Annotated bibliography on science and technology in China


Material Information

Annotated bibliography on science and technology in China
Series Title:
Science and technology in the People's Republic of China ; background study no. 1
Physical Description:
vii, 55 p. : ; 24 cm.
Geier, Claire
United States -- Congress. -- House. -- Committee on Science and Technology. -- Subcommittee on Domestic and International Scientific Planning and Analysis
Library of Congress -- Science Policy Research Division
U.S. Govt. Print. Off.
Place of Publication:
Publication Date:


Subjects / Keywords:
Science -- Bibliography -- China   ( lcsh )
Technology -- Bibliography -- China   ( lcsh )
federal government publication   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )


Statement of Responsibility:
prepared for the Subcommittee on Domestic and International Scientific Planning and Analysis of the Committee on Science and Technology, U.S. House of Representatives, Ninety-fourth Congress, second session, by Claire Geier the Science Policy Research Division, Congressional Research Service, Library of Congress.
General Note:
At head of title: Committee print.
General Note:
Includes index.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 025989362
oclc - 02876360
System ID:

Full Text

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OLIN E. TEAGUE, Texas, Chairmant

KEN HECHLER, West Virginia
DON FUQUA, Floflda
ROBERT A. ROE, New Jersey
MIKE McCORMACK, Washington
GEORGE E. BROWN, JB., California
HENRY A. WAXMAN, California
JIM LLOYD, California
TIM L. HALL, Illinois

LARRY WINN, iJ., Kansas
LOUIS FREY, JB., Florida
MARVIN L. ESCH, Michigan


GARY A. MYERS, Pennsylvania



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Jon L. SWIGEnT, Jr., Executive Director
H1 OLD A. GoutLD, Dipft Director
PmuLIP B. YzAGu =nsel
FRMAK R. HAwmiLL, Jr., Cbuwael ..
JAME3 E-B WfLSON, lbeChftul Ctiiltmn "
J. THOMAS RATCFroD, Scine .Q.maultant
JoHN D. HOLMEL, Scwnce CbiMdtsN
RAUH N. READ, Telcnisl Cnmultant
ROB ET C. Kfln4d,, COUwae
REGINA A. DAVIB, Chief CFerk ,
MICHAEL A. SBniAy, Minority i .

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RAY THORNTON, Arkansas, Chairman

ROBERT A. ROE, New Jersey
HENRY A. WAXMAN, California

GARY A. MYERS, Pennsylvania

JOn D. HoIAMi, ev mur. ,.
DAclzA D. BxACKZn, Science Cbv*mt '
JAMzS L. GALLaGaHz, Aiwafl Technical Cmwamnt

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Washington, D.C., September 2, 1976.
Chairman, Committee on Science and Technology,
House of Representatives, Washington, D.C.
DEAR Mr. CHAIRMAN: I am transmitting herewith an annotated
bibliography on science and technology in China. This bibliography
cbters the period 1970 to date and provides a useful overview of the
d4iinnt state and recent trends in science and technology in China.
Although the United States and China are countries with vast
differences in history, political systems, and industrial development,
we have in recent years seen a gradual broadening in scientific and
technological exchanges between our two countries. Beginning with
the visit of the President of the United States to the People's Republic
of China in February 1972, American and Chinese scientists and
engineers have increasingly visited each other's countries. To fully
understand the impact on American science and on the future relations
between our two countries, we must understand more about science
and technology in China. It is my hope that this modest bibliography
wil contribute toward this end.
The report was prepared for the Committee by the Library of
Congress.Ms. Claire Geier with the assistance of Ms. Karen Guarisco,
both of the Science Policy Research Division of the Congressional
Research Service, compiled the references and wrote the annotations.
Mr. Leo Orleans, China Research Specialist, also of the Library of
Congress provided general guidance and advice. Ms. Leslie Loflin
of the Committee staff developed the index and prepared the report
for printing.
It is my hope that this bibliography may be useful to you and those
members of the Committee on Science and Technology and the House
who have an interest in the development of science and technology in
Sincerely yours,
Sincerely yours, RAY THORNTON, Chairman,
Subcommittee on Domestic and International
Scientific Planning and Analysis.



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Washington, D.C., March 9, 1976.
Chairman of the Subcommittee on Domestic and International Scientific
Planning and Analysis, Committee on Science and Technology, U.S.
House o] Representatives, Washington, D.C.
DEAR MR. CHAIRMAN: I am pleased to transmit to you and the
members of the Subcommittee on Domestic and International Scien-
tific Planning and Analysis an annotated bibliography on Science and
Technology min China. The bibliography covers materials on science
.and technology as they relate to the developmental process of the
People's Republic of China. Although most of the sources cited are
from the period 1970-1975 there are some selected references covering
they ears 1949-1970.
Te bibliography was prepared by Ms. Claire Geier, Analyst in
Science and Technology, Congressional Research Service, Library
of Congress with the assistance of Ms. Karen Guarisco, Analyst in
the Science Policy Research Division, CRS. It was done in consulta-
tion with Mr. Leo A. Orleans, China Specialist, Reference Depart-
ment, Library of Congress. Mr. Orleans will prepare two forthcoming
papers in the series for your committee.
Acting Director.



Leer of Transmittal------------------ m
ltew ofSubmittal ---------------------------------------------- v
oaiftete..---------------------- ----------- vi
Inroduction...------------------------------------------------- 1
Science policy----------------------------------------------3
Technology policy------------------------------------ ------ 9
Scientific organizations and institutions--------------14
Agriculture---- ------------- ----- -- 17
Aviation and space technology-- ---------------20
Electronics and computer technology----------------- 23
Energy- ----- -------------------------------------------- 25
Environment-------------------------- 28
Medicine-------------------- -----------------------------31
Nuclear science and technology---------- ---------36
Economics and industry-------------------------------------- 39
Education and manpower------------------------------------ 45
Scholarly exchange----------------------- 49


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Following the informal establishment of communication between
the United States and China in 1972, there came a series of selected,
unofficial exchange trips by scholars and scientists, including scientists
in the medical field. The ensuing accounts and official reports indicated
a nation vastly changed from pre-1949 days. The initial enthusiasm
of many travelers and observers produced a variety of articles, re-
ports and personal accounts summarizing the state of Chinese science
and technology, including health care. Some reports seem greatly
exaggerated while others appear to be more sober in their evaluations.
Almost all indicate a nation with a unique approach to science and
technology policy that may offer some interesting examples to the
West and to developing countries.
There is a basic difference in the nature of the publications about
China's science and technology published before and after 1972-a
difference that is clearly evident in this bibliography. Until 1972,
very few westerners managed to enter China, so that the overwhelming
proportion of the writing on science and technology, of necessity,
had to rely on a careful review of a large volume of Chinese publications
dealing not only specifically with science and technology, but with a
variety of other related subjects. With China gradually allowing
selective travel came the opportunity for first-hand observation to
verify earlier writings.
Today, more and more developing countries are looking to China
as a possible model for them to follow. China has made very sub-
stantial social and economic progress over the past quarter of a
century and in the process has attempted numerous experiments
and introduced a variety of innovations worth examining. Whether
or not China constitutes a viable model for the other countries of
Asia, Africa, and Latin America is a moot question. However, anyone
concerned with the role of science and technology in the develop-
mental process can learn from an examination of the People's Republic
of China.
Although this is not an exhaustive bibliography of science and
technology in China, it is fairly comprehensive, covering develop-
ments from 1970 through 1975 with selected references from the years
prior to 1970 included. The citations are drawn from English language
publications which are readily accessible in most libraries. Some
references are drawn from an earlier, more exhaustive bibliography
on the same subject, Science and Technology in the Development of
Modern China.1
SDean, Genevieve, "Science and Technoloy in the Development of Modern China." Unl-
versity of Bumes. Mansel Information Pub. Ltd., 197L4. 245 p.


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f|B."tto A.Si Tedlfi6logy in China." Current
O pp. ,-t.t
=&.l. hvie &hkntioii. structure for science aitd tech-
.e3x| f P0.B pe0 Republic of China. The author notes the
frInii 0o the renm in science and technology since 1949 as
as the setback caused: by the Cultural Revolution. He also
i. dscums the current manpower, research and development levels
;r"il'ttiW cthutirns to the future of scientific development.
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SChambers David Wade, and Faggetter, Rachel, "The Impact of
..t o. l"ebutibrit Mtivement ,ofI Science in OChia;" Science
V. tXDecemb& 174) p
.*m .ai the. linkage between criticism of Lin Piao and
RO_ ft" `iit'bdte in the Pi "ik. Pi K tng movement. The
tjem is m attept to enlhaiei thec 'Serve the People' ethic
k' jtji- 9 the dsts distinctions and social mores df Chinese

3& Dean. Genevieve C., "Science, Technology and Development
ft A.Case tudy." Cina Quarterly,v. 5f (July-September
l M ^I .f l .... i .:* ..j ~ .. Jk ... ., :+ . . .*
said 'hipicti of 'discussions at Sisrsex Study
S t4 r' Scence and Technology in China's Development,
".,' ".Tia h72. Ch-oice of techbnloy; rate and direction of'tech-
I0 dtl resige; seirne polky. Prorities foi research min the field.
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. ieax eevI ., Science and the T ought of Chairian Mao."
,Aew Ai.tit, v. 45 .(February 12, 1970),. pp. 298-299.,
*" Thi Moist strategy for applying sciEtd to the problems of
modernization bcalls Tfo reorganization of the scientific establish-
AI o t m .m =,l. *?" :: v." :=.:; : ....* * =* ,isf ..t : ;: i <'*; :, .:
t it; general tIupation in science.
O Getk.. etev~~& te aved Ma0oti, Man afr do "Scidetific Institu-
tJ D';iscusse"r I dbtdeptnent and gradual 'niarrilB f science
to technology in China during the pre-Commumst regimes. The
,I,* author .describe the sims of-Chinese science policy, as. it, hr
lj^ DEQ 949;concluding that science has' cziutiduted
.. p..icultural and induetrial development ini spite of'the lilete.. ip-
A" Aby thfi lt "Al Revbt, *i 1"
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In spite of their status in science and technology in relation
to the West, the Chinese have already made a contribution as
far as the Third World is concerned.
7. Esposito, Bruce J., "Science in Mainland China." Bulletin of the
Atomic Scientist, v. 28 (January 1972), pp. 36-40.
Although some Western observers have been allowed inidy
China, the Chinese puzzle still remains. The athor assesse the
development of science in China as a consequence of the Cultural
Revolution. He believes that Western news media tend lasxag-
gerate the chaos wrought on Chinese science by the iC( ural
Revolution although some damage has occurred. ,
8. Gould, Sidney H. (ed.), The Sciences in Communist C&ina. A eri-
can Association for the Advancement of Science, Washington, D.C.,
Although this volume is 15 years old, it is stili an importa t
source, presenting the state of art kind papers on the various
sciences in China as of the end of 1960. A total of 26 papers on
specific disciplines are presented under the following maio sub-
headings: science and society, biological and medical 4'nces,
atmospheric and earth sciences, mathematics and the 1phtyical
sciences and engineering and electronics. Nothing comparable has
been produced since then.
9. Gupta, Krishna Prakash, "Society as a Factory: Maoist Approich
to Social Sciences." China Report, v. 8 (May-June 1972), pp. 3.rrf7.
Part of a larger research project on Higher Education ut ChiLha,
this paper focuses on the Maoist approach to Social Sciencp.) The
author discusses the changes involved.,in, the Socil Sbiences as
they are transformed from purely academic disciplines into strategic
studies of manipulated change. In China, Social Scientists are
trained in the task of implementing Maoist policies and progr'.n
10. Jen, C. K., "Mao's 'Serve the People' Ethic." Buetis of the
Atomic Scientist, v. 30 (March 1974), pp. 15-25.
The "serve the people" ethic is among the mot ub"q'tous
slogans displayed in public places and has now developed into a
powerful ethic. It is accompanied by a spirit of self-reliance i.' aJJ
areas of science research. The author c6ncldhies that this spirit i
enabling the Chinese to catch up with thp advanced nations of
the world. ..
11. "Life in the Academy of Science." China4News Analyss eno. 843
(June 4, 1971).
Entire issue discusses life in the Academy of Sciences in China
since the Cultural Revolution. Concludes that the '"... Acad-
emy of Science is under the dictation f ignorant soldiers. Special(
ization and theoretical studies are being discdurged'. rae of the
reports quoted express what the scientists themselves'tUnk a_9"it
this, how discouraged they are, and how difficult they find it tto
adjust themselves to this new world."


xMqi,^Joha M, H., "An Isolationist Science Policy.".Bulletin
S iO.v...25, v .(Februarr 1969), pp, 6-7 .
~ra l se htifoi presents a brief history of Climesp interaction with
.... t sn c and educatiqual systems of both the USR and a
number of non-Communist nations. Varying degrees o'f Chinese
IA0 iv^ ina, international scholarly communities are
'040 |i i*eween the years 1872-1969. Promasing developments
t ,s yandscientific relationships have been made. However,
* c~~"~gpsqn qiuj encounter have also hindered the expansion
qtfrq sopmuniatioea between Chinese intellectuals and
"III 1 1oe i 7ins. The .author predicts that changes in the
.... ..reling such exchanges are unlikely .in the
lac .e... V . . -
J ow cong-Ia nti and Technological Developnwnt of
.$'94984 CI 'WAQT's FiftcetNations, v. 15 (April-May
u" '.... es" thy effectiveness of the Qystm of scientific research
f.flr L,4 44.e npment in Cbha, since 1949, The author points to the
14 ritage of the Chinese over the past minllemnium to. partly
JA; fo '6" t r succeses oyer the past 25 years, e.g., nuclear and
,, e teclwqldo gy. He says, however, there are potential
hhu dIfbts of the' overemphasis on applied rather than basic
,C U.C .G.;,,.S,.ience and Technology Policies. In..: Michel
*$i b "^r (d., C7as Deeopmca Experience. Proceedings of
iS, Ma my;... :"~~t of Ioltiral Sdie4e, v. 31 (March 1973), pp. 80-94.
d Y 0~a .. ,.: .. ."3 ) p p 8 0.- 9..4 .
r*:^ A. Wgqga review policies relating to various fields of science
Ni74ji P2 ?lgy.
fit (*ea^, Z.eoA~,] "China'si Science and Technology: Continuity
41 U ovation." In: U.S. Congress, Joint Economic Committee.
Peo8 Republic of China: An Economic Assessment, Washington,
41 .,.Qvernment Pnting Office (1972), pp. 185-219.
S'"Th policiAes that guided scientific and technological develop-
Smenti ( ina duig t he 15 years prior to the Cultural Revolu-
., ,oa, e. still in effect"... Important changes brought by the
J Ctwal Revolution were "more a reflection of innovations in the
11c.. my and education than in science and technology per se.
J, #iYa. .. 'then, China continues to 'walk on two legs"' min science
''.nd technology. Historical survey; continuity of ideology and
policies; how the Chinese scientist survives; education and man-
powr for science and technology; sWience and technology in
p, pttice (R&D and innovation); publication and cross-pollina-
ftion m science and technology (journals and books; exchange of
S information; international contacts). .
i . .' '
6. rleans, Leo A., "Rese'arch and Development in Communist
SChins Mobd, Management and MeM em nt, In; U.S. Congress,
JOM... e. z CoUmitte. An Economrw Profd of Main7 nd
Ongo U.S. Qovermaemt Printing Office (1967), pp.
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in another respect the Clizwse
strenuous effort
ordinary peplemspei% Pfg4
and sOctix
aold s-cialization ill" .,
soi of liberal Wsternsene <
th towtalitaian Chn ej
autonomy.' i ^ h ::: "i'Nr<

18. Rifkin,tSusan B., "fThq e Modlat

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* practical problems thata
mg health care for the people, ahd developing a E

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SaiChi, Jbeph Anderson, "Science and Technology in China."'
Siqdtih &ryt , 12 (August 1972), pp. 662-675.
Relying primarily on refugee interviews and secondary ma-
nil tia 1) the author describes the progress of Chinese science and
oM h 'Uehlo"logy over the past 20 years and attempts to forecast the
rbidattr. Ii general, strides have' been made in all areas due to
-njl Ith tiphisis on basik and theoretical research. However, the
-i1s bMAIer kaecasts greater emphasis on applied research in the
edt *.i t Oversl the integration of theory with practice has con-
ie.fa!bftLtedd greatly to the Chinese progress.
2. S&nith, Emil; Coe, Robert; Tseng, Alexander; and Killgren,
lit j 1, "Walking qn Tw# Legs: A Panel Discussion of Science
"KVOlwi in the. People's Republic of China." The American Academy
? Arts and Sciences Bulletin, v. 28, no. 2 (November 1974), pp.
dis ,A iMthe eaim: of science policy, "walking on two legs" "refers
.* > iiidlay te the balance China has sought to achieve between 'pure'
'irs uIfhce' tak applied iechaology." After visiting China, four
I! ijfllj :ta teitists present their observations of scientific
practices in that natitmn A report 'underlying all presentations
a ..the, major focus of university research on application rather
P sia ngi a1 they !"**
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23. Suttmeier, Richard P., "Party Views of Science: The Record
Al*a tif& FirstD- deftd5 O; hins Quarterly, no. 44 (October-Decem-
Mbeir 117), pp.'few 144-l6
'iil ., Discusses the Phrty's influence on science and science organiza-
In to 'through ithei 15f0s. Science was viewed as utilitarian-as an
instrument for the betterment of society. The author identifies
the 6 elements, as identified by Ch'en Po-ta in 1952, that per-
vaded in science throughout the decade. The underlying theory,
however, was that science serve production.
24. Suttmeier, Richard P., Research and Revolution: Science Policy
:' and Societal Change in China. Lexington, Massachusetts: D. C.
Heath and Co., 180 p. (1974).
Developmental science policy is unique to the People's Re-
publio of China in several respects. The author reviews and
assesses the whole spectrum of science in China. Topics include:
1) Research, Innovation and Developmental Science Policy:
a Perspective; 2) Policy Shifts and Abiding Principles for Chinese
Scientific Development; 3) Organization-Building for Science,
1949-1957; 4) Alternative Models for Organization and Ad-
ministration of Chinese Science Programs; 5) Technological Mo-
.:'. bihization: Science, Technology, and the Chinese Masses; 6)
Conclusion: On the Idea of a "Chinese Model." The author con-
eludes that the Chinese approach to scientific and technological
development has been both developmental and integrative. Will
this pace lead to the "science-society" crisis of developed nations
or will the developed nations eventually look to China for guidance
in solving these problems? According to the author these ques-
tions are important even without answers.

25. Suttmeier, Richard P., "Science Policy Shifts, Orga.I+ia,
Change and China's Development." China Quarterly, no. 62 (Jne
1975), pp. 207-241.
"One of the most notable features of post-1949 China has
been its striking periodicity." ".... The Chinese model for scientific
development is in fact a series of competing models-one which
promotes research, education, specialized management and in-
novation from the top downwards, but tends towards social strati-
fication and organizational rigidity: and one which promotes the
integration of science with society... but which seriously neglects
specialized training and specialized management."
26. Yamada, Keiji, "The Development of Science and Technology in
China: 1949-65." The Developing Economies, v. 9 (December
1971), pp. 502-538.
Written in September 1966, this article discusses the growth of
research and development prior to the Cultural Revolution with
emphasis on the role played by the Chinese Academy of Sjionces.
Although the organization of R&D has changed since 1966 the
author contends that the role of the Academy cannot be ignored
in assessing the future development of science. .
27. Yang, Chen-ning, "C. N. Yang Discusses Physics in the People's
Republic of China." Physics Today, v. 24 (November 1971), pp.
A noted Nobel Prize physicist discusses physics in the People's
Republic of China. Contrary to earlier impressions, he discovered
that industrial production has made significant progress over the
last 15 years. "China, however, is still an industrially backward

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SGenevieve C., "China's Technological Development."
- v:5i4 (May 1., 1972), pp. 371-373.
mapptlity_ of Vhefe pc-cies for technological develop-
1 tr oMild.telopig eomntries. Based on, the port of
rGwrur.idoinee and Technology inm China's Development,
n"i.y.., 4 &&hJani. y IS.M.
'.; : ;; :.lJ]. + ,l .+,. .- .'-, .,. f.. ..,. ..-
SGenevieve C., "btovatioun iar Choice of Techniques
i: The Chinese Experience, 1958-1970." Bultetin of the
tDeadope.ltSemej v. 4 (l2),,pp. 39-48.
WMO Gremak fL sa Forward thera., ha been consistency of
me for technological advance in state-owned industrie mun
"MI m.6. ',iea-ca,;.pieal-intenfv technologies and
\ *' tmauA e oinsinmfr .goods sectors which use tradi-

1c khp m a labor4ntenaive technologies.;
SawviB er Oc ^ 'A Note .the Soceus, oft Technological
:.a:r tiOoiN s& lo Nipl's Repubkol of Ohma." The Journal of
*it k a,'I (January1.922),- pp. 187-199.
.. ^ ded4OVw tz idJignous doU6 f teoaogi iMnova-
e i" int& iith etmin a industries in Clnsa, with paticu-
a !a| refarenas to the design form movement of 1964-6f. "The
... ... Iat purpose of this note (is) to trace some of the changes in
on4 etlimowative actiniy i China, whiwh Might
-p'i.sMmeito hw ^qtting ipsetwoUmoftqchno options avail-
able to the planners m recent years" e.g., as inferred by SWger

ifAH>11k 5 T Techunology to China."
E.i 'h TrARa 4)
:,4i r,(3974) pp. 229-.52. :
bu .li1i dce % ; 4 ole o bomowed technology, within
a #.ia oouibhktiwi of technological &change. Fiphnis is on
-ilkqhipfioe: Bdnterg techniques iMrodiued directly in the
kLj.biu4IaonJproqa e result of a 4eoiAion Wy the govaxunent
Sor an agent of the government, which led to the impot of; tech-
,nology from abroad, exchange of scientists, importation of books,
ariaAs*WnmJaee r" iMko uata from abroad j , .
.( .! J, .u, :i: ., :.:;,: .. * : ... ; f ;. :I -: : ,I
Heymann, Hans Jr. "Acquisition and Diffusion of TOecMolgy
/i Cf U Id: Usidl ks0io nU Jn t.ornmie Oommittee, Mi Cl :
rnS0I0qSBgae7, of tflWWrz Wtbington, U44. GOVwernment
-ji,,(tii E ^tnlf& .Qa-^ of A^ i'1=Nr ,:.
iom s dq. it ,poifbi f wr eto
ma 1iefiv g4peei of teGhnicasakd(i amcuiovl6ic wjnce
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imports are still a key factor in the development of the more
sophisticated sectors of China's industrial production syst .
Review of policies and discussion of constraints on imports of
33. Hoshino, Yoshif$, "China's Technological Line D during the
Cultural Revolution." Developing &Eonomics, v. 11 (March 1973)4
pp. 23-38. P. *.
Technical conditions perculiar to socialism.Basic starting.poit
of China's cultural development. The contradiction lbtween
technical specialization and the masses. Fundamental change in
engineering colleges. Criticism of the ideology in engineering
textbooks. The problem of the reflection of classes in technology.
New technological development with agriculture as the base and
industry as the leading factor. .:
34. Ishikawa, Shigeru, "A Note on the Choice of Technolo dn
China.' The Journal of Development Studies, v. 9 (October 1972),
pp. 161-186. ,t
Chinese planners' choice between known; abd available "ech-
nologies, and between techniques that are immediately applicable
to industrial and agricultural production;. considered i..teminas of
the planners' basic objectives, their criteria of choice, technical
and technological alternatives, and. objective conditions whih;
constrain or facilitate the planners' choice; reviewed in- the three
phases which have characterized Chinese development:-hie
"Soviet model", "Great Leap Forward",- and, "3 and 4 Five
Year Plan" -phases. The Maximum Growth iCriterion and the
investment-inducement mechanism.
35. Kojima, Reiitsu, "China's Indigenous Technology." Technology
and People, Part 1 (Spring '1972), pp. 57-61;, Part 2 (Summer
1972), pp. 57-66. .. :
1-Superstitions of the Chinese masses and "science!'".. 2-
Western European science and technology and revolutionary
thought. 3-The Great Leap Movement, the .theory and4i tw$t
kinds of superstitions, and the transformation ofr` le:
The first FYP; Eradication of blind belief Imn foreign scieac aMd
technology; The core of eradicating two kinds of superstition;
New. idea of technology-What is the idea of indigenous! tech-
nology; Two trends in invention. 4-The stage after the Cultural
36. Lee, Rensselaer W. III, "Ideology and Technical Innovation in
Chinese Industry 1949-1971." Asian Survey, v. 12 (August 1972),
pp. 647-661. .7g
Between 1949 and 1971 the People's Republic of.China has
sought to integrate technical innovation with ideology. Thus
Maoist emphasis has been upon workers' contributions to innova-
tion, emphasizing that they be masters not the'slaves of their
machines. The author feels that the workers' techn ical p, er
(which is allied to anti-foreignism), may difiinis 'China's
relations with foreign countries increase.


ff44lp~~-1n eer W: III, 'The Politics of Technology in Oom,.
munist China." In: Chaim.ers Johnson (ed.) Ideolovy rPolitikdin
.CU ---Ohinma. Seattle, University of Washington Press,
t of 8asi0-a t..w Press,
~j ,j es te1 relationship between technical democracy min
.. i J: a d the l ong-run objectives of the Communist leadership.
a ijagbaject is treatedd on two levels: ideology and function.
O vran the article traces the evolution of Communist tech-
nological policies in China from the early 1950s to the present.
I: F "- F
$nwe.raqcF1 Qan* jn' for China's Industrial
"De :bpment." Innovatin, no. 23 (August 1971), pp. 2-12.
I n:: ,acuasea]'. v.,( .Ima*e policies on industrial and agri-
k: o4 ,'vtehoAc .ithe, context of policies for long-term
Il4epmolevelopmnut,84 political anad ideological goaLs..
-4 li b .i u 4$f dudtrial4evelopment; emphasis on small- and
.ill m:.u caenterpr ses; plant self-sufficiency as a function of
self-reiance Bampas participation in production! decisions . .
Obstacles to technological development: unintegrated character
-'M1 $9Ppt4 irdr stryy preventseiEergenpe :of highly'skilled tedhni-F
cal people; lack of a core of. innovation managers; inadequate
ji YyWtMM Of o diffusig!, innovations . Concludes that "one
h119 0 a4vantage othe Chinese approach 0o far is that it regards
.1j..g. rwt as mqe. tha: wa a mere.. function of physical invest-
b*faa4 techplolqcpl: prores. ".,.. The Chinese contend
bI'frtwteltilhmuaAi fA-inc-lnuding, miotivation-is a vital part of
the equation leading to economic development." :,I
# ti Manfr"do, '"Hands otthe Chinese." New Scientist and.
9Scince Journal, v. 50 (June 10, 1971), pp. 636-639. ,
r,,',, iatji'tie purpose of this' article to attempt to assess the
roI ,, orn4 clm Qo&al capability of the People's Reputblic of
^.t t& t4ey. Tp ,thisond, the author defines the position of China
EWj) I YreMatiol to the rest of the world in the broad areas of culture,
dup~ation and science, as well ias in four advanced technologies
|,, missiles, jet aircraft and computers). The main con-
.noi. .fl0 .4f t.his srvey is that China is emerging as the third
$1,,, F, r-.. .might be challenged by Japan."
:. . ., ; ,
Oit. Thomas G. "Problems of. Technology Absorption in
Chinese Industry." American Economic Association, v. 65 (May
r494)pp. ?83-388.
T, h;,Te, author discusses the factors influencing the problems of
,it:. pnport substitution and technology, transfer in China's developing
economy. He proposes that the older and smaller private angi-
Iu "qing units are better suited t developing new products and
.,tech niques., tan the larger units. The uthor concludes 'that
i[ 4q9mec: engineering producers .mustben to display the flexi-
*0,, tB *lwhi.h is shown, by thetr advatted cuaies._wuanttrrarts
.,c idf iqywi"h to cOpew with a Sg *fau smite xm te economy.

4L Schuman, Juli, "Technol gy Tnterest." Far Eest$I mN
Rwiew, v. 78 (December 23, 1972), pp. 31-32. : el I mmi
S The main Chinese emphasis mi the feld' of imphpaewi a -
nology and equipment with a high technical intent. Clmehle m
for the China market by the industrialized nations isidowi to cted
towards this need. The China market will noe be cdrmreds t any
one nation. Recent trade developments between V hi and
Britain. .
Io 'i -.!,;:;8.' :? *
42. Sien-Chong, Niu, "Scientific and Technological Develapnii
of Communist China." NATO's Fifteen Nations (MApi ti
pp. 89-96..
The author first presents several indicators of the scientcad
technological capacity of China tiday. Qilifimtd dcetai4itt and
engineers, advanced levels of education, and adequate idhta Ia
resources all stimulate developnentsin nuclear weapons tidom-
puter technology. OCh'en Po-ta'a speech on: the Chitt om-
munist Party's view of science finishes the artiield. !"-
4. Tsu, Raphael, "High Technmology in Chins." &iwnt UBw-
ican, v. 227 (December 1972), pp. 13-7. i>
A visiting physicist to China concludes that the i8y is
building the technological foimdation it needs for rapid lidastrW
growth. The author noted sophisticated oil refinerieA 'ttdOther
signs of maturing heavy industry: a hydraulic press. AdWced
wtrk on controlled fusion with laser. heating: mRetloio ad
computer technology. J
44. Uchida, Senko, "Technology& in China." &fMti' Mtf
v. 215 (May 1966), pp. 37-45. ';
Review of China's stated technical goals andpeliibie., prbleam,
Sand extent of her advancement in key industries. China f t.iore
a developing country than a communist one. China iow .4eks
to develop a technology of design by seekg technical aAi*Iance
and knowledge from non-Commn mist countries. The un Bized
structure of China's. industry and technology is an 6*acle
to the development of specialied skills and efficient podftion.
Increasing emphasis on mechanization and automatio=dV R wth
of technology in iron and steel, chemical and machineini es.
China is ten to fifteen years behind the technologies of mder
industrialized countries.
45. Wheelwright, E. L. and McFarlane, Brace, "Technoloyial
Policy." A chapter in: The hinhae Road to 8oaidi.m:E&#A6rnw of
Sthe Cultural Revolution, New York: Monthly Review PrWI(1(970),
ppi 162-180. 1 6 4; 8j
The authors visited China in 19606 anda ieg.: Chftsp 9-
Technological policy: The milieu.v at toehnkols, fa 0e, omy
distinguished by social control :/zlbrythe1b:cifih"* the
unified state plaR, to whi h is :ttacd tre 'motpr' of tal..f in-
centives; the pratice4 descriptions ofatse studies rthe t3dtyIwhy

0. A: 1 .:1 /

i(IU agiis, 497&> pp, iB6-0. .

uitin minis aireasd)East-West trade
* "u6kchlaidI ea omic: factorslikaly to
at, w niotommnunit oomtries,
eiae.intIn teIolme ol-opi.i Ex-
wida&~lirIofl dawlcment--irunt and

eino~toI~brrcetu lotr k9* 1172L
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47. Betn, Anthony W,, "Oita-Tand ofrWa l(>M I
Transformaion." New &im v. 53 (Jtlauw t .t. n 2...A.
... The authiorrecord obsevatiomnm-a& l al ..
- 1971. Effect of the Cultural Revolutu OI
S*['scientific institution; Iediminaiion h d" .....iIi.
-. merging Chimna LAaey &teoe :at "
. seahinstaitut, i..e. .a.lili .a410
and local government leveL &AdeflitamE .
ability for research. Allocation of scientific resouc .I
computer programs. Research workers sent to factori es ...i..
tryside, then return to their institutes to work on': '
problems; veteran workers lecture, bring problems to us. -
tutes. Links between schools and university and
Reorganization of Chinese Medicine follows the same pitisi.
48. Cha, E. C. T., "Contacts with Earth Scientit tie .
Republic of China." Science, v. 179 (March 9, 1973), pp4PS
An American geologist discusses his visit to Chinai
citizen, and summarizes the status f geology in China:
brigades and bureaus, geological institutes and esearb, h
of current activities, Institute of Geology and Paleontology, a
Department of Geology and Geography, Peking Univma l.y%

49. "Chinese Science on the Mend." Ourrwt Scime, v. 9 (Mm!
1971), pp. 17 18. .... ..
Reappearance of Chinese officials in charge of sam % g
izations after the Cultural Revolution; Iiit of fore..a
visiting China. Shift in focus from theoretical to applied .
50. Esposito, Bruce J., "The Cultural Revolution ad China's.
tific Establishment." Currnt Science, v. 12 (Apr11 1974), pp
"In the wake of the Cultural Revolution, the Mdentifg
lishment as a whole underwent reorganization. It w as.
lined and decentralized, but more significantly there was = .t
of emphasis in scientific research to the creative power of th
masses." The author reviews the resultant changes n th sii
structure of the PRC. . f
.: .... t :i" "' ,
51. Nunn, Susan Swannack, '"Research Institutes in the Peopltu .e-
public of China." U.S. Oina Buaiee ie, v. 03 (Ma t
1976), pp. 39-50. v
'Describes the general picture ad rvc hat iW
happen when a scientific deepgion ir t PRo ut a.
American company, the role of w" Chins Asdmy 1 5,,
(CAS) in overall research in Chin, the status of an ultu b.-.
logical, medical, engineering and technical research in the PBR,






* ". ,". * . I ." ,
idpid'eere n
drtd a 'sits .pA tprioties wit emphasis on applied research, and
lio aasspurchases of scientific instrumnentation from abroad."
|4o9 Lb .0ha.. -.* ; : .
J3D n G, It"ish Biology in China." Oopeiv, no. 2 (May 23,
1975), pp. 404-412.
The author visited a number of Chinese research institutions;
.. 1 ro .ts ;re presented on such. organizations as the Institute of
Ao.Z bopatcademiakn.ean"Pekl;. the Institute of Oceanology
in Tsmigtao, the Ximen Fishery College, the Shanghai Natural
iL>4a. iMiatv MUseunx mid -Ibthe Dalia&iMaune Fishery Institute. A
o.' dW f dieusslon of Chinese freshwater fish culture is also presented.
lo tetioi:ox: seientifica'eechangestnd ichthyological publications
i.'t i,.low iLast, the author discuses the Chinese policy of self-
'I J Whit 0-l-e aid its effet on the field of science.
h iKiq 'p, .: ,i. i *), ...;. ',* '*,; "I"f< .: - ..,. ; j ,;
isin s ;anid Research Corporation,-Direcoy of Selected Scien-
Ianf :l '4, Mailand Oin, Stnford, Hoover Institution
iJ^Aa forthe National Science Foundmtin:(1970).
| A compilation of information (pre-1966) concerning, research
and development institutions in China. Year of establishment,
facilities, nature of work, major activities, publications, and
biographic sketches of key scientific and administrative personnel
iki 490 selected institutions. The fields covered are the physical,
biological, medical and agricultural sciences, and engineering.
.44. Suttmeier, Richard P., "Chinese Scientific Societies and Chinese
Scientific Development." Dev6loping Economics, v. 11 (June 1973),
pp. 146-163.
The argument running through this paper is that Chinese
scientific societies formed an invaluable administrative resource
for overcoming organizational deficiencies in a relatively dif-
ferentiated and variegated system of science-related institutions.
Appendix: Professional societies in the natural sciences and
engineering fields as of 1966.
55. Tien, H. Ti "A Report to the Council of the Biophysical Society:
Biophysical Research in the People's Republic of China." Bio-
physical Journal, v. 15 (1975), pp. 621-631.
After describing the history, organization and achievements of
several Chinese research institutes, the author discusses the effect
of the Cultural Revolution on scientific research in China.
Observations on the value of scientific exchange with China are
Also offered.
56. Wang, Chi, Mainland China Organizations of Higher Learning
in Science and Technology and Their Publications. Washington,
library of Congress (1961).
Includes learned societies, universities and colleges, Academia
Sinica and affiliated research institutes, Chinese Academy of
Medical Science and branch institutes, Chinese Academy of
Agricultural Sciences and branch institutes, governmental re-
search organizations, and libraries. Publications include serial


learned socienes, scienunc uepsameua ni unreuzwuw Cy M|I*
I Beg, sze And 4ype of pasc igws 4f 40 ft&w* "AhSS
gardens O .qq (IQI .
A" ,.............< + + "

67i Yuan-li and Sleeks, Robt, '2 "
&vimnie estnhk -md Deva pme1tt s iw
Prsogeer (1970). j ..u. Ji.-
Fcuses n t.e, oequii tien ndjme a i,,,
taoihLology through .resr m wl
establish thase a..i1 bl o .:. W:onl::
steuce, \,nd m os dbsnal ow. Mn'l*li mill g! .l..
Chinese have ac uird and eeM Co
and technological fields. The study includes ....-..i .

rinta'f& And-
purpose data, ad lpkfltll m jt :: :

.... i .. 1 . 1.. H

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5& Albertaon, M.L., "Impressions of the People's Republic of China,
AtJ cUulral Engineering." Mechanical Engineering, v. 97 (June
: 4 p. 26427.
Tua has bea eenfrktS *ik the problem of maintaining &
Delicate balance between two objectives in agriculture- full
*oiklunn of its nentom population and also expanding
agicultun mehanlation." To accomplish these goals, China
Sh.~~Aftied t6 better eo unself-teliance I both the agricultural
i'M4 ISftS Settof, and to imresie the production of farm and
pumping machinery.
i @iangChui-tnn, "ed ahd Agricultural Problems in China."
OwrDt Huistory, v. 65 (September 1973), pp. 120-123.
S 4vWC the Idi augurtioti of the new goverAment min 1949,
I ...: ulire, hta ben the AMhills heel of the Chinese eeonlomy.
odkns tb ttio numt sigiifltat factors (according
n t4in) 'Sing (Jhi est adifltuit: weather conditions and the
W. r p s licia toward the peasantry.
6. Chi9, Te May and Ching, Kim K., "A Glimpse of Forestry in
(7 1 t Jd~rMJl If Ftsmnj, t. 71 (July 1073), pp. 4264*7.
Chinese forestry is terting to othec Nations for two ,reaohs;
"it, th6 ChseAd idift6nou tree flot is brong the richest in the
World, Sennd, sines the .. 1966-S OuWltural Revolhtion, ftany
chugsg have Oburemd in Chinese forstty. The autho.a discuss
J mei of thaie .harItN.
Mger, M. E., "Tne Farmiftg We Slaw in China." Farm
J n5, t. 97 (Jtnuty 1973), pp. 21-23, 34a
'Thia a I' eye viawes aecoant by the first U.S. scientist I 25
y7af1 t be &vitd to visit farms in Chini and address the China
i AAsdnmy f Agicultan and Forestry" The author concludes that
we have much to learn from the Chinese in the area of multiple
cropping, although much of the farming is primitive.
62. Erisman, Alva LeWiS, "ChIna: Arctfturai Development $94*-
71.." In: U.S. Congress, Joit smio Cntmtee. People's
M" oA A: Af wmi Assessment, WAshingto, U.S. ov-
do.efint ;:tmOff S9 (1972), pp. 112-144.
t iwo dtindt periods of ancitirat 66veltprmett poay are
bdigti ed by investment polcs. 1949-61.: investflt from
whtim agrtutunre W IneialteeSn atp{alon of lubNot e an
inelastic supply of cultivated land. 1962-71: large and lieing
amounts of chemical fertilizers, pesticides, equipment for irriga-
tion and drainage projects, farm machinery. Tabulated statistics.


18 :0
63. Eri.sman, Alva Lewis, "China: Agriculture in thea: B7'.. LM "
U.S. Congress, Joint Economic Committee. China: A 0 i .
of the Economy. Washington, U.S. Government Puipg
(1975), pp. 324-349. ;,.,,.irh
Review of the development of China's agriculture; ourrft
inputs, performance -jtforeigi. tade. Future production iA
closely related to the supply of mtrogen fertilizer, the produ a
of which is increasing rapidly., .- .. ]* ...! .;o"'TiidIt. 4.
64. Field, Robert Michael, "Chinese Agricultui 14. 5
Production, Consumption and Tr 1973), pp. 908-913. .. .. 4.. ,:k: f...J, i "
The author discusses the leVfll .I..... .af....a| h'
duction and considers the, prosperpts. hr tJ..ta.h
of a generally favorable, outlook, 1 wm sidnr 6 i
of China a problem. Fox tthis:he sutgesfra syste ,aatis
construct large, well engineered projects.. 9 N. :. .iv1i
65. Kung, Peter, "Farm Crops "of COhinp.T WoiM{M.Guib
April 1975),.pp. 55-64. :,-' ., v -,f:, ,
Modernization programs beguw.i j-A.h.r.FqjjIg,. .Bpublie
during the 60's have added neow. xnensionz itopr x4ut.L
progress in ChSina m the 70%. ;T^ho at h..0i P gm ce,
wheat, sorghum and mpize yield,.as .w... in
irrigation. He discusses C pina! pw'in crps ii~y n~~~ga
developments and progress made in the past decade.
.;. 1.'." .:.':i: "^ ;:. ; "-..I/ :ii*
66. Kuo, Leslie T. C.,. Tnki .. Tvwftw TI A1ihW
in Communist China. New York, 1raeger (1ft2). 9 ; .
"This study is primarily concerned .tI *he teo hical MIet-
of agricultural development i'in.nist Chi, ..h,,[4-
cluding] the overall ponies, .guidiig prip.ip]eB,,prog n6Cd
methods for the technical transformation L|tsi o'uWu m:ited
during the first two decades of the Communist regime .
Primaly attent4Qma. .7. *gfrep, otp
of the programs rather tha.p to the details I r. M
nology. In each case, the situatiom bo te ..atnst take
over, the highlights of', the program. carrie4dr iqt by t -w
regime, and the major accomplishm ta a4 jobles.4arel
observed.. . *,. ., -, ... :. :"
. i .: ** ; ., .r^ ,, *: ..' n :: .".. ]*.i(.]": )*,
67. Perkins, Dwight H., Agricultural Development in 6 i 68d ..-
-1968. Chiceago, Aldine Pq bUhiaig Co. (19#99 .. -,:. '.i
Provides a historical perspective to present deveilopmentIn
SChWqs agricultu . Traditia' 'q..riultu tet
Ci not sufficient, to support Cna.9p .
"traditional" tecnology w.s gwenu a seepoadmIr".. a oliy
focused on laige-sale investepent m ,odrn1qem p lW: p vts:
electrification modem farm inpmeieta, tmehii gp4wical
fert SIOU ...""",
fertilizer. k *; 4) firI i ^ ^ :
.. ..
*. .* . . *.... .. , i-!*: *. *ff .**;*f 1****
i ..... .. : 4 .4 .! h .&It *..,j,. g


... ..

Siid r I,

Perkins, Dwight H "Constraints Influencing China's Agricul-
tural i;Wr4&an0e.'I 9: U.S. Congress, Joint Economic Committee.
Gi4w:,A:Reus"qmeM of the Economy. WwhingtoDn, U.S. Govern-
Mebt PtintijagOffioe (1975), pp. 350-365.
Cbitais shfft in priorities toward agriculture: in the 1960's
pkOdnjrfAfth&'iAWntives and
Ps avestment' fertilizerand farm ma ery. Although
eoriltm-uw- to, ;ffier6i am 1,61
breakthroug4s in sight,
W-*o .4-1: i-Pressiots-of tMe ,-Noplavpteo]40 of
N ` I hN31 OfTebu-,
I&Y-,Iq",);P 12&429,
The alor presents his first impressions of 'China during. iiAcent
taip to that nation. Chinese historical backgroino, agrijoultural
7' an& theo6hang'es' in"'O'hgijieiBriliz,'ed'uca;tio'n AM IbApty
q, t or
$Wig.Akw, VRI IR. i"OhWfte Ag6culturia Past P4forma6og wid Fliture
.0 04 2 0 1174) p v87 52.
04 040k jj4;44 Ij.. calk& ind redonit 44416pnM Cnese
W, wung.: FostrWoM: War organizational and technialv changes
Ow 0., we discussed. e au or concludes that the future outlook for
f 4
4ir -Y piapAsa
71 S rague G. IV-j "Agniculture in China. 188 (Nfiv 9,
ed ",oit'jif 4 the auth6r -Oreixti his
to China *in 19N,
**dnSVbh- tho- status of agricul turo i4:'.Ghi6L.'. He odmihents
b w.; j th"'thk,-AbjkfyW the, Chinegel to,466& over 800, milhoit Oh-1 1 %0
amble land is remikable the.rfinptik"v6ver-bp Y.'Mildsidnice)
whast, sorkhum, and maize. Also, in contrat to American re,-
11- 1 I X Ibt.* vi %": ..Ar
h', itim
tureo ha*o a4
"WIL": ;1k;i, "Je
ttj 9; &"ti*(
t j 1-" 1-0 1.
Ah do try. %agrieultund ad-
v hel. two s6#ous -pri'diblehis, firs t. "the 6M a on
!Iq4, ttreh "4hd giott, Ww tWndfiW4 Moond, %M lr*xiienvs
lofLca ? '*t&-6&&wgrovAW rate. Evtotu'& t
for increased basic research, and. tha -pqpuwA)tafkw laorts
liove$ 0, be suoces44 to moj4t 0 - sta4dard..o.( ]i '
Insh .1 V :.,.
Ep. 11-tv it 1 0., j4 yi(.!
altj ts'KI.-Ursw Am


; * .. .
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73. Bueschel, Richard M., Communist Chinese Air Powea New. York,
Praeger (1968). .
Although the title suggests consideration of air power from
1949 onward, the author begins in 1923 with-onmmuiat cid
trained by Russian pilots. Part Lof the book traces the hist of
airpower from 1923; part II discusses the aircraft of oammnist
China since 1923.
74. Calder, Nigel, "Mao-1 in Orbit." New Statesman, v. 79, no. 2042
(May l, 1970), p. 612. .
Political and military implications of the first satellite launched
by the Chinese. Use of satellite for survey ad eommwdu lsi
not economically justifiable. Satellite launch indicate, ,the
Chinese have mustered a formidable array of talent and *1..."
but diffusion of skills throughout the countryside has ,.., to be
75. "China Buys Six More Trident 2E's--Oash Sale TotWs $57.5
Million." Aviation Week and Space Technology, v. 97 (August 14,
1972),jp. 25.. A .
Discusses the second round of Trident 2Fprders which g
in 1971. The article states: "The Chinese will have a rint
fleet second only in size to British European Airway& Their
experience with the aircraft began when they bought four used
Trident I's from Pakistan International."

76. "China Joins the Space Age." S& ee News, v. 97 (May 2 1970),
pp. 427-428.
Data on the first Chinese satellite indicate a medium-range
ballistic missile capability; the science and technology reqm..p
for ICBM's is more sophisticated and, although the themretial
knowledge may be availabka to the Chinese, shortage of e ee
ug and logical know-how and disruption d4urn the. Ct.ural
Revolution may be the cause of the lag m Chine fC M dev!op-
ment. International political and, military repercusims of
China's missile capabilities, ., ,
77. "China Orders Eight Additional Hawker Siddeley Triudlt
Trijets." Aviation Week and Space Technology, v. 97 (November 20,
1972), p. 30.
This order for eight additional Hawker Siddeley Trident Trijets
brought the total number of orders to 20. A British company
flight crew accompanied the jets to China to guide the Chinese
in an informal training program.


^"sSix Trdant SDr_." MTrim Wen ihtS
re|f^vW(ugs 0 ipa _ ;... :..^ / ..
i: -~iin^tai^Srid wai ladimstg Husker Siddole~yrid
S 4to.~fs ie ilust ITOf behind the Qanuttion
S.,is ofcU qbMTAdent 2SB 1s ideatical to those opatad by
British European AarlyW haa aring 2,700 mi. mid a animum
speed of 612 mph." The backlog order with Chinese aircraft was
t't%12.ST CTa 29 A '; "0 -
5 :T +. : ..- *. ^ .. . . .,. . .- '-
1W.f ..iovhwm A p R iiaui. and
4IIWZWadVM .. WB (Jno 2, I l:r)~pp. 19 ),pp 283.
6 vl*: i S BRapubi. of China ha hcnmsd its capalffity in
iWWar .igaifitamiy over tip past fite Ye5StS and
specially following its break with tiaSovist Uimon. 'The article
discusses the current status of the PRO's air transport system,
S...4Itaa ms that, al tith the Chinese h this'mnea, aLusoxl
.^. Coming ad" Cvro AviatiotR Admini at ltonChis.
i (ecC 6 TIARA YSOT*A W 956 (SAptobw 277 21197)X.1 24.
D sits r udj iiwytes. 4e tan ha oii h Concorde
e;eiptroe tripswil rooteogreater fr:ed ndhi Pps d trust Cbiet on
the B low Qtwosde wuwm fArai.
Ia.oma ia uen OMe Whi erde TwOi Concorde rar P977 licy. A
Action. eek nd 8 pwe T W w, v. 97(Jul 5, 1971), p 4.
I ~~~' pod.,Hasf~lkt~i^
Awiukm et gotadiswa 4 ~ bmimesefor
einj .bgLOW OW I dltF h (9Upnod u si -trans-
.,An erTlhe artile) o nting $on etnePeopther tRis da Cpthn or
a standard indication of intent to buy. Airro t aet omo te d to
be delivered in late 1976 or early 1977.

evke a reiino h*..plcyo slto~oad
82. Corning, Gerald, "An Aeronautical Visit to China." Astronautics
ad Aerona.tics, v. 12 (April 1974), pp. 16-19.
Impressions of an aerospace engineer after meeting with faculty
and students of the Peking Aeronautical Institute and viewing
its aeronautical facilities. He concludes that visits such as his and
reciprocal trips will promote greater friendship and trust between
the two countries.
83. Doty, Laurence, "Chinese Jet Bid May Cloud Trade Policy." Avri-
tin Week and Srce Tecknology, v. 94 (March 15, 1971), p. 30.
An early article commenting on the People's Republic of China
attempts to expand its commercial air routes beyond the Com-
munist periphery in the Far East. The emergence of a new market
evoked a revision of the U.S. policy of isolatioxrtowards Red
84. Golden, Ronald, "Peking Pushes for an Expanded International
Air Transport System." Aerospace Intalioena, v. 7 (May-June
1971), pp. 18r-22.
Prospects of new Chinese international air services: China
seeks to buy large aircraft abroad, especially in Britain. China
produces versions of various Soviet aircrit. Development of
Chinese electronics industry.


&L. ,ATO Unit Clouds Chiiese Interest in Spey lrodcdiau A
tion Week and Space Technology, v. 98 (April f173),l 1
2Di~ussewthe impact of NATO's Coeom(oobtisaat4mmt-
tee for strategic Western import) on the Puple's e of
A China interest in license productioli the ollRoyce SpY
.bypass engine and its military deritive. '. .. A
.. . I ..... .. ,
86. O'Lone, Richard G., "China Emerges as Key Market" Auinx
Week and Space Technology, v. 98 (May 28, 1973), pp. 44-47.
The author discusses the growing potedtial'of China as BfM
market for commercial aircraft, and related equipment as a tcs At
S of its leaders' determination to hasten OhinaO's emergene dhto the
World's airline stage. Some of their activity to date in mpoig
high technology is summarized. ..
.. .-. '" ; ** **
87. O'Lone, Richard G., "No Technical Bars Seen to China Service."
SAviation Week and Space Technology, v. 96 (February 28 19I), pp.
S The author discusses reactions of the first U.S. airlnail olst
enter mainland China in over twenty years. He notes they be
"... surprisingly light air activity there andd overer tat ar
* transport and facilities and equipment, uMotgh below :US.
standards, would present no obstacle to commercial seraeJ'"

8. "Rolls, China Agree on Spey Productibn DeaIl." Aviiwn Wet M
SSpace Technology, v. 103 S Discusses a $200-milion deal between BfilR-Ioyce Rad the
People's Republic of China, in which the military iveion of th6
SRolls-Royce Spey turbofan engine would be manufictuted Inner
Peking under license. I ,
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'-toi Chi n in 1972.^* ..:.*. Th 3. *ee trp co ee a tou of computer **
adt w*'*:lflibs" t'an :dsuso of copue tehoog ih hns
nlii.t ri.i fii .. .e.. s c d th C use
lO jTO iJi. "> *. :i *
i9. heathamin, Thomas E., Jr., and others, "Computing in China: A
TaeIl Reeyort." Science, v. 182 (October 12, 1973), pp. 134-140.
'.s. uvlews thetripogef Amnerican specialists in computer technology
to China in 1972. The 3 teek trip covered a tour of computer
* 4j utilities and discussion of computer technology with Chinese
j,1ettrtis. As fhr as the specialists could determine, the Chinese use
it. evfimsputors almost entirely for scientific and engineering calcu-
" ;ih "' li" H o nsa 9 " '
J.i.O .. t, .. .-"
90. "China Builds Electronic Capability." Aviation Week and Space
Technology, v. 102 (June 9, 1975), p. 59..
Discusses progress in China's electronics industry, asserting that
British experts believe China's capability is rapidly closing the
Technological gap with the West. This assertion was based on a
visit of a delegation of senior executives of British firms hosted
by the Chinese Electronic Society.

91. Holland, Wade B., "Perspectives on Chinese Computing." Soviet
Cybernetics Retview, v. 3 (January 1973), pp. 19-24.
Since the opening of relations between the U.S. and the People's
Republic, the author notes a burst of interest and enthusiasm for
the Chinese computer industry. The author asserts that not all
of the enthusiasm is deserved although the Chinese have made
impressive strides. He does feel that they have really achieved
third generation computers. e. .. it is an oversimplification to
call China a third-generation country while the Soviets remain
bogged don in their efforts to achieve this level."

92. Nybert, P. Russell, "Computer Technology in Communist
China." Datamation, v. 14 (February 1968). pp. 39-43.
Organization of R &D in computer technology; Soviet aid;
Chinese computers. China still lags in development of computer
technology but is narrowing this gap; computer technology will
continue to be subordinated to supporting military science in
China; it is doubtful whether the Chinese "large transistorized
digital computer" represents any kind of a technical breakthrough.

93. Reichers, Philip D., "The Electronics Industry of China." In U.S.
Congress, Joint Economic Committee. People's Reyublic of China:
An Economic Assessment, Washington; U.S. Government Printing
Office (1972), pp. 86-111.
Description of history, production facilities and level of tech-
nology of the electronics industry, by product group: electronic
components; electronic instruments; computers; communications
equipment; consumer entertainment equipment; military elec-
tromcs. Appendix: major facilities in China's electronics industry.


94. Szuprowicz, Bohdan 0., "China's Computer Industry." Dma
ton, v. 21, no. 6 (June 1975), pp. 83-88.
"Starting with the manufacture of copies of Soviet machine,
the Chinese have developed their own designs and entered the
third generation." Between 1960, when Soviet aid ended and the
present, the Chinese have almost reached Western tdards.
Although they could produce more computers, the allocation of
resources to other areas limits the prpduoetio ?ate, 3, :>

95. Szuprowicz, Bohdan 0., "Computers nW Mao'a, Cn." Nw
Scientist, v. 65 (March 15, 1975), pp. 598-60.0, ,
After visiting China, the President of a computerr firm Q rvP:
"with only minimal help from the Soviet t3on n4 tq W4at,
China has pulled itself into the high te chnology age, C.,ii-4 built
digital computers, electron microscopes and silicon cryst41pgrwmg
furnaces were among the products offered for sale at the Canton
Trade Fair." .:,

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.. '; ,.... ENERGY
96. Ashton, John, "Development of Electric Energy Resources in
114.. Qi In: An Economic Prqfie of ainlwd C7&i,
."Jemt. Economic Coomiwttee. Washington, U.S.
Ii"I:':: t ntrmm~jag Qffice (4967), .297-316.
kam is one of the most highy endowed countries of the
r. iwf4 i. tp0te (s of pijiergy resources for the development of electric
1 powr logenert0 Article discusses hydroelectric and coal re-
.... '; ,^ePs, orga4W tion and development of the electric power
..ri." iustri, consumption of electric energy, as well as rates, revenues,
costs and profits.
,Dr., "Impressions of the People's RepubliQ of
.. i.3 ,P e,_.A Miror of Self-Reliance." .Mechanf Eng-
t. i ;qib bothe 0 small-scale, communal hydropower
4 Q an~4 larger stae-owued instalations. A short appraisal of
I ,P epe inese techeal expertise and, chances for future
.. . S.I... I ,.
91pe O nr, "CbhnesW' Q Flow Up But Much Larger
'. 'yI 1a/1To- Oil and Gqa IJwwd, v. 69' (December 131,1971),,
^ j( diese oil producton hae strongly recovered smice the 9u1tural
: ..,.,ut.:Oi- Refing capacity being steadily expanded, ,Explora-
F.. ~,~otivity 19cA4Wg oil reserves. Estimate of produti ao .based
akmrw...": ...,: .... ". . ~ g i c n
,.0, fnl..jn, wrticle 'November 1971,. A 'cant
t4I-up n imports of both petroleimO aid i. mdOptry ejqpment
will occur during the remainder of this decade." "With nuclear-
,.0 e^ y developnont still in its infancy, coal wil probably reraq4
dmnas principal fuel spurc fox industry power operation; Tail
hp dging t14e foreseeable future,"
101a: o'r W=to
fl:It.e 'Next'0i2 Giaut' Foreign licy,
"i 970,PP I,. ,; .
R,. i.TA, presents au overview of Chbeoe oqtshor oil
, Phd the mternatunal mplicatiolns T9q ba's future
;.. Of eXor at ,.'The net 4eect of expaanded hin0 e s oil exports
( wou., to reduce globA depndenue 9R the Middle fast and
it; B^ Praft Gulf; butt &prindieat irect beanefidaris of a
Q e rt.tfznstare Ufmely t Jpin d other politically

Quarterly (December 1974), pp. 699-719.
The historical background of the OChinese petrleu
is presented, followed by a discussion of the present oil d11
in that nation. Such topics as oil production and rees=`
refining, domestic dema nd',a. -the future prospecttif"'4V
petroleum industry.are presented. A,. o '
*,. 'f r. ,. ; i .: :.!.--...!? *^ " i- ,. rt .riM
101. Williams, Bobby A. "The Chinese PFei1it iVtM*'
Sand, Prospects." In: U.S. Confess, Jojqti!Wei4,
China: A Reassesament fthe&onemy: 8I iwnii
,,s n of 'h, ".,." M a ,..:.' "... :. .. ......
ment Printing Office (1975), pp. 225-2t' :3"
Discusses the background of-the raidbi e' fiF
as a major oil producer and epqrter. UstaUna .b!odil-ttlV
future production, reserves, doinstc -tbgiimpt ibnrat
S capabilities. *. ...
S. .. ;** *; f :r. ,3 -i.0

102. Wolfe, Jessica L., "Political Implications of thq Pe. h
Industry in China." Asian Survjv. 16'.(June. 1 ) .'K
"This article demonstrates S.w potewiu. fls.
industry can modify the political Paameteier' dChine..
development and foreign policy. The h mof sel-rdl and
simultaneous development centAl to the 'Maoisteii. are
underscored- as quasi-political vhiitles 'in the' diveloJ t. of
this industry. For analytical purposes, the petrdie iT" .s
presented here as-the nQexus .of the ChiUese ,economy: d .
and change in diffeient ecctoc:
S infrastructure al -finance-e aan mirinsicafllyTe0 it.
Where political priorities .have been relaxed to promof.pey6Mt
productivity, the effects of iich laxity hi-ve perMOeat.eti
sectors as well. Examination of the petrieii industi' aldia
that transformation is not merely occurrm'Iitn te different
levels of the economy, but' that the Moist matrix frd'w ich
economic policy stems i: itself bing redefined" '
103. Wi, Yuan-U, "Chinas ner esr and
Current History, v. 69 (July l '0 g: .t"s..". a'nP.."
The author speculates on thle futtie"bf Chha's net'ha-or
export commodity, pil. The d4velopmentsJding to. J
severence- of petroleum trade with' e Soyiet 1U4QU i
ing. interest in Chinese oil are di&4sased. OCn&ni fdF^
iireagses in oil production tobprovide for bothth'e ex oill n of
Chinese economy and t lWUI' Vedd for A1ifrlo s ted.
The author concludes, 'Ih ti"b"lyL Pekiii". k rii.s. pusly.'. 18
consider the desirability at noil Wstntee and
capital to enter the co ntr, .aSI rg. Serial ,,.M.eB
p lan n in g ." ..... ..'' " "' "' -' ... *"'.... ....... ' ..


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L Yuan, Sy, "China's Chemicals." U.S. China Business Review,
r. 2, no. 6 (November-December 1975), p. 3752.
S"Chins's chemical industry is still in an early developmental
stage. However, a solid and diverse foundation has been laid.
'There is no lack of deerinunstion or talent in China to build upon
Atwi foundation a strong tard viable chemical and particularly
.Metrooeni*c industry." The author further asserts that future
develop.nti h ical "'industry wilibe directed
totardsstimulatm tT agricultural hector. Chemicals such as
Ypewticides, insecticides, &nd fungicides will be needed to develop
the. land. China's textile industry also proves successful. The
wauihoqr closes with a brief 'discussion on the Chinese response to

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105. Blume., Win-, s. d Warin&nOh. W xeA. L,..sj4ier, .
Dynamics and Nunm104ia. Wea i or dFreiptiuf ^ 4 J2P
Republic of Cbia'" Bulleti oJf me .Amencu. M olxfpi
v. 54 (June 1973), pp. 502-418. 4
Surveys aQContplishments m ox93 of stxaos14isri4 ?j4niMcs
and numerical weather prediction between 1949 and i Ql ( iDt the
People's Republic of China. Topics considered include cluulus.
and turbulent boundary layer dynamics, and the dynamics.- f
meso-, synoptic-, and planetary-scale motions.
106. Davies, David, "Earthquake Prediction in China." Natnrev. 25&
(November 27, 1975), pp. 286-287. i
"Ten thousand professionals participate in the Chinese earth-
quake program, ten times the number in the United State,
and there is a band of many thousand amateurs. Activity is-
spread widely over the country and the instrumental content of
the program is equally broadly based. Work is being conducted
on all types of premonitory symptoms studied in the West-
seismic, geodetic, electromagnetic, geochemical, magnetotellurici
and in addition there is considerable interest in acoustic precursors
(earthquake sounds) and the unusual behavior of animals."
Although the author expresses concern over China's swing away
from theory, he applauds Chinese efforts and successes in predik
ing earthquakes.

107. "Earthquake-prediction Studies in China." Physics Today, v. 29*
(April 1974), p. 19.
On a recent trip to China as guest lecturer at the Academia
Sinica, the author witnessed the rebirth: of geophysical research;
since the Cultural Revolution. The organization and current
seismic research activities of three Academia Sinica institutes.
A brief description of the basic equipment used at seismographic
108. "Ecology in China." Chemistry, v. 46 (October 1973), p. 4. .
Cites the success of the Chinese in avoiding river and air
pollution waste disposal problems, and depletion of non-renewable
resources that face the U.S., Russia, Japan and other highly-
industrialized nations. The Chinese have made "non waste'" a*
109. Kapp, K. William, Evironmvental Policies and Development
Planning in Contemporary China and Other Essays. Paris, Mouton
and Co. (1974).

e!:. 49.4911.,u u LY q- I, 1. ... .. .. .-* I
W4Itefllpi'^ W0; CA l B! S7orl
4LUI in Inumll) aI1S wra
lFj "'^' ^ JUIW J 8 ( -uit 1975, pL 599-575.
"pnr 1w owmwjt'N plce W imn cabhtemp-
:'a 4d~lfsj~iSylaf ade sontert of China's efforts to
Ip t and improve her social and physical envirnmenL' "The
e includes with a presentation of te Chinese interretation
110 cenvhinmehtd Suption in the light of Chinee
yCe available In .#ie' 6 1
F I ....1
pglf g-,WifhL Wia iW ntethem, "Vidt to the People's Republic
A i.U0ql to the A;IL8. Dlelistion"e h
hfhw Mbow d .i." &s (N v5tmber 1974), pp.
"I 14, ,B1 +: :+':+ .. :
S 8ry .port of& small delegation of the American Meteo-
I wtipato cina ,im April and May, 1974.
., u. ., . . .__....,.. .
*ii^'pi' flHfffdIa4sns ohll~l'iet^aJ oultirali and scientific erperi-
?q* ft deltgWion a.e as the status of meteorology in
.... ^e Peoe's Republic.
M o ; , I',: i ". ,
*. i bsen C) "'Wmar Ma emnt in China: Top Priority for
A 'g: Y7e;t Uhjs mnj ,r. 9 (Febraly 1973), pp.
"h. ci vilization of China evolved as a result of interplay
-te-s twt injr heh.r and fod pron6
d.i A -r e 'we I -A .fl
..+ 2.. W&w., rtmjet riveOW te .Hwand and the Ye.
'4 '.. of atr cond abofd thrgh Chin**- history. The
;: A 9flmleb .; n r Znvolvaig men as hydroelectric
_++:> ei+hieet 'ho ee s culttal heroes to minmli on Csine.
i!^ . ':+ ; .j' l-rP"PL ;, ': 'r ; "i f.- <* + i- .- ; *. :1.
113. Mead, Dale F., "How the CMinse PIedict Earthquke&" &ine
irea (March 1976), pp. 57-61.
i The "People's War on Earthquakes" in China is organized
into b es of quake watchers involving large numbers of
people. The odd pre-quake behavior of horses and other animals
has been used as advance warning, and using this and similar
methods, the Chinese have been able to predict eight earthquakes
in the last three years.
i.. (Molans, Leo A., "China's Environomics: Backing Into Eco-
. "ljcal Leasdership." In: U.S. Congress, Joint Economic Committee.
.in. A R. eassemmt of ik Economy. Washington, U.S. Govern-
ment Printing Office (1975), pp. 116-144.
Although China's environmental policies have had a strong
Secomomc rationale, China has taken many positive steps to protect
th environment. Discusses environmental policies in relation
to hlwealth and sanitation, agriculture and land utilization, and
industrial pollution.

115. Orleas; Leo A. and Suttmier, Richard P., "T RejMao Ethie
and Environmental Quality."8:1 &e e, v. 170 (December 1970),
pp. 1175-1176. : .; :
"Maoism .. is first and foieioeot an thi .iof fality,.
of 'doing more with less'." The Maoist ethic appears to subjugate
technological to social, 4evelopmenta since progress a d thq Aeydf
opment of new teohnologigs remain under human aqtj A ie
authors note that Mapoism, )as an environmental ethio, may Seeas
Attractive to Westerners, who are disturbed about technology
and ecology,
'' 1 7 . .'
116. Rodale, Robert, "The Smog in China." Enviromntn4 A0ie'
Bulletin, v. 4 (March 17, 1973),pp. 2-4,8. 8 ..
Discusses the problems of smog in China, noting that home
heaters, not autos, are- the primary culprits. of air ppl!utipn T
Peking. While there are oth.r sources of pollutiunoniu Chins,ifi
author believes that todayjs leaders wilt.undoubtedly be ablq .to
overcome it and move the country in the direction it chooses. :

117. Whitney, J. B. R., "Ecology an=4Environmental Control.' In:
Michael Oksenberg (ed.):Ohina's Deveom'ntal Experiee, Proceed-
ings of the Academy of Politici Science,, v. 31 (March 1973), pp.
95-109. .. .
Because of the policies she has been pursn China is opti-
mistic about her ability to achieve simultaeo .usy .both eoonm
development and environmental integrity, buti many question
still remain.
, ..' .* .' ,* ;,r: "} = .. : '"= ^ ..**,
118. Wilson, J. Tuzo, "Mao's Almanac: 3000. Years of er; Eath-
quakes." Saturday Review', v. 56 (February. 19, 197), pp..0rO3..
"Earthquakes have always : been one 1 China's :gneat
scourges... Small wonder then that the.regime of Mao Te-
tung has instructed the Institute of Geolqgy ofChina's Academy
of Sciences to concentrate on the predicting of earthquakes."
The author discusses theprogress. L, Zr
.. o;* *' -
., ^ ; ., ** .=: o .' '

-: I
" i *, .. '.. .

." .. "

. =
,. ." "- !," : .' .. *: ,. ':s M l
-;* *, .. .. .*
.... :. . *.. .

*.*** i jj1!^ s tS i

,x;: i L . . J -
.Cofl-r lov ^ ':' ^t '/*' : ",i.. *
siri v. 11:.* it Iwr MEIOCINE
1l,. akeslee, Alton, "' nes'e iMedicine: A Truly Great Leap
eJS ul3Satu44r.d.. ieWorWd (October 23, .1973), pp. .70-721
... ....evelopig .obtries,. or even the United States borrow
"'.W.itfic, sbxxe of t.eac [Chiiese] techniques? The question is
u,-t,1in' tries might carefully consider.
,;c7 y ei'. al .U ..wdicaYgroups, some supported by the
.' I. u titut. ofe. a now investigating [some of

1 g, -iien-6-i, "Disease Control and Prevention min C.hina."
Asia, no. 26 (Summer 1972), pp. 31-59.
S. e t O.ecse,.umereusInnovations and changes
xo 2eb6 titC disease control and prevention.
hlduded m this report are highlight of some major programs
ie ,dtp >wit ptawitu s sais, c4acpr and 4iental disorders.
Ig #g 6., H i the.People's Republic of
.. ..a r.,. v 2 1973), p. 5
.1 3..Jb-o .. 4mericu physician to visit Chinu in
z .i 4~:]sqesesfinany.c.(pgs he observed during his visit,. He
o Alf t einer history China appears to be self-
w ..tta n~car*.eo tf miedicial.leeds of her people.,
12. Cheng, Tsung 0., "The New Chinese Medical Journal." Annak
.t-l _.e wiv. 78 (Ma.y 1973), p.771.
t ,. >'. ..I. esjedical Journal" was first officially published
a inuary 1973 and included articles on many of the exciting new
1 medical .events and discoveries of recent years. Discusses the pros.
c, and os. pf fthe new medical journal
oI "tiang, Brain Research in China." Brain Research, v.
J1^" 2 .974)-.Pp.. 34S?. 4.3..,
The &uthorpresents' a bi eewitnm account of the prsenti
research projects at Peking University and the Institute of
lo. ...,. fl w ,,i ". .* ,>'. - " :,. 'J. IL, "Socio-Medical Achievements of the Peopl's
'ofblic .f China. I Jnter ioal Jona Health Svice, v. 3
-1973).q p,.275-294..,
,. Th authors discuss .the aadvaces in health care and formerly
lnon-existeatEesL care tevey since the creation of the P oqple's
Republic of "Chi in 1949. They note that achievements m the
Gal.s. of cpuvteie .ad ae. icinme deserve admiration.
P M A :P .
S ampagn for sel-reli ance hais yielded a ouoe
V. B t.. ..:i A 4
.IX2IW Wr. [I' At 1 4 I # 1IV" *K! 1'12II



125. Espositio, Bruce J., "The Politics of Medicine in the Peoples
Republic of China." Bulletin of the Atomic Scientist, v. 28 (December
1972), pp. 4-9.
Discusses health care policies during the Cultural Revolution.
The author asserts that medical assistance in rural area will
definitely improve but will probably be accompanied by a reduc-
tion in health standards of urban areas. r
126. Geiger, Jack, "How Acupuncture Anestheties: The Ohn, S
Explanation." Medical World News, V. 14 (July 13, 1973), pt. 51-61.
A visiting medical doctor discusme thaneta*etic aspects of acu-
puncture. "'The Chinese have found that acupuncture chang the
patient's perception of both the intensity AMd qualify of pl by
specific blocking actions at two and perhaps three leel .4f tbe
central nervous system, without cortical depression aLd alters.-
tion in consciousness that accompanies traditional chemicl
anesthesia." "
127. Hsu, Robert, "Barefoot Doctors of the Pdople's Republic of
China: Some Problems." New Emngknd Jounrl of Med ii, V. 291
(July 18, 1974), pp. 124-126.
The purpose of this paper is to point out ptoblema and dangers
revealed by Chinese publications so that understanding. of thA
barefoot doctors will be more complete and balanced. IWS
problems can be classified into three categoriest-vtobM s of
decentralized training and unstpervised expetimehtatiu; de-
centralized research and development in herbal medicines; and
economic incentive and job satisfaction. These problem also
cast some doubt on the exportability of the program M:es it is
appropriately modified. -
128. Kao, Frederick, "China, Chinese Medicine and the Chinmese
Medical System." The Ameaicn Journal of 6"ines Medicieo v. 1
(January 1973), pp. 1-59.
Chinese medicine is a fusion of traditional Chinese medicine
and modem Western medicine. The athIbr points out thaSt it has
attained a universal or ecumenical character over the paat w
decades but it must still shed many vestiges of its traitoiolt
doctrines which may be a hindrance to its further development.
The article reviews development over the past 20 years.
129. Liang, Matthew H., "Chinese Health Care: Deteitats of
the System." American Journal of Public Health, v. 63 (Febru;a.
1973), pp. 102-110. 4
"A comprehensive review of the political, economic, ctl
and legal determinants which have molded the Chise sytetm
for the delivery of health care throws ight otn soe aspects,
and raises questions requiring mwre infomatios lL"
130. "Medicine in China." Mediad WrU Ne,, vt f (J iatly 14;
1972), pp. 51-62. .sh .
Four doctors, representing d eret al dfhn.
and political philosophies, rewrt on a new medical system.

* As,

e practice of medicin
ttinsed an invisible,

t qf. r W jiy dof
t Qt, Vie MNStioeawLAds oeho'
;tpii: NAtioaal Mca-depy of

Ptploe',s epuli -of CI .-by a
S. in 1973. tapers cover: China
,ont.rol, and nursing and' child
kae vsm. sad notes on a meeting

'-^'' +"-' M a d -
tm Ma .., .e$ M.M16 An.od.-.
is tre We iI.,

other observations.

.i n. ..<. i
l. " "+. "

imw a v.gauon's
9pmsucllude: radical
n pwes !partioa and
service duiw7ry and

w upd w eni CMina, 174'."
n:, lwab anud public Welfare,
tEoA U.S$. opverAmg nt Printing

:, .'; .. ", , .on how the Chinese have transformd sa 4muntry,
ars ago had one of the highest death rates in the world,

AMk .1 awitewiat nac-ss
care. "It is also a report 4hlt tapes l !eru4 thr
Cpo*.% taro> 4P Ap 44 Cbinn my a wors by

b$b C 4bnrvations
v, .1. 0 -OptcWr 7,1973),

n oI U -- T f. _T E -! < I ; * :i '. < : _' : _ _ visited China the author pipnt Wt A.Pp inf!or-
maion on acupuncture and describes its use in psychiatry. He
.i&. ... 4 grw isaiwities i W tAerwyof tft

U.+.f ilakow, *e, u W.W,
A flfl
-,I .P5 Ol ej W mw m.e

w0t*t microscope and that they ee te to rer nerves
;.: **f^| l^ -tte fli.|,^___^ ,pa tion. ** .-* /*.......;*.....*: :
,,,r,*' i ^^ .^ ^ ,^ t.!. + +, .. ++,,. t ...... ...: :pi .i ...` v. ;-; , .-i '* ,
.n f .... '. ,!" ; ,'N ,_ >. +. '* :. w Ii- +**" >: :: f:P+ * 1 11 r ;" <.." /
I if "PA -
P T jJ .: A
,zl sib .!:i.N a Si, t .'..,h ..i ... .. : ia: ts I:


emaamunity health; and
4..: ". ;.*.. ." :.. : i" .
, ...'1 % ., .: 1 .':,.. :.-.

111. 41i to w
M fti-il-Si F 9I. _P l' ed i-I- lii~ ; 11A ^.

".... ,, ~ ~~ ..... + ..... 0. . .

" be trip m


,.... ^ .

. -A


,t ifWDlS~

1l6. Sidelot RutAh, 616 ,of tel
" d' mont Of Mazte$' elS..Sw.."u thE Ped"V
ca~n:Jounalof Vrthoiflcht *,vi43~O
- Following'tw6 trips to 'Chij.a'ft" l' atM
serves that psychiatric treatment involves u
ceptualization of being part of a arger OigC*,
Revolutionary4:Otiii" i .,b flmf*
'the patient needs to cnqueir:his itI. kt o.. 11hl1y
portance of. this method. cnotltEtk d .
S" difficult Uto assess its effectit*..ess. '*M 1b3 q.j [ T i vr .:::..
., r : r' a: 6 1 i iu.
f37. Sidel,.'Ruth, and, Sidl, "Victlor'.. ". .lei ..e
Carei-m China." Sdentt Amey'2
The health of -theOhinese ,eoprflihi'nr'
past few decAdes,. Siuce q 1949 the iohe'av pI.
movement to i0mprve ktbuk ... ". ....
initiated, program to. train ,i iii 1 b'uI
"The main feat ur of a .e. .... + l+.
work of n-ighborliood f "..1 *
vdhifve me6i4i. % ~M &~t4~S
a centers." . : .. LJ '. ). : ' .i .. ......
; n~rs:."' rn dO, ..) f'. + : ;."+ii,tv.: +. r'Iiu +fa,

138. Sidel, Ruth, and Sidel, Victor W., "The H' ,
China." Sofr2Pi& uMM4iAipmi WQ72). V-M42
..... .... ..
1* Based 61i thefrbbrnk~ittn t&MI
'2' de~~scribetehmjeqgLU3&
care-and assess their ff etecfiveess iu contrast tp^ .+
i' ) ; ,a. y O hi n a. + :'.:, ,'n/i"' f *s ^^^ n'. "' ,'.*.*,.. '"..|. 7;* '^. : .":*t *i ,,tf .
' ' # "" .. '* i ...... ::.: ........i....S 0 '*'t I.r ; 'l S ft r l
S; g- C """+ ..ft i.+) hi**O P'.JIC
139. SAdel, V O.ictori W. h$ to oct t
'' 1972), pp. 1-292-1300 e't: 0 '! ?t J .'it' 1
a "fduid mediuls&v~ 4i'ijM4M .9~n
of the Great Proletariii (MI#AI&(L#LU441*IE
1965. As part. of this expansion, apjcultirl 'i
"'! tion, irudinfoiln, filrst i%'aM, BMS0
igd post illness follow-ut: there are noWsa id to:.. ......
%-kth 'V1*frfb't dot otA9 :Ai Ke" 1 if' jI
As;'T u ^'S ^otd6 k Sh'1*flhftTI:Ti il&4 LIDI^e%
140. Sidel:Vite W., hflMH~tvhWd&&E&i o ..
hood, Peking." Amenrican Journal of (I-Pseag ..
..1973)p pp.. 737..4
..Ar.i.ntd. oi. ....... +s.ri
health epre system it" on, po' s... a
the Ohnie&A tst
zed jit tin f
v v o J O I *. .. .."" ...." ... .: : .. ..... ..
r -' J 'srf..t;.. ...9t : ..i" : .....":....
.. "~' ", 0:. .,Z. is al .. .J ii. 1 8 "? .n a ".. .i.:...
141. Sidel, Victor W
Oksenberg (ed.) C7ina'a DOdopmerti ule Men'
Academy of Political Science, v."31 (Marh iQYI3), ."Ii
Based on Chinese successes the author feds th I
may learn much from them on problems such an drug d

.~~~~ ~ ~ .......................... ii ................ ..... :: :i:iii :E:


1 venereal disease, poverty, and the lack of a sense of purpose. He
o: .concludes that the U.S.'s future may depend on how well the U.S.
asai.ilates these lessons.
142. S i, Vctor W., "Serve the People: Medical Care in the People's
Rqpblic o1 C~hiia." Asia, v. 4 (Summer 1972), pp" 3-30.
.,T...Txt ofit talk at the Asia Society in Spring, 1972, Street health
t'..l~~4 imid "'red guard' doctors veryy of neighborhood
C iWhcae. Birth control and abortion. Integration of traditional
i (timdeni Westerntyp medicine: acupuncture anesthesia,
:i*n linn e health stations. Production brigade health stations;
Biiirdot doctors. Industrial medicine and occupational health.
i-, !SM l Y n Medical Schobl.
;| 10 ". ri::. .!, .r. *::* ,, . ;
ktld.dl, Viithr W., "Some Observations on the Health Services
"m-tfie Peole's Republic of China." InUatnal Journal of Health
7_7B ^ .(1972), pp.385-395.
*'* tT-i* '*atitlior p resents a two part paper, based on personal ober-
tut ans d' health services in China. Part I describes the basic
H ; A -mjm4 dcrent hejith serves; part H describes p!ta.'es in
t &'&niatibn of health services. He concludes that the Chinese
,iix91 incredible progress ovet the past 22 years and have
many lessons for other countries.
orhin, '"Biologlcal Science 'in China &eioe&JorMe
,v. 3 (September.1971), pp.3-5,15-19.- -
a. a^thor discusses UrTWent Chinese erjerimeuts *ith new
n' ay td. '&-mz science and medicie. He asarts that t/e quality
SnSt asearch is modest albothot' there an significant excep-
tinssuch. as synthesis of insulin and production of a birth c.ponrol
r IfItSMs~ -clev that Ch( ese repeardr will emphasideS appie0
.. for a lon Atime tob' oMe. Also, -the poly of"wa
b timetO be truly:am ate &;-
*. .. . '. ..*:* .. / ; . : ; C ^ , .
A4' Staney, Margaret R., "Two Experiences of an Amerian
PbLi Hrse In -fin: "A. Quarter of a Century A$L"
American Journal -of Public Health, v. 3 (_1ebuary )pp
t" flbt e" t W: > "! '0 -" ufih' .J ]us
... The. author, s publi health nurse who r Md ino Cfa just
r" cation $of the PeopleA Reblc ouses, on health
"f<~ionsfaver30 sinceh^^^^c
Y9#1 ald sg' that for the At time the Chies society
meets the bssiethical prenisb, Serve People. -

W 4w;. ""a '"Myron E., Tm g', andnmi, pa". Elr s tir ,4
.'Public Health m the Pr N Yrk J Fon
....ya g y *-s) ......... r^' *. .r ..' " ..R.. * ... .* .... .

eterof f of
Michigan and the Josiah Macy, Jr., F. ndatiM*1*7r2.h iis a
collection of papers dealing withvarious aspects of public health in
China: health services, organization, popular participation, histor-
ical perspectives, health manpower, disease control, nutrition and
population planning. Conclusion discusses present status and
future perspective.

..... :: .. :: ;:'TL
P 1K
'-. ..; * Ef ..
.. .. ] ... ..t** *
147. Clough, Ralph N., and others, The biled States, Ci, aA
Control. Washington, D.C.: The Broqomgs Institution 17
"The authors of this study consid whether Chinase xAdd
wea Y, is likely to affect the US..Soviet strategic blan and
analyze the possible influence of such waponary on U..
toward Japan and other East Asian countries They "i
possbleap rachs toegremnt wihtCinea on
Chinese attitudes toward arms control and outline a vae
possible approaches to agreements with China on arms ..... ||
measures. They particularly emphasize the project o
Chinese negotiations focused on two prposals-'jpc
by each nation not to be the first to use nucar wa.
the other and international cs crmqe erniapg tb
heaustr in'sudig the e of Aw uee -,- 'I
the author's view, the United Stats should in its own at
seek to involve Cina soon n bWateral, pivate or ofia cus-
sions on arms control." A
*- * ,::- .. i| : ....
148. Halpern, Morton H., Cina mtd the BRob. New Yor, J f
A. Praeger (1965).
... .. I ..... i."
Political and wility imicatios of Chinese wler .
Y Chapter 3 covers Chia's nuclear poteaiil: Se.iet Mije..
assLStance to China; Chinese development of nudasr weapns.
14. Kra mish, Arnold, "The Great Chinese B b
&Sla ti.n" Ftune., v. 7$ (Juno 1966), p 157-159 a. ...
Attempt to reowsruct the tIotine S Owkhi perimtik .!d
development of nuclear devices by the eseee
150. Minoe Michael 'Thiuats Nudoar DevnlppuPwnt ?rjr
Aaiain rvey, v. 16 (June 1976), pp. 571-579. ....
A short history of China's nuclear ilevel&pment ipf ptI
fit givan. Brif de ziptions of the eqauiont ad inumn i..i,
natural resources and facilities r eop-
meat hoIlows. A discussion of China1 i d.lvlW ... ...ila.
a also presented. Finally the atbutr aug severaL
might impede further iar development in Cl l ,.
151. Murphy, Charles IL, "Chins's Nlpear Dtweart." 4ir
M.aps.i, v. 1 (April 1972, 2-2p1 ;
Chinese People's ReIpubic has mae 'rapid pOres in M a
tech tqogy. I* article iadwust 4, 44ibuur stda-
fcgi programs aundo wD. nuiysis Af the p44#fs~l )M$if^tlfy's(iof
sCn nu4ear deteret .., ,
l ., a n .. T t e 4
: ,* : *. .-. . ;" *
. ".... : E ** ; : E
... .. -. ; ...i ,. ** ,^ .. :. :r : I,

-[ '
15.Pollack, Jonathan D., "Chinese Attitudes Toward Nuclear
S1964-69." Cina Quater, no. 50 (April-June 1972),
Syp.. .s .
Using content analysis of military and leadership statements,
ithe author concludes that the Chinese nuclear ability was
i developed more fromn a sense of perceived external eat than a
des or aggression. He argues that the Chinese attitude
awards nuclear weapons during this period was dependent upon
their perception of foreign policy constraints.
15St Bikin, Susan Beth, "The Development and Use of Nuclear
I1* Jin the People's Republic of China." IR&T Nudear Journal,
S, A4 and 5 (1969), pp. 1-24 and 1-13.
t By developing atomic energy, China has gained a technological
S 1 .bin for a new source of energy for civilian and military purposes;
: Aa:. eed a weapons oam that has commanded world attention;
S ..and proved that China's approach can be used to bring a non-
Siustrial country to the threshold of a modem industrial and
Mifitay capability in a short time .... Discusses the foundations
nuclear program. Soviet assistance, and Chinese nuclear
weapons development.
15. Wang, Ci, "Nuclear Research in Mainland China." Nudear
Aews, v. 10 (May 1967), pp. 16-20.
S Following description of initial development of nuclear research
facilities with Soviet aid, presents organization of research facili-
ties at the Academy of Sciences and its branches; application of
I atomic energy in agricultural and medical sciences; availability
and training of manpower; nuclear research publications. Con-
clusion: "nuclear research in Mainland Chiina has passed the
emhynic stage and more rapid advances may now be antici-

156. Wang, Chi, Nuwear &ie Meilad China, A Selected
BiJl0ogamphy. U.S. Library of Congres, Washington, U.S. Govern-
ment Printing Office (1968).
Pt. I-Items in Chinese by Chinese scientists and engineers;
I. results of orgni research; some review and "current awareness"
articles. Ft 11-Items from scientific journals, leading periodicals,
and news magazines published chiefly in the U.S., Japan; also
.Sh trWanstions of Chinese materials and agbINAgBI'tMe
publications in China. Review articles relating to development
and potential of China's nuclear program.



157. Yahuda, Michael B., 'China's Nuclear Option."9 B.fetisij.S
Atomic Scientists (February 1969), pp. .72-77. .- .:.
Deals with several aspects of China's achievemnntelin the
development of a nuclear program. First, thb author suggets a
number of reasons for China's adherence to nuclna dotrine.
Second, Chinese views on the role of nuclear weapa.on.sw Zd6
cussed. Third, the author maintains that China hwai*t* .yet
become a participating member of the international, ops tj
However, Chinese deployment of a stwategi. d-erra
would serve to engage the ziation in more.retended inNai
. | ".
* .. .. .: .s' . / ff .

.* ; .... ,
-* L : .. *"

..i.. ..

*' : r.; ;;r ... ...

** I -/, .t
. ., ..

.~~ .. ... L ^ E "..

f . .. "

. .- -' : .: , ,.i ;. :'

.. .; .'
. ; .... * ^ ..

,t .. ..* ^ .. "t (:*,I

!i .. .. .. ,. .' i ...

; .... ..:.* .. **: :, .: i
.. .. ; ;I
,,4. . ... i i .

6 *. .... -.

1 . . . .

S ..-.* 1* I ii. ; T .

Jo S

: ** .

.. I 1 ..:.

1 .0 it". ,j: r. .. I . -!" . ';
.. .. ... :,.- .: ... ,' .. :" 7; *' ,* ,' .* **
iSM K.r .... .*** '}.; ., 'P .! t ./ : ,i .: :. ,- : 1 : .

SNk.AN ri iltiSB / '
P j I I.

V .0,'to ..M '.ania ineqn ,,:ng,, V 9 7t

ver 0$ MaoIt pbilosophy arh discussed. On the
'itI ..[.t i. *'*'.i O {L 9 *; *. if -i. : .^S *'*' ": ; * i'. *

;ibmuiuof t p iples the'Chinese people areeiflbfprtpd to
. . ; .: ..... build their fresta, generate. hydro
wf" r ."q...owirjilea, found small ad .arge rndustjs build
xadgconstruct buildings, ad much, much more.
*fl hen PS, revolution and Modernjzadon: Map. and
: y In: IFiediwan, Edward and
,^|a| .'.. .. (1971). pp. g 39:4. 9

ugi cont -r 'dh'a asboth a modernizing and
.6 7j" bt id

4j~Laog so.aztbiouseson factory management
.* ,seindusti.lar enterp ses to show that what is.revolutary
uetI 001t bp irrational or inefficient. He concludes that the Chinese
-i ,s. ffqqfIv mPr a r9U9 of anauqgemut. and is a national

& y, CIA)-
It....O.a tang, 7. I W jctiou Ismidustry n Qommu.mist Cina.
9z":nk,'P^ n""- tRings, 'and meihnemsey om (a0osuc6on. ,

j a|ry'i ntoecoonomic growth.. Includes scope and
^^(. and inpiuas a of Jec binapgiconstrction
p wanesa co ptruqtiohas been ils low technical level.
161. Cheng, Chu-yuan, The Machine tBuiT*lng Industry in Convinist
1 di, Edinburgh University Bress ,972). Also:
4EStructural-Changes in' the Chieese Machie- ujiding
." ue t cinee, 41 (January-,areh 1970), mepp
s.. I &...Qh *h' f...."cts o ulet o toi an' China's
:"he fct gt@CJti 1970),

H Teriln~xental. o6Ncec of anf tudy is*pesent a compre-
heneave picture of the machme-buid g industry m China:
4emnsind andtmi, imports exports, growth rates inegro*u
Sad net output "ioalu or put-output rela onships, changes in out-
-i.[ uiioi a. e of 'ontribution national
"Cipjo -^ opwfi hnas. Wayqe~int in the| ma,
-bl wAdustry. rom 192,t1966 witjhopse in advppced
.T *"u-tTm ..s.Q'in .. ..te, t rcbCiO i ty
,,,# ,. b d c.i, ,.. .... tht. .racpd.(ittr ,s".. . m.
; !nuberf^JSs. / aipir pboducbd, qajg~icty dS in~cinery
1WP 91 Prof l I 1Do ; In
" n h. fv ".fr ; ~~r s::," -....f v ^rT.^ i:...;;, ,r:.,- ', ,. : .. ., .- ".: ,

( I.' # *" .'."L. '" *. .. .. k kir ;i* *, X P
"_.__, at9 .o }i na **~ a*L *e.nooc aspects, ln

162. "China: Design by Group Thought and Construction." Engiew-
ing News-Report (February 28, 1974), pp. 24-25.
A Los Angeles architect finds marked differences bettwa
Chinese architectural practices and those of Western country.
Each architect is encouraged to contribute thoughts on a project
to his leader; everyone's ideas are dtemlbtpditant. Studtsua in
construction and architectural school must perform two pR
work before enrollment. "The disdain for eerts,. tfie'8
demanded from project leaders, the seeking of tecbicif f f
from levels of labor, and the.tremendous da sre to get n
are all part of the Chinese architectural method. : *
163. Clark, M. Gardner, The Developfment of C-7&'es J"SeI6F
and Soviet Technical Aid. Ithaca, New York, Cornell tVtity
(1973). "
"This is the first in-depth study of tha steel industryof,Coa
munist China. It is valuable not only for what it tells b1i'
economic sector, but . because it mirrs that nttibfi '.-
ress toward economic development in ]generl'." The b":o:3-
scribes Soviet aid to China's steel ihustr from f00b-1957
contrasting this period with post-1957 anad ther techI"d cal
pattern later developed.,. f
164. Craig, Jack, "China: Domestic and intteriatibnha Telbd6ii&uni-
cations, 1949-74." In: U.S. Congress, Joint Economic CbiAifttee,
China: A Reasessment of the Economy. Washington, U.S. (oyverp
ment Printing Office (1975), pp. 289-310. *
China has fulfilled her basic ifeeds for, long-range deb)j Mnt
of a domestic telecommunications system mnd' has iatlde much
progress in international t6lecomni functions. Tobtal c0pBlity,
however, is not comparable to Western teec6mmuniCmtfia sys-
tems. A review of all aspects of the development obf lmna's
telecommunications system. ,
.. ;. : ,9 ii .
165. Daily, James; W. Dr., "Impressionsof the People's Repff
China, Industry in a Planned Society." Mechanuici4 '
v. 97, no. 7 (July 1975), pp. 24-25. :
"What is China's industry like today? In ansday \is
question, the author describes two representative OlIhese
industries, the Canton Machine Works and Shanghai Machmr-y
Works! The availability' of consumer gods is also disc6sse4L
166. Dalyell, Tam '"Chemical Industry in China'Today.'* Ckt isby
& Industry, no. 1 (January 1, 1972), pp. 10-1i. ''
The author's observations of the Shanghai jeMbcai'Q ant.
Production processes: production of sulpharic add for i f
production; coal is the basis for productio6nf axnn and
methanol; new drying rotary kiln for the urea prbbss k6 v Bsion
of sulphur dioxide' into sulphuridc' acid usimg, fo of
water spraying Organizafion of the plaiib: .,mai wkirops,
3 auxiliary workshops, maintenance wbrkshop.' 't-9et dsof' ditput
employment. Innovations ori display at the Shanghai Industrial
Exhibition. China as an exporter of technology. Efforts to control
pollution, urban drift.

Be~~asn, "Intaational Economic Relations of the
elqppUj&0 q(Cbiz."-4aiawn w uOv. 10 (September 1970),
p 9-802.
The author .adopts the theory that there are both political and
-jT DOl.QbBeqtives behind the foreign. trade of the People's
,qq lz_ oC- .OhNa. Thus, he addresses three questions: "1)
foes Chinese politics influence foreign trade, 2) can foreign trade
ftiali1t t!i4 bused. by China.,to pursue, a certain policy, 3) can
silt. ltn foreign trada b used as an indicator of, political develop-
0:: :l o y na? . .., ,..
JAL ob Ezmierzi .4(l, "Trade witz China," Law and
-li 7^ 6loems, v. 38 (Summer-Autumn, 1973), entire issue.
"t ; ympostum concentrates on providing information re-
~J.,O si "",,oreignl trade with the free economy countries of
pj.. le States, Canada, Holland, and Japan. The issue covers
i. MV. 4" a ttersa teehniquesi of trade, Chinese foreign trade organi-
bs ntwn,. p.t1i legtiirgiMe of foreign trade-:transactions in the
LitAep ibleofChia.n!
1f4 Zmr, Ias, "I Have Seen China-4And They Work." Fortune,
(igustQ1972), pp. 11-rll7, 210, 212.
j i Oi b :: e nations from thp author's visit to China... Description
bi: :ffl4*Ilegy in county iwldutries, household factories and co-
,* i Canton, Kwangchow Bicycle Plant. "At every level,
-i in mobilizes its ahundpnt resources of labor.. to compensate
for scarcity of capital.:" Factory management, technical organi-
4ation at Kwangchow Heavy Machine Tool Plant. Production of
a2 .1roultural equipment and machinery in Shunte County,
.| j:<' ..s|., ..h-i;. .1 : -.. '. "
jfv Meianer, Mitceb, "The Shenyang Transformer Factory-A
4 1ew.2," ina Quarteiy, no. 52 (October-December 1972), pp. 717-
A profile of a transformer factory is presented by a member of
the; Comiuttee of Concerned Asian Scholars' Second Friendship
jI Dqmgaion,.. "It is true that there have been and will continue to
,. be trtggles and conflict around the mass-cadre contradiction.
But, in the Shenyang Transformer Factory, where the cadres
,ieie,. m.epowerful and impressive people, the workers also appeared
.)_ to e petty 'together' people in their,own right. And the factory
p,, was waiting as a united community.'
o :, .. .' . ,
.l .Richman, Barry M., .I.ndustrial Society in Communist China; A
First Hand Study of Chinese Economic Development and Manage-
ment. Random House, New York (1969).
-" A utidscipii.ry-approach to .:industrial management and
economic development; central thesis is that effective and efficient
epttS.epe muanagemuant is the key to industrial progress and
.. general economic development. Data derived from two month
S:viit to China in 1986 Conclusion: very few poor countries
have done as well in economic growth or industrialization as


China has since 1950, but Chins's fulfillment of a'h A- T
depends chiefly on whether ideological extremism or nai
technical and economic rationality prevails.: .., T?1
* * ".... . *' .. *** i .... ...
172. Riskin, Carl, "Small Industry and the Chinese Modsl *tPwl0
opment," The China Quarterly, no. 46 (Apri-Janm 1'971i,
245-273. .. : .k . ...::r :
"... Examines the evolution and implementation of 11
policy towards small and medium industry de t
relation between small industry and the general dnlo it
problem in China, and . (attempts) to gain ... insight into
the nature and logic of (this)'partiular strategy of dIvlb6ml
(which is) associated with Mao .." Principal tenetS of the6. iuAI
industry policy today: (a) to build: 'small but' com bhei
and relatively self-sufficient industrial systems o A19rsed
factories operated and controlled b the various locultteuft -
selves; (b) to link such systems wit th e:need of agHie A~.tti Ai
thereby (c) to raise labor productivity in agriett tiure bsIdit-tM
innovation and technological change, including nidchtaitou."
173. Scott, David, "China Opens Doors for Raie View of AmiOiz RW
duction," Automotive Engineering, v. 82 (August 1974). pp. 30-43.
Discusses the slowly developing auto-industry in CIiat which
is based on self-reliance more the on the technology of ad4raced
nations. In spite of the modest growth to date the author t ,
"... there is $till interest in obtaining high-technology equf -t
and know-how from the outside world."' .
.: : .- .ai **
174. Sigurdson, Jon, "Factories in the Fields." China .Now Hi. .28
(1972), pp. 5-6. -
Descriptive analysis of country-level industrial network geared
to serve agriculture. Social implications of divenificationmi4`
economy. Indigenous technology and self-reliance in rurali&dbis-
tries; adaptation of technology from the cities. ,
175. Sigurdson, Jon, "Rural Industrialization in China," InVU.,S.
Congress, Joint Economic Committee. China: A Reassessmfnt bf the
Economy. Washington, U.S. Government -Printing Ofi (1075),
pp. 411-435. .
Rural industrial sector in China consists of enterprises which
vary greatly in size and in degree of technological sopbisbieadcion.
Although the development of rural industries may have-sarlificed
economic growth in the short run, in the long run it is lWpely to
contribute to a more rapid economic growth than would btIf^rA
have been possible. : AA-ti
.- ,, *, |".: :.. a
176. Sigurdson, Jon, "Rural Industry-A Traveler's .Viet." The
China Quarterly, no. 50 (April-June 1972); pp. 31-32." *'
Observations from the author's visit in December 1971 'tWome
20 small industrial enterprises in two counties,' in Hope and
Honan. Agricultural mechanization. Building local industry: the
.- S*J

hbi.. pilot plant approach; diversification; interdependence of enter-
il i prb.; indigenous equipment and innovations; management.
Three objectives of rural industrialization: acceleration of devel-
opment of industry; geographical distribution of industry;
,.!yWftniotlon -of technology and research suited to China's condi-
lS Ta k, Aifren H. Jr., and James D. Egan, "Chink's Iron and
SfeIlf.16 industry in: U.S. Congress, Joint Economic Committee.
- L:A Reasses8vsment of the Economy. Washington, U.S. Govern-
u"el-Printing .Office (1975), pp. 264-288.
- . review of the raw materials base, the development of the steel
m.u.try, and current state of the industry. Discusses obstacles
to reach balance and reduce dependence on outside world. China is
likely to initiate a strong investment push in the iron and steel
178. U.S. Congress. Joint Economic Committee, People's Republic
of :(ina: An Economic Assessment; A Compendium of Papers, 92d
Congress, 2d session. Washington, U.S. Government Printing Office
(1972), 382 p.
S A collection of papers dealing with various aspects of science,
technology and the economy in China through and immediately
following the Cultural Revolution.
179. U.S. Congress. Joint Economic Committee. China: A Reassessment
of t Economy: A Compendium of Papers. 94 Congress, 1st session.
ashington, U.S. Government Printing Office (1975), 738 p.
A collection of papers dealing with science, technology as well
as the economics of China. Individual papers are cited and
annotated throughout this bibliography.
180. Wang, K. P., The People's Republic of China-A New Industrial
Power With a Strong Mineral Base. Washington, U.S. Bureau of
Mines (1975).
"Chinese mineral developments, especially petroleum, have
been increasingly in the news. Oil and gas may have great po-
tential, but a very large coal industry is already in existence. The
steel industry ranks fifth or sixth in the world. The PRC is also
prominent in fertilizer, cement, and salt production. The export
metals are well known. Also, the country is buying heavily in
non-ferrous base metals. The need to know and the intense
interest in the subject have prompted this study."
"The world significance of Chinese minerals is pointed out. The
S history of growth and PRC's mineral supply position are re-
viewed. Evaluations are made of policy considerations and
regional and technical factors affecting mineral development.
PRC's mineral trade and efforts to obtain equipment supplies,
and know-how are assessed. Specific reviews are made of major


mineral sectors, including: col and po ww "4j n,& f l
steel, nonferrous metals, industrial minerm.,i -a- .
chemicals. The overall outhwk is summized." [::

181. Young, C. B. W., "Red China." ahanij, .ng.
v. 61 (December 6, 1965), pp. 37-40. pi,
The chemical industry in 1949; growth of the chemical ndS
since 1949: production increase, 1953-7; in.umny. S
1958-1964; related foreign trade; ourreot technical st-t
chemical industry. Concludes that there is a. very pn
look for the technical status of the cheic ial 4utary ht iw
future, especially because of the acqisition fE tee el be.
how which is to accompany the chemical, plant. from Wta
Europe and Japan. .... :..1 .3 ,:i

.. . .. . ...... . . . . . .. ..... ........
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!..... ^ l i. : l~l--- --|
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- .'.:.. : :.,
: ~ ~ ..... ....

. t -: :. rf H

f i* -b l l'|
H l nnnn. ...*::" :n:a..
.. ......... ... .. .

,,. : ..4 |
... 9 ,l ..<^ il
*-.. .: .. .i.r :!: .
,** J . : f. i :: ..ll .. :

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= .:,, ..:. '.^..
: :** ""..hf *

AM.: M .. X ;.
*: ; ":. ."r : :- ." .ii ::... 1 : :.:*

..ii-'p1" ..
F -
i .

[ 4 Ai .
W ,igliartllo, George, "Impressions of the People's Republic of
AChia* Engineering Education." Mechanical Enginerig, v. 97
4p4 1975, pp. 28-29.
-ml &iln ,144,% aSl Chinese educational institutions became subject to
) :1 Ctmmiet philosophy. The author discusses the many changes
.4dip: thet educational system which have been instituted since
that year. While the present Chinese educational system holds
h tk1 au l positive aspects, the author suggests that "the high
degree of ideological conformity and an exclusively practical
rietihtation in research may severely effect China's ability to
Produce innovations at the high rate necessary for continuous
nwgress in an advanced technological country-the kind of country
.hat China aspires to be."
S!. : ;,T E "" .! ;,: == .: :..: :: *.
18&1 .heng, Chu-yuan, Scientific and Engineering Manpower in
Communist China 1949-1963. National Science Foundation Publi-
.. at o NaLo NSF 65-14 (1965).
.'i : A detailed analysis of Chinese data relating to that country's
i.J scientific and engineering manpower. Includes such topics as
: poicy.e and planning for scientific development; quality and
.q:: uantity in the training of scientists and engineers; employment
S. ald utilization of scientists and engineers; role of Soviet Union
a I ad western trained scientists. Concludes that despite a setback
During 1960-63, China has made substantial progress in the
I a fields of science and technology.
..;,-:.,' :: ., *
184. heng, Chu-yuan, "Scientific and Engineering Manpower in
Communist China." In: U.S. Congress, Joint Economic Committee.
An Economic Profile of Mainland China, Washington, U.S. Govern-
Sm t Printiing Office (1968), pp. 519-547.
and engineering manpower between 1949 and 1964. Although the
Snmber of scientists and engineers has increased rapidly, the em-
A phais on "readiness" over expertnesss", overspecialization, and
Shortcomings with respect to the employment and utilization of
these specialists has resulted in many basic weaknesses.
k85. Christitihsen, W. N,, '!Science and the Scientist in Chins Today."
Eastern Horizon, v. 7 (March-April 1968), pp. 36-40..
I' I Brief review of history of Chinese science and technology;
SRussia influence on Chinese higher education and scientific
Sr TSOeaYr&. Effect of Ruslian withdrawal. Science subordinate to
7'1' political, goals. R-eform of scientists.
186. Galstonw,-Arthur W.i ONo& Grades, -o Tests." Yale Alumni
M, 4ea v. .35 (April 1972), pp. 8-4.
General observations of changes in the education system of


China, observed by the author on his 1971 visit to China. Brief
description of biology department at Chungshan University.
"... there is essentially no basic research going on in China now
S. ." but the Chinese recognize the ultimate necessity of re-
turning to basic research when their physical conditions permit
this to be done."
187. Galston, Arthur W., "The University in China." Bi'f.
v. 22 (April 1972), pp. 217-220.
The university in the post-Cultural Revolution Pe!e's
Republic of China is unrecognizable from its American counter-
part. The author discusses the university structure in the PRO
and the changes that have occurred since the Cultural Revolution.
188. Galston, Arthur W., and Signer, Ethan, "Education and Science
in China." Science, v. 175 (January 7, 1972), pp. 15-23. ,
The first two American scientists to visit the People's Republic
of China in over twenty years discuss the changes in scence
education. "Science is conceived of as a collective group activity,
in which theory and practice must always be united to serve
production." The most far reaching reform is the elimination of
elitism from scientific, technical and intellectual activity.
189. Jen, C. K., "Science and the Open-Doors Educationial Move-
ment." The China Quarterly, no. 64 (December 1975), pp. 741-747.
The present open-doors educational movement is a natural
product of the two successive phases of the Cultural Revolution:
the Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution and the campaign to
criticize Lin Piao and Confucius. The whole movement aims at
complete integration of the schools with all other components of
society like the communes, factories, research institutes, etc.
While each part of society still keeps its own identity, it throws
its doors wide to facilitate a reciprocal, free and unlimited access
to other components, so that all parts of society work together
for the common goal.
190. Martin, Charles M., "China: Future of the University." Bud n
of the Atomic Scientists, v. 25 (January 1971), pp. 11-19.
During the Cultural Revolution the universities in China were
closed for a period of four years. Since they have reopened there
has been debate over curriculum and democratization rio the
school. The author compares such difficulties with those currntly
confronting many American universities.
191. Martin, David, "China Today." Chwmistry in Britain, v!.8
(August 1972), p. 533. A
Brief note on the visit of the executive secretary of the Royal
Society to the Academia Sinica Institute of Chemistry, and to
Peking National University, including the biochemical depart-
ment, in May 1972. "The visit to the Institute of Chemistry
revealed the same pattern as elsewhere-a revolutionary com-
mittee in charge and a program devoted to applied work .
close cooperation between the Institute and the factories with
frequent interchange of personnel."

12m. Oreans, Leo A., "How ikpe Chinese Scientists Survives." Science,
1iW)&7T (Sqptember $, 1972), pp. 864-866. .
Surveys the impact of the Cultural Revolution on Chinese
11) spiqpntiuts, Atnd concludes that Chinese science and technology seem
o rA :be, noae'the worse for it. Asserts that the Ohinese people are
S, i wa at enduring adversity as exemplified by their survival
4n4mjn the CulturaJ Revolution.
,," : i r' G' 1 i '. : ,* .' ' .
j'Ia Q0eL.s1, Leo A.; i Profeasional Manpower and Education in
(..jmw. tl 0Ginu. National Science Foundation, Publication No.
. Nf7;68r (1961). ,
S l,:,r 1r-Edueational policies and problems. Ill-Primary and
secondary education. IV-Higher education. V-Quality of
education. VI-Science and technology. VII-Professional man-
.," powo.. VIII-Survey of the population and labor force. Ap-
pendices include: C-Institujions of higher education. D-Insti-
I % r tutions offering postgraduate courses. EP-Specializations in higher
to. teebpological institutions. I-iScientific research institutes in

IMA:,Sa ph, Alexanderr "'R&D Policy in China After the Cultural
r iyolution, Research Ma.nangement, v. 19 (January 1976), pp.
awo ilb The au4hori focused* on, the immediate effects of the Cultural
Revolution on China's industrial and educational sectors. ."The
problems related to the ties between industry and the universities
"a. jve.-@been extensively studied and some original experiments have
been performed. A number of technical universities are operated
]_ byindustries themselves while universities operate their own
f.etnies. Teaching,, production, and scientific research are
,q iutqgrated with one another." The. author suggests that such
LIE institutional changes hold implications for each aspect of Chinese
*T f.0BPPJWTjY -,
195. "Scientists Go Barefoot." Survival, v. 13 (July 1971), pp. 232-238.
"Scientific and technological progress in China, which in the
Past years has reached remarkable levels, is achieved not just
through the efforts of the elite, but also with the participation of
the masses. In other words, China is trying to overthrow the
classic method of communicating know-how and to start from
the bottom instead of from the top."
196. Sharp, lisa, "No Ivory Towers." Far Eastern Economic Review,
v. 72 (June 5, 1971), pp. 64-66.
A new pattern in the educational system in China is emerging
after the Cultural Revolution. Impressions based on the author's
visit to China, chiefly Chungshan University. "Chungshan
University's curriculum shows a strong bias towards applied
sciences. . The departments have been revamped to cover
study in electronics, biology, synthetic materials, optics, dy-
namics, rare metals, politics, geography and Chinese. .. The
casualties of the Cultural Revolution were the departments of
physics, math, chemistry, foreign languages and philosophy."

197. Swetz, Frank, "Training of Mathematks Teachers in the Peop#lA
Republic of China." American Matematial Monfy, v. 77 (Decetn-
ber 1970), pp. 1097-1103.
The present principal influence in Chinese edunatin is the
Communist Party and its doctrines as set forth in thdtwA W of
Chairman Mao Tse-tung.... In the sphere of education, walkingg
on two legs' has resulted in the formation of numerous spare-
time and part-time schools at various levels to supplement the
expanded regular school system . Despite the existence K
these bogus 'schools,' there are many types of bona fide OdS&-
tion institutions in existence in the People's Republic of Chia'-..
The burden of supplying trained teachers for these schools has
fallen upon the traditional training institutions.
I >t
198. Unger, Jonathan, "Mao's Million Amateur Teohnicians." Far
Eastern Economic Review, v. 72 (April 3, 1971), pp. 115-118.
"Publicity accorded model counties, factories, communes and
production brigades in the Chinese press "provide glimpses of
the means by which the Chinese disperse technical knowledge
and co-ordinate their innumerable industrial schemes into a
coherent whole." Themes include initiativee and technical i6d-&
ship by unlettered workers; "self-reliance" and thrift by model
factories and remarkable technical advances by small tunder-
capitalised plants." Case studies of worker innovations drawn
from the Chinese press.
199. Yang, Chen-ning, "Education and Scientific Research in China."
Asia, No. 26 (Summer 1972), pp. 74-84.
Visits tc. three research institutes of the Chinese Academy of
Sciences in 1971: Institutes of Biochemistry, Physiology and
Nuclear Physics. Reevaluation of research programs since the
Cultural Revolution. Basic research will not have priority in
education programs. Scientific publication and communication.
i "

UhttJW ^WrJ;'f.l/ *I I ., gt K *. *1 0'.
am ai---a- d .' r '-i t a>

lo A r.hI. .
& *t l +: P .... ^ :^ ; +"' ,ik / .. u +- 3 ( : *
1 +A.0., '. ,, t. .', ...+ iB. X.. ,HA N
~b late WiI ,; "Tt New China Hands-Anierican Scien-
4ie'A ?ep Rs Republic." &gineering and Science, Y. 37
*Il^ A97t) jpp. 14-48'. '' '
A.I 6ht dbservations biAde during a Vilt to China, an ad-
inttedly 'new hand' at' Chna watching domnients on the im-
.,b sive stt of Chinese science. He notes, the, healthy, well
M-t t:P an'beof Pthe ople; but states' that visits to science
1 ap s werA more formal han iiormiative. In spite of apparent
..... If i .i for the state of development Er observes the lack of
!t"1i % sQcial pressure and comrade pdrsuason would probably
-,x ef uta.e tO mot Americans. s
dl* .t: mr- 8A 'e' i4` the People's Republic of China: A Trip
- tiWo @enO nftW iitucteAneshe Stady Group. National
" i if Sciaic ,Wt iigt6n, D.C. (1976).
+~ .. . .. ... . .. . : '"..' IM I -C. ....)-
,-f e .teltetionisiftdd 16 hospitals and observed 48 operations
Ulfz | id under'"acupittture anesthesia. The report includes an
nluation of each operation observed, and discusses the effective-
... 0of acupuncture in controlling operative pain and factors
('"hlftg the success of acupuncture hypalgesia. It also discusses
bhhimplications of acupuncture hypalgesia for Western surgery
"A/ "idiescribs. Chinese and Western .research efforts with acu-
r i j q + : t ... .
-..lTdrose ' "%p7F -'fpblif ina." Report of Conference sponsored by the
fr b.bnal Comirittee on U.S.-China Relations and the Committee on
"OlmY Conmiunication with 'the People's Republic of China of
*"t"3Sanal Academy of Sciences in Cooperation with the John-
tii'1bkdation. (May 29-31, 19T), Washington, National Acad-
emy of Sciences, 26 p. '
T, .T coq4erence underlines the role which science can play in..
"emLoo i.f, .:. 0 -qn e pa""":'s
1 .. .commundation nd cooperation. The participants
.we have mu to learn about organization and
dtarr of science min a .
,/ . 1"+1 -. 7 ,.:, jt ;;. "* ,:" ' * < -. :: + : .
S .'$O*IflariHson, "SBholarly Exchanges With the People's
.. blis ofOia." Scknee, v. 183 (January 11, 1974), pp. 52-54.
1 "'" e flr Seeretiajyof tiie National Academy of Sciences de-
scribes the program of scholarly exchanges with the People's
publicli l China. The Committee on Scholarly Communication
nt. Kepl's Repgblicof ciha lo ed in 1960 stresses the
"r utuual benefits of Qie exchange Wine of twelve proposed
4eoeaz study tdis to Ch-in are disdused.
,.. l;I: .: ... s., .. : < + <
ii -. (B1.

204. Cooper, Gene, "An Interview With Chinese Anthropologists."
Current Anthropology, v. 14, no. 4 (October 1973), pp. 480-482,
Members of the Committee of Concerned Asian Scholars Ma
three Chinese anthropologists discuss their respective views a
anthropological study. The author maintains that cultural
anthropology has been "repudiated as a discipline; the focus of
Chinese anthropological study is archeological work. The (31t1
scholars assert their views on the "discipline"; the ce
past 30 years in China enable us to understand how0toh
field of anthropology and to use our knowledge to s Me the
people and not to serve imperialism.
205. Davis, Chandler, "A Mathematical Visit to ChiS." Loi iSt"
Mathematical Conference Bulletin, (Fall 1971), pp. 2&,,. 7-8.
Based on the author's 1971. visit to the Mathematics hsttute
(CAS), Peking University, and Futan University. E6pernmces
of individual Chinese mathematicians during the Cultrl ; $evo-
lution. Research in applied mathematics predominates. U:niver-
sity teaching of mathematics, and popularization of matheutil
techniques, such as linear programing or critical-path 'et..
There is nothing corresponding to graduate education in mi-
matics. Preparation for a 'resurgence of theory' by w A.g
'summaries' of mathematics. Publication. Western math cal
journals are received and used.
206. "Earthquake Research in China." EOS, v. 56 (November1. 975),
pp. 838-881. .
This is a detailed account of a month-long visit to Chia in
October 1974 by the CSCPRC Seismology Delegation. I4 by
Frank Press, Chairman of the Department of Earth and Pandtry
Sciences, MIT. It includes information on China's national eat-
quake program; Chinese universities and institutes where aejsa:o-
logical studies are in progress; geophysical instrumentatipi 'and
observatories; seismotectonics in China; historic recoi&Jof
Chinese earthquakes; premonitory effects of earthquakes; sIais-
tics, models, and theory; rock mechanics; earthquake engneei)g;
and the history and politics of earthquake studies.. .,M
207. FitzGerald, Anne, and Slichter, Charles P. (eds.), Solid, State
Physics in China: A Trip Report of the American Solid State Pysics
Delegation. National Academy of Sciences, Washington, D.C. (1976).
In September 1975 a delegation of solid state physicists, led by
Charles Slichter, Professor of Physics,atlthe University of Ilinqi
visited China. The group's goal involved a better understp4Mg
of both present Chinese research and the Chiines educational
activities in solid state physics. '1 -
208. Herbal Pharmacology in the People's Republic of ,h.im0:p
Report of the American Herbal Pharmacology Delegation., Jtiol
Academy of Sciences, Washington, D.C. (1975).
Based on a month-long visit by the American Herbal 'har-
macology Delegation, this' report surveys current Chinese
approaches to the use of basic and clinical herbal medicines for

15 "..* variety ofillnesses and diseases, viewed within the political
V. and social framework of the country. A special section contains
analyses of 248 commonly used plant and animal drugs and the
tz j t to which the success of each herbal prescription has been
Sdo..umented in the literature. The volume also assesses the
Ij'u; Atttus of Chinese pharmaceutical research, education, and drug

20=Kessen, Wolliam (ed.), Childhood in China. Yale University
'* s ~New Haven and London (1975).
r.o.. In November 1973 eleven specialists in child development
visited kindergartens, primary schools, and middle schools in
China. This report of their visit highlights interviews with
children, teachers, educational administrators, and parents in
28 schools throughout China and makes observations on formal
e7 ml&iczlm, social and personality development, teaching prac-
.1 Ates, and on patterns of the child's interactions with peers and
iLq adults.
2O. TLehmann, Winfred, P. (ed.), Language and Linguistics in the
P pe'as Republic of ChinG. University of Texas Press, Austin and
V 6foUndon(J97vi). .
: i This volume reflects the findings of ten linguistic scholars
who visited China approximately one year after a group of Chinese
language teachers visited the United States. The topics covered
include: the common language and the language of everyday
life; language reform; the teaching of Chinese; the teaching of
English and other foreign languages; lexicography; language
pathology; experimental research; the national minority lan-
guages; and language theory in the People's Republic of China.
There is also a list of the itinerary and the people whom the
group met in China.
211. Loewe, Michael, "Archaeology in the New China." The China
Quarterly (March 1976), pp. 1-14.
Brief review of the history of archaeology in China; new de-
velopments in Chinese archeological practices are also presented.
The author suggests in infusion of Maoist political ideology into
interpretations of both history and archeological finds.
212. Lubldkin, Gloria B., "Physics in China." Physics Today, v. 25
, (December 1972), pp. 23-28.
Summary of reports from seven U.S. physicists who recently
visited China. Organization, research programs, equipment, as
observed at: Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences;
Peking University; Tsinghua University; Futan University;
Shanghai Industrial Exhibit; Institute for Computer Research;
SInstitute of Semiconductors, CAS; Institute of Electronics, CAS;
Miyua Observatory; Purple Mountain Observatory; University
of Nanking; Mechanics Research Institute, CAS; Institute of
Nuclear Physics, CAS. Research in astronomy and fluid me-
chanics; nuclear physics; high-energy physics. Scientists inter-
viewed include Marvin Goldberger, C. K. Jen, Rudolph Hwa,
Raphael Tsu, Chen Ning Yang, C. C. Lia, Chang-Yun Fan.


213. Plant Studies in the People's Republic of China: A Trip Report of
the American Herbal Pharmacology Delegation. National Academy
of Sciences, Washington, D.C. (1975).
This report draws on numerous visits to communes and
agricultural institutions and extensive discussions with Chinese
agricultural professionals by members of the Ameican Plant
Studies Delegation. It surveys Chinese crop varieties, diseases,
and multiple cropping systems, along with research centers and
regions of the country where certain crops are grown. Speitie
crops covered include the major cereals, soybeans and otaer
grain legumes, vegetables and fruits, pasture and forage crops,
cotton, and forest growths. The result is a study of the status and
organization of Chinese scientific and technical work in the
plant sciences.

214. Whalley, Jr., Stephen, "Prospects for Sino-American Schlarly
Exchange." In: Gene T. Hsiao (ed.) Sino-American Detente and Its
Policy Implications New York: Praeger Publishers (1974), pp.
The author discusses both the possible impediments to and Aq
further opportunities for future Sino-American scholarly ex-
changes. He concludes that such new U.S. attitudes towpds
China as "open-mindedness and receptivity" will improve
chances for scholarly exchange between the two nations.



...... ...
' :: 'Jg jpA
: ... . ; *..: :- :
:i T i E.E:h


Academyof Science----------
Melaje See: Aviation and Space

i Development-,- ...
and TeLm-ology__...- .
ortation. See: Aviation and

archaeological Research-..-------.
I At _c Studies----------
Automobile Industry -------
Aviation Industy See: Aviation and
Space Technology.
Aviaion and Space Technology.-..
Dainoot Doctors ---------------
BNolog-----..- -- -
Chow ----------------- -
Chemical Industry------------
(bvlifa Aviation Administration .
Cputer Technology--.- ----

Construcetion Industry -------- __
Cultural Revolution and:
The Economy.. ..
Education_------- ---.-----.
Industry --------------
Science-----.....- ------
Technology ----------.....
Developing Countries ------....
Earth Sciences ------------
Earthquake Prediction---.-
Esonomics and Industry-.----
Education and Manpower ------
lectric Powut_ ------
Electronics Industry.........
Ekstronics and Computer Industry..--

".'_-_32-.2-22ij2-_- '
Geolo*g ----------------
---------- -------------

Geology ..
Health Care Delivery--------
ForS of:
Medicine- ------
Science------ ---- --._
Hydropower. ------------

Jet Engines, See: Engines, Aircraft.

Item number
11, 26, 47, 51, 56, 107, 118, 191, 206.
126, 132, 134, 142, 201.

58-72, 158.
5, 29, 159, 213.
33, 34, 38, 51, 53, 58, 66, 67, 169, 174.

8, 105.

127, 139, 142.
8, 51, 52, 53, 55, 144, 186.
43, 44, 104,1 66, 181.
96, 98, 180.
13, 39, 42, 43, 47, 89, 91, 92, 94, 95.
80, 81.
160, 162.
187-190, 194, 196.
1, 5, 7, 11, 15, 26, 49, 50, 107, 178, 192,
196, 199.
33, 35, 60, 178.
18, 24, 25, 28, 44.
8, 48, See also: Environment.
106, 107, 113, 118, 206.
4, 15, 39, 69, 182-199, 205, 209.
8, 84, 90, 93, 212.
8, 30, 31, 33, 40, 54, 64, 182.
39, 85, 88.
105-118, 166.
62, 109, 114, 115, 117.
159, 165, 169, 171, 174.
107, See also: Earth Science.
20, 121, 124, 125, 129-133, 137-143,
145, 146.
124, 128, 146.
12, 13, 15, 20, 21, 23, 26, 55, 185.
97, 158.
20, 27, 30, 32, 33, 36, 38, 40 43, 44,
See also: Economics and Industry.



~Manpower_.- 1,~15, 45, 183 See Sao: ...r
M a nwtionr and l Wpow.. r..
Mae mathematics 8, 197, 205.
Medical Research_8 8i 51 3 8,1:" '5514.
Medicine 47 9 9-148, 201, 208i
Meterology------------------ k. 1i. "I
Mineral Resources----- 180. i,,:
Missiles ---- -- -- 39, 76. h... ..
Nuclear Research-- .-.w _- -_. 155, 156 .-..... ..: "
Nuclear Science and Technology...5.. .. 147-157 .. ... .... i
Nuclear Weapons-- --------147-153,$57a ... : ..- **
Oil Resources, See: Petroleum Indus- V.310 .n.
t r y ...-.. .. ... . . . . .. . . ... . .. ... .. : | : ,, ... ..i
Organization -----------. ...- 1, 4i5, 11.,.tIi^ i
Petroleum Industry------.........L 43, 98-104,, 17;.4.,. anr ...
Physics-------------------- 8,27dje-..82 ,ruatr:i
Political Theory and: W.jaLft
Archaeology... ... .. ... ... 2 3 .............. 4:i. ... ..:*....j
Anthropology--------- ..- ..204.. .I
Medicine. ................ 125, 129, 136.; .... -,tibM? ;
Science-.. ...... 2,. 4, 9, 10, 16, 17, St24g.u 1io
Technology -------------- ----18,0.32r,.4.., M l.r:
Pollution, Air_--------------- 104, 108, 116. .sQr#i
Pollution, Water. .. 1...... .108 ... -,- : *-:;
Psychiatry-_...... .. .134, 13 138........... .
Recycling ... -- 110. ... .. ....:',
Rural Industry ---- .---- 175,. 176, .... ... ..,
Satellites. ----- .-- -.--. 74, 76.. .............. .il w, i
Scholarly Exchange ._._ _..'. 200-21 .,-, .t..rp ,/ f'rtj'.A;,l::
Scholarly Exchange and: . ..-
Agriculture.. -- .... -- 61, 69, 71,218. :u.h .?v T '
Anthropology-_ ... .. ._ .. 204 -... ............. i
Archaeology... .- 211. .......... .:o* :.s .,
Aviation and Space Technology_.. 82. .'." p, '.il: itlu
Computer Technology ------__. .89, 90... .,. . ..... :: .: :
Electronics .... ., . .---- 90. *.. ., ;. it
Geology.-------------. 48. --- K
4 8 ... ... . ... ....
IGdology....:.. .s2.48.... ...169,....170 ............ ,
Indfastry.- --',-" 169, 170t .. .-. ..,w u
Linguistics ..- ----- 210.
Mathematics ..-----.--..aia.,..... 205. ....* '...M
Medicine ---- _. ---- 121, 131, 201, 20&;.iv t,0: 0 x.;
M eteorology 11 ... .............. ....... ... ,::: S
Physics ..... ... . . . . 207, .. ... -. ... ,c i -l .... j "
Science Policy ---------- 12, 20, b,.2_,7. >vit a I
ScientiJfc Organization and. Institu- 49T 52, ., 2. Q, 2_0irr
tions 49, 5i, 52o 5
Technology Policy-_ -. 43 ............... r:. )
Science Education and Manpower-____'_ 18..2-19t.ti zr':i., wi
Science, Development of----......._U-- 19.. .,
Science Policy --- 1-27, 178, 179,. 18031, 2.202-.
Scientific Organizations and Institutions 5, 47-57, 1903, J $9I,211i:4.
Scientific Research - 1.- 0,13, 16, 4% .t26.4.?. 4T.
:. . r :. 72,1232,18_2,182
Social Sciences ---- --------- 9, 209,.e lalso:,-S
Psychiatry. SCholerly | e

Soviet Union, assistance in: ...:
Aviation. and. Space Technology..-
Computer Technology .
Industry --------------
Manpower. ..-----.....
Nuclear WeaponsL- ,- .. .
Science Education-----..----
Science Poi --y._. .*-._ _, __ -_
Space Explorations-. , -
Spey Jet Engines--- ....-- ------

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