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INGEST IEID EPTARDQVC_7SSGFK INGEST_TIME 2016-04-19T22:56:21Z PACKAGE AA00023811_00001
AGREEMENT_INFO ACCOUNT UF PROJECT UFDC
Leandra Merz Situational An alysis of Mangalane, Mozambique for a Community Based Natural Resource Program
1 Table of Contents Abstract: ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ......... 4 Acknowledgements: ................................ ................................ ................................ ....................... 5 Acronyms Used: ................................ ................................ ................................ ............................. 6 Terms Used: ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 6 Introduction: ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 7 1.1 CBNRM: ................................ ................................ ................................ ............................... 7 1.2 Participatory Research: ................................ ................................ ................................ ......... 9 1.3 Conceptual Framework: ................................ ................................ ................................ ...... 11 Background: ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ 14 2.1 Location: ................................ ................................ ................................ .............................. 14 2.2 Stakeholders: ................................ ................................ ................................ ....................... 16 2.3: Proje ct: ................................ ................................ ................................ ............................... 17 Methods: ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 18 3.1 Census: ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ 18 3.2 Interviews: ................................ ................................ ................................ ........................... 19 3.3 Livelihood Survey: ................................ ................................ ................................ .............. 19 3.4 Situational Analysis Workshops: ................................ ................................ ........................ 20 3.5 Community Mapping: ................................ ................................ ................................ ......... 22 3.6 Governance Dashboard: ................................ ................................ ................................ ...... 23 Results and Discussion: ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 23 4.1 Census: ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ 23 4.2 Interviews and Surveys: ................................ ................................ ................................ ...... 24 4.2.1 Human Wildlife Conflict: ................................ ................................ ............................. 25 4.2.2 Livelihoods: ................................ ................................ ................................ .................. 27 4.2.3 Heal th: ................................ ................................ ................................ .......................... 31 4.2.4 Agriculture: ................................ ................................ ................................ ................... 32 4.2.5 Education: ................................ ................................ ................................ ..................... 32 4.3 Situational Analysis: ................................ ................................ ................................ ........... 34 4.3.1: Historical Timeline: ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 36 4.3.2: Helps and Hindrances: ................................ ................................ ................................ 39
2 4.3.3 Vision for the Future: ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 40 4.3.4: Relationships: ................................ ................................ ................................ .............. 40 4.3.5: Natural Resource Trends: ................................ ................................ ............................ 41 4.4 Community Mapping: ................................ ................................ ................................ ......... 42 4.5 Go vernance Dashboard: ................................ ................................ ................................ ...... 43 Conclusion: ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 45 References: ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 47 Appendices: ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 49 Appendix A: Phot ographs ................................ ................................ ................................ ......... 50 Appendix B: Overview of Governance Training in Mozambique ................................ ............ 56 Appendix C: Household Livelihood Survey ................................ ................................ ............. 67 Appendix D: Governance Dashboard Survey ................................ ................................ ........... 81 Appendix E: Hand drawn Maps ................................ ................................ ................................ 84 Appendix F: Digital Maps ................................ ................................ ................................ ......... 88 Appendix G: Situational Analysis Report for Mukakaza ................................ ......................... 97 Appendix H: Situational Analysis Report for Mavanguana ................................ .................... 104 Appendix I: Situational Analysis Report for Baptine ................................ ............................. 110 Appendix J: Additional Graphs ................................ ................................ ............................... 117 Appendix K: Household Membership Lists by Village ................................ .......................... 136
