Citation
The Panama Canal: Lifting Cargo Ships

Material Information

Title:
The Panama Canal: Lifting Cargo Ships
Series Title:
Science Lesson Plans and Teacher Resources for Panama and Canal-related Stereographs
Creator:
Grant, Claudia ( Author, Primary )
Hoffman, Robert ( Author, Primary )
Madden, Jill ( Author, Primary )
Copyright Date:
2014

Learning Resource Information

Aggregation Level:
Level 3 - a course, or set of lesson plans
Interactivity Type:
Mixed
Interactivity Level:
High
Intended User Roles:
Teacher

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Fossils ( lcsh )
Panama Canal (Panama) ( lcsh )
Panama Canal (Panama)--Construction. ( lcsh )
Forest biodiversity ( lcsh )
Engineering ( lcsh )
Hydraulic engineering ( lcsh )
Paleontology ( lcsh )
Science ( lcsh )
Genre:
lesson plan ( aat )
serial ( sobekcm )
Spatial Coverage:
Panama -- Central America -- Panama Canal Zone
Coordinates:
9.1110858 x -79.6993185

Notes

Abstract:
This set of lesson plans and teacher resources is intended to teach a variety of scientific concepts to students in grades 6-8. The lessons are related to the Panama Canal, including expansion, fossil excavation work, and history. The lesson plans can be used individually or as a larger set.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
Panama Canal Museum Collection at the University of Florida
Rights Management:
Copyright Claudia Grant, Robert Hoffman, and Jill Madden. Permission granted to University of Florida to digitize and display this item for non-profit research and educational purposes. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder.

UFDC Membership

Aggregations:
Panama and the Canal
University of Florida

Downloads

This item is only available as the following downloads:


Full Text

PAGE 1

*denotes a required field *Intended Audience/Grade Level: Middle High (6 8) *Time Frame: A. T chart (Approximately 30 minutes) B. Review Water Cycle (Approximately 30 minutes) C. Teaching Poster of Water Cycle & Canal Lock System (Approximately 110 minutes or 1 block period) D. Peer Review Reflection (Approximately 50 minutes) E. Developin g team hypothesis for *Lesson Title: The Panama Canal: Lifting Cargo Ships PREZI Presentation: L6 The Panama Canal: Lifting Cargo Ships http://prezi.com/zo9 lno6d39s/?utm_campaign=share&utm_medium=copy *Lesson Summary : The Panama Canal was constructed to allow ships to travel across the narrow section of Panama as a short cut between the Atlantic Ocean and the Pacific Ocean. It provided ships with not only a short cut but a safer p assage then having to navigate around the treacherous tip of South America. The Canal consists of a series of locks and canals that must lift and lower ships to their final destinations at either end of their journey. Considering that the average cargo shi ps weigh 103,463 gross tons when empty it takes a tremendous force to do the work to lift a ship! This investigation will explore how the Panama Canal uses the water cycle with the sun as its energy source, as well as the physical forces of gravity and buo yancy to lift the ships that travel through the canal for free! This investigation is meant to follow the students researching and diagraming the canal and lock system of the Panama Canal and the Water Cycle. With this background knowledge constructed, st udents will apply this information to compare the work required to lift a cargo ship manually with a crank mechanism to the system used in the canal of lifting the ships with water in the locks. *Subject: Life Science and Physical Science

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*denotes a required field investigation (Approximately 30 minutes) F. Science Talk (Approximately 50 minutes) Standards and Purpose *Standards (link appropriate Common Core State Standards, Next Generation Sunshine State Standards, or other standards below ): Preformance Expectations: http://www.nextgenscienc e.org/msets1 engineering design MS ETS1 1. Define the criteria and constraints of a design problem with sufficient precision to ensure a successful solution, taking into account re levant scientific principles and potential impacts on people and the natural environment that may limit possible solutions. MS ETS1 2. Evaluate competing design solutions using a systematic process to determine how well they meet the criteria and constrai nts of the problem. MS ETS1 3. Analyze data from tests to determine similarities and differences among several design solutions to identify the best characteristics of each that can be combined into a new solution to better meet the criteria for success. MS ETS1 4. Develop a model to generate data for iterative testing and modification of a proposed object, tool, or process such that an optimal design can be achieved. *UFDC Resources: www.ufdc.ufl.edu/AA00015274 www.ufdc.ufl.edu/AA00015275/00001 www.ufdc.ufl.edu/AA00015277/00001 www.ufdc.ufl.edu/AA00015278/00001 www.ufdc.ufl.edu/AA00015287/00001 OTHER RESOURCES Panama Canal: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Panama_Canal Panama Canal Authority: http://www.pancanal.com/eng /

