Citation
The urban fringe of Orlando, Florida : a study of land use patterns and changes associated with urban growth

Material Information

Title:
The urban fringe of Orlando, Florida : a study of land use patterns and changes associated with urban growth
Creator:
Mookherjee, Debnath, 1933-
Place of Publication:
[Gainesville]
Publisher:
University of Florida
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
ix, 16, [1] l. : ill. ; 28 cm.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Agricultural land ( jstor )
Agriculture ( jstor )
Cities ( jstor )
Counties ( jstor )
Fringe ( jstor )
Land development ( jstor )
Land use ( jstor )
Rangelands ( jstor )
Rural land use ( jstor )
Urban fringe ( jstor )
Environs -- Orlando (Fla.) ( lcsh )
Land use -- Florida -- Orange County ( lcsh )
Genre:
bibliography ( marcgt )
theses ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )

Notes

Thesis:
Thesis--University of Florida.
Bibliography:
Bibliography: leaves 190-195.
General Note:
Manuscript copy.
General Note:
Vita.

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Source Institution:
University of Florida
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The University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries respect the intellectual property rights of others and do not claim any copyright interest in this item. This item may be protected by copyright but is made available here under a claim of fair use (17 U.S.C. §107) for non-profit research and educational purposes. Users of this work have responsibility for determining copyright status prior to reusing, publishing or reproducing this item for purposes other than what is allowed by fair use or other copyright exemptions. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder. The Smathers Libraries would like to learn more about this item and invite individuals or organizations to contact the RDS coordinator (ufdissertations@uflib.ufl.edu) with any additional information they can provide.
Resource Identifier:
01820002 ( OCLC )
ocm01820002
Classification:
HD211.F6 M66 2003 ( lcc )

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THE URBAN FRINGE OF ORLANDO, FLORIDA:

A STUDY OF LAND USE PATTERNS

AND CHANGES ASSOCIATED

WITH URBAN GROWTH








By
DEBNATH MOOKHERJEE








A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE COUNCIL OF
THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE
DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY









UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
August, 1961
* *-.'r^::^
: ; T; ; **;.. ^ ^ ; .: *... . : * / . * ., :. . ...: '*.';:*':: :':i~i :"



















instruction, and financial awards which have made this under
taking possible. Appreciation is accorded also to the Col-
4ac, tiua n ap o ch o iiiiiiii
lege of Arts ndan award oi a Graduate Fellow-
ship iiiiiii the period of June through August, 1961.
It is hardly adequate to merely acknowledge the chair-
man fa my Supervisory Committee, Professor James R. Anderson,
under whoseinDrection this dissertation has been written0
but rather I wish to express my deep gratitude and apprecia-
tion for his guidance, stimulating approach.to geographic


several times in the field. His help and assistance will be


My appreciation isb also extended to the members of my










this dissertation. Mrs. Helen Bennett, Tax Assessor-Orange
ii
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i i i i . ........................ .. .. ..................................................... . .. ... . .. ........... ..... ... .... .... ... ... ...... ....... ............ .. ................... .............. .. .... .......................... .... ... ..... .. .







County, so kindly made available the facilities of her of-

fice; and I am grateful to all members of the staff for th6ir

aid and interest. Mr. Ralph Sims, Mr. George Grimaley,

Mr. John Crissey, Jr., Mr. Bill Ford, Mr. Arnold Williams,

and Mr. Creed Hu1l spared their time and knowledge and of-

fered valuable information relative to the local setting.

Some of the data on population were supplied by Mr. Harold

Hamilton of the Orlando Sentinel. The author appreciates

discussions with Mr. Russdl 0. Jacobsen, Director of the

Zoning Commission, especially on planning problems in Orange

County. Mr. Al Swartz of the Office of Soil Conservation

Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, allowed the author

access to the records and aerial photographs. The author

also is indebted to the staff of the Orlando City Planning

Office for their help and cooperation for this study.

To Mrs. Lala Schouten, who rendered much assistance and

encouragement throughout my stay and studies in Gainesville,

I especially owe my gratitude.

Finally I wish especially to thank my parents and my

brother for their constant encouragement and sacrifice,

without which my dream of coming to the United States for
higher study would have been an impossibility.
iiiiii


















LIST OFTABLES ... ........ vi



X. INTRODUCTIO .

General Nature of the Problem


Methodology





Delineation of the rlando Urban Fringe



The Physical Characteristics


Climate

Population
The economic base
Subdivision of land

IV. LAND USE IN THE URBAN FRINGE . . . . 89

Dynamics of Land Use
Classification of Land Uses
Present Patterns, 1961
Past Patterns, 1947 and 1954
Changes in Land Use
Problems of Growth
Planning for the Future


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Chapter Pg
V. LAND USE IN SELECTED AREAS IN THE URBAN
.. FRING . . .*i& a .*.

Land-Use Categories
Lake Conway Area





.i
Pine Hills Area
A Comparison of the Study Areas

VI. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS . . . . ... 18







:I
BIBLIOGRAPHY .. ... .. .. .. .. .. .... 19

BIOGRAPHICALSKETCH ...............










































V
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..~~ ~ ~ ~ ;::;i~~l~:~~lBBill r 5 i








:,i~1;~;11111'l~~~~B "iai~;~













LIST OF TABLES

Table Page
!illiiiiiiiii2. Geologic Formations Penetrated by Wells in orange






County . . .8.. . . . . . . . 40"

3. Physical and Engineering Characteristics of Soils
Grouped According to Their Suitability for
" """Urban Development . . . . . . . 46"il:^: ":":.p^1: ^li '

4. Temperature and Precipitation at Orlando
Municipial Airport, Orange County, P16rida 4.54

5. Population of Orange County, 1930 to 1960 . . 60

6. The Principal Industries in Orange County, 1959 73

7. Subdivision of Land in the Orlando Urban Fringe,
1947-61 . . . . . a a . a a a 80

8. Sequence of Subdivision Development in Incor-
porated Areas in the Orlando Fringe Areas,
1947-1960 . . . . . . . . . 81

9. Estimated Market Value of Specified Types of Land
in Florida . . . . . . . . . 94

10. Land-Use Patterns in the Orlando Urban Fringe,
1961 . . a a a . . . . 10O

11. Land-use Changes in the Orlando Urban Fringe,
1947-1954 . . . . . a . a 124

12. Land-Use Changes in the Orlando Urban Fringe,
1954-1961 . . . . . . . . . 125

13. Land-Use Changes in the Orlando Urban Fringe,
1947-1961 . . . . . . . . . 120

14. Pattern of Land Use in the Lake Conway Area, 1961 153

15. Pattern of Subdivision Developments in Lake
Conway Area . . . . . . . . 1604


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LIST OF 17LUSTRATXONS

igure ageiiiii



2. Urban fringe of Orlando, Florida . . . . 30

3. Soils, Urban fringe of Orlando, Florida . .

4. Sequence of subdivision platting, urban fringe of


5. Intermixture of land uses in the urban fringe 91

6. Some uses of land along main highways . . 92



8. A new transportation artery . . . . .



10. Pastureland . 102

11. Idle land 106

12. Land-use pattern, 1961, urban fringe of Orlando,
Florida *

13. Location sectdrs, urban fringe of Orlando,
Florida 109

14. Commercial development . . . . . . 114
. ......... = *.*i j K K ^ -" . = +fc : =' : : . . mi i i i l i :::".:: :: ::1 : :::- :::i : i















15. Iindustiirial development . . . . . 1







16. *Block type" residential developments . . 118

17. Land-use pattern 1947, urban fringe of Orlando,
Florida *
18. Land-use pattiern, 1954, luriban fringe of Oli rlandl,

Florida *






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Figure Pag

20. Intermixture of vacant lots and low-value resi-
dences 15



22. High-value residence . . . . . . . 15

23. Intermingling of urban and rural land usee in
the Lake Conway area . . . . . 16










27. A high-value residential area along the canal in



































*Figure can be found in the pocket in the back of the
dissertation.

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INTRODUCTION


General Nature of the Problem

One of the most distinctive characteristics of the

state o Florida today, is its extremely apid growth. The

1960 Census of Population reveals the fac ht Florida's

rate of population growth between 1950 and 1960, which



Plorida's population is now 4.9 million. In 1940 it was 1.9

million; in 1950, 2.8 million. The population projection

for 1970 indicates that even with a slackening gain it is

entirely possible that Florida may have 7.5 million inhabi-

tants by that year. Another aspect of this increase of the
state's population the high rate of gain in urban popula







tion. Table 1 reveals Florida's rate of gain in total and

urban population since 1940 through 1960. It is particularly

noticeable that while the rate of increase of the state's

population in 1960 over 1950 was 79 per cent, the rate of

increase in urban population for the same period was over

96 per cent. Today Florida has approximately 62 per cent of
its population living in urban places. Generally speaking,







IFred H. Bair, Jr., "Florida Population--State, Regions
and Counties," Florida Planning and Development. XI, No. 7
(July, 1960), 1.

1
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TABLE 1

TOTAL AND URBAN POPULATION IN FLORIDA, 1940 -1960a





Urban population
Year Population Ireaseover Population Increase over as a percentage
Tea Ppuatonpreceding Pouainpreceding of total
census census population


Number Number Per cent Number Number Per cent Per cent


1940 1,897,414 429,203 29.2 1,045,791 286,013 37.6 55.1

1950 2,771,305 873,891 46.1 1,566,788b 520,997 49.8 56.5

1960 4,951,560 2,180,255 78.7 3,077,989b 1,511,201 96.5 62.2


aU. S. Bureau of the Census, U. S. Census of Population, 1960. "Number of Inhab-
itants, Florida." Final Report PC(1)-11A, p. 7.
b
in order to analyze the historical trend of urban population of the state, figures
shown here are on the basis of the 1940 census urban definition. According to this de-
finition, urban dwellers are those persons living in incorporated places with 2,500 or more
inhabitants. Such a definition, however, excludes a number of equally la.ge and desely
settled places because they are not incorporated places. in order to improve its enumera-
tion of urban population, the Bureau of Census included in 1950, two new groups of people
in the urban category: those living in (1) unincorporated places of 2,500 inhabitants or
more, and (2) the densely settled urban fringes around cities of 50,000 or more
inhabitants.

.. . .. .. .







the fastest growth is concentrated in areas of Florida with

*Florida climate." In central Florida, the Orlando area is

such a region which began "exploding in recent years. r-

lando, with 8,135 persons within the city limits, is the

principal city in the central lake region of Floridaand the

fifth largest in the state. Orlando is located at the place

where U.S. highways 17, 92, and 441 converge. The only

east-west connecting route, State Highway 50, passes through

the city of Orlando (Figure 1). The growth of the city of

Orlando and Orange County has been extremely rapid and in

many ways parallels the growth rate of the state as a whole.

Between 1950 and 1960 the population of Orlando increased by

68 per cent and that of Orange County by 130 per cent.

Broadly speaking, three important factors are responsible

for this high rate of population growth in the state. These

are agriculture, tourism, and industry.

Florida's climate with moderate temperatures and abun-

dant rainfall was the principal factor in the early develop-

ment of the traditional agricultural pursuits of the state.

Later on, the development of transportation and commercial

facilities have strengthened the agricultural economy.

While agriculture provided the basic economic foundation for

the state, tourism and recent commercial and industrial de-

velopments are also major factors responsible for the sound

physical and economic growth of Florida. Florida today is

leading in the industrial development in the Southeast. The

factors mentioned above also have played a vital role in the
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GENERAL LOCATION MAP :











3-/ FLORIDA

0AOR AN DO





ORLANDO VICINT D. MOOKHERJEE 1961







development of Orange County and the Orlando area. Citrus

fruits are by far the principal agricultural crop grown in

the Orlando area, and Orange County ranks third only to Polk

and Lake counties in t state in the acreage



offer attraction for tourists all round the year. he two

principal industries, citrus production and processing and

tourism have, until recently, formed the major basis of the

area's economy. In the past few years, however, a consider-

able number of manufacturers have been attracted to Orlando

and vicinity.



in a rapid populaion growth in Orlando and Orange County.

Orange County in 1960 has about 5.3 per cent of the total

state population. In 1950 it had 4.0, and in 1940 only 3.7

per cent of the population. This shows that Orange County's

growth has kept pace and even exceeded the state's growth in

population. What are the implications of this rapid urban

population growth and the accompanying economic development?

For one thing, it has had a tremendous impact on the use of

land surrounding Orlando as well as other major cities. The

spatial needs for urban development are readily apparent.

Urban areas are generally not always fully capable of main-

taining their owin population. The growth of the cities

often results in part from constant in-migration of people;

and, i thus the city has to draw upon rural areas surrounding

its periphery. Cities also grow by expanding their bound-

aries, The peripheral area of the city into which city
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e~xpansion moves is generally called the "urban fringe."

Various concepts of the urban fringe are discussed in

Chapter II.

The area andiuse of land in a region and the numbers,

istibution, ad employmnt of its peopleare fundamental

to an understanding of the character of its economic develop-

ment. Alithogh in recent years considerable research has

been done on many aspects of the urban or rural-urban fringe,

very little has een written about the effect of urbaniati

on land use in an urban fringe situation. The growth of

population and the economic development have important of-

fects on land utilization, especially on the urban fringe

area.

The economic aspects of land-use changes and the analy-

sis of land utilization by regions have been studied from

time to time and published by the United States Department

of Agriculture in various handbooks.1

Wooten and Anderson report that annually about 400,000
acres of land in the United States are undergoing

Hugh H. Wooten and James R. Anderson, Major Uses of
Land in the United States, U.S. Department of Agriculture,
Information Bulletin No. 168 (Washington: U.S. Government
Printing Office, 1957) and Agricultural Land Resources in
the United States, Agriculture Information Bulletin No. 140
(Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1955); F. J.
Marschner, Land Use and Its Patterns in the United States,
Agriculture Handbook No. 153 (Washington: U.S. Government
Printing Office, 1959). See also the study by James R.
Anderson, Land Use and Development of Southeastern Coastal
Plain, Agriculture nformation Bulletin No. 154 Wasington
U.S. Government Printing Office, 1956).
I iii iiiii-"" sRiiiiiiiii*i Cill-l l "











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urbanisation.1 In addition to the land which is actually

bui.lt up as a city expands into the adjacent count yside,

there is much land which s often removed from productive

agricultural uses considerably in advance of the time that

it goes fully into urban uses.

The land within the urban fringe lies in a stage of

transition and gives rise to a situation where there is

bound to be a marked degree of struggle and competition.




by the price which is offered for it. In this situation

where economic forces are permitted to operate freely, the
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development of land for urban uses will in nearly all in-

stances replace even the most intensive agricultural uses of

land. Thus, agriculture is bound to lose out in the competi-

tion for such land with other interests in the long run un-

less some kind of social control supersedes the play of eco-

nomic forces. Decisions relative to the regulation of land

uses in local, state, and national levels are constantly

being made in this country. Restrictions are being placed

on the uses of land in the best interests of society as a

whole.

This problem related to land-use changes occurring

around cities due to rapid population growth is facing


'Wooten and Anderson, Ma ijor Uses of Land in the United
States, op. cit., p. 26.

2G. P. Wibberly, Agriculture and Urban Growth: A Study
of the CQompetit ion for Rural Land (London: Michael Joseph,
1959), p. 23.
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several of the major citiies of Florida. Governor C. Farri

Bryant very aptly said, . growth brings its proble s,

and the problems must be solved or the blessing of growth in

turned to a curse.*1




This study has three major objectives. The first of

these objectives is to provide a methodological framework

for making a convenient geographical delineation of the ur-

ban fringe of Orlando. The second objective is to describe

and analyze the general physical and cultural characteristics

of the urban fringe, which have played comple4 roles in the

expansion of this urban community into the adjacent rural

countryside. The last objective is to account for the land-

use conditions in the years 1947, 1954, and 1961; to prepare

detailed maps showing the various land uses as they existed

in those years, and to analyze the significant changes in

land use that have occurred within this urban fringe of

Orlando.


Scope of the Study

The area covered in the study includes the maximum ex-

tent of urbanization within Orange County outside the city

of Orlando. The primary emphasis of this study is placed on

the changes in the use of land within the urban fringel and,

therefore, three periods of land-use conditions are studied.

C. Farri Bryant, "Th Doctor's Responsibility in
Growing Florida," The Orange County Medical Society quar-
terly Bulletin, V, No. 4 (1959). 15.
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The periods selected were determined by the availability of

aerial photographs which provided a permanent rord of the

uses being made of land within the urban fringe of Orlando

in earlier periods of time. It is hoped that the data col-

lected and intepreted may provide clues concerning the

ture patterns and amounts of land-use change likely to occur

in the urban fringe of Orlando. These land-use data, along

with the description of physical and cultural characteristics

should provide important information as to the nature and

direction of physical patterns that will emerge within the

metropolitan area of Orlando in the future. If the present

trend of population growth and economic development con-

tinues, the need for making advance land-use plans for fu-

ture growth will become more acute. In the years to come

many urban areas of Florida will be concerned with such a

problem. This study of the urban fringe of Orlando should

serve as a guide to future land-use requirements of growing

Florida cities.

Methodology
This study was carried out both in the library and in

the field. Major field observations were made and data col-
lected from June through September, 1960. In the fall of

1960 and in the spring of 1961 occasional field trips were

also made to collect data, to make observations, and to take

photographs.

A study of changes in the use of land requires both

identification of land usesand measurements of the areas







involved. For this study, basic information was wanted on

the amount of land in the various uses and the kind of land

that was changing in use. The previous use to which land

was put before a change took place and the nature of the new

use fter a hange ws made ere also studied. Such informa-

tion can be collected either by direct observation in the

study area or by indirect methods such as by interpretation

of aerial photographs. Direct observation, i.e., field

methods providing information that is both accurate and de-

tailed, is extremely expensive. Furthermore, the identifica-

tion of areas of changes in land use and the preparation of

a land-use map showing uses before changes occurred is very

difficult. Comparison and analysis of aerial photographs

are used extensively in land-use studies in the United

States, where the technique has provided a rapid and relative-

ly inexpensive. means of identifying and measuring changes in

the use of land. Therefore, it was decided to explore the

potentialities of using aerial photographs as a major source


lando urban fringe area. Aerial photographs also provided

much helpful information about the present uses of land.

Three sets of aerial photographs taken in 1947, 1954, and

1958 were available for Orange County. While sacrificing

some detail and accuracy, the great gain in coverage possi-

ble within a limited budget seemed to Justify the use of

aerial photographs. The aerial photograph coverage of the

urban fringe areas for 1947 and 1954 was particuLarly







involved. For this study, basic information was wanted on

the amount of land in the various uses and the kind of land

that was changing in use. The previous use to whaich land

was put before a change took place and the nature of the new

use after a change was made were also studied. Such informa-

tion can be collected either by direct observation in the

study area or by indirect methods such as by interpretation

of aerial photographs. Direct observation, i.e., field

methods providing information that is both accurate and de-

tailed, is extremely expensive. Furthermore, the identifica-

tion of areas of changes in land use and the preparation of

a land-use map showing uses before changes occurred is very

difficult. Comparison and analysis of aerial photographs

are used extensively in land-use studies in the United

States, where the technique has provided a rapid and relative-

ly inexpensive means of identifying and measuring changes in

the use of land. Therefore, it was decided to explore the

potentialities of using aerial photographs as a major source

of information about earlier land-use patterns in the Or-

lando urban fringe area. Aerial photographs also provided

much helpful information about the present uses of land.

Three sets of aerial photographs taken in 1947, 1954, and

1958 were available for Orange County. While sacrificing

some detail and accuracy, the great gain in coverage possi-

ble within a limited budget seemed to justify the use of

aerial photographs. The aerial photograph coverage of the

urban fringe areas for 1947 and 1954 was particuLarly
ree sets of aerial gphs:'taken in 194, 1.954, ad

1958 were available for Orange *n.... ie sacrif ici *








This average was recorded in the summarization of the cen

tract data available from the United States Census of Popu-

lation, 1960. This approach, of course, is not completely

satisfactory. or ione thing, it involves the questionable

assumption that all the dwelling units are occupied.

The measurement of different uses of land from the

aerial photographs was taken by using an acreage calculating

grid. This plate was available from the United States De-

partment of Agriculture Soil Conservation Service. The use

of the acreage calculating grid for land-use measurements

and acreage determinations for general statistical analysis

proved to be very helpful and provided an adequate degree of

accuracy for purposes of this study. A considerable saving

in time was made by use of the calculating grid rather than

a planimeter.
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THE CONCRPT OF URBAN FRINGE AND DELINEATION

OF TE ORLIANDO URBAN FRINGE


Research investigations on fringe areas surrounding

larger cities have increased in recent years. Today, 21 per

cent of the total population of the United States lives in

such fringe areas.1 This has aroused the interest of re-

searchers fromi variious disciplines such as sociology, eco-

nomics, political science, and geography. A great deal of

individual research has been published particularly in the

field of sociology on the study of fringe phenomena. The

concept of the fringe, however, is variously defined to de-

scribe a number of situations. The approach and emphasis has

differed according to the purpose and method of the studies

made.

Current problems of fringe studies have two principal

foci: canceptualization and delineation.2 Differences in

the fringe concept and the procedure used for delineation of

fringe areas are reviewed and evaluated in this chapter.


1Total population living in urbanized areas outside the
central cities. U.S. Bureau of the Census, "l960 Census of
Populations Population of Urbanized Areas, 1960 and 1950,0
Supplementary Reports, PC(Sl)-5, June 14, 1961, p. 3.
S. W. Blizzard, "Research on Rural-Urban Fringe," Soci-
olo0 y and Social Research, XXXVIII, No. 3 (1954), 143.

13
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The methodological procedure for delimiting the Orlando




different objectives have been made in other parts of the

country the present sty is the first known to the author

that has been made in Florida.


The Fringe Concept

In one of the earliest studies, which was made in 1937,

ith used the term "urban fringe" to include the "built up

area just outside the corporate limits o f te cy.
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Smith's conception of the fringe area was based on the con-

centration of non-village, rral-nn-am population and the

characteristica of land ues outs ide the city limits. Night

club, tourist camp, ifiling station, and low-c s residenti

areas along the highways were described as the predominant

uses of land in the urban fringe. Smith's study is concerned

mainly with the demographic characteristics of Louisiana.

Thus, he presents only a general rather than a specific con-

ceptualization of the urban fringe.

Salter, in 1940, stated that the urban-rural fringe was

"an area which has a mixture of land uses that are related

to farming and to urban interests w .ll.2


1T. Lynn Smith, The Population of Louisiana: Its Com-
Position and Changes, Louisiana Bulletin No. 293 (November,
1937), p. 24.

2Leonard A. Salter, Jr., "Land Classification Along the
Rural-Urban Fringe," University of Missouri Agriculture
ZEKeriment Station, Bulletin No. 421 (December, 1940), p. 24.
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rounding an urban center on the basis of land-use character-

istics. Among these belts the subdivision and the rural

residence belts were the most prominent observable features

within the fringe areas. Salter also wrote of the complexity

and shifting state of land-use conditions in the urban-rural

fringe areas. He emphasized the great need for proper clas-

sification and planning for the effective use of land re-

sources. But, like Smith, Salter's study has no precise

definition of fringe area.

Salter's pioneer work in the conceptualization of the

fringe area in terms of land use conditions was further crys-

tallized by Wehrwein1 and Andrews2 in subsequent years.

Wehrwein's excellent study, published in 1942, deals with

the structure of land use within the fringe area. "The

rural-urban fringe," he defined, "as the area of transition

between well recognized urban land uses and the area devoted

to agriculture."3 Wehrwein recognized fringe areas as a

"transition zone" and classified the same into three cate-

gories: (1) those areas between arable farming and grazing,

(2) zones between farms and forests, and (3) suburban areas

lying between city and farms. Wehrwein not only pointed out

that certain factors affect growth and development of fringe


1George S. Wehrwein, "The Rural-Urban Fringe," Economic
Geography, XVIII, No. 3 (July, 1942), 217-288.

2Richard B. Andrews, "Elements in the Urban-Fringe
Pattern," Journal of the Land and Public Utilities Economics,
XVIII (May, 1942), 169-183.
3Wehrwein, op. cit., 217.
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areas, but he also attempted to correlate the growth process




















:-. l':v .' -i:if "
with the theories of Von Thlunen, Park and Burgess, and

ri.. staller. Wehrwein's description and analysis of the ur-



ban fring in terms of land-use structures is a de














tribution in fri.nge studies. The role of transportation in
fringe development is also much stressed. If physical fea-

tres do not interfere, the means of transportation radiate

in all directions. As Wehrwein aptly states, "the rural-

urban fringe consists of rural territory pierced by finger-

like projections of urbanized land use. So, actually,

the fringe is a real extension of the city itself. Here the

land uses are in a state of flux, which is a situation need-

ing proper planning, direction, and control.2

in 1942, Andrews contributed new thought in fringe

studies by attempting to differentiate the "Urban fringe"

from the "rural-urban fringe." He defined "Urban fringe" as

the "active expansion sector of the compact economic city,"

and the "rural-urban fringe" lies adjacent to the periphery

of the "urban fringe." In this "rural-urban fringe," "there

is an intermingling of characteristically agricultural and

characteristically urban land uses.03 He vividly described

the urban fringe in terms of composition, dynamics, and pat-

terns; and he also analyzes the causes of its growth. The

primary emphasis in his research was to describe the land-use


IAbid., 223.

2lbid., 228.
3Andrews, op. cit.,. 169.








structure. The urban fringe was mainly characterized by the

composition of "urba residential ad non-residential" ses

with acreage of vacant building lands. Andrew's idea of

separating the fringe areas into two classes is a useful

concept for the study of land use in fringe areas.

Arpke's research on Portland, Oregon, was also concerned

with the land-use structure of the fringe area. Using the

political boundary of the Antral city as the inner limit of

the fringe, he defined urban fringe as "cultural development

that has taken place outside the political boundaries of

central cities and extends to the areas of predominantly ag-

ricultural activity." He emphasized the importance of rec-

ognizing this political bondary of the central city in the

study of the urban fringe. Without such a limitation, fringe

development associated with the peripheral growth of cities'

cannot be adequately traced. Arpke's report comprised a

general description of population, land-use patterns, and

the governmental framework. Emphasis on the need for a reme-

dial program against "the wasteful disposition of the land

resources in the urban fringe"2 is especially noteworthy.

During World War II, a number of articles were published

on various phenomena of the urban fringe. Bringe3 published

1Frederick Arpke, "Land Use Control in the Urban Fringe
of Portland, Oregon," Journal of Land and Public Utilities
Economics, XVIII (November, 1942), 468.

2Ibid., 478.

3Victor Bringe, "Urban Fringe Studies of Two Wisconsin
Cities: A Siummary, Journal of Land and Public Utilities
Economics, XXI (November, 1945), 375-382.
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a summary of an article originally written by Andrews. The

major objective of the original article by Andrews was *to

delineate the patterns of hman action which result from

various phases of urban unret . This article does

not have any discussion on the urban-fringe concept nor does

it discuss the uses of land in fringe areas.






its outlying rral-farm areas.2 He amitted that the urban

fringeii could also be defined in terms of its land-use c
Ii .....^i"M iia^ ---d iii f i it^















acteristics. But RodIhaver's approach was not in terms of

land use in his stiudy of Madison, Wisconsin. His doctoral

dissertation is particularly important to researchers who

are interested in the human occupance rather than the phys-

ical environment of the urban fringe.

Firey's study of Flint, Michigan, lacks a precise defi-

nition of the fringe area of that city. It does, however,

have an excellent general description of the land-use and

population characteristics of the area in Genesee County

surrounding Flint, which he called *a typical country-city

fringe.3 Thlis area is characterized by small part-time


tIbid., 375.
2Myles William Rodehaver, "The Rural-Urban Fringes An
Interstitial Area" (Unpublished doctoral dissertation,
University of Wisconsin, 1946), p. 15.

3Walter Firey, "Social Aspects to Land Use Planning in
Country-City Fringe: the Case of Flint, Michigan," Michigan
State College, Agriculture Experiment Station, Special
Bulletin No. 339 (June, 1947). .p. 47.
Ni lI~










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the general haracteristic of the urban fringe prblem with
special reference to land-use development in order to show


Bsizzard and Anderson presented an explicit definition










we wo rin t... a...rban frage o .... ....y-
vania. The rural-urban fringe injtisr study wasdfnda


point here full city services are available and the point

where agricultural land uses predominate (whih includes
waste lands and wooded areas)..2 To what extent the inter-
mixture of land uses iast occur for an area. to be designated

as urban fringe is a basic question that this definition

does not clarify.


In 1953, McXain and Burnight3 proposed two types of
urban fringes--the "limited" fringe and the "extended"
fringe. The "limited" fringe has its initial growth along
the highways lying immediately peripheral to the city of ur-
banized area. This limited-fringe area has a greater

.Lbid., p. 473.
2Samuel W. Blizzard and William F. Anderson, "Problems
of Rural-Urban Fringe Research: Conceptualization and De-
lineation," The Pennsylvania State College Progress Report,
No. 89 (November, 1952), p. 11.
3
Walter C. McKain and Robert G. Burnight, "The Socio-
logical Significance of the Rural-Urban Life--From the Rural
Point of View," Rural Sociology, XVIII, No. 2 (June, 1953).







concentration of urbanized land uses and urban-employed peo-

ple than the extended fringe which lies in the agricultural
hinterland of cities settled tly by urban-oriented people

This idea of the limited and extended fringe is somewhat
comparable to Andrews' urban and rural-urban fringes dis-

cussed earlier. In both of these studies, however, the au-
thors have not mentioned any specific criteria for delinea-

tion of such types of fringe boundaries.
The United States Bureau of the Census has a precise

definition of the urban fringe area. In order to understand

this fringe concept, it is important to note the Bureau of
the Census definition of urbanized areas. In 1950, urbanized
areas were defined for the first time by the Bureau of the
Census as follows:

The urbanized area is an area that includes at least one
city with 50,000 inhabitants or more in 1940 or later
according to a special census taken prior to 1950 and
also the closely settled incorporated places and unin-
corporated areas . . Since the urbanized area out-
side of incorporated places was defined on the basis of
housing or population density, its boundaries for the
most part are not political but follow such features as
roads, streets, railroads, streams and other closely de-
fined lines . 41

The urban fringe as defined by the Census Bureau is a part of
an urbanized area which is outside the central city or
cities.2 According to this definition, the outer boundary

of the urban fringe zone is a line beyond which all avail-
able map and other evidence indicates that closely spaced

1 U.S. Bureau of the Census, Seventeenth Census of the
United States: 1950, Population, Vol. I, p. XXIV.
2Tbid
L. :IU~~& ""'""""'E~lii'S/~,,,,,,,







settlement of an an nature is lacking.1 The following

types of areas are considered if they are contiguous to the

central city of cities:2
(1) incorporated places with 2,500 inhabitants or more

(2) Incorporated places with fewer than 2,500 ihaQbitants

"unit or more with a density in this concentration of

(3) Unincorporated territory with at least 500 dwelling
units per square mile. Other territories which are
functionally related to the central city uh as

ou resea. rchers hav utilied census data to defi

the uban-fringe area. Accordingly, Queen and Carpenter in-

clude in the urban fringe "that area within the standard

metropolitan area which is outside'the urbanized atea.3

The standard metropolitan area is defined as follows by the
U.S. Census Bureaus

^Except in New England, a standard metropolitn ara is a
county or a group of contiguous counties which contain
at least one city of 50,000 inhabitants or more. In ad-
dition to the county, or counties, containing such a
standard metropolitan area if according to certain cri-
teria they are essentially metropolitan in character and
socially and economically integrated with the central
city.4

1U.8. Bureau of the Census, "Urbanized Areas for the
Eighteenth Decennial Censuses," No. 5, 1959, p. 2.
2U.8. Bureau of the Census, Seventeenth Census . .,
P. XXIV.
3Stuart A. Queen and David B. Carpenter, *. . From
the Urban Point of View," Rural Sociology, XVIII, No. 2
(June, 1953), 104.

4U.S. Bureau of the Census, Seventeenth Census . .*,
P. XXXI.
1.i~









dard metropolitan area leaves a residual which is designated

iBas fringe area.ba
to the boundary or boundaries of whole counties. This does

not make a very realistic outer boundary for the urban fringe

n many cases. This is especially true in the case of Or-

lando, since most of the land area thus delineated as fringe

would have highly heterogeneous rather than homogeneous

characteristic. Moreover, more than 50 per cent of the area

of each survy section to the south, east, and west of Or-

lando is almost entirely rural in character. Inclusion of
Asuch an extensive and completely rural area within the uran
fringe cannot be justified.

The adjustment patterns to residence-location activities

in the fringe area of Eugene and Springfield, Oregon, was

studied by Martin in 1953. The term "fringe" is used in two

different ways by Martin. For instance, while describing

the population growth of this fringe area, he states, "It is
to this unincorporated countryside interlaced with motor

roads and inhabited mainly by former urban dwellers that we
apply the term rural-urban fringe."I Here he places empha-

sis on the population characteristics of the unincorporated
area adjacent to the urban center. Later on, Martin char-
acterized fringe as an "extensive interpenetration of rural

1Walter T. Martin, The Rural-Urban Fringe: A Study of
Adjustment to Residence Location (Eugene, Oregons Univer-
sity of Oregon, 1953), p. 3.
f:~I:~ """i.l':~":~~~El~~ C







and urban land uses with residential rather than predami-

nantly agricultural land use.01

A general problem relating to the subdivision of land
in urban fringe areas was reported by O'Harrow in 1954. in

this report he recognized the cenaus definition of urban

fringe and frther des i it as "hat n-man's

beyond the co:rpoate limits of a c;:ity--a "s

population into the unincorporated areas outsaide the city

walls.*2 O'Harrow's discussion of population growth and the

subdivisi.on of land in the unincorporated area ou*tside city

limits is basically a topical approach. However, this is a

useful point of view to the student of land-use planning.

In a recent report published in 1958, Kurtz and liicher3

contributed a valuable conceptual clarification of the urban

fringe area. The authors set up five criteria based on pre-

vious studies and compared and contrasted the urban fringe

and suburb concepts. The five criteria used were: location,

land characteristics, growth and density, occupation, and

governmental structure of the fringe area. The authors pre-

sented the term "rural-urban fringe" to designate the mixed



bid.,. p. 30.
2Dennis O'Barrow, "Subdivision and Fringe Area Control,"
American Journal of Public Health, XLIV, No. 4 (April, 1954),
473.

3Richard A. Kurtz and Joanne B. Elicher, *Fringes and
Suburbs; a Confusion of Concepts," Social Forces, XXXVII,
No. 1 (October, 1958), 32-37.

Ibid., 34.
1 1 ;lg, ........ .... .... .. ........ .
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. i { t~er, !958), 32-137 ..... ::
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very broad definition and is of little use for any pcific

study.

Nethods of Delineating the Urban Fringe

Although a number of articles have been published on

various aspects of urban-fringe phenomena, very few of these

have a discussion dealing with methods of systematically de-

theating the urban fringe. At this point it is desirable,
however, to review briefly some of the methods previously
used which have been useful in this present study.
S yers and Beeglel utilized census data. n delineating

the Detroit fringe area. This method had two major elementas
the use of minor civil diviions as units and the use of

NV-uNF (non-village, rural-non-farm) population data. The

proportion of NV-RNF population with respect to the total

population of each township in the metropolitan region was

used as an index for fringe classification. The incorpo-

rated population of the townships was excluded. Based on

the above techniques, two categories of the rural-urban

fringe were delineated. These were the true fringe, com-
posed of townships having 50 per cent or more NV-RNF popula-

tion, and the partial fringe having 25 to 50 per cent NV-RNM

population.
However, this methodological approach has not been of
much use in the present study. In the first place, the

township as a unit for delineating the urban fringe was

R. R. Myers and J. A. Beegle, "Delineation and Analy-
sis of the Rural-Urban Fringe," Applied Anthropology, VI
(Spring, 1947), 14-17.
~iil~:~~r







found to be too large for the Orlando area. The city of Or-

lando itself covers much less than four townships; and the


within these four townships. Furthermore, the V-RNP popula-

tion category as chosen for delineation purposes in the

Detroit area is of doubtfu1 value for the Orlando fringe

area.

Rodehaver' s method of fringe delineation was based on

the evaluation of three factors in a given township section

of 640 acres lying outside the corporate boundary of Madison,

Wisconsin. These were (1) proportion of non-farm families

to the total nunber of families, (2) the density of non-farm

families, and (3) the assessed per acre valuation of build-

ings and land. These factors were applied to township sec

tions in successive tiers around the periphery of the city.

The fringe area thus determined was based on a statistical

procedure where the factors were at their greatest intensity

relative to the surrounding area. This is an interesting

approach in fringe studies. However, the factors as chosen

for delineation purposes do not fall within the purview of

the present project because this study concerns land-use

problems. Therefore, this technique was not applied to the

study of the Orlando urban fringe.

Martin's procedure for the delineation of the urban
fringe boundary involved two major considerations. In the


1Rodehaver, op. cit. Also see "Fringe Settlement as a
Two Directional Movement," Rural Sociolov, XII (March,
1947), 50.
I;ii~







first place, he utilized a map showing the location of single

family residences outside the corporate boundary of the city.
econdly, he consiered natural barriers, such as untains
and rivers, to a certain extent as fringe boundaries. The

residence pattern was correlated to the topographical ar-
riers. Te rine boundary was drawn at that point, "when
the patterns of land use characteristics of the fringe
changed to the dispersed pattern of open country farming.

But Martin did not give any indication as to what extent the
density of single ifamiy lellin was considered

of ftringe characteristics. Unlike the Bugene-Spr ingfield,

Oregon, area studied by Martin, the Orlando area has no
great contrast in surface configuration that has ifol
affected settlement.i Neiither does it have any naturail ar-

rier such as that whidh was found advantageous in Nartin's
study. Moreover, many subdivided lands surrounding Orlandao

city are yet to be developed. In the Orlando study, these
undeveloped subdivided lands were considered as fringe char-
acteristics for the predictable growth of this fringe area






The delineation method as proposed by Blizzard and An-
derson2 draws attention to a new idea in rural-urban fringe

1 Martin, op. cit., p. 32.
2Blizzard and Anderson, op. cit., p. 19. See also Sam-
uel Blizzard, "Research on the Rural-Urban Fringe: A Case
Study," Sociology and Social Research, XXXVII, No. 3
(January-February, 1954),. 144.







studi.es. Th adem uhors elineae he Willia ortPenn

vania, fringe boundary by automobile reconnaissance and in- *
spection methods. The inner boundary of the fringe was

determined at the point where city services cease to be o-
plete. As a result in some cases, where city services were

not available, the fringe was extended into the corporate

Sarea of the ity
With te aid of a general highway map of yomg

County, Pennsy vania, an autm obie reco naissan'e

was carried out along the perihera hghways of the city of

Williamsport. The oter fringe boundaries wee awn on t
map "at the approximate point here an urblan pattern of lv-

ing of some concentration yielded to a pattern of widely

scattored acreage lots with non-farm types of houses among

farms, or to pure farming or forest land use.A

This reconnaissance method was not used in the rapidly

expanding urban fringe area of Orlando because it was thought

that the field work needed for such a large urban fringe

would be too time consuming with respect to the information

obtained. The lack of uniformity in road density in all of

the peripheral areas was also another limitation of this ap-

proach for the Orlando urban fringe. The reconnaissance

method also has a subjective element in it which makes it
hard for other researchers to use. Moreover, the criteria
used in the method would fall short of meeting the objectives
of this study. The present Orlando urban-fringe study is

1Ii
-- ,, 4 L ++

I+%
i +
+ ~
. + . . . . . . . . . . . + +








concerned mainly with the analysis of land-use patterns and

change.
Based on the selected literature reviewed in developing

the methodology for the present study, the following gner-

alizations can be mades

1. Most of the earlier studies are characteristically

descriptive in nature. Smith, Salter, Wehvein,

Andrews, and Arpke contributed valuable thought in

the general understanding of the urban fringe con-

cept. In the study of the Orlando urban fringe

their research was useful as the theoretical founda-

tion and for the general understanding of this prob-

lem.

2. In later years, the research of Myers and Beegle,

Rodehaver, Martin, Blizzard, and Anderson was con-

cerned mainly with a more precise delineation of

urban fringe boundaries, In these studies, the

fringe concept was variously defined and different

criteria were used in determining urban fringe

areas. Again these studies were helpful in develop-

ing a method for delineating the urban fringe of

Orlando, Florida.

3. In spite of the considerable attention given to ur-

ban fringe studies by researchers from various dis-

ciplines, only a few concrete works concerning the

land-use problems of the urban fringe were found in

the literature. Several related questions have
... ++ + +,+ ++ + +++ + ++ ++ ++ ++ ++ + + +++ + ++ ++++ + + ++ ++ ++ ++ ++ + + + + ++ + ++ +
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++ :+ +++



i: ~ ~~~~~~~~~ % .:., :ii "%i' !;" Nqi :
+ i







already been touched upon, but more specific st dies

of and-use patterns, changes in land use, and re-

sulting problems in urban fringe areas are needed.

4. The physical characteristice of the urban fringe,

the pattern of land ownership, the network of trans-
portation, the location of major industries, the

uses of land prior to urbanization, and numerous

other conditions shape the growth of a city.

A thorough description and analysis of the existing

land-use characteristics of the urban fringe and the evalua-

tion of the possibilities for future changes in land use are

among the major objectives of this study.

Delineation of the Orlando Urban Fringe

The proposed method of delineating the urban fringe of

Orlando employs two main principlest (1) the use of the sur-

vey township section of 640 acres as a "unit" for boundary

delineation purposes, and (2) the consideration of intensity

of urban land use or subdivided land as the basic criterion

for determining the urban fringe. Figure 2 presents the ur-

ban fringe of Orlando as delineated in this study.

This study goes beyond a description and analysis of

the distribution of the features of the urban fringe. Under-
standing of the geographical qualities of urban fringe pat-

terns and problems is needed for a satisfactory approach to

more orderly urban growth. Therefore, for an effective anal-

ysis of the changes occurring in land use and for a better

understanding of differences in the peripheral growth around
C
I8""] 'ii-"IP: "i'~BI






30

Figure 2


72P W-- URBAN FRINGE OF ORLANDO, FLORIDA














x o-- o-1 -
30 29 28
Tl MAITLAND

3. pEATONVILLE


6 4 WINTER PARK

12 7 6 8 9 II 12


i 13 1B 17 16 -16 15 3













250 12 7 8e 2 2
34 31





Cla -( e 50 ) Edeae D







0 I 2 7 8l
D. MOOKHE \ RJ 1 59I


S20 21 2 2 (% 3 19


30 26 \1 0 29


S34 35 f








--- -M KHt EE 1961







Orlando, an easily defined and well understood unit for
fringe delineation is needed. Using the survey township as

a unit such as employed in some other studies of the urban
fringe was found to be too large in the Orlando urban fringe*

A study of aerial photographs revealed that the city of Or-
lando and the adjacent urban fringe are confined mostly to

only four townships. The census tract or the census enumera-
":','i o: '13 i i|''^-'t {i 5 ': i"j Vifii ic il










tion district was also considered as a possible unit for de-

lineation purposes. However, these are not of equal size
and have diftering shapes. Some of the census tracts do not

follow the city boundary, which is a serious deterrant to

using these in defining the urban fringe. Sometimes these
tracts extend well within the city proper or they extend so
far out from the city limits that the outlying areas are al-
most completely rural in character. Therefore, the best
available unit, the survey township section of 640 acres, was

considered as a dependable delineatable unit of nearly uni-
form size and shape. Moreover, in the case of the Orlando
urban fringe, it was advantageous to gather data and informa-

tion from the variods documentary sources by survey township
sections.

The intensity of urban land use as indicated by the sub-
division of the land and by the extent to which such subdi-

Visions are built up was chosen as the major criterion for
selecting the urban fringe area rather than such criteria as

the density of population or the character of local govern-

ment. The physical growth of the city involves the extension







of the built-up area in the area peripheral to the city.

But the phenomena of expanding the city libita s the last

phase of a series of developments that &our within the

per ipheral area. The subdivision of land and the extenon

of the built-up area are cons idered an important indicator

of urbanization. This subdivision of land also constitutes

the areal framework within which the physical expansion of a

city occurs. Thus the nature of the area into which urbani-

zation is spreading, the pattern of subdivision, the inter-

mixture of rural and urban uses, and the changing pattern of

land use are significant expressions of areal differences

calling for geographical investigation and research.

In delineating the urban fringe of Orlando a base map

covering an area of 225 square miles was prepared to the

scale of two inches to one mile. It was found through an

initial examination of aerial photographs and through field

reconnaissance that the urban fringe did not extend beyond

this area.

Major highways, roads, lakes, and other significant

features were plotted on this base map. The corporate bound-

aries of Orlando, Winter Park, Eatonville, and Maitland were

also located. Then, the survey township section lines were

drawn, and the platted subdivisions outside the corporate

boundaries of the incorporated places for each section were

located on the base map.1


IInformation about section lines and subdivisions was
compiled from the county tax assessor's office in the Orange
County courthouse. Other information was gathered from
various private and governmental sources.
a~2







The next step was to prepare a map of land use for 1960.

Field reconnaissance and aerial photograph taken in 1958

were employed in doing this. Eight categories of land use,

which are to be described in detail in a subequent chapter,

were considered significant in the Orlando areaz Urban Land

(U), Citrus Groves (g), Cropland (Cr), Pastureland (P),
Rangeland R), Wodlan (), Idl (I), a

These land uses were mapped and marked by the letter synbols

as used in the parentheses. Built-up lands were brought up-

to-date by examining the field-maps used for surveys of in-

dividual houses in the county tax assessor's office. This

land-use map was reduced to a scale of two miles to one inch

and then superimposed on the base m~ap. In addition to the

eight categories of land use, this map thus showe4 major

highways, lakes, boundaries of incorporated places, and sur-

vey township section lines.

The corporate boundary of Orlando was taken as the inner

boundary of the urban fringe area. Since nearly homogeneous

urban land use prevailed within the city of Orlando, it was

decided that the corporate boundary was a realistic inner

boundary of the urban fringe area.

Next, an appropriate index for built-up areas or sub-
divided lands to be included within the urban fringe had to

be determined. After a careful study of aerial photographs

and after field survey, it was decided that each survey town-

ship section having 25 per cent or more built-up area or sub-

divided land should be considered as a part of the urban
Ldi








fringe area. Accordingly, all sections around Orlando city

but within Orange County which met this criterion were de-

li neated as the urban fringe area of Orlando

The major concern of this study is to interpret the

land-use pattern and land-use changes of this urban fringe

of Orlando as delineated on the basis of peripheral survey

township sections having 25 per cent or more of the total

land area in urban land uses or ih a subdivided category.






























Urban fringe in Seminole County was not considered in
this study, since this fringe is primarily adjacent to
Winter Park rather than to Orlando. Two survey sections did
not meet the stated criterion but still were included within
the urban fringe in order to have a contiguous area of study.
I = i =I 1:. ==
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ii ii iiilii~ii iiiii~iliii iii lilii7i iiiiiiliill iiiiiiiilililiililiiil Iiiii~ iiiiiiii i i i~ iiiiiii i iii iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii~iiiiii iii iiiiii~ iiiiiiiliiii i ii 7J i i iiiiiii iiiiliiii iiii iii i iiiiiiiiiiii~ liiiiliiiiiiiiiiiii~ i li i iiii ii ; ii iiiii i iiiiiiii i ii :iii iiii













CHAPTER III

THE PRESEN CHARACTERISTICS OF THE

ORLANDO URBAN FRINGE

The Physical haracter istics

Topography and drainage

The city of Orlando and its ban fringe area are lo-

cated in the north-central part of Orange County. Physio-

graphically, this part of the county may be divided into two

distinct areas. In terms of agricultural and urban develop-

ment the most significant of these two areas is the western

area. It includes the city of Orlando and lies to the west

of, and above the 100-foot contour line. This part of the

urban fringe is a part of a slightly elevated upland region

known as Orlando Ridge which extends southward from Alachua

County across the eastern parts of Marion and Lake counties

into Orange County.1 Orlando Ridge is included within the
Central Highlands as defined by Cooke.2 The area lying to

the east of the city of Orlando and extending nearly to the

Little Econlockhatchee River is largely a transition area


'William A. White, Some Geomorphic Features of Central
Peninsular Florida, Geological Bulletin No. 41, Florida Geo-
logical Survey (1958), p. 10.

2Wythe C. Cooke, Geology of Florida, Geological Bul-
letin No. 29, Florida Geological Survey (1945), p. 8.

35







between the central highlands to the west and coastal low-

lands to the east.
In the western area, the upland surface ranges in alti-

tude from 80 to 140 feet above sea level. The local relief

varies about 10 feet in most parts of the area. The surface

of this upland is mostly rolling with relatively steep elon-

gated ridges runnig in noth-sout dir i i
west part of the area. This part of the upland area is also
characterized by closed depressions, uany of which contain

lakes of varioaus sizes and forms. Large lakes such as

Little Lake Conway, Jessamine, Holden, Catherine, and Turkey

lakes in the southern part of the area and Mann, Lowne,

Wekiwa, and Fairview lakes in the northern part of the area

are more or less elongated in form. Small somewhat cirlar

lakes dot almost every survey section of the highland. The

smaller lakes, some of which are only a few acres in extent,

have no visible outlets but are merely depressions extending

below the ground water level. However, they can hardly be

called stagnant, for the water undoubtedly is constantly

seeping through the sandy soils in the direction of the near-
est rivers. These lakes appear to have originated as a re-

sult of local subsidence of underlying formations consequent

to the collapse of caverns and solution channels in the sub-
stratal marl and limestones.1

1A. G. Unklesby, Ground Water Conditions in Orlando and
Vicinity, Florida, Prepared by the Geological Survey, U.S.
Department of Interior in cooperation with the Florida Geo-
logical Survey and the Corps of Engineers, U.S. Army (1944),







There are very few surface streams in the upland area

for most of the rainfall sinks almost mediately into the

deep sands. Surface drainage mostly accumulates in the
lakes or in channels and forms creeks. Shingle and Boggy

re es are to su ao rees i flow
Osceola County. A number of intermittent streams are found

in the north around the Lawne, Mann, Clear, and Turkey lake

area. In the south, tracts of the urban fringe area have

been reclaimed by constructing drainage canals and ditches.

Some of this drainage was constructed prior to subdivision

and was installed primarily for agricultural improvement;

but some drainage has been carried out in connection with

subdivisions.

The second physiographic area, which is a transition

area lying east of the city of Orlando and extending nearly

to Little Econlockhatchee River, is characterized by a

series of northwest-trending elongated ridges and intervening

elongated low areas. Altitude ranges from 50 to 90 feet

above sea level. This area has only a few lakes, most of

which are in the north. Because of the nearly levela to very

gently rolling topography in the southern part of the area,

natural drainage is imperfect over extensive areas. As a

result, waterlogged swamps and marshes are the prominent

feature in this section of the fringe area. Most of the

areas are connected by intermittent and sluggish streams or

by wide, shallow sloughs. Shallow ponds of varying size

which may dry up completely in dry seasons, nearly always
j~~~B~B~~~I~~i/








have iiisome vegetation in them. In the areas around Pine Castl

Air Force Base drainage ditches have been~constructed con-

necting Lake Warren and the Boggy Creek swamp area.
The influence of topography and drainage on the land use
in the urban fringe of Orlando is pronounced. High and well

drained lands in the north, west, and south are the best

citrus lands. On the gentle slopes of land around lakes,

due to air drainage, citrus cultivation is more heavily con-

centrated. Today, however, the land-use pattern within the

fringe area is changing. The citrus land are considered to

be among the best residential sites because of their higher

elevation and the presence of lakes. The low-lying water-

logged swamps and marshes do not offer such favorable sites

for urban development. These low-lying lands, which occupy

considerable area to the east of Orlando, are not suitable

for agricultural production either unless considerable im-

provement in drainage and good management practices are un-

dertaken on these lands. However, the possibilities of

using such low-lying land for agriculture or urban develop-

ment have been enhanced in recent years by the increasing

availability of heavy earth-moving equipment and other tech-

nological advances necessary for economical drainage of such

areas.


Geologic structure

Geologically, Orange County, including Orlando and its

urban fringe area, is'located on the southeast slope of the

Ocala uplift. The dip of the Ocala limestone in this area
iiliiiiiiili; !; Iiil .... i ......... 1 i7 ilili' ,il!i;, i ii iiii i I'==!il li i" ii= i='iiliii i=='i iiiiiiliiii m ii =iiiiili = I==I "ii il=' i i = i == = ii i iiiiF = = ii '! i! ii ii =! i i =i= I ili !I iii iilili :ii














of Miocene age, and undierentiated Pleistocene and eent

materialp.1 The Ocala foration consists of almost pure



area. Well drilling records indicate that the top of the

Ocala limestone ranges from 100 to 150 t beneath the sur-

face. The Ocala formation ist chief source of water for

the area becauseit is predominantly porous limestone and

contains solution channels which permit the free circulation

of ground water.

The Ocala limestone is overlain by the Hawthorn formatio

which consists of clay, sand, and marl (Table 2). Irregularl

interspersed at infrequent intervals, coarse conglomerate

limestone made up of quartz sand or phosphatic pebbles may

be found in the Hawthorn formation. All of these materials

with the proper control of moisture and compaction are con-

sidered to be suitable for the construction of roadway em-

bankments. In order to provide effective protection against

erosion resulting from torrential rains occurring in this

area, proper planting and adequate fertilization of deep-

rooted vegetation are needed to provide protection for such

materials when they are used for road building purposes.2


IV. T. Stringfield, Ground Water Investigations in
Florida, Florida State Geological Survey, Bulletin No. 11
(1933), p. 18.
S State Road Department of Florida Engineering Design
Report, Orlando-Winter Park Expressway (June, 1957), p. 6.
!iliiiiiiiiiiii1.. ..:. i. iiii...iii...i1..i:.ii!.;.. iip ,. "~i::.iiii!~1
i iiiiiiiiilii~iiiiliiiiiii
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Pi~iiiiiiii~~iiiiiidili iii]iiiiiiii
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TABLE 2

GEOLOGIC PORMATIONS PENETRATED BY WELLS IN ORANG C TY


AThickness .:c,+i
Age Formation (in feet) Characteristics


Recent and Pleistocene 0-100 Unconsolidated sand interbedded
with clay. Yields water to shallow
wells.

Upper Miocene Choctawhetchee 30- 40 Light to dark grey shell marl.

Lower Miocene Hawthorn 45-200 Interbedded mar, sandy phosphatic
conglomeratic limestone clay and
artesian pressure.

Upper Eocene Ocala limestone 0- 20 White to cream, porous limestone.
Important artesian aquifer.
Middle Eocene Undifferentiated 200 White to cream, porous formaniferal






aA. G. Unklesby, Ground Water Conditions in Orlando and Vicinity, Florida, Prepared
by the Geological Survey, United States Department of Interior in cooperation with the
Florida Geological Survey and the Corps of Engineers, U.S. Army (1944), p. S.











at or near the surface.


tfringe area have influence upon the patterns of land use
especially in two major wayss


mations have caused differences in soils. The soils that
occur mostly on the high elevations of more than 100 feet
have formed mainly from sediments of sand and clay of Recent
and Pleistocene deposti. The low-lying areas, especially

the eastern part of the fringe area, consist of thin deposits


iantions in ,land us are associated with these difer nces in
soils.

2. The permeability of Ocala limestone allows free
circulation of water, and the solvent action of this under-
ground water has resulted in the formation of subterranean
cavities and channels. This Ocala formation is the chief
source of water of the city and its urban fringe area. Some
of the lakes which are found in the Orlando area are related
to this solution in the Ocala formation. Such lakes have
played an important role in the development of citrus groves
and later in the building of residences.



Three important factors--parent material, climate, and
the degree of drainage--have caused the principal differences
.' :i:?::l::~.l~~~~~ls8








among the soils of the uan fringe area of Orlando. the
western part of the urban fringe lies the Sunderland terrace,

which is the oldest exposed formation of the Pleistocene

epoch. It occurs mostly at an elevation of 100 feet above

present sea level. The soils of this upAnd area have been

formed mainly from the sediments of sands and clays contained


on terraces with elevations of 70 to 100 feet, younger for-

mations are distinguishable. The clays and marls of this

area are believed to be of the Caloosahatchee formation of

the Pliocene epoch. During recent times organic deposits of

varying thickness have formed from decomposed plant materials

in lakes and other low, wet areas. Most of the soils are

young and lack distinct horizon development with the excep-

tion of the Leon, Immokalee, and St. Johns soils. These

soils are considered to have humic B horizons.

The influence of climate on the soils is also consider-

able. The hot sumers and reilatively high annual rainfall

causes a great deal of leaching. As a result, the soils of

the urban fringe area for the most part are low in plant nu-

trients and are medium to strongly acid. The upper layers

of the soils are sandy in texture.

Based on the relief, drainage, reaction, and the kinds

of parent material from which these soils have formed, two
general groups of soils may be recognized within the fringe
? ,@



.... : ..











.....~ ." ".. .. .L . . "... ] " .








area e These two general soil groupa occur in two distinct

geographic ar e ach of which contains a number of doils.



highlands of the central, northern, and western part of the

urban fringe. These soils are smewhat excessively to moder-



lief at elevations of more than 100 eet. Most of the soils



seasons. With proper management these soils can be profit-

ably used for the production of citrus fruit and other sub-

tropical fruits, horticultural crops, truck crops, or for

improved pastures. DAring the past 15 years the major growth

of the city of Orlando and the expansion of the urban fringe

has occurred principally on these soils. This general group

of soils covers approximately 60 per cent of the land area

within the urban fringe.

The second group of soils consists mostly of the Leon,

Immokalee, Pomello, and St. Johns soils. These soils, mainly

in the eastern, southern, and southwestern parts of the urban

fringe area, are somewhat poorly drained, are strongly acid

to very strongly acid, and are formed from sandy materials

under the influence of a humid climate. The St. Johns and

Leon soils have an organic pan that begins between 14 and 30

inches beneath the surface. The organic pan in the

1U.S. Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Ser-
vice, in cooperation with the University of Florida Agricul-
tural Experiment Stations, Soil Survey, Orange County,
Florida, Series 1957, No. 5 (September, 1960), p. 1.
NC


at SIll)n


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iiiliii! ~: i:i~~:!~:p i!::.,.: i.. iiliiliiiiiiiiii~~iiiiliililiiiiiiiii Nu: iiiiiiilii~iii:iii;iii :1iiii1: 1 I::.i :: iiiiIil=ii iiiiiiili iiiiiiiii i i llW~I~~ I~ ~I
!i i i!!!!i ii 11! i i!!iii!liii iiiii iiiiiiiili!iii iliiiiiiiiiiiii liiiii iii iil iii! i i li ii l l i i i l ii ili i! 8 iil iiiil! i !l~
iili!ii iiiiiiiiiiii iiii iiiiiiiiili liiiiiiiiii!ililiiiii iiiii ;iiilii iiliiiiiii iii i ! ili!i ii iiiii i ii iii )i i iiiiii:ii iiililiiiililiii iiii iiiii! iiiliiiiiii i iillllilliiiii iii:iliiiliiiiiiiiiiili i i < iiiiiiiiiiiliililiiii i i ii iiiiiii i iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii iii



ii ,,,, = = = = ; = == = = ` = =
i~iliiiiiliiiiiiii!ii~i~il iiiliiiI iiiiiiiiiiiiii iiiiiii!ii i iii i iii i iiiii i iiiiliii~ii ii1iiiiiiiii iiiiiiiiiiii iiiiiiiiiii ii iiii iii iii i iiii i iE iiiii i ii i i i









These soils are predominant mostly on the level to gently

undulating topography. Under natural conditions they are
suitable for unimproved range land and forests. Extensive


utplan and for improvedpasture .. With proper management, fair
yields of suitable field crops and citrus may be obtained on

these soils which occur in extensive areas in the eastern

part of the urban fringe area.

In the study of urban areas, the terms "soil," "il ::
type," "soil fertility," "Iphysiograph," "topography" and

surace" are widly entionedu their vaue as a factor

in the growth or develoment of urba areas is seldom' prop-
erly assessed. This is perhaps due to the fact that the

soil has become an accepted feature of the landscape and

perhaps is too commonly taken for granted. It is, therefore,

regarded by many as a sort of uniform platform upon which to

plan and build structures without assessing the proper qual-
ities of a soil for such purposes. Furthermore, the soils
and topography assume less importance with the increasing

use of heavy earth-moving machinery which can alter the nat-

ural landscape with great efficiency and ease. Thus, soil

as a factor in urban growth has had a low value placed upon

it and not much, if any, rational use of soils according to

their fundamental properties has been applied. However, good
soil surveys and proper land classification can make useful

contributions to the study and planning of urban growth and
development. Such soil surveys are most useful in
1I .j
j J;







identifying problems often0hidden from the eye.
Some of the properties'of soil which'are significant

from an engineering standpoint in the urban development of
an area ard the degree of natural drainage; depth to the wa-
te tablepe bilit suitability as a source of topsoil

shrink-swell potential; suitability for earthwork during

prolonged wet periodal and properties affecting irrigation
and the construction of dikes, excavated ponds, and drainage
systems for septic tanks. in the Orlando urban fringe the
most important engineering properties of soils in urban de-

velopment are condition of natural drainage, average depth
to water table, permeability, and suitability for establish-

ing drainage systems for septic tanks.

It is with this purpose in mind that the soil types

occurring in the urban fringe area of Orlando have been as-
semibled into 10 groups. These groups are based on mainly

the physical characteristics and engineering qualities of
the soils (Table 3). These groupings are soImewhat similar
to the management groups or capability units1 which show the
relative suitability of soils for agricultural use as well

as for urban development. The distribution of the soil
groups is presented in Figure 3 which is found in the pock-
et attached in the back of the dissertation.

Group 1. The very gently sloping low phase of the
Blanton and two phases of the Orlando are the principal
soils in this group. These soils occur on nearly level to

1 urve r unt. lorida cit., p. 32.
=H~ ~i ?::'ii', i: i ] ,: 1i=]ii i"I i :: i"A ~ i;) 1 i'!: I i':: iL I + i= ..= = : = ,= = = .. ....
i![" /1] iLi l ,[ : : "",:li :: ='ii::=i: B:= =ly= =:]ii!ii==i i== =l







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so ; n ti e ( 0,: ;;ia;iiii I N i~ili








TABLE 3

PSYSICAL AND EUI. ERING CHRACTERISTICS OF SOILS GRUP)D ACCORDING
TO THEIR SUITABILIT : OR URBAN DEVELO PME


Suitability
for Estab- Per-
Average lishing cent-
soil Soil Types Natural Depth to Permea- urainage Acre- age
Group Included Drainage Water Table bility systems for age of
septic total
Tanks


1 Bd Blanton fine Moderately 4- 6 ft. Rapid Shallow 2,088 8.9
san, very good ater,
gently slop- table,


sand, level deep wa-
phase ter table
(rated
good)
Oc Orlando fine Good 6-10 ft. Deep or
sand, very very deep
gently slop- water ta-
ing phase ble (ra-
ted good)

2 Be Blanton fine Good to 8-12 ft. Rapid Deep water 575 2.5
sand, gen- soimewhat table
tly sloping excessive (rated
high phase good)






LC Lakeland fine Somewhat below 10 ft. Rapid Very deep
sand, gen- excessive water
tly sloping table
phase (rated
good)

3 Ba Blanton fine Good to 8-12 ft. Rapid Deep water 4,502 19.2
sand, level somewhat table
high phase excessive (rated
good)
Be Blantoa fine Good to 8-12 ft. Rapid Deep water
sand, very somewhat table
gently slop- excessive (rated
ing high good)
phase
La Lakeland fine Somewhat below 10 ft. Rapid Very deep
sand, level excessive water
phase table
(rated
good)
Lb Lakeland fine somewIat below 10 ft. Rapid Very deep
sand, very excessive water
gently slop- table
ing phase (rated
good)

4 Oa Ona fine sand Somewhat 3- 5 ft. Rapid Shallow wa- 1,391 6.0
poor ter table
(rated
poor)
Sc Scranton fine Somewhat 4- 6 ft. Rapid Shallow wa-
sand poor ter table
(rated
fair)







TARBLE 3--Continued


Suitability
for Estab- Per-
Average lishing cent-
Soil Soil Types Natural Depth to Permesa- Drainage Acre- age
Group Included Drainage Water Table biliy Systems for age
Septic Total
Tanks


5 Pc Pomello fine Fair 6-10 ft. Rapid Somewhat 1,880 8.0
sBad shallow
water
table
(rated
fair)




Lf Leon fine sand Somewhat 3- 5 ft. Rapid Shallow wa-
poor ter table
(rated
poor)

7 Sa St. Johns fine Somewhat 2- 3 ft. Rapid Shallow wa- 165 .7
sand poor ter table
(rated
poor
.~~~= *i= -! ii"** 'j !* r i* ;*** .





a P1 Plummer fine Poor 1- 2 ft. Rapid Very shal- 1,241 5.3
sand low water
table
(rated
very
poor)

9 Ra Rutlege. fine Poor to 1- 2 ft. Rapid Very aba1- 2,635 11.3
sand very poor low water
table
(rated
very
poor)
Rc Rutlege mucky Poor to
fine sand very poor 0- 1 ft. Rapid Very shal-
low water
table
(rated
very
poor

10 Bi Brightoni mucky Very poor 0- 1 ft. Moderate Very shal- 558 2.4
peat, deep to low water
phase rapid table
(rated
very
poor)
Pa Pamlico muck Very poor 0- 1 ft. Moderate Very shal-
to low water
rapid table
(rated
very .JP
poor)

aPart ad on roil survey oran county. lorida 1960 46.







very gently sloping areas and have good to moderatelygood

drainage. They occur mostly in thenorth-central and north-

eastern parts of the fringe area and ocaupy about 8 per cent

of the total acreage of soils mapped within the urban fringe








for drainage systems for septic tanks.




above the permanent water table. The natural drainage is

good to somewhat excessive and thesesoils are rated "good*
for septic tank installation. In the northwestern part of
the urban fringe these soils are found in small patches and

cover only 2.5 per cent of the total soil area studied.

Group 3. Soils of this group include the level high
phase and the very gently sloping high phase of Blanton fine
sand and the level phase and very gently sloping high phase
of Lakeland fine sand. These soils occur on nearly level to

very gently sloping deep sands through which water moves
rapidly. These soils occupy 19 per cent of the soil area and
are widely distributed on the gently slopes of the ridges in

the western part of the urban fringe area. They are highly

leached, low in organic matter, and are of limited

1Twenty-three thousand, three hundred ninety-six acres,
Which is approximately 53 per cent of the total urban fringe
area that has been mapped.








agricultural value. These soils, however, are rated "good"

for septic tanks due to their 8-12 foot depth to the water

table.

Group 4. Ona and Scranton fine sands are the soils in



studied. They occur in small patches along lakes, swamps,

and other low-lying areas, mst of which are widely scattered

throughout the eastern and southern parts of the fringe area.

Surface run-off is slow, but these soils have a rapid perme-

ability. These soils are productive and are excellent for

improved pasture but due to the shallow water table, drain-

age systems for septic tanks are rated "poor to i

Group 5. Pomello fine sand, which is the only soil

type within this group, occupies about 8 per cent of the



along low marshy areas, which have a fluctuating water table

within the root zone of most plants. These are strongly

acid soils and are leached of most plant nutrients. They

have been rated "fair" for drainage systems for septic tanks

due to the somewhat shallow water tables.

Group 6. This group consists of Immokalee and Leon

fine sands which are widely distributed throughout the fringe

area of which they occupy over 35 per cent. These soils oc-

cur on nearly level, moderately wet areas and have organic

pans within 42 inches of the surface. These soils are low

in fertility but are well suited to good quality improved

Pastures. They have shallow water tables and are rated

"Poor" for septic tank drainage.
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jil;B@

iii iiil!!i ililiiiiili ii~ii~iiiiilii!iiilliiiii~ii~il liiliiii!iliiiiliiiiiiiliiilii iii i ;
.;: ;A;
ii i! i !!i~i iii i i i!i~iiiliilii~illiiiii iliiiiilliliilii iili iii~iiiiiliiiiiiiiii ilil i~iiiliiiliii!ii iiii iilii ii iiiilliiilii i iiii iiii~liiiiliiliii iiil iiii~iiiiiiiiiii i~ iiii~ iiiii iilliiii iiliiililiilliiiiliiiliii il iiiiilili il iiiiiilii ii liiiiiiilii ililii i~ liliiiiii iiiiiiiiiiiilii iiii iiliiillii

ii iii!!iiiii i!i~~iii~iiii!!ii~~ii lii ili iiiii ii li i







Group 7. St. Johns fine sand in the only soil in this

group a occupies les than one per cent of th soil area.
This soil occurs on level topography, is strongly aci to




septic tanks.


areas of the flatwoods. They are andy, moderately to

strongly acidand ae usually quite et. They occupy almost


the southern part of the urban fringe area. These soils are

low in oranii matter and ii nur

Group 9. Fine sands and mucky fine sands of the Rut-
lege soil series are included in this group. They have

formed from acid sands and occur in all parts of the fringe

areas predominately in low-lying areas and depressions. The

water table is very high in these soils.

Group 10. Pamlico muck and Brighton mucky peat occur

on nearly level areas, re very wet, and are strongly acid

to neutral in reaction. They have very shallow water tables

and are rated "poor" for drainage systems for septic tanks.


cultivated crops.

kimate

The climate of Orlando is an asset, particularly the

Pleasantly mild sunny winters, which attract many tourists
from northern states every year. In Orlando the winters are
** '* * ' : ''







short and mild. There is relatively little precipitation

during this season, the average for the winter moths being

only about s inches. At only a few times dr the yea




temperatures are infrequentl and whe these occur, they gen-

rally are of short duration. Snow is, of course, practi-
cally unknown. The average temperatureor the three wier

months is 630F. Summers are long, warm, and humid. The

average temperature for the sumer months is 820F. Thunder-

showerI which ccur almost every afternoon prevent the ti

perature from becoming excessively high. The average pre-

cipitation for the three summer months is 22 inches.

The general climatic characteristics for the Orlando

area as recorded at the Municipal Airport weather station

are presented in Table 4. The airport is centrally located

in the urban fringe area. There are, of course, some local

differences in temperatures that are significant to citrus

and vegetable production. Climatic characteristics within

the urban fringe which are especially significant for the
agricultural and urban settlement of the area include the

following:

1. An average frost-free period of 314 days extending

from February 3 to December 14, which permits agri-

cultural activity nearly all year.
2. Fall and winter temperatures are sufficiently high

to permit many kinds of vegetables to be grown,
N~l"";~"!e 11II2!:I
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iiiliiiiiiliii~iiliii~iiiiiliii ~ iliiiiii ii iii iii iii iiiii ...................................................













TABLE 4

EMPEATURE AND PECIPTATI AT ORLANDO MUNICIPAL AIRPOT, ORAE COUNTY, FLORIDA
(Elevation, 106 feet)


Temperaturea Precipitatiob

Absolute Absolute Driest Year Wettest Year Average
Month Average Maxm Minm Average (1927) (1905) Snowfall

OF. OF. oF. Inches Inches Inches Inches


December 62.7 87 24 2.09 1.29 8.43 0
January 61.9 87 26 2.05 .11 .41 C
February 63.2 89 28 2.05 1.71 2.12 0

Winter 62.6 89 24 6.19 3.11 10.96 c

March 66.7 92 31 3.26 2.30 5.13 0
April 71.6 96 39 2.96 .62 1.71 0
May 76.5 102 49 4.02 .47 8.12 0

Spring 71.6 102 31 10.24 3.39 14.96 0






June 80.8 100 60 7.85 3.84 8.13 0
July 82.1 99 66 7.70 9.03 6.15 0
August 82.4 99 64 6.87 5.71 1713 0

Sumner 81.8 100 60 22.42 18.58 31.41 0

September 80.7 97 56 7.15 4.13 13.11 0
October 74.7 94 43 3.91 3.89 3.4 0
November 66.8 89 29 1.32 .74 .33 0

Fall 74.1 97 29 12.38 8.76 16.86 0

Year 72.5 102 24 51.23 33.84 74.19 c

Source: Soil Survey, Orange County, Florida, 1960, p. 57.

aAverage temperature based on a 64-year record, through 1955; highest and lowest
temperatures based on a 16-year record, through 1958.

bAverage precipitation based on a 64-year record, through 1955; wettest and driest
years based on a 59-year record, in the period 1400-19581 snowall based on a 16-year
record, through 1958.

~race.
+ ii'A








although tender vegetables and fruits ay be da

aged by frosts that are likely to occur about evey

other year.




air drainage and the presence or absence of nearby

water bodies. At times his cold air, which set-


the citrus trees and other crops.

4. The rainy season lasts for about four months ocr-


60 per cent of the precipitation falls during this

period. The average annual prcipitation is about
51 inches. The rainfall is comparatively light

during winter and in early spring. The relatively

high annual rainfall, although it is favorable for

the growth of many plants, has leached many of the

plant nutrients from the soil. As a result, many

of the sandy soils have become moderately to very

strongly acid in reaction.

5. Sometimes torrential rainfall plays a very signifi-

cant role in the Orlando area. For example, in

July, 1960, an abnormally high amount of rainfall

damaged many homes and caused serious trouble to

life and property in Orlando and the urban fringe

area. Approximately 20 inches of rain fell during















Pop oJuly; and during themonths of aanuary to Jy i-
sive, there was 49.79 inches of rain. N a
annual precipitation is 51.23 inches. The record

% W e is 67.47 inches for 1947.O
i h. oiuly trainfall was 11.87 ind 'heabove norma for:

July and a record for the local station which has been keep
ing measurements since 1943. A 19. 10-nih rain was reported

in Oatpber of 1915, and a high record of 15.87 indhes for
Septeber, 1945. This high amount of rainfall in short pe-
riods causes a rise in lake level and flooding in many areas

within the city and rlan fringe arebas.




ing, horticultural enterprises, and dairy farming on favor-
ably situated sites. t in recent years with the increas-


ing population, urban uses tend to take over and push out
the agricultural uses of land. Losa of acreage of different
in detail in Chapter 4.





with only 75 people; today it is a city of 88.135. Many of









Castle and Conway Areas before Orlando was more than a name

and a trading post. Orlando became the county eat in 1856.1

The early settlers were mainly of two types. There was an


army officers. This group came to Florida primarily because

of the csmate and in some cases because of their limited






supported by remittance from home and, therefore, were known

as "remittance men" the early days of the 1880's.2

considerable number of laborers also came along with these

groups of people. The early pioneers did not come and set-

t1e for any great economic attraction. With the advent of a

railroad from Sanford to Orlando in 1880 and with its exten-

sion southwestward to Tampa in 1884, Orlando received its

first impetus for growth. Many people came and settled in

Orlando and in the adjacent countryside which is now the

present urban fringe of that city. Cheap agricultural lands,

young orange groves, timber resources, and sawmilling were
the primary attractions for the settlers. But the big freeze

Of 1894-95 caused a major setback in the early prosperity of
Orange County.

1E. H. Glore, From Florida Sand to the City Beautiful
(n.p. 1948), p. 58.










2L. B. Robinson, "Living in Florida," Rome and Farm
(Louisville, Kentucky, 1884), 74.







The first important growth in Orange county came during

the boom of 1920-1930, when the population increased frma

19,890 in 1920, to 49,737 in 1930. This was an increase of

150 per 'cent. During the same period, the population of or-

lando increased from 9,282 to 27,330. This high rate of






In the ceeding decades, however, t he rate of popula-

tion growth in the county area outside of Orlando exceeded

that within the city despite the corporate expansion of or-

lando through annexation at dierent times (Table 5) The

1960 population of the county was more than 129 per cent

more than that of 1950. During the same period, Orlando had

an increase of only 70 per cent. The accelerated rate of

growth of the county outside of Orlando which exceeded that

of the city area is of course one indication of the urbani-

zation occurring in the urban fringe adjacent to but outside

the city of Orlando.

Table 5 presents the interesting picture of population

growth in the urban fringae in comparAison to that occurriing

in Orlando city. The rate of population increase has not

been uniform in the various parts of the county outside Or-

lando city. Other incorporated places have had increases of

23, 58, and 100 per cent for successive decades between 1940

and 1960. The increase in population of the unincorporated

and incorporated area surrounding Orlando as a result of sub-

urban expansion and associated with the growth of that city
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POPULATION PATTERNS OF ORANGE COUNTY, 1930 to 1960a







orange County

Number of persons 49,737 70,074 114,950 263,540



Percentage increase 40.0 64.2 129.1


Orlando City

Number of persons 27,330 36,736 52,367 88,135

of persons 2,406 15,631 35,768

Percentage increase 34.4 41.8 67.9


Other Incorporated Areasb

Number of persons 9,711 11,946 18,681 37,653
Increase in number
of persons 2,235 7,000 18,707

Percentage increase 23.0 58.5 100.5


Unincorporated Areas

Number of persons 12,696 21,392 43,893 137,752
Increase in number
of persons 8,696 22,501 93,859

Percentage increase 68.5 105.0 213.5

aBureau of the Census, United States Census of Popula-
tion, Florida, 1950 and 1960.
bncluded are Apopka, Belle Is, Bithlo, Etonville,
Edgewood, Maitland, Oakland, Ocoee, Windermere, Winter Gar-
den, and Winter Park City.
$ iE ~ sd,, S a s{ s5sS s s ::sq:8lS :si d
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is not'iorthi. In al thee decades this area s nin
Orlando has had more rapid growth than Orlando itsel (ble

5). g te p t d e ts cn h b




around Orlando. While the incorporated area was increasing

by 23 per cent from 1930 to 1940, the unincorporated area

around Orlando was growing by 68 per cent during the same

period. During the past two decades the unincorporated

areas increased more than twice as fast as the incorporated

areas in the vicinity of Orlando. The growth of the unin-

corporated area is, of course, strongly influenced by the

outward spread of the city of Orlando and these unincorpo-

rated areas lie largely within the urban fringe. An eti-

mate of the population within the urban fringe was made by

using an indirect approach since population data was not

available for asrvey township sections used as a unit in

this study.1 This estimate indicates that in 1960 approxi-

mately 85,000 people or about 62 per cent of the population

of Orange County outside of Orlando was nucleated within the

urban fringe area of Orlando city as defined for purposes of

this study. Another 8 per cent of the population of Orange

County outside of Orlando is found in the nearby incorporated

places of Winter Park, Maitland, and Ratonville, which have

not been included in the urban fringe of Orlando for


Population estimation was derived from the number of
dwelling units multiplied by 3.5. The average number of oc-
cupants in dwelling units as recorded in census tract data
in 1960 within the urban fringe for this study was 3.5.
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purposes of this study. However, due to the lack of precise
data it was not possible to compare thi figure with tei

population of the urban fringe for preceding years. Thus,

today the population of the urban fringe of Orlando is ap-

proximately one-third of the total population of the county


fringe is of considerable significance in the understanding


discussed in the succeeding chapter. Here again, due to

lack of data it is not possible to compare the density for

the past years. The present distribution of population is

governed especially by two important factors: (1) accessi-

bility to places of employment and shopping centers, and

(2) nature of the land. Bigh land lying near the city of

Orlando attracts population. Most points within the fringe

area are located within a twenty-minute drive of all other

points. The density varies widely. F'or example, to the

south of Orlando in the urban fringe, in sections 5, 6, 7,
and 8 of Township 23 south, Range 30 east, the density is

very high with 2,400 persons per square mile of total area.

The land in these sections is high and generally well-drained,

and a relatively high proportion of it offers lake frontage

for residences. These sections are also located between two
:i r< il^D






































major highways--State Highway 15 on the east and State High-
way 527 on the west. School facilities are good and well-

located. These areas lying close to the central city have
all of the benefits of nearby downtown shopping and other
advantages of the central city. The fact that this area was
: ~ B rlynn an Np .... .... .... .... ... .... ... .. .. .... ... . .......... .. .. .... ... ....... N :









i";r,~;:ii il'~"~"~ ~ 8~~:~Pp



iii:i~ eiiiiiU i'ii i'iilii Ni!ii iiii~ ]iiiiiiiiiiiiiii
iiiiiiiiiiiiiii iiii~il iiliii~iiiiiiiii~ iiiiiiiiiO0 O iiiiiii~ iii 00 ii:
iiiiii Iiii iiiiiiiii iiiii~ii ii iii iiiiii~ii~ii i~!!ii iii i 'iiiiil iiiiiiiiili!iiiiii liiiiiiiiiiiiilii i iii i~~iii i i i i ii! iii iiiiIiiiii~ iiiiii ii iiiii iiil~iiiiA 17 11111ii i =iliiiiiiiiliiii; iiiiiii ii i i iiii ii i ii~ =;iii iii = i! iiiii i iiiiii iii i~ i iiiiii i i =iii ;







the early site for the pioneer settlement in the Orlando
area is another explanation of the higher density in this
part of the urban fringe. In contrast to this situation,




Range 29 east, have low densities compared to those just




these low denaities la the high proportion of lowlying land
i .. .......... ...iteiiiiiian E iiii:ii ^ iiit l 'lpl
and the poor drainage conditions in this part of the urban
fringe which have not offered as favorable building stes as
the other area.
The region lying west of Lowne Lake which is bounded by
Lake Breeze Road on the north, Hiawassa on the wesat, and
State Highway 526 on the south has a population of over
14,000. This area is often referred to as the Pine Hills
development. This is a very rapidly growing area and has a
population density of approximately 2,000 persons per square
mile. The Pine Hills area as referred to here consists of
sections 7, 18, 19, and 30 of Township 22 south, Range 29
east; sections 13, 24, 25 of Township 22 south, Range 28
east. There are several major attractions for the popula-
tion concentration in this area. The physical characteris-
tics of the land, which is rolling and dry, is one advantage.
The transportation system is excellent. Colonial Drive and
Silver Star Road are oriented in an east-west direction,
while the Hiawassa road and the Pine Hills road cut the area
in a north-south direction and give good access to the
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"i"?~ !sl~i~~l~







martin Plant the south. The Prsence Of many all lakes,

, < iT i"iiillil ,ii although out of the sections as mentioned above, aeant as an

Sadditional attraction fr this community.

The Azalea Park area on the east side of Orlando is an

excellent iexample of a planned com nity-type deavelopment

which has been built in recent years. Although considerable

parts of this development have been annexed to the city in

recent years, sections 21, 22, 27, and 35 of Township 22

south, Range 30 east, in this-part of the urban fringe of

Orlando has a fairly high density of population of more than

1,600 persons per square mile. State Highway 50 to the

north and 15-A on the west are the major transportation ar-

teries for this area. Lying very close to downtown Orlando,

this area has all the facilities of shopping and other bene-

fits within the city.

North of Orlando and west of Winter Park, especially in

the region approximately bounded by Orlando Avenue on the

east, Lee road on the north, Edgewater Drive on the west in

sections 1, 2, 3, 10, 11, and 12 of Township 22 south, Range

29 east, is one of the most densely populated areas of the

urban fringe of Orlando. These sections have more than
2,500 persons per square mile. Excellent transportation

facilities, large areas of lakes for recreational purposes,

good school facilities, and proximity to downtown Orlando
are major causes of the heavy population ancentration in

this region. The sections lying further north, along Orange

Blossom Trail and Edgewater Drive on the west and southwest

and the Forrest City Road on the east, are also very well







populated. This area is approximately our are mile
extent and has a total population of 3,000, hich averages

about 750 people per square mile.



" i lel ,hV .::P> ii'i i
In the southern part of the urban fringe area of Orlando

lies the Pine Castle area which is servedby two main paral-
lel highw ys, U.S. Highway 441 and State Highway 527. Pres-






ence of lakes like 1es m4, Tyler, Bady, Gutlin, 2a y,






and many other smalllakes, gives this area may good water
ront sites for residences. P.rthermore, the c ercial







a heavy concentration of population to by phylocated near to
such facilities. The Pine Castle region as described here










dconsists of sections 13 ad te p ol ans, ,of Township 23
south, Range 29 east, and has more than 1,200 persons per









very important attractions to the residential population

within this urban fringe. Development of highways and roads
is important also in explaining the spread of population.
Location of major industrial and other employers of large
numbers of workers has also played a substantial role in
directing settlement of the urban fringe.









i Th eionmic basei
The economic base of any urban area such as Orlando is

generally made up of many intricately related components.

This economic base is not static but is dynamic and changes


urban center is so intimately related to and influended by

the resources and development of the surrounding region that
it is not possible to discuss adequately the urban econ

without reference to the whole region. The economy of Or-

lando and its urban fringe must be discussed within such a

framework. Most of the people of Orlando and of the urban

fringe are currently employed in some way. Relatively few

living in Orlando and its urban fringe are cmpletely re-

tired. Therefore, an attempt is made here to discuss in a

general way the economic conditions which are responsible

for the present development of the urban fringe area of

Orlando.

The early settlement and economic development of the Or-

lando area bears little resemblance to the present pattern

of economic activities. Th4 very early settlers of Orlando

came mainly for the sake of health. They did not find any

great economic attraction in the vicinity. But soon Orlando

developed an agricultural base related chiefly to citrus
crops, small truck-farms, beef cattle ranching, and dairying.

A few sawmills also employed some people. Cheap land was an

important attraction for the early settlers. The decade
from 1915 to 1925 was a period of intensive economic growth

and new land development throughout the entire central part
. ..l. . .. . . .i i i i i i
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of F1orida but more particularly in orange County near the
city of Orlano iiing ti piri C h
population increasei of more than 150 per cent and the broad
economic base was laid for the economic developments and

achievements of the present period. During the last two dec-




sification of the economy. The predominantly agricultural
economy of the county existing in the twenties has now do-
veloped into an econom identified with major interests not
only in agriculture but also in manufacturing, constrution,
transportation, utilities, government services, marketing,
and tourism.2 At the present time, 75 per cent of the popu-
lation of orange County is employed in various industrial
ieelate sectors of the The

25 per cent of the popultion is engaged in the agriltural
sector.3 Among the specific factors and industries contribu-
ting to the economic growth of Orlando and its urban fringe,
several deserve attention including the followings central
location as a commercial center with hinterland of highly

productive agricultural land, favorable position with respect
to the tourist business, presence of federal employment

George W. Simmonms, Jr., "Comprehensive City Planning,
Orlando, Florida,m Prepared by George W. Simmons, Jr., Plan-
nling Consultant, Jacksonville, Florida, Volume I, p. 15.


3L etter from Mr. R. 0. Jacobsen, Orange County Zoning
Board Director, Orlando, Florida.
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6I

opportunities, expansion of defense-oriented industries, ex-
pansion of labor-oriented industries such a electronic in-
dustries, continued operation of industries Processing agri-

ultural products, and a vigorous construction industry.









The city of Orlando is favorably located in the State of
Florida 236 miles from Mami, 145 miles from Jacksonville,





97 milesW from Tampa, and 60 miles from Daytona Beach. As a
city with a central location within a large area of flourish-
ingeand expanding communities with diversified economies, it
holds a unique position in its contribution to the economic

growth of glorida. The Orlando area serves as a vital trano-


portation link to parts of central and southern Florida.




Radiating from it are highways, railroads, and ait lines






Orlando and its urban fringe, the agricultural base is still
vitally important. The 1954 Census of Agriculture made by
the Bureau of the Census revealed that Orange County sold
38 million dollars worth of farm products and ranked second

in Florida and forty-fourth among the more than 3,000
counties in the entire nation. Farm income for the 1957-58
season was estimated at 42.5 million dollars, which was a
decided ijump over the income for 1954. Of this 42.5 million







dollars received by the grower for agricultural products,

citrus accounted for some 30.8 million dollars. Howeve,

this does not reflect the value of this crop at te processed

levely for when the cost ofpacking or concentrating is



Thus, one can easily see the importante of the citrus indust




its many recreational facilities attract tourists from all


.estimated that more than 50,000 visitors stopped in Orlando

during 1960 fof peri ods of time varying from a few days to

several months. Because f its central location, Orlando is

a popular "home base" for tourists who wish to visit many of

Florida's famous attractions such as Silver Springs, Cypress

Gardens, Marine Studios, Bok Tower, and other attractions

which are all within a two-hour drive of the city. It is

also an important stopover point on routes leading southward

to the Gold Coast of Florida. This transient population

contributes a substantial amount to the retail business of

the Orlando area and furnishes employment to many engaged in

the various services connected with the tourist and resort

business. In 1960, the Greater Orlando Chamber of Commerce
estimated that tourist facilities in hotels, motels, tourist

homes, apartments, and restaurants in and around Orlando

exceeded 1,500.

The Orlando area has two Air Force bases, the Orlando
Air Force Base. located within the city limits, and McCoy
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Air Force Base, which is located about eight miles from the
center of the city at the southeastern corner of the urban

fringe area.




and tactical missiles for the Air Force. A total of 3,000

military personnel plus 700 civilian employees perform these


imately 25 million dollars to the economy of the Orlando area.

This included payroll, local purchase, and contracts. In
addition, the Orlando Procurement District Office, located

in iOrlando, awardedsoe7mil sin contracts in

the central Florida area. Another important contribution to

the area's economy is the estimated 15 million dollars in

annual income of the approximately 3,000 retired military

personnel who are attracted by and look to the two Air Force

bases in Orlando for certain services.1 McCoy Air Force

Base has 4,800 personnel with an annual payroll of more than

17 million dollars. Unquestionably these two Air Force

bases have contributed substantially to the Orlando area's

economic growth.

In recent years, the Orlando area has experienced
healthy industrial growth. A major industry to locate in

the Orlando area in recent years has been the Martin Company
which produces missiles. Accompanying its location in the

IGreater Orlando Chamber of Commerce, H. Stuart
Johnston, Manager, Statistical Data, Orlando, Florida (1960),
P. 77.







Orlando area are several subsidiary indatties in th feld


machine tool manufacturing. According to the industrial board

of Orlando, 225 new manufackurers have located in Orlando be-
we 1950 and 1960, and 128 of these have come since 1955.

Many of these industries possess good growth potentialities.

The Martin Company which is located about nine miles
from downtown Orlando in the southwestern corner of the

fringe area began operation in 1957 and has been very active

in the production of key defense weapons since that tAte.

The importance of this raw type of industry and its impact
upon the Orlando area economy can be demonstrated by the

fact that it employs nearly 9,100 workers, and its payroll
is approximately 40 million dollars per year. Other indus-

trial and conmercial plants in the urban fringe are mainly

concentrated in the northwest sector along U.S. Highway 441

and in the south along U.S. Highway 441 and State Highway
527.

As has been pointed out in an earlier discussion, Or-
lando's early economy was based mainly on agriculture and
tourism. Following World War II, many servicemen who had

received training or who had been stationed in Florida re-
turned and settled in the Orlando area. Probably this in-
flux of personnel became a magnet that began to draw industry
because of the availability of skilled mpoyees. Service

industries, construction, and wholesale and retail trades
have gravitated to the rapidly quowing city of Orlando and

its urban fringe area.







" *' '" ; i :' i :


log with ihe lcatn of the Ma Coiy a
lando a new wave of other industries such as electronic and



aireraft grew in importanc
facturing e blishments in Orange County is 290. These e
ta blishments employed 16,000 persona in 1959. Due to the

very rapid growth of the city and the urban fringe area,
building and construction, finance, insurance, and real es-
tate establishments have increased very rapidly in recent

years. These industres employ over 15,000 persons, or
nearly 20of per cent of the total la for force, Besides, many
industrial parks have been created to meet the needs of

these research, manufacturing, and distributing enterprises.

Table 6 reveals the industrial patterns of Orange County.

Retail trade and service industries dominate in number of
establishments. Manufacturing and retail trade employ
about 40 per cent of the total industrial employment.

Of particular interest in this study is the impact of
this pow urban development associated with industrialization
upon the agricultural economy of Orange County and especially
in the vicinity of Orlando. Beef and dairy cattle production
in the county have declined in recent years. The annual
cash income from these industries was quite high. According
to the 1954 Census of Agriculture the annual cash income
from the beef production was $870,224. The value of dairy
products was $2,072,092. The decline in dairy farming in
recent years is due in part to several conditions. Large
tracts of farm land formerly used for dairying have been














TABLE 6

THE PRINCIPAL INDUSTRIES IN ORANGE COUNTY, 1959a


Industry stablishment Employment


Manufacturing 290 16,000

Construction (contract) 800 10,600

City, State, and Federal
Governments 80 8,600





Retail Trade 1,160 15,100
: : .. iiFinance, Insurance, ..
Real Estate 480 4,500

Service Industries 1,350 10,800


Total 5,150 78,600

a Gr eater Orl ando Caber of Comerce, H. Stuart John-
ston, Manager, Statistical Data, Orlando, Florida (1960),
p. 10.
bEstimated.
,' *^BIIstia~na1t:l..'-^ '. .'*** *l ^ '*





74
sold for residential and industrial expansion in the urban

fringe. Many large tracts of land are being hold in a. com-

paratively idle condition by speculators for future develop-


sell their land because of the low return on their invest-
ments relative to the prevailing high tax rates and high

land values.

The increase in population in the county, however,
should tend to increase the production of vegetable and

poultry products. The annual cash income was $448,000 fz

poultry and poultry produts and $4,000,000 from the vege-

tables in 1954. Those figures are expected to take a big

jump in the 1959 Census of Agriculture.

Transportation

The development and availability of good transportation
facilities has been a vital factor contributing to the phenom-

enal growth of the Orlando area during the past 15 years. The

development of the major highway routes has especial signifi-

cance in accounting for the direction and degree of growth
occurring in the urban fringe of Orlando.

Orlando is connected with other major metropolitan

areas by U.S. Highways 441, 17, and 92 and Florida Highway
routes 50, 15, and 526. The two main highways are U.S. High-
way 441 and U.S. Highway 17-92. U.S. Highway 441 is a major

I. b id. d 53.







carrer of tourist traffic through Orlando since it enters
Florida from the northwe and passes throuh O o on

way to West Palm Beach and Miami. U.S. Highway 17-92 (o r-
lando Avenue in Winter Park and South orange Blossom Trail

in Orlando) has generally been made a four-lane highway and

is the major route from Santord, Deland and Daytona Beach

located north and northeast of Orlando to Haines City, Winter

Haven, and Lakeland to the south and west. Urban expansion
along these major routes has occurred in the urban fringe of

Orlando wherever physidal conditions have permitted. Poorly

drained areas as well as comparatively expensive citrus

groveland resisted urbanization after World War II in the

urban fringe areas except for ribbon development along these

major highways. in recent yearqhowever, development is

taking place on much land not immediately adjacent to these

highways.

The improvement of the existing highway network and the

addition of cross State Highway 50, which runs east and west

through Orlando and intersects with all of the major north-
south thoroughfares, produced a marked change in the amount

and direction of growth within the urban fringe and has had

a major influence upon the economic growth of Orlando itself.

Urban expansion, which had previously been oriented mainly
in a north-south direction along U.S. highways 441 and 17$92,

was in part redirected with development now occurring also
along this east-west highway. Alternate State Highway 50

(old Winter Garden Road) is a two-lane highway and has also
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provided good access in the wet and southwest, and consider-
able urban fringe development has occurred on the better-


drained area along this :a
Future growth of the urban fringe of Orlando and other

areas within metropolitan Orlando will be further accelerated

by the completion of an expressway ounnecting U.S. Highway 17

with the proposed relocation of U.S. Highway 441 and the ex-

tension of the Sunshine State Parkway. The expressway will

reduce local traffic congestion within the city and the ur-

ban fringe areas since it has been located with the purpose

of serving the top traffic generating areas. The expres way

is being constructed in three portions. The first portion

xtends from the southern end of Orange County to Washington

Street in Orlando, approximately seven city blocks south of

State Highway 50, and is presently under construction. An

extension north to Lee Road (State Highway 438) is to be the

second stage of construction. The final stage will extend

the expressway northward to State Highway 46 in Seminole

County and thence to Daytona Beach.

Proposed plans for the relocation of U.S. Highway 441

to by-pass the presently heavily built-up areas will alle-

viate traffic congestion problems in the northwestern parts

of the urban fringe. The Sunshine State Parkway, presently

terminating in Ft. Pierce has a continuation plan through

the western part of the Orlando urban fringe area as it goes

through the central part of the State in a northerly direc-

tion. When these new roads are coleted Orlando will
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become an even more important center of traffic in the new

interstate highway system.

In addition to its highways, Orlando is served by the

New York-Tampa main 1ine of the Atlantic Coast Line Railroad

with daily freight and passenger service and by a branch

line of the Seaboard Air Line Railroad with daily riht

service.

Orlando Municipal Airport lies within the city limits.

It is considered to be one of the finest in the country and

commercial air service is provided by Eastern, National,

Delta, and Riddle airlines with over 40 scheduled arrivals

and departures daily. These lines serve over 175 cities di-

rectly from Orlando with interchange and connecting service

to-any place in the world. There are two privately awned

air fields in the immediate vicinity of Orlando. The growing

importance of the airport can easily be seen through the in-

creased volume of passenger traffic. In 1950, 53,025 pas-

sengers were enplaned and deplaned at the Orlando airport.

By 1959, this number had increased to 314,286 passengers,

which is an increase of nearly 500 per cent in 10 years. It


transfer passengers.1

The development of transportation facilities serving

the Orlando metropolitan area has gone hand in hand with the

growth of commerce and industry in central Florida. The

original predominantly agricultural base of the Orlando area


1 l i ., p. 42.
L~~i ~~ .~~







has now changed to a much more diversified economic base
which in turn has helped to attract more industry and more
commerce. As a reeslt, population growth continues to expqad

the urban fringe of Orlando.

Subdivision of land




development of urban fringe areas. At the fringe of urban
communities lie land areas into which urban expansion occurs

more or less in accordance with principle of marginali.
As the city expands, the value of h land icreases in an-
ticipation of the increasng potentialities for higher prices
in te face of a steadily enroahing rban poplato.
This physical extension of the urban uses of land with-
in the urban fringe is preceded by two distinct phases of
land preparatioun land subdivision and the sale of prepared






At a given date, the distribution of land subdivisions
gives presumptive evidence of intended changes in the use of
land from predominately rural to urban uses. This subdivided
land represents the more likely areas on which physical

erman G. Berkman, "Decentralization and Blighted Va-
cant Land," Land Economics, XXXII (1956), 270.
*Jerone D. Fellmann, "Urban Zntent and Urban Expansion,"
Land Boonomicsc XXXI, No. 3 (1955)., 281.







urban growth may later take place, Therefore, a stuy of

the distribution and development of the subdivision pattern

should reveal the changing aspect of land-use conditions

within this urban fringe of Orlando.
. .'" j"*"! "I; .: ;i J^'llg^ ^il;j' llipQffli^ ]^|ff8; '<,1!;.flE







A preliminary understanding of the sequence of sub-

division development in the urban fringe area can be gained

from an analysis presented in Table 7. Approximately 64 per
cent of the total land subdivided in the urban fringe of Or-

lando as defined for purposes of this study had occurred

prior to 1947 and had extended over a period of years. Com-

pared to this monthly average for the earlier period, receat

rates are considerbly higher. Further acceleraton of
these has occurred since 1956. etween Noveiber 1 an

December 1957, the average rate of Subdivision was 73 acres

per month. Between January 1958 and January 1959, 129 acres
were subdivided each month and between February 1959 and

January 1960, the average was 123. Thus. within the past

decade, the most active period of subdivision activity oc-

curred between 1958 and 1960. Plat records for the first

part of 1961 indicate a lower rate of land subdivision with-

in the fringe area at the present time. Most of the resi-
dential development in the urban fringe area has occurred

within the platted subdivisions which lie in close proximity
to the city limits.
Table 8 presents data about the acreage subdivided

since 1947 within the unincorporated urban fringe and incor-

porated places of Orlando, Winter Park, Maitland, and
.. .. . .i ...: .. . ...:" '" ::. m
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TABLE 7

SUBDIVISI O F LAND IN THE ORLANDO URBAN FRINGE, 1947-6



Subdivision of total average
Period (acres) land sub- by peri
divided (acres)


Prior to March,
1947 14,289 63.4 ---

March, 1947-
September, 1951 1,169 5.2 21

October, 1951-
April, 1953 1,156 5.1 61

May, 1953-
May, 1955 623 2.8 25

June, 1955-
October, 1956 666 3.0 39

November, 1956-
December, 1957 1,028 4.5 73

January, 1958-
January, 1959 1,680 7.4 129

February, 1959-
January, 1960 1,476 6.6 123

February, 1960-
January, 1961 476 2.0 40

a range County Subdivision Atlas, 1960 and Orange
County Plat Book Records., 1961.
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.TABLE 8

SEQUENCE OF SUBDIVISION DEVELOPMENT IN INCORPORATED AREAQa
IN THE ORLANDO FRINGE AREAS, 1947-1960


Fringe Area Incorporated Areasa


Period sub- Percentage Percentage
Perodof total of total
division subdivided division subdivided
(acres) land (acres) land


March, 1947-
April, 1953 2,325 21.2 1,119 10.2

May, 1953-
December, 1957 2,317 21.1 1,905 17.3

January, 1958-
January, 1960 3,156 28.8 155 1.4


Total
percentage 71.1 29.9

aIncorporated areas include Orlando, Winter Park, Mait-
land, and Etonville.
l~;:a:pi~~~~~i~"18"li::and~ ~ and I:ni e .... ?.R.......... ....:" ....
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:iEtonville. It shows tat between 1947 and 1953 twi .as
much land was subdivided within the urbn fringe area as

within these four incorporated places. Between 1953 and 1957
the land subdivided in the urban ringe was not appreciably

greater than that occurring within the corporate limits of

these four cities. However,ine 1958 there has be only

155 acres subdivided within these incorporated places, where-


within the fringe area. This is primarily due to the lack of

suitable land for subdivision within the incorporated areas

since these areas have now become largely built-up within

their present corporate limits.a On the other hand, there is

still land in the urban fringe outside inc rporated places

available for subdivision.

The Orange County plat law of 1953 and its subsequent

amendments1 are of considerable importance in understanding

recent subdivision activity outside of the principal incor-
porated places. Under this law the subdivider must submit

five copies of a preliminary plan which includes the follow-

ings name of the proposed development, minimum lot size,

street layout, subdivisions, street width, type of pavement,
flow of drainage, topography, and other pertinent informa-

tion. The preliminary plans are reviewed by the County Zon-

ing Commission, the county sanitary engineer, the county

10range County Plat Law (House Bill No. 1293, Acts of
1959, as amended by House Bill No. 2246, Acts of 1959, re-
pealing Chapter 28447, Acts of 1953, and the 1955 and 1957
Amendments thereto), Board of County Commissioners, Orange
County, Florida. (Mimeographed.)







engineer, and the clerk of the Board of County Commissioners.


u:bmitted to the Board of County Commissioners. This control

and processing of pians throug these different persons and

the County oning Commission temporarily slowed down the s::
division of land. The slow rate of development between 1953

and 1956 ivas due in a large part to the adoption of this
County .Plat Law. This law gave local officials an opportuni-

ty to guide the direction and extent of land subdiviiton.
However, effective laws for the control of subdivision activ-

ity have probably coae too late for many areas.
After puirchasing a piece of land, ranging from phaps

a few acres to several hundred acres, the land promoter pre-

pares a plan of development. This plan shows the varioas

intended uses of land such as streets, lots, small farms,

schools, industrial sites, parks, and other recreational

uses. A name taken from a nearby lake, such as Lake Conway

Estates, or from the nature of the land, such as the name

Pine Hills Subdivision, is chosen. The promoter is now

ready to start advertising the sale of lots or to begin

building homes which are to be sold after construction.

Whether or not the land promoter will sell lots which are to

be built on later according to house plans made by the pur-

chaser or whether houses will be built according to selected

standard designs depends largely on the type of subdivision

which is being promoted. Generally if the land has been di-
vided into small lots, the promoter may have homes







constructed on a mass production basis. This usually *nables
the buyer with reltiiely less mey
home for the price with more room for the mney invested
than he could have if he were to buy a custom-ade house.
At the te the subdivision is laid out, it is often


it will finally each. Much depends on the honesty and




much to determine the direction of development. For example,
in the arly boo period of the 1920's and 1930'q more than
2, 000 acres of land were subdivided to the south of Orlando

(sections 35 and 36, Township 23 south, Range 29 east) and
inz th wlestern part (sections 8 and 9, ownship 22 south of
Range 29 east). This subdivision occurred on land not well-

suited for agricultural production or for urban development
at that time. As a result, only a relatively small number
of the many lots purchased at that time have been developed.
With the march of time, these speculative subdivision plans
of the 1920's are not obsolete. Without proper replatting
and planning, these lands will likely remain relatively un-
used even during the present situation. Owners of some of
these lots sold during the 1920's are not very interested in
their development, and iunless they can somehow be recombined
in some way so they will be better adapted to modern develop-
ment practices, these lands are likely to remain idle while
much building activity is taking place in other parts of the
urban fringe.







olf coure, houses ave b'i'een but on ti

during this boom period of the twenties. May of these

houses are now old and unkept. Therefore, the lot next to




Ireal sens such areas of earlier subdivi n he

slum areas of the urban fringe. In order to eliminate such

blighted areas, a program such as the urban renewal programs

now underway within some of our older large cities ay even-

tually be needed for such unincorporated areas in the urban

fringe.

The density of the subdivision activities and concentrea-

tion of dwelling units closely follow the transportation

routes, high land, and cl4ose proximity to the city. At

least three important areas where recent subdivision activi-

ties are heavily concentrated can be recognized by examina-

tion of Figure 4, which is found in the pocket attached in

the back of the dissertation:

1. The Pine Bills area lies north of Colonial Drive

square mile of land area. The density of dwelling units is
i "" ^ .I i iii;i" iii"" iiii ^ i iiiii x jii 'l ii iiii ii li: ii i iii' 3i" d '"i "iiiil "

























slightly over 500 per square mile.

2. The Azalea Park area also shows heavy concentration
of subdivided lands and dwelling units. The area lies be-







tween the city limits of Orlando on the west and State







Highway 15A on the east (mostly in the sections of 26ad 27
of Township 22 south of Range 30 east). ere, density o

land subdivision is close to 300 acres per square mile and
dwelling units 500 per square mile.

3 The third area lies south of the city limits of
Orlando between Orange Blossom Trail on the west, State
Highway 15 on the east, and north of Lake Conway (mostly in

sections 5, 6, 7, and 8 of Township 23 south, Range 30 east
and sections 1 and 12 of Township 23 south, Range 29 east).

This area was mostly subdivided prior to 1947, but spotty
recent subdivision acreages are to be found all over the

area. This area has the highest density of dwelling units,
over 650 per square mile, in the fringe area. Since 1947,
the shift in emphasis of subdivision and dwelling activities

to the west side has been more pronounced. More lands have
been taken over for urban uses in the west than in the south

or east. One of the major trends in the development of ur-

ban fringe is found in the west side development which offers
an interesting example of newer, more decentralized land-use

pattern that appears wherever land preparation opens up vir-

gin land for the promoter. An account of the land-use change
in the fringe areas will appear in the subsequent chapter.
The East Orlando area, the built-up part of which is
located in section 14 of Township 23, Range 30 on State High-

way 15A, is a current example of modern large-scale subdi-
vision development. This area is only a 15-minute drive
from the heart of downtown Orlando. To approach East Orlando

from the central city of Orlando, one drives east on State
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5.1 miles southward.


3,000 acres currently planned has been subdivided and only a

few houses have been built, the East Orlando area is a strik-

ing example of large-scale subdivision development that is

now takg place on the east ide of the fringe area. t i

to be a well-planned, modern residential area with all facil-

ities for schools, churches, recreational areas, shopping
been mbodied in the plan for ast Orlando.










The developers of East Orlando, realizing the signifi-

cance of proper recreational facilities, have made plans for

ample recreational areas. Each of the four school sites,

which include a 40-acre Junior High and Senior High School

site, will be adjoined by a large playground area equipped

with all facilities for children of every age. A 150-acre

golf course and a clubhouse is to be build in the center of

the hug* tract of East Orlando.

East Orlando provides modern.architecturally-designed,

low-priced homes. Several model homes have been builtl the

two- and three-bedroom models range in price from $9,750 to

$12,800. There are models as low as $11,750 with central

heating and air conditioning.

East Orlando developers have all plans of city conven-

iences for fringe dwellers. Paved sidewalks and curbs,

street lights, and fire hydrants are among the smaller
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- iiii l i iii .iii i. |v ii""||| B iilit 8 i t i l






LAND USE IN THE URBAN FRINGE


oD namics of Land Use
The Orlando u4rban fring as delimited for this study

has a total area of 49,280 acres. The land area totala

44,440 acres The remaining 4,840 iacres are in akes. With

in the urban fringe there are 128 lakes, of which the 25

largest eci! have an area ofi more than 40 acres. Maniiiy llki

and useis f land are included within the ftinge area as re-

flected by the existing pattern of land use. This present

nature of land uses appears to be fairly typical of that

which exists in the fringe area of most cities of the same

size in Florida.

The character and composition of the land uses in the

fringe area result from the interaction of rural and urban

influences on land use. Under the impact of the tremendous

urban expansion of the city of Orlando, the peripheral areas

have undergone rapid changes from rural to urban uses, es-

pecially within the palt 15 years. The high degree of inter-

mixture of rural and urban land uses is one of the most

striking characteristics of the fringe area of Orlando.

With much speculative subdivision and building activity, a

constantly changing pattern of land occupance has been
underway.

89
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Tihe~ sprawlin of eura ladue neeypriiof






urban land uses does not ollow any orderly patter. Trailer

camp gas tation low, medium, and high-qality el

and commercial and industrial establishments are haphazardly

intermixed in the fringe area.(Figure 5). Rural residences,

junk yards, drive-in movies, and agricultural lands scattered

here and there.on the main.highways and side roads are also

distinct forms of settlement within the urban fringe (Figure

6).

The rural landscape ofthe fringe area is in transition

and retreat. Citrus groves, horticultural and vegetable

crops, improved pastures, unimproved range, open cutover

woodland, and even swampland are yielding to the subdivider

(Figure 7). Approximately one-fourth of the land in the ur-

ban fringe, which is occupied by urban uses today, was in

citrus groves, improved pastures, unimproved range, and other

agricultural uses 14 years ago.

The rural land has been affected by soaring land prices

and increasing tax rates brought about by the outward spread

of urban uses.

In the national picture, Florida ranks second only to

Arizona in the increase in values of farm real estate. Land

values in Arizona in 1959 were about four times those reported

in 1950, whereas Florida had recorded a threefold increase.
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Trailer Park along the east side of the Orange Blossom Trail
(top). Intermixture of pasture, cropland, and residential
dwellings along Colonial Drive (bott .).




Full Text
51
agricultural value. These soils, however, are rated "good"
for septic tanks due to their 8-12 foot depth to the water
table.
Group 4. Ona and Scranton fine sands are the soils in
this group. They occupy about 6 per cent of the soil area
studied. They occur in small patches along lakes, swamps,
and other low-lying areas, most of which are widely scattered
throughout the eastern and southern parts of the fringe area.
Surface run-off is slow, but these soils have a rapid perme
ability. These soils are productive and are excellent for
improved pasture; but due to the shallow water table, drain
age systems for septic tanks are rated "poor" to "fair."
Group 5. Pomello fine sand, which is the only soil
type within this group, occupies about 8 per cent of the
soil area studied. It occurs in nearly level situations
along low marshy areas, which have a fluctuating water table
within the root zone of most plants. These are strongly
acid soils and are leached of most plant nutrients. They
have been rated "fair" for drainage systems for septic tanks
due to the somewhat shallow water tables.
Group 6. This group consists of Immokalee and Leon
fine sands which are widely distributed throughout the fringe
area of which they occupy over 35 per cent. These soils oc
cur on nearly level, moderately wet areas and have organic
pans within 42 inches of the surface. These soils are low
in fertility but are well suited to good quality improved
pastures. They have shallow water tables and are rated
"poor" for septic tank drainage.


134
in the acreage of cropland during recent years is insignifi
cant. However, it should be emphasized that some changes in
the cropland acreage have occurred during this period. Some
new cropland areas have been developed at the same time that
older cropland areas were being used for urban development.
The net change in cropland area, however, was negligible.
On the other hand, the acreage in citrus groves has been re
duced by 3.6 per cent and the pastureland acreage by 0.6 per
cent. The citrus groves bordering the city boundary of Or
lando on the south and southeast of the fringe area have to
a considerable extent continued as commercial groves in
spite of the concerted ,'push,, of urban expansion. However,
a number of the groves in this part of the urban fringe have
77.r
been subdivided and undoubtedly more subdivision will be
taking place as the engulfment of these groves by urban resi
dential expansion becomes more complete. Urban expansion is,
of course, more of a threat to the grove land and pasture
land lying in close proximity to the present city limits
than it is for those grove lands, croplands, range lands,
and woodlands further removed on the periphery of the fringe
area.
On the average of what has taken place since 1947, ap
proximately 370 acres of woodland are being taken over for
urban uses annually. Woodland is followed by range land
with an annual reduction of 184 acres and then by citrus
grove land with an annual reduction of 116 acres.


32
of the built-up area in the area peripheral to the city.
But the phenomena of expanding the city limits is the last
phase of a series of developments that occur within the
peripheral area. The subdivision of land and the extension
of the built-up area are considered an important indicator
of urbanization. This subdivision of land also constitutes
the areal framework within which the physical expansion of a
city occurs. Thus the nature of the area into which urbani
zation is spreading, the pattern of subdivision, the inter
mixture of rural and urban uses, and the changing pattern of
land use are significant expressions of areal differences
calling for geographical investigation and research.
In delineating the urban fringe of Orlando a base map
covering an area of 225 square miles was prepared to the
scale of two inches to one mile. It was found through an
initial examination of aerial photographs and through field
reconnaissance that the urban fringe did not extend beyond
this area.
Major highways, roads, lakes, and other significant
features were plotted on this base map. The corporate bound
aries of Orlando, Winter Park, Eatonville, and Maitland were
also located. Then, the survey township section lines were
drawn, and the platted subdivisions outside the corporate
boundaries of the incorporated places for each section were
located on the base map.1
^Information about section lines and subdivisions was
compiled from the county tax assessor's office in the Orange
County courthouse. Other information was gathered from
various private and governmental sources.


TABLE 2
GEOLOGIC FORMATIONS PENETRATED BY WELLS IN ORANGE COUNTY3
Age
Formation
Thickness
(in feet)
Characteristics
Recent and Pleistocene
0-100
Unconsolidated sand interbedded
with clay. Yields water to shallow
wells.
Upper
Miocene
Choctawhetchee
30- 40
Light to dark grey shell marl.
Lower
Miocene
Hawthorn
45-200
Interbedded marl, sandy phosphatic
conglomeratic limestone clay and
silty limestone. Water under
artesian pressure.
Upper
Eocene
Ocala limestone
0- 20
White to cream, porous limestone.
Important artesian aquifer.
Middle Eocene
Undifferentiated
200
White to cream, porous formaniferal
limestone.
550
Light buff to brown, porous to
dense recrystallized limestone.
Important artesian aquifer.
aA. G. Unklesby, Ground Water Conditions in Orlando and Vicinity, Florida, Prepared
by the Geological Survey, United States Department of Interior in cooperation with the
Florida Geological Survey and the Corps of Engineers, U.S. Array (1944), p. 8.


105
while it was in the process of being transferred from one
use to another. Most generally this change was from one of
the rural uses of land to one of the urban uses. If crop
land, improved pasture, range land, or woodland which was
idle or unused had not undergone such change, then this kind
of idle or unused land was classified according to its last
previous primary use on the basis of its predominant vegeta
tive cover characteristics. Idle land was found mostly in
small plots of 10 to 20 acres in size scattered throughout
the urban fringe area. Altogether 829 acres were classified
as being in this use at the present time in the urban fringe
of Orlando. This amounted to nearly 2 per cent of the land
in the urban fringe. However, it should be again emphasized
that a much larger acreage of land was actually idle or un
used than this relatively small amount classified as idle
land. Practically all of the range, woodland, swamp, and
some of the cropland and improved pasture within the urban
fringe was being used very little or not at all in any pro
ductive way (Figure 11).
Present Patterns, 1961
The area occupied by each existing land use and the
percentages of total areas represented by each land use are
presented in Table 10. The land-use map for 1961 (Figure 12
in pocket) shows the pattern of distribution of land in dif
ferent uses within the urban fringe of Orlando.
In general, the urban land is widely scattered through
out the fringe area, but at least three kinds of heavy


162
Figure 23.Intermingling of urban and rural land uses
in the Lake Conway area.


77
become an even more important center of traffic in the new
interstate highway system.
In addition to its highways, Orlando is served by the
New York-Tampa main line of the Atlantic Coast Line Railroad
with daily freight and passenger service and by a branch
line of the Seaboard Air Line Railroad with daily freight
service.
Orlando Municipal Airport lies within the city limits.
It is considered to be one of the finest in the country and
commercial air service is provided by Eastern, National,
Delta, and Riddle airlines with over 40 scheduled arrivals
and departures daily. These lines serve over 175 cities di
rectly from Orlando with interchange and connecting service
to any place in the world. There are two privately owned
air fields in the immediate vicinity of Orlando. The growing
importance of the airport can easily be seen through the in
creased volume of passenger traffic. In 1950, 53,025 pas
sengers were enplaned and deplaned at the Orlando airport.
By 1959, this number had increased to 314,288 passengers,
which is an increase of nearly 500 per cent in 10 years. It
is noteworthy that, unlike many other cities, Orlando has no
transfer passengers.
The development of transportation facilities serving
the Orlando metropolitan area has gone hand in hand with the
growth of commerce and industry in central Florida. The
original predominantly agricultural base of the Orlando area
1Ibid., p. 42.


172
preparation will be needed for the proper development of
these building sites.
Two patches of citrus grovesone in the northwestern
corner on the Hiawassee road and the other in the south-
central part on State Road 50have a total area of 37 acres.
These are mature groves, capable of bearing commercial fruit;
and they occupy about 6 per cent of the total land area.
Range land occupies about 40 acres, which is on high land
and at present is unused.
Woodland is the predominant land use in the Pine Hills
area. It occupies about 230 acres, or more than 35 per cent
of the total area. Woodland is particularly concentrated in
the northwest and southeast in two big tracts of about 80
acres each. These two areas are relatively high compared to
the other parts of the area. The forests are composed of a
mixture of pines and oaks and are not of any great commer
cial value.
Among the major uses of land, roads occupy 123 acres,
swamps 8 acres, lakes 11 acres, and idle land 17 acres. The
large acreage occupied by streets and roads is due in part
to the considerable acreage in unpaved roads in subdivided
areas that have not been built up.
The pattern of subdivision development in the Pine Hills
area is presented in Table 17. From this table it can be
seen that more than 45 per cent of the total acreage in sub
divisions was recorded before March, 1947. Most of these
subdivisions are located in the southeastern quadrant. Plot


96
also noticeable. Such swampy or wet areas which were not
suitable for agricultural production had declined by 420
acres between 1947 and 1961. These low-lying areas are being
reclaimed through drainage and by using fill derived from
excavating other areas and by the sanitary land-fill process.
Classification of Land Uses
In the study of land uses within an urban fringe area,
the several uses may be conveniently grouped into two main
categories designated as "urban" and "rural" uses. In the
Orlando urban fringe it was found that approximately 40 per
cent of the land was in urban uses and 60 per cent was in
rural uses.
Since the emphasis in this study is on the major patterns
of land use within the urban fringe and the changes taking
place with urban growth, the urban land uses are not broken
down into use categories except in those areas selected for
detailed study. Since the basic objective of this study is
to analyze the growth and development of urban uses on rural
lands, it is logical to break down the rural land into sev
eral categories in order to bring out the quality and quan
tity of the rural land that is being converted into urban
uses.
The choice of the number and the content of the classes
or categories of rural land use was influenced by two major
considerations. Firstly, detail and specificity in the
classification were designed to make the information about
land use before conversion to urban uses of maximum value.


TABLE 13
LAND-USE
CHANGES IN
THE ORLANDO
URBAN FRINGE,
1947-1961
Land use
Acreage
1947
Percentage
of total
acreage
1947
Acreage
1961
Percentage
of total
acreage
1961
Actual
change
in
acreage
1947-61
Percentage
change
1947-61
Urban land
6,096
13.7
16,600
37.4
+10,504
+23.7
Citrus grove
8, 125
18.3
6,560
14.7
- 1,565
- 3.6
Cropland
487
1.1
485
1.1
2

Pastureland
3, 498
7.8
3, 204
7.2
294
- .6
Range land
8, 151
18.3
5, 579
12.6
- 2,572
- 5.7
Woodland
11,047
25.0
5, 853
13.2
- 5,194
-11.8
Swamp
5, 750
12.9
5, 330
12.0
420
- .9
Idle land
1, 286
2.9
829
1.8
457
- 1.1
Total
44,440
100.0
44,440
100.0
127


52
Group 7. St. Johns fine sand is the only soil in this
group and occupies less than one per cent of the soil area.
This soil occurs on level topography, is strongly acid to
very strongly acid, and has an organic pan within 30 inches
of the surface. It is rated "poor" for drainage systems for
septic tanks.
Group 8. Plummer fine sands occur as slightly depressed
areas of the flatwoods. They are sandy, moderately to
strongly acid and are usually quite wet. They occupy almost
five per cent of the area studied and are mostly found in
the southern part of the urban fringe area. These soils are
low in organic matter and in natural fertility.
Group 9. Fine sands and mucky fine sands of the Rut-
lege soil series are included in this group. They have
formed from acid sands and occur in all parts of the fringe
areas predominately in low-lying areas and depressions. The
water table is very high in these soils.
Group 10. Pamlico muck and Brighton mucky peat occur
on nearly level areas, are very wet, and are strongly acid
to neutral in reaction. They have very shallow water tables
and are rated "poor" for drainage systems for septic tanks.
With proper drainage these soils could be reclaimed for
cultivated crops.
Climate
The climate of Orlando is an asset, particularly the
pleasantly mild sunny winters, which attract many tourists
from northern states every year. In Orlando the winters are


159
Ficru^ 22.A high-value residence
Avenue.
located on Pershing


120
photography at scale up to 1:8,000, which were available In
the files of the Soil Conservation Service and the Commodity
Stabilization Service of the U.S. Department of Agriculture.
A careful reconnaissance of the area under study was made
before the photographs were interpreted. Following inter
pretation of the aerial photographs, further ground inspec
tion of the area being studied yielded useful clues in recon
structing the patterns of land use for 1947 and 1954.
Before presenting a statistical analysis of the land-
use patterns of 1947 and 1954 and how these former patterns
compare with the present pattern f land uses, it will be
helpful to describe and interpret some of the major land use
features shown in Figures 17 and 18.1
zrr
The northwestern sector of the urban fringe, except in
the southeast part near the Winter Park and Orlando city
limits, was primarily in rural land uses in 1947. Citrus
groves with pockets of range and woodland were predominant
in the north. The southern part was dominated by woodland
and citrus groves. The average size of the citrus groves
was comparatively large in relation to other land uses.
Around Lake Fairview and Lake Killarney, lands were mostly
either in range or in an idle condition.
By 1954, the urban land uses had spread in the north
and northeast mainly along the highways, Orange Blossom
^"Primarily for the sake of convenience of description,
interpretation and analysis of changes in land use, this
section follows the same sector classification of the urban
fringe as adopted in the previous section in the descrip
tion of 1961 land use.


124
east was almost entirely in urban use in 1954. Small patches
of urban development were found on the eastern side mainly on
the high ground. This region of the urban fringe of Orlando
is generally low, swampy, and not suitable for urban uses
unless measures are taken to improve the natural drainage.
Changes in Land Use
The land use changes between 1947-54, 1954-61, the total
change between 1947-61, and the increase and decrease in
acreage of land in the different uses for the same periods
are presented in Tables 11, 12, and 13, respectively. Areas
have been allocated to different categories of land use on
the basis of measurements taken from aerial photographs. It
should be kept in mind that, because of the rapidly changing
conditions within the fringe area and because of unavoidable
looseness of definition, these data should not in interpreted
as having the exactness of land survey data. The land-use
maps for 1947, 1954, and for 1961 have been previously dis
cussed and presented in Figures 17, 18, and 12, respectively.
The sequence pattern of urban expansion onto rural
lands can be seen in the land-use maps. In addition to the
urban residential, commercial, and industrial development,
there are many rural non-farm dwellings and some rufal com
mercial establishments scattered throughout the fringe area.
These rural built-up features, of course, often precede the
urban expansion; but some of it has occurred simultaneously.
In some parts of the urban fringe such as in the Lake Conway
area, for example, there are a considerable number of rural


59
The first important growth in Orange County came during
the boom of 1920-1930, when the population increased from
19,890 in 1920, to 49,737 in 1930. This was an increase of
150 per cent. During the same period, the population of Or
lando increased from 9,282 to 27,330. This high rate of
growth of over 194 per cent was in part due to the expansion
of the corporate limits of the city as well as to increases
in population within the original city limits.
In the succeeding decades, however, the rate of popula
tion growth in the county area outside of Orlando exceeded
that within the city despite the corporate expansion of Or
lando through annexation at different times (Table 5). The
1960 population of the county was more than 129 per cent
more than that of 1950. During the same period, Orlando had
an increase of only 70 per cent. The accelerated rate of
growth of the county outside of Orlando which exceeded that
of the city area is of course one indication of the urbani
zation occurring in the urban fringe adjacent to but outside
the city of Orlando.
Table 5 presents the interesting picture of population
growth in the urban fringe in comparison to that occurring
in Orlando city. The rate of population increase has not
been uniform in the various parts of the county outside Or
lando city. Other incorporated places have had increases of
23, 58, and 100 per cent for successive decades between 1940
and 1960. The increase in population of the unincorporated
and incorporated area surrounding Orlando as a result of sub
urban expansion and associated with the growth of that city


116
Figure 15.Industrial development. Martin Company on
the southern border of the urban fringe.


182
Figure 27.A high-value residential area along the
canal in the Lake Conway area.


29
already been touched upon, but more specific studies
of land-use patterns, changes in land use, and re
sulting problems in urban fringe areas are needed.
4. The physical characteristics of the urban fringe,
the pattern of land ownership, the network of trans
portation, the location of major industries, the
uses of land prior to urbanization, and numerous
other conditions shape the growth of a city.
A thorough description and analysis of the existing
land-use characteristics of the urban fringe and the evalua
tion of the possibilities for future changes in land use are
among the major objectives of this study.
Delineation of the Orlando Urban Fringe
The proposed method of delineating the urban fringe of
Orlando employs two main principles: (1) the use of the sur
vey township section of 640 acres as a unit" for boundary
delineation purposes, and (2) the consideration of intensity
of urban land use or subdivided land as the basic criterion
for determining the urban fringe. Figure 2 presents the ur
ban fringe of Orlando as delineated in this study.
This study goes beyond a description and analysis of
the distribution of the features of the urban fringe. Under
standing of the geographical qualities of urban fringe pat
terns and problems is needed for a satisfactory approach to
more orderly urban growth. Therefore, for an effective anal
ysis of the changes occurring in land use and for a better
understanding of differences in the peripheral growth around


CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION
General Nature of the Problem
One of the most distinctive characteristics of the
state of Florida today, is its extremely rapid growth. The
1960 Census of Population reveals the fact that Florida's
rate of population growth between 1950 and 1960, which
amounted to 79 per cent, exceeded that of all other states.
Florida's population is now 4.9 million. In 1940 it was 1.9
million; in 1950, 2.8 million. The population projection
for 1970 indicates that even with a slackening gain it is
entirely possible that Florida may have 7.5 million inhabi
tants by that year.^ Another aspect of this increase of the
state's population is the high rate of gain in urban popula
tion. Table 1 reveals Florida's rate of gain in total and
urban population since 1940 through 1960. It is particularly
noticeable that while the rate of increase of the state's
population in 1960 over 1950 was 79 per cent, the rate of
increase in urban population for the same period was over
96 per cent. Today Florida has approximately 62 per cent of
its population living in urban places. Generally speaking,
^Fred H. Bair, Jr., Florida PopulationState, Regions
and Counties, Florida Planning and Development, XI, No. 7
(July, 1960), 1.
1


78
has now changed to a much more diversified economic base
which in turn has helped to attract more industry and more
commerce. As a result, population growth continues to expand
the urban fringe of Orlando.
Subdivision of land
The pattern of land speculation and preparation for ur
ban building is an important consideration in the growth and
development of urban fringe areas. At the fringe of urban
communities lie land areas into which urban expansion occurs
more or less in accordance with principles of marginalism.1
As the city expands, the value of such land increases in an
ticipation of the increasing potentialities for higher prices
in the face of a steadily encroaching urban population.
This physical extension of the urban uses of land with
in the urban fringe is preceded by two distinct phases of
land preparation; land subdivision and the sale of prepared
lots to individuals. The distributional aspect of these two
prior stages of land preparation has been referred to as an
expression of "urban intent" by one writer.2
At a given date, the distribution of land subdivisions
gives presumptive evidence of intended changes in the use of
land from predominately rural to urban uses. This subdivided
land represents the more likely areas on which physical
German G. Berkraan, "Decentralization and Blighted Va
cant Land," Land Economics, XXXII (1956), 270.
o
Jerome D. Fellmann, "Urban Intent and Urban Expansion, "
Land Economics. XXXI, No. 3 (1955), 281.


8
PI Plummer fine Poor
sand
1- 2 ft. Rapid
Ra Rutlege fine Poor to
sand very poor
Rc Rutlege mucky Poor to
fine sand very poor
10
Bi Brighton mucky Very poor
peat, deep
phase
Pa Pamlico muck Very poor
1- 2 ft. Rapid
0- 1 ft. Rapid
0- 1 ft. Moderate
to
rapid
0- 1 ft. Moderate
to
rapid
Very shal
low water
table
(rated
very
poor)
Very shal
low water
table
(rated
very
poor)
Very shal
low water
table
(rated
very
poor
Very shal
low water
table
(rated
very
poor)
Very shal
low water
table
(rated
very
poor)
1,241 5.3
2,635 11.3
VD
558 2.4
aPartly based on Soil Survey, Orange County, Florida, 1960, p. 46.


121
Trail, and Edgewater Drive. Besides, lands around the lakes
which were either in range or idle were taken over by urban
uses. A considerable acreage of land in the northern part
which had been in citrus groves, range, or in woodland, was
being prepared for urban uses and thus fell in the idle
class in 1954. The idle tracts are characteristically rela
tively small in overall size. Most of these are less than
10 acres in size.
In the western sector, woodland and range land were the
predominant rural uses. Occasional spots of citrus-grove
land in the west and improved pasture and swamp in the east
ern part were also found in this sector in 1947. Urban land
uses were mainly concentrated in the southern part of the
37/
sector in survey sections, 28 and 32 of Township 22 south,
Range 29 east, near the Orlando city limits along the east
side of the sector, and in small scattered areas along the
northeast side. Except for one tract in survey section 25
of Township 22 south. Range 28 east, there were very few ur
ban land uses in the western part of this western sector of
the urban fringe of Orlando in 1947. Two tracts of cropland
north of Lake Wekiwa and south of Lake Lowne were important
areas of field crop production. The considerable acreage of
idle land was primarily distributed in the eastern half of
the western sector in 1947.
By 1954, many acres of rural land had been taken over
by urban uses. Many tracts of rural land were put into ur
ban uses throughout the western sector. Major urban-
residential development occurred in survey sections 18 and


CHAPTER IV
LAND USE IN THE URBAN FRINGE
Dynamics of Land Use
The Orlando urban fringe as delimited for this study
has a total area of 49,280 acres. The land area totals
44,440 acres. The remaining 4,840 acres are in lakes. With
in the urban fringe there are 128 lakes, of which the 25
largest each have an area of more than 40 acres. Many kinds
and uses of land are included within the fringe area as re
flected by the existing pattern of land use. This present
nature of land uses appears to be fairly typical of that
which exists in the fringe area of most citieB of the same
size in Florida.
The character and composition of the land uses in the
fringe area result from the interaction of rural and urban
influences on land use. Under the impact of the tremendous
urban expansion of the city of Orlando, the peripheral areas
have undergone rapid changes from rural to urban uses, es
pecially within the past 15 years. The high degree of inter
mixture of rural and urban land uses is one of the most
striking characteristics of the fringe area of Orlando.
With much speculative subdivision and building activity, a
constantly changing pattern of land occupance has been
underway.
89


survey section 7, Township 23 south of Range 30 east. These
are two rapidly growing areas within the urban fringe which
indicate that a great deal of change in land use is occurring
within the fringe. Pine Hills on the west side of Orlando
is a relatively new and growing area started about 1950,
whereas the Lake Conway area to the south has been develop
ing over a longer period of time. Field mapping and obser
vations, field interviews, and the interpretation of aerial
photographs taken in 1947, 1954, and 1958 were the major
sources of information for these selected study areas.
Land-Use Categories
The land-use sub-categories, as described and defined
below, were considered significant as a result of field map
ping and interpretation of the aerial photographs for the
selected study areas within the urban fringe of Orlando.
Except for these three sub-categories of urban land and the
two sub-categories of citrus groves, the categories used are
the same as those used in mapping the entire urban fringe.
Totals for the sub-categories correspond to the categories
for citrus groves and for urban land used in the characteri
zation of land use for all of the urban fringe.1
The residential areas in the study areas have been
mapped and delineated on the basis of their general valua
tion and location rather than on the basis of type of resi
dential structure. In general, there are very few portions
^For a detailed definition of citrus groves, cropland,
range land, woodland, and swamp, see the land-use classifi
cation of the urban fringe in Chapter IV, pp. 96-104.


153
TABLE 14
PATTERN OF LAND USE IN THE LAKE CONWAY AREA, 1961
Category
Acreage
Percentage
of
total area
High-value residential
114
17.8
Medium- and low-value residential
102
15.9
Mature citrus grove
124
19.3
Young citrus grove
38
5.9
Cropland
50
7.8
Woodland
65
10.1
Road
62
10.0
Swamp
10
1.5
Vacant land
32
5.0
Lakes
38
5.9
Idle land
5
.8
Total
640
100.0
*


6
expansion moves is generally called the "urban fringe."
Various concepts of the urban fringe are discussed in
Chapter II.
The area and use of land in a region and the numbers,
distribution, and employment of its people are fundamental
to an understanding of the character of its economic develop
ment. Although in recent years considerable research has
been done on many aspects of the urban or rural-urban fringe,
very little has been written about the effect of urbanization
on land use in an urban fringe situation. The growth of
population and the economic development have important ef
fects on land utilization, especially on the urban fringe
area.
The economic aspects of land-use changes and the analy
sis of land utilization by regions have been studied from
time to time and published by the United States Department
of Agriculture in various handbooks.1
Wooten and Anderson report that annually about 400,000
acres of land in the United States are undergoing
1Hugh H. Wooten and James R. Anderson, Major Uses of
Land in the United States, U.S. Department of Agriculture,
Information Bulletin No. 168 (Washington: U.S. Government
Printing Office, 1957) and Agricultural Land Resources in
the United States, Agriculture Information Bulletin No. 140
(Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1955); F. J.
Marschner, Land Use and Its Patterns in the United States,
Agriculture Handbook No. 153 (Washington: U.S. Government
Printing Office, 1959). See also the study by James R.
Anderson, Land Use and Development of Southeastern Coastal
Plain, Agriculture Information Bulletin No. 154 (Washington:
U.S. Government Printing Office, 1956).


41
The Hawthorn formation is overlain by unconsolidated younger
material, consisting principally of sand and clay which lie
at or near the surface.
The geologic formations underlying Orlando and its
fringe area have influence upon the patterns of land use
especially in two major ways:
1. As a parent material, differences in geologic for
mations have caused differences in soils. The soils that
occur mostly on the high elevations of more than 100 feet
have formed mainly from sediments of sand and clay of Recent
and Pleistocene depostis. The low-lying areas, especially
the eastern part of the fringe area, consist of thin deposits
of sand and in a few areas of alkaline clay over marl. Var
iations in land use are associated with these differences in
soils.
2. The permeability of Ocala limestone allows free
circulation of water, and the solvent action of this under
ground water has resulted in the formation of subterranean
cavities and channels. This Ocala formation is the chief
source of water of the city and its urban fringe area. Some
of the lakes which are found in the Orlando area are related
to this solution in the Ocala formation. Such lakes have
played an important role in the development of citrus groves
and later in the building of residences.
Soils
Three important factorsparent material, climate, and
the degree of drainagehave caused the principal differences


TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ii
LIST OF TABLES Vi
LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS viii
Chapter
I.INTRODUCTION 1
General Nature of the Problem
Major Objectives of the Study
Scope of the Study
Methodology
II.THE CONCEPT OF URBAN FRINGE AND DELINEATION OF
THE ORLANDO URBAN FRINGE 13
The Fringe Concept
Methods of Delineating the Urban Fringe
Delineation of the Orlando Urban Fringe
III.THE PRESENT CHARACTERISTICS OF THE ORLANDO URBAN
FRINGE 35
The Physical Characteristics
Topography and drainage
Geologic structure
Soils
Climate
Cultural Characteristics
Population
The economic base
Subdivision of land
IV.LAND USE IN THE URBAN FRINGE 89
Dynamics of Land Use
Classification of Land Uses
Present Patterns, 1961
Past Patterns, 1947 and 1954
Changes in Land Use
Problems of Growth
Planning for the Future
iv


195
U.S. Department of Agriculture. Soil Survey Manual, Agri
culture Handbook No. 18. Washington: U.S. Government
Printing Office, 1951.
. The Year Book of Agriculture, 1957. Washington:
U.S. Government Printing Office, 1957.
. The Year Book of Agriculture, 1958. Washington:
U.S. Government Printing Office, 1958.
Unklesby, A. G. Ground Water Conditions in Orlando and
Vicinity, Florida. Prepared by the Geological Survey,
U.S. Department of Interior in cooperation with the
Florida Geological Survey and the Corps of Engineers,
U.S. Army, 1944.
Vance, Rupert B., and Demerath, Nicholas J. (ed.). The Urban
South. Chapel Hill, N.C.: The University of North
Carolina Press, 1954.
Wehrwein, George S. "The Rural-Urban Fringe," Economic
Geography, XVIII, No. 3 (July, 1942), 217-228.
White, William A. Some Geomorphic Features of Central
Peninsular Florida. Geological Bulletin No. 41
Tallahassee, Florida: Florida Geological Survey, 1954.
Wibberly, G. P. Agriculture and Urban Growth: A Study of
the Competition for Rural Land. London: Michael
Joseph, 1959.
Williams, D.A. Fact Sheet: Conversion of Cultivable Land
to Other Uses. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Soil
Conservation Service, 1955. (Mimeographed.)
. The Nation's Use of Our Agricultural Lands. U.S.
Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service
1955. (Mimeographed.)
Wooten, Hugh H., and Anderson, James R. Agricultural Land
Resources in the United States. Agriculture Informa
tion Bulletin No. 140. Washington: U.S. Government
Printing Office, 1955.
. Major Uses of Land in the United States. U.S.
Department of Agriculture, Information Bulletin
No. 168. Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office,
1957.


128
non-farm residences which were built much earlier than the
recent building of residences associated with the expansion
of the city of Orlando itself. Gradually these residences
built during an earlier period are being engulfed by the
later development. Consequently, a considerable intermixture
of the old and the new is taking place in some parts of the
urban fringe. This intermixture often gives rise to some
serious problems. Variations in the quality of the houses
is one such problem. This may mean that equitable tax as
sessment is difficult. Vacant lots are often numerous.
Street improvements may be difficult to implement in these
kinds of areas. The possibility that such areas may develop
into urban slums is often present. As a matter of fact,
some areas of rural non-farm residences often take on an
appearance of deterioration before urban expansion reaches
the area. In such instances these areas have in a very real
sense become rural slums before urbanization occurred. Gen
erally a complete lack of any attention to planning for res
idential, commercial, and industrial expansion outside of a
growing city and on the fringe where rural and urban areas
meet is a major factor contributing to the development of an
area having many of the undesirable conditions that expanding
cities are anxious to avoid.
Between 1947 and 1954, about 5,400 acres of land in the
urban fringe were transferred to urban land uses. The major
expansion during this period resulted in a reduction of
citrus-grove land by 670 acres, pastureland by 280 acres,


107
TABLE 10
LAND USE PATTERNS
IN THE
ORLANDO URBAN
FRINGE, 1961
Land use
Acreage
Percentage
of total
Urban land
16,600
37.4
Citrus groves
6, 560
14.7
Cropland
485
1.1
Pastureland
3,207
7.2
Range land
5, 579
12.6
Woodland
5, 853
13.2
Swamp
5,330
12.0
Idle land
829
1.8
Total in these
uses
44,280
100.0
Total area in
lakes
4, 840

Total area
49,280

concentration of urban land use can be noted. These are
those concentrations along the major transportation arteries
around the lakes and in certain areas such as around Pine
Hills or Azalea Park where the planned community type of de
velopments have mostly been built. The linear type of com
mercial and industrial developments along the highways is
most pronounced on the metes and bounds type of land, mainly
in the northwestern section of the fringe. The type of uses
around lakes and in the planned communities are mostly of
residential types.


12
This average was recorded in the summarization of the census
tract data available from the United States Census of Popu
lation, 1960. This approach, of course, is not completely
satisfactory. For one thing, it involves the questionable
assumption that all the dwelling units are occupied.
The measurement of different uses of land from the
aerial photographs was taken by using an acreage calculating
grid. This plate was available from the United States De
partment of Agriculture Soil Conservation Service. The use
of the acreage calculating grid for land-use measurements
and acreage determinations for general statistical analysis
proved to be very helpful and provided an adequate degree of
accuracy for purposes of this study. A considerable saving
in time was made by use of the calculating grid rather than
a planimeter.


104
mostly concentrated along the western and eastern margins of
the urban fringe area, occupying 5,853 acres or about 13 per
cent of the land area of the urban fringe. If woodland and
range are considered together, there is a total of 11,432
acres in these two uses, which accounts for 25 per cent of
the urban fringe land area.
Swamp. Wet forest or swamp is found in low-lying areas.
These forests must have more than 10 per cent crown cover to
meet the definition of the U.S. Forest Service. Generally,
these forests are predominantly made up of thick stands of
hardwood species as contrasted with the relatively open
stands of pine which predominate in the woodlands of the
higher sites. Clearing and drainage of this kind of land
for urban development is a more difficult and expensive mat
ter than the clearing of the open pine stands, which generally
are also more easily drained. Swamp occurs in big patches
covering a considerable area especially in the western part
of the urban fringe around lakes Mann, Lowne, Wekiwa, and
Fairview. Altogether, swamp occupies 5,330 acres on about
12 per cent of the land in the urban fringe.
Idle land. This type of land was recognized on aerial
photographs as land that was in process of conversion from
one use to another. Often clearing of land was in evidence
at the time the aerial photograph was taken. When this land
which is presently in this condition was checked closely in
the field, it was found that most of the land so classified
had actually undergone some physical change such as clearing


76
provided good access in the west and southwest, and consider
able urban fringe development has occurred on the better-
drained areas along this road.
Future growth of the urban fringe of Orlando and other
areas within metropolitan Orlando will be further accelerated
by the completion of an expressway connecting U.S. Highway 17
with the proposed relocation of U.S. Highway 441 and the ex
tension of the Sunshine State Parkway. The expressway will
reduce local traffic congestion within the city and the ur
ban fringe areas since it has been located with the purpose
of serving the top traffic generating areas. The expressway
is being constructed in three portions. The first portion
extends from the southern end of Orange County to Washington
Street in Orlando, approximately seven city blocks south of
State Highway 50, and is presently under construction. An
extension north to Lee Road (State Highway 438) is to be the
second stage of construction. The final stage will extend
the expressway northward to State Highway 46 in Seminole
County and thence to Daytona Beach.
Proposed plans for the relocation of U.S. Highway 441
to by-pass the presently heavily built-up areas will alle
viate traffic congestion problems in the northwestern parts
of the urban fringe. The Sunshine State Parkway, presently
terminating in Ft. Pierce has a continuation plan through
the western part of the Orlando urban fringe area as it goes
through the central part of the State in a northerly direc
tion. When these new roads are completed, Orlando will


22
Thus, the subtraction of census urbanized area from the stan
dard metropolitan area leaves a residual which is designated
as "fringe area." This technique extends the urban fringe
to the boundary or boundaries of whole counties. This does
not make a very realistic outer boundary for the urban fringe
in many cases. This is especially true in the case of Or
lando, since most of the land area thus delineated as fringe
would have highly heterogeneous rather than homogeneous
characteristics. Moreover, more than 50 per cent of the area
of each survey section to the south, east, and west of Or
lando is almost entirely rural in character. Inclusion of
such an extensive and completely rural area within the urban
fringe cannot be justified.
The adjustment patterns to residence-location activities
in the fringe area of Eugene and Springfield, Oregon, was
studied by Martin in 1953. The term "fringe" is used in two
different ways by Martin. For instance, while describing
the population growth of this fringe area, he states, "It is
to this unincorporated countryside interlaced with motor
roads and inhabited mainly by former urban dwellers that we
apply the term rural-urban fringe."1 Here he places empha
sis on the population characteristics of the unincorporated
area adjacent to the urban center. Later on, Martin char
acterized fringe as an "extensive interpenetration of rural
Walter T. Martin, The Rural-Urban Fringe: A Study of
Adjustment to Residence Location (Eugene, Oregon: Univer
sity of Oregon, 1953), p. 3.


21
settlement of an urban nature is lacking.1 The following
types of areas are considered if they are contiguous to the
central city of cities:2
(1) Incorporated places with 2,500 inhabitants or more
in 1940.
(2) Incorporated places with fewer than 2,500 inhabitants
within an area with a concentration of 100 dwelling
units or more with a density in this concentration of
500 units or more per square mile.
(3) Unincorporated territory with at least 500 dwelling
units per square mile. Other territories which are
functionally related to the central city such as
commercial, industrial, recreational, etc.
Some researchers have utilized census data to define
the urban-fringe area. Accordingly, Queen and Carpenter in
clude in the urban fringe "that area within the standard
metropolitan area which is outside the urbanized afea."3
The standard metropolitan area is defined as follows by the
U.S. Census Bureau:
Except in New England, a standard metropolitan area is a
county or a group of contiguous counties which contain
at least one city of 50,000 inhabitants or more. In ad
dition to the county, or counties, containing such a
city, or cities, contiguous counties are included in a
standard metropolitan area if according to certain cri
teria they are essentially metropolitan in character and
socially and economically integrated with the central
city.4
.S. Bureau of the Census, "Urbanized Areas for the
Eighteenth Decennial Censuses,No. 5, 1959, p. 2.
2U.S. Bureau of the Census, Seventeenth Census . .,
p. XXIV.
Stuart A. Queen and David B. Carpenter, "... From
the Urban Point of View," Rural Sociology, XVIII, No. 2
(June, 1953), 104.
4U.S. Bureau of the Census, Seventeenth Census . .,
p. XXXI.


119
purposes. Therefore, any further urban expansion in this
area will cost a considerable amount of money for drainage
and clearance of swamps. Without proper drainage, the land
in this part of the fringe would not be suitable either as
sites for urban uses or for any good agricultural production.
The residential development in the southeastern and
eastern sectors of the fringe area has been affected by the
location of the McCoy Air Force Base. Many of the people
employed here like to live nearby, and State Highways 15 and
15A bordering the eastern boundary of the urban fringe have
helped to open up new areas for urban-residential develop
ments .
Past Patterns, 1947 and 1954
J
In order to have a base period with which a comparison
of the present pattern of land uses within the urban fringe
of Orlando could be made, it was necessary to find a reliable
source of information about past patterns of land use.
Aerial photographs taken in 1947 and 1954 were available and
were found to be useable for purposes of making comparisons
in land use over time. However, considerable care needed to
be exercised in the selection of land-use categories in order
to make accurate comparisons between the past and the present
through the use of aerial photographs.
The maps which are presented in Figures 17 and 18, con
tained in the pocket of the dissertation, have been made
largely through the study of aerial photography available at
an aerial scale of 1:20,000 and also enlargements of this


TABLE 4
TEMPERATURE AND PRECIPITATION AT ORLANDO MUNICIPAL AIRPORT, ORANGE COUNTY, FLORIDA
(Elevation, 106 feet)
Temperature3
Precipitation*5
Month
Average
Absolute
Maximum
Absolute
Minimum
Average
Driest Year
(1927)
Wettest Year
(1905)
F.
F.
F.
Inches
Inches
Inches
December
62.7
87
24
2.09
1.29
8.43
January
61.9
87
26
2.05
.11
.41
February
63.2
89
28
2.05
1.71
2.12
Winter
62.6
89
24
6.19
3.11
10.96
March
66.7
92
31
3.26
2.30
5.13
April
71.6
96
39
2.96
.62
1.71
May
76.5
102
49
4.02
.47
8.12
Spring
71.6
102
31
10.24
3.39
14.96
Average
Snowfall
Inches
0
c
0
c
0
0
0
U1
0


179
should be given careful attention and should be prevented if
possible. After such subdivision has occurred, it may be
quite costly and very difficult, particularly from a legal
standpoint, to develop the area into a well-planned urban
community. Part of this area in the southeastern part of
the Pine Hills study area is not well suited to residential
development, particularly if lots are small. A recombina
tion of lots and a new street pattern will probably be
needed before proper urban development can take place.
The following general conclusions can be drawn from the
study of these two selected areas in the Orlando urban
fringe:
1. The physical nature of the land has been a signifi
cant factor encouraging development in part of the Pine Hills
area. These lands are high and mostly well drained. Prior
to subdivision, the land was mainly used as range land?
therefore, it was not unduly expensive to purchase for urban
uses. Hence, the land was cheap enough that a large block
was bought and developed at the same time. In contrast, it
was not possible to buy such extensive acreages for subdi
vision in the Lake Conway area (Figure 26).
2. On the other hand, the Lake Conway area has great
attraction because of its lake front residential sites. As
a result, all around the lakes high-value, urban-residential
development has occurred. In the northwest and to the east
of Lake Conway, three canals have been dug to connect with
Lake Conway. The residential development in these lake


103
Range land. Includes unimproved grazing land. Much of
this land found in the urban fringe is not presently grazed.
Because of poor soil and drainage conditions or for other
reasons, some of this range land cannot be used successfully
for crops and improved pasture without considerable improve
ment. In a sense these lands may now be considered as being
idle land. However, for purposes of this study such land
has been classified according to its last previous use unless
observable evidence of a change to another use is in the
process of taking place. Range land occupies 5,579 acres or
12 per cent of the total land area of the urban fringe and
is scattered widely throughout the fringe area as described
in detail elsewhere.
Woodland. The woodland of the urban fringe of Orlando
is mostly open pine stands with more than 10 per cent crown
cover as defined by the U.S. Forest Service. Much of this
#
woodland has been cutover so that the present stocking of
the woodland area of the urban fringe is seldom very high.
Much of the fringe area is very poorly stocked. Since much
of this poorly stocked woodland has been grazed in recent
years, it is often classified locally as unimproved range or
grazing land along with other range which has a stocking
rate of less than 10 per cent. Insofar as possible urban
uses of this woodland are concerned, it should be borne in
mind that there is very little difference between the site
characteristics of the range land and woodland of the urban
fringe as classified in this study. These woodlands are


98
urban fringe. Farmsteads and some scattered residences are
not included in this category. Generally, these uses existed
prior to the impact of urbanization within the area covered
by this study. Therefore, unless such prior uses have been
engulfed or have merged with the new land uses associated
with urban growth, they are considered as a part of the
rural or non-built-up part of the urban fringe. The term
"built-up** as used in this study includes all land on which
buildings or other major improvements such as paved roads,
airports, parking lots, race tracks, or other similar facil
ities have been located. Urban land occupies 16,600 acres
or more than 37 per cent of the total land area of the urban
fringe (Figure 8).
Citrus groves. Groves of all ages are included in this
category. Citrus groves from which trees have been partially
removed for the erection of residences and other structures
are not included in this category. Often when residences
are constructed on land previously occupied by groves, two
rows of citrus trees are removed for the streets. Another
row or two are removed for the houses. Generally, one or
two rows of trees are left standing in the front yards and
another row or two remain in the back yards. These trees
are generally healthy and of bearing age. Some of the fruit
may be sold commercially, although most of it is consumed by
the household. The principal use of such land which was
formerly in citrus groves is therefore now considered to be
urban residential. Very few if any trees are left when


146
lands when used for non-urban purposes. The present time is
the most opportune time to begin laying plans for a better
adjustment in land use for the future in the metropolitan
area, but so far there is little evidence that Orlando or
other rapidly growing urban areas in Florida will soon find
a satisfactory solution to this problem.
In Orange County in the Orlando metropolitan area, if a
master plan is made, proper care should be given to prevent
unnecessary encroachment of urban uses upon the productive
cropland, particularly that which is suitable for citrus
production. This study within the urban fringe of Orlando
reveals that the conversion of citrus groves, other cropland,
and improved pastureland to urban uses has gone on largely
unnoticed. Land in flower gardening, horticulture, and nur
sery should also be permitted within the fringe, because the
increase in population will tend to increase the number of
landscape businesses within an easy reach from the urban
center. Preservation of citrus groves will not only help
maintain citrus production, but will also act as a "buffer
zone" among the urban congested areas. Recreational bene
fits can also result in some instances when such areas are
left open.
The master plan should be based on a study of resources,
problems, needs, and potantials of Orange County or of the
Orlando metropolitan area. As Solberg points out, The mas
ter plan is a blueprint that suggests how present and future


81
TABLE 8
SEQUENCE OF SUBDIVISION DEVELOPMENT IN INCORPORATED AREASa
IN THE
ORLANDO
FRINGE AREAS,
1947-1960
Fringe Area
Incorporated Areas3
Period
Sub
division
(acres)
Percentage
of total
subdivided
land
Sub
division
(acres)
Percentage
of total
subdivided
land
March, 1947-
April, 1953
2, 325
21.2
1, 119
10.2
May, 1953-
December, 1957
2, 317
21.1
1, 905
17.3
January, 1958-
January, 1960
3, 156
28.8
155
1.4
Total
percentage
71.1
29.9
incorporated areas include Orlando, Winter Park, Mait
land, and Etonville.


133
in sections 7, 18, 19, and 30, Township 22 south of Range 29
east; sections 24 and 25, Township 22 south of Range 28 east;
section 2, Township 23 south of Range 30 east; and sections
20 and 30, Township 23 south of Range 29 east have striking
examples of the expansion of the built-up area onto land
previously used as range and woodland.
Urban expansion in the western part of the fringe area
on the higher land has occurred mostly on Blanton, Orlando,
Eustis, and Lakeland soils. These soils have good natural
drainage, rapid permeability, and a deep water table and,
thus, are rated good for septic tanks. Therefore, urban ex
pansion in these sections of the fringe is justified from
the physical point of view. But the major expansion in the
77'
eastern and southern side since 1954 is mainly concentrated
on Immokalee, Leon, and Pomello soils. Immokalee fine sand
is somewhat poorly and has a shallow water table and is
rated poor for the site of building structures. Leon fine
sand and Pomello fine sand have somewhat better natural
drainage; and, therefore, are rated fair for building sites.
Building construction on these soils should demand attention
to the proper management of drainage. The cost of providing
proper drainage for closely built-up residential development
on such soils was undoubtedly a deterrent of some importance
during the earlier part of the expansion of the Orlando ur
ban fringe.
Major agricultural uses of land within the urban fringe
are citrus groves, cropland, and pastureland. The decrease


CHAPTER V
LAND USE IN SELECTED AREAS IN THE URBAN FRINGE
The general pattern of urban expansion and the charac
teristics of land-use changes since 1947 have been described
and analyzed in Chapter IV. Two areas were selected for
more detailed study of land-use characteristics within the
urban fringe of Orlando. In general, the selected areas may
be considered as typical or representative of most of the
urban fringe insofar as land-use conditions are concerned.
However, no attempt was made to draw any generalization that
all fringe areas are similar to the segments studied. Be
cause of the rapid growth of the city of Orlando and Orange
County, many different forces and factors can change the
situation in other parts of the fringe area.
The major objectives of studying the two areas in de
tail were to present: (1) the variations in the intermix
ture of urban and rural land uses which is a very signifi
cant characteristic worthy of attention in the urban fringe
of Orlando, and (2) to bring out the general physical and
cultural conditions under which the recent development in
the two study areas has occurred. The two areas chosen for
study were the Pine Hills area in survey section 24, Town
ship 22 south of Range 28 east and the Lake Conway area in
148


181
front areas is marked by good construction and fine land
scaping (Figure 27). Yet, within the same area, much low-
value housing is to be found. There is also a marked degree
of intermixture of rural and urban uses without much atten
tion given to the future problems being created by this in
termixture. The character of the surrounding land use is
extremely important for high-value residential developments.
3. It is probable that all land in both of the selected
study areas will be absorbed by urban developments in the
future and it has been zoned as single-family dwellings by
the Orange County Zoning Commission. It is probably only a
matter of time before the rural land will be sold for urban
development, yet there is still practically no planning for
this difficult transition between the rural and urban uses
of the land that must take place. Without meaningful and
effective planning, haphazard urban growth will continue.


67
of Florida but more particularly in Orange County near the
city of Orlando.1 During this period Orange County had a
population increase of more than 150 per cent and the broad
economic base was laid for the economic developments and
achievements of the present period. During the last two dec
ades, central Florida and Orange County in particular have
experienced remarkably fast growth with an increasing diver
sification of the economy. The predominantly agricultural
economy of the county existing in the twenties has now de
veloped into an economy identified with major interests not
only in agriculture but also in manufacturing, construction,
transportation, utilities, government services, marketing,
and tourism.^ At the present time, 75 per cent of the popu
lation of Orange County is employed in various industrial
services and related sectors of the economy. The remaining
25 per cent of the population is engaged in the agricultural
sector.3 Among the specific factors and industries contribu
ting to the economic growth of Orlando and its urban fringe,
several deserve attention including the following* central
location as a commercial center with hinterland of highly
productive agricultural land, favorable position with respect
to the tourist business, presence of federal employment
^"George W. Simmons, Jr., "Comprehensive City Planning,
Orlando, Florida," Prepared by George W. Simmons, Jr., Plan
ning Consultant, Jacksonville, Florida, Volume I, p. 15.
2Ibid.
3
Letter from Mr. R. 0. Jacobsen, Orange County Zoning
Board Director, Orlando, Florida.


BIBLIOGRAPHY
Anderson, James R. Land Use and Development of Southeastern
Coastal Plain. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricul
ture Information Bulletin No. 154. Washington: U.S.
Government Printing Office, 1956.
Anderson, Neis. The Urban Community: A World Perspective.
New York: Henry Holt and Company, 1959.
Andrews, Richard B. "Elements in the Urban-Fringe Pattern,"
Journal of the Land and Public Utilities Economics,
XVIII (May, 1942), 169-183.
Arpke, Frederick. Land Use Control in the Urban Fringe of
Portland, Oregon," Journal of Land and Public Utilities
Economics, XVIII (November, 1942), 468-480.
Bair, Fred H. Jr. "Florida PopulationState, Regions and
Counties," Florida Planning and Development, XI, No. 7
(July, 1960), 1-4.
Barlowe, R. Land Resource Economics, the Political Economy
of Rural and Urban Land Resource Use. Englewood Cliffs,
N.J.: Prentice Hall, 1958.
. "Minimizing Adverse Effects of Major Shifts in
Land Use," Journal of Farm Economics, XV, No. 5, (Decem
ber, 1958), 1339-1348.
Berkman, Herman G. "Decentralization and Blighted Vacant
Land," Land Economics, XXXII (1956), 270-280.
Blackman, William Fremont. History of Orange County, Florida.
Deland, Florida: The E. O. Painter Printing Company,
1927.
Blizzard, S. W. "Research on Rural-Urban Fringe," Sociology
and Social Research, XXXVIII, No. 3 (1954), 143-149.
, and Anderson, William. "Problems of Rural-Urban
Fringe Research: Conceptualization and Delineation,"
The Pennsulvania State College Progress Report, No. 89
(November, 1952), pp. 1-26.
Board of County Commissioners, Orange County, Florida.
Orange County Plat Law. 1959. (Mimeographed.)
190


184
The study of land-use patterns in two selected areas
within the urban fringe revealed a high degree of hetero
geneity of urban and rural land uses that exists in the ur
ban fringe of Orlando. Some of the undesirable land-use
conditions existing in these two areas illustrate the in
adequacy in planning; therefore, good planning is most ur
gently needed for proper future guidance of urban growth in
Orange County.
About 22,600 acres, which is approximately 51 per cent
of the total land within the urban fringe have been subdi
vided. Within the subdivisions recorded since 1947, approx
imately 80 per cent have been built up. Considerable areas
of land that were subdivided before 1947 on the south and
west side of the urban fringe are not yet developed because
of their location, the inadequacy of proper planning, small
ness of lots for modern houses, and unfavorable physical
conditions.
Several methods of delineating the rural-urban fringe
around cities have been used. The methodological procedure
used for this study of the Orlando urban fringe places major
emphasis upon the uses made of land on the fringe of urban
growth. All survey sections of 640 acres having 25 per cent
or more subdivided or built-up land contiguous to the city
of Orlando were delineated as the urban fringe. The urban
fringe of Orlando thus delineated has a total of 49,280
acres compared to 13,440 within the city itself. Thus, the
urban fringe has approximately four times the area found
within the central city.


87
Highway 50 to State Highway 15A and turns right and travels
5.1 miles southward.
Although only a small part of the total area of about
3,000 acres currently planned has been subdivided and only a
few houses have been built, the East Orlando area is a strik
ing example of large-scale subdivision development that is
now taking place on the east side of the fringe area. It is
to be a well-planned, modern residential area with all facil
ities for schools, churches, recreational areas, shopping
centers, and other city conveniences. Even a town hall has
been embodied in the plans for East Orlando.
The developers of East Orlando, realizing the signifi
cance of proper recreational facilities, have made plans for
ample recreational areas. Each of the four school sites,
which include a 40-acre Junior High and Senior High School
site, will be adjoined by a large playground area equipped
with all facilities for children of every age. A 150-acre
golf course and a clubhouse is to be build in the center of
the hug tract of East Orlando.
East Orlando provides modern, architecturally-designed,
low-priced homes. Several model homes have been built; the
two- and three-bedroom models range in price from $9,750 to
$12,800. There are models as low as $11,750 with central
heating and air conditioning.
East Orlando developers have all plans of city conven
iences for fringe dwellers. Paved sidewalks and curbs,
street lights, and fire hydrants are among the smaller


70
Air Force Base, which is located about eight miles from the
center of the city at the southeastern corner of the urban
fringe area.
Orlando Air Force Base units provide important crew
training services in photography, chart making, air rescue,
and tactical missiles for the Air Force. A total of 3,000
military personnel plus 700 civilian employees perform these
services. Operations of the base in 1959 contributed approx
imately 25 million dollars to the economy of the Orlando area.
This included payroll, local purchase, and contracts. In
addition, the Orlando Procurement District Office, located
in Orlando, awarded some 70 million dollars in contracts in
the central Florida area. Another important contribution to
the area's economy is the estimated 15 million dollars in
annual income of the approximately 3,000 retired military
personnel who are attracted by and look to the two Air Force
bases in Orlando for certain services.1 McCoy Air Force
Base has 4,800 personnel with an annual payroll of more than
17 million dollars. Unquestionably these two Air Force
bases have contributed substantially to the Orlando area's
economic growth.
In recent years, the Orlando area has experienced
healthy industrial growth. A major industry to locate in
the Orlando area in recent years has been the Martin Company
which produces missiles. Accompanying its location in the
^Greater Orlando Chamber of Commerce, H. Stuart
Johnston, Manager, Statistical Data, Orlando, Florida (1960),
p. 77.


17
structure. The urban fringe was mainly characterized by the
composition of "urban residential and non-residential" uses
with acreage of vacant building lands. Andrew's idea of
separating the fringe areas into two classes is a useful
concept for the study of land use in fringe areas.
Arpke's research on Portland, Oregon, was also concerned
with the land-use structure of the fringe area. Using the
political boundary of the central city as the inner limit of
the fringe, he defined urban fringe as "cultural development
that has taken place outside the political boundaries of
central cities and extends to the areas of predominantly ag
ricultural activity."1 He emphasized the importance of rec
ognizing this political boundary of the central city in the
study of the urban fringe. Without such a limitation, fringe
development associated with the peripheral growth of cities
cannot be adequately traced. Arpke's report comprised a
general description of population, land-use patterns, and
the governmental framework. Emphasis on the need for a reme
dial program against "the wasteful disposition of the land
resources in the urban fringe"2 is especially noteworthy.
During World War II, a number of articles were published
on various phenomena of the urban fringe. Bringe3 published
^Frederick Arpke, "Land Use Control in the Urban Fringe
of Portland, Oregon," Journal of Land and Public Utilities
Economics. XVIII (November, 1942), 468.
2Ibid.. 478.
3
Victor Bringe, "Urban Fringe Studies of Two Wisconsin
Cities: A Summary," Journal of Land and Public Utilities
Economics, XXI (November, 1945), 375-382.


174
design in these subdivisions is rectangular. The 1961 land-
use map (Figure 24) shows that very little acreage in these
subdivisions has been utilized for any urban use. in the
early period of subdivision activity between 1920 and 1930
these lands were subdivided as speculative ventures. In a
very real sense these lands may now be termed as "blighted
areas, since they are mostly unused and unusable unless
considerable improvement in drainage is carried out and un
less replotting with proper plot design is undertaken. For
example, the 80-acre subdivision of Orange Heights was sub
divided into lots of 25 feet by 140 feet. Most residences
now being built in the Orlando area would require a minimum
front footage of 70 feet. These "blighted areas" are the
inevitable product of premature subdivision of rural lands
for urban purposes.
Between April, 1947 and October, 1956, only 18 acres
were subdividedmostly to the northeast of Lake Blanche.
In this period about 5 per cent of the total land subdivision
acreage was recorded. The approximate lot size in these
subdivisions is 70 feet by 120 feet. However, during this
period the main part of the Pine Hills subdivision, which lies
adjacent to the study area on the east, was being rapidly
built up.
Since November, 1956 to January, 1960, about 200 acres
have been subdivided, which is approximately half of the
total subdivided land in the Pine Hills area. The Robins-
wood subdivision occupies the entire northeastern quadrant


66
The economic base
The economic base of any urban area such as Orlando is
generally made up of many intricately related components.
This economic base is not static but is dynamic and changes
occur from time to time. Furthermore, the economy of any
urban center is so intimately related to and influenced by
the resources and development of the surrounding region that
it is not possible to discuss adequately the urban economy
without reference to the whole region. The economy of Or
lando and its urban fringe must be discussed within such a
framework. Most of the people of Orlando and of the urban
fringe are currently employed in some way. Relatively few
living in Orlando and its urban fringe are completely re
tired. Therefore, an attempt is made here to discuss in a
general way the economic conditions which are responsible
for the present development of the urban fringe area of
Orlando.
The early settlement and economic development of the Or
lando area bears little resemblance to the present pattern
of economic activities. The very early settlers of Orlando
came mainly for the sake of health. They did not find any
great economic attraction in the vicinity. But soon Orlando
developed an agricultural base related chiefly to citrus
crops, small truck-farms, beef cattle ranching, and dairying.
A few sawmills also employed some people. Cheap land was an
important attraction for the early settlers. The decade
from 1915 to 1925 was a period of intensive economic growth
and new land development throughout the entire central part


136
fringe delineated for this study. If growth continues at a
rapid pace, the fringe periphery based on the criteria used
for study will soon continue its outward migration into ad
jacent predominantly rural areas.
It will be found upon careful examination of Figures 12
and 3 that most of the land areas that are being affected by
urban development are in land capability classes III and IV
according to the classification employed by the U.S. Soil
Conservation Service in evaluating the suitability of land
for agricultural uses. It is significant to note, however,
in this connection that there is no Class I land in Orange
County and that Class II land is also limited in extent.
From an agricultural point of view, Class III land is the
most extensive soil for citrus production within the county.
But many of the urban land developers of the fringe area
have leaned heavily toward choosing the better citrus soils
for residential building sites. An overall view of the
principal areas of the urban fringe that have been developed
shows that urbanization is making its greatest gains in
those areas which also provide the most favorable physical
environment for agriculture in the county. The soil map
(Figure 3) reveals that soil groups 1, 2, and 3 have the
most suitable soils for urban development. Soil groups 1
and 3 are within land capability Class III and soil group 2
falls in capability Class IV. Besides citrus, these groups
of soils with proper management are suited to home gardens
and to the growing of ornamentals. These three soil groups
occupy 7,165 acres, or approximately 31 per cent of the


R-29E
S&I
Figure 18


145
developments (Figure 4). An extremely irregular mass of
subdivided lands is scattered throughout the fringe area.
The lack of planning has resulted in a maladjustment of land
use to physical conditions, poor layout of residential, com
mercial, and industrial areas, premature subdivision, drain
age problems, premature abandonment of citrus groves and
other valuable cropland, and other related conditions.
Of course, any proposed land-use planning program will
need to face the question: Should an attempt be made to
maintain highly developed agricultural lands within the ur
ban fringe; and, if so, how can this best be done? Due to
the great discrepancy between the agricultural value and ur
ban value of land, the rural land owner will nearly always
T'-
seek to sell his land rather than to keep it in agricultural
uses. To save desirable agricultural lands, there is a need
for comprehensive study of alternative areas suitable for
urban development which are not of great agricultural value;
and even more important there must be some provisions made
for maintaining the agricultural use of lands well-suited to
agricultural production. This means that the individual
rights of the owner to sell his land for urban uses must be
prohibited or controlled. How this can be accomplished in
fairness to all concerned is a major problem. If expansion
of urban development onto land of good quality for agricul
ture is not permitted, then the owner of poor quality land
for agricultural purposes will reap benefits considerably in
excess of the reasonable expectation of profit from such


178
topography. Furthermore, curved street patterns slow auto
mobile traffic in residential areas and thereby reduce acci
dents. One of the problems facing these two selected study
areas is the general lack of sidewalks and street lights.
Electricity and telephone service are available in all sub
divisions. Water is supplied either by private wells or by
small companies set up to take care of individuals.
The subdivision of land is always basic in the formation
and growth of urban areas. Every time a parcel of land is
subdivided into smaller plots for building sites, the pat
tern is set for another increment in urban growth. Consider
able information should be obtained in order to make the
basic decisions which are necessary at the outset for well-
planned urban development. The physical condition of the
site, adjacent land uses, and the various relationships of
the site to the city as a wholeparticularly the location
of residential property in relation to main transportation
routes, shopping facilities, schools, churches, parks, and
other community facilitiesshould be carefully studied.
The subdivision of cropland and citrus land in the central
part of the Lake Conway area has resulted in much intermix
ture of rural and urban land uses. These subdivisions are
partially developed, mostly with low and medium-value houses.
Some of the cropland and citrus groves are still in commer
cial production, while other cropland and citrus groves are
awaiting urban development.
The problem of premature subdivision such as has oc
curred in the southeastern part of the Pine Hills area


7
urbanization.1 In addition to the land which is actually
built up as a city expands into the adjacent countryside,
there is much land which is often removed from productive
agricultural uses considerably in advance of the time that
it goes fully into urban uses.
The land within the urban fringe lies in a stage of
transition and gives rise to a situation where there is
bound to be a marked degree of struggle and competition.
Without any form of planning or control concerning the use
to which a piece of land is put, its use is finally decided
by the price which is offered for it. In this situation
where economic forces are permitted to operate freely, the
development of land for urban uses will in nearly all in
stances replace even the most intensive agricultural uses of
land. Thus, agriculture is bound to lose out in the competi
tion for such land with other interests in the long run un
less some kind of social control supersedes the play of eco
nomic forces. Decisions relative to the regulation of land
uses in local, state, and national levels are constantly
being made in this country. Restrictions are being placed
on the uses of land in the best interests of society as a
whole.
This problem related to land-use changes occurring
around cities due to rapid population growth is facing
^Wooten and Anderson, Major Uses of Land in the United
States, op. cit., p. 26.
2
G. P. Wibberly, Agriculture and Urban Growth; A Study
of the Competition for Rural Land (Londons Michael Joseph,
1959), p. 23.


112
of State Highway 50 and the Orlando city limit, and the
other one north of Lawne Lake are very prominent in this
part of the fringe area. Land between these swamps is in
improved pasture. Large tracts of low land have been re
claimed and converted to improved pastureland by draining
the water through ditches into the adjoining lakes and swamps.
Compared to the western part of this area, small tracts of
land are very scattered in their distribution and extent of
urban use.
The physical nature of the land and the transportation
pattern are two significant factors which have played an im
portant role in the development of present land uses within
this western region of the fringe area. The western region,
where most of the block-type, residential development has
occurred, is high with approximately 120 feet or more eleva
tion above sea level. This part of the fringe is very rol
ling with many small sinkholes which increases its attrac
tiveness for close settlement of this area. Furthermore, in
addition to highways 50, 411, and 526, other roads such as
the Silver Star Road, aligned in an east-west direction, and
the Pine Hills road, aligned in a north-south direction,
serve as very important links between the city of Orlando and
the outer part of this western sector of the urban fringe.
In sharp physical contrast, the eastern part of this western
sector is low-lying and swampy. Therefore, urban development
has occurred only on high lands where there is no drainage
problem, whereas other areas are in less intensive rural
uses.


180
CHANGES IN PATTERNS OF LAND USE
IN THE PINE HILLS AREA
A View Looking North, Showing Block Type Residential Development;
Single Family Housing And Irregular Street Pattern On Rolling Land.
O I Mile
i 1 D. MOOKHERJEE 1961
1947
Figure 26


94
Between 1954 and 1959, values have increased more than double
in both the states.
Table 9 presents the market value of specified types of
land in Florida as estimated in a recent report by the United
States Department of Agriculture.2
TABLE 9
ESTIMATED MARKET VALUE OF SPECIFIED TYPES
OF LAND IN FLORIDA
Market value per acrea
Type of land
(in dollars)
Average Range*3
Bearing citrus groves:
Oranges, early and midseason
Oranges, valencia
2, 500
2, 750
1,800-3,500
1,900-3,500
Grapefruit, seedless varieties
Grapefruit, seedy varieties
2, 200
1, 750
1,000-3,000
1,000-2,750
Raw or undeveloped land suitable
for:
Citrus planting
Truck and vegetables
400
225
250- 600
150- 350
Developed land used for:
Truck and vegetables
Improved pasture
400
225
250- 600
150- 300
aBased on estimates supplied by
farm real
estate re-
porters who were asked to estimate current market values ex
cluding buildings and nonbearing fruit acreage.
^Excludes highest and lowest 10 per cent of reported
values.
*-U.S. Department of Agriculture, Current Developments
in the Farm Real Estate Market, Economic Research Service,
NEG. ERS 111-61(4) (May, 1961), p. 11
2Ibid., p. 13.


189
urban uses already exists within the urban fringe of Orlando.
It is obvious from what has happened in the urban fringe
that this is due to the generally rapid economic development,
improvement of transportation, and to the increase of popula
tion in the state as a whole and in the Orlando area in par
ticular. Present trends indicate a continued increase in
population in the Orlando metropolitan area. As a result,
the area will experience considerable future population
growth which will take place mainly in the rural areas out
side the present corporate limits of the city. Information
such as that in this study about past and present land-use
conditions in the urban fringe of Orlando should be helpful
in planning for future land requirements as rural land of
different kinds is being shifted into urban uses. Adverse
effects of shifts in land use such as those occurring in the
Orlando urban fringe will thus be minimized. In planning
for the future, recognition should be given to possible long
range advantages to the county, state, and nation of saving
certain kinds of land for future agricultural needs.
This study has not been oriented toward the solution of
any specific land-use problems, but it is hoped that the
findings of this study dealing with the past and present use
of land in the urban fringe of Orlando will serve as a use
ful contribution to the body of knowledge necessary for the
sound future development of this and similar areas in Florida
and in the nation as a whole.


BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH
Debnath Mookherjee was born January 1, 1933, in
Darjeeling, India. After graduating from Siliguri High
English School (Darjeeling) in March, 1947, he entered at
Vidyasagar College, Calcutta, and was granted the Bachelor
of Science degree with Distinction in May, 1951. His grad
uate study was begun in June, 1951, at the University College
of Science at Calcutta with the Master of Science degree
conferred in June 1953. He also was enrolled at the Univer
sity College of Law, Calcutta and completed the course work
for the degree of Bachelor of Laws in 1954. In 1955, he
accepted a position on the faculty of Maharaja Monindra
Chandra College, Calcutta, and held that appointment until
he came to the United States for his graduate study. Since
September, 1958, until the present time, he has pursued his
graduate study towards the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in
Geography. During this period he was appointed Graduate
Assistant, Graduate Teaching Assistant, and Graduate Fellow
through the Department of Geography and the College of Arts
and Sciences, respectively. He is a Fellow of the Geographi
cal Society of India, Calcutta; and a member of the Associa
tion of American Geographers, Washington, D.C.; the Geog
raphical Association, Sheffield; and the Canadian Associa
tion of Geographers, Ottawa.
196


38
have some vegetation in them. In the areas around Pine Castle
Air Force Base drainage ditches have been,constructed con
necting Lake Warren and the Boggy Creek swamp area.
The influence of topography and drainage on the land use
in the urban fringe of Orlando is pronounced. High and well
drained lands in the north, west, and south are the best
citrus lands. On the gentle slopes of land around lakes,
due to air drainage, citrus cultivation is more heavily con
centrated. Today, however, the land-use pattern within the
fringe area is changing. The citrus lands are considered to
be among the best residential sites because of their higher
elevation and the presence of lakes. The low-lying water
logged swamps and marshes do not offer such favorable sites
for urban development. These low-lying lands, which occupy
considerable area to the east of Orlando, are not suitable
for agricultural production either unless considerable im
provement in drainage and good management practices are un
dertaken on these lands. However, the possibilities of
using such low-lying land for agriculture or urban develop
ment have been enhanced in recent years by the increasing
availability of heavy earth-moving equipment and other tech
nological advances necessary for economical drainage of such
areas.
Geologic structure
Geologically, Orange County, including Orlando and its
urban fringe area, is' located on the southeast slope of the
Ocala uplift. The dip of the Ocala limestone in this area


This dissertation was prepared under the direction
of the chairman of the candidate's supervisory committee and
has been approved by all members of that committee. It was
submitted to the Dean of the College of Arts & Sciences and
to the Graduate Council, and was approved as partial ful
fillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of
Philosophy.
August, 1961
Dean, College of Ai/cs
Sciences
Supervisory Committees


63
the early site for the pioneer settlement in the Orlando
area is another explanation of the higher density in this
part of the urban fringe. In contrast to this situation,
the urban fringe area lying immediately west of Orlando,
in the sections of 8, 9, 16, and 17 of Township 22 south,
Range 29 east, have low densities compared to those just
described for the Conway area. These sections have only
300 persons per square mile of land area. A major cause for
these low densities is the high proportion of low-lying land
and the poor drainage conditions in this part of the urban
fringe which have not offered as favorable building sites as
the other area.
The region lying west of Lowne Lake which is bounded by
Lake Breeze Road on the north, Hiawassa on the west, and
State Highway 526 on the south has a population of over
14,000. This area is often referred to as the Pine Hills
development. This is a very rapidly growing area and has a
population density of approximately 2,000 persons per square
mile. The Pine Hills area as referred to here consists of
sections 7, 18, 19, and 30 of Township 22 south, Range 29
east? sections 13, 24, 25 of Township 22 south, Range 28
east. There are several major attractions for the popula
tion concentration in this area. The physical characteris
tics of the land, which is rolling and dry, is one advantage.
The transportation system is excellent. Colonial Drive and
Silver Star Road are oriented in an east-west direction,
while the Hiawassa road and the Pine Hills road cut the area
in a north-south direction and give good access to the


160
time makes the subdivision more attractive for some people.
However, some people do not like to have citrus trees in
their front or back yards because it means more work to clean
and maintain the lawn and sometimes there are the problems
of weeds and rotting fruit in the lawn. Insects are also
often attracted by the citrus trees. Therefore, to many
people, citrus trees in their yards do not mean a very great
attraction.
Altogether, citrus groves occupy about 160 acres, of
which 124 acres are mature groves capable of producing fruit.
In 1947, the Lake Conway area had more than 240 acres in
citrus groves. So, it is found that citrus groves have de
clined by 80 acres in the last 14 years. The present distri
bution of urban residential homes amongst the citrus groves,
especially between Fern Creek Avenue on the west and Bumby
Avenue on the east, clearly shows that these lands were pre
viously occupied by citrus groves. The major concentrations
of the groves are found in the northwestern corner of the
study area between Fern Creek Road on the west and Lake Mar
garet Drive on the south, along the west side of Bumby Ave
nue from the county road rforth to Lake Margaret Drive, and
in patches southwest of Lake Margaret and northeast of Lake
Grange. Some of the citrus groves have been subdivided; for
example, the grove surrounded by medium-value houses on the
northwestern side of Lake Grange was subdivided in the early
forties. Out of a total of about 160 acres of citrus groves,
approximately 60 acres are now subdivided. Of this citrus


28
concerned mainly with the analysis of land-use patterns and
change.
Based on the selected literature reviewed in developing
the methodology for the present study, the following gener
alizations can be made:
1. Most of the earlier studies are characteristically
descriptive in nature. Smith, Salter, Wehrwein,
Andrews, and Arpke contributed valuable thought in
the general understanding of the urban fringe con
cept. In the study of the Orlando urban fringe
their research was useful as the theoretical founda
tion and for the general understanding of this prob
lem.
2. In later years, the research of Myers and Beegle,
Rodehaver, Martin, Blizzard, and Anderson was con
cerned mainly with a more precise delineation of
urban fringe boundaries. In these studies, the
fringe concept was variously defined and different
criteria were used in determining urban fringe
areas. Again these studies were helpful in develop
ing a method for delineating the urban fringe of
Orlando, Florida.
3. In spite of the considerable attention given to ur
ban fringe studies by researchers from various dis
ciplines, only a few concrete works concerning the
land-use problems of the urban fringe were found in
the literature. Several related questions have


14
The methodological procedure for delimiting the Orlando
fringe area is also presented.
Although many studies with a similar approach but with
different objectives have been made in other parts of the
country, the present study is the first known to the author
that has been made in Florida.
The Fringe Concept
In one of the earliest studies, which was made in 1937,
Smith used the term "urban fringe" to include the "built up
area Just outside the corporate limits of the city.
Smith's conception of the fringe area was based on the con
centration of non-village, rural-non-farm population and the
characteristics of land uses outside the city limits. Night
club, tourist camp, filling station, and low-cost residential
areas along the highways were described as the predominant
uses of land in the urban fringe. Smith's study is concerned
mainly with the demographic characteristics of Louisiana.
Thus, he presents only a general rather than a specific con
ceptualization of the urban fringe.
Salter, in 1940, stated that the urban-rural fringe was
an area which has a mixture of land uses that are related
to farming and to urban interests . .2
^T. Lynn Smith, The Population of Louisiana: Its Com
position and Changes, Louisiana Bulletin No. 293 (November,
1937), p. 24.
2
Leonard A. Salter, Jr., "Land Classification Along the
Rural-Urban Fringe," University of Missouri Agriculture
Experiment Station, Bulletin No. 421 (December, 1940), p. 24.


10
involved. For this study, basic information was wanted on
the amount of land in the various uses and the kind of land
that was changing in use. The previous use to which land
was put before a change took place and the nature of the new
use after a change was made were also studied. Such informa
tion can be collected either by direct observation in the
study area or by indirect methods such as by interpretation
of aerial photographs. Direct observation, i.e., field
methods providing information that is both accurate and de
tailed, is extremely expensive. Furthermore, the identifica
tion of areas of changes in land use and the preparation of
a land-use map showing uses before changes occurred is very
difficult. Comparison and analysis of aerial photographs
are used extensively in land-use studies in the United
States, where the technique has provided a rapid and relative
ly inexpensive means of identifying and measuring changes in
the use of land. Therefore, it was decided to explore the
potentialities of using aerial photographs as a major source
of information about earlier land-use patterns in the Or
lando urban fringe area. Aerial photographs also provided
much helpful information about the present uses of land.
Three sets of aerial photographs taken in 1947, 1954, and
1958 were available for Orange County. While sacrificing
some detail and accuracy, the great gain in coverage possi
ble within a limited budget seemed to justify the use of
aerial photographs. The aerial photograph coverage of the
urban fringe areas for 1947 and 1954 was particularly


Page
Figure
20. Intermixture of vacant lots and low-value resi
dences 155
21. Low-value residence 157
22. High-value residence 159
23. Intermingling of urban and rural land uses in
the Lake Conway area 162
24. Land-use pattern, 1961, Pine Hills area .... 165
25. "Block type" residential developments on the
rolling land in the Pine Hills area 171
26. Changes in patterns of land use in the Pine Hills
area 180
27. A high-value residential area along the canal in
the Lake Conway area 182
Figure can be found in the pocket in the back of the
dissertation.
ix


61
is noteworthy. In all three decades this area surrounding
Orlando has had more rapid growth than Orlando itself (Table
5). During the past decade this condition has been acceler
ated. There are also notable differences between the popula
tion growth of the incorporated and unincorporated areas
around Orlando. While the incorporated area was increasing
by 23 per cent from 1930 to 1940, the unincorporated area
around Orlando was growing by 68 per cent during the same
period. During the past two decades the unincorporated
areas increased more than twice as fast as the incorporated
areas in the vicinity of Orlando. The growth of the unin
corporated area is, of course, strongly influenced by the
outward spread of the city of Orlando and these unincorpo
rated areas lie largely within the urban fringe. An esti
mate of the population within the urban fringe was made by
using an indirect approach since population data was not
available for survey township sections used as a unit in
this study.^ This estimate indicates that in 1960 approxi
mately 85,000 people or about 62 per cent of the population
of Orange County outside of Orlando was nucleated within the
urban fringe area of Orlando city as defined for purposes of
this study. Another 8 per cent of the population of Orange
County outside of Orlando is found in the nearby incorporated
places of Winter Park, Maitland, and Eatonville, which have
not been included in the urban fringe of Orlando for
'"Population estimation was derived from the number of
dwelling units multiplied by 3.5. The average number of oc
cupants in dwelling units as recorded in census tract data
in 1960 within the urban fringe for this study was 3.5.


166
32 per cent of the total subdivided land was recorded during
this period.
About six subdivisions totaling about 81 acres were
platted during the period November, 1956 through January,
1960. This shows that approximately one-fourth of the total
subdivision activity was carried on in this period. The
average lot size is 70 feet by 130 feet. These are located
north of Lake Stevens, on the east side of Lake Margaret,
and on the west side of Lake La Grange. In most of these
subdivisions, high-value houses are to be found. Especially
the subdivision lying north of Lake Stevens has the appear
ance of a very good residential area with clean lawns, and
sometimes there are expensive fences around the houses.
Some of the houses have two or three rows of citrus trees in
the front or back yards.
It is significant to note that 10 of the 15 subdivisions
in the Lake Conway area have less than 10 acres per subdi
vision. The variation in lot size in the older subdivisions
is due to the fact that until 1954 there was no plat law in
Orange County. The enforcement of the plat law has regulated
the minimum requirements of lot size, and it is found that
in all recent subdivisions the minimum front footage is 70
feet.
There is a distinct relationship between the older and
recent subdivisions in the quality and type of the dwellings.
The older subdivisions around Lake La Grange and Lake Mar
garet have larger lot sizes and have houses surrounded by


88
improvements. Plans also provide for a three-quarter million
dollar private water and sewer system. Florida Power Corpora
tion and Southern Bell Telephone will supply electrical and
telephone service respectively.


LIST OF TABLES
Table Page
1. Total and Urban Population in Florida,
1940-1960 2
2. Geologic Formations Penetrated by Wells in Orange
County 40
3. Physical and Engineering Characteristics of Soils
Grouped According to Their Suitability for
Urban Development 46
4. Temperature and Precipitation at Orlando
Municipial Airport, Orange County, Florida . 54
5. Population of Orange County, 1930 to 1960 .... 60
6. The Principal Industries in Orange County, 1959 73
7. Subdivision of Land in the Orlando Urban Fringe,
1947-61 80
8. Sequence of Subdivision Development in Incor
porated Areas in the Orlando Fringe Areas,
1947-1960 81
9. Estimated Market Value of Specified Types of Land
in Florida 94
10. Land-Use Patterns in the Orlando Urban Fringe,
1961 107
11. Land-use Changes in the Orlando Urban Fringe,
1947-1954 126
12. Land-Use Changes in the Orlando Urban Fringe,
1954-1961 126
13. Land-Use Changes in the Orlando Urban Fringe,
1947-1961 127
14. Pattern of Land Use in the Lake Conway Area, 1961 153
15. Pattern of Subdivision Developments in Lake
Conway Area 164
vi


Ill
built-up uses are the predominant uses. Very little evidence
of effective planning of land use exists in this ribbon de
velopment along U.S. Highway 441. On the highlands around
the lakes, citrus groves are still the prominant use among
the rural land uses in the northern part of this northwestern
area of the urban fringe of Orlando.
Land use in the western sector of the urban fringe as
delimited above may in a general way be divided into two
parts. The western half of the sector shows the intermingling
of urban, woodland, and range land uses. The urban built-up
areas occupy large tracts of land among woodland and range
land uses. This is one of the main characteristics of much
of the urban land use of this sector, which clearly presents
the picture of block development of residential use that has
occurred in the urban fringe areas of Orlando. The subdi
viders, developers, and promoters have acquired range land
and woodland in this part of the fringe area and have built
attractive residential subdivisions. The value of houses is
mostly between $10,000 to $15,000. Homes in this area are
occupied mainly by persons having medium incomes. A few
small tracts of citrus groves are located along the outer
margin of the urban fringe in this western sector.
The eastern part of this western sector of the urban
fringe is mostly occupied by rural land uses. Pasture land,
cropland, and range land mainly predominate in this part.
Swamps and lakes also have considerable acreage in this part
of the fringe. Two big areas of swamp, one at the junction


72
Along with the location of the Martin Company near Or
lando a new wave of other industries such as electronics and
aircraft grew in importance. The total number of major manu
facturing establishments in Orange County is 290. These es
tablishments employed 16,000 persons in 1959. Due to the
very rapid growth of the city and the urban fringe area,
building and construction, finance, insurance, and real es
tate establishments have increased very rapidly in recent
years. These industries employ over 15,000 persons, or
nearly 20 per cent of the total labor force. Besides, many
industrial parks have been created to meet the needs of
these research, manufacturing, and distributing enterprises.
Table 6 reveals the industrial patterns of Orange County.
Retail trade and service industries dominate in number of
establishments. Manufacturing and retail trade employ
about 40 per cent of the total industrial employment.
Of particular interest in this study is the impact of
this new urban development associated with industrialization
upon the agricultural economy of Orange County and especially
in the vicinity of Orlando. Beef and dairy cattle production
in the county have declined in recent years. The annual
cash income from these industries was quite high. According
to the 1954 Census of Agriculture the annual cash income
from the beef production was $870,224. The value of dairy
products was $2,072,092. The decline in dairy farming in
recent years is due in part to several conditions. Large
tracts of farm land formerly used for dairying have been


27
studies. The authors delineated the Williamsport, Pennsyl
vania, fringe boundary by automobile reconnaissance and in
spection methods. The inner boundary of the fringe was
determined at the point where city services cease to be com
plete. As a result in some cases, where city services were
not available, the fringe was extended into the corporate
area of the city.
With the aid of a general highway map of Lycoming
County, Pennsylvania, an automobile reconnaissance survey
was carried out along the peripheral highways of the city of
Williamsport. The outer fringe boundaries were drawn on the
map "at the approximate point where an urban pattern of liv
ing of some concentration yielded to a pattern of widely
scattered acreage lots with non-farm types of houses among
farms, or to pure farming or forest land use."1
This reconnaissance method was not used in the rapidly
expanding urban fringe area of Orlando because it was thought
that the field work needed for such a large urban fringe
would be too time consuming with respect to the information
obtained. The lack of uniformity in road density in all of
the peripheral areas was also another limitation of this ap
proach for the Orlando urban fringe. The reconnaissance
method also has a subjective element in it which makes it
hard for other researchers to use. Moreover, the criteria
used in the method would fall short of meeting the objectives
of this study. The present Orlando urban-fringe study is
1Ibid.


3
the fastest growth is concentrated in areas of Florida with
Florida climate." In central Florida, the Orlando area is
such a region which began "exploding" in recent years. Or
lando, with 88,135 persons within the city limits, is the
principal city in the central lake region of Florida and the
*
fifth largest in the state. Orlando is located at the place
where U.S. highways 17, 92, and 441 converge. The only
east-west connecting route, State Highway 50, passes through
the city of Orlando (Figure 1). The growth of the city of
Orlando and Orange County has been extremely rapid and in
many ways parallels the growth rate of the state as a whole.
Between 1950 and 1960 the population of Orlando increased by
68 per cent and that of Orange County by 130 per cent.
Broadly speaking, three important factors are responsible
for this high rate of population growth in the state. These
are agriculture, tourism, and industry.
Florida's climate with moderate temperatures and abun
dant rainfall was the principal factor in the early develop
ment of the traditional agricultural pursuits of the state.
Later on, the development of transportation and commercial
facilities have strengthened the agricultural economy.
While agriculture provided the basic economic foundation for
the state, tourism and recent commercial and industrial de
velopments are also major factors responsible for the sound
physical and economic growth of Florida. Florida today is
leading in the industrial development in the Southeast. The
factors mentioned above also have played a vital role in the


5
development of Orange County and the Orlando area. Citrus
fruits are by far the principal agricultural crop grown in
the Orlando area, and Orange County ranks third only to Polk
and Lake counties in the state in the acreage of citrus
fruit under cultivation. Many beautiful lakes in this county
offer attraction for tourists all round the year. The two
principal industries, citrus production and processing and
tourism have, until recently, formed the major basis of the
area's economy. In the past few years, however, a consider
able number of manufacturers have been attracted to Orlando
and vicinity.
These economic factors as outlined above have resulted
in a rapid population growth in Orlando and Orange County.
Orange County in 1960 has about 5.3 per cent of the total
state population. In 1950 it had 4.0, and in 1940 only 3.7
per cent of the population. This shows that Orange County's
growth has kept pace and even exceeded the state's growth in
population. What are the implications of this rapid urban
population growth and the accompanying economic development?
For one thing, it has had a tremendous impact on the use of
land surrounding Orlando as well as other major cities. The
spatial needs for urban development are readily apparent.
Urban areas are generally not always fully capable of main
taining their own population. The growth of the cities
often results in part from constant in-migration of people;
and, thus, the city has to draw upon rural areas surrounding
its periphery. Cities also grow by expanding their bound
aries. The peripheral area of the city into which city


80
TABLE 7
SUBDIVISION OF LAND IN THE ORLANDO URBAN FRINGE, 1947-613
Period
Subdivision
(acres)
Percentage
of total
land sub
divided
Monthly
average
by periods
(acres)
Prior to March,
1947
14,289
63.4
March, 1947-
September, 1951
1, 169
5.2
21
October, 1951-
April, 1953
1, 156
5.1
61
May, 1953-
May, 1955
623
2.8
25
June, 1955-
October, 1956
666
3.0
39
November, 1956-
Decexriber, 1957
1,028
4.5
73
January, 1958-
January, 1959
1, 680
7.4
129
February, 1959-
January, 1960
1,476
6.6
123
February, 1960-
January, 1961
476
2.0
40
aOrange County
Subdivision Atlas, 1960 and
Orange
County Plat Book Records, 1961.


114
Figure 14.Commercial development. Pine Hills shop
ping center along Colonial Drive (top). Motel on the
Orange Blossom Trail (bottom).


168
Orlando. The study area is bounded by Steach Road on the
north, Hiawassee Road on the west, Hasting Street on the
east, and State Highway 50 on the south. This region has a
total area of 640 acres, of which about 20 acres are either
in swamps or lakes. The area is characterized by a rolling
to undulating topography. The four corners of the study area
are approximately 100 feet above sea level. The central
part is lower than this, and the whole area has a saucer-like
appearance. Powers Drive is the only major road which ex
tends in a north-south direction and divides the area into
almost two equal halves.
The existing land-use pattern of the Pine Hills area is
presented in Figure 24. Residential developments in the Pine
Hills area are mainly concentrated in the northeast quadrant.
Other areas of concentration are seen in the southern half
of the area. No part of this study area is occupied by pre
dominately high-value residences. Most of the residences
are of medium value. Out of a total of 164 acres of medium-
and low-value residential area, approximately 110 acres are
in the medium-value type (Table 16). All of these medium-
value dwellings are clustered in the northeastern corner of
the Pine Hills area. The quality of construction and archi
tectural design vary remarkably, and some of the houses in
this part are somewhat above the average of the medium-value
houses. The high and undulating nature of the land and good
drainage have been major attractions for the residential de
velopment of this area. The streets are mostly paved, the


ACKNOWLEDGMENT S
This is my opportunity to express appreciation to all
members of the faculty of the Department of Geography at the
University of Florida for their numerous aids, stimulating
instruction, and financial awards which have made this under
taking possible. Appreciation is accorded also to the Col
lege of Arts and Sciences for an award of a Graduate Fellow
ship for the period of June through August, 1961.
It is hardly adequate to merely acknowledge the chair
man of my Supervisory Committee, Professor James R. Anderson,
under whose direction this dissertation has been written;
but rather I wish to express my deep gratitude and apprecia
tion for his guidance, stimulating approach to geographic
methods, thought and understanding, and for accompanying me
several times in the field. His help and assistance will be
long remembered.
My appreciation is* also extended to the members of my
Supervisory Committee: Drs. Robert E. Caldwell, Clark I.
Cross, John R. Dunkle, Donald R. Dyer, and Daniel 0. Spinks
for their cooperation, academic guidance, kind advice, and
for reading through the draft.
Numerous organizations and individuals have contributed
information that has been invaluable in the preparation of
this dissertation. Mrs. Helen Bennett, Tax Assessor-Orange
ii


75
carrier of tourist traffic through Orlando since it enters
Florida from the northwest and passes through Orlando on its
way to West Palm Beach and Miami. U.S. Highway 17-92 (Or
lando Avenue in Winter Park and South Orange Blossom Trail
in Orlando) has generally been made a four-lane highway and
is the major route from Sanford, Deland and Daytona Beach
located north and northeast of Orlando to Haines City, Winter
Haven, and Lakeland to the south and west. Urban expansion
along these major routes has occurred in the urban fringe of
Orlando wherever physical conditions have permitted. Poorly
drained areas as well as comparatively expensive citrus
groveland resisted urbanization after World War II in the
urban fringe areas except for ribbon development along these
major highways. In recent years, however, development is
taking place on much land not immediately adjacent to these
highways.
The improvement of the existing highway network and the
addition of cross State Highway 50, which runs east and west
through Orlando and intersects with all of the major north-
south thoroughfares, produced a marked change in the amount
and direction of growth within the urban fringe and has had
a major influence upon the economic growth of Orlando itself.
Urban expansion, which had previously been oriented mainly
in a north-south direction along U.S. highways 441 and 17-92,
was in part redirected with development now occurring also
along this east-west highway. Alternate State Highway 50
(old Winter Garden Road) is a two-lane highway and has also


156
residential areas are generally about the oldest housing in
the area. The character of the land use surrounding these
developments is unattractive compared to the medium- or high-
value residential developments. Much of the low-value resi
dential area is situated on low land which is surrounded by
agricultural land. The streets are mostly unpaved, and dur
ing the rains they become muddy and bothersome.
The quality of residential construction and design in
the medium-value residential areas, without exception, is
better than the low-value residential areas. The medium-
value houses are, in general, better kept in the western
part of the Lake Conway area than the developments on the
eastern side. Not only the appearance of the individual
i
dwellings but that of the whole residential area bounded by
Baxter Avenue on the north and Simonton Avenue on the south
is better than the average medium-value residential areas,
although in some of these residential blocks houses of poor
quality lacking proper maintenance can be seen {Figure 21).
The physical sites of the medium-value residential areas
have little to distinguish them from those of the low-value
areas. These developments are located predominately on level
land, and the drainage has been poor in some areas. Most of
the streets are unpaved, and during wet weather some of them
remain partially under water or become extremely muddy.
The high-value residential areas are characteristically
different in location and in maintenance than the medium-
and low-value residential developments. High-value


99
Figure 8.A new transportation artery. Expressway in
the southwest part of the fringe. This has been classified
as "urban land."


154
Figure 19


100
urban commercial and industrial uses occupy land formerly in
citrus groves. Citrus groves occupy approximately 15 per
cent of the land area of the urban fringe at the present
time (Figure 9).
Cropland. Includes land used for horticultural crops,
vegetables, and some field crops. Cropland also includes
land in cover crops and land which is temporarily idle be
tween the growing of the various crops common to this part
of Orange County. Only 485 acres are occupied by such uses.
Improved pastureland. Consists of pastureland of im
proved grasses which is mostly open or non-forested. It may
include cropland presently being used for pasture and other
permanent grassland pasture which has been improved to some
degree by the planting of improved grasses, by fertilization,
liming, and in some instances by draining. Mowing of weeds
is an improvement practice sometimes used on such pastures.
These pastures are relatively free of palmettos and other
undesirable growth which are often found on the unimproved
range land. If improved pastures were temporarily idle or
ungrazed, or if such pastures appeared to be grazed in rota
tion, they were classified as improved pastures. This, of
course, meant that improved pastures which were left idle
prior to a change to urban or other uses were still generally
classified as improved pasture, since such land did not have
the characteristics generally attributed to land classified
as idle" for purposes of this study. Improved pastureland
occupies more than 3,200 acres (Figure 10).


91
Figure 5.Intermixture of land uses in the urban fringe.
Trailer Park along the east side of the Orange Blossom Trail
(top). Intermixture of pasture, cropland, and residential
dwellings along Colonial Drive (bottoija) .


