Citation
Amelia Island, Florida: A geographic study of recreation development

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Title:
Amelia Island, Florida: A geographic study of recreation development
Creator:
Cutler, Richard Oscar, 1930-
Place of Publication:
[Gainesville]
Publisher:
University of Florida
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
xvii, 323 l. : ill., 2 folded maps (in pocket) ; 28 cm.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Automobiles ( jstor )
Beaches ( jstor )
Camping ( jstor )
Cities ( jstor )
Counties ( jstor )
Ectromelia ( jstor )
Hurricanes ( jstor )
Outdoor recreation ( jstor )
Pirates ( jstor )
Recreation ( jstor )
Outdoor recreation ( fast )
Recreation areas ( fast )
Regional planning ( fast )
Florida -- Amelia Island ( fast )
City of Fernandina Beach ( local )
Genre:
bibliography ( marcgt )
theses ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )

Notes

Thesis:
Thesis--University of Florida.
Bibliography:
Bibliography: leaves 318-323.
General Note:
Manuscript copy.
General Note:
Vita.

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University of Florida
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The University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries respect the intellectual property rights of others and do not claim any copyright interest in this item. This item may be protected by copyright but is made available here under a claim of fair use (17 U.S.C. §107) for non-profit research and educational purposes. Users of this work have responsibility for determining copyright status prior to reusing, publishing or reproducing this item for purposes other than what is allowed by fair use or other copyright exemptions. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder. The Smathers Libraries would like to learn more about this item and invite individuals or organizations to contact the RDS coordinator (ufdissertations@uflib.ufl.edu) with any additional information they can provide.
Resource Identifier:
01812365 ( OCLC )
ocm01812365
Classification:
GV191.42.F6 C87 1980 ( lcc )

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AMELIA ISLAND, FLORIDA: A GEOGRAPHIC

STUDY OF RECREATION DEVELOPMENT


















By
RICHARD OSCAR CUTLER











A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE COUNCIL OF
THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE
DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY











UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
August, 1965

































Copyright by
Richard Oscar Cutler
1966












ACKNOWLEDGMENTS


The author wishes to thank Professor James R. Anderson, Chairman,

without whose patient and penetrating advice this work would never have

been completed; the author's wife, Kay, who remained so patient and

understanding through the seemingly endless years of preparation; and

the members of the supervisory committee, Professors Raymond E. Crist,

Clark L. Cross, John R. Dunkle, and Lyle McAlister.

The author also wishes to acknowledge the aid and support so

willingly accorded by the people of Amelia Island during the five years

of preparation, only a few of whom can be mentioned in the limited

space available: Mr. Gilbert Becker and Mr. Carl Gillen, Supervisors

of Fort Clinch State Park, who provided such enthusiastic help for the

slow search through the visitor records; Mrs. J. M. Bartels of the

General Duncan Lamont Clinch Historical Society of Amelia Island; Mrs.

Ruth Brown of the Fernandina Beach Chamber of Commerce; Mr. Jim Beard,

City Engineer; Mr. Newton Roberts of Union Carbide and Carbon, Incor-

porated; Mr. Eddie McKendree, Nassau County Tax Assessor; Mr. Joseph

Schofield, Superintendent of the Buccaneer Trail Association; Mrs.

Gerry Sheffield, of the Fernandina Beach News-Leader; and the many,

many others who provided their time and knowledge for this study. Miss

Eleanor Fairchild, typist, deserves credit for the frustrating job of

translating the field notes into a finished work; and Mr. Charles

Nissly for his invaluable technical assistance in completing the final

report.



iii















TABLE OF CONTENTS


PAGE

ACKNOWLEDGENTS . . . . . . . .. . . . . iii

LIST OF TABLES . . . . . ...... . . . ii

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS . . . . . . . . ... . . xii

CHAPTER

I. THE NEED, THE LITERATURE, AND THE PROBLEM . . . . 1

The Need . . . . . . . . . . . 1

The Outdoor Recreation Resources Review

Commission conclusions . ............ 1

The need for research ...... . . . ... 3

The background development .. . . . 5

The Literature . ... .. . . . . . 19

The Problem . . . . . . . . . 27

The objectives . . . . . .. . . . 29

The methodology .. . . . ........ . ... 32

II. THE BACKGROUND OF RESOURCES FOR RECREATION . . . . 39

The Region and the Island . . . . . . . . 39

The Buccaneer Trail . . . . . . . ... 41

Amelia Island . . . . . . .. . . 46

Sand and Water . . . . . . . . . . 59

Beach formation . . . . . . . . . .. 59

Amelia Island beaches . . . . . . . . 62



iv












CHAPTER PAGE

The Climate . . . . . . . . . . . 69

Normal conditions ................... 70

Hurricanes . . . . . ...... . 77

The Romantic Past . . .......... ......... 82

Three major eras . . . . . ... . . 82

The eight flags theme ............... 89

III. THE PRESENT USE OF RECREATIONAL RESOURCES . . . .. 95

Introduction . . . . ... . .. . . 95

Public Resources . . . . . . .. . . 99

Fort Clinch State Park .... . ...... .... 99

The Buccaneer Trail .................. 139

Municipal facilities . . . .. .. . 141

License counts ..... . . ... . 148

The Use of Private Facilities . . . . . 150

The Fletcher Avenue beaches .. . . . . .150

American Beach . . . . . . ... .. 167

The Economic Impact . . . . . ....... 172

IV. POTENTIAL RECREATIONAL USE OF AMELIA ISLAND . . . . 178

External Factors Influencing Development . . . . 178

Statewide tourism in relation to Amelia Island . . 178

The anticipated demand for recreational

opportunities . . . . . ..... . 192

Areas similar to Amelia Island . . . . . . 203





V












CHAPTER PAGE

Internal Factors Influencing Development . . . . 226

Industry . . . . . . .. . 226

Beach Erosion . . . . . . . . . . 237

Promotion and development . . .. . 253

V. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS . . . . . . . 259

Conclusions . . . . . ... . . .. 259

Visitors and tourists ................. 259

Residential growth .................. 260

Recommendations . . . . . . . . . 262

APPENDICES . . . . . .. . . . . . . 271

BIBLIOGRAPHY ................... ....... 318

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH . . . . . . .. . . . . 32X





























vi














LIST OF TABLES


TABLE PAGE

1. Actual and Estimated Population, Per Capita Disposable

Income, Length of Paid Vacations, and Automobile

Passenger-Miles Travel in the United States 1960,

1976, and 2000 . . . . . . . . .. 3

2. Selected Climatic Statistics for Summer and Winter

1958-1962 . . . . . . . . .. . .. 74

3. Annual Number of Hurricanes Affecting the Florida-

Georgia Coast 1886-1958 . . . . . . ..... 80

4. Number of Hurricanes in Florida by Months 1886-1950 . .. 81

5. Summary of Flort Clinch State Park Campers, July and

August, 1958, and July, 1959, through August, 1963 . 106

6. Buccaneer Trail Special Count for April 8-30, 1961 . 144

7. Buccaneer Trail: Written Inquiries Received during June,

July, and August, 1961 . . . . . . . . .. 146

8. Fernandina Beach Municipal Golf Course Usage (Nine-Hole

Rounds), May, 1957, through August, 1964 ....... . 1 47

9. License Plate Counts at Atlantic Avenue Beach Parking

Lots, Fernandina Beach, Florida . . . . . .. 149

10. Building and Lot Ownership for Eight Subdivisions,

Fernandina Beach, Florida, 1960 . . . . . .. 154

11. Residential Units per Building along Fletcher Avenue,

Fernandina Beach, Florida, 1964 . . . . .. 158

vii












TABLE PAGE

12. Per Cent of Possible Occupancy in a Selected Motel

on Fletcher Avenue, Fernandina Beach, Florida,

1964 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159

13. Number of Residential Units Available along Fletcher

Avenue, Fernandina Beach, Florida, 1964 . . . 160

14. Number of Residential Unit-Night Occupancies along

Fletcher Avenue, Fernandina Beach, Florida, 1964 . .. 161

15. Percentage of Residential Unit-Night Occupancies along

Fletcher Avenue, Fernandina Beach, Florida, 1964 . .. 164

16. Number of User-Nights along Fletcher Avenue, Fernandina

Beach, Florida, 1964 .... . . . . . . .. 165

17. State of Origin for Selected Beach Cottage and Apartment

Renters along Fletcher Avenue, Fernandina Beach,

Florida, 1964 . . . . . . . . . 166

18. American Beach Lot Ownership, Amelia Island, Florida,

1959 . . . . . . . . . . . . 168

19. Ownership of Lots with Buildings, American Beach, Amelia

Island, Florida, 1959 . . . . . . . . 169

20. Automobile License Count at American Beach, Amelia Island,

Florida, 3:00 to 4:00 P.M., September 3, 1962 . . . 170

21. Summary of the Estimated Number of User-Days on Amelia

Island Beaches, 1964 . . . . . . . ... .174

22. Summary of the Estimated Expenditures on Amelia Island

Beaches, 1964 . . . . . . . .... ..... 175


viii












TABLE PAGE

23. Number of People per Tourist Group Entering Florida in

1963 by All Modes of Transportation . . . . . 183

24. Number of People per Tourist Group Entering Florida in

1963 by Automobile . . . . . . . .... ... 184

25. Home State of Tourists Entering Florida, by Automobile,

1958-1961 (in Per Cent of Yearly Total) . . . . . 185

26. The Ten Primary States for Out-of-State Visitors:

Florida (1961) and Fort Clinch Camping Groups

(July, 1959, through August, 1963) . . . . . .. 187

27. Accommodations Planned by Incoming Florida Automobile

Tourists in Percentages of All Respondents, 1958

through 1961 . . . . . . . . ... ..... 189

28. Incoming Florida Tourists' Anticipated Recreation, 1958

through 1961 . . .. . . . . . . . . 190

29. Estimated Number of Florida Tourists, Expenditures, and

Length of Stay, 1959 through 1963 . . . . .... 193

30. What Florida People Want Most in the Way of Additional

Outdoor Recreation Opportunities . . . . . . 200

31. Traffic Flow into Florida at Check Points, 1962 and 1963 202

32. Number of Visitors to the Castillo de San Marcos National

Monument, January, 1956, through July, 1964 . . . 208

33. Number of Visitors to Fort Matanzas National Monument,

January, 1956, through July, 1964 . . . . . . 209




ix











TABLE PAGE

34. Estimates of Future Visitor Attendance for the Castillo

de San Marcos and Fort Matanzas National Monuments,

1964-1973 . . . . . .... . . .... ... 210

35. Number of Visitors to Little Talbot Island State Park,

July, 1962, through July, 1964 . . . . . . . 214

36. Number of Visitors to the Fort George Island Historic

Memorials, September 8, 1963, through July, 1964 . .. 216

37. Number of Visitors to Fort Frederica National Monument,

January, 1962, through August, 1964 . . .. ... 219

38. Number of Visitors to Fort Pulaski National Monument and to

Cockspur Island, January, 1958, through August, 1964 .. 221

39. Estimates of the Future Visitor Attendance for the Castillo

de San Marcos, Fort Matanzas, Fort Frederica and Fort

Pulaski National Monuments, 1961 through 1972 . . .. 225

40. Expenditures of the Container Corporation of America and

Rayonier, Incorporated, on Amelia Island in 1963 . .. 229

41. Summary of Amelia Island Beach Erosion Control Benefits . 250

42. Climatic Summary of Fernandina Beach, Florida . . . 280

43. Number of Visitors to Fort Clinch State Park, July, 1962,

through August, 1963 . . . . . . . . . 282

44. Sample Form for Fort Clinch State Park Campers' Receipts

Tabulation . . . . . . . . ... ...... .285

45. State of Origin of Fort Clinch State Park Campers, July,

1959, through August, 1963 . . . . . . ... 287


x











TABLE PAGE

46. Buccaneer Trail Traffic Count, March, 1951 through

August, 1963 ..................... 302

47. Origin of Tourists to Fernandina, Florida, December 31,

1879, through November 21, 1885 . . . . ... .316

48. Origin of Tourists to Fort Clinch State Park, Fernandina

Beach, Florida, January, 1944, through April 20, 1949 317





































xi














LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS


FIGURE PAGE

1. Location of Study Region . . . . . . . . . 42

2. Map of Fernandina Beach, Florida . . . . . . .

3. Map of Amelia City, Florida . . . . . . . . *

4. Amelia Island . . . . . . . . ... ..... 48

5. Marine Welcome Station on the Intracoastal Waterway,

Fernandina Beach, Florida . . . . . . ... 51

6. Beach Automobile Access Points . . . . . ... 55

7. Egan's Cottage on North Beach . . . . . . . 61

8. Blowout at 630 North Fletcher . . . . . . . 61

9. Bud Holt's Fishing Pier, South Fletcher Avenue ...... 65

10. Foam on Fernandina Beach. View to North from Atlantic

Avenue Beach Ramp . . . . . . . .... . 65

11. Climatic Summary of Fernandina Beach, Florida . . .. 71

12. Brochure Advertising the Buccaneer Trail . . . ... 84

13. The Chamber of Commerce Offices in the Keystone Hotel . 85

14. Marker Depicting the Plaza, Oldtown, View to the West . 85

15. The Plaza, Oldtown, View to the Northwest . . . ... 86

16. Map of Oldtown, 1811-12 . . . . . . . .... .86

17. House Purchased by the Duncan L. Clinch Historical Society

for a Museum . . . . . . . .... .... .87

18. Depot Donated by the Seaboard Airline Railway as a Museum 87

19. Marker Depicting Defeat of Spanish Forces, 1817 . . . 88

xii












FIGURE PAGE

20. Number of Visitors to Fort Clinch State Park, November,

1961, through August, 1963 . .. . . . .... .101

21. Per Cent of Fort Clinch State Park Camping Groups Annual

Totals Arriving in June, July, and August, 1960, through

1962 .. .. ......... .... . .. . . . 108

22. Number of Fort Clinch State Park Camping Groups, July and

August, 1958, and July, 1959, through August, 1963 . 109

23. Fort Clinch State Park Camping Groups Monthly Totals by

Year, 1958 through 1963 . . . . . . . .. 110

24. Per Cent of Fort Clinch State Park Group Camping Days

Annual Totals Arriving in June, July, and August, 1960,

through 1962 . . . . . . . .... .... 111

25. Number of Fort Clinch State Park Group Camping Days, July

and August, 1958, and July, 1959, through August, 1963 113

26. Mean Length of Stay for Fort Clinch State Park Camping

Groups, July and August, 1958, and July, 1959, through

August, 1963 . . . ..... . . . . . . 4

27. Per Cent of Fort Clinch State Park Campers Annual Totals

Arriving in June, July, and August, 1960, through

1962 . . .. . . . . . . . . 115

28. Number of Fort Clinch State Park Campers, July and August,

1958, and July, 1959, through August, 1963 . . . .. 116

29. Mean Number of Fort Clinch State Park Campers per Group,

July and August, 1958, and July, 1959, through August,

1963 . .. .. ...... .. . ... . . ... 119

xiii












FIGURE PAGE

30. Number of Fort Clinch State Park Camping Groups by Size

of Group and by Month, July and August, 1958, and

July, 1959, through August, 1963 . . . . .... .120

31. Per Cent of Fort Clinch State Park Camper-Days Annual

Totals Arriving in June, July, and August, 1960,

through 1962 . . . . . . . .... ...... 126

32. Number of Fort Clinch State Park Camper-Days, July and

August, 1958, and July, 1959, through August, 1963 . 127

33. Fort Clinch State Park Camper Days Monthly Totals by

Year, 1958 through 1963 ... . . . . . ... .128

34. Point of Origin of Camper Groups from Leading States,

July, 1959, through August, 1963 . . . . .... .133

35. Point of Origin of Fort Clinch State Park Camping Groups

by State, July, 1959, through August, 1963 . . ... 134

36. Number of Fort Clinch State Park Camping Groups from

Florida and Georgia, July, 1959, through August,

1963 . . . . . . . . . ........ .135

37. Number of Fort Clinch State Park Camping Groups from New

York and Ohio, July, 1959, through August, 1963 . . 136

38. Number of Fort Clinch State Park Camping Groups Arriving

in July from Florida, Georgia, New York, and Ohio,

1959 through 1963 . . . . . . . .... . 137

39. Fort Clinch State Park Special Visitor Count, Week of

July 15-21, 1963 . . . . . . . . ... .. 138


xiv












FIGURE PAGE

40. Copy of Part of Brochure Advertising the Buccaneer Trail .. 142

41. Buccaneer Trail January and July Monthly Totals by Year,

1951 through 1961 . . . . . . . ... .. 143

42. Location of Summer Rentals as Advertised through the

Chamber of Commerce and Others, Fernandina Beach,

Florida, 1964 . . . . . . . . . . 151

43. Location of Summer Residential Units along Fletcher Avenue,

Fernandina Beach, Florida, 1964 . . . . ... 156

44. Estimated Number of Tourists Entering Florida by Year,

1927 through 1963 ...... . . . . .... . 180

45. Estimated Number of Tourists Entering Florida by Month,

July, 1959, through August, 1963 . . . . . .. 182

46. Distribution of the Florida Tourist Dollar, 1963 . . . 194

47. Florida Population Growth by Years, 1840 through 1960,

and Projections to the Years 1976 and 2000 . . . . 196

48. Florida Urban-Rural Population as a Percentage of Total

Population, 1860 through 1960 . . . . . . . 198

49. Population Growth of the Jacksonville, Florida, Central

City and Metropolitan Area, 1900 through 1960 ... . 198

50. Number of Visitors to Florida State Parks, 1950 through

1964. . . . . . . . .... . . . 199

51. Number of Motorboats Registered in Florida, 1960-1964 . 199

52. Monthly Distribution of Florida Outdoor Recreation Use-

Pressure, 1961 . . . . . . . . .. .. . 200


xv











FIGURE PAGE

53. Location of Selected Historical Sites near Amelia

Island, Florida . . . . . . . . .. .... 204

54. Map of the Castillo de San Marcos National Monument and

Area, St. Augustine, Florida . . . . . . . 207

55. Copy of Map of Little Talbot Island State Park Brochure . 213

56. Map of Fort Frederica National Monument . . . ... 217

57. Map of Fort Pulaski National Monument . . . . . 220

58. Copy of "Facts of Interest" Sheet for the Container Cor-

poration of America and Rayonier, Incorporated, Fer-

nandina Beach, Florida, 1963 .... . . . . . 228

59. Land Held by Union Carbide and Carbon, Incorporated, on

Amelia Island, Florida, 1961 . . . . . . .. . 234

60. Map of St. Mary's Entrance, 1769 . . . . . . .. 239

61. Map Showing Old Shorelines along Northern Amelia Island,

Florida, 1843 through 1960 . . . . . . ... .240

62. Hurricane Damage to the Strathmore Hotel, South Beach,

Amelia Island, Florida, 1898 . . . . . .... .242

63. Beach Erosion Damage to South Fletcher Avenue, Fernandina

Beach, Florida, 1964 . . . . . . . ... 242

64. Summary of Damage from Hurricane Dora in Nassau County,

Florida, 1964 . . . . . . . .. .. . .244

65. Description of Hurricane Dora, Amelia Island, Florida,

1964 . . . . . . . . ... . . ... . 245

66. Beach Erosion Damage at 730 North Fletcher Avenue, Fernan-

dina Beach, Florida, 1964, Viewed from the Northwest . 246

xvi











FIGURE PAGE

67. Beach Erosion Damage at 730 North Fletcher Avenue, Fernan-

dina Beach, Florida, 1964, Viewed from the Southeast . 246

68. Beach Erosion Damage at 836 North Fletcher Avenue, Fernan-

dina Beach, Florida, 1964 . .. .. . . .. . 247

69. Beach Erosion Damage at 982 South Fletcher Avenue, Fernan-

dina Beach, Florida, 1964 . . . . . . . . 247

70. Ocean Street after the 1944 Hurricane, Fernandina Beach,

Florida . . . . . . . . ... . . .. 248

71. ,The North Beach Automobile Ramp after Hurricane Dora,

Fernandina Beach, Florida, .1964 . . . . . . 248


























*Located in pocket on page 3ZL4

xvii












CHAPTER I


THE NEED, THE LITERATURE, AND THE PROBLEM


I. THE NEED


At the beginning of the second half of the twentieth century there

was a growing awareness among government officials and others of a rapid-

ly developing need for outdoor recreation among our increasingly urban-

ized and expanding population. It was already apparent that our

traditional unlimited expanses of "natural resources" were being hard-

pressed from many competing potential users under the canopy of

"multiple use" of land resources. In the summer of 1958, Congress

authorized an Outdoor Recreation Resources Review Commission (hereafter

referred to as ORRRC) to make an intensive nationwide study of outdoor

recreation at all levels, public and private, in order to determine the

future demand and needs for outdoor recreation, the resources available,

and the policies and programs necessary to meet these demands (Outdoor

Recreation for America, Appendix A, pp. 191-94. Hereafter referred to

as ORFA, 1962).


THE OUTDOOR RECREATION RESOURCES REVIEW COMMISSION CONCLUSIONS

The major report of this Commission was published in 1962 and con-

tained some startling figures on the problem. One major conclusion was

that outdoor recreation is now a major part of modern life, and that the

demand for it will triple by the year 2000 (ORFA, 1962, p. 47). Only part

of this rise in demand will be a direct result of population increase.










2

Other major factors which were considered included the per capita dispos-

able income, the rising amount of leisure time, and the effects of more

and better highways.

Population estimates were made for individual states, regions, and

for the entire country, and showed a total U. S. population change from

179,000,000 in 1960, to 350,000,000 in 2000, a rise of 95 percent (OFA,

1962, p. 47). Three out of every four of these Americans will be living

in metropolitan areas, which is where the outdoor recreational needs are

the greatest and the resources for satisfying these needs are the least

(ORFA, 1962, p. 3).

A second major factor in the rising demand is that of personal in-

come, or rather of "disposable" personal income which may be used for

other than the necessities of life. The per capita disposable income

will double by the year 2000 (Table I). When this factor is combined

with the projected doubling of the population, it means that there will

be four times as much income available in the country with which to pur-

chase non-necessities, largely recreational in nature, by the year 2000.

The leisure-time available is another dominating factor in the

use of outdoor recreation. According to the estimates, the number of

weeks of paid vacation will double by the year 2000 (Table I). Combin-

ing this factor with the rise in population and the availability of

disposable income for purchases of vacation travel, and considering the

present rapid development of highways throughout the nation, one is

given an indication of the fantastic growth of tourism in the coming

years.










3

Table 1 summarizes the major factors in the rising demand for out-

door recreation.



TABLE 1

ACTUAL AND ESTIMATED POPULATION, PER CAPITA DISPOSABLE INCOME, LENGTH
OF PAID VACATIONS, AND AUTOMOBILE PASSENGER-MILES TRAVEL
IN THE UNITED STATES 1960, 1976, AND 2000*


Popula- Per capita dis- Paid vacations Automobile pas-
Year tion posable income (in weeks) senger-miles
(millions) (constant dollars) (in billions)

1960 179 $1,970 2.0 670

1976 230 2,900 2.8 1,400

2000 350 4,100 3.9 2,800


*After: Outdoor Recreation for America, A Report to the Presi-
dent and to the Congress by the Outdoor Recreation Resources Review
Commission, January, 1962, Washington, D. C. Table 21, page 220, and
Table 26, page 222.


THE NEED FOR RESEARCH

The ORRRC Report concludes with a chapter outlining the pressing

need for research directed toward the concept of outdoor recreation, in

order to provide a base for wise management and policy decisions for our

increasingly hard-pressed natural resources (ORFA, 1962, Ch. 14, pp. 183-

87). Their statement that ". . no other activity involving so many

people and so basic a part of our life has received less attention from

qualified investigators . ." (ORFA, 1962, p. 183) is well-illustrated

in their study report surveying the literature (ORRRC, 1962, #27, Lit:

A Survey).










4

Much of the work to date has been in the nature of data collection

and in local problem-solving as, for instance, Waugh's studies of the

"tourist markets" as a saleable commodity (Waugh, 1956, pp. 286-88),

while very little has been done in the formation of value judgments. It

is much easier, of course, to compile statistics or to describe operating

procedures than it is to isolate and to define the intangible values

accrued from the vacation or the activity itself. Such value judgments

may be beyond the normally accepted limits of this field, and may proper-

ly belong in the fields of the behavioral sciences.

This problem of the value to assign to an intangible experience

has led to a number of methods establishing a dollar value. Two of the

most common methods include the placing of a dollar value for each visit

to an area, and that of measuring the recreational use against alternate

uses, i.e., an industrial use. Both methods are incomplete and subject

to great error of interpretation. The first method rests on an almost

unmeasurable value judgment by numerous visitors and the investigator,

while in the second method it is often tacitly assumed that the two (or

more) uses are mutually exclusive and incompatible. It may well be that

the different methods of research are themselves more incompatible than

are the activities that they measure and that a thorough study of an

area should of necessity consist of more than one research method. It is

not necessary for one method to embrace the entire field of study.

Not only will most studies probably use more than a single method

or research technique, but the field of "outdoor recreation" itself em-

braces parts of many fields of study. Much of the work to date has










5

been of a peripheral nature to outdoor recreation by conservationists,

governmental agencies, economists, and health-oriented groups. The ORRRC

aptly sums up the situation as follows:

The investigation and understanding of outdoor recreation ex-
tend far beyond the realm of any one specialized field. Much of
the research yielding important insights might not at first ap-
pear to be "recreation research," since it is carried out by
economists, sociologists, anthropologists, political scientists,
demographers, psychologists, land-use specialists, and geograph-
ers, to mention only a few. Yet there is ample evidence that the
types of research carried out by these and other disciplines
could greatly increase knowledge of outdoor recreation and its
values. Unfortunately, the analysis and interpretation of the
research in these fields have only rarely been related to
recreation. Thus, there is much factual material already avail-
able for recreation research if placed in the proper context
(ORFA 1962, p. 187).


THE BACKGROUND DEVELOPMENT

Development prior to the Second World War. Outdoor recreation

was not a problem to the early settlers of the country any more than it

is a problem to underdeveloped countries at the present. As long as the

pioneer attitude of an unlimited, free and somewhat hostile natural en-

vironment within immediate or easy reach of every man, woman and child

persisted, and the typical American lived in a small town, recreation

in the outdoors was a natural and an unremarked part of living. A land

of farmers has little need to search for this type of relaxation, al-

though other types of recreation have been actively sought in the past

despite the disapproval of a large segment of the population (i.e., the

Puritan New England settlements). Probably the first recreational










6

legislation in the country was instituted in the New England colonies,

and the village commons constituted some of the first parks in the

country.

The nineteenth century witnessed the development of the concept of

outdoor recreation in the national consciousness. This century was de-

voted to the settlement of new areas and to the rise of cities, mainly

along the eastern seaboard. By the middle of the century, New York had

over half a million inhabitants and had recognized that there was a need

for a rural setting within the city itself. During the decade of 1850 to

1860, Central Park was established, an organizational board developed,

and the Park was landscaped for the sole purpose of outdoor recreation in

a natural setting. This pioneer effort was the model for city parks in

many other cities, and by the twentieth century, a county park had been

developed in New Jersey (Brockman, 1959, p. 57).

A widespread interest in outdoor sports developed during the last

quarter of the nineteenth century. For example, professional baseball

was instituted in 1869, intercollegiate field events were begun in 1874,

and the first modern Olympic Games with American representation was held

in 1896. Bicycling, archery, riflery, and yachting were popular activi-

ties during this period. Such highly organized sports as baseball,

football, tennis and golf were playing to large groups of spectators by

the end of the century (Ibid., 1959).

The Federal government entered the picture long before this, how-

ever. In 1864, while still engrossed in the Civil War, Congress set

aside the magnificent Yosemite Valley for the State of California










7

". .. to hold the lands for public use, resort and recreation .. ."

(Ise, 1961, p. 53) largely in order to protect one particular scenic at-

traction, the Mariposa Grove of Giant Sequoia (Sequoia gigantea). Con-

siderable public interest was developed in later years for the preserva-

tion of these and other similar groves, and was of considerable help in

spreading the concept of conservation across the country.

The first national park was established in 1872 when Yellowstone

National Park was authorized by act of Congress as a ". . public park

or pleasuring-ground for the benefit and enjoyment of the people" (Ibid.,

1961, p. 15). This concept set the pattern for subsequent national

parks. A similar development had taken place in reserving forest pre-

serves. A Division of Forestry was begun in 1881, and ten years later

the Yellowstone Forest Park Reservation was set up with the purpose of

protecting and preserving the timber. Other uses were allowed if they

did not abridge or interfere with this primary purpose .(ORRRC, 1962,

#27, pp. 103-04).

The first quarter of the twentieth century witnessed a rapid de-

velopment in the concept of outdoor recreation. The succession of

Theodore Roosevelt to the Presidency was, of course, a significant de-

velopment for the concept of the "outdoors" type of life in the increas-

ingly urbanized American landscape.

In 1906 an important law was passed, the Act for the Preservation

of American Antiquities, providing for the establishment of National

Monuments for the preservation of historic landmarks, historic or pre-

historic structures or other objects of historical or scientific










8

interest. This act allowed a number of interesting areas to be set aside

as national monuments until such a time that they could become national

parks, such as Carlsbad Caverns, Grand Canyon, Olympic, Zion and Bryce

(Brockman, 1959, p. 63).

The National Park Service was formed in 1916 to coordinate and

supervise the growing number of National Parks, which had been generally

managed by the U. S. Army. Under the energetic superintendent Mather,

the National Conference on State Parks was formed in 1921 to provide a

permanent forum for the exchange of ideas and discussions on the State

and Federal roles in outdoor recreation.

The U. S. Forest Service was at first concerned only with the

preservation and development of the timber resources, but the concept of

multiple use of national forests was forming during the first decade of

the century. One landmark for the concept of multiple use in conserva-

tion was the White House Conference in 1908, at which President Theodore

Roosevelt met with the governors of the states and other interested

officials to discuss the problems of vanishing natural resources

(Proceedings of a Conference of Governors in the White House 1909).

A subsequent National Conservation Commission prepared the first

inventory of the national natural resources, but the Commission was

dissolved when the country entered the First World War (Highsmith,

et al., 1962, p. 20).

It was during this period that the concept of multiple use of

forest lands began to form. Multiple use follows the concept of the










9

greatest good for the greatest number, and recognizes that there may be

a variety of uses for a particular area or class of land resources

(ORRRC, 1962, #17, p. 1). Some of these uses may be exclusive, such as

a road, while others may be broadly inclusive, such as selective

cutting of the forests which will still leave large sections of wild-

life habitat. Recreational uses are implicit in this concept, which

was finally written into law for the Forest Service in 1960.

At the turn of the century the automobile began its rise to a

dominant position in the economy. There were two million automobiles

in the country by 1914, nine million by 1921, eighteen million by 1926

(Doell, 1954, p. 59), and nearly sixty million in 1959, with this to

more than triple within the next forty years (ORRRC, 1962, #23, p. 89).

The construction of highways proceeded at an accelerated rate and has

culminated in the development of the modern interstate system. The

Federal-aid Highway Act of 1956, for instance, requires from 2.5 to 3

million additional acres for road construction and improvement by 1975

(U.S. Department of Agriculture, 1958, p. 476). This road construc-

tion is bringing all sections of the country within easy travel

distance of the major population centers.

A number of outdoor groups were organized during the early

years of the century. During the first decade, the Boy Scouts, the

Girl Scouts, the Camp Fire Girls, the National Association of Boys'

Clubs, and the forerunner of the National Recreation Association were

formed (Doell, 1954, p. 59).











10

During the second quarter of the century the great depression had

a major effect on the conservation movement. Local and state govern-

ments, and most private citizens, had only very limited funds to spend

for recreation, so the simple free outdoors activities became even more

popular. The Federal government, however, engaged in a considerable

amount of activity which was at least partially recreational in nature.

The Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC), the Works Progress Administration

(WPA), and the Public Works Administration (PWA) constructed a consider-

able number of trails, roads, buildings, et cetera, on public lands. The

National Park system expanded with the addition of Shenandoah, Mammoth

Cave, Olympic, Isle Royale, and Kings Canyon. The National Forests were

extended by purchase from private owners, and the labor from the New

Deal agencies was used for improvement. A number of water impoundments

were constructed, with the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) epitomizing

the multiple-use principle (Clawson, et al.,1960, pp. 146-47).


Development since the Second World War. During the Second

World War most recreational developments were curtailed or maintained

at status only, but in the years following that conflict there has

been a significant change in the Federal government's attitude toward

outdoor recreation. The Flood Control Act of 1954, for example, put

recreation on an equal standing with other conservation measures by

directing that all such projects be open to the public without any

charge (ORRRC, 1962, #27, p. 118). Within the following twenty years

the multiple-use concept was firmly entrenched in all Federal agencies










11

concerned with conservation, and the Federal role is without doubt the

dominant single modern force in conservation and related outdoor recrea-

tion. These policies are determined by a number of Federal agencies.

The United States Department of the Interior handles the largest

part of the conservation needs. Among its many bureaus, the most im-

portant for outdoor recreation would be the National Park Service.

Others of notable importance would include the Geological Survey, the

Bureau of Land Management, the Fish and Wildlife Service, and the newly

created Bureau of Outdoor Recreation.

As of January 1, 1960, the National Park Service administered

nearly twenty-five million acres of land spread among one hundred and

eighty-three different areas and seven hundred and eighty units (Ise,

1961, p. 2). These one hundred and eighty-three areas include Parks

(national, historical, military, memorial, battlefield, and capital),

Monuments, Memorials, Cemeteries, Sites, Areas, and Parkways.* In 1955

these facilities had some 55 million visits, with an annual rate of

growth of 8 percent (Clawson, et aL, 1960, p. 168).

The United States Department of Agriculture administers the

nation's forests through its Forest Service. Of the nearly two hundred

million acres of forest land in the United States, nearly 85 percent, or

165,000,000 acres, are administered by the Forest Service. The policy

of this Service toward recreation as a multiple-use factor is revealed

by the remarks made at a national meeting in 1960:


*See maps "Eastern United States," February, 1962, and "Western
United States," January, 1961, by the National Park Service, the United
States Department of the Interior, for sale by the United States Govern-
ment Printing Office, Washington 25, D.C.










12

Insofar as the national forests are concerned, we are talk-
ing about 81 million visits or 95 million man-days of
recreation use in 1959. This . is 4 times what it was in
1946 and we have good reasons to expect over 600 million visits
in 2000 . . This large recreation use must be considered as
part and parcel of national forests multiple-use management.
On lands where recreation resources are the predominant public
value they will receive priority . (Sieker, 1960, p. 4).

The Army Corps of Engineers of the United States Department of

Defense is responsible for the construction of numerous water impound-

ments and navigational improvements, both coastal and inland. The

recreational uses of these constructions had lohg been considered to be

a by-product, but there has been a very rapid increase in their recrea-

tional use since they were opened to the public under the 1944 Flood

Control Act. In 1960 the projects of the Corps of Engineers had 109

million visitor-days (and another 65 million visitor-days at TVA and

at Bureau of Reclamation projects) (ORFA, 1962, p. 179).

These are by no means the only Federal agencies interested in

recreation, but a complete description would be a study in itself.

Some others worthy of mention will help to show the trend of modern

Federal policy toward recreation. These are summarized by the United

States Department of Commerce (Recreation and Tourism Developed Through

Federal Programs, 1965).

1. The Bureau of Reclamation is primarily interested in the

control and development of waters in the dry western states. Its ex-

perience with water impoundments is similar to that of the Corps of

Engineers.










13

2. The Bureau of Land Management administers 465 million acres of

land, mostly in Alaska and in the west. This land has generally been

maintained in a comparatively natural state and has been used by sports-

men. Land near population centers is now being sold or leased to states

and local governments, some 181,000 acres having been transferred by

1963.

3. Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) is not directly interested in

recreation, but its policies encourage the investment by states and pri-

vate organizations in outdoor recreation.

4. The Agriculture Stabilization and Conservation Service (ASCS)

provides information and loans for the development of wildlife habitat

and resource-based recreational areas, under the terms of the Food and

Agricultural Act of 1962 and the 1963 Cropland Conversion Program.

5. The Soil Conservation Service (SCS) provides technical assis-

tance and cost-sharing procedures to individuals and organizations in

its protection of watersheds.

6. The Farmers Home Administration (FHA) may make loans to low-

income farmers and rural associations, primarily to provide supplemen-

tary sources of income.

7. The Small Business Administration (SBA) has been particularly

active in providing loans for motels and motor courts, and such user-

oriented activities as ski resorts.

8. The Housing and Home Finance Agency (HHFA) will include

recreational uses within its overall programs of urban planning, public

works planning, et cetera.










14

9. Area Redevelopment Administration (ARA) will make loans in

those areas of the country suffering from underemployment. Approximately

one-fourth of their loans went into projects to stimulate employment in

recreation and tourism.


The role of the Federal government has thus been changed from that

of official dispenser of public lands during the early days to that of

protector of public resources in the late nineteenth century. Through

the enthusiastic writings and activities of the naturalists of the period,

this attitude gradually merged with and became part of the conservation

movement. Such public figures as Theodore Roosevelt were of prime im-

portance in the development of the conservation theme.

In the twentieth century it became apparent that it would be

necessary for the Federal government to do more than merely "conserve"

the natural resources. An expanding interest in the outdoors, an ex-

panding urban population with its consequent isolation from nature, and

a fantastically expanding transportation system put demands upon the

nation's resources which could not be met under the traditional methods

of conservation, and the multiple-use concept arose. The implementation

of this active concept in place of the earlier rather passive concept

required the institution of numerous Federal agencies and the legisla-

tion to support them.

The expansion of leisure time, disposable income, personal trans-

portation on the highways, and increased urban population in the second

half of the century brought the need for public outdoor recreation to a










15

position of major importance. Two important developments which reflect

this post-war change were the authorization of the Outdoor Recreation Re-

sources Review Commission in 1958 and its logical result, the Land and

Water Conservation Fund Act of 1964. This act provided the administra-

tion for Federal agency coordination and matching grants to the several

states for their own local development of recreational potential.

New York was the first state to set aside large sections of land

for state use. In the late nineteenth century the State of New York for-

bid the sale of state lands in the Adirondacks region, and the state

constitution of 1894 stated that this area should remain in a natural

state, or in effect to remain public park. Niagara Falls was made a

public area during this period. New York's interest in recreation and

tourism has continued to the present and has made it one of the country's

leading tourist-attracting states. For example, in 1960 New York

floated a bond issue for $75,000,000, which was to be used for both

state projects and for loans to local areas on a matching basis. Two

years later an additional $25,000,000 bond issue was approved for land

acquisition, to be paid from state park fees (Florida Outdoor Recrea-

tion Program, 1964, p. 42).

California entered the conservation and recreational field with

the acceptance, and later the return, of Yosemite Valley. The develop-

ment of tourism and outdoor recreation has been a vital factor in this

growing state, now the largest in population in the country (California

will have an estimated 41 million population in 2000, according to the

ORRRC projections). A bond issue of $150,000,000 was presented to the










16

voters of the state and approved in the 1964 general elections. Eighty-

five million dollars were earmarked for the acquisition of new parks,

$20,000,000 for the development of new parks, $5,000,000 for wildlife

refuges, and $40,000,000 for grants to localities (Ibid., 1964).

Pennsylvania voted a bond issue of $70,000,000 for conservation and

recreation projects in 1963, and Ohio authorized an issue with $25,000,000

earmarked for recreational land acquisition and development, to be paid

for from a cent-a-pack cigarette tax (Ibid., 1964).

Florida has long been interested in tourism and the development

of a recreational potential based largely on a mild winter climate and

extensive bathing beaches. By 1963, more than 14 million tourists were

spending two and a half billion dollars annually in the state (1963

Florida Tourist Study, Table 6, p. 8). At the same time, Florida's rate

of population increase is one of the two highest in the country (both

Florida and Arizona will triple in population by the year 2000, accord-

ing to the ORRRC projections). The Recreation Department of the Florida

Development Commission has been making detailed tourist studies since

1956, and five years later the "Governor's Committee on Recreational

Development" was organized to coordinate and evaluate the state's needs

in outdoor recreation. Their 1963 report, Florida Outdoor Recreation -

At the Crossroads inventories the state's recreational resources and

recommended that an immediate water and land acquisition program should

be instituted immediately.










17

As a result of this study, Florida passed an Outdoor Recreation

and Conservation law in 1963. A 1964 report from the Florida Outdoor

Recreational Development Council summarizes this series of acts (Florida

Outdoor Recreation Program--the First Year, 1964, pp. 2-5).

1. The Outdoor Recreation and Conservation Act provided for the

establishment of an Outdoor Recreational Development Council and its

planning branch, the Outdoor Recreational Planning Committee. The lat-

ter would consist of the superintendents of the various state agencies

concerned with the utilization of the outdoors for recreation, as for

instance the Florida Board of Parks. A Land Management Division was

established, under the guidance of the Council, with the responsibility

of acquiring, maintaining and managing the necessary outdoor lands,

water areas and resources, and to lease these lands to the appropriate

agencies. A Land Acquisition Trust Fund was established with bonding

powers to finance the projects.

2. The Bond Referendum Act, authorizing the issuance of revenue

bonds for land acquisition, was approved by the voters in the November

5th, 1963, elections. Another act, the Boat Registration Revenue Act,

provided that surplus revenue from the registration of motorboats would

be transferred to the Land Acquisition Trust Fund. An Internal Improve-

ment Funds act provided for a similar transfer of funds from the sale or

lease of State property, under certain conditions. A 5 percent whole-

sale tax imposed on outdoor recreational and sports equipment is to be

deposited in the Fund also.










18

3. A landmark in recreational development was passage of the

Landowner Liability Act limiting landowner liability when land is made

available for the public use. Any owner or leasee who makes land or

water areas available for public recreational use without charge is

freed from the responsibility of keeping the area safe or to give warning

of hazardous conditions. This progressive law, assuming reasonable care

on the part of the users, should encourage landowners to permit use of

large areas of land and timber which now have "Posted: No Trespassing"

signs.

In the spring of 1964, hearings were held in ten different parts

of the state in order to hear proposals and needs on the local level.

All county, municipal and private groups with an interest in outdoor

recreation and conservation were invited to attend, and publication

through the news media invited all other interested persons. This local

view of the needs was published in abstract form as the Public Hearings

on Florida Outdoor Recreation Needs (see Appendix A).










19

II. THE LITERATURE


The earliest writings on outdoor recreation in this country were

essays on the enjoyment of nature after the manner of Thoreau. During

the late 1900's the voice of the crusading naturalist-conservationist

was heard decrying the loss or impending loss of irreplaceable natural

beauties. However, these writings were more of a literary nature than

of an actual study of the problem.

With the beginning of the multiple-use concept in the early period

of this century, it became apparent that the extent and quality of our

natural resources were inadequately inventoried, and some of the first

studies of importance were of this nature. The Federal agencies mainly

concerned with recreation, i.e., the National Park Service and the

Forest Service, were and still are in the best position to make such a

survey. The 1934 report on land planning by the National Park Service

is an example of an excellent and thorough survey by that agency

(Recreational Use of Land in the United States, Part XI, 1938), and

consisted of two hundred and eighty folio-sized pages and a number of

full-color, foldout maps. The primary aim was ". . to set forth the

facts, analyses, and the recommended lines of action . ." (Ibid.,

Preface, p. iii). A review of the contents will illustrate the width

of coverage.










20

The report was divided into five sections and the appendices.

Section I sets forth the problem of the most effective way to use recre-

ational lands, a summary of the findings, and recommended Federal action.

Section II, "Recreational Resources and Human Requirements," dis-

cussed the recreational needs, natural conditions, historic sites, compe-

titors and the economic aspects. Section III inventoried contemporary

uses of recreational land from the local to the Federal levels. Section

IV discussed developmental programs at all levels, and Section V dis-

cussed the educational opportunities.

The appendices include a considerable amount of material, in

graphic, tabular, and prose form. These appendices give details on

size, number of miles of roads and trails, et cetera, for each area ad-

ministered by the National Park Service and the Forest Service, as well

as other agencies. Another appendix discusses the status of archaeology

and illegal excavations in the United States, while a companion appendix

gives details on all archaeological and historical sites administered by

the Service. A most interesting appendix contains samples of the ques-

tionnaires used in various studies within the public areas.

The significance of this study lies in its thoroughness and in

its wide approach to the problem of outdoor recreation as a major land use.

The National Park Service has been interested in recreation from its

beginning, of course, but not on such a comprehensive scale. A very

thorough study of Park administration and policies is contained in Our

National Park Policy by Ise (Ise, 1961). He discusses a few of the pre-

World War I parks, notably Yellowstone and Yosemite, and the importance










i.
21

of the Antiquities Act, before entering his very thorough year-by-year

discussion of the administrations. The author had written a similar

analysis on the Forest Service in 1920 (Ise, 1920). The 1961 study

(by an historian and amateur conservationist) was supported by the non-

profit Resources for the Future, Inc.

Comparatively little of importance was written by geographers

during this period. McMurry lists six pre-1940 studies on recreation

by geographers (James and Jones, 1954, pp. 256-57), and two of these

four were printed in other than geographical journals. Three of these

studies were centered on the state of Michigan, where there had been

considerable interest in reclamation of cut-over lands.

The post-World War II period, especially since 1950, has seen

the production of a number of well-researched studies on outdoor rec-

reation in its widest sense. It was necessary, of course, to maintain

reliable inventories or statistics for proper planning, and Marion

Clawson of the Resources for the Future, Inc., was foremost with his

1958 Statistics on Outdoor Recreation. (Clawson, 1958) This excel-

lent compilation lists a fairly complete summary of vital statistics

for the national, state and local parks, the national forests and

wildlife refuges, the TVA system, reservoirs, outdoor, activities and

sales of equipment, as well as careful words of advice on the use and

misuse of statistics. This latter phase was followed the next year

by his analysis of measurement techniques, Methods of Measuring the

Demand for and Value of Outdoor Recreation (Clawson, 1959).










22

The following year this prolific writer, along with two fellow research-

ers, published their fine Land for the Future, (Clawson, et al 1960)

in which recreation was treated as one of the multiple uses to which our

land is put. The urban, agricultural, forestry, and grazing uses were

covered in the same detail as was the recreational use, which was put

into its proper perspective in American life.

The report of the Outdoor Recreational Resources Review Commission

in 1962 has been mentioned earlier but little has been said of the

coverage of this report. In all, it consisted of twenty-seven separate

reports on various phases of the investigation, plus the summary

already mentioned (ORFA, 1962). It is difficult to summarize the

breadth and depth of this combined study. The twenty-seven separate

sub-studies include, among those of particular importance to this

study, reports on shoreline resources (Number 4), statistical analysis

of user satisfaction (Number 5), the multiple-use concept as employed

among the different Federal agencies (Number 17), factors affecting

demand (Number 20), trends in American living (Number 22), demographic

and economic projects to the years 1976 and 2000 (Number 23), prospec-

tive demand for recreation (Number 26), and a survey of the literature

(Number 27). The choice of these particular sub-studies by no means

is meant to detract from the others, but a complete listing and

description would be beyond this report.










23

The ORRRC Study Report 27, Outdoor Recreation Literature: A

Survey is of particular interest for its discussion of the literature

available in the Library of Congress. The Library staff made a search

through their card files in order to ascertain the available literature

on outdoor recreation and to categorize it under useful headings.

Potentially useful titles were found under a wide range of

classifications. Under "Recreation," approximately one out of ten

titles appeared to refer to outdoor recreation (ORRRC, 1962, Study Re-

port 27, p. 2). One of the more useful general categories was found by

using specific areas dealing with resources which are not strictly

recreational, as for instance state forests and reservoirs, or state

public lands. This survey found it most convenient to divide the liter-

ature into two parts, that of the resources themselves, and that con-

cerning the users. Under the category of Users, sub-headings included

such items as studies on the recreational activities, economic and

social characteristics, tourism and travel, population, growth factors,

leisure, et cetera.

Probably the major significance of this survey lies not in the

particular works which it mentions, for there were many interesting

titles which were not mentioned, but rather in the method and breadth

of approach. The first twenty-six pages of text are concerned with the

techniques of the title search itself, and a careful perusal of these

pages will save the serious researcher much time and will lead him to

studies which may not otherwise be apparent.










24

The summary of the ORRRC studies, Outdoor Recreation for

*America, (ORFA, 1962) is one of the more important and significant

tstudies in the field. Some conclusions as to the coming need for outdoor

recreation have been mentioned in the first few pages of this study, but

these conclusions are only a small part of the report, and comprise the

first part, "The Facts." The second part, "Recommendations," includes

chapters discussing policy guidelines at several levels of management,

both governmental and private.

Some of the more outstanding recommendations from Part II should

be mentioned. The first recommendation (Chapter 6) is for the manage-

ment classification of outdoor recreation areas into six categories

ranging from high-density (Class I) to primitive (Class V), thus divid-

ing the resources into areal units with specific recreational

functions. A single administrative unit, of course, could include more

than one category of use under this system.

The second recommendation (Chapter 7) called for the establish-

ment of a Bureau of Outdoor Recreation within the Department of the

Interior. Such a bureau was subsequently established in 1964, and

under the Land and Water Conservation Fund Act (Public Law 880578) in

September of the same year, an operating budget of $180 million annual-

ly was assured for a number of years. This revenue is basically taken

from users in the form of admission fees, taxes on motorboat fuel, and

surplus sales, and is to be used for matching funds to the states and

for the acquisition of Federal recreational areas. The Bureau is

charged with coordinating the recreational programs of all Federal




A










25

agencies (Encyclopaedia Britannica, 1965 Supplement, p. 616). Similar

programs were recommended for individual states (ORFA, 1962) as, for

instance, has been done in Florida.

Other recommendations in the ORFA report included a system of

Federal loans or grants, which have been partly instituted by the forma-

tion and financing of the Bureau of.Outdoor Recreation. A separate

chapter was devoted to water (Chapter 13), called "A Key Element." The

recommendations were mainly concerned with public access to water in

lakes, rivers, impoundments, and the ocean, and to control pollution.

One recommendation to preserve certain rivers in their free-flowing

natural condition (ORFA, p. 177) has been met by the formation of the

joint Department of the Interior-Department of Agriculture Wild Rivers

Study Team to consider rivers or portions of rivers which should be

permanently maintained in their natural free-flowing state (Douglas,

1965, pp. 49-80).

An illustrative study of the multiple-use concept of water is

presented by a symposium on land and water use held by the American

Association for the Advancement of Science (Thorne, ed., 1963). The

contributors represented a broad spectrum of earth and biological

sciences and economics and came from universities, governmental agen-

cies, private business, and the Congress. Their interests ranged

from the resource setting (about half the papers) to the discussion

of policies at the local and governmental levels. One chapter dealt

specifically with outdoor recreation (Clawson, 1963, pp. 169-184).










26

A very thorough analysis of the problem of outdoor recreation by a

forester is presented in the Recreational Use of Wild Lands, an Ameri-

can Forestry series (Brockman, 1959). After a review of the importance

of the state and national park and national forest policies and activi-

ties, the author concludes with an interesting survey of similar

facilities in other countries.

Most of the studies on (outdoor) recreation include at least

some philosophic words on the place and meaning of recreation in modern

American life. One of the more provocative essays exploring the social

significance of the developing leisure and the associated rise in the

demand for recreation is to be found in Green's Recreation, Leisure,

and Politics. (Green, 1964) This essay deals with the sociological

implications of the change in American attitude from that of an essen-

tially frontier society to that of an urbanized industrial society,

with reference to leisure and recreation. It is not enough to investi-

gate the public needs for physical facilities and space for the year

2000, but the emotional and psychological needs at this future time

must also be carefully investigated. The America of 350,000,000

people in the year 2000 will be a very different place from the America

of mid-century with its population of a mere 150,000,000.










27

III. THE PROBLEM


Along the southern coast of the United States lies a string of

coastal islands, stretching from Cape Hatteras in the north to Cape

Kennedy in the south. These islands, while being geologically similar

to each other, differ in many ways from the mainland from which they are

separated by swamps and lagoons. These islands contain extensive

stretches of magnificent beach, a mild and sunny climate, and a history

of conflict between opposing idealogies for four centuries. The

islands' present economies are based largely on some form of recrea-

tional use, while the mainland areas are predominantly based on

agriculture or forestry products.

Amelia Island is in the middle of this chain of islands, and is

in many ways typical of them all. It is separated physically and

economically from the mainland. Its beaches are among the finest to be

found in the world. Its climate is mild and sunny, and its history is

long and colorful. Tourism on the beaches is an important business dur-

ing the summer months, but two factories employ the bulk of the working

force throughout the rest of the year. The island has room for expan-

sion, for most of the land area and half the beach presently are idle.

While it is close to a large metropolitan area, it retains its small-

town southern charm.

Amelia Island, like the similar islands to the north and to the

south, contains abundant resources, physical and social, for outdoor

recreation, and, like its sister islands, has generally put these










28
resources to use in varying degrees. But what is the potential for

development? What will the Island be like in the future years? Is this

"development" something that the people presently living on the Island

want, or is it coming despite their wishes?

Two factors are apparent in a study of this kind and should be

kept in mind throughout. First, while the study is limited to the one

Island, its recreational resources and facilities are only one small

part of a large, extensive and nebulous pattern of similar recreational

resource-areas spread over a large area. This is to say, for instance,

that if potential visitors were to find the beaches to be of no recrea-

tional value in other parts of the South Atlantic coastline, then they

would not find the beaches of Amelia Island to be of interest.

Conversely, if the national demand for beach recreation were to rise,

the demand for Amelia Island's beaches would also rise. Amelia Island

is only one small part of this much larger complex, and is found to be

both in competition with and encouraged by this same system of recrea-

tional patterns. The same comments would hold true of the other

recreational features, such as the Island's state park or its histori-

cal shrines. They do not stand by themselves.

The second factor to be kept in mind is an areal one. Despite

the somewhat different physical setting and economy when compared to

the mainland, Amelia Island is only one part of a much larger area and

will tend to prosper or to decline as does the entire area. The bounda-

ries of this area are, of course, nebulous and almost incapable of

sharp definition, and may perhaps best be described in terms of










29

functional areas. Physically, the Island is part of the Floridian

plateau. Economically, it is part of the Jacksonville shopping area,

and socially it is part of the extremely vague northeast Florida-south-

east Georgia "region." Historically, there are several periods of the

past to which it may be equated, but generally it would be part of the

south Atlantic coastline from Cape Kennedy to Cape Hatteras.

Thus, both the wider social function and the areal location must

be considered in any microregional study of an island of such small

size which is tied closely to the region around it. However, for prac-

tical purposes the area of study must be sharply delimited and

identified. For this study, the "area" is most easily defined as being

Amelia Island and the immediately adjacent waters, while the surround-

ing "region" will be considered and identified as necessary.


THE OBJECTIVES

This study is primarily a study of outdoor recreational poten-

tial from a geographic viewpoint, with Amelia Island selected as a

study area. Since it is a geographic study, it is concerned with the

manner in which the land and water resources are being used for outdoor

recreational purposes. The limits of this function must be as carefully

recognized and defined as are the areal limitations, and for much the

same purpose, i.e., that of focusing attention on one particular prob-

lem or situation. The wider applications and implications will be

discussed in the concluding chapter.










30

The first objective, therefore, is to inventory the resources

available for outdoor recreation. A "resource" is not a static, perma-

nent factor, but is in the mind of the actual or potential user and

ceases to be a resource when it is no longer considered to be one. For

example, the beaches have existed in essentially their present condition

since before the first man came to the Island, but were hardly considered

to be a "resource" by the Indians or the early settlers. Contrast their

view of a barren, waterless and foodless stretch of sand with that of the

modern tourist spending an average of fifteen dollars per day for each

member of his family for the privilege of staying a few days on this

barren, waterless and foodless stretch of sand, and the modern concept

of what constitutes a resource becomes more apparent.

Thus, an inventory of the resources available by definition con-

sists of anything which the users generally consider to be of use for

outdoor recreation. These resources fall into three general categor-

ies, that of the mild weather and climate (as compared to other places),

that of the extensive beaches for bathing and associated activities,

and that of the romantic historical traditions of which the Island is

a part.

The second objective is to evaluate the present use of these

resources that have been isolated by the inventory. The easiest and

most direct method is to count the number of people using a particular

resource at a particular time, and so any records of user intensity

which have been collected in the past are of major interest. Where di-

rect measurements are incomplete or impossible, then indirect measure-










31

ments must be taken generally by a study of a closely associated activity

or function, or by extension from a sample count.

An evaluation of the Island's recreational resources implies more

than a tabulation of the number of users. Some value must be assigned to

these activities in order to understand their importance to the area or

region as a whole. For this, the most tangible value assignation is the

dollar value based on so many dollars per visit or per user-day.

Intangible values such as intensity of user-satisfaction or emotional

and physical recuperation are outside the nature of this study and how-

ever real and important they may be, they are immeasurable within the

geographic definition of "resource." The dollar value assigned is a

rough indication that these particular people are willing to pay at

least this much money for these particular activities in this particular

area, and so is a lower limit to the economic value of these resources

at present.

Since the Island cannot be considered as an isolated unit either

areally or functionally, a third objective is to evaluate outside factors

which influence or will influence the recreational aspects of the Island.

The size and timing of the state's tourist influx, the location of the

major highways, and the population growth of the nearby Jacksonville

metropolitan area are major determining factors in the future of Amelia

Island. Outside support given to local activities, as for instance to

the local state park or the societies concerned with historical restora-

tion, will have important effects. Activities within the Island which

reach beyond its shores, as for instance the Chamber of Commerce










32

advertisements and the news media reports of the week-long Fiesta of

Eight Flags, will have a telling effect on the future. Activities of the

State of Florida which encompass the entire state will have a long-term

effect, as for instance the establishment of the Governor's inter-agency

Outdoor Recreational Development Council. The development or non-

development of similar areas along the coast will most certainly be a

critical factor.

The inventory of resources, the analysis of present use of these

resources, and the study of outside determining factors provide a basis

for an evaluation of the potential outdoor recreational development.

Only when the favorable and inhibiting developmental factors are under-

stood and appreciated can intelligent and effective developmental plans

be designed. That there will be future development of some sort is a

basic assumption generally made for an expanding economy like that of

Florida. This development must be directed or controlled if a favorable

economic environment is to be maintained. The definition of what con-

stitutes a favorable environment and the control of the Island's

development is the responsibility of the people themselves. Therefore,

the fourth objective of this study is to provide a basis for an under-

standing of the factors involved in what appears to be the inevitable

growth and development of Amelia Island.


THE METHODOLOGY

While this study has been primarily a field study on Amelia

Island, it has been augmented by a large amount of material from other

sources. These sources may be grouped for purposes of identification










33

and evaluation. The following categories are based upon a very general

developmental order for the study. Some of the sources could be

classified under more than one category.


Secondary sources of information

1. The first and most basic general source was Pink's thesis

"Amelia Island" (see bibliography). This thesis, by a former Fernandina

Beach resident, is a general regional geographic study of the Island and

county and is an excellent introduction to the Island. The natural

features of the environment (soils, climate, vegetation, et cetera) are

surveyed, as are the major industries (timber, pulpwood, fisheries).