3 List of Figures: Figure 1: Learning by Doing Diagram. Source: Brian Child ................................ ........................ 13 Figure 2: Map of SGP in the Region ................................ ................................ ............................ 15 Figure 3: Map of Sabi e Game Park and surrounding communities ................................ .............. 16 Figure 4: Timeline of Methods Used ................................ ................................ ............................ 18 Figure 5: Tools Needed For SAWs and Commuity Mapping ................................ ...................... 22 Figure 6: Damage to Crops by Wildlife ................................ ................................ ........................ 25 Figure 7: Household Resources Flow ................................ ................................ ........................... 28 Figure 8: Annual Household Income Per Capita by Sector ................................ .......................... 30 Figure 9: Household Income and Expenditure Comparison ................................ ......................... 31 Figure 10: Ed ucation Level of Individuals 5 18 Years ................................ ................................ 33 Figure 11: Education Level of Individuals 19 40 Years ................................ ............................... 34 Figure 12: Education Level of Individuals 41 Years and Above ................................ .................. 34 Figure 13: Timeline for Mangalane ................................ ................................ .............................. 36 ................................ ................................ ................. 40 ................................ ................................ ........... 40 Figure 16: Trends in Natural Resource Abundance for Baptine ................................ ................... 42 Figure 17: Hand drawn and digitized maps of Mukakaza ................................ ............................ 43 Figure 18 Attitudes on Wildlife and the Game Fence ................................ ................................ .. 44 Figure 19: Attitudes toward SGP ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 45
4 Abstract: National Parks and other protected areas have traditionally focused on excluding people for the preservation of wildlife; however, local communities can be important players in biodiversity conservation. Community Based Natural Resource Management (CBNRM) projects have been developed throughout Southern Africa as a method of involving local people in conservation with the joint goal of improved conservation and reduced poverty. This paper describes a situational analysis of Mangalane, Mozambique conducted as part of a CBNRM project and governance training program Mangalane consists of five villages that border Sabie Game Park, a private game reserve adjacent to Kruger National Park in southwestern Mozambique. The paper describes a participatory methodo logy to understanding the community in which a CBNRM pilot project is being implemented applies this methodology to the Mangalane communities, and offers information with which to guide economic development and land use planning within Mangalane. The res earch shows that households are economically diverse, but heavily reliant on natural resources for survival. Historical trends show that many of these natural resources are declining over time due to over exploitation. The governance dashboard revealed n egative attitudes toward wildlife, which can be improved through effective CBNRM governance and improved livelihoods. The CBNRM program should support sound governance of natural resource management to reverse the trends of declining resources and support community land use planning and economic development that includes livestock, agriculture, fish, and wildlife. The methodology described here is recommended for use in other CBNRM programs as a means to dev elop a program that is well adapted to the local context and to evaluate the success of the program over time
5 Acknowledgements: Brian Child, Rena ta Serra, Sandy Slater Jones, and Glenn Galloway have contributed their valuable time and effort to the entire research process from developing the initial proposal to editing the final draft. The Masters for Sustainable Development Practice and the Center for duration of the project. This research was part of a larger collaborative effort through SAWC with support from Sabie Game Park, Resource Africa, Peace Parks, and University of Florida. Rodgers Lubilo, Villem Ponahazo, and Marg a ret Chingovo all provided assistance with field work and Sabie Game Park, particularly Fer die Terreblanche and Shadre ck Midzi, provided valuable logistical support. Trainees from Mangalane and environmental monitors from SAWC assisted with data collection and translations. Members of Mangalane community generously contributed their valuable time to surveys, interviews, workshops, and feedback on data, not to mention warmly welcoming an outsider into their homes. Finally, withou t the continuous help from T h abi sile Sibuye, as translator, research assistant, interviewer, surveyor travel companion, and friend, this research project could not have succeeded.
6 Acronyms Used: AGM Annual General Meeting CAMPFIRE Communal Areas Management Program for Indigenous Resources CBNRM Community Based Natural Resource Management GLTFCA Greater Limpopo Trans Frontier Conservation Area FRELIMO Fre nte de Libertao de Moambique or Mozambique Liberation Front MT Metacais (Mozambican currency) RENAMO Resistncia Nacional Moambicana or Mozambique National Resistance SADC Southern Afr ican Development Community SAW Situational Analysis Workshop SAWC Southern African Wildlife College SGP Sabie Game Park WHO World Health Organization Terms Used: Mangalane re sidents speak Tsonga (sometimes referred to as Shangaan) which is also spoken acr oss the border in parts of South Africa. There were many discrepancies about the spelling and pronunciation of local terms including village names and even Mangalane. Part of the discrepancies result from the difference between English influence in South Africa and Portuguese in Mozambique; h owever, even within the community of Mangalane, there were differences in spelling and pronunciation of numerous terms. Rather than seeking a consensus on spelling of local names and terms, a common spelling was chos en for use throughout this paper in an effort to simplify that matter. Some alternative spellings are listed below, but this is not a complete list. Mangalane Mangalana Mukakaza Mukakazi, Mukhakhaza, Mukhakhazi Baptine Babtine Baptin Mavanguana Mavha nguana, Mavaunguana Costine Kostine