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*denotes a required field Guiding Question (s): How does the structure of the Panama Canal allow a way for ships to travel across Panama from the Atlantic Ocean to the Pacific Ocean? How is the energy to do the work of lifting a cargo ship in the locks generated and what are the processes, both natural and physical, involved in doing that work? *Objectives: To demonstrate an understanding of how the Panama Canal functions by researching and diagraming the lock and canal system of the canal. To demonstrate an understanding of the water cycle by diagraming and la beling the process, highlighting the sun as the source of energy for the cycle. To identify and explain the nature of the physical forces acting on the canal system in order to lift the ships through the locks. To create a teaching poster to explain this p rocess including the natural and physical forces acting to lift the ships. Assessment (how will data be collected on student performance?) *Formative (Describe how and when the students will get feedback about their performance or understanding during the lesson. How and when will they have an opportunity to use this feedback to improve their performance?): D. Peer Review Reflection (Approxi mately 50 minutes) *Summative (Describe how the teacher will determine if the students have reached the learning targets for this lesson. How will the teacher measure the impact of this lesson on student learning?): Guiding focus questions Teaching Phase ( see attachments section ) *Activate/Build Prior knowledge: B. Review Water Cycle (Approximately 30 minutes) *Direct Instruction: E. Developing team hypothesis for investigation (Approximately 30 minutes) *Guided Practice: C. Teaching Poster of Water Cycle & Canal Lock System (Approximately 110 minutes or 1 block period)

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*denotes a required field E. Developing team hypothesis for investigation (Approximately 30 minutes) F. Science Talk (Approximately 50 minutes) *Independent Practice : A. T chart (Approximately 30 minutes) C. Teaching Poster of Water Cycle & Canal Lock System (Approximately 110 minutes or 1 block period) *Closure: F. Science Talk (Approximately 50 minutes) Reading strategies: Team research of content on the structure of the Panama Canal lock system and the water cycle using the internet. Writing strategies: Peer Review Reflections & Answering the Guided/Focus Questions. Completing data and investigation observations. Sp eaking and listening strat egies: All class/team discussions and the final Science Talk activity. *Accommodations (Describe how to accommodate students with special needs and how to differentiate instruction.) Special needs will be accommodated in a case by case situation based on the school policy and resources. Each lesson is designed to present the material through the different learning modalities (visual, auditory, kinesthetic). *Extensions (Describe possible extensions of this lesson.) Re Teaching: B. Review Water Cycle (Approximately 30 minutes) Enrichment: Panama Canal Authority http://www.pancanal.com/eng/ *Materials

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*denotes a required field Speci al materials/preparation needed: Bucket or Tub marked to indicate the height the ship must be lifted. Small Juice or Milk Carton (Cargo Ship) Sand or Rice (Cargo) Gram Scale Round Dowel (Crane) Toilet Paper Tube marked to indicate one complete rotation (Crane) Yarn or Fishing Line attached to tube with tape (Crane) Paper Clip to go through hole punched in Milk Carton to connect ship to string. 1 Liter Bottle with cap off and small hole punched in the bottom of bottle (Lake Gatun & Madden Damn) Thin Plastic Aquarium Tubing to insert in bottom of 1 liter bottle. Putty to seal hole once tubing is inserted. Large clip to place on tubing to stop water from flowing. Suggested technology: Internet access Notes and Additional Recommendations (Provide recommendations concerning the preparation or implementation of your lesson): Reflection (Questions to stimulate reflection on the process of teaching with primary sources for the implementing teacher no t for completion by the lesson developer) Teacher learning: How did my students respond? What would I do differently next time? What would I keep the same? How will I use primary sources in the future?

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*denotes a required field Attachments A. T chart (Approximately 30 minutes) The Water Cycle What I Know! What my Team Members Know! B. Review Water Cycle (Approximately 30 minutes) Following the T chart activity the teacher will want to have students share what they know about the water cycle with the whole class. The teacher will then diagram the water cycle and have the students copy this information in their science notebooks. No te: Teacher can gather water cycle basic information from their favorite water cycle resource. C. Teaching Poster of Water Cycle & Canal Lock System (Approximately 110 minutes or 1 block period) Teaching Poster: Each team will be required to do research and create a poster that demonstrates their understanding of the water cycle and the Panama Canal locks system. Each teaching poster will need: A title Diagrams of the canal lock system with labels outlining the steps of the process Diagrams of the water cycle indicating the energy source of the water cycle The physical forces acting on the ship as it is being lifted using labels and arrows Any text that will be informative Web Sites: Panama Canal a nd the Water Cycle: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Panama_Canal Panama Canal Authority: http://www.pancanal.com/eng/

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*denotes a required field Holt Science Textbook Physical Science: Buoyancy and Density Pages 412 418 Gravity Pages 370 375 D. Peer Review Reflection (Approximately 50 minutes) How to Write a Peer Review Reflection Writing your reflection: Date your reflection. Copy the title and the prompt for your reflection. Answer the prompt sharing your thoughts and ideas in at least 7 well written sentences. How to respond to a peer Read your peer's reflection. Write a sentence about something you found interesting in their reflection. Write a sentence telling them new information. Ask a science question that connects to the topic of the prompt. Sign your name and return the reflection to your peer. Title: A Solar Powered Canal Prompt: Describe how the sun is the primary energy source for l ifting massive cargo ships using the water cycle in the Panama Canal. This peer review reflection should follow the students completing their Teaching Poster on the Canal Lock System and the Water Cycle. E. Developing team hypothesis for investigation Approximately 30 minutes Develop a team hypothesis to predict which system, crane or lock, will be more efficient in lifting the format: Procedure: Lifting A Cargo Ship With A Mechanical Crane: Collect the materials outlined in the investigation diagram. Assemble your crane. Add a specific amount of sand to your cargo ship.

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*denotes a required field Weigh the ship and its cargo in grams and record the amoun t on the data chart. Attach the crane to the cargo ship as outlined in the diagram and place the ship in the bucket. One scientist will have the job of holding the crane in place on the table. One scientist will turn the crane to lift the cargo ship being sure to count the number of rotations required to lift the ship to the marked height in the bucket. Record the number of rotations on the data chart. One scientist will record the time in seconds that it took to lift the cargo ship the required height and will record the time on the data chart. Observations must be recorded for the process of lifting the cargo ship using the crane. Repeat the above steps for 2 additional different weights of sand in the cargo ship. Lifting A Cargo Ship With A Lock and Canal System: Collect the materials outlined in the diagram. Assemble your lock system. Add the same amount of sand to your cargo ship as you did in trial 1 of the crane investigation. Record this weight in grams on the data chart. Place the cargo ship in the b ucket. Two scientists will be responsible for recording the time in seconds that it takes the cargo ship to be lifted to the height marked in the bucket. One scientist will remove the clip from the plastic tubing allowing water to flow into the bucket and lift the ship. Repeat the above steps for the 2 additional weights of sand used in the crane investigation for trials 2 and 3.

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*denotes a required field Data & Observations Observations: Pleas e record careful team observations on the process of lifting the cargo ship to the marked height in the bucket using each set up. Include observations about the amount of work being done and the energy source required to do the work of lifting the ship. Lifting A Cargo Ship Using A Mechanical Crane: Trial # Weight of Ship & Cargo in Grams # of Crane Rotations to Lift Ship & Cargo Time in Seconds to Lift Ship & Cargo Team Observations Lifting A Cargo Ship With A Lock System: Trial # Weight of Ship & Cargo in Grams Time in Seconds to Lift Ship & Cargo Team Observations

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*denotes a required field F. A Science Talk Making Sense of Our Investigations Each of the following questions will be placed on index cards and teams will randomly select their question. Describe how the actual work was done to lift the cargo ship using the crane system. Describe the energy source used to lift the ship using the cra ne system. Describe how the work was done to lift the cargo ship using the lock system. Describe the energy source to lift the ship using the lock system. In the Panama Canal what is the energy source that is transporting the water to Lake Gatun and Madden Damn above the canal locks. Describe the natural system that moves the water from the ocean to Lake Gatun and Madden Damn. Describe the forces acting on the ship to lift it in the lock system. Teams will be given 10 15 minutes to discuss their question an d to prepare to share their answers with the class. Teams will be given the following prompt and will share what they discussed to support their ideas regarding the prompt: As an engineering team you have been asked to design a system to lift cargo ships i n a lock and canal system that is efficient in terms of time, energy output and cost. Utilizing what you have learned through this investigation what are your recommendations. Be sure to clearly state the reasons for your thinking.