The extensive section on the history of the Island draws on both pub-

lished documentary sources and on original unpublished material and

interviews with the older residents. This work shows evidence of a

thorough acquaintance with the Island and county and a diligent search

into its economic and historical development.

2. The second most basic general source, from a geographer's

viewpoint, is to be found on the various maps, charts, and aerial

photographs of the area, both recent and old. The major series used

in the study would include:

a. The United States Geological Survey 7.5' Topographic

Survey Series (approximately two and one-half inches per mile). The

two 1958 sheets "Fernandina Beach, Florida and "Amelia City, Florida"

were the main ones used. An older edition of the section immediately

to the south of Amelia Island, "Mayport, Florida (1950) was of some










34

help on topographic features but the culture is out of date. These two

sheets were quite useful for the location of roads, streets, buildings,

and other cultural features; they were helpful for the location and

identification of the topography, such as shorelines, creeks and eleva-

tions; they were a prime source for the names of cultural and physical

features; they were an aid in the location of cadastral survey lines.

However, there were some discrepancies noted in the field, mainly in

the location of the cadastral survey lines and some streets. One copy

of each sheet has been placed in a pocket at the end of this study, and

should be accepted as the primary source for location and nomenclature.

b. Aerial photography was used to supplement and, in some

cases, to replace the U.S.G.S. maps. Two sets of photographs were used,

one at a scale of eight inches per mile taken in March of 1953, and the

second at a scale of about three inches per mile (1 inch = 1,667 feet)

taken in October of 1960. A mosaic of the 1960 photographs at a scale

of approximately one inch per mile was of use in preparing some of the

maps used in the study. These photographs are commercially available

from the Agricultural Stabilization and Conservation Service, United

States Department of Agriculture. Their scale is reasonably accurate

except at the edge of the photographs. Their main value was their

field utility in conjunction with the U.S.G.S. maps for the location

and identification of features which either are not apparent on the

maps, or are not normally visible from the ground. This would include

the location of vegetation (or changes in vegetation), houses, trails,

shoals, et cetera.










35

c. Nautical charts from the Coast and Geodetic Survey,

United States Department of Commerce, were of value for their extensive

information on coastlines and channel and water depths, and to a lesser

extent for the location of outstanding features on the land, such as the

higher dunes, tall public buildings, et cetera. Unfortunately, Amelia

Island is a dividing line for the U.S.C. & G.S. charts which are

centered on the St. Johns River (Jacksonville, Florida), and Brunswick,

Georgia, so two charts at each scale are necessary in order to show the

entire Island. At the scale of 1/20,000 (approximately three inches

per mile) charts Number 453 and 448, and at the scale of 1/40,000 (about

one and one-half inches per mile) charts Number 577 and 841 were found

to be useful.

d. Various other maps were useful for the study. A sketch

map showing the major property boundaries and owners as of 1953 was

loaned by Mr. George Lovesee, surveyor. The Fort Clinch records produced

a 1947 map (Drawing No. 3.001) showing changes in the shoreline of the

north end of Amelia Island since 1843. The office of the County Tax

assessor and the County Clerk were invaluable for their collection of

maps and drawings of the ownership and boundaries of private, corporate

and public holdings. Mr. Beard, the City Engineer, provided the author

with duplicates of street and planning maps of the city from his files.

3. Several libraries were consulted for other secondary source

material. The University of Florida Library at Gainesville contains a

wide variety of material and has been a major source of books and docu-

ments, especially government reports. Most of the literature cited in










36

the bibliographywill be found in this library. One of its most interest-

ing features is its sub-library, the P. K. Yonge Library of Florida

History, located in the main building. This library has probably the

finest and most complete collection of books, documents, maps, and other

material relating to Florida history to be found.

Two other libraries consulted for material were the Indiana State

University Library in Terre Haute, and the Indiana University Library in

Bloomington. The latter has an especially fine collection of material

in relation to various phases of recreation, in conjunction with its

School of Health, Recreation, and Physical Education. The Indiana State

University Library was able to secure considerable material through its

Inter-Library Loan services.

4. Other sources included officials and departments at the

local, county, state and Federal levels. The offices of the City Mana-

ger and the City Engineer were the source of material on the City of

Fernandina Beach. The offices of the County Tax Assessor and the

County Clerk provided invaluable service in the slow search through the

public records. The Fernandina Beach Chamber of Commerce provided in-

valuable background information and personal contacts. The Fort Clinch

State Park records were central to the study of tourists, and the

Florida Development Commission provided copies of their own tourist

studies and selected material from their research library. The offices

of the various state and Federal parks mentioned in the body of the re-

port were consulted for material concerning the several parks.










37
Local businessmen were quite helpful in preparing the estimates on

the number and expenditures of tourists and other matters of interest to

the study. The president of the local historical society was consulted

on phases of the restoration and other society activities. Authorities

in other sections of the state were consulted upon special problems in

geology, climatology, beach erosion, et cetera.


Field research. This study was essentially a field study in

that most of the material was collected on Amelia Island itself over a

period of three years. The field research may be divided into three

categories roughly following the development of the study.

1. The first part of the study consisted of the preparation of

base maps for the description and analysis of the background resources

and the subsequent selection of the pertinent areal factors. This in-

cluded a field survey of the region with maps and aerial photographs to

check the reliability and coverage, and the preparation of a land-use

map for the entire Island which was kept current throughout the study.

Finally, those factors which were pertinent were extracted and presen-

ted in the study as separate maps showing, for instance, the location

of the various beaches and the beach access points.

2. The various tourist counts occupied much of the field work.

The twenty-one thousand camper receipts and other Fort Clinch State

Park records were tabulated both at the Park offices and at the

author's residence over the three-year period. Various spot checks of

the number of people on the beach, or license plate counts on the beach










38

parking lots, were taken as a basis for later estimation and evaluation

of recreational activities. The house count along Fletcher Avenue was a

house-to-house canvass based upon such factors as the name-sign in

front, the number of mailboxes, "For Rent" signs, interviews with occu-

pants or neighbors, and other signs of permanent or temporary residence

to determine the number of housing units which were rented or were

maintained as permanent residences. All motels were considered to have

one unit as a permanent owner residence and the other units were counted

as rental units.

3. Interviews were used throughout the study where necessary and

possible, with due care given to identify the author and the purposes of

the study and to eliminate bias. Fort Clinch visitors and personnel,

motel and apartment house owners, the local Chamber of Commerce offic-

ials, and selected beach vacationers were interviewed concerning the

vacation habits of the visitors.

The actual study took place over a three-year period during

which time all the methods described were used when expedient and neces-

sary. During the two years in which the study was written, two

extended trips to the Island and the region, and numerous letters of

inquiry and reference to published data were undertaken in order to

fill in gaps in the study. The organization, selection and analysis

of the collected material could be considered to be the last step in

the study.












CHAPTER II


THE BACKGROUND OF RESOURCES FOR RECREATION


St. Augustine, Mayport, Nassau Sound, Cumberland Island,

Brunswick; the names found along the stretch of seacoast comprising

northern Florida and southern Georgia bring to mind visions of pirates,

Spanish galleons and French adventurers, a wealth of romance and his-

tory. Certainly, this region has had more than its share of the drama

that makes history books glow with excitement. The casual tourist may

yet today pace the very walls where desperate men made legends come true,

or may bathe in the golden sunshine on the shining sands which spelled a

hoped-for refuge for many a hurricane-wrecked sailor of old. It would

be difficult to traverse the Buccaneer Trail from its inception near

the St. Mary's River through Fernandina Beach and Amelia City, past

Fort George and Ponte Vedra Beach, through the first permanent

European settlement in the new world, without some of the romance of

the legends seeping in.

But is there nothing other than the past here? Is there no future

to give the past its meaning? What of the present and the people who are

living today on these historic shores? What changes have four centuries

wrought?


I. THE REGION AND THE ISLAND


In the middle of this stretch of golden sands lies subtropical

Amelia Island, separating the Atlantic Ocean from the mainland. The city










40

of Fernandina Beach, the county seat, faces the Amelia River to the west

and the Atlantic Ocean two miles to the east. Bridges cross the waters

of Amelia River to the east and of Nassau Sound to the south.

This is an enchanting region to the "outsider" on his first

visit. An easy hour's drive to the west and north would bring one to the

Okefenokee Swamp. To the north lies bridgeless Cumberland Island, almost

uninhabited, with its herds of wild ponies sometimes visible from Amelia

Island. Jacksonville, a bustling "Gate City" for international trade,

lies twenty miles south on a river whose flow reverses with every tide.

On approaching Amelia Island, the traveler passes through miles of al-

most unbroken stands of longleaf pine, much of which has been planted in

even rows by the large pulpwood producers. Between the Island and the

mainland will be long stretches of barren salt flats which were a

series of shallow bays in the geologically-recent past (Martens, 1931,

p. 79), and where fishermen are often seen dragging their nets. The

tourist may even pass with amazement a small sign directing him to a

gold-mining company (Humphreys Gold Corporation, Jacksonville, Florida)

and if he passes this off as another "tourist trap" he will be missing

one of the region's important industries, a space-age industry

producing titanium metal for Cape Kennedy's rockets.

If the hypothetical tourist remains long enough, he will soon

realize that there is a considerable amount of activity in industry,

agriculture, and commerce, but his interest will be drawn above all to

the magnificent opportunities for zestful outdoor activity throughout

the year. For the businessman tourist, the presence of several wood-










41

products factories will bring to mind the large stands of "useless" woods

which are so carefully protected and harvested, and which in turn excite

the hunter with deer, wild turkey, duck,quail, dove, rabbit and squirrel.

A wide variety of fish will tempt the angler to wet a line in salt water,

tidal flats, or fresh water as he chooses. One may walk miles of beach

with sands as smooth and untrammelled as if men had never been there, at

least since the last high tide. The weather will usually be sunny and

pleasant for these activities.

Indicative of Florida's well-publicized attraction for winter-

weary visitors from the north and midwest, the major highways trend from

north to south. U. S. Routes 1, 301, 23, and 17 are the most heavily-

traveled and they traditionally funnel traffic through Jacksonville to

the northeast Florida beaches. Interstate 95 will soon provide a more

rapid, stop-free coastal artery to heavily populated points on the south-

eastern coast of Florida from northern areas (Figure 1). The limited-

access highway system through Jacksonville has been largely completed

and the time-conscious traveler hardly needs to reduce speed as he

passes over the beautiful St. Johns River, and new four-lane highways

will conduct him quickly to the southern parts of the state. The driver

need only concentrate his attention on his strip of concrete and grass

without looking to either side in order to complete his rapid journey

to his ultimate destination.


THE BUCCANEER TRAIL

However, there are others to whom travel is not an unpleasant

interlude between destinations, but is a pleasure in itself. The







42
820/ 8810
Okefenokee
Swamp

Brunswick




310 30f 310


,23 \ Cumberland Island
SKingsland
Kings Ferry 'St: Marys

SFERNANDINA BEACH
S \ Yulee 1A
GEORGIA : AMELIA ISLAND
Callahan 'JN
FLORIDA
So Nassau Sound
/ \I Little Talbot Island
i JACKSONVILLE Mayport

909 |o Jacksonville Beach







310

S St. Augustine



Fort Matanzas


I A 810




FIGURE 1. LOCATION OF STUDY REGION

1 inch = 16 miles










43

Buccaneer Trail has been designed with these more leisurely travelers in

mind, and judging from records kept since its inception it is becoming

increasingly popular. Known as State Route A1A, it connects with two

major north-south routes, U. S. 1-301 at Callahan and U. S. 17 in Yulee,

before leading to the Atlantic Ocean at Amelia Island (Figure 1).

The name of Buccaneer Trail is no accident. The port of

Fernandina was a pirate's haven in the early part of the nineteenth

century, and the place-names of the surrounding area abound with the

heritage of the Spanish, English,and French. For instance, the south-

bound traveler crosses the St. Marys River (Rio Santa Maria) through

either Kings Ferry or Kingsland, reminiscent of the old King's Road

during colonial times, and Nassau Sound vividly brings to mind the his-

toric associations of times past. The pirate theme is widely used on

Amelia Island itself (see page 82).

Continuing to the east along the Buccaneer Trail from Yulee, one

soon leaves the pine flats behind and emerges onto the tidal flats and

bayous so typical of an emerging sandy coastal region. These marshes

consist of several miles of sawgrass and mud and (at high tide) water

with many channels passable to small boats fishing for bottom-feeding

fish such as mullet (lisa). These flats have made efficient protective

moats for the off-shore island inhabitants in times past, but are now

controlled with dredge and causeway. Miles before the Island is

reached, the Rayonier cellulose plant may be seen to the northeast

with its plumes of white smoke outlined against the sky. One then

parallels a swing-out railroad bridge crossing the Intracoastal










44

Waterway* and may even be stopped (either luckily or unluckily, as the

mood indicates) while the road-bridge opens for passage of a yacht or a

tug pushing a string of barges. The driver is soon on Amelia Island,

and may proceed directly north to the city of Fernandina Beach, or di-

rectly east to follow Route A1A as it passes a few feet from the

Atlantic Ocean or directly south to Nassau Sound and points farther on

along the Buccaneer Trail (Figure 2).

Amelia Island itself is quite similar geologically to many other

near-shore coastal islands and bars to the north and south (U.S. Army

Corps of Engineers, 1960, p. 8). A dozen miles in length, it consists

of low sandy dunes, a city of some six thousand population, a state

park on the northern end, beach homes on part of the Atlantic beach,

and much presently unused oak and pine forest to the south. This same

physical pattern is extended to the north in the form of Cumberland Is-

land, and to the south with Talbot and Little Talbot Islands, each

separated from each other and from the mainland by extensive salt

marches or passes.

Little Talbot Island, seaward from Big Talbot Island, has dunes

ranging to forty feet in height. Both Islands are presently wildlife

preserves, and two fine beach access areas are located on Little Talbot

Island (see page 211). Historic Fort George Island is found to the

southwest on Fort George River, the location of one of the earliest

Spanish settlements under the name of the Island of Alimacani (Lowery,


*The Intracoastal Waterway extends from New York to the Mexican
coast utilizing natural passages and canals, with only brief passages
in the open ocean. It is much used by commercial and pleasure craft.










45

1959, p. 59). Remains of the Kingsley Plantation, dating from the early

nineteenth century, are still standing and are part of a well-maintained

state park. Rollins Bird and Plant Sanctuary and the Huguenot Memorial

Area occupy large tracts of Fort George Island and Xalvis Island (Wards

Bank) immediately to the south on the St. Johns River.

At this point, the unhurried traveler may continue across the St.

Johns River via a ferry service to Mayport and see Ribault Bay and

Ribault Monument, or he may elect to detour from AIA and take State Route

105 some twenty miles into Jacksonville, passing on the way the Civil War

monument of Yellow Bluffs Fort with its trenches and cannon.

Jacksonville, known as the "Gateway City," is a major distribu-

tion point for much of the Florida and Georgia international trade and

has the attendent commercial, industrial and educational institutions.

This port, some twenty miles from the Atlantic but still very much af-

fected by tides, generally has several international freighters and a

considerable amount of coastal shipping at the docks. In spring and

fall an almost steady stream of private yachts may be seen detouring

from the Intracoastal Waterway through Jacksonville while passing to the

north or south.

However, all is not business for this busy commercial city. An

easy half-hour drive to the east brings the traveler to such municipal-

ities as Jacksonville Beach, Neptune Beach, Atlantic Beach, and (remind-

ing one of the very widespread Spanish heritage) Ponte Vedra Beach. All

four are heavily-used, commercialized residential beach areas. If the

traveler wishes he may take a more leisurely detour through Arlington










46

(site of Jacksonville University) and along the southern bluffs of the

St. Johns River to Fort Caroline National Monument, from which one may

have a magnificent overlook of the river and its waterborne traffic.

Continuing south from Ponte Vedra Beach along the Buccaneer Trail,

the traveler encounters nearly thirty miles of almost uninhabited beach,

with the road often being in view of the ocean and never more than one

sand-dune away. At low tide, a vehicle may be driven for miles along

the beach, and the forty-foot high dunes, capped by low bushes, make

excellent picnicking sites.

This idyllic stretch of sand ends at the new world's oldest old

world settlement, St. Augustine. First visited in 1513 by Ponce de Leon

and settled in 1565 by Pedro Menendez, the Castillo de San Marcos is of

national historical interest and is now under the supervision of the

National Park Service. The city has a multitude of interests represent-

ing the ancient heritage, including a very active Historical Society,

and has been the subject of a very thorough study in depth (Dunkle,

1955). A few miles to the south along the beach lies another associ-

ated National Monument, Fort Matanzas. Marineland, a nationally

famous fishpool where visitors may view the aquatic fauna from windows

below water level, lies a few miles further past Matanzas Inlet.


AMELIA ISLAND

For convenience in getting an overall view of the land uses on

Amelia Island itself, five general categories of use are significant:










47
transportation routes, urbanized and residential areas, industrial areas,

recreational areas, and miscellaneous areas. Refer to Figures 2 and 3

(folded in pocket).


Transportation routes. The western and southern highways onto

Amelia Island have already been discussed. On arriving from the west,

the traveler will find three important branches dividing at Five Points

(indicated on Figure 4). Route A1A-200 continues to the north, becoming

Eighth Street as it parallels the city street pattern, and ending at

Atlantic Avenue, Fernandina Beach's main street.

Atlantic Avenue is a broad, well-maintained avenue connecting the

dock and main business section of the western part of the city with the

eastern beaches. The main cross-street (other than Route AIA-200) is

Fourteenth Street, crossing to the north to Oldtown and the new high-

level concrete bridge across Egan's Creek as the most direct entrance

into Fort Clinch. To the south, Fourteenth Street continues as Florida

Route 105A to Five Points.

Near the eastern terminus of Atlantic Avenue is found the main

entrance to Fort Clinch State Park. This drive, meandering and woodsy,

contains the entrance station and main office and has spurs connecting

with the Lodge (near the jetties on the northeast corner of the Island)

and the old Fort Clinch with its museum and supplementary park head-

quarters. The drive continues to the northwest corner of the Island

for the camping, picnicking and boat-launching facilities and joins the

northern end of Fourteenth Street.







48

Fort Clinch .... ............... ....
I ort A i etties







Tiger
sland Oldtown Egan s
I lCreek
American
BeaFeanna Beacch
Contaif
orporation
of America
Atlantic Avenue



















AMELIA ISLAND(AA)
(AlA




..Street ......A.















Amelia


Fernanodina Beach
Golf Course

FIGURE 4

AMELIA ISLAND



A1A
....... ........ .... .....r










49
To the east, Atlantic Avenue ends at the high tide level where a

beach ramp gives access to the well-driven low-tide beaches. Just land-

ward from the storm-cut sea cliffs is the major north-south street,

Fletcher Avenue. Fletcher Avenue extends a mile and a half north of

Atlantic Avenue to the Fort Clinch State Park boundary, with houses on

both sides of the road for about the first mile. To the south of Atlan-

tic Avenue, Fletcher Avenue continues as Route A1A-200 through closely-

spaced beach houses on both sides of the road and joins Alternate A1A,

the second major branch from Five Points, in about two miles. Fletcher

Avenue-ALA continues southward through thinning residential areas and

past the municipal golf course, ending at the city limits. The road

continues as A1A inland to Amelia City where it joins the Old Amelia

Road. Old Amelia Road extends south from Five Points through older

residential areas as a shortcut to A1A. South from Amelia City, AIA

extends south through essentially idle woodland with only one spur of

note, a paved road leading into American Beach. ALA continues south

across the toll bridge at Nassau Sound and onto the wildlife sanctuary

of Big Talbot Island.

A bus line makes two trips a day into Jacksonville but there are

no scheduled rail, air or steamer connections. A number of interna-

tional and coastal freighters avail themselves of the docks at the

Rayonier and the Container Corporation docks, but the only passenger

service is a private converted shrimp boat which operates to and from

the settlement of Dungeness on Cumberland Island. This is not a public

facility.










50
The new Marina and Welcome Station at the foot of Atlantic Avenue

invites visiting or passing yachtsmen to tarry awhile within one block of

the main business center (Figure 5).

Urbanized and residential, as used in the context of this section,

includes all areas used as residential for all or part of the year, the

main business district, small businesses scattered throughout the city,

and associated public areas such as parks and schools which are within

the residential areas and used primarily by the residents, without re-

gard to the official city limits.

The oldest part of town, simply known as Oldtown, overlooks

Egan's Creek and Amelia River. The site of the original Spanish Plaza,

Oldtown is now a rundown section of old sub-standard housing. The loca-

tion, lying near the tidewater Egan's Creek, the fertilizer factory

(with its unbelievably antagonistic odor when operating), and the Con-

tainer Corporation's pulp plant, nevertheless could become a desirable

section if it were restored and the fumes were controlled. Many of the

houses were once quite stately (Figure 17).

The main business section is concentrated on the western one-

half mile of Atlantic Avenue, extending from about Central Park and

the junior high school at llth Street to the docks, and from about the

12th block south (where A1A becomes 8th Street) north to the Container

Corporation. This section is flat, containing mainly older homes (many

now multi-family units), and most of the small businesses and semi-

public facilities such as the churches, city offices and county court

house. Atlantic Avenue has recently been widened and there is some










51















































FIGURE 5

MARINE WELCOME STATION ON THE INTRACOASTAL WATERWAY,
FERNANDINA BEACH, FLORIDA










52
evidence of a facelifting for "main" street but this section still

retains its old-south charm.

From the southern limits of the above section, in an irregular

pattern south to the airport, is a scattering of older but widespread

housing with few commercial enterprises.

The more modern and better maintained residential section extends

from the junior high school and Central Park to Egan's Creek to the east,

and from Oldtown to the southern irregular limit about one-half mile

south of Atlantic Avenue. The most desirable section is along the five

to fifty foot bluffs overlooking Egan's Creek to the east, and along

the central part of Atlantic Avenue itself. The southern section is an

area of recent medium-cost housing developments.

A separate and distinctive section is encountered along the

beach from Fort Clinch State Park on the north to the golf course in

the south. Generally, it consists of one row of houses on the west,

and a thick, somewhat disorganized ribbon of houses on the east, with

this ribbon becoming somewhat thinner as the high-water line drifts

roadward. This beach section is largely one of summer rental cottages

and apartments (see "The Use of Private Facilities," page 15Q Chapter

III).

South of the airport is the old settlement of Amelia City with

a church, a cemetery, several gasoline-grocery stations, a nursery, a

scattering of houses and a well-known restaurant, the Sandbar, which

is frequented by both automobile and Intracoastal Waterway traffic

which may moor at the private dock.











53
A separate and distinct residential area is American Beach, a sec-

tion owned originally by the Afro-American Insurance Company and which

has since been largely sold to their employees. This is largely a

summer rental area, there being only three owner-occupied houses listed

on the 1964 Nassau County tax rolls (see "American Beach,"page 167,

Chapter III).


Industry. Just across Egan's Creek to the northwest of Oldtown

lies the Quinn Menhaden Fisheries, Incorporated, a producer of ferti-

lizer from the non-food fish Menhaden (porgy). This factory is not de-

signed to draw visitors, and when the plant is processing a catch and

the wind is from the north to the west, an exceedingly vile and irri-

tating smoke is wafted across the city and beaches causing eyes to

redden, noses to run, and visitors to retreat.

The Container Corporation of America plant lies on the Amelia

River between Oldtown and the main business section, set well back from

residential areas. The Rayonier plant is located on a peninsula to the

south and west of town, well away from residential areas. Both plants

and their surrounding areas are well-maintained, clean and neat, and

visitors are welcomed for conducted tours of the processing plants.

Under certain atmospheric conditions, however, the smoke from these pro-

cessing plants fails to rise and may drift over the residential or beach

areas with a resulting unpleasant odor. Long-time residents barely

notice the smoke, but visitors to the Island are not so innured. For-

tunately, these atmospheric conditions seldom last more than a day or

two.










54
Recreational features. The major recreational features are those

attracting summer tourists to the beaches. Besides the beaches them-

selves, there is the Fort Clinch State Park and a municipal golf course.

The visitor or resident has some sixteen miles of first rate

beaches available, with all but about two miles accessible to automobile

traffic at low tide. About six miles of beach is paralleled closely by

paved road with access at various points, and at six other places spur

roads lead onto the beach itself (Figure 6).

Fort Clinch State Park contains nearly three miles of these

beaches, with direct access at two points and access with a short walk

at another. Access is gained at the boat ramp in the northwest, but the

beach from this point to the Fort is broken shell, interrupted with

groins, and fronts on the Amelia River and St. Mary's sound rather than

on the ocean. There is only a short walk from the parking area at the

Fort to the jetties, a distance of a mile and a half. The firm, sandy

beach fronts on St. Mary's sound, with the north jetty and Cumberland

Island blocking the predominant littoral drift and waves.

A paved road leads to the Lodge, and a well-maintained sand road

(reinforced periodically with wood chips from the pulp mills) leads

from there to the jetties. This is traditionally a good fishing spot,

both for pedestrians and water-borne fishermen, and may also be

reached from the south by automobile along the beach.

There are few interruptions for an automobile along the thirteen

miles of north-south beach at low tide, and no part of the beach is

impassable. During busy daytime hours traffic is routed around the








Fort Clinch Fort Clinch Jetties




ort Clinch. \ Access (unpaved)
NBoat Ramp







American Beach




















AtlanticBEACH AUTOMOBILE ACCESSAccess
POINTSadler Road
Access co


0 B Buccaneer Trail Boat Ramp









FIGURE 6

BEACH AUTOMOBILE ACCESS
POINTS


p 0000000009%9 ,@go'so










56
terminus of Atlantic Avenue, which is reserved for bathers and protected

by lifeguards. There are a number of decaying groins and private sea-

walls to be avoided as well as an ocean pier which may be driven under.

From the pier southward to the southern tip, and then northwestward to

the bridge, the beach is uninterrupted but rather soft in places for an

automobile.

Further access is afforded by a graded sand road branching from

AlA six-tenths of a mile south of the Amelia Road-AlA junction and

running northeastward to the beach. This is apparently a little used

access point, and no provision has been made for parking or descending

the fifteen foot dunes to the beach itself. At American Beach, automo-

bile access is easy and is much used by visitors to this beach area,

who usually remain within a half mile of the access point. One further

point of access is from the toll bridge connecting Amelia Island with

Big Talbot Island, where considerable parking space and a free concrete

boat ramp have been provided by the state road department.

In general, the beach from the southern limit of residential

areas off Fletcher Avenue to American Beach..is little used, and from

American Beach south to the bridge, the beach is generally deserted.

For those wishing almost complete privacy, the northern shore of Big

Talbot Island, immediately to the south of Nassau Sound, offers high

dunes, forested area, and often a high surf. Further south are to be

found two public beach state parks. Cumberland Island to the north is

privately owned, and uninvited visitors are not encouraged.










57
A second major recreational feature is the 1,100-acre Fort Clinch

State Park occupying the northern tip of Amelia Island and containing

pentagonal Fort Clinch. The Fort and land, purchased by the state in

1935, received more than one hundred fifty thousand visitors in 1962,

and more than thirty-two thousand camper-days were registered in its

pleasant, water-front woodsy campground.

Most of the reservation is composed of low-lying dunes covered

to the east with oak. A ridge of higher dunes (up to fifty feet) faces

a more recent area of low dunes which is less than one hundred fifty

years of age (see Figure 61,"Old Shorelines;' Chapter IV). The curving

main entrance drive winds through the oak forest immediately to the west

of this high dune ridge, with one spur cutting through to the Lodge and

jetties. This lodge is commonly used by local groups for parties, con-

ventions, et cetera, and has sleeping and cooking facilities. The main

drive continues through the woods to the west and south of the dunes

until it arrives at the camping area and concrete boat launching ramp

facing onto the Amelia River. The camping and picnic area extends

from the water's edge about half a mile into the woods along the north

side of the road. Modern sanitary facilities, electricity, water, and

a small pavilion with refreshments are available. During peak summer

seasons, as many as three hundred families may be encamped, some for

several weeks at a time (see Table 5).

The Fort itself is being restored and some portions are used as

housing for the Park employees. It contains a museum, a reconstructed

draw bridge, numerous subterranean aisles, rooms, dungeons, portholes,










58
et cetera, and is a popular point of interest. In a traditional building

outside the Fort on the parking lot is a refreshment stand, and picnic

sites are available.

The only other recreational feature of major importance is a

modern eighteen-hole golf course lying just east of the airport and a

short walk from the beach. If the airport were to be expanded the east-

west runway would extend through the fairway, but this does not seem to

be a probability for the near future.


Miscellaneous areas. The rest of the island is essentially idle.

Egan's Creek as far inland as Atlantic Avenue has been proposed for a

residential development with spoils dredged from the creek to raise the

land on both sides, but there has been no construction as yet. South

of Atlantic Avenue and between the residential areas to the west and

the east, Egan's Creek gradually rises and the natural flow has been

improved further with drainage ditches. These have been dug at numer-

ous places on the island by the Mosquito Control Board and have made

the entire island much more liveable after the sun sets in the

evening.

The southern half of Amelia Island is generally wooded and idle

with occasional individual houses. The Union Carbide and Carbon Com-

pany owns considerable amounts of this land and plans eventually to

dredge-mine the sands for heavy minerals, mainly titanium ores, accord-

ing to their resident agent, Mr. E. N. Roberts.










59

The tidewater salt marshes are "dry" only at low tide, impassable

to anything but an airboat, and consist of low saw-grasses. There is no

present use for these flats and extensive filling would preclude con-

struction on the mud base.


II. SAND AND WATER


The beaches are used by the majority of visitors and residents as

a major form of recreation and may be classed as the most important

single recreational aspect of the Island, as it is with much of Florida

(Table 28). Amelia Island's beaches are well suited to intensive use,

being wide and generally hard enough to support an automobile: it is

not unusual to see several dozen vehicles on the beach at one time

during holidays. Access is easy but not plentiful, and more access

points will be an absolute necessity as beach use is intensified

(Figure 6). Houses and summer cottages are built immediately adjacent

to the beach and are sometimes to be found on the beach itself, the

beach having moved inland under the houses (Figure 7). In places

seawalls or groins have been built to stabilize the sand but have not

been notably successful, many having been washed away during the 1964

hurricane named Dora by the United States Weather Bureau.


BEACH FORMATION

Geologically, Amelia Island is similar to the long string of

coastal islands stretching along the southeastern coast of the United

States which are termed offshore bars or barrier beaches. Typically,










60
this type of island is separated from the mainland by low tidal marshes

and a lagoon, sometimes called a "lake," a "sound" or a "river." The

beach itself is on the seaward side of the bar and is formed primarily

by wave action bringing sand shoreward in low bars until it rises above

the surface and forms an off-shore bar (Martens, 1931, pp. 85-86).

There are sometimes several of these off-shore bars seaward from the

mainland, one after the other, as is to be found at Cape Kennedy. If the

lagoon water level drops, the bar may form part of the mainland with a

shallow inland river where the lagoon had been, as is found to the east

of the St. Johns River (Cooke, 1939, p. 109).

The sand dunes adjacent to the beach are considered here to be

part of the beach. They are generally formed in hillocks roughly par-

allel to the shoreline and range to about forty feet in height. Formed

primarily by loose sand being blown from the beach by storm winds and

stabilized by vegetation, they can also be destroyed by these same winds

if the stabilizing vegetation is destroyed, as, for instance, by pedes-

trian use or home and road construction. The blowout illustrated in

Figure 8 was formed during Hurricane Dora at a pedestrian walkway to the

beach. The so-called "dune ridge" next to the beach itself may also be

destroyed by an encroaching shoreline, or may be left far inland by a

receeding shoreline. The northeastern corner of Amelia Island was

formed in this manner by a receeding shoreline, as indicated on the

map of'Old Shorelines,' Figure 61.

These offshore islands are separated from one another by tidal

passes giving access from the lagoon to the open ocean, and are called

































FIGURE 7

EGAN'S COTTAGE ON NORTH BEACH. BEFORE HURRICANE DORA (1964), A
PERSON COULD WALK UPRIGHT UNDERH O TTAGE.T






















FIGURE 8

BLOWOUT AT 630 NORTH FLETCHER. THERE WAS A SEVEN FOOT HIGH
DUNE AT THIS POINT BEFORE HURRICANE DORA. VIEW TO EAST










62

various local names such as "sound," "pass" and "entrance." Where the

tidal range is great and/or there is a significant amount of mainland

drainage into the lagoon, a rapid current can be found during ebb tide

with resultant erosion and formation of seaward bars and shallows

parallel to the current. Hurricanes and other major storms have been

known to open new passes and to close or drastically change old ones.

The United States Army Corps of Engineers sometimes constructs jetties

seaward in order to channel the outflow and thus to keep the pass

scoured out to its maximum depth through natural water flow.


AMELIA ISLAND BEACHES

Amelia Island itself is some thirteen miles long (north to south)

by about two miles in width. Typically, the beach is wide, flat, and

generally straight, though curving landward in the center. The entire

island is essentially east of Cumberland Island to the north, and Little

Talbot Island to the south is similarly displaced to the east of Amelia

Island, indicating the predominant east-of-south direction of the

Florida coast. The sand is composed of a fine quartz sand (Martens,

1931, p. 82) which packs into a firm white beach between high and low

water marks where the sand never thoroughly dries out between succes-

sive tides. In places there is markedly more shell content which makes

for soft spots a few feet across, and at the extreme southern end of

the island blue clay may be observed to outcrop. The high tidal range

(six.feet, the highest in Florida, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, 1960,

p. 6) provides for a wide expanse of flat tidal beach. Although not as

broad as, for example, Daytona Beach, it will still be over three










63
hundred feet in width at low tide. In places the dune ridge appears to

have formed a wave-cut cliff, but this is probably of a temporary,

short-term nature since the shoreline is continually changing.

The northern end of the island, containing most of the human set-

tlement, is formed on the seaward side by a westward-hooked spit of quite

recent origin (within the past one hundred and fifty years, according to

the map of'"ld Shorelines"' Figure 61) with some of the higher dunes to

be found on the island. Fort Clinch State Park and the largely restored

ruins of the old Fort Clinch itself are located here, overlooking the

St. Mary's Entrance and Cumberland Sound. Immediately to the south and

west of the park is a tidal flat and drainage creek, Egan's Creek

(Clark's Creek on the U.S.C. & G.S. Nautical Chart "Cumberland Sound,"

1:20,000 scale). To the west and the south facing onto the Amelia

River is the main part of the island, which is composed of somewhat

higher dunes than are found on the beach. Along the entire eastern

edge of the island are to be found low dunes, both along the shore it-

self and inland a few yards. The rest of the island (that is, the

western and southern portion) is generally a low plain some ten feet

above sea level and facing into the marshes to the west (Figures 2 and

3). These plains are somewhat older in age than the dunes, having been

formed under water when sea level was twenty-five feet higher than at

present (Cooke, 1939, p. 62).

On a busy summer day there will be several hundred people on the

beach, mainly at the Atlantic Avenue terminus or at American Beach.

With a predominant onshore northeastern wind and no shallow bars or










64
shoals immediately offshore to interrupt wave action, there is always a

breaking surf. The breakers nearest shore seem to vary from about one

foot through to crest, to about four feet during sustained on-shore

winds or storms. During periods of high surf, there is a corresponding

lessening of numbers of bathers, but intensification of individual

participation. Surf-boarders, for example, prefer the higher waves.

Others use the beaches and waters for a different kind of recrea-

tion. Fishing takes three major forms, that of surf casting, surf

netting, and fishing from a boat. The first two types are best done at

low tide and fishing adherents may be seen congregated at favorite

places at low tide regardless of what time of day or night this period

occurs. The Ocean Pier (Figure 9) and the Jetties are two favorite

spots, and it is rare that there is not a car parked at the latter.

The waters of the Atlantic Ocean along Amelia Island are refresh-

ingly cool in the summers but are cold in the winters. The ocean water

is rarely clear, usually being greenish in color and containing a high

amount of organic matter or "dust," and the bottom is rarely seen at a

depth of more than two feet. With an onshore wind, there is often a

very considerable amount of foam which may be blown into drifts deep

enough to hide a child (Figure 10). No harmful effects have been

noted, though, except for a temporary yellowing of the skin.

The slope of the bottom adjacent to the beach is an important

factor in bathing. If the slope is great, bathing will be restricted

to a very narrow belt and will be somewhat precarious for poor swim-

mers or non-swimmers. On the other hand, if the slope is too gentle,










65






















FIGURE 9

BUD HOLT'S FISHING PIER, SOUTH FLETCHER AVENUE.
IT WAS PARTLY DESTROYED IN HURRICANE DORA, 1964






















FIGURE 10

FOAM ON FERNANDINA BEACH. VIEW TO NORTH
FROM ATLANTIC AVENUE BEACH RAMP.











66
few bathers will bother to wade out through the breakers to a swimming

depth. Amelia Island is fortunate in that along most of the beach there

is a gentle slope allowing an adult to wade out about one hundred feet

before reaching shoulder depth. The presence of under-surface alternat-

ing bars and deeps will allow, in places, a bather to wade or swim a

hundred yards from shore and find himself in knee-deep water, or even on

"dry" land at low tide (usually near a pass).

Near the base of the jetty is an area of sand accumulation with

the resulting shallows and a wide area of breakers. Little bathing is

in evidence here, but the shallows and rocks of the jetty are favorite

spots for surf fishermen, surf netters, spear-fishermen, clam-diggers,

crab-catchers, and boat fishermen. The waters to the north of the

jetty and along the entire northern shore of the island are of a differ-

ent nature from that to be found along the beach. The water changes

direction four times a day with the tides and forms numerous small eddy

counter-currents, and the beach, although generally composed of quartz

sand, experiences relatively small waves. There is some fishing along

this shore near Fort Clinch where there are rock groins, but there is

no bathing, since the water becomes deep immediately off-shore and the

tidal currents are strong. The waste material from the Rayonier and

the Container Corporation of America plants may often be observed as

a white line of foam separating the surface outflowing waters from the

surface stationary or inflowing waters. The outflow from the mainland

drainage, principally through the St. Mary's River, adds considerably

to the outflow through St. Mary's Entrance. Small whirlpools are










67
often formed from the junction of these currents but are not dangerous to

boats.

The shore is protected with rock groins from Fort Clinch around

the point to Egan's Creek, and the sand is partly replaced with mud.

There is some swimming, waterskiing, and much boat launching from the

concrete boat ramp at the campgrounds in Fort Clinch. This is one of

the few campgrounds in the United States where one may pitch a tent

right on the beach itself. However, the water is "soupy," the current

is fast, the rocks are covered with barnacles, and usually industrial

wastes are present. This may be considered to be part of the lagoon

with consequent slight wave action.

Egan's Creek is a shallow drainage creek for the northcentral

part of the island, and extensive tidal effects are apparent as far as

the Atlantic Avenue dam. There is some non-commercial fishing for

mullet (lisa) in its waters. The shore from here to the south takes on

the character of the salt marsh lagoons mentioned before, being muddy

or sandy-muddy and often marshy. A number of docks and piers have been

constructed from Egan's Creek south to the Rayonier plant and include

those at the end of Atlantic Avenue. The water is always "soupy" and

generally frothy with industrial wastes, though a fairly strong tidal

current provides extensive scouring. The channel is deep (twenty-eight

feet in depth as of July, 1959, according to the U.S.C. & G.C. nautical

chart number 453, "Cumberland Sound,") and is extensively used by local

boaters on the way to fishing off the jetties, by shrimpers, the men-

hadden fleets, Intracoastal Waterway traffic of all kinds, and










68

international freighters docking at the Rayonier docks. There is no

swimming and no real fishing. The shore of Tiger Island opposite)ranges

from sandy to muddy to marshy, depending partly upon the current

immediately offshore--the more current, the sandier. These islands are

not used for recreation.

From Rayonier, Incorporated south to Nassau Sound the shoreline

is all salt marsh but there are occasional spoils areas rising above the

monotonously flat sawgrass. The Intracoastal Waterway follows a wind-

ing path, partly natural and partly dredged, under the swinging bridges

on Route A1A and the railroad. Generally keeping some distance from the

island proper, the channel swings in a wide loop eastward to form the

bluffs at Amelia City. Here are found several private docks and an

overnight stopping point for Intracoastal Waterway traffic, the Sandbar

Restaurant (page 52). The marshlands then continue south to Nassau

Sound, where the ebb tide is reinforced by the drainage of Nassau

River from inland. At Nassau Sound, the beaches again tend to become

sandy and there is a considerable ebb tide current, but it is not so

pronounced as at the St. Mary's Entrance. There are no habitations

along the sound except for a small fishing camp seaward from the bridge

where it crosses onto Big Talbot Island, and the water is comparatively

clear. The channel is deep enough for fishing boats (a depth of fifteen

to twenty-five feet) but contains many shallow sand bars which are some-

times above water at low tide. One such is Bird Island, a small mound

with stubby shrubs at high tide, and an extensive sand flat at low tide.










69
The sand is generally of the same high quality for bathing as is found on

the Atlantic beaches.

There have been practically no man-made changes to this area and

hence it is one of the most picturesque areas in this section of Florida.

To the south Big and Little Talbot Islands are preserved as wildlife

refuges and state parks. The State Road Department has created a con-

crete boat launching ramp and parking space next to the northern term-

inus of the bridge, which is very popular. Clammers and fishermen may

often be seen along these shores.


III. THE CLIMATE


Amelia Island's beaches and waters are mainly a summer attrac-

tion, according to the Fort Clinch camping and visitor receipts (see

Chapter III). In the 1880's and the 1890's the town of Fernandina was a

thriving winter resort, but this industry collapsed with the construc-

tion of railroads to the southern part of the state (Pink, 1949, p. 155).

Summer tourism has been a major business for the island only since World

War II according to Mrs. Ruth Brown of the Fernandina Beach Chamber of

Commerce.

Summer weather is generally hot and muggy with afternoon convec-

tional precipitation. Along the beach there is usually an ameliorating

sea breeze, but this does not necessarily extend across the island.

The typical winter provides cool, clear and windy days with warm after-

noons and cool nights, but drizzling rains and cold snaps may be

expected. Lying on the southeastern edge of an immense continental










70
land mass, Amelia Island receives the interplay between mid-latitude

continental extremes and subtropical marine moderating influences.

Thus, the potential tourist will be interested in the extremes of

weather rather than the monthly mean. Cold and rain, and to a lesser

extent strong wind, will tend to turn the visitor aside: the mere prob-

ability of this weather will be a deciding factor, even though there are

many pleasant days in between. On the other hand, the probability of

warm or hot weather with cooling sea-breezes will tend to attract visi-

tors from inland, and even the certainty of afternoon thundershowers

will be an insignificant negative factor.


NORMAL CONDITIONS

A more detailed look at the "average conditions to be expected at

Amelia Island at any time of the year is shown in Figure 11.* Taking

the months of June, July, and August to represent our arbitrary "summer"

months, it is evident that summer is rather rainy with some seventeen

inches falling out of the yearly average total of fifty inches (but

varying from eighty-three inches in 1905 to twenty-three inches in

1931), or more than one-third of the yearly rain occurring in these

three summer months. This summer rainfall is almost completely caused

by convectional currents forming thunderclouds in the hot afternoons,

but with a high degree of sunshine between showers. However, late

summer is the period for the hurricanes with their light to heavy

drizzles; the September average of eight inches reflects this tendency.


*Complete data are given in Table 42, Appendix B.








71


Temperature* Precipitation
in m a A in inches**
1000 n0 10"


to Highest


800 8"


Mean I

600 6"
go0o 60


Lowest 4
40 -- - -- .4,"




200 12"





00 0"
J F M A M J J A S O N D

FIGURE 11

CLIMATIC SUMMARY OF FERNANDINA BEACH, FLORIDA

*Temperature: Curved lines indicate temperature in degrees
Fahrenheit by month.

**Precipitation: Vertical lines indicate inches of precipita-
tion by month.

After: Climatic Summary of the United States, Section No. 104,
Northern Florida, United States Weather Bureau.










72
If the effects of hurricanes were eliminated, September's average would

be much lower, probably nearer to the three inches for May.

These same three months have the highest temperatures for the

year, the highest on record for the 1931-1952 period being 1040 in June

(Figure 11). This is not usual, however, for the mean maximum is in the

low nineties, and the mean temperature for the summer averages only 800

in June and 820 in August. As for minimum summer temperatures, only

June will have temperatures as low as 600, while the coolest in July will

be 660. These high temperatures, when coupled with a monthly rainfall of

from five to seven inches, produce some distinctly uncomfortable weather,

but there is generally a comparatively cool and fresh breeze on the

ocean itself.

While the absolute maximum monthly temperatures range from twelve

to twenty degrees above the monthly mean, the absolute minimum monthly

temperatures have considerably more range from the mean. Thus, Figure

11 shows a low of 180 in January while the mean is 570, a range of 390.

The range between mean and absolute maximum for the same month is 270,

indicating occasional cold spells, but with the minimum mean being 480

and the maximum being 840, these cold snaps do not appear to be of long

duration; there will be many warm days along with the cold snaps.

The frost-free period averages three hundred nine days per year

at Fernandina Beach, with the first killing frost of the winter coming

on the average on December 16 (but coming as early as November 20) and

the last killing frost in spring coming on February 10 on the average

(but coming as late as March 20).










73
Along with the cooler temperatures comes drier weather with typi-

cal northeast breezes and clear, sunny days. The month of November

averages less than two inches of precipitation, and the November-May

mean monthly precipitation is less than three inches per month.

Table 2 presents selected data on the actual weather conditions

encountered in the three summer months and the three winter months for

the years 1958-1962, the period corresponding to the major camping and

tourist statistics which are presented in Chapter III. For each of the

six months, the highest, the lowest, and the mean temperatures are given

for the particular year or winter, along with the corresponding figures

from the twenty-two year summary (Table 42, Appendix B) for comparison

with the normal (United States Department of Commerce, Weather Bureau,

1958-1962).

These four years were strikingly cooler than the twenty-two-year

summary would indicate: seventeen of the twenty-four months represented

were below the normal, and only five of the months were above the normal,

and only one month of the latter was in a summer (July, 1962). The high-

est temperature in the four summers never climbed above 990 (July, 1961),

some five degrees below the maximum recorded in the twenty-two-year

summary. On the other hand, the following December (1961) the temper-

ature dropped below the lowest recorded for the twenty-two-year summary.

Despite this very low December temperature, however, the winter

of 1961-1962 recorded the lowest number of degree-days of the four

winters; 1,074, as compared with the 1,114 or 1958-1959, the 1,464 of

1959-1960, and the 1,280 of the 1960-1961 winter. The total number of








TABLE 2

SELECTED CLIMATIC STATISTICS FOR SUMMER AND WINTER 1958-1962


Year June July August
Highest Mean Low Highest Mean Low Highest Mean Low

1959 98 80 66 94 81 69 96 82 69
1960 94 78 63 98 82 70 96 81 67
1961 92 77 60 99 81 69 97 80 63
1962 94 80 69 98 83 68 96 81 69
22-year records 104 81 60 103 82 66 102 82 65

December January February
Highest Mean Low Highest Mean Low Highest Mean Low

1958-1959 79 55 32 81 53 22 85 61 32
1959-1960 75 54 23 81 55 25 79 55 31
1960-1961 77 50 25 76 50 23 87 59 33
1961-1962 84 59 21 85 54 22 91 63 32
22-year records 82 58 22 84 57 18 86 58 24


All figures are in degrees Fahrenheit rounded to nearest whole number. Data were taken from
the United States Department of Commerce, Weather Bureau, Annual Climatic Summary, Station Number 8
2944 2, Fernandina Beach, Florida 1958-1962, and the twenty-two year records from the Climatic
Summary of the United States Supplement for 1931 through 1952, Florida.











75
degree-days must be used with care because they indicate only the average

conditions. For example, the winter of 1959-1960 had the greatest number

of degree days, but the greatest number of degree-days per month is

recorded for December, 1960 and January, 1961 with 456 and 448 degree-

days, respectively. In the first instance (1959-1960), the winter was

uniformly cool, while in the second instance (1960-1961) the winter was

mild but with hard, short-lived cold snaps.

However, much as visitors may deplore cold winters, a cool summer

is greeted with pleasure by some tourists, while a hot summer is wel-

comed by those wishing to increase summer beach usage. All four years

(1959-1962) averaged below the normal temperatures, with the summer of

1961 averaging some seven degrees below and the lowest temperature dur-

ing August being below the twenty-two year record low. Rainfall was not

a critical factor in these temperatures, since two summers which were

very nearly "normal" (1959 and 1962) recorded, in the first instance,

eight inches above normal rainfall, while the coolest summers, 1960 and

1961, recorded two inches below normal and normal rainfall, respective-

ly (United States Department of Commerce, Weather Bureau, 1958-1962).

Complete weather records are not taken at Fernandina Beach, but

nearby localities may be used for an approximation. As a measure of

cloud cover, the number of days with 0.01 inches or more of precipita-

tion in St. Mary's, Georgia, may be used (United States Department of

Commerce, Weather Bureau, p. 18). Out of a total of one hundred and

seven days precipitation, one-third (thirty-eight) occur in the three

summer months, and more than half (fifty-nine) occur in the five










76

months of May through September. This means that one may expect some

precipitation for two out of every five days in summer, and one out of

every five in winter.

Records for percentage of possible sunshine and relative humidity

have been published for Jacksonville (United States Department of

Commerce, Weather Bureau). The actual sunshine averages 62 percent of

possible sunshine for the year, ranging from 53 percent in December to

73 percent in April. This is slightly above average in summer and some-

what below average during most of winter, but one may expect to find

three days out of five to be sunny at any season. The average relative

humidity at noon varies little from the average 61 percent, although it

may rise to 85 percent in the morning or evening. Thus, the weather is

never uncomfortably dry, but may become muggy during hot weather.

Wind velocity and direction is probably of more importance to

fishermen than to surf bathers. Again going to Jacksonville for data

(United States Department of Commerce, Weather Bureau), it is found

that the average hourly wind velocity is nine miles per hour, coming

generally from the northeast for the six months of September through

February, and coming generally from the southwest for the remainder of

the year. The maximum wind to be encountered will generally be of gale

force (fifty-five to sixty-three miles per hour) from the southwest at

any season of the year, hurricanes excepted.

It is interesting to compare the summer Fernandina Beach-

Jacksonville data with those of an inland city. A large percentage of

the Fernandina Beach summer residents live in Waycross, Georgia, some










77

sixty-five airline miles to the northwest. Taking the three summer

months of June, July and August, the mean temperature in Waycross in

found to be 810, the mean maximum temperature 920, and the highest tem-

perature on record 1060. 0.01 inch or more of rainfall may be expected

on forty-four summer days, as compared with Fernandina Beach's thirty-

eight days (United States Department of Commerce, Weather Bureau).

Thus, although the three summer months in Waycross have a lower

mean temperature than in Fernandina Beach, the higher figures for mean

maximum and absolute maximum temperature indicate that Waycross is more

subject to summer heat waves. Waycross is also subject to tempera-

tures in the forties and fifties during these months (Fernandina Beach

summer temperatures never drop below 600) giving a range between high-

est and lowest of forty-eight to fifty-eight degrees (compared with

Fernandina Beach's range of thirty-seven to forty-four degrees).

A Waycross resident may expect some summer rainfall on about one of

every two days, while on the coast he may expect some rainfall on

about two out of five days.


HURRICANES

Hurricanes are an integral part of the Florida climatic pattern

and, despite popular misconceptions concerning their frequency and

destructive powers, should be considered to be a normal part of the

"climatic scene." Despite their occasional rampages of destruction

and flooding, hurricanes should be no serious detriment to the pursuit

of business and recreation on Amelia Island. They may even provide a

welcome period of windy, cloudy and zestful days for a portion of the










78

population (mainly school children and surfboarders), and are usually no

more than a nuisance for the rest of the inhabitants. Upon occasion,

however, great care must be taken in order to avoid serious damage or

loss of life, such as in August and September of 1964 when several

disturbances of hurricane or near hurricane force passed quite close to

the island.*

A hurricane is a traveling, self-sustaining low-pressure cyclone

forming in the southern Caribbean during late summer and early fall and

taking a generally eastward-curving path to southeastern United States.

Since it draws on moisture evaporated from the ocean for continued

energy, any extensive travel over continental areas reduces the energy

available and produces a lowering of intensity. During the approach

and passage of a tropical storm (winds from thirty-nine to seventy-four

miles per hour) or a hurricane (winds over seventy-four miles per hour),

there will be a period of from one to two weeks of cool, cloudy and

windy weather, with tremendous amounts of drizzling moisture being

dumped on the areas affected even in the storm center passes to one

side or another.

From 1886 through 1950 (sixty-four years) some eighty-three

tropical storms, fifty-four of hurricane intensity, have struck the

Florida coast (Bunting, et al., 1951, p. 6). By another count there

have been some sixty-nine hurricanes striking the Florida-Georgia

coastal areas in the seventy-two years 1886-1958, as indicated by


*For a description of damage and erosion during this hurricane,
see "Beach Erosion," Chapter IV.










79

Table 3. Only forty-three of the seasons (or 62 percent), however,

actually recorded any hurricanes. Each season so recorded registered

up to three hurricanes, and averaged some 1.6 per season recording such

a storm. Thus, for any single year, the entire Florida-Georgia coast

would have some four chances out of ten of not receiving a single hur-

ricane, but if a hurricane did come, there would be about the same

chance (four out of ten) that it would be followed by a second or

third.

For the Amelia Island area there were no hurricanes recorded

from 1900 until 1944 (Bunting, et al., 1951, p. 7, Table I) and the

chances of having a hurricane in any given year would be about one in

fifty (Bunting, et aL, 1951, p. 7, Table II).

The "hurricane season" is generally given as extending from

June 15 through November 15. Table 4 indicates that September and

October are the most susceptible months (Bunting, et al., 1951, p. 7,

Table III).










80
TABLE 3

ANNUAL NUMBER OF HURRICANES AFFECTING THE
FLORIDA-GOERGIA COAST 1886-1958



Year Number Year Number
1886 3 1923
1887 1 1924 2
1888 2 1925 1
1889 1 1926 3
1890 1927
1891 1928 2
1892 1929 1
1893 3 1930
1894 2 1931
1895 1 1932 1
1896 3 1933 2
1897 1934
1898 3 1935 3
1899 1 1936 1
1900 1937
1901 1938
1902 1939 1
1903 1 1940 1
1904 1 1941 1
1905 1942
1906 3 1943
1907 1944 1
1908 1945 2
1909 1 1946 1
1910 1 1947 2
1911 2 1948 2
1912 1 1949 1
1913 1950 2
1914 1951
1915 1 1952
1916 3 1953 1
1917 1 1954
1918 1955
1919 1 1956 1
1920 1957
1921 1 1958
1922
From: North Atlantic Tropical Cyclones, Technical Paper No. 36,
United States Department of Commerce, Weather Bureau, 1959, p. 9,
Figure 3.










81









TABLE 4

NUMBER OF HURRICANES IN FLORIDA BY MONTHS
1886-1950



Number Percent

June 2 3.6

July 4 7.3

August 9 17.0

September 20 37.0

October 17 31.5

November 2 3.6

Total 54 100.0


From Bunting, D. C., R. C. Gentry, M. H. Latour, and G. Norton,
Florida Hurricanes of 1950, Bulletin Series No. 45, Vol. V, No. 7,
July, 1951, Florida Engineering and Industrial Experiment Station,
University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida.










82

IV. THE ROMANTIC PAST


The memories of past days of pirates, buccaneers, and buried

treasure are very much alive in Fernandina Beach today and are being

actively used in promotional work. The fact that an historical tradi-

tion can be developed into a successful recreational resource is

abundantly demonstrated by well-known St. Augustine, Florida. This

historical heritage has been only partly utilized in Fernandina Beach

but appears to be undergoing development. Basically, it may be divided

into three eras: (1) the early Spanish period, centered around the

Plaza and Fort Carlos in Oldtown, (2) the later Spanish period when the

city was a free port and a pirate rendezvous, and (3) the Civil War

period, centered on Fort Clinch.


THREE MAJOR ERAS

The Pirate theme is the most intensively used theme at the pre-

sent. Evidence for this may be seen in a number of ways, as, for

instance, the naming of the Buccaneer Trail in 1950. The brochure

advertising the route has a sketch of pirates burying a treasure chest

for the front illustration, pictures of the ferries "The Buccaneer" and

"The Blackbeard," contains a short history of piracy and Fort Clinch

(Figure 12). A brochure-map distributed by the Fernandina Beach-Yulee

Chamber of Commerce contains a pirate motive on the front and advertises

Fernandina Beach as being "The Buccaneer City," and "on the isle of

Eight Flags." This theme is continued on all promotional activities

(Figure 13). The local high school uses the theme of "Pirates" and it










83

is not unusual for a local business to utilize the pirate theme for a

business name, as for example the "Buccaneer Laundry" or the "Pirate's

Cove" subdivision.

Second in importance to the Pirate theme is the Civil War theme

as centered on Fort Clinch, its museum and relics. Fort Clinch is men-

tioned or pictured on all the Chamber of Commerce brochures, on the

Buccaneer Trail brochures, and by numerous road signs which give dis-

tance to the Fort from as far away as twenty-five miles. Events and

activities at the park are often written up in the local newspaper,

especially the yearly attendance figures. At one time attendance

figures were kept for the Fort and museum, but these features are now

open to any park visitor without charge or record being kept.

The early Spanish period, centered on the Plaza in Oldtown (see

Figures 14, 15 and 16), is at present of interest to only a few. The

local historical society (The General Duncan Lamont Clinch Historical

Society of Amelia Island) is developing and creating interest in the

restoration of Oldtown and Fort San Carlos, which has been the sub-

ject of archaeological investigation by the Florida State University

(Bullen, et al., 1952, pp. 37-64). The society has acquired an old,

stately house overlooking the plaza (Figure 17) and the old Seaboard

Railroad station at the western end of Atlantic Avenue (Figure 18),

which are to be turned into museums to house the very considerable

private collections of pictures, documents and mementos available on

the Island. This society sponsored the Florida State University

archaelogical diggings during the summer of 1964, and has sponsored a




Full Text
26
A very thorough analysis of the problem of outdoor recreation by a
forester is presented in the Recreational Use of Wild Lands, an Ameri
can Forestry series (Brockman, 1959). After a review of the importance
of the state and national park and national forest policies and activi
ties, the author concludes with an interesting survey of similar
facilities in other countries.
Most of the studies on (outdoor) recreation include at least
some philosophic words on the place and meaning of recreation in modern
American life. One of the more provocative essays exploring the social
significance of the developing leisure and the associated rise in the
demand for recreation is to be found in Green's Recreation, Leisure,
and Politics. (Green, 1964) This essay deals with the sociological
implications of the change in American attitude from that of an essen
tially frontier society to that of an urbanized industrial society,
with reference to leisure and recreation. It is not enough to investi
gate the public needs for physical facilities and space for the year
2000, but the emotional and psychological needs at this future time
must also be carefully investigated. The America of 350,000,000
people in the year 2000 will be a very different place from the America
of mid-century with its population of a mere 150,000,000.


ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
The author wishes to thank Professor James R. Anderson, Chairman,
without whose patient and penetrating advice this work would never have
been completed; the author's wife, Kay, who remained so patient and
understanding through the seemingly endless years of preparation; and
the members of the supervisory committee, Professors Raymond E. Crist,
Clark L. Cross, John R. Dunkle, and Lyle McAlister.
The author also wishes to acknowledge the aid and support so
willingly accorded by the people of Amelia Island during the five years
of preparation, only a few of whom can be mentioned in the limited
space available: Mr. Gilbert Becker and Mr. Carl Gillen, Supervisors
of Fort Clinch State Park, who provided such enthusiastic help for the
slow search through the visitor records; Mrs. J. M. Bartels of the
General Duncan Lamont Clinch Historical Society of Amelia Island; Mrs.
Ruth Brown of the Femandina Beach Chamber of Commerce; Mr. Jim Beard,
City Engineer; Mr. Newton Roberts of Union Carbide and Carbon, Incor
porated; Mr. Eddie McKendree, Nassau County Tax Assessor; Mr. Joseph
Schofield, Superintendent of the Buccaneer Trail Association; Mrs.
Gerry Sheffield, of the Fernandina Beach News-Leader; and the many,
many others who provided their time and knowledge for this study. Miss
Eleanor Fairchild, typist, deserves credit for the frustrating job of
translating the field notes into a finished work; and Mr. Charles
Nissly for his invaluable technical assistance in completing the final
report.
iii


169
If we look at just those sixty-two lots which have buildings, we
find only one out of eight with out-of-state ownership (Table 19).
TABLE 19
OWNERSHIP OF LOTS WITH BUILDINGS, AMERICAN BEACH,
AMELIA ISLAND, FLORIDA, 1959
FLORIDA:
A.A.P.B. 5
Jacksonville 35
American Beach 4
Fernandina Beach 3
Dune11on 2
Miami 1
Ocala 2
Orlando 1
Palatka 1
Total FLORIDA 54
OUT-OF-STATE:
Alabama 1
Georgia 5
New York 1
North Carolina 1
Total OUT-OF-STATE 8
Source: Nassau County public tax rolls, Fernandina Beach,
Florida.
The percentage of ownership in Jacksonville remains about the
same as for all the lots together (56 percent versus 62 percent).
There is even a house owned from Miami, a long day's drive to get to a
beach. Some of these, of course, may be investments rather than private
beach homes, such as rooming houses, rental apartments and restaurants.
Visitors to American Beach, however, tend to show a greater out-
of-state percentage than do the ownership patterns. Table 20 provides


38
parking lots, were taken as a basis for later estimation and evaluation
of recreational activities. The house count along Fletcher Avenue was a
house-to-house canvass based upon such factors as the name-sign in
front, the number of mailboxes, "For Rent" signs, interviews with occu
pants or neighbors, and other signs of permanent or temporary residence
to determine the number of housing units which were rented or were
maintained as permanent residences. All motels were considered to have
one unit as a permanent owner residence and the other units were counted
as rental units.
3. Interviews were used throughout the study where necessary and
possible, with due care given to identify the author and the purposes of
the study and to eliminate bias. Fort Clinch visitors and personnel,
motel and apartment house owners, the local Chamber of Commerce offic
ials, and selected beach vacationers were interviewed concerning the
vacation habits of the visitors.
The actual study took place over a three-year period during
which time all the methods described were used when expedient and neces
sary. During the two years in which the study was written, two
extended trips to the Island and the region, and numerous letters of
inquiry and reference to published data were undertaken in order to
fill in gaps in the study. The organization, selection and analysis
of the collected material could be considered to be the last step in
the study.


1960
FIGURE 30 (continued)
Page 2 of 5 pages


TABLE 5 (continued)
A
Number of
camper groups
B
Number of
group camp
ing days
C
Number of
campers
D
Number of
camper-days
1961 September
233
311
781
1,062
(cont.)October
108
170
322
494
November
110
167
328
476
December
88
171
327
512
1962 January
63
78
182
234
February
136
158
412
613
March
177
246
540
752
April
361
566
1,426
2,231
May
221
306
811
1,173
June
719
1,314
3,064
5,598
July
1,111
2,159
3,781
9,357
August
982
1,915
4,354
8,623
September
279
515
1,001
1,946
October
151
237
449
698
November
127
240
442
812
December
91
107
343
400
1963 January
61
91
194
244
February
85
107
273
319
March
286
445
870
1,347
April
536
885
2,065
3,448
May
292
505
1,024
1,766
June
899
1,743
3,931
7,789
July
1,384
2,912
6,126
12,900
August
1,111
2,239
4,805
9,722
Source: Summarized from the Campers'Receipts from July, 1958,
through August, 1963, the Fort Clinch State Park, Fernandina Beach,
Florida.


320
Bunting, D. C., et al. Florida Hurricanes of 1950. Gainesville
Florida: Florida Engineering and Industrial Experiment Sta
tion, University of Florida, 1951.
Clawson, Marion. Methods of Measuring the Demand for and Value of
Outdoor Recreation. (A "Resources for the Future, Inc.,"
Publication.) Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office,
1959.
Statistics on Outdoor Recreation. (A "Resources for the
Future, Inc.," Publication.) Washington, D.C.: Government
Printing Office, 1958.
Clawson, Marion, Held, R. Burnell, and Stoddard, Charles H. Land for
the Future. (A "Resources for the Future, Inc.," Publication.)
Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins Press, i960.
Coastal Engineering Staff, Department of Engineering Mechanics. Stud-
ies and Recommendations for the Control of Beach Erosion in
Florida. Gainesville, Florida: Florida Engineering and In
dustrial Experiment Station, University of Florida, 1957*
Cooke, C. Wythe. Scenery of Florida Interpreted by a Geologist.
(Geological Bulletin, No. 17.) Tallahassee, Florida: 'Depart
ment of Conservation, 1939*
Crane, Verner W. The Southern Frontier 1670-1732. Durham, W.C.: Duke
University Press, 192b.
Cry, George W., Haggard, William H., and White, Hugh S. North Atlantic
Tropical Cyclones. (Technical Paper, No. 36.) Washington,
D.C.: U.S. Department of Commerce, Weather Bureau, 1959-
Davis, Thomas Frederick. Macgregor's Invasion of Florida, 1817, To
gether with an Account of His Successors, Irwin, Hubbard, and
Aury on Amelia Island, East Florida. Jacksonville, Florida:
The Florida Historical Press, 1928.
Doell, Charles E., and Fitzgerald, Gerald B. A Brief History of Parks
and Recreation in the United States. Chicago: The Athletic
Institute, 1954.
Folmer, Henry. Franco-Spanish Rivalry in North America 1524-1763.
Glendale, California: The Arthur H. Clark Company, 1953.
Green, Arnold W. Recreation, Leisure, and Politics. New York:
McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., 1964.
Highsmith, Richard M., Jr., Jensen, J. Granville, and Rudd, Robert D.
Conservation in the United States. Chicago: Rand McNally and
Company, 1962.


68
international freighters docking at the Rayonier docks. There is no
swimming and no real fishing. The shore of Tiger Island (opposite) ranges
from sandy to muddy to marshy, depending partly upon the current
immediately offshorethe more current, the sandier. These islands are
not used for recreation.
From Rayonier, Incorporated south to Nassau Sound the shoreline
is all salt marsh but there are occasional spoils areas rising above the
monotonously flat sawgrass. The Intracoastal Waterway follows a wind
ing path, partly natural and partly dredged, under the swinging bridges
on Route A1A and the railroad. Generally keeping some distance from the
island proper, the channel swings in a wide loop eastward to form the
bluffs at Amelia City. Here are found several private docks and an
overnight stopping point for Intracoastal Waterway traffic, the Sandbar
Restaurant (page 52). The marshlands then continue south to Nassau
Sound, where the ebb tide is reinforced by the drainage of Nassau
River from inland. At Nassau Sound, the beaches again tend to become
sandy and there is a considerable ebb tide current, but it is not so
pronounced as at the St. Mary's Entrance. There are no habitations
along the sound except for a small fishing camp seaward from the bridge
where it crosses onto Big Talbot Island, and the water is comparatively
clear. The channel is deep enough for fishing boats (a depth of fifteen
to twenty-five feet) but contains many shallow sand bars which are some
times above water at low tide. One such is Bird Island, a small mound
with stubby shrubs at high tide, and an extensive sand flat at low tide.


APPENDIX D


CHAPTER III
THE PRESENT USE OF RECREATIONAL RESOURCES
I. INTRODUCTION
The measurement of recreational resources for attracting visitors
may be given a quantitative value by measuring the number of people who
actually use the resources, i.e., the beaches, the state parks. By the
very nature of the activities concerned, this can be at best only an in
complete and a somewhat biased count. Qualitative measurements are more
difficult still, embodying as they do a user's subjective impressions.
User satisfaction has been particularly difficult to measure for activi
ties of this type and is generally dependent upon written questionnaires
dealing with individual satisfaction (ORRRC Study Report No. 5, Preface,
p. x).
How, then, does the researcher gain the statistics proving that
"X" number of people enjoyed "Y" number of activities during a particu
lar period of time? How can the "average-sized" family camping at one
particular state park in one particular month be determined? What do
the statistics which are presented actually represent?
Primarily, they represent abstractions or summaries of whatever
records that have been gathered, incomplete or selective as they may be.
The various governmental agencies responsible for the regulation and
maintenance of Federal, State, and local facilities usually have some
method of counting user intensity. Records are generally good for the
Federally owned facilities. The more regulated an activity, the greater


266
should be continued and extended to give complete property protection.
These bulkheads, the land immediately adjoining them landward, and per
haps the beach immediately seaward could be developed into a scenic
drive which could be used independently of the tide. Picnic areas and a
park-like development would enhance the value of the beach, the property
adjoining the beach, and guarantee that the public would have free and
easy access to the beach in the years to come. Little if any private
property would have to be bought by the city and the adjacent property
owners would feel more secure from erosion while maintaining permanent
beach access through an attractive ribbon park.
The public should have control of a narrow stretch of land along
the beach from the present city limits south to the bridge, and prefer
ably some land also fronting on the Amelia River. This ownership could
be vested in the city, county, state, or other public agency and should
guarantee mining rights to the present corporate owner as well as a free
public picnic and access rights. There would be no need to develop
this land until after it were mined and the use-pressure in the north of
the Island made it imperative.
5. PARKS AND PUBLIC RECREATION AREAS. Continuing and partially
contained within the two previous recommendations would be the estab
lishment of a series of public parks and recreation areas, both beach
front and others. Ideally, the land to the east of Route A1A south of
the city limits could be made into a unified recreational-commercial-
residential area with both public and private facilities. This would be


51
FIGURE 5
MARINE WELCOME STATION ON THE INTRACOASTAL WATERWAY,
FERNANDINA BEACH, FLORIDA


27
III. THE PROBLEM
Along the southern coast of the United States lies a string of
coastal islands, stretching from Cape Hatteras in the north to Cape
Kennedy in the south. These islands, while being geologically similar
to each other, differ in many ways from the mainland from which they are
separated by swamps and lagoons. These islands contain extensive
stretches of magnificent beach, a mild and sunny climate, and a history
of conflict between opposing idealogies for four centuries. The
islands' present economies are based largely on some form of recrea
tional use, while the mainland areas are predominantly based on
agriculture or forestry products.
Amelia Island is in the middle of this chain of islands, and is
in many ways typical of them all. It is separated physically and
economically from the mainland. Its beaches are among the finest to be
found in the world. Its climate is mild and sunny, and its history is
long and colorful. Tourism on the beaches is an important business dur
ing the summer months, but two factories employ the bulk of the working
force throughout the rest of the year. The island has room for expan
sion, for most of the land area and half the beach presently are idle.
While it is close to a large metropolitan area, it retains its small
town southern charm.
Amelia Island, like the similar islands to the north and to the
south, contains abundant resources, physical and social, for outdoor
recreation, and, like its sister islands, has generally put these


206
Interstate 95 will pass inland within a few miles, and most of the south
Florida traffic will thus pass very close to St. Augustine.
The Castillo is a national monument and is under the National
Park System. Built with a local shell-rock that becomes cement-like
upon exposure to the atmosphere, the Castillo was finished in 1756. It
is quite well maintained, as are many of the ancient buildings in town.
A very active Historical Society has focused attention on this histori
cal heritage and the Chamber of Commerce has advertised nationwide.
A few miles to the south along Anastasia Island lies Matanzas
Inlet, now the site of the Fort Matanzas National Monument. The name
Matanzas came from the slaughter of the French Huguenots by St. Augus
tine's founder, Pedro Menendez, in 1565.
An examination of the attendance figures for the two monuments
in Tables 32 and 33 shows that more than half a million visitors examined
these relics in 1963. However, this is not conspicuously above the
1956 figure of 496,000 visitors. The construction work on the Route 1
city by-pass had a disrupting effect on visitor attendance, as have
recent civil difficulties. Summer is obviously the major season.
When we come to future visitor expectations, an uncertainty in
official forecasts is in evidence. Estimates of future visitor atten
dance made in 1961 by the National Park Service indicates an expected
slow decline in the numbers of tourists to a 1972 low of 272,000 visi
tors for the Castillo and 75,000 for Fort Matanzas (Table 39). However,
Table 34 gives the estimates made in 1963 by the Superintendent of the
Castillo, when the actual attendance figures were already some 14 per-


10,000
J I I L
rH
CM
CO
m
m
m
m
o\
rH
rH
T1
rH
I I I I L
m
VO
OO
o\
m
m
m
m
in
(T\
CT>
rH
rH
rH
rH
rH
FIGUEE 4l
i l i I 10
O
rH
CM
CO
VO
VO
VO
VO
o^
OV
CTv
rH
rH
rH
rH
BUCCANEER TRAIL JANUARY AND JULY MONTHLY TOTALS
BY YEAR, 1951 THROUGH 19^3


168
four Washington, D.C. lots were owned by a single individual). Table
18 indicates two interesting locational features, the first being that
whereas some 65 percent of the owners lived within one hour's drive of
American Beach, yet one-third lived at some considerable distance in
cluding places from as far away as California and on the east coast to
Connecticut. Approximately one out of five lots listed an out-of-state
owner. The second feature is the ownership of lots by people living on
the coast itself, such as at Daytona Beach, Miami, and West Palm Beach.
TABLE 18
AMERICAN BEACH LOT OWNERSHIP, AMELIA ISLAND, FLORIDA, 1959
Home address Number Home address Number
of owner of lots of owner of lots
Afro-American Pension
Bureau 104
FLORIDA:
Jacksonville 134
American Beach 5
Fernandina Beach 9
Crescent City 1
Daytona Beach 2
Dunellon 2
Hollywood 1
Lake Wales 1
Miami 5
Ocala 4
Orlando 1
Palatka 2
Quincy 1
St. Petersburg 2
Tallahassee 2
West Palm Beach 2
Total FLORIDA 174
Alabama 4
California 2
Connecticut 1
Georgia 21
Louisiana 2
New York 5
North Carolina 1
Pennsylvania 1
South Carolina 1
Washington, D.C. 4
Source: Nassau County public tax rolls, Fernandina Beach,
Florida.


75
degree-days must be used with care because they indicate only the average
conditions. For example, the winter of 1959-1960 had the greatest number
of degree days, but the greatest number of degree-days per month is
recorded for December, 1960 and January, 1961 with 456 and 448 degree-
days, respectively. In the first instance (1959-1960), the winter was
uniformly cool, while in the second instance (1960-1961) the winter was
mild but with hard, short-lived cold snaps.
However, much as visitors may deplore cold winters, a cool summer
is greeted with pleasure by some tourists, while a hot summer is wel
comed by those wishing to increase summer beach usage. All four years
(1959-1962) averaged below the normal temperatures, with the summer of
1961 averaging some seven degrees below and the lowest temperature dur
ing August being below the twenty-two year record low. Rainfall was not
a critical factor in these temperatures, since two summers which were
very nearly "normal" (1959 and 1962) recorded, in the first instance,
eight inches above normal rainfall, while the coolest summers, 1960 and
1961, recorded two inches below normal and normal rainfall, respective
ly (United States Department of Commerce, Weather Bureau, 1958-1962).
Complete weather records are not taken at Fernandina Beach, but
nearby localities may be used for an approximation. As a measure of
cloud cover, the number of days with 0.01 inches or more of precipita
tion in St. Mary*s, Georgia, may be used (United States Department of
Commerce, Weather Bureau, p. 18). Out of a total of one hundred and
seven days precipitation, one-third (thirty-eight) occur in the three
summer months, and more than half (fifty-nine) occur in the five


APPENDIX A


192
spent in 1963 by tourists, a rise of 14 percent in four years. Table 29
summarizes the expenditures and length of stay for all Florida tourists
for a period of five years, with the 1963 summer and winter tabulated
separately.
The cost of a Florida visit is thus shown to be rising at the
same time that the average length of stay is droppinga curious
coincidence. The summer tourist spends considerably less than does
the winter visitor, but the summer average of $13.20 daily in 1963 is
double the estimate used for Femandina Beach tourists (Table 22).
Figure 46 shows how the typical tourist dollar is spent. Food
and lodging account for fifty cents out of each dollar, amusements and
clothing for half the remainder, automobile expenses for ten cents,
and the rest for miscellaneous expenses such as cosmetics, photo sup
plies, services, and gifts. These percentages seem to remain quite
stable over a period of years, for the same percentages were reported
for the tourist dollar in the 1961 Florida Tourist Study.
THE ANTICIPATED DEMAND FOR RECREATIONAL OPPORTUNITIES
Not all tourists, of course, are from out of state, for Florida
boasts a large but relatively uncounted number of in-state tourists and
day-trippers. One measure of this demand is given in Figure 34, in
which it is indicated that nearly one out of every four Fort Clinch
campers is a Floridian. The special count in July, 1963 (Figure 39)
indicated that nearly one out of five campers during the normally heavy
tourist months were Floridians, while three out of five day visitors


15
position of major importance. Two important developments which reflect
this post-war change were the authorization of the Outdoor Recreation Re
sources Review Commission in 1958 and its logical result, the Land and
Water Conservation Fund Act of 1964. This act provided the administra
tion for Federal agency coordination and matching grants to the several
states for their own local development of recreational potential.
New York was the first state to set aside large sections of land
for state use. In the late nineteenth century the State of New York for
bid the sale of state lands in the Adirondacks region, and the state
constitution of 1894 stated that this area should remain in a natural
state, or in effect to remain public park. Niagara Falls was made a
public area during this period. New York's interest in recreation and
tourism has continued to the present and has made it one of the country's
leading tourist-attracting states. For example, in 1960 New York
floated a bond issue for $75,000,000, which was to be used for both
state projects and for loans to local areas on a matching basis. Two
years later an additional $25,000,000 bond issue was approved for land
acquisition, to be paid from state park fees (Florida Outdoor Recrea
tion Program. 1964, p. 42).
California entered the conservation and recreational field with
the acceptance, and later the return, of Yosemite Valley. The develop
ment of tourism and outdoor recreation has been a vital factor in this
growing state, now the largest in population in the country (California
will have an estimated 41 million population in 2000, according to the
ORRRC projections). A bond issue of $150,000,000 was presented to the


81
NUMBER
TABLE 4
OF HURRICANES IN FLORIDA BY
1886-1950
MONTHS
Number
Percent
June
2
3.6
July
4
7.3
August
9
17.0
September
20
37.0
October
17
31.5
November
2
3.6
Total
54
100.0
From Bunting, D. C., R. C. Gentry, M. H. Latour, and G. Norton,
Florida Hurricanes of 1950, Bulletin Series No. 45, Vol. V, No. 7,
July, 1951, Florida Engineering and Industrial Experiment Station,
University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida.


285
TABLE 44.
SAMPLE FORM FOR FORT CLINCH STATE
PARK CAMPERS'
RECEIPTS
TABULATION
July,
1958
Camping Groups (A)
NUMBER OF
MUMBE
R OF
DAYS
REGISTERED
TOTAL
CAMPERS
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
1
12
2
4
4
22
2
184
41
10
3
29
267
3
76
20
8
2
8
114
4
43
9
1
2
5
60
5
13
2
2
1
18
6
4
2
1
2
9
7
1
1
2
8
1
1
9
10
10 +
TOTAL
333
78
26
7
49
493
July,
1958
Group Camper Days (B):
Camping Groups times Number
of Days
NUMBER OF
NUMBE
R OF
DAYS
REGIST
ERED
TOTAL
CAMPERS
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
1
12
4
12
28
56
2
184
82
30
12
203
511
3
76
40
24
8
56
204
4
43
18
3
8
35
107
5
13
4
6
7
30
6
4
4
3
14
25
7
1
2
3
8
2
2
9
10
I 0 +
TOTAL
333
156
78
28
343
938


87
FIGURE 17
HOUSE PURCHASED BY
THE DUNCAN L.
CLINCH HISTORICAL
SOCIETY FOR A
MUSEUM. VIEW IS
LOOKING EAST FROM
THE PLAZA.
FIGURE 18
DEPOT DONATED BY THE SEABOARD AIRLINE RAILWAY AS A MUSEUM. VIEW
LOOKING EAST FROM THE MARINE WELCOME STATION.


TABLE 45 (continued)
Jan.
Feb.
March
April
May
June
July
Aug.
Sept.
Oct.
Nov.
Dec.
Alberta
1
5
2
2
British Colunftia
1
2
3
5
2
2
2
Manitoba
1
2
New Brunswick
1
3
6
1
Newfoundland
Nova Scotia
1
2
1
1
4
1
1
Ontario
9
8
18
20
7
12
63
68
13
12
9
8
P.E. Island
Quebec
3
1
8
2
2
12
14
2
5
1
Saskatchewan
1
1
Others
Australia
Belgium
Curacao
Denmark
England
Finland
Germany
Holland
Jamaica
Mexico
New Zealand
Norway
South Africa
Sweden
Switzerland
Wales
11
to
V£>
ro


TABLE 45 (continued)
United States
1960
Jan.
Feb.
March
April
Mav
June
July
August Sept.
Oct.
Nov.
Dec.
Alabama
2
5
10
5
1
Alaska
1
2
2
Arizona
2
1
Arkansas
2
6
5
California
6
5
3
7
8
5
3
1
10
2
1
Colorado
2
2
3
1
6
Connecticut
6
2
4
3
2
9
6
4
3
4
Delaware
1
3
2
1
Florida
1
11
19
49
65
126
213
214
71
33
20
10
Georgia
7
2
4
23
20
113
154
160
27
11
8
Hawaii
Idaho
1
1
2
1
Illinois
2
2
6
2
26
53
62
6
1
Indiana
2
1
6
9
26
39
55
3
3
1
Iowa
1
1
1
2
8
8
1
1
Kansas
1
1
1
5
1
9
3
Kentucky
1
3
5
39
17
3
2
1
Louisiana
1
2
4
4
4
1
Maine
3
1
2
1
1
Maryland
2
3
21
15
25
14
2
2
1
Massachusetts
1
6
16
12
2
11
23
17
3
5
2
1
Michigan
2
2
13
15
6
20
30
29
2
8
6
8
Minnesota
2
1
5
5
2
4
Mississippi
Missouri
1
1
3
16
22
2
2
3
2
Montana
ro
VO
O


21
of the Antiquities Act, before entering his very thorough year-by-year
discussion of the administrations. The author had written a similar
analysis on the Forest Service in 1920 (Ise, 1920). The 1961 study
(by an historian and amateur conservationist) was supported by the non
profit Resources for the Future, Inc.
Comparatively little of importance was written by geographers
during this period. McMurry lists six pre-1940 studies on recreation
by geographers (James and Jones, 1954, pp. 256-57), and two of these
four were printed in other than geographical journals. Three of these
studies were centered on the state of Michigan, where there had been
considerable interest in reclamation of cut-over lands.
The post-World War II period, especially since 1950, has seen
the production of a number of well-researched studies on outdoor rec
reation in its widest sense. It was necessary, of course, to maintain
reliable inventories or statistics for proper planning, and Marion
Clawson of the Resources for the Future, Inc., was foremost with his
1958 Statistics on Outdoor Recreation. (Clawson, 1958) This excel
lent compilation lists a fairly complete summary of vital statistics
for the national, state and local parks, the national forests and
wildlife refuges, the TVA system, reservoirs, outdoor activities and
sales of equipment, as well as careful words of advice on the use and
misuse of statistics. This latter phase was followed the next year
by his analysis of measurement techniques, Methods of Measuring the
Demand for and Value of Outdoor Recreation (Clawson, 1959).


LIST OF TABLES
TABLE PAGE
1. Actual and Estimated Population, Per Capita Disposable
Income, Length of Paid Vacations, and Automobile
Passenger-Miles Travel in the United States i960,
1976, and 2000 3
2. Selected Climatic Statistics for Summer and Winter
1958-1962 74
3. Annual Number of Hurricanes Affecting the Florida-
Georgia Coast 1886-1958 80
4. Number of Hurricanes in Florida by Months 1886-1950 .... 8l
5. Summary of Flort Clinch State Park Campers, July and
August, 1958> and July., 1959, through August, 1963 . 106
6. Buccaneer Trail Special Count for April 8-30, 1961 l44
7. Buccaneer Trail: Written Inquiries Received during June,
July, and August, 1961 l46
8. Fernandina Beach Municipal Golf Course Usage (Nine-Hole
Rounds), May, 1957, through August, 1964 147
9. License Plate Counts at Atlantic Avenue Beach Parking
Lots, Fernandina Beach, Florida l49
10. Building and Lot Ownership for Eight Subdivisions,
Fernandina Beach, Florida, i960 154
11. Residential Units per Building along Fletcher Avenue,
Fernandina Beach, Florida, 1964 158
vii


CHAPTER
PAGE
The Climate 69
Normal conditions 70
Hurricanes 77
The Romantic Past 82
Three major eras 82
The eight flags theme 89
III. THE PRESENT USE OF RECREATIONAL RESOURCES 95
Introduction 95
Public Resources 99
Fort Clinch State Park 99
The Buccaneer Trail 139
Municipal facilities l4l
License counts l48
The Use of Private Facilities 150
The Fletcher Avenue beaches 150
American Beach 167
The Economic Impact 172
IV. POTENTIAL RECREATIONAL USE OF AMELIA ISLAND 178
External Factors Influencing Development 178
Statewide tourism in relation to Amelia Island .... 178
The anticipated demand for recreational
opportunities 192
Areas similar to Amelia Island 203
v


174
TABLE 21
SUMMARY OF THE ESTIMATED NUMBER OF USER-DAYS ON
AMELIA ISLAND BEACHES, 1964
1. Residential Users Along Fletcher Avenue
SUMMER:
Owner-occupied 90,000
Rental 277,000
Total 367,000
WINTER:
Owner-occupied 269,000
Rental 120,000
Total 389,000
ANNUAL:
Owner-occupied 359,000
Rental 397,000
Total 756,000
2. Day-Visitors
15 percent of Total Residential Users 113,000
3.Campers
Total Camper-nights
August, 1963)
SUMMER:
WINTER:
ANNUAL:
(October, 1962 to
30,000
11,000
41,000
4.American Beach
SUMMER:
WINTER:
ANNUAL:
343,000
27,000
370,000
5.Total Number of Visitor Days
SUMMER:
WINTER:
ANNUAL:
705,000
216,000
921,000
6.Total Number of User-Days
SUMMER:
WINTER:
ANNUAL:
795,000
485,000
1,280,000


160
Another motel with twenty units reported 90 percent summer occu
pancy for about 1,650 out of a possible 1,840 unit-night occupancies.
Winter was less than half," giving, say, 35 percent occupancy of 5,460
possible occupancies for a total winter occupancy of about 1,900 unit-
nights, and a yearly total of about 3,550 unit-nights occupancy and a
yearly average occupancy of about 50 percent.
It is probable that the majority of rental units (other than
motels) close during the winter, and that therefore their total possi
ble occupancy will be quite low during this season. During summers, of
course, the possible occupancy is quite high and approximates that of
the motels (about 85 percent). If we take 80 percent of winter clos
ings, corresponding to the lowest motel occupancy figure, for the four
hundred and fifty-two rental units, another ninety units are added to
the one hundred and forty-eight motel units for the winter. The owner-
occupied homes are considered to be year-round residences (Table 13).
TABLE 13
NUMBER OF RESIDENTIAL UNITS AVAILABLE ALONG FLETCHER AVENUE,
FERNANDINA BEACH, FLORIDA, 1964
Summer
Winter
Motel
148
148
Rental units
452
90
Owner occupied units
244
244
Total
844
482


30
The first objective, therefore, is to inventory the resources
available for outdoor recreation. A "resource" is not a static, perma
nent factor, but is in the mind of the actual or potential user and
ceases to be a resource when it is no longer considered to be one. For
example, the beaches have existed in essentially their present condition
since before the first man came to the Island, but were hardly considered
to be a "resource" by the Indians or the early settlers. Contrast their
view of a barren, waterless and foodless stretch of sand with that of the
modern tourist spending an average of fifteen dollars per day for each
member of his family for the privilege of staying a few days on this
barren, waterless and foodless stretch of sand, and the modern concept
of what constitutes a resource becomes more apparent.
Thus, an inventory of the resources available by definition con
sists of anything which the users generally consider to be of use for
outdoor recreation. These resources fall into three general categor
ies, that of the mild weather and climate (as compared to other places),
that of the extensive beaches for bathing and associated activities,
and that of the romantic historical traditions of which the Island is
a part.
The second objective is to evaluate the present use of these
resources that have been isolated by the inventory. The easiest and
most direct method is to count the number of people using a particular
resource at a particular time, and so any records of user intensity
which have been collected in the past are of major interest. Where di
rect measurements are incomplete or impossible, then indirect measure-


1963
FIGURE 30 (continued)
fo
-O
Page 5 of 5 pages


to Jacksonville was contemplated
3
308
These were the early beginnings of the tourist "industry"
of Fernandina, which made it one of the first tourist towns of
Florida, if not the first. The increased importance of the Fernandina
port as well as the improved transportation facilities made the Island
the ideal resort for tourists.
In 1877-1878, the railroad built two large hotels: at the beach,
the Strathmore; in town, the Egmont. It was at this time particularly
that the rich and socially prominent people of the North came to
Fernandina. During the period from 1879 to 1885 a total of 9,188 persons
visited Amelia Island. Of this number 8,829 persons came from the
United States, 164 persons came from foreign countries, and 195 persons
who came gave a steamship address or no specific address. A glance at
the map on the following page will show from where these people came.^
Among the famous people who visited Fernandina was General
Robert E. Lee, who was there probably in 1861.5 Ex-President Grant
visited Fernandina in 1880. He stopped at the Egmont Hotel, made a
speech, and attended a ball.6 Among others visiting Fernandina during
^Atlantic Coast Line of Railways, Guide to and Through Florida,
1876-1877, p. 51.
^These figures were compiled from the incoming arrivals listed
in each issue of the Florida Mirror from December, 1879 to August, 1885.
^Letter from General Lee to his wife. See Part II, Chapter I.
6john Ferreira. His father was engineer of the Florida Railroad
train when Grant visited in Fernandina and later left on this train.


TABLE OF CONTENTS
PAGE
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS iii
LIST OF TABLES vii
LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS xii
CHAPTER
I. THE NEED, THE LITERATURE, AND THE PROBLEM 1
The Need 1
The Outdoor Recreation Resources Review
Commission conclusions 1
The need for research 3
The "background development 5
The Literature 19
The Problem 27
The objectives 29
The methodology 32
II. THE BACKGROUND OF RESOURCES FOR RECREATION 39
The Region and the Island 39
The Buccaneer Trail 4l
Amelia Island 46
Sand and Water 59
Beach formation 59
Amelia Island beaches 62
iv


AMELIA ISLAND, FLORIDA: A GEOGRAPHIC
STUDY OF RECREATION DEVELOPMENT
By
RICHARD OSCAR CUTLER
A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE COUNCIL OF
THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE
DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
August, 1965


APPENDIX C


155
A somewhat different pattern is to be observed for the "Vacant
Lots." Those lots which were immediately adjacent to the owner's
residence were termed "Homestead," and a lot which had been divided
was considered to be two different lots. One-half of all lots were
locally owned (49 percent), somewhat less than the percentage of
buildings, and one-third of the lots were owned from out-of-state
(33 percent), almost the same percentage as buildings under the same
category. The percentage of "Other Florida" and of "Other" was double
that for the same categories for buildings, being some 20 percent and
6 percent of the total, respectively. A total of twenty-nine listed
owners from sixteen different states (from as far away as California)
and one foreign country (Ontario, Canada).
Number of residential units. All of the residential buildings
on the beach were counted and located on a map, and totaled over four
hundred buildings (Figure 43). Nine of these buildings were used as
motels, although there is no strict dividing line between a motel with
housekeeping apartment, for instance, and an efficiency apartment house
which also rents overnight units. There were many cabins, singly and
in groups, which would also rent by the night, week or month; again,
there is no strict dividing line between a large cottage and a small
house. Many houses also rented rooms, apartments, and/or entire floors
on a nightly, weekly or monthly basis. Therefore, those who advertised
themselves as motels were considered to be motels, even if they also
advertised themselves under the "apartment" classification. One excep-


194
10%
FIGURE 46
DISTRIBUTION OF THE FLORIDA
TOURIST DOLLAR, 1963
After: 1963 Florida Tourist Study, The Florida Development
Commission, Tallahassee, Florida. Chart 4, page 9.


2
Other major factors which were considered included the per capita dispos
able income, the rising amount of leisure time, and the effects of more
and better highways.
Population estimates were made for individual states, regions, and
for the entire country, and showed a total U. S. population change from
179,000,000 in 1960, to 350,000,000 in 2000, a rise of 95 percent (ORFA.
1962, p. 47). Three out of every four of these Americans will be living
in metropolitan areas, which is where the outdoor recreational needs are
the greatest and the resources for satisfying these needs are the least
(ORFA, 1962, p. 3).
A second major factor in the rising demand is that of personal in
come, or rather of "disposable" personal income which may be used for
other than the necessities of life. The per capita disposable income
will double by the year 2000 (Table I). When this factor is combined
with the projected doubling of the population, it means that there will
be four times as much income available in the country with which to pur
chase non-necessities, largely recreational in nature, by the year 2000.
The leisure-time available is another dominating factor in the
use of outdoor recreation. According to the estimates, the number of
weeks of paid vacation will double by the year 2000 (Table I). Combin
ing this factor with the rise in population and the availability of
disposable income for purchases of vacation travel, and considering the
present rapid development of highways throughout the nation, one is
given an indication of the fantastic growth of tourism in the coming
years.


TABLE 45 (continued)
Jan.
Feb.
Mar.
Apr.
May
June
July
Aug.
Sept.
Oct.
Nov.
Dec.
New Brunswick
Newfoundland
2
1
Nova Scotia
1
1
1
Ontario
7
8
41
37
9
21
72
55
10
2
8
3
P.E. Island
Quebec
1
3
6
3
1
22
14
8
1
1
1
Saskatchewan
1
Others
Australia
Belgium
Curacao
Denmark
1
1
2
1
England
Finland
1
Germany
Holland
Jamaica
Mexico
New Zealand
Norway
South Africa
Sweden
Switzerland
Wales
2
1
2
ro
vo
Ln


18
3. A landmark in recreational development was passage of the
Landowner Liability Act limiting landowner liability when land is made
available for the public use. Any owner or leasee who makes land or
water areas available for public recreational use without charge is
freed from the responsibility of keeping the area safe or to give warning
of hazardous conditions. This progressive law, assuming reasonable care
on the part of the users, should encourage landowners to permit use of
large areas of land and timber which now have "Posted: No Trespassing"
signs.
In the spring of 1964, hearings were held in ten different parts
of the state in order to hear proposals and needs on the local level.
All county, municipal and private groups with an interest in outdoor
recreation and conservation were invited to attend, and publication
through the news media invited all other interested persons. This local
view of the needs was published in abstract form as the Public Hearings
on Florida Outdoor Recreation Needs (see Appendix A).


238
Not all of the beach erosion removes sand, however, for some
areas have experienced considerable sand addition. Figure 60 shows the
north end of Amelia Island as it appeared in 1769. Present-day "Old-
town" is shown as the "Newtown," and all of what is now North Beach was
then nonexistant. Figure 63 shows the changing shorelines from 1843 to
the present (note that the jetties were built to mean high water in
1965). These maps may be compared to the map "Fernandina Beach" (Figure
2) It may be seen that the beach of 1769 was along the series of
forty-foot high dunes from Fletcher Avenue and Atlantic Avenue to Fort
Clinch. The Fort Clinch entrance road winds just westward of these
dunes. The general dune direction changes from an east-west trend to a
north-south trend as one approaches Atlantic Avenue. They may be con
sidered to have been an offshore bar in the recent geological past,
separating the Atlantic ocean from the main island to the west. As the
ocean waters receded, the lagoon was gradually transformed into what is
now Egan's Creek.
Thus, the entire North Beach area about half a mile south of
Atlantic Avenue to within about half a mile of Fort Clinch has been
formed within the past one hundred and twenty years. This area is low,
generally flat, and the small dunes (up to about twenty feet in height)
appear to be building along a backshore stabilized by the construction
of the jetties at the turn of the century. This stabilization of the
shoreline has not prevented slow sand accumulation or minor shifts in
the shoreline, however, and when streets such as Fletcher Avenue and
Ocean Street are constructed to within a few feet of the stormtide


This dissertation was prepared under the direction
of the chairman of the candidate's supervisory committee and
has been approved by all members of that committee. It was
submitted to the Dean of the College of Arts & Sciences and
to the Graduate Council, and was approved as partial ful
fillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of
Philosophy.
August l4, 1965
Dean, College of Arts &
Sciences
Dean, Graduate School
lupervisory Committee:
'Chairman


70
land mass, Amelia Island receives the interplay between mid-latitude
continental extremes and subtropical marine moderating influences*
Thus, the potential tourist will be interested in the extremes of
weather rather than the monthly mean. Cold and rain, and to a lesser
extent strong wind, will tend to turn the visitor aside: the mere prob
ability of this weather will be a deciding factor, even though there are
many pleasant days in between. On the other hand, the probability of
warm or hot weather with cooling sea-breezes will tend to attract visi
tors from inland, and even the certainty of afternoon thundershowers
will be an insignificant negative factor.
NORMAL CONDITIONS
A more detailed look at the "average conditions to be expected at
Amelia Island at any time of the year is shown in Figure 11.* Taking
the months of June, July, and August to represent our arbitrary "summer"
months, it is evident that summer is rather rainy with some seventeen
inches falling out of the yearly average total of fifty inches (but
varying from eighty-three inches in 1905 to twenty-three inches in
1931), or more than one-third of the yearly rain occurring in these
three summer months. This summer rainfall is almost completely caused
by convectional currents forming thunderclouds in the hot afternoons,
but with a high degree of sunshine between showers. However, late
summer is the period for the hurricanes with their light to heavy
drizzles; the September average of eight inches reflects this tendency.
*Complete data are given in Table 42, Appendix B.


186
Alabama has shown a remarkable percentage rise in tourists to
Florida within these four years, increasing six-fold from the 1959-1960
figures to 12 percent in 1961. The vast majority of these tourists came
in the summer: 15 percent in the summer of 1961 versus 5 percent in the
same winter (but: these figures represent percentages of the total
tourist population, and "summer" of 1961 showed almost double the number
of "winter" 1961 tourists, so the ratio in actual numbers of Alabamians
represented would be on the order of 6:1). The range between summer and
winter Alabama tourists, though, is dropping, for the summer-winter
ratio was 1:7 in 1958 and 1:4 in 1959. No figures are currently avail
able to indicate the destination for these Alabama tourists, but it is
likely that the majority were heading for the comparatively cool Florida
panhandle beaches during the hot weather.
Georgia tourists to Florida have shown the same remarkable in
crease as did Alabama tourists in 1961, with the percentage doubling
from the 1958-1960 average of 5 percent to the 1961 figure of 11 percent
and illustrating the same summer-winter ratio. Again, no figures are
available on the destination of Georgia tourists, but most probably the
majority are bound for the Fernandina-Jacksonville-St. Augustine
beaches, these being the nearest to southern Georgia. Fernandina Beach
certainly benefits from large numbers of Georgian tourists and campers
during the summer months but very few arrive from Alabama (see Figure
39).
It is interesting to note that the states of greatest percentage
gain are the two adjacent ones (and South Carolina, from 1 percent to 2


202
Beach bridge would certainly increase the use of the Buccaneer Trail
(see the Fernandina Beach News-Leader, Fernandina Beach, Florida,
edition for Thursday, August 29, 1963).
TABLE 31
TRAFFIC FLOW INTO FLORIDA AT CHECK POINTS, 1962 AND 1963
United States
highway number
1962
Number
of vehicles
1963
17
1,059,230
1,156,209
1-301
1,687,030
1,498,424
129
178,850
113,226
441
168,995
130,744
41
594,220
601,952
90
812,490
843,858
29
320,105
333,324
231
465,375
559,270
27
350,400
321,394
319
356,750
391,631
19
307,695
291,488
221
114,975
124,303
331
240,535
252,968
98
384,710
407,354
1-75*
237,795
Total 15 U.S. Highways
7,031,360
7,255,940
Total 34 State Highways
Total Vehicles State
4,099,651
4,261,425
and Federal
11,131,011
11,517,365
*Large-scale traffic
on Interstate
75 began
in August.
Source: 1963 Florida Tourist Study, The Florida Development
Commission, Tallahassee, Florida, Table 3, page 6.


118
The lowest mean number per group seems to come from October
through the winter season and into spring, with the exception of
December and April (Figure 29). This period ranges from a low of 2.5
persons per group in October, 1959, to a low of 3 in October, 1962 and
March, 1963. There has been no comparable rise in the mean number for
the summer months. Evidently, as time progresses, more families are
finding it convenient to utilize the winter months in Femandina for
camping and/or camping-touring.
Figure 30 presents graphically the relative numbers of campers
falling in groups of various sizes, from 1 through 11 (the limits as
taken from the raw data--groups of over 11 were taken to the nearest
whole multiple of 10, and entered as that many groups of 11). It is
interesting to compare the months of April through July, 1962. In the
first two months, the two largest groups were 2-camper and 4-camper
groups, with the 2-camper group quite obviously the dominant one. How
ever, as the summer months progress, 2-camper groups lose their dominant
position, and in July, the 4-camper group is far more numerous than the
others, followed by the 5-camper group, and closely spaced 2, 3, and 6-
camper groups. However, even in the winter months, there is still
considerable 3- and 6-camper group participation.
The number of groups which register for one night only varies
from a high of 92 in December of 1959 and 1960, to a low of some 56 per
cent during July and August of 1963 (Figure 30). This would seem to be
a clear indication that the summer groups remain for longer periods of
time, and that the winter groups are mainly single-night campers.


230
These two plants came to Femandina Beach in 1937 largely on the
basis of a plentiful water supply from deep wells, a plentiful labor
supply, the location of large pulpwood forests in the immediate area,
the presence of the Intracoastal Waterway for barge transportation, and
tax privileges from the city and county. The Container Corporation
plant first was built to produce sulphate (kraft) pulp. Additions were
made in 1948 for the manufacture of kraft linerboard, and in 1952 a
modernization process was completed. In 1954 there was a final integ
rative addition for the manufacture of paper containers. The company
buys some 88 percent of its pulpwood from independent owners, and gives
away, without charge or obligation, more than enough seedlings to re
place its uses. It also aids in fire control and forest preservation
measures on its own and in any interested private forest lands.
Within reasonable limits, hunters and others are welcome to use the
company forest lands for hunting or other activities.
There are, however, drawbacks to having a fertilizer or a wood-
pulp plant in any city, especially so in a city that is seeking to
attract tourists. The pulpwood smoke is irritating, although one can
become accustomed to it in a few days. The smoke from the menhaden
processing plants, though, is worse and one does not become accustomed
to it. Fortunately, the fish processing plants only operate for a few
hours after a catch has been brought in.
The smoke from these plants usually rises into the air and is not
noticed from the surface. During the winter, the prevailing northeast
winds blow the smoke over the large empty stretches of swamp separating


TABLE 6 (continued)
Date
Florida
Ferry
Out-of-
state
Total
revenue
vehicles
Duval and
Nassau Co.
Other
North
Florida
South
North
South
8
248
16
23
97
124
508
9*
350
18
29
81
124
611
10
120
13
7
88
106
334
11
116
15
11
95
133
370
12
74
9
9
67
77
236
13
99
15
12
88
72
286
14
156
8
11
64
92
331
15
228
11
9
67
71
386
16*
416
31
23
92
156
718
17
101
13
13
95
143
365
18
97
20
13
72
100
302
19
151
13
9
78
86
337
20
125
10
11
108
84
338
21
115
12
20
90
64
301
22
285
9
18
80
88
480
23*
651
27
25
110
128
941
24
105
7
11
85
81
289
25
109
19
12
96
93
329
26
123
21
11
85
63
303
27
111
12
8
85
64
280
28
156
16
22
85
49
328
29
256
19
20
65
102
462
30*
608
32
44
91
113
888
Total
4,800
366
371
1,879
2,213
9,723
Source: The Buccaneer Trail Association Records, Femandina Beach, Florida


23
The ORRRC Study Report 27, Outdoor Recreation Literature: A
Survey is of particular interest for its discussion of the literature
available in the Library of Congress. The Library staff made a search
through their card files in order to ascertain the available literature
on outdoor recreation and to categorize it under useful headings.
Potentially useful titles were found under a wide range of
classifications. Under "Recreation," approximately one out of ten
titles appeared to refer to outdoor recreation (ORRRC, 1962, Study Re
port 27, p. 2). One of the more useful general categories was found by
using specific areas dealing with resources which are not strictly
recreational, as for instance state forests and reservoirs, or state
public lands. This survey found it most convenient to divide the liter
ature into two parts, that of the resources themselves, and that con
cerning the users. Under the category of Users, sub-headings included
such items as studies on the recreational activities, economic and
social characteristics, tourism and travel, population, growth factors,
leisure, et cetera.
Probably the major significance of this survey lies not in the
particular works which it mentions, for there were many interesting
titles which were not mentioned, but rather in the method and breadth
of approach. The first twenty-six pages of text are concerned with the
techniques of the title search itself, and a careful perusal of these
pages will save the serious researcher much time and will lead him to
studies which may not otherwise be apparent.


58
et cetera, and is a popular point of interest. In a traditional building
outside the Fort on the parking lot is a refreshment stand, and picnic
sites are available.
The only other recreational feature of major importance is a
modern eighteen-hole golf course lying just east of the airport and a
short walk from the beach. If the airport were to be expanded the east-
west runway would extend through the fairway, but this does not seem to
be a probability for the near future.
Miscellaneous areas. The rest of the island is essentially idle.
Egan's Creek as far inland as Atlantic Avenue has been proposed for a
residential development with spoils dredged from the creek to raise the
land on both sides, but there has been no construction as yet. South
of Atlantic Avenue and between the residential areas to the west and
the east, Egan's Creek gradually rises and the natural flow has been
improved further with drainage ditches. These have been dug at numer
ous places on the island by the Mosquito Control Board and have made
the entire island much more liveable after the sun sets in the
evening.
The southern half of Amelia Island is generally wooded and idle
with occasional individual houses. The Union Carbide and Carbon Com
pany owns considerable amounts of this land and plans eventually to
dredge-mine the sands for heavy minerals, mainly titanium ores, accord
ing to their resident agent, Mr. E. N. Roberts.


49
To the east, Atlantic Avenue ends at the high tide level where a
beach ramp gives access to the well-driven low-tide beaches. Just land
ward from the storm-cut sea cliffs is the major north-south street,
Fletcher Avenue. Fletcher Avenue extends a mile and a half north of
Atlantic Avenue to the Fort Clinch State Park boundary, with houses on
both sides of the road for about the first mile. To the south of Atlan
tic Avenue, Fletcher Avenue continues as Route A1A-200 through closely-
spaced beach houses on both sides of the road and joins Alternate A1A,
the second major branch from Five Points, in about two miles. Fletcher
Avenue-ALA continues southward through thinning residential areas and
past the municipal golf course, ending at the city limits. The road
continues as ALA inLand to AmeLia City where it joins the Oid Amelia
Road. Old Amelia Road extends south from Five Points through older
residential areas as a shortcut to A1A. South from Amelia City, A1A
extends south through essentially idle woodland with only one spur of
note, a paved road leading into American Beach. ALA continues south
across the toil bridge at Nassau Sound and onto the wiLdlife sanctuary
of Big TaLbot Is Land.
A bus line makes two trips a day into Jacksonville but there are
no scheduled rail, air or steamer connections. A number of interna
tional and coastal freighters avail themselves of the docks at the
Rayonier and the Container Corporation docks, but the only passenger
service is a private converted shrimp boat which operates to and from
the settlement of Dungeness on Cumberland Island. This is not a public
facility.


316
TABLE 47
ORIGIN OF TOURISTS TO FERNANDINA, FLORIDA, DECEMBER 31, 1879,
THROUGH NOVEMBER 21, 1885
State
Number
State
Number
Alabama
13
Nevada
2
Alaska
0
New Hampshire
34
Arizona
0
New Jersey
182
Arkansas
2
New Mexico
0
California
7
New York
1,948
Colorado
28
North Carolina
18
Connecticut
139
North Dakota
0
Delaware
11
Ohio
324
Florida
1,444
Oklahoma
11
Georgia
750
Oregon
8
Hawaii
1
Pennsylvania
490
Idaho
2
Rhode Island
60
Illinois
402
South Carolina
72
Indiana
62
South Dakota
0
Iowa
69
Tennessee
108
Kansas
14
Texas
7
Kentucky
105
Utah
0
Louisiana
18
Vermont
27
Maine
120
Virginia
67
Maryland
127
Washington
10
Massachusetts
587
Washington, DC
71
Michigan
171
West Virginia
127
Minnesota
131
Wisconsin
80
Mississippi
15
Wyoming
0
Missouri
116
Canada
64
Montana
7
England
62
Nebraska
10
Others
57
Source: Pink, Helen, "Amelia Island: A Resource Unit for
Teachers in Secondary Schools," 1949, The University of Florida,
Master's Thesis, Map '^Tourist Population.,,", page 138.


28
resources to use in varying degrees. But what is the potential for
development? What will the Island be like in the future years? Is this
"development" something that the people presently living on the Island
want, or is it coming despite their wishes?
Two factors are apparent in a study of this kind and should be
kept in mind throughout. First, while the study is limited to the one
Island, its recreational resources and facilities are only one small
part of a large, extensive and nebulous pattern of similar recreational
resource-areas spread over a large area. This is to say, for instance,
that if potential visitors were to find the beaches to be of no recrea
tional value in other parts of the South Atlantic coastline, then they
would not find the beaches of Amelia Island to be of interest.
Conversely, if the national demand for beach recreation were to rise,
the demand for Amelia Island's beaches would also rise. Amelia Island
is only one small part of this much larger complex, and is found to be
both in competition with and encouraged by this same system of recrea
tional patterns. The same comments would hold true of the other
recreational features, such as the Island's state park or its histori
cal shrines. They do not stand by themselves.
The second factor to be kept in mind is an areal one. Despite
the somewhat different physical setting and economy when compared to
the mainland, Amelia Island is only one part of a much larger area and
will tend to prosper or to decline as does the entire area. The bounda
ries of this area are, of course, nebulous and almost incapable of
sharp definition, and may perhaps best be described in terms of


APPENDIX B


p "JJ r~*J^
J L Lj Li U Us LLj
L-
' The public property loss alone
from Hurricane Doras devastat-
ing winds and tides has been es
timated at almost $5,000,000 in
¡Nassau County. As yet no figures
re available from Florida Public
Utilities Co., Southern Bell Tele
phone Co. and other private busi
nesses of their total losses, but an
'estimate of $4,500,000 to $5,000,000
has been made by investigating
agencies.
| In a breakdown of the damage
¡the following figures for Nassau
County have been issued:
i Debris clearance throughout the
county, $86,000.
¡ Damage to streets, roads and
bridges, $408,000, with $205,000 in
county, $100,000 in Fernandins
Beach, $14,000 in Callahan, $4,000
in I-Iilliard and $85,000 to state
roads.
I Protective, Health and Sanitary
1 Measures, $40,500, with $35,000 ir.
i Fernandina Beach, $4,000 in Cal-
ahan^andSl^OO^inHilliard.
Dikes, Levees and Drainage Fa
cilities, which includes beach er
osion, $4,387,000, with $3,000,000
in county, $1,362,000 in Fernan
dina, Beach, $4,000 in Callahan,
$1,000 in Hilliard and $20,000 for
the Mosquito Control District.
Public Buildings and Related
Equipment, $56,500, with $5,000 in
county, $45,000 in Fernandina
Beach, $6,000 for School Board
and $500 in Hilliard.
Recreation Areas, $10,000.
Public Utilities in Callahan, $1,-
000.,
Within the next few days, after
additional surveys by the Office
of Emergency Planning, the' U. S.
Corps of Engineers and other in
terested agencies, a firm figure
on the damage is expected.
A representative of the OEP
and Col. Paul Ramee of the Sav
annah District, U. S. Corps of En
gineers, will meet here Friday
with Congressman D. R. Mat
thews and local officials for a
survey of the damaged area. ._
FIGURE 64
SUMMARY OF DAMAGE FROM HURRICANE DORA IN NASSAU COUNTY, FLORIDA,
1964
Reprint from The Fernandina Beach News-Leader, September 17, 1964


222
A multiplier of three persons per vehicle during winter and 3.74 during
summer was used through May of 1963, after which a single multiplier of
four persons per vehicle has been used. This is checked at frequent in
tervals in order to maintain validity. No information on out-of-state
vehicles is maintained. Table 38 shows the monthly totals from
January, 1958, through August, 1964, for both the Fort Pulaski and for
Cockspur Island.
These six selected parks or monuments represent several differ
ent uses of resources such as are found on Amelia Island. Four are his
torical monuments, three are on or adjacent to beach facilities. Four
different historical backgrounds are represented: an early Spanish fort
of major proportions (The Castillo de San Marcos), a minor early
English fort and settlement (Fort Frederica), an English plantation
(Fort George), and a major Civil War fort (Fort Pulaski). Access ranges
from excellent (The Castillo de San Marcos) to mediocre (Fort Frederica
and Fort George). Without exception, the facilities are we11-maintained,
and vary from a simple promenade through a fort, to picnicking and
hiking facilities. Visitor attendance in 1963 ranged from 63,000 (Fort
George) to over half a million (The Castillo de San Marcos). In each
instance, the summer was the major season, with the summer-winter ratio
ranging from 2.4 : 1 (Fort George and Fort Matanzas) to 8 : 1 (Little
Talbot Island State Parks) and 7.5 : 1 (Fort Pulaski. But visits to
the surrounding grounds show only half this seasonal range.).
Some conclusions may be drawn from these figures. The first and
most obvious one is that access is a major consideration, not only access


I I I I
1958 1959 1960 1961 1962 1963
FIGURE 23
FORT CLINCH STATE PARK CAMPING GROUPS MONTHLY TOTALS
BY YEAR, 1958 THROUGH 1963


130
the following years. This drop was most likely due to the change of
camping and entrance fees from that of free daily access to the Park
with the subsequent heavy use of boat-launching facilities and inci
dental camping, to the present pattern requiring a yearly admission
sticker for entry, plus camping fees.
The third largest state represented in total camping groups is
Ohio, which shows a steady yearly gain to the July, 1963 total of 116
groups (Figure 37). Referring to Figure 29, this would represent a
mean of 4.4 campers per group, with 31 percent of the incoming groups
consisting of four persons, followed closely by five-member groups, and
the two-, three-, and six-member groups each totaling about one-half
the number of the four-member groups. Ohio's statistical total for the
month, 510 campers, multiplied by the mean length of stay, 2.1 days
(Figure 29), would give a total of 1,061 camper-days credited to Ohio,
or 8 percent of the total for the month (see Figure 32). This is some
what higher than the fifty-two month total percentage of 7 percent
(Figure 34).
New York (Figure 37) illustrates a puzzling and unique situa
tion: April arrivals are more numerous than the July arrivals, in
contrast to all the other states. While the April arrivals are gradu
ally rising from year to year, the July arrivals seem to have dropped
slowly until 1963. May and June are very low months for New Yorkers,
but there is no month without some New York representative being
present. A somewhat similar pattern is followed by eleven other states,
listed in alphabetical order: Connecticut, Delaware, Maine, Maryland,


14
9. Area Redevelopment Administration (ARA) will make loans in
those areas of the country suffering from underemployment. Approximately
one-fourth of their loans went into projects to stimulate employment in
recreation and tourism.
The role of the Federal government has thus been changed from that
of official dispenser of public lands during the early days to that of
protector of public resources in the late nineteenth century. Through
the enthusiastic writings and activities of the naturalists of the period,
this attitude gradually merged with and became part of the conservation
movement. Such public figures as Theodore Roosevelt were of prime im
portance in the development of the conservation theme.
In the twentieth century it became apparent that it would be
necessary for the Federal government to do more than merely "conserve"
the natural resources. An expanding interest in the outdoors, an ex
panding urban population with its consequent isolation from nature, and
a fantastically expanding transportation system put demands upon the
nation's resources which could not be met under the traditional methods
of conservation, and the multiple-use concept arose. The implementation
of this active concept in place of the earlier rather passive concept
required the institution of numerous Federal agencies and the legisla
tion to support them.
The expansion of leisure time, disposable income, personal trans
portation on the highways, and increased urban population in the second
half of the century brought the need for public outdoor recreation to a


210
TABLE 34
ESTIMATES OF FUTURE VISITOR ATTENDANCE FOR THE CASTILLO DE
SAN MARCOS AND FORT MATANZAS NATIONAL MONUMENTS,
19641973
Year Visits
Castillo de San Marcos National Monument
1964 459,000
1965 574,000
1966 502,000
1967 524,000
1968 546,000
1969 568,000
1970 590,000
1971 611,000
1972 633,000
1973 655,000
Fort Matanzas National Monument
1964 86,500
1965 90,800
1966 95,100
1967 99,500
1968 104,000
1969 108,000
1970 112,000
1971 117,000
1972 121,000
1973 125,000
Source: Superintendent, Castillo de San Marcos National Monument,
St. Augustine, Florida.


218
Extensive archaeological excavations were undertaken by local
interested parties with the cooperation of the National Park Service.
Much of the old fort is restored, as are most of the building founda
tions for the town. Markers and plaques describe the original occupants.
The modern visitor center contains a diorama, maps, sketches, and arti
facts. The park itself is placed in a setting of oak trees, Spanish
moss and grass, with walkways which invite the visitor to ramble.
This small monument, some twelve miles from the city of Bruns
wick, is not in a location likely to attract a great number of visitors.
Considering its location, the Park will probably be the final destina
tion for the majority of visitors, rather than being a side-trip off a
main thoroughfare. Still, it does attract nearly 150,000 visitors a
year (Table 37). It was estimated by the superintendent that some
1,250 picnickers were annually accommodated although there are no real
facilities for picnicking, and that the annual number of visitors was
about at the maximum for maintenance of the grounds under present
conditions.
Fort Pulaski National Monument. Fort Pulaski is a large brick
pentagonal structure at the mouth of the Savannah River. It was con
structed during the first part of the nineteenth century as an impreg
nable guard for the city of Savannah. Occupied by the Confederate
forces at the outbreak of the Civil War, it was soon re-captured by
Federal forces using the new rifled cannon which were able to breach
the brick walls. The capture of Fort Pulaski completed the blockade of
Savannah.


249
hurricane. The only house, still standing is Egan's Cottage, probably
the most durable cottage on the beach (Figure 7). Figure 71 shows the
North Beach automobile ramp, which x^s level with the beach before the
storm but is now some six feet above it. The ramp was raised somewhat
when the high tides pulled the pilings up from deep in the sand, but
there was also sand depletion.
In 1960 the Corps of Engineers made a detailed study of the
erosion problem on Amelia Island ( Beach Erosion Control Report, 1960).
The report concluded that a complete, suitable system of groins would
have an annual cost of $250,000 (Ibid., p. 13), but that a less expen
sive method using a less complete system of construction but reinforced
by periodic renewal of sand at strategic locations, would have an annual
cost of only $171,000, including a fifty-year amortization (Ibid., Table
III, p. 15).
An estimate of benefits expected was based on the three factors
of recreational benefits, damages and expenses prevented, and increased
earning power of the beachfront property. They estimated that there
would be an additional 15,000 visits to the beach per year, at 25$ per
visit, accountable to the protective measures. Real estate, saved at a
value of $30 per front foot, would add an additional $20,700 to expected
savings, and there would be an additional $5,000 which property owners
would not have to spend for protection. Increased earning power, based
on a rise in confidence of property owners, added another $31,500.
These were summarized in the following table:


TABLE 33
NUMBER OF VISITORS TO FORT MATANZAS NATIONAL MONUMENT,
JANUARY, 1956, THROUGH JULY, 1964*
Month
1956
1957
1958
1959
1960
1961
1962
1963
1964
January
3,620
3,543
3,982
4,087
4,237
4,721
3,294
5,892
6,202
February
4,282
4,673
3,266
4,831
4,670
5,197
5,488
5,329
8,354
March
5,244
5,425
5,063
6,323
4,212
6,639
6,451
7,140
10,044
April
5,032
5,536
5,021
6,429
5,616
6,853
6,503
7,260
8,521
May
3,972
3,612
3,740
5,271
5,288
5,512
5,299
5,449
8,173
June
5,921
6,732
6,547
8,511
10,363
8,193
9,576
9,227
11,368
July
7,442
8,060
8,421
11,023
7,763
7,969
10,483
10,780
12,936
August
7,154
8,371
8,763
11,081
5,396
9,079
9,755
9,128
September
3,615
4,050
3,411
4,474
4,400
4,228
3,955
5,199
October
2,872
2,965
3,609
3,211
3,773
3,413
3,392
5,199
November
2,942
3,450
4,123
3,130
3,447
3,360
3,224
4,501
December
3,245
3,876
4,674
4,107
3,567
4,081
4,930
5,231
Total
55,296
60,293
60,620
72,478
62,732
69,245
72,350
80,309
*Based on automatic traffic count. Formula: 3.5 persons per vehicle.
Source: Superintendent, Castillo de San Marcos National Monument, St. Augustine, Florida.
K>
O
VO


FLORIDA-GEORGIA
7.5 MINUTE SERIES (TOPOGRAPHIC)
NW/4 FERNANDINA 15'QUADRANGLE
DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR
GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
(CUMBERLAND SLAN D \SOU T H)
iDungeness
Watet
'HaflnmocR" 2
ST MARYS
RIVER
ABeach 2
Tidal
42/30//
42/30//
o Lights
oSubmerged
Pile
Fe rn a
FORT
PARK
andina
McCI
ERNAN DI
iWteliaLlslarid
;tch\hoLse
Jass<
ienei
'Recreafioni
Center
La nceforU
PENNS,
3037/30//
3037'30"
¡ >fONElL (JUNC. FLA. 107) 3.6 Ml. I
30/ YULEE 8.6 MI.
Mapped, edited, and published by the Geological Survey
Control by USGS, USC&GS, and USCE
Culture and drainage from controlled aerial photo mosaic
(AMELIA CITV) R.29 E
27/30//
AMELIA CITY 2.7 Ml.
JACKSONVILLE 37 Ml.
AMELIA CITY 2.7 Ml
JACKSONVILLE 37 Ml
SCALE 1:24000
ROAD CLASSIFICATION
Heavy-duty
^Catrseway
- L-~ '
1 \ i \ fr
//Mi ¡¡:
\\>\\
L. Drive-in,'
Theate" '

lili k
\ .'/I 4
1 i
u.i vi
| ^
i
1 Mi
1
W
>
UNITED STATES
FERNANDINA BEACH QUADRANGLE
Aerial photographs taken 1957
Topography by planetable surveys 1958
Hydrography compiled from USC&GS charts 453 (1957)
and 1243 (1957)
Polyconic projection. 1927 North American datum
10,000-foot grids based on Florida coordinate system,
east zone, and Georgia coordinate system, east zone
1000-meter Universal Transverse Mercator grid ticks,
zone 17, shown in blue
1 KILOMETER
APPROXIMATE MEAN
DECLINATION, 1958
CONTOUR INTERVAL 5 FEET
DATUM IS MEAN SEA LEVEL
DEPTH CURVES AND SOUNDINGS IN FEETDATUM IS MEAN LOW WATER
SHORELINE SHOWN REPRESENTS THE APPROXIMATE LINE OF MEAN HIGH WATER
THE MEAN RANGE OF TIDE IS APPROXIMATELY 5.8 FEET
THIS MAP COMPLIES WITH NATIONAL MAP ACCURACY STANDARDS
FOR SALE BY U. S. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY, WASHINGTON 25, D. C.
A FOLDER DESCRIBING TOPOGRAPHIC MAPS AND SYMBOLS IS AVAILABLE ON REQUEST
QUADRANGLE LOCATION
Medium-duty
==. Unimproved dirt,
o State Route
FERNANDINA BEACH, FLA.--GA.
NW/4 FERNANDINA 15' QUADRANGLE
N 3037.5W 8122.5/7.5
1958
Dashed land lines indicate approximate locations
Red tint indicates area in which only
landmark buildings are shown


59
The tidewater salt marshes are "dry" only at low tide, impassable
to anything but an airboat, and consist of low saw-grasses. There is no
present use for these flats and extensive filling would preclude con
struction on the mud base.
II. SAM) AND WATER
The beaches are used by the majority of visitors and residents as
a major form of recreation and may be classed as the most important
single recreational aspect of the Island, as it is with much of Florida
(Table 28). Amelia Island's beaches are well suited to intensive use,
being wide and generally hard enough to support an automobile: it is
not unusual to see several dozen vehicles on the beach at one time
during holidays. Access is easy but not plentiful, and more access
points will be an absolute necessity as beach use is intensified
(Figure 6). Houses and summer cottages are built immediately adjacent
to the beach and are sometimes to be found on the beach itself, the
beach having moved inland under the houses (Figure 7). In places
seawalls or groins have been built to stabilize the sand but have not
been notably successful, many having been washed away during the 1964
hurricane named Dora by the United States Weather Bureau.
BEACH FORMATION
Geologically, Amelia Island is similar to the long string of
coastal islands stretching along the southeastern coast of the United
States which are termed offshore bars or barrier beaches. Typically,


56
terminus of Atlantic Avenue, which is reserved for bathers and protected
by lifeguards. There are a number of decaying groins and private sea
walls to be avoided as well as an ocean pier which may be driven under.
From the pier southward to the southern tip, and then northwestward to
the bridge, the beach is uninterrupted but rather soft in places for an
automobile.
Further access is afforded by a graded sand road branching from
A1A six-tenths of a mile south of the Amelia Road-AIA junction and
running northeastward to the beach. This is apparently a little used
access point, and no provision has been made for parking or descending
the fifteen foot dunes to the beach itself. At American Beach, automo
bile access is easy and is much used by visitors to this beach area,
who usually remain within a half mile of the access point. One further
point of access is from the toll bridge connecting Amelia Island with
Big Talbot Island, where considerable parking space and a free concrete
boat ramp have been provided by the state road department.
In general, the beach from the southern limit of residential
areas off Fletcher Avenue to American Beach,is little used, and from
American Beach south to the bridge, the beach is generally deserted.
For those wishing almost complete privacy, the northern shore of Big
Talbot Island, immediately to the south of Nassau Sound, offers high
dunes, forested area, and often a high surf. Further south are to be
found two public beach state parks. Cumberland Island to the north is
privately owned, and uninvited visitors are not encouraged.


323
Sieker, John. "What Should the User Pay for Forest Recreation?" Paper
read before the meeting of the Society of American Foresters in
Washington, D.C., November 15, 1960.
Other Sources
Bartels, Mrs. J. M. Letter dated March 15, 1965 from Fernandina Beach,
Florida.
Maps, Charts, and Aerial Photographs
The Florida Park Service, Fort Clinch State Park. Drawing Number
3.001, "Base Map," February 18, 1947.
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Stabilization and Conserva
tion Service. Aerial Photographs, DCW 2AA and DCX 2AA, scale
approximately 1 inch = 1,667 feet, October 23, 1960; DCX 1H,
scale approximately 1 inch = 660 feet, March 15, 1953.
U.S. Department of Commerce, Coast and Geodetic Survey. Nautical charts
numbered 453, 448, 577, and 841, with revisions through 1959.
U.S. Department of the Interior, Geological Survey. "Amelia City,
Florida" 7.5 Minute Series (Topographic), 1950.
U.S. Department of the Interior, Geological Survey. "Fernandina
Beach, Florida" 7.5 Minute Series (Topographic), 1958.
U.S. Department of the Interior, Geological Survey. "Mayport, Florida"
15 Minute Series (Topographic), 1950.


314
It was in the winter of 1894-1895 that the Big Freeze visited
Nassau County, which, in part, resulted in the decline of the
tourist industry in Fernandina. With the coining of more railroads,
the opening up of the rest of the state, and the building of other
hotels, Fernandina's tourist trade declined in its importance.
Despite the decline in the volume of the tourist industry,
Fernandina still attracts visitors. Here may be seen old Fort
Clinch. The surrounding park area offers deep sea fishing, an
outstanding beach, facilities for picnics, and for exploration, a tropical
jungle which was once the rendezvous of pirates. It is an excellent
spot for those who wish to study coastal types of plants, birds, and
marine and insect life. At the main beach there is fun for the entire
family--swimming, bowling, skating, dancing, and fishing from the pier.
The town of Fernandina offers such outdoor sports as softball and tennis.
In Gerbing's Azalea Gardens may be found more than three hundred
types of azaleas and japnicas of unusual beauty.
The fisherman and hunter will be at home here. Boats for deep
sea fishing and excursions to surrounding islands are for hire. Fresh
water fishing may be found throughout the county. Approximately 65 per
cent of the county is fair deer and turkey range. Along the Nassau and
St. Mary's Rivers and in an area extending from O'Neil westward to the
Georgia line are located approximately one thousand deer and fifteen
hundred turkeys.24 Marsh hens may be found throughout the county .
^Florida State Board of Conservation, Tallahassee, Florida


(1898, 1944, and 1964) for an average of one every twenty-two years.
This by no means can be taken as an assurance that there will not be
another hurricane over Amelia Island within the next few years, for
there is just as much chance for a hurricane in 1965 as there was in
1964 or 1963. As property values rise, the damage during each storm
will be proportionately greater, and the $171,000 annual cost estimate
from the Corps of Engineers for total protection becomes a smaller and
smaller percentage of the total potential loss. At present, this
amounts to 1 or 2 percent of the estimated value of the beachfront
property.
The navigational advantages of the jetties along the St. Mary's
Entrance must be balanced against the loss of real estate and property
owner's confidence. This situation is not unique to Fernandina Beach
but is a well-recognized problem in many parts of Florida (Coastal
Engineering Staff, 1957, p. 6). It is beyond the scope of this study
to enter into a serious discussion of methods to control erosion, but
a further study of proposals might be of interest as the Island
develops.
PROMOTION AND DEVELOPMENT
The promotion and advertisement of potential recreational re
sources on Amelia Island is being undertaken by several private and
public groups. Each of these groups is able to promote or to develop
a distinct facet of Amelia Island's potential.


179
Study publications, and constitute the most reliable information on
state-wide tourism available.
The basic consideration is, of course, how many tourists arrive
by year and by month. Figure 44 indicates the yearly totals as esti
mated by the Florida Development Commission and others. Three trends
are apparent: the 1927--World War Two years, the post-World War Two to
1955 years, and the 1956--1963 years. There was a large, immediate
doubling of the number of tourists immediately after the cessation of
hostilities of World War Two as expressed in the 1945-1946 jump from two
and a half million to four and a half million tourists, which also cor
responds with the beginning of a building and population boom in Florida.
The number of tourists indicated seems to have reached a 1946-1955 pla
teau of slow but steady growth and to have taken a considerable jump in
1956, a rise that apparently is still continuing (but note that
beginning in 1956 a different basis for estimation was used). The single
year of 1958 shows a drop in numbers, possibly caused by the very cold
1957-1958 winter (1,661 degree days for Fernandina Beach, as compared to
the 1959-1961 average of 1,273 degree days (see Table 2). By 1963, the
yearly number of tourists had tripled from the 1945 figure (four and a
half million to more than fourteen million tourists).
It is difficult to compare these state-wide totals with Amelia
Island, since they are not based on comparable data. The records of the
Buccaneer Trail, for instance, indicate an increase from 298,000 for
1952, the first complete year of operation, to 378,000 in 1961, a rise
of 27 percent (Table 46, Appendix C). The total number of state tour-


TABLE 45 (continued)
Jan.
Feb.
March
April
May
June
July
Aug.
Sept.
Oct.
Nov.
Dec.
Nebraska
4
1
Nevada
1
New Hampshire
2
1
1
1
1
1
New Jersey
3
3
4
13
5
6
19
16
2
5
3
8
New Mexico
4
New York
6
19
25
56
8
13
48
38
7
5
4
8
North Carolina
3
1
4
4
54
16
1
7
8
11
North Dakota
29
2
Ohio
4
7
2
17
8
73
69
84
11
12
8
9
Oklahoma
1
1
1
6
1
1
2
Oregon
1
1
2
1
Pennsylvania
8
5
10
5
8
32
44
45
5
2
2
4
Rhode Island
2
1
4
2
3
South Carolina
1
1
6
13
33
10
1
1
South Dakota
Tennessee
1
3
3
15
25
23
3
5
1
1
Texas
1
3
1
15
2
7
Utah
1
4
Vermont
1
1
2
2
2
Virginia
2
2
3
12
10
40
25
21
4
1
8
Washington
1
1
1
2
1
Washington, DC
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
West Virginia
3
2
14
4
10
1
Wi sconsin
2
1
8
1
13
14
4
2
1
1
Wyoming
Canal Zone
Canada
ho


NUMBER OF FORT
CLINCH STATE
AND JULY
PARK GROUP CAMPING DAYS, JULY AND
, 1959, THROUGH AUGUST, 1963
AUGUST,
1958,
Co


73
Along with the cooler temperatures comes drier weather with typi
cal northeast breezes and clear, sunny days. The month of November
averages less than two inches of precipitation, and the November-May
mean monthly precipitation is less than three inches per month.
Table 2 presents selected data on the actual weather conditions
encountered in the three summer months and the three winter months for
the years 1958-1962, the period corresponding to the major camping and
tourist statistics which are presented in Chapter III. For each of the
six months, the highest, the lowest, and the mean temperatures are given
for the particular year or winter, along with the corresponding figures
from the twenty-two year summary (Table 42, Appendix B) for comparison
with the normal (United States Department of Commerce, Weather Bureau,
1958-1962).
These four years were strikingly cooler than the twenty-two-year
summary would indicate: seventeen of the twenty-four months represented
were below the normal, and only five of the months were above the normal,
and only one month of the latter was in a summer (July, 1962). The high
est temperature in the four summers never climbed above 99 (July, 1961),
some five degrees below the maximum recorded in the twenty-two-year
summary. On the other hand, the following December (1961) the temper
ature dropped below the lowest recorded for the twenty-two-year summary.
Despite this very low December temperature, however, the winter
of 1961-1962 recorded the lowest number of degree-days of the four
winters; 1,074, as compared with the 1,114 or 1958-1959, the 1,464 of
1959-1960, and the 1,280 of the 1960-1961 winter. The total number of


LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS
FIGURE PAGE
1. Location of Study Region 42
2. Map of Fernandina Beach, Florida *
3. Map of Amelia City, Florida *
4. Amelia Island 48
5. Marine Welcome Station on the Intracoastal Waterway,
Fernandina Beach, Florida 51
6. Beach Automobile Access Points 55
7. Egans Cottage on North Beach 6l
8. Blowout at 630 North Fletcher 6l
9 Bud Holt's Fishing Pier, South Fletcher Avenue 65
10. Foam on Fernandina Beach. View to North from Atlantic
Avenue Beach Ramp 65
11. Climatic Summary of Fernandina Beach, Florida 71
12. Brochure Advertising the Buccaneer Trail 84
13. The Chamber of Commerce Offices in the Keystone Hotel ... 85
14. Marker Depicting the Plaza, Oldtown, View to the West ... 85
15. The Plaza, Oldtown, View to the Northwest 86
16. Map of Oldtown, 1811-12 86
17. House Purchased by the Duncan L. Clinch Historical Society
for a Museum 87
18. Depot Donated by the Seaboard Airline Railway as a Museum 87
19. Marker Depicting Defeat of Spanish Forces, l8l7 88
xii


131
Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, Rhode Island, Vermont,
Washington, D.C., and Ontario, with all but the last being eastern sea
board states. Together these twelve states accounted for more than four
thousand groups, or approximately 20 percent of the total. Excluding
Florida and Georgia, these twelve states accounted for nearly one-third
of the yearly campers.
Returning to New York and the "Number of Campers ..." (Figure
28), it may be noted that the typical group during April is composed of
two people, with secondary group sizes of four people, and that the
size of the group seems to be gradually increasing. The April, 1963,
figures indicate, for instance, that the mean size of groups was nearly
3.8 persons, with 27 percent of the groups consisting of 2 campers, and
24 percent consisting of 4 campers. The previous year, the mean size
was again nearly 4 campers, but with some 30 percent of the groups con
taining only two people.
If we take the number of camper groups for the four major states
arriving during the peak month (generally July, occasionally June or
August) and plot them by state and by year for the five years of 1959-
1963, we arrive at Figure 38. New York has been divided into two peak
seasons, April and July, each indicated by the appropriate number of
the month (4 and 7, respectively).
Florida, and to a lesser extent Georgia, indicates a slow rise
from 1959 to 1960, a very sharp rise to 1961, a distinct drop in 1962
(after the new entrance regulations became effective), and a sharp but
modest rise for 1963. Ohio has shown a very sharp rise during the


January February March April May June July August September October November December
1961
FIGURE 30 (continued)
Page 3 of 5 pages
ho


254
The Chamber of Commerce. Some of the advertising being used by
the Fernandina Beach Chamber of Commerce has already been mentioned
(Chapter II, "The Romantic Past"). The advertisement effort of this
group is concerned mainly with the distribution to potential visitors
of brochures showing the abundance of good beaches and equitable climate
against the background of the "Eight Flags" and the "Pirate" themes.
One typical brochure lists (with colored pictures of each) the fishing
pier, Fort Clinch, the recreation center, the Amelia Island Lighthouse,
the shrimp fleet, the golf course, the baseball park, the jetties, the
Fort Clinch boat ramp, the camping grounds, the ferry "Buccaneer," a
typical beach scene, and the eight historical flags with a brief his
tory. The cover, of course, is a drawing of a pirate. The Chamber of
Commerce also distributes lists of summer rental housing along
Fletcher Avenue.
The Fiesta of Eight Flags. One of the major annual events on
Amelia Island is the Fiesta of Eight Flags, promoted by the Chamber of
Commerce and others. The Fiesta lasts for a week during the first part
of June. The entire town participates, and activities include parades,
beauty contests, a Boat and Fashion show, a beach carnival, boat races
(including the novel Shrimp Boat Race), a music festival and concerts by
the Air Force Continental Command Band, and a costume ball. The Third
Annual $5,000 Invitational Golf Tournament was held during this period
in 1964, and a bowling tournament was organized.
Probably the major single event in the 1964 Fiesta was the pre
sentation of an historical drama, the "Romance of Eight Flags.


141
origin, are summarized in Table 7. The four Georgian cities represented
are within week-end driving distance and correspond to the large
Georgia total (64 percent). Excluding Florida and Georgia inquiries,
the majority of the totals (60 percent) came from Atlantic Seaboard
states, while California represents the most distant state.
MUNICIPAL FACILITIES
The Femandina Beach Municipal Golf Course is probably the major
municipal outdoor recreational resource used by non-residents. Table 8
gives the attendance records from its opening in May of 1957 through
August, 1964 in nine-hole rounds. There has been no attempt made to
determine the origin of the golfer, or to determine how many different
golfers actually used the facilities. Undoubtedly, these figures rep
resent many multiple returns on the part of some golfers. The trend
toward higher summer usage could reflect several factors, such as the
higher summer population on the Island, better playing weather (or
would winter generally be the more comfortable playing weather?),
tournaments, the release from school of many youths, et cetera. Prob
ably the first reason given would be the predominant one; i.e., a cer
tain percentage of the population plays golf whenever it is available.
Note in this respect that the course is highly advertised in the
Chamber of Commerce literature (see page 254).


Total Number of Campers and Day-Visitors
138
Percentage of Total from Each State
Other
Georgia
Florida
FIGURE 39
FORT CLINCH STATE PARK SPECIAL VISITOR COUNT, WEEK OF
JULY 15-21, 1963


252
of Fletcher Avenue) and ten homes in American Beach were damaged beyond
repair. These fifty homes would amount to about 10 percent of all the
beach homes (Table 11) If one were to assume a 10 percent damage
along the beach from Hurricane Dora, and a total damage of $1,500,000
in the same area, then the total value of the property along Fletcher
Avenue, public and private, and in American Beach, would amount to
$15,000,000. The United States Corps of Engineers estimates apparently
considered only the ocean side of Fletcher Avenue, only the real estate
value, and a 1959 or 1960 tax valuation of 50 percent of market value,
so these two estimates are not as much different as it might appear at
first glance.
Soon after the hurricane, Fernandina Beach was declared a disas
ter area and was visited by representatives of the Office of Emergency
Planning, the United States Corps of Engineers, Congressman D. R.
Mathews, state Civil Defense, State and Federal Highway Departments,
and the State Board of Health. As a result, by the end of the year the
Corps of Engineers was constructing heavy retaining walls north and
south from the remains of the Atlantic Avenue beach terminus. Accord
ing to Colonel Preston, this wall will be far enough seaward to allow
replacement of the Ocean Drive Road along North Beach (Figure 70).
As the homes on both sides of Fletcher Avenue grow in number and
value, a unified protective plan will become more and more feasible.
Although the chances of having a hurricane are only one in fifty for
Amelia Island in any given year (Bunting, ej: a_l., 1951, Table II, p. 7),
there have been three major hurricanes during the past sixty-six years


270
Even without the establishment of such an extension of the
Buccaneer Trail, the attendance figures cited in the body of this study
would indicate that the summertime pressure on the Park facilities will
become enormous. The construction of more picnic and camping facili
ties, and provision for protection of the natural vegetation and dunes,
is imperative in order to maintain the Park in its present condition
and still to accommodate the increasing tides of visitors. Full commun
ity support of the Fort Clinch State Park as a major economic and
cultural factor on the Island is to be highly recommended.
These eight recommendations have been based on the natural and
cultural recreational resources available, the outside pressures, and
the probable consequences to the economic and social aspects of the
community. While through necessity they have been largely separated in
this study from other important aspects of the area (as, for example,
the ability to finance certain projects), they should be considered as
part of the total development of the Island. It is the author's firm
belief that the implementation of such progress properly belongs and
may best be accomplished at the local level by those most interested in
maintaining an attractive business and living environment, the local
inhabitants.


DORA RIVALED EVEN THE HURRICANE OF 1898 that wreaked tremendous
havoc on Amelia Island. This ancient photo shows the once proud and fashionable
Strathmore Hotel after being wrecked by the 98 storm. (Photo courtesy Rene
Bailey.)
FifStE 62 "~
DORAS HEAVY SEAS extended the beach up to the middle of Fletcher Avenue just1
South of the Vacation Apartments. The area at right of the broken-up paving was
formerly a succession of tall sand dunes. This area is about midway between At
lantic Avenue and Sadler Road. W - .
FIGURE 63
BEACH EROSION DAMAGE TO SOUTH FLETCHER AVENUE,
FERNANDINA BEACH, FLORIDA, 1964*
Reprint from The Fernandina Beach News-Leader, September 17, 1964.
HURRICANE DAMAGE TO THE STRATHMORE HOTEL, SOUTH BEACH,
AMELIA ISLAND, FLORIDA, 1898*
ip m m


139
THE BUCCANEER TRAIL
Route A1A, also known as the Buccaneer Trail, comprises the only
highway onto Amelia Island and has a toll bridge on the southern end of
the Island (Figure 40). Records are kept at the toll gate by month for
the type of vehicle and for each direction traveled and are presented in
Table 46, Appendix C. These records show the totals for both toll
bridges (north and south) from March, 1951, through July, 1959, indi
cating the total number of crossings for the toll bridges (except for
official exempt vehicles) and the total crossings at the Mayport Ferry.
(It is not necessary to use the Ferry, for State Route 105 continues
westward into Jacksonville. See Figure 40). From August, 1959, through
May, 1961, the data are further divided into north, south, ferry, and
total for two-axle vehicles (which would exclude cars towing a trailer)
and the total for all vehicles paying tolls.
A special count was taken during April 8-30, 1961 (Table 6)
giving daily figures for each toll gate for the number of:
1. Duval and Nassau County vehicles (county numbers 41 and 2,
respectively).
2. Number of other Florida vehicles (except for Duval and
Nassau).
3. Out-of-state vehicles.
4. Total revenue vehicles.
For the Mayport Ferry, only the Florida versus Out-of-state and the
north versus south, divisions were indicated.


TABLE 45 (continued)
United States
1963
Jan.
Feb.
March
April
Alabama
1
Alaska
Arizona
2
Arkansas
California
2
1
4
5
Colorado
1
Connecticut
1
5
13
12
Delaware
3
1
3
Florida
5
11
50
100
Georgia
4
2
21
88
Hawaii
Idaho
Illinois
1
6
9
Indiana
1
4
4
Iowa
1
1
Kansas
1
Kentucky
1
4
Louisiana
Maine
1
1
2
Maryland
2
1
4
17
Massachusetts
4
8
16
15
Michigan
2
3
11
26
Minnesota
1
3
6
Mississippi
Missouri
1
2
Montana
Nebraska
Nevada
May
June
July
August
Total
2
6
6
6
123
1
15
1
1
19
1
2
29
6
3
7
2
213
2
2
2
1
39
1
3
11
13
265
1
4
1
55
84
252
360
317
4,826
67
175
289
216
3,338
2
3
8
6
24
42
33
632
7
30
36
28
568
4
8
4
113
4
1
2
66
2
18
12
13
249
5
6
11
91
1
1
1
4
56
5
24
20
384
3
8
20
9
431
8
21
24
23
480
3
3
2
91
1
3
1
15
1
5
12
15
233
3
1
2
1
25
5
299


265
the rights to access should be established immediately while the land is
relatively idle and inexpensive. This securing of the public's right of
access to the beaches should be given top priority by purchase, long
term lease, or agreement with the owners, by the county or by the state.
In the case of the Union Carbide and Carbon Company property, both pub
lic access and private mining rights could be protected by agreement.
4. PUBLIC OWNERSHIP OF WATERFRONT LAND. The beach from hightide
mark to the water's edge is public property, but the land in back of it
is not. At present, the only beach-front land reserved for public use
consists of the Fort Clinch State Park property south of the jetty, a
small area owned by the city at the Atlantic Avenue terminus, and the
street access mentioned earlier. There are, however, stretches of
beach-front property which do not have buildings and are not presently
being used. Some of this property should be secured and reserved for
public use as parks, parking lots, scenic drives, or other uses as the
need dictates. These properties could be secured and used in different
ways, and some of the more obvious are listed below.
Presently idle land on both sides of Fletcher Avenue could be
purchased in small amounts for use as free public parking lots and pic
nic areas. There would be no need to take large amounts of land from
private ownership. These areas could most profitably be used in con
junction with the public access ramps which the city already owns.
Beach erosion control bulkheads and other similar constructions
are presently under construction near the Atlantic Avenue terminus, and


Year
1927
1928
1929
1930
1931
1932
1933
1934
1935
1936
1937
1938
1939
1940
1941
1942
1945
1946
1947
1948
1949
1950
1951
1952
1953
1954
1955
1956
1957
1958
1959
1960
1961
1962
1963
180
Number of Tourists*
1944 World War II
1,800,000
1,650,000
1,925,000
1,730,000
1,001,000
1,400,000
1,000,000
1,500,000
1,750,000 .
2,000,000
2,100,000
2,000,000
2,600,000
2,800,000
2,600,000
No Estimate
2,500,000
4,500,000
4,500,000
4,600,000
4,700,000
4,700,000
4,800,000
4,950,000
5,100,000
5,200,000
5,460,000
7,618,000
8,080,000
7,027,000
11,306,000
10,795,000
12,840,000
13,010,000
14,208,000
1927-1955 Florida
State Chamber of Com
merce, Jacksonville
1956-1963 Florida
Development Com
mission, Tallahassee
After: 1963 Flori
da Tourist Study,
The Florida Develop
ment Commission,
Tallahassee, Florida,
Chart 1, page 2.
2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16
FIGURE 44
ESTIMATED NUMBER OF TOURISTS ENTERING FLORIDA BY YEAR,
1927 THROUGH 1963


189
TABLE 27
ACCOMMODATIONS PLANNED BY INCOMING FLORIDA AUTOMOBILE TOURISTS IN
PERCENTAGES OF ALL RESPONDENTS, 1958 THROUGH 1961*
Accommodations planned
1958
1959
1960
1961
Motel
50
49
67
63
With friends or relatives
23
21
10
16
Rented house, cottage, or apartment
16
18
7
9
Trailer
4
3
4
6
Hotel
8
7
4
3
Other
3
1
2
3
'Percentage totals under 100 due to some respondents not answer
ing this question.
From: 1961 Florida Tourist Study, page 11, Table 13; 1960
Florida Tourist Study, page 11, Table 11; 1959 Florida Tourist Study,
page 10, Table 11, The Florida Development Commission, Tallahassee,
Florida.
tourists to Florida (and we may also assume a mild climate in order to
enjoy these factors). Table 28 is a summary of four years of question
naires by the Florida Development Commission to determine what factors
are most eagerly looked forward to by the incoming tourists. Each res
pondent marked the activities he anticipated the most, resulting in an
average of about two and one-half answers per respondent (ranging from
2.2 in 1958 to 3.14 in 1961). The answers were then tabulated as to
the percentage of respondents listing each particular activity.
One-half the respondents regularly have marked the category
"Beaches, Swimming" and nearly one-half have marked the second category,
an "Atmosphere of relaxation and fun," with these two categories consti
tuting one-third of all the answers received in 1961. Grouping together


APPENDICES


225
TABLE 39
ESTIMATES OF THE FUTURE VISITOR ATTENDANCE FOR THE CASTILLO DE
SAN MARCOS, FORT MATANZAS, FORT FREDERICA AND FORT PULASKI
NATIONAL MONUMENTS, 1961 THROUGH 1972*
Year
San Marcos
Fort
Matanzas
Fort
Frederica
Fort
Pulaski
1961
388
69
119
144
1962
326
70
122
187
1963
316 (444)**
71 (80.3)**
124 (148)**
160 (176)*'
1964
307
71.9
126
189
1965
300
72.7
128
177
1966
294
73.3
130
186
1967
289
73.8
131
194
1968
284
74.2
132
202
1969
280
74.6
132
210
1970
277
74.9
134
219
1971
274
75.2
135
227
1972
272
75.4
136
236
*In thousands
**Actual 1963 visitor attendance
Source: Superintendent, Fort Frederica National Monument,
Brunswick, Georgia.


241
cliffs, a relatively minor coastline shift may result in serious damage.
Minor fluctuations are constantly occurring all along the shoreline,
with depletion at one point balanced by accretion at another. During
periods of high winds or storms, the battering of the waves and extra-
high storm tides may erode considerable areas, but generally replacement
occurs between such storm periods.
The steady southward movement of the sand is interrupted in
places by tidal passes. These passes generally have a sand accumula
tion, or bar, at the seaward end where the combination of southward
drift and the daily tidal currents allow the sand to proceed southward
across the pass. At the turn of the century the United States Corps of
Engineers constructed the two jetties to channel the tidal currents so
that they would keep the bar scoured to a navigable depth. Figure 61
and Figure 2 show the subsequent accretion of sand behind both the
jetties. This interference with the free sand movement, however, has
apparently caused some sand starvation along South Beach as far as the
pier (U.S. Army, Corps of Engineers, 1960, p. 12). When this localized
erosion occurred at a point where buildings or roads had been construc
ted immediately adjacent to the beach, considerable damage occurred.
This generally happened during periods of high winds and subsequent
high storm tides and increased littoral movement, as was seen during
the hurricanes of 1898, 1944, and 1964.
Some ten million dollars damage was done to Nassau County by the
1964 Hurricane Dora through beach erosion, flood damage, and wind
damage. Figure 64, reprinted from the September 17 edition of the


TABLE 46 (continued)
Month
Road
1958
Ferrv
Total
Road
1959
Ferrv
Total
January
9,001
8,915
17,916
9,083"
8,441
17,524
February
8,728
8,604
17,332
10,643
9,388
20,031
March
12,454
11,151
23,605
12,989
11,821
24,810
April
17,283
12,424
29,707
17,539
13,563
31,102
May
17,893
11,905
29,798
23,476
14,369
37,845
June
27,131
17,878
45,009
29,866
19,700
49,506
July
31,426
22,529
54,955
38,623
26,195
64,818
August
30,802
20,961
51,763
September
13,573
11,227
24,800
October
9,424
9,337
18,761
November
10,441
9,885
20,326
December
8.773
8.195
16.968
Month
1959
1960
Northbound Southbound Ferry
Total
Northbound
Southbound Ferrv
Total
January
5,246
6,770
11,436
23,452
February
4,238
7,314
11,222
22,774
March
5,628
6,241
12,152
24,021
April
11,709
8,322
14,835
34,866
May
14,027
9,288
14,481
37,796
June
15,420
12,812
18,531
46,761
July
20,803
17,702
26,072
64,577
August
18,249
16,157
23,743
58,149
16,820
13,589
21,580
51,989
September
8,265
7,355
12,462
28,082
6,982
5,782
10,427
23,191
October
5,514
5,793
10,255
21,562
6,268
6,063
10,988
23,319
November
4,974
5,601
9,522
20,097
5,498
5,068
9,044
19,610
December
4.209
6.370
10.021
20.600
4.056
4.951
8,405
17.412
303


January February March April May June July August September October November December
1962
FIGURE 30 (continued)
Page 4 of 5 pages
ro
u>


60
this type of island is separated from the mainland by low tidal marshes
and a lagoon, sometimes called a lake," a "sound" or a "river." The
beach itself is on the seaward side of the bar and is formed primarily
by wave action bringing sand shoreward in low bars until it rises above
the surface and forms an off-shore bar (Martens, 1931, pp. 85-86).
There are sometimes several of these off-shore bars seaward from the
mainland, one after the other, as is to be found at Cape Kennedy. If the
lagoon water level drops, the bar may form part of the mainland with a
shallow inland river where the lagoon had been, as is found to the east
.1
of the St. Johns River (Cooke, 1939, p. 109).
The sand dunes adjacent to the beach are considered here to be
part of the beach. They are generally formed in hillocks roughly par
allel to the shoreline and range to about forty feet in height. Formed
primarily by loose sand being blown from the beach by storm winds and
stabilized by vegetation, they can also be destroyed by these same winds
if the stabilizing vegetation is destroyed, as, for instance, by pedes
trian use or home and road construction. The blowout illustrated in
Figure 8 was formed during Hurricane Dora at a pedestrian walkway to the
beach. The so-called "dune ridge" next to the beach itself may also be
destroyed by an encroaching shoreline, or may be left far inland by a
receeding shoreline. The northeastern corner of Amelia Island was
formed in this manner by a receeding shoreline, as indicated on the
map of"Old Shorelines" Figure 61.
These offshore islands are separated from one another by tidal
passes giving access from the lagoon to the open ocean, and are called


FIGURE 40
COPY OF PART OF BROCHURE ADVERTISING THE BUCCANEER TRAIL


89
number of pageants and fiestas. The Fiesta of Eight Flags in June, 1964,
included eight floats and several out-of-town bands, and the Pageant,
written by the president of the society, was presented before an esti
mated 1,600 people at the Fort Clinch State Park the following week (see
page 255).
Several factors have tended to impede the development of this
historical heritage, such as the long period of economic ennui during
the 1920's and the 1930's and the proximity of the well-advertised
St. Augustine. There has never been a complete scholarly history of
the Island written, or even a comprehensive collection of primary
source material. This is one purpose of the proposed museum by the
local historical society. A large amount of material is available but
it is widely scattered and much of it is contained in private
collections.
A brief description of the Island's history will be of interest
here. A partial list of documents is contained in the bibliography.
THE EIGHT FLAGS THEME
Eight official flags have flown over the town, which makes a
difficult record for other locations to match. These flags include,
in approximate chronological order, the flags of France, Spain, Great
Britain, the Patriot's Flag, the Green Cross of Florida, Mexico, the
Confederate States of America, and the United States of America. The
Island has changed flags, though more than a mere eight times, as
indicated below:


17
As a result of this study, Florida passed an Outdoor Recreation
and Conservation law in 1963. A 1964 report from the Florida Outdoor
Recreational Development Council summarizes this series of acts (Florida
Outdoor Recreation Programthe First Year, 1964, pp. 2-5).
1. The Outdoor Recreation and Conservation Act provided for the
establishment of an Outdoor Recreational Development Council and its
planning branch, the Outdoor Recreational Planning Committee. The lat
ter would consist of the superintendents of the various state agencies
concerned with the utilization of the outdoors for recreation, as for
instance the Florida Board of Parks. A Land Management Division was
established, under the guidance of the Council, with the responsibility
of acquiring, maintaining and managing the necessary outdoor lands,
water areas and resources, and to lease these lands to the appropriate
agencies. A Land Acquisition Trust Fund was established with bonding
powers to finance the projects.
2. The Bond Referendum Act, authorizing the issuance of revenue
bonds for land acquisition, was approved by the voters in the November
5th, 1963, elections. Another act, the Boat Registration Revenue Act,
provided that surplus revenue from the registration of motorboats would
be transferred to the Land Acquisition Trust Fund. An Internal Improve
ment Funds act provided for a similar transfer of funds from the sale or
lease of State property, under certain conditions. A 5 percent whole
sale tax imposed on outdoor recreational and sports equipment is to be
deposited in the Fund also.


223
to the facility under consideration but also access to alternate facili
ties. A second major consideration would be the provision of adjacent
relaxation areas. The Castillo de San Marcos would rank lowest in this
respect, but its location within the city of St. Augustine would tend to
more than compensate for the lack of picnicking facilities. One would
also wonder just how many visitors Fort George Island would have if it
were not immediately accessible to the Buccaneer Trail and the beach
parks, or how many visitors Fort Frederica would have if the spacious
and inviting grounds were absent. In the case of Fort Pulaski where
separate records are kept for Cockspur Island and the Fort, from three
to five times as many visitors use the Island itself as are admitted to
the Fort. Cockspur Island also tends to draw a higher percentage of its
total visitors to the Island in winter than does the Fort.
Fort Clinch is well-favored in all these respects. It is close
to a public beach area, near a city, has abundant picnicking facilities,
and has space for hiking and games. Two miles of waterfront suitable
for beach-combing are adjacent to the Fort, and access to the Fort it
self is free once one has entered the Park grounds. Its location is a
little off the most direct route from southeastern Georgia to the
Florida east coast beaches, but not much out of the way. The proposed
bridge from St. Mary's, Georgia, to Fernandina Beach would certainly in
crease the traffic through the Island.
However much this increased traffic would add to the local
economy, it would not be an unmixed blessing to the Fort Clinch State
Park. The additional receipts would of course be welcome, but facili-


198
o
O
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
O
O
VO
00
Oh
o
T1
CN
CO
m
VO
oo
co
oo
00
Oh
Oh
Oh
Oh
Oh
Oh
Oh
11
rH
r-H
T1
rH
rH
rH
rH
fH
rH
T1
100%
90
80
70
60
50
40
30 '
20
10
0
Rural Farm
|ftiSipSi
Urban
l Rural Non-
-I Farm
FIGURE 48
FLORIDA URBAN-RURAL POPULATION AS A PERCENTAGE OF TOTAL POPULATION,
1860 THROUGH 1960
Source:
Census of Population. 1960
Census, Washington, D. C.
United States Bureau of the
4,000,000
3,000,000
2,000,000
1,000,000
FIGURE 49
POPULATION GROWTH OF THE JACKSONVILLE, FLORIDA, CENTRAL CITY
AND METROPOLITAN AREA, 1900 THROUGH 1960
Source: Census of Population, 1960, United States Bureau
of the Census, Washington, D.C.


84
TOLL ROAD and FERRY
BETWEEN
FIGURE 12
BROCHURE
ADVERTISING
THE
BUCCANEER
TRAIL


FIGURE 9
BUD HOLT'S FISHING PIER, SOUTH FLETCHER AVENUE.
IT WAS PARTLY DESTROYED IN HURRICANE DORA, 1964
FIGURE 10
FOAM ON FERNANDINA BEACH. VIEW TO NORTH
FROM ATLANTIC AVENUE BEACH RAMP.


173
of user-days along the beach at Fletcher Avenue at American Beach, and
the campers in Fort Clinch. The number of day-users at the beach along
Fletcher Avenue refers to tourists passing through, day-visitors, and
local participation at the beach, and has been arbitrarily set at 15
percent of the total residential use. The table thus indicates a
yearly total of more than one and a quarter million user-days, of
which two-thirds (62 percent) are indicated for the summer months of
June, July and August.
What is the economic impact of these one and a quarter million
days use? Fortunately, the average expenditure per tourist has been
calculated with a large and reliable statistical population. The 1963
averate tourist expenditures amount to $18.10 per tourist during
winter, $13.20 during summer, and $14.80 yearly average appears to be
rising ("1963 Florida Tourist Report," page 8, Table 6).
We may therefore reasonably assign a conservative expenditure
of $10.00 per overnight tourist for Amelia Island. The Fletcher Ave
nue renters would fall into this classification, and the Fort Clinch
campers probably spend close to this amount and should be included. At
any rate, the campers account for only 9 percent of the adjusted total
of 440,000 tourist-nights. Twenty dollars per day for maintenance and
living costs for a private home on the beach seems reasonable, and with
a given group size of four per home, $5 per visitor-day would be as
signed to them. The 370,000 day and overnight visits at American Beach
were estimated at $5 per day each, and add nearly two million dollars.
Table 22 summarizes these figures, and indicates that the beach-users add


TABLE
PAGE
46. Buccaneer Trail Traffic Count, March, 1951 through
August, 1963 302
47. Origin of Tourists to Fernandina, Florida, December 31,
1879, through November 21, 1885 316
48. Origin of Tourists to Fort Clinch State Park, Fernandina
Beach, Florida, January, 1944, through April 20, 1949 317


I
500
450
400
350
300
250
200
150
100
50
FIGURE 36
NUMBER OF FORT CLINCH STATE PARK CAMPING GROUPS FROM FLORIDA
AND GEORGIA, JULY, 1959, THROUGH AUGUST, 1963
OJ
<-n


203
AREAS SIMILAR TO AMELIA ISLAND
Amelia Island and Fort Clinch are not the only areas along this
southern Atlantic coastline to have a salable romantic or historic tra
dition. St. Augustine, for instance, is nationally famous as the oldest
permanent white settlement in the New World. The founding of St.
Augustine was no accident, and ushered in the first major historical
period for this coastline.
The waters of the Gulf Stream, which closely parallel the coast
from the Florida Keys to Cape Hatteras, provided a convenient route for
the homeward-bound annual Spanish gold fleets in the 17th and 18th
centuries. The English and the French found the many small islands and
bays to be convenient hiding places for depredations on these tempting
prizes, and many a freebooter or "legitimate" pirate (one acting under a
letter of marque) used these shores for just that purpose. The Spanish
authorities, of course, used every means at their disposal to rid them
selves of these pests. Thus began a series of wars and raids with the
Spanish on the southern end of the coastline, and the French and then
the English on the northern end, with each side claiming sovereignty
over the land, the waters and the natives. Permanent settlements were
attempted but few succeeded. Some of these settlements and battle
scenes are presently commemorated, as for example, Fort Matanzas and the
Castillo de San Carlos (St. Augustine), Fort Caroline and Fort George
(Jacksonville), the Plaza (Fernandina Beach), and Bloody Marsh
(Brunswick).


263
the small middle-class resort town near a metropolitan center. The in
evitable growth helps maintain the Island's prosperous economy and is
welcomed by the business community. At the same time, however, the
traditional attributes of friendliness, space, cleanliness and pride in
the community are of major importance to those who live on the Island
and should receive prime consideration.
How, then, can the economic and population growth and the tradi
tional social values be reconciled? Certain recommendations may be made
on the basis of the internal and external factors as discussed in the
body of this study, with a view toward maintaining a favorable business
and residential environment.
1. EMPHASIS ON RECREATION. The field of recreation and tourism
will become more important within the local economy, and will attract
not only the associated service businesses, but will form a climate
favorable to the development of small businesses and industries not
associated with recreation, and for commuter and retiree homes. There
fore, recreation, in its widest sense, should be considered as a major
factor in all planning and zoning. To fail to do so would be to lose a
favorable business and living environment in the years to come.
2. PLANNING. Amelia Island must be considered as a whole, a
single unit. As time passes the pressure on the available land will
increase, and Is land-wide planning now, if carefully conceived and en
forced, could prevent the start of unfavorable situations which would
be difficult or impossible to correct later. Piecemeal or voluntary


112
was that the Park officials have instituted more effective mosquito
control methods.
The mean length of stay for the camping groups is found by
dividing the number of camper-days (Table 6, Column D) by the number of
groups for each month, thus giving the mean duration of each individual
receipt (Figure 26). From the high of two and one-half days duration in
October, 1959, the low of one and two-tenths days is reached five times,
and it is not until July of 1963 that the mean length of stay is again
over two days. While this may indicate a general trend, the duration of
stay expressed here is not basically as valid as is the number of groups
or the number of campers, for it was not uncommon for a family group to
extend a visit from day to day, or week to week. With the mid-1962
change in camping fees, there was no incentive for the camper to regis
ter for more than one day at a time.
The "Number of Campers" is concerned with the actual number of
campers per month without regard to the length of stay. Figure 28 and
Table 6, Column C, indicate the same general pattern as does Figure 21.
The percentages of the yearly total represented by June, July and August
drop from 73 percent in 1960 to 69 percent in 1962 (Figure 27). Figure
28 shows that the range varies from a low of less than two hundred in
January of 1963 to a high of more than a thousand the following July,
representing a ratio of 1:32. This is considerably more than the 1:23
ratio of the "Camping Group Days" (figure 25), and indicates that the
number of campers per group does not remain constant throughout the
year.


10
Daring the second quarter of the century the great depression had
a major effect on the conservation movement. Local and state govern
ments, and most private citizens, had only very limited funds to spend
for recreation, so the simple free outdoors activities "became even more
popular. The Federal government, however, engaged in a considerable
amount of activity which was at least partially recreational in nature.
The Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC), the Works Progress Administration
(WPA), and the Public Works Administration (FWA) constructed a consider
able number of trails, roads, buildings, et cetera, on public lands. The
National Park system expanded with the addition of Shenandoah, Mammoth
Cave, Olympic, Isle Royale, and Kings Canyon. The National Forests were
extended by purchase from private owners, and the labor from the New
Deal agencies was used for improvement. A number of water impoundments
were constructed, with the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) epitomizing
the multiple-use principle (Clawson, et al., i960, pp. 146-47).
Development since the Second World War. During the Second
World War most recreational developments were curtailed or maintained
at status only, but in the years following that conflict there has
been a significant change in the Federal governments attitude toward
outdoor recreation. The Flood Control Act of 195k, for example, put
recreation on an equal standing with other conservation measures by
directing that all such projects be open to the public without any
charge (ORRRC, 1962, jj^l} p. 118). Within the following twenty years
the multiple-use concept was firmly entrenched in all Federal agencies


sixty-five airline miles to the northwest. Taking the three summer
months of June, July and August, the mean temperature in Waycross in
found to be 81, the mean maximum temperature 92, and the highest tem
perature on record 106. 0.01 inch or more of rainfall may be expected
on forty-four summer days, as compared with Fernandina Beach's thirty-
eight days (United States Department of Commerce, Weather Bureau).
Thus, although the three summer months in Waycross have a lower
mean temperature than in Fernandina Beach, the higher figures for mean
maximum and absolute maximum temperature indicate that Waycross is more
subject to summer heat waves. Waycross is also subject to tempera-
tures in the forties and fifties during these months (Fernandina Beach
summer temperatures never drop below 60) giving a range between high
est and lowest of forty-eight to fifty-eight degrees (compared with
Fernandina Beach's range of thirty-seven to forty-four degrees).
A Waycross resident may expect some summer rainfall on about one of
every two days, while on the coast he may expect some rainfall on
about two out of five days.
HURRICANES
Hurricanes are an integral part of the Florida climatic pattern
and, despite popular misconceptions concerning their frequency and
destructive powers, should be considered to be a normal part of the
"climatic scene." Despite their occasional rampages of destruction
and flooding, hurricanes should be no serious detriment to the pursuit
of business and recreation on Amelia Island. They may even provide a
welcome period of windy, cloudy and zestful days for a portion of the


117
Figure 29 is of perhaps more interest for this study, and shows
two factors at once: the solid black line is a copy of Figure 22
("Number at Fort Clinch State Park Camping Groups . and the
dashed line represents the mean number of campers per group found by
dividing the "Number of Campers" monthly totals by the number of groups
for each particular month. A careful examination of the number of groups
and the mean number of campers per group will indicate a trend toward
larger group sizes as the actual number of groups increases. Comparing
these two graphs with the largest single group per month as indicated
in Figure 30, it is seen that the typical group size during the summer
months is composed of four people, but there are large secondary groups
consisting of five members to the group. A trend in December is to have
large numbers of two- and four-member groups, with the relative percen
tages for each size of group ranging from about 20 percent to 35
percent.
The high three-month average of about 4.4 members per group is
to be expected in a non-public school season of June, July and August,
and even the rise during December and the Christmas holidays (3.4 to
3.8 members per camping group) is to be expected, but the rise in
March, 1961, and in April of 1961, 1962 and 1963 is somewhat surpris
ing. Similar rises and subsequent depressions are noted in "Camping
Groups" (Figure 22) and for all Florida tourism (Figure 45). Evident
ly a large percentage of the extra groups on the road at these
seasons consists of the larger family units.


132
entire period, with one plateau between 1960 and 1961, so the total
share during 1963 may well be above the 52-month percentage of 7 percent.
New York has been divided into two groups, the April (New York-4) be
ginning in 1960, dropping slightly, then rising modestly. New York,
July peaks (New York-7), though, show a very distinct drop from 1959, a
low plateau between 1961 and 1962, then a modest rise.
An interesting special study was conducted during the week of
July 15-21, 1963, in which all incoming visitors were classified into
four groups on the basis of origin: Florida, Georgia, Alabama, and
Other, for both day visitors and campers (Table 5, and Figure 39).
During this study, the number of persons in each car was counted as the
number in the group, and the license tag was counted as being the home
state. Florida contributed a whopping big 41 percent of total visitors
(day and overnight) and an even larger 60 percent of day visitors (as
compared to the 34 percent Florida day-visitors from Figure 20-E¡). The
percentage of campers was fairly consistent with the monthly totals,
with 45 percent for the week, as compared with some 40 percent for the
month (Figure 20-B). Among the campers, a surprisingly large 35 percent
during the week came from Georgia, and slightly more than one-half that
number come from Florida. The largest single group was the Other, and
Alabama scarcely figured among the totals. This may be compared with
Figure 34 which indicates an overall average of 24 percent campers from
Florida, 16 percent from Georgia, less than 1 percent from Alabama, and
some 60 percent from Other.


52
evidence of a facelifting for "main" street but this section still
retains its old-south charm.
From the southern limits of the above section, in an irregular
pattern south to the airport, is a scattering of older but widespread
housing with few commercial enterprises.
The more modern and better maintained residential section extends
from the junior high school and Central Park to Egan's Creek to the east,
and from Oldtown to the southern irregular limit about one-half mile
south of Atlantic Avenue. The most desirable section is along the five
to fifty foot bluffs overlooking Egan's Creek to the east, and along
the central part of Atlantic Avenue itself. The southern section is an
area of recent medium-cost housing developments.
A separate and distinctive section is encountered along the
beach from Fort Clinch State Park on the north to the golf course in
the south. Generally, it consists of one row of houses on the west,
and a thick, somewhat disorganized ribbon of houses on the east, with
this ribbon becoming somewhat thinner as the high-water line drifts
roadward. This beach section is largely one of summer rental cottages
and apartments (see "The Use of Private Facilities," page 15Q Chapter
III).
South of the airport is the old settlement of Amelia City with
a church, a cemetery, several gasoline-grocery stations, a nursery, a
scattering of houses and a well-known restaurant, the Sandbar, which
is frequented by both automobile and Intracoastal Waterway traffic
which may moor at the private dock.


211
cent over 1961 estimates. The 1963 estimate of 780,000 visitors to the
two monuments in 1972 is more than double the 1961 estimates of less
than 350,000 for the same year.
There are a number of factors which could influence these deci
sions. An unlimited influx of tourists could overwhelm the facilities,
and some control must be exercised over the sheer numbers of visitors by
such means as early closing hours and fees for entrance. A change in
the physical facilities would therefore have a deciding effect on the
number of estimated tourists to be accommodated. The construction of
Interstate 95 by-passing St. Augustine would tend to hurry potential
visitors to the more southern parts of the state, whereas before the
major routes led directly past the Castillo itself. At any rate, the
Castillo de San Marcos is nearly at the saturation point for the number
of visitors that it can accommodate without impairment of the relics
themselves, and is not actively looking for more visitors.
Little Talbot Island State Park and Fort George Island Historic
Memorials. Little Talbot Island is geologically similar to Amelia
Island and occupies the ocean front immediately to the south of Nassau
Sound. It is smaller than Amelia Island, being only some five miles in
length and one-half mile in width. Big Talbot Island, a game refuge,
lies landward across tidal swamps, and Fort George River separates it
from Fort George Island. The Buccaneer Trail traverses some three
miles along the Island and gives access to the two public bathing
beaches, which contain the only buildings on the Island.


212
Little Talbot Island is a major beach access point for Jackson
ville and is only about one-half hour distant. Until recently, the
south beach was reserved for colored patrons and the north beach was re
served for white patrons. Both beaches are well maintained and free of
access during daylight hours (except for the 50d toll bridge on the
Buccaneer Trail at Fort George River), but the entrances may be tempor
arily closed during holidays when the parking lots are saturated.
Each beach area has a bathhouse, refreshment stand, children's
playground, picnic area, and in addition the south beach has a recrea
tion hall and a fishing pier into the Atlantic Ocean. Lifeguard services
are provided during summers. The north end and the south end of the
Island provide solitude for those wishing to walk, and the forty-foot
high dunes provide cover for a variety of birds and other beach animals.
Careful tallies of incoming vehicles have been kept by the
Florida Park Service and the traffic count is now taken by automatic
wheel counters. The formula used to determine the total number of
visitors is 4.5 persons per vehicle, white out-of-state is assumed to be
12 percent, and Negro out-of-state is assumed to be 6 percent of the
totals for each beach. The Park acts largely as an overflow facility
for the closer Jacksonville Beach areas. The monthly traffic figures
shown in Table 35 reflect the expected wide range in monthly attendance,
with the summer-winter ratio being 10:1.
Fort George Island is geologically a continuation of Big Talbot
Island, but is now separated from it by Fort George River, a tidal
estuary (Figure 55). High bluffs (some over sixty feet in height) and


is not unusual for a local business to utilize the pirate theme for a
business name, as for example the "Buccaneer Laundry" or the "Pirate's
Cove" subdivision.
Second in importance to the Pirate theme is the Civil War theme
as centered on Fort Clinch, its museum and relics. Fort Clinch is men
tioned or pictured on all the Chamber of Commerce brochures, on the
Buccaneer Trail brochures, and by numerous road signs which give dis
tance to the Fort from as far away as twenty-five miles. Events and
activities at the park are often written up in the local newspaper,
especially the yearly attendance figures. At one time attendance
figures were kept for the Fort and museum, but these features are now
open to any park visitor without charge or record being kept.
The early Spanish period, centered on the Plaza in Oldtown (see
Figures 14, 15 and 16), is at present of interest to only a few. The
local historical society (The General Duncan Lamont Clinch Historical
Society of Amelia Island) is developing and creating interest in the
restoration of Oldtown and Fort San Carlos, which has been the sub
ject of archaeological investigation by the Florida State University
(Bullen, et al., 1952, pp. 37-64). The society has acquired an old,
stately house overlooking the plaza (Figure 17) and the old Seaboard
Railroad station at the western end of Atlantic Avenue (Figure 18),
which are to be turned into museums to house the very considerable
private collections of pictures, documents and mementos available on
the Island. This society sponsored the Florida State University
archaelogical diggings during the summer of 1964, and has sponsored a


220
REVISED 1964
Cover: The gorge and moat. Photo by Franklin Dulany.
U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE : 1964 OF726-67
FIGURE 57
MAP OF FORT PULASKI NATIONAL MONUMENT
Source: A National Park Service brochure


TABLE 43 (continued)
Florida
Non-
Florida
Total
Campers
Weekly
Total
Florida
Non-
Florida
Total
Campers
Monthly
Total
December, 1962
- 736
59
795
31
826
477
103
580
86
666
592
101
693
13
706
926
125
1,051
147
1,196
996
474
1,470
264
1,734
3,748
881
4,629
538
5,167
January, 1963
812
250
1,062
96
1,158
997
663
1,660
241
1,901
1,152
161
1,313
272
1,590
722
294
1,016
119
1,135
3,033
1,156
4,189
649
4,838
February, 1963
596
106
702
81
738
993
176
1,169
142
1,309
664
188
852
149
1,001
581
287
868
112
980
2,799
767
3,566
513
4,079
March, 1963
- 928
324
1,252
104
1,356
1,194
329
1,523
266
1,789
1,432
436
1,868
398
2,266
1,401
574
1,975
618
2,593
1,403
591
1,994
822
2,816
6,236
2,206
8,442
2,160
10,602
April, 1963
-1,600
587
2,187
596
2,783
3,360
812
4,172
1,366
5,548
3,020
1,020
4,040
1,046
5,286
1,790
756
2,546
816
3,362
10,008
3,219
13,227
4,104
17,331
ro
oo
LO


156
N 0 R T H BEACH
Rental Units
Owner Occupied Units
SOUTH
BEACH
.244'
iiiiiiiili Rental Units
Owner Occupied Units
FIGURE 43
LOCATION OF SUMMER RESI
DENTIAL UNITS ALONG
FLETCHER AVENUE, FERNAN-
DINA BEACH, FLORIDA,
1964


79
Table 3. Only forty-three of the seasons (or 62 percent), however,
actually recorded any hurricanes. Each season so recorded registered
up to three hurricanes, and averaged some 1.6 per season recording such
a storm. Thus, for any single year, the entire Florida-Georgia coast
would have some four chances out of ten of not receiving a single hur
ricane, but if a hurricane did come, there would be about the same
chance (four out of ten) that it would be followed by a second or
third.
For the Amelia Island area there were no hurricanes recorded
from 1900 until 1944 (Bunting, et al., 1951, p. 7, Table I) and the
chances of having a hurricane in any given year would be about one in
fifty (Bunting, e£ ah, 1951, p. 7, Table II).
The "hurricane season" is generally given as extending from
June 15 through November 15. Table 4 indicates that September and
October are the most susceptible months (Bunting, £t al., 1951, p. 7,
Table III).


195
were Floridians. During the special count taken on the Buccaneer Trail
in April, 1961 (Table 6), 57 percent of the vehicles using the ferry
were Floridian (but not all were on vacation, of course). The percen
tage of automobiles on the Atlantic Avenue parking lot on the 4th of
July and the 2nd of September, 1962 (Table 9), were 44 percent and 58
percent, respectively, while on the 3rd of September of the same year
some 61 percent of the automobile licenses at American Beach were
Floridian (Table 20).
Florida is one of the two fastest-growing states in the country
at the present time, and this trend is likely to continue into the near
future. Figure 47, showing Florida's population growth since 1840 to
the present time and projected to the year 2000, indicates the phenome
nal population rise since the mid 1940's and especially the mid-1950's.
This rise culminates in an anticipated nearly fifteen million popula
tion by the year 2000, or a tripling of the 1960 population within 40
years. This rate of growth is half again as much as the United States
total (ORRRC Study Report 23, 1962, Table A-2, page 5).
When one realizes that practically all of this gain in population
is urban (or at least non-rural: see Figure 48), and that a large per
centage of the population is inclined toward outdoor activities because
of the favorable climate, a retirement status, and/or increased leisure
and personal income, an increased pressure on the available resources
is inevitable. The Florida Outdoor Recreational Development Council
states that "In merely two years, 1961-1963, (sic) Florida gained
almost a half million permanent residents, while the number of out-of-


104
size of the individual groups, is summarized in Column C, "Number of
Campers," Table 5.
Finally, in order to establish the total number of camper-days
in each category, the number of camping groups in each category was
multiplied by both the number of campers and by the length of stay for
each particular category, resulting in the total number of Camper-Days.
These are summarized in Column D, "Number of Camper Days," Table 5.
These four groupings are listed in Table 5 for the fifty-two
months under question: for July and August, 1958, and then from July,
1959, inclusive through August, 1963. Twenty thousand, eight hundred
and ninety-nine receipts were deemed legible (about 99 percent) and
entered under Camping Groups, as well as under Point of Origin
(following) or approximately four hundred groups for each month under
study.
"Number of Camping Groups" totals indicate how many groups
camped overnight in the Park, but give no indication of the length of
stay or the size of the groups. Therefore, they may be called the
basic Camping Group. Figure 22 indicates the great range between peak
seasons and low seasons. Except for 1959, the peak month is July
(with August running a close second) and January seems to be the lowest
month. A surprising peak appears in April, or conversely, a surprising
low appears in May. During April it seems that there are large num
bers of campers from the New England area (see Figure 34, "Points of
Origin"). Other than this, the variation seems to be rather predic
table, ranging from a low of sixty-one groups in January, 1963, to a


CHAPTER V
CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
I. CONCLUSIONS
The recreational potential of Amelia Island is based upon two
factors, that of the resources present for development, and that of out
side pressures which will make a more intensive use of the Island
inevitable. This inevitable growth can take many forms ranging from
honky-tonks to Oceanside parklands, and in order for the citizens to
determine beforehand what environment is to be maintained on their
Island, effective, integrative Island-wide planning must be instituted.
This planning must consider outdoor recreation and its associated activ
ities to be a major or even a dominant economic activity embracing
business, government and non-commercial interests. While the recrea
tion-oriented business activity is not the dominant dollars-and-cents
function for Amelia Island at the time of this study, it certainly
gives the Island its character and has the greatest potential for (and
probability of) growth of any economic activity present. The presence
of a favorable atmosphere of relaxation and enjoyment would tend to at
tract other commercial enterprises. A summary of the major factors
under consideration will be of benefit.
VISITORS AND TOURISTS
The climate of Amelia Island will not change, of course, and
there is little likelihood for artificial climatic controls in the
foreseeable future. Amelia Island cannot hope to compete with the


Mean number of campers per group
Number of camping groups (Figure 22)
10,000
8,000
4,000
0
1958 1959
1960
1961
1962
1963
FIGURE 29
MEAN
NUMBER OF FORI CLINCH STATE
AND AUGUST, 1958, AND JULY
PARK CAMPERS PER GROUP,
, 1959, THROUGH AUGUST,
JULY
1963
AND


FIGURE
PAGE
40. Copy of Part of Brochure Advertising the Buccaneer Trail . 14-2
41. Buccaneer Trail January and July Monthly Totals by Year,
1951 through 1961 143
42. Location of Summer Rentals as Advertised through the
Chamber of Commerce and Others, Fernandina Beach,
Florida, 1964 151
43. Location of Summer Residential Units along Fletcher Avenue,
Fernandina Beach, Florida, 1964 156
44. Estimated Number of Tourists Entering Florida by Year,
1927 through 1963 . l80
45. Estimated Number of Tourists Entering Florida by Month,
July, 1959* through August, 1963 182
46. Distribution of the Florida Tourist Dollar, 1963 194
47. Florida Population Growth by Years, 1840 through i960,
and Projections to the Years 1976 and 2000 196
48. Florida Urban-Rural Population as a Percentage of Total
Population, i860 through i960 198
49. Population Growth of the Jacksonville, Florida, Central
City and Metropolitan Area, 1900 through i960 198
50. Number of Visitors to Florida State Parks, 1950 through
1964 199
51. Number of Motorboats Registered in Florida, 196O-I964 . 199
52. Monthly Distribution of Florida Outdoor Recreation Use-
Pressure, 1961 200
xv


269
attractive features for the family traveler would include miles of
beach-front driving, the Cape Hatteras National Seashore Recreational
Area and the Wright Brothers National Memorial, at least two ferry
trips, and numerous national and state forts, historical sites, and
parks. Some typical locations were examined within this study (Fort
Pulaski, Fort Frederica, the Castillo de San Marcos and Fort Matanzas)
and evidence of their very considerable drawing power was indicated by
the attendance figures. Additional facilities, parks, and roads would
develop as needed upon the organization and publication of such a
route. Amelia Island, lying directly on this route and containing a
considerable and balanced store of recreational resources and facili
ties, would tend to benefit at least as much as the rest of the
extended Buccaneer Trail region.
8. THE FORT CLINCH STATE PARK. The purchase of the Fort Clinch
reservation by the city and the state has been repaid many times over
by user-fees and local purchases by visitors. Current State Park activ
ities within the park are encouraging but are hampered by a lack of
finances. The efforts of the Historical Society to provide equipment,
and the official attention given Fort Clinch in the 1959 Biennial
Report to the Legislature, are just two instances illustrating the pre
sent importance of this historical site. Amelia Island and the Fort
Clinch State Park would assume even more importance with the establish
ment of the multi-state Buccaneer Trail, becoming both major attraction
for the Trail and at the same time a recipient of its benefits (largely
in increased winter tourism).


TABLE 6
BUCCANEER TRAIL SPECIAL COUNT FOR APRIL 8-30, 1961
North Toll Gate
(Southbound)
South Toll Gate
(Northbound)
Date
Florida
Out-of-
Total
Florida
Out-of-
Total
Duval and
Other
state
revenue
Duval and
Other
state
revenue
Nassau Co.
Florida
vehicles
Nassau Co.
Florida
vehicles
8
129
12
147
288
303
30
101
434
9*
149
21
123
293
243
29
84
356
10
63
7
126
196
111
18
89
218
11
64
17
152
233
158
14
106
278
12
47
5
82
134
52
7
75
134
13
62
8
87
157
70
12
92
174
14
80
9
90
179
142
9
69
220
15
107
13
66
186
199
13
77
289
16*
107
22
145
274
255
22
94
371
17
50
13
149
212
95
13
80
188
18
56
10
128
194
121
15
75
211
19
69
7
102
178
140
15
90
245
20
66
9
90
165
112
7
106
225
21
58
14
81
153
101
11
89
201
22
136
12
85
233
349
20
88
457
23*
316
17
121
454
667
19
137
823
24
84
5
91
180
142
9
76
227
25
51
6
93
166
183
20
115
318
26
66
11
63
140
159
10
88
257
27
64
6
66
136
108
11
95
214
28
84
21
60
165
137
14
80
231
29
124
18
110
252
326
22
70
418
30*
284
16
101
401
557
35
103
695
Total
2,316
279
2,358
4,969
4,730
375
2,079
7,184
*Sunday


20
The report was divided into five sections and the appendices.
Section I sets forth the problem of the most effective way to use recre
ational lands, a summary of the findings, and recommended Federal action.
Section II, "Recreational Resources and Human Requirements," dis
cussed the recreational needs, natural conditions, historic sites, compe
titors and the economic aspects. Section III inventoried contemporary
uses of recreational land from the local to the Federal levels. Section
IV discussed developmental programs at all levels, and Section V dis
cussed the educational opportunities.
The appendices include a considerable amount of material, in
graphic, tabular, and prose form. These appendices give details on
size, number of miles of roads and trails, et cetera, for each area ad
ministered by the National Park Service and the Forest Service, as well
as other agencies. Another appendix discusses the status of archaeology
and illegal excavations in the United States, while a companion appendix
gives details on all archaeological and historical sites administered by
the Service. A most interesting appendix contains samples of the ques
tionnaires used in various studies within the public areas.
The significance of this study lies in its thoroughness and in
its wide approach to the problem of outdoor recreation as a major land use.
The National Park Service has been interested in recreation from its
beginning, of course, but not on such a comprehensive scale. A very
thorough study of Park administration and policies is contained in Our
National Park Policy by Ise (Ise, 1961). He discusses a few of the pre-
World War I parks, notably Yellowstone and Yosemite, and the importance


1 Florida
2 Georgia
3 Ohio
4 New York
5 Ontario
6 Penn.
7 Illinois
8 North
Carolina
9 Virginia
Per
cent
23.5
16.3
6.94
5.33
4.97
3.90
3.09
3.04
2.82
2.77
2.34
10 Indiana
11 Michigan
12 New Jersey 2.32
13 Mass. 2.10
14 Tennessee 1.95
15 Maryland 1.88
16 South 1.85
Carolina
17 Connecticut 1.29
18 Kentucky 1.22
19 Missouri 1.14
20 Quebec 1.10
21 California 1.04
No. of
groups
4,826
3,338 '
1,419
1,089
1,018
780
133
FIGURE 34
POINT OF ORIGIN OF CAMPER GROUPS FROM LEADING STATES,
JULY, 1959 THROUGH AUGUST, 1963


TABLE 46 (continued)
1961
1962
Month
Northbound
Southbound Ferry
Total Northbound
Southbound
Ferry
Total
January
4,265
5,311 8,929
18,505
4,117
4,848
8,522
17,487
February
5,351
6,294 10,061
21,706
6,737
6,920
11,263
24,920
March
9,661
7,557 13,591
30,809
6,562
6,384
11,785
24,731
April
9,972
7,306 13,339
30,617
9,935
7,981
14,092
32,008
May
10,531
7,260 12,747
30,538
13,023
8,334
14,082
35,439
June
14,515
11,437 17,307
43,259
16,895
12,813
19,671
49,379
July
22,387
17,297 25,929
65,613
18,847
16,563
20,020
61,430
August
15,366
12,821 20,550
48,737
15,078
12,991
21,414
49,483
September
8,544
6,565 12,383
27,492
8,215
6,372
12,440
27,027
October
5,428
5,150 9,996
20,544
5,505
5,162
10,284
20,951
November
5,246
4,909 9,560
19,715
5,020
4,479
9,224
18,723
December
4.594
5.212 9.404
19.210
4.139
4.556
8.467
17.162
1963
Northbound
Southbound
Ferry
Total
January
4,028
4,986
8,821
17,835
February
3,625
5,481
9,091
18,197
March
7,747
6,653
14,263
28,663
April
9,838
7,828
14,525
32,191
May
10,540
7,370
13,452
31,362
June
16,355
12,457
20,293
49,105
July
19,242
14,449
24,144
57,835
August
15.879
12.817
21.628
50.324
Source: The Buccaneer Trail Association Records, Fernandina Beach, Florida
304


319
U.S. Department of Commerce, Weather Bureau. Climatic Summary of the
United States; Supplement for 1931 through 1952--Florida.
Series Wo. 11-6. '
U.S. National Park Service. Recreational Use of Land in the United
States. Part XI of the Report on Land Planning;, Novemhfir,
1934.
U.S. Outdoor Recreation Resources Review Commission. Multiple Use of
Land and Water Areas. Study Report 17, 1962.
U.S. Outdoor Recreation Resources Review Commission. Outdoor Recrea-
tion for America. A report to the President and to the Con-
gress, January, 1962.
U.S. Outdoor Recreation Resources Review Commission. Outdoor Recrea-
tion Literature: A Survey. Study Report 27, 1962.
U.S. Outdoor Recreation Resources Review Commission. Participation
in Outdoor Recreation: Factors Affecting Demand among American
Adults. Study Report 20, 1962.
U.S. Outdoor Recreation Resources Review Commission. Projections to
the Years 197& and. 2000: Economic Growth, Population, Labor
Force and Leisure, and Transportation" Study Report 23, 192.
U.S. Outdoor Recreation Resources Review Commission. Prospective De
mand for Outdoor Recreation. Study Report 26, 1962.
U.S. Outdoor Recreation Resources Review Commission. The Quality of
Outdoor Recreation: As Evidenced by User Satisfaction. Study
Report 1962.
U.S. Outdoor Recreation Resources Review Commission. Shoreline Recrea
tion Resources of the United States. Study Report 4, 1902.
U.S. Outdoor Recreation Resources Review Commission. Trends in Ameri
can Living and Outdoor Recreation. Study Report 22, 1902.
U.S. Proceedings of a Conference of Governors in the White House, Wash-
ington, D.C., May 13-15, 1909
Books and Pamphlets
Brockman, C. Frank. Recreational Use of Wild Lands. New York:
McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., 1959-


103
2. The number of campers in each particular group, from 1 to 10
and larger groups--the vertical scale.
3. The number of days that each group was registered for camping
from one day to one or more weeks--the horizontal scale.
Thus, the horizontal scale indicates the number of days for which
the group was registered, the vertical scale indicates the number in the
group, and the numbers in each combination indicate the number of groups
falling into that particular classification (Table 44, Appendix C,
"Camping Groups (A)). The totals for both the columns and rows are in
dicated as well as the grand total. Column A, "Number of Camper
Groups," presents the sum total of these camping groups by month.
For the mean length of stay, the number of camping groups in
each category was multiplied by the length of registered stay (the hori
zontal scale) to give the total number of Group Camping Days (Column B,
"Number of Group Camper Days," Table 5). It is recognized that it was
not uncommon for a group to re-register after a short stay, but since
it was impractical to consistently check this factor, it is accepted
as an unavoidable error creating a bias toward the shorter length of
time.
Next, the vertical scale, or the number of campers in each
group, was multiplied by the number of groups in each category in
order to establish the total number of campers in each category; i.e.,
for the length of stay as well as for the size of the group. This
grouping, concerned mainly with the total numbers of campers and the


246
BEACH EROSION DAMAGE AT 730 NORTH FLETCHER AVENUE, FERNANDINA
BEACH, FLORIDA, 1964, VIEWED FROM THE SOUTHEAST
FIGURE 66
BEACH EROSION DAMAGE AT 730 NORTH FLETCHER AVENUE, FERNANDINA
BEACH, FLORIDA, 1964, VIEWED FROM THE NORTHWEST


TABLE 8
FERNANDINA BEACH MUNICIPAL GOLF COURSE USAGE (NINE-HOLE ROUNDS),
MAY, 1957, THROUGH AUGUST, 1964
Month
1957
1958
1959
1960
1961
1962
1963
1964
January
2,626
3,235
6,586
3,649
3,023
3,533
2,757
February
2,303
3,078
5,763
4,675
4,833
3,511
4,109
March
3,801
3,862
4,349
5,355
5,316
6,500
5,331
April
3,890
5,277
5,209
5,256
5,218
5,598
5,162
May
141
3,944
5,697
5,371
4,819
4,721
5,365
5,599
June
2,072
4,300
5,677
5,235
4,502
4,925
4,581
4,145
July
2,773
4,509
6,321
5,746
5,142
5,559
6,082
5,711
August
3,374
4,815
6,279
5,774
5,368
4,846
5,999
September
3,471
3,453
5,171
3,907
4,429
4,391
4,177
Octoher
3,109
3,026
4,944
4,099
3,888
3,565
3,232
November
2,846
3,582
6,266
4,038
3,751
3,539
3,004
December
2,703
2,553
5,774
3,187
3,425
2,600
1,965
Source: Taken from records in City Hall, Femandina Beach, Florida


233
found a few miles to the east of Jacksonville. Floating dredges are
used to pump sand to concentrators, where a small percentage of the sand
containing the minerals of interest are removed. The remainder of the
sand is replaced in one end of the pond while the dredge pumps from the
other end. The surface of replacement may be left in a variety of
forms, either flat, hilly, or with ponds of any size or shape. The
Rutile Mining Company of Florida (Jacksonville, Florida) generally
leases the land, clears all timber and other debris, processes the sand,
and leaves the area in a form determined by the original agreement.
This may result in a particular topography, and even includes the plant
ing of a particular type of vegetation or complete reforestation. Areas
that this company has mined east of Jacksonville now include an inter
section of two four-lane highways, a subdivision encircling a lake, a
country club with numerous hillocks and ponds, and several reforested
areas.
Figure 59 shows the areas held by the Union Carbide and Carbon
Company on Amelia Island. This land had been essentially idle land at
the time of purchase, mostly under non-commercial forest. The beach
front property extends from the city limits to the Talbot Island bridge
in the south, with the exception of American Beach's three thousand foot
frontage. Small sections are owned other than on the beach itself.
Total holdings were given an evaluation in 1963 of nearly $160,000, and
taxes of nearly $7,000 were levied. According to their local agent, Mr.
E. N. Roberts, the land is to be mined when the international price of
titanium ores make it feasible, and that no further plans have as yet
been announced by the company.


TABLE 45 (continued)
United States
New Hampshire
1
1
1
2
2
4
2
49
New Jersey
10
6
19
25
5
7
23
25
476
New Mexico
1
1
2
9
New York
9
12
31
61
12
13
50
39
1,089
Nbrth Carolina
2
4
6
15
4
39
43
29
623
North Dakota
1
36
Ohio
1
6
14
19
15
72
116
96
1,419
Oklahoma
1
1
1
35
Oregon
1
1
20
Pennsylvania
3
6
14
10
11
49
54
41
780
Rhode Island
3
2
1
1
56
South Carolina
3
4
18
7
24
35
22
379
South Dakota
2
11
Tennessee
2
6
4
29
33
33
398
Texas
1
3
1
8
6
4
114
Utah
15
Vermont
2
2
1
1
32
Virginia
3
12
13
7
30
32
29
577
Washington
2
1
44
Washington, DC
2
1
5
1
1
1
6
65
West Virginia
1
1
14
11
150
Wisconsin
3
12
3
5
10
3
174
Wyoming
1
4
Canal Zone
1
5
Canada
Alberta
1
22
British Columbia
2
43
Manitoba
1
2
2
1
14
300


228
FACTS OF INTEREST
CONTAINER CORPORATION OF AMERICA AND RAYONIER, INCORPORATED
FOR NASSAU COUNTY
Total direct employment
Number
Annual Payroll
Mills, Container and Timber
Divisions
1,238
$ 8,992,000
Total indirect employment
777
Annually
Annual Value
Wood from Nassau County
106,200
carloads
$ 2,124,000
Daily
Annually
Annual Value
Wood consumption
1,875
carloads
663,000
$13,433,000
Local purchases other than
wood annually
$995,000
Products shipped out annually
8,200 carloads
County taxes paid annually
$356,738
Percent of
total: 40%
County taxes paid to schools
$192,100
City taxes paid annually
$251,400
Percent of
total: 62%
FIGURE 58
COPY OF "FACTS OF INTEREST" SHEET FOR THE CONTAINER CORPORATION OF AMERI
CA AND RAYONIER, INCORPORATED, FERNANDINA BEACH, FLORIDA, 1963
Source: Personnel Manager, Rayonier, Incorporated, Femandina Beach,
Florida, 1964.


322
Articles and Periodicals
Bruun, Per, Gerritsen, F., and Morgan, W. H. "Florida Coastal Prob
lems, Proceedings of the Sixth Conference on Coastal Engi
neering, XII, No. 12 (December, 193), 33-79.
Bullen, Ripley P., and Griffin, John ¥. "An Archaelogical Survey of
Amelia Island, Florida," The Florida Anthropologist, V, Nos.
3-4 (December, 1952), 37-S^
Clawson, Marion. "Recreation as a Competitive Segment of Multiple
Use," Land and Water Use, ed. Wynne Thorne (Washington, D.C.:
The American Association for the Advancement of Science, 1963),
pp. 169-184.
Douglas, William 0. "A Wilderness Bill of Rights," Britannica Book of
the Year (Chicago: Encyclopaedia Britannica, Inc., 1965),
pp. 49-80.
Fernandina Beach News-Leader, August 29, 1963; September 10, 1964;
September 17, 1964.
Florida Times-Union, June 19, 1963.
Martens, James H. C. "Beaches of Florida," reprint from The Twenty-
First -Twenty-Second Annual Report of the Florida State Geolog
ical Survey (Tallahassee, 1931), PP 67-119-
"Parks and Monuments," Britannica Book of the Year (Chicago: Encyclo
paedia Britannica, Inc., 1965), pp. 616-18.
Waugh, Robert E. "Increasing the Validity and Reliability of Tourist
Data," The Journal of Marketing, XX, No. 3 (January, 1956),
286-88.
Yachting Magazine, November, 1964.
Unpublished Material
Dunkle, John R. "St. Augustine, Florida: A Study in Historical Geog
raphy." Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, Clark University,
1955.
Pink, Helen R. "Amelia Island; A Resource Unit for Teachers in Sec
ondary Schools." Unpublished Master's thesis, University of
Florida, 1949.


TABLE 45 (continued)
Jan.
Feb.
Mar.
Apr.
May
June
July
Aug.
Sept.
Oct.
Nov.
Dec.
New Brunswick
1
1
Newfoundland
1
Nova Scotia
1
2
Ontario
10
10
10
28
8
11
51
41
7
10
4
8
P.E. Island
1
Quebec
2
4
5
3
2
4
10
18
4
4
1
1
Saskatchewan
Others
Australia
1
Belgium 1
Curacao
Denmark
England
2
Finland
Germany
1
Holland
1
Jamaica
1
Mexico
New Zealand
1
Norway
1
South Africa
Sweden
1
1
Switzerland
Wales
1
298


232
The Mining Industry. In April, 1957, the Union Carbide and Carbon
Company, Incorporated, announced plans to mine the heavy mineral sands of
southern Amelia Island, and bought more than three thousand acres of what
had been generally idle land. Due to the development of foreign sources
and a changing international demand for titanium, production plans have
not materialized but the land already bought is still being held by the
company (Figure 59). Since these holdings include about half of the
total beachfront property on Amelia Island, it will be of interest to
examine the situation.
Despite the predominant limestone construction of the entire
Florida peninsula, the eastern beaches are generally composed of large
percentages of quartz (Si02), decreasing southward (Martens, 1931, p. 82).
This quartz sand apparently originated in the Appalachian Highlands of
Georgia and the Carolinas, was transported to the ocean by rivers, and
carried south by the predominant littoral drift. These sands contain
small percentages of what are collectively known as heavy minerals.
Martens has identified twenty-seven different minerals in the Florida
sands, mainly on the northeastern beaches (Ibid., p. 83). The more
important of these minerals are those containing titanium ore, such
as rutile (Ti02) and Ilmenite (FeTi02). Other minerals mined in this
region would include zircon (ZrSiO^) and monazite, a thorium oxide
(Thirteenth Biennial Report of the Florida Geological Survey, 1954,
pp. 67-68).
These heavy minerals are presently being mined in several places
in northeastern Florida. The mines closest to Amelia Island are to be


226
II. INTERNAL FACTORS INFLUENCING DEVELOPMENT
INDUSTRY
Tourism is by no means the only economic basis for the City of
Fernandina Beach. Two major industries which are of importance to tour
ism are concerned with the processing of woodpulp and the processing of
non-edible fish. A list of other industries on the Island would include
wholesale and retail foodfish companies, their associated fleets, and a
boatyard where the fishing boats are produced. The Union Carbide and
Carbon Company has an office on the Island, but is not in operation at
present.
The presence of these industries gives a stability to the economy
which the summer-based tourist industry cannot provide. Besides the
monthly payrolls, they provide a tax base for the operation of the
municipal and county governments.
The woodpulp and the non-food fish processing factories have a
deleterious effect on the recreational potentialities of the Island
through the disposal of their waste products. The Union Carbide and
Carbon Company has a potential effect through its control of large
amounts of beachfront land on the Island. These two different limiting
factors will be considered in more detail.
The menhaden industry. Two menhaden fishing companies, the Quinn
Menhaden Fisheries and the Nassau Fertilizer and Oil Company, each em
ploy about thirty-five persons and operate their own fleet of fishing
boats. The menhaden (porgy) is primarily a non-food fish, although it


31
merits must be taken generally by a study of a closely associated activity
or function, or by extension from a sample count.
An evaluation of the Island's recreational resources implies more
than a tabulation of the number of users. Some value must be assigned to
these activities in order to understand their importance to the area or
region as a whole. For this, the most tangible value assignation is the
dollar value based on so many dollars per visit or per user-day.
Intangible values such as intensity of user-satisfaction or emotional
and physical recuperation are outside the nature of this study and how
ever real and important they may be, they are immeasurable within the
geographic definition of "resource." The dollar value assigned is a
rough indication that these particular people are willing to pay at
least this much money for these particular activities in this particular
area, and so is a lower limit to the economic value of these resources
at present.
Since the Island cannot be considered as an isolated unit either
areally or functionally, a third objective is to evaluate outside factors
which influence or will influence the recreational aspects of the Island.
The size and timing of the state's tourist influx, the location of the
major highways, and the population growth of the nearby Jacksonville
metropolitan area are major determining factors in the future of Amelia
Island. Outside support given to local activities, as for instance to
the local state park or the societies concerned with historical restora
tion, will have important effects. Activities within the Island which
reach beyond its shores, as for instance the Chamber of Commerce


162
and the motel units remaining steady at about one-sixth of the total
occupancies. The motels receive some 45 percent of their business
during the summer months, the rented houses and apartments some 80
percent.
Number of people. So far we have been considering only the
number of residential units available, but the number of people these
units represent is a more important factor. It is relatively easy to
count houses, which will remain in one place, but the estimation of the
actual number of people in each house is quite a different matter. For
the owner-occupied homes, we could accept the national average of 3.38
(ORRRC Report #22, 1962, p. 36). However, taking into consideration
the beach location and the probability of frequent summer house guests,
a figure of four persons per household would seem to be more reasonable.
This figure may be too high if a large number of these private homes
are really summer cottages owned by out-of-towners, or more exactly the
figure may be too high for the winter and too low for the summer when
there would be frequent house guests.
It is more difficult to arrive at an average for the motels and
the other rental units. These "units" range from a single motel room
to a cottage with fifteen assorted pieces of sleeping equipment ranging
from double beds to cots to couches, spread among all the rooms of a
cottage. It is not unusual for a two-room cottage (plus kitchen and
batb) to have two double beds, two sleeping couches, and any requested
number of folding cots (at no extra price). The point of all this is,


69
The sand is generally of the same high quality for bathing as is found on
the Atlantic beaches.
There have been practically no man-made changes to this area and
hence it is one of the most picturesque areas in this section of Florida.
To the south Big and Little Talbot Islands are preserved as wildlife
refuges and state parks. The State Road Department has created a con
crete boat launching ramp and parking space next to the northern term
inus of the bridge, which is very popular. Clammers and fishermen may
often be seen along these shores.
Ill. THE CLIMATE
Amelia Island's beaches and waters are mainly a summer attrac
tion, according to the Fort Clinch camping and visitor receipts (see
Chapter III). In the 1880's and the 1890's the town of Fernandina was a
thriving winter resort, but this industry collapsed with the construc
tion of railroads to the southern part of the state (Pink, 1949, p. 155).
Summer tourism has been a major business for the island only since World
War II according to Mrs. Ruth Brown of the Fernandina Beach Chamber of
Commerce.
Summer weather is generally hot and muggy with afternoon conven
tional precipitation. Along the beach there is usually an ameliorating
sea breeze, but this does not necessarily extend across the island.
The typical winter provides cool, clear and windy days with warm after
noons and cool nights, but drizzling rains and cold snaps may be
expected. Lying on the southeastern edge of an immense continental


100
park records which were broken down into categories as organized and
individual campers, lodge users, and group users. From July, 1962 on,
a somewhat more elaborate counting system was effected, so the records
now show a further breakdown of the daily visitors into the Florida-
non-Florida day visitors as well as the number of campers (Table 43
Appendix C).
Figure 20 shows the campers, day visitors, and totals by month
for the years November, 1961 to August, 1963, with the Florida-non-
Florida day visitors divided as of July, 1962. Quite obviously, the
peak season is July, with July, 1963 visitors (of all types) reaching
over 33,000 for the month, and February of the same year reaching just
over 4,000.
This seasonal variation puts a strain on facilities which must
be able to accommodate peak summer seasons and yet must lie partially
idle for the remainder of the year. Figure 20-B has been prepared by
reducing Figure 20-A to percentages, and indicates the very high per
centage-rise of campers in the summer months. The number of campers
increases from a low of about 5 percent in December, 1961 and January,
1962, and 10 percent in December, 1962, to a peak of about 40 percent
in June and August, 1962, and July, 1963. The conclusion is inescap
able that while more visitors come in the summer just to take a day
trip, up to eight times as many on percentage basis plan to spend the



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V
THE PLAZA, OLDTOWN. VIEW TO THE NORTHWEST.
FIGURE 16
MAP OF OLDTOWN, 1811-12. COURTESY OF MR. DECKER


267
a matter of zoning to establish strips reserved for one-family residen
tial, multi-family residential, motel, service businesses, public facil
ities and a planned series of landscaped parks. This would be a
long-term project for a time when population and use pressure on the
northern end of the Island becomes acute. The time for planning is now,
for it will be quite difficult or impossible to establish effective
control when the land has been settled or sold to many small owners.
Possibly agreements could be reached similar to those used in
the mining of lands east of Jacksonville, where after the land has been
mined (within prescribed time limits) the land is left with the required
hills, lakes, or other topography. The present owners could maintain
full mining rights for a prescribed amount of time, but with public
ownership or control over the land once this had been accomplished.
The development of the marina and the Intracoastal Waterway Wel
come Station was an example of public improvement which is to be
encouraged. The entire dock area facing the Amelia River should ulti
mately be renovated to include public and private docks, associated
businesses, and a park area. Provision should be made for a considerable
extension of services along the lines of a public or a private yacht
club. If it is necessary to have more room, the location could be
moved to the southern end of the Island near Amelia City. A facility
of this nature would not occupy much land but would provide a consider
able amount of direct and indirect revenue and services to the Island.
Lying on the Intracoastal Waterway and with easy access to the Atlantic
Ocean, such a facility would provide a permanent mooring for local resi
dents and for boat-owners from the Jacksonville area.


Copyright ty
Richard Oscar Cutler
1966


33
and evaluation. The following categories are based upon a very general
developmental order for the study. Some of the sources could be
classified under more than one category.
Secondary sources of information
1. The first and most basic general source was Pink's thesis
"Amelia Island" (see bibliography). This thesis, by a former Fernandina
Beach resident, is a general regional geographic study of the Island and
county and is an excellent introduction to the Island. The natural
features of the environment (soils, climate, vegetation, et cetera) are
surveyed, as are the major industries (timber, pulpwood, fisheries).
The extensive section on the history of the Island draws on both pub
lished documentary sources and on original unpublished material and
interviews with the older residents. This work shows evidence of a
thorough acquaintance with the Island and county and a diligent search
into its economic and historical development.
2. The second most basic general source, from a geographer's
viewpoint, is to be found on the various maps, charts, and aerial
photographs of the area, both recent and old. The major series used
in the study would include:
a. The United States Geological Survey 7.5' Topographic
Survey Series (approximately two and one-half inches per mile). The
two 1958 sheets "Fernandina Beach, Florida and "Amelia City, Florida
were the main ones used. An older edition of the section immediately
to the south of Amelia Island, "Mayport, Florida (1950) was of some


19
II. THE LITERATURE
The earliest writings on outdoor recreation in this country were
essays on the enjoyment of nature after the manner of Thoreau. During
the late 1900's the voice of the crusading naturalist-conservationist
was heard decrying the loss or impending loss of irreplaceable natural
beauties. However, these writings were more of a literary nature than
of an actual study of the problem.
With the beginning of the multiple-use concept in the early period
of this century, it became apparent that the extent and quality of our
natural resources were inadequately inventoried, and some of the first
studies of importance were of this nature. The Federal agencies mainly
concerned with recreation, i.e., the National Park Service and the
Forest Service, were and still are in the best position to make such a
survey. The 1934 report on land planning by the National Park Service
is an example of an excellent and thorough survey by that agency
(Recreational Use of Land in the United States, Part XI, 1938), and
consisted of two hundred and eighty folio-sized pages and a number of
full-color, foldout maps. The primary aim was "... to set forth the
facts, analyses, and the recommended lines of action ..." (Ibid.,
Preface, p. iii). A review of the contents will illustrate the width
of coverage.


TABLE 32
NUMBER OF VISITORS TO THE CASTILLO DE SAN MARCOS NATIONAL MONUMENT,
JANUARY, 1956, THROUGH JULY, 1964
Month
1956
1957
1958
1959
1960
1961
1962
1963
1964
January
23,540
27,001
23,661
18,475
18,917
15,923
15,864
16,707
20,889
February
34,821
35,210
20,457
21,714
23,363
21,481
25,947
21,479
26,767
March
37,603
36,322
24,220
29,405
22,969
26,975
27,605
32,361
36,611
April
36,412
39,855
31,815
24,640
33,240
33,145
38,245
44,115
26,174
May
27,219
30,671
25,740
20,968
26,724
23,039
26,042
27,042
24,832
June
59,808
53,356
50,580
47,221
50,251
51,108
54,956
63,689
33,838
July
77,841
73,340
66,385
54,679
68,698
73,191
79,182
83,174
43,908
August
55,171
64,538
56,530
67,318
50,063
62,794
74,796
78., 449
September
21,416
21,955
16,377
18,062
13,688
17,655
18,136
18,855
October
16,880
20,692
17,347
14,441
16,400
16,459
16,643
15,852
November
16,861
17,787
17,798
13,932
13,789
16,719
16,598
15,228
December
29,188
29,450
22,571
25,350
19,157
27,117
22,591
26,296
Total
440.760
451.177
373.481
356.205
366.347
385.606
416.605
444.247
Source: Superintendent, Castillo de San Marcos National Monument, St. Augustine, Florida.
o
OO


243
Fernandina Beach News-Leader, estimates that almost half of the damage
was through erosion. Figure 65 gives a graphic description of Hurri
cane Dora.
Figure 63 shows Fletcher Avenue immediately after the storm,
-
viewed from the south. The seawall around the house in the background
suffered extensive damage but protected the house itself. Figures 66
and 67 show the landward and seaward views, respectively, of three
houses at 730 North Fletcher Avenue. About one vertical yard of beach
sand has been removed and the houses have tipped forward and broken in
the middle. They were all total losses.
The type of construction was a determining factor in the amount
of damage that a building received. Figure 68, at 836 North Fletcher
Avenue, shows two cottages next to each other on the beach. The house
on the right, a wooden structure built on wooden pilings, was essential
ly undamaged, while the house on the left, built on a concrete slab
foundation, was a total loss. Figure 69, taken at 982 South Fletcher
Avenue, illustrates an extrme* example of the value of wooden piling
construction: from four to six feet of sand, vertically, have been re
moved while the house remains intact. The original sand level may be
seen by the stairs to the right and the shower stall under the left side
of the house. In the immediate foreground lie scattered the remains of
a seawall and house to the left of the picture. Although located some
thirty feet inland from the house in the picture, and protected by a
4
seawall, the house was a total loss. Figure 70 shows a section of
North Beach and what used to be Ocean Street, damaged by the 1944


257
The Fort Clinch State Park. The Florida Park Service has long
recognized the need for restoration at Fort Clinch and the surrounding
historical sites. In the 1959 report to the state legislature, one of
the major needs was pointed out to be the restoration of Fort Clinch,
especially the roofing of the buildings and the supplying of these
buildings with appropriate tools of the times (Biennial Report of the
Florida Board of Parks and Historic Memorials for the years July 1, 1957,
through June 30, 1959, p. 74). The need for cannon, either old or newly
cast, was cited in order "to make the structure 'come alive' in the
minds of visitors" (Ibid.). Appreciative mention is made of the
activities of the Historical Society for their donations and historical
markers.
The Park facilities are already overtaxed during the peak summer
seasons. There have been more than twenty-one thousand visitors
recorded during one week's time (during the week of June 22-28, 1958,
19,500 day-visitors and 1,246 campers were registered. During one
single day, the 28th of the same month, 7,500 day-visitors and one
hundred and eighteen campers were registered ). This situation has been
helped considerably by charging an entrance fee, and the highest number
of visitors since the fee was instituted has been fifteen thousand for
any one week (during the second week of June, 1961, there were recorded
13,188 day-visitors and 2,231 campers). Thus, it is not surprising that
the major emphasis within the park is on the construction of additional
facilities for day-visitors and campers.


176
about eight and one-half million dollars to the Island's economy per
year by these calculations. Nearly seven million dollars of this
figure would be brought by visitors to Amelia Island.
These eight and one-half million dollars which are brought into
the economy yearly, however, represent only those expenditures which are
directly attributable to the beach uses. Indirect contributions in the
form of city and county taxes, wages and salaries for employees, con
struction and maintenance of the property, et cetera, have not been
measured in this tabulation. In many cases, the income derived from
beach-front rentals is only supplementary to the regular income rather
than being a major source of livelihood. These figures also include
estimations for local beach-use, for which it is particularly difficult
to assign a dollar value.
However, by assigning a dollar value it becomes possible to make
limited cmparisons with dissimilar activities. The data on the wood-
pulp industry, the other major industry on Amelia Island, are presented
in Chapter IV and are summarized in Figure 58. The annual payroll for
the two plants in 1963 was nearly nine million dollars, slightly more
than the estimates for the beach residential use. When the indirect em
ployment, the local purchases, and taxes are added, the total annual
contribution rises to nearly twelve million dollars annually (Table 40
These two plants supplied nearly twothirds of the income for the City
of Fernandina Beach, according to their figures (Figure 58)-
Thus, outdoor recreation as defined in this study and the wood-
pulp industry would seem to be of comparable value to the economy of


188
Fort Clinch campers, then, are not necessarily representative of
all Florida tourists. The high Fort Clinch ranking of Georgia and the
low relative ranking of Alabama are to be expected at a state park in
the extreme northeastern part of Florida. Canadians, or at least those
from Ontario, tend to have a relatively large representation at Fort
Clinch. Excepting these three states, however, the percentages for
Fort Clinch campers and state-wide tourists seem to be similar. The two
major exceptions, Alabama and Georgia, are easily explained by proximity
to the panhandle beaches or Fort Clinch, respectively.
Accommodations. Once the tourist arrives at his destination he
must have lodging, and the majority of automobile tourists choose a
motel for this purpose. Table 27 indicates the growing dominance of the
motel industry, growing largely at the expense of hotels, rental houses
or apartments, and the "with friends and relatives" category. This is
in marked contrast to the pattern at Fernandina Beach, where "motels"
account for only some 23 percent of the yearly tourist flow, and rental
houses, cottages and apartments account for some 40 percent. (Table 13,
Chapter III, page 70. However, the "with friends and relatives" cate
gory was not counted in these figures.) Table 27 reflects, of course,
the mobility and convenience of motels for automobile tourists, and the
percentages for all tourists entering Florida show a somewhat lower de
pendence upon motels.
Activities. Beaches, swimming, and an atmosphere of relaxation
and fun seem to be the recreational factors most anticipated by incoming


34
help on topographic features but the culture is out of date. These two
sheets were quite useful for the location of roads, streets, buildings,
and other cultural features; they were helpful for the location and
identification of the topography, such as shorelines, creeks and eleva
tions; they were a prime source for the names of cultural and physical
features; they were an aid in the location of cadastral survey lines.
However, there were some discrepancies noted in the field, mainly in
the location of the cadastral survey lines and some streets. One copy
of each sheet has been placed in a pocket at the end of this study, and
should be accepted as the primary source for location and nomenclature.
b. Aerial photography was used to supplement and, in some
cases, to replace the U.S.G.S. maps. Two sets of photographs were used,
one at a scale of eight inches per mile taken in March of 1953, and the
second at a scale of about three inches per mile (1 inch = 1,667 feet)
taken in October of 1960. A mosaic of the 1960 photographs at a scale
of approximately one inch per mile was of use in preparing some of the
maps used in the study. These photographs are commercially available
from the Agricultural Stabilization and Conservation Service, United
States Department of Agriculture. Their scale is reasonably accurate
except at the edge of the photographs. Their main value was their
field utility in conjunction with the U.S.G.S. maps for the location
and identification of features which either are not apparent on the
maps, or are not normally visible from the ground. This would include
the location of vegetation (or changes in vegetation), houses, trails,
shoals, et cetera.


1562-1597
France
1564-1735
Spain
1736-1748
Great Britain
1748-1763
Spain
1763-1783
Great Britain
1783-1821
Spain
1812
Patriot's Flag
1817
Green Cross of Florida
1817
Mexico
1861-1862
Confederate States of America
1821 to date
United States of America
The claims of the French dominion center generally upon the
early explorations of Jean Ribault along the southeastern coastline of
what is now the United States (Ribault, 1927, pp. 63-81) (Lowery, 1959,
pp. 395-96). French settlements were made at various places from the
Chesapeake Bay to the St. Johns River, with the one closest to Amelia
Island being at the site of Fort Caroline (San Mateo) in 1564. The
following year the French were driven out of this St. Johns River area
by Pedro Menendez, the Spanish commander at the newly-established town
of St. Augustine (Meras, 1923, pp. 80-106). The French never again re
gained effective control of this part of the coast, and Florida
remained under the Spanish flag for another seven decades (Folmer, 1953,
pp. 103-15). Missions were established on Amelia Island at least by
the end of the century but were not notably successful (Shea, 1854).


TABLE 25
HOME STATE OF TOURISTS ENTERING FLORIDA, BY AUTOMOBILE, 1958-1961 (IN PERCENT OF YEARLY TOTAL)
Home state
1958
1959
1960
Summer
1961
Winter
Year
Alabama
3
2
2
15
5
12
Georgia
5
4
6
14
5
11
New York
12
13
12
8
13
8
Illinois
10
9
7
9
6
7
New Jersey
6
6
5
6
8
6
Ohio
7
8
6
7
6
6
Pennsylvania
5
8
7
5
6
3
Indiana
4
4
3
3
3
3
Michigan
5
4
4
2
4
3
Massachusetts
3
4
3
1
4
2
Louisiana
3
1
2
3
1
2
North Carolina
2
2
2
3
2
2
Virginia
2
2
2
2
2
2
Texas
3
2
3
2
2
2
Ontario (Canada)
3
3
1
3
2
Tennessee
3
2
2
3
1
2
Missouri
3
2
3
2
2
2
Connecticut
2
2
3
1
3
2
Maryland
2
2
2
1
2
2
South Carolina
1
1
2
2
1
2
Others
16
19
24
10
21
11
Total
lOOYo
100%
100%
100%
100%
100%
Source: The Florida Development Commission, Tallahassee, Florida.
00
Ln


1958 1959 1960 1961 1962 1963
FIGURE 28
NUMBER OF FORT CLINCH STATE PARK CAMPERS, JULY AND AUGUST, 1958, AND
JULY, 1959, THROUGH AUGUST, 1963


231
Amelia Island from the mainland. Occasionally, however, winds from the
western quadrant are coupled with atmospheric conditions in which the
smoke does not rise, and the odor is wafted over Fort Clinch, the
beaches, or the city itself. The prevailing southwest winds and the
tourist season occur at the same time and sometimes give tourists cause
to consider alternate areas for their relaxation. These conditions
rarely last more than a day or two. The two woodpulp plants do use tall
chimneys with electrostatic partical collectors on the recovery boilers,
which is said to provide considerable help.
A second unpleasant factor associated with the presence of the
woodpulp plants is concerned with the disposal of sulfate liquors. They
pump their waste sulfate into the Amelia River, and the Rayonier Plant
has constructed a pipeline a mile into the Atlantic Ocean for the waste
disposal. These wastes help make the Amelia River unfit for swimming or
fishing and can often be seen as whitish strips of foam carried by the
currents and tide as far as the outer end of the jetties.* During
periods of easterly or northeasterly winds, especially during strong
winds, this foam collects on the Fletcher Avenue beaches in great quan
tities as shown in Figures 10 and 71. The foam may be thick enough to
completely cover a small child or a large dog at times. The foam is not
dangerous to the public health but does give a temporary yellowish color
to the bather's skin (Pink, 1959, p. 130).
*But these are not the only pollutants, according to J. W. Wake
field, Assistant Engineer, Report on Sanitary Survey of Waterways
Around Fernandina, Florida, pages 2, 3, and 4, as quoted in Pink, 1959,
page 126.


97
itself. To return to our example of a beach parking lot used above, for
instance, it would be necessary to determine first if the parking lot is
used only by people using the beach, or if significant numbers of
vehicles were there for some other purpose, i.e., as noon-time patrons
or employees of nearby restaurants. The ultimate purpose for which the
parking lot is used could vary with the time of day or night.
A study in depth necessarily must be limited to a relatively
small statistical population, and, when dealing with questions involv
ing a quality judgment or an individual's memory, the statistical
population is unreliable as well. This is not to say that there is a
reluctance to answer, or that there is deliberate misinformation given,
for it is often more difficult to terminate a verbal questionnaire than
it is to initiate one. Rather, it is a matter of asking a person who
is concentrating on the immediate present enjoyment of life, to bring
forth unremarked detail, and to synthesize or summarize this detailed
information for purposes which he only vaguely understands, if at all.
Businessmen are generally the most specific and coordinated in this
respect, having concentrated on their particular business day by day.
While businessmen are usually among the most cooperative to a
questioner, this does not always extend to questions concerning money,
i.e., "How much have you spent today?". Most tourists are unable to
give any but the vaguest breakdown on expenses either by categories or
day-to-day expenses, but they can usually give an accurate accounting
of how much money they started the trip with, and of how much they re
turn home with (usually very little--there seems to be some direct


Revised 1962 U.s. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE: 1962-0-622730
FIGURE 56
MAP OF FORT FREDERICA NATIONAL MONUMENT
Source: A National Park Service brochure


71
Temperature* Precipitation
FIGURE 11
CLIMATIC SUMMARY OF FERNANDINA BEACH, FLORIDA
*Temperature: Curved lines indicate temperature in degrees
Fahrenheit by month.
**Precipitation; Vertical lines indicate inches of precipita
tion by month.
After: Climatic Summary of the United States, Section No. 104,
Northern Florida, United States Weather Bureau.


102
night. However, there is a surprising rise in the percentage of
campers for April of each year, with a corresponding drop in March.*
From a comparison of the Florida-non-Florida visitors from July,
1962 on, it appears that the park is largely populated with non-
Floridians during summer, and Floridians during winter, for the day
visitors. The actual number of visitors, of course, drops off in each
of the three categories during the winter, with the typical park visitor
in winter being a Floridian present for the day only (possibly to use
the boat launching services) but with only a few campers. Many boats
will be in evidence at the campsites. During summer, however, the
most typical visitor will stop overnight (for one night only; see
Figure 26), with this category comprising about two-fifths of the
population. The remaining three-fifths is about evenly divided be
tween Florida and non-Florida day visitors.
The campers. The Campers' Receipts are divided into two main
categories taken directly from the receipts themselves: (1) the numer
ical nature of the groups, and (2) the origin of the group. The num
erical nature of the group is summarized in Table 5, and the origin
of the group is treated under Point of Origin, following.
For each receipt, three categories have been established (see
Table 44, Appendix C, for a sample form).
1. The number of groups in the particular category.
*This March drop in the number of visitors corresponds to the
all-Florida pattern. See Figure 45, "Number of Tourists Entering
Florida by Month . .," page 182.


TABLE 46
BUCCANEER TRAIL TRAFFIC COUNT, MARCH, 1951 THROUGH AUGUST, 1963
Month
1951
1952
1953
1954
Road
1955
Ferry
Total
January
20,304
23,132
18,574
9,273
8,002
17,275
February
23,193
24,027
22,231
8,853
8,644
18,497
March
11,773
13,546
28,413
26,030
14,167
10,158
24,325
April
14,884
26,694
25,315
28,103
16,418
11,493
27,911
May
13,415
23,383
28,941
27,410
16,484
10,345
26,829
June
16,376
36,042
33,583
31,851
21,377
13,957
35,334
July
21,942
39,983
35,003
43,837
29,393
30,120
50,013
August
20,299
35,344
12,047
39,518
22,544
15,768
38,312
September
16,111
19,599
15,540
20,296
11,983
9,425
21,408
October
13,791
30,266
15,511
16,622
9,847
8,932
18,799
November
14,078
21,168
14,483
13,270
9,255
8,376
17,631
December
14.712
18.873
14.373
14.086
8.676
7.697
16.373
Month
1956
Road
Ferry
Total
Road
1957
Ferry
Total
January
9,504
9,075
18,579
11,738
11,137
22,875
February
12,414
11,390
23,804
14,525
13,388
27,913
March
15,518
13,492
20,010
15,375
14,060
29,435
April
16,157
13,773
29,930
18,605
14,596
33,201
May
18,058
12,579
30,637
18,739
13,036
31,775
June
26,360
19,090
45,450
29,835
19,739
49,574
July
37,642
26,178
63,820
35,065
24,250
59,315
August
26,596
17,170
43,666
29,215
21,606
50,821
September
25,694
12,808
28,502
15,983
12,964
28,857
October
9,808
9,383
18,201
10,283
9,879
20,162
November
9,587
9,135
18,722
10,514
9,563
20,077
December
11.190
10.649
21,839
10.168
9.756
19.924
302


67
often formed from the junction of these currents but are not dangerous to
boats.
The shore is protected with rock groins from Fort Clinch around
the point to Egan's Creek, and the sand is partly replaced with mud.
There is some swimming, waterskiing, and much boat launching from the
concrete boat ramp at the campgrounds in Fort Clinch. This is one of
the few campgrounds in the United States where one may pitch a tent
right on the beach itself. However, the water is "soupy," the current
is fast, the rocks are covered with barnacles, and usually industrial
wastes are present. This may be considered to be part of the lagoon
with consequent slight wave action.
Egan's Creek is a shallow drainage creek for the northcentral
part of the island, and extensive tidal effects are apparent as far as
the Atlantic Avenue dam. There is some non-commercial fishing for
mullet (lisa) in its waters. The shore from here to the south takes on
the character of the salt marsh lagoons mentioned before, being muddy
or sandy-muddy and often marshy. A number of docks and piers have been
constructed from Egan's Creek south to the Rayonier plant and include
those at the end of Atlantic Avenue. The water is always "soupy" and
generally frothy with industrial wastes, though a fairly strong tidal
current provides extensive scouring. The channel is deep (twenty-eight
feet in depth as of July, 1959, according to the U.S.C. & G.C. nautical
chart number 453, "Cumberland Sound,") and is extensively used by local
boaters on the way to fishing off the jetties, by shrimpers, the men-
hadden fleets, Intracoastal Waterway traffic of all kinds, and


FIGURE
PAGE
30. Number of Fort Clinch State Park Camping Groups by Size
of Group and hy Month, July and August, 1958, and
July, 1959; through August, 1963 120
31. Per Cent of Fort Clinch State Park Camper-Days Annual
Totals Arriving in June, July, and August, i960,
through 1962 126
32. Number of Fort Clinch State Park Camper-Days, July and
August, 1958, and July, 1959; through August, 1963 .... 127
33. Fort Clinch State Park Camper Days Monthly Totals by
Year, 1958 through 1963 128
3^. Point of Origin of Camper Groups from Leading States,
July, 1959; through August, 1963 133
35- Point of Origin of Fort Clinch State Park Camping Groups
by State, July, 1959; through August, 1963 13^
36. Number of Fort Clinch State Park Camping Groups from
Florida and Georgia, July, 1959; through August,
1963 135
37. Number of Fort Clinch State Park Camping Groups from New
York and Ohio, July, 1959, through August, 1963 136
38. Number of Fort Clinch State Park Camping Groups Arriving
in July from Florida, Georgia, New York, and Ohio,
1959 through 1963 137
39 Fort Clinch State Park Special Visitor Count, Week of
July 15-21, 1963 138
xiv


250
TABLE 41
SUMMARY OF AMELIA ISLAND BEACH EROSION CONTROL BENEFITS
Type
Amount
Recreational
$ 3,750
Damages prevented
20,700
Protective expense eliminated
5,100
Increased earning power of property
(estimated value: $4,000,000)
31,500
$61,050
Source: Beach Erosion Control Report, Cooperative Study of
Amelia Island, Florida, United States Army Engineer District, Savannah,
Georgia, March 10, 1960. Table IV, page 16.
The report concluded, in view of the benefit-cost ratio of 0.4,
that protection was not appropriate at that time (1960).
The estimation of probable benefits is a difficult matter, and
the Corps of Engineers had very few data on beach usage. For instance,
the 15,000 additional visits per year to the beach is strictly an
estimate, and valid arguments could be brought to either increase or
to decrease this figure. The nature of these visits would be of impor
tance, for there would be a larger economic impact if these 15,000
additional visits were tourists, than if they were largely day-visitors.
The estimates of 250 per visit were tempered by the inclusion of a memo
dated April 8, 1960, from the Corps of Engineers, Beach Erosion Board,
Washington, D.C., which stated in part that Palm Beach County evaluated


165
TABLE 16
NUMBER OF USER-NIGHTS ALONG FLETCHER AVENUE,
FERNANDINA BEACH, FLORIDA, 1964 *
Summer
Winter
Total
Motel
56,000
72,000
128,000
Rental units
221,000
48,000
269,000
Owner-occupied homes
90,000
269,000
359,000
Total
367,000
389,000
756,000
* Rounded to nearest thousand
Thus, we arrive at a figure of about 760,000 user-nights on this
section of the Island during the year, in motels, rental apartments,
rental cottages and private homes. The average group size is 4.7 per
sons per group per night. The three summer months of June, July and
August account for some 44 percent, or 370,000 user-nights. If we sub
tract the owner-occupied homes, we find that summer attracts some
280,000 rental visitor-nights and winter some 120,000 rental visitor-
nights, giving a total of nearly 400,000 rental-visitor nights yearly.
By dividing this figure by the number of total yearly rental and motel
units (70,400), we get a mean group size of 5.65 persons per rental
group.




146
TABLE 7
BUCCANEER TRAIL: WRITTEN INQUIRIES RECEIVED DURING JUNE,
JULY, AND AUGUST, 1961
Major Georgia cities represented
Citz
Inquiries
Atlanta
17
Macon
38
Tifton
5
Valdosta
4
Inquiries by state
Alabama
4
California
1
Connecticut
1
Florida
21
Georgia
121
Illinois
1
Indiana
1
Louisiana
1
Michigan
2
Missouri
2
New Jersey
1
New York
7
North Carolina
5
Ohio
3
Pennsylvania
3
South Carolina
6
Tennessee
7
Virginia
1
West Virginia
1
Total
189
Source: Joe Schofield, Buccaneer Trail Association,
Fernandina Beach, Florida


274
Preface
In order to obtain local views and recommendations relative
to the preparation of a comprehensive Florida outdoor recreation
plan, the Outdoor Recreational Planning Committee recently conducted
a state-wide series of public hearings. Ten such hearings were held,
one in each of the established outdoor recreation planning regions of
the State. These were scheduled as follows, according to the region's
rank in population size.
Date
Region
Place
April 15
X
Miami
16
VII
Tampa
29
VI
Orlando
30
IV
Jacksonville
May 6
I
Fort Walton Beach
7
II
Tallahassee
20
III
Gainesville
21
V
Leesburg
27
IX
Fort Myers
28
VIII
Fort Pierce
All legislative representatives, county and municipal govern
ments, and groups and organizations with known outdoor recreational
interests were individually invited to attend the hearings. Through
releases to the various news media, the invitation was extended to the
general public. Most of the hearings were well attended, and wide
interest in the outdoor recreation program was evidenced by the active
participation of those present.
Many projects and proposals were recommended by hearing par
ticipants for consideration by the Outdoor Recreational Planning
Committee. Numerous other comments and suggestions were made which
did not directly involve any specific project but which have a
bearing on the Committee's work.


36
the bibliographywill be found in this library. One of its most interest
ing features is its sub-library, the P. K. Yonge Library of Florida
History, located in the main building. This library has probably the
finest and most complete collection of books, documents, maps, and other
material relating to Florida history to be found.
Two other libraries consulted for material were the Indiana State
University Library in Terre Haute, and the Indiana University Library in
Bloomington. The latter has an especially fine collection of material
in relation to various phases of recreation, in conjunction with its
School of Health, Recreation, and Physical Education. The Indiana State
University Library was able to secure considerable material through its
Inter-Library Loan services.
4. Other sources included officials and departments at the
local, county, state and Federal levels. The offices of the City Mana
ger and the City Engineer were the source of material on the City of
Fernandina Beach. The offices of the County Tax Assessor and the
County Clerk provided invaluable service in the slow search through the
public records. The Fernandina Beach Chamber of Commerce provided in
valuable background information and personal contacts. The Fort Clinch
State Park records were central to the study of tourists, and the
Florida Development Commission provided copies of their own tourist
studies and selected material from their research library. The offices
of the various state and Federal parks mentioned in the body of the re
port were consulted for material concerning the several parks.


9
greatest good for the greatest number, and recognizes that there may be
a variety of uses for a particular area or class of land resources
(ORRRC, 1962, #17, p. 1). Some of these uses may be exclusive, such as
a road, while others may be broadly inclusive, such as selective
cutting of the forests which will still leave large sections of wild
life habitat. Recreational uses are implicit in this concept, which
was finally written into law for the Forest Service in 1960.
At the turn of the century the automobile began its rise to a
dominant position in the economy. There were two million automobiles
in the country by 1914, nine million by 1921, eighteen million by 1926
(Doell, 1954, p. 59), and nearly sixty million in 1959, with this to
more than triple within the next forty years (ORRRC, 1962, #23, p. 89).
The construction of highways proceeded at an accelerated rate and has
culminated in the development of the modern interstate system. The
Federal-aid Highway Act of 1956, for instance, requires from 2.5 to 3
million additional acres for road construction and improvement by 1975
(U.S. Department of Agriculture, 1958, p. 476). This road construc
tion is bringing all sections of the country within easy travel
distance of the major population centers.
A number of outdoor groups were organized during the early
years of the century. During the first decade, the Boy Scouts, the
Girl Scouts, the Camp Fire Girls, the National Association of Boys'
Clubs, and the forerunner of the National Recreation Association were
formed (Doell, 1954, p. 59).


TABLE 45
STATE
OF ORIGIN OF
FORT CLINCH
STATE PARK CAMPERS
, JULY,
1959, THROUGH AUGUST
, 1963
United States1959
July
August
September
October
November
December
Alabama
6
9
3
Alaska
Arizona
1
Arkansas
1
California
10
11
5
1
2
Colorado
1
2
Connecticut
12
9
4
5
Delaware
4
1
Florida
105
151
65
23
12
4
Georgia
60
76
28
8
3
1
Hawaii
Idaho
Illinois
23
21
9
5
3
2
Indiana
40
28
2
1
2
Iowa
7
7
2
Kansas
1
3
3
Kentucky
18
17
2
Louisiana
3
5
Maine
1
1
1
3
1
Maryland
7
21
1
4
1
Massachusetts
33
14
3
1
1
1
Michigan
21
16
5
4
4
3
Minnesota
5
2
2
1
Mississippi
4
Missouri
6
18
2
2
Montana
1
ro
oo


177
Amelia Island, although they have entirely different characteristics.
The recreation "industry" is a seasonal business, consisting of a large
number of small entrepreneurs occupying a large amount of land and with
practically no central organization. The pulpwood industry, on the
other hand, represents a large amount of invested capital, a high de
gree of central organization, and a seasonal stability which is most
apparent during the winters when the bulk of the tourist population has
departed. While the pulpwood industries will probably grow very little
in the future because of the large capital investment involved in the
construction of new facilities, it does provide a necessary steadying
effect to the economy. The recreation "industry," though, is quite
sensitive to the changing seasonal and yearly demands for facilities
and can be expanded or contracted with comparative ease. The probable
outlook for Amelia Island and the area points toward a higher recreation
potential in the years to come and is discussed in Chapter IV,
following.


TABLE
PAGE
23. Number of People per Tourist Group Entering Florida in
1963 "by All Modes of Transportation 183
24. Number of People per Tourist Group Entering Florida in
1963 by Automobile l84
25. Home State of Tourists Entering Florida, by Automobile,
1958-1961 (in Per Cent of Yearly Total) 185
26. The Ten Primary States for Out-of-State Visitors:
Florida (1961) and Fort Clinch Camping Groups
(July, 1959, through August, 1963) 187
27. Accommodations Planned by Incoming Florida Automobile
Tourists in Percentages of All Respondents, 1958
through 1961 189
28. Incoming Florida Tourists' Anticipated Recreation, 1958
through 1961 190
29. Estimated Number of Florida Tourists, Expenditures, and
Length of Stay, 1959 through 1963 193
30. What Florida People Want Most in the Way of Additional
Outdoor Recreation Opportunities 200
31. Traffic Flov into Florida at Check Points, 1962 and 1963 . 202
32. Number of Visitors to the Castillo de San Marcos National
Monument, January, 1956, through July, 1964 208
33. Number of Visitors to Fort Matanzas National Monument,
January, 1956, through July, 1964 209


TABLE 29
ESTIMATED NUMBER OF FLORIDA TOURISTS, EXPENDITURES, AND LENGTH OF STAY, 1959 THROUGH 1963
Item
1959
1960
1961
1962
Summer*
1963
Winter**
Year
Estimated number
of total
tourists
11,306,000
10,795,000
12,840,000
13,010,000
4,774,000
4,384,000
14,208,000
Estimated total
expenditures
(in 1,000)
$1,768,000
$1,855,000
$2,043,000
$2,225,000
$506,000
$1,069,700
$2,522,000
Average expendi
ture per person
per stay
$156.00
$172.00
$159.00
$171.00
$178.00
$106.00
$244.00
Average expendi
ture per person
per day
$8.86
$8.80
$10.23
$14.73
$14.80
$13.20
$18.10
Average length of
stay per person
(days)
17.6
20.0
15.6
11.6
11.3
8.0

13.5
Source: 1963 Florida Tourist Study, The Florida Development Commission, Tallahassee,
Florida. Table 6, page 8, and Table 7, page 9.
*Summer: June through August
**Winter: January through April
193


6
legislation in the country was instituted in the New England colonies,
and the village commons constituted some of the first parks in the
country.
The nineteenth century witnessed the development of the concept of
outdoor recreation in the national consciousness. This century was de
voted to the settlement of new areas and to the rise of cities, mainly
along the eastern seaboard. By the middle of the century, New York had
over half a million inhabitants and had recognized that there was a need
for a rural setting within the city itself. During the decade of 1850 to
1860, Central Park was established, an organizational board developed,
and the Park was landscaped for the sole purpose of outdoor recreation in
a natural setting. This pioneer effort was the model for city parks in
many other cities, and by the twentieth century, a county park had been
developed in New Jersey (Brockman, 1959, p. 57).
A widespread interest in outdoor sports developed during the last
quarter of the nineteenth century. For example, professional baseball
was instituted in 1869, intercollegiate field events were begun in 1874,
and the first modern Olympic Games with American representation was held
in 1896. Bicycling, archery, riflery, and yachting were popular activi
ties during this period. Such highly organized sports as baseball,
football, tennis and golf were playing to large groups of spectators by
the end of the century (Ibid., 1959).
The Federal government entered the picture long before this, how
ever. In 1864, while still engrossed in the Civil War, Congress set
aside the magnificent Yosemite Valley for the State of California


50
The new Marina and Welcome Station at the foot of Atlantic Avenue
invites visiting or passing yachtsmen to tarry awhile within one block of
the main business center (Figure 5).
Urbanized and residential, as used in the context of this section,
includes all areas used as residential for all or part of the year, the
main business district, small businesses scattered throughout the city,
and associated public areas such as parks and schools which are within
the residential areas and used primarily by the residents, without re
gard to the official city limits.
The oldest part of town, simply known as Oldtown, overlooks
Egan's Creek and Amelia River. The site of the original Spanish Plaza,
Oldtown is now a rundown section of old sub-standard housing. The loca
tion, lying near the tidewater Egan's Creek, the fertilizer factory
(with its unbelievably antagonistic odor when operating), and the Con
tainer Corporation's pulp plant, nevertheless could become a desirable
section if it were restored and the fumes were controlled. Many of the
houses were once quite stately (Figure 17).
The main business section is concentrated on the western one-
half mile of Atlantic Avenue, extending from about Central Park and
the junior high school at 11th Street to the docks, and from about the
12th block south (where A1A becomes 8th Street) north to the Container
Corporation. This section is flat, containing mainly older homes (many
now multi-family units), and most of the small businesses and semi
public facilities such as the churches, city offices and county court
house. Atlantic Avenue has recently been widened and there is some


-s'
T-
UNITED STATES
DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR
GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
8130'
3037'30"
ERNANDINA BEACH (COURTHOUSE) A A Ml FERNANDINA BEACH (COURTHOUSE) 3 6 Ml.\.
453000m E. ^ 3 Ml. TO FLA. 105A
I Ml. TO FLA.AIA & 200 27f30,f
COURTHOUSE 4.6 Ml.
i 2.9 ML TO FLA 200
p 28 E R 29 E^ (FERN AN DIN A BEACH)
AMELIA CITY QUADRANGLE
FLORIDA
7.5 MINUTE SERIES (TOPOGRAPHIC)
SW/4 FERNANDINA 15' QUADRANGLE
i 25'
FERNANDINA
BEACH
33gg000m [\|
c
nO
Tf&L -Tiger
. V^X\ :nt>
3030' "
8130'
0 Mapped, edited, and published by the Geological Survey
Control by USC&GS and USCE
Culture and drainage from controlled aerial photo mosaic
Aerial photographs taken 1957.
Topography by pa neta ble surveys 1958
Hydrography compiled from USC&GS charts 577 (1958),
841 (1958), and 1243 (1957)
Polyconic projection. 1927 North American datum
10,000-foot grid based on Florida coordinate system, east zone
1000-meter Universal Transverse Mercator grid ticks,
zone 17, shown In blue
Dashed land lines Indicate approximate locations
350 000 FEET
380 000 FEET 8122'30"
h 30 37'30"
2 280 000
[feet
-35'
32'30"
3375000m. |\|
2 7'30" X
FORT GEORGE-MAYPORT FERRY 7.6 Ml
JACKSONVILLE 28 Ml.
1
(MAYPORT)
SCALE 1:24000
0
1000 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 FEET
1
0
1 KILOMETER
O
<
APPROXIMATE MEAN
DECLINATION, 1958
CONTOUR INTERVAL 5 FEET
DATUM IS MEAN SEA LEVEL
DEPTH CURVES AND SOUNDINGS IN FEET-DATUM IS MEAN LOW WATER
SHORELINE SHOWN REPRESENTS THE APPROXIMATE LINE OF MEAN HIGH WATER
THE MEAN RANGE OF TIDE IS APPROXIMATELY 5.6 FEET
THIS MAP COMPLIES WITH NATIONAL MAP ACCURACY STANDARDS
FOR SALE BY U. S. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY, WASHINGTON 25, D. C.
A FOLDER DESCRIBING TOPOGRAPHIC MAPS AND SYMBOLS IS AVAILABLE ON REQUEST
INTERIOR-GEOLOGICAL SURVEY.j WASHINGTON, D.C.-I959-NS
402000m. £ MR 7357
ROAD CLASSIFICATION
Heavy-duty Light-duty.
Medium-duty = Unimproved dirt
- -I 3030'
8122'30"
State Route
QUADRANGLE LOCATION
AMELIA CITY, FLA.
SW/4 FERNANDINA 15' QUADRANGLE
N 3030W8122.5/7.5
1958


66
few bathers will bother to wade out through the breakers to a swimming
depth. Amelia Island is fortunate in that along most of the beach there
is a gentle slope allowing an adult to wade out about one hundred feet
before reaching shoulder depth. The presence of under-surface alternat
ing bars and deeps will allow, in places, a bather to wade or swim a
hundred yards from shore and find himself in knee-deep water, or even on
"dry" land at low tide (usually near a pass).
Near the base of the jetty is an area of sand accumulation with
the resulting shallows and a wide area of breakers. Little bathing is
in evidence here, but the shallows and rocks of the jetty are favorite
spots for surf fishermen, surf netters, spear-fishermen, clam-diggers,
crab-catchers, and boat fishermen. The waters to the north of the
jetty and along the entire northern shore of the island are of a differ
ent nature from that to be found along the beach. The water changes
direction four times a day with the tides and forms numerous small eddy
counter-currents, and the beach, although generally composed of quartz
sand, experiences relatively small waves. There is some fishing along
this shore near Fort Clinch where there are rock groins, but there is
no bathing, since the water becomes deep immediately off-shore and the
tidal currents are strong. The waste material from the Rayonier and
the Container Corporation of America plants may often be observed as
a white line of foam separating the surface outflowing waters from the
surface stationary or inflowing waters. The outflow from the mainland
drainage, principally through the St. Mary's River, adds considerably
to the outflow through St. Mary's Entrance. Small whirlpools are


New York
Ohio
NUMBER OF FORT CLINCH STATE PARK CAMPING GROUPS FROM
NEW YORK AND OHIO, JULY, 1959, THROUGH AUGUST, 1963
OJ
cr>


72
If the effects of hurricanes were eliminated, September's average would
be much lower, probably nearer to the three inches for May.
These same three months have the highest temperatures for the
year, the highest on record for the 1931-1952 period being 104 in June
(Figure 11). This is not usual, however, for the mean maximum is in the
low nineties, and the mean temperature for the summer averages only 80
in June and 82 in August. As for minimum summer temperatures, only
June will have temperatures as low as 60, while the coolest in July will
be 66. These high temperatures, when coupled with a monthly rainfall of
from five to seven inches, produce some distinctly uncomfortable weather,
but there is generally a comparatively cool and fresh breeze on the
ocean itself.
While the absolute maximum monthly temperatures range from twelve
to twenty degrees above the monthly mean, the absolute minimum monthly
temperatures have considerably more range from the mean. Thus, Figure
11 shows a low of 18 in January while the mean is 57, a range of 39.
The range between mean and absolute maximum for the same month is 27,
indicating occasional cold spells, but with the minimum mean being 48
and the maximum being 84, these cold snaps do not appear to be of long
duration; there will be many warm days along with the cold snaps.
The frost-free period averages three hundred nine days per year
at Fernandina Beach, with the first killing frost of the winter coming
on the average on December 16 (but coming as early as November 20) and
the last killing frost in spring coming on February 10 on the average
(but coming as late as March 20).


191
the categories "Historical Places and/or Art Museums," and the "National
and State Parks," we find a total of 52 percent indicated, for one-sixth
of all answers received. Fishing rates as an important activity with 31
percent of the tourists, and the enjoyment of "natural scenery" ranks
nearly as high.
The 1961 figures are further broken down into Summer and Winter
activities. For some activities it apparently makes little difference
as to the season, as for example "Historical Places and/or Art Museums,"
"Participator Sports," "National Parks" (the Everglades National Park),
and, of course, "Dancing and Night Life." However, other activities
have definite favorite seasons. "Beaches and Swimming," the "State
Parks," and "Picnicking" are evidently largely summer activities, while
an "Atmosphere of Relaxation and Fun" and "Spectator Sports," seem to be
winter activities. Even though "Beaches, Swimming," is mainly a summer
sport, over one-half of the 1961 winter respondents listed it as an
anticipated activity.
Most of these activities may be enjoyed on Amelia Island, such as
"Beaches, Swimming," "Atmosphere of Relaxation and Fun," "Fishing,"
"Natural Scenery," "Historical Places," "Participator Sports," "State
Parks," "Picnicking," for a 1961 total of 72 percent of the tourist-
activities anticipated.
The economic impact. Fourteen million tourists a year provide a
sizeable impact on the Florida economy. The Florida Development
Commission estimated that more than two and a half billion dollars were


BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH
Richard 0. Cutler was born in Delavan, Illinois, in 1930the
third son in a family of five. In 19^1 the Cutler family moved to
Sarasota, Florida, where the author graduated from high school in 19^7.
Following two years at John B. Stetson University and five months in
Havana, Cuba, the author spent three years in the United States Army,
one year of which was in Korea. The author received his Bachelor of
Arts degree in Geography from the FLorida State University in 1955* He
then worked one year as a cartographic editor for the United States Air
Force in St. Louis, Missouri. He received his Master of Arts degree
in Geography from the University of Michigan the following year.
From 1957 through 1962 the author served as Instructor of Phys
ical Sciences at the University of Florida while completing residence
requirements for the Doctor of Philosophy degree in the Department of
Geography. One summer was spent as a Ranger-Naturalist for the Na
tional Park Service in California. Another summer was spent as a Re
search Assistant for the Atlas of Florida project under Erwin Raisz.
Field work for the dissertation was begun in the summer of i960.
From 1962 to date the author has served as Assistant Professor of
Geography at Indiana State University.
Richard 0. Cutler is married to the former Catherine Ann Wynne
and is the father of three children.
3Z>


200
FIGURE 52
MONTHLY DISTRIBUTION OF FLORIDA OUTDOOR
RECREATION USE-PRESSURE, 1961
Source:
Florida Outdoor Recreation at the Crossroads. Governor's
Committee on Recreation Development, Tallahassee, Florida,
1963.
TABLE 30
WHAT FLORIDA PEOPLE WANT MOST IN THE WAY OF ADDITIONAL
OUTDOOR RECREATION OPPORTUNITIES
Opportunities
for:
Percent of total
weighted desire
Picnicking
20.6
Camping
12.3
Fresh water swimming
12.2
Hunting
9.5
Fresh water fishing
8.8
Salt water swimming
7.2
Visiting historical or
archaeological sites
6.2
Boating
5.3
Salt water fishing
4.9
Pleasure driving
4.1
Water skiing
3.7
Nature study
2.8
Hiking
2.4
From: Florida Outdoor Recreation at the Crossroads, Governor's
Committee on Recreational Development, Tallahassee, Florida, 1963


42
FIGURE 1. LOCATION OF STUDY REGION
1 inch = 16 miles


5
been of a peripheral nature to outdoor recreation by conservationists,
governmental agencies, economists, and health-oriented groups. The ORRR.C
aptly sums up the situation as follows:
The investigation and understanding of outdoor recreation ex
tend far beyond the realm of any one specialized field. Mich of
the research yielding important insights might not at first ap
pear to be "recreation research," since it is carried out by
economists, sociologists, anthropologists, political scientists,
demographers, psychologists, land-use specialists, and geograph
ers, to mention only a few. Yet there is ample evidence that the
types of research carried out by these and other disciplines
could greatly increase knowledge of outdoor recreation and its
values. Unfortunately, the analysis and interpretation of the
research in these fields have only rarely been related to
recreation. Thus, there is much factual material already avail
able for recreation research if placed in the proper context
(ORTA. 1962, p. 187).
THE BACKGROUND DEVELOPMENT
Development prior to the Second World War. Outdoor recreation
was not a problem to the early settlers of the country any more than it
is a problem to underdeveloped countries at the present. As long as the
pioneer attitude of an unlimited, free and somewhat hostile natural en
vironment within immediate or easy reach of every man, woman and child
persisted, and the typical American lived in a small town, recreation
in the outdoors was a natural and an unremarked part of living. A land
of farmers has little need to search for this type of relaxation, al
though other types of recreation have been actively sought in the past
despite the disapproval of a large segment of the population (i.e., the
Puritan New England settlements). Probably the first recreational


171
tion were from Florida, and there were nearly as many from Jacksonville
alone as were from out of state. Of this latter group, Georgia led by
far, with some 40 percent of the total.
The actual number of people at American Beach has been estimated
to be as high as 20,000 per day during summer holidays.* Many or most
of the people return home or to other accommodations at night, but
still the small community of under one hundred buildings cannot accom
modate these numbers and crowding is said to be acute. When the weather
is warm and dry, people may be seen sleeping in chartered busses,
trucks, and other make-shift shelters.
Two hundred and thirty-four residential units, private and rent
al, were counted, including several motels. This figure may be mislead
ing since most homes have guests or rent rooms during peak seasons,
without advertising. It was estimated that the figure should be doubled
to nearly 500 units ranging from sleeping rooms to apartments, with an
average of five or six per unit.* Thus, five hundred units with six per
unit would give 3,000 overnight unit-occupancies, plus those sleeping
outside. This would be only during particular summer holidays such as
the Fourth of July and Labor Day.
On a yearly basis, if we accept totals of 20,000 per day for four
days out of the year, 3,000 per day average during the rest of the
summer months, and one hundred per day for the remainder of the year
*Mr. Robertson, Afro-American Pension Bureau, Jacksonville, Flor
ida. Not all these people would necessarily be at American Beach at any
particular hour, of course, nor would all those present actually be on
the beach at any one time. The majority would be day-visitors only, many
being overflow from the temporarily closed Little Talbot Island State
Parks (see page 211) .


307
The Tourist Industry
The period following immediately after the Civil War was a busy
one for Nassau County and particularly for Amelia Island. Fernandina
like the other Southern cities was devasted. What could be burned was
burned; the rest, confiscated.
In 1869, Fernandina had not been able to get on its feet,
so to speak, as evidenced by a visiting tourist who said:
.... The wharf is a projecting one with a commodious
warehouse at the landing A brief excursion
satisfied us that this was not an inviting place to stay
in. Its look of decay and hard times seemed as legible as
if written on every plank in town.l
By 1873, Fernandina was beginning to prosper through its trade
in cotton and lumber. The population was 2,500. Four large saw mills
were in operation and others were contemplated. British capital had
started a cotton ginning establishment. The Ridell house opened for
visitors as shown by the advertisement on the following page.*-
Three years later, in 1876, Fernandina had seven churches--
one Episcopal, one Presbyterian, two Methodist, two Baptist, and one
Roman Catholic. It had also an academy for young ladies, and one news
paper, the Fernandina Observer. Direct telephone and telegraph
communication was available with principal railroad points in Florida as
well as with the seaports northward. A new railroad from Fernandina
iLedyard Bill, A Winter in Florida. 1869, p. 73.
2E. R. Jenkins, "Rambler." Guide to Florida^ 1873, pp. 50, 85.


43
Buccaneer Trail has been designed with these more leisurely travelers in
mind, and judging from records kept since its inception it is becoming
increasingly popular. Known as State Route A1A, it connects with two
major north-south routes, U. S. 1-301 at Callahan and U. S. 17 in Yulee,
before leading to the Atlantic Ocean at Amelia Island (Figure 1).
The name of Buccaneer Trail is no accident. The port of
Femandina was a pirate's haven in the early part of the nineteenth
century, and the place-names of the surrounding area abound with the
heritage of the Spanish, English, and French. For instance, the south
bound traveler crosses the St. Marys River (Rio Santa Maria) through
either Kings Ferry or Kingsland, reminiscent of the old King's Road
during colonial times, and Nassau Sound vividly brings to mind the his
toric associations of times past. The pirate theme is widely used on
Amelia Island itself (see page 82).
Continuing to the east along the Buccaneer Trail from Yulee, one
soon leaves the pine flats behind and emerges onto the tidal flats and
bayous so typical of an emerging sandy coastal region. These marshes
consist of several miles of sawgrass and mud and (at high tide) water
with many channels passable to small boats fishing for bottom-feeding
fish such as mullet (lisa). These flats have made efficient protective
moats for the off-shore island inhabitants in times past, but are now
controlled with dredge and causeway. Miles before the Island is
reached, the Rayonier cellulose plant may be seen to the northeast
with its plumes of white smoke outlined against the sky. One then
parallels a swing-out railroad bridge crossing the Intracoastal


CHAPTER
PAGE
Internal Factors Influencing Development 226
Industry 226
Beach Erosion 237
I
Promotion and development 253
V. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 259
Conclusions 259
Visitors and tourists 259
Residential growth 260
Recommendations 262
APPENDICES 271
BIBLIOGRAPHY 318
BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH 32
vi


315
A large number of tourists do come to this region. They come from
all the states in the United States and from foreign countries, as shown
by the map on the following page. The total number of people visiting
the Island in the period 1944 to April 1949 was 23,386 persons, of whom
22,305 persons came from other states of the United States and eighty-
OC
one persons came from foreign countries.
The people of the county and of Amelia Island particularly have
an opportunity to expand the tourist industry in the very near future
through the construction of Highway 105, which will run along the
entire coast of Amelia Island.
25These figures were compiled from the incoming arrivals re
gistered on the Ft. Clinch State Park registration sheets from 1944
through April 1949. These were available through the courtesy of Mr.
William Decker, Curator of Ft. Clinch.


216
TABLE 36
NUMBER OF VISITORS TO THE FORT GEORGE ISLAND HISTORIC
MEMORIALS, SEPTEMBER 8, 1963, THROUGH JULY, 1964*
1963 September 4,137 (8 through September 30 only)
October 3,533
3,347
3,262
1964 January 4,246
6,695
7,711
6,569
5,880
5,886
6,361
*Based upon automatic traffic count. Formula: 4.5 persons per
vehicle, 15 percent assumed to be out-of-state.
Source: Superintendent, Little Talbot Island State Park,
Florida.
is a non-commercialized, older residential area and contains large empty
tracts of land. It is connected to the mainland by only one bridge, a
toll bridge.
On the landward side of the island lie the ruins of Fort
Frederica, one of the earliest English settlements in Georgia. First
settled by Oglethorpe in 1736 as an outpost of the English settlements
at Savannah, the town served as a staging area for attacks on Spanish
Florida during the Anglo-Hispanic hostilities in the middle of the
eighteenth century. Settlers were imported from Great Britain, but the
colony did not prosper and was abandoned after the Treaty of Paris.


317
TABLE 48
ORIGIN OF TOURISTS TO FORT CLINCH STATE PARK, FERNANDINA BEACH,
FLORIDA, JANUARY, 1944, THROUGH APRIL 20, 1949
State
Number
State
Number
Alabama
261
Nevada
3
Alaska
2
New Hampshire
10
Arizona
15
New Jersey
159
Arkansas
33
New Mexico
4
California
127
New York
436
Colorado
10
North Carolina
288
Connecticut
50
North Dakota
7
Delaware
17
Ohio
222
Florida
12,181
Oklahoma
16
Georgia
6,024
Oregon
14
Hawaii
4
Pennsylvania
307
Idaho
2
Rhode Island
11
Illinois
171
South Carolina
216
Indiana
98
South Dakota
6
Iowa
33
Tennessee
294
Kansas
22
Texas
113
Kentucky
76
Utah
3
Louisiana
127
Vermont
50
Maine
18
Virginia
84
Maryland
77
Washington
36
Massachusetts
106
Washington,DC
47
Michigan
187
West Virginia
3
Minnesota
34
Wisconsin
10
Mississippi
69
Wyoming
0
Missouri
72
Canal Zone
3
Montana
6
Canada
25
Nebraska
33
Others
51
Source: Pink, Helen, "Amelia Island: A Resource Unit for
Teachers in Secondary Schools," 1949, The University of Florida,
Master's Thesis. Map "Tourist Population...", page 154.


32
advertisements and the news media reports of the week-long Fiesta of
Eight Flags, will have a telling effect on the future. Activities of the
State of Florida which encompass the entire state will have a long-term
effect, as for instance the establishment of the Governor's inter-agency
Outdoor Recreational Development Council. The development or non
development of similar areas along the coast will most certainly be a
critical factor.
The inventory of resources, the analysis of present use of these
resources, and the study of outside determining factors provide a basis
for an evaluation of the potential outdoor recreational development.
Only when the favorable and inhibiting developmental factors are under
stood and appreciated can intelligent and effective developmental plans
be designed. That there will be future development of some sort is a
basic assumption generally made for an expanding economy like that of
Florida. This development must be directed or controlled if a favorable
economic environment is to be maintained. The definition of what con
stitutes a favorable environment and the control of the Island's
development is the responsibility of the people themselves. Therefore,
the fourth objective of this study is to provide a basis for an under
standing of the factors involved in what appears to be the inevitable
growth and development of Amelia Island.
THE METHODOLOGY
While this study has been primarily a field study on Amelia
Island, it has been augmented by a large amount of material from other
sources. These sources may be grouped for purposes of identification


229
TABLE 40
EXPENDITURES OF THE CONTAINER CORPORATION OF
AMERICA AND RAYONIER, INCORPORATED, ON
AMELIA ISLAND IN 1963
Direct payroll
$ 8,992,000
Indirect payroll
1,290,000
Local purchases
995,000
Taxes
608,000
Total
$11,885,000
The total contribution to the Island would thus amount to nearly twelve
million dollars annually.
The Rayonier plant, in a separate "Facts of Interest" sheet,
lists four hundred and fifty employees and a $230,000 monthly payroll
($2,760,000 annually) in 1964. Their taxes amounted to $42,200 on
timber, and $245,000 on the plants to the city and county. Nearly 77
percent of all employees (three hundred and forty-six) lived on the
Island, including 80 percent of the white employees and 67 percent of
the Negro employees. The Container Corporation of America paid $176,000
in taxes to the county, and $143,000 to the city in 1964. Their seven
hundred and twenty-nine employees received $5,557,300 in wages and
salaries in 1964, and over 90 percent of them lived on the Island.
Both plants are active in local affairs and contribute to such func
tions as the school and community recreational activities.


237
BEACH EROSION
A shifting shoreline is a normal condition for the beaches
found along the South Atlantic coast, with the most pronounced shoreline
changes taking place during storms. However, when roads and buildings
are constructed immediately adjacent to such a beach, as along North
Beach on Amelia Island, extensive damage may result from a small amount
of beach erosion. Not only are buildings and roads damaged or destroyed,
but the beach itself may be ruined for bathing by the presence of debris
from destroyed bulkheads and buildings, or sand accretion may move the
waterline a considerable distance from the beach houses and other facil
ities. The presence of bulkheads or groins to control sand erosion may
produce an unsightly beach which will not attract tourists, besides be
ing expensive to construct. Without such protection, waterfront proper
ty owners are reluctant to invest capital in facilities which would tend
to attract tourists. The more intensive the beach use by visitors and
businessmen, of course, the greater is the potential loss from beach
erosion.
A changing shoreline has been a problem to Fernandina Beach for
many years (Figure 61). In the 1898 hurricane, the large Strathmore
Hotel on the beach was destroyed by the encroaching shoreline (Figure
62). The 1944 hurricane washed away the one-time Ocean Street along
North Beach (Figure 70). The 1964 hurricane (called "Dora" by the United
States Weather Bureau) washed away portions of Fletcher Avenue and des
troyed nearly fifty houses along the beach along with the protecting
groins and seawalls (Figure 63).


91
The quadracentennials of this period of history were held from
1962 to 1964 in Jacksonville and St. Augustine, celebrating the first
landing of Jean Ribault on May 3, 1562, and the founding of Fort
Caroline and St. Augustine. Plays, pageants, and literature were pre
sented to the public. The week-long Fiesta of Eight Flags is held yearly
at Fernandina Beach during June. Exceptionally authentic costumes and
scenery are possible through the excellent drawings of Le Moyne, an
artist accompanying the first French settlements (Lorant, ed., 1946).
These mission stations were not to remain in peace, however. In
the struggle for control between Spain, which claimed all the New World
but was unable to occupy effectively very large portions of it, and the
English, who were occupying the eastern seaboard, the frontier areas
were often used as pawns. By 1707 Governor Moore of South Carolina
had destroyed Santa Maria (Amelia Island) along with several other
missions, and the northernmost effective limit of Spanish control began
moving back toward the Castillo in St. Augustine until the English even
"ascended the St. John" (Crane, 1928, p. 81).
By 1734 Governor Oglethorpe of Georgia claimed the Island under
an Indian treaty as Amelia Island in honor of the second daughter of
King George II (Pink, 1949, p. 207). The 1736 agreement between
Governor Sanchez of St. Augustine and Governor Oglethorpe, in which
both countries agreed to withdraw from the St. Johns area, was repudi
ated by Spain, but the English colonists retained effective control
until a peace treaty in 1748 returned the area to Spain (Reece, 1963,
p. 84). Fifteen years later, the Treaty of Paris returned the Island


167
AMERICAN BEACH
Some four and one-half miles south of Atlantic Avenue on the
ocean lies the community of American Beach, a singular feature.
Separated from other beach residential areas by idle land now owned by
the Union Carbide and Carbon Company, American Beach is "one of the two
places in Florida where a Negro can own waterfront property" (Non
resident American Beach property owner). This small community was begun
when the Afro-American Pension Bureau (of the Afro-American Insurance
Company, Jacksonville, Florida) bought some two hundred acres (with
3,500 feet of ocean frontage) for an employee retirement program. This
property was first platted into lots in 1936, and a thriving small
community has since formed close to the beach with hotels, motels, room
ing houses, restaurants, and private dwellings. The construction of
new buildings has been steady. In 1959, there were sixty-two taxable
buildings, but by 1964 this number had risen by half to ninety
taxable buildings.
The largest motel is the A. L. Lewis Motel, a $125,000 structure
erected by the Afro-American Pension Bureau. It has twenty-one
housekeeping units facing the beach at rates ranging from $54 to $60
per week during the summer season.
As of 1961, three hundred and twenty lots had been platted and
two hundred and sixteen had been sold by the Afro-American Pension
Bureau. Some 60 percent of the owners listed Jacksonville as their
home addresses, and only three declared homestead exemption (Table 18).
This table does not indicate multiple-lot ownership (for example, all


214
TABLE 35
NUMBER OF VISITORS TO LITTLE TALBOT ISLAND STATE PARK,
JULY, 1962, THROUGH JULY, 1964*
South Beach
North Beach
1963 July
22,241
27,527
August
23,473
23,720
September
9,274
14,501
October
5,403
8,496
November
4,528
6,778
December
2,467
5,637
1963 January
2,024
6,807
February
1,456
7,968
March
3,092
12,528
April
4,878
16,253
May
10,147
24,853
June
17,515
37,279
July
22,259
39,940
Augus t
17,140
23,404
September
8,460
14,725
October
6,975
5,113
November
7,842
5,662
December
3,276
4,565
1964 January
2,671
5,033
February
3,307
5,928
March
6,844
10,332
April
7,831
15,090
May
13,717
24,993
June
22,238
25,965
July
25,320
18,437
*Based on automatic traffic count. Formula: 4.5 persons per
vehicle.
Source: Superintendent, Little Talbot Island State Park,
Florida.


SPANISH DEFENSES
TO JACKSONVILLE BEACH
25.5 MILES
ST AUGUSTINE
Fort Mosa Defense Line
(earthwork)
TO JACKSONVILLE
VB? 31 MILES'
GREEN COVE \
SPRINGS 27 MILES'
Hornwork Defense Line
, (earthwork)
.castillo de san marcos
^NATIONAL MONUMENT !
"ICity Gate
jfir" TON/*'
'" FT MATANZAS n
14 MILES
MARINE LAND
DAYTONA BEACH
EH3 Spanish Fortification
(no longer visible)
SCALE IN MILES
MAY 1956 NM-CDS-7013
TO DAYTONA BEACHVI
REVISED OCT. 1962
REVISED 1963
Cover: The moat, bastion, and ravelin.
U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 119630-870838
FIGURE 54
MAP OF THE CASTILLO DE SAN MARCOS
RATIONAL MONUMENT AND AREA,
ST. AUGUSTINE, FLORIDA
Source: A National Park Service brochure


TABLE 45 (continued)
United States
1962
Jan.
Feb.
Mar.
Apr.
May
June
July
Aug,
Alabama
1
7
5
8
Alaska
1
Arizona
1
2
Arkansas
2
1
California
3
1
3
2
6
8
5
Colorado
1
3
1
Connecticut
1
11
6
8
5
5
10
13
Delaware
1
1
1
3
2
4
1
4
Florida
6
21
25
57
63
148
278
263
Georgia
3
3
14
30
43
128
208
165
Hawaii
Idaho
1
1
Illinois
3
3
4
12
30
24
23
Indiana
1
2
1
6
22
28
33
Iowa
1
1
1
1
8
7
4
Kansas
1
1
1
4
5
Kentucky
3
2
6
14
13
Louisiana
5
2
5
Maine
5
1
3
1
2
Maryland
2
2
2
16
4
9
19
23
Massachusetts
4
18
13
14
3
7
19
16
Michigan
3
4
11
11
5
10
13
22
Minnesota
1
1
4
5
3
3
Mississippi
4
1
Missouri
3
1
10
12
11
Montana
Nebraska
2
1
1
Nevada
1
Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec.
1
6 6 4
1 3
108 50 57
68 13 13
1
4 4 2
3 3 1
1
2
4
1
1 1
112
9 3 1
2 14
2 11
1
3 1
1
1
4
2
1
S3
VO
O'
CO CM 00 CM CM CO r-l


82
IV. THE ROMANTIC PAST
The memories of past days of pirates, buccaneers, and buried
treasure are very much alive in Fernandina Beach today and are being
actively used in promotional work. The fact that an historical tradi
tion can be developed into a successful recreational resource is
abundantly demonstrated by well-known St. Augustine, Florida. This
historical heritage has been only partly utilized in Fernandina Beach
but appears to be undergoing development. Basically, it may be divided
into three eras: (1) the early Spanish period, centered around the
Plaza and Fort Carlos in Oldtown, (2) the later Spanish period when the
city was a free port and a pirate rendezvous, and (3) the Civil War
period, centered on Fort Clinch.
THREE MAJOR ERAS
The Pirate theme is the most intensively used theme at the pre
sent. Evidence for this may be seen in a number of ways, as, for
instance, the naming of the Buccaneer Trail in 1950. The brochure
advertising the route has a sketch of pirates burying a treasure chest
for the front illustration, pictures of the ferries "The Buccaneer" and
"The Blackbeard," contains a short history of piracy and Fort Clinch
(Figure 12). A brochure-map distributed by the Fernandina Beach-Yulee
Chamber of Commerce contains a pirate motive on the front and advertises
Fernandina Beach as being "The Buccaneer City," and "on the isle of
Eight Flags." This theme is continued on all promotional activities
(Figure 13). The local high school uses the theme of "Pirates" and it


215
protection from the direct Atlantic waves and winds by Little Talbot
Island, made St. George Island (Alimicani Island to the Spanish) a
natural place for early settlements. The Island has an interesting
history as a Spanish mission station, English fort, slave plantation,
and tourist center. The State of Florida acquired portions of the
Island in 1951 and have since opened it to the public as a state histor
ic site.
The Island is an easy half-hour's drive from Jacksonville,
either through the Mayport ferry or along Route 195 (see Figure 55). The
Buccaneer Trail provides access from the north. The John F. Rollins
Bird and Plant Sanctuary and the Huguenot Memorial Area adjoin the
Island.
Records of visitors are maintained in the main offices on Little
Talbot Island State Park. An automatic vehicle counter was put into
operation beginning September, 1963, and periodic spot checks are made
on the number of passengers per vehicle and on the Florida-non-Florida
origin of the vehicles. The formula used to determine the total number
of visitors is 4.5 persons per vehicle with a 15 percent out-of-state
total. See Table 36.
Fort Frederica National Monument. The city of Brunswick, Georgia,
is protected from the Atlantic Ocean by two islands, Jekyll Island and
St. Simons Island. These two islands represent two different concepts
in use, with Jekyll Island being devoted to intensive private business
and to quality residential use. St. Simons Island, on the other hand,


78
population (mainly school children and surfboarders), and are usually no
more than a nuisance for the rest of the inhabitants. Upon occasion,
however, great care must be taken in order to avoid serious damage or
loss of life, such as in August and September of 1964 when several
disturbances of hurricane or near hurricane force passed quite close to
the island.*
A hurricane is a traveling, self-sustaining low-pressure cyclone
forming in the southern Caribbean during late summer and early fall and
taking a generally eastward-curving path to southeastern United States.
Since it draws on moisture evaporated from the ocean for continued
energy, any extensive travel over continental areas reduces the energy
available and produces a lowering of intensity. During the approach
and passage of a tropical storm (winds from thirty-nine to seventy-four
miles per hour) or a hurricane (winds over seventy-four miles per hour),
there will be a period of from one to two weeks of cool, cloudy and
windy weather, with tremendous amounts of drizzling moisture being
dumped on the areas affected even in the storm center passes to one
side or another.
From 1886 through 1950 (sixty-four years) some eighty-three
tropical storms, fifty-four of hurricane intensity, have struck the
Florida coast (Bunting, et al., 1951, p. 6). By another count there
have been some sixty-nine hurricanes striking the Florida-Georgia
coastal areas in the seventy-two years 1886-1958, as indicated by
*For a description of damage and erosion during this hurricane,
see "Beach Erosion," Chapter IV.


4
Much of the work to date has been in the nature of data collection
and in local problem-solving as, for instance, Waugh's studies of the
"tourist markets" as a saleable commodity (Waugh, 1956, pp. 286-88),
while very little has been done in the formation of value judgments. It
is much easier, of course, to compile statistics or to describe operating
procedures than it is to isolate and to define the intangible values
accrued from the vacation or the activity itself. Such value judgments
may be beyond the normally accepted limits of this field, and may proper
ly belong in the fields of the behavioral sciences.
This problem of the value to assign to an intangible experience
has led to a number of methods establishing a dollar value. Two of the
most common methods include the placing of a dollar value for each visit
to an area, and that of measuring the recreational use against alternate
uses, i.e., an industrial use. Both methods are incomplete and subject
to great error of interpretation. The first method rests on an almost
unmeasurable value judgment by numerous visitors and the investigator,
while in the second method it is often tacitly assumed that the two (or
more) uses are mutually exclusive and incompatible. It may well be that
the different methods of research are themselves more incompatible than
are the activities that they measure and that a thorough study of an
area should of necessity consist of more than one research method. It is
not necessary for one method to embrace the entire field of study.
Not only will most studies probably use more than a single method
or research technique, but the field of "outdoor recreation" itself em
braces parts of many fields of study. Much of the work to date has


175
TABLE 22
SUMMARY OF THE ESTIMATED EXPENDITURES ON
AMELIA ISLAND BEACHES, 1964
1. Fletcher Avenue Renters and Fort Clinch Campers:
$10 per person per day
SUMMER
WINTER
ANNUAL
$3,085,000
1,315,000
$4,400,000
2. Fletcher Avenue Renters and Fort Clinch Campers:
$5 per person per day
SUMMER
WINTER
ANNUAL
$ 450,000
1,345,000
$1,795,000
3. Fletcher Avenue Day-users: $5 per person per day
SUMMER
WINTER
ANNUAL
$ 275,000
290,000
$ 565,000
4. American Beach: $5 per person per day
SUMMER
WINTER
ANNUAL
$1,715,000
135,000
$1,850,000
5. Total Visitor Expenditures
SUMMER
WINTER
ANNUAL
$5,075,000
1,740,000
$6,815,000
6. Total Beach Expenditures
SUMMER
WINTER
ANNUAL
$5,525,000
3,085,000
$8,610,000


312
barbei s saloon, and a billard room. On the hotel grounds were found a
bowling alley, a lawn tennis court, and croquet grounds.17
The town itself acquired a new manufacturing establishment. It
was a cotton-seed oil extracting plant. In the town's vicinity there
were numerous sugar and cotton plantations, and a number of orange
18
groves. Large quantities of fruits and vegetables were brought to
Fernandina for shipment to the North.19
By 1885, the townspeople had constructed some beautiful new
houses, surrounded by spacious grounds which were landscaped with
flowers and shrub. The streets of the town were well shaded by oak
20
and magnolia trees.
The records of the Florida Mirror from 1879 to 1885 reveal
that Fernandina was an all year around resort. The people from the North
visited there during December, January, February, and March. On the
other hand, people from Florida and Georgia visited the Island during
the summer months, usually from the latter part of May or the first
of June until October.
In 1886, the Island was described as being:
17Henry Lee, The Tourist's Guide of Florida and The Winter Resourts
of the South. 1888, pp. 90-91.
18Ibid.. p. 87.
19George Barbour, Florida for Tourists. Invalids and Settlers,
1885, pp. 95-96.


170
a typical picture of the home state of the automobiles on the beach
itself or immediately adjacent to it during one Labor Day weekend.
TABLE 20
AUTOMOBILE LICENSE COUNT AT AMERICAN BEACH, AMELIA ISLAND,
FLORIDA, 3:00 TO 4:00 P.M., SEPTEMBER 3, 1962
Automobiles
Busses
FLORIDA:
Nassau County (Femandina)
15
2
Duval County (Jacksonville)
97
Total FLORIDA
121
2
OUT-OF-STATE:
Alabama
1
1
Georgia
72
4
New York
1
Ohio
1
Pennsylvania
1
South Carolina
1
Total OUT-OF-STATE
77
5
Totals
198
7**
Includes only cars which were actually parked on the beach.
Estimated number of people on the beach itself, by the Deputy Sheriff:
1,200.
**Plus one bus at the boat launching ramp, Nassau Sound, from
Macon, Georgia.
If we assign six persons to each automobile and forty to each
bus, the total number of people represented amounts to nearly 1,500, of
which only some 45 percent were from the Jacksonville area (there was a
beach limited to Negroes somewhat closer to Jacksonville at the time.
See the discussion of Little Talbot Island State Park, page 211). In
fact, only 55 percent of the people represented in this tabula-


166
Origin of beach rental tourists. The state of origin for the
beach rental tourists differs markedly from similar figures for the
Fort Clinch State Park campers. An analysis of three hundred and
thirty-nine rentals during June, July and August from the records of
one beach rental agency indicated that more than nine out of every ten
cottage or apartment rentals listed Georgia as the home state (Table
17). This same agency estimated that the average group size consisted
of eight persons per rental, somewhat above the average taken for the
entire beach rental area. These rentals extended along the entire
beach front south to the Ocean pier.
TABLE 17
STATE OF ORIGIN FOR SELECTED BEACH COTTAGE AND APARTMENT RENTERS
ALONG FLETCHER AVENUE, FERNANDINA BEACH, FLORIDA, 1964
State
Number of registrants
Alabama
1
Florida
19
Georgia
308
Indiana
1
North Carolina
4
South Carolina
1
Tennessee
1
Virginia
3
Washington, D.C.
1
Total
339
Source: W. I. McCrainie, Rental Agent, Fernandina Beach,
Florida.


76
months of May through September. This means that one may expect some
precipitation for two out of every five days in summer, and one out of
every five in winter.
Records for percentage of possible sunshine and relative humidity
have been published for Jacksonville (United States Department of
Commerce, Weather Bureau). The actual sunshine averages 62 percent of
possible sunshine for the year, ranging from 53 percent in December to
73 percent in April. This is slightly above average in summer and some
what below average during most of winter, but one may expect to find
three days out of five to be sunny at any season. The average relative
humidity at noon varies little from the average 61 percent, although it
may rise to 85 percent in the morning or evening. Thus, the weather is
never uncomfortably dry, but may become muggy during hot weather.
Wind velocity and direction is probably of more importance to
fishermen than to surf bathers. Again going to Jacksonville for data
(United States Department of Commerce, Weather Bureau), it is found
that the average hourly wind velocity is nine miles per hour, coming
generally from the northeast for the six months of September through
February, and coming generally from the southwest for the remainder of
the year. The maximum wind to be encountered will generally be of gale
force (fifty-five to sixty-three miles per hour) from the southwest at
any season of the year, hurricanes excepted.
It is interesting to compare the summer Fernandina Beach-
Jacksonville data with those of an inland city. A large percentage of
the Fernandina Beach summer residents live in Waycross, Georgia, some


248
THE 1944 HURRICANE also caused considerable dam
age along the beach front. This is the one-time Ocean
Street, which has since been swept away by recurrent
Northeasters and the attendant erosion. The only house
now remaining on the right side of the former street is
the Egan cottage, which now sits high above the beach
on its pilings and is shown in another photo in this issue.
(Photo courtesy J. D. Daugherty.)
FIGURE 70
OCEAN STREET AFTER THE 1944 HURRICANE, FERNANDINA BEACH, FLORIDA
Reprint from the Fernandina Beach News-Leader, September 17, 1964.
FIGURE 71
THE NORTH BEACH AUTOMOBILE RAMP AFTER HURRICANE DORA, FERNANDINA,
BEACH, FLORIDA, 1964


98
relationship between dollar balance and time remaining for the vacation,
with both approaching the zero point simultaneously). The wives are
generally the more specific on categories of expenditures while the men
are more concerned with total dollar expenditures.
Once the data have been recorded there comes the most important
step of summarizing, synthesizing, coordinating, cross-checking, and in
general reducing the data to a form that may be expressed adequately, ac
curately, and quickly, and from which various deductions may be made.
For example, if one hundred automobiles were counted on our hypotheti
cal parking lot, and the average number of passengers in each automobile
were taken to be three and five-tenths, then you may assume that three
hundred fifty people were involved. If three of these automobiles
carried license plates from one particular state, then it could be
further deduced that ten and five-tenths people were represented from
that state, statistically speaking. If from your interviews in depth
it developed that the average tourist spent about $8.50 per day, then
the income derived from the particular state for this particular
activity, time and location, was a total of $89.25. These figures,
while appearing to be exact and final, should be recognized as being
only statistical summaries, and while (hopefully) accurate in the
aggregate, they may vary widely in individual cases.
In the following presentation of the particular data on Amelia
Island, the two categories of public and private facilities have been
selected to represent, mainly, the two sources of data. Public records
have been generally available for the public facilities, but represent


TABLE 45 (continued)
United States
1961
Jan.
Feb.
Mar.
Apr.
May
June
July
Aug.
Sept.
Oct.
Nov.
Dec.
Alabama
2
3
13
12
6
2
Alaska
1
4
1
Arizona
1
3
1
1
Arkansas
1
5
2
1
California
3
7
16
4
14
8
2
2
3
Colorado
3
3
2
1
1
Connecticut
2
9
12
9
4
11
13
3
3
1
1
Delaware
3
3
1
1
1
1
1
Florida
9
9
37
50
71
198
455
332
135
30
30
6
Georgia
2
19
20
39
211
263
209
44
10
17
4
Hawaii
Idaho
1
Illinois
4
1
19
16
11
32
56
25
3
4
2
4
Indiana
2
7
4
6
30
47
36
4
1
Iowa
7
2
5
2
10
5
Kansas
1
1
4
2
6
1
1
Kentucky
3
7
1
10
16
11
1
Louisiana
1
6
8
17
Maine
2
4
4
2
2
1
Maryland
1
4
9
16
17
36
14
3
3
2
2
Massachusetts
2
9
10
13
4
3
17
22
2
1
1
3
Michigan
4
20
34
7
9
21
27
8
5
3
1
Minnesota
1
2
2
2
1
3
6
3
1
1
Mississippi
1
Missouri
1
1
1
1
3
11
25
31
1
1
Montana
1
1
Nebraska
2
1
3
2
1
Nevada
N3
VO
LO


268
6. RESTORATION OF THE ROMANTIC PAST. Attractively restored
historical sites with the appropriate buildings and furnishings can be
an excellent tourist attraction and can provide a very considerable in
direct revenue, as well as be a source of civic pride. Therefore, the
activities of the Amelia Island Historical, Restoration, and Preserva
tion Commission for the restoration of Oldtown should be encouraged and
given whatever aid may be possible. The archaelogical restoration of
the Plaza and the establishment of the Historical Society's museum
across the street;, along with an improvement of the area and provision
of parking facilities, would be the first step. The present activity
in the erection of markers and plaques, the provision of cannon for
Fort Clinch, and the presentation of the Fiesta of Eight Flags is to
be applauded and encouraged.
7. THE BUCCANEER TRAIL. The establishment of the Buccaneer
Trail was a valuable addition to the Island's potential tourist attract
iveness, and the construction of the St. Mary's Bridge could be an even
greater addition. The construction of Interstate 95 will attract those
travelers who are in a hurry to reach the southern portions of the state
around Amelia Island, so some provision should be made to make the
slower, coastal route more attractive. The organization of an inter
state Buccaneer Trail extending from, say, Virginia along Cape Hatteras
and the coast routes to connect with the present Buccaneer Trail across
the St. Mary's Bridge would provide a considerably greater attraction
for the potential tourist than does the present Trail. Some of the


PUBLIC HEARING
276
Outdoor Recreation Planning Region IV
Jacksonville, Florida
April 30, 1964
Summary of Presentations
BECKUM. E. J., President, St. Johns County Fish and Wildlife Association:
Asked cooperation with Florida Game and Fresh Water Fish Commission in
establishing wildlife management area in St. Johns County.
BENJAMIN. Joanne. Women's Club of Jacksonville: Expressed interest in
acquiring land for children's museum and outdoor classroom.
BLOCKER. Nelson. Lake City: Offered for sale Broward Island in Nassau
River. Described recreational qualities of the island. Invited public
to use land.
BRAINARD. Marshall. Immediate Past President, Florida Campers
Association: Recommended development of North Little Talbot Island and
purchase of Big Talbot Island. Supported Nassau River Embayment.
BROWN. Mrs.. Florida Family Campers: Expressed concern over availability
of camping areas for Negroes.
EDWARDS. Ray. President, Audubon Society of Duval County: Pointed
out population of family participation in outdoor recreation. Stressed
need for large, undisturbed areas. Recommended inclusion of Big Talbot
Island in Talbot Island State Park; enlargement of Audubon Sanctuary
on Big Talbot for nature museum.
GEFEN. Sid. Southeastern Marine Trades Association: Proposed a
marine highway system; simplified channel marking system, policed by
Florida Highway Patrol.
GORDON. Hamilton. Executive Vice President, Putnam County Chamber of
Commerce and Putnam County Development Authority: Proposed develop
ment of recreational site on Memorial Bridge causeway, Palatka.
Recommended development of three park sites on St. Johns River in Putnam
County, and 16 smaller sites for recreational use. Stressed importance
of recreational development along Cross State Barge Canal.


275
To convey the gist of these views and recommendations to
the Planning Committee, the following abstract has been prepared.
It contains both a summary of each presentation and an index to all
specific projects proposed by the participants. Complete transcripts
of each hearing are available to provide more detail if desired.


24
The summary of the ORRRC studies, Outdoor Recreation for
America, (OREA, 1962) is one of the more important and significant
studies in the field. Some conclusions as to the coming need for outdoor
recreation have been mentioned in the first few pages of this study, but
these conclusions are only a small part of the report, and comprise the
first part, "The Facts." The second part, "Recommendations," includes
chapters discussing policy guidelines at several levels of management,
both governmental and private.
Some of the more outstanding recommendations from Part II should
be mentioned. The first recommendation (Chapter 6) is for the manage
ment classification of outdoor recreation areas into six categories
ranging from high-density (Class I) to primitive (Class V), thus divid
ing the resources into areal units with specific recreational
functions. A single administrative unit, of course, could include more
than one category of use under this system.
The second recommendation (Chapter 7) called for the establish
ment of a Bureau of Outdoor Recreation within the Department of the
Interior. Such a bureau was subsequently established in 1964, and
under the Land and Water Conservation Fund Act (Public Law 880578) in
September of the same year, an operating budget of $180 million annual
ly was assured for a number of years. This revenue is basically taken
from users in the form of admission fees, taxes on motorboat fuel, and
surplus sales, and is to be used for matching funds to the states and
for the acquisition of Federal recreational areas. The Bureau is
charged with coordinating the recreational programs of all Federal


1840
FLORIDA POPULATION GROWTH BY YEARS, 1840 THROUGH 1960, AND
PROJECTIONS TO THE YEARS 1976 AND 2000
Source: United States Bureau of the Census, Census of Population.
Washington, D.C. Projections to the Years 1976 and 2000. ORRRC
Study Report 23, Washington, D.C., Table A-2, Page 5.


FIGURE
PAGE
53* Location of Selected Historical Sites near Amelia
Island, Florida 204
54. Map of the Castillo de San Marcos National Monument and
Area, St. Augustine, Florida 207
55. Copy of Map of Little Talbot Island State Park Brochure . 213
56. Map of Fort Frederica National Monument 21?
57. Map of Fort Pulaski National Monument 220
58. Copy of "Facts of Interest" Sheet for the Container Cor
poration of America and Rayonier, Incorporated, Fer-
nandina Beach, Florida, 1963 228
59* Land Held by Union Carbide and Carbon, Incorporated, on
Amelia Island, Florida, 1961 234
60. Map of St. Mary's Entrance, 1769 239
61. Map Showing Old Shorelines along Northern Amelia Island,
Florida, 1843 through i960 240
62. Hurricane Damage to the Strathmore Hotel, South Beach,
Amelia Island, Florida, 1898 242
63. Beach Erosion Damage to South Fletcher Avenue, Fernandina
Beach, Florida, 1964 242
64. Summary of Damage from Hurricane Dora in Nassau County,
Florida, 1964 244
65. Description of Hurricane Dora, Amelia Island, Florida,
1964 245
66. Beach Erosion Damage at 730 North Fletcher Avenue, Fernan
dina Beach, Florida, 1964, Viewed from the Northwest . 246
xvi


13
2. The Bureau of Land Management administers 465 million acres of
land, mostly in Alaska and in the west. This land has generally been
maintained in a comparatively natural state and has been used by sports
men. Land near population centers is now being sold or leased to states
and local governments, some 181,000 acres having been transferred by
1963.
3. Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) is not directly interested in
recreation, but its policies encourage the investment by states and pri
vate organizations in outdoor recreation.
4. The Agriculture Stabilization and Conservation Service (ASCS)
provides information and loans for the development of wildlife habitat
and resource-based recreational areas, under the terms of the Food and
Agricultural Act of 1962 and the 1963 Cropland Conversion Program.
5. The Soil Conservation Service (SCS) provides technical assis
tance and cost-sharing procedures to individuals and organizations in
its protection of watersheds.
6. The Farmers Home Administration (FHA) may make loans to low-
income farmers and rural associations, primarily to provide supplemen
tary sources of income.
7. The Small Business Administration (SBA) has been particularly
active in providing loans for motels and motor courts, and such user-
oriented activities as ski resorts.
8. The Housing and Home Finance Agency (HHFA) will include
recreational uses within its overall programs of urban planning, public
works planning, et cetera.


125
By including the "Number of Campers" summaries (Figure 28), it may be
concluded that the typical winter camper group consists of two people
for one night, while the typical summer camper group consists of four
people for one or two nights.
"Camper Days" is the product of multiplying the number of campers
in each group by the length of the group's stay. Figure 32, and Table
5, Column D, thus show the total number of camper-days for each month
without regard to the number in the group or for the length of stay.
This is the truest index of camp-facility use. The duration of any
single group's visit is independent of the number of times the group
registers, and validity is again achieved where the "Group Camping Days"
figures were weak, i.e., the re-registration after a short period of
time in camp.
The same three-month summer is again evident for June, July and
August (Figure 32). There is a slight drop in 1961 and a very consider
able rise for 1963 (by the end of August, 1963, there were already 15
percent more camper-days registered than in the entire previous year),
as would be expected from the larger camper groups and presumably longer
periods in the campgrounds noted in Figure 30.
The monthly totals of camper-days are somewhat puzzling (Figure
33,"Fort Clinch State Park Camper-Days Monthly Totals by Year, 1958-
1963"). July and August show a steady rise except for 1961, while the
other major summer month, June, rises to a peak in 1961 and then drops
in 1962. All three months are grouped together rather closely, with
March, April and May indicating a rise. March, however, had its peak


321
Ise, John. Our National Park Policy; A Critical History. (A "Re-
sources for the Future, Inc.'1 Publication.) Baltimore:
The Johns Hopkins Press, 1961.
United States Forest Policy. Hew Haven, Connecticut: Yale
University Press, 1920.
James, Preston E., and Jones, Clarence F. (eds.) American Geography,
Inventory and Prospect. Syracuse, H.Y.: Syracuse University
Press, T95T
Lorant, Stefan (ed.). The Hew World, the First Pictures of America.
Made by John White and Jacques LeMoyne, and engraved by
Theodore DeBry. Hew York: Duell, Sloan and Pearce, Inc.,
1946.
Lowery, Woodbury. The Spanish Settlements within the Present Limits of
the United States, Florida 1562-157^. Hew York: Russell and
Russell, Inc., 1959
Meras, Gonzalo Solis de. Pedro Menndez de Avils. Edited by
Jeannette Thurber Connor. DeLand, Florida: The Florida State
Historical Society, 1923.
Patrick, Rembert W. Florida Fiasco, Rampant Rebels on the Georgia-
Florida Border 110-1815. Athens, Georgia: University of
Georgia Press, 1954.
Reese, Prever R. Colonial GeorgiaA Study in British Imperial Policy
in the Eighteenth Century. Athens, Georgia: University of
Georgia Press, 1963.
Ribault, Jean. The Whole and True Discouerye of Terra Florida. Edited
by H. M. Biggar and Jeannette T. Connor. DeLand, Florida:
The Florida State Historical Society. 1927. (A facsimile re
print of the London edition of 1563.)
Shea, John Gilmary. History of the Catholic Missions among the Indian
Tribes of the United States Ip29-li5^~. Hew York: Excelsior
Catholic Publishing House, 185^
Siebert, Wilbur Henry. Loyalists in East Florida 1774-178$. DeLand,
Florida: The Florida State Historical Society, 1929*
Thorne, Wynne (ed.). Land and Water Use. (Publication Ho. 73) Wash
ington, D.C.: The American Association for the Advancement of
Science, 1963.


