffin, Bod Ream, and Phyllis George. And to Lee
Rosenstein and Dean Mark Beard for the same reasons.
To the teachers who allowed me to work in their class
rooms: Robert Ayer, Pat Powers, Mary Sharp, George Wilson,
Patricia Robarts, Nancy Lakey, William Monahan, Albert Losch,
and especially Pat Baxter and Barbara Allen.
To the students who participated in the study and wel
comed me into their high schools. Also to Fitz Conners and
the members of Young Life who participated in the development
of the questionnaire.
And to two dear mentor/friends Dr. Margaret Korb and
Dr. Robert Lee--Pat and Bob--whose personal and professional
example and whose caring and understanding have meant more
than I can express.
Finally, to the others who in big and small ways shared
the work: Alejo Vada, Gary Klopfer, Maggie Klopfer, Betty Jo
Spoto, Mary Ganikos, Lyn Clawson, Nancy McGinness, and Louis
Haynes.
v

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS iv
LIST OF TABLES x
LIST OF FIGURES. xii
ABSTRACT xiii
CHAPTER
I INTRODUCTION 1
The "Need" for Psychotherapy Versus the Use
of Psychotherapy. 2
Factors Differentiating Therapy Seekers from
Nonseekers 4
The Relationship of Information to Therapy
Predisposition. 6
The Present Studys Purpose and Overview.... 9
Notes on Terminology 10
Counseling and Psychotherapy 10
Perceptions of Counselings Expectancies
and Willingness 12
II REVIEW OF LITERATURE 14
Perceptions of Counseling 15
Perceptions of College Counseling
Services 17
Perceptions of School Counselors 21
Puhlic Perceptions of Psychotherapy.... 25
Effects of Mental Health Information:
Nunnally's Findings 36
vi

CHAPTER Page
IIcontinued
Acceptance of Information. 37
Major Variables in Message Transmission.. 39
Other Communications Variables 42
Permanence of Message Effects 45
Methods of Preparing Clients for Counseling... 47
Behavioral Techniques 47
Procedures Related to Client Expectancies 49
Special Procedures for Orienting Clients. 51
Providing Information to Potential Help
Seekers 57
Summary 60
IIIMETHODOLOGY..... 6l
Hypotheses 6l
Subjects. 63
Measurement. 64
Part I: Counseling Expectancies 65
Part II: Counseling Willingness 67
Procedures 68
Counseling Information Presentations..... 69
Collection of Data 72
Pilot Study. 72
Analysis 73
IVFINDINGS 75
Statistical Description of the Sample ......... 75
Analysis of Experimental Results... 76
vii

CHAPTER Page
IV continued
Expertise 78
Outcome 80
Trust 82
Genuineness 84
Acceptance 86
Understanding 88
Vocational-Educational Willingness (VE).. 91
Personal and Social Willingness (PS) 92
Summary of Experimental Results 95
Effects of Treatment on Expectancies..... 96
Effects of Treatment on Willingness. 97
Effects of Grade Level 97
Effects of Sex 98
Effects of Race 98
Interaction Effects. 98
School Differences 99
Sample Norms. 99
Participants' Subjective Responses 100
V SUMMARY, DISCUSSION, LIMITATIONS, AND
RECOMMENDATIONS 103
Discussion. 106
Limitations Ill
Recommendations 113
Conclusions 115
REFERENCES.. 117
viii

Page
APPENDIX A COUNSELING SURVEY ITEMS.... 127
APPENDIX B EXPERIMENTAL SCHEDULE 131
APPENDIX C COUNSELING BOOKLET....... 134
APPENDIX D COUNSELOR TALK 139
APPENDIX E PARTICIPANTS WRITTEN COMMENTS 150
BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH 164
ix

LIST OF TABLES
Table Page
1 Composition of Comparison Groups by Sex and Race,
Grade, and School. 77
2 Expertise Score Factorial Analysis of Variance 79
3 Expertise Score Means by Treatment 79
4 Expertise Score Means by Sex 80
5 Outcome Score Factorial Analysis of Variance 81
6 Outcome Score Means by Treatment. 81
7 Outcome Score Means by Race 82
8 Trust Score Factorial Analysis of Variance 83
9 Trust Score Means by Treatment 83
10 Trust Score Means by Sex 84
11 Genuineness Score Factorial Analysis of Variance... 85
12 Genuineness Score Means by Treatment 85
13 Genuineness Score Means by Sex and Race 86
14 Acceptance Score Factorial Analysis of Variance.... 87
15 Acceptance Score Means for Treatment Groups
Duncan's Multiple Range Test Comparisons...., 87
1.6 Acceptance Score Means by Sex 88
17 Understanding Score Factorial Analysis of Variance. 89
18 Understanding Score Means by Treatment 89
19 Understanding Score Means by Grade
Duncan's Multiple Range Test Comparisons 90
20 Understanding Score Means by Sex and Race 90
x

Table Page
21 Vocational-Educational Willingness Score (VE)
Factorial Analysis of Variance 91
22 Vocational-Educational Willingness Score Means by
Treatment 92
23 Vocational-Educational Willingness Score Means by
Race 92
24 Personal-Social Willingness Score (PS) Factorial
Analysis of Variance 93
25 Personal-Social Willingness Score Means for
Treatment Groups Duncan's Multiple Range Test
Comparisons 94
26 Personal-Social Willingness Score Means by Grade
Duncan's Multiple Range Test Comparisons 9.5
27 Personal-Social Willingness Score Means by Sex
and Race 95
28 Expectancy Scale Values 101
29 Willingness Scale Values 102
xi

LIST OF FIGURES
Figure Page
1. Schedule followed for each set of four matched
classes 69
Xll

Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate Council
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy
THE EFFECTS OF INFORMATION ON COUNSELING
EXPECTANCIES AND WILLINGNESS:
A STUDY OF HIGH SCHOOL YOUTH
By
Carol Lee Klopfer
December, 1977
Chairman: Dr. E. L. Tolbert
Major Department: Counselor Education
The effects of counseling information on perceptions of
counseling were investigated. It was hypothesized that three
forms of information--written, oral, and a combination of
written and oral--would favorably influence high school stu
dents' counseling expectancies and willingness to use counseling.
Effects of sex, race, and grade level were also studied.
Twenty-eight high school classes, seven sets of four
matched classes, were selected by school counselors. Classes
in each set differentially received four treatment conditions:
a booklet discussing counseling, a talk by a counselor, both
the booklet and the talk, or no information. From the total
645 students data were collected consisting of responses to
questionnaire items assessing six types of counseling expectancy
and two types of counseling willingness.
A series of factorial analyses of variance indicated that
the effects of information were inconsistent and the experi
mental groups often were not significantly different from the
control group. Across the four comparison groups, regardless
xiii

of information, females responded more favorably to the
measures of perceptions of counseling than males. Black
students more often responded favorably than Caucasians, and
underclassmen more often responded favorably than upperclass
men. Calculation of scale norms for the total sample showed
that, on the average, students viewed counseling in a positive
way. In their subjective written comments, however, some
students were highly critical of school counseling.
xiv

CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION
The delivery of mental health services, while improving,
falls far short of Its possibilities. In the field of coun
seling it is difficult to ignore that, of the many who could
conceivably benefit from psychotherapy, most do not receive it.
Disquieting social realities give this issue urgency: prisons
full of individuals who have never had a single session with
a personal counselor; numbers of unhappy people, destined for
psychiatric institutions, who will not contemplate psychotherapy
until forced into it by overwhelming dysfunction; men and women
struggling and foundering in the face of rapidly changing
culture and economic hard times.
Psychotherapy of course is not the sole solution to wasted
human potential, but undoubtedly the goals of mental health
would more adequately be served if larger segments of the
population were reached--the severely disturbed as well as
average people coping with the normal vicissitudes of life.
Providing more effective public information is an important
step toward abating what Ewalt (i960) has called "the vast
unmet meed of the American people for help in recognizing and
dealing with mental and emotional problems" (p. xxvi). If
people understood counseling services better, perhaps they
would use them more.
1

2
Users of psychotherapy generally go into it of their own
volition. It is estimated that fewer than 10 percent of clients
experience heavy outside pressure to enter therapy (Kadushin,
1969). Szasz (1970) has argued most convincingly that, in a
free society, this control must he kept in the hands of the
individual. The decision to apply for professional help, how
ever, requires that one's expectations of benefit not only
justify the expenditure of time and effort but also override
fear and resistance of many kinds. Currently most potential
clients are not sufficiently knowledgeable about psychotherapy
to perceive it as relevant to their concerns or to consider it
an appropriate source of help. Without an informed public,
then, democratic client self-selection becomes an unworkable
process. "Inasmuch as present services tend to graviatate
toward the best informed," Ewalt (i960) has written, "it would
appear that the psychologically rich get richer and the poor
get poorer" (p. xxvi).
The "Need" for Psychotherapy Versus the Use of
Psychotherapy
Because of the "submerged" nature of psychological
phenomena and the absence of a standard measure for what is
normal and what is abnormal, no satisfactory data exist on the
mental health status of this, or any, society (Hollingshead &
Redlich, 1958). The number of individuals in need of psycho
therapy is equally inaccessible, but indications are strong
that there are many more who could benefit from psychotherapy
than receive it.

3
Community epidemiological research has attempted to assess
mental health needs; hut as Goldberg's (1972) review of psychi
atric case identification studies points up, varying screening
methods and criteria have yielded disparate results. The
extensive Midtown Manhattan Study (Srole, Langer, Michael,
Opler, & Rennie, 1962) is often cited in discussions of pre
valence of mental disorder. In this survey, 23-4 percent of
respondents were designated as psychologically impaired to the
extent that performance of adult roles was observed or inferred
as deficient.
Of this one-fourth of their sample labeled impaired, the
Manhattan researchers said,
On the criterion of observed or inferred performance
deficiencies in adult roles, these people in most
cases can be assumed to need professional help of
some kind, at best, to relieve the distress implied
by their symptoms and to improve their capacities
for adult functioning, and at the least, to reduce
possibilities of future deterioration under normal
or crisis circumstances of life. (pp. 145-6)
The researchers made a rough assessment of orientation
toward seeking professional help by asking respondents what
they would advise two hypothetical friends with personal
problems to do. Of the help-needy who had never had psycho
therapy, nearly one-half did not indicate professionals as a
source of help and, therefore, implied that they were unlikely
to seek psychotherapy on their own initiative. The researchers
state that their data appear consistent with estimates made in
comparable big-city studies.
Other investigators have found evidence of large numbers
of people disinclined to request psychotherapy. In a national

4
survey by Gurin, Veroff, and Feld (i960), 5 percent of adults
said they "worried all the time," but less than one-fourth of
them had gone to professional helpers and one-eighth said they
"did not want" professional help. Also, of one-fifth who
reported feelings of impending breakdown, only one-third sought
psychotherapy. In Eilson, Padilla, and Perkins' (1965) study
of New Yorkers, one-half' could name a surgeon but only 15 per
cent, a psychologist. While 25 percent were able to name a
mental health clinic, usually they could only cite Bellevue
Hospital. In two other studies, approximately one-third of
the clients judged to be in need of psychotherapy, and to whom
it was offered, refused treatment (Garfield & Kurz, 1952;
Rosenthal & Frank, 1958).
Studies of therapy duration reveal that an additional
number of potential clients enter therapy but do not remain
past an intake interview or the initial few sessions considered
crucial for getting the therapeutic process under way, and many
clients leave counseling without mutual agreement with their
therapist or even discussion of termination (cf. Sullivan,
Miller, & Smelser, 1958).
Factors Differentiating Therapy Seekers from Nonseekers
Since only an estimated two to four percent of the popula
tion go into therapy, the sheer infrequency of clients creates
a difficulty in finding statistically comparable samples of
nonclients for study of the factors differentiating the two
groups. We can infer a general understanding of the characteristics

5
of therapy seekers and nonseekers by comparing actual clients
with others who nearly accepted therapy but rejected referral
or dropped out of therapy early. These studies reinforce the
contention that it is not relative need for better psychological
adjustment which draws people to therapy.
Socioeconomic variables have repeatedly been shown as
most significantly related to therapy orientation. Entrance
into therapy, duration in therapy, and perceived satisfaction
and improvement all rise concommiriantly with socioeconomic
level, whether measured in terms of income or status. Therapy
is by and large an activity of middle-and-above class people
who are relatively well educated and possess a degree of what
is "success" in this society. This is despite statistics which
indicate that the "need" for therapy is distributed in a dia
metrically opposite way (Auld & Myers, 195^; Cartwright, 1955
Cole, Branch, & Allison, 1962; Hollingshead & Redlich, 195^
1958; Hunt, 190; Redlich, Hollingshead, Roberts, Robinson,
Freedman, & Myers, 1953; Robinson, Redlich, & Myers, 1954;
Sullivan, Miller, & Smelser, 1958).
Intelligence, a related variable, is the only other
factor which has been found to predict therapy predisposition.
Users of therapy produce higher intelligence test scores and
also tend to be better educated than nonusers (Dana, 1954;
Heilbrun, 1961a, 1961b, 1970; Kirtner & Cartwright, 1958;
Rosenberg, 1954; Strickland & Crowne, 1963 Taulbee, 1958).
Attempts to use personality testing and assessments of
counseling readiness to predict client participation have not

6
provided a reliable indicator. It does appear from personality
studies however, that the most psychologically "needy" are
less likely to become clients than their better adjusted peers
(Affleck & Mednick, 1959; Barron, 1953a, 1953b; Gallagher, 1954;
Heilbrun, 1961a, 1961b, 1964, 1966; Heilbrun & Sullivan, 1962;
Hiler, 1959; Libo, 1957; Resnikoff, Brady, & Zeller, 1959;
Roberts, 1954; Rogers & Hammond, 1953; Rogers, Knauss, &
Hammond, 1951; Windle, 1952).
The Relationship of Information to Therapy Predisposition
The greater use of psychotherapy by socially advantaged
perople can be accounted for, to a large degree, by this group's
proximity to therapy-predisposing information. According to
the sociological model of help seeking provided by Kadushin
(1969), people are likely to move from the experience of per
sonal distress toward the office of a therapist to the extent
that their position in society exposes them to sources of infor
mation which promote the efficacy of professional help. Better
educated and higher socioeconomic-level people, because of their
schooling, the books they read, the lectures the attend, are
prepared to accept psychodynamic explanations for their problems.
Also, their circle of friends and associates is prone to discuss
life issues in "mental" terms, and their acquaintances may
include individuals who have undergone therapy as well as
workers in mental health professions. Thus, advantaged people
are socially situated to identify their problems as psychological,
to receive answers to their questions about the process of
therapy, and even to be directed to particular practitioners.

7
Quite a different orientation toward problems is found in
the lower socioeconomic milieu. Living considerably at the
mercy of the environment, an individual of little means is
disposed to view life difficulties as beyond personal control.
For a person with little education, there is no rationale for
viewing stress psychodynamically. Friends and associates, who
also have limited resources, are apt to share this externalized
perspective and reinforce passive acceptance of "fate." Among
unaffluent people, professional help is likely to be defined
as the services of familiar agencies which provide physical
rather than psychological assistance.
For the lower socioeconomic-level person, moreover, lack
of knowledge and distance from sources of information are not
the only barriers to psychotherapeutic help. Riessman and
other writers have furnished extensive evidence that, in
dozens of ways, psychotherapy is geared to and biased in favor
of middle- and upper-class clients (Riessman, Cohen, & Pearl,
1964). If the poor are slow to recommend psychotherapy to
their friends, this may be a result of the well-documented
insensitivity of professionals to cultural orientations dif
ferent from their own.
It would, however, be incorrect to assume that a pro
pensity to use psychotherapy is inherent and widespread among
people who are well off. Redlich, Hollingshead, and Beilis
(1955) observed misunderstanding and hostility toward psycho
therapy in all strata of society, including the supposedly
well-informed: in panels of lawyers, clergymen, and teachers,

8
for example, and in over one-third of medical men. In pretherapy
interviews with psychiatry applicants, Redlich and colleagues
found little difference between the attitudes of middle-class
people--small business proprietors, white collar workers, and
skilled laborersand the fear and reluctance of poorly educated
unskilled and semiskilled workers from the most crowded sections
of New York. Both groups were also largely ignorant about
therapy. Although more of the middle-class applicants had
some understanding of the treatment, their knowledge consisted
of little more than that the therapist employs "mental" tech
niques. Typical of both groups were such comments as, "Psychi
atry is fine for crazy people but it can't help me."
Persons from all walks of life are disinclined, if not
hostile, toward psychotherapy. The infrequent use of therapy
is a complex issue, but it is reasonable to assume that people
are not quick to avail themselves of services which they only
vaguely comprehend. Nunnally (1961) surveyed a large sample
of the American population and concluded that the average
citizen is not grossly misinformed about mental health, but
certain groups--notably, the less educated--hold many beliefs
that are inaccurate; furthermore, while not misinformed, most
people are considerably uninformed. Gurin and others (i960),
analyzing the help-seeking patterns of a national sample,
found distribution of services to lower status people so
inferior that it constitutes a "special social problem."
Another finding was that nine percent of their sample at some
time in their lives were "ready for self-referral" but did not

9
apply for psychotherapy. A major reason which these people gave
for not seeking help was "lack of knowledge about where to go
or what to do in order to get help."
The Present Study; Purpose and Overview
Writers on the subject of help seeking have repeatedly
said that potential clients need to be apprised of what occurs
behind the therapist's closed door. Client constituencies also
are entitled to information on when and how to apply for help.
As Shertzer and Stone (1974) have expressed it, "an important
objective for every counselor is enlightening our society as
to the legitimate goals and realistic limitations of counseling"
(p. 8?).
The present study is one of the first research attempts
to assess the efficacy of disseminating counseling information
to potential clients. Brief and economical presentations of
information are given and the responses of the recipients
analyzed. It is not expected that a single informational
experience will have sweeping impact upon therapy-seeking
behavior but that a presentation of information can facilitate
the ongoing process of "learning about therapy" which Kadushin
(1969) has called essential to the decision to enter therapy.
One presentation of information, if effective, may incline an
individual to seek and accept further information and pre
dispose him or her to make an informed decision to use coun
seling, should it at some point in life be appropriate.

10
Participants in the study are school adolescents in their
usual classroom settings. The presentations of counseling
information they receive are in three forms: a booklet, a talk
given by a counselor, and a combination of the booklet and the
talk. In general content, the booklet and the talk are identi
cal, covering the following topics:
1. The range of appropriate uses of counseling
2. Types of counseling and counseling activities
3- The counseling process
4. How counseling help may be obtained.
Six hypotheses are tested by comparing the recipients of each
form of information and a control group (receiving no presenta
tion) using measures of counseling expectancies and willingness
to use counseling. Results are discussed in terms of the use
fulness of information in altering perceptions of counseling
which may facilitate help seeking.
Notes on Terminology
Counseling and Psychotherapy
The use of the terms "counseling" and "psychotherapy" in
this study requires explication. In general and theoretical
discussions, the two terms are used interchangeably. In
references to previous research, the term chosen by the investi
gator being reviewed is retained. In the experimental presenta
tions of information delivered to high school youth, only
counseling is mentioned.

11
In each case, the concept denoted is the same: the psycho
logical helping process which aims "to help individuals toward
overcoming obstacles to their personal growth . and toward
achieving optimum development of their personal resources"
(American Psychological Association, 1956).
For broad discussions of the delivery of mental health
services to the public, the choice of one term over the other
could only be arbitrary. As Patterson (1966) writes,
There are no essential differences between counseling
and psychotherapy in the nature of the relationship,
in the process, in the methods or techniques, in
goals or outcomes (broadly defined), or even in the
kinds of clients involved. (p. 3)
The terms "counseling" and "psychotherapy" arise from two
historical streams which have developed into present-day
psychological services: "counseling" from the mental health
and vocational guidance movements in our society and "psycho
therapy" from the medical tradition. It was found, in reviewing
the literature backgrounding this study, that investigators in
hospital clinics most often referred to psychotherapy while
those in educational and other nonmedical settings spoke of
counseling.
Some writers (e.g., Tyler, 1958) restrict the focus of
counseling to growth and actualization processes, removing
from it the repair-of-damage implications associated with therapy.
This emphasis on the positive makes an important point. There
does exist a connotative difference between the terms "coun
seling" and "psychotherapy." Research into client views of
differently titled help givers, for example, indicates that

12
counselors are seen as more understanding and warm, less probing
and powerful. (See Chapter II.) Because of this benign coun
selor image, it was decided to refer only to counseling in the
informational presentations used in this study with school
youth.
Perceptions of Counselings Expectancies and Willingness
Counseling perception, as the concept is used in this
study, simply refers to how an individual views counselors and
their work, either generally or along specific dimensions.
Perceptions, opinions, conceptions, attitudes, and feelings
about counseling are kin concepts; all are used to describe
level of positive-negative disposition toward counseling, and
all comprise both direct and intuitive cognitions. It is
assumed that perceptions of counseling have two origins,
actual experience with counselors and information received
formally or informally from other sources.
Perceptions of counseling are explored in this study in
terms of two instrumentally defined types of counseling orienta
tion, expectancies of counseling and willingness to use coun
seling. Expectancies (or expectations) of counseling are
future-oriented beliefs about counseling. They are notions
the potential client has of what will happen if he or she
should enter counseling; for example, "I expect to get the
help I need." The expectancy measure that is used is a list
of positive expectancies related to eight dimensions of coun
seling. High degree of agreement with the items is taken to
be an indication of positive orientation toward counseling.

Willingness to use counseling is an individual's readiness,
receptiveness, or motivation toward making use of counseling
services. The willingness measure is a list of topics often
discussed in counseling. High degree of expressed willingness
to discuss these issues with a counselor is taken as an indica
tion of positive orientation toward counseling.
The meaningfulness of counseling perceptions is discussed
in Chapter II. Details of the instrument used to measure
expectancies and willingness are given in Chapter III.

CHAPTER II
REVIEW OF LITERATURE
In the field of counseling, little is known about the
use of information to help potential clients understand the
services available to them. The first study evaluating the
influence of information upon people's perceptions of coun
seling appeared only a few years ago. The researchers, Gelso
and McKenzie (1973). prefaced their report by saying,
No research heretofore has examined the efficacy
of various inodes of information dissemination in
correcting the miscommunications between counselors
and other groups. Thus, much time and effort have
been spent identifying the problem, but little
energy has been exerted in studying means of
remedying it. (p. 406)
Several related lines of investigation, however, form
a background against which the effectiveness of counseling
information can be assessed. Some surveys have been done to
assess perceptions of therapy held by certain counseling con
stituencies and the general public, showing that there is
widespread inadequacy of knowledge regarding counselors and
their work. Also, experiments on the transmission of mental
health information have demonstrated the capability of simple
communications to modify peoples conceptions of psychological
issues. Additionally, a number of pretherapy procedures
designed to ready counselees for their role have been found
successful. The conclusions of these studies point to provision
14

15
of information as a promising method of facilitating help
seeking.
Perceptions of Counseling
Psychotherapy literature has always contained the idea
that the client's comprehension of therapy is essential to
treatment. Freud, in his writings, expressed his belief that
the intelligent patient was most suited to psychoanalysis (cf.,
1950 pp. 249-263). Subsequent attempts to identify the suc
cessful client have consistently pointed to the person who is
quick to learn and perceptive of therapy as a source of relief.
Carl Rogers (1951 1957). in his client-centered therapy,
emphasized the provision of therapeutic conditions which would
work personality change with any client--but only within the
context of "psychological contact," a relationship in which
the client perceives the warmth, accurate empathy, and congru
ence emitted by the therapist.
Rotter (1954), Kelly (1955), Frank (1959, 1961), Lennard
and Bernstein (i960), and Goldstein (1962a, 1962b) have most
significantly spoken to the importance of the client's under
standing as a determinant of the course of therapy. Rotter
(195^) declared the necessity of what he called "successive
structuring" of the therapy process, periodic discussion to
clarify goals, roles, plans, responsibilities, and attitudes
with the client. Kelly (1955) theorized that response to
therapy is dependent upon the client's initial ways of con
ceptualizing the interaction, especially in terms of role

16
expectancies. Frank (1959. 19^1) described the dynamics of
the therapeutic relationship as related to the client's belief
or faith in the power of the process. He was also among the
first to explain how divergent therapist and client expect
ancies can produce a breakdown in communication and lead to
therapy failure. Lennard and Bernstein (i960) provided a
systematic view of therapeutic communications as interrelated
with expectations, showing that dissimilar client and therapist
expectations produce strain, or disequilibrium, on the structure
of communication. Goldstein (1962a, 1962b) extensively
examined the accumulated theoretical and experimental work
on patient and therapist expectancies in the light of what is
known about other forms of anticipatory human behavior and
confirmed expectancies to play "clearly ... a significant
role in psychotherapeutic interaction, demonstrably accounting
for a portion of improvement" (1962a, p. 79); specifically,
his research review indicated that the most therapeutic change
can be predicted in clients whose role expectancies are com
patible with the therapist's and whose outcome expectancies
are moderate and realistic.
Thus, clients approaching psychotherapy conceptualize
the process in differing ways, and it is generally accepted
that early perception of therapy is an important determinant
of the course and outcome of treatment. Less is known, however,
about the period prior to therapy entry, when the prospective
client makes the decision to seek help. Conceivably, cog
nitive variables have their strongest influence at this point,

17
when anticipation of "benefit must win out over resistance to
change and fear of self-confrontation,
Perceptions of College Counseling Services
Part of our knowledge of potential clients' perceptions
of counseling comes from a number of surveys conducted among
student groups. Most of these were the efforts of college
counseling center personnel and secondary school counselors,
concerned that their image limited student use of their ser
vices. By the 1960's, the counseling profession had thoroughly
outgrown its traditional function of vocational and educational
testing and advising; and counselors, trained in the psychology
of personality and in psychotherapeutic theory and practice,
made themselves available for work in personal development as
well. Yet, as Bordin (1955) had pointed out earlier, student
clients were making a distinction between "counseling" and
"psychotherapy"; they saw counseling as an information-
oriented resource, helpful in reasoning through a particular
decision, but not appropriate for the in-depth exploration of
personal problems and emotional issues. Bordin called for the
use of campus media to clarify the counselors role and recom
mended further study into client anticipations and expectations.
In one assessment of campus counseling views by King and
Matteson (1959) a representative sample of students rated
their willingness to take each of 40 problems to the university
counseling center. The results supported Bordin's assertion;
students preferred educational, vocational, social, and per
sonal problems--in that order--for discussion at the center.

18
Individuals tended to select either educational and vocational
types of problems or social and personal types, but not both,
as appropriate for counseling. The students who were most
willing to use campus counseling facilities were those who
had previously visited the counseling center.
Similar conclusions were reached by Warman (1961). Using
a check list of problems related to three fa.ctors--college
routine, vocational choice, and personal-social adjustment--
he compared several campus groups' perceptions of counseling
topic appropriateness. Counseling center staff, college
personnel workers, teaching faculty members, and counseled
and uncounseled students, all agreed that vocational counseling
was most appropriate for the university counseling center; but
the counselors rated personal and social adjustment problems
as significantly more appropriate for counseling than did any
other group. Echoing Brodin, Warman suggested that practi
tioners orient other groups to the kinds of problems with
which they feel they can be helpful.
A decade later, Resnick and Gelso (1971) replicated the
Warman study to determine whether counselors were closing the
communication gap between themselves and other university
people. Using the revised Counseling Appropriateness Check
list (Warman, 1961), they found that counselors still viewed
personal and social adjustment as more appropriate for dis
cussion at the counseling center than did other groups;
however, the perceptions of others, particularly student
personnel workers, had moved somewhat closer to those of the
counseling staff.

19
Two other surveys using Warman's check list have recon
firmed that the function of college counselors is not seen as
they would like it to be seen. Student clients and nonclients
(Gelso, Karl, & O'Connell, 1972) and several campus groups
including students' parents (Wilcove & Sharp, 1971) all rated
personal and social matters as appreciably less appropriate
for the counseling center than did center staff.
Research on student perceptions of their university coun
seling services has also examined how the counselors themselves
are seen. Bordin (1951) had called attention to the title
"counselor" as distinguished in the student mind from the term
"therapist." He reported that college students viewed the
counselor as "fatherly, someone you could lean on . under
standing and forgiving" but, at the same time, "impersonal and
objective" (p. 17). This contradiction was not troublesome,
Bordin explained, because students expected to discuss in
counseling only rather superficial, decision-oriented issues
and, therefore, assigned little importance to the counselor's
personal characteristics.
Strong, Hendel, and Bratton (1971) have provided current
data on college students' views of campus help givers. On a
100-item adjective check list and list of nine problem topics
which might be discussed with helping persons, female under
graduates rated their perceptions of counselors, advisors, and
psychiatrists. The women regarded counselors as more like
advisors than like psychiatrists. They considered counselors
to be friendly, polite, warm "nice guys," comfortable to be

20
with; but they felt psychiatrists were intelligent, decisive,
analytical, cold, humorless, and rejecting. Vocational and
educational problems might be taken to an advisor or a coun
selor; but the psychiatrist, not the counselor, was clearly
the most likely choice for such difficult personal concerns as
getting along; with friends, uncomfortable feelings and emotions,
and sexual distress.
Gelso and Karl (1971) extended the work of Strong et al.,
using more helper labels; high school counselor, advisor,
college counselor, counseling psychologist, clinical psycholo
gist, and psychiatrist. Their use of the same 100-item check
list and nine problem items with male and female students
produced no "nice guy" distinction for the counselor. More
difficult personal problems were again perceived to be within
the domain of the psychiatrist first, with the two psycholo
gists next likely to be consulted. These three professionals
were described as more knowledgeable, inquisitive, and
analytical than the counselor; the counseling psychologist
was considered more casual and flighty; and the psychiatrist,
more powerful, interesting, tactful, and accurate.
Since university counseling staff are often trained in
clinical and counseling psychology and offer more than voca
tional and educational services, Gelso and Karl recommended
that counselors more adequately inform the public of their role
and clarify the meaning of their title.
The above studies imply that students are not aware of
the full range of services available from their counseling

21
centers. Bearing this out further, a survey of reasons students
do not use university counseling facilities (Snyder, Hill, &
Derksen, 1972) found that undergraduates were generally in
favor of the concept of counseling and unafraid of stigma
attached to seeking therapy; yet they reported little knowledge
about their college counseling center or about the counseling
process, and they preferred to turn to friends and close
relatives for help with personal and social problems rather
than to professionals. Related findings from a study of
undergraduates' expectations of counseling (Tinsley & Harris,
1976) showed that students believe that counseling is in
general a helpful service, but they are rather doubtful that
it could be useful to them. They strongly believed in the
expertise of counselors and that counselors are genuine,
accepting, and trustworthy, but they did not expect that they
could be understood or helped in counseling.
Perceptions of School Counselors
The first school counselors were teachers; and, since the
professionalization of the school counseling specialty,
counselors in secondary schools have had a most difficult
time establishing themselves as a resource for students with
other than school-related matters. Expecially during the 1960's,
an outpouring of counseling literature declared the central
concern of school counselors to be the developmental and
emotional needs of the total youngster (e.g., American School
Counselor Association, 1963; Wrenn, 1962). This prompted a
number of studies into how the school counselor is perceived.

Dunlop (1965) surveyed opinions of what school counselors
should do. Counselor educators, secondary school administra
tors, counselors, teachers, college-preparatory and job-hound
seniors, and mothers of students, all agreed that educational
and vocational counseling were appropriate, and all except
jot-hound students and their mothers were in favor of testing
as a counselor's task. Personal counseling received general
approval, but students showed significantly less enthusiasm
for this service. The college-hound seniors indicated hy
their remarks that the school counselor was "a good choice
for personal counseling when no one else was available" (p. 1026).
Furthermore, students, parents, and teachers rejected some
behaviors which counselors consider integral to the therapist
role. They did not want counselors to allow counselees to
speak freely without fear of punishment or correction. They
condoned advice-giving, and they felt that counselors should
teach students the difference between right and wrong.
Dunlop concluded that the counselor is perceived in the
school as merely "a helpful person whose function is largely
one of providing assistance to students in their efforts to
achieve academic success" (p. 102?). If counselors are to be
distinguished from teachers, he wrote, they must educate other
school personnel and the public about their competencies.
How the school counselor is regarded by colleagues is
likely to influence student use of counseling services. A
recent paper by Wittmer and Loesch (1975) described teachers'
lack of trust and respect for counselors as related to inadequate

23
understanding. Their survey revealed that a number of teachers
view counselors as secretive and involved too little with
disciplinary and teaching duties. Although teachers in
elementary schools were more satisfied than secondary school
teachers with the performance of counselors, many of the edu
cators considered counselors to be "priviledged" people and
tended to wonder what counselors do with their time. With
this evidence, the researchers stated that counselors could
improve their relationships with teachers by applying their
human relations skills to better role communication.
A group of school principals, Schmidt (1962) found, agreed
that the counselor's main activity should be counseling stu
dents, rather than teaching or clerical tasks. In this study,
principals and counselors concurred that school counseling is
primarily vocational and educational work, but both reported
that they would prefer counseling to focus on personal and
social problems.
Students themselves, however, have not perceived the
school counselor as a particularly good resource for personal
matters. Surveys by Gibson (1962), Grant (195*0 and Kennedy
and Fredrickson (1969) have clearly shown that high school
students are most willing to discuss educational and vocational
planning with their counselors but would rather approach non
school people, usually friends and family, for personal help.
Graduating seniors responding to a questionnaire by Roemmich
and Schmidt (1962) reported, moreover, that parents and family
had given them more assistance in selecting and planning for

24
college than had counselors. Junior high school students in a
study by Van Riper (1971) said that, overall, counselors had
been more helpful to them than other school personnel but less
helpful than other students.
Perhaps students are reluctant to go to their counselors
with emotional issues because they mistakenly believe that
professional assistance is reserved for people who are very
disturbed or dysfunctional. Heilfron (i960) found support for
this contention. Using a questionnaire devised by Robinson
(1953). Heilfron asked a group of high school students to rate
brief descriptions of hypothetical adolescents, specifying the
degree of counseling indicated in each case. The students
recommended minimal counseling for attractive youngsters
doing well in school and displaying no overt emotional handi
caps. They prescribed more frequent counseling for youngsters
with obvious problems, but they reached strong agreement for
maximum counseling, regular sessions or referral to an outside
therapist, only in the case of a boy who was clearly behavior
disordered. Heilfron concluded that students associate intense
counseling with extreme deviance and are unaware of the role
developmental counseling might play in helping those who are
functioning adequately.
Perrone, Weiking, and Nagel (1965) administered the same
questionnaire to junior high school students, teachers, and
parents. The resulting opinions of counseling need were similar
to those found by Heilfron, but parents preferred somewhat more
intensive counseling than did their children, while teachers

25
favored less. The counseling needs of student participants
in the study, inferred from self-report on the Mooney Problem
Checklist, were largely unrelated to their, or their parents',
estimates of hypothetical youngsters' need for services.
Apparently, the school counseling specialist is not seen
as an essential resource for the developmental and emotional
needs of students. The studies cited show that the counselor
is not highly regarded in the school, not trusted, not under
stood, and not sought out. School counselors are undoubtedly
performing important, if not highly visible, functions. The
fact remains, however, that lack of student recognition
severely limits the counselor's capability to provide psycho
logical help. It has been said that "word-of-mouth advertising"
is the primary mode of promoting the counselor's image in the
school (Morgan, 1974) It seems this form, of publicity is
insufficiently conveying the message of counselor availability
and competence.
Public Perceptions of Psychotherapy
By cultural definition, psychotherapy is the designated
treatment in this society for certain forms of human distress.
The public, however, is not of one mind in its perceptions of
therapy. People with dissimilar lifestyles and associates are
likely to have divergent view of therapy. City dwellers, for
example, do not view therapy in the same way as rural inhab
itants. Workers in the occupational fields of health, education,
communications, and art often think differently about therapy
than those in engineering, law, and business. Sophisticated

26
and well read people discuss therapy in ways that others might
not comprehend.
Social influence is powerful in the formation of per
ceptions. It is particularly a determinant of perceptions
regarding psychotherapy "because, lacking firsthand knowledge,
most people must rely upon impressions gathered from others.
An explanation of how social influence is related to therapy
orientation is Kadushins (1969) theory of the "Friends and
Supporters of Psychotherapy." In a study of nearly fifteen
hundred applicants to New York psychiatric clinics, Kadushin
found that talking with others often precedes help seeking.
Many applicants had several characteristics in common:
1. Knowing others with problems similar to their own.
2. Knowing a friend who had been in therapy.
3. Having discussed going to a clinic with some other
people.
4. Having asked friends for recommendations to clinics
or practitioners.
Kadushin hypothesized the existence in urban society of
indirect chains of acquaintance through which people "become
therapy "insiders," not necessarily users of psychotherapy
themselves but sophisticated promoters of its efficacy. Insiders
transmit their knowledge and endorsement of psychotherapy to
colleagues and social contacts, forming a bridge between
potential clients and professional help.
Insiders share a number of perceptions related to therapy
use. They see value in discussing personal matters with others

27
and perceive themselves as having problems for which a therapist
might be sought. They do not dislike psychiatric patients and
are unafraid to admit that they themselves might benefit from
therapy. Also, their expectations of therapy are in line with
those of therapists. They do not think of therapy as advice
giving, and they feel that the client, not the therapist,
should do most of the talking.
According to Kadushin, insiders are usually well educated,
successful people who move in social circles which support
their high regard for therapy. Others, for example lower socio-
economic-level people, can become insiders as well, but they
must enter therapy by some other means than through acquaint
ances and then become insiders due to the experience. It
should be made clear, however, that the network of friends
which Kadushin describes is a small phenomenon, relatively
ineffectual in the total society. Most people are "outsiders"
who have little familiarity with the use of psychotherapy.
Lower socioeconomic-level perceptions. The therapy
perceptions of lower socioeconomic-status people have received
particular study because of this group's disinclination to use
psychotherapy. Lack of knowledge and understanding of therapy
is a probable factor in their reluctance. Incongruity between
lower socioeconomic life experience and the basic concepts of
therapy is another.
The irrelevance of traditional therapy for the concerns
of the poor has been discussed in a number of papers (Erager,
1964; Cole, Branch, & Allison, 1962; Hunt, I960; Riessman,

28
Cohen, & Pearl, 1964). Psychotherapy has been, in Brager's
(1964) words, "owned and operated by middle class persons"
(p. 415) and inflexible to the style and needs of low-income
culture. Lists of the characteristics of likely clients,
compared with the qualities of low-income people, show this
clearly. The persons for whom traditional therapy seems to
have been designed, for example, tend to internalize their
problems, blaming themselves and not their environment. They
are active participants, not passive cooperators. They value
self-control, ego strength, individualism, and motivation.
They are, in short, upward-striving individuals imbued with
middle-class mentality. People closer to the struggle for
sheer survival are more concerned with solutions to day-to-day
matters. Often in crisis, they are in need of immediate help
offered in direct and forthright terms, not insight development.
Lower socioeconomic people's lack of information about
therapy is no doubt related to their lower level of formal
schooling. Nunnally's (1961) large-scale survey of American
mental health conceptions showed that adults with less than a
high school education are most likely to have inaccurate beliefs
about psychological matters. Research on perceptions of psycho
therapy, however, has not found lower socioeconomic-status
people differing greatly from the middle class.
Redlich et al. (1955) comparing views of middle class and
lower socioeconimic-level psychiatric patients in pretherapy
interviews, found much similarity in the expectations of the
two groups. Both groups were fearful and ashamed, associating

29
therapy with "craziness. The middle-class interviewees were
only slightly more knowledgeable about therapy. Both groups
presented somatic problems and asked for "pills and shots";
both lacked confidence in the "talking treatment" and wanted
sympathy, authority, and practical advice. Followed through
the course of therapy, however, tiie middle-class clients more
often came to accept their therapists' notions of the thera
peutic process, while lower socioeconomic-level patients tended
to remain dissatisfied.
Some years later, Overall and Aronson (1962) surveyed the
therapy expectations of 40 lower socioeconomic-level clients
entering psychiatric clinics. The results were puzzling. The
respondents tended to answer positively to most of the 35 items
of the questionnaire, indicateng-~at face value--simu.ltaneous
anticipations of active, medical, supportive, dynamic, and
passive therapist behavior. The researchers speculated that
there might have been a general set among those surveyed to
reply "Yes." A finding which especially surprised the investi
gators was that the potential clients reported strong expectations
that they would deal with emotional and dynamic material in
therapy.
Conceivably, the research over the years represents a
trend in which psychiatric outpatient clinic applicants are
becoming more sophisticated regarding treatment. In a recent
survey, Lorion (1974) uncovered no significant differences in
help-seeking orientation or treatment expectancies among clinic
applicants of middle-, lower middle-, and lower socioeconomic

30
status. On a measure of help-seeking attitudes, all groups
expressed confidence in the efficacy of treatment, recognized
the need for help, perceived little stigma attached to therapy,
and showed a willingness to discuss personal matters. On a
questionnaire similar to that devised by Overall and Aronson,
their scores showed that they did not anticipate a highly sup
portive, problem-solving therapist, that they could differentiate
psychotherapy from medical care, and that they expected to focus
on emotional issues.
General perceptions. Two extensive investigations of
perceptions related to therapy are Gurin, Yeroff, and Feld's
(i960) survey of mental health adjustment and help-seeking
modalities and Nunnally's (1961) series of studies into popular
conceptions of mental health.
Gurin, Yeroff, and Feld (i960) examined the mental health
orientation of 2,460 representative American adults. One focus
of this study was to determine the methods people use to handle
life problems, providing a broad perspective on the use of
professional help. In general, the researchers concurred with
what is found throughout the literature on help seeking,
The tendency to turn to professional help when
faced with personal problems was found to be
associated with introspection, with structuring
distress in personal and interpersonal rather than
external terms, with self-questioning more than a
dissatisfied or unhappy reaction toward life roles,
with psychological rather than physical symptoms.
(p. 298)
Their data show that desire for therapeutic change is not
widespread. Only 14 percent of those interviewed reported that
at some time in their lives they had gone to a professional

31
resource for assistance with a personal problem. In two-thirds
of these cases, the helper sought was not a mental health pro
fessional. Sources of help most often mentioned were clergymen
and physicians. Respondents also recalled seeking counsel from
lawyers, teachers, nurses, policemen, and judges. Choice of a
professional was apparently dependent; upon the content of the
problem; for example, trouble with a child might prompt a
parent to confer with a schoolteacher. Less than one-fourth of
the help seekers considered themselves to be the locus of the
problems they discussed; even a "nervous breakdown" was more
often defined as a collapse in the face of some external stress
than as a personal adjustment difficulty. Most who asked for
help indicated that they wanted comfort, reassurance, or advice,
not self-examination.
Aside from the help seekers, a segment of their sample
which particularly interested Gurin and his colleagues was a
"critical group"--nine percent of respondents who said they
believed that a professional could have been useful to them
with a problem in the past, but did not go for help. The
reasons these people gave for not applying for assistance were
ones commonly cited by mental health experts as deterrents to
the help-seeking process; lack of knowledge about where to go
or what to do in order to get help, aversion to shame and
stigma, and desire to work problems out alone. The critical
group appeared to be as psychologically accessible as the people
who actual]y sought help, but they tended to have less money
and less education and were more often from rural areas. Half

32
of them attempted in some way to solve their difficulties on
their own. Others reported withdrawing from the distress situ
ation or doing nothing.
Among the large group which had never made use of profes
sional help, most stated that they probably would not use it
in the future. This so-called "self help" group did not
actually make unusual use of their own or informal resources
for troubles, particularly if they were old, uneducated, or
poor; nor were they happier than help seekers. They were less
introspective and less inclined to phrase problems in psycho
logical terms. Like the critical group, they tended to have
lower incomes than help seekers and to be rural people.
Examining the characteristics of the three groups--help
seekers, those who almost sought help, and those who would not
seek help--the researchers identified two types of factors
operating in the use of mental health resources. Psychological
factors were subjective perceptions associated with the desir
ability of professional help: introspectiveness, phrasing of
distress in terms of personal problems and self-questioning,
focusing on personal and interpersonal aspects of life, and
reporting psychological rather than physical symptoms. Facili
tating factors were circumstantial considerations connected
with help accessibility: actual availability of resources in
the community, knowledge of these resources, and the extent
to which going for help is the "thing to do" in one's social
group.
Psychological and facilitating factors effect the help
seeking process in different ways. This can be seen if help

33
seeking is viewed as a sequence of three decisions:
1. Whether or not the problem will he defined as a mental
health problem.
2. Whether or not to go for help with the problem.
3. Choosing where to go.
Psychological considerations, the researchers hypothesized, are
most clearly relevant to the first decision point, while facili
tating factors are more influential in the last two decisions.
This analysis of psychological and facilitating factors implies
that potential clients need two types of mental health infor
mation, education on how to recognize mental health problems
and instruction on how to obtain help.
The second large-scale examination of the mental health
orientation of the public is a series of investigations reported
by Nunnally (1961). Nunnally and his research team applied
diverse data-gathering methods to such topics as public knowl
edge of mental health matters, views of mental illness and
treatment, and mass media presentations of mental health issues.
Although this work does not focus directly on the use of
psychotherapy, the conclusions are helpful in understanding
therapy perceptions and, it will be seen, provide important
preliminary information for the second phase of Nunnally's
research in which mental health communications variables are
explored.
To study general mental health knowledge, the investi
gators administered a 50-item questionnaire of possible mental
health beliefs to several groups considered to resemble a

34
cross-section of the general population. (In most of Nunnally's
studies, subjects were selected from a pool approximating the
United States population in terms of education, age, sex, and
other demographic characteristics.) Individual responses con
tained many inconsistencies, and overall responses produced
low correlations under factor analysis, leading the researchers
to conclude that the public's mental health information is not
highly structured or crystalized and that people are tentative
and uncertain in their opinions. As previously mentioned,
although most people were not grossly misinformed on mental
health issues, they were rather uninformed; and certain groups,
notably the older and less well educated, did possess much
erroneous knowledge.
Another group of studies assessed attitudes toward the
mentally ill, using rating scales, ranking methods, the Semantic
Differential technique, and "free association" tests. The
results revealed that the notion of stigma associated with
mental illness is well entrenched in reality. Young and old,
the well educated and the relatively unschooled, all tended to
regard the mentally ill person as comparatively dangerous, dirty,
unpredictable, and worthless.
Using similar techniques, the researchers then examined
attitudes toward psychological experts and treatment. They
found that all types of professionals were highly regarded,
particularly by less well educated people; but mental health
professionals were held in less esteem than those who treat
physical problems. Reactions to mental health institutions

35
and treatment, including psychotherapy, were generally less
favorable than attitudes toward physical treatment methods.
Also, distinctions between the mental health subprofessions
were poorly understood.
Before describing Nunnally's media studies, it should be
noted that they were carried out in the mid-1950's and, no
doubt, the situation today is changed. Through content analy
sis of television and radio broadcasts, national magazines,
and daily newspapers, the researchers discovered a highly
distorted view of mental health issues being propagated by
commercial media. For example, presentations often suggested
that a person with a psychological problem looks and acts in
different ways than does a "normal" person. Especially in
television dramas (which are more likely to be viewed than
mental health educational programs), mentally ill persons were
often portrayed with highly stylized and bizarre behavior,
glassy eyes, uncontrollable laughter, and strange phobias and
obsessions. The depicted causes of mental problems were fre
quently situational or organic: a single stressful incident,
an old battle wound, physical privation such as hunger or thirst.
The treatment was likely to be assistance from a professional--
a psychiatrist, physician, or nurse--or, just as commonly, the
application of timely advice or a bit of homespun philosophy.
The impact of these media presentations, however, did not
appear to be critical. Public views of mental health matters
found in Nunnally's other research were far less extreme than
media depictions, reflecting the consumer's ability to withstand

36
the influence of unrealistic dramatic conventions. Furthermore,
in the overall media, information concerning psychological
issues was infrequent. The researchers found only 120 relevant
items in 49 newspapers, 16 in a radio station's weekly output,
17 on one television channel watched for a week, and 49 items
in 91 issues of national magazines.
Effects of Mental Health Information; Nunnally's Findings
After their investigations of public mental health views,
Nunnally and his colleagues conducted a series of pioneering
studies in the field of mental health communications. The
second half of Nunnally's (1961) report is an examination of
the communication variables involved in attempts to expand
popular knowledge and improve general attitudes regarding
mental health issues. Its essential message was summarized
as follows,
Communicating mental health information may, on first
thought, seem to be a relatively straight-forward
task--merely presenting facts in a clear and inter
esting manner. Unfortunately, the problem is much
more complicated than that, and there are many
stumbling blocks in the communication process. For
example, the attitudes that people have toward mental
disorders and afflicted individuals make them resist
ant to certain kinds of new ideas and to some types
of communications. Because the direct approach
often fails to change people's attitudes and opin
ions in desired directions, new appeals and communica
tion strategies must be found. (p. 2)
The following review of Nunnally's findings includes several
focuses: (a) general acceptance of mental health information--
public interest, discrimination of true from false information,

37
individual differences in receptiveness, effectiveness of types
of information; (Id) major variadles in message transmission--
anxiety, solution provision, message certainty, and negation
effects; (c) other variables related to mental health communi
cations; (d) permanence of message effects.
Acceptance of Information
In their studies of mental health views, Nunnally and his
research team found popular knowledge of psychology sparce,
unsystematically structured, and uncrystalized. Uncertain and
eager to learn more, the public tends to be susceptible to any
authoritatively presented mental health information. Despite
their curiosity, however, people are likely to be frightened by
such topics as mental disorder and resistant to unpleasant
messages.
On an interest questionnaire, 200 raters indicated as
much willingness to receive information on mental health as on
several other popular subjects, including physical health.
Asked to rate interest in different aspects of mental health,
respondents indicated more enthusiasm for information related
to immediate personal issues; the more distant the topic from
an individual's own concerns, the less interest it generated.
Of particular interest was material related to the early stages
of mental illness, causes and initial signs.
A further study of public interest in mental health used
written information sheets describing treatment methods. The
descriptions were designed with varying combinations of three
message variables: high- or low-anxiety arousal, personal or

38
impersonal phrasing, and provision of solutions or no solution.
Ranking the communications in order of preference, 288 partici
pants in the experiment showed least interest in personal, high-
anxiety messages providing no solution and most interest in
impersonal, low-anxiety messages including solutions. Recep
tivity to mental health messages, therefore, seems tied to the
degree of threat produced.
False information may be as readily accepted as true. An
experiment which demonstrated this used four written accounts
of treatments for catatonic schizophrenia, two plausible in
the light of current evidence and two concocted from the imagi
nations of the researchers. Four groups of college students
read these reports, presented as expert explanations, while
control groups read messages unrelated to mental health. The
readers of both true and false .repoi'ts made similar ratings of
their information on convincingness, and more than 75 percent
of each group answered "Yes" when asked whether they thought
the treatment described to them would work. Additionally, the
four groups, compared with control groups, indicated more
favorable attitudes on a Semantic Differential, both for the
concept of "a person with catatonic schizophrenia" and for
general mental health topics. Nunnally suggested that even
false information can serve a useful purpose.
Measuring the effects of types of information upon atti
tudes and knowledge, the researchers used four paragraphs
designed to promote accurate understanding about four popular
misconceptions: (a) that the mentally ill look and act different,

39
(b) that willpower is a deterrent to mental illness, (c) that
avoidance of morbid thoughts brings relief, and (d) that the
mentally disturbed are hopeless. Each of four groups of high
school students read one message, and a control group was
exposed to no message. On a mental health information test,
students usually scored high on the factor to which they had
been educated but not on others. (A.n exception was that most
students, including controls, were convinced that the mentally
ill are not hopeless.) The attitudes of informed students
differed in a generalized way from those of the control group,
but changes were often in a negative direction. The researchers
attributed the worsening of attitudes to the content of the
messages not having been controlled for such variables as
arousal of anxiety.
In the course of their studies, the researchers attended
to individual differences in respondents. The general finding
was that there were large differences among people's attitudes
and knowledge prior to communications experiments, but subjects
tended to change by the same amounts when exposed to similar
mental health messages. Initial differences in information
corresponded strongly to years of formal schooling and intelli
gence test scores. Initial mental health attitudes, however,
were not significantly related to educational sophistication,
age, sex, and other prominent dimensions of individual difference.
Major Variables in Message Transmission
Having found that nonthreatening mental health messages
are most acceptable to the public, Nunnally's group set out to

4o
determine how people's knowledge and attitudes are affected by
several message variables: anxiety arousal, provision of solu
tion, message certainty, and negation effects.
One study explored the influence of messages put in
anxiety-arousing terms upon attitudes toward specific and
general mental health concepts. For two topics, psychoanalysis
and "shock therapy," written information was composed with com
binations of high- or low-anxiety phrasing and provision of a
solution or no solution. Each of 392 high school students read
one of the eight messages, then reacted on a Semantic Differ
ential to several concepts related to mental health. High-
anxiety messages clearly produced more negative orientations
toward all of the concepts. When a solution was provided,
however, it promoted favorable attitudes in the high-anxiety
condition. Because the researchers had surmised from pilot
studies that mental health messages usually raise anxiety, they
recommended inclusion of solutions whenever mental problems are
brought up in public communications.
Nunnally also reported on the effects of message cer
tainty, the degree to which a message is delivered as proven
"fact" rather than tentative belief. Message certainty is
highly relevant to mental health communications because solid
information in the field is considerably lacking, new data and
ideas are continually appearing, and thus messages do tend to
be tentative. From a number of studies, two of which are
described below, Nunnally drew three general conclusions:

41
1. The more certainty with which mental health informa
tion is stated, the more favorable will be the attitudes toward
concepts related to mental health.
2. Destruction of information about mental health without
supplying new information results in negative attitudes toward
related concepts.
3. Even if available information may turn out to be incor
rect, it is better to give such information to the public than
to withhold it.
Experimenting with message certainty, the research team
designed written descriptions of two psychological treatment
methods, each explained to be effective in both high- and low-
certainty phrasing. Each of four classes of high school students
read one of the four messages, and two other classes read con
trol messages irrelevant to mental health. On a Semantic
Differential, students who had received high-certainty communi
cations demonstrated more favorable attitudes toward the
treatment method described and toward general mental health
concepts. Two weeks later, the investigators returned with new
messages negating the information which had been supplied
originally. When administration of the Semantic Differential
was repeated, negating messages produced less favorable atti
tudes on specific and general mental health concepts for all
groups, including controls; however, students who previously
had read high- and low-certainty messages did not differ in
amount of attitude change.
Negation of information proved significant in further
experimentation. Undergraduates read explanations of

42
schizophrenia which contained high-certainty assurance of
effective treatment immediately followed by a statement
casting doubt on the validity of the information. Compared
with control groups who received no mental health informa
tion, the message recipients indicated generally unfavorable
attitudes toward mental health concepts on a Semantic
Differential.
Other Communications Variables
To test the notion that contact with the mentally ill
might improve attitudes toward mental health concepts, an
experiment was conducted involving visitors to high school
classrooms who made brief talks about mental illness. Each
speaker presented herself in three ways, either beginning
the talk by stating that she was a former mental patient
or making this announcement at the end, or making no such
statement. An additional experimental condition was that
half of the talks were given in a personal way, enlisting
active identification of the audience with the issues
mentioned, while half were delivered impersonally, allowing
the audience to feel remote from the events.
Later, as a supposedly unrelated event, a researcher
administered the Semantic Differential to assess attitudes
toward mental health concepts and an information test in each
class. A clear finding was that late revelation of mental
patient status affected attitudes far more favorably than
initial disclosure. Late disclosure also promoted slightly
better attitudes than no disclosure. Information scores were

43
unaffected by disclosure, but were somewhat lowered by the
personal, and presumably more anxiety-producing, approach.
In another study, the personal-impersonal variable was
found to have no impact. Experimenters used two versions of
a paragraph about mental illness. One employed an impersonal
approach ("What is mental illness . the other, a
personal approach ("Have you ever thought how it would be if
you were mentally ill?"). High school students who read each
paragraph did not differ in their attitudes expressed through
the Semantic Differential.
Presentation style may affect the power of a message to
change people. Using an elaborate factor analysis process on
stylistic variables found in ?0 diverse messages, the researchers
determined two stylistic features of probable significance in
mental health communications, easy veraus difficult wording
and negative versus positive tone. Messages judged to have
average difficulty and neutral tone were presented in five
forms: the original version and variations combining easy-
negative, easy-positive, difficult-negative, and difficult
positive composition styles. Groups of college students each
read one message in one form and responded on a Semantic Dif
ferential to "the message you have just read" and one concept
related to their respective messages. They also rated the
extent to which they would like to read more about the topic
of the message and took a comprehension test on the material.
Although the college students in the study are unlikely
to represent the general population, attitudinal results were

44
Interesting. Difficult negative messages induced more favor
able ratings. Difficult negative messages also led to greater
preference for further reading. On the comprehension test,
however, the students showed they understood less from the
negative versions of messages. The significant finding of
the study was that larger differences occurred due to the style
of the message than due to the ideas and other characteristics
contained in it.
During the course of their research, Nunnally became
cognizant of a number of problems in the terminology available
to the general public for describing mental health phenomena.
He identified four weaknesses in the language, which affect
research as well as public communications:
1. There is a shortage of terms. For the general public,
there are no standard equivalents for such terms as "regression"
and "catharsis." Thus, even though average people may be able
to understand and discuss such matters, they are limited by
having a inadequate psychological vocabulary.
2. The language suggests misleading explanations. A
valid system for psychological understanding is hindered by
the loose and biased usage of some terms In common parlance.
The word "intelligence" is inexactly used. Other terms sug
gest incorrect causes, manifestations, and social effects of
mental conditions.
3. The language is not well anchored semantically.
Although most people use a word such as "neurotic," it is
doubtful that they attach it to real-life behaviors. New

45
terms could be tied to sound semantic referents, thus decreasing
their possibility of misinterpretation.
4. The terms bear strong negative connotations. Some
terms such as the word "insane" seem permanently linked with
negative attitudes. The public should be encouraged to abandon
such strongly unfavorable symbols and adopt new ones connota-
tively neutral.
To illustrate the contention that labels are important
to message communication, Nunnallys group conducted an experi
ment among 440 high school students. Two paragraphs were
designed describing troubled men. Each description had four
versions, one introducing the individual as simply "a man,"
the others referring to him as "mentally ill," "emotionally
disturbed," and "insane." Each student read one of the eight
versions and reacted to the man on a Semantic Differential.
Predictably, labels had a decided effect on ratings, but the
effect was less in the case of the man whose description
indicated less disturbance. The researchers drew two conclu
sions from the study:
1. Labels are more influential determinants of attitudes
when applied to relatively unfamiliar phenomena.
2. Labels are more influential determinants when they
are perceived as being realistically related to the phenomena
described.
Permanence of Message Effects
When a communication appears to be producing the desired
impact, the next consideration is the duration of its effects.

46
The Nunnally project was composed mainly of short-range inves
tigations, usually the presentation of a very "brief message
followed immediately by outcome measures. The researchers
chose to conduct multiple short-duration experiments, they
said, for reasons of practicality and because the early stages
of mental health communications research required careful con
trol of variables and ongoing adjustment of experimental
designs impossible in longitudinal studies.
In order to investigate the permanence of information
effects, the researchers performed a follow-up assessment of
the change produced by high school psychology classes. Stu
dents from seven sections of a psychology course responded
to information questionnaires and mental health attitude scales
prior to the semester-long course, at the end of the semester,
and again six months to one year later. Measured against
themselves, the students gained in correct knowledge during
the semester (they responded more like psychologists and
psychiatrists), and they continued to gain in the following
months. Findings were inconclusive, however, because a
control group of art students showed approximately the same
amount of improvement over the semester's time.
Attitudinal results were similar. Both psychology and
art students developed more favorable attitudes over the
semester. On most significant concepts, change scores for
the two groups were exactly the same. The researchers specu
lated that pretest sensitization accounted for the nonpsychology
students increases. Sheer educational maturity was ruled out

as an explanation because correctness of information, but not
attitudinal change, is believed to correlate with years of
schooling.
The researchers also conducted a shorter term controlled
experiment on permanence of attitude change. High school
students' favorable mental health attitudes induced by high-
certainty messages were found to be undiminished after two and
one half months.
According to Nunnally, one way to regard the duration of
communication effects is to think of each small message as a
"dose." Administration of successive doeses with known char
acteristics can produce powerful and enduring results. Short
messages which are compounded to take advantage of the dif
ferential effects of relevant content variables are likely
to promote more desirable changes than communication bombard
ments which are heavy and continual but uncontrolled.
Methods of Preparing Clients for Counseling
A recent and promising line of counseling research is the
development of systematic procedures for preparing people to
understand and use therapy more beneficially. In the last
dozen years, reports have been published covering a wide range
of therapy-orientation techniques. By far, most of these
approaches have been aimed at people already identified as
clients, but they have relevance for potential clients as well.
Behavioral Techniques
Behavioral techniques in several forms have been put to
therapy use. Zarle and Willis (1975) used "induced affect

48
training," a desensitization procedure, with college volunteers
to reduce neurotic response to stress in a subsequent eight-
hour marathon encounter group. Truax and colleagues (1965,
1966, 1968) found evidence that "vicarious therapy pretraining,"
exposure to tape recorded clients modeling high '.Levels of group
therapy behavior, raised the "ideal self concepts" of hospital
ized psychiatric patients and incarcerated boys, thus conceivably
producing stronger motivation for therapy.
Behavioral modeling has also been employed to teach clients
verbal skills useful in counseling. Myrick (1969) designed a
counseling orientation program for eighth graders, the main
feature of which was a tape recording of a peer being directed
to use self-referencing language. Youngsters exposed to the
model, compared with others who received the program with no
tape, made more self-references in a thirty-minute interview.
Stone and Stebbins (1975) used procedures similar to Myricks
in a study with college volunteers and reported similar results.
Marlatt, Jacobson, Johnson, and Morrice (1970) employed a live
model who was variously reinforced by a counselor for making
problem statements. Neutral reinforcement of the model, and
positive encouragement to a lesser extent, induced more problem
statements from volunteer clients than negative and discouraging
response to the model.
Whalen (1969) compared modeling and instruction as methods
of increasing personal openness and concluded that a filmed
model preceded by detailed instructions facilitated personal
discussion in groups, while either the film or detailed

49
instructions alone were no letter than minimal instructions.
Doster (1972) assessed the relative efficacy of three methods
of eliciting desired client behavior. His results showed that
detailed instruction was more effective in producing verbal
self-expression than either a taped model client or pretherapy
rehearsal through roleplay.
Procedures Related to Client Expectancies
Other approaches have focused on the client's initial
anticipations for counseling. Greenberg (1969; Greenberg,
Goldstein, & Perry, 1970) experimented with induced pretherapy
expectancies by randomly telling clients that they would have
therapists who were warm or cold, experienced or inexperienced.
Both psychology student volunteers and hospitalized psychotics
became more receptive to therapeutic influence when expecting
to see warm, experienced counselors. Similarly, Savitsky,
Zarle, and Keedy (1976) showed that undergraduate women were
more self-disclosing when they were persuaded to expect an
interviewer who was eager to be helpful and from a stressful
family background than when anticipating someone with a happy
past but unwilling to help. Other researchers (Imber, Pande,
Frank, Hoehn-Saric, Stone, & Wargo, 1970), however, attempted
without success to manipulate perceptions of improvement by
informing outpatients that, on the basis of "psychological
tests, they would experience therapeutic change in either
four weeks or four months.
Heilbrun (1972) tested the effects of pretherapy briefing
regarding therapist control. Briefing consisted of a booklet

50
designed to make the client aware that counselors use varying
levels of directiveness, any of which can be highly effective,
and to encourage the client to be flexible in expectation of
counselor control. The booklets were given to men and women,
rather either high or low on counseling readiness (liklihood
of remaining in therapy), as they applied to a university
counseling center. Compared with a control group of clients
who received no booklets, only women of high counseling readi
ness were more satisfied with their first counseling interview,
given preliminary briefing. However, briefed low-readiness
men and women had less incidence of premature termination than
their control counterparts.
Krause (.1968) tried early clarification of client expecta
tions as a means of enhancing motivation for therapy. At the
point of telephone intake, agency workers tried to modify
client anticipations which were unrealistic and supplement
those which were sparce, using restatement of problem descrip
tions and probing for implicit or additional problems. The
technique did not increase the appearance of clients for
counseling; nor did it produce high motivation or satisfaction
ratings among those who kept their appointments, but therapists
observed clients who received clarification to be slightly
more open, informed, and responsive than otilers. In a second
study, Krause, Fitzsimmons, and Wolf (1969) extended clarifica
tion procedures into the first 6 to 12 counseling sessions and
found tentative evidence that active focusing on positive and
negative therapy experiences can raise client motivation.

51
Special Procedures for Orienting Clients
Research has demonstrated that systematic preparation of
clients can help them remain in therapy longer and participate
in it more productively. Some procedures were not specifically
designed for pretherapy use but have possible application prior
to counseling; for example, teaching clients internalization
behavior (Pierce, Schauble, & Farkas, 1970) and "focusing"
(Gendlin, 1969! Gendlin & Olson, 1970). One especially elabo
rate means of assisting clients during therapy, intervention
through "structuring and stabilizing, has shown effectiveness
with low-prognosis clients. This process, described by Warren
and Rice (1972), consists of two types of extratherapy meetings
with the client: (a) brief stabilizing sessions, in which a
second therapist encourages the client to discuss any problems
occurring with the primary therapist or with the therapy, and
(b) striicturing session, in which the client is generally
informed about therapy procedures and roles and the nature of
personality change and then taught, through practice with feed
back, to perceive experiences in terms of immediacy and internal
focus.
Warren and Rice found that stabilizing alone was highly
successful in preventing therapy defection in the low-prognosis
clients biAt of no particular advantage to therapy results.
Clients who received both structuring and stabilizing, however,
not only remained in therapy longer but also had high partici
pation levels and experienced considerable therapeutic gain.
Systematic preparation of clients for group therapy has
taken several forms: providing participants with written

52
material on groups (Martin & Shewmaker, 1962), inviting a
potential member to attend a trial meeting (Bach, 195*0 or
using a series of lectures or an instrumental program to expli
cate therapy and insight (Bettis, Malamud, & Malamud, 19^9;
Malamud & D/Iachover, 1965)
Yalom, Houts, Newell, and Rand (1967) tested the impact
of a 25-minute orientation lecture on groups of middle socio
economic level psychiatric outpatients. The informal lecture,
which allowed for questions and comments, included a brief
history of group therapy, research evidence of its effective
ness, general goals, a rationale for understanding the group
as a microcosm of interpersonal life, a warning that group
therapy would sometimes be difficult, and advice to be honest
and direct with other members. In addition, the participants
were told, deceptively, that their groups were composed of
members chosen for maximum compatibility and liking. Compared
with control groups who attended only a 25-minute registration
session prior to group therapy, the groups which had received
orientation displayed significantly more here-and-now inter
personal interaction and indicated somewhat more faith in group
therapy, but increased cohesiveness did not result from the
suggestion of compatible group composition.
A seminal development in the preparation of clients for
psychotherapy was Orne's (Orne & Wender, 1968a, 1968b) "antici
patory socialization" approach. Orne conceptualized readiness
for therapy as a special form of socialization. That is, to
use psychotherapy, one must have knowledge about the process

53
itself, beliefs about its effectiveness, shared values regarding
its importance, and particular role expectations--just as it
is necessary to have learned appropriate perceptions about
one's culture in order to live successfully in it.
As a means of explicit socialization for the client antici
pating therapy, Orne designed a pretherapy interview with three
major purposes: (a) to provide some rational basis for the
client to accept therapy as a means of help with problems, (b)
to clarify the roles of client and therapist, and (c) to provide
a general outline of the course of therapy, including its
vicissitudes.
The first step in Orne' s interview' is a rapport-establishing
period. While taking a brief history, the therapist indicates
sympathetic understanding for the client's problems and makes
a few simple comments which would seem highly insightful to the
client. The intent in being immediately helpful, reassuring,
and supportive is to provide a basis for the acceptance of the
therapist's subsequent statements. This step in the interview,
according to Orne, takes a short; time and fits into the model
of the medical relationship already familiar to the client.
Next, the therapist gives the client an explanation of
psychotherapy. In Orne's thinking, "It matters little what
rationale is given to help the patient understand psychotherapy.
It is important, however, that some rationale be given" (p. 1207).
The main points to be covered are that therapy is a learning
process and that the goal is to create permanent change rather
than immediate, transitory effects. To get these ideas across,

54
the therapist may provide illustrations alluding to what the
client has said earlier.
Questions which arise from the discussion of the therapy
process will undoubtedly lead to the third step, explicating
the therapists and client's roles. At this stage it is
important to clarify the difference between a psychotherapist
and a medical professional: psychotherapy is done not to the
client but with the client. It should also be explained that
the client's role is to be active, the therapist's job is to
help but not to advise, the client will always make the deci
sions, and the client should expect to discuss issues honestly,
even though they may be painful, private, or embarrassing.
Before concluding the interview, it is particularly impor
tant to address those aspects of therapy which might terminate
it permaturely during the early sessions. The client should
be cautioned that it is common to feel hopeless or negativistic
at times during therapy and that, although there may be occas-
sions when it seems impossible to keep an appointment, it is
unwise to interrupt therapy or to end it without mutual dis
cussion. The client, then, is primed to expect "ups and downs"
and to bring dissatisfactions with therapy into the sessions.
Orne's interview has been the basis for several studies.
One group of researchei-s modified the procedure, calling it
the "Role Induction Interview," and used it experimentally
with 20 psychiatric clinic patients (Hoehn-Saric, Frank, Imber,
Nash, Stone, & Battle, 1964; Nash, Hoehn-Saric, Battle, Stone,
Imber, & Frank, 1965) In an extensive analysis of subsequent

55
therapy behavior and outcome, the clients who received role
induction compared favorably with 20 other patients who had
no preliminary interview. Major findings were significantly
better therapy attendance, session participation patterns, and
therapist relationship ratings, as well as higher therapist
rated global improvement, self-rated symptom reduction, and
social effectiveness as rated in independent interviews. A
further investigation into therapist factors revealed that
role induction was especially helpful in making clients,
particularly males, more attractive to their therapists. The
researchers did not determine whether clients are best prepared
by their own therapists or by others, but they did conclude
that it is most effective to prepare a client specifically
for the therapist who will be seen.
Unlike Orne's original anticipatory socialization inter
view, the Role Induction Interview had conveyed to clients
the expectancy that therapeutic improvement would occur within
four months. To determine what part such a time-limited sug
gestion in itself might play in therapy gain, another group
of researchers set up an experiment with four pretherapy
conditions! Orne's procedure alone, induced expectation of
better functioning in four months alone, both procedures, and
no procedure (Sloane, Cristol, Pepernik, & Staples, 1970).
Psychiatric clinic clients who received anticipatory sociali
zation showed slightly but significantly more improvement after
four months than clients who were given the time expectation,
on measures of social, sexual, and work adjustment. There

56
was no difference among groups in symptomatic change or therapy
attendance, but clients who received the four-months suggestion
were rated by therapists as less likeable than those who did
not.
Orne had proposed that other anticipatory socialization
procedures--for example, motion picture films or group methods--
might prove helpful. Following this suggestion Strupp and
Bloxom (1973) developed a group version of the Role Induction
Interview as well as a role induction film and found both to
be highly successful with lower socioeconomic level clients.
The film Turning Point (black and white, 16 millimeter,
32 minutes), depicting a troubled truck driver who reluctantly
turns to a mental health center and receives help, was aimed
at community people who were unlikely to seek or accept therapy.
It was designed to serve the major purposes of anticipatory
socialization outlined by Orne and, specifically, to encourage
viewers to consider a number of concepts related to mental
health: that talking about difficulties can be helpful; that
personality change requires work one must do oneself; that some
troubles are self-inflicted; that there are adaptive and mal
adaptive ways of expressing anger, hostility, resentment, and
aggression; that peers are potential allies and friends; that
personality change takes time and no miracles should be expected;
that medication provides no solutions to the problems of living;
that life difficulties are common and can be dealt with by
talking about them; and that there are no "cures" for life
stress, only more adequate ways of handling it.

57
Participants in the study were 122 clients of 12 community
agencies, identified as needing psychological counseling in
order to reach agency rehabilitation objectives, but minimally
motivated to use mental health services. Most had multiple
problems of long standing. One third viewed the role-induction
film; another third received a group presentation patterned
after the Role Induction Interview; and another third, serving
as controls, viewed a film on the subject of early marriage.
There was consistent evidence from, postinduction, in
therapy, and outcome measures that the two role-induction
procedures facilitated a more favorable therapy experience.
Turning Point was superior to the group presentation on several
measures. Prior to therapy, for example, both role-induction
groups were rated by therapists as more attractive, more
strongly motivated, and more likely to improve than control
clients. Both groups also rated themselves better along such
dimensions as willingness to begin therapy, anticipation of
satisfaction with the first session, estimated global improve
ment, and realistic expectations of improvement. Furthermore,
those who were in greatest need of help, according to therapist
ratings of severity of disturbance, tended to experience the
most positive reaction to the role-induction procedures.
Providing Information to Potential Help Seekers
Research into large-scale provision of counseling informa
tion has been scarce. It has also been limited to the college
campus. Findings, nevertheless, support the effectiveness of
broad information dissemination and point to the relative worth
of several methods.

58
To evaluate the impact of general counseling center
hrochures, Bigelow, Hendrix, and Jensen (1968) distributed
brochures to a group of 599 first-year university students
but not to a similar group of 865 housed in a separate dormi
tory. After six weeks, the informed students had made four
times as many counseling appointments as the uninformed
students; and informed clients used counseling proportionately
more for emotional issues rather than educational and voca
tional problems. The contents of the brochure, however, were
not reported.
At another university, Gelso and McKenzie (1973) did the
first comparison of methods for delivering counseling informa
tion to potential clients. They devised written and oral
presentations to promote student use of their counseling
center and, specifically, to underscore the appropriateness
of presenting personal problems for counseling. Students
living on selected dormitory floors received brief talks which
emphasized the appropriateness of presenting both "normal" and
"severe" personal problems at the counseling center. The day
after, these students received in their mailboxes "a rather
typical three-page counseling center brochure" along with a
letter from the centers director reinforcing the main points
of the oral presentation. A second, comparable group of
students received this written material but no oral presenta
tion. A control group was given no information.
On Warm an s (1961) Counseling Apuropri ateness Checklist.,
the students who received both the talk and the written

59
information indicated personal adjustment to be appropriate
for counseling discussion, more than either other group. On
additional questionnaire items, this group was also more in
favor of seeking help with severe psychological problems and,
although this item did not attain statistical significance,
normal problems; further, they expressed more willingness to
seek counseling for personal problems.
During the next six weeks, counseling center records
showed that more students from each information group appeared
for counseling than did those from the control group. Students
who had received only written information, however, presented
fewer personal adjustment problems than those who received the
combination oral and written information.
Duckro, Beal, and Moebes (19?6), in a third study, assessed
the persuasiveness of a written communication with a highly
personal tone. Their study involved a month-long campus media
campaign which focused on the services of the counseling center
and particularly on the appropriateness of taking personal and
social problems to college counselors. A group of 240 student
volunteers had been pretested cn the Warman check list prior
to the campaign. During the campaign, one-half of the volunteer
group received letters similar in content to the media messages
but more personal in tone. Posttested on the Warman instru
ment, the letter recipients were more in favor of discussing
personal problems at the counseling center than were the
other volunteers.

6o
Summary
Although little previous research has explored the dis
semination of information as a means of facilitating client
self-referral, professional literature has pointed up the need
for reaching potential users of counseling and demonstrated
that communications can play an important part in shaping
perceptions related to help seeking. It has been shown that
the public is not well informed on mental health matters in
general or about sources of psychological help. Nor is the
public favorably inclined toward psychotherapy. However, there
are indications that people are amenable to information which
will fill the gaps in their knowledge and that their attitudes
can be changed. Specially designed materials and techniques,
many of which are primarily informational, have been success
fully employed in teaching psychological concepts, promoting
positive attitudes regarding mental health issues, and pre
paring clients for therapy. On college campuses, beginning
evidence has been found that presentations of information can
influence students use of counseling center services. Thus
the foundation has been laid for the present investigation
into the effects of information on potential clients' per
ceptions of counseling.

CHAPTER III
METHODOLOGY
This study assessed the effects of written and oral
information upon perceptions of counseling. Groups of high
school students were exposed differentially to four treatment
conditions:
1. Written information--a hooklet describing counseling
2. Oral informati.on--a talk presented by a counselor
3* Combination--both the booklet and the talk
4. Control---neither presentation
The students then completed a questionnaire reflecting their
expectancies of counseling and their willingness to use coun
seling services. It was predicted that students receiving
information would demonstrate more positive counseling expect
ancies and willingness.
Hypothesos
A review of the limited research previous to this study
has indicated that information can favorably influence orienta
tion toward counseling. The literature on counseling perceptions
shows that, while most individuals regard counselors as helpful
people, they are reluctant to seek their services. The public's
views of counseling, however, are generally lacking in firmness
and clarity. is Nunnally (1961) wrote, such loosely formulated
6 L

62
ideas are subject of modification by communications posed in
an authoritative but nonthreatening way. Therefore, it was
predicted that the informational presentations used in this
study would favorably influence high school students coun
seling expectancies and their willingness to use counseling,
as outlined in the following hypotheses:
1. Students receiving the written presentation of
counseling information (counseling booklet) will
score significantly higher on six measures of
counseling expectancy than control students.
2. Students receiving the oral presentation of
counseling information (counselor talk) will
score significantly higher on six measures of
counseling expectancy than control students.
3- Students receiving the combination form of
counseling infomation (counseling booklet plus
counselor talk) will score significantly higher
on six measures of counseling expectancy than
control students.
4. Students receiving the
counseling information
higher on two measures
than control students.
5- Students receiving the
counseling information
higher on two measures
than control students.
6. Students receiving the
counseling information
higher on two measures
than control students.
written presentation of
will score significantly
of counseling willingness
oral presentation of
will score significantly
of counseling willingness
combination form of
will score significantly
of counseling willingness
The study also explored the comparative effectiveness of
the three forms of information and the main and interaction
effects of the variables, sex, race, grade level, and school
membership.

63
Subjects
High school students were chosen as the experimental
population because they are an easily accessible group who
represent all segments of a community. High school youngsters,
it appears from previous research, hold ill-conceived and
often unfavorable perceptions of counseling. They are similar
to the general public in this regard.
Participating in the study were 28 classes of high school
students, seven sets of 4 matched classes, comprising a total
of 645 ninth- through twelfth-grade youngsters. Selection and
assignment to treatment groups proceeded by the following steps:
1. Permission to conduct the study in the public schools
of Alachua County, Florida, was gained through the Assistant
Superintendent's Office of Administration, School Board of
Alachua County.
2. Administrators in each of the six county high schools
were contacted for approval of the research proposal. Four
schools agreed to host the study: one large comprehensive high
school in the urban center of Gainesville and three schools in
outlying rural communities. A fifth school could not accommo
date the research schedule but did permit the pilot study at
an earlier date. The remaining school, whose administration
opposed the use of classroom time for the research, was omitted
from the study.
3- In each of the four host schools, the opinion of a
school counselor familiar with the master class schedule determined

64
the selection of matched sets of four classes. Selecting
counselors used the following guidelines:
a. Select four classes which are approximately
equivalent in student composition.
b. Classes considered "typical1 are desired, not
those composed of advanced or exceptional stu
dents. Insofar as possible, choose four sections
of a general course in which students are rou
tinely enrolled; e.g., required English or science.
c. Check the four classes for approximate equiva
lence in sex, race, grade level, and age of
students.
Three schools contributed two sets of four matched classes,
and the smallest school provided one set.
4. The four classes in each set were randomly assigned
one to each of the four treatment conditions.
The resulting sample consisted of "typical" high school
students, heterogeneous in sex, race, grade level, and age,
and accessible in their regularly scheduled classes. Two sets
of four matched classes were in one urban school, and five sets
were in three rural schools. Within each set, the four classes
were randomly assigned to the four treatment conditions. Thus,
seven classes composed each experimental and control group.
Measurement
To assess the effects of counseling information, this
study employed a questionnaire based closely on the work of
previous researchers in the area of perceptions of counseling.
Entitled "Counseling Survey," the questionnaire has two parts.
Part I measures six differential expectancies of counseling,

65
and Part II measures two types of counseling willingness (see
Appendix A).
Part I; Counseling Expectancies
Part I of the questionnaire consists of 37 statements
which begin with either "If I went to a counselor, I would
expect to . ."or "If I went to a counselor, I would expect
the counselor to . ." The respondent is asked to rate each
item on a 5-point scale from "not true" to "definitely true."
The items represent expectancies of counseling along six
dimensions:
1. Counselor Expertise (5 items; e.g., "I would
expect the counselor to know a lot about people
and their problems.")
2. Outcome of Counseling (5 items; e.g., "I would
expect to get the help I want.")
3 Trust in Counseling (6 items; e.g., "I would
expect to speak freely about my problems.")
4. Counselor Genuineness (6 items; e.g., "I would
expect the counselor to be a 'real' person, not
just a person doing a job.")
5- Counselor Accejjtance (7 items; e.g., "I would
expect the counselor to think I am worthwhile.")
6. Counselor Understanding (8 items; e.g., "I would
expect the counselor to know how I feel, at
times, without my having to speak.")
The 37 items were taken from Howard E. A. Tinsley's (1976)
revised counseling expectancies questionnaire. Development of
the Tinsley instrument was in three stages. Initially, Tinsley
collected 88 statements related to counseling perception, a
majority of which had been previously evaluated by Lazarus
(1971) Truaz and Carkhuff (1967), and Volsky, Magoon, Norman,
and Hoyt (1965). He arranged these items into several categories,

66
administered them as a questionnaire to 109 undergraduate
college students, and then calculated the reliability index
of each item and the internal consistency of each category.
As a result of this analysis, Tinsley produced an 82-item
questionnaire with eight scales, six corresponding to the
dimensions of coianseling expectancy listed above and two others
related to counseling procedures and counseling directiveness.
Tinsley next conducted a study among 287 undergraduate
psychology students, using the 82-item instrument. For seven
scales, excluding the Counseling Procedures scale, he found
internal consistency reliabilities ranging from .69 to .89
and, applying a series of t-tests, determined the mean scale
value for each to he significantly different from each other,
except in the case of Trust and Acceptance.
Finally, Tinsley performed an. extensive item analysis,
based on data obtained from 490 subjects, and produced a
43-item version of the instrument, consisting of seven scales
having the following Alpha coefficient reliabilities: Expert
ise (.87), Outcome (.76) Trust (.88), Genuiness (.90),
Acceptance (.92), Understanding ( .87), Directiveness (.84).
Part I of the questionnaire used in the present study is
essentially Tinsleys short form, except that the Directive
ness scale was omitted. To accommodate high-school-aged
respondents, two minor deviations from Tinsley's version were
made. The original 7-point Likert-type scale was reduced to
a 5-point scale. Also, in three items, vocabulary was
simplified: "Experience a significant change" was modified

6?
to "have a big change"; "Speak frankly regarding" was changed
to "speak freely about"; "initiate" became "begin."
Fry's (1968) readability formula, applied to Part I,
found the items to be approximately at seventh-grade level of
reading comprehensibility.
The questionnaire was subjected to a test of stability,
using the test-retest method. Participants in the reliability
study were twenty-two members of a Young Life Christian Club,
composed of adolescents attending two urban Gainesville high
schools. Five boys and sixteen girls, ranging in age from 14
to 19 (mean age: 16.8), responded to the questionnaire on two
occasions separated by a time interval of three weeks. Product-
moment correlations calculated for each scale of the question
naire resulted in the following reliability coefficients for
the six expectancy dimensions: Expertise (.79) Outcome (.85),
Trust (.37). Genuineness (.75) Acceptance (.46), Understanding
(.62).
Part II: Counseling Willingness
Part II of the questionnaire, evaluating willingness to
use counseling, lists ten topics which people often discuss
in counseling. Five items are vocational and educational
issues: school work and grades, looking ahead and planning
your life, how you feel about teachers and classes, jobs now
and in the future, and money matters. Five are personal and
social concerns: personal worries, knowing and understanding
yourself better, how you get along with your family, how you
get along with others your age, and uncomfortable feelings

68
that you have. The respondent is asked, "If you were concerned
with these things, how willing would you he to talk each one
over with a counselor?" For each item, the subject indicates
willingness of a 5-point scale ranging from "not at all
willing" to "very willing."
This willingness measure, designed for the present study,
was modeled after a list of nine problem topics developed and
used by Strong, Hendel, and Bratton (1971) and again used by
Gelso and Karl (1974) in studies of college student views of
found less willingness to discuss personal and social problems
with counselors than vocational and educational problems.
Test-retest reliabilities for the willingness scales were
determined by the same procedures described for the expectancies
section of the questionnaire, using the same Young Life
youngsters. The resulting reliability coefficients were
.56 for Vocational-Educational Willingness (VE) and .71 for
Personal-Social Willingness (PS).
Procedures
The research was carried out during a period of two and
one-half weeks in the last term of the public-school year
(April 25-May 17, 1977) following a timetable arranged with
the teachers of the participating classes in the four schools
(see Appendix B).
Experimental activities for each set of four matched
classes (each set representing the four treatment conditions)
required two days' time. On the first day, classroom teachers

69
distributed the counseling information booklet to two classes.
On the second day, the researcher presented the counselor talk
to two classes and gathered the questionnaire data in each of
the four classes. Figure 1 details the two-day schedule for
each four-class set.
Treatment Condition
First Day
Second Day
1.
Written Information
Booklet
Questionnaire
2.
Oral Information
Talk, Questionnaire
3-
Combination
Booklet
Talk, Questionnaire
4.
Control
Questionnaire
Figure 1. Schediale followed for each set of four matched
classes.
Counseling; Information Presentations
The counseling booklet and talk used in the study were
designed to be brief, simple, economical., and easily replicable
representing rather traditional counseling information presenta
tions. Their aim is not to "sell" counseling or to persuade
people to use it but to help potential clients to feel more
comfortable and knowledgeable about counseling services, their
availability, and their use. Counseling was realistically
presented as a form of assistance for the person desiring to
explore and clarify personal issues. In view of the range of
counseling situations which clients may encounter, .information
regarding therapeutic techniques and underlying theory is
nonspecific.

70
Development of the information booklet and talk took into
consideration the work of Orne and Wender (1968) and Strupp and
Bloxom (1973) and the experience of counselors who have worked
with youth. The researcher submitted a preliminary draft of
the booklet to five school counselors and several other experi
enced counselors for feedback, then revised it. The manuscript
of the counseling talk also underwent revision, based on the
responses of the students in the pilot study.
The booklet, four typewritten pages illustrated with
line drawings, has a simple text and is entitled "Sometime You
May Want to See a Counselor" (see Appendic C).
The content of the booklet is in four parts:
1. When to See a Counselor. The first section explains
that a counselor can be consulted for a particular problem or
simply to discuss living in general. It reflects the explora
tory nature of couseling and emphasizes that whatever is
important to the client is worthwhile material for counseling.
The purpose is to make the client feel welcome in counseling
and to counter common misconceptions about the limitations of
problem appropriateness. This part of the booklet is illustrated
with examples of statements which might be made to counselors.
2. Kinds of Counseling. The second part of the booklet
describes three types of counseling; one-to-one counseling,
group counseling, and family counseling. It goes on to explain
that counseling focuses on both ideas and feelings and that
counseling may include both quiet (e.g., talking) and active
(e.g., role-playing) experiences.

71
3. What Happens in Counseling, The next section gives
the reader an outline of what generally occurs during the
course of counseling, from the initial building of a relation
ship through the final good-bye, and it provides 12 "Do's and
Don'ts" for using counseling effectively (e.g., "Don't expect
your counselor to do all the talking. Your counselor will
want to do a lot of listening."). These instructions encour
age the client to expect an open and honest interaction and to
participate actively in the process.
4. How to Get Counseling. The final section discusses
self-referral. It encourages the individual to "ask around and
shop around" in choosing a counselor and suggests three ways to
find a counselor: through one's school counselor; by consulting
family, friends, teachers, and others; by telephoning. The
telephone number of a local free information and referral
service is provided.
The booklet was distributed to designated classes on the
first day of the two-day experimental schedule, as explained
above, by their classroom teachers. Teachers gave the booklet
the following brief introduction: Here is a booklet that you
may find interesting. It is about personal counselingwhat
happens in counseling and how to get counseling if you should
want to try it. Teachers provided their students with approxi
mately 15 minutes of class time in which to read the material.
The 15-minute counseling information talk covered the
same ideas as the booklet, with additional information on
who a counselor is and how a counselor is trained (see Appendix

72
D). It was presented to designated classes, on the second
experimental day, by the researcher herself, who was intro
duced as a counselor from the community who had come to inform
the students about counseling. Following the prepared talk,
the speaker requested comments and questions from the students
and conducted a class discussion for 15 to 20 minutes.
Collection of Data
In the classes which received the counselor talk, adminis
tration of the questionnaire immediately followed the discussion
period. In other classes, it was the sole experimental activity
of the second day. The researcher presented the questionnaire
as "a way that you can let us know how you feel about coun
seling, then explained the instructions and the use of the
5-point scale, and read the survey items aloud to the students.
Students were also invited to make written comments at the end
of the questionnaire form.
Pilot Study
As a preliminary trial of the experimental procedures and
materials, a pilot study was conducted with 92 students in four
sections of a biology course in an urban Gainesville high school.
Student participants were heterogeneous in race, sex, and grade
level, and ranged in age from 14 to 19, with a mean age of 15.
Each class section received one of the four treatment conditions
(written, oral, combination, or control) and responded to the
two-part questionnaire. One-way analysis of variance comparing

73
group responses on each of the 8 questionnaire scales found no
significant treatment differences. It was felt that a study
involving a larger and more heterogeneous sample and more .in-
depth statistical analysis warranted completion.
The experience with the pilot group led to three modifica
tions in methodology:
1. A 7-point questionnaire scale had been used in the
pilot study (as well as in the reliability tests and in Tinsley's
original work with counseling expectancies). The scale was
simplified to 5 points for easier comprehension by young
respondents.
2. The counselor talk, which had been 20 minutes in
duration, did not sustai.n the pilot group's attention well.
Consequently, the prepared talk was reduced to 15 minutes
followed by a 15- or 20-minute discussion period.
3- At the end of the questionnaire, a space was added
for further written comments by the respondents.
Analysis
Dependent variable scores were obtained from the question
naire data by summation of the item scores for each scale, as
follows:
Part I: Expectancies
Expertise Score
Outcome Score
Trust Score
Genuineness Score
Acceptance Score
Ur 1 d e r s t an d i ng S c o re
Items 1, 2.6-29
Items 2-6
Items 7-12
Items I3-I8
Items 19-25
Teems 30-37

Part lis Willingness
Items 1, 3, 5, 8, 10
Items 2, 4, 6, 7, 9
VE Score
PS Score
For each of the eight dependent variables, a4x4x2x2
multiple regression factorial analysis of variance was performed
to determine the main and interaction effects of treatment,
grade level, sex, and race. Where significance was found
involving treatment or grade level, Duncan's new multiple range
comparison test was applied to locate sources of difference
among means. An alpha level of .10 was accepted for signifi
cance in all tests. While this level allowed greater potential
for false conclusion than more traditional levels of confidence,
the criterion was realistic and practical for the exploratory
purpose of the research.
In addition, three other procedures were performed to
explain the data: (a) for each of the eight dependent variables,
a 2 x 2 factorial analysis to assess treatment differences by
school, (b) post hoc examination of the demographic character
istics of the sample and each treatment group, and (c) cal
culation of sample norms for each questionnaire scale, in terms
of relative scale values.

CHAPTER IV
FINDINGS
The purpose of the research was to investigate the
effectiveness of three forms of information--written informa
tion, oral information, and the combination of written and
oral informa,tion--on experimental participants responses to
measures of counseling expectancy and willingness. In addition,
the study assessed the effects of grade level, sex, race, and
school membership.
The data resulting from the study are presented as
follows: (a) statistical description of the sample, (b) anal
ysis of the experimental results, (c) summary of the experi
mental results, (d) analysis of school differences, (e) report
of sample norms for each questionnaire scale, and (f) summary
of the participants' subjective responses.
Statistical Description of the Sample
A post hoc analysis of the demographic characteristics
of the experimental participants determined the composition
of the sample by sex, race, grade level, school, and age. It
should be noted that 25 students, or 3.9 percent of the sample,
failed to provide all personal information requested by the
questionnaire; therefore, cases are missing from the descriptive
data.
75

Tatole 1 shows sex and race, school, and grade level break
downs for the four comparison groups. Of the 630 students
reporting sex and race, 186 were male Caucasians, 105 were
male ethnic minority group members, 217 were female Caucasians,
and 122 were female ethnic minority group members. Minority
students proved, with only two exceptions, to be Black Americans
Grade level was reported by 633 students. There were I83
participants from the ninth grade, 199 from the tenth grade,
178 from the eleventh grade, but only 73 from the twelfth grade.
The disproportionately small number of twelfth-grade students
was the result of school scheduling of mixed-graded classes.
School representation was 181 students from School A (urban
school) and 167, 199, and 98 students from Schools B, C, and
D, respectively (rural schools). The lower number of students
from School D reflects the participation of only one set of
four classes in this smaller institution.
The mean age of the participants was 15.9 Mean ages
for the comparison groups were as follows: Written informa
tion group, 15-9; Oral information group, 15- 3; Combination
information group, 1595 Control group, 15-4.
Analysis of Experimental Results
For each of the eight dependent variables, a separate
4 x 4 x 2 x 2 factorial analysis of variance (treatment by
grade by sex by race) was performed, applying multiple regres
sion procedures to correct for unequal cel.1 size. Where factor
effects were found to be significant at the chosen .10 confidenc

77
Table 1
Composition
of
Comparison
Grade, and
Groups by
. Soil00.1
Sex and
Race,
Written Oral
Comb.
Control
L Total
Sex-Race
Males
73
86
->0
CO
54
291
Caucasian
53
51
49
33
186
Minority
20
35
29
21
105
Females
89
73
87
90
339
Caucasian
55
44
61
57
217
Minority
34
29
26
33
122
Grade Level
Grade 9
40
44
37
62
I83
Grade 10
53
30
63
53
199
Grade 11
28
72
52
26
00
O-
i1
Grade 12
40
15
15
3
73
School Membership
School A
4?
51
' 42
4l
181
School B
52
45
4?
23
167
School C
40
50
56
53
199
School D
24
24
23
27
98

?8
level, group means were assessed, and comparison tests employed
as required, to locate sources of difference.
The following is a report of the data analysis for the
six expectancy variables--Expertise, Outcome, Trust, Genuine
ness, Acceptance, and Understanding--and two willingness
variables--Vocational-Educational (VE) and Personal-Social
(PS). It should be noted that scores from subjects who did
not complete all items of a questionnaire scale were omitted
from the analysis of that scale.
Expertise
Ninety-one percent of the sample completed the Expertise
scale of the questionnaire. The highest; possible Expertise
score was 25, and the total sample score mean was 19.8.
For this dependent variable, the factorial analysis of
variance indicated no significant main effects for treatment
(F=1.795; df=3; p> .10). A significant difference was found
for the main effect of sex (F=2.925; df-1; pc.10). There was
also one significant interaction, treatment with sex (F=1.968;
df=e; p <.10). The Expertise score factorial analysis of
variance is presented in Table 2.
The absence of significant main effects for treatment
provided no support for the experimental prediction that infor
mation would affect counseling expectancies. Treatment means
are reported in Table 3*
The significant effect of sex was further evaluated by-
referring to mean scores for males and females. As Table 4
shows, females' Expertise scores were higher.

79
Table 2
Expertise Score Factorial Analysis of Variance
Source of Variation
SS
df
MS
F
Main Effects
192.45
8
24.06
1.509
Treatment
85.81
3
28.60
1.795
Grade
4.44
3
1.48
0.093
Sex
46.6l
1
46.61
2.925*
Race
4.86
1
4.86
0.305
Two-way Interactions
464.58
22
21.12
1.325
Treatment
Grade
282.34
9
31.37
1.968*
Treatment
Sex
12.17
3
4.06
0.255
Treatment
Race
33-47
3
11.16
0.700
Grade
Sex
64.09
3
21.36
1.340
Grade
Race
45.01
3
15.00
0.941
Sex
Race
21.46
1
21.46
1.346
Explained
804.36
30
26.81
1.682
Residual
8876.98
557
15.94
Total
9681.34
587
l6.49
*p <110
Table 3
Expertise
Score Means
by Treatment
N
X
Written
157
20.01
Oral
155
19.52
Combination
l6l
18.93
Control
138
20.59

80
Table 4
Expertise Score Means by Sex
N X
Males
2?5
19.37
Females
328
20.08
Outcome
Ninety-one percent of the sample completed the Outcome
scale of the questionnaire. The highest possible Outcome
score was 25 and the total sample score mean was I6.5.
For this dependent variable, the factorial analysis of
variance indicated no significant main effects for treatment
(F= 1.842; df=3; p>.10). Significance was found for the main
effect of race (F-14.308; df=l; p<.10). There were also two
significant interactions, treatment by sex (F=4,252; df=3;
p<.10) and grade by race (F=2.424; df=3 p<.10). The Out
come score factorial analysis of variance is presented in
Table 5.
The absence of significant main effects for treatment
furnished no support for the experimental prediction that
information would influence counseling expectancies. Treatment
means are reported in Table 6.
The significant effect of race was evaluated by referring
to score means for Caucasians and minority students. As shown
in Table 7, minority students had higher Outcome scores.

81
Table 5
Outcome Score
Factorial Analysis
of Variance
Source of Variation
SS
df
MS
F
Main Effects
561.95
8
70.24
4.329
Treatment
89.67
3
29.89
1.842
Grade
80.58
3
26.86
1.655
Sex
27.45
1
27.45
I.692
Race
232.16
1
232.16
14.308*
Two-way Interactions
567.82
22
25.81
1.591
Treatment
Grade
122.22
9
13.58
O.837
Treatment
Sex
206.99
3
69.00
4.252*
Treatment
Race
39.05
3
13.02
0.802
Grade
Sex
91.26
3
30.42
1.875
Grade
Race
118.01
3
39.34
2.424*
Sex
Race
3.39
1
3.39
0.209
Explained
1309.56
30
43.65
2.690
Residual
9037-76
557
16.23
Total
IO347.32
587
17.63
*p < 10
Table 6
Outcome Score Means by Treatment
N
X
Written
154
16.88
Oral
154
16.39
Combination
I63
15.90
Control
139
16.68

82
Table ?
Outcome Score Means by Race
N
X
Caucasian
392
15.91
Minority
20?
-3*
O-
11
Trust
Ninety-two percent of the sample completed the Trust scale
of the questionnaire. The highest possible Trust score was 30,
and the total sample score mean was 22.2.
For this dependent variable, factorial analysis of variance
revealed significant main effects for treatment (F=2.468; df=3;
p<^.10) and for sex (F=10.4l2; df~3> p<10). There was one
significant interaction, grade by sex (P=2.425; df=3; p<.10).
The Trust score factorial analysis of variance is presented in
Table 8.
Main effects of treatment were examined to locate sources
of difference, using Duncan's new multiple range test; however,
this procedure indicated no significant comparisons at the .10
level, due to an apparent psychometric idiosyncrasy related to
the partitioning of variance in multiple regression factorial
analysis. A follow-up two-tailed t-test was performed, com
paring the highest and lowest means. This test uncovered a
significant difference favoring the control group over the
written information group (t-1,645; p<.10). This result did
not support the experimental prediction that information would

83
produce more positive counseling expectancies than the control
condition. Treatment means are reported in Table 9.
Table 8
Trust Score Factorial Analysis of Variance
Source of Variation SS df MS F
Main Effects
593-30
Treatment
167.59
Grade
27.95
Sex
235.68
Race
31.60
Two-way Interactions
529.62
Treatment
Grade
173.60
Treatment
Sex
12 5.14
Treatment
Race
42.23
Grade
Sex
164.68
Grade
Race
65.46
Sex
Grade
3-57
Explained
1151.29
Residual
12652.91
Total
13804.20
8
74.16
3.276
3
55.86
2.468*
3
9,32
0.412
l
235.68
10.412*
1
31.60
1-396
22
24.0?
1.064
9
19.29
0.852
3
41.71
1.843
3
14.08
0.622
3
54.89
2.425*
3
21.82
0.964
1
3-57
0.158
30
38.38
1.695
559
22.64
589
23.44
*p <. 10
Table 9
Trust Score Means by Treatment
N
X
Written
158
22.45
Oral
159
21.75
Combination
161
21.73
Control
134
22.69

84
The significant main effect of sex was evaluated by refer
ring to score means for males and females. As Table 10 shows,
females' Trust scores were higher.
Table 10
Trust Score Means by Sex
N
X
Males
279
21.30
Females
325
22.96
Genuineness
Ninety-three percent of the sample completed the Genuine
ness scale of the questionnaire. The highest possible Genuine
ness score was 30 and the total sample score mean was 26.1.
For this dependent variable, factorial analysis of vari
ance indicated no significant main, effects for treatment (F=
0.446; df=3; P> .10). Significant main effects were found for
sex (F=21.799; df=l; p<.10) and for race (F=5.l82; df=l; p<.10).
There was no significant interaction. The Genuineness score
factorial analysis of variance is presented in Table 11.
The absence of significant treatment effects provided no
support for the experimental prediction that information would
affect counseling expectancies. Treatment means are reported
in Table 12.
The significant effects of sex and race were evaluated by
referring to group means. As Table 13 shows, females and
Caucasians had higher Genuineness scores.

85
Table 11
Genuineness Score Factorial Analysis of Variance
Source of Variation
SS
df
MS
F
Main Effects
538.41
Q
67.30
3.883
Treatment
23.1?
3
7-72
6.446
Grade
14.64
3
4.88
0.282
Sex
377.88
1
337.88
21.799*
Race
89.82
1
89.82
5.182*
Two-way Interactions
275.93
22
12.54
0.724
Treatment
Grade
137.01
9
15.22
0.878
Treatment
Sex
12.15
3
4.05
0.234
Treatment
Race
2.75
3
0.92
0.053
Grade
Sex
104.72
O
J
34.91
2.014
Grade
Race
15-39
3
5.13
0.296
Sex
Race
0.93
1
0.93
O.053
Explained
1135.34
30
00
D-
f't
2.I83
Residual
9845.88
568
17.33
Total
10981.22
598
I8.36
*p <. 10
Table 12
Genuineness Score
Means by
Treatment
N
X
Written
16.1
26.40
Oral
156
25.61
Combinati on
163
26.11
Control
140
26.05

Table 13
Genuineness Score Means by Sex and Race
86
N
X
Male
279
24.97
Female
333
27-03
Caucasian
395
26.41
Minority
215
25.44
Acceptance
Ninety-three percent of the sample completed the Acceptance
scale of the questionnaire. The highest possible Acceptance
score was 35 and the total sample score mean was 29.0.
For this dependent variable, factorial analysis of vari
ance revealed significant main effects for treatment (F=2.874;
df=3; p<.10) and for sex (F=20.055; df=l; p<1.10). There was
no significant interaction. The Acceptance score factorial
analysis of variance is presented in Table 14.
Wlain effects of treatment were examined to determine sources
of difference, using Duncan's multiple range test. As Table 15
indicates, five pairwise comparisons were significant at the
.10 level. No difference appeared between the scores of the
control and the oral information groups; however, the written
information group scored significantly higher than each other
group, while the combination group scored significantly lower
than other groups. This provides support for the experimental
prediction that information would favorably influence counseling
expectancies in the case of written information only.

87
Table 14
Acceptance Score Factorial Analysis of Variance
Source of Variation
SS
df
MS
F
Main Effects
782.04
8
97-75
3.835
Treatment
219.80
3
3.98
2.974*
Grade
11.95
3
0.16
0.156
Sex
511.20
1
a..
511.20
20.055*
Race
43.84
1
43.84
1.720
Two-way Interactions
503.76
22
22.90
0.898
Treatment
Grade
367.74
9
40.86
1.603
Treatment
Sex
16.12
3
5-37
0.211
Treatment
Race
7.94
3
2.65
0.104
Grade
Sex
19.17
3
6.39
0.251
Grade
Race
78.61
3
26.20
1.028
Sex
Race
5.95
1
5.95
0.233
Explained
1412.73
30
47.09
1.847
Residual
14427-08
566
25.49
Total
15839.81
596
26.58
*p < 10
Table
15
Acceptance
Score Means
for Treatment Groups
Duncan's Multiple Range Test
Comparisons
X3
X4
x0
*1
X3 (Comb.)
= 28.5
-
. 2*
.5*
1.1*
X^ (Control)
= 28.7
-
.3
9*
X2 (Oral)
= 29.0
-
.6*
X-^ (Written)
= 29-6
-
*P< .10

88
The significant main effect of sex was evaluated by refer
ring to mean scores for males and females. As shown in Table
16, females had higher Acceptance scores.
Table 16
Acceptance Score Means by Sex
N X
Males
276
27.86
Females
335
29.94
Understanding
Ninety percent of the sample completed the Understanding
scale of the questionnaire. The highest possible Understanding
score was 40, and the total sample score mean was 27.0,
For this dependent variable, factorial analysis of vari
ance indicated no significant main effects for treatment (F=
0.839; df=3; p.>.10). Significant main effects were found for
grade (F=7-339; df=3; p<;.10), for sex (F=:3-291, df=l; p<.10),
and for race (F= 14.552; df-1; p<^,10). There was no signifi
cant interaction. The Understanding score factorial analysis
of variance in presented in Table 17.
The absence of significant treatment effects gave no sup
port to the experimental prediction that information would
affect counseling expectancies. Treatment means are reported
in Table 18.

89
Table 1?
Understanding Score Factorial Analysis of Variance
Source of Variation
OQ
O KJ
df
MS
F
Main Effects
2359.66
8
294.96
5.473
Treatment
135.62
3
45.21
0.839
Grade
1186.72
3
395.57
7339*
Sex
177.38
1
177.38
3.291*
Race
784.29
'5
.L
784.29
14.552*
Two-way Interactions
600.02
22
27.27
O.506
Treatment
Grade
331-27
9
36.81
0.683
Treatment
Sex
29.45
"j
J
9.82
0.182
Treatment
Race
68.74
3
22.91
0.425
Grade
Sex
23. 38
3
7.79
0.145
Grade
Race
133.10
3
44.37
0.823
Sex
Race
4.00
1
4.00
0.074
Explained
3449.40
30
144.98
2.133
Residual
29427-77
546
53.90
Total
32877.16
i
^
-nJ
ON
57-08
o
V
ft
Tablf
? 18
Understanding Score
Means by
Treatment
N
X
Wri tten
157
26.76
Oral
132
27.41
Combination
153
26.31
Con trol
137
27.58

90
The significance of grade was investigated to locate
sources of difference through the Duncan's multiple range test.
As Table 19 indicates, all differences between means were found
to be significant at the .10 level. Underclassmen had higher
scores on the Understanding measure than upperclassmen.
The significant effects of sex and race were evaluated by
referring to group means. As shown in Table 20, females and
minority students had higher Understanding scores.
Table 19
Understanding Score Means by Grade
Duncan's Multiple Range Test Comparisons
3 U
X2
X1
X3
(Grade 11) =
24.8
.8*
2.8*
4.0*
X4
(Grade 12) =
25.6
-
2.0*
3.2*
*2
(Grade 10) =
27.6
-
1.2*
(Grade 9) =
28.8
-
*p <.10
Table 20
Understanding
Score Means by Sex and Race
N
X
Male
269
26
57
Female
323
27
.33
Caucasian
387
25
.97
Minority
201
28
.74

91
Vocational-Educational Willingness (VE)
Ninety-two percent of the sample completed the Vocational-
Educational Willingness (VE) scale of the questionnaire. The
highest possible VE score was 25* and the total sample score
mean was 20.0.
For this dependent variable, factorial, analysis of vari
ance indicated to significant main effects for treatment (F=
1.379; df = 3; p>.10). A significant difference was found for
the main effect of race (F=6.259* df-1; p<£.10). The VE score
factorial analysis of variance is presented in Table 21.
Table 21
Vocational-Educational Willingness Score (VE)
Factorial Analysis of Variance
Source of Variation
SS
df
MS
F
Main Effects
228.93
8
28.62
1.791
Treatment
66.12
3
22.04
1.379
Grade
5.66
O
J
1.89
0.118
Sex
41.20
1
41.20
2.579
Race
100.00
1
100.00
6.259*
Two-way Interactions
40 3.4?
22
18.34
1.148
Treatment
Grade
76.94
Q
s
8.55
0.535
Treatment
Sex
70.33
3
23.45
1.468
Treatment
Race
15.07
3
5.02
0.314
Grade
Sex
44.62
3
14.87
0.931
Grade
Race
123.12
3
41.04
2.569*
Sex
Race
20.00
I
20.00
1.252
Explained
695.94
30
23-20
1.452
Residual
8962.54
561
co
ON
1!
Total
9658.48
591
16.34
*p <". 10

92
The absence of significant treatment effects provided no
support for the experimental prediction that information would
influence counseling willingness. Treatment means are reported
in Table 22.
Table 22
Vocational-Educational Willingness
Score Means by Treatment
N
X
Written
162
20.19
Oral
154
19.16
Combination
157
19.31
Control
140
20.03
The significant
effect of race
was evaluated by refer-
ring to group means.
As Table 23 shows, minority students
had higher VE scores,
Table 23
Vocational-Educational Willingne
ss Score Means by Race
N
X
Caucasian
392
19.46
Minority
211
20.07
Personal and Social Willingness (PS)
Ninety-two percent of the sample completed the Personal-
Social. Willingness (PS) scale of the questionnaire. The

93
highest possible PS score was 25 and the total sample score
mean was 1?.3-
For this dependent variable, the factorial analysis of
variance revealed significant main effects for all factors:
treatment (F=2.116; df=3; p<.10)j grade (F--3.101, df=3; p< 10)
sex (F=3.198; df-1; p<.10); and race (F=.10.616, df=l; p<.10).
There was also one significant interaction, sex by race (F=
3-252; df=l, p^.10). The PS score factorial analysis of vari
ance is presented in Table 24,
Table 24
Personal-Social Willingness Score (PS)
Factorial Analysis of Variance
Source of Variation
SS
df
MS
F
Main Effects
624.19
8
78.02
3.627
Treatment
136.60
3
45-54
2.116*
Grade
200.14
3
66.71
3.101*
Sex
68.80
l
68.80
3.108*
Race
228.40
1
228.40
10.616*
Two-way Intel
'actions
595-79
22
27-08
1.259
Treatment
Grade
ISO.88
9
17.43
0.810
Treatment
Sex
105-39
3
35.13
I.633
Treatment
Race
80.02
3
26.67
1.240
Grade
Sex
105-81
3
35.27
1.639
Grade
Race
11.80
3
3.94
0.183
Sex
Race
69.97

69.97
3.252*
Explained
1382.03
30
46.07
2.1.41
Residual
12155-58
565
21.51
Total
13537-61
595
22.75
*p < .10
Main effects of treatment were investigated to locate
sources of difference using Duncan's multiple range test. As

94
Table 25 indicates, five pairwise comparisons were significant
at the .10 level. No difference was shown between the control
and the combination information groups, while the oral informa
tion group scored significantly higher than each other group
and the written information group scored significantly lower
than other groups. This furnishes support for the experi
mental prediction that information would favorably influence
counseling willingness in the case of oral information only.
Table 25
Personal-Social Willingness Score Means for Treatment Groups
Duncan' i
3 Multiple Range
Test Comparisons
X1
Xi. L
4 5
X2
X1
(Written)
= 16.
.8
.1* .6*
'S'
o
*i
X4
(Control)
if
11
9
if
J)
.9
x3
(Comb.)
= 1?.
.4
-
.4*
X2
(Oral)
= 17.
.8
-
*p <. 10
Main effects of grade level were also examined for sources
of difference between means by the Duncan test. As Table 26
shows, only the comparison between twelfth- and eleventh-grade
means proved nonsignificant at the .10 level of confidence.
Underclassmen again had higher scores than upperclassmen.
The significant effects of sex and race were evaluated by
referring to group means. As reported in Table 27, females and
minority students had higher PS scores.

95
Table 26
Personal-Social Willingness
Duncan's Multiple Range
Score
Test
Means by Grade
Comparisons
X3
X2
X1
X4
(Grade 12 =
16.4 _
.5
7*
1.5*
X3
(Grade 11)
= 16.9

.2*
1.0*
X2
(Grade 10)
= 17.1
-
. 8*
X1
(Grade 9)
= 17.9
-
*P<.10
Table 27
Personal-Social Willingness Score Means by Sex and Race
N
X
Male
257
16.63
Female
336
17.76
Caucasian
392
16.74
Minority
21
18.02
Summary of Experimental Results
It was predicted that students v/ho received three types
of counseling information--written, oral, and combination of

96
written and oralwould score significantly higher on measures
of counseling expectancy and willingness, compared with con
trol students. The data, however, furnished little support
for the experimental hypotheses. The effects of the Informa
tion were inconsistent, and the experimental groups were often
not significantly different from the control group.
Irrespective of treatment, examination of results for the
total sample (experimental and control groups pooled together)
revealed significant differences in counseling expectancies
and willingness related to sex, race, and, to a lesser extent,
grade level.
Effects of Treatment on Expectancies
Hypothesis 1. Students receiving the written presen
tation of counseling information (counseling booklet)
will score significantly higher on six measures of
counseling expectancy than control students.
Hypothesis 2. Students receiving the oral presen
tation of counseling information (counselor talk)
will score significantly higher on six measures of
counseling expectancy than control students.
Hypothesis H. Students receiving the combination
form of counseling information (counseling booklet
plus counselor talk) will score significantly
higher on six measures of counseling expectancy
than control students.
A series of factorial analyses of variance, corrected
for unequal cell size by multiple regression procedures, indi
cated no treatment main effects significant at the .10 level
of confidence for four of the expectancy scales: Expertise,
Outcome, Genuineness, and Understanding. Significant main
effects for the Trust and Acceptance scales were evaluated
for sources of difference, using Duncans multiple range tech
nique. For Trust, the Duncans procedure resulted in no

97
significant comparisons among means. A follow-up t test com
paring the highest and lowest means found the control group
to he slightly superior to the written information group and
no different from the oral and combination groups. For the
Acceptance variable, the Duncan's test showed the written
information group scoring significantly higher than each
other group. However, the combination groiip scored signifi
cantly lower than other groups. Altogether, the results from
the six expectancy scales were inadequate to support the
experimental hypotheses which predicted favorable differences
for information groups.
Effects of Treatment on Willingness
Hypothesis A. Students receiving the written presen
tation of counseling information will score signifi
cantly higher on two measures of counseling willingness
than control students.
Hypothesis 5. Students receiving the oral presen
tation of counseling information will score signifi
cantly higher on measures of counseling willingness
than control students.
Hypothesis 6. Students receiving the combination
form of counseling information will score signifi
cantly higher on two measures of counseling willingness
than control students.
Of the two willingness scales, PS produced significant
treatment effects under factorial analysis, and YE did not.
Comparison of PS treatment-group means by Duncans procedure
indicated that only the oral information group surpassed the
control group--small support for the effectiveness of informa
tion upon counseling willingness.
Effects of Grade Level
Regardless of treatment, the total group of students
showed significant grade-level differences in two analyses,

98
for the Understanding expectancy scale and the PS willingness
scale. In each case, ninth-grade students scored highest, and
ninth- and tenth-grade students responded more favorably than
eleventh- and twelfth-grade students. The pattern of under
classmen scoring higher than upperclassmen was also carried
out for nonsignificant grade level effects.
Effects of Sex
Score means for females were consistently higher than for
males in each of the eight analyses. In Outcome and VE, this
difference did not reach statistical significance. Clearly,
female students demonstrated more positive perceptions of
counseling than males.
Effects of Race
Racial difference was a significant factor in five of
the analyses. Caucasian students had higher scores on one
expectancy scale, Genuineness. Ethnic minority students
(essentially, Black students) scored higher on the two expect
ancy scales of Outcome and Understanding and on both VE and PS
willingness scales.
Interaction Effects
Several significant two-way interactions were noted (6
from a possible 48); however, these effects were not explored
further because they did not appear systematically through
the eight analyses. Third- and fourth-order interactions were
suppressed in the multiple regression procedure due to empty
cells or a singular matrix.

99
School Differences
To determine whether school membership had any systematic
effect on the data, a 4 x 4 factorial analysis of variance
(treatment by school) was performed for each of the eight
dependent variables. Interaction of treatment with school was
found to be significant for only one questionnaire scale,
Expertise (F~l.?27; df=9; p<.10).
Main effects for school were found for three of the
expectancy scales, Expertise (F=6.2?7; df=3> p<*10), Outcome
(F= 11.150 ; df=3; p<.10), and Understanding (1-13.104; df=3;
p<.10). This showed that for these three variables, regard
less of treatment, school differences occurred across the
comparison groups. In each case, School C had the highest
mean, and school means fell in the same rank order: > Xf-k
v > v When the Duncan's multiple range comparison tech-
XA
ique was applied, all school mean differences proved signifi
cant at the .10 level for Outcome and Understanding, but for
Expertise only School B was significantly different from the
other three schools.
No school effects were found for the two willingness
scales.
Sample Norms
To determine the experimental participants' relative
responses to the eight questionnaire measures, norms were cal
culated in terms of their scale value from one to five.

100
o group mean for scale
Scale value = 7 = r-r
number of scale items
Tables 28 and 29 show the resultant scale values of each expect
ancy and willingness scale for the total sample and by sex.
All scale values exceeded the median of 2.5
Participants Subjective Responses
One-fifth of the 645 students in the study wrote additional
comments at the end of the questionnaire. These subjective
responses, along with a discussion of their content, are
recorded in Appendix E. The following is a summary of the
main ideas arising from the students remarks:
1. The students expressed as many negative as positive
pex-ceptions of counseling.
2. They often shared personal reasons for their views
and alluded to past experiences with counselors.
3. Their comments focused on counseling in the schools
more than counseling as a general type of service.
4. They emphasized personal characteristics of counselors
and interpersonal aspects of counseling.
5. Only a few students remarked on the experimental
materials and procedures.

Table 28
Expectancy Scale Values
Total
Sample
Males
Females
N
Scale
Value
N
Scale
Value
N
Scale
Value
Genuineness
612
4.4
279
4.2
333
4.5
Acceptance
611
4.1
276
4.0
335
4.3
Expertise
603
4.0
275
3.9
328
4.0
Trust
604
3.7
279
3.6
325
3.8
Understanding
592
3-4
269
3.3
323
3.4
Outcome
602
3.3
373
3-2
329
3.4
Note.--Missing cases indicate incomplete questionnaire data.

Talle 29
Willingness Scale Values
Total
Sample
Males
Females
Scale
Scale
Scale
N
Value
N
Value
N
Value
VE
605
3-9
269
3.8
323
4.0
PS
611
3-5
275
3-3
336
3.6
Note,Missing cases indicate incomplete questionnaire data.

CHAPTER V
SUMMARY, DISCU
Uoo
c'I0N,
LIMITAT]ONS, AND RECOMMENDATIONS
This study 'began with the assumption that there are
numbers of people who could benefit from counseling services
but are disinclined to seek psychological help. Since orien
tation toward help seeking is to a large extent a function
of an individual's beliefs and attitudes, it was asserted
that information which leads to favorable perceptions about
counseling should prove an effective tool in the delivery of
mental health services. The use of information to reach
potential clients, however, had heretofore been the subject
of little research.
To investigate the efficacy of counseling information,
two brief informational presentations, one written and one oral,
were designed and tested on a large heterogeneous group of high
school students. The purpose was to determine whether these
communications would positively influence perceptions of
counseling. Specifically, the study posed six directional
hypotheses predicting that students receiving the oral informa
tion, the written information, or a combination of the two
would exceed a control group in favorable responses to measures
of counseling expectancies and willingness to use counseling.
Participating in the study were 28 classes of ninth-
through twelfth-grade students from four schools in Alachua

104
County, Florida. Seven sets of four classes, designated "by
school counselors as "being approximately equivalent, were
exposed differentially to four treatment conditions. One
class in each set read, a four-page "booklet discussing coun
seling; another class listened to a talk given "by a guest
speaker who was a counselor; a third class received "both the
"booklet and the talk; and the fourth class was given no informa
tion and served as a control group. All participants were then
posttested using a two-part questionnaire which asked them to
rate their agreement with 37 positive counseling expectancies
and their willingness to talk with a counselor regarding 10
topics.
Data were collected from 645 students. Data consisted of
scores on eight criterion variabless six types of counseling
expectancy--Expertise, Outcome, Trust, Genuiness, Acceptance,
and Understanding--and two types of counseling willingness,
willingness to discuss vocational and educational issues with
a counselor (VE) and willingness to discuss personal and
social issues (PS).
For each of the eight dependent variables, a4x4x2x2
multiple regression factorial analysis of variance was performed
to determine the effects of four independent variables: treat
ment and students' grade level, sex, and race. When factor
effects were found to be significant at the chosen .10 con
fidence level, reference was made to group means and, when
appropriate, Duncan's new multiple range comparison technique
was applied to assess differences.

105
The results furnished little support for the experimental
hypotheses. Effects of treatment conditions were inconsistent
and often not statistically significant. Treatment main
effects appeared for only two expectancy variables: for Trust,
the control group was superior; while for Acceptance, the
written information group scored significantly higher than
other groups, but the combination information group scored
lowest of all groups. Treatment was also a significant factor
for the PS willingness variable, but only the oral information
group surpassed the control group.
Findings from the analyses of variance were more defini
tive for the three other independent variables: grade level,
sex, and race. Grade level effects showed underclassmen
responding more favorably than upperclassmen on two measures,
the Understanding expectancy scale and the PS willingness
scale. Sex differences revealed females consistently demon
strating more positive perceptions of counseling than males;
higher scores for females failed to reach significance in
only two analyses (Outcome and VE). Racial difference was a
significant factor on five measures. Caucasian students
scored significantly higher on the Genuineness scale while Black
students scored significantly higher on Outcome, Understanding,
VE, and PS.
The factorial analyses of variance also indicated that
6 from a possible 48 two-way interactions were significant:
however, these did not appear in any systematic pattern through
the eight analyses.

106
Three further statistical procedures were used to examine
the data. A post hoc breakdown of demographic characteristics
determined the composition of the sample and. of each treatment
group by sex, race, school, grade, and age. For each scale of
the questionnaire, sample norms were calculated, and all were
found to exceed the median scale value of 2.5 Also, effects
of schools were assessed, showing a significant pattern of
school differences for three dependent variables. Additionally,
the written comments made by one-fifth of the participants were
recorded and reviewed.
D.i sous si, on
This research failed to provide evidence that information
can positively affect perceptions of counseling. Although a
number of the study's participants indicated by their remarks
to the researcher and by their written comments that the infor
mational presentations used in the investigation were worth
while, the responses of those who received the experimental
communications showed no appreciable differences from those of
control students on eight measures of counseling expectancy
and willingness.
What appears to have been gained is a confirmation of
Nunnally's observation that delivery of mental health informa
tion is not the relatively straightforward task it seems:
"Unfortunately, the problem is much more complicated . and
there are many stumbling blocks in the communication process"

10?
(196.1, p. 2). Also, the study has furnished some insight into
what is not effective.
Examination of the data suggests three probadle flaws in
the experimental presentations. They were too brief, too
general, and too uninvolving. Inasmuch as the messages were
designed to represent "typical" counseling information communi
cations, these weaknesses undoubtedly are present in similar
written and oral presentations currently being provided by
counselors to potential clients.
The brevity of the messages can be seen as a detriment
when considered in the light of the questionnaire respondents'
subjective comments. From these written comments it was clear
that the youngsters' perceptions were the cumulative result of
impressions and experiences gathered over the course of years.
Lasting less than an hour, the experimental presentations may
have reinforced notions already held, but they did not alter
them.
The general nature of the presentations can be criticized
on two counts. First, the messages were designed for "typical"
high school students and perhaps were not adequately sensitive
to individual differences among recipients. Although statis
tical analysis showed that the variables of sex, race, and
grade level did not substantially interact with treatment,
other personal factors may have come into play. One such
factor is initial attitude. Judging from the youngsters
written comments, some students were quite amenable to coun
seling before receiving presentations and others had an

108
extremely negative predisposition. It is possible that students
of these two types were unaffected by the information for dif
ferent reasons--the former group, because they already agreed
with the presentations and the latter, because information
designed for '"typical" students was not specialized enough to
reach through their particular resistance. Previous experi
ence with counselors, apparently a factor related to initial
attitudes, is another possibly significant source of individual
difference. Also, while psychological "need" is not thought
to be the major motivation in help seeking, this factor might
well be important in acceptance of information about helping
services. The "shotgun" approach of this study contrasts
with the more focused work of Strupp and Bloxom (1973) who
successfully reached a more homogeneous group (largely uninformed
clients of rehabilitation agencies who wore about to enter
therapy) with information designed especially to be relevant
to their way of life.
Second, in attempting to provide a comprehensive under
standing of counseling, the presentations may have had less
impact than if they had been limited to one or two specific
points. Previous researchers have obtained successful results
by disseminating single-purpose communications and then measuring
message persuasiveness along particular corresponding dimensions
(cf. Duckro, Beal, & Moebes, 19?6; Gelso & McKenzie, 1972;
Nunnally, 1961).
That the presentations did not require active involvement
on the part of the youngsters may have attenuated their effect.

109
Allowing information recipients to remain passive might he less
threatening hut it could also buffer the capacity of messages
to achieve their purpose. A few youngsters wrote that the
oral presentations were long and boring. Further, it was
observed that a majority did not speak up during the follow-up
discussions despite efforts by the researcher to include more
students. Since direct experience is apparently the strongest
determinant of counseling perceptions, better results might
have been attained if experiential learning activities had
been combined with verbal information.
The more definitive findings of the study are unrelated
to the experimental hypotheses; they concern differences in
perceptions of counseling on the basis of sex, race, and grade
level, irrespective of information received. The consistently
higher scores of girls over boys on expectancy and willingness
measures is noteworthy as sex differences have not much been
focused on in help-seeking research. Also of import is the
fact that Black students indicate more amenability to coun
seling than Caucasian students--a result which contradicts
the popular but not well-substantiated notion that Blacks,
because they are less well ensconced in the mainstream of
society, are less likely to make use of the culturally desig
nated resource for psychological help.
That ninth and tenth graders showed somewhat more favor
able perceptions of counseling than eleventh and twelfth
graders is reminiscent of Tinsley and Harris' (19?6) finding
that freshman and sophomore college students had higher

110
counseling expectancies than upperclassmen. Their inability
to interpret this finding, Tinsley and Harris said, served
"to underline the relative paucity of research in the area"
(p. 1?6).
An encouraging outcome of the study was that high school
students, on the average, made ratings that were at the positive
ends of the scales. Sample norms were above the median on all
expectancy and willingness measures. Conceivably, this could
be indicative of the "acquiescence response set" in which
respondents tend to endorse positive statements (Isaac &
Michael, 1972). However, youngsters submitting written com
ments frequently showed no hesitation in giving negative
responses about counseling when they felt them, Tlius it may
be assumed that the students were responding honestly and as
intended.
Comparison of differential norms for the expectancy
scales reveals a pattern similar to that found by Tinsley and
Harris (197) in their study with college students. In both
studies, students demonstrated more faith in counselors'
genuineness, acceptance, expertise, and trustworthiness than
in counseling understanding and outcome.
Comparison of willingness norms showed the youngsters
agreeing with high school and college students in numerous
other studies who were more inclined to discuss vocational
and educational topics in counseling than personal and social
topics (cf., Dunlop, 1965; Gibson, 1962; Grant, 1952; Kennedy
& Fredrickson, 1969; King & Mattesor
1959; Resnick & Gelso,

Ill
1971; Warman, 1961). This preference is doubtless related to
the idea reflected in the youngsters' written comments that,
when students consider counseling, they think of services
offered in the schools rather than of counseling in general.
Limitations
The foregoing discussion points out several possible
weaknesses in the counseling informational presentations used
in this study. The following research limitations need also
to be taken into account:
1. The study did not investigate the degree to which the
responses to the questionnaire relate to actual help-seeking
behavior or assess longer term effects which might have resulted
from the informational presentations.
2. No attempt was made to evaluate the separate components
of the informational presentations. It is possible that some
elements of the communications were successful while others
were detrimental. The extent to which cancellation of effects
occurred is unknown.
3- The selection of matched sets of four classes and sub
sequent random assignment did not fully insure treatment group
equivalence. Post hoc statistical assessments of the treatment
groups showed that school counselors' judgments of class
similarities were essentially sound with respect to sex, age,
grade level, and race; however, other variables were left
uncontrolled.

112
4. Restriction of the study to "typical" classes precludes
generalizability of the findings to exceptional youth. Further
more, when the researcher visited the classes, she did encounter
some atypical students. For example, several youngsters were
unable to read and writea factor which surely had bearing
on the efficacy of the written information.
5- There were a few students absent from class on the
day booklets were distributed but present during data collec
tion. Usually teachers unobtrusively eliminated these students
from the study, but some of them turned in questionnaires.
6. In its present form, the counseling questionnaire
had never before been used in research, and its accuracy of
measurement should be considered in that light. Perhaps the
instrument was inadequately sensitive to detect subtle changes
in perceptions.
The low test-retest reliability coefficients obtained for
the Trust and Acceptance scales (.37 and .47, respectively)
particularly cast doubts on their precision.
7. Because the researcher herself delivered the counseling
talks arid administered the questionnaire, experimenter effects
may have occurred. As she was a representative of the coun
seling profession, the researcher's presence alone could have
been influential, as well as her appearance, demeanor, inter
active style, and the fact of her being a white female.
8. Variations in teachers and classroom situations were
likely to have affected student responses. Teachers did not
always follow the standardized procedures for distributing

113
counseling information "booklets. (An extreme example: One
teacher forgot to make the distribution to a class; then later
in the day she went through the school finding the students
and giving them booklets:) Teachers also had differing atti
tudes toward providing class time for research. Additionally,
students' feelings toward the teacher and particular class
may have been important variables.
9. Finally, despite efforts to standardize the procedures,
during the class visits there were a number of the unforeseen
and extraneous occurrences which seem inherent to high schools.
These included loud noises from adjacent rooms, unscheduled
public-address announcements, a class cut short because of
student activities, and a class moved in order for its room
to be painted.
Recommends. Lions
Further investigation into the a.rea of counseling infor
mation should take into consideration the following:
1. New strategies for informing potential clients about
mental health services need to be developed and evaluated. A
promising direction for reaching school youth is the use of
experiential learning activities involving highly participa
tory interaction with counselors--j^erhaps by providing one-
session "sample counseling groups for large numbers of students.
Peer counseling programs and growth-oriented classes might be
investigated for their value in facilitating help seeking.

114
The relative usefulness of different forms of media, particu
larly "cool" (involving) media such as film and live drama,
warrants research, as does the effectiveness of small group
and. individual approaches.
2. Also deserving of further research are individual dif
ferences among potential clients which may affect receptiveness
to information. Some recipient variables worthy of study are
initial perception:: of counseling, previous experience with
professional helpers, family and peer group attitudes, "need"
for psychological services, socioeconomic standing, general
intelligence and verbal ability, and responsiveness to various
type of communications.
3- Other information studies might employ different out
come criteria. In classroom studies, for example, willingness
could be assessed behaviorally by offering a follow-up "sample
counseling session" and counting the number of students who
sign up to participate. Development of instruments which more
precisely measure counseling perceptions would also facilitate
information research.
4. Extended use of subjective indicators would be help
ful in devising and evaluating informational approaches. In
the present study, students' written comments were valuable
in interpreting questionnaire data. Systematic use of inter
views or surveys with open-ended questions is suggested.
5. Other studies might investigate longer term effects
of information or the cumulative effect of a series of presenta
tions .

115
6. Studies involving different populations and settings
should be conducted. In particular, reaching younger children
needs investigation. With adolescents, approaches outside the
schools might be studied.
7. The differential effectiveness of separate components
of informational presentations might be researched using the
methods employed by Nunnally (1961) to study message variables.
8. In view of the apparent impact of school counselors
on students' perceptions of professional help, research should
be continued into the image of the school counselor and how
it may be improved.
Conelusions
In this study of high school youth, written and oral
presentations of information demonstrated no capacity to
significantly influence expectations of counseling or willing
ness to use counseling. The broad implication of this result
is that mental health professionals who attempt to inform their
constituencies of their services cannot assume that their mes
sages are effective. In the absence of other research, except
studies with college students, strategies for reaching potential
help seekers remain poorly understood.
Several secondary findings of the study are worthy of
note. Whether they received counseling information or not,
female students consistently responded more positively on
measures of counseling expectancies and willingness. Whether

116
they received information or not, Black students indicated
more willingness to discuss both vocational and educational
and personal and social topics with counselors; they also
showed higher expectancies than Caucasians on two measures.
There was additionally some indication that underclassmen had
more favorable perceptions of counseling than upperclassmen.
Written comments provided by some of the students revealed
that a number of youngsters have strong feelings about coun
seling, both negative and positive, and that their perceptions
of counseling are largely the result of personal experience,
usually with school counselors.
It is concluded that individual differences and the impact
of experience may attenuate the effects of small doses of
information which are general in nature. Additional research
is required to clarify the means by which potential counseling
clients may be reached.

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APPENDIX A
COUNSELING SURVEY ITEMS*
Part I
Instructions: Suppose that at some time you go to a counselor.
What do you think it would he like? Mark each
of these statements as to how true you think
it is.
Items (to he rated on a 5-point scale having the following
position labels: not true, somewhat true, fairly true, quite
true, definitely true):
If I went to a counselor, I would expect to . .
1. See an experienced counselor
2. Discover the cause of my problems
3. Get an understanding of my strengths
4. Have a big change in my life
5. See myself differently after counseling
6. Get the help I want
7. Speak freely about my problems
8. Openly express my feelings about myself and my
problems
9. Openly express my feelings about my counselor
10. Begin discussion of my concerns
11. Cooperate with the counselor In developing a
plan of action
*Items In Part I. were adapted from Tinsley's revised
Expectations Questionnaire used by permission of Dr. Howard E.
A. Tinsley, Southern Illinois University at Carbondale, in
personal communication dated November 22, 1976.
127

12, Express openly any disagreement I have with the
counselor
If I went to a counselors I would expect the counselor to
13.
Be a sincere person
14,
Be a "real" person, not just a person doing a joh
15.
Be honest with me
16,
Tell me what he (she) is honestly thinking
1?.
Be "the person that he (she) really is" with me
18.
Let me know what he (she) is honestly feeling
19.
Think I am worthwhile
20.
Take a special interest in me and my problems
21.
Accept me
22.
Be friendly and warm towards me
23.
Make me feel free to say whatever I think
24,
Respect me as a person
25.
Be genuinely interested in me as a person
26.
Know how to help me
27.
Know a lot about people and their problems
28.
Be experienced in helping people with many kinds
of personal problems
29-
Help me solve my problems
30.
Know how I feel even when I cannot say quite what
I mean
31.
Help me to know how I am feeling by putting my
feelings into words for me
32.
Lead me into talking about some of my deepest
feelings
33
Help me learn a lot about myself
34.
Know how I feel, at times, without my having to
speak

129
35.
Understand me so well that he (she) knows what I
am feeling, even when 1 am hiding my feelings
36.
Help me know myself better by pointing to feelings
within me that I had not been aware of
3?.
Understand exactly how I feel
Part II
Instructions! Here is a list of things that people often
discuss with counselors. If you were con
cerned with these things, how willing would
you be to talk each one over with a counselor?
Items (to he rated on a 5-point scale having the following
position labels: not at all willing, somewhat willing, 50-50
chance,
quite willing, very willing):
1.
School work and grades
2.
Personal worries
3-
Looking ahead and planning your life
4.
Knowing and understanding yourself better
5.
How you feel about teachers and classes
6.
How you get along with your family
7.
How you get along with others your age
8.
Jobs now and in the future
9.
Uncomfortable feelings that you have
10.
Money matters

APPENDIX B
EXPERIMENTAL SCHEDULE

Experimental Schedule
Date*/Setting
Period/Glass
Experimental
Condition
April 26, 197?
1 Adv. Grammar
Control
& Composition
School A
2 Poetry
Written
3 Poetry
Oral
5 Poetry
Comhination
May 3
1 English III
Combination
School B
2 English III
Oral
3 English II
Combination
4 English II
Written
5 English III
Oral
6 English II
Control
May 4
3 English IV
Written
School B
4 English III
Control
May 10
1 Biology
Oral
School A
2 Biology
Control
3 Biology
Written
4 Biology
Combination
May 11
2 Human Biology
Control
School C
5 Science
Oral
131

132
Date*/Setting
Period/Class
Experimental
Condition
May 12
2 Human Biology
Oral
School C
3 Biology
Combination
4 Human Biology
Written
5a Science
Control
5h Science
Written
6 Biology
Combination
May 1?
1 English I
Control
School D
2 English I
Written
5 English I
Combination
6 English I
Oral
*The date given is the day of counselor talks and data
collection (the second experimental day). Counseling "booklets
were distributed one school day "before to Written and Com
bination groups.

APPENDIX C
COUNSELING BOOKLET

Sometime,
rou
io
This booklet i3 to help you know more about counseling
so you. can decide whether it is something you would like to try.
6la the ri&ht/ What ara the
e to see a different kinds
ounselor? V of counselors?
...If you have a PARTICULAR PROBLEM or question or decision to
make and want some help getting it clear or sorting through
the answers
-OR-
, ..If you have NO PARTICULAR PROBLEM hut would Ilka to know more
about yourealf, explore how you are living your life, talk
about your future, or discuss a lot of little questions that
are on your mind
-0R-
...You may simply want to get to know a. counselor in case you
need him or her some time
I win t to\
arstand myself^
be t toi
My prente are
getting a divorce
and I'm worried
I'm having trouble]
with school
Y
c
wonder
lot of
r
I want to gee
what cou.fiHiiling^
"lis like
y~
In other word3.,.
You can 3ee a counselor
whenever you're ready.
A counselor is there to deal
with. WHATEVER IS IMPORTANT TO
YOU. big or small. And you don't
have to have a certain problem
You may just want to talk about
"things" in general.
about
things
134

135
KXHOi) Of COUNSEL! HO
There are three main kinds of counseling.
0g-T0-0'JK COUNSELING
Just you and the
comisa Lor, meeting
privately
GHOUP COUNSELING
Several people meeting
with a counselor. Often
groups have a special
purpose ... 1Ike dealing
with career plans
FAMILY COUNSELING
Tha counselor meets
with your whole family
(or part of it) to '
work on family issues
There are also several different ways that counseling can operate.
(And most counselors use all of them from time to time,)
Counseling can deal with IDEAS. You deal with
what's happening... who It1sTvappenlng with...
and what can be dona about It. You use facts,
thinking, planning, and decision making. Maybe
you will decide to taka a test and then discuss
what the test results mean.
What arc some tilings
that make you feel bad
.and good?
Counseling can deal with FEELINGS. Anger.,.
Warn feel)nas... Joy...Sadness.,.Happiness.
The counselor sees feelings as "signs" that
tell you what to do. And the counselor can
help you read the signs.
Counseling can be QUIET. Someticas It is mostly
sitting and talking. Putting Ideas and feelings
Into words (talking them over) Is a way of
getting then clearer and exploring them.
Counseling can be ACTIVE. Sometimes you want
to do more than talk. Counselors can use
activities and even games to work with Ideas
and feelings. For example, you might do some
acting (role-playing) or drawing...or make
lists, charts, or tape recordings.
It is Itiportaut to know that there are different kinds and way3
of counseling so you can pick a type of counseling that suits YOU.
You can discuss with your counselor what kind of counseling you want.

WHAT HAPPENS IN COUNSELING-
It Is hard to tell you exactly what happens in counseling. 8ut hare
is generally what you can expect. And here are some £>Qs and DOtf'Ts
to help make counseling work for you.
STARTING COUNSELING
To begin, you and the counselor
will get to know each other...
by talking about yourselves...
and you wilL talk about what
you want to do in counseling.
DO check the counselor out. Ask all the questions you want.
You need to know this person if you are going to trust him (or her)
DON1t think of the counselor as "over" you like a boss or teacher,
think of the counselor as Just a PERSON, a friend.
pp talk freely and honestly about what you think and what you feel.
And expect the counselor fco do the same.
Q£) know that the counselor is not supposed to tell others what you
say. Ask about this.
MIDDLE OF COUNSELING
You and your counselor will work together on whatever you feel is
Important. Talking or doing, quietly or actively. You may get Into
your Ideas and feelings deeper than usual, explore yourself, make
things clearer.
DO work with your counselor to decida what to do in counseling.
""Think of you and your counselor a3 partners, working together.
QONJJ expect your counselor to do ail the talking.
Your counselor will, want to do a lot of listening,
DON'T expect your counselor to give you a lot of advice. Or to
TfSTl you what to do. Or to tell you what is right and wrong.
Or to have all the answers,
DO expect your counselor to work with you, help you decide what
to do. Help you give yourself advice. Help you decide what
you think is right. Help you find your own answers,
M expect your counselor to suggest new things you might try.
And to tell you what he (or she) honestly feels about you.
¡50 tell your counselor when you disagree. Do say how you
honestly feel about your counselor. Do let your counselor
know how you think counseling is going.

137
EUO'SNG COUNSEL!MG
You and your counselor will
decida together when counseling
IS finished. You will probably
end by talking ovar whafc has
happened.
POd1 T drop out of counseling without telling your counselor.
Ending together Is an Important part of counseling.
DO faal free to coma back to your counselor (or another counselor)
later, If you want to.
HOW TO SET COUNSELING-
There are a number of counselors.
Different types. With different ways of doing things.
Shop around. Ask around.
Choose a counselor you feel you can trust and be comfortable with.
Here are three ways you can find a counselor.
1. A3K YOUR SCHOOL COUNSELOR. Your school counselor can either be
your counsel or... or can help you find
another counselor.
Your school counselor can answer any
more questions you have about
counseling, too.
2. ASK OTHER PEOPLE YOU KNOW. Your friends or family (or anyone
else you are close to) may Know a
good counselor.
A person who works with people
(a. teacher, coach, minister, doctor,
nurse, club leader, social worker)
is likely to know how to find a
coun selor.
J. ASK GY TELEPHONE.
There are several places in Alachua. County
that you can call to talk about counseling.
One of them is...
THE INFORMATION- A REFERRAL SERVICE
375-4636
You can call them any time, day or night.
They can answer your questions about
counseling or help you find a counselor.

APPENDIX D
COUNSELOR TALK

Counselor Talk
Hello. My name is and I'm a counselor.
For the last five years, I have been working with high-school-
aged people and their families as a community agency counselor.
My purpose in being here is to talk a bit about coun
seling. I have a brief prepared talk--it takes about fifteen
minutes--and then I hope youll have comments or questions and
that we can open up a discussion back and forth, that you'll
tell what you think.
As a counselor, one thing I've discovered is that most
people don't know as much as they'd like to know about coun
seling. And without understanding it, it's hard to know how
ot use counseling or when, or even whether, you want to use
the services.
You see, counseling is a relatively new thing, just
beginning to catch on. And in the short time that counseling
has been around, we counselors have not done all we could in
getting the message around what it is that we do. I hope
that this talk will help you understand counseling, in case
you or someone you know might want to use counseling services
sometime.
I am talking about a lot of different kinds of counselors,
not just the school counselors you may be familiar with: school
counselors as well as counselors outside the schools, coun
selors in community agencies and sometimes private counselors.
More about this later.
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When to see a counselor. Let me start by talking about when
to see a counselor. When you think of counseling, you
probably think of someone who has a problem of some sort and
goes to a counselor to work on this problem. That is right,
but that's not all there is to it.
Since problems are a normal part of life, something we
all have every day, since everyone has problems, questions,
decisions to make, who can go to a counselor?
The answer is anyone, anybody who wants to. All you have
to do is feel ready and find yourself a counselor.
Some people think that the only time to see a counselor
is when you have a pressing problem or a big problem or a
certain kind of problem. Actually, there is no certain kind
of problem to take to a counselor. Anything, whatever is
important to you, big or small, is worthwhile for a counselor
to deal with.
If you have a pressing problem or something that is
really big, a counselor is interested in dealing with that.
If you dont have a certain problem but just want to talk
in general about yourself and what's going on with you . .
or about a lot of little things ... or about a pvroblem you
might have in the future ... or about a decision youre
making . all of these are welcome in counseling.
Or if you have nothing clear in mind, but just think
talking with a counselor seems like something youd like to
do. Maybe you'd like to just get to know a counselor, in case
you might need one some time.

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What kind of person is a counselor? As you know, each person,
each of us, has certain interests and types of things we are
especially good at. Some people are rather artistic and
creative. Some like books and studying. Some like activity,
to be outdoors, to work with mechanical things, and so forth.
The counselor is usually someone who enjoys people. Take me.
I know that for as long as I can remember, I have been fascin
ated with people, talking with people, meeting people, wondering
about other people and what they think and how they do things.
Just liking people. So it was pretty natural for me to wind
up working with people as a counselor. And I think this is
the way it is with a lot of counselors.
Aside from being interested in people, a counselor has
got to be trained in order to know how to help people. Coun
selor training has two partss one is school, books, research;
the other is experience working with people.
The school part of counselor training came for me after
four years of college, in graduate school. This is usually
the way it is, though not always. School for a counselor
includes a lot of psychology, the study of human behavior, as
well as special counseling classes on such things as how to
lead groups, how to communicate with people, how to relate to
people. There are also specialized counseling classes: drug
counseling, counseling small children, and school counseling,
for example. And classes in particular methods of counseling.
The experience part of counselor training consists of
going out and working with people, in groups or one-to-one.

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Counseling professors oversee this work to make sure the coun
selor is doing a good job. This is something like a teacher's
internship, except it's for counselors.
There are different kinds of counselors, of course. I
mention this because, if you ever go to a counselor, you should
know to check out the counselor to see if this is the right
counselor for you. More about this later.
Kinds of counseling. There are different kinds of counselings,
too, for you to choose from. "Standard" counseling (you might
call it) is one person and one counselor, meeting together,
privately. Another kind of counseling that youre probably
familiar with is group counseling. In group counseling, maybe
6 to 12 people meet with a counselor together. Often group
members have something in common, like being the same age or
being interested in the same issues.
Sometimes a counselor will form a counseling group for
a special purpose, like dealing with feelings about school or
thinking about marriage, jobs, and life planning. Some groups
are to teach people better skills for livings for example, a
group may learn how to be more assertive; that is, how to
stand up for your rights and get what you want. Or a group
may have no specific goal . just people coming together
to share ideas and feelings and see where it goes. This can
be called a "growth group."
A third kind of counseling is family counseling. One
type of family counseling is marriage counseling, a husband
and wife meeting with a counselor together. And, contrary to

143
what some people think, marriage counseling is not particularly
for people whose marriage is in trouble; a couple may want to
meet with a counselor to discuss decisions they are making--
for example, how many children they want to have--or they may
meet with a counselor to get to know each other in new ways.
Another type of family counseling involves the whole
family, mother, father, sisters, brothers, even a grandmother
or cousin--whoever is considered to be part of the family--
meeting with a counselor to discuss family issues.
What do you do in counseling? The first thing that comes to
my mind is that counseling can deal with ideas, thoughts: What
is happening? Who is it happening to? What do you want to do?
What do you want? What do you like and dislike? What would
you like to change? Things like that. This involves putting
together facts, thinking them through, planning, making decisions.
A second thing that comes up in counseling is feelings.
Emotions. Happiness . sadness . anger . joy . .
love . hate. What you feel. Sometimes even a headache or
stomach ache that is connected to something going on in your
life. Or even some fuzzy feeling that doesn't really have a
name.
The counselor sees feelings as signals that tell us what
to do, and the idea is to read the signals, see what they mean.
When you think of counseling, you may think of talking.
And counseling can be just that: sitting and talking things
through. Putting ideas and feelings into words is a way of
getting them clearer and exploring them further.

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Counseling doesn't have to be only talking, though. Some
times there are counseling activities, designed to work with
ideas and feelings. With your counselor, you might do special
exercises which are like games. Or you might do role-playing,
which is acting out situations to see how they feel or to try
out new things. Or you might do some drawing or writing, use
music, dancing, poetry. Or make lists or charts or tape
record yourself and play it back to see how you sound.
It is important for you to know that there are different
types and ways of counseling because you can help your coun
selor know what you would like to do in counseling, what would
be most interesting, helpful, and comfortable for you.
What is counseling like? I can't tell you exactly v/hat will
happen if you go to a counselor, but I can give you a general
idea and tell you some things you can do to help counseling go
well.
First . Let's say that you go to a counselor sometime.
When you and your counselor first meet, you will probably start
off by getting to know each other, telling about yourselves.
The counselor may ask you some questions and you can ask the
counselor some questions. And, as you are getting to know the
counselor, you should be chacking out the counselor to see if
this is someone you can trust and feel comfortable with. You
may want to ask the counselor questions to help you know where
he or she is coming from and how the counselor feels about
certain things.
Expect the counselor to be very open and honest with you.
And see if you can be open and honest with the counselor in

145
return. As you get to know your counselor, you should feel
you can talk freely with him or her, just the way you would be
with a friend. Even if the counselor is older than you, you
shouldnt have to worry about being too "polite" or making a
good impression. The idea is to come out and say what you
mean, what you really want to say. And the counselor should
be that way with you too.
By the way, the counselor is not supposed to tell other
people what you say together. To make sure about this, ask
the counselor about confidentiality.
Then ... as counseling goes on, you and your counselor
will work together to decide what you want to do in counseling,
what you want to talk about or what you want to accomplish.
You and your counselor should decide this as partners, and the
counselor will probably leave it mostly up to you.
Don't expect your counselor to do a lot of the talking.
Some counselors like to do a lot of listening.
Also, dont expect your counselor to give you a lot of
advice, to tell you what is right and wrong, to tell you all
the answers. Instead, counseling may work like this. The
counselor will work with you to help you sort through your own
feelings and ideas ... to get them clearer, maybe, to help
you lay them all out so you can look at them . and then
help you figure out what to do and what is right for you, help
you find your own answers.
Your counselor may give you an opinion now and then and
will tell you what he or she is thinking. But your counselor

146
wants you to take it or leave it. To f'eel free to disagree
and to say exactly what you think about the opinion.
Also, its important to let your counselor know what you
think about what goes on in counseling, whether you think it's
going in the right direction and whether you are getting what
you want from counseling.
Ending counseling ... At some point you and your coun
selor will decide that counseling is finished, that you have
done what you wanted to do. You will probably end by talking
over what you've done in counseling and talking about what
you will do next. And say good-bye. But you should know that
after counseling you can always come back later or go to another
counselor.
How to get counseling. Suppose at some time you decide you
would like to try counseling, where can you find a counselor?
I am going to tell you several ways to find a counselor. The
important thing to remember is that there are a lot of coun
selors to choose from. Different types with different ways of
doing things. And you can shop around, ask around, and find a
counselor you feel you can trust and feel comfortable with; your
type of counselor.
One way to get into counseling is through your school
counselor. You school counselor can either be your personal
counselor or can help you find another counselor outside the
school. Your school counselor can, of course, also answer any
questions about counseling that you may have.
Or, suppose it's summer or you're not in school or that
you don't want to go to your school counselor. Another way

14?
to find a counselor is to ask people you know. Your friends
or family or anyone you are close to may know a good counselor
that they can recommend. Or, any person who works with people
is likely to know some good counselors. You can ask a teacher,
your coach, the minister of a church, a doctor, nurse, social
worker, club leader. Any of these people who work with people
may help you find a counselor.
A third way to get counseling is by telephone. There are
several places that you can call to talk about counseling. One
is(written on blackboard) the Information and Referral Service,
375-^636. You can ca-H this number and tell them what you
have in mind and they can discuss with you some different ways
to get a counselor.
In this county there are many, many agencies that provide
counseling services. Some specialize in counseling young people.
Some deal with particular areas, such as jobs, drugs, planning
your life. And many provide general counseling for anyone who
wants it. These agencies are often free or very low in cost.
The Information and Referral. Service, if you call them, will
discuss these agencies with you and help you decide which ones
are right for you.
Another idea is to call the service and ask to speak
directly to a counselor. They can connect you, right then
over the phone, to a counseling volunteer who will talk to
you for a while. You can tell what is on your mind and talk
it through with the volunteer. You don't have to give your
name, if you don't want to. This volunteer counselor can help

148
you decide if you want to see a counselor or not and can help
you get an appointment with one.
You can call the Information and Referral Service any
time, day or night, even at four o'clock in the morning. If
they are very busy, they may ask you to call hack in a few
minutes, 'but they will always talk to you.
Now, I wonder what questions you have and what you think about
all this.

APPENDIX E
PARTICIPANTS' WRITTEN COMMENTS

Participants' Written Comments
One-fifth of the 645 participants in the study responded
to the optional section of the questionnaire which asked,
"Would you like to make any further comments about counseling?"
Nearly three-fourths of those commenting were girls. Sixty-
five (or 30%) of Caucasian females and twenty-six (21$) of
Black females wrote remarks while thirty (16$) of Caucasian
males and only five (5$) of Black males did so. The comments
were necessarily brief, as students were limited to the class
time remaining after the main part of the survey was completed.
Although the youngsters who wrote comments cannot be con
sidered a representative sample of youth, their remarks are
useful in understanding how high school students view coun
seling. They provide insight into how counseling perceptions
are formed and point to some of the important factors influen
tial in help seeking.
The written responses fell into several categories. The
largest group expressed general perceptions of counseling,
either positive or negative. Many of the favorable comments
were unqualified and exuberant endorsements of counseling.
Where would be be without it. (W,WM,10)*
I think counseling is something that people would
like all over the world. (0,BF,9)
*The parenthetical notation following each comment indi
cates the commenters treatment group (W, Written; 0, Oral,
Cb, Combination; Ct, Control), race, sex, and grade level. For
example, a control subject who was a Black female in the tenth
grade would be coded thus: (Ct,BF,10). A dash (-) indicates
missing information.
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151
It can really help people. (0,WM,9)
I think counseling is really helpful and necessary
and I am grateful for it. I have been thinking about
going into counseling as a profession. (Ct,WF,10)
I think that counseling is a good way of helping
people with their problems and it has probably saved
someone's life. (Ct, BF,11)
I think it's a great help. (Cb, BF,ll)
I think counseling is helpful. (Cb,BM,10)
I think counselors are good because they help a lot
of people. (Cb, WF,9)
It helps a lot of people out. (W,WM,12)
I think counseling is a great thing. If only we
could get more and better counselors. (0,WF,11)
Other favorable comments were more thoughtful statements.
Often the students indicated that they simply appreciated the
idea of having someone available to talk to.
I feel that counseling is a very good program.
This way people do have someone they can turn to.
(Cb, WF,11)
I feel that counseling is really good for students.
When they have problems they will have someone to
talk to about them. (0,WF,9)
I like the counselor in our school. He understands
problems when you need him and if you have anything
to talk about. He is willing to help you. (Ct, BF,9)
I th nlc it is a good thing for people in need of
someone to talk to and help them with their worries.
(0,WM,10)
I think that counseling is a very interesting thing.
It shows that some people do care in the world. Be
sides, it's nice to talk to people about problems. It
can make your whole day seem happier. (0, BF,11)
I think counseling is all right. Its very nice to
have someone to talk to about what's on your mind.
(W, WF, 9)

I like the idea about counseling because some stu
dents need to talk out their mind and feelings.
(W,WF,9)
I feel that counseling is a good thing. It is good
for people to have someone to talk to when they have
a special problem about one thing or another. (W,WM,9)
I feel that counseling is very good for people that
have problems and can't live with them because they
bother me so much. (Cb,WF,9)
Counseling is a very good way to help a person find
out what they really want in life, at least to me.
(Ct,WF,10)
It's pretty fine and I dont dislike any of the guid
ance counselors I've known and also I like sitting
down and rapping with a counselor. (W,WF,9)
It's pretty nice for people who need help or need a
job. (W,WF,9)
I think that it is a great project because without
it there would be a lot of people in the wrong classes
and wouldnt understand anything, and there would be
some pretty depressed kids. (W,WM,9)
I took part in a couple of group counseling sessions
here at school and found it interesting. I think
counseling is very necessary in todays society.
(0,WF,11)
I am a counselor's aide and I enjoy being around and
helping people with their problems. I have talked with
our counselor many times about a good many things, not
only problems, and it's helped me feel much better about
myself. (Cb,WM,ll)
In the tenth grade I was a Peer counselor and I enjoyed
it a great deal. It helped me discover myself and I
learned to help others. I wish they had peer counseling
at this school. It would help many people. (W,WF,12)
I think that counseling is very good. I've been helped
very much by counseling. I think it's great if people
dont even know you and want to help. I really believe
it helps as long as they be honest. (Ct,WF,9)
Among the unfavorable comments, some were terse and
vehement.

It stinks. (0,1/M, 9)
Sorry counseling: (W,MM,10)
Man, it's a bummer. (W,WM,10)
I like to stay as far away as possible. (0,WF,11)
Other unfavorable comments cited specific complaints and
dissatisfactions. Students were most critical of breeches of
confidentiality and counselors' lack of sincerity and concern.
I'm not sure if I can trust a counselor because I
went to one once and talked to her about my Mom and
Dad and she told them everything. (Ct,WF,9)
We had a counselor one time that told my parents
everything that I told her in confidence. I dont
think that a counselor should do that. (Ct, WF,9)
I think they should have counseling but I don't like
the way they go and tell your parents what you have
talked about. But I guess if you don't want your
parents to know you wouldn't tell the counselors.
(Ct.WF,9)
If its a true confidential person. Here it seems
that they are only out to do it the easy way without
changes and for the educational point of view. Not
really willing to give a about my part. They
always know what I need and supposedly want. HA:
(W,BF,12)
I knew a few counselors but most of them were bleeding
hearts. (W,WM,10)
I think these questions are put forth in an extremely
poor manner. Of course, you would expect a counselor
to be competent in all these areas. The trouble is
they very seldom are. You come to a counselor with
expectations of being helped. One should expect that
a counselor would be apt in these areas, but unfortu
nately they seldom are. (W,WF,12)
I believe if assigned a counselor and dont think he
or she is helping or even trying to help, there should
be a way to change counselors. P.S, I have a counselor
and he doesn't really talk about nothing but how good
his son and his grandson is. (ct,WF,10)

! FfV
1-55-
Counseling sometimes can be used very successfully
but sometimes being a counselor goes to their head
and they think of themselves as the top of the totem,
which is bull crap. (Ct,lVlW,10)
Well, most counselors I've been to such as school
counselors and a youth counselor, theyve always
told me what they think I should do instead of trying
to let me make up my own mind or really to come to a
decision or understand what in going on. (0,BF,12)
They should be more up to date people of all ages.
(0 BF, 11)
I feel counseling Is an excellent means of finding
out "who" you are and what you want to do with yourself.
But I feel that they shouldn't exert pressure in a
(We have a counselor here at this school that exerts
a lot of pressure.) (W,WF-)
Ive tried to talk to my counselor about bad teachers
I have and they won't even listen. They say it's all
the student's fault and you get the same routine--
teacher, right, student, wrong. They don't know how
a teacher can be. (Ct,WF,9)
Some counselors act as if its a job listening to
others' problems; others really get into trying to
help people. We need more like this. (W,WM,11)
A lot of times when you go to see a counselor about
a problem, you're knocked down before you've fully
explained what you want done. (W,WF,12)
Often counselors seem to have a plan which conflicts
with your interests already set up for you. (Ct,WM,ll)
Counselors shouldn't push themselves on people, usually
if a person doesn't have anyone to confide in, he or
she will go willingly. (Cb,WF,ll)
After a tragic thing has happened in the family or
with friends, I don't think a counselor should ask
you right away if you want to talk about it or discuss
it. They should wait a while or until you come to
them. (0,WF,11)
I guess It's okay. But from where I've been a lot of
counselors are just doing a job. To me you seem to be
a very caring person, (Cb,WF,9)

S Sbrs
45-6-
I personally would not go to a counselor. The whole
thing is really dumb. Most of them could care less
about you. And a few are pushy and overly nosey and
turn you off before you say anything. If you want
counseling you should go to them, not them say any
thing to you, especially about your personal life
because its none of their business. (0,WF,11)
I don't really get what I'm looking for in counseling.
(W,WM,11)
I dont have much faith in counselors probably because
the ones I've been around are fake and they seem to
be very mosey instead of trying to help and understand
yo u. (W,WF,-)
With the experiences I've had with counselors (mostly
high school) I find that they really dont care about
me as a person with a future. They only say and do
that which they think or want for me. They are care
less and dont really keep you up to date. (W,WF,12)
I really am not pleased with counselors. Maybe its
because when you are discussing problems with them
they like to vary away the problem into more personal
matters that have no connection with your problem.
One of my middle school counselors would call students
in the office just to be nosey and ask questions about
personal and family matters that weren't any of her
concern. (Ct,BF,10)
I think that you can talk to them and they won't go
telling everybody. I don't like it when they trick
you into things that you don't want to do. (Ct,WF,9)
I dont have any confidence in counseling for myself
personally. From my experience, I have found that
the counselors I have come in contact with are not
interested in me as a person or my problems and ques
tions. They are merely interested in doing their jobs
to the minimum and putting on a "good" front. (W,WF,12)
At present my counselor helps me a great deal but some
times I feel as if she's not helping me at all, sometimes
even against me. (Ct,-F,ll)
Another group of students discussed their willingness to
use counseling. Many were quite introspective and some dis
closed particular apprehensions and doubts. A few expressed
the attitude, "Its fine for someone else."

ICO
-KUT
I don't think that I would go to a counselor nor do
I think it would help me. I have a good relationship
with my parents and can go to them for any help I need
instead of going to a perfect stranger. (W,WF,12)
Well, in a way I think that a counselor just helps you
with your problems but doesn't really get involved
because they have a lot more people than you to help.
So this is what I feel. Although I would like to see
a counselor about my future, but I don't think I could
be as open with my problems dealing with guys and
dating. So I guess that's all. (W,WF,9)
I doubt I would intentionally seek counseling (from
a designated counselor) of any special type. If, how
ever, the opportunity presented itself, a counselor
was around and I felt I could tak with him/her, I
would take advantage of the opportunity. (0,WM,12)
I have never been counseled or been to a counselor and
doubt I will because I don't have trust in them for ray
personal problems. (W.WM.9)
I am the kind of person that's always willing to talk
about my problems even if it may hurt me a little.
(Ct,BF,11)
I think that this survey is hard to answer because
you would not be able to answer it unless you had
experienced it. Some people cant just come right out
and tell a person (no matter who the pei'son is) certain
problems. (0,WM,11)
I've had two different psychiatrists before which have
helped me in some ways. I don't mind going to a coun
selor for help, but I am just worried about people
finding out. (0,WM,9)
Well, I think counseling is important but I think I
would have a hard time talking about certain problems
with a person I don't know. (Cb,WF,9)
That was very nice of you to come talk to our class,
but I still would feel dumb going to a counselor about
sex, drugs, and my family. (0,WF,10)
I can't be helped. (W,WM.ll)
At times there would possibly be subjects I wouldn't
particularly care to discuss with anyone (and would
feel I didnt need to). (W,WF,12)

1 = 7
5&
Part two /of the questionnaire7 is very good and I
think I would like to contact a counselor in the near
future about everything in part two, (Cb,WM,12)
I think a counselor is a worthwhile person to be
involved with, and I wish I hope I can talk to a
counselor because I need one. They are very much
worth it if I can find the right one. (0,BF,11)
I am the kind of person who tries to work out his
problems by myself. I keep them bottled up until I
can see the problem clearly. (W,WM,12)
Yes, I may like to try it even if its just once.
(Cb,WF,9)
All I have to say is when I feel I should know some
thing and dont, I go and discuss it with my counselor
Mrs. A--. Some don't. Some don't even know her name.
(W,WF,-)
I think it's great for some people but not for me.
(Cb,WF,11)
I do not have these problems. (W,BM,11)
It's all right for those who want to run their jaw.
(Cb,WM,-)
Some students told what they consider important attributes
of counselors, sometimes alluding to items on the expectancies
scales of the questionnaire. Others made suggestions for
improving counseling services.
If I went to a counselor, I would expect he or she to
be completely honest. Because if the counselor isn't
honest, how can you expect the person to be honest.
(W,WF,10)
I think it is mostly important for a counselor to
be open-minded and recognize people as being unique.
(W,WF,12)
The main thing I would expect in a counselor is that
he or she accept me as I am and be honest with me!
(W,WF,12)
To keep what was spoken private. (Ct,WF,9)

The counselor should mainly CARE, By that I mean he
should want to help and do all he can to help. (0,BF,10)
Counseling doesn't have to he so the counselor solves
all of your problems and worries while you go carefree.
It should he so the person will he able to figure him
self out and learn how to care for himself and his
problems. (W,WF,10)
I feel that a counselor should he aware of people and
their problems and not just doing a job. (C,WF,11)
I would not expect a counselor to be a know-everything
type of person. (W,WF,12)
I think it could really help people if the counselor
was understanding mostly. I would like to be a coun
selor myself. (0,WF,9)
I think that they should have at least two types of
counselors in each school, one that will talk to you
about school problems and the other one to help you
with your personal problems and really try to help you
instead of playing games with you. (Cb,WF,ll)
I think that a counselor should be available at all
times because there is no telling when you will need
them. (Ct,WF,10)
I feel that the most important part of a counselors
job is career-related. Help you get into or out of
certain classes, college preparation, etc. (Ct,WF,ll)
I feel counseling is mainly dealing with the problems
of school. Family matters seem a little personal, but
if it's interfering with ones work at school, it's a
must. Its good if it's kept between the counselor
and the student and doesn't go any further than the
two people. (W.BF.ll)
Counseling has always been of benefit to me. Our school
has excellent counseling. I feel that Alachua County
needs more qualified counselors because there are a lot
of students in need. I think the counselor-student
relationship needs to get closer because if a student
knows his counselor is cool, he'll spill himself to
the counselor. (W,WF,12)
Several students wrote that they had career interests in
ounseling and related professions.

i Si
e-
I think counseling is great. After I finish school
I want to be a counselor too. I like people a lot.
I know people and how they feel. (Cb,BF,10)
I've always been interested in counseling, I've
really thought about being one. I'm sort of a
counselor now. My friends talk to me a lot about
their problems. The counselor here has helped me
with my problems more than anyone. (0,WF,11)
It seems like a very interesting job to do. Counseling
is something I want to do. (0,BMf-)
I am planning on a type of job that goes along with
counseling I want to be a counselor in a juvenile
detention center or places related to places like
that. I work in a halfway house for mostly people
who are on drugs and need help getting off, during
the summer. (C t,WF,9)
When I grow up I want to be psychiatrist. I think it
would be fun and interesting. I like helping people
or think I would. (Cb, WF,10)
I think that counselors have a good job because there
are a lot of people that need counseling. (W,BF,12)
I think counseling is a very good thing. I am thinking
about going into social work which will involve coun
seling so the discussion and survey helped. (Cb,BF,ll)
Is there a type of counselor that travels, be their-
self, get good money, but doesn't go to school more
than 4 years? (0,BF,10)
Finally, a few youngsters provided feedback to the researcher
regarding the experimental materials and procedures.
I think it's kind of boring to talk 45 minutes. (0,WM,9)
I think you did a good job on your presentation.
( -,WM,11)
I learned a lots about counseling. (Cb, WM,9)
Thanks for coming to our school. I really got a
better meaning. (0,BF,9)
It was a very good program. (Cb,BM,10)
Thank you for coming. It helped me a lot about what
counseling was and how it woi'ked. (C'b,WM, 11)

i t- o
-ii
Very boring. (0,WM,10)
This was a dumb survey. (Ct,Â¥F,ll)
In this sheet the only way you can answer the questions
is to take 90% of your feelings for granted. (0,WF,11)
I think this would work better with people who have
been to a counselor because if you haven't been you
don't know what to expect. (0,-F,10)
Several recurring ideas run through the youngsters' comments,
making it possible to generalize somewhat regarding student
perceptions of professional help. For example, the commenters
very frequently referred to school counselors. Immediately
before writing their comments, most of the students had received
presentations of information which focused on counseling in
general and specifically discussed community counseling re
sources. Even so, the students seemed to equate counseling
with counseling in the schools. Personal experience, in the
form of contact with school counselors over the years, undoubtedly
overshadowed the effects of the brief information. Impressions
appeared to be based not only on experience in actual coun
seling sessions but also on casual encounters with school
counselors, scheduling and advisement conferences, and even
observations from afar. In several cases, moreover, a single
critical incident or a particular relationship with a school
counselor colored a youngster's overall impression of counseling.
In discussing their willingness to use counseling, the
students conveyed in their own language the difficulty which
comes with exposing one's inner self, the fears and doubts which
accompany disclosure, and the pleasure and relief which are
found when there is someone who will listen and be sensitive.

It was apparent that the student commenters were more concerned
with human and relationship factors than with counselor's
skills, competence, training, and professionalism. Although
they felt that counselors should he able to help them, they
mainly wanted someone accessible and easy to be with, not quick
solutions and advice. As one girl wrote, "Counseling doesnt
have to be so the counselor solves all your problems. ... It
should be so the person will be able to figure himself out and
learn how to care for himself and his problems." The comments
echo the necessary and sufficient conditions for therapy deline
ated by Carl Rogers: Clients are attracted to counselors who
project caring, acceptance, understanding, honesty, and
sincerity.
Unfortunately, perceptions of school counselors were not
always favorable. As many of the students comments were nega
tive as were positive. In the eyes of some youngsters,
counselors were insensitive and deceitful, untrustworthy and
manipulative, "fake," "pushy," and "nosey"--more interested in
keeping the institution running smoothly than in helping
students.
For better or worse, the impact of school counselors is
evident. Though there have been many discussions of the school
counselor's role and function, little attention has been given
to the importance of school counseling in the formulation of
early attitudes toward help seeking, which may well carry over
into youngsters' adult lives. For students coming through the
public schools today, the high school counselor may be not only

tfo£.
'1-^3-
the primary purveyor of the counseling image hut also a most
powerful influence on overall attitudes toward the use of
mental health services.

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH
Carol Lee Klopfer vas Lorn in Alexandria, Virginia, on
July 30, 1945, the daughter of Virgil Jay Klopfer and Margaret
Houchens Klopfer. She grew up in east Tennessee and attended
the University of Tennessee, Knoxville, graduating in 196?
with a Bachelor of Arts degree in English and speech. From
1967 to 1970 she was a secondary school English teacher in
Georgia and Florida, and from 1970 to 1972 she was a communi
cations teacher at the Career Education Center, an alternative
school for disadvantaged and drop-out-prone youth in Jackson
ville, Florida. In 1972 she began work toward the Specialist
in Education degree in the Department of Counselor Education
of the University of Florida. Upon receiving this degree in
1974, she entered the doctoral program in Counselor Education.
Since 1972, she has been on the staff of Counseling,
Research, and Education Specialist Teams (Project CREST), and
she is currently CREST Team Leader in Alachua County.
She is a member of the American Personnel and Guidance
Association, the Association for Humanistic Psychology, the
Alachua County Juvenile Committee, and the Coordinating Staff
of Olecranon Growth Center and Learning Community.
164

I certify that I have read this study and that in my
opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly
presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality,
as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.
E. L. Tolbert, Chairman
Associate Professor of
Counselor Education
I certify that I have read this study and that in my
opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly
presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality,
as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.
- / /O .X /
,,x# 4 y C y o/c
Larry/C. Loech
Assjtant Professor of
Counselor Education
I certify that I have read this study and that in my
opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly
presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality,
as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.
// .
Juc
Everette Hall
Associate Professor of
Psychology
This dissertation was submitted to the Graduate Faculty of the
Department of Counselor Education in the College of Education
and to the Graduate Council, and was accepted as partial ful
fillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of
Philosophy.
December 1977
Dean, Graduate School



Ill
1971; Warman, 1961). This preference is doubtless related to
the idea reflected in the youngsters' written comments that,
when students consider counseling, they think of services
offered in the schools rather than of counseling in general.
Limitations
The foregoing discussion points out several possible
weaknesses in the counseling informational presentations used
in this study. The following research limitations need also
to be taken into account:
1. The study did not investigate the degree to which the
responses to the questionnaire relate to actual help-seeking
behavior or assess longer term effects which might have resulted
from the informational presentations.
2. No attempt was made to evaluate the separate components
of the informational presentations. It is possible that some
elements of the communications were successful while others
were detrimental. The extent to which cancellation of effects
occurred is unknown.
3- The selection of matched sets of four classes and sub
sequent random assignment did not fully insure treatment group
equivalence. Post hoc statistical assessments of the treatment
groups showed that school counselors' judgments of class
similarities were essentially sound with respect to sex, age,
grade level, and race; however, other variables were left
uncontrolled.


51
Special Procedures for Orienting Clients
Research has demonstrated that systematic preparation of
clients can help them remain in therapy longer and participate
in it more productively. Some procedures were not specifically
designed for pretherapy use but have possible application prior
to counseling; for example, teaching clients internalization
behavior (Pierce, Schauble, & Farkas, 1970) and "focusing"
(Gendlin, 1969! Gendlin & Olson, 1970). One especially elabo
rate means of assisting clients during therapy, intervention
through "structuring and stabilizing, has shown effectiveness
with low-prognosis clients. This process, described by Warren
and Rice (1972), consists of two types of extratherapy meetings
with the client: (a) brief stabilizing sessions, in which a
second therapist encourages the client to discuss any problems
occurring with the primary therapist or with the therapy, and
(b) striicturing session, in which the client is generally
informed about therapy procedures and roles and the nature of
personality change and then taught, through practice with feed
back, to perceive experiences in terms of immediacy and internal
focus.
Warren and Rice found that stabilizing alone was highly
successful in preventing therapy defection in the low-prognosis
clients biAt of no particular advantage to therapy results.
Clients who received both structuring and stabilizing, however,
not only remained in therapy longer but also had high partici
pation levels and experienced considerable therapeutic gain.
Systematic preparation of clients for group therapy has
taken several forms: providing participants with written


Experimental Schedule
Date*/Setting
Period/Glass
Experimental
Condition
April 26, 197?
1 Adv. Grammar
Control
& Composition
School A
2 Poetry
Written
3 Poetry
Oral
5 Poetry
Comhination
May 3
1 English III
Combination
School B
2 English III
Oral
3 English II
Combination
4 English II
Written
5 English III
Oral
6 English II
Control
May 4
3 English IV
Written
School B
4 English III
Control
May 10
1 Biology
Oral
School A
2 Biology
Control
3 Biology
Written
4 Biology
Combination
May 11
2 Human Biology
Control
School C
5 Science
Oral
131


Copyright
by
Carol Lee Klopfer
1977


CHAPTER IV
FINDINGS
The purpose of the research was to investigate the
effectiveness of three forms of information--written informa
tion, oral information, and the combination of written and
oral informa,tion--on experimental participants responses to
measures of counseling expectancy and willingness. In addition,
the study assessed the effects of grade level, sex, race, and
school membership.
The data resulting from the study are presented as
follows: (a) statistical description of the sample, (b) anal
ysis of the experimental results, (c) summary of the experi
mental results, (d) analysis of school differences, (e) report
of sample norms for each questionnaire scale, and (f) summary
of the participants' subjective responses.
Statistical Description of the Sample
A post hoc analysis of the demographic characteristics
of the experimental participants determined the composition
of the sample by sex, race, grade level, school, and age. It
should be noted that 25 students, or 3.9 percent of the sample,
failed to provide all personal information requested by the
questionnaire; therefore, cases are missing from the descriptive
data.
75


as an explanation because correctness of information, but not
attitudinal change, is believed to correlate with years of
schooling.
The researchers also conducted a shorter term controlled
experiment on permanence of attitude change. High school
students' favorable mental health attitudes induced by high-
certainty messages were found to be undiminished after two and
one half months.
According to Nunnally, one way to regard the duration of
communication effects is to think of each small message as a
"dose." Administration of successive doeses with known char
acteristics can produce powerful and enduring results. Short
messages which are compounded to take advantage of the dif
ferential effects of relevant content variables are likely
to promote more desirable changes than communication bombard
ments which are heavy and continual but uncontrolled.
Methods of Preparing Clients for Counseling
A recent and promising line of counseling research is the
development of systematic procedures for preparing people to
understand and use therapy more beneficially. In the last
dozen years, reports have been published covering a wide range
of therapy-orientation techniques. By far, most of these
approaches have been aimed at people already identified as
clients, but they have relevance for potential clients as well.
Behavioral Techniques
Behavioral techniques in several forms have been put to
therapy use. Zarle and Willis (1975) used "induced affect


Participants' Written Comments
One-fifth of the 645 participants in the study responded
to the optional section of the questionnaire which asked,
"Would you like to make any further comments about counseling?"
Nearly three-fourths of those commenting were girls. Sixty-
five (or 30%) of Caucasian females and twenty-six (21$) of
Black females wrote remarks while thirty (16$) of Caucasian
males and only five (5$) of Black males did so. The comments
were necessarily brief, as students were limited to the class
time remaining after the main part of the survey was completed.
Although the youngsters who wrote comments cannot be con
sidered a representative sample of youth, their remarks are
useful in understanding how high school students view coun
seling. They provide insight into how counseling perceptions
are formed and point to some of the important factors influen
tial in help seeking.
The written responses fell into several categories. The
largest group expressed general perceptions of counseling,
either positive or negative. Many of the favorable comments
were unqualified and exuberant endorsements of counseling.
Where would be be without it. (W,WM,10)*
I think counseling is something that people would
like all over the world. (0,BF,9)
*The parenthetical notation following each comment indi
cates the commenters treatment group (W, Written; 0, Oral,
Cb, Combination; Ct, Control), race, sex, and grade level. For
example, a control subject who was a Black female in the tenth
grade would be coded thus: (Ct,BF,10). A dash (-) indicates
missing information.
150


23
understanding. Their survey revealed that a number of teachers
view counselors as secretive and involved too little with
disciplinary and teaching duties. Although teachers in
elementary schools were more satisfied than secondary school
teachers with the performance of counselors, many of the edu
cators considered counselors to be "priviledged" people and
tended to wonder what counselors do with their time. With
this evidence, the researchers stated that counselors could
improve their relationships with teachers by applying their
human relations skills to better role communication.
A group of school principals, Schmidt (1962) found, agreed
that the counselor's main activity should be counseling stu
dents, rather than teaching or clerical tasks. In this study,
principals and counselors concurred that school counseling is
primarily vocational and educational work, but both reported
that they would prefer counseling to focus on personal and
social problems.
Students themselves, however, have not perceived the
school counselor as a particularly good resource for personal
matters. Surveys by Gibson (1962), Grant (195*0 and Kennedy
and Fredrickson (1969) have clearly shown that high school
students are most willing to discuss educational and vocational
planning with their counselors but would rather approach non
school people, usually friends and family, for personal help.
Graduating seniors responding to a questionnaire by Roemmich
and Schmidt (1962) reported, moreover, that parents and family
had given them more assistance in selecting and planning for


92
The absence of significant treatment effects provided no
support for the experimental prediction that information would
influence counseling willingness. Treatment means are reported
in Table 22.
Table 22
Vocational-Educational Willingness
Score Means by Treatment
N
X
Written
162
20.19
Oral
154
19.16
Combination
157
19.31
Control
140
20.03
The significant
effect of race
was evaluated by refer-
ring to group means.
As Table 23 shows, minority students
had higher VE scores,
Table 23
Vocational-Educational Willingne
ss Score Means by Race
N
X
Caucasian
392
19.46
Minority
211
20.07
Personal and Social Willingness (PS)
Ninety-two percent of the sample completed the Personal-
Social. Willingness (PS) scale of the questionnaire. The


28
Cohen, & Pearl, 1964). Psychotherapy has been, in Brager's
(1964) words, "owned and operated by middle class persons"
(p. 415) and inflexible to the style and needs of low-income
culture. Lists of the characteristics of likely clients,
compared with the qualities of low-income people, show this
clearly. The persons for whom traditional therapy seems to
have been designed, for example, tend to internalize their
problems, blaming themselves and not their environment. They
are active participants, not passive cooperators. They value
self-control, ego strength, individualism, and motivation.
They are, in short, upward-striving individuals imbued with
middle-class mentality. People closer to the struggle for
sheer survival are more concerned with solutions to day-to-day
matters. Often in crisis, they are in need of immediate help
offered in direct and forthright terms, not insight development.
Lower socioeconomic people's lack of information about
therapy is no doubt related to their lower level of formal
schooling. Nunnally's (1961) large-scale survey of American
mental health conceptions showed that adults with less than a
high school education are most likely to have inaccurate beliefs
about psychological matters. Research on perceptions of psycho
therapy, however, has not found lower socioeconomic-status
people differing greatly from the middle class.
Redlich et al. (1955) comparing views of middle class and
lower socioeconimic-level psychiatric patients in pretherapy
interviews, found much similarity in the expectations of the
two groups. Both groups were fearful and ashamed, associating


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Gendlin, E. T. Focusing. Psychotherapy: Theory, Research,
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