7 Introd uction: National Parks and other protected areas have traditionally focused on excluding people for the preservation of wildlife; however, local communities can be important players in biodiversity conservation. In May 2013, a group of trainers, students, and researchers from the University of Florida, Southern African Wildlife College and throughout s outhern Africa traveled to Mangalane, Mozambique for a Community Based Natural Resource Management (CBNRM) Pilot Project. This specific project focused on governance training for local communities and a participatory situational analysis. These two aspects combine to form the f irst step in local empowerment which is necessary for communities to be able to manage their own natural resources once rights and responsibilities have been devolved to this level. It is important to begin including communities in all aspects of CBNRM fr om the initial research to management of the project itself. Simultaneously, capacity building of community members, through training and other methods, is necessary for communities to manage resources. The researcher spent five weeks in Mangalane to con duct the situational analysis and participate in the CBNRM governance training. The majority of the time was dedicated to understanding the local context where this pilot project is being implemented. This was done in a participatory way in which communi ty members were highly involved in gathering, verifying, and explaining information. This participatory approach generates better quality data in a time and cost effective manner. More importantly, the participatory methods lead to greater empowerment of communities which is an ultimate goal of CBNRM to empower communities to manage their natural resources. T here are 3 specific research objectives of this paper. The first objective is to describe a participatory approach to understanding and explainin g the specific context of the community in which a CBNRM project is being implemented. This should be a general approach that can be applied to different CBNRM programs in order to guide the context specific portions of the program and to provide baseline data for future monitoring. Another objective is to apply this methodology to Mangal ane Community in Mozambique as the CBNRM pilot project is being initiated. The final objective is to provide the community with Situational Analysis Reports that can be used to guide economic development and land use planning. These three objectives contribute to a best practice approach of CBNRM as desired in this pilot project. 1.1 CBNRM : Traditional efforts to conserve natural resources have focused on a fortress approach. This involves the creation of protected areas where the goal of strict preservation is accomplished through the exclusion of all people, including locals Legal and or physical barriers are created to severely restrict access (Hutton et al., 2005). Local people became classified as threats to or even enemies of conservation (Hulme & Murphree, 2001). In Africa, colonial policies strongly centralized the control of wild life. As a result, wildlife became a symbol of oppression to local people and poaching was a method of rebelling against the oppression by colonial powers (Child et al., 1997). By the 1980s, it was clear that fortress conservation alone was unsuccessful as wildlife populations were declining significantly (Hulme & Murphree, 2001).
8 The realization that traditional conservation methods were unsuccessful meant a new approach was necessary Instead of viewing local communities as threats, allow them to be heroes that contribute to conserving natural resources. One major issue with the previous system was that production, management and ownership of wildlife were divided under different authorities (Child et al., 1997). If the people living with the wildli fe have no say in the management and receive no benefits from the wildlife, there is no incentive for them to support conservation. Utilization of natural resources following market based economic incentives cam e to be seen as more effective than strict p reservation for the ultimate conservation of natu ral resources. The objective i s to decentralize control over wildlife and other natural resources and redistribute both social and political po wer to local communities. The new Community Conservation progr ams that arose in the 1980s emphasize d the role of local residents in decision making and include CBNRM as well as other approaches (Hulme & Murphree, 2001). Community Conservation approaches have been commonly used in forestry in India, Latin America an d elsewhere (Arnold, 2001). Throughout Southern Africa, CBNRM became increasingly popular in the wildlife sector and programs were quickly initiated in Botswana, Kenya, Mozambique, Namibia, Tanzania, Zambia and other countries. However, one of the most w ell Management Program for Indigenous Resources (CAMPFIRE) which began in 1987 (Murphree, 2006) Zimbabwe initially began devolving wildlife rights to private land holders in the 1 970s in response to declines in wildlife populations. These private land owners began farming wildlife in addition to livestock and quickly realized that it was more valuable, especially in drier regions. Also, wildlife can be sustained on the same land without overgra zing and the environmental degra dation that results over time (Child et al., 1997). Private landowners realized greater economic benefits from wildlife and began conserving and restocking wildlife on their lands. With this success in conse rvation on private lands, officials began discussing the possibility of implementing a similar