172
(concentrated, of course, mainly on the weekends), we would arrive at a
yearly total of more than 370,000 daily visitors, the majority of whom
would not remain overnight. If we assume the average expenditure per
person to be $5 per day, this would amount to $1,850,000 per year spent
in the immediate area. The distribution of the dollar spent would tend
to be largely in the food-and-drink classification when compared to the
areas previously investigated, reflecting the comparative scarcity of
housekeeping units and the prevalence of restaurants, and the higher
percentage of day visitors.
IV. THE ECONOMIC IMPACT
If the total numbers of people living in an area are known, the
total expenditure can be calculated. The totals themselves must first
be classified as to the nature of the group, length of stay, purpose of
residence, and location of residence. Quite obviously different cri
teria must be used for a family of six on a weekend camping-fishing
trip with their own outboard boat, and a group of six adults meeting
at a luxury motel for a chartered fishing trip.
That portion of the population which uses the beach areas on
Amelia Island has been totaled and classified in the previous parts of
this study. This includes permanent residents, renters, campers and
day-users. Some, such as the campers, have been totaled with great
accuracy, while other classifications, such as the day-users, are based
on assumptions and are inherently subject to a greater possible error,
so the figures have been rounded off. Table 21 summarizes the number


159
forty-four residential units, we come to a somewhat more complicated
picture. Talcing the three months of dune, duly, and August to repre
sent the summer "season," we have thus some ninety-two days for the
summer and two hundred and seventy-three days for the winter. Two
problems must be met here: first, what percentages of the time during
each season are the units occupied, and second, how many people each
unit should represent.
The record of one local motel is illuminating. With ten units,
there was a total of six hundred and seventy-five unit-night occupan
cies during the summer, or 72 percent of possible occupancy. During
the nine winter months, there were five hundred and sixty-three unit-
night occupancies for 21 percent of possible occupancy, and a yearly
average of 34 percent of possible occupancy (Table 12).
TABLE 12
PERCENT OF POSSIBLE OCCUPANCY IN A SELECTED MOTEL ON FLETCHER
AVENUE, FERNANDINA BEACH, FLORIDA, 1964
Number of possi
ble occupants
Number of
occupants
Percent of
possible
Summer
920
675
71.5
Winter
2,730
563
20.6
Annual
3,650
1,238
34.0


153
1. Homestead, or owner-occupied.*
2. Fernandina Beach, locally owned but no Homestead exemption
claimed.*
3. Other Florida, including Nassau County.
4. Georgia.
5. Other.
More than two hundred lots with buildings and more than five hundred
vacant lots were studied, approximately one-half of the entire beach
area under consideration. Table 10 presents a summary of these find
ings, and it may be seen that six out of every ten buildings (58 per
cent) were owned locally, and two-thirds of these (42 percent) were
owner-occupied (Homestead) dwellings. One-third (34 percent) of the
buildings were owned by persons residing out of the state, practically
all of whom were registered to Georgia owners (32 percent). However,
among the four buildings in the "Other" classification, one owner was
from as far away as California, and one owner listed Ontario, Canada,
as a home address. Less than one out of ten of the buildings (9 per
cent) were classified under Other Florida.
There was also a difference between the different subdivisions.
Local ownership ranged from a high of 76 percent to a low of 42 percent,
and owner-occupied dwellings ranged from a high of 62 percent of the
total, to a low of 27 percent. In this latter instance, nearly half
(47 percent) of the owners listed Georgia addresses.
*Florida law grants a Homestead tax exemption for property which
is being used as the permanent residence of the owner.




240


199
4,000,000
3,000,000
2,000,000
1,000,000
o
I 1
CM
CO
<*
m
VO
r^
00
O'*
o
rH
CM
CO
m
m
LO
m
m
m
m
m
m
m
VO
VO
VO
VO
VO
o>
ON
cr>
o>
cr*
O'*
ON
ON
O'*
cr*
a\
T1
rH
rH
rH
rH
rH
rH
rH
rH
rH
rH
rH
rH
rH
rH
1950
-
415,979
1951
-
513,037
1952
-
692,878
1953
-
1,088,330
1954
-
1,459,669
1955
-
2,143,102
1956
-
2,610,335
1957
-
2,768,029
1958
-
2,870,368
1959
-
3,260,129
1960
-
3,195,136
1961
-
3,647,462
1962
-
3,691,117
1963
-
3,937,763
1964
-
4,528,211
FIGURE 50
NUMBER OF VISITORS TO FLORIDA STATE PARKS,
1950 THROUGH 1964* **
NUMBER OF MOTORBOATS
REGISTERED IN FLORIDA,
1960-1964 irk


62
various local names such as "sound," "pass" and "entrance." Where the
tidal range is great and/or there is a significant amount of mainland
drainage into the lagoon, a rapid current can be found during ebb tide
with resultant erosion and formation of seaward bars and shallows
parallel to the current. Hurricanes and other major storms have been
known to open new passes and to close or drastically change old ones.
The United States Army Corps of Engineers sometimes constructs jetties
seaward in order to channel the outflow and thus to keep the pass
scoured out to its maximum depth through natural water flow.
AMELIA ISLAND BEACHES
Amelia Island itself is some thirteen miles long (north to south)
by about two miles in width. Typically, the beach is wide, flat, and
generally straight, though curving landward in the center. The entire
island is essentially east of Cumberland Island to the north, and Little
Talbot Island to the south is similarly displaced to the east of Amelia
Island, indicating the predominant east-of-south direction of the
Florida coast. The sand is composed of a fine quartz sand (Martens,
1931, p. 82) which packs into a firm white beach between high and low
water marks where the sand never thoroughly dries out between succes
sive tides. In places there is markedly more shell content which makes
for soft spots a few feet across, and at the extreme southern end of
the island blue clay may be observed to outcrop. The high tidal range
(six feet, the highest in Florida, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, 1960,
p. 6) provides for a wide expanse of flat tidal beach. Although not as
broad as, for example, Daytona Beach, it will still be over three


219
TABLE 37
NUMBER OF VISITORS TO FORT FREDERICA NATIONAL MONUMENT,
JANUARY, 1962, THROUGH AUGUST, 1964*
Month
1962
1963
1964
January
5,819
6,822
6,188
February
8,708
7,228
10,172
March
10,865
13,283
16,011
April
13,121
11,622
10,048
May
11,155
12,780
14,498
June
15,963
14,642
19,474
July
20,000
19,759
23,061
Augus t
20,581
20,973
September
10,011
11,578
October
8,284
11,429
November
7,182
10,364
December
7,103
7,104
Total
140,692
147,624
*Based upon automatic traffic count. Formula: 3 persons per
vehicle during weekdays, 4 persons per vehicle on Saturday, Sunday, and
holidays.
Source: Superintendent, Fort Frederica National Monument,
Georgia.
The Park at present occupies some five thousand acres on two
islands covered with woods, marshes and fields. There is an abundance
of wildlife, picnicking facilities, parking spaces, and visitor walks,
besides the well-maintained Fort and exhibits. The Fort lies some seven
teen miles east of Savannah just off the direct route to Savannah Beach,
but there are no swimming beaches on the Island.
Visitor counts for Cockspur Island is taken by automatic traffic
counts and multiplied by a factor to determine the number of visitors.


239
FIGURE 60
MAJE OF ST. MARYS ENTRANCE, 1769
After: A map "To the Right Honourable John Earl of Egmont,&c."
(signed) William Fuller (1769) as used in .Amelia Is land,
University of Florida Thesis, Helen Pink, 1949.


201
figures which show that driving and/or walking for pleasure and swimming
rank the highest in numbers of activity-days during summer (ORRRC Study
Report 5, 1962, Table 2, p. 19, and Table 6, p. 22).
While these activities are traditionally summertime pursuits,
they may often be continued year-round in Florida's climate. Figure 52
indicates that while the demand for outdoor recreational activity is
greatest in summer with July, the peak month, averaging more than twice
that of October, the lowest month, there were no very large extremes of
demand on an annual basis. The "Tourists" figures are even flatter
than those for residents, with the two being nearly equal during
December. This cycle of resident, tourist, or combined user-occasions
may be compared to the similar figures for camper-days at Fort Clinch
(Figure 32), in which an extreme variation is to be seen between peak
and low seasons.
The Jacksonville area should continue to receive a high percentage
of incoming Florida automobile tourists, at least from the Eastern
Seaboard states. The three major routes to southern Florida are U.S.
Routes 1 and 17 along the east coast, Interstate 75 through central
Florida, and U.S. Routes 19 and 41 along the west coast. Table 31,
showing the number of vehicles entering Florida on the major routes, in
dicates that one-fourth of the total enters on the two routes U.S. 1 and
17, both of which pass through Jacksonville. Projected Interstate 95
along the Atlantic Seaboard south to Fort Pierce and the Sunshine Park
way should give a considerable increase to the number of vehicles
passing through this area. A proposed St. Mary's, Georgia to Fernandina


313
As a resort far away from the busy hustling cares of life this
place seems pecularily fine. The island being entirely surrounded
by salt-water, a delightful breeze visits the inhabitants at all
seasons of the year--in summer, zephyry as the vale of Cashmere,
or the soft winds which bore the silver-oared barge of Cleopatra
through the Cydnus. The most attractive feature of all this
locality is the beautiful beach, connected with the town by a good
shell-road two miles in length bordering the island for twenty-one
miles and over two hundred yards in width. It is this unsurpassed
drive about which the inhabitants love to entertain you at all times
until you can see it in your dreams. A good livery-stable is kept
here well filled with five, fast horses, trained to trot or wade
in the surf, allowing visitors to admire the wonderful vastness
of the most beautiful expanse of waters which was the Atlantic shores.
At ebb-tide the imagination cannot conceive of a finer place, the
beach being so firm that a pair of horses and carriage scarcely
make an indentation on the surface In passing over it
This is the spot for the jilted lover to forget his idol, and the
disconsolate lady her imaginary devotee; for those fretted by the
rough edges of corroding care to retire and find a respite from their
struggles; the bankrupt who has been conquered in the battles of
brokerage to visit and be reminded God has given us more treasures
to delight us than the dross which passes from our grasp like a shadow,
but which all are struggling and striving to win; the store house
of the fathomless deep where we can contemplate that boundless,
endless, and sublime.21
In 1895, Fernandina was a prosperous town with fine hotels,
excellent streets, good sidewalks, electric lights, and other
22
improvements necessary to the comfort of its visitors. Its avenues
were bordered by oak and orange trees. In addition, the air was de
scribed as "simply perfect":
.... As one awakens in the morning the atmosphere seems,
and is, laden with the odors of a million flowers, with which
are mingled those of the orange and banana and other tropical
fruits, the salty flavor of the sea breeze, and the balsam of the
pines.23
21Silvia Sunshine (Abbie M. Brooks), Petals Plucked.from
Sunny Climes. 1886, pp. 25-27.
22Helen K. Ingram, Snowballs to Oranges, 1895, p. 49
23pennsylvania Railroad, Florida, 1895, p. 21.


TABLE 45 (continued)
Jan.
Feb.
March
April
May
June
July
August
Total
New Brunswick
1
1
2
28
Newfoundland
1
Nova Scotia
2
1
27
Ontario
4
9
21
33
12
13
51
35
1,018
P.E. Island
1
Quebec
6
3
6
4
18
13
225
Saskatchewan
1
1
5
Others
Australia
1
4
Belgium
3
Curacao
1
Denmark
2
England
1
14
Finland
1
1
Germany
1
2
Holland
1
Jamaica
1
Mexico
1
New Zealand
2
Norway
1 1
3
South Africa
1
1
Sweden
2
Switzerland
4
Wales
1
Source:
Fort Clinch State Park Campers' Receipts, Fernandina Beach, Florida.
CO
o


Amelia Island, Florida: A geographic study of recreation development
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Title: Amelia Island, Florida: A geographic study of recreation development
Author: Cutler, Richard Oscar
Publisher: University of Florida
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TABLE 42
CLIMATIC SUMMARY OF FERNANDINA BEACH, FLORIDA
High
Mean
Maximum
Temperature*
Mean Mean
Minimum
Low
Range:
High-
Low
Precipitation**
Mean High- Low
est est
January
84
66.7
57.4
48.2
18
66
2.*26
4.38
February
86
67.2
57.5
47.8
24
62
2.80
4.87
0.23
March
90
72.4
62.7
52.8
27
63
3.66
8.71
0.03
April
94
78.0
68.6
59.1
35
61
3.08
7.27
0.20
May
101
84.5
75.5
66.5
49
52
3.16
6.83
0.74
June
104
89.4
80.8
72.2
60
44
5.51
13.85
0.38
July
103
90.4
82.2
74.0
66
37
6.17
14.43
1.28
August
102
90.3
82.3
74.4
65
37
5.86
14.04
1.69
September
102
86.9
79.7
72.6
57
45
8.40
14.72
1.27
October
96
80.1
72.4
64.8
40
56
5.00
17.13
0.10
November
88
72.1
63.3
54.5
24
64
1.74
5.80
0.17
December
82
66.6
57.8
48.9
22
60
2.34
5.84
0.29
Total
49,,98
Highest
104
83.31 (1905)
Lowest
16 (1894)
(1931)
22.79
* 21-year average
** 30-year average
From "Climatic Summary of the United States, Section No. 104, Northern Florida," United States
Department of Commerce Weather Bureau Publications, and the Supplement for 1931 through 1952, Florida.
N3
00
O


80
TABLE 3
ANNUAL NUMBER OF HURRICANES AFFECTING THE
FLORIDA-GOERGIA COAST 1886-1958
Year
Number
Year
Number
1886
3
1923
1887
1
1924
2
1888
2
1925
1
1889
1
1926
3
1890
1927
1891
1928
2
1892
1929
1
1893
3
1930
1894
2
1931
1895
1
1932
1
1896
3
1933
2
1897
1934
1898
3
1935
3
1899
1
1936
1
1900
1937
1901
1938
1902
1939
1
1903
1
1940
1
1904
1
1941
1
1905
1942
1906
3
1943
1907
1944
1
1908
1945
2
1909
1
1946
1
1910
1
1947
2
1911
2
1948
2
1912
1
1949
1
1913
1950
2
1914
1951
1915
1
1952
1916
3
1953
1
1917
1
1954
1918
1955
1919
1
1956
1
1920
1957
1921
1
1958
1922
From:
North Atlantic Tropical Cyclones,
Technical Paper No. 36,
United States
Department of Commerce,
Weather Bureau, 1959, p. 9,
Figure 3.


TABLE 10
BUILDING AND LOT OWNERSHIP FOR EIGHT SUBDIVISIONS, FERNANDINA BEACH, FLORIDA, 1960*
A
B
C
D
BUILDINGS
E
F
G
H
Totals
Homestead 16
16
6
15
14
9
13
89
Fernandina Beach 10
9
3
4
6
2
3
37
Other Florida
7
2
6
1
3
1
20
Georgia 9
28
2
7
7
8
4
4
69
Other 2
1
1
4
Total 37
60
2
19
33
29
18
21
219
Alabama--1
Tennessee--!
Ontario--1
California--!
VACANT
LOTS
Homestead 19
16
6
17
19
14
19
110
Fernandina Beach 21
15
3
16
29
23
8
30
145
Other Florida 6
14
14
6
16
11
19
17
103
Georgia 14
42
8
16
29
11
10
9
139
Other 4
4
1
5
8
3
2
2
29
Total 64
91
26
49
99
67
53
77
526
Alabama--1
Ill.
--1
Tex. 1
N.C.--1
Kan.--2
N. J.
--3
Cal.--3 Ariz.
--2
Arkansas--1
Tex.
--1
0hio--2
N.J.--3
Louisiana--l
Tenn.1
N.C.--1
Ontario--!
Penn.--1
S.C.--1
*Subdivisions: A--Amelia Lighthouse Reservation E--Miramar Beach
B--Buck's Beach #1 F--Ocean City
C--Buck's Beach #2 G--Ocean City, South Part
D--Ferreira' s Replat of Femandina Beach H--South Beach
Source: Nassau County public tax rolls, Fernandina Beach, Florida.
Ln
-P*


2,000,000
ESTIMATED
NUMBER OF TOURISTS ENTERING FLORIDA BY MONTH, JULY,
1959, THROUGH AUGUST, 1963
Source:
Chart 2, page 4;
1961 Florida Tourist Study. Chart
The Florida Development Commission,
2 pago 3; 1963 Florida Tourist
Tallahassee, Florida.
Study,
i-1
00
N>


150
in. the use of private facilities
The tourists come to Fernandina Beach primarily to be on or
near the beach, and they therefore rent rooms or apartments close to
the beach. Evidence for this is easily obtained by talking to land
lords, rental agents, or by simply plotting the location of the summer
rental advertisement (see Figure 42). For instance, Mrs. Louis Fox,
the operator of the one hotel in the main part of town, the Keystone
Hotel (Atlantic Avenue and Eighth Street), states that they receive
very few tourists even in summer, since most tourists would rather be
closer to the beach. All eleven of the motels on the Island are on or
very close to the beach. Driving along Fletcher Avenue one sees numer
ous "Apartment for Rent" signs, but elsewhere these signs are rare
(Figure 42).
THE FLETCHER AVENUE BEACHES
Thus, the main area of tourist residential use may be considered
to be along Fletcher Avenue from Fort Clinch on the north, to the city
limits (where A1A curves away from the beach) to the south. (American
Beach will be considered under a separate section.) The area north of
Atlantic Avenue is called "North Beach," and south of Atlantic Avenue
it is called "South Beach." Fletcher Avenue is never more than one
short block away from the beach to the east, and the string of houses
rarely stretches more than a single short block to the west.
The houses are generally older wooden single and multiple units,
but there are a significant number of newer single dwellings and motels


30,000
1961 1962 1963
20,000
10,000
100%
50%
0
FIGURE 20
NUMBER OF VISITORS TO
FORT CLINCH STATE PARK,
NOVEMBER, 1961
THROUGH AUGUST, 1963
101


53
A separate and distinct residential area is American Beach, a sec
tion owned originally by the Afro-American Insurance Company and which
has since been largely sold to their employees. This is largely a
summer rental area, there being only three owner-occupied houses listed
on the 1964 Nassau County tax rolls (see "American Beach," page 167,
Chapter III).
Industry. Just across Egan's Creek to the northwest of Oldtown
lies the Quinn Menhaden Fisheries, Incorporated, a producer of ferti
lizer from the non-food fish Menhaden (porgy). This factory is not de
signed to draw visitors, and when the plant is processing a catch and
the wind is from the north to the west, an exceedingly vile and irri
tating smoke is wafted across the city and beaches causing eyes to
redden, noses to run, and visitors to retreat.
The Container Corporation of America plant lies on the Amelia
River between Oldtown and the main business section, set well back from
residential areas. The Rayonier plant is located on a peninsula to the
south and west of town, well away from residential areas. Both plants
and their surrounding areas are well-maintained, clean and neat, and
visitors are welcomed for conducted tours of the processing plants.
Under certain atmospheric conditions, however, the smoke from these pro
cessing plants fails to rise and may drift over the residential or beach
areas with a resulting unpleasant odor. Long-time residents barely
notice the smoke, but visitors to the Island are not so innured. For
tunately, these atmospheric conditions seldom last more than a day or
two.


Ill
"Group Camping Days" totals indicate the number of groups times
the number of nights that they camped. Figure 25, and Table 6, Column B,
show the total number of group camping days, and indicate a steady rise
from July, 1958 through July of 1963
Even in the summer of 1962, when the
number of camping groups and the
total number of campers dropped
slightly, the number of group camp
ing days continued to rise. The
same yearly rise is indicated for
April as was found in the number of
camping groups. Figure 24, showing
the percentage of "Group Camping
Days" registered for the three.sum
mer months, indicates a drop in the
percentage for 1961 from 70 percent
to 64 percent, but a rise the fol
lowing year to 69 percent. These
figures differ in this respect from
the percentages for the "Camping
Groups" (Figure 21), and would indi
cate a tendency toward longer
periods of group camping. One ex
planation advanced for this trend
FIGURE 24
PERCENT OF FORT CLINCH STATE
PARK GROUP CAMPING DAYS ANNUAL
TOTALS ARRIVING IN JUNE, JULY,
AND AUGUST, 1960 THROUGH
1962


181
ists during the same period of time more than doubled, but there are no
reliable records of how many tourists visited Amelia Island.
A more direct comparison may be made between the total number of
tourists entering Florida by month for a four-year period (Figure 45),
and the number of camping groups at Fort Clinch (Figure 22, Chapter III).
Both show the same June-July-August peak, but the Fort Clinch summer-
winter ratio is greatly exaggerated and fails to indicate the winter
state-wide peak. Both indicate the interesting May decline. Fort
Clinch registered a considerable gain from the 1959 to the 1960 summer
peak, whereas the state-wide figures indicate a slight drop and an
unusual September depression. Quite obviously, there is a higher per
centage of camping groups during summer than during winter (and a larger
mean group size: see Figure 29, Chapter III).
Tourist group. Not only has the number of tourists arriving in
Florida been increasing by month and by year, but the mean automobile
group size has also been increasing, with a range from 2.3 per vehicle
(winter, 1958) to 3.7 per vehicle (summer, 1960). (The National Parks
and Monuments estimates for the number per vehicle range from three to
four and a half persons per vehicle, depending upon the season and the
park. See Tables 33, 35, 36, 37, and 38) Table 23 indicates the num
ber of people per group entering Florida by season.
However, the mean group size for automobiles, which brings more
than four out of every five tourists to Florida ( 1963 Florida Tourist
Study. Table 1, page 3), is somewhat larger than that for all modes of


258
A five-year improvement program, prepared by Superintendent
Becker for the period 1964-1969, includes the completion of a new camp
ing area and facilities near the jetties, and an interpretative sign
program throughout the Park. The second year includes Girl Scout camp
ing facilities and the restoration of windows and doors to the Fort
buildings. The third year is concentrated on the interpretative program
by one of the state universities. The last two years of the plan empha
size the resurfacing and road construction throughout the Park,
restoration of parts of Fort Clinch, and erection of picnic facilities.


47
transportation routes, urbanized and residential areas, industrial areas,
recreational areas, and miscellaneous areas. Refer to Figures 2 and 3
(folded in pocket).
Transportation routes. The western and southern highways onto
Amelia Island have already been discussed. On arriving from the west,
the traveler will find three important branches dividing at Five Points
(indicated on Figure 4). Route A1A-200 continues to the north, becoming
Eighth Street as it parallels the city street pattern, and ending at
Atlantic Avenue, Fernandina Beach's main street.
Atlantic Avenue is a broad, well-maintained avenue connecting the
dock and main business section of the western part of the city with the
eastern beaches. The main cross-street (other than Route A1A-200) is
Fourteenth Street, crossing to the north to Oldtown and the new high-
level concrete bridge across Egan's Creek as the most direct entrance
into Fort Clinch. To the south, Fourteenth Street continues as Florida
Route 105A to Five Points.
Near the eastern terminus of Atlantic Avenue is found the main
entrance to Fort Clinch State Park. This drive, meandering and woodsy,
contains the entrance station and main office and has spurs connecting
with the Lodge (near the jetties on the northeast corner of the Island)
and the old Fort Clinch with its museum and supplementary park head
quarters. The drive continues to the northwest corner of the Island
for the camping, picnicking and boat-launching facilities and joins the
northern end of Fourteenth Street.


GRAPHIC SCALE.
/SS J M r/rf
O
M
LO
FIGURE 55. COPY OF MAP OF LITTLE TALBOT ISLAND STATE PARK


93
but had been forced to leave for political reasons. He then conceived
the idea of liberating Florida from Spain for annexation by the United
States and managed to raise a force, backers and implied support from
the United States government, over the emphatic protests of the
Spanish ambassador. Gathering his forces from several ports in the
Carolinas and Georgia, he captured the town and Fort in June of 1817
under the Green Cross of Florida, the fifth flag to fly over the
Island. However, his backers in the United States failed to come
through on their promises, and within three months MacGregor abandoned
the enterprise to his lieutenant, Jared Irwin.
While the expected popular uprising through East Florida failed
to materialize, Spanish attempts to retake the Island were ineffectual
and lacked positive leadership from St. Augustine. On September 13
Irwin's defenders easily repulsed a greatly superior Spanish force
(Figure 19). Meanwhile, the Mexican-based pirate, Louis Aury, had
moved his base of operations from Galveston Bay to Fernandina, and a
week after the Spanish repulse Aury was able to take command of the
town, raise the Mexican flag, and annex the Island to the Republic of
Mexico.
This small deep-water port was now openly a pirate's haven, and
in December the United States landed a force of regulars to take
possession of the Island "in trust" for Spain. They curbed smuggling
and maintained effective control until East Florida was ceded to the
United States on July 10, 1821 (Pink, 1949, p. 247).


TABLE 43
NUMBER OF VISITORS TO FORT CLINCH STATE PARK, JULY, 1962, THROUGH AUGUST, 1963
Florida
Non-
Florida
Total
Campers
Weekly
Total
Florida
Non-
Florida
Total
Campers
Monthly
Total
July, 1962
2,929
2,761
5,690
2,719
8,439
2,002
1,738
3,740
2,152
5,892
2,178
1,874
4,041
2,214
6,255
2,109
1,695
3,804
2,284
6,088
10,141
8,827
18,968
10,631
29,599
August, 1962 *
-1,595
1,589
3,184
2,438
5,622
2,152
1,963
4,115
2,704
6,819
2,003
1,849
3,852
2,666
6,518
2,222
1,696
3,918
1,979
5,897
9,906
8,626
7,535
16,161
26,067
September, 1962
-2,164
1,622
3,786
1,724
5,510
2,085
954
3,039
399
3,438
1,225
565
1,790
196
1,986
773
362
1,135
181
1,316
1,073
576
1,649
238
1,887
1,836
6,364
3,243
9,607
11,443
October, 1962
-1,372
349
1,721
260
1,981
1,377
453
1,830
295
2,125
1,398
343
1,741
207
1,948
706
319
1,025
119
1,144
5,059
1,563
6,622
1,002
7,624
November, 1962
- 766
164
930
153
1,083
1,024
173
1,197
188
1,385
1,213
217
1,430
140
1,570
1,416
216
1,632
561
2,193
4,556
801
5,357
1,057
6,414
*Dash indicates that the week was partially included in two months.
Z83


115
1960 1961 1962
FIGURE 27
PERCENT OF FORT CLINCH STATE PARK CAMPERS ANNUAL TOTALS
ARRIVING IN JUNE, JULY, AND AUGUST, 1960
THROUGH 1962


148
LICENSE COUNTS
Some indication of the origin of the beach users may be given by
counting the automobiles at selected spots and tabulating the home
state as indicated by the license plate. These results should be con
sidered as indicators only, and the results will vary considerably from
time to time and at different places. For instance, one would expect
to get a greater out-of-state percentage if his location were near an
area of rental beach cottages, than if the count were taken at one of
the public access points. The same conditions would apply for a count
taken during national holidays, rather than during the week. There
would be a tendency for greater local use after normal working hours.
The two license plate counts in Table 9 were taken at the
Atlantic terminus of Atlantic Avenue and the adjacent parking lots, the
major access point to the beaches. Parked automobiles only were
counted. While the majority of the people concerned probably came
mainly for the beach, this area is also the most commercialized part of
the beach area and contains restaurants, bars, shops, amusement parlors,
a skating rink, et cetera.


TABLE
PAGE
12. Per Cent of Possible Occupancy in a Selected Motel
on Fletcher Avenue, Fernandina Beach, Florida,
1964 159
13. Number of Residential Units Available along Fletcher
Avenue, Fernandina Beach, Florida, 1964 l60
14. Number of Residential Unit-Night Occupancies along
Fletcher Avenue, Fernandina Beach, Florida, 1964 l6l
15. Percentage of Residential Unit-Night Occupancies along
Fletcher Avenue, Fernandina Beach, Florida, 1964 l64
16. Number of User-Nights along Fletcher Avenue, Fernandina
Beach, Florida, 1964 165
17.State of Origin for Selected Beach Cottage and Apartment
Renters along Fletcher Avenue, Fernandina Beach,
Florida, 1964 l66
18. American Beach Lot Ownership, Amelia Island, Florida,
1959 168
19. Ownership of Lots with Buildings, American Beach, Amelia
Island, Florida, 1959 169
20. Automobile License Count at American Beach, Amelia Island,
Florida, 3:00 to 4:00 P.M., September 3> 1962 170
21. Summary of the Estimated Number of User-Days on Amelia
Island Beaches, 1964 174
22. Summary of the Estimated Expenditures on Amelia Island
Beaches, 1964 175
viii


29
functional areas. Physically, the Island is part of the Floridian
plateau. Economically, it is part of the Jacksonville shopping area,
and socially it is part of the extremely vague northeast Florida-south
east Georgia "region." Historically, there are several periods of the
past to which it may be equated, but generally it would be part of the
south Atlantic coastline from Cape Kennedy to Cape Hatteras.
Thus, both the wider social function and the areal location must
be considered in any microregional study of an island of such small
size which is tied closely to the region around it. However, for prac
tical purposes the area of study must be sharply delimited and
identified. For this study, the "area" is most easily defined as being
Amelia Island and the immediately adjacent waters, while the surround
ing "region" will be considered and identified as necessary.
THE OBJECTIVES
This study is primarily a study of outdoor recreational poten
tial from a geographic viewpoint, with Amelia Island selected as a
study area. Since it is a geographic study, it is concerned with the
manner in which the land and water resources are being used for outdoor
recreational purposes. The limits of this function must be as carefully
recognized and defined as are the areal limitations, and for much the
same purpose, i.e., that of focusing attention on one particular prob
lem or situation. The wider applications and implications will be
discussed in the concluding chapter.


140
Figure 41 summarizes the July and January totals by years from
1951 through 1961. While January totals have remained fairly constant
at about 20,000 crossings monthly throughout this period, July crossings
have more than tripled in the same period of time. Table 6 makes it
clear that the majority of these vehicles are non-Floridian in origin.
However, this is not to say that all non-Florida cars are of necessity
passing through, for there is no indication of how many of the out-of-
state cars are temporary local residents.
Surprisingly enough, the data indicate a trend toward a north
ward movement of vehicles during the winter months, and a southward flow
during the summer months (Table 46, Appendic C). This would seem to
indicate that the major tourist flow along this route is based on the
same factors that give Fernandina Beach a high summer influx of visitors
from Georgia and other close inland areas; that is, an escape from in
land summer heat rather than an escape from northern visitors. This
could be due to several factors, such as a lack of awareness of the
Trail among northerners until their arrival in Florida, the tourist's
hurry to reach the more usual winter resorts to the south, or the de
sire of summer tourists to reach the coastal breezes as rapidly as
possible. The bridge from St. Mary's, Georgia, to Fernandina, if built,
would tend to equalize this flow.
A tabulation made by Mr. Joseph Schofield, Buccaneer Trail
Association manager in Fernandina Beach, is of interest. All the in
quiries received by his office during June, July, and August of 1961
classified as to state of origin, and in some cases, as to city of


8
interest. This act allowed a number of interesting areas to be set aside
as national monuments until such a time that they could become national
parks, such as Carlsbad Caverns, Grand Canyon, Olympic, Zion and Bryce
(Brockman, 1959, p. 63).
The National Park Service was formed in 1916 to coordinate and
supervise the growing number of National Parks, which had been generally
managed by the U. S. Army. Under the energetic superintendent Mather,
the National Conference on State Parks was formed in 1921 to provide a
permanent forum for the exchange of ideas and discussions on the State
and Federal roles in outdoor recreation.
The U. S. Forest Service was at first concerned only with the
preservation and development of the timber resources, but the concept of
multiple use of national forests was forming during the first decade of
the century. One landmark for the concept of multiple use in conserva
tion was the White House Conference in 1908, at which President Theodore
Roosevelt met with the governors of the states and other interested
officials to discuss the problems of vanishing natural resources
(Proceedings of a_ Conference of Governors in the White House, 1909).
A subsequent National Conservation Commission prepared the first
inventory of the national natural resources, but the Commission was
dissolved when the country entered the First World War (Highsmith,
et al., 1962, p. 20).
It was during this period that the concept of multiple use of
forest lands began to form. Multiple use follows the concept of the


FIGURE 13
THE CHAMBER OF COMMERCE OFFICES IN THE KEYSTONE HOTEL.
NOTE THE PIRATE THEME.
FIGURE 14
MARKER DEPICTING THE PLAZA, OLDTOWN,
VIEW TO THE WEST.


264
planning has not proven effective in other places; it would be necessary
for the Amelia Island planning agency to have broad and explicit powers,
and would preferably concern itself with development and promotion as
well as zoning. Some activities proper to such an agency are included
in the following recommendations.
3. BEACH ACCESS. As tourism and population increase, the use of
the beaches, especially during summers, and the surrounding waters will
also increase. Proper access must be provided along with adequate park
ing facilities, but access points are now scattered and inadequate.
Reasonable automobile access is now present at only three places (At
lantic Avenue ramp, the Sadler Road ramp, and at American Beach) for
the fifteen miles of beaches. Good small-boat launching is available at
three additional places (the Fort Clinch ramp, the Atlantic Avenue lift,
and the Buccaneer Trail ramp on the southern end of the Island. A
fourth has been maintained by Rayonier near its docks for public use).
The City of Fernandina Beach carries on its street plats approx
imately fifty streets connecting Fletcher Avenue with the beach. These
could be opened, ramps paved, and empty lots to the west of Fletcher
Avenue bought and maintained as parking lots. This would go far to
ameliorate the increasingly crowded conditions at the Atlantic Avenue
terminus. The county should take immediate steps to secure similar
access rights to the rest of the Island, including American Beach and
the land held by the Union Carbide and Carbon Company. There would be
no need to pave, or even to open, all the access routes at present, but


306
The following description of the early tourist industry in Amelia
Island is taken verbatum from Helen Pink's University of Florida Master's
Thesis, "Amelia Island: A Resource Unit for Teachers in Secondary
Schools," 1949, pages 135 through 153 with the exception of the figures.
Tables 47 and 48 are summaries of maps on pages 138 and 154, respectively.
Mrs. Pink was a resident in Fernandina (now Fernandina Beach) for many
years and during which time she became interested in the Island's
fascinating past.


44
Waterway* and may even be stopped (either luckily or unluckily, as the
mood indicates) while the road-bridge opens for passage of a yacht or a
tug pushing a string of barges. The driver is soon on Amelia Island,
and may proceed directly north to the city of Fernandina Beach, or di
rectly east to follow Route A1A as it passes a few feet from the
Atlantic Ocean or directly south to Nassau Sound and points farther on
along the Buccaneer Trail (Figure 2).
Amelia Island itself is quite similar geologically to many other
near-shore coastal islands and bars to the north and south (U.S. Army
Corps of Engineers, 1960, p. 8). A dozen miles in length, it consists
of low sandy dunes, a city of some six thousand population, a state
park on the northern end, beach homes on part of the Atlantic beach,
and much presently unused oak and pine forest to the south. This same
physical pattern is extended to the north in the form of Cumberland Is
land, and to the south with Talbot and Little Talbot Islands, each
separated from each other and from the mainland by extensive salt
marches or passes.
Little Talbot Island, seaward from Big Talbot Island, has dunes
ranging to forty feet in height. Both Islands are presently wildlife
preserves, and two fine beach access areas are located on Little Talbot
Island (see page 211). Historic Fort George Island is found to the
southwest on Fort George River, the location of one of the earliest
Spanish settlements under the name of the Island of Alimacani (Lowery,
*The Intracoastal Waterway extends from New York to the Mexican
coast utilizing natural passages and canals, with only brief passages
in the open ocean. It is much used by commercial and pleasure craft.


57
A second major recreational feature is the 1,100-acre Fort Clinch
State Park occupying the northern tip of Amelia Island and containing
pentagonal Fort Clinch. The Fort and land, purchased by the state in
1935, received more than one hundred fifty thousand visitors in 1962,
and more than thirty-two thousand camper-days were registered in its
pleasant, water-front woodsy campground.
Most of the reservation is composed of low-lying dunes covered
to the east with oak. A ridge of higher dunes (up to fifty feet) faces
a more recent area of low dunes which is less than one hundred fifty
years of age (see Figure 61, "Old Shorelines Chapter IV). The curving
main entrance drive winds through the oak forest immediately to the west
of this high dune ridge, with one spur cutting through to the Lodge and
jetties. This lodge is commonly used by local groups for parties, con
ventions, et cetera, and has sleeping and cooking facilities. The main
drive continues through the woods to the west and south of the dunes
until it arrives at the camping area and concrete boat launching ramp
facing onto the Amelia River. The camping and picnic area extends
from the water's edge about half a mile into the woods along the north
side of the road. Modern sanitary facilities, electricity, water, and
a small pavilion with refreshments are available. During peak summer
seasons, as many as three hundred families may be encamped, some for
several weeks at a time (see Table 5).
The Fort itself is being restored and some portions are used as
housing for the Park employees. It contains a museum, a reconstructed
draw bridge, numerous subterranean aisles, rooms, dungeons, portholes,


Index of Recommended Projects
278
BROWARD ISLAND. Nassau County Offer for sale of island in Nassau
River for outdoor recreational use (By Nelson Blocker).
JACKSONVILLE AREA BEACH SITES. Duval County Acquisition of beach
areas, between Atlantic Beach and Mayport (by Craig Lindelow), and
on Jacksonville Beach (by Julian Warren).
ADDITION TO LITTLE TALBOT ISLAND STATE PARK. Duval County Acquisition
of Big Talbot Island and development of additional recreational features
(by Representative Fred Schultz, Julian Warren, Craig Lindelow, Ray
Edwards, Marshall Brainard).
MARINE HIGHWAY SYSTEM, throughout Florida Establishment of waterway
system, marking, mapping, and policing by Florida Highway Patrol (by
Sid Gefen).
MATHEWS BRIDGE BOAT RAMP. Duval County Construction of ramp (by
Julian Warren).
NASSAU RIVER EMBAYMENT. Nassau County Acquisition and development
for recreational purposes (by Marshall Brainard, Craig Lindelow).
PUTNAM COUNTY SITES Development of recreational area in Palatka
Memorial Bridge causeway; development of three sites on St. Johns
River, and sixteen smaller sites (by Hamilton Gordon).
ST. MARY'S RIVER AND OCEAN POND SITES. Nassau County Acquisition
of possible sites for recreational development (by George Rhoden).
TREATY OAK PARK. Duval County Development of historic site (by
Craig Lindelow).
VILANO BEACH BOAT BASIN. St. Johns County Development of recreational
facilities at Sharon Bridge (by Dan Michael).
WILDLIFE MANAGEMENT AREA. St. Johns County Cooperation with Florida
Game and Fresh Water Fish Commission in establishment of wildlife
management area on Owens-Illinois Glass Co. land (by Dr. E. J. Beckum).


262
commuting, and the residential zones or housing developments spread
farther and farther from downtown. It does not take much imagination
to picture that within a decade there will be a ribbon development of
homesites, housing developments, and associated small businesses extend
ing north along Route 17 (and the forthcoming Interstate 95) as far as
Yulee, or for numerous Jacksonville business and professional men to
commute daily from Amelia Island. These latter would have permanent
homes which would tend to equalize the yearly Amelia Island business
cycle.
Thus, as the regional population grows, and especially as the
Jacksonville Metropolitan Area grows and extends its economic and resi
dential patterns, Amelia Island can expect to become more closely tied
to Jacksonville economically, residentially, and recreationally. These
same comments would apply, of course, to the entire coastline from the
St. Mary's River to St. Augustine, but there is little beach-front or
even good water-front property north of the St. Johns River still avail
able for residential uses: Xalvis Island, Big and Little Talbot Islands,
and the north end of Amelia Island are all reserved for the public under
state control. There is still residential room available south of the
St. Johns River, with the exception of the Naval Air Station and the
present communities from Atlantic Beach to Ponte Vedra Beach which
are already crowded.
II. RECOMMENDATIONS
Amelia Island is a pleasant place in which to live and it pre
sents an inviting environment containing some of the best features of


205
A second major historical period concerns the Civil War. During
hostilities, the Union naval forces imposed a blockade on the southern
coast. As a result, a number of forts were renovated or built along the
entire coastline, and many of these remain to the present day in varying
conditions of preservation. Some of these forts near Amelia Island
would include Yellow Bluffs Fort (Jacksonville), Fort Clinch (Fernandina
Beach), Fort Frederica (Brunswick), and Fort Pulaski (Savannah).
These remainders of two past romantic periods in our heritage
have a variety of owners and uses, private, state and Federal. Since
they are to some extent similar to Fort Clinch, it will be of interest
to examine selected locations as to their local situations, the numbers
of visitors, and the degree to which their romantic heritage is being
used as a tourist attraction. One state park with beach facilities
(Little Talbot Island State Park) is included to provide an examination
of a beach with recreational use similar to that found on Amelia
Island's beaches.
The Castillo de San Marcos National Monument. The Spanish fort
at St. Augustine, the Castillo de San Marcos (Figure 54), overlooks St.
Augustine inlet. Sandy islands stretch to the north and south and make
this region a tourist mecca. Two major north-south routes serve the
city. The Buccaneer Trail closely parallels the coast and passes di
rectly through St. Augustine and by the Castillo. U.S. Route 1, a
four-lane highway from the Georgia border to Fort Pierce and the Sun
shine Parkway, passes immediately to the west of the city. Proposed


48


184
TABLE 24
NUMBER OF PEOPLE PER TOURIST GROUP ENTERING FLORIDA IN
1963 BY AUTOMOBILE
Number per
vehicle
Percentage of yearly total
1
10
2
47
3
15
4
16
5
7
6
3
7
and over
2
Mean group size
3.0
Total
100
After: 1963 Florida Tourist Study, The Florida Development
Commission, Tallahassee, Florida, Table 11, page 12.
Origin of tourists. Out-of-state automobiles tabulated according
to their home state (and thus as "Tourists") give a simple and easily-
prepared tabulation on the origin of out-of-state tourists. It gives no
indication of how much touring they do, or, for that matter, does it re
flect the in-state tourism of Floridians. Table 25 gives a summary of
these out-of-state tourists for four years, with the last year divided
into summer and winter tourism.


227
has been used as food in times of stress. It is generally used for the
production of fertilizer and for the processed oils which are used in
food enrichment and industry. A quite repugnant smoke is a by-product
of the processing of the fish. The payrolls of these two companies con
tribute nearly, half a million dollars to the Island's economy annually.
The woodpulp industry. The Container Corporation of America and
the Rayonier plants are the largest employers on the Island, and contri
bute substantially to the economy both through their payrolls and
through taxes. In August, 1964, they issued a joint "Facts of Interest"
sheet outlining such items of interest as the number of employees, annual
payroll, et cetera (Figure 58). With a direct and indirect employment
of 1,400 local workers and a payroll of nine million dollars annually, it
is apparent that these two industries are of utmost importance to the
community and that they rival tourism as a major economic function of
the Island. Their importance lies not only in the annual payroll and
the six hundred thousand dollars per year in taxes paid to the county
and city, but also in the steadying effect of the relatively unchanging
monthly payrolls, as compared to the summer feast and winter famine for
the tourist facilities.
By referring to Figure 58, "Facts of Interest," it may be seen
that one hundred and seventy-seven persons are indirectly employed by
the mills, it would amount to $1,300,000 annually in indirect employment.
"Local purchases other than wood annually" would add nearly one million
dollars, and taxes more than six hundred thousand dollars more. Summar
izing these figures, we would have:


McCLURES HILL
SITE OF THE BATTLE OF AMELIA. SEPTEMBER ¡3, IBI7 ON THIS
HILL. SPANIARDS ERECTED A BATTERY OF FOUR BRASS CANNON.
WITH ABOUT 300 MEN. SUPPORTED BY TWO OUNBOATS. THEY
SHELLED FERNANDINA. HELD BY JARED IRWIN. ADVENTURER AND
FORMER PENNA. CONGRESSMAN. HIS "REPUBLIC OF FLORIDA" FORCES
NUMBERED 94. THE PRIVATEERS MORCIANA AND ST. JOSEPH,
AND THE ARMED SCHOONER JUPITER. SPANISH OUNBOATS
COMMENCED FIRING AT 3:30 P. M AND THE BATTERY ON THIS
HILL JOINED THE CANNONADE. CUNS OF FORT SAN CARLOS.
ON THE RIVER BLUFF NORTHWEST OF HERE, AND THOSE OF
THE ST, JOSEPH DEFENDED AMELIA ISLAND. CANNON BALLS
KILLED TWO AND WOUNDED OTHER SPANISH TROOPS
CONCENTRATED BELOW THIS HILL. FIRING CONTINUED UNTIL
DARK. THE SPANISH COMMANDER, CONVINCED HE COULD NOT
CAPTURE THE ISLAND. WITHDREW HIS FORCES.
THE CEMERAL DUNCAN L. CLINCH HISTORICAL 80CIETY
OF AUELIA ISLAND. FLORIDA.
FIGURE 19
MARKER DEPICTING DEFEAT OF SPANISH FORCES 1817


12
Insofar as the national forests are concerned, we are talk
ing about 81% million visits or 95% million man-days of
recreation use in 1959. This ... is 4% times what it was in
1946 and we have good reasons to expect over 600 million visits
in 2000 .... This large recreation use must be considered as
part and parcel of national forests multiple-use management.
On lands where recreation resources are the predominant public
value they will receive priority . (Sieker, 1960, p. 4).
The Army Corps of Engineers of the United States Department of
Defense is responsible for the construction of numerous water impound
ments and navigational improvements, both coastal and inland. The
recreational uses of these constructions had long been considered to be
a by-product, but there has been a very rapid increase in their recrea
tional use since they were opened to the public under the 1944 Flood
Control Act. In 1960 the projects of the Corps of Engineers had 109
million visitor-days (and another 65 million visitor-days at TVA and
at Bureau of Reclamation projects) (ORFA, 1962, p. 179).
These are by no means the only Federal agencies interested in
recreation, but a complete description would be a study in itself.
Some others worthy of mention will help to show the trend of modern
Federal policy toward recreation. These are summarized by the United
States Department of Commerce (Recreation and Tourism Developed Through
Federal Programs, 1965).
1. The Bureau of Reclamation is primarily interested in the
control and development of waters in the dry western states. Its ex
perience with water impoundments is similar to that of the Corps of
Engineers.


FIGURE 35
POINT OF ORIGIN OF FORT CLINCH STATE PARK CAMPING GROUPS BY STATE,
JULY, 1959, THROUGH AUGUST, 1963
w
P*


94
The casual tourist to Fort Clinch often assumes that the Fort was
built by the Spanish, possibly confusing it with the Castillo de San
Marcos in St. Augustine. However, the construction of this Fort was not
initiated until the middle of the eighteenth century. Uncompleted at
the outbreak of the Civil War, it was occupied and made serviceable by
the Confederate army under the command of Col. Robert E. Lee, who made
several personal visits to inspect the armaments. However, the Third
Regiment of the Florida Volunteers abandoned the Fort upon the approach
of a Federal force in March of 1862 and the eighth flag to fly over the
town was replaced, this time permanently, with the Union flag (Pink,
1949, p. 247).


ABSTRACT
PUBLIC HEARINGS ON FLORIDA OUTDOOR RECREATION NEEDS
Conducted by the
FLORIDA OUTDOOR RECREATIONAL PLANNING COMMITTEE
April May, 1964


108
I960 1961 1962
FIGURE 21
PERCENT OF FORT CLINCH STATE PARK CAMPING GROUPS ANNUAL TOTALS
ARRIVING IN JUNE, JULY, AND AUGUST,
1960 THROUGH 1962


250
200
150
100
50
0
1958 1959
FIGURE 30
NUMBER OF FORT CLINCH STATE PARK CAMPING GROUPS BY SIZE OF GROUP AND BY MONTH,
JULY AND AUGUST, 1958, AND JULY, 1959, THROUGH AUGUST, 1963
Page 1 of 5 pages
N>
o


183
transportation together. Table 24 shows a mean tourist group size of
three persons per vehicle, considerably higher than the winter mean
group size of 2.2 as shown in Table 23, but yet smaller than the summer
mean group size of 3.3 shown in the same table.
TABLE 23
NUMBER OF PEOPLE PER TOURIST GROUP ENTERING FLORIDA IN 1963
BY ALL MODES OF TRANSPORTATION
Number per group
Percentage of
winter total*
Percentage of
summer total**
1
26
11
2
46
27
3
13
17
4
10
23
5
3
12
6
1
6
7 and over
1
2
Mean group size
2.2
3.3
Annual group size
2.8
Total
100%
100%
After: 1963 Florida Tourist Study, The Florida Development
Commission, Tallahassee, Florida, Table 11, page 12.
*Winter: January through April
**Summer: June through August


99
a rather narrow activity base. Private enumeration and questionnaires
have been used for the private facilities, and have produced a broader
activity base but of somewhat less statistical validity.
II. PUBLIC RESOURCES
FORT CLINCH STATE PARK
The Florida State Parks keep regular, accurate records and the
Fort Clinch State Park has been a rich source of raw information on the
numbers, origins and nature of tourists and local people using the Park
facilities. Although the Park visitors are not necessarily representa
tive of all Amelia Island visitors, the abundance of relatively good
raw data and the enthusiastic cooperation of the Park officials has
made the Park records the dominant source of information on the nature
and origins of tourists, and indirectly, of their impact on the local
economy.
The principal records are of two types. The Superintendent's
Weekly Report gives the daily, weekly, and monthly totals on all incom
ing visitors. The Campers' Receipts give data on the origins, numbers,
and length of stay of the camper groups, and although not quite as ac
curate as the Superintendent's Weekly Reports, they are more detailed.
Total number of visitors. The Superintendent's Weekly Reports
were taken from July, 1958 through August, 1963. The records through
June, 1962 indicate only the day visitors, the campers, and the totals
by the day, week, and month. They are condensed from the original


TABLE 45 (continued)
Jan.
Feb.
Mar.
Apr.
May
June
July
Aug.
Sept.
Oct.
Nov.
Dec.
New Hampshire
1
3
1
1
2
1
1
New Jersey
New Mexico
5
19
19
5
6
22
19
1
3
4
4
New York
3
19
50
55
13
8
44
39
10
6
8
9
North Carolina
1
1
14
6
8
29
51
22
6
3
6
13
North Dakota
1
Ohio
4
7
18
19
23
74
85
66
9
11
4
6
Oklahoma
1
4
2
4
Oregon
2
1
2
1
Pennsylvania
8
7
11
7
3
17
33
42
3
4
4
7
Rhode Island
4
2
4
2
3
South Carolina
1
2
2
4
1
22
27
10
3
3
3
3
South Dakota
1
1
1
2
Tennessee
1
4
4
23
36
19
4
Texas
2
2
10
1
9
1
2
Utah
8
2
Vermont
3
1
1
2
1
1
1
1
Virginia
6
7
14
7
22
35
31
4
1
2
5
Washington
5
1
4
5
3
Washington, DC
5
3
5
2
6
West Virginia
3
5
2
8
11
8
1
Wisconsin
2
5
4
7
9
6
8
1
1
3
2
Wyoming
Canal Zone
1
1
2
Canada
Alberta
1
4
5
British Columbia
1
1
3
1
2
4
1
Manitoba
1
K5
VO


TABLE 45 (continued)
July
August
September
October
November
December
Nebraska
Nevada
1
New Hampshire
2
New Jersey
15
20
3
6
6
1
New Mexico
New York
41
62
4
9
7
6
North Carolina
34
19
1
3
6
12
North Dakota
Ohio
53
55
14
3
5
5
Oklahoma
1
1
Oregon
1
1
3
Pennsylvania
34
37
11
5
2
6
Rhode Island
5
4
1
1
South Carolina
9
9
5
2
1
South Dakota
1
Tennessee
13
17
1
1
Texas
3
6
1
Utah
Vermont
1
2
Virginia
29
19
2
7
4
Washington
4
2
Washington, DC
2
4
1
West Virginia
7
5
8
Wisconsin
6
3
1
1
Wyoming
1
Canal Zone
Canada
N5
00
00


BIBLIOGRAPHY
Public Documents
Florida. Biennial Report of the Florida. Board of Parks and Historic
Memorials for the Years July 1, 1957, through June 30. 1959.
July, 1959.
Florida. Florida Outdoor Recreation--at the Crossroads. Governor's
Committee on Recreational Development, 1963.
Florida. Florida Tourist Study Summary. Florida Development Commis-
sion, 1959-1963.
Florida. Florida's Outdoor Recreation Programthe First Year.
Progress report by the Florida Outdoor Recreational Development
Council and the Florida Outdoor Recreational Planning Com
mittee, September, 1964.
Florida. Public Hearings on Florida Outdoor Recreation Needs. Florida
Outdoor Recreational Planning Committee, April-May, 1964.
Florida. Thirteenth Biennial ReportJanuary 1, 1957,? through December
31, 1958. Florida Geological Survey, 1959.
U.S. Army, Corps of Engineers. Beach Erosion Control Report: Co-oper
ative Study of Amelia Island, Florida. Report of U.S. Army
Engineer District, Savannah, Georgia, March 10, i960.
U.S. Department of Agriculture. Land, the Yearbook of Agriculture,
1958.
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Weather Bureau. Climatic Summary of
the United States; Section No. 103Central and Eastern Georgia.
Data from the establishment of station to 1930.
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Weather Bureau. Climatic Summary of
the United States; Section Ho. 104--Northern Florida. Data
from the establishment of station to 1930.
U.S. Department of Commerce. Recreation and Tourism Developed through
Federal Programs. Area Redevelopment Administration, February,
1955^
U.S. Department of Commerce, Weather Bureau. Annual Climatic Summary.
Station Wo. 8 2944 2, Fernandina Beach, Florida, 1958-1962.


224
ties for camping and picnicking are already strained by the heavy summer
usage. The increased access due to the bridge, however, might brimg
more of the winter visitors through the Island, whereas at present the
majority of winter tourists apparently travel directly to the more
southern parts of the state. This would tend to equalize the 1963
8 : 1 summer-winter ratio, but still more facilities would be required
for the greater number of summer visitors.
Estimates of future visitor attendance are difficult to make,
and the basis upon which the projection is made may change abruptly
and in unexpected ways. The best of estimates are subject to unfore
seeable changes such as highway construction, bridge construction, and
so forth, which invalidate the basis upon which the estimates were
projected. In a rapidly growing and changing country such as the
United States, projections of this nature are often underestimated
and frequent changes must be made. As an example of these problems,
Table 39 shows the estimates for future visitor attendance at selected
National Monuments made by the National Park Service in 1961 for the
following twelve years. The actual attendance for 1963 is shown in
parenthesis, and show that without exception the number of visitors
has been underestimated from 10 to 15 percent.


126
in 1961, the same year as June. The other month of major importance is
September, which follows the April regime.
Thus, particular months may be grouped together to indicate gen
eral trends from year to year. July and August are the two highest
months, and March and June both show
a decided drop in lybl. April, May
and September show somewhat similar
trends. The other five months
(October, November, December, Janu
ary and February) show rather flat
curves, indicating that the number
of camper-days during winter has
remained fairly constant.
Supporting evidence is also
shown by Figure 31, which gives the
percentage of the total camper days
arriving in the three summer months
of June, July,and August. These
figures indicate a significant drop
from 76 percent in 1960 to a low of
72 percent in 1961 and a very slight
rise for the next year. These per
centages are still considerably
higher than the comparable figures
for the other three categories (Figu
FIGURE 31
PERCENT OF FORT CLINCH STATE
PARK CAMPER-DAYS ANNUAL TOTALS
ARRIVING IN JUNE, JULY, AND
AUGUST, 1960 THROUGH 1962
21, 24, and 27).


TABLE 43 (continued)
Florida
Non-
Florida
Total
Campers
Weekly
Total
Florida
Non-
Florida
Total
Campers
Monthly
Total
May, 1963
-2,890
899
3,789
664
4,453
1,716
952
2,668
370
3,038
2,474
1,034
3,508
453
3,961
1,754
576
2,321
441
2,752
9,896
3,791
13,678
2,252
15,939
June, 1963
-2,364
1,047
3,411
826
4,237
2,166
1,512
3,678
1,594
5,272
2,600
1,483
4,083
1,373
6,356
1,728
1,354
3,082
2,337
5,419
2.019
1,564
3,583
2,588
6,171
9,587
6,577
16,164
9,204
25,368
July, 1963
-3,371
3,164
6,535
4,335
10,870
3,881
1,980
5,861
2,980
8,841
1,965
1,326
3,291
2,737
6,028
2,366
1,679
4,045
2,814
6,859
1,809
1,834
3,643
2,656
6,293
10,331
8,671
10,002
14,006
33,008
August, 1963
2,111
1,903
4,014
2,520
6,534
2,145
1,630
3,775
2,115
5,890
1,814
2,133
3,947
2,373
6,320
1,409
1,485
2,894
1,817
4,711
8,569
8,463
17,032
10,349
27,381
Special:
July 15-21,1963
Florida
Georgia
Alabama
Other
Total
Campers
503
941
35
1,247
2,726
Day visitors
1.965
1.064
8
254
3.291
2,468
2,005
43
1,501
6,017
Summarized from the Superintendent's Weekly Reports from July, 1962, through August, 1963, Fort Clinch
State Park, Fernandina Beach, Florida.


137
FIGURE 38
NUMBER OF FORT CLINCH STATE PARK CAMPING GROUPS ARRIVING IN
JULY FROM FLORIDA, GEORGIA, NEW YORK, AND OHIO,
1959 THROUGH 1963


129
Point of origin. From each Campers' Receipt, the home state ad
dress (or license plate) was taken along with the information on the
number of campers. Two states by far led all the others: Florida, with
4,826 groups (24 percent), and Georgia, with 3,338 groups (16 percent).
Together these two states made up nearly two-fifths of the total of
20,451 receipts which were recorded for the entire fifty-two months
(Table 45, Appendix C) The nearest competitors were Ohio, with 1,419
groups (7 percent) and New York, with 1,089 groups (5 percent).
Figure 34 indicates the twenty-one states with over 1 percent of
the total. The eastern seaboard and the midwestern states were expected
to be high, but Canada is well-represented with Ontario's 1,018 groups
(5 percent) and Quebec's 225 groups (1 percent), and even California
ranks with 213 groups (1 percent). These twenty-one states, represent
ing some one-third of the total states listed, accounted for a total of
19,595 groups, or more than 90 percent of the fifty-two month total.
Figure 35 shows graphically the states of origin of the campers. The
numbers of groups from the major states are shown by vertical bars.
The majority of visitors came from an area bounded within a line drawn
from Florida to Illinois, thence to Michigan, across Ontario and Quebec
to Massachusetts, and south along the seaboard to Florida, all being
within three days driving time of Amelia Island.
Figures 36 and 37 indicate the number of groups from selected
states by month. Florida and Georgia (Figure 36) follow predictable
patterns which approximate the total camper group arrivals at the Park.
Florida visitors came to a peak in July, 1961 but dropped sharply in


157
tion did not advertise as a "motel" but was considered to fall under
the classification for this purpose. All the motels had light house
keeping or efficiency units, and a few had sleeping rooms also. For
example, one motel had twenty-six units, fourteen of which were
efficiency apartments, while another has only efficiencies. Therefore,
no clear distinction is to be made between full-time and part-time
rentals.
Four hundred and twenty residential buildings were tabulated
along this beach area with a total of eight hundred and forty-four
residential units. The number of units were further separated by
location as to North Beach or South Beach (with the dividing line
being Atlantic Avenue), location on the seaside or on the landside
of Fletcher Avenue and whether the unit was owner occupied or a
rental unit.
Meaningful conclusions may be drawn from a careful examination
of the figures. For a calculation of the total numbers without regard
to location, it may readily be seen that with four hundred and twenty
buildings and eight hundred and forty-four units, there were an aver
age of two units per building. Like many averages, though, this is
not representative of the actual buildings themselves.


247
FIGURE 66
BEACH EROSION DAMAGE AT 836 NORTH FLETCHER AVENUE,
FERNANDINA BEACH, FLORIDA, 1964
The house on wooden pilings was essentially undamaged, while
the house on a cement slab foundation was a total loss.
FIGURE 69
BEACH EROSION DAMAGE AT 982 SOUTH FLETCHER AVENUE,
FERNANDINA BEACH, FLORIDA, 1964
Four to six feet of sand have been removed from under the house,
but wooden pilings remain intact. The seawall in the foreground
was destroyed.


FIGURE 32
NUMBER OF FORT
CLINCH STATE
JULY, 1959
PARK CAMPER-DAYS,
, THROUGH AUGUST,
JULY AND AUGUST,
1963
1958,
AND
ro


187
percent), while the states representing the greatest percentage decline
range from the north Atlantic seaboard to the midwest. Georgia and
Alabama represent nearly one-quarter (23 percent of all 1961 visitors,
29 percent summer, 10 percent winter), in contrast to 1958 when they
represented only 8 percent (with about the same summer-winter ratio).
This seems to reflect the rise in summer tourism to Florida as repre
sented by Figure 45 and the Fort Clinch attendance records (Figure 20).
We may compare the relative ranking and percentages of these
states with the major states represented in Fort Clinch camping (Figure
15, Chapter III). By using only the yearly totals for the out-of-state
tourists, eliminating Floridians, and re-computing the percentages on
the remaining campers, we can compare the top ten states in each
category.
TABLE 26
THE TEN PRIMARY STATES FOR OUT-OF-STATE VISITORS: FLORIDA
(1961)* AND FORT CLINCH CAMPING GROUPS (JULY, 1959,
THROUGH AUGUST, 1963)**
Florida
State
tourists
Percentage of
total
Fort Clinch
State
campers
Percentage of
total
Alabama
12
Georgia
21
Georgia
11
Ohio
9
New York
10
New York
7
Illinois
8
Ontario
6.5
New Jersey
7
Pennsylvania
5
Ohio
6
Illinois
5
Pennsylvania
6
North Carolina
4
Indiana
3
Virginia
4
Michigan
3
Michigan
3
Massachusetts
3
New Jersey
3
Source: 1963 Florida Tourist Study, The Florida Development
Commission, Tallahassee, Florida, Table 6, page 7.
**Fort Clinch Camper Receipts. See Figure 34.


105
high of nearly one thousand, four hundred groups in July of the same
year, giving a ratio of nearly 1:23 (Table 5, Column A). This range
itself seems to be increasing, as indicated by Figure 23, which shows
the monthly totals for each month by year. The three winter months of
December, January, and February show practically no rise whatsoever.
July shows by far the greatest rise, followed by its companions, August
and June. These latter three months stand out as the peak camping
months and account for about 65 percent of the total camping groups
with but slight differences being found from year to year (Figure 24).
The year 1962 experienced a drop in the total number of groups,
as shown in Figures 22 and 23, for all the major months. Only October,
November and December, 1962, and January, 1963, do not indicate this
same depression. This may have been caused by a change in the cost of
camping, when special weekly rates were replaced by unchanging daily
rates.


128
FIGURE 33
FORT CLINCH STATE PARK CAMPER DAYS MONTHLY TOTALS
BY YEAR, 1958 THROUGH 1963


22
The following year this prolific writer, along with two fellow research
ers, published their fine Land for the Future, (Clawson, et al 1960)
in which recreation was treated as one of the multiple uses to which our
land is put. The urban, agricultural, forestry, and grazing uses were
covered in the same detail as was the recreational use, which was put
into its proper perspective in American life.
The report of the Outdoor Recreational Resources Review Commission
in 1962 has been mentioned earlier but little has been said of the
coverage of this report. In all, it consisted of twenty-seven separate
reports on various phases of the investigation, plus the summary
already mentioned (ORFA, 1962). It is difficult to summarize the
breadth and depth of this combined study. The twenty-seven separate
sub-studies include, among those of particular importance to this
study, reports on shoreline resources (Number 4), statistical analysis
of user satisfaction (Number 5), the multiple-use concept as employed
among the different Federal agencies (Number 17), factors affecting
demand (Number 20), trends in American living (Number 22), demographic
and economic projects to the years 1976 and 2000 (Number 23), prospec
tive demand for recreation (Number 26), and a survey of the literature
(Number 27). The choice of these particular sub-studies by no means
is meant to detract from the others, but a complete listing and
description would be beyond this report.


161
These would reflect the number of units available. If you then accept
a figure of 85 percent summer occupancy for all units (or six days
occupancy per week), and multiply by the ninety-two days of summer,
you would arrive at the total number of summer night occupancies.
For winter, if the figure of 35 percent winter occupancy is accepted
for motel and rental units and 100 percent for the owner occupied
homes, then the figures would be multiplied by the two hundred and
seventy-three winter days, as shown in Table 14.
TABLE 14
NUMBER OF RESIDENTIAL UNIT-NIGHT OCCUPANCIES ALONG FLETCHER
AVENUE, FERNANDINA BEACH, FLORIDA, 1964
Summer
Winter
Total
Motel
11,574
14,141
25,715
Rental units
35,346
8,600
43,946
Owner occupied homes
22,448
66,612
89,060
Total
69,368
89,353
158,721
That is to say, 160,000 unit-nights are spent in this beach strip each
year. Some 44 percent of these occupancies will come during the
months of June, July, and August, with one-half of these occupancies
being in rented apartments or houses, one-sixth in motels, and the re
maining one-third being year-round residencies. During the nine winter
months, some 75 percent of the occupancies consist of year-round resi
dencies, with the number of rented units dropping to about one-tenth


FIGURE 22
NUMBER OF
FORT CLINCH STATE PARK
1958, AND JULY, 1959,
CAMPING GROUPS,
THROUGH AUGUST,
JULY AND AUGUST,
1963
o
VO


TABLE
PAGE
34. Estimates of Future Visitor Attendance for the Castillo
de San Marcos and Fort Matanzas National Monuments,
1964-1973 210
35* Number of Visitors to Little Talbot Island State Park,
July, 1962, through July, 1964 2l4
36. Number of Visitors to the Fort George Island Historic
Memorials, September 8, 1963, through July, 1964 216
37. Number of Visitors to Fort Frederica National Monument,
January, 1962, through August, 1964 219
38. Number of Visitors to Fort Pulaski National Monument and to
Cockspur Island, January, 1958, through August, 1964 . 221
39 Estimates of the Future Visitor Attendance for the Castillo
de San Marcos, Fort Matanzas, Fort Frederica and Fort
Pulaski National Monuments, 1961 through 1972 225
40. Expenditures of the Container Corporation of America and
Rayonier, Incorporated, on Amelia Island in 1963 229
41. Summary of Amelia Island Beach Erosion Control Benefits . 250
42. Climatic Summary of Fernandina Beach, Florida 280
43. Number of Visitors to Fort Clinch State Park, July, 1962,
through August, 1963 282
44. Sample Form for Fort Clinch State Park Campers' Receipts
Tabulation 285
45. State of Origin of Fort Clinch State Park Campers, July,
1959, through August, 1963 287
x


; (Reprinted by Request
From Sept. 10 Edition)
f Fernandina Beach is digging
out from the most destructive
hurricane to hit Amelia Island
since the turn of the century.
A joint estimate by Civil De
fense Director Walter Preston,
Jr., City Manager David Gatchel
and Director of Public Works Jim
Beard lists damage to private
beach property alone at above $2
million. _,
Estimates of damage to city
property and other property
throughout the island are as yet
not available.
Col. Paul Ramee, of the U. S.
Engineers, was here to look over
the situation. Governor Bryant
and Senators Spessard, Holland,
George Smathers and Herman
'Talmadge flew 'over the area to
day with officials to inspect the
destruction wreaked by Dora.
Northeast Florida" has been de
clared a disaster area by Presi
dent Johnson and government
heip is expected for Fernandina
Beach, the Jacksonville Beaches
and St. Augustine, the areas
which felt the strongest force ot
; the monster hurricane.
Advance gales from Dora began
moving into Fernandina Beach on
Tuesday and residents on the'
beach were advised to seek safety
from the hurricane. On Wednesday
morning squalls accompanied the'
increasing winds and unusually
high tides began pounding the
beach with heavy damage being
felt before noon.
The winds continued to grow I
during the afternoon to hurricane
force and the peak winds of over
100 miles per hour were felt about
1:30 to 2:00 a.m. on Thursday just,
shortly after the highest tide was
experienced.
At the highest tide water was
over many parts of Fletcher
Avenue with heavy- destruction to
both the North and South por
tions, a part of Route A1A. In
downtown Fernandina Beach wat-
ters from the Amelia River were
up Atlantic Avenue almost to the
Palace Saloon. *
The strongest winds were from
the -Northeast as the storm in
vaded the mainland but with the
passing of the eye between Jack
sonville and St. Augustine around
7 to 8 a.m. Thursday the winds
began, to shift to the Southwest
and South as the back part of the
hurricane passed inland. Up into
Thursday night the winds were
still of near hurricane force. 1
FIGURE 65
DESCRIPTION OF HURRICANE DORA, AMELIA ISLAND, FLORIDA,
1964
Reprint from The Fernandina Beach News-Leader,
September 17, 1964


TABLE 28
INCOMING
FLORIDA
TOURISTS 1
ANTICIPATED RECREATION,
1958 THROUGH
1961*
Activity anticipated
1958
1959
1960
Summer
1961
Winter
Year
Beaches, swimming
Atmosphere of relaxation
44
53
49
71
56
55
and fun
39
47
38
42
57
46
Fishing
25
26
22
25
36
31
Commercial attractions
21
26
21
29
25
28
Natural scenery
Historical places and/or
21
22
21
29
22
26
art museums
**
19
15
21
19
20
Participator sports
9
11
11
19
17
18
National parks
11
14
13
15
17
16
State parks
12
13
10
22
10
16
Picnicking
10
9
10
20
10
15
Spectator sports
10
11
11
8
16
12
Dancing and night life
8
9
10
12
12
12
Hunting
1
2
2
3
3
3
Other
9
5
7
13
18
16
Total*
220
247
240
329
318
314
*In percentages of respondents indicating particular activity. Totals over 100% are due to
multiple answering of categories.
**Question not asked in 1958.
From: 1961 Florida Tourist Study, page 14, Table 19; 1960 Florida Tourist Study, page 26,
Table 21; 1959 Florida Tourist Study, page 12, Table 13, The Florida Development Commission,
Tallahassee, Florida.
190


FIGURE
PAGE
67. Beach Erosion Damage at 730 North Fletcher Avenue, Fernan
dina Beach, Florida, 1964, Viewed from the Southeast . 246
68. Beach Erosion Damage at 836 North Fletcher Avenue, Fernan-
dina Beach, Florida, 1964 .... 3 247
69. Beach Erosion Damage at 982 South Fletcher Avenue, Fernan-
dina Beach, Florida, 1964 247,
70. Ocean Street after the 1944 Hurricane, Fernandina Beach,
Florida 248
71. The North Beach Automobile Ramp after Hurricane Dora,
Fernandina Beach, Florida, 1964 248
^Located in pocket on page3-&Hv
xvii


46
(site of Jacksonville University) and along the southern bluffs of the
St. Johns River to Fort Caroline National Monument, from which one may
have a magnificent overlook of the river and its waterborne traffic.
Continuing south from Ponte Vedra Beach along the Buccaneer Trail,
the traveler encounters nearly thirty miles of almost uninhabited beach,
with the road often being in view of the ocean and never more than one
sand-dune away. At low tide, a vehicle may be driven for miles along
the beach, and the forty-foot high dunes, capped by low bushes, make
excellent picnicking sites.
This idyllic stretch of sand ends at the new world's oldest old
world settlement, St. Augustine. First visited in 1513 by Ponce de Leon
and settled in 1565 by Pedro Menendez, the Castillo de San Marcos is of
national historical interest and is now under the supervision of the
National Park Service. The city has a multitude of interests represent
ing the ancient heritage, including a very active Historical Society,
and has been the subject of a very thorough study in depth (Dunkle,
1955). A few miles to the south along the beach lies another associ
ated National Monument, Fort Matanzas. Marineland, a nationally
famous fishpool where visitors may view the aquatic fauna from windows
below water level, lies a few miles further past Matanzas Inlet.
AMELIA ISLAND
For convenience in getting an overall view of the land uses on
Amelia Island itself, five general categories of use are significant:


to Great Britain for another twenty years. It was during this period
that thirteen of the English colonies successfully rebelled against the
mother country, and Amelia Island, along with the rest of East Florida,
became a haven for displaced loyalists (Siebert, 1929).
Amelia Island and East Florida were nominally under the Spanish
flag for the thirty-eight years from 1783 to 1821, but Spanish control
was weak and indecisive in the face of the expanding United States of
America. The pirate Jean LaFitte was reputed to have visited the
Island for some time during this period (Pink, 1949, p. 218). On
March 17, 1812, shortly before the outbreak of hostilities between the
United States and Great Britain, an armed group calling themselves the
"Patriots" (and supported by United States gunboats) "captured"
Fernandina from the willing townspeople and the ten-man Spanish garri
son without a shot being fired. The Patriot flag was raised over the
Fort that same evening, but the following day the Island was handed
over to the United States, probably according to plan. The idea seems
to have called for the popular uprising of the inhabitants of East
Florida and the subsequent acceptance of the area as a United States
territory. The plot fizzled out, ending in the withdrawal of the
United States troops from Amelia on May 6, 1813 (Patrick, 1954, Chap
ter 7).
One of the most notable incidents in the history of the Island
was its capture by the Scottish adventurer Gregor MacGregor (Davis,
1928). Descended from a family well-known in Scottish military
circles, MacGregor had served in South America under Simon Bolivar,


164
the classification into Motel, Rental, and Owner-occupied is correct,
and the percent of occupancy is correct), and the total number of
158,060 appears to be a considerably more exact figure than is the
case. Rounding this figure off to the nearest ten thousand (160,000)
would give a more accurate impression of the numbers involved. If we
then reduce Table 14 to percentages and use 160,000 as the total, we
have estimates shown in Table 15.
TABLE 15
PERCENTAGE OF RESIDENTIAL UNIT-NIGHT OCCUPANCIES ALONG FLETCHER
AVENUE, FERNANDINA BEACH, FLORIDA, 1964*
Summer
Winter
Total
Motel
7%
97.
167.
Rental units
237.
57.
287.
Owner-occupied homes
147.
427.
567.
Total
447o
567.
1007.
(160,000 units)
*Percentages rounded to nearest whole percent
If each category is multiplied by the appropriate factor for
group size, the numbers of people represented would be as indicated
in Table 16.


TABLE 38
NUMBER OF VISITORS TO FORT PULASKI NATIONAL MONUMENT AND TO COCKSPUR ISLAND*
JANUARY, 1958, THROUGH AUGUST, 1964
1958
Fort
Island
1959 Fort
Island
1960
Fort
Island
1961
Fort
Island
1
803
2,410
1
2,457
7,371
1
2,132
8,994
1
1,819
3,356
2
909
2,710
2
2,620
7,860
2
2,150
7,098
2
2,256
5,367
3
1,429
4,287
3
3,333
9,999
3
3,057
8,672
3
3,526
8,485
4
1,567
4,702
4
4,145
11,895
4
4,568
13,641
4
4,115
8,890
5
4,820
14,460
5
3,438
13,773
5
4,200
11,636
5
4,887
11,129
6
4,665
13,995
6
6,992
17,128
6
6,761
18,456
6
6,089
12,531
7
4,991
18,616
7
9,095
22,530
7
9,254
19,265
7
8,926
24,107
8
4,779
17,825
8
8,934
21,037
8
7,874
18,945
8
8,087
18,144
9
3,281
9,843
9
3,465
9,540
9
2,598
8,520
9
3,098
9,882
10
3,585
11,755
10
3,184
8,636
10
2,745
9,064
10
2,675
9,030
11
3,581
10,743
11
2,259
8,991
11
2,614
7,718
11
2,536
7,631
12
2,095
6.285
12
1,711
-JuMQ
12
1.573
4r356
12
2.128
4.611
116,631
145,780
136,092
123,167
1962
Fort
Is land
1963
Fort Island
1963*
1
1,471
4,628
1
1,351
6,704
1
2,033
10,053
2
2,498
7,980
2
1,765
7,122
2
3,316
14,497
3
3,795
10,122
3
6,025
15,897
3
5,040
23,666
4
4,677
19,296
4
5,040
15,940
4
4,966
19,087
5
3,540
13,676
5
4,129
14,902
5
4,696
22,257
6
6,790
18,052
6
9,773
26,492
6
8,700
30,803
7
9,555
26,046
7
9,632
25,982
7
11,164
34,700
8
10,887
26,900
8
9,632
25,982
8
11,056
34,100
9
3,262
11,747
9
3,554
15,988
10
2,186
5,549
10
2,858
12,155
11
3,172
9,984
11
2,749
9,798
12
1.834
LxJOJ
12
2.^275
. .8.712
175,287
ter, 3
*Based upon automatic traffic count. Formula:~ Through May, 1963--3 persons per vehicle during win-
.74 nersons per vehicle during summer: June, 1963 to date4 persons per vehicle. 8
Superintendent, Fort Pulaski National Monument.
Source:
221


CHAPTER II
THE BACKGROUND OF RESOURCES FOR RECREATION
St. Augustine, Mayport, Nassau Sound, Cumberland Island,
Brunswick; the names found along the stretch of seacoast comprising
northern Florida and southern Georgia bring to mind visions of pirates,
Spanish galleons and French adventurers, a wealth of romance and his
tory. Certainly, this region has had more than its share of the drama
that makes history books glow with excitement. The casual tourist may
yet today pace the very walls where desperate men made legends come true,
or may bathe in the golden sunshine on the shining sands which spelled a
hoped-for refuge for many a hurricane-wrecked sailor of old. It would
be difficult to traverse the Buccaneer Trail from its inception near
the St. Mary's River through Fernandina Beach and Amelia City, past
Fort George and Ponte Vedra Beach, through the first permanent
European settlement in the new world, without some of the romance of
the legends seeping in.
But is there nothing other than the past here? Is there no future
to give the past its meaning? What of the present and the people who are
living today on these historic shores? What changes have four centuries
wrought?
I. THE REGION AND THE ISLAND
In the middle of this stretch of golden sands lies subtropical
Amelia Island, separating the Atlantic Ocean from the mainland. The city


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309
this period were Sir Edward Reed, London; Governor Thomas F. Callahan,
C. M. G. ; the Duke of Castellavika; Mr. Clark, manufacturer of Clark's
cotton thread; Governor Bloxhara and wife; Samuel Plimsall, Member of
Parliament, London.7 Mrs. Garfield, wife of President Garfield, visited
in Fernandina also.8
Fernandina had many facilities to offer the incoming tourists.
First of all, it had a handsome hotel, the Egmont, which faced the park.
This hotel was supplied with all the modern appliances, including gas,
running water, and fire-hose. The ceilings were high, the walls wide,
the guest rooms large and airy. The furniture and carpets were of
the best quality available.^
When the Egmont was built and the space across the street
purchased to be used as a park, a portion could not be bought because
the Northern Colored Methodist Church was located in it. The Negroes
took advantage of the fact that there were more Northerners at the Egmont
than Southerners and would not sell the property but continued to have
services, ranting and raving half of the night. They realized quite
a bit of the money from some of the Northern sympathizers, a fact which
made them more crazed in their religious zeal. Way into the night and
sometimes continuing after midnight the preacher exhorted. The management
could do nothing. The exasperated manager tried to buy the property. By
7compiled from the Florida Mirror, December 1879 to August,
1885.
^Photograph of her arrival in Fernandina on the following page.
^The Florida Mirror. March 24, 1880.


61
FIGURE 7
;
EGAN'S COTTAGE ON NORTH BEACH. BEFORE HURRICANE DORA (1964),
PERSON COULD WALK UPRIGHT UNDER JH^nOTTAOK. .
FIGURE 8
A
BLOWOUT AT 630 NORTH FLETCHER. THERE WAS A SEVEN FOOT HIGH
DUNE AT THIS POINT BEFORE HURRICANE DORA. VIEW TO EAST


261
figures for Florida, Georgia, and the Jacksonville area for the years
since the Second World War. The projections to the year 2000 have
shown t^hat Florida may expect a population of fifteen million, and
Georgia nearly seven million, by the turn of the century, and that most
of this increase will take place within or adjacent to presently
urbanized centers. This increase will affect Amelia Island both by the
increasing numbers of tourists (mainly summer tourists) from the inland
areas as mentioned in the preceding paragraphs, and by an increasing
use of Amelia Island for weekend or permanent homes by persons living
or working in the Jacksonville area.
The beach areas with the most direct access to Jacksonville,
such as Jacksonville Beach and Ponte Vedra Beach, are commercialized
residential areas, under heavy use during the peak summer seasons.
Large numbers of automobiles bearing Duval County license plates (that
is, Jacksonville) use the Little Talbot Island State Park beaches dur
ing summers. Despite the 50p toll to the Island, these beaches are
unable to accommodate the crowds on holidays and must be temporarily
closed to additional automobiles at times.
As the Jacksonville Metropolitan Area grows in population, this
situation will become even more acute and the summer holiday crowds will
press farther from home. The Amelia Island beaches are only some thirty
miles from downtown Jacksonville, and one must expect an even greater
pressure from this source in the future.
At the same time that the Jacksonville Metropolitan Area is
growing in size as well as in population, improved roads promote


O Motels or Hotels
Houses or Apartments
FIGURE 42
LOCATION OF SUMMER REN
TALS AS ADVERTISED
THROUGH THE CHAMBER OF
COMMERCE' AND OTHERS,
FERNANDINA BEACH,
FLORIDA, 1964


251
visits at $1.00 per visit. If these 15,000 visits were to consist
solely of tourists, the economic value would rise to an additional
$75,000 annually at $5 per day per visitor-day, or $150,000 annually at
$10 per visitor-day.
Real estate loss was based on the average shoreline change from
1945 to 1957, at a cost of $10,000 an acre or $40 per front foot, and a
total estimated valuation of $4,000,000 for the beachfront property.
One must consider, though, that there is a steady rise in the number of
beach homes and that the majority of the new homes are substantial
masonry homes on the landward side of Fletcher Avenue. Thus, the value
of the beachfront lots will increase as the number of empty lots de
creases, since there is no beach-front property available other than
within the city limits and on American Beach. With complete protection
afforded by the combination construction and replenishment plan, one
could anticipate an increased confidence on the part of beachfront
property owners and therefore an increased construction of substantial
homes. The estimate of $4,000,000 value of the beachfront property
seems inadequate in view of the 1964 estimates of better than $1,500,000
dollars damage in the City of Femandina Beach as a result of Hurricane
Dora (Figure 64, "Damage to streets, roads and bridges, . $100,000;"
"Dikes, Levees and Drainage Facilities, which includes beach erosion
. . $1,362,000;" "Public buildings and Related Equipment, . .
$45,000").
According to Colonel Preston, the Nassau County Civil Defense
Director, forty homes in Fernandina Beach (all of them on the east side


277
HOOVER. George, Immediate Past President, Florida Campers Association:
Cited rapid increase in camping activity in Florida. Pointed to inade
quacy of campsites in Florida and need for immediate development.
LINDELOW. Craig. Executive Director, Jacksonville Duval areas
Planning Board: Cited open space requirements for recreational purposes
in Jacksonville area. Recommended:
(1) Toll to Little Talbot Island be removed and wider
publicity be given to that area.
(2) Acquisition of beaches between Atlantic Beach and
Mayport.
(3) Development of Treaty Oak site.
(4) Preparation of state-wide recreational plan.
Presented statement on area recreational needs for Mr. Mallison,
Jacksonville,Recreation Department.
MICHAEL. Dan. Chairman, Board of County Commissioners, St. Johns
County: Requested $150,000.00 for development of Vilano Beach Boat
Basin. Recommended development of picnic and launching facilities
at Sharon Bridge.
RHODEN. George. Rural Areas Development Committee, Baker County:
Suggested looking into recreational possibilities on St. Mary's River
and Ocean Pond.
SCHULTZ. Fred. Representative, Duval County: Emphasized magnitude
of recreation problem in metropolitan areas. Called attention to
poor access to St. Johns River, pollution problem on the St. Johns,
and inadequacy of camping facilities on Little Talbot Island.
WARREN. Julian. Duval County Commissioner: Recommended relocation of
Little Talbot Island toll gate. Proposed acquisition of remaining
beach sites at Jacksonville Beach. Proposed acquisition of several
undeveloped areas southwest of Jacksonville. Asked for boat ramp under
Mathews Bridge.
WAYBRIGHT. Mrs. Roger J.. Conservation Chairman, Florida Federation
of Garden Clubs : Asked that nature centers be established in cities of
over 10,000 people. Expressed need for education and pointed out
Florida's poor forest fire record.


260
winter tourist traffic of points further south on the Florida peninsula,
nor would everyone agree that such a situation would be an improvement
if it were possible. The continuation of the railroads to the southern
coasts at the turn of the century with the subsequent channeling of
tourists to the milder climes has been a major factor in Fernandina
Beach's retention of its small, old-south charm. The tourist influx
during the last part of the nineteenth century was small compared to
the influx of summer visitors by automobile since the middle of the
twentieth century.
However, even though the climate will not change, the increasing
total number of Florida tourists, the crowding in the southern part of
the state, the increase in the amount of highspeed highways and automo
biles and the increasing leisure along with the resources to travel, do
mean that the nature of the tourist to Amelia Island has changed. Thus,
instead of the traditional winter influx of visitors, Amelia Island
(along with the other similar areas from Fort Matanzas to Fort Pulaski)
receives a summer influx of increasingly large numbers. The comparative
ly cool summer climate becomes more important than the comparatively mild
winter climate to those living inland. This of course throws a strain
on the commercial residential facilities which must remain largely idle
during much of the year. Any increase in winter tourism would therefore
tend to be of great value per visitor-day to the community by smoothing
out this feast-or-famine cycle.
RESIDENTIAL GROWTH
The fact that the growth of Amelia Island is a certainty may
be readily apparent from even a casual look at the recent population


3 Days
2 Days
1 Day
1958 1959
1960
1961
1962 1963
FIGURE 26
MEAN LENGTH OF STAY FOR
AUGUST, 1958,
FORT CLINCH STATE PARK CAMPING GROUPS,
AND JULY, 1959, THROUGH AUGUST, 1963
JULY AND


45
1959, p. 59). Remains of the Kingsley Plantation, dating from the early
nineteenth century, are still standing and are part of a well-maintained
state park. Rollins Bird and Plant Sanctuary and the Huguenot Memorial
Area occupy large tracts of Fort George Island and Xalvis Island (Wards
Bank) immediately to the south on the St. Johns River.
At this point, the unhurried traveler may continue across the St.
Johns River via a ferry service to Mayport and see Ribault Bay and
Ribault Monument, or he may elect to detour from A1A and take State Route
105 some twenty miles into Jacksonville, passing on the way the Civil War
monument of Yellow Bluffs Fort with its trenches and cannon.
Jacksonville, known as the "Gateway City," is a major distribu
tion point for much of the Florida and Georgia international trade and
has the attendent commercial, industrial and educational institutions.
This port, some twenty miles from the Atlantic but still very much af
fected by tides, generally has several international freighters and a
considerable amount of coastal shipping at the docks. In spring and
fall an almost steady stream of private yachts may be seen detouring
from the Intracoastal Waterway through Jacksonville while passing to the
north or south.
However, all is not business for this busy commercial city. An
easy half-hour drive to the east brings the traveler to such municipal
ities as Jacksonville Beach, Neptune Beach, Atlantic Beach, and (remind
ing one of the very widespread Spanish heritage) Ponte Vedra Beach. All
four are heavily-used, commercialized residential beach areas. If the
traveler wishes he may take a more leisurely detour through Arlington


3
Table 1 summarizes the major factors in the rising demand for out
door recreation.
TABLE 1
ACTUAL AND ESTIMATED POPULATION, PER CAPITA DISPOSABLE INCOME, LENGTH
OF PAID VACATIONS, AND AUTOMOBILE PASSENGER-MILES TRAVEL
IN THE UNITED STATES 1960, 1976, AND 2000*
Year
Popula
tion
(millions)
Per capita dis
posable income
(constant dollars)
Paid vacations
(in weeks)
Automobile pas
senger-miles
(in billions)
1960
179
$1,970
2.0
670
1976
230
2,900
2.8
1,400
2000
350
4,100
3.9
2,800
*After: Outdoor Recreation for America, A Report to the Presi
dent and to the Congress by the Outdoor Recreation Resources Review
Commission, January, 1962, Washington, D. C. Table 21, page 220, and
Table 26, page 222.
THE NEED FOR RESEARCH
The ORRRC Report concludes with a chapter outlining the pressing
need for research directed toward the concept of outdoor recreation, in
order to provide a base for wise management and policy decisions for our
increasingly hard-pressed natural resources (ORFA, 1962, Ch. 14, pp. 183-
87). Their statement that ". . no other activity involving so many
people and so basic a part of our life has received less attention from
qualified investigators . ." (ORFA, 1962, p. 183) is well-illustrated
in their study report surveying the literature (ORRRC, 1962, #27, Lit:
A Survey).


agencies (Encyclopaedia Britannica. 1965 Supplement, p. 616). Similar
programs were recommended for individual states (OREA. 1962) as, for
instance, has been done in Florida.
Other recommendations in the ORFA report included a system of
Federal loans or grants, which have been partly instituted by the forma
tion and financing of the Bureau of Outdoor Recreation. A separate
chapter was devoted to water (Chapter 13), called A Key Element." The
recommendations were mainly concerned with public access to water in
lakes, rivers, impoundments, and the ocean, and to control pollution.
One recommendation to preserve certain rivers in their free-flowing
natural condition (ORFA, p. 177) has been met by the formation of the
joint Department of the Interior-Department of Agriculture Wild Rivers
Study Team to consider rivers or portions of rivers which should be
permanently maintained in their natural free-flowing state (Douglas,
1965, pp. 49-80).
An illustrative study of the multiple-use concept of water is
presented by a symposium on land and water use held by the American
Association for the Advancement of Science (Thorne, ed., 1963). The
contributors represented a broad spectrum of earth and biological
sciences and economics and came from universities, governmental agen
cies, private business, and the Congress. Their interests ranged
from the resource setting (about half the papers) to the discussion
of policies at the local and governmental levels. One chapter dealt
specifically with outdoor recreation (Clawson, 1963, pp. 169-184).


106
TABLE 5
SUMMARY OF FORT CLINCH STATE PARK CAMPERS, JULY AND AUGUST, 1958,
AND JULY, 1959, THROUGH AUGUST, 1963
A
Number of
camper groups
B
Number of
group camp
ing days
C
Number of
campers
D
Number of
camper-days
1958
July
493
948
1,304
2,611
August
461
869
1,274
2,321
1959
July
694
1,415
2,937
5,888
August
722
1,339
3,022
5,694
September
191
377
558
1,027
October
100
244
. 256
553
November
73
127
192
285
December
70
82
225
275
1960
January
73
92
225
259
February
82
128
225
314
March
148
260
418
706
April
305
516
1,044
1,709
May
206
338
800
1,281
June
690
1,199
2,989
5,150
July
1,065
1,914
4,565
8,334
August
1,002
1,814
4,351
7,883
September
183
286
625
923
October
152
226
435
663
November
94
151
294
442
December
97
109
331
400
1961
January
65
95
212
277
February
113
135
333
379
March
368
621
1,170
1,889
April
410
666
1,314
2,034
May
262
437
789
1,295
June
835
1,525
3,489
6,555
July
1,235
1,887
5,122
7,880
August
1,099
1,604
4,798
7,095


149
TABLE 9
LICENSE PLATE COUNTS AT ATLANTIC AVENUE BEACH PARKING
LOTS, FERNANDINA BEACH, FLORIDA
July 4, 1962
11:30-12:30 p.m.
September 2, 1962
1:00-3:00 p.m.
FLORIDA:
FLORIDA:
Nassau County
48
Nassau County
142
Duval County
10
Duval County
53
Other Florida
12
Other Florida
36
Total Florida
70
Total Florida
231
OUT-OF-STATE:
OUT-OF-STATE:
Alabama
2
Alabama
2
Connecticut
1
Georgia
149
Georgia
67
Kentucky
1
Iowa
1
Maryland
2
Louisiana
1
New Jersey
1
New Jersey
1
North Carolina
5
New York
1
South Carolina
3
North Carolina
2
Tennessee
1
Ohio
2
Washington, D.C.
1
Oklahoma
1
West Virginia
3
Rhode Island
1
British Columbia
1
South Carolina
4
Quebec
1
Texas
1
Virginia
2
Total Out-of-state
87
Total Out-of-state
170
Total count
157
Total count
401


37
Local businessmen were quite helpful in preparing the estimates on
the number and expenditures of tourists and other matters of interest to
the study. The president of the local historical society was consulted
on phases of the restoration and other society activities. Authorities
in other sections of the state were consulted upon special problems in
geology, climatology, beach erosion, et cetera.
Field research. This study was essentially a field study in
that most of the material was collected on Amelia Island itself over a
period of three years. The field research may be divided into three
categories roughly following the development of the study.
1. The first part of the study consisted of the preparation of
base maps for the description and analysis of the background resources
and the subsequent selection of the pertinent areal factors. This in
cluded a field survey of the region with maps and aerial photographs to
check the reliability and coverage, and the preparation of a land-use
map for the entire Island which was kept current throughout the study.
Finally, those factors which were pertinent were extracted and presen
ted in the study as separate maps showing, for instance, the location
of the various beaches and the beach access points.
2. The various tourist counts occupied much of the field work.
The twenty-one thousand camper receipts and other Fort Clinch State
Park records were tabulated both at the Park offices and at the
author's residence over the three-year period. Various spot checks of
the number of people on the beach, or license plate counts on the beach


96
the construction and maintenance costs, and the further the governing
agency is from direct contact with the local users, the greater is the
need for accurate records. Such records, then, would be the most easily
obtainable and the most reliable raw data for the researcher. Within
the limits of the counting technique and the character of the activity,
the records thus used are the best obtainable.
However, government agencies count only that which is of interest
to the agency, and this rarely corresponds exactly to the intensity,
breadth, or approach of the individual researcher. In addition to
agency data, there is often a need for supplementary data that can be
obtained from an individual count or poll of an unregulated activity,
either in depth or by random sample. One of the simplest examples would
be the tally of the home state and/or county of all the automobiles on
the beach parking lot at, say, noon on the Fourth of July, as an index
to point of origin. This type of enumeration is limited, of course, by
the time and financial resources available.
The results, however, must be checked even more critically than
the agency records mentioned before, for errors and misrepresentations
will be varied and subtle. Unless a random sample is chosen with
great care it may not serve a useful purpose. There is often a question
as to whether it would be of more value to take a more complete sampling,
with consequent greater statistical reliability, or to spend limited
time or resources on a separate but related inquiry.
The question of just exactly what it is that is being counted
may be of as much importance as is the validity of the enumeration


255
Written locally and sponsored by the Historical Society, it was directed
by the producer of the Ribault Celebration feature at Jacksonville, "The
Next Day in the Morning." The Florida Development Commission helped
with publicity for the event. The Fort Clinch State Park provided a
setting on the eastern rampart of the Fort as the stage, and the parade
grounds as space for the audience. The Spanish Consul General from
Miami even visited the Island during the Fiesta and the play (The
Fernandina Beach News-Leader, June 11, 1964).
The General Duncan Lamont Clinch Historical Society of Amelia
Island. The very active local historical society, the Duncan Lamont
Clinch Historical Society of Amelia Island, is ". .a local historical
society deriving its funds solely from membership dues and fund raising
projects in the community. Its projects are making the Pageant (of
Eight Flags) an annual production, establishing a local museum, and
providing a research center to preserve historical documents, papers,
and things of historical value pertaining to this Island." (Letter
from Mrs. J. M. Bartels, President of the General Duncan Lamont Clinch
Historical Society of Amelia Island, March 15, 1965)
Among its activities, the Historical Society has secured the
Seaboard railroad depot at the foot of Atlantic Avenue (Figure 18), and
one of the more stately houses overlooking the Plaza in Oldtown (Figure
17). As funds become available, these buildings will be developed into
a museum and a visitor center. A number of plaques or memorials have
been erected by the Historical Society, as, for instance, those at the
Plaza (Figure 14) and at McLure's.Hill (Figure 19). It has also aided




CHAPTER I
THE NEED, THE LITERATURE, AND THE PROBLEM
I. THE NEED
At the beginning of the second half of the twentieth century there
was a growing awareness among government officials and others of a rapid
ly developing need for outdoor recreation among our increasingly urban
ized and expanding population. It was already apparent that our
traditional unlimited expanses of "natural resources" were being hard-
pressed from many competing potential users under the canopy of
"multiple use" of land resources. In the summer of 1958, Congress
authorized an Outdoor Recreation Resources Review Commission (hereafter
referred to as ORRRC) to make an intensive nationwide study of outdoor
recreation at all levels, public and private, in order to determine the
future demand and needs for outdoor recreation, the resources available,
and the policies and programs necessary to meet these demands (Outdoor
Recreation for America, Appendix A, pp. 191-94. Hereafter referred to
as OREA, 1962).
THE OUTDOOR RECREATION RESOURCES REVIEW COMMISSION CONCLUSIONS
The major report of this Commission was published in 1962 and con
tained some startling figures on the problem. One major conclusion was
that outdoor recreation is now a major part of modern life, and that the
demand for it will triple by the year 2000 (OREA, 1962, p. 47). Only part
of this rise in demand will be a direct result of population increase.


54
Recreational features. The major recreational features are those
attracting summer tourists to the beaches. Besides the beaches them
selves, there is the Fort Clinch State Park and a municipal golf course.
The visitor or resident has some sixteen miles of first rate
beaches available, with all but about two miles accessible to automobile
traffic at low tide. About six miles of beach is paralleled closely by
paved road with access at various points, and at six other places spur
roads lead onto the beach itself (Figure 6).
Fort Clinch State Park contains nearly three miles of these
beaches, with direct access at two points and access with a short walk
at another. Access is gained at the boat ramp in the northwest, but the
beach from this point to the Fort is broken shell, interrupted with
groins, and fronts on the Amelia River and St. Mary's sound rather than
on the ocean. There is only a short walk from the parking area at the
Fort to the jetties, a distance of a mile and a half. The firm, sandy
beach fronts on St. Mary's sound, with the north jetty and Cumberland
Island blocking the predominant littoral drift and waves.
A paved road leads to the Lodge, and a well-maintained sand road
(reinforced periodically with wood chips from the pulp mills) leads
from there to the jetties. This is traditionally a good fishing spot,
both for pedestrians and water-borne fishermen, and may also be
reached from the south by automobile along the beach.
There are few interruptions for an automobile along the thirteen
miles of north-south beach at low tide, and no part of the beach is
impassable. During busy daytime hours traffic is routed around the


16
voters of the state and approved in the 1964 general elections. Eighty-
five million dollars were earmarked for the acquisition of new parks,
$20,000,000 for the development of new parks, $5,000,000 for wildlife
refuges, and $40,000,000 for grants to localities (Ibid., 1964).
Pennsylvania voted a bond issue of $70,000,000 for conservation and
recreation projects in 1963, and Ohio authorized an issue with $25,000,000
earmarked for recreational land acquisition and development, to be paid
for from a cent-a-pack cigarette tax (Ibid., 1964).
Florida has long been interested in tourism and the development
of a recreational potential based largely on a mild winter climate and
extensive bathing beaches. By 1963, more than 14 million tourists were
spending two and a half billion dollars annually in the state (1963
Florida Tourist Study. Table 6, p. 8). At the same time, Florida's rate
of population increase is one of the two highest in the country (both
Florida and Arizona will triple in population by the year 2000, accord
ing to the ORRRC projections). The Recreation Department of the Florida
Development Commission has been making detailed tourist studies since
1956, and five years later the "Governor's Committee on Recreational
Development" was organized to coordinate and evaluate the state's needs
in outdoor recreation. Their 1963 report, Florida Outdoor Recreation -
At the Crossroads inventories the state's recreational resources and
recommended that an immediate water and land acquisition program should
be instituted immediately.


158
TABLE 11
RESIDENTIAL UNITS PER BUILDING ALONG FLETCHER AVENUE,
FERNANDINA BEACH, FLORIDA, 1964
Number of
buildings
Number of resi
dential units
Number of units
per building
Motels
9
148
16.5
Owner-occupied
244
244
1.0
Rental
167
452
3.0
All buildings
420
844
2.0
If we subtract the nine motels with their one hundred and forty-
eight units, this leaves four hundred and eleven houses with six
hundred and ninety-six units, or 1.7 units per house. If we then sub
tract the number of owner occupied units (two hundred and forty-four)
from the number of houses remaining (four hundred and eleven) this
leaves us with one hundred and sixty-seven rental houses (some of which
also have the owner living in the house). Subtracting the two hundred
and forty-four owner-occupied units from the six hundred and ninety-six
units, this leaves us with four hundred and fifty-two rental units in
one hundred and sixty-seven rental houses, for an average of three rent
al units per rental house. This does not reflect the many small, single
rental cabins, nor the few rental houses which are enormous, with up
to eight apartments under one roof.
Number of unit occupancies. If we next turn our attention to
the total number of unit-nights represented by these eight hundred and


FIGURE PAGE
20. Number of Visitors to Fort Clinch State Park, November,
1961, through August, 1963 101
21. Per Cent of Fort Clinch State Park Camping Groups Annual
Totals Arriving in June, July, and August, i960, through
1962 108
22. Number of Fort Clinch State Park Camping Groups, July and
August, 1958> and July, 1959> through August, 1963 .... 109
23. Fort Clinch State Park Camping Groups Monthly Totals by
Year, 1958 through 1963 110
24. Per Cent of Fort Clinch State Park Group Camping Days
Annual Totals Arriving in June, July, and August, i960,
through 1962 Ill
25. Number of Fort Clinch State Park Group Camping Days, July
and August, 1958, and July, 1959> through August, 1963 . 113
26. Mean Length of Stay for Fort Clinch State Park Camping
Groups, July and August, 1958, and July, 1959^ through
August, 1963 Il4
27. Per Cent of Fort Clinch State Park Campers Annual Totals
Arriving in June, July, and August, i960, through
1962 115
28. Number of Fort Clinch State Park Campers, July and August,
1958, and July, 1959> through August, 1963 Il6
29. Mean Number of Fort Clinch State Park Campers per Group,
July and August, 1958, and July, 1959^ through August,
1963 119
xiii


152
of block construction. Many of the cottages are obviously intended
only for summer rental and may be seen to be boarded up immediately
after Labor Day. Others are obviously permanent year-round homes,
while still others appear to be temporary or second homes, for it is
quite common for a house to have the owner's name and out-of-town
address posted in front. Numerous raised walkways have been constructed
from the seaside homes to the beach itself across the dune ridge,
which is from six to ten feet in height. This dune ridge acts as a
sand reservoir during times of beach erosion, so the landowners are
reluctant to remove the dune or to risk a blowout by establishing a
footpath (Figure 8, Chapter II). Unscreened porches are the rule and
with the general landward sea breezes at night plus the intensive mos
quito control program practiced by the county, insect pests are rare.
The official lot size is narrow north-south but long east-west,
so it is common for two or three houses to be built on a single lot, or
for a single house to have multiple extensions both seaward and upward.
There is usually one garage per house, with the driveways or parking
lots paved with wood chips from the Container Corporation plant.
Beach ownership patterns. Ownership patterns were established
from the Nassau County public tax rolls. Eight subdivisions were
selected to give a representative sampling along both North Beach and
South Beach as far as the Pier and on both sides of Fletcher Avenue.
Five ownership categories were established for all buildings and vacant
lots registered, and consisted of:


310
every means he tried to have the church moved from the lot, but to no
avail. Finally, the son of the manager, a Mr. Skinner, took things into
his own hands. He built a bowling alley close to the church, and as
the preacher waxed vehement, the bowling balls crashed down the alley.
Eventually the bowling alley won, when the preacher and the congregation
found it impossible to preach, to pray, or to sing down the crashing of
the bowling alley, they sold out; and the church was torn down and moved. 10
Besides the hotel facilities an electric car was operated from
town to the beach. The Florida Town Improvement Company advertised
the sale of lots and offered "discounts on values" to those people engaged
in manufacturing who purchased property.H
The opening of the beach gave Fernandina the double advantage of
having not only one of the best hotels in the South, but a seashore as
well. Just how much this meant to Fernandina with respect to the
tourist trade may be inferred from the following:
.... The beach is the finest in the world, a statement
which I do not hesitate to make, after repeated visits
to Cape May, Newport, and Old Orchard and ought of itself
also to make the fortune of Fernandina as a place of
resourt j_ sic_/.12
In 1882, the steam yacht Egmont was built to run during the winter
season from the Egmont Hotel to Fernandina to the adjacent Island and
fishing grounds. She had a permanent awning deck all over her to the
lOstory told by Mr. G. E. Wolff to Mrs. Alice Youngblood.
H-The Florida Mirror. November 26, 1881.
12ihe Florida Mirror. March 24, 1880. This was written by the
editor of the National Hotel.


II
". . to hold the lands for public use, resort and recreation . .
(Ise, 1961, p. 53) largely in order to protect one particular scenic at
traction, the Mariposa Grove of Giant Sequoia (Sequoia gigantea). Con
siderable public interest was developed in later years for the preserva
tion of these and other similar groves, and was of considerable help in
spreading the concept of conservation across the country.
The first national park was established in 1872 when Yellowstone
National Park was authorized by act of Congress as a . public park
or pleasuring-ground for the benefit and enjoyment of the people" (Ibid.
1961, p. 15). This concept set the pattern for subsequent national
parks. A similar development had taken place in reserving forest pre
serves. A Division of Forestry was begun in 1881, and ten years later
the Yellowstone Forest Park Reservation was set up with the purpose of
protecting and preserving the timber. Other uses were allowed if they
did not abridge or interfere with this primary purpose (ORRRC, 1962,
#27, pp. 103-04).
The first quarter of the twentieth century witnessed a rapid de
velopment in the concept of outdoor recreation. The succession of
Theodore Roosevelt to the Presidency was, of course, a significant de
velopment for the concept of the "outdoors" type of life in the increas
ingly urbanized American landscape.
In 1906 an important law was passed, the Act for the Preservation
of American Antiquities, providing for the establishment of National
Monuments for the preservation of historic landmarks, historic or pre
historic structures or other objects of historical or scientific


64
shoals immediately offshore to interrupt wave action, there is always a
breaking surf. The breakers nearest shore seem to vary from about one
foot through to crest, to about four feet during sustained on-shore
winds or storms. During periods of high surf, there is a corresponding
lessening of numbers of bathers, but intensification of individual
participation. Surf-boarders, for example, prefer the higher waves.
Others use the beaches and waters for a different kind of recrea
tion. Fishing takes three major forms, that of surf casting, surf
netting, and fishing from a boat. The first two types are best done at
low tide and fishing adherents may be seen congregated at favorite
places at low tide regardless of what time of day or night this period
occurs. The Ocean Pier (Figure 9) and the Jetties are two favorite
spots, and it is rare that there is not a car parked at the latter.
The waters of the Atlantic Ocean along Amelia Island are refresh
ingly cool in the summers but are cold in the winters. The ocean water
is rarely clear, usually being greenish in color and containing a high
amount of organic matter or "dust," and the bottom is rarely seen at a
depth of more than two feet. With an onshore wind, there is often a
very considerable amount of foam which may be blown into drifts deep
enough to hide a child (Figure 10). No harmful effects have been
noted, though, except for a temporary yellowing of the skin.
The slope of the bottom adjacent to the beach is an important
factor in bathing. If the slope is great, bathing will be restricted
to a very narrow belt and will be somewhat precarious for poor swim
mers or non-swimmers. On the other hand, if the slope is too gentle,


163
of course, that with the rents ranging from $35 to $165 per week and
the vast majority of visits to be under two weeks duration, it is ex
pected that the family groups will be large. It is not unusual to see
two families complete with numerous children and grandparents occupying
one "unit." The overwhelming preponderance of housekeeping units over
single rooms would also indicate that the majority of visitors have
children and would rather do their own cooking rather than to dine sole
ly at restaurants.
A comparison might be made with the number per group of the
campers. During the summer months of 1963, the mean number of campers
was 4.35 per group (Figure 29). Figure 30 indicates that during these
three summer months the largest single group sizes consisted of four
people, with groups of five being the next largest classification, and
the majority of group sizes falling into the two-to-six range. Now if
we assume that families with a large number of children or older
people would tend to rent a beach cottage rather than camp in a tent or
trailer, especially for a one- to two-week vacation spent in one loca
tion, we would expect to find the mean size of the rental unit group to
be larger than the mean size of camper group.
If we then take the mean number of people per "unit" to be five
for the motel, six for the rental unit, and four for the owner-occupied
home, and multiply the data in Table 14 by the appropriate factors, we
would have an assumption of the actual numbers of people using these
residential facilities by summer, winter, and for the year. Table 14,
however, is based on a number of assumptions itself (for instance, that


11
concerned with conservation, and the Federal role is without doubt the
dominant single modern force in conservation and related outdoor recrea
tion. These policies are determined by a number of Federal agencies.
The United States Department of the Interior handles the largest
part of the conservation needs. Among its many bureaus, the most im
portant for outdoor recreation would be the National Park Service.
Others of notable importance would include the Geological Survey, the
Bureau of Land Management, the Fish and Wildlife Service, and the newly
created Bureau of Outdoor Recreation.
As of January 1, 1960, the National Park Service administered
nearly twenty-five million acres of land spread among one hundred and
eighty-three different areas and seven hundred and eighty units (Ise,
1961, p. 2). These one hundred and eighty-three areas include Parks
(national, historical, military, memorial, battlefield, and capital),
Monuments, Memorials, Cemeteries, Sites, Areas, and Parkways.* In 1955
these facilities had some 55 million visits, with an annual rate of
growth of 8 percent (Clawson, et al., 1960, p. 168).
The United States Department of Agriculture administers the
nation's forests through its Forest Service. Of the nearly two hundred
million acres of forest land in the United States, nearly 85 percent, or
165,000,000 acres, are administered by the Forest Service. The policy
of this Service toward recreation as a multiple-use factor is revealed
by the remarks made at a national meeting in 1960:
*See maps "Eastern United States," February, 1962, and "Western
United States," January, 1961, by the National Park Service, the United
States Department of the Interior, for sale by the United States Govern
ment Printing Office, Washington 25, D.C.


235
The effects of this potential industry on the Amelia Island tour
ist industry are uncertain, but several factors may be considered.
Approximately one-half of the beachfront property is now held for indus
trial, rather than for recreational or residential purposes. This has
had no effect on the use of the beach itself as yet. The land was idle
when purchased, so no active economic activities were discontinued.
However, with such a large portion of the beachfront taken off the po
tential real estate market, the area for future residential and
associated tourist development is limited to the present beachfront with
in the city limits and at American Beach. Automobile access to these
eight miles of beach is only along access points located at Sadler Road
at American Beach, and at the south bridge, which is limited because of
soft sand (Figure 6). Some of the sand trails to the beach have been
closed by the company.
On the other hand, if the mining were to begin in the near future
it would be a definite spur to Amelia Island's industrial economy. If
proper care were taken, there should be no interference with the uses of
the beaches and surrounding waters since smoke and water pollution are
not features of this type of mining. The land being mined would first
have to be cleared of all surface vegetation, and the surface left after
mining would have to be protected by fast-growing vegetation to prevent
wind erosion.
The mined areas could be converted quite easily to a surface
suitable for a number of activities, as seen by the example of the
Rutile Mining Company of Florida. Some examples of post-mining uses


40
of Fernandina Beach, the county seat, faces the Amelia River to the west
and the Atlantic Ocean two miles to the east. Bridges cross the waters
of Amelia River to the east and of Nassau Sound to the south.
This is an enchanting region to the "outsider" on his first
visit. An easy hour's drive to the west and north would bring one to the
Okefenokee Swamp. To the north lies bridgeless Cumberland Island, almost
uninhabited, with its herds of wild ponies sometimes visible from Amelia
Island. Jacksonville, a bustling "Gate City" for international trade,
lies twenty miles south on a river whose flow reverses with every tide.
On approaching Amelia Island, the traveler passes through miles of al
most unbroken stands of longleaf pine, much of which has been planted in
even rows by the large pulpwood producers. Between the Island and the
mainland will be long stretches of barren salt flats which were a
series of shallow bays in the geologically-recent past (Martens, 1931,
p. 79), and where fishermen are often seen dragging their nets. The
tourist may even pass with amazement a small sign directing him to a
gold-mining company (Humphreys Gold Corporation, Jacksonville, Florida)
and if he passes this off as another "tourist trap" he will be missing
one of the region's important industries, a space-age industry
producing titanium metal for Cape Kennedy's rockets.
If the hypothetical tourist remains long enough, he will soon
realize that there is a considerable amount of activity in industry,
agriculture, and commerce, but his interest will be drawn above all to
the magnificent opportunities for zestful outdoor activity throughout
the year. For the businessman tourist, the presence of several wood-


204


CHAPTER IV
POTENTIAL RECREATIONAL USE OF AMELIA ISLAND
I. EXTERNAL FACTORS INFLUENCING DEVELOPMENT
STATEWIDE TOURISM IN RELATION TO AMELIA ISLAND
Tourism and recreational activities on Amelia Island represent
only a small part of the total statewide picture. However detailed a
local study may be, it must still be integrated with the larger picture.
Many factors affect the number and the composition of the people coming
to Florida for recreational purposes. The weather both in Florida and
in other areas of the country, the availability of good roads, the na
tional and local economic conditions, advertisements by state and local
groups, and innumerable personal considerations all have their effect.
Some may enter the state as tourists and spend only a few days or weeks,
while others are semi-permanent residents who may maintain a home in
another state as well as in Florida, while still others retire perma
nently in various Florida locations for purposes of health or for
recreational opportunities.
Number of tourists. One measure of these activities is to tabu
late a representative group of people who classify themselves as
"tourist." For several years, the Florida Development Commission has
been conducting a series of interviews with people in incoming and out
going automobiles bearing out-of-state license plates. These valuable
and interesting results are summarized in the annual Florida Tourist


TABLE 45 (Continued)
July
August
September
October
November
December
Alberta
British Columbia
3
1
Manitoba
2
New Brunswick
Newfoundland
2
7
Nova Scotia
3
3
1
Ontario
54
41
12
6
5
4
P. E. Island
Quebec
Saskatchewan
3
2
1
Others
Australia
Belgium
Curacao
Denmark
England
Finland
Germany
Holland
Jamaica
Mexico
New Zealand
Norway
South Africa
Sweden
Switzerland
Wales
ro
00
VO


63
hundred feet in width at low tide. In places the dune ridge appears to
have formed a wave-cut cliff, but this is probably of a temporary,
short-term nature since the shoreline is continually changing.
The northern end of the island, containing most of the human set
tlement, is formed on the seaward side by a westward-hooked spit of quite
recent origin (within the past one hundred and fifty years, according to
the map of "Old Shorelines,11 Figure 61) with some of the higher dunes to
be found on the island. Fort Clinch State Park and the largely restored
ruins of the old Fort Clinch itself are located here, overlooking the
St. Mary's Entrance and Cumberland Sound. Immediately to the south and
west of the park is a tidal flat and drainage creek, Egan's Creek
(Clark's Creek on the U.S.C. & G.S. Nautical Chart "Cumberland Sound,"
1:20,000 scale). To the west and the south facing onto the Amelia
River is the main part of the island, which is composed of somewhat
higher dunes than are found on the beach. Along the entire eastern
edge of the island are to be found low dunes, both along the shore it
self and inland a few yards. The rest of the island (that is, the
western and southern portion) is generally a low plain some ten feet
above sea level and facing into the marshes to the west (Figures 2 and
3). These plains are somewhat older in age than the dunes, having been
formed under water when sea level was twenty-five feet higher than at
present (Cooke, 1939, p. 62).
On a busy summer day there will be several hundred people on the
beach, mainly at the Atlantic Avenue terminus or at American Beach.
With a predominant onshore northeastern wind and no shallow bars or


311
pilot house and a canvass awning forward to the stem. She had a seating
capacity of one hundred people. She also had a "retiring room for ladies,
and a gentlemen closet."13
The Strathmore hotel at the beach was also popular, This hotel
opened usually the latter part of May and kept open until October or
until the season closed. 14 The opening of the hotel was preceded by
a ball. Dancing began at ten in the evening and continued until half
past two in the morning. A special train brought people from Jacksonville
for the festivities, returning with them after the ball.15
It is interesting to note that this city by the sea was so
charming that even the jailor had difficulty in getting rid of his
"visitors":
There are now seven prisoners in the county jail, two of
whom are deserting sailors. Although they have been dis
charged they declare they will not leave the jail, and the
jailor is now about to commence a starving diet to see if he
can't get rid of them.16
A few years later further improvements were added to the Egmont.
The exterior was surrounded by orange trees; in the park across Seventh
Street were orange trees, live oak, magnolia, and palmetto trees. The
interior arrangements now include steam heat, electric bells connecting
with every room, telegraph and telephone connection, livery stable, a
^The Florida Mirror. January 20, 1882.
14Ibid., May 20, 1882.
15Ibid., May 27, 1882.
^The Fernandina Express, February 18, 1882.


35
c. Nautical charts from the Coast and Geodetic Survey,
United States Department of Commerce, were of value for their extensive
information on coastlines and channel and water depths, and to a lesser
extent for the location of outstanding features on the land, such as the
higher dunes, tall public buildings, et cetera. Unfortunately, Amelia
Island is a dividing line for the U.S.C. & G.S. charts which are
centered on the St. Johns River (Jacksonville, Florida), and Brunswick,
Georgia, so two charts at each scale are necessary in order to show the
entire Island. At the scale of 1/20,000 (approximately three inches
per mile) charts Number 453 and 448, and at the scale of 1/40,000 (about
one and one-half inches per mile) charts Number 577 and 841 were found
to be useful.
d. Various other maps were useful for the study. A sketch
map showing the major property boundaries and owners as of 1953 was
loaned by Mr. George Lovesee, surveyor. The Fort Clinch records produced
a 1947 map (Drawing No. 3.001) showing changes in the shoreline of the
north end of Amelia Island since 1843. The office of the County Tax
assessor and the County Clerk we