TABLE 12
LAND-USE
CHANGES IN
THE ORLANDO
URBAN FRINGE,
1954-1961
Land use
Acreage
1954
Percentage
of total
acreage
1954
Acreage
1961
Percentage
of total
acreage
1961
Actual
change
in
acreage
1954-61
Percentage
change
1954-61
Urban land
11,528
26.0
16,600
37.4
+5,072
+11.4
Citrus grove
7,457
16.8
6, 560
14.7
- 897
- 2.1
Cropland
417
.9
485
1.1
+ 68
+ .2
Pastureland
3, 222
7.2
3, 204
7.2
18

Range land
7.235
16.3
5, 579
12.6
-1, 656
- 3.7
Woodland
7, 580
17.0
5, 853
13.2
-1,727
- 3.8
Swamp
5,414
12.2
5, 330
12.0
84
- .2
Idle land
1, 587
3.6
829
1.8
- 758
- 1.8
Total
44,440
100.0
44,440
100.0
126


TABLE 3
PHYSICAL AND ENGINEERING CHARACTERISTICS OF SOILS GROUPED ACCORDING
TO THEIR SUITABILITY FOR URBAN DEVELOPMENT3
Soil
Group
Soil Types
Included
Natural
Drainage
Average
Depth to
Water Table
Permea
bility
Suitability
for Estab
lishing
Drainage
Systems for
Septic
Tanks
Acre
age
Per
cent
age
of
Total
1
Bd
Blanton fine
Moderately
4- 6 ft.
Rapid
Shallow
2,088
8.9
sand, very
good
water
gently slop-
table
ing low
(rated
phase
fair)
01
Orlando fine
Good
6-10 ft.
Rapid
Moderately
sand, level
deep wa-
phase
ter table
(rated
good)
Oc
Orlando fine
Good
6-10 ft.
Deep or
sand, very
very deep
gently slop-
water ta-
ing phase
ble (ra-
ted good)
2
Be
Blanton fine
Good to
8-12 ft.
Rapid
Deep water
575
2.5
sand, gen-
somewhat
table
tly sloping
excessive
(rated
high phase
good)


194
Simmons, George W., Jr. "Comprehensive City Planning,
Orlando, Florida, Vol. I. Prepared by George W.
Simmons, Jr., Planning Consultant, Jacksonville,
Florida.
Smith, T. Lynn. "The Population of Louisiana: Its Composi
tion and Change, Louisiana State University and Agri
culture and Mechanical College Agricultural Experiment
Station, Bulletin No. 293 (November, 1937), 1-99.
Solberg, Erling Day. The Why and How of Rural Zoning.
Agriculture Information Bulletin No. 196, U.S. Depart
ment of Agriculture. Washington: U.S. Government
Printing Office, 1958.
Stamp, L. D. "Land Use Surveys with Special Reference to
Britain, Geography in Twentieth Century. (Edited by
T. G. Taylor.) New York: Philosophical Library, 1951.
. The Land of Britain: Its Use and Misuse.
London: Longmans Green, 1950.
State Road Department of'Florida Engineering Design Report.
Orlando-Winter Park Expressway. 1957.
Stringfield, V. T. Ground Water Investigation in Florida.
Florida State Geological Survey, Bulletin No. 11.
Tallahassee, Florida: 1933.
Sweeney, Stephen B. (ed.). Metropolitan Analysis: Impor
tant Elements of Study and Action. Philadelphia:
University of Pennsylvania Press, 1957.
Taylor, Thomas Griffith. Urban Geography. London: Methuen,
1951.
U.S. Bureau of the Census. Eighteenth Census of the United
States, Number of Inhabitants, Vol. I.
. Nineteenth Census of the United States, Number of
Inhabitants, Florida. Final Report (PC(l)-llA).
. Urbanized Areas for the Eighteenth Decennial
Census, No. 5, 1959.
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service.
Current Developments in the Farm Real Estate Market,
(May, 1961) .
, Soil Conservation Service. Soil Survey--Orange
County, Florida, Series 1957, No. 5 (September, 1960).


152
The predominant use of existing urban land in the Lake
Conway area is single-family residence. Table 14 reveals
that approximately 34 per cent of the total land is occupied
by residential uses. High-value residences occupy about 18
per cent of the total land area. The overall development of
residential areas in the Lake Conway area is very unbalanced,
but high-value residences are concentrated to a marked degree
in two parts of the area. The first of these is located in
the southwestern corner and is bounded on the north by Simon-
ton Avenue, on the east by Ontario Street, on the south by
Lake Stevens, and on the west by Pern Creek Avenue. A strip
development on the east side of Fern Creek Avenue from Simon-
ton Avenue north up to Lake Margaret Avenue is also very no
ticeable. The second major area of concentration is found in
the southeastern corner, mostly to the south of Lake Margaret
and north of Lake Conway. The distribution of medium- and
low-value residential areas is very scattered and can be
seen in Figure 19. Most of the remaining areas of land in
residential use are of medium value except along the southern
part of Lake Margaret Drive. The area approximately bounded
on the north by Lake Margaret Drive, on the west by Rollins
Street, on the South by Mel Avenue, and on the east by Forest
Street, has housing in very poor condition. These houses
are of wooden construction, poorly built, shabby looking,
and are located on unpaved roads. Most of these houses have
separately built automobile garages, and the front and back
yards are poorly maintained (Figure 20). These low-value


92
Figure 6.Some uses of land along main highways. Junk
yard (top) and Drive-in Theater are prominant land-use fea
tures along this main highway. New residential development
can be seen in the background (bottom).


53
short and mild. There is relatively little precipitation
during this season, the average for the winter months being
only about six inches. At only a few times during the year
may one expect cold spells accompanied by cold winds. These
conditions, however, usually last only a few days. Freezing
temperatures are infrequent; and when these occur, they gen
erally are of short duration. Snow is, of course, practi
cally unknown. The average temperature .for the three winter
months is 63F. Summers are long, warm, and humid. The
average temperature for the summer months is 82F. Thunder
showers which occur almost every afternoon prevent the tem
perature from becoming excessively high. The average pre
cipitation for the three summer months is 22 inches.
The general climatic characteristics for the Orlando
area as recorded at the Municipal Airport weather station
are presented in Table 4. The airport is centrally located
in the urban fringe area. There are, of course, some local
differences in temperatures that are significant to citrus
and vegetable production. Climatic characteristics within
the urban fringe which are especially significant for the
agricultural and urban settlement of the area include the
following:
1. An average frost-free period of 314 days extending
from February 3 to December 14, which permits agri
cultural activity nearly all year.
Fall and winter temperatures are sufficiently high
to permit many kinds of vegetables to be grown,
2.


142
problem of "guiding" for future development rather than
"limiting" the growth. As W. L. Gibson, Jr., states:
In the future, agriculture can expect greater com
petition for land resources from the nonagricultural
uses, and ... In most areas, significant changes have
occurred in acreage and number of farms absorbed by ur
ban, industrial, and other nonagricultural developments.
These shifts will continue at a greater tempo than in
recent years.^
It is quite evident that the present pattern of popu
lation increase and economic gain of the Orlando area could
not have been achieved without the increase in the urban
segment of the economy. But in order to promote an orderly
and efficient pattern of development of this urban growth,
there is a need for land use planning in the metropolitan
area of Orlando. The efficient use of land resources should
be the subject of primary importance. Land use surveys are
needed as sources of information concerning land use and
trends in use, and as an aid in evaluation of future land
requirements. The present study of land use in the Orlando
fringe area should serve as an example to the planners as to
the nature of the problem of land use concern.
There is no doubt that in the expanding economy of
Orange County and of the Orlando metropolitan area land must
be found to accommodate urban expansion. But care should be
taken in selecting the land to be used for this expansion.
If better farm lands are lost to urban use, what will happen
to the agricultural needs of the state and nation 30 or 50
Hi. L. Gibson, Jr., "Discussion: Economic Development
and Competition for Land Use in the United States," Journal
of Farm Economics, XXXIX (December, 1957), 1526.


139
improved pastureland and land in other agricultural uses is
not being given proper attention for high level efficient
production. The owner's plans for these lands are often
tied to urban development. This land in the urban fringe
has often been termed as "urban idle."
Approximately 80 per cent of the citrus grove land ly
ing within the urban fringe has bearing trees. The most
popular tree set is 25 feet by 25 feet with approximately 60
trees per acre. Therefore, it will be found that due to ur
banization on citrus grove land in the Orlando urban fringe
during the last 14 years 630,000 trees have been lost. Be
sides citrus groves, a considerable acreage of pastureland
has also been lost during this period. Once buried under
urban uses, productive cropland, for all practical purposes,
is never again available for agricultural production.
In the United States where land has been plentiful, the
indiscriminate loss of productive agricultural land to urban
uses has never been of much concern. However, the time may
be approaching when a longer view should be taken in order
to insure the availability of adequate land of reasonably
good quality for food production.
Rapid urban expansion in those parts of the United
States which are suitable for citrus production has received
considerably more attention than that taking place in some
of the other areas of rapidly expanding urban population.
This attention is due in part to the fact that alternative
areas where citrus can be grown in the United States do not


79
urban growth may later take place. Therefore, a study of
the distribution and development of the subdivision pattern
should reveal the changing aspect of land-use conditions
within this urban fringe of Orlando.
A preliminary understanding of the sequence of sub
division development in the urban fringe area can be gained
from an analysis presented in Table 7. Approximately 64 per
cent of the total land subdivided in the urban fringe of Or
lando as defined for purposes of this study had occurred
prior to 1947 and had extended over a period of years. Com
pared to this monthly average for the earlier period, recent
rates are considerably higher. Further acceleration of
these has occurred since 1956. Between November 1956 and
December 1957, the average rate of Subdivision was 73 acres
per month. Between January 1958 and January 1959, 129 acres
were subdivided each month and between February 1959 and
January 1960, the average was 123. Thus, within the past
decade, the most active period of subdivision activity oc
curred between 1958 and 1960. Plat records for the first
part of 1961 indicate a lower rate of land subdivision with
in the fringe area at the present time. Most of the resi
dential development in the urban fringe area has occurred
within the platted subdivisions which lie in close proximity
to the city limits.
Table 8 presents data about the acreage subdivided
since 1947 within the unincorporated urban fringe and incor
porated places of Orlando, Winter Park, Maitland, and


24
very broad definition and is of little use for any specific
study.
Methods of Delineating the Urban Fringe
Although a number of articles have been published on
various aspects of urban-fringe phenomena, very few of these
have a discussion dealing with methods of systematically de
lineating the urban fringe. At this point it is desirable,
however, to review briefly some of the methods previously
used which have been useful in this present study.
Myers and Beegle^- utilized census data in delineating
the Detroit fringe area. This method had two major elements:
the use of minor civil divisions as units and the use of
NV-RNF (non-village, rural-non-farm) population data. The
proportion of NV-RNF population with respect to the total
population of each township in the metropolitan region was
used as an index for fringe classification. The incorpo
rated population of the townships was excluded. Based on
the above techniques, two categories of the rural-urban
fringe were delineated. These were the true fringe, com
posed of townships having 50 per cent or more NV-RNF popula
tion, and the partial fringe having 25 to 50 per cent NV-RNF
population.
However, this methodological approach has not been of
much use in the present study. In the first place, the
township as a unit for delineating the urban fringe was
^R. R. Myers and J. A. Beegle, "Delineation and Analy
sis of the Rural-Urban Fringe," Applied Anthropology, VI
(Spring, 1947), 14-17.


33
The next step was to prepare a map of land use for 1960.
Field reconnaissance and aerial photographs taken in 1958
were employed in doing this. Eight categories of land use,
which are to be described in detail in a subsequent chapter,
were considered significant in the Orlando area: Urban Land
(U), Citrus Groves (Cg), Cropland (Cr), Pastureland (P),
Rangeland (R), Woodland (W), Idleland (I), and Swamp (S).
These land uses were mapped and marked by the letter symbols
as used in the parentheses. Built-up lands were brought up-
to-date by examining the field-maps used for surveys of in
dividual houses in the county tax assessor's office. This
land-use map was reduced to a scale of two miles to one inch
and then superimposed on the base map. In addition to the
eight categories of land use, this map thus showed major
highways, lakes, boundaries of incorporated places, and sur
vey township section lines.
The corporate boundary of Orlando was taken as the inner
boundary of the urban fringe area. Since nearly homogeneous
urban land use prevailed within the city of Orlando, it was
decided that the corporate boundary was a realistic inner
boundary of the urban fringe area.
Next, an appropriate index for built-up areas or sub
divided lands to be included within the urban fringe had to
be determined. After a careful study of aerial photographs
and after field survey, it was decided that each survey town
ship section having 25 per cent or more built-up area or sub
divided land should be considered as a part of the urban


138
population growth and the expansion of the economy at a very
rapid rate. Increasing productivity per acre of cropland
has also encouraged the conversion of many acres of cropland
to pasture and woodland.
The problem in California has probably been most widely
recognized and has received more attention than urban expan
sion in other parts of the United States. More than one
acre out of every seven acres of land suitable for cultiva
tion in California is now in non-agricultural uses.*- The
problem is especially acute in southern California. In the
Los Angeles metropolitan area in the 1945-55 period, the
area of citrus plantings bearing fruit declined by 43,880
acres, fields that were in beans and barley are occupied by
urban-residential uses or factories and many vegetable and
flower gardens have been taken over by urban uses. Some of
the acreage remaining in vegetable and flower production is
being damaged by smog.2
Besides the conversion of agricultural land directly
into urban and related uses, much land which is capable of
agricultural production and which is located around cities
is being held in an "idle" or in a "ripening* status for
possible urban development. In Orange County, within the
urban fringe of Orlando some of the land in citrus groves,
^D. A. Williams, "The Nation's Use of Our Agricultural
Lands," Soil Conservation Service, U.S. Department of Agri
culture (1955), p. 7. (Mimeographed.)
2Howard J. Nelson, "The Spread of an Artificial Land
scape over Southern California," Annals of the Association
of American Geographers (supplement), XLIX, No. 3, Part 2
(September, 1959), p. 80.


9
The periods selected were determined by the availability of
aerial photographs which provided a permanent record of the
uses being made of land within the urban fringe of Orlando
in earlier periods of time. It is hoped that the data col
lected and interpreted may provide clues concerning the fu
ture patterns and amounts of land-use change likely to occur
in the urban fringe of Orlando. These land-use data, along
with the description of physical and cultural characteristics,
should provide important information as to the nature and
direction of physical patterns that will emerge within the
metropolitan area of Orlando in the future. If the present
trend of population growth and economic development con
tinues, the need for making advance land-use plans for fu
ture growth will become more acute. In the years to come
many urban areas of Florida will be concerned with such a
problem. This study of the urban fringe of Orlando should
serve as a guide to future land-use requirements of growing
Florida cities.
Methodology
This study was carried out both in the library and in
the field. Major field observations were made and data col
lected from June through September, 1960. In the fall of
1960 and in the spring of 1961 occasional field trips were
also made to collect data, to make observations, and to take
photographs.
A study of changes in the use of land requires both
identification of land uses and measurements of the areas


144
significant to note that the zoning being undertaken does
not aim at permanent exclusion of urban uses but rather pro
vides for more time for consideration of the best possible
future use of the areas in which urban growth is occurring.
For example, A-l Citrus Rural District and A-2 Ranch and
Farmland Rural Districts are largely devoted to citrus grow
ing, general farming, and grazing. Considerable acreages of
swampland are also found in these districts. But the reso
lution states, "As the need and demand for additional open
land suitable for urban development is determined by the
Zoning Commission, selected portions of these districts may
be rezoned for more intensive forms of development."1 One
more significant aspect of city growth can be noticed in the
fringe area when one looks at the city map of Orlando. "Ur
ban sprawl" is generally followed by "political sprawl" in
every direction possible by means of annexations. This sit
uation often provides an obstacle to any unified planning
program within the county.
Comprehensive and coordinated land-use planning in the
urban fringe or in the county area never has existed in the
past and does not exist today. The peripheral areas of the
city have grown up through an accumulation of real estate
developments. Some are well planned and others are purely
speculative ventures. Lack of coordinated planning can be
seen by looking at the sequence pattern of subdivision
1Comprehensive Zoning Resolution, Orange County, Flor
ida (1957), p. 11. (Mimeographed.)


26
first place, he utilized a map showing the location of single
family residences outside the corporate boundary of the city.
Secondly, he considered natural barriers, such as mountains
and rivers, to a certain extent as fringe boundaries. The
residence pattern was correlated to the topographical bar
riers. The fringe boundary was drawn at that point, "when
the patterns of land use characteristics of the fringe
changed to the dispersed pattern of open country farming."^-
But Martin did not give any indication as to what extent the
density of single family dwellings was considered an index
of fringe characteristics. Unlike the Eugene-Springfield,
Oregon, area studied by Martin, the Orlando area has no
great contrast in surface configuration that has uniformly
affected settlement. Neither does it have any natural bar
rier such as that which was found advantageous in Martin's
study. Moreover, many subdivided lands surrounding Orlando
city are yet to be developed. In the Orlando study, these
undeveloped subdivided lands were considered as fringe char
acteristics for the predictable growth of this fringe area
in the near future is such that careful attention must be
given to the subdivided but undeveloped land as well as that
which has already been built up.
The delineation method as proposed by Blizzard and An
derson2 draws attention to a new idea in rural-urban fringe
^Martin, op. cit., p. 32.
2Blizzard and Anderson, op. cit., p. 19. See also Sam
uel Blizzard, "Research on the Rural-Urban Fringe: A Case
Study," Sociology and Social Research, XXXVIII, No. 3
(January-February, 1954), 144.


175
of the Pine Hills area. This subdivision was well planned,
with moderately good paved streets, and adequate drainage
facilities. The houses are of medium value. Most of the
residential construction has been completed in the last
three or four years, and only a few vacant lots are to be
seen in these subdivisions. The average lot size in Robins-
wood is 70 feet by 120 feet and in Alden Court on the east
of Hiawassee Road, 100 feet by 125 feet.
About 60 per cent of the total area is subdivided in
this study area. In general, it can be said that most of
the subdivisions in this area have large acreages, except
the Pine Hills subdivisions which are parts of the main sub
division in adjacent sections. The other two subdivisions
Orange Land Gardens and Alden Courthave 15 and 10 acres,
respectively. The minimum lot size as found in this study
area is only 25 feet by 140 feet in the Orange Heights sub
division, which was subdivided before 1947. The largest lot
size is found in Alden Court subdivision with 100 feet by
125 feet. All lot sizes in subdivisions recorded after 1947
show a minimum front footage of 70 feet. No exceptionally
large lots were laid out as in the Lake County area.
The subdivision layout and the urban residential de
velopment in the Pine Hills area in recent years show a mod
erate amount of planning. In the northwest side in the study
area in the Robinswood subdivision, houses are clean, modern,
and are mostly of medium-value. But the areas in the south
ern half have only a few modern well-built houses, which are


Figure


192
Gibson, W. L., Jr. Discussion: Economic Development and
Competition for Land Use in the United States, Journal
of Farm Economics, XXXIX, No. 5 (December, 1957),
1526-1528.
Gore, E. H. From Florida Sand to the City Beautiful. N.p.:
1948?
Greater Orlando Chamber of Commerce. (H. Stuart Johnston,
Manager). Statistical Data. Orlando, Florida: 1960.
Grotewold, Andreas. "Von Thunen in Retrospect," Economic
Geography, XXXV, No. 4 (October, 1959), 346-355.
Haar, Charles, et al. "Economic and Physical Planning:
Coordination in Developing Areas," Journal of American
Institute of Planners, XXIV, No. 3 (1958), 167-173.
Hawley, Amos H. The Changing Shape of Metropolitan America:
Deconcentration Since 1920. Glencoe, Illinois: The
Free Press, 1955.
Kline, Hibberd V. B., Jr. "The Interpretation of Air Photo
graphs, in American Geography Inventory and Prospect.
(Edited by Prestone E. James and Clarence F. Jones.)
Syracuse: Syracuse University Press, 1954.
Klove, Robert C. "The Growing Population of the United
States, The Journal of Geography, LX, No. 5 (May, 1961).
Kurtz, Richard A., and Elicher, Joanne B. "Fringes and Sub
urbs: A Confusion of concepts, Social Forces, XXXVII,
No. 1 (October, 1958), 32-37.
McKain, Walter C., and Burnight, Robert G. The Sociological
Significance of the Rural-Urban LifeFrom the Rural
Point of View," Rural Sociology, XVIII, No. 2 (June,
1953), 108-115.
McMichael, Stanley L. Real Estate Subdivisions. New York:
Prentice-Hall, Incorporated, 1949.
Marschner, F. J., Land Use and Its Patterns in the United
States. Agriculture Handbook No. 153. Washington: U.S.
Government Printing Office, 1959.
Martin, Walter T. The Rural-Urban Fringe: A Study of Ad
justment to Residence Location. Eugene, Oregon: Uni
versity of Oregon, 1953.
Marx, Herbert L. (ed.). Community Planning. New York:
H. W. Wilson Company, 1956.
Maryland National Capital Park and Planning Commission. In
ventory of Land Use. 1955.


57
July; and during the months of January to July in
clusive, there was 49.79 inches of rain. Normal
annual precipitation is 51.23 inches. The record
is 67.47 inches for 1947.
The July rainfall was 11.87 inches above normal for
July and a record for the local station which has been keep
ing measurements since 1943. A 19.10-inch rain was reported
in October of 1915, and a high record of 15.87 inches for
September, 1945. This high amount of rainfall in short pe
riods causes a rise in lake level and flooding in many areas
within the city and urban fringe areas.
The favorable micro-climatic conditions of the urban
fringe area have encouraged citrus growing, vegetable farm
ing, horticultural enterprises, and dairy farming on favor
ably situated sites. But in recent years with the increas
ing population, urban uses tend to take over and push out
the agricultural uses of land. Loss of acreage of different
types of agricultural land to urban uses has taken place
over a period of 14 years. These changes will be discussed
in detail in Chapter 4.
Cultural Characteristics
Population
The city of Orlando and the urban fringe area were set
tled largely by people from other states and from foreign
countries. In 1875, the city of Orlando was incorporated
with only 75 people; today it is a city of 88,135. Many of


I '
Figure 4


10
involved. For this study, basic information was wanted on
the amount of land in the various uses and the kind of land
that was changing in use. The previous use to which land
was put before a change took place and the nature of the new
use after a change was made were also studied. Such informa
tion can be collected either by direct observation in the
study area or by indirect methods such as by interpretation
of aerial photographs. Direct observation, i.e., field
methods providing information that is both accurate and de
tailed, is extremely expensive. Furthermore, the identifica
tion of areas of changes in land use and the preparation of
a land-use map showing uses before changes occurred is very
difficult. Comparison and analysis of aerial photographs
are used extensively in land-use studies in the United
States, where the technique has provided a rapid and relative
ly inexpensive means of identifying and measuring changes in
the use of land. Therefore, it was decided to explore the
potentialities of using aerial photographs as a major source
of information about earlier land-use patterns in the Or
lando urban fringe area. Aerial photographs also provided
much helpful information about the present uses of land.
Three sets of aerial photographs taken in 1947, 1954, and
1958 were available for Orange County. While sacrificing
some detail and accuracy, the great gain in coverage possi
ble within a limited budget seemed to justify the use of
aerial photographs. The aerial photograph coverage of the
urban fringe areas for 1947 and 1954 was particularly


LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS
Figure Page
1. General location map 4
2. Urban fringe of Orlando, Florida 30
3. Soils, Urban fringe of Orlando, Florida .... *
4. Sequence of subdivision platting, urban fringe of
Orlando, Florida *
5. Intermixture of land uses in the urban fringe 91
6. Some uses of land along main highways 92
7. Land-use changes 93
8. A new transportation artery 99
9. Citrus groves 101
10. Pastureland 102
11. Idle land 106
12. Land-use pattern, 1961, urban fringe of Orlando,
Florida *
13. Location sectors, urban fringe of Orlando,
Florida 109
14. Commercial development 114
15. Industrial development 116
16. Block type" residential developments 118
17. Land-use pattern, 1947, urban fringe of Orlando,
Florida *
18. Land-use pattern, 1954, urban fringe of Orlando,
Florida *
19. Land-use pattern, 1961, Lake Conway area .... 154
viii


23
and urban land uses with residential rather than predomi
nantly agricultural land use."1
A general problem relating to the subdivision of land
in urban fringe areas was reported by O'Harrow in 1954. In
this report he recognized the census definition of urban
fringe and further described it as "that no-man's land just
beyond the corporate limits of a citya spill-over of urban
population into the unincorporated areas outside the city
walls."2 O'Harrow's discussion of population growth and the
subdivision of land in the unincorporated area outside city
limits is basically a topical approach. However, this is a
useful point of view to the student of land-use planning.
In a recent report published in 1958, Kurtz and Elicher-*
contributed a valuable conceptual clarification of the urban
fringe area. The authors set up five criteria based on pre
vious studies and compared and contrasted the urban fringe
and suburb concepts. The five criteria used were: location,
land characteristics, growth and density, occupation, and
governmental structure of the fringe area. The authors pre
sented the term "rural-urban fringe" to designate the mixed
rural and urban area located outside the city. This is a
^Ibid., p. 30.
2
Dennis O'Harrow, "Subdivision and Fringe Area Control,"
American Journal of Public Health, XLIV, No. 4 (April, 1954),
473.
3
Richard A. Kurtz and Joanne B. Elicher, "Fringes and
Suburbs; a Confusion of Concepts," Social Forces, XXXVII,
No. 1 (October, 1958), 32-37.
4 Ibid.. 34.


101
Figure 9.Citrus groves,
near lakes.
\
Groves are often located
.


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167
woods or sometimes by citrus trees. The lots are not very
well maintained. Recent subdivisions have modern houses lo
cated on smaller lots.
The present land-use pattern in the Lake Conway area
illustrates the haphazard urban development that often takes
place on agricultural lands. This undesirable development
could have been prevented if proper land-use planning had
been instituted 10 years ago for the Orlando urban fringe.
It is surprising that even today there is no planning board
in Orange County to correct this present situation or to
provide a meaningful guide for future growth within the ur
ban fringe area. Probably very little could be done for
such areas as the Lake Conway area, except to institute some
plan for urban renewal of such areas where haphazard develop
ment has occurred. A strong planning board could undertake
such a housing renewal program in areas of low-value housing
such as those which are to be found along the south side of
Lake Margaret Drive. The small horticultural fields and the
citrus groves might be preserved as "buffer zones" between
congested urban areas. In order to avoid further intermin
gling of land uses, destruction of agricultural land, and
the creation of slum areas, Orange County must undertake a
planning scheme for the more orderly development of urban
growth.
Pine Hills Area
The Pine Hills area is located on the north side of
State Highway 50 approximately five miles west of downtown


140
exist. Therefore, the long run effects of using such land
for cities or for citrus probably should be given more care
ful attention than they have received so far. Certainly in
the Orlando urban fringe where this phenomenon is occurring,
very little consideration has been given so far to the desir
ability of reserving desirable citrus land for such use.
Of major concern in the fringe areas, as can be seen
from examination of the land-use maps (Figures 12, 17, and
18), are the problems associated with shifts in land use,
the high degree of intermingling of land-uses, and the spread
ing of urban functions. The effect of urbanization on the
rural lands has generally caused much fragmentation of agri
cultural land and has created "urban islands." These "urban
islands- are formed mostly as a result of "block development"
schemes by the land developers. These are often widely
scattered all over the fringe area. This type of development
often lacks proper planning of drainage and proper land prep
aration of building sites. For example, to the west of the
Pine Hills area, in section 24, Township 22 south of Range
28 east several houses are being greatly damaged because of
compaction and sinking of the land surfaces. These houses,
which are of medium quality with a value of approximately
§10,000 each, appear to have been built on sinkholes.
During the torrential rains of 1960, a widespread part
of the county and the city were flooded due to the rise of
lake water and improper drainage clearance. The Orlando
area had an abnormally high amount of rainfall during July,


TABLE 15
PATTERN OF SUBDIVISION DEVELOPMENTS IN LAKE CONWAY AREAa
Period
Name
of
subdivision
Acreage
in each
sub
division
Average
lot
size
(feet)
Total
stab-
divided
land
(acres)
Percentage of
land subdivided
by period to
total subdivided
land
Before March,
Fernway
74
50x
140
141
43.1
1947
Conway Estates
24
50x
150
Conway Estates
26
130x
300
Pelham Park
10
660x1,
320
Willis and Brundage
7
323x
650
April, 1947-
Glass Gardens
10
75x
135
105
32.1
October, 1956
Lake Margaret Court
10
70x
135
Fern Manor
5
7 Ox
136
Water Front Estates
80
85x
120
November, 1956-
Wyldwoode
16
85x
125
81
24.8
January, 1960
Carson Oaks
5
68x
130
Lake Margaret Shores
6
68x
130
Pershing Terraces
40
70x
120
Lake La Grange Terrace
5
80x
130
Bumby Heights
9
75x
135
aSources Orange County Plat Records.
164


42
among the soils of the urban fringe area of Orlando. In the
western part of the urban fringe lies the Sunderland terrace,
which is the oldest exposed formation of the Pleistocene
epoch. It occurs mostly at an elevation of 100 feet above
present sea level. The soils of this upland area have been
formed mainly from the sediments of sands and clays contained
in this formation. In the eastern part of the urban fringe,
on terraces with elevations of 70 to 100 feet, younger for
mations are distinguishable. The clays and marls of this
area are believed to be of the Caloosahatchee formation of
the Pliocene epoch. During recent times organic deposits of
varying thickness have formed from decomposed plant materials
in lakes and other low, wet areas. Most of the soils are
young and lack distinct horizon development with the excep
tion of the Leon, Imraokalee, and St. Johns soils. These
soils are considered to have humic B horizons.
The influence of climate on the soils is also consider
able. The hot summers and relatively high annual rainfall
causes a great deal of leaching. As a result, the soils of
the urban fringe area for the most part are low in plant nu
trients and are medium to strongly acid. The upper layers
of the soils are sandy in texture.
Based on the relief, drainage, reaction, and the kinds
of parent material from which these soils have formed, two
general groups of soils may be recognized within the fringe


86
Highway 15A on the east (mostly in the sections of 26 and 27
of Township 22 south of Range 30 east). Here, density of
land subdivision is close to 300 acres per square mile and
dwelling units 500 per square mile.
3. The third area lies south of the city limits of
Orlando between Orange Blossom Trail on the west, State
Highway 15 on the east, and north of Lake Conway (mostly in
sections 5, 6, 7, and 8 of Township 23 south, Range 30 east
and sections 1 and 12 of Township 23 south, Range 29 east).
This area was mostly subdivided prior to 1947, but spotty
recent subdivision acreages are to be found all over the
area. This area has the highest density of dwelling units,
over 650 per square mile, in the fringe area. Since 1947,
the shift in emphasis of subdivision and dwelling activities
to the west side has been more pronounced. More lands have
been taken over for urban uses in the west than in the south
or east. One of the major trends in the development of ur
ban fringe is found in the west side development which offers
an interesting example of newer, more decentralized land-use
pattern that appears wherever land preparation opens up vir
gin land for the promoter. An account of the land-use change
in the fringe areas will appear in the subsequent chapter.
The East Orlando area, the built-up part of which is
located in section 14 of Township 23, Range 30 on State High
way 15A, is a current example of modern large-scale subdi
vision development. This area is only a 15-minute drive
from the heart of downtown Orlando. To approach East Orlando
from the central city of Orlando, one drives east on State


84
constructed on a mass production basis. This usually enables
the buyer with relatively less money to purchase a better
home for the price with more room for the money invested
than he could have if he were to buy a custom-made house.
At the time the subdivision is laid out, it is often
impossible to forecast definitely the stage of development
it will finally reach. Much depends on the honesty and
ability of the promoter and upon the buyer's actual use of
the land. Subdivision control laws and municipal policy do
much to determine the direction of development. For example,
in the early boom period of the 1920's and 1930'$ more than
2,000 acres of land were subdivided to the south of Orlando
(sections 35 and 36, Township 23 south, Range 29 east) and
in the western part (sections 8 and 9, Township 22 south of
Range 29 east). This subdivision occurred on land not well-
suited for agricultural production or for urban development
at that time. As a result, only a relatively small number
of the many lots purchased at that time have been developed.
With the march of time, these speculative subdivision plans
of the 1920's are not obsolete. Without proper replatting
and planning, these lands will likely remain relatively un
used even during the present situation. Owners of some of
these lots sold during the 1920's are not very interested in
their development, and unless they can somehow be recombined
in some way so they will be better adapted to modern develop
ment practices, these lands are likely to remain idle while
much building activity is taking place in other parts of the
urban fringe.


95
The highest values for agricultural land occur in the
central Florida citrus producing areas. Matured citrus groves
with bearing plants are reported to have a current market
value of 2,500 dollars to 2,750 dollars per acre. But if
the land is located within the metropolitan area, the value
goes even higher as it is found in the Orlando vicinity.
The average value of the citrus groves lying in close prox
imity to the city or on lake front sites records more than
3,500 dollars per acre. Thus, much of the farm land in
Orange County has been subject to actual and potential demand
for land for non-farm purposes. The present price for land
lying east of Orlando is generally about 1,000 dollars per
acre for unimproved range and woodland. Land west of Or
lando is selling from 2,000 to 2,500 dollars per acre for
unimproved but better-drained range and woodland.^
Since 1954, the average value per acre of land within
metropolitan counties in Florida has increased nearly 115
per cent. This rate of increase during the period of 1954-59
in Florida is considered to be highest when compared to any
other state in the country. The annual tax rate is $29.60
per 1,000 dollars of the assessed value. If the land is
within special tax districts, the rate is highersuch as
$34.60 per 1,000 dollars of the assessed valuation for land
around Lake Conway Estates.
Although considerable area within the urban fringe is
swampy or wet, the mark of urban development n this land is
^-Letter from Russell M. O. Jacobsen, former Orange
County Zoning Director, Orlando, Florida.


171
Figure 25."Block type" residential developments on
the rolling land injizhe Pine Hills area.
7


37
There are very few surface streams in the upland area
for most of the rainfall sinks almost immediately into the
deep sands. Surface drainage mostly accumulates in the
lakes or in channels and forms creeks. Shingle and Boggy
creeks are two such major creeks which flow southward into
Osceola County. A number of intermittent streams are found
in the north around the Lawne, Mann, Clear, and Turkey lake
area. In the south, tracts of the urban fringe area have
been reclaimed by constructing drainage canals and ditches.
Some of this drainage was constructed prior to subdivision
and was installed primarily for agricultural improvement;
but some drainage has been carried out in connection with
subdivisions.
The second physiographic area, which is a transition
area lying east of the city of Orlando and extending nearly
to Little Econlockhatchee River, is characterized by a
series of northwest-trending elongated ridges and intervening
elongated low areas. Altitude ranges from 50 to 90 feet
above sea level. This area has only a few lakes, most of
which are in the north. Because of the nearly level to very
gently rolling topography in the southern part of the area,
natural drainage is imperfect over extensive areas. As a
result, waterlogged swamps and marshes are the prominent
feature in this section of the fringe area. Most of the
areas are connected by intermittent and sluggish streams or
by wide, shallow sloughs. Shallow ponds of varying size
which may dry up completely in dry seasons, nearly always


43
area.1 These two general soil groups occur in two distinct
geographic areas each of which contains a number of soils.
Lakeland, Blanton, and Orlando soils predominate in the
highlands of the central, northern, and western part of the
urban fringe. These soils are somewhat excessively to moder
ately well-drained and occur mostly in areas of rolling re
lief at elevations of more than 100 feet. Most of the soils
are low in nutrients and are droughty during prolonged dry
seasons. With proper management these soils can be profit
ably used for the production of citrus fruit and other sub
tropical fruits, horticultural crops, truck crops, or for
improved pastures. During the past 15 years the major growth
of the city of Orlando and the expansion of the urban fringe
has occurred principally on these soils. This general group
of soils covers approximately 60 per cent of the land area
within the urban fringe.
The second group of soils consists mostly of the Leon,
Immokalee, Pomello, and St. Johns soils. These soils, mainly
in the eastern, southern, and southwestern parts of the urban
fringe area, are somewhat poorly drained, are strongly acid
to very strongly acid, and are formed from sandy materials
under the influence of a humid climate. The St. Johns and
Leon soils have an organic pan that begins between 14 and 30
inches beneath the surface. The organic pan in the
1U.S. Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Ser
vice, in cooperation with the University of Florida Agricul
tural Experiment Stations, Soil Survey, Orange County,
Florida. Series 1957, No. 5 (September, 1960), p. 1.


163
there is more acreage in vacant lots within the medium- and
low-value residential areas than the high-value areas. The
vacant lots in the medium- and low-value areas sometimes
have scattered, unkept, citrus trees on them. Vacant lots
account for about 5 per cent of the total land in the Lake
Conway area.
Only one small field of idle land of 5 acres lies in
the central part of the area. This land is not subdivided
and is not in any other use at present. It is very poorly
drained and will require a considerable amount of preparation
before it can be used as a building site or for any agricul
tural use.
Other land uses occupy a total of 110 acres, or about
one-sixth of the total study area. Roads account for 62
acres, or about a tenth of the area. Lakes Margaret and
*
Stevens arfe completely in the study area? and lakes Conway,
La Grange, and Louise are partially in the area. A total of
38 acres is occupied by lakes.
Table 15 shows the pattern of subdivision development
in the Lake Conway area. More than 51 per cent of the land
in this area was subdivided by January, 1960. Approximately
140 acres of the 640-acre tract studied in detail were sub
divided before March, 1947 in the Lake Conway area. These
subdivisions are mostly located between Lake Margaret Drive
on the north, Bumby Avenue on the east, Pershing Avenue on
the south, and Fern Creek Avenue on the west. Except along
the eastern side of the Fern Creek Avenue most of the houses
within these subdivisions are of medium value. From the


170
houses well laid out, and the rolling landscape attracts
people seeking homes in this price range (Figure 25).
TABLE 16
PATTERN OF LAND USE IN PINE HILLS AREA, 1961
Category
Acreage
Percentage
of
total area
Medium- and low-value residential
164
25.6
Mature citrus groves
37
5.8
Range land
40
6.3
Woodland
228
35.6
Roads
123
19.2
Swamp
8
1.2
Vacant lots
12
1.9
Lakes
11
1.7
Idle land
17
2.7
Total
640
100.0
Scattered developments of low-value dwellings are found
in the south-central part of the Pine Hills area. The qual
ity and design of the housing is extremely poor.
Most of the low-value dwelling units are surrounded by
woodland. Roads are unpaved and in places impassable. Va
cant lots that have been subdivided in the Pine Hills area
occupy only 12 acres. These lands are mainly located around
Lake Robin, where steep slopes are found; and much


TABLE 3Continued
Soil
Group
Soil Types
Included
Natural
Drainage
Average
Depth to Permea-
Water Table bility
Suitability
for Estab
Per
lishing
cent-
Drainage
Acre- age
Systems for
a9e of
Septic
Total
Tanks
5
Pc
Pomello fine
Fair
6-
10
ft.
Rapid
Somewhat
1, 880
o
CO
sand
shallow
water
table
(rated
fair)
6
la
Ixnmokalee fine
Somewhat
2-
3
ft.
Rapid
Shallow wa
8, 361
35.7
CD
sand
poor
ter table
(rated
poor)
Lf
Leon fine sand
Somewhat
3-
5
ft.
Rapid
Shallow wa
poor
ter table
(rated
poor)
7
Sa
St. Johns fine
Somewhat
2-
3
ft.
Rapid
Shallow wa
165
.7
sand
poor
ter table
(rated
poor


115
"block" developments are about 150 to 200 acres in size, are
situated on high ground with about 100 feet of altitude, and
are amongst entirely rural surroundings.
The urban-residential and urban-commercial and indus
trial development in this sector have been greatly affected
by two conditions. The Martin Company of Orlando is located
on the southern border of this part of the urban fringe
(Figure 15). The presence of this large industrial plant
has attracted a considerable number of subdivisional develop
ments. U.S. Highway 441 and State Highway 527 bring tourists
and offer excellent transportational facilities and, there
fore, offer attractive and important sites for commercial,
industrial, and business structures within this part of the
urban fringe of Orlando.
The southeastern sector of the urban fringe shows a
very high degree of intermingling of urban and rural land
uses. The urban developments here are mostly of the resi
dential type. Among the rural uses, citrus groves and wood
lands are important. A major condition contributing to the
high intensity of residential uses in thie region is the
presence of numerous lakes. This sector of the fringe has
about 20 lakes of which Lake Conway is the largest and oc
cupies over 1,000 acres. High-value residential develop
ments located around most of the lakes indicate the impor
tance attached to lakefront sites by those seeking to buy
homes in this part of the urban fringe. Some of the homes
around Lake Conway area have a sale value of more than $60,000.


155
f
Figure 20.Intermixture vacant lots and low-value
residences located on the Lake Margaret Drive.


CHAPTER VI
SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS
Throughout central and southern Florida, and in many
other states as well, the pressures of increased population
are converting thousands of acres of rural land to urban
uses. This is happening very rapidly and sometimes in a
very disorderly way. The haphazard encroachment of urban
expansion into rural areas, especially into the citrus groves
in Orange County within the urban fringe of Orlando, is a
striking example of how urban expansion engulfs agricultural
land. Here, lands with proper soil and climatic conditions
for citrus and other agricultural production are also ideal
for urban growth and are being inundated by expanding urban
uses of land.
This dissertation de^ls with the present arrangement
and the amount of land used for different purposes and with
the amount and distribution of changes in land uses that
have occurred within the urban fringe of Orlando in the past
14 years. Analysis of these land-use data is intended also
to give a better understanding of the numerous historical
and economic forces, the physical conditions, and the other
influences which have been responsible for today's land-use
patterns and which will give a better comprehension of the
forces which will influence future growth and change.
183


34
fringe area. Accordingly, all sections around Orlando city
but within Orange County which met this criterion were de
lineated as the urban fringe area of Orlando.1
The major concern of this study is to interpret the
land-use pattern and land-use changes of this urban fringe
of Orlando as delineated on the basis of peripheral survey
township sections having 25 per cent or more of the total
land area in urban land uses or in a subdivided category.
^rban fringe in Seminole County was not considered in
this study, since this fringe is primarily adjacent to
Winter Park rather than to Orlando. Two survey sections did
not meet the stated criterion but still were included within
the urban fringe in order to have a contiguous area of study.


143
years hence? In recognition of this problem, considerable
attention is being given in some states to the problem of
conserving good farm land. California, for example, passed
a state law that prevents the annexation of zoned agricul
tural land by cities unless owners of the farm land give
their consent.1 Although this is a relatively weak law, it
does serve to give recognition of the problem. Many states,
counties, and metropolitan areas are developing master plans
under which certain sections can be reserved for agricul
tural uses.
The present pattern of planning for the county is con
trolled by a County Zoning Commission. This Zoning Commis-
sion was created by a Special Act* in 1955 with limited ju-
r/
risdiction, but by 1957 the jurisdiction was extended to in
clude the whole county. The Zoning Commission has adopted a
"Comprehensive Zoning Resolution," and has prepared and rec
ommended various zoning districts and appropriate regulations
for the territory not included in any municipality within
the county. During the past few years, the Orange County
Zoning Commission has mainly concentrated on the development
of an arterial street plan and has revised the pattern of
area development schemes. Because of the rapidly changing
land use conditions, industrial expansion has caused twice
the area of expansion since October, 1957. It is very
1D. A. Williams, "Fact Sheet? . ., op. cit., p. 3.
2By provisions of Chapter 31068, House Bill 828, Laws
of Florida, Special Acts, 1955.


85
Of course, houses have been built on lots subdivided
during this boom period of the twenties. Many of these
houses are now old and unkept. Therefore, the lot next to
such a house is generally not a very attractive building
site for someone wanting to build a home today. In a very
real sense, such areas of earlier subdivision have become
slum areas of the urban fringe. In order to eliminate such
blighted areas, a program such as the urban renewal programs
now underway within some of our older large cities may even
tually be needed for such unincorporated areas in the urban
fringe.
The density of the subdivision activities and concentra
tion of dwelling units closely follow the transportation
routes, high land, and close proximity to the city. At
least three important areas where recent subdivision activi
ties are heavily concentrated can be recognized by examina
tion of Figure 4, which is found in the pocket attached in
the back of the dissertation:
1. The Pine Hills area lies north of Colonial Drive
and west of Orange Blossom Trail (mostly in the sections of
12, 13, 24 of Township 22 south of Range 28 east and sections
6, 18, 19 of Township 22 south of Range 29 east). The den
sity of subdivision in this area goes over 336 acres per
square mile of land area. The density of dwelling units is
slightly over 500 per square mile.
2. The Azalea Park area also shows heavy concentration
of subdivided lands and dwelling units. The area lies be
tween the city limits of Orlando on the west and State


108
Por the sake of convenience in the description and inter
pretation of land use, the urban fringe of Orlando has been
divided into the following five sectors (Figure 13):
1. Northwestern sector. All the land of the urban
fringe lying northeast of Orange Blossom Trail (U.S. Highway
441) is included in this sector. This is bounded by the
Seminole County line on the north, survey section 27 and 34
of Township 21 south, Range 29 east and the city limits of
Winter Park on the east, the city limits of Orlando on the
south, and the Orange Blossom Trail on the west.
2. Western sector. This sector is bounded by the
Orange Blossom Trail on the north and northeast, the city
limits of Orlando on the east, and survey section 31 of Town
ship 22 south, Range 29 east, section 1 of Township 23 south,
Range 28 east, and section 5 of Township 23 south of Range 29
east. The western boundary of the sector coincides with the
outer boundary of the urban fringe.
3. Southwestern sector. The city limits of Orlando
forms the northern boundary of this sector. Survey sections
1, 2, and 3 of Township 24 south, Range 29 east and the Mar
tin Company property line form the southern boundary. State
Highway 527 forms the eastern boundary and the western bound
ary coincides with the outer boundary of the urban fringe of
Orlando.
4. Southeastern sector. This sector is approximately
bounded on the north by the city limits of Orlando, on the
west by State Highway 527, on the east by Conway Road, and
on the south by the McCoy Air Force Base.


150
of either study area where all the residential structures are
of the same kind. Most commonly there are examples of a
general type of house within each subdivision. Therefore,
the map of land use indicates areas in which a dwelling unit
with approximately the same valuation predominates. These
areas may have different types of structures within them.
High-value residential includes areas that have large
lot sizes and with dwelling units of more than $15,000
value.1 The floor space in these dwelling units is generally
in excess of 1,200 square feet. The houses, in architectural
style, vary a good deal but are generally spacious houses
with well-maintained lawns. The locational site of the
high-value residential houses is also distinctive. These
houses occupy mostly high ground and are often located around
lakes or on main roads with good access to transportation
facilities.
Medium- and low-value residential includes medium-value
dwellings ranging generally in value from $7,500 to $15,000
and/or low-value dwellings having less than $7,500 value.
Compared to the high-value residential units these dwelling
units are on smaller lots. The "low-value" dwelling units
are mostly wooden structures that often have a shabby appear
ance and are located mainly on unpaved roads.
Vacant lots include land which is subdivided but not in
any specific use. This land generally lies in close
1This valuation was estimated in the field in terms of
location, structure, and maintenance of the houses. The
valuation will fall somewhat in between the assessed valua
tion and the actual sale price.


31
Orlando, an easily defined and well understood unit for
fringe delineation is needed. Using the survey township as
a unit such as employed in some other studies of the urban
fringe was found to be too large in the Orlando urban fringe.
A study of aerial photographs revealed that the city of Or
lando and the adjacent urban fringe are confined mostly to
only four townships. The census tract or the census enumera
tion district was also considered as a possible unit for de
lineation purposes. However, these are not of equal size
and have differing shapes. Some of the census tracts do not
follow the city boundary, which is a serious deterrant to
using these in defining the urban fringe. Sometimes these
tracts extend well within the city proper or they extend so
far out from the city limits that the outlying areas are al
most completely rural in character. Therefore, the best
available unit, the survey township section of 640 acres, was
considered as a dependable delineatable unit of nearly uni
form size and shape. Moreover, in the case of the Orlando
urban fringe, it was advantageous to gather data and informa
tion from the varios documentary sources by survey township
sections.
The intensity of urban land use as indicated by the sub
division of the land and by the extent to which such subdi
visions are built up was chosen as the major criterion for
selecting the urban fringe area rather than such criteria as
the density of population or the character of local govern
ment. The physical growth of the city involves the extension


30
Figure 2


151
proximity to the built-up lands or within built-up areas
with the lots being devoid of any structural uses. Front,
rear, and side years of residential structures, even the
spacious grounds of high-value residential units, are, of
course, not considered vacant. Land in vacant lots is gen
erally suitable for residential use.
Mature citrus groves are groves which are in production
of citrus and are over 10 years old.
Young citrus groves consist of land which is in citrus
nurseries or in groves under 10 years of age. Most of the
plants are not capable of bearing a large amount of fruit.
Lake Conway Area
The Lake Conway area is located three miles south of
downtown Orlando between two major arteries of transporta
tion, State Highway 527 on the west and Conway Road on the
east. The study area is bounded by Raeford Road on the
north, Crystal Lake Drive on the east, County Road 413 on
the south, and Fern Creek Avenue on the west. It has an
area of 640 acres, of which approximately 50 acres are in
swamp or lake. Physiographically, a 100-foot contour line
divides the area diagonally into northwestern and southeast
ern parts; thus, the northwestern part is somewhat higher
than the southeastern part. The northern tip of Little Lake
Conway, Lake Margaret, and the western part of Little Bass
Lake occupy significant positions in the development of the
residential pattern in the southeastern part of the Lake
Conway area.


20
concentration of urbanized land uses and urban-employed peo
ple than the extended fringe which lies in the agricultural
hinterland of cities settled mostly by urban-oriented people.
This idea of the limited and extended fringe is somewhat
comparable to Andrews' urban and rural-urban fringes dis
cussed earlier. In both of these studies, however, the au
thors have not mentioned any specific criteria for delinea
tion of such types of fringe boundaries.
The United States Bureau of the Census has a precise
definition of the urban fringe area. In order to understand
this fringe concept, it is important to note the Bureau of
the Census definition of urbanized areas. In 1950, urbanized
areas were defined for the first time by the Bureau of the
Census as follows:
The urbanized area is an area that includes at least one
city with 50,000 inhabitants or more in 1940 or later
according to a special census taken prior to 1950 and
also the closely settled incorporated places and unin
corporated areas Since the urbanized area out
side of incorporated places was defined on the basis of
housing or population density, its boundaries for the
most part are not political but follow such features as
roads, streets, railroads, streams and other closely de
fined lines . .1
The urban fringe as defined by the Census Bureau is a part of
an urbanized area which is outside the central city or
cities.2 According to this definition, the outer boundary
of the urban fringe zone is a line beyond which all avail
able map and other evidence indicates that closely spaced
^U.S. Bureau of the Census, Seventeenth Census of the
United States: 1950, Population, Vol. I, p. XXIV.
2Ibid.


93
Figure 7.Land-use changes. "For Sale" signs can be
seen on citrus groves in many parts of the urban fringe (top),
New Azalea Park homes in the eastern part of the urban fringe
illustrate how block" type development has occurred on cut
over pine lands (bottom).


County, so kindly made available the facilities of her of
fice; and I am grateful to all members of the staff for their
aid and interest. Mr. Ralph Sims, Mr. George Grimsley,
Mr. John Crissey, Jr., Mr. Bill Ford, Mr. Arnold Williams,
and Mr. Creed Hull spared their time and knowledge and of
fered valuable information relative to the local setting.
Some of the data on population were supplied by Mr. Harold
Hamilton of the Orlando Sentinel. The author appreciates
discussions with Mr. Russel 0. Jacobsen, Director of the
Zoning Commission, especially on planning problems in Orange
County. Mr. Al Swartz of the Office of Soil Conservation
Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, allowed the author
access to the records and aerial photographs. The author
also is indebted to the staff of the Orlando City Planning
Office for their help and cooperation for this study.
To Mrs. Lala Schouten, who rendered much assistance and
encouragement throughout my stay and studies in Gainesville,
I especially owe my gratitude.
Finally I wish especially to thank my parents and my
brother for their constant encouragement and sacrifice,
without which my dream of coming to the United States for
higher study would have been an impossibility.
iii


97
Secondly, in order to make a descriptive statistical analysis
for the past 14 years, it was necessary to adopt a set of use
classes that could be identified in all three sets of aerial
photographs taken in 1947, 1954, and 1958. Since the aerial
photographs were not taken at the same season of the year,
there were seasonal peculiarities caused by natural condi
tions or peculiarities due to local cultural practices that
were noticeable in the fields. However, most of these pe
culiarities could be properly identified in making compari
sons among the photographs taken at different dates.
The following classes of land use were identifiable on
all the photographs: urban land, citrus groves, non-citrus
cropland, improved pasture land, range land, woodland, swamp,
and idle land. In establishing the criteria for the identi
fication of these categories of land use, care was exercised
to retain comparability with generally accepted definitions
of these land-use categories used by the U.S. Department of
Agriculture in the inventory of major uses of land through
out the United States.
In order that the significance of the patterns of land
use shown on the detailed maps made for the Orlando urban
fringe may be clearly understood, the definitions of these
categories are described carefully in the subsequent para
graphs .
Urban land. This category includes nearly all residen
tial, industrial, commercial, institutional, transporta
tions!, and recreational uses of land found in the Orlando


50
very gently sloping areas and have good to moderately good
drainage. They occur mostly in the north-central and north
eastern parts of the fringe area and occupy about 8 per cent
of the total acreage of soils mapped within the urban fringe
as defined for purposes of this study.1 These soils are
sandy in texture, acid in reaction, and low in most essential
plant nutrients. However, these soils have moderately deep
to very deep water tables and so earn the rating of "good"
for drainage systems for septic tanks.
Group 2. Blanton fine sand, gently sloping high phase
and Lakeland fine sand, gently sloping phase both lie high
above the permanent water table. The natural drainage is
good to somewhat excessive and these soils are rated "good"
for septic tank installation. In the northwestern part of
the urban fringe these soils are found in small patches and
cover only 2.5 per cent of the total soil area studied.
Group 3. Soils of this group include the level high
phase and the very gently sloping high phase of Blanton fine
sand and the level phase and very gently sloping high phase
of Lakeland fine sand. These soils occur on nearly level to
very gently sloping deep sands through which water moves
rapidly. These soils occupy 19 per cent of the soil area and
are widely distributed on the gently slopes of the ridges in
the western part of the urban fringe area. They are highly
leached, low in organic matter, and are of limited
^Twenty-three thousand, three hundred ninety-six acres,
which is approximately 53 per cent of the total urban fringe
area that has been mapped.


Figure 21.Low-value residence located in the Lake
Conway area.


45
identifying problems often hidden from the eye.
Some of the properties of soil which are significant
from an engineering standpoint in the urban development of
an area are the degree of natural drainage; depth to the wa
ter table; permeability; suitability as a source of topsoil/
shrink-swell potential; suitability for earthwork during
prolonged wet periods; and properties affecting irrigation
and the construction of dikes, excavated ponds, and drainage
systems for septic tanks. In the Orlando urban fringe the
most important engineering properties of soils in urban de
velopment are condition of natural drainage, average depth
to water table, permeability, and suitability for establish
ing drainage systems for septic tanks.
It is with this purpose in mind that the soil types
occurring in the urban fringe area of Orlando have been as
sembled into 10 groups. These groups are based on mainly
the physical characteristics and engineering qualities of
the soils (Table 3). These groupings are somewhat similar
to the management groups or capability units-1- which show the
relative suitability of soils for agricultural use as well
as for urban development. The distribution of the soil
groups is presented in Figure 3 which is found in the pock
et attached in the back of the dissertation.
Group 1. The very gently sloping low phase of the
Blanton and two phases of the Orlando are the principal
soils in this group. These soils occur on nearly level to
1Soll Survey, Orange County, Florida, op. cit., p. 32.


65
populated. This area is approximately four square miles in
extent and has a total population of 3,000, which averages
about 750 people per square mile.
In the southern part of the urban fringe area of Orlando
lies the Pine Castle area which is served by two main paral
lel highways, U.S. Highway 441 and State Highway 527. Pres
ence of lakes like Jessamine, Tyler, Bumby, Gutlin, Mary,
and many other small lakes, gives this area many good water
front sites for residences. Furthermore, the commercial
zoning along the two main highways within this region causes
a heavy concentration of population to be located near to
such facilities. The Pine Castle region as described here
consists of sections 13, 14, 22, 23, and 24 of Township 23
south, Range 29 east, and has more than 1,200 persons per
square mile.
The growth and present distribution of population with
in the urban fringe have been caused by physical and cul
tural conditions. Among the physical conditions are well-
drained lands and the presence of lakes, both of which are
very important attractions to the residential population
within this urban fringe. Development of highways and roads
is important also in explaining the spread of population.
Location of major industrial and other employers of large
numbers of workers has also played a substantial role in
directing settlement of the urban fringe.


TABLE 11
LAND-USE CHANGES IN THE ORLANDO URBAN FRINGE, 1947-1954
Land use
Acreage
1947
Percentage
of total
acreage
1947
Acreage
1954
Percentage
of total
acreage
1954
Actual
change
in
acreage
1947-54
Percentage
change
1947-54
Urban land
6, 096
13.7
11, 528
26.0
+5,432
+12.3
Citrus grove
8, 125
18.3
7,457
16.8
- 668
- 1.5
Cropland
487
1.1
417
.9
70
- .2
Pastureland
3,498
7.8
3, 222
7.2
- 276
- .6
Range land
8, 151
18.3
7, 235
16.3
- 916
- 2.0
Woodland
11,047
25.0
7, 580
17.0
-3,467
- 8.0
Swamp
5, 750
12.9
5,414
12.2
- 336
- .7
Idle land
1, 286
2.9
1, 587
3.6
+ 301
+ .7
Total
44,440
100.0
44,440
100.0
125


130
on citrus land especially around lakes is also significant
among the land use changes in the southeast part of the Or
lando fringe area during the 1947-54 period.
(4) Part of the eastern area shows considerable change
from rural to urban uses of land. Because of the physical
condition of the land, the urban development has been mostly
concentrated on higher land where, apparently, there is little
or no drainage problem. Patches of urban development can be
seen on the north side of the eastern area in survey sections
14, 15, 21, and 22 of Township 22 south, Range 30 east. The
most significant urban residential development during this
period was concentrated in survey sections 26 and 27 of
Township 22 south, Range 30 east. These sections are, in
general, known as the Azalea Park development area. High
and medium value residential developments where shopping
centers, school facilities, and nearness to downtown Orlando
have attracted many new residents to this part of the eastern
fringe during the 1947-54 period. Much of the woodland has
been taken over by urban uses in the eastern area.
During the 1954-61 period, urban land uses increased by
5,100 acres. This increase mainly occurred on 900 acres of
citrus grove land, 1,650 acres of range land, and 1,730 acres
of woodland. A considerable acreage of idle land was also
built up. More than 750 acres of the 1,587 acres of such
land classes as idle in 1954 had been built on by 1961.
During this period, about 11 per cent of the total land with
in the urban fringe was put into urban uses. The following


73
TABLE 6
THE PRINCIPAL INDUSTRIES IN ORANGE COUNTY, 1959a
Industry
Number of
Establishments13
Employment13
Manufacturing
290
16,000
Construction (Contract)
800
10,600
City, State, and Federal
Governments
80
8, 600
Transportation, Communi
cation, Utilities
115
3,600
Wholesale Trade
425
9,400
Retail Trade
1, 160
15,100
Finance, Insurance,
Real Estate
480
4, 500
Service Industries
1, 350
10,800
Total
5, 150
78, 600
aGreater Orlando Chamber of Commerce, H. Stuart John
ston, Manager, Statistical Data, Orlando, Florida (1960),
p. 10.
^Estimated.


165
construction and appearance of the houses, it appears that
although the lands were subdivided before 1947, approximately
half of the houses were built after 1947; some along Fern
Creek Avenue are very recently built. One of the significant
characteristics of the subdivision activity in this area is
that many of the subdivided areas are either vacant or are
in rural uses. As a result, a considerable amount of inter
mixture of urban residences and rural agriculture is found
in these subdivisions of the Lake Conway area (Figure 19).
One of the interesting characteristics of the subdivision
development pattern in the Lake Conway area is found in the
variations of lot size. The older subdivisions, especially
those subdivided before March, 1947, show such variations.
The lot size during this period ranges from 50 feet by 140
feet to 660 feet by 1,320 feet. More than 43 per cent of
the total land subdivision activity in the Lake Conway area
was recorded before 1947.
During the period from April, 1947 to October, 1956,
about 100 acres were subdivided. These subdivisions are lo
cated between Lake Conway and Lake Margaret. Plot design in
these subdivisions was excellent; the rectangular street pat
tern is adopted on level land, and the average lot size is
70 feet by 135 feet. The houses are recently built, well
designed, and are in the high-value category. In terras of
valuation of houses, street layout, design, and lot size,
these subdivisions are definitely of better quality than the
other subdivisions within the Lake Conway area. About


118
Figure 16."Block type" residential development located
on the east side of the urban fringe.


186
employers of labor were definitely located in a rural area
near Orlando. Even now, several years after their establish
ment, these installations are not considered a part of the
urban fringe by the criteria used in defining the fringe.
2. Improved and new transportational facilities played
a key role in the attraction of business and commerce along
the major arteries of transportation radiating from the cen
tral city. The expressway, when completed, may change even
more the focus of future development on the southwest side
by providing additional areas with better access to downtown
Orlando and to places of employment.
3. Rolling terrain with numerous lakes mostly on the
west, northwest, and south side of the urban fringe have
been rapidly taken over by urban development. Lake-front
sites in the fringe area have been in heavy demand for resi
dential housing.
4. Most of the eastern portion of the fringe is flat
with pockets of swamp and has land with a high water table.
This condition has delayed urban development in that part of
the fringe area.
5. Recent urban development has included an increasing
number of relatively large-scale, planned community-type
residential developments. These need large, contiguous areas of
rural land for maximum efficiency in the mass construction of
housing? therefore, the direction of urban growth has in part
been affected by the availability of land holdings which are
of sufficient size or which can be readily and easily com
bined for this type of development.


117
The Belle Isle development in survey section 30 of Township
23 south, Range 29 east to the west of Lake Conway is a very
attractive modern subdivision. Directly north of this sub
division are located mostly old residential areas.
In the northern part of this southeastern sector of the
urban fringe, citrus groves occupy large tracts of land.
Among the citrus groves, on relatively small tracts, urban
development has occurred. High, well-drained land and the
presence of citrus groves are two important factors respon
sible for urban developments in this area. Some homeowners
have a desire to have citrus trees on their own lots. Others
find that the care of the trees is too time-consuming for
them.
In the eastern sector of the urban fringe, woodland,
range land, and swamp are the most prominent land-use fea
tures. This part of the urban fringe is low, mostly below
the 90-foot contour line. Pockets of swamp, most of them
over 50 acres in extent, are scattered throughout the wood
lands of the eastern half of this sector. Urban develop
ments, especially along the eastern border of the city of
Orlando, are pronounced and some acreage of block development
of urban-residential use in the northern part in survey sec
tions 14, 15, and 35 of Township 22 south; Range 30 east is
to be found (Figure 16). The urban land use in this sector
of the fringe area is mainly controlled by the physical char
acter of land surface. High and dry lands in this region of
the urban fringe have already been used for residential


15
He classified such fringe areas into a series of belts sur
rounding an urban center on the basis of land-use character
istics. Among these belts the subdivision and the rural
residence belts were the most prominent observable features
within the fringe areas. Salter also wrote of the complexity
and shifting state of land-use conditions in the urban-rural
fringe areas. He emphasized the great need for proper clas
sification and planning for the effective use of land re
sources. But, like Smith, Salter's study has no precise
definition of fringe area.
Salter's pioneer work in the conceptualization of the
fringe area in terms of land use conditions was further crys-
tallized by Wehrwein and Andrews^ in subsequent years.
Wehrwein's excellent study, published in 1942, deals with
the structure of land use within the fringe area. "The
rural-urban fringe," he defined, "as the area of transition
between well recognized urban land uses and the area devoted
3
to agriculture." Wehrwein recognized fringe areas as a
"transition zone'1 and classified the same into three cate
gories: (1) those areas between arable farming and grazing,
(2) zones between farms and forests, and (3) suburban areas
lying between city and farms. Wehrwein not only pointed out
that certain factors affect growth and development of fringe
^George S. Wehrwein, "The Rural-Urban Fringe, Economic
Geography. XVIII, No. 3 (July, 1942), 217-288.
2
Richard B. Andrews, "Elements in the Urban-Fringe
Pattern," Journal of the Land and Public Utilities Economics,
XVIII (May, 1942), 169-183.
3Wehrwein, op. cit., 217.


141
1960. The 8.19-inch rainfall on July 25 broke the record
for rainfall during a 24-hour period in July. The Orlando
area received approximately 14 inches of rain during this
July, which was more than a quarter of the total normal an
nual rainfall. These severe rains resulted in flooding as
sociated with the overflow of lakes that caused street and
sewer damage and ruined many residential homes in many areas
of the county. The most critical area was around lakes
Cherokee, Davis, Weldona, and Lancaster in the south-central
part of the city of Orlando. In this area all homes near
the lakes were affected by floodwater. Although this past
year had unprecedented rainfall, the county and city govern
ments and subdivision developers have made no provision for
proper drainage. Most of the drainage ditches, culverts, and
canals were clogged by debris and were inoperable. Many of
the drainage ditches along the state-maintained roads were
clogged so that they did not handle any water at all.
Because of the rapid covering of the ground surface
with buildings, asphalt roads, and other structures that pre
vent natural absorption, there is urgent need for a better-
coordinated effort in handling surface water drainage prob
lems for the whole area. Several drainage studies are now
being made by the county, but a master drainage plan should
be undertaken to avoid risk of flooding in the future.
Planning for the Future
Such patterns of urban expansion as those that exist in
the urban fringe of Orlando focus attention more on the


60
TABLE 5
POPULATION PATTERNS OF
ORANGE
COUNTY,
1930 to
1960a
Year
icera
1930
1940
1950
1960
Orange County
Number of persons
Increase in number
49,737
70,074
114,950
263,540
of persons
20,337
44,876
148,590
Percentage increase
40.0
64.2
129.1
Orlando City
Number of persons
Increase in number
27,330
36,736
52,367
88,135
of persons
2,406
15,631
35,768
Percentage increase
34.4
41.8
67.9
Other Incorporated Areas*5
Number of persons
Increase in number
9, 711
11,946
18,681
37,653
of persons
2, 235
7, 000
18,707
Percentage increase
23.0
58.5
100.5
Unincorporated Areas
Number of persons
Increase in number
12,696
21, 392
43,893
137,752
of persons
8, 696
22, 501
93,859
Percentage increase
68.5
105.0
213.5
aBureau of the Census,
United
States
Census of Popula-
tion, Florida, 1950 and 1960.
^Included are: Apopka, Belle Isle, Bithlo, Etonville,
Edgewood, Maitland, Oakland, Ocoee, Windermere, Winter Gar
den, and Winter Park City.


110
5. Eastern sector. The western boundary of this sec
tor is formed by the city limits of Orlando and by the Conway
Road. The northern, eastern, and southern boundaries coin
cide with the boundaries of the urban fringe of Orlando.
Looking first at the land-use characteristics of the
northwestern area, it should especially be noted that a con
siderable contrast exists in this part of the urban fringe.
The southern side of this area which adjoins the city of Or
lando, Winter Park, and Eatonville is almost completely
built up. This is primarily due to the location of two
large lakes, Fairview and Killarney, which have attracted
urban-residential development in this area. The Ben White
Raceway to the north of Lake Fairview between the Orange
Blossom Trail and Edgewater Drive occupies a significant
position in the urban land use of this area. Besides these
urban land uses, only one tract each occupied by a citrus
grove and a woodland area is located to the south of Eaton
ville in the southern portion of this northwestern part of
the urban fringe of Orlando.
In the northern part of this particular sector there is
considerable intermixture of urban and rural land uses. Ur
ban land, citrus groves, woodland, and range land are so in
termixed in small plots that except along the highways there
is no systematic distribution pattern of any of the above-
mentioned uses. Along the highway commercial and industrial
developments such as, gasoline stations, drive-in theaters,
trailer courts, motels, small grocery stores, and other


102
Figure 10.--Pastureland. Improved pasture along
Colonial Drive.


June
80.8
100
60
7.85
3.84
8.
13
July
82.1
99
66
7.70
9.03
6.
15
August
82.4
99
64
6.87
5.71
17.
13
Summer
81.8
100
60
22.42
18.58
31.
41
September
80.7
97
56
7.15
4.13
13.
11
October
74.7
94
43
3.91
3.89
3.
42
November
66.8
89
29
1.32
.74

33
Fall
74.1
97
29
12.38
8.76
16.
86
Year
72.5
102
24
51.23
33.84
74.
19
Sourcei
Soil Survey
, Orange County, Florida, 1960,
p. 57.
aAverage temperature based on a 64-year record, through 1955; highest and lowest m
temperatures based on a 16-year record, through 1958.
^Average precipitation based on a 64-year record, through 1955; wettest and driest
years based on a 59-year record, in the period 1900-1958; snowfall based on a 16-year
record, through 1958.
cTrace.
o o o o o o o


188
to high-value urban uses in the urban fringe. Many acres of
rural land lying in close proximity to the Orlando city
limits are also unused partly because of the high prices
being asked for the land. This often forces the urban de
velopments to go further out onto cheaper land. As a result,
land is being developed within the urban fringe in a very
spasmodic and haphazard fashion. Often, productive citrus
land that is on high and rolling ground as well as land in
other rural uses is purchased and then subdivided into dif
ferent lot sizes for sale considerably in advance of the
time when such land will be built up.
There is no complete inventory of land resources of the
Orlando metropolitan area. A recent soil survey of Orange
County has been made by the U.S. Department of Agriculture
in cooperation with the Florida Agricultural Experiment Sta
tion? and the U.S. Geological Survey cooperating with the
Florida Geological Survey has recently completed the topo
graphic mapping of most of Orange County. These are basic
sources of information about physical conditions which are
needed for sound planning. In addition, however, there is a
need for the mapping and inventory of land uses at comparable
or even more detailed scales to furnish additional basic in
formation essential for planned development. Lacking overall
planning, the expansion of urbanization will continue to
dissect adjacent rural areas indiscriminately.
This study clearly reveals that a very dispersed pattern
of urban uses and a high degree of intermixture of rural and


71
Orlando area are several subsidiary industries in the field
of electronics, aviation, design engineering, and related
machine tool manufacturing. According to the industrial board
of Orlando, 225 new manufacturers have located in Orlando be
tween 1950 and 1960, and 128 of these have come since 1955.
Many of these industries possess good growth potentialities.
The Martin Company which is located about nine miles
from downtown Orlando in the southwestern corner of the
fringe area began operation in 1957 and has been very active
in the production of key defense weapons since that time.
The importance of this new type of industry and its impact
upon the Orlando area economy can be demonstrated by the
fact that it employs nearly 9,100 workers, and its payroll
77 r
is approximately 40 million dollars per year. Other indus
trial and commercial plants in the urban fringe are mainly
concentrated in the northwest sector along U.S. Highway 441
and in the south along U.S. Highway 441 and State Highway
527.
As has been pointed out in an earlier discussion, Or
lando's early economy was based mainly on agriculture and
tourism. Following World War II, many servicemen who had
received training or who had been stationed in Florida re
turned and settled in the Orlando area. Probably this in
flux of personnel became a magnet that began to draw industry
because of the availability of skilled employees. Service
industries, construction, and wholesale and retail trades
have gravitated to the rapidly growing city of Orlando and
its urban fringe area.


109
Figure 13


90
The sprawling of urban land uses in every part of the
fringe area with ribbon-like urban-industrial and urban-
commercial developments on the major highways, is character
istic of many parts of the urban fringe. The development of
urban land uses does not follow any orderly pattern. Trailer
camps; gas stations; low, medium, and high-quality dwellings;
and commercial and industrial establishments are haphazardly
intermixed in the fringe area (Figure 5). Rural residences,
junk yards, drive-in movies, and agricultural lands scattered
here and there on the main highways and side roads are also
distinct forms of settlement within the urban fringe (Figure
6) .
The rural landscape of the fringe area is in transition
and retreat. Citrus groves, horticultural and vegetable
crops, improved pastures, unimproved range, open cutover
woodland, and even swampland are yielding to the subdivider
(Figure 7). Approximately one-fourth of the land in the ur
ban fringe, which is occupied by urban uses today, was in
citrus groves, improved pastures, unimproved range, and other
agricultural uses 14 years ago.
The rural land has been affected by soaring land prices
and increasing tax rates brought about by the outward spread
of urban uses.
In the national picture, Florida ranks second only to
Arizona in the increase in values of farm real estate. Land
values in Arizona in 1959 were about four times those reported
in 1950, whereas Florida had recorded a threefold increase.


122
19 of Township 22 south, Range 29 east. A considerable acre
age of urban expansion from the city was also found in sur
vey sections 28, 29, and 32 of Township 22 south, Range 29
east.
In the southwestern sector, the survey sections lying
in close proximity to the city limits of Orlando in the
northern part of this sector were occupied by urban uses in
1947. For example, except for a few patches of citrus
groves, sections 2 and 3 of Township 23 south, Range 29 east
were entirely in urban uses. Most of the other land of this
sector was in rural uses. Pastureland, woodland, range land,
and swamp are predominant among rural land uses. Pasture-
land occupied most of the rural land; next in importance were
citrus groves. Citrus groves were mainly located in the
eastern part, around the lakes and on high ground. Woodland
occupied a considerable acreage in the western part of the
sector. Survey sections in the south were in range land.
A significant aspect of the land use phenomena existing
in 1954 in this sector of the Orlando urban fringe was that
large acreages of land in rural use were idle. Throughout
this sector idle land appeared in large acreages, mostly in
tracts of more than 20 acres in size. Tracts of urban land
were located in areas southeast of Lake Jessamine and west
of Lake Catherine in 1954.
In 1947, the southeastern sector was divided about
equally between a northern part of the sector which was
mainly in citrus groves with patches of woodland and urban


8
several of the major cities of Florida. Governor C. Farris
Bryant very aptly said, "... growth brings its problems,
and the problems must be solved or the blessing of growth is
turned to a curse."1
Major Objectives of the Study
This study has three major objectives. The first of
these objectives is to provide a methodological framework
for making a convenient geographical delineation of the ur
ban fringe of Orlando. The second objective is to describe
and analyze the general physical and cultural characteristics
of the urban fringe, which have played complex roles in the
expansion of this urban community into the adjacent rural
countryside. The last objective is to account for the land-
use conditions in the years 1947, 1954, and 1961; to prepare
detailed maps showing the various land uses as they existed
in those years, and to analyze the significant changes in
land use that have occurred within this urban fringe of
Orlando.
Scope of the Study
The area covered in the study includes the maximum ex
tent of urbanization within Orange County outside the city
of Orlando. The primary emphasis of this study is placed on
the changes in the use of land within the urban fringe; and,
therefore, three periods of land-use conditions are studied.
. Farris Bryant, "The Doctor's Responsibility in
Growing Florida, M The Orange County Medical Society Quar
terly Bulletin. V, No. 4 (1959), 15.


16
areas, but he also attempted to correlate the growth process
with the theories of Von Thunen, Park and Burgess, and
Cristaller. Wehrwein's description and analysis of the ur
ban fringe in terms of land-use structures is a definite con
tribution in fringe studies. The role of transportation in
fringe development is also much stressed. If physical fea
tures do not interfere, the means of transportation radiate
in all directions. As Wehrwein aptly states, "the rural-
urban fringe consists of rural territory pierced by finger
like projections of urbanized land uses."1 So, actually,
the fringe is a real extension of the city itself. Here the
land uses are in a state of flux, which is a situation need
ing proper planning, direction, and control.2
In 1942, Andrews contributed new thought in fringe
studies by attempting to differentiate the "urban fringe"
from the "rural-urban fringe." He defined "urban fringe" as
the "active expansion sector of the compact economic city,"
and the "rural-urban fringe" lies adjacent to the periphery
of the "urban fringe." In this rural-urban fringe," "there
is an intermingling of characteristically agricultural and
characteristically urban land uses."3 He vividly described
the urban fringe in terms of composition, dynamics, and pat
terns; and he also analyzes the causes of its growth. The
primary emphasis in his research was to describe the land-use
1Ibld., 223.
2Ibid., 228.
3Andrews, op. cit., 169.


Table
Page
16. Pattern of Land Use in Pine Hills Area, 1961 . 170
17. Pattern of Subdivision Development in Pine Hills
Area 173
vii


106
Figure 11.Idle land. This low-lying land was idle
recently along Colonial Drive while being prepared for urban
development.


191
Board of County Coramissloners, Orange County, Florida, and
the Orange County Zoning Commission. Comprehensive
Zoning Resolution, Orange County, Florida. 1957.
(Mimeographed.)
Bogue, Donald Joseph. Metropolitan Growth and the Conversion
of Land to Non-Agricultural Uses. Chicago: University
of Chicago, 1956.
. Population Growth in Standard Metropolitan Areas,
1900-1950. Washington: Housing and Home Finance
Agency, Division of Housing Research, 1953.
. The Population of the United States. Glencoe,
Illinois: The Free Press, 1959.
Bringe, Victor. "Urban Fringe Studies of Two Wisconsin
Cities: A Summary," Journal of Land and Public Utili
ties Economics, XXI (November, 1945), 375-382.
Bryant, C. Farris. "The Doctor's Responsibility in Growing
Florida," The Orange County Medical Society Quarterly
Bulletin, V, No. 5 (1959), 15-17.
Chapin, F. Stuart. Urban Land Use Planning. New York:
Harper, 1957.
Cooke, Wythe C. Geology of Florida. Geological Bulletin
No. 29. Tallahassee, Florida: Florida Geological
Survey, 1945.
Davis, Kingsley, et al. The World's Metropolitan Areas.
Berkeley: University of California Press, 1959.
Dobriner, William Mann (ed.). The Suburban Community. New
York: Putnam, 1958.
Duncan, Otis Dudley, et al. Metropolis and Region. Balti
more: John Hopkins Press, 1960.
Dyer, Donald R. "Urban Growth in Florida: Exemplified by
Lakeland," The Journal of Geography, LV, No. 5 (May,
1956), 278-286.
Fellmann, Jerome D. "Urban Intent and Urban Expansion,"
Land Economics, XXXI, No. 3 (1955), 281-282.
Firey, Walter. "Social Aspects to Land Use Planning in
Country-City Fringe: the Case of Flint, Michigan,"
Michigan State College, Agriculture Experiment Station,
Special Bulletin No. 339 (June, 1946), 5-57.
Geddes, Patrick. Cities in Evolution. London: Williams
and Norgate, 1949.


131
areas were noted where significant changes in land use oc
curred between 1954 and 1961:
(1) In the northwest in survey sections 28 and 33 of
Township 21 south, Range 29 east and section 3 of Township
22 south, Range 29 east, major changes in land use have taken
place. In these sections, much land which was in woodland
or in citrus groves has been transferred to urban uses. In
addition to the major changes, smaller areas of urban de
velopment occurred in other parts of the northwest part of
the urban fringe.
(2) In the western part of the urban fringe, spectacular
changes in land use were found to have occurred during the
period from 1954 to 1961. In this area most of the expan-
sion of urban uses was on range land and on woodland. A
considerable acreage of land was cleared and in 1961 was
still in the idle category of land use. Eventually, most of
this land will be taken over by urban uses. The major urban
expansion in the form of "block development" for urban-
residential use can be seen in survey sections 24 of Township
22 south, Range 28 east; 18 and 19 of Township 22 south,
Range 29 east and in other adjoining areas where, in 1954,
the land was in woodland or idle range land or was in the
idle category while awaiting further improvement for trans
fer to urban uses.
(3) In the southwest part of the urban fringe, in sur
vey sections 20 and 30 of Township 23 south, Range 29 east,
major urban development mostly on woodland has taken place.


132
This urban development was of the residential type. Urban
expansion on the southern border of Orlando has occurred on
citrus grove land. In the southeast part of the urban fringe
especially to the north of Lake Conway, tracts of idle land
and citrus groves have been taken over by urban uses. In
the southeast corner, on survey section 29 of Township 22
south, Range 30 east, urban expansion is well marked on cit
rus grove land.
(4) Three important areas of urban land use are notice
able on the east side of the urban fringe of Orlando. These
are survey sections 14 and 35 of Township 22 south, Range 30
east and section 2 of Township 23 south, Range 30 east.
The overall change in the patterns of land use between
1947 and 1961 is given in Table 13. From this table it may
be noted that urban land during the 14 years has increased
by more than 10,500 acres. The increase has resulted in the
loss of 1,565 acres of citrus grove land, 294 acres of im
proved pastureland, 2,570 acres of range land, and 5,200
acres of woodland. Urban expansion onto swamp and idle land
is also taking place. Approximately about 420 acres of swamp
and 460 acres of idle land was taken over for urban uses in
the 1947-61 period.
The extent of urban expansion onto the range land and
woodland is the most striking feature of land-use changes
occurring during the period of 1954-61. A total of 3,383
acres of range land and woodland were transferred to urban
uses. Large tracts of land to the west of Orlando especially


Chapter Page
V. LAND USE IN SELECTED AREAS IN THE URBAN
FRINGE 14 8
Land-Use Categories
Lake Conway Area
Pine Hills Area
A Comparison of the Study Areas
VI. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS 183
BIBLIOGRAPHY 190
BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH 196
v


69
dollars received by the grower for agricultural products,
citrus accounted for some 30.8 million dollars. However,
this does not reflect the value of this crop at the processed
level; for when the cost of packing or concentrating is
added to this amount, the value is considerably higher.
Thus, one can easily see the importance of the citrus indus
try to the economy of Orange County.
Orlando's mild climate, scenic lakes, rolling lands, and
its many recreational facilities attract tourists from all
over the nation. The Greater Orlando Chamber of Commerce
estimated that more than 50,000 visitors stopped in Orlando
during 1960 for periods of time varying from a few days to
several months. Because of its central location, Orlando is
a popular "home base" for tourists who wish to visit many of
Florida's famous attractions such as Silver Springs, Cypress
Gardens, Marine Studios, Bok Tower, and other attractions
which are all within a two-hour drive of the city. It is
also an important stopover point on routes leading southward
to the Gold Coast of Florida. This transient population
contributes a substantial amount to the retail business of
the Orlando area and furnishes employment to many engaged in
the various services connected with the tourist and resort
business. In 1960, the Greater Orlando Chamber of Commerce
estimated that tourist facilities in hotels, motels, tourist
homes, apartments, and restaurants in and around Orlando
exceeded 1,500.
The Orlando area has two Air Force bases, the Orlando
Air Force Base, located within the city limits, and McCoy


18
a summary of an article originally written by Andrews. The
major objective of the original article by Andrews was "to
delineate the patterns of human action which result from
various phases of urban unrest . .*1 This article does
not have any discussion on the urban-fringe concept nor does
it discuss the uses of land in fringe areas.
Rodehaver in 1946 studied the urban fringe from a socio
logical point of view only. He defined the urban fringe as
"the interstitial area which lies between an urban unit and
its outlying rural-farm areas.2 He admitted that the urban
fringe could also be defined in terms of its land-use char
acteristics. But Rodehaver's approach was not in terms of
land use in his study of Madison, Wisconsin. His doctoral
dissertation is particularly important to researchers who
are interested in the human occupance rather than the phys
ical environment of the urban fringe.
Firey's study of Flint, Michigan, lacks a precise defi
nition of the fringe area of that city. It does, however,
have an excellent general description of the land-use and
population characteristics of the area in Genesee County
surrounding Flint, which he called "a typical country-city
fringe.*3 This area is characterized by small part-time
1Ibid., 375.
Myles William Rodehaver, "The Rural-Urban Fringes An
Interstitial Area" (Unpublished doctoral dissertation,
University of Wisconsin, 1946), p. 15.
3
Walter Firey, "Social Aspects to Land Use Planning in
Country-City Fringe: the Case of Flint, Michigan," Michigan
State College, Agriculture Experiment Station, Special
Bulletin No. 339 (June, 1947), p. 47.


68
opportunities, expansion of defense-oriented industries, ex
pansion of labor-oriented industries such as electronic in
dustries, continued operation of industries processing agri
cultural products, and a vigorous construction industry.
The city of Orlando is favorably located in the State of
Florida 236 miles from Miami, 145 miles from Jacksonville,
97 miles from Tampa, and 60 miles from Daytona Beach. As a
city with a central location within a large area of flourish
ing and expanding communities with diversified economies, it
holds a unique position in its contribution to the economic
growth of Florida. The Orlando area serves as a vital trans
portation link to parts of central and southern Florida.
Radiating from it are highways, railroads, and airlines
which connect with every portion of its immediate tributary
area; and it serves as a major financial and servicing cen
ter, a retail and wholesale distribution center, and an area
considered a great potential for future industrial growth.
Although increased industrial production in Orange
County is playing a vital role in the economic growth of
Orlando and its urban fringe, the agricultural base is still
vitally important. The 1954 Census of Agriculture made by
the Bureau of the Census revealed that Orange County sold
38 million dollars worth of farm products and ranked second
in Florida and forty-fourth among the more than 3,000
counties in the entire nation. Farm income for the 1957-58
season was estimated at 42.5 million dollars, which was a
decided jump over the income for 1954. Of this 42.5 million



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58
the early settlers came from England and settled in the Pine
Castle and Conway areas before Orlando was more than a name
and a trading post. Orlando became the county seat in 1856.1
The early settlers were mainly of two types. There was an
older group made up largely of retired professional men and
army officers. This group came to Florida primarily because
of the climate and in some cases because of their limited
resources. Then there was a younger group of people, mostly
just out of school and college, who were sent by their par
ents for various reasons. These young men were primarily
supported by remittance from home and, therefore, were known
as "remittance men" in the early days of the 1880's.2 A
considerable number of laborers also came along with these
groups of people. The early pioneers did not come and set
tle for any great economic attraction. With the advent of a
railroad from Sanford to Orlando in 1880 and with its exten
sion southwestward to Tampa in 1884, Orlando received its
first impetus for growth. Many people came and settled in
Orlando and in the adjacent countryside which is now the
present urban fringe of that city. Cheap agricultural lands,
young orange groves, timber resources, and sawmilling were
the primary attractions for the settlers. But the big freeze
of 1894-95 caused a major setback in the early prosperity of
Orange County.
^E. H. Glore, From Florida Sand to the City Beautiful
(n.p.: 1948?), p. 58.
2
L. B. Robinson, "Living in Florida," Home and Farm
(Louisville, Kentucky, 1884), 74.


177
Compared to the Pine Hills area, the Lake Conway area
has over 700 residential dwelling units and 41 associated
detached buildings of various kinds. Therefore, both of
these selected study areas have about the same number of
residential and associated detached buildings. The Lake
Conway area, in contrast to the Pine Hills area, had a con
siderable number of dwelling units in 1947; but most of the
acreage was in citrus groves, cropland, and woodland. In
both of these areas, many of the older structures were con
structed by low standards as evidenced by the deterioration
prevalent in older sections of the areas. But in recent
years an increasing amount of home ownership, enforcement of
zoning, initiation of plotting controls, and other factors,
have brought about a growing recognition of the importance
of keeping residential areas in attractive condition. The
standards of residential construction and design have changed
a great deal. But street and lot layout in the subdivision
in the Lake Conway area have not received careful attention
in many cases. For example, in the west-central area, most
of the streets are unpaved and have dead ends. These dead
end streets are a major defect in the layout of the subdi
visions. Street improvements in high-value residential
areas north of Lake Conway, south of Lake Margaret, and to
the north of Lake Stevens are much better. All the streets
in the Lake Conway and Pine Hills areas follow a rectangular
pattern, except in the northeastern corner of the Pine Hills
area where streets are curved partly because of the rolling


Figure 12




CHAPTER III
THE PRESENT CHARACTERISTICS OF THE
ORLANDO URBAN FRINGE
The Physical Characteristics
Topography and drainage
The city of Orlando and its urban fringe area are lo
cated in the north-central part of Orange County. Physio-
graphically, this part of the county may be divided into two
distinct areas. In terms of agricultural and urban develop
ment the most significant of these two areas is the western
area. It includes the city of Orlando and lies to the west
of, and above the 100-foot contour line. This part of the
urban fringe is a part of a slightly elevated upland region
known as Orlando Ridge which extends southward from Alachua
County across the eastern parts of Marion and Lake counties
into Orange County.^- Orlando Ridge is included within the
2
Central Highlands as defined by Cooke. The area lying to
the east of the city of Orlando and extending nearly to the
Little Econlockhatchee River is largely a transition area
^William A. White, Some Geomorphic Features of Central
Peninsular Florida, Geological Bulletin No. 41, Florida Geo
logical Survey (1958), p. 10.
^Wythe C. Cooke, Geology of Florida, Geological Bul
letin No. 29, Florida Geological Survey (1945), p. 8.
35


158
residential areas occupy over 110 acres and have mostly de
veloped around Lake Conway, Lake Margaret, Lake La Grange,
and Lake Stevens. Building structures are new and modern in
design (Figure 22). Developments in the areas to the north
of Lake Conway and south of Pershing Avenue especially ex
hibit evidence of very attractive architecture and layout.
Some of the homes in this area consist of 8 to 10 rooms or
more and have values of $60,000 to $70,000. In almost all
cases the high-value residential areas have well-maintained
lawns and excellent landscaping, which is not found in medi
um- or low-value residential areas. The high-value develop
ments, especially north of Lake Stevens along the eastern
side of Fern Creek Avenue, have some distinctive features.
7
In most of the cases, it was found that either in the front
or back yards, and in some cases in both, two to three rows
of citrus trees are growing. The citrus trees are matured
and, therefore, capable of bearing fruit. Obviously this
particular tract was occupied by a citrus grove before it
was subdivided. Such an area appeals to people seeking homes
with citrus trees in the yards, especially those who migrate
from the north. The citrus trees may add beauty to the prop
erty if properly maintained. The production of the bearing
trees is generally not of much commercial value but may be
sufficient for home consumption. Besides making the sub
divisions attractive, there is a hidden economic reason which
the subdivision developer has for leaving the treesthe de
veloper spends less money in uprooting trees and at the same


56
although tender vegetables and fruits may be dam
aged by frosts that are likely to occur about every
other year.
3. Temperatures will vary a few degrees because of
local differences in altitude which contribute to
air drainage and the presence or absence of nearby
water bodies. At times this cold air, which set
tles in the valleys or in the depressions, damages
the citrus trees and other crops.
4. The rainy season lasts for about four months occur
ring generally from June through September. About
60 per cent of the precipitation falls during this
period. The average annual precipitation is about
51 inches. The rainfall is comparatively light
during winter and in early spring. The relatively
high annual rainfall, although it is favorable for
the growth of many plants, has leached many of the
plant nutrients from the soil. As a result, many
of the sandy soils have become moderately to very
strongly acid in reaction.
5. Sometimes torrential rainfall plays a very signifi
cant role in the Orlando area. For example, in
July, 1960, an abnormally high amount of rainfall
damaged many homes and caused serious trouble to
life and property in Orlando and the urban fringe
area. Approximately 20 inches of rain fell during


176
most prevalent in the southwestern side. The other areas
have poor quality houses within wooded areas. In order to
redevelop these areas, proper thought must be given to some
kind of housing renewal plan. Unless proper planning in
terms of drainage, subdivision layout, and improvement of
the housing is undertaken, this part of the study area will
remain "blighted" for years to come.
A Comparison of the Study Areas
The predominant use of urban land in these two selected
areas at present is single-family dwellings. To understand
present and future trends in residential development and to
recognize existing problems and prevent their recurrence,
one should look back several years in the development of
these areas that have been selected for detailed study.
In 1947, as the study of aerial photographs revealed,
the Pine Hills area was mainly occupied by range land. Dur
ing the past 14 years, a considerable part of this acreage
was reforested with oak and pine growth. Only a few rural
dwellings appeared in the southern part. But today, the
Pine Hills area is a remarkable example of the growth and
development of urban-residential uses onto range land and
woodland, which was a category of rural land that had under
gone very little improvement prior to subdivision for urban
uses. Today, about 164 acres formerly in range land and
woodland have about 640 single-family residential dwellings
and associated detached buildings of various kinds such as
garages, poultry shelters, storerooms, etc.


36
between the central highlands to the west and coastal low
lands to the east.
In the western area, the upland surface ranges in alti
tude from 80 to 140 feet above sea level. The local relief
varies about 10 feet in most parts of the area. The surface
of this upland is mostly rolling with relatively steep elon
gated ridges running in a north-south direction in the south
west part of the area. This part of the upland area is also
characterized by closed depressions, many of which contain
lakes of various sizes and forms. Large lakes such as
Little Lake Conway, Jessamine, Holden, Catherine, and Turkey
lakes in the southern part of the area and Mann, Lowne,
Wekiwa, and Fairview lakes in the northern part of the area
are more or less elongated in form. Small somewhat circular
lakes dot almost every survey section of the highland. The
smaller lakes, some of which are only a few acres in extent,
have no visible outlets but are merely depressions extending
below the ground water level. However, they can hardly be
called stagnant, for the water undoubtedly is constantly
seeping through the sandy soils in the direction of th* near
est rivers. These lakes appear to have originated as a re
sult of local subsidence of underlying formations consequent
to the collapse of caverns and solution channels in the sub-
stratal marl and limestones.*
*A. G. Unklesby, Ground Water Conditions in Orlando and
Vicinity, Florida, Prepared by the Geological Survey, U.S.
Department of Interior in cooperation with the Florida Geo
logical Survey and the Corps of Engineers, U.S. Army (1944),
P. 6.


129
range land by 920 acres, woodland by 3,470 acres, and swamp
by 340 acres. During this period there was a general
sprawling of urban land uses all over the fringe area. At
lease four important areas can be recognized where major
changes in land use have occurred:
(1) The western area, especially in survey sections 18
and 19 of Township 22 south, Range 29 east, has undergone a
significant change in land use. This area is generally
known as the Pine Hills development area. In 1947, most of
the land in these two sections was in the woodland or in the
range land category. By 1954, more than 60 per cent of the
land in this area was taken over for urban-residential use.
Considerable acreage in the vicinity of Pine Hills was also
rr
put in the idle land category, which means essentially that
the land was in process of being transferred from rural to
urban uses.
(2) On the northwest side of the urban fringe, small
plots of land were transferred to the idle land category
along U.S. Highway 441 and Edgewater Drive. Citrus groves
and land which was in the idle land category in 1947, espe
cially in survey sections 2 and 11 of Township 22 south,
Range 29 east, were converted to various urban uses.
(3) In the south and southeast, citrus groves and pas-
tureland were mainly transferred to urban uses. In survey
section 9 of Township 23 south, Range 29 east, more than 50
per cent of the land which was in improved pasture in 1947
has been taken over by urban uses. Spotty urban development


123
land appearing within the citrus groves. A block of land of
150 acres was in the idle land-use class in the center of
survey section 7 of Township 23 south, Range 30 east. The
southern part of this sector had considerable intermixture
of citrus groves, range land, woodland, and urban land.
By 1954, land use in the southeastern sector of the Or
lando urban fringe, showed a considerably dispersed pattern
of urban land. The northern half of the region had an inter
mingling of urban land, woodland, and citrus groves. The
intermingling of land uses can be illustrated in survey sec
tions 4 and 5 of Township 23 south, Range 30 east, where a
series of urban islands were to be found within the citrus
grove land. In the southern half of the sector, urban ex
pansion on the east side of State Highway 527 and around the
lakes was marked.
For the eastern sector of the urban fringe, the land-
use map of 1947 shows that more than 95 per cent of the land
was in rural uses. Only a few patches of urban development
were found near the city limits of Orlando. Woodland, citrus
groves, and swamp were the major classes of rural land use.
The land in the southwestern survey sections of the sector
was almost completely in citrus groves. Woodland and swamps
predominated in other areas, although a few patches of range
land were found on the south side of the sector.
A considerable amount of urban development had occurred
in this region by 1954. Land to the north of State Highway
50 in survey section 21 and 22 of Township 22 south, Range 30


CHAPTER II
THE CONCEPT OF URBAN FRINGE AND DELINEATION
OF THE ORLANDO URBAN FRINGE
Research investigations on fringe areas surrounding
larger cities have increased in recent years. Today, 21 per
cent of the total population of the United States lives in
such fringe areas.1 This has aroused the interest of re
searchers from various disciplines such as sociology, eco
nomics, political science, and geography. A great deal of
individual research has been published particularly in the
field of sociology on the study of fringe phenomena. The
concept of the fringe, however, is variously defined to de
scribe a number of situations. The approach and emphasis has
differed according to the purpose and method of the studies
made.
Current problems of fringe studies have two principal
foci* conceptualization and delineation.2 Differences in
the fringe concept and the procedure used for delineation of
fringe areas are reviewed and evaluated in this chapter.
^Total population living in urbanized areas outside the
central cities. U.S. Bureau of the Census, "I960 Census of
Population: Population of Urbanized Areas, 1960 and 1950,
Supplementary Reports, PC(Sl)-5, June 14, 1961, p. 3.
2
S. W. Blizzard, Research on Rural-Urban Fringe," Soci
ology and Social Research, XXXVIII, No. 3 (1954), 143.
13


185
The present distribution of population within the urban
fringe has three principal nuclei: (1) the Pine Hills area
on the west, (2) the Azalea Park area in the east, and (3)
the area around Lake Conway on the south side of the fringe.
Among the major uses of land within the urban fringe at
the present time, urban land occupies 38 per cent of the
total area; citrus groves, 15 per cent? woodland and range
land, 13 per cent each; and pastureland, 7 per cent. In 1947,
woodland occupied 25 per cent? citrus groves and range land,
18 per cent each? urban land, 14 per cent? and pastureland,
8 per cent. Urban land was predominant among the 1954 uses
of land and occupied 26 per cent. Among other uses, woodland
and citrus groves occupied 17 per cent each? range land, 16
per cent; and pasture, about 7 per cent.
Approximately 10,504 acres out of 44,440 acres of the
total land area of the Orlando urban fringe have been con
verted to urban uses. Single-family residential use is pre
dominant among the urban uses. The major conversion of land
into urban use was from 5,194 acres of woodland, 2,572 acres
of range land, and 1,565 acres of citrus groves.
Some conclusions about what has happened during the
rapid urbanization of the fringe around Orlando will have
illustrative and in some cases predictive value for other
areas of similar rapid development:
1. The Martin Company and the McCoy Air Force Base by
their locations have influenced the direction and nature of
land-use changes within the fringe. These two large


74
sold for residential and industrial expansion in the urban
fringe. Many large tracts of land are being held in a com
paratively idle condition by speculators for future develop
ment. In many cases cattlemen and dairy farmers have had to
sell their land because of the low return on their invest
ments relative to the prevailing high tax rates and high
land values.1
The increase in population in the county, however,
should tend to increase the production of vegetable and
poultry products. The annual cash income was $448,000 from
poultry and poultry products and $4,000,000 from the vege
tables in 1954. These figures are expected to take a big
jump in the 1959 Census of Agriculture.
Transportation
The development and availability of good transportation
facilities has been a vital factor contributing to the phenom
enal growth of the Orlando area during the past 15 years. The
development of the major highway routes has especial signifi
cance in accounting for the direction and degree of growth
occurring in the urban fringe of Orlando.
Orlando is connected with other major metropolitan
areas by U.S. Highways 441, 17, and 92 and Florida Highway
routes 50, 15, and 526. The two main highways are U.S. High
way 441 and U.S. Highway 17-92. U.S. Highway 441 is a major
1Ibid., p. 53.


THE URBAN FRINGE OF ORLANDO, FLORIDA:
A STUDY OF LAND USE PATTERNS
AND CHANGES ASSOCIATED
WITH URBAN GROWTH
By
DEBNATH MOOKHERJEE
A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE COUNCIL OF
THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE
DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
August, 1961


83
engineer, and the clerk of the Board of County Commissioners.
Upon approval of each of these offices, the plans are then
submitted to the Board of County Commissioners. This control
and processing of plans through these different persons and
the County Zoning Commission temporarily slowed down the sub
division of land. The slow rate of development between 1953
and 1956 was due in a large part to the adoption of this
County Plat Law. This law gave local officials an opportuni
ty to guide the direction and extent of land subdivision.
However, effective laws for the control of subdivision activ
ity have probably come too late for many areas.
After purchasing a piece of land, ranging from perhaps
a few acres to several hundred acres, the land promoter pre-
pares a plan of development. This plan shows the various
intended uses of land such as streets, lots, small farms,
schools, industrial sites, parks, and other recreational
uses. A name taken from a nearby lake, such as Lake Conway
Estates, or from the nature of the land, such as the name
Pine Hills Subdivision, is chosen. The promoter is now
ready to start advertising the sale of lots or to begin
building homes which are to be sold after construction.
Whether or not the land promoter will sell lots which are to
be built on later according to house plans made by the pur
chaser or whether houses will be built according to selected
standard designs depends largely on the type of subdivision
which is being promoted. Generally if the land has been di
vided into small lots, the promoter may have homes


TABLE 17
PATTERN OF SUBDIVISION DEVELOPMENTS IN PINE HILLS AREAa
Period
Name
of
subdivision
Acreage
in each
sub
division
Average
lot
size
(feet)
Total
sub
divided
land
(acres))
Percentage of
land subdivided
by period to
total subdivided
land
Before March,
Oleander
40
50x135
175
45.4
1947
Orange Views
40
50x140
Orange Heights
80
25x140
Orange Land Gardens
15
50x140
April, 1947-
Pine Hills No. 11
October, 1957
(part)
2
70x115
18
4.6
Pine Hills No. 13
(part)
16
70x130
November, 1956-
_
Rob i n swo od13
183
70x120
193
50.0
January, 1960
Alden Court
10
100x125
aSource: Orange County Plat Records.
t.
^Includes all sections of the Robinswood Subdivision.
173


44
Immokalee and Pomello soils lies at depths below 30 inches.
These soils are predominant mostly on the level to gently
undulating topography. Under natural conditions they are
suitable for unimproved range land and forests. Extensive
areas in the southwestern part of the urban fringe area are
utilized for improved pastures. With proper management, fair
yields of suitable field crops and citrus may be obtained on
these soils which occur in extensive areas in the eastern
part of the urban fringe area.
In the study of urban areas, the terms "soil," "soil
type," "soil fertility," physiography," "topography" and
"surface" are widely mentioned; but their value as a factor
in the growth or development of urban areas is seldom prop
erly assessed. This is perhaps due to the fact that the
soil has become an accepted feature of the landscape and
perhaps is too commonly taken for granted. It is, therefore,
regarded by many as a sort of uniform platform upon which to
plan and build structures without assessing the proper qual
ities of a soil for such purposes. Furthermore, the soils
and topography assume less importance with the increasing
use of heavy earth-moving machinery which can alter the nat
ural landscape with great efficiency and ease. Thus, soil
as a factor in urban growth has had a low value placed upon
it and not much, if any, rational use of soils according to
their fundamental properties has been applied. However, good
soil surveys and proper land classification can make useful
contributions to the study and planning of urban growth and
development. Such soil surveys are most useful in


Figure 17


193
Mayer, Harold M. "Urban Geography," in American Geography
Inventory and Prospect. (Edited by Prestone E. James
and Clarence F. Jones.) Syracuse: Syracuse University
Press, 1954.
, and Kohn, Clyde F. (ed.). Readings in Urban Geoq-
raphy. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1959.
Mumford, Lewis. City Development: Studies in Disintegra
tion and Renewal. New York: Harcourt, Brace and Com
pany, 1945.
Myers, R. Richard, and Beegle, J. Allan. "Delineation and
Analysis of the Rural-Urban Fringe," Applied Anthro
pology, VI (Spring, 1947), 14-22.
Nelson, Howard J. "The Spread of an Artificial Landscapr
over Southern California, Annals of the Association of
American Geographers (supplement), XLIX, No. 3, Part 2
(September, 1959), 80-116.
O'Harrow, Dennis. "Subdivision and Fringe Area Control,"
American Journal of Public Health, XLIV, No. 4 (April,
1954), 473-477.
Proudfoot, M. J. "Public Regulation of Urban Development in
the United States," Geographical Review, XLIV, No. 3
(July, 1954), 415-419,
Queen, Stuart A., and Carpenter, David B. "The Sociological
Significance of the Rural-Urban LifeFrom the Urban
Point of View," Rural Sociology, XVIII, No. 2 (June,
1953), 102-108.
Robinson, L. B. Living in Florida. Louisville, Kentucky:
Home and Farm, 1884.
Robson, William Alexander, (ed.). Great Cities of the World:
Their Government, Politics and Planning. New York:
Macmillan Company, 1957.
Rodehaver, Miles William. "Fringe Settlement as a Two Di
rectional Movement," Rural Sociology, XII (March, 1947),
49-57.
_. "The Rural-Urban Fringe: An Interstitial Area."
Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation, University of Wis
consin, 1946.
Salter, Leonard A., Jr. "Land Classification Along the Rural-
Urban Fringe," The Classification of Land, University
of Missouri Agriculture Experiment Station, Bulletin 421
(December, 1940), 147-156.


161
land which has been subdivided, about 16 acres are in young
citrus groves at the present time. Small pieces of land,
which are now in young groves or citrus nurseries, were also
subdivided before 1947. The reason for this retention of
land for citrus nurseries probably lies in economic consider
ations. These lands are low, have generally poor drainage,
and are surrounded by vacant lots and by other land in rural
uses. Within this environment, probably these lands would
pay more when used as citrus nurseries rather than for low-
or medium-value houses at the present time, particularly
since new housing located in a relatively old and run-down
residential area might be hard to sell.
Cropland occupies 50 acres, which is approximately 8
per cent of the Lake Conway area. One big field of about
35 acres is located to the north of Lake Margaret Drive and
west of Bumby Avenue. Other crops are in smaller fields lo
cated mostly in the northwestern part of the area between
Fern Creek Road and Butaby Avenue. Most of the lands are
used for horticultural crops. These lands have been subdi
vided and have been partially developed. Therefore, the in
termingling of residential development and cropland is pro
nounced in this part of the study area (Figure 23).
Woodland occupies two tracts of approximately 30 acres
each. These lie to the northwest of Lake Margaret in an
area bounded by Bumby Avenue on the west and by the county
road in the south-central part of the Lake Conway area.
The distribution of vacant lots is very irregular with
in the residential area. In general, it can be said that


33SSPMVI.H
169
Figure 24
LAND USE PATTERN, 1961, PINE HILLS AREA
LEGEND
mm MEDIUM AND LOW VALUE URBAN LAND
['''I CITRUS GROVE
RANGE LAND
IDLE LAND
WOODLAND
T VACANT LAND
\(£> 1 lake
\ -~ ] SWAMP
PAVED ROAD
UNPAVED ROAD
300 600 900 1200 (FEET)
1 I l l
D. MOOKHERJEE 1961


135
Problems of Growth
Patterns of land use are often in a continuous process
of change. This process becomes particularly dynamic in
such periods of population explosion as that being experienced
in the Orlando urban fringe area. The overall pattern of land
utilization in this fringe area is undergoing a change as the
whole metropolitan area is changing physically, economically,
and socially. While the county was being settled, land was
plentiful and forest lands were cleared for the raising of
crops and pasturing of cattle. No conflict between rural and
urban uses existed. But the situation is different today.
With the coming of more industries and with other employment
opportunities, urban land uses are sprawling over rural
lands. The period since 1947 has been, in general, a period
of widespread change in land use in the Orlando fringe area.
There were considerable shifts in the acreages of certain
crops, citrus, and pasture land. Much of the rural land,
such as range land and woodland has been converted to urban
uses. The influence of urbanization in the fringe area can
readily be recognized by considering the fact that since
1947, over a period of 14 years, 10,504 acres of rural land
have been converted to urban uses out of the 44,440 acres of
total land area in the Orlando urban fringe as delineated
for this study. Although not included in the area being con
sidered for the present study, it should be noted that
changes in land use which are related to urban growth are
already taking place beyond the periphery of the urban


TABLE 1
TOTAL AND URBAN POPULATION IN FLORIDA 1940 1960a
Year
Population
Increase over
preceding
census
Population
Increase over
preceding
census
Urban population
as a percentage
of total
population
Number
Number
Per cent
Number
Number
Per cent
Per cent
1940
1,897,414
429,203
29.2
1,045,791
286,013
37.6
55.1
1950
2,771,305
873,891
46.1
1, 566,788b
520,997
49.8
56.5
1960
4,951,560
2,180,255
78.7
3,077,989b
1,511,201
96.5
62.2
aU. S. Bureau of the Census, U. S. Census of Population, 1960. "Number of Inhab
itants, Florida." Final Report PC(1)-11A, p. 7.
In order to analyze the historical trend of urban population of the state, figures
shown here are on the basis of the 1940 census urban definition. According to this de
finition, urban dwellers are those persons living in incorporated places with 2,500 or more
inhabitants. Such a definition, however, excludes a number of equally large and densely
settled places because they are not incorporated places. In order to improve its enumera
tion of urban population, the Bureau of Census included in 1950, two new groups of people
in the urban category: those living in (1) unincorporated places of 2,500 inhabitants or
more, and (2) the densely settled urban fringes around cities of 50,000 or more
inhabitants.


cr


25
found to be too large for the Orlando area. The city of Or
lando itself covers much less than four townships; and the
urban fringe, as later delineated by other methods, lies well
within these four townships. Furthermore, the NV-RNF popula
tion category as chosen for delineation purposes in the
Detroit area is of doubtful value for the Orlando fringe
area.
Rodehavermethod of fringe delineation was based on
the evaluation of three factors in a given township section
of 640 acres lying outside the corporate boundary of Madison,
Wisconsin. These were: (1) proportion of non-farm families
to the total number of families, (2) the density of non-farm
families, and (3) the assessed per acre valuation of build
ings and land. These factors were applied to township sec
tions in successive tiers around the periphery of the city.
The fringe area thus determined was based on a statistical
procedure where the factors were at their greatest intensity
relative to the surrounding area. This is an interesting
approach in fringe studies. However, the factors as chosen
for delineation purposes do not fall within the purview of
the present project because this study concerns land-use
problems. Therefore, this technique was not applied to the
study of the Orlando urban fringe.
Martin's procedure for the delineation of the urban
fringe boundary involved two major considerations. In the
'Rodehaver, op. cit. Also see "Fringe Settlement as a
Two Directional Movement," Rural Sociology, XII (March,
1947), 50.


113
Turning to the southwestern sector of the urban fringe,
it can be noted that the northern half of this sector is al
most completely occupied by urban land uses. Over 90 per
cent of the land area of survey sections 2, 3, and 10 of
township 23 south, Range 29 east are occupied by different
urban uses. Among the rural land uses in this northern part
of the southwestern sector, citrus groves and pastureland
predominate. Citrus groves are located on high, well-drained
lands mainly around Lake Holden and Lake Jessamine, and Lake
Mary. The lands around these lakes are more than 100 feet
above sea level and have an undulating topography.
In the southern half of the southwestern sector, pasture-
land is the predominant land use. Small pockets of swamp are
also distributed throughout the southern part of this sector.
One of the important aspects in land use conditions in this
sector of the urban fringe is that approximately 60 per cent
of the land which is in improved pasture use has been re
claimed by constructing drainage ditches. The drainage
ditches generally follow slopes connecting swamps and lakes.
Ribbon-like urban development, mostly of the commercial
and industrial type on highways 441 and 527 is very pro
nounced (Figure 14). Residential developments around the
lakes on the eastern side and "block" development on the
western side, especially in survey sections 9, 20, 27, 30,
and 34 of Township 23 south, Range 29 east in the southwest
ern sector is very noticeable. The residential developments
in the western section vary a great deal, but most of the


62
purposes of this study. However, due to the lack of precise
data it was not possible to compare this figure with the
population of the urban fringe for preceding years. Thus,
today the population of the urban fringe of Orlando is ap
proximately one-third of the total population of the county.
The present distribution of the population of the urban
fringe is of considerable significance in the understanding
of the land-use problems of this urban fringe, which are
discussed in the succeeding chapter. Here again, due to
lack of data it is not possible to compare the density for
the past years. The present distribution of population is
governed especially by two important factors: (1) accessi
bility to places of employment and shopping centers, and
(2) nature of the land. High land lying near the city of
Orlando attracts population. Most points within the fringe
area are located within a twenty-minute drive of all other
points. The density varies widely. For example, to the
south of Orlando in the urban fringe, in sections 5, 6, 7,
and 8 of Township 23 south, Range 30 east, the density is
very high with 2,400 persons per square mile of total area.
The land in these sections is high and generally well-drained,
and a relatively high proportion of it offers lake frontage
for residences. These sections are also located between two
major highwaysState Highway 15 on the east and State High
way 527 on the west. School facilities are good and well-
located. These areas lying close to the central city have
all of the benefits of nearby downtown shopping and other
advantages of the central city. The fact that this area was


82
Etonville. It shows that between 1947 and 1953 twice as
much land was subdivided within the urban fringe area as
within these four incorporated places. Between 1953 and 1957
the land subdivided in the urban fringe was not appreciably
greater than that occurring within the corporate limits of
these four cities. However, since 1958 there has been only
155 acres subdivided within these incorporated places, where
as during the same period more than 3,000 acres was subdivided
within the fringe area. This is primarily due to the lack of
suitable land for subdivision within the incorporated areas
since these areas have now become largely built-up within
their present corporate limits. On the other hand, there is
still land in the urban fringe outside incorporated places
available for subdivision.
The Orange County plat law of 1953 and its subsequent
amendments'1' are of considerable importance in understanding
recent subdivision activity outside of the principal incor
porated places. Under this law the subdivider must submit
five copies of a preliminary plan which includes the follow
ings name of the proposed development, minimum lot size,
street layout, subdivisions, street width, type of pavement,
flow of drainage, topography, and other pertinent informa
tion. The preliminary plans are reviewed by the County Zon
ing Commission, the county sanitary engineer, the county
^Orange County Plat Law (House Bill No. 1293, Acts of
1959, as amended by House Bill No. 2246, Acts of 1959, re
pealing Chapter 28447, Acts of 1953, and the 1955 and 1957
Amendments thereto), Board of County Commissioners, Orange
County, Florida. (Mimeographed.)


147
improvements and land uses should be related.
The future of planning in urban fringe and rural areas
depends upon the attitude, understanding, and the support of
the people. At the present time, urban zoning and planning
is much more widely accepted in this country than the zoning
of rural areas of the transition zone between rural and ur
ban areas. The fundamental question arises today as to who
will assume the responsibility and the direction of planning.
Unfortunately, no planning body exists in the county or in
the metropolitan area. Furthermore, the zoning commissioners
are elected members. They might have little or no knowledge
of planning methods. Therefore, the employment of profes
sional advice certainly would repay people many times over.
^Erling Day Solberg, The Why and How of Rural Zoning,
Agriculture Information Bulletin, No. 196 (Washington* U.S.
Government Printing Office, 1958), p. 5.


137
total soil area within the fringe area, which is likely to
be built up in the next few years. But the actual urban ex
pansion and displacement of agricultural land which has al
ready occurred within the Orlando fringe area is still not
as complete as the potential for future expansion of urban
uses in the western part of Orange County. The expansion of
urban uses has generally resulted in a deterioration of agri
cultural land use surrounding the built-up areas. Farming
activity tends to slacken as the price of the land goes up.
It is true that land in rural uses has not been able to com
pete with urban land uses in terms of the economic rent ob
tainable from these two major uses. Rural areas which shift
into urban uses are capable of producing much more rent gen
erally than they can produce in agriculture.
The conversion of land suitable for cultivation to
other uses is a widespread, nation-wide phenomenon. It has
been estimated1 that the average annual rate of conversion
of land suitable for cultivation is about 1,100,000 acres.
Ohio, Indiana, Texas, Georgia, and Florida have each lost
about one million acres of arable land to urban expansion
and to reversion to forest since 1942; and California, South
Carolina, Michigan, New York, and Oklahoma have each had
three-quarters of a million to a million acres diverted from
cropland to other uses. One of the major causes of this
loss of land can be accounted for by the increasing rate of
1D. A. Williams, "Fact Sheet; Conversion of Cultivable
Land to Other Uses," Soil Conservation Service, U.S. Depart
ment of Agriculture (1955), p. 1. (Mimeographed.)


19
farms, platted suburbs, blighted suburbs, blighted "shack
towns," and trailer camps. In conclusion, Firey presents
the general characteristics of the urban fringe problem with
special reference to land-use development in order to show
the fringe as a planning frontier."1
Blizzard and Anderson presented an explicit definition
while working on the urban fringe of Williamsport, Pennsyl
vania. The rural-urban fringe in this study was defined as
"that area of mixed urban and rural land uses between the
point where full city services are available and the point
where agricultural land uses predominate (which includes
waste lands and wooded areas)."2 To what extent the inter
mixture of land uses must occur for an area to be designated
as urban fringe is a basic question that this definition
does not clarify.
In 1953, McKain and Burnight3 proposed two types of
urban fringesthe "limited" fringe and the "extended"
fringe. The "limited" fringe has its initial growth along
the highways lying immediately peripheral to the city of ur
banized area. This limited-fringe area has a greater
1Ibid., p. 473.
2
Samuel W. Blizzard and William F. Anderson, "Problems
of Rural-Urban Fringe Research: Conceptualization and De
lineation, The Pennsylvania State College Progress Report,
No. 89 (November, 1952), p. 11.
3
Walter C. McKain and Robert G. Burnight, "The Socio
logical Significance of the Rural-Urban LifeFrom the Rural
Point of View," Rural Sociology, XVIII, No. 2 (June, 1953).


64
Martin Plant to the south. The presence of many small lakes,
although out of the sections as mentioned above, serve as an
additional attraction for this community.
The Azalea Park area on the east side of Orlando is an
excellent example of a planned community-type development
which has been built in recent years. Although considerable
parts of this development have been annexed to the city in
recent years, sections 21, 22, 27, and 35 of Township 22
south, Range 30 east, in this part of the urban fringe of
Orlando has a fairly high density of population of more than
1,600 persons per square mile. State Highway 50 to the
north and 15-A on the west are the major transportation ar
teries for this area. Lying very close to downtown Orlando,
this area has all the facilities of shopping and other bene
fits within the city.
North of Orlando and west of Winter Park, especially in
the region approximately bounded by Orlando Avenue on the
east, Lee road on the north, Edgewater Drive on the west in
sections 1, 2, 3, 10, 11, and 12 of Township 22 south, Range
29 east, is one of the most densely populated areas of the
urban fringe of Orlando. These sections have more than
2,500 persons per square mile. Excellent transportation
facilities, large areas of lakes for recreational purposes,
good school facilities, and proximity to downtown Orlando
are major causes of the heavy population concentration in
this region. The sections lying further north, along Orange
Blossom Trail and Edgewater Drive on the west and southwest
and the Forrest City Road on the east, are also very well


'




LC
3 Ba
Be
La
Lb
4 Oa
Lakeland fine
sand, gen
tly sloping
phase
Blanton fine
sand, level
high phase
Blanton fine
sand, very
gently slop
ing high
phase
Lakeland fine
sand, level
phase
Lakeland fine
sand, very
gently slop
ing phase
Ona fine sand
Somewhat
excessive
Good to
somewhat
excessive
Good to
somewhat
excessive
Somewhat
excessive
Somewta t
excessive
Somewhat
poor
Scranton fine
sand
Somewhat
poor
Sc
below 10 ft. Rapid
8-12 ft. Rapid
8-12 ft. Rapid
below 10 ft. Rapid
below 10 ft. Rapid
3- 5 ft. Rapid
Very deep
water
table
(rated
good)
Deep water
table
(rated
good)
Deep water
table
(rated
good)
Very deep
water
table
(rated
good)
Very deep
water
table
(rated
good)
Shallow wa
ter table
(rated
poor)
Shallow wa
ter table
(rated
fair)
4,502 19.2
1,391 6.0
4- 6 ft. Rapid


187
The pattern and speed of urban growth in the Orlando
metropolitan area needs to be carefully evaluated from both
the standpoint of finding better solutions to problems pre
sently existing within the urban fringe and also from the
longer range point of view when more attention must be given
to the resource needs of the nation as a whole. Agriculture
is still the most important industry in the Orlando area.
But the pressure against agriculture around the urban fringe
of Orlando is serious, as this study has revealed. Citrus
producing land is diminishing. From a strictly short-term
economic point of view, urban housing is more profitable
than growing citrus; therefore, economic considerations will
dictate that citrus land be used for housing. There is rel
atively little land in the United States which has a climate
favorable for the production of citrus with presently known
varieties and technology. Therefore, from a long range view
point, decisions will need to be reached soon as to whether
or not most of the present and potential citrus land in
California and Florida should be entirely or partially trans
ferred through the action of unrestricted economic forces to
non-agricultural uses.
Urban growth and unrestricted "sprawl" also have other
significant influences upon land use other than the encroach
ment of non-agricultural uses upon agricultural land. Ur
banization creates rising land prices and taxes and keen
competition for the use of land. Potentially good agricul
tural land is sometimes held idle anticipating the transfer


39
is to the south and east. The major geologic formations un
derlying the Orlando vicinity include the Ocala limestone of
Eocene age, the Hawthorn and the Choctawhatchee formations
of Miocene age, and undifferentiated Pleistocene and Recent
materials.^- The Ocala formation consists of almost pure
limestone and is the oldest of the formations underlying the
area. Well drilling records indicate that the top of the
Ocala limestone ranges from 100 to 150 feet beneath the sur
face. The Ocala formation is the chief source of water for
the area because it is predominantly porous limestone and
contains solution channels which permit the free circulation
of ground water.
The Ocala limestone is overlain by the Hawthorn formation,
which consists of clay, sand, and marl (Table 2). Irregularly
interspersed at infrequent intervals, coarse conglomerate
limestone made up of quartz sand or phosphatic pebbles may
be found in the Hawthorn formation. All of these materials
with the proper control of moisture and compaction are con
sidered to be suitable for the construction of roadway em
bankments. In order to provide effective protection against
erosion resulting from torrential rains occurring in this
area, proper planting and adequate fertilization of deep-
rooted vegetation are needed to provide protection for such
2
materials when they are used for road building purposes.
^V. T. Stringfield, Ground Water Investigations in
Florida. Florida State Geological Survey, Bulletin No. 11
(1933), p. 18.
2
State Road Department of Florida Engineering Design
Report, Orlando-Winter Park Expressway (June, 1957), p. 6.