program for communal land leading to the creation of CAMPFIRE. The goals of CAMPFIRE were to conserve natural resources, use wildlife to improve quality of lif e in rural communities, and to promote self management by devolving rights and supporting local capacity (Child et al., 1997). Legal frameworks were put in place to decentralize the rights and respons ibilities of wildlife to local c ouncils over co mmunal l ands. Simultaneously, c ouncils had to agree to rules about devolving some of the management and at least 50% of the economic benefits to the communities themselves to avoid elite capture (where chiefs, leaders or other people in power retain benefits that are meant for the group as a whole). The sustainable use approach in CAMPFIRE led to seven direct results in the communities: 1) t he powerless became proprietors; 2) acc ountable institutions developed; 3) financial empowerment was achieved; 4) un ity was fostered in communities; 5) wildlife was linked to benefits so positive at titudes developed over wildlife 6) managerial capacity improved, and 7) development/land use was planned (Child et al., 1997). CAMPFIRE saw much success in initial experiments, and CBNRM projects began to spread throughout the region as a result. However, CBNRM has not been successful in every case. Many times the decentralization is done on paper b ut not in reality; in these cases a successful outcome
9 cannot be achieved (Hutton et al., 2005). It is important to continue to learn from past experiences in an effort to improve and evolve CBNRM programs (Child and Barne s 2010). Even if protected a reas are successful in conserving biodiversity within their borders, there are not enough protected areas to conserve biodiversity at the landscape scale (Hutton et al., 2005). In CBNRM projects throughout southern Africa, many of the economic benefits come from selling hunting licenses. Lodges can also be prof itable, but they require a greater initial investment (Fabricius and Collins 2007). In addition to improved conservation and economic benefits, CBNRM, in theory, encourages community participation and equitable sharing of benefits. However, the last two depend heavily on local leadership and micro governance (Child and Barnes, 2010). Despite some succes ses in CBNRM, many challenges have occur ed One danger is that if community members are not benefitting economically, they will no longer have an incen tive to protect wildlife. This can be extremely problematic when elite capture prevents income from being distributed throughout the community (Fabricius and Collins 2007). Even if elite capture is not occurring, a perceived mistrust in leaders can resu lt in negative consequences to wildlife conservation. To ensure CBNRM projects are fully effective, they must have good financial records and decision making (Fabricius and Collins 2007). Much effort has been devoted to improving accounting in CBNRM pro jects. However, local gove rnance is equally important, but historically has received less attention. Good governance should be accountable, transparent, participatory, equitable, effective, efficient, responsive, inclusive, and based on the rule of law ( Child, 2003). While CBNRM has many supporters, it also has opponents that focus on the failures rather than the successes (Hutton et al, 2005). CBNRM programs have had successes and failures in conserving wildlife, promoting rural livelihoods, and encou raging self governance (Murphree, 2006) It is important to take note of successes and failures in order to learn from the past and apply this knowledge to the future evolution of CBNRM. In order to evolve CBNRM and create programs that are more likely t o be successful it is important to develop a best practice model for a holistic approach to successful CBNRM in situations where the legal framework for decentralization/devolution of wildlife exists. The project described in this paper is an attempt to d evelop a best practice approach to CBNRM that can help guide future projects. 1.2 Participatory Research: Traditional research has tended to be designed, carried out and interpreted by and for university based schola rs (Chambers, 1994a). It has been an extractive science with little involvement of the research subjects in the planning, interpretati on or use of the research This traditional approach was especially problematic in social science research on communities (Herlihy and Knapp, 2003 Prinsloo, 2008 ). Research is tied to power and pride so the traditional approaches gave greater power and pride to outside researchers while taking away more power and pride from communit i es that were being researched (Wilmsen and Elmendorf, 2008). The Participatory Research approach was developed in the 1980s as an alternative approach that incorporated local people into the research process. Initially it was most commonly used in the
10 field of health, but by the 1990s it was increasingly more common in development and natural resource management fi elds (Brock and McGee, 2002). The way CBNRM approaches seek to decentralize wildlife rights and responsibiliti es, participatory research is meant to decentralize research into an open and democratic method of producing knowledge (Chambers, 1994b). The purpose of this knowledge is problem solving and ultimately, social change. The methods used for participatory research involve reflection, learning and action (Brock and McGee, 2002) By recognizing local pe ople s e and incorporating them into the research process, higher quality information can be obtained in a more cost effective way (Prinsloo, 2008). Furthermore, the process itself can lead to community empowerment, which is important for developm ent (Brock and McGee, 2002). Participation itself is difficult to define because there are many different levels According to Hart (1992) parti cipation ranges from the low to high being informed, being consulted and infor med, shared decision making, a nd community initiated and directed In research, this highest level of participation allows communities to cho o se what information to collect and then to interpret the results themselves. