Material Information

Bibliography nuclear proliferation
Nuclear proliferation
Physical Description:
x, 159 p. : ; 24 cm.
Library of Congress -- Environment and Natural Resources Policy Division
Graham, Thomas W
Graham, Thomas W ( Thomas Wallace )
Evers, Ridgely C., 1951-
United States -- Congress. -- Senate. -- Committee on Governmental Affairs. -- Subcommittee on Energy, Nuclear Proliferation, and Federal Services
United States -- Congress. -- House. -- Committee on International Relations
United States -- Congress. -- House. -- Committee on Science and Technology
Library of Congress -- Congressional Research Service
Library of Congress -- Environment and Natural Resources Policy Division
Reference Research Associates
U.S. Govt. Print. Off.
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Nuclear nonproliferation -- Bibliography   ( lcsh )
Nuclear disarmament -- Bibliography   ( lcsh )
federal government publication   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )


Statement of Responsibility:
prepared for the Subcommittee on Energy, Nuclear Proliferation and Federal Services of the Committee on Governmental Affairs and the Committee on International Relations and Committee on Science and Technology, U.S. House of Representatives by the Environment and Natural Resources Policy Division, Congressional Research Service, the Library of Congress.
General Note:
"Contract no. 77-42."
General Note:
"Compiled by Thomas W. Graham and Ridgely C. Evers."
General Note:
Original t.p. has author statement: Prepared by Reference Research Associates, inc.
General Note:
Reprint of the final revision published in 1978 by the Library of Congress Congressional Research Service, Washington.
General Note:
Reuse of record except for individual research requires license from LexisNexis Academic & Library Solutions.
General Note:
Issued Apr. 1978.
General Note:
Prepared by Thomas W. Graham and Ridgley C. Evers, Reference Research Associates.
General Note:
At head of title: 95th Congress, 2d session. Committee print.
General Note:
Includes index.
General Note:
Cover title.
General Note:
At head of title: 95th Congress, 2d session. Joint committee print.
General Note:
CIS Microfiche Accession Numbers: CIS 78 S402-14

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Full Text

95th Congress'i JOINT COMMITTEE PRINT 2d Session








APAPR 1978

Printed for the use of the Senate Committee on Governmental Affairs and the House Committees on International Relations and Science'and Technology


For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office Washington, D.C. 20402

ABRAHAM RIBICOFF, Connecticut, Chairman
SAM NUNN, Georgia CHARLES McC. MATHIAS, Ja., Maryland
JIM SASSER, Tennessee H. JOHN HEINZ III, Pennsylvania
RICHARD A. WEGMAN, Chief Counsel and Staff Director
PAUL HOFF, Counsel ELLEN S. MILLER, Profes88ional Staff
ELI E. NOBLEMAN, Counsel Member
PAUL C. ROSENTHAL, Counsel THEODORE J. JACOBS, Counsel (Regulatory
CLAUDE E. BARFIELD, Professional Staff Reform) Member JAMES M. GRAHAM, Counsel (Regulatory
CLAUDIA T. INGRAM, Profession4ol Staff Reform)
Member ETHEL Z. GEISINGER, Special Assistant
(Regulatory Reform)
MARILYN A. HARRIS, Executive Administrator and Professional Staff Member ELIZABETH A. PREAST, Chief Clerk JOHN B. CHILDERS, (Chief Counsel to the Minority
BRIAN CONBOY, Special Counsel to the Minority CONSTANCE B. EVANS, Counsel to the Minority HAROLD C. ANDERSON, Staff Editor

LEONARD WEISS, Staff Director WALKER NOLAN, Chief Counsel LEONARD S. SPECTOR, 0Coun18el DI)ANIEL P'. DOHERTY, Profes8ional Staff Member
ALAN BENNETT, Legislative Assistant to the Minority MARTHA WEISZ, Special Assistant DEBORAH STEINMEYER, Chief Clerk

CLEMENT ZABLOCKI, Wisconsin, Chairman
CHARLES C. DIGGS, JR., Michigan PAUL FINDLEY, Illinois ROBERT N. C. NIX, Pennsylvania JOHN IL. BUCHANAN, JR., Alabama DONALD M. FRASER, Minnesota J. HERBERT BURKE, Florida
MICHAEL HARRINGTON, Massachusetts WILLIAM F. GOODLING, Pennsylvania LEO J. RYAN, California SHIRLEY N. PETTIS, California

ROBERT A. ROE, New Jersey LOUIS FREY, JR., Florida
MIKE McCORMACK, Washington BARRY M. GOLDWATER, JR., California
GEORGE E. BROWN, JR., California GARY A. MYERS, Pennsylvania
JIM LLOYD, California ROBERT K. DORNAN, California
JEROME A. AMBRO, New York ROBERT S. WALKER, Pennsylvania
MARILYN LLOYD, Tennessee JAMES J. BLANCHARD, Michigan TIMOTHY E. WIRTH, Colorado STEPHEN L. NEAL, North Carolina THOMAS J. DOWNEY, New York DOUG WALGREN, Pennsylvania RONNIE G. FLIPPO, Alabama DAN GLICKMAN, Kansas BOB GAMMAGE, Texas ANTHONY C. BEILENSON, California ALBERT GORE, JR., Tennessee WES WATKINS, Oklahoma ROBERT A. YOUNG, Missouri CHARLES A. MOSHER, Executive Director HAROLD A. GOULD, Deputy Director PHILIP B. YEAGER, Counsel JAMES E. WILSON, Technical Consultant WILLIAM G. WELLS, Jr., Technical Consultant RALPH N. READ. Technical Consultant ROBERT C. KETCHAM, Counsel JOHN P. ANDELIN, Jr., Science Consultant JAMES W. SPENSLEY, Counsel SiERMAN E. ROODZANT, Technical Consultant REGINA A. DAVIS, Chief Clerk PAUL A. VANDER MYDE, Minority Staff Director

Russell Senate Office Building, Washington, D.C.
DEAR CHAIRMAN RIBICOFF: The Subcommittee on Energy, Nuclear Proliferation and Federal Services, as part of its oversight activities in connection with the problem of nuclear proliferation, requested that the Congressional Research Service prepare a bibliography giving a representative cross-section of books and major reports, articles in journals and magazines, and newspaper articles dealing with the topic of nuclear proliferation. This bibliography has been completed and is submitted herewith.
In view of the obvious and ongoing importance of the problem of nuclear proliferation and the need for wider dissemination of information and publications in this field, the reprinting of this bibliography will be of interest and use to all Members of Congress as well as to the public. I request and recommend, therefore, that it be published as a joint committee print by the Committee on Governmental Affairs, the House Committee on International Relations and the House Committee on Science and Technology.
Best regards.

Digitized by the Internet Archive in 2013


CONGRESS OF THE ITNITEI) STATES, Washington, D.C., March 16,1978.
The issue of nuclear proliferation is receiving increasing attention by both the Congress and the public as time goes on. It is an issue which does not admit of easy solutions or panaceas. That is not to suggest, however, that there is a lack of ideas concerning ways of alleviating various aspects of the issue. Each succeeding year has brought with it an increasing number of publications and reports on the subject. In order to make this literature more accessible, the Congressional Research Service has compiled a selected annotated bibliography of materials on nuclear proliferation which are comprehensive in terms of ideas and philosophy. The bibliography should be of use to all Members of Congress and other policymakers, scholars, students, and the public at large.
U.S. Senator.
U.S. Representative.
U.S. Representative.

THE LIBRARY OF CONGRESS Congressional Research Service



Prepared for
THE LIBRARY OF CONGRESS Congressional Research Service Contract No. 77-42

Prepared by
505 Hamilton Avenue, Suite 306 Palo Alto, California 94301 Project Directors: Research Assistants:
Thomas W. Graham Philip K. Lane
Ridgely C. Evers Michele Calderon
D. J. McNaughton


0, The Library of Congress

-'7 Congressional Research Service

~ Washington, D.C. 20540

March 3, 1978

Chairman, Subcommittee on Energy, Non-Nuclear Proliferation
and Federal Services, Committee on Governmental Affairs, U. S. Senate

HON. CLEMENT J. ZAI3LOCK[, Chairman, Committee on International Relations, House of Representatives

Chairman, Subcommittee on Fossil and Nuclear Energy Research,
Development and Demonstration, Committee on Science and Technology House of Representatives

DEAR CHAIRMAN GLENN, CHAIRMAN ZABLOCKI AND CHAIRMAN FLOWERS: The Congressional Research Service submits to you the enclosed bibliography on nuclear proliferation. It was compiled by Thomas W. Graham and Ridgely C. Evers of Reference Research Associates, Inc., of Palo Alto, California, to provide background information for the Congress as it oversees the carrying out of the Nuclear Nonproliferation Act of 1978, with the many international negotiating efforts mandated by that legislation. The bibliography is selective, annotated and cross-indexed. It offers good insight into the literature on nonproliferation. The work was funded by a small contract placed by the Service, with CRS senior specialist Warren H. Donnelly as the project manager.

We hope it will be a useful working tool for you and other Members of Congress as U. S. and world nonproliferation policies continue their evolution.

DirctrCongressi aI Researc ervice



This selective bibliography covers the literature on nuclear proliferation through October 1977. It was compiled after a thorough search of approximately 2500 sources, which in turn were gathered from footnotes, other bibliographies, and normal search techniques. Each entry in this final version has been directly consulted for purposes of annotation and in order to insure the accuracy of the cite.

The bibliography was assembled on computer with the assistance of an experimental, specially-designed data sorting and indexing system; the output is permanently stored on magnetic tape, leaving open the option of future updating of the data.

The entries selected for inclusion were chosen because of their usefulness to both experts and novices in the field. Some entries are quite general, while others are highly technical or complex; an effort has been made to indicate this characteristic in t4e annotation.

-The bibliography has been broken into two sections to further enhance its usefulness. The first section is arranged in five sub-categories: Books, Articles, Periodicals Consulted, Government Documents, and Papers and Other Sources. Within each sub-category, entries axe arranged alphabetically according to author, and are numbered sequentially. Each entry is annotated, and contains a listing of the table of contents where

The second major section is a cxoss-referenced subject index, in which the subject of nuclear proliferation has been broken down into 41 component areas (a listing of these areas may be found in the Table of Contents. below). Under each heading the entries in the bibliography that pertain are referenced. For example, under the heading "Overview" the first listing is a reference toz

Beaton, Leonard. Must Arms Spread.
Chapters 1, 6

This reference is prefaced by "B 4". which means that the full entry may be found by looking at Book entxy number 4.
Therefore, by using the Subject Index first to locate the topic area, the user may then go directly to those sources which will


be most useful, up to and including specific parts or chapters where appropriate.

Codes used in the index are as follows: B Book; A Article; D
- Government Document; 0 Paper, Other Source.


1) Boo)~s Page 6
2) Articles Page 34
3) Periodicals Consulted Page 68
4) Government Documents Page 74
5) Papers, Other Sources Page 102
6) Subject Index Page 112

A copy of the Subject Index is listed below.

1. Overview

2. Efforts at International Control of Proliferation

2.1. Manhattan Project, Acheson-Lilienthal and Baruch
Plans, Atoms for Peace
2.2. Nuclear-Weapon-Free Zone Proposals

2.2.1. History

2.2.2. The Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America (Treaty of Tlatelolco)

2.3. The International Atomic Energy Agency

2.3.1. History and Organization

2.3.2. Safeguards Function 2.3.3. Assistance Function

2.4. Test-Ban Treaties

2.4.1. Treaty Banning Nuclear Weapon Tests in the Atmosphere, in Outer Space and Under
Water (Limited Test Ban Treaty)

2.4.2. Treaty Between the United States of America and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics on the Limitation of Underground Nuclear Weapon Tests (Threshold Test-Ban Treaty)


2.4.3. Comprehensive Test-Ban Proposals

2.5. The Treaty on the Mon-Proliferation of Nuclear
Weapons (Non-Proliferation Treaty)

2.5.1. History, Negotiations, and Analysis

2.5.2. 1975 NPT Review Conference to Present

2.6. Post-NPT Efforts

2.6.1. The London Suppliers' Conference

2.6.2. U.S. Efforts

2.6.3. International Initiatives

3. The Technology of Proliferation

3.1. The Fuel Cycle

3.1.1. Existing Technology

3.1.2. Technology Trends

3.2. Peaceful Nuclear Explosions

3.3. Safeguards 3.4. Terrorism

3.5. Nuclear Weapons

3.5.1. Weapons Technology

3.5.2. Overlap With Nuclear Power

4. Incentives and Disincentives

4.1. Export of Nuclear Materials, Facilities, and

4.1.1. Atoms for Peace to the Non-Proliferation

4.1.2. Non-Proliferation Treaty through the
Suppliers' Conference

4.2. The Economics of the Nuclear Fuel Cycle


4.3. Proliferation and International Security

4.3.1. Security Guarantees

4.3.2. No First-Use

4.3.3. Strategic Doctrine

4.3.4. 2uestions of Regional Stability



1. Atlantic Council of the United States.
Nuclear Fuels Policy. (Report of the Atlantic Council's Nuclear Fuels Policy Working Group.)
Washington. D.C.: Atlantic Council, 1976. 137 pp.

A policy analysis of the US nuclear fuel supply situation. Considers domestic and international energy demand, sources, and options, and includes an analysis of current and prospective nuclear reactor and breeder technologies. Recommends
increased US nuclear power commitment, coupled
with increased nonproliferation efforts.

Introduction and Summary; (Ch 1) Nuclear Energy Who Needs It?; (Ch 2) Alternatives to Nuclear Energy; (Ch 3) Established Commercial Technology for Nuclear Steam Supply systems in Use Today; (Ch 4) Prospective Technology for Future Nuclear Steam Supply Systems; (Ch 5) Nuclear Fuel for Light Water Reactors; (Ch 6) Demand and Supply of Nuclear Fuel for Light Water Reactors; (Ch 7) The Constraints on Meeting Xucleax Fuel Demand; (Ch 8) The Major Unresolved Issues and options in Demand, Supply, and Use of Nuclear Fuels fox Light Water Reactoxs; (Ch 9) Policy Conclusions and Recommendations; Appendices.

2. Bader, William B.
The United States and the Spread of Nuclear Weapons.
(Published for the Center for International Studies, Princeton University.) Hew York: Pegasus, 1969. 176

A history of the United States' changing attitudes and policies towards nuclear proliferation up to the HPT. Contrasts US
attitudes with those of some important non-nuclear states to test the proposition that international solutions are responsive to the
problem of the spread of nuclear arms.

Introduction; (Ch 1) The United States and the Nuclear Dilemma "In the Manner of Making War"; (Ch 2) Kennedy and Johnson: HATO and Geneva; (Ch 3) National Circumstances and Nuclear Status; (Ch 4) The



Legacy and the Challenge; (Appendix 1) United States Draft Treaty of the MPT; (Appendix 2) Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America; (Appendix 3) Treaty Banning Nuclear Weapons Tests in the Atmosphere, in Outer Space and Under Water; Bibliography.

3. Barnaby, Frank C. (ed.).
Preventing the Spread .21 Nuclear Weapons. (Pugwash Monograph 1, from the first Pugwash Symposium, London,
1968.) London: Souvenir Press, 1969. 374 pp.

A collection of papers and discussions from the first Pugwash Conference on nuclear
proliferation, focusing primarily on nuclear
technology and safeguards, and the political consequences and aspects of proliferation. This conference had a major impact on the course of
the MPT negotiations.

Part 1: Introduction;
Part II: Papers Presented to the Symposium Section A: Technical Aspects: (Ch 1)
Nuclear Reactors will Spread; (Ch 2) Comparative Economics of Nuclear Fuel and Conventional Fuel; (Ch 3) Civil Uses of Nuclear Explosives; (Ch 4) Gas Centrifuges for Cheaper Isotope Separation; (Ch 5)
Technical Aspects of the International Atomic Energy Agency Safeguards System; (Ch 6) On the Development of Diversion-Proof Nuclear Breeder Reactors; Section B: Safeguards and Guarantees: (Ch 1) Safeguards and Related Arms Control Problems; (Ch 2) Verification and Security Guaranteest Lessons from the Past; (Ch 3) The Problem of Guarantees; (Ch 4) A Loophole to be Closed in the Soviet-American Draft Mon-Proliferation Treaty; (Ch 5) Safeguards: The Long-Term Prospects; (Ch 6) The Problem of Safeguards with Special Reference to the German Democratic Republic; section _q: Political Aspects: (Ch 1) The Spread of Nuclear Weapons: Lessons from the Past; (Ch 2) Methods of Furthering the World-Wide Acceptance of a Mon-Proliferation Treaty; (Ch 3) Mon-Proliferation and the

25-559 0 78 2



Arms Race; (Ch 4) The Role of Reactor Exporting Countries; (Ch 5) The
Soviet-American Draft Non-Proliferation Treaty: Will It Work?; (Ch 6) Some International Legal Aspects Relating to the Participation of the Two German States in a Non-Proliferation Treaty; Part III: Summary of the Discussions.

4. Beaton, Leonard.
Must Arms Spread. Middlesex, England: Penguin Books,
Ltd., 1966. 146 pp.

Essays from an International Institute for Strategic Studies symposium that examine the possibility of removing the incentives or
controlling the means of proliferation.

(Ch 1) The Problem; (Ch 2) The Technical Requirements; (Ch 3) What Countries Want; (Ch 4) The Probable Rate of Proliferation; (Ch 5) Plutonium; (Ch 6) An
Anti-Proliferation Strategy; (Ch 7) Conclusion.

5. Blackett, P.M.S.
Military and Political Consequences of Atomic Enerqy.
London: Turnstile Press, 1948. 216 pp.

Analysis of the impact of the atomic bomb on military strategies and international
relationships. Examines and critiques the Baruch and Acheson-Lilienthal plans, and anticipates the need for some form of international inspection to
control nuclear energy.

6. Boskey, Bennet; Willrich, Mason (eds.).
Nuclear Proliferation: Prospects Jor Control. mew
York: Dunellen Publishing Co., 1970. 191 pp.

A general introduction to the proliferation issue and the possibilities and problems of the NPT as foreseen by a panel on nuclear energy and world



order of the American Society of Internatio'nal

Par Nucea Weapons Proliferation: (Ch
1) Global Dimensions A.S. Fisher; (Ch 2) Constraints on the Nuclear Arms Race G.W. Rathiens, Jr.; (Ch 3) Horizontal
Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons G. Bunn; Par fl:z Atm 1jQ Eea: (Ch 4) Military
Potential of Civilian Nuclear Power V. Gilinsky; (Ch 5) Technical Capabilities of Safeguards H. Scoville, Jr.; (Ch 6) EURATOM and the IAEA L. Scheinman; (Ch 7) Assurance of International Safeguards J.G. Palfrey; (Ch 8) Plowshare Evaluation D.B. Brooks and H.R. Meyers; (Oh 9) Plowshare Control -B.G. Bechhoefer; Part = Global Security: (Ch 10) Threat,
Reassurance, and Nuclear Proliferation J.I. Coffey; (Ch 11) Renunciation of Nuclear Weapons Use R.A. Falk; Appendices.

7. Brooks, David B.; Krutilla, J. V.
Peacefu Uses of Nula Explosives: Some Economic
Aset' (Resources for the Future) Washington, D.C.:
John Hopkins Univ. Press, 1969. 47 pp.

An economic evaluation of proposed applications of peaceful nuclear explosives, including safety considerations and the problems of scaling up engineering data on nuclear explosives to meet
the demands of unprecedented project sizes.

8. Chayes, Abram; Lewis, W. Bennett, eds.
International Arrangrements for Nuclear Fe
Reprocessingr. Cambridge, Mass.: Ballinger Publishing
Co., 1977. 245 pp.

The articles in this volume, which were prepared as papers for a US-Canadian Pugwash symposium on International Arrangements for the Nuclear Fuel Cycle held in May 1976, focus primarily on technical questions and institutional
arrangements relating to nuclear fuel




Part 1 General Considerations: (Ch 1) The Nuclear Fuel Cycle and Nuclear Proliferation
G.W. Rathiens and A. Carnesale; (Ch 2) Why Reprocess? T. Greenwood; Part I Technical Aspects: (Ch 3) Technical and Economic Considerations in Fuel Reprocessing S.R. Hatcher and W.W. Morgan; (Ch 4). The Simple, Uncertain Economics of Multinational Reprocessing Centers M. Sharefkin; (Ch 5) Safeguarding Reprocessing Facilities: The Impact of Multinationalization L. Scheinman; (Ch 6) The Impact of International Safeguards Arrangements Upon Nuclear-Fuel-Cycle
Operation C. Beets; (Ch 7) Safety Considerations of Nuclear-Fuel Reprocessing Plants F.R. Farmer; (Ch 8) Regional
Fuel-Cycle Centers: Technical and
Operational Considerations P.J. Dyne, R.B. Lyon, and D.R. McLean; (Ch 9) Storing Radioactive Wastes in Colled Pebbles W.B. Lewis; (Ch 10) Physical Security in Multinational Nuclear-Fuel-Cycle Operations
M. Willrich;
Part 3 Institutional Arrangements: (Ch 11) Institutional Arrangements for a Multinational Reprocessing Plant C.B. Smith and A. Chayes; (Ch 12) Some Experiences in Formation and Operation of Multinational Uranium Enrichment and Fuel-Reprocessing Organizations C. Allday; (Ch 13) Role of the IAEA in Multinational Fuel-Cycle Centers D.A.V. Fischer; (Ch 14) Nuclear Futures for Sale: Issues Raised by the West German-Brazilian Nuclear Agreement
W.W. Lowrance; (Ch 15) Relevance of
Intelsat Experience for Organizational Structure on Multinational Nuclear Fuel Facilities E.B. Skolnikoff; Part Political Setting: (Ch 16)
International Arrangements for
Nuclear-Fuel-Cycle Facilities: The Politics of the Problem W. Epstein.


9. Committee for Economic Development.
ucleax Eney Aa national Security Washington,
D.C.: Committee for Economic Development, 1976. 80 pp.

A statement by the Research and Policy Committee of the CED, providing an analysis of US nuclear energy policies. Argues that the US cannot unilaterally halt proliferation, and makes a
series of policy recommendations based on that

10. Dean, Arthur H.
IATest aJ aA Disarmament: Zht PatI &I Negotiation.
New York: Harper and Row, 1966. 153 pp.

Concise, analytical description of the course of the treaty negotiations written by one of those

(Ch 1) Introduction; (Ch 2) Disarmament Diplomacy; (Ch 3) Verification and Inspection; (Ch 4) Disarmament and Arms Control; (Ch 5) Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty; (Ch 6) Points of Emphasis; (Ch 7) The Urgent Future.

11. Dunn, Lewis A.; Kahn, Herman.
Trends in Nuclear Proliferation 1975-90: Proiections, Problems, and Policy Options. (Prepared for US ACDA) Croton-on-Hudson, N.Y. Hudson Institute. 1976. 195pp.

12. Epstein, William.
The Last Chance: Nuclear Proliferation and Arms
Control. New York: The Free Press, 1976. 341 pp.

A comprehensive survey and analysis of the various problems relating to the
non-proliferation of nuclear weapons, and a critique on the future of the "non-proliferation



(Ch 1) The Basic Dilemma; (Ch 2) Atoms for War: The Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons; (Ch 3) Atoms for Peace: The Proliferation of Nuclear Power Reactors and Plutonium; (Ch 4) Steps Leading to the Non-Proliferation Regime; (Ch 5) The Mlaking of the Non-Proliferation Treaty (The NPT); (Ch 6) Analysis of the Non-Proliferation Treaty; (Ch 7) The Politics of Nuclear Non-Proliferation; (Ch 9) The "Forgotten Conference" of the Non-Nuclear States; (Ch 10) Has the Security of Non-Nuclear States Been Ensured?; (Ch 11) How Good Are International Safeguards?; (Ch 12) Have the Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy Been Facilitated?; (Ch 13) What About Peaceful Nuclear Explosions?; (Ch 14) Stopping the Nuclear Arms Race?; (Ch 15) Nuclear-Free Zones; (Ch 16) The Nth-Country Problem Again: India's Nuclear Explosion; (Ch 17) The Danger of Proliferation to Additional States; (Ch 18) Failure at the NPT Review Conference; (Ch 19) The Danger of Proliferation to Terrorists and Criminals; (Ch 20) Man Is an Endangered Species;

13. Fischer, Georges.
The Non-Proliferation _o Nuclear Wepos David
Willey (trans.). London: Europa Publishers, 1971. 229

Reviews the origins, negotiation, and provisions of the NPT. Examines apparent trend in arms control efforts from early, comprehensive efforts to later, discreet-issue negotiations. Also gives detailed analysis of the NPT, and its
attendant control machinery.

Introduction; (Ch 1) Origins; (Ch 2) The Problem of Non-Proliferation; (Ch 3) The Drafting of the Treaty; (Ch 4) The Ban on the Transfer, Receipt, and Manufacture of Nuclear Weapons; (Ch 5) Policing the Ban; (Ch 6) Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy; (Ch 7) Final Clauses; (Ch 8) Security
Guarantees; (Ch 9) Collateral Measures; Conclusion; Appendices.



14. Gallois. Pierre.

(R. Howard, trans.) Boston: Houghton-Mifflin Company,
1961. 234 pp.

Suggests that a world with many nuclear-weapons states is a desirable condition, termed multiple mutual deterrence. Author is a former French
general and war theorist.

15. Garcia-Robles, Alfonso.
1h& Denuclearization .21 Latin America. (N. Urquidi, trans.) New York: Carnegie Endowment for International
Peace, 1967. 167 pp.

A collection of speeches by the author (Chairman of the Preparatory Commission for the Denuclearization of Latin America) and other documents. Published in preparation for the final
meeting of the Commission.

16. Green, Harold P.; Rosenthal, Alan.
Government of1 the Atom: Then Integ~ration of Powers.
New York: Atherton Press, 1963. 273 pp.

A study of the Joint Committee on Atomic Energy, and its use of power in relation to both the Executive and the Congress as a whole. Concludes that the JCAE probably streamlined the
legislative process, and exercised considerable power in what could have been a solely Executive branch policy area, but did so at the expense of comprehensive public debate and overall
Congressional examination of nuclear policy

17. Greenwood, Ted; Feiveson, Harold A.; and Taylor, Theodore B.
Nuclear Proliferation: Motivations, Capabilities, and Strategries for Contol. New York, McGraw-Hill Book
Co., 1977. 211 pp.



This Council on Foreign Relations "1990's Project" volume has divided its analysis into two areas: the question of motivations (Ch 1); and the question of capabilities (Ch 2). Each of the chapters examines its topic in both historical
and dynamic contexts.

(Introduction) Nuclear Proliferation and the 1980's Project D.C. Gompext; (Ch 1) Discouraging Proliferation in the Next Decade and Beyond T. Greenwood; (Ch 2) Alternative Strategies for International Control of Nuclear Power H. Feiveson and T.B. Taylor.

18. Guhin, Michael A.
Nuclear Paradox: Security Risks of the Peaceful Atom.
Washington, D.C.: American Enterprise Institute for Public Policy Research Foreign Affairs Study, v. 32,
1976. 77 pp.

This essay examines recent (1976) US proposals and policy courses which could be pursued at an international level to reduce the national and sub-national risks of the peaceful atom. Examines a few basic principles for approaching the problem of guarding against the dangers of proliferation while advancing the benefits of the

(Ch 1) Previous Rounds with the Nuclear Dilemma; (Ch 2) Perspectives on an Expanding Paradox; (Ch 3) Approaches to Reduce Security Risks; (Ch 4) Further Proposals and Policy Issues.

19. Hewlett, Richard G.; Anderson, Oscar E. Jr.
The New World, 1939-1946' A History &I the US Atomic Energy Commission Volume I. University Park, Pennsylvania: Pennsylvania State University Press,
1962. 766 pp.

A comprehensive, official history of the wartime development of the atomic bomb, written by the Historical Advisory Committee of the US Atomic Energy Commission, focusing on domestic



institutions, personalities. and events leading
up to the development and use of the bomb.

(Ch 1) The Inheritance; (Ch 2) In the Beginning; (Ch 3) Exploring the Routes to the Weapon; (Ch 4) Commitment; (Ch 5) Race for the Bomb: Uranium 235; (Ch 6) Race for the Bomb: Plutonium; (Ch 7) A Laboratory Set on a Hill; (Ch 8) An Uneasy Partnership; (Ch 9) Race for the Bomb: Homestretch; (Ch 10) The 2uest for Postwar Planning; (Ch 11) Terrible Swift Sword; (Ch 12) Controlling the Atom: Search for a Policy; (Ch 13) Controlling the Atom: From Policy to Action: (Ch 14) The Legislative Battle; (Ch 15) International Control: Last Best Hope; (Ch 16) International Control: No Flesh for the Spirit; (Ch 17) A Time of Transition; Sources; Notes; Appendices; .(1) The McMahon Bill (S. 1717); (2) Financial Data.

20. Hewlett, Richard G.; Duncan, Francis.
Atomic Shield, 1947-1952: A History of the US Atomic Energy Commission, Volume 11. University Park,
Pennsylvania: Pennsylvania State University Press,
1969. 718 pp.

This is the second volume in the series by Hewlett on the history of the US Atomic Energy Commission. See the cite for Volume I (previous
entry) for description.

(Ch 1) The Terrible Responsibility; (Ch 2) Uncertain Mandate; (Ch 3) First Venture; (Ch 4) The Peaceful Image; (Ch 5) Call to Arms; (Ch 6) Nuclear Arsenal; (Ch 7) Atomic Power: 2uandry and 2uagmire; (Ch 9) Research: New Approaches to a Mew Age; (Ch 9) Cooperation with the British: Untangling the Alliance; (Ch 10) Cooperation with the British: Anxiety and Tension; (Ch 11) The Art of Administration; (Ch 12) Decision of Destiny; (Ch 13) Twilight Zone, Februazy-June 1950; (Ch 14) Changing Patterns of Administration; (Ch 15) Science: Shield of the Free World?; (Ch 16) 2uest for the Super; (Ch 17) Forging the Atomic Shield; (Ch 18) End of the 2uest; Sources; Notes; Appendices.



21. Hodgetts, J.E.
Administeringi _th& Atom~ f& Pece New York: Atherton
Press, 1964. 184 pp.

A description of the structure and function of the various national and international agencies, both here and abroad, whose function is to administer nuclear energy. Useful largely in an historical context, given the relatively early
date of publication.

(Ch 1) Introduction; (Ch 2) The Need for Special Atomic-Energy Authorities; (Ch 3) Organizing a Peaceful Atomic-Energy Program; (Ch 4) Provision of Nuclear Materials; (Ch 5) Research and Development; (Ch 6) Regulation; (Ch 7) Co-ordination; (Ch 8) Accountability.

22. Jacobson, Harold K.; Stein, Eric.
Diplomnas, Scinti, and. Politicians: MiaUnte
States an the Nuclear Tes Ban Necrotiatons. Ann
Arbor: University of Michigan Press,.1966. 538 pp.

An exhaustive study of the development and negotiation of the US-USSR Limited Test Ban Treaty of 1963. Concludes from the influence of technology on international negotiations and organizational structures that technologies can create critical control problems whose control must be primarily political and only secondarily
technical in nature.

23. Jensen, Lloyd.
Return fro JjA Nucea Bin: Hatiil Inerst ji S
the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Tray Lexington,
Massachusetts: Lexington Books, 1973. 150 pp.

An examination of the positions taken by various states during the long set of negotiations leading to the signing of the NPT (1 July 1968) and its eventual entry into force (5 March 1970).

Chronology of Important Events;
Introduction; (Ch 1) National Security



Interests; (Ch 2) Political Objectives and the Treaty; (Ch 3) Economic Interests and the Treaty; (Ch 4) National Interest and Treaty Position; (Ch 5) The Nuclear Threshold State and the NPT; (Ch 6) Conclusions.

24. Kertesz, Stephen D. (ed.).
Nuclear Non-Proliferation n a World of Nuclear Powers. Notre Dame: University of Notre Dame Press,
1967. 130 pp.

Papers delivered at and conclusions from the
regional Notre Dame American Assembly on nuclear proliferation. Included in the Appendices are addresses and papers expressing the official US, Soviet, Italian, German, and French positions on the draft NPT, which was finalized in 1968 along the lines recommended by the Assembly in this

Preface S.D. Kertesz; (Ch 1) Address T.M. Hesburgh; (Ch 2) A Soviet View on Nuclear Proliferation V.I. Trifonov; (Ch 3) Nuclear Spread: The Setting of the Problem J.R. Schlesinger; (Ch 4) On the Non-Dissemination of Nuclear Weapons A.K. Konopacki; (Ch 5) Issues Involved in a
Non-Proliferation Agreement A.S. Fisher; (Ch 6) The Quest for Peace J. Brademas; (Ch 7) Final Report of March 18, 1967;

25. Lawrence, Robert M.; Larus, Joel (eds.).
Nuclear Proliferation Phase II. (Published for the National Security Education Program.) Lawrence,
Kansas: University of Kansas, 1974. 256 pp.

A collection of three essays which examine the post-NPT prospects for proliferation, and six essays written by authorities from six countries concerning each country's position on proliferation, acceptance or rejection of the
NPT, and security situation.

(Ch 1) A Historical Review of Nuclear



Weapons Proliferation and the Development of the NPT R.M. Lawrence and J. Larus; (Ch 2) Nuclear Technology and Weapons W. Van Cleave; (Ch 3) Australia: Recent Ratification T.B. Miller; (Ch 4) The
Federal Republic of Germany: Constraining the Inactive U. Nerlich; (Ch 5) India: Keeping the Option Open K. Subrahmanyam; (Ch 6) Israel: From an Option to a Bomb in the Basement? A. Haselkorn; (Ch 7) Japan: Quest fox Strategic Compatibility S. Kato; (Ch 8) The Republic of South Africa: Proliferation and the Politics of "Outward Movement" J.E. Spence; (Ch 9) Implications of Phase II Proliferation for the United States R.M. Lawrence and J. Larus.

26. Leachman, Robert B.; Althoff, Philip (eds.).
Preventing Nuclear Theft: Guidelines for Industry and Government. Mew York: Praeger Publishers, 1972. 377

A volume of prepared papers and discussion summaries from a symposium on implementing nuclear safeguards. (Held 25-27 October 1971, sponsored by the Diversion Safeguards Program,
Kansas State University.)

Part 1: Safeguards Overview: (Ch 1) Keynote Remarks C. Hosmer; (Ch 2) International Safeguards R. Rometsch; (Ch -3) US Safeguards Overview D.L. Crowson; Part 11: National Safecruards Systems: (Ch 4) Nuclear Safeguards Policy: A Case Study in Regulation D. Brady; (Ch 5) Setting Mew Standards for Safeguarding the Peaceful Atom
C.D.W. Thornton; (Ch 6) US National
Safeguards System: An Industrial View A.E. Schubert; (Ch 7) Panel on National Safeguards Systems;
Part III: International Safeguards Systems:
(Ch 8) Political Aspects of NPT Safeguards L. Scheinman; (Ch 9) Euratom Safeguards E. Jacchia; (Ch 10) International Safeguards: A Study of the Influence of Technology on Political Decisions D. Zollman; (Ch 11) Panel on International Safeguards Systems; Part IV: Thefts', Criminoloay, And



Jurisdictions: (Ch 12) International Inspection of US Industry D.J. Haymon; (Ch 13) Social Psychological Studies of the Safeguards Problem L. Rappoport and J.D. Pettinelli; (Ch 14) Judgement in Safeguards Activities F. Morgan; (Ch 15) Who Are the Enemy? J.E. Lovett; (Ch 16) The Need for a Systems Approach to Preventing Theft of Special Nuclear Materials T.B. Taylor; Par Y: The Fuel Cycle and Measurements: (Ch 17) Nuclear Detection Methods N.C. Rasmussen; (Ch 18) The Industrial Safeguards Problems Through the Fuel Cycle R.J. Jones; (Ch 19) The Adaptability of Fissile Materials to Nuclear Explosives D.B. Hall; (Ch 20) Real Problems, Real Solutions J.H. Menzel; (Ch 21) The IAEA Catalog for Portable Safeguards Techniques L.A. Kull, G.M. Reynolds, and J.R. Beyster; Part _V: Optimizing Inspections: (Ch 22) Application of the Theory of Games to Safeguards Problems R. Avenhaus; (Ch 23) Studies of Safeguards as a Systems Problem F.A. Constanzi, F.A. Tillman, and S.
Chatterjee; (Ch 24) Summary Remarks.

27. Lepper, Mary M.
Foreign Policy Formulation: A Case Study of the Nuclear Test Ban Treaty of 1963. (Merrill Political Science Series.) Colombus, Ohio: Charles E. Merrill
Publishing Company, 1971. 191 pp.

Examines the effects of public opinion, interest groups, the Executive, and Senate committees and hearings on the negotiation of the Limited Test Ban Treaty. Finds that external forces were a significant factor in shaping US policy vis-a-vis
the negotiations.

28. MacAvoy, Paul W.
Economic Strategy lam Developing Buclea r Beeder R. Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press, 1969.
204 pp.

Detailed economic cost/benefit analysis of



different options for breeder reactors. Concludes by proposing the development of a mix of breeder
reactor types, rather than focusing on one.

(Ch 1) The questions in Future Reactor Research and Economic Approaches to Answers; (Ch 2) The Costs of Fast Breeder Research and Development Programs; (Ch 3) Initial Forecasts of the Benefits from Breeder Reactors; (Ch 4)The Economic Fast Breeder Development Program.

29. Marks, Anne W. (ed.).
MPT: Paradox and Problems. Washington, D.C. Published by The Arms Control Association and The Carnegie
Endowment for International Peace, 1975. 106 pp.

This volume contains recommendations and papers from an international, pre-NPT Review Conference meeting of the Arms Control Association and the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, held
in Divonne, France, in September 1974.

Part 1 Report of the Conference: Recommendations and Conclusions; Part 2 A Postscript on the Nuclear Fuel Cycle;
Part 3 Working Papers for the Conference: (Ch 1) Non-Proliferation Treaty: Status and Prospects I. Smart; (Ch 2) The Indian
Nuclear Test and the NPT J. Goldblat; (Ch 3) India's Approach Toward Nuclear Energy and Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons V.C. Trivedi; (Ch 4) Peaceful Nuclear Explosions: An Invitation to Proliferation H. Scoville, Jr.; (Ch 5) Nuclear Power
Development and Nuclear Weapon Proliferation
M. Willrich; (Ch 6) NPT Article VI: How Have the Parties Met Their Obligations? W. Epstein.

30. Marwah, Onkar; Schulz, Ann (eds.).
Nuclear Proliferation and hg Near-Nuclear Cjujti&&.
Cambridge, Massachusetts: Ballinger Publishing Co.,
1975. 305 pp.



Examines the issues of the security of non-nuclear states, vertical proliferation, application of safeguards procedures, and nuclear
safety as presented at a conference on nulear proliferation, held in March 1975 at Clark
University, Worcester, Massachusetts.

Introduction Nuclear Proliferation: To Bell the Cats or Catch the Mice? Part 1: (Ch 1) The Emergence of a Mew Second Order of Powers in the International System
S.B. Cohen; (Ch 2) The United States-Soviet Arms Race: SALT and Nuclear Proliferation S.H. Leader and B.R. Schneider; (Ch 3) The Mon-Proliferation Treaty and the Nuclear Aspirants: The Strategic Context of the Indian Ocean R.M. Lawrence; Discussion Essay'.
Proliferation and the International
Strategic System;
Par 11: (Ch 4) Risks of the Nuclear Fuel Cycle and the Developing Countries C. Hohenemser; (Ch 5) Commercial Nuclear Technology and Nuclear Weapon Proliferation
T.B. Taylor; (Ch 6) India's Nuclear Policy
K. Subrahmanyam; Discussion Essay: Nuclear Safety, Weapons and War; Par U: (Ch 7) Nuclearization and Stability in the Middle East S.J. Rosen; (Ch 8) Determinants of the Nuclear Option: The Case of Iran A.H. Cahn; (Ch 9) South Africa's Foreign Policy Alternatives and Deterrence Needs E. Bustin; (Ch 10) Japan's Response to Nuclear Developments: Beyond "Nuclear Allergy" Y. Sato; (Ch 11) Brazil's Nuclear Aspirations H.J. Rosenbaum; (Ch 12) Incentives for Nuclear Proliferation: The Case of Argentina C.H. Waisman; Discussion Essay: The Typical Nuclear Proliferator; Epilogue: The NPT Review Conference, Geneva, 1975;
Appendices: A The Non-Proliferation Treaty; B Final Declaration of the Review Conference of the Parties to the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons; C
-Status of the Non-Proliferation Treaty.



31. McBride, James H.
The Test Ban Treaty: Military, Technological, AMA Political Implications. Chicago: Henry Regnery
Company, 1967. 197 pp.

Analysis of the impact of the Limited Test Ban Treaty on future US security, based largely on two Senate committee hearings. Concludes that the already-signed LTB was not in the security
interests of the US.

(Ch 1) Introduction; (Ch 2) Historical Background; (Ch 3) The State of the Art in the United States and the Soviet Union; (Ch 4) Clandestine Testing and Its Detection; (Ch 5) Some Strategic Problems; (Ch 6) Military and Technological Advantages and Disadvantages; (Ch 7) The Safeguards; (Ch 9) Political Aspects; (Ch 9) Conclusions; Appendices.

32. Nieburg, Harold L.
Nuclear Secrecy _ald Foreign Policy. Washington D.C.:
Public Affairs Press, 1964.

Political analysis and critique of US policies regarding nuclear power/weapon information secrecy. Examines justifications and goals of secrecy policies, and provides history of US belief that denial of information could prevent
dissemination of its effects.

(Ch 1) Problems and Issues; (Ch 2) Secrecy and Strategic Transition; (Ch 3) The Policy Process; (C-h 4) Development of Tripartite Secrecy Control; (Ch 5) Towards Muclear Parity; (Ch 6) Strategy of the Peaceful Atom; (Ch 7) The Progress of
Declassification; (Ch 8) Flowering of the Peaceful Atom; (Ch 9) Decline of the Peaceful Atom; (Ch 10) Euratom: The Art of Coalition Politics; (Ch 11) The Case of the Lucky Dragon; (Ch 12) A House Divided; (Ch 13) Abortive Hew Directions; (Ch 14) Hew Frontiers; (Ch 15) Huclear Exclusion and the Common Market; (Ch 16) The View from Here.



33. Nuclear Energy Policy Study Group.
Nuclear. Power Issues and Choices. (Sponsored by the Ford Foundation, administered by the MITRE Corporation) Cambridge, Mass. Ballinger Publishing Co.
1977. 418 pp.

The Ford/MITRE study, which began in 1974 and utilized a panel of nationally recognized experts in the field of nuclear energy, contains much information relating to the overlap between nuclear energy and nuclear proliferation. It also contains an excellent introduction to the technology of the nuclear fuel cycle. Some of
the study group's recommendations, which are summarized in the 38-page Overview, provided a background for the Carter Administration energy
and non-proliferation policies.

Part 1 Energy Economics and Supply: (Ch 1) Energy and the Economic Future; (Ch 2) Uranium and Fossil Fuel Supplies; (Ch 3) Economics of Nuclear Power; (Ch 4) Alternative Energy Sources; Part _Z Health, Environment, and Safety: (Ch 5) Health Effects; (Ch 6) Environmental Effects; (Ch 7) Reactor Safety; (Ch 8) Radioactive Wastes;
Part 3 Nuclear Proliferation and Terrorism: (Ch 9) Nuclear Power and Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons; (Ch 10) Nuclear Terrorism;
Part 4 Issues for Decision: (Ch 11) Plutonium Reprocessing and Recycle; (Ch 12) Breeder Reactors; (Ch 13) Uranium Enrichment; (Ch 14) Nuclear Export Policy; (Appendix) Nuclear Power Technology.

34. Penner, S.S. (ed.)
Energy: Volume III Nuclear Energy and 'Energy Policies,. Reading, Massachusetts: Addison-Wesley
Publishing Co., 1976. 713 pp.

A comprehensive text on nuclear technologies, consisting of formalized lecture notes from a number of authors. While highly technical, it is valuable source to the non-specialist with even
minimal background in the sciences.

25-559 0 78 3



(Note: As the third volume in a series, the first two volumes of which deal with other than nuclear energy, chapters are numbered consecutively, and thus this volume begins
with Chapter 21.)
(Ch 21) Nuclear Fission Energy J.P. Howe; (Ch 22) Nuclear Fission Energy: Breeder Reactors J.P. Howe; (Ch 23) Controlled Thermonuclear Fusion A.R. Hochstim, et.
al.; (Ch 24) Environmental Aspects of Nuclear Power Applications S.S. Penner, et. al.; (Ch 25) Nuclear Strategies S.S.
Penner, et. al.; (Ch 26) Energy Policies
S.S. Penner.

35. 2uester, George.
Nuclear Diplomacy: The First Twenty-Five Years.
Cambridge, Massachusetts: Dunellen Publishing Co.,
1973 (2nd edition). 334 pp.

Within each of the chapters, each of which deals with a specific phase in arms control in general, there is a section or sections concerned with proliferation that provides a good, although brief overview of the history of international efforts to control proliferation. Particularly useful in terms of providing the overall context in which proliferation policies evolved and the
nuclear club grew.

(Ch 1) The US Monopoly: 1945-1949; (Ch 2) The Monopoly Eliminated: 1949-1953; (Ch 3) The New Look: 1953-1957; (Ch 4) The Missile Gap: 1957-1961; (Ch 5) The Kennedy Administration: 1961-1963; (Ch 6) From Johnson to Nixon: 1963-1969.

36. Quester, George.
The Politics of Nuclear Proliferation. Baltimore: The
Johns Hopkins University Press, 1973. 249 pp.

Reviews the military, political, and economic arguments for proliferation. Outlines 17 countries' perspectives on proliferation and
views on the NPT.



(Ch 1) Introduction; (Ch 2) Washington; (Ch 3) Moscow; (Ch 4) New Delhi; (Ch 5) ~Jerusalem; (Ch 6) Tokyo; (Ch 7) Stockholm; (Ch 8) Brasilia, Buenos Aires, Santiago; (Ch 9) London, Ottawa, Canberra; (Ch 10) Bonn; (Ch 11) Rome; (Ch 12) Paris, Pretoria, Peking; (Ch 13) The Vienna Agency; (Ch 14) Some Conclusions.

37. Sanders, Ralph.
Project Plwhae The~ Development of1 the Peaceful
Use 2Nuclear Explosions. Washington, D.C.: Public
Affairs Press, 1962. 206 pp.

Written when the US was actively promoting the benefits of PNE's, this book examines the development of the Plowshare program, and assesses the need for and technological potential
of PNE's.

38. Schmidt, F.H.; Bodansky, D.
Enrg Controversy: The Fight Over. Nuclear Power. San
Francisco: Albion Publishing Company, 1976. 154 pp.

Comprehensive and detailed analysis of the controversy over nuclear power's role in the future US energy grid. Describes issues involved, significance of nuclear energy from both economic and political perspectives, and its impact on the
dissemination of nuclear weapons.

39. Smyth, Henry.
Atmi EeryJ,. Military Purose: The Ofica
Report 2n theg Development 21 the Atomic Bomb. under the Auspices of thej Unted States Government. Princeton,
Mew Jersey: Princeton University Press, 1945. 264 pp.

First officially authorized report on the Manhattan Project. Summarizes administrative history and unclassified technical details of the development of the atomic bomb. First attempt to familiarize the public with the various aspects



of the bomb and its history and impact on the

(Ch 1) Introduction; (Ch 2) Statement of the Problem; (Ch 3) Administrative History up to December 1941; (Ch 4) Progress up to December 1941; (Ch 5) Administrative History 1942-1945; (Ch 6) The Metallurgical Project at Chicago in 1942; (Ch 7) The Plutonium Production Problem as of February 1943; (Ch 8) The Plutonium Problem, January 1943 to June 1945; (Ch 9) General Discussion of the Separation of Isotopes; (Ch 10) The Separation of the Uranium Isotopes by Gaseous Diffusion; (Ch 11) Electromagnetic Separation of Uranium Isotopes; (Ch 12) Work on the Atomic Bomb; (Ch 13) General Summary.

40. Stockholm International Peace Research Institute.
Th Near-Nuclear Countries and the NPT. New York:
Humanities Press, 1972. 123 pp.

Describes the attitudes of 15 states not party to the NPT considered to be near to nuclear weapon capability. Examines the future of the NPT in
light of the implications of such attitudes.

Part .1: General Background; Par Il: Country Studies India, Pakistan, Israel, The Arab Republic of Egypt, South Africa, Japan, Australia, Spain, Brazil, Argentina, Euratom and the NPT, The Federal Republic of Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Belgium, Switzerland;
Par Z: Conclusions.

41. Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (Barnaby,
Frank C., ed.)
jj ula Aq&. Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press,
1974. 148 pp.

Provides introductory information on the overlap between nuclear energy and nuclear weapons proliferation as background for the 1975 NPT
Review Conference.



(Ch 1) The Future Role of Nuclear Power in Energy Supplies; (Ch 2) The Nuclear Fuel Cycle; (Ch 3) Plutonium Production from Nuclear Power Reactors; (Ch 4) Nuclear
Safeguards; (Ch 5) Nuclear Explosions for Peaceful Purposes; (Ch 6) The NPT Review Conference; Appendices.

42. Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (Jasani,
B.M., ed.).
Nuclear Proliferation Problems. Cambridge, Mass: MIT
Press, 1974. 312p.

This volume, which was written to review problems likely to be raised at the 1975 NPT Review Conference, brings together papers written by a group of leading experts from a variety of
countries. It focuses on the entire range of
issues concerning nuclear proliferation.

Part 1 Nuclear Technolofv: (Ch 1) Introduction; (Ch 2) A Projection of Nuclear Power and Its Associated Industry- B.I. Spinrad; (Ch 3) Fast Breeder Reactors- B.M. Jasani; (Ch 4) Uranium Enrichment Technologies and the Demand for Enriched Uranium- P. Boskma; (Ch 5) Nuclear Fuel Fabrication Plants- B.M. Jasani; (Ch 6) Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing Plants- B.M. Jasani; (Ch 7) Uranium Enrichment and the Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons- P. Boskma; (Ch 8) Nuclear Weapon Technology- J.C. Hopkins; (Ch 9) Nuclear Miniweapons and Low-Yield Weapons which Use Reactor-Grade Plutonium: Their Effect on the Durability of the NPT- J.K. Miettinen. Part _Z The jPT Safeguards: (Ch 1) Introduction; (Ch 2) The IAEA's NPT Safeguards- R. Rainer and B. Sanders; (Ch 3) NPT Safeguards- W. Hafele; (Ch 4) Arguments for Extended NPT Safeguards- J. Prawitz; (Ch 5) Nongovernmental Nuclear Weapons
Proliferation- M. Willrich; (Ch 6) Nuclear Power: A Trojan Horse for Terrorism- D. Krieger;
Part Cooperation in the Applications of Nuclear Energy: (Ch 1) Introduction; (Ch 2) International Nuclear Collaboration and



Article IV of the NPT- B. Goldschmidt; (Ch 3) On The Peaceful Use of Nuclear Explosions- V.S. Emelyanov; Part 4 Security Problems
Non-Nuclear-Weapons States: (Ch 1)
Introduction; (Ch 2) The Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons and the Security of the Non-Nuclear States- A.N. Kaliadin; (Ch 3) The UN Security Council Resolution of 19 June 1968 and the Security of Non-Nuclear-Weapon States- J. Goldblat; (Oh 4) Italy and the Nuclear Option- F. Calogero; (Ch 5) The Non-Proliferation Treaty: The Japanese Attitude Three Years After Signing- R. Imai; (Ch 6) Indian Attitude Towards the NPT- K Subrahmanyam; (Ch 7) Israel's Attitude Towards the NPT- S. Flapan; (Ch 8) European Security and the Non-Proliferation Treaty- J.K. Miettinen.

43. Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (Barnaby, Frank C., ed.)
Preventing Nuclear Weapon Proliferation: An Approach to the Non-Proliferation Treaty Review Conference.
Stockholm: SIPRI, 1975.

A short, clear introduction for the non-specialist to the NPT and its limitations, as well as to the issues that were slated to come
before the NPT Review Conference in May 1975.

44. Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (Sanders, B., ed.)
Safeguards against Nuclear Proliferation. Cambridge,
Massachusetts: MIT Press, 1975. 114 pp.

Reviews the operation of IAEA safeguards, as applied both under the NPT and on an individual country basis. It highlights some of the problems associated with the application of safeguards to further discussion at the 1975 NPT Review

(Oh 1) The Background; (Oh 2) Some Basic Issues; (Ch 3) The Application; (Ch 4) Funds



and Figures; (Ch 5) Further Developments; Appendices: (1) Extracts from IAEA document INFCIRC/209 (3 September 1974) and INFCIRC/209/add.2 (24 October 1974); (2) IAEA Members; (2A) Situation on 31 December 1974 on Conclusion of Safeguards Agreements;
(2B) Safeguards Agreements Approved by the IAEA Board; (3) INFCIRC/153 the "Blue Book"; (4) INFCIRC/66/Rev.2: Safeguards System of 1965 and Ammended in 1966 and 1968; (5) The Agency's Inspectorate.

45. Wentz, Walter B.
Nula Proliferation. Washington, D.C.: Public
Affairs Press, 1968. 216 pp.

A broad, interdisciplinary overview of the political, military, scientific, and economic problems associated with nuclear proliferation.
Intended as a reference work for the policy maker
and the political scientist.

Part .1 : The Nuclear Option: (Ch 1) The Nuclear Reality; (Ch 2) The Proliferation Trend; (Ch 3) The Nuclear Club Candidates; (Ch 4) Exercising the Nuclear Option; (Ch 5) China An Atomic Adversary; (Ch 6) France An Atomic Friend;
Par 11: The~ Conseqtuences of Acqtuisition:
(Ch 7) India An Atomic Neutral; (Ch 8) Israel An Atomic Fuse; (Ch 9) West Germany
An Atomic Enigma; (Ch 10) Japan Another Enigma; (Ch 11) The Fringe Nations; Part II.I: The Alternatives of US Policy: (Ch 12) Alternatives of Nuclear Strategy; (Ch 13) The McNamara Doctrine; (Ch 14) Deterrents; (Ch 15) Proliferation Policy; (Ch 16) Arms Control and Disarmament; (Ch 17) Revolution and Communism; (Ch 18) China Policy; (Ch 19) Asian Policy; (Ch 20) European Policy; (Ch 21) Near and Middle East Policy;
Part IV3: Concusio: (Ch 22) Realities and Alternatives; (Ch 23) Politics and
Proliferators; (Ch 24) US Nuclear Power.



46. Wilirich, Mason (ed.).
Civil Nuclear Power an International Securiy. New
York: Praeger Publishers, 1971. 124 pp.

A collection of four papers written fox a conference on the international security problems associated with the emergence of large-scale
civil nuclear programs in many countries.

(Ch 1) The Nature of the Problem M. Willrich; (Ch 2) The Mlilitary Potential of Civil Nuclear Power V. Gilinsky; (Ch 3) International Safeguards D.E. George and R.F. Lumb; (Ch 4) The International Political Context L. Beaton.

47. Willrich, Mason.
Global Politics of1 Nuclear Energy. Hew York: Praeger
Publishers, 1971. 204 pp.

Provides overview of the international policy problems associated with peaceful nuclear energy, and evaluates the policy options available for coping with them. Asserts that existing
structures are inadequate for proper control.

Par 1: Introduction: (Ch 1) Technology
Challenges Politics;
Part ZJ: Politics of1 Nuclear Power: (Ch 2) Nuclear Fuel Cycle; (Ch 3) Political Evolution; (Ch 4) National Capabilities and Objectives; (Ch 5) International Control; (Ch 6) Probable and Possible Futures; P a rt III.: Poitcs O TeholoQgy
Development: (Ch 7) Breeder Reactors; (Ch 8) Nuplex; (Ch 9) Plowshare; (Ch 10) Controlled Fusion;
Part IV Conclusion: (Ch 11) Nuclear Energy and World Order.

48. Willrich, Mason (ed.).
International Saeuad _%nA Hulax Inldustry.
Baltimore: The J7ohns Hopkins University Press, 1973.
307 pp.

An extensive study of the IAEA/HPT safeguards



system: its history, operation, and problems.

Pat_ I: Introduction: (Oh 1) The Need for International Safeguards H.D. Smyth; (Ch 2) Historical Evolution of International Safeguards B.G. Bechhoefer; (Ch 3) Worldwide Nuclear Industry M. Willrich; Part II: Safeguards against Nuclear Diversion: (Ch 4) International Atomic Energy Sageguards P.C. Szasz; (Ch 5) National Safeguards E.M. Kinderman; PaIt II: Possibilities f Nuclear
Diversion: (Ch 6) Diversion by National Governments V. Gilinsky; (Ch 7) Diversion by Non-Governmental Organizations T.B. Taylor;
Part IV: Implications Of Nuclear
Safeguards: (Ch 8) Industrial Implications of Safeguards E.M. Kinderman; (Ch 9)
Political Implications of Safeguards L. Scheinman;
Pat _: Conclusion: (Ch 10) International Safeguards and Nuclear Industry M. Willrich.

49. Willrich, Mason.
Non-Proliferation Treaty: Framework oj Nuclear Arms Control. Charlottesville, Virginia: Michie Co., 1969.
341 pp.

Intended primarily for policy makers and international lawyers, the book focuses on three aspects of the NPT Regime: the legal and
political background of international
proliferation control; evaluation of the
document; and future trends and implications.

(Oh 1) World Context; (Oh 2) Policy Evaluation; (Oh 3) Legal Background; (Ch 4) Non-Transfer and Non-Acquisition of Nuclear Weapons; (Ch 5) Safeguards on Peaceful Nuclear Activities; (Ch 6) Sharing Peaceful Nuclear Benefits; (Ch 7) Durability of the Treaty; (Oh 8) Future Implications.



50. Willrich, Mason; Taylor, Theodore B.
Nuclear Theft: Rishs and Safeguards. Cambridge, Mass.
Ballinger Publishing Company. 1974. 252 pp.

This book, which was a report to the Ford, Foundation Energy Policy Project, has become a standard reference in the area of nuclear terrorism and safeguards. Its analysis of the possibility of nuclear violence using stolen fissionable materials, its criticism of existing safeguards, and its recommendations have
stimulated significant debate.

(Ch 1) Introduction; (Ch 2) Nuclear Weapons; (Ch 3) Nuclear Fuel Cycles: 1973-80; (Ch 4) Nuclear Power Scenarios: 1980-2000; (Ch 5) US Safeguards Against Nuclear Theft; (Ch 6) Risks of Nuclear Theft; (Ch 7) Nuclear Safeguards: Basic Considerations; (Ch 8) Safeguard Measures; (Ch 9) Costs of Safeguards; (Ch 10) Conclusions and Recommendations; (Appendices) A. Historical Background; B. Foreign Nuclear Power: Reactor Types and Forecasts; C. US AEC Regulatory Guide 5.7 Control of Personnel Access to Protected Areas, Vital Areas, and Material Access Areas (June 1973); D. Risks of Governmental Diversion in
Mon-Muclear-Weapon Countries; E. Reviewer Comments.

51. Wohlstetter, Albert.
Zhg Spread gi Nuclear Bombs: Predictions, Premises,
Policies. Los Angeles: Pan Heuristics, 1977. 164 pp.

Presents an overview of the problem of proliferation which includes: a perspective on the genesis of the problem; a general strategy for sequential decision-making appropriate given the large uncertainties concerning nuclear energy growth; and an outline of specific policies for the United States and other supplier governments.

(Ch 1) Prediction and Decision; (Ch 2) Premises and Origins; (Ch 3) Is the Spread Likely Under the Present Rules?; (Ch 4) Would the Spread to Other Countries Be Bad?; (Ch 5) What, If Anything, Can We Do to Limit



or Slow the Spread?; (Ch 6) Will Slowing the Spread Cost More Than It Is Worth?; (Ch 7) Policies.

52. Wohlstetter, Albext. et. al.
Moving Toward Life in a Nuclear Armed Crowd?
(Prepared under contract to US ACDA.) Los Angeles: Pan
Heuristics, 1976. 286 pp.

Both political and technical in scope, this document deals with the trends in proliferation, and the impact that further weapons spread would have on the US and the world. It is highly useful for both background and specific

(Ch 1) The Trends and the questions They Pose; (Ch 2) Ptimer on Technology; (Ch 3) Perspective on Inhibiting "Dangerous"
Activities; (Ch 4) Some Economic Aspects of Nuclear Proliferation; (Ch 5) Thinking Through the Middle Power Nuclear Option Paradoxes and Problems of Proportional Deterrence in the Case of Japan; (Ch 6) Life in a Nuclear Crowd; (Appendix 1) The
Plutonium Recycle Enrichment Penalty; (Appendix 2) The Recycled Uranium Enrichment Penalty; (Appendix 3) Land-Based Silo Survivability Formulas; Bibliography;
(Appendix 4) Technology for Nuclear Weapons
Capability; References (to Appendix 4).



1. Ayers, Russell W.
"Policing Plutonium: The Civil Liberties Fallout."
Harvard Civil Riahts/Civil Liberties Law Review, v.
10, no. 2 (Spring 1975). pp 369-443.

Examines the impact of policies which will be needed to prevent thefts of plutonium in a
plutonium-recycling economy on civil liberties.

2. Baker, Steven J.
"Arms Transfers and Nuclear Proliferation." Arms
Control Today, v. 7, no. 4 (April 1977). pp 1-3.

A critique of the concept that US export of advanced conventional weapons will bring regional stability, raise the nuclear threshold, and lessen the 'incentive for nuclear weapons

3. Barnaby, Frank C.
"How States Can 'Go Nuclear'." The Annals of the .American Academy of Political and Sciences, v.
430 (March 1977). pp29-43.

Summarizes the unclassified technical
information, expertise, and equipment needed for nations to fabricate nuclear weapons. Indicates that very few technical or economic barriers exist, either in weapons development or
acquisition of delivery systems.

4. Bathurst, M.E.
"Legal Aspects of the International Control of Atomic Energy." British YeazbooR of International Law, v. 24
(1947). pp 1-32.

Reviews the legal aspects of international control of atomic energy and weapons from the Three Nation Agreed Declaration on Atomic Energy
through the UK Atomic Energy Commission.



5. Beaton, Leonard.
"Nuclear Fuel for All." Foreign Afflirs, v. 45 (July
1976). pp 662-669.

Discusses the dangers of plutonium proliferation and the prevention measures necessary, in the light of the proposed NPT. Stresses the flaws inherent to the safeguards system when faced with world-wide dissemination of nuclear fuel and the illusionary nature of the legalistic belief in

6. Bebbington, William P.
"The Reprocessing of Nuclear Fuels." Scientific
American, v. 235, no. 6 (December 1976). pp 30-41.

Article reviews methods and sequences of reprocessing and brings counterarguments to
criticism of reprocessing plants.

7. Bechhoefer, Bernhard G.
"Negotiating the Statute of the International Atomic Energy Agency." International Organization, v. 13, no.
1 (Winter 1959). pp 38-59.

Analyzes the reasons for the success of negotiations leading to the creation of the IAEA in a Cold War atmosphere. Reviews procedures, outside influences on the negotiations, issue of the peaceful uses of the atom, US/Soviet bilateral exchanges, expansion of negotiations to a multilateral forum, problems at different stages. Notes coinciding interests of US and
USSR on issues.

8. Bechhoefer, Bernhard G.; Stein, Eric.
"Atoms for Peace: The New International Atomic Energy Agency." Michigaan ILaM Review, v. 55, no. 6 (April
1957). pp 747-798.

A history of the negotiations of the IAEA



Statute, and a review of the functions of the

9. Berman, William H.; Hydeman, Lee Mi.
"Nuclear Explosions for Peaceful Purposes." Natural Resources Journal, v. 1, no. 1 (Miarch 1961). pp 1-22.

A review of Project Plowshare and a summary of
possible peaceful uses of nuclear explosives.

10. Betts, Richard K.
"Paranoids, Pygmies, Pariahs, and Nonproliferation."
Forigr Policy, no. 26 (Spring 1977). pp 157-183.

Critiques what the author believes are fallacies of emphasis for US anti-proliferation policies.
Examines the conflict between anti-proliferation
policies and other US foreign policy goals.

11. Brennan, Donald.
"A Comprehensive Test Ban: Everybody or Nobody."
International Security, v. 1, no. 1 (Summer 1976). pp

Argues the thesis that the only sensible objective of a CTB is its help in inhibiting further weapons proliferation, and advocates that the US should participate in such a treaty if, and only if, all other nuclear-weapon states

12. Brody, Richard A.
"Some Systematic Effects of the Spread of Nuclear Weapons Technology: A Study through Simulation of a Multi-Nuclear Future." Jora of Coflc Reslin,
v. 7, no. 4 (December 1963). pp 663-753.

Attempts to utilize the controlled manipulation



of an experimental "political game" to gain insight into the possible state of affairs in a
proliferated world.

13. Burns, E.L.M.
"The Mon-Proliferation Treaty: Its Negotiations and Prospects." International Organization, v. 23, no. 4
(August 1969). pp 788-807.

Reviews in considerable detail the history of the negotiations leading to the XPT, including US/Soviet problems, PNE's, safeguards,

14. Burt, Richard.
"Nuclear Proliferation and the Spread of Mew Conventional Weapons Technology. International
Security, v. 1, no. 3 (Winter 1977).

Examines the concept that exporting advanced conventional weapons will lower the incentives for non-nuclear-weapon states to develop nuclear weapons. Concludes that, in specific instances, the transfer of conventional arms may have more utility as a means of managing proliferation than
in halting it.

15. Carter, James E.
"Three Steps Toward Mucleaz Responsibility." The Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, v. 32, no. 8
(October 1976). pp 8-14.

An outline of nuclear energy and nuclear proliferation issues with campaign statements concerning possible us nonproliferation
initiatives. This article is part of a debate, the response to which, entitled "Illusions and Realities About Nuclear Energy" by Fred C. Ikle,
may be found immediately following.



16. Carter, Luther J.
"Nuclear Testing: U.S.-Soviet Treaties Viewed with Doubts and Misgivings." Science, v. 192, no. 4245 (18
June 1976). pp 1217-1218.

Analysis of flaws and loopholes in Threshold Test Ban Treaty. questions sincerity of US/Soviet
commitment to arms control.

17. "Carter vs. Plutonium: The Battle Is Joined."
Nuclear News, v. 20, no. 7 (May 1977). pp 33-36.

Explanation and critique of President Carter's statement of 7 April 1977 on nuclear power and
nuclear weapons proliferation.

18. Casper, Barry.
"Laser Enrichment: A New Path to Proliferation?" The Bulletin of, the Atomic Scientists, V. 33, no. 1
(January 1977). pp 28-41.

A summary of the public information available concerning research and development for laser isotope separation as a method of uranium
enrichment. Analysis of the arms
control/proliferation implications of such

19. Coffey, Joseph I.
"Nuclear Guarantees and Mon-Pzoliferation."
International organization. v. 25, no. 4 v. 25, no. 4
(August 1971). pp 836-844.

An analysis of current nuclear guarantees and a critique of UK Security Council Resolution No.
255 (1968).



20. Coffey, Joseph 1. (ed.).
"Nuclear Proliferation: Prospects, Problems, and Proposals." flm Anals~ .g.j theg American Academy of Political Aand Social Science, v. 430 (March 1977).
236 pp.

This special issue of Thea Annals addresses itself to three aspects of nuclear proliferation: the Prospect that new nuclear powers will come on the scene; the problems that their arrival may
create; and ways of coping with those problems.

21. Cohen, S.T.; Van Cleave, W.R.
"The Nuclear Test Ban: A Dangerous Anachronism."
National, Review, (8 July 1977). pp 770-775.

Maintains that a CTB agreement would leave open a verification loophole, and as such would benefit
the USSR.

22. Comar, C.L.
"Plutonium: Facts and Inferences." EPRI Journal, v. 1,
no. 9 (November 1976). pp 20-24.

Summarizes the knowledge about plutonium and the reasonable inferences that can be drawn from that knowledge in the following areas: release of Plutonium into the environment from the nuclear Power industry; plutonium in the biosphere; plutonium and human beings; and diversion of
Plutonium for malevolent purposes.

23. "Completing the Nuclear Fuel Cycle."
EI Journal, v. 2, no. 2. (March 1977). pp 6-11.

Reviews the technical issues which require resolution before the "back end" of the fuel
cycle can be closed.

25-559 0 78 4



24. de Gara, John P.
"Nuclear Proliferation and Security." International Conciliation, no. 578 (May 1970) (Carnegie Endowment
for International Peace). 69 pp.

An examination of the principle features of the NPT and some aspects of the adequacy of incentives provided for the non-nuclear states to forego the acquisition of nuclear weapons within
the framework of the Treaty.

25. Dickeman, R.L.
"The Case for Continued Laser Uranium Enrichment." Th Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, v. 33, no 6 (June
1977). pp 54-56.

Advocates the continuation of laser enrichment R&D, in specific rebuttal to the proponents of forced curtailment of such technology. Criticizes the viewpoint that the US can deter technological progress in other countries through any type of
unilateral moratorium.

26. Doub, William 0.; Duckert, Joseph M.
"Making Nuclear Energy Safe and Secure."Foeg
Affairs, v. 53 (July 1975). pp 756-772.

Reviews the major problems facing the increase in the use of nuclear energy. Proposes increased authority and wider function for the IAEA, as well as establishment of regional nuclear fuel
cycle centers.

Z7. Dougherty, James E.
"The Treaty and the Non-Nuclear States." Oris v. 11
(Summer 1967). pp 360-377.

A review of the dilemmas and motives behind the policies and goals of non-nuclear-weapon states as a function of the pressures exerted on them by
nuclear power under the NPT.



28. Dunn, Lewis A.
"Nuclear 'Gray tarketeering.'" International aeuiy
v. 1, no. 3 (Winter 1977). pp 107-118.

Identifies and evaluates a critical proliferation turning point, "gray marketeering," defined as covert or officially unacknowledged assistance to a weapons candidate or new nuclear-weapons state.

29. Dunn, Lewis A.
"Nuclear Proliferation and World Politics." The Annals AlI thei Amria Academy of.. Political an Social
Scec, v. 430. (March 1977). pp 96-109.

Discusses possible regional interactions and global repercussions in a proliferated world, and
outlines goals for stability management.

30. Dunn, Lewis A.; Overholt, William H.
"The Next Phase in Nuclear Proliferation Research."

v. 20, no. 2. (Summer 1976). pp 497-524.

Suggests nuclear proliferation research should transform the concept of proliferation into a more precise and analytically useful one, focus on categories of potential proliferators, and delineate likely problems and risks of a more
proliferated world.

31. "EEC Non-Weapon States, IAEA Conclude {Safeguards) Agreement."
Nuclear, News, v. 20, no. 5 (April 1977). pp 110-112.

Reports the conclusion of a group safeguards agreement between the Euratom countries and the IAEA. Examines the history of the negotiations
and explains the current safeguards procedures.



32. Ehrlich, Thomas.
"The Mon-Proliferation Treaty and Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Explosives." Virginia, lLaI Ri ,v. 56, no. 4
(1970). pp 587-601.

An examination of Article V in the NPT, which ensures that all parties will be able to share in
the potential benefits of PNE's.

33. Epstein, William.
"Nuclear Proliferation: The Failure of the Review Conference." Survival. V. 17. no. 6.
(November/December 1975). pp 262-269.

Review conference of NPT turns into confrontation between the "haves" and the "have nots" and achieves little in terms of solving the technical
and political problems of proliferation.

34. Epstein, William.
"Nuclear-Free Zones." Scientific Amrcn v. 233. no.
5. (November 1975). pp 25-35.

Reviews alternative methods to control
proliferation in light of the perceived failure of the NPT. Nuclear-free zones are seen as being
potentially much more effective.

35. Epstein, William.
"The Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons." Scientific
American, v. 232. no. 4. (April 1975). pp 18-33.

Analyzes the causes for the failure of the nuclear-weapons states to live up to their commitment under the NPT, and examines the possibilities of preventing the further
degradation of the present situation.



36. Epstein, William.
"Why States Go And Don't Go Nuclear." 1hj. Annals

Since. v. 430. (March 1977). pp 16-28.

Analyzes the combination of military, political, and economic concerns and motivations which form the incentive/disincentive balance by which a state decides whether to develop or shun nuclear

37. "ERDA Answers Taylor on Uranium Supply Contentions."
Nuler Mewsj. v. 20, no. 11 (September 1977). pp

A review of critical responses by ERDA officials to two papers by Vincent Taylor (of Pan Heuristics) on ERDA's enrichment policies and
uranium reserve estimates.

38. Ericsson, Ulf.
"The Mon-Controversial Use of Nuclear Explosions for Peaceful Purposes." Cooperation and Conflict, no. 1
(1970). pp 1-19.

Deals with the question of PNE's and the possibility of misuses for the production of nuclear weapons. Concludes that PKE's do not
present problems of misuse for weapons purposes.

39. Feiveson, Harold A.; Taylor, Theodore B.
"Security Implications of Alternative Fission Futures." The Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists. V.
32, no. 10 (December 1976). pp 14-18, 46-48.

Widespread growth of civilian nuclear power has contributed to "latent proliferation", defined as the diffusion of nuclear materials, facilities, and knowledge which facilitate a nation's possible future decision to acquire nuclear weapons. Both the "plutonium economy" and the



"once-through" fuel cycle configurations have serious safeguard problems. A thorium cycle, developed and operated within a new international nuclear energy system, should be given serious study, since it would readily fit the authors' listed principles for an effective safeguard

40. Feld, Bernard T.
"A Pledge: No First-Use." The Bulletin of the Atomic
Scientists. v. 23. no. 51 (May 1967). pp 146-149.

Discusses the various formulas for achieving a no first-use pledge and their implications, impact on non-nuclear weapons states, credibility, advantages, and prospects for universal

41. Firmage, E.B.
"Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons."
American Journal of International Law, v. 63, no. 4
(October 1969). pp 711-746.

A detailed analysis of the HPT, coupled with a
short history of the negotiations.

42. Flood, Michael.
"Nuclear Sabotage." The Bulletin of the Atomic
Scientists. v. 32. no. 8. (October 1976). pp 29-36.

Analyzes the motives of terrorists and examines the past occurances of attacUs, threats, acts of sabotage, and security breaches for existing
nuclear facilities.



43. Franck, James K.
"Report to the Secretary of War." lha Bulleti of the
Atomic Scientists, v. 1, no. 10 (May 1946). pp 2-L4.

The partial text of a report written 11 June 1945, two months before Hiroshima, by a group of atomic scientists of the Metallurgical Laboratory in Chicago, which raises issues of international atomic control and criticizes the concept of
"denaturing" plutonium as a safeguard.
The full text of the Frank Committee Report is
included in:
Smith, Alice K., A Peril and a Hope, Chicago:
Chicago University Press, 1965 (pp 560-57Z).

44. Frank, Forrest R.
"An International Convention Against Nuclear Theft."
The Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, V. 31 no. 10
(December 1975). p 51.

Outlines possible elements which could form the basis for negotiating an international convention against nuclear theft. Suggests that such a convention is needed in addition to safeguards to
deal with nuclear terrorism.

45. Frank, Forrest R.
"Nuclear Terrorism and the Escalation of International Conflict." Naval War Collecre Review. v. 29, no. 2
(Fall 1976). pp 12-27.

An examination of unilateral, bilateral, and multilateral steps that could be taken to minimize the effects of escalation in the event
of nuclear terrorism.

46. Gall, Norman.
"Atoms for Bxazil, Dangers for All." Foreign Policy,
no. 23. (Summer 1976). pp 155-201.

Reviews the nuclear exchange agreement between



West Germany and Brazil, and analyzes the safeguards and policy significance of the

47. Gilinsky, Victor.
"Plutonium, Proliferation, and Policy." Technology
Review, v. 79, no. 4 (February 1977). pp 58-65.

A concise review of the relationship between plutonium and American nuclear nonproliferation policy beginning with the 1946 Acheson-Lilienthal plan, and including President Ford's major policy statement on reprocessing and recycling of plutonium (28 October 1976). Warns that safeguards concerning plutonium have severe limitations and contribute to a false sense of safety. outlines and points out the historical significance of the myth of "denatured" or "reactor-grade" plutonium, and indicates that "reactor-grade plutonium may be used for nuclear warheads at all levels of technical

48. Gilinsky, Victor; Smith, Bruce L.R.
"Civilian Nuclear Power and Foreign Policy." Orbis, v.
12 (Fall 1968). pp 816-830.

Analyzes the problems posed by the control of civilian nuclear facilities in order to prevent their being used for military purposes.
Discusses the absolute need for safeguards.
alternatives to IAEA inspection, and us unilateral attempts to control foreign nuclear

49. Gillette, Robert.
"Laser Fusion: An Energy Option, But Weapons Simulation Is First." Scene v. 188, no. 4183 (4
April 1975). pp 30-34.

Analysis of the nature and impact of laser fusion



as a new technology. Seen as being potentially useful as a method of providing inexpensive energy, but viewed by many scientists as being most applicable in the simulation of nuclear weapons through the creation of micro-size thermonuclear explosions. As such, it is potentially a method for the US and USSR to
circumvent a comprehensive test ban.

50. Gillette, Robert.
"Nozzle Enrichment for Sale." Science, v. 188, no.
4191 (30 May 1975). pp 911-914.

Utilizing the West German decision to supply Brazil with a complete nuclear fuel cycle, including a nozzle enrichment plant, as an
example, stresses the necessity of controlling both the spread of nuclear facilities and
materials, and, more importantly, the development
of new technologies.

51. Gillette, Robert.
"Nuclear Exports: A U.S. Firm's Troublesome Flirtation with Brazil." Science, v. 189 (25 July
1975). pp 267-269.

Maintains that US was unable to block West German-Brazil deal due to inability to convince the Germans that the primary US concern was proliferation and not the protection of the interests of the US nuclear industry. Recounts episode involving the US Bechtel Corporation, a
major supplier of nuclear facilities, in Brazil.

52. Gillette, Robert.
"Nuclear Testing Violations: Keeping it All in the
Family." Science, v. 185 (9 August 1974). pp 506-510.

Some insight into the difficulties of enforcing arms control agreements through a discussion of nuclear testing violations by the US and the USSR


and the way they have been dealt with.

53. Gillette, Robert.
"Uranium Enrichment: With Help, South Africa Is Progressing." Science, V. 188 (13 June 1975). pp

Evaluates South Africa's nuclear status. In light of vast uranium reserves and West German assistance in developing nozzle enrichment, determines that South Africa is a highly likely
"Nth" country in the nuclear club.

54. Glackin, James J.
"The Dangerous Drift in Uranium Enrichment." The Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, v. 32, no. 2
(February 1976). pp 22-29.

Asserts that, due to spread of fissile materials and increase in number of states with necessary facilities for diversion of nuclear materials to military purposes, the nuclear-weapons states are no longer in a unique position. Calls for implementation of more effective safeguards
before it is too late.

55. Goldschmidt, Bertrand.
"A Historical Survey of Nonproliferation Policies."
International Security, v. 2, no. 1 (Summer 1977). pp

Survey successive nonproliferation policies, examines their influence on international commerce, and summarizes the reactions of various countries from the viewpoint of a French



56. Gottstein, Klaus.
"Nuclear Energy for the Third World." The B of
the Atomic Scientists, v. 33, No. 6 (June 1977). pp

Reviews European feelings concerning restrictions on the export of sensitive technology and
concerning multi-national fuel centers.

57. Grieco, Joseph M.
"American Foreign Policy and Nuclear-Weapon-Free Zones: Issues and Options." Potomac Review, v. 7
(Winter 1976). pp 12-23.

Examines the diplomatic and, military problems of nuclear-weapon-free zones versus the arms control benefits. Concludes that the US should shift its policy to support such zones more actively as an
important antiproliferation measure.

58. Guglialmelli, Juan E.
"The Brazilian-German Nuclear Deal: A View from Argentina." Survival, v. 18 (July/August 1976). pp

Suggests that the Brazilian deal with West Germany means that Brazil has opted for developing nuclear weapons. Discusses the far-reaching consequences of such a decision in Latin America, and maintains that a potential arms race could be prevented by greater
cooperation on nuclear matters.

59. Halperin, Morton H.
"A Proposal for a Ban on the First Use of Nuclear Weapons." Journal of Arms Control, v. 1, No. 2, (1963)
pp. 112,123.

Discusses the military advantages of a US/Soviet agreement to ban the first use of nuclear weapons. Concludes that such a.ban would not be



to the disadvantage of the US.

60. Halsted, Thomas A.
"Why Hot a Real Nuclear Test Ban?" Arms Control Today,
v. 6, no. 6 (June 1976). pp 1-5.

An overview and critique of the Threshold Test Ban Treaty, and a statement of opposition by the
Arms Control Association.

61. Hammond, Allen L.
"Nuclear Proliferation (1): Warnings From the Arms Control Community." Science, (9 July 1976) pp.

Discusses relatively recent emergence of the arms control community as advocates of stricter controls. on nuclear power particularly on
enrichment and reprocessing technology.

62. Hammond, Allen L.
"Nuclear Proliferation (2); Will Fallout Kill Domestic Recycle?" Science, (16 July 1976) pp.

Describes the increasing activity of arms control and environmental groups, who are moving to block recycling of plutonium in the US, as it is seen as a development that will make any effort by the US to convince other countries to forego this step hypocritical, and will have a dangerous
impact on the environment as well.

63. Helm, Robert; Westeruelt, Donald.
"The Hew Test Ban Treaties: What Do They Mean? Where Do They Lead?" International Secuxity. v. 1, no. 3
(1977). pp 162-178.



Reviews the negotiation of the Threshold Test Ban Treaty, and examines the types of precedents for further restrictions on underground nuclear
weapons testing the treaty may present.

64. Hirsch, R.L.
"Status and Future Directions of the World Program in Fusion Research and Development." Annual Review 21
Nuclear Science, v. 25 (1975). pp 79-121.

Reviews the basis of fusion. Describes the present state of fusion RED and the interrelated approaches to fusion research. Briefly outlines
the various national and international programs.

65. Hopkins, John C.
"Why Mot Stop Testing?" The Bulletin gj jj= Atomic
Scientists, v. 33, no. 4 (April 1977). pp 30-31.

Asserts that the US should not stop testing (i.e.
sign a CTB), since this would eventually destroy the US nuclear weapons expertise and place the confidence in present weapons stockpiles in

66. Ikle, Fred C.
"Illusions and Realities About Muclear Energy." The Bulletin &I the Atomic Scientists, v. 32, no. 9
(October 1976). pp 14-18.

Seeks to shed light on and disclose a number of fallacies that prevail today in connection with the issues of nuclear energy and world order.
Acting as spokesman for the Ford Administration, Ikle summaries its achievements and asserts that a nuclear future is feasible if handled realistically and persistently. This article provides a counterpoint to Presidential candidate Carter's in the same issue, "Three Steps Toward
Nuclear Responsibility."



67. Inglis, David R.; Sanders, Carl L.
"A Special Report on Plowshare: Prospects and Problems: The Nonmilitary Uses of Nuclear Explosives."
The BIletin 9_f I& Atomic Scientists, v. 23 (December
1967). pp 46-53.

Assessment of the prospective peaceful uses of nuclear explosives, the problems to be encountered, and their relation to the progress
of nuclear arms control.

68. "Iran Conference: Plea for Free Transfer of Technology."
Nuclear Mews, v. 20, no. 8 (June 1977). pp 86-98.

A review of the proceedings and points for discussion of the International Conference on the Transfer of Nuclear Technology, held in April
1977 in Persepolis, Iran.

69. Jaishankar, S.; Mohan, C. Raja.
"Nuclear Cartelisation: Theory and Practice." E
and Political Weekly, (14 May 1977). pp 798-802.

A critique of the Supplier's Conference approach
to developing common nuclear export standards.

70. Jha, P.K.
"Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America 1967: A Critical Appraisal." Indian Journal of International La, v. 8 (Jan. 1968) pp.

Critiques the purpose, obligations, structure, and specific articles of the Treaty of

5) 3


71. Joskow, Paul L.
"The International Nuclear Industry Today: The End of the American Monopoly." FLJein Affairs, v. 54, no. 4
(July 1976).

Criticizes any American unilateral embargo or restriction on exports of nuclear facilities or technology as being a poor approach to the control of proliferation. Outlines the past and future international market in light water, heavy water, and breeder reactors, as well as enrichment and reprocessing technologies which have eliminated the past US monopoly control, and reduced, but not eliminated, US influence over
international nuclear export trade.

72. Kaplan, Morton A.
"Weaknesses of the Mon-proliferation Treaty." Orbis,
v. 12 (Winter 1969). pp 1042-1057.

Attacks the NPT as being limited in scope and unlikely to curb proliferation. Discusses criteria for successful treaty, including a CTB and significant progress in the control of
vertical proliferation.

73. Kapur, Asok.
"Nth Powers of the Future." The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, v. 430 (March
1977). pp 84-95.

Outlines optimistic and pessimistic
scenarios for the development of nuclear weapons and 'bomb-in-the-basement' weapons capability for various regions of the world.

74. Koop, Jacob.
"Plowshare and the Non-proliferation Treaty." Orbis,
v. 12 (Fall 1968). pp 793-815.

Discusses the inherent contradiction between the



NPT and PXE programs. Calls for a CTB as a way to
improve the NPT's effectiveness.

75. Lambeth, Benjamin S.
"Nuclear Proliferation and Soviet Arms Control Policy." Orbis, V. 14, No. 2 (Summer 1970). pp

An analysis of the importance attached to preventing proliferation in Soviet arms control

76. Lodgaard, Sverre.
"International Nuclear Commerce: Structure, Trends, and Proliferation Potentials." Bulletin .21 Peace
Proposals, v. 18, no. 1 (1977). pp 15-31.

Sets out to outline the new pattern in the nuclear export market in terms of suppliers, purchasers, and products essentially all of the
elements of the fuel cycle.

77. Long, Clarence D.
"Nuclear Proliferation: Can Congress Act in Time?"
International Security, v. 1, no. 4 (Spring 1977). pp

Reviews unilateral steps that could be taken by the US to check~ proliferation. Summarizes US legislative efforts in that direction from 1974
to 1977.

78. Long, Frank A.
"Is There a Future for Peaceful Nuclear Explosions?"
Arms Control Today, v. 5, no. 5 (flay 1975). pp 1-5.

Short, comprehensive review of the economic viability of peaceful nuclear explosions, with a



valuable selected bibliography. Includes an analysis of the potential applications for PNE's
by Dr. Wolfgang Panofsky.

80. Long, Frank A.
"Peaceful Nuclear Explosions." The Bulletin of the
Atomic Scientists, v. 32 (October 1976). pp 18-28.

A report on two studies which cast doubt on the feasibility and benefits of peaceful nuclear

81. Lowrance, William W.
"Nuclear Futures for Sale: To Brazil from West Germany, 1975." International Security, v. 1, no. 2
(1977). pp 147-166.

A comprehensive analysis of the export of nuclear power plants and "sensitive" technologies from West Germany to Brazil, with an analysis of the
resulting expanded safeguards agreement.

82. "Major Nuclear Legislation."
Nuclear Mews.

A summary of the content and legislative status of all bills related to nuclear issues introduced in either the House or Senate. This feature appears quarterly, in the March, June, September,
and December issues every year.

83. Maxaton, M.
"Nuclear-Free Zone for Latin America." International
A (Moscow), no. 6 (July 1968). pp 34-39.

25-559 0 78 5



Reviews the major aspects of the Treaty of Tiatelolco and presents the official Soviet
position on the treaty.

84. McIntyre, Hugh C.
"Natural-Uranium Heavy-water Reactors." Scientifi
Amrn.ican, (October 1975). pp 17-27.

Discusses the advantages for proliferation of the CANDU reactor over the American light water
reactor types.

85. Medalla, Jonathan E.
"Problems in Formulating and Implementing Effective Arms Control Policy: The Nuclear Test Ban Treaty."
Stanford Journal of1 International Studie, v. 7
(Spring 1972). pp 132-161.

Details the negotiation of the 1963 Limited Test Ban Treaty and presents the thesis that, with respect to arms control negotiations, the difficulties of solving problems generated by technology by political means result in politically attractive but technologically
ineffective agreements.

86. Mletz, William D.
"European Breeders (1) France Leads the Way." Scie.ncej,
(26 Dec. 1975). pp 1279-1281.

Describes leading role of France in developing breeder technology, and the implications of such technology for world energy supply and the future
of the nuclear industry.



87. Mlyers, Henry R.
"Extending the Nuclear Test Ban." Scientific Aeian,
v. 226 (Jan 1972). pp 13-23.

Discusses impact of new seismological methods which facilitate the differentiation of
earthquakes from underground nuclear tests. This advance is described as having provoked renewed
interest in a CTB.

88. Ilyrdal, Alva.
"'Peaceful' Nuclear Explosions." Ifl~ Bulletn of thet Atomic Scientist, v. 31, no. 5 (May 1975). pp 29-33.

Analyzes the "loophole" in the NPT concerning PNE's, and concludes that their insignificant benefits, when contrasted with the dangers of nuclear weapons proliferation, dictate that the only solution is a comprehensive test ban treaty.

89. Nathawson, Eugene.
"International Management of Radioactive Wastes."
Environmental Affairs, v. 5, no. 2 (Spring 1976). pp

Briefly reviews the problem of radioactive wastes. Discusses the degree of international cooperation, -and examines the possibility that world bodies may take over full responsibilities
for waste management.

90. Neild, Robert; Ruina, J.P.
"A Comprehensive Ban on Nuclear Testing." Sience,~ v.
175 (14 January 1972). pp 140-146.

Reviews the range of issues involved in the consideration of a CTB, and the reasons for its
increasing plausibility.



91. Nordyke, Milo D.
"A Review of Soviet Data on the. Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Explosions." Annals of Nuclear Energy, v. 2,
no. 9-10 (1975). pp. 657-673.

The PNE program that the Soviet Union has publicly discussed in various reports and meetings is summarized. Includes data on a large number of unidentified seismic events outside of
the normal Soviet weapons-testing area.

92. Oppenheimer, Robert J.
"The Control of Atomic Energy." Foreign Affairs, v.
26, no. 2 (January 1948). pp 239-252.

Summarizes the basis for and the policy formulation of the US efforts at establishing
international control of atomic energy.

93. Pardue, William N.
"An Evaluation of Alternative Nuclear Strategies."
Annals of Nuclear Enerqy, v. 2, no. 11/12 (1975). pp

An assessment by Battell-Columbus Lab of the technology associated with several reactor concepts which offer improved (vis-a-vis LWRs) natural resource utilization: HTGR, GCFR, MSBR,

94. Pendley, Robert; Scheinman, Lawrence; Butler, Richard W.
"International Safeguards as Institutionalized Collective Behavior." International Organization, v.
29, issue 3 (Summer 1975). pp 586-616.

Reviews very extensively the history of safeguards, their development, negotiations, and



95. "PNC [Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation, Japan) Develops Uranium Extraction
Technique from Low-Grade Uranium Ore."
Atoms in Japan. v. 21. no. 6. 1977. pp 27-28.

Announces the development of a new absorbent technique which allows extraction of uranium from low-grade ore (less than 0.1X U308)
quickly, at competitive cost.

96. Pomerance, J.D.
"The Anti-Test Ban Coalition." Thg Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, v. 33, no. 1 (January 1977). pp

Reviews the history of opposition within the US
government to a comprehensive test ban.

97. 2uester, George H.
"The Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty and the International Atomic Energy Agency." International
Organization, v. 24, no. 2 (Spring 1970). pp 163-182.

Critiques the past performance of the IAEA's safeguards, and their future, expanded role in
relation to the NPT.

98. Rao, K. Harayana.
"The Draft Treaty on Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons: A Critical Appraisal." Indian Journal of
International Law, (1968). pp 223-234.

Evaluates and criticizes the draft NPT with respect to its significance as a step towards
peace and disarmament.



99. Rattner, Steven.
"Carter Aides Offer a Plan for US to Collect World's
Nuclear Waste." New Yorkj Times (19 October 1977).

Report of the announcement of a plan whereby the US government would take over responsibility for the storage and disposal of spent fuel from US
and foreign reactors.

100.Redick, John R.
"Prospects for Arms Control in Latin America." Arm
Control Today, v. 5, no. 9 (September 1975). pp 1-4.

A concise introduction to the Treaty of Tlatelolco, its history, status, and
significance. Includes a bibliography on Latin American nuclear and conventional arms control

1O1.Redick, John R.
"Regional Nuclear Arms Control in Latin America."
International Organization, v. 29, no. 2 (Spring
1975). pp 415-445.

An analysis of the Treaty of Tlatelolco and the question of proliferation in Latin America.
Analyzes the nuclear intentions of Argentina, Brazil, and Mexico, and notes the apparent potential for a nuclear arms race between the first two as a function of their historical rivalry for control in Latin America and Brazil's
goal of becoming a major world power.

1O2.Ribicoff, Senator Abraham A.
"A Market-Sharing Approach to the World Nuclear Sales Problem." Foreg.n Affairs, v. 54, no. 4 (July 1976).
pp 764-787.

Reviews past US nuclear export policies and outlines a five-step alternative market-sharing approach which would involve coordination among



supplier nations to achieve several
non-proliferation objectives.

103.Robinson, Clarence A. Jr.
"Nuclear Test Halt Under Study." Aviation Week
Space Technology, (21 February 1977). pp 12-13.

Reports on efforts by President Carter to negotiate a bilateral agreement to halt nuclear
weapons testing.

104.Robinson, Davis R.
"The Treaty of Tlatelolco and the United States: A Latin American Nuclear-Free Zone." American Journal .
International Law, v. 64, no. 2 (April 1970). pp

Appraises the impact on the US of signing
Protocols 1 and 2 of the Treaty of Tlatelolco.

105."Salzburg: A Review of the IAEA Conference on Nuclear Power and Its Fuel Cycle."
Nuclear News, v. 20, no. 9 (July 1977). pp 53-84.

Reviews selected papers on 13 different topics
from the Conference held in May 1977.

106.Scheinman, Lawrence.
"Nuclear Safeguards, the Peaceful Atom, and the IAEA."
International Conciliation, no. 572 (March 1969).

Analyzes the complex range of issues, the various interest groups, and the areas of actual or
potential between the nuclear and non-nuclear powers, and between the US and Western Europe,
over safeguards.



107.Schelling, Thomas C.
"Who Will Have the Bomb." International Seuiy v.
1, no. 1 (Summer 1976). pp 77-91.

Defines "having the bomb" and outlines the various approaches that will be necessary to
inhibit its spread.

108.Schlesinger, James R.
"The Strategic Consequences of Nuclear Proliferation."
The Reporter, v. 35, no. 6 (20 October 1966). pp

Nuclear spread is basically destabilizing, but its strategic consequences can be contained since any former non-nuclear-weapon state will be unable to develop an inexpensive, strategically significant weapons system. Any new nation's weapons capability will transform a regional balance of power, but it will leave the
superpowers relatively immune.

109.Scoville, Herbert Jr.
"'First Use' of Nuclear Weapons." Arms Coto Toay
v. 5, no. 7/8 (July/August 1975). pp 1-3.

A review of the concept of non-first-use and of the effect of US doctrine on nuclear weapons

11O.Scoville, Herbert Jr.
"A Mew Look at a Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban."
Stanford Journal of International Stdis v. 7
(Spring 1972). pp 45-63.

Provides background, analyzes security
implications, and examines verification issues of
a comprehensive test ban.



111.Seaborg, Glenn T.
"Existing Arrangements for International Control of Warlike Material 5: The United States Program of Bilateral Safeguards." Disarmament an CotoAni International Jounal, v. 2 (1964). pp 422-432.

The first part of this article describes the US program's relationship with that of the IAEA, and the reason for US support for the development of international safeguards. A detailed history of
the US program is given as an appendix.

112.Seaborg, Glenn T.
"The Promise of the International Atomic Energy Agency." Science, V. 158 (13 October 1967). pp

A review of the history, role, programs, and achievements of the IAEA, and a projection of its
future prospects.

113.Speth, J. Gustave; Tamplin, Arthur; Cochran, Thomas.
"Plutonium Recycle: The Fateful Step." The Bulletin of
the Atmi Scientists, v. 30, no. 9 (November 1974).

Asserts that widespread plutonium reprocessing would foster a large industry, thereby increasing the risks of nuclear power. Safeguards adequate to deal with such an increase would of necessity impose considerable restrictions on civil
liberties. Proposes some alternatives.

114.Starr, Chauncey.
"Nuclear Power and Weapons Proliferation: The Thin Link." Nuclear, News, v. 20, no. 8 (June 1977). pp

A critique of the Carter Administration?'s non-proliferation policies, and a suggestion of a more effective, international approach which
would focus on a broader range of issues.



115. Szasz, Paul C.
"The Adequacy of International Nuclear Safeguards."
Journal of International Law and Economics, v. 10 (AugustDecember 1975). pp 423-436.

116. TaylorI Theodore B.
",Nuclear Safeguards." Annual Review of Nuclear Science,
v. 25 (1975). pp 407-421.A brief overview of safeguards risks, and actions that
are being or could be taken to reduce them.

117. "The NPT Review Conference and Nuclear Proliferation." Orbis,
v. 19, no. 2 (Summer 1975). pp 316-320.

Analysis of the NPT Review Conference, and a description of its deliberations and consequences.

118. Tomnlin, Y.
"Nuclear-Free Zones: How to Make Them Effective."
International Affairs (Moscow), (August 1975). pp 67-72.

Reviews the history of nuclear-free zone proposals, and
states two criticisms of the Treaty of Tiatelolco.

119A. Vendryes, Georges A.
'SuperPhenix: A Full-Scale Breeder Reactor. Scientific
American, v. 236, no. 3 (March 1977). pp 26-35.

A review of the research and development of the French breeder reactor program, including the two previous breeders, but concentrating on SuperPhenix. Contains a concise, relatively nontechnical, and well illustrated
description of the operation of breeder reactors.



119B. Weiss, Leonard.
"Nuclear Safeguards; a Congressional Perspective. "Bulletin of Atomic Scientists, v. 34, no. 3 (March 1978). pp-7T--FJ-.

A history of nuclear nonproliferation policies culminating in the signing of the Nuclear Nonproliferation Act of 1978 on March 10*, 1978. it reviews the motivating forces behind this legislation, reflecting congressional concern and thinking about nuclear export policies, nuclear safeguards and the
risks of proliferation.

120. Vesa, Unto.
"The Revival of Proposals for Nuclear-Free Zones. Instant Research on Peace and Violence, v. 5, no. 1 (1975). pp-4 =-.

An historical review of various types of nuclear-free zones, with special emphasis on the Treaty of Tlatelolco.

121. Villa, Brian Loring.
"A Confusion of Signals: James Franck, the Chicago Scientists, and Early Efforts to Stop the Bomb. The Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, v. 31, no. 12 (December 1975). pp

Examines the reasons that the warnings included in the Franck Report were not seriously considered by
high-level policy makers.

122. Werth, Glenn C.
"The Soviet Program on Nuclear Explosives for the National Economy." Nuclear Technology, v. 11 (July 1971). pp 280302.

This article, which is included in this special issue on nuclear explosions, summarizes seven recent Soviet publications which describe nine PNE applications and
nine proposed projects.

123. Willrich, Mason
"Guarantees to Non-Nuclear Nations. Foreign Affairs, v.
49, no. 4 (July 1966). pp 683-692.

Explores possible components that would be necessary to create a credible nuclear guarantee



to non-nuclear-weapons states.

124.Willrich, Mason; Marston, Philip M.
"Prospects for a Uranium Cartel." Orbis, v. 19, no. 1
(Spring 1975). pp. 166-184.

Outlines the nuclear fuel cycle and the basic supply/demand outlook worldwide. Examines the
practicability of a cartel.

125.Wohlstetter, Albert.
"Spreading the Bomb without Quite Breaking the Rules."
Foreign Policy, no. 25 (Winter 1976/1977). pp 88-96,

Reviews the history, current contradictions, and future options of US antiproliferation policy,
with a special focus on plutonium.

126."World List of Nuclear Power Plants as of June 30."
Nuclear News. v. 20. no. 10. 1977. pp 73-90.

A bi-annual listing of nuclear power plants over 30 MWe that are operating, under
construction, or on order.

127.York, Herbert F.
"The Great Test-Ban Debate." Scientific Ame in, v.
227 (November 1972). pp 15-23.

Analyzes and refutes arguments presented against the Limited Test Ban Treaty during the debate preceeding that treaty, in an effort to evaluate
the chances for and feasibility of a CTB.



128.Zheleznov, R.
"Nuclear Explosions for Peaceful Purposes."
International Affai. (Mioscow) ,(August 1976). PP.

Reviews the negotiation of the (1976) treaty between the USSR and the US, and the Protocol on Underground Nuclear Explosions for Peaceful Purposes which supplements the 1974 bilateral
Threshold Test Ban Treaty.



1. American Jornl of International Law.

2. Annals of Nuc~la Enx

3. The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Sciences.

4. Annual Review of Nuclear Science.

5. Arms Control Today.

6. Atoms in Japan.

7. Aviation Week an Space Tehooy

8. British Yearbook ofj International Law.



10. Bullea&1ttin .g~iAtomic Scientists.

11. Cooperation Cofit 12. Disarmament &a Armsl Cotrl An International Joxnl

14. Environmental Affais.

1 6. Lgox.ejgn Affai.


PERIODICALS CONSULTED 17. Foreicrn Policy. 18. Harvard Civil Richts/Civil Liberties Review. 19. Indian Journal of International law. 20. Instant Research on Peace and Violence. 21. International Affaixs (Moscow). 22. International Conciliation. 23. International Organization. 24. International Security.


PERIODICALS CONSULTED 26. Joujznaa .1 Conflict Resolutio. 29. N~aural Resources Jornl 32. Xula es

25-559 0 78 6


PERIODICALS CONSULTED 33. Nuclear Technology.

34. Orbis. 35. Potomac Review. 36. The eprte. 37. Science. 38. Scientific American. 39. Stanford Journal al Intexnational Studies.

40. Sriv~al.



4 1. ITechnology2A1 Reiawk.



1. Barber, Richard J. Associates, Inc.
LDC Nuclear Power Prospects 1975-1990: Commercial,
Economic, and Security Implications. (Prepared for US ERDA, Division of International Security Affairs.) Springfield, Virginia: National Technical Information
Service, 1975. 388 pp. (Report No. ERDA-52.)

Evaluates and estimates the potential market for products of the US nuclear industry in the developing countries, and analyzes some of the political, economic, and security implications of
US nuclear technology export to those countries.

Introduction; Summary Highlights; (Ch 1) Energy Projections and Economic Change: The Case of Less Developed Countries; (Ch 2) Comparative Costs: Nuclear vs. Conventional Power; (Ch 3) The General Policy Environment and Its Affect on LDC Nuclear Power Market Potential; (Ch 4) Assessment of US and Foreign Capabilities in the International Competitive Environment for Production and Sale of Nuclear Power Plant Products and Services to LDC's; (Ch 5) Assessment of International and Domestic Implications of Expanding Exports of US Nuclear Power Products to LDC's; Appendices: (A) Annualized Cost
Calculations; (B) Calculation of Nuclear Fuel Cycle Costs; (C) The Principle Competitors in Production and Sale of Nuclear Power Plant Products and Services to LDC's; (D) Safety Implications of Expanded Nuclear Power Exports to LDC's.

2. Carter, Governor James E.
Nuclear Energy and 'World Order. (Address to the United Nations, 13 May 1976.) Reprinted in the
Congressional Record (4 June 1976). pp S8541-S8544.

A key Carter address, giving his views on a
number of proliferation-related subjects, including nuclear power, reprocessing,
enrichment, a comprehensive test ban, etc.



3. Donnelly, Warren H.
Commercial Nuclear Power in Europez The Interaction 91 American Diplomacy With U Technology. (A report
prepared for the House Committee on Foreign Affairs, Subcommittee on National Security Policy and Scientific Developments by the Congressional Research
Service.) Washington, D.C.: US GPO, 1972. 163 pp.

While the primary focus of this document is on US/European questions, an integral part of the discussion concerns the export of nuclear materials, the history of nuclear power, the MPT,
safeguards, and the IAEA.

(Ch 1) Reasons, Purpose, and Scope; (Ch 2) Some Facts About Nuclear Power; (Ch 3) From Hiroshima to Atoms for Peace: Postwar Trends in Regional Multinational Cooperation in Europe; (Ch 4) Atoms for Peace: A Presidential Initiative; (Ch 5) Bilateral Agreements for US Technical Assistance to Commercial Huclear Energy in Europe; (Ch 6) Creating an International Organization: The International Atomic Energy Agency; (Ch 7) Creating a Regional Nuclear Organization: The European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom); (Ch 8) Joint United
States/Euratom Research and Development; (Ch 9) The Nuclear Energy Agency: Another Regional Approach to International
Organization for Nuclear Energy; (Ch 10) US Fuel for European Nuclear Power; (Ch 11) The Non-Proliferation Treaty and Safeguards; (Ch
12) Some Issues Recapitulated; Glossary.

4. Donnelly, Warren H.
"Control of Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons." (A
Congressional Research Service Paper.) Congressional
Record (18 June 1976). pp E3464-E3467.

An orderly and brief summary of the various options available to the United States to limit and control proliferation, and ranging in
magnitude from moderate to drastic.



5. Donnelly, Warren H.; Rather, Barbara.
International Proliferation gl Nucea Technology.
(Prepared for House Committee on International and Insular Affairs# Subcommittee on Energy and
Environment by the Congressional Research Service)
94th Cong., 2d sess. Wash, D.C.:US GPO, April 1976.

(From Letter of Transmittal to the Subcommittee): "This report examines the oversight hearings held by the Subcommittee in July, 1974, and in April, Mlay, and July of 1975, for insights into problems of' proliferation of nuclear technology and to identify matters and issues that may warrant
further congressional attention."
Summarizes testimony during hearings, and
indicates major aspects of important issues.

Par .1 umayo Observations an sus
(A) Overall Commentary; (B) Specific
Insights; (C) Potential Measures for Limiting Proliferation; Pax 1: Hearings _qI J.h Subcommittee on
Enegy __nA 1= Environment: (A) The Problem of Proliferation; (B) Background of the Hearings; (C) Purpose of the Hearings; (D) Organization of the Hearings; Part fl: The Challege of Nuclear
Proliferation: (A) The status of
Proliferation; (B) Mechanisms of
Proliferation; (C) Troublesome Cases; (D) Peaceful Nuclear Explosives; Par U: Doesi Nuclar~ Saeur (A)
Dimensions of the US Safeguards Problem; (B) Licensing of Nuclear Materials; (C)
Safeguards and Physial Security; (D) The Adequacy of Safeguards; (E) Government Responsibilities fox Nuclear Safeguards; Par V: GoenetCnrl & ula
Exoti (A) Commercial Transactions; (B)
NRC Export Licenses; (C) Department of Commerce Export Licenses; (D) ERDA Approval of Technology Exports; (E) Legislation Affecting Nuclear Exports; Par Y_: 2h& International FrameworkJL Z Limitingj Proliferation: (A) The World Nuclear Market; (B) International Agreements for Cooperation; (C) The Non-Proliferation Treaty; (D) International Atomic Energy Agency Safeguards; (E) International or Regional Fuel Cycle Facilities; (F) Informal



Agreement Among Xuclear Supplier Nations,

6. Donnelly, Warren H.; Rather, Barbara.
Nuclear, Weapons Proliferation and the International Atomic Energy Agency. (An analytical report prepared for the Senate Committee on Government operations by the Congressional Research Service.) 94th Congress, 2nd Session. Washington, D.C.: US GPO, 1976. 325 pp.

An analysis of the role of the IAEA in limiting the future proliferation of the ability to make nuclear weapons in a world committed to
increasing its use of nuclear power.

7. Donnelly, Warren H.; Rather, Barbara.
United States Agreements for Cooperation jn Atomic Energy. (An analysis prepared fox the Senate Committee on Government Operations by the Congressional Research Service.) Washington, D.C.: US
GPO, 1976. 183 pp.

A report, based on the examination of 32 agreements for cooperation with foreign nations and international organizations, which examines these us agreements in relation to the proliferation of the ability to make nuclear
weapons, and in relation to pending legislation.

(Ch 1) Summary of Observations and Issues; (Ch 2) Purpose, Approach, and Information Sources; (Ch 3) Bilateral Agreements: What They Axe and Why?; (Ch 4) Provisions of Special Relevance to Proliferation; (Ch 5) Principal Features of Agreements for C operation; (Ch 6) Commentary; Appendices.

8. Farley, Philip J.
"The Advantages of a Comprehensive Xuclear Test Ban and the question of Verification." US Department of State Bulletin. v. 65, no. 1677 (16 August 1971). pp

States that a CTB is a foremost objective; it



would act as a brake on the US/Soviet arms race, would contribute to non-proliferation and arms control efforts, and allay fears of the environmental impact of underground testing.
Notes that effectiveness is contingent on
adequate verification.

9. Fisher, Adrian S.
"U.S. Views on Nuclear 'Weapon Material Cutoff Agreement and Verification of Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban." US Department of State Bulletin, v. 60, no.
1559 (12 May 1969). pp, 409-413.

Statement to Eighteen Nation Disarmament
Conference enunciating US position on the technical and political aspects of a CTB, and
noting the necessity for on-site inspection.

10. Foster, William C.
"Obligations of the Parties to the Treaty on the Non-proliferation of Nuclear Weapons." US Dep~artment of State Bulletin, v. 59, no. 1538 ('16 December 1968).
pp 637-643.

Statement to UN Committee stressing vital importance of NPT, and outlining the obligations
of the parties.

11. kle, Fred C.
"The Dilemma of Controlling the Spread of Nuclear Weapons While Promoting Peaceful Technology." The Department of State Bulletin. v. 71 (21 October
1974). pp 543-547.

A statement on behalf of President Ford which outlines various nuclear energy/proliferation fallacies, including: the closed fuel cycle; transfer of nuclear technology; safeguards and



12. International Atomic Energy Agency.
"The Agency's Safeguards System, 1965, as
Provisionally Extended in 1966 and 1968."
INFCIRC/66/Revision 2. Vienna, Austria: IAEA, 16
September 1968.

This is the basic set of guidelines for safeguards agreements with non-NPT states. While the individual agreements vary from country to country, they all follow this format. Compare to INFCIRCf153, which covers agreements with parties
to the NPT, below.

13. International Atomic Energy Agency.
"Heads of State Welcome NPT."1 IAEA Bulletin, v. 10,
no. 4 (1968). pp 17-24.

Texts of statements of the heads of state of the US, United Kingdom, and USSR on the occasion of
the signing of the NPT.

14. International Atomic Energy Agency.
IAEA Bultn v. 17, no. 2 (April 1975).

This issue is devoted to various aspects of proliferation and safeguards as they impact on the IAEA. Concise, but non-technical and very useful to the non-specialist. See table of
contents (below) for specific topics.

1. How to Strengthen the Nuclear
Non-Proliferation Treaty; 2. Nuclear Power Growth and Safeguards 1975-1985; 3. The Technical Objective of Safeguards; 4. System of Accounting for and Control of Nuclear Material; 5. A National Control System; 6. Physical Protection of Nuclear Material; 7. Physical Protection of Radioactive Material in Transport; 8. Technical Assistance and Article IV of the XPT; 9. Peaceful Nuclear Explosions.
Also contains a map of the world showing which states have ratified and/or signed the NPT (p 31) and a chart of state's



participation in the IAEA.

15. International Atomic Energy Agency.
IAEA Bulletin. v. 17, no. 4 (August 1975). 60 pp.

This issue of the IAEA Bulletin contains a number of valuable articles, and gives an interesting insight into the perspective held by the Agency
on the issue of Proliferation.

(1) Management of Radioactive Wastes. (2) Manpower Requirements for Future Nuclear Power Programs. (3) Review of the NPT Conference. (4) Risk Assessment: The Joint IAEA/IIASA Research Project. (5) IAEA Technical Cooperation Activities: Europe and the Middle East.

16. International Atomic Energy Agency.
"Ideas for Peaceful Nuclear Explosions in USSR." .IAEA
Bulletin, v. 12, no. 2 (1970). pp 11-21.

A summary of a series of papers by Soviet scientists discussing the planned uses fox PNE's, including descriptions of a number of intended projects such as canal excavation and mining

17. International Atomic Energy Agency.
"The Non-Proliferation Treaty and the IAEA." IlA
Bulein, v. 10, no. 4 (1968). pp 3-9.

Describes the new role and changes imposed upon the IAEA by the NPT, and gives a brief synopsis
of the course of the negotiations.

18. International Atomic Energy Agency.
"Nuclear Power and Its Fuel Cycle." IAL& Bulletinjj~, v.
18, no. 5/6 (1976).



A series of articles written as an introduction to the Salzburg Conference of the same title, held 2 May 1976. Designed to give an indication of the scope of the Conference. See table of
contents (below) for specific topics covered.

1. Introduction; 2. Estimates for Future Demand for Uranium and Nuclear Fuel Cycle Services; 3. Trends in Uranium Supply; 4. Mathematical Modelling of Regional Fuel Cycle Centres; 5. Safety Codes and Guides for Nuclear Power Plants; 6. Radioactive Waste Management; 7. Methods for Determining the Release of Radioactive Material into the Environment; 8. Public Attitudes toward
Nuclear Power.

19. International Atomic Energy Agency.
Pae s LAl Atomic Energy. (Proceedings of the
Fourth International Conference on the Peaceful Uses of Atomic Energy, Geneva, 6-16 September 1971.) 15 Volumes. (A/CONF 49). Hew York: United Nations, 1972.
Vienna, Austria: IAEA, 1972.

This massive, multi-volume work contains information in depth on every aspect of nuclear power and other applications of nuclear energy, such as medical and industrial uses. Technically
complex and involved.

20. International Atomic Energy Agency.
"The Physical Protection of Nuclear Materials."
INFCIRC/225. Vienna, Austria: IAEA, September 1975.

The IAEA's guidelines for establishing a physical protection system. As the Agency has no specific control in matters of physical protection in any
state, these consitute recommendations only.



21. International Atomic Energy Agency.
Regional Nuclear Fuel Cycle Centres: Volume~
(Summary 1977 Report of the IAEA Study Project.)
STI/PUBf44S. Vienna, Austria: IAEA, 1977. 127 pp.

A synthesis of the Study Project on Regional Fuel Cycle Centers, which was initiated by the IAEA in 1975 to examine the economic, safety, safeguards, and security aspects of a multinational nuclear fuel cycle approach and to develop a methodology whereby member states might make appropriate

General Presentation: (Ch 1) The Agency's RFCC Concept and Study Project; (Ch 2) Background; (Ch 3) Alternative Approaches; Rsls ad Conclusions: (Ch 4)
Non-Proliferation and Safeguards
Considerations; (Ch 5) Radioactive Waste Management Considerations; (Ch 6) Economic Considerations;
Implementation of1 the RC C~ p .and

Summaries, of th Basic Studii the Rb&CC. Prject: (Ch 7) Economic Evaluation of Alternative Fuel Cycle Strategies; (Ch 8) Analytical Methodology; (Ch 9)
Non-Proliferation and Safeguards; (Ch 10) Physical Protection; (Ch 11) Nuclear Material Control; (Ch 12)
Institutional-Legal Arrangements; (Ch 13) Organization and Administration; (Ch 14) Financing General Considerations; (Ch 15) Health, Safety, and Environment; (Ch 16) Spent Fuel Storage; (Ch 17) Fuel
Reprocessing; (Ch 18) Mixed Oxide Fuel Fabrication; (Ch 19) Waste Management; (Ch 20) Transport of Radioactive Materials; Appendices.

22. International Atomic Energy Agency.
Regonl NclarFuel Cycle Cete: Ylm Z
(Basic studies of the 1977 Report of the IAEA Study Project.) STI/PUB/445. Vienna, Austria: IAEA, 1977.
306 pp.

Contains the full reports of the basic studies of



the Project, summaries of which may be found in
Volume I. (Previous Entry.)

(Ch 1) Scope, Objectives, and Organization of Work; (Ch 2) Relationship of Volume I to Volume II; (Ch 3) Non-Proliferation and Safeguards; (Ch 4) Physical Protection; (Ch 5) Nuclear Material Control; (Ch 6) Institutional-Legal Arrangements; (Ch 7) Organization and Administration; (Ch 8) Financing; (Ch 9) Health, Safety, and Environment; (Ch 10) Spent Fuel Storage; (Ch 11) Fuel Reprocessing; (Ch 12) Mixed Oxide Fuel Fabrication; (Ch 13) Waste Management; (Ch 14) Transport of Radioactive Materials; (Ch 15) Description of Mathematical Models and Computer Programs; (Ch 16) Cost Data Assumptions, Constraints, and Other Factors Related to Economic Analysis; (Ch 17) Economic Studies and Cost Evaluations.

23. International Atomic Energy Agency.
A Short History of Non-Proliferation. Vienna,
Austria: IAEA, February 1976. 50 pp.

A brief but complete introduction and overview of the history of nonproliferation, with particular
emphasis on the role of the IAEA.

24. International Atomic Energy Agency.
"The Structure and Content of Agreements Between the Agency and States Required in Connection with the
Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons."
INFCIRC/153. Vienna, Austria: IAEA, May, 1971.

This document gives the basic guidelines for safeguards agreements between the IAEA and parties to the NPT, as called for by the treaty.
Compare to INFCIRC/66, which deals with non-HPT
agreements, above.



25. Lambert, Robert W.
Review of International Negotiations 9M. the~ Cestion of1 Nuclear Weapons Tests September 1962 September 1965. Washington D.C.: Arms Control and Disarmament
Agency (Publication no. 32) 1966.

Focuses on the historical review of efforts to promote a test ban treaty. Analyzes the period during which the Limited Test Ban Treaty was negotiated, signed, and ratified. Discusses People's Republic of China's first two nuclear
tests, and calls for a Comprehensive Test Ban.

26. Meckoni, Vinay.
"Regional Nuclear Fuel Cycle Centres." IA.E& Bulletin,
v. 18, no. 1 (February 1976). pp 2-11.

A brief discussion of the IAEA's study project on Regional Fuel Cycle Centers (RFCC), including
descriptions of several alternative models.

27. Nye, Joseph S. Jr.
"Planning a Safeguardable Nuclear Future." Department of State Bulletin, v. 77, no. 1989 (8 August 1977). pp

A major statement and explanation of us proliferation policy, noting that the US must follow a very strict line on safeguards, continued embargo of exports of sensitive technology J. and by asking other nations to explore alternatives before becoming committed to such technologies, and providing incentives for them to do so. (This speech may also be found in The~ Bulletin of1 the Atomic Scientists, v. 33, no.
8 (October 1977). pp 38-42.)

28. Pederson, Ole.
"Developments in the Uranium Enrichment Industry."1 IAEA Bulletin, v. 19, no. 1 (February 1977). pp



Excellent, brief, non-technical description of enrichment technologies, including lists of enrichment facilities world-wide and
international suppliers.

29. President of the United States (James E. Carter).
"Address Before the Permanent Council of the Organization of American States at the Pan American Union, Washington, D.C. (April 14)." Department of StsIte Bulletin, v. 76, no. 1976 (9 May 1977). pp

Text of the announcement that the US would sign Additional Protocol I of the Treaty of Tlatelolco, which prohibits signatories from
placing nuclear weapons in the zone.

30. President of the United States (Gerald R. Ford).
"Statement by the President on Nuclear Policy." Weekly Compilation 21 Presidential Documents (1 November
1976). pp 1624-1631.

Text of the President's statement on nuclear energy policy, with particular emphasis on reprocessing, recycling, and increased diplomatic efforts to curb proliferation. This document is also available from the US Arms Control and Disarmament Agency, under the title Nuclear
Policy, published in 1976.

31. President of the United States (Gerald R. Ford).
Treaties With the Union 9A Soviet Socialist Republics on the Limitatio of Underground Nuclear Weapon Tests _qUA an Undexqxound Nuclear Explosions fox Peaceful Purposes, with Protocols. (Senate Executive H.) 94th Congress, 2nd Session. Washington, D.C.: us GPOI
1976. 23 pp.

Official letter of transmittal to the Senate from President Ford of the Threshold Test Ban Treaty of 1974 and the PXE Treaty of 1976, accompanied


by the full texts of the treaties and protocols.

32. Schlesinger, Secretary of Defense James R.
(Statements on First-Use of Nuclear Weapons Before the Godfrey Sperling Group.) Washington, D.C.: Department
of Defense News Release, July 1, 1975. 16 pp.

A detailed discussion of the controversy over the first use of nuclear weapons by the then
Secretary of State.

33. Smyth, Henry
"Nuclear Power and Proliferation." Department of State
Bulletin, v. 54 (3 January 1966). pp 28-36.

Discusses which measures should be taken to promote peaceful applications of nuclear energy without enhancing proliferation. Review of efforts toward this goal, and of the advantages
and important role of the IAEA.

34. Ungerer, Werner, et. al.
"Safeguards: Five Views." IAEA Bulletin, v. 13, no. 3
(1971) pp 2-13.

Five of the principal negotiators of the basic document on which IAEA safeguards agreements as called for under the NPT are based (IAEA INFCIRC/153) discuss the issues raised during the negotiations from their personal perspectives.
Appended to this article is the text of

35. Uni\d Nations.
Comprehensive Study 91 he .I 2
Nuclear-Weapon-Free Zones in AUIA Aspec. Special Report of the Conference of the Committee on Disarmament. A/10027/Add.1. New York: United Nations,



1976. 98 pp.

Gives perhaps the most concise and complete history of nuclear-weapon-free zone proposals available. Covers efforts prior to the Treaty of Tiatelolco, and provides a general listing of the prerequisites to the establishment of a nuclear-weapon-free zone in any area of the
globe. Also gives history of Tlatelolco.

1. Introduction. II. Historical Background of Military Denuclearization by Areas. III. Concept of Nuclear-Weapon-Free Zones. IV. Responsibilities of States Within the Zone and of other States. V. Verification and Control. VI. Nuclear-Weapon-Free Zones and International Law. VII. Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy. VIII. Conclusions.

36. United Nations.
"Effects of the Possible Use of Nuclear Weapons and the Security and Economic Implications for States of the Acquisition and Further Development of these Weapons." UN Report A/6858. New York: United Nations,
1968. 76 pp.

A report prepared in compliance with General Assembly Resolution 2162A (XXI) of 5 December
1966, with the assistance of a group of experts.

(Ch 1) Effects of the Possible Use of Nuclear Weapons; (Ch 2) Economic
Implications of the Acquisition and Further Development of Nuclear Weapons; (Ch 3) Security Implications of the Acquisition and Further Development of Nuclear Weapons; (Annex 1) General Characteristics of Nuclear Explosions; (Annex 2) General Effects of Nuclear Radiation; (Annex 3) References; (Annex 4) Basic Costs of Nuclear Warheads.

37. United Nations.
Proceedings th Third International Cofrec .2n the Peceu Uses of Atomic Energy. (Held in Geneva, 31 August 9 September 1964.) 16 Volumes. New York:
United Nations, 1965.

25-559 0 78 7



An extremely comprehensive series. Contents
(below) lists Volume titles.

(Vol 1) Progress in Atomic Energy; (Vol 2) Reactor Physics; (Vol 3) Reactor Studies and Performance; (Vol 4) Reactor Control; (Vol 5) Nuclear Reactors 1. Gas-cooled and Water-Cooled Reactors; (Vol 6) Nuclear Reactors 2. Fast Reactors and Advanced Concepts; (Vol 7) Research and Testing
Reactors; (Vol 8) Reactor Engineering and Equipment; (Vol 9) Reactor Materials; (Vol 10) Nuclear Fuels 1. Fabrication and Reprocessing; (Vol 11) Mucleax Fuels 2. Types and Economics; (Vol 12) Nucleax Fuels
3. Raw Materials; (Vol 13) Nuclear Safety; (Vol 14) Environmental Aspects of Atomic Energy and Waste Management; (Vol 15) Special Aspects of Nuclear Energy and Isotope Applications; (Vol 16) List of Papers and Indexes.

38. US Arms Control and Disarmament Agency.
Arms Control and Disarmament Agreements: Texts and History of Negotiations. Publication 94. Washington,
D.C.: US GPO, 1977. 186 pp.

(From the Foreword) "This publication contains the texts of all major arms control and disarmament agreements in which the United States has been a participant since 1925, as well as lists of Parties to those agreements. Each agreement is preceded by a brief background discussion prepared by the United States Arms
Control and Disarmament Agency.

1. Geneva Protocol; 2 The Antarctic Treaty; 3. "Hot Line" Agxeement; 4. Limited Test Ban Treaty; 5. Outer Space Treaty; 6. Treaty fox the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America; 7. Mon-Pxoliferation Treaty; 9. Seabed Arms Control Treaty; 9. "Accidents Measures" Agreement; 10. "Hot Line" Modernization Agreement; ii. Biological Weapons Convention; 12. SALT; 13. ABM Treaty; 14. Interim Agreement; 15. ABM Protocol; 16. Prevention of Nuclear Wax; 17. Threshold Test Ban and Protocol; is.



Underground PHE Ban and Protocol; 19. Environmental Modification Ban.

39. US Arms Control and Disarmament Agency.
Documents on Disarmament. Washington, D.C.: US GPO.

An annual compilation by ACDA, beginning in 1961, and containing a great deal of source material on disarmament and nonproliferation. For example, the 1967 edition (Publication 46) has many references on the NPT and the Non-Nuclear-Weapons
States Conference.

40. US Arms Control and Disarmament Agency.
International Negotiations on Ending Nuclear Weapon Tests: September 1961 September 1962. Publication
9. Washington, D.C.: US GPO, 1962. 333 pp.

An historical narrative and a selection of pertinent documents, statements, correspondence,
and speeches related to the negotiations.

41. US Arms Control and Disarmament Agency.
International Negotiations on the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation o Nuclear Weapons. Publication 48.
Washington, D.C.: US GPO, 1969. 183 pp.

An historical review of the public international negotiations of the HPT in the Eighteen Nation Disarmament Conference, in the UH General Assembly, and in other forums, from 1957 to 1968.

42. US Arms Control and Disarmament Agency.
peaceful nuclear Power Versus Nuclear Blombs: Maintainin Dividing Line. Publication 91.
Washington, D.C.: US GPO, 1976. 6 pp.

A brief discussion of alternative nuclear power cycles and their potential for proliferation.



Also gives some background on other aspects of the nuclear fuel cycle such as supply and
history, as well as the comparative merits of
Light Water Reactors versus CAXDU Reactors.

43. US Congress. House. Committee on Interior and Insular
Affairs. Subcommittee on Energy and the Environment.
Nuclear Energy: Part 3: International Proliferation of Nuclear Tgehnology. Oversight Hearings: 21, 22, 24 July 1975. 94th Congress, 1st Session. Washington,
D.C.: US GPO, 1975. 119 pp.

Testimony by six expert witnesses on the international framework in which nuclear exports
take place.

44. US Congress. House. Committee on Interior and Insular
Affairs. Subcommittee on Energy and the Environment.
Nuclear Reactor Security Against Sabotacre. Oversight Hearing: 5 May 1977. 95th Congress, 1st Session.
Washington, D.C.: US GPO, 1977. 258 pp.

Although this hearing deals primarily with the domestic nuclear industry, it contains some very useful data with respect to the potential effects of nuclear reactor sabotage as a form of
non-state-adversary proliferation.

45. US Congress. House. Committee on Interior and Insular
Affairs. Subcommittee on Energy and the Environment.
Recycling 21 Plutonium. Oversight Hearings: September 20, 21, 28, 1976. 94th Congress, 2nd Session.
Washington, D.C.: US GPO, 1977. 1112 pp.

This massive volume looks into the question of fuel recycle, and also examines some alternative
energy souxcesp such as thermal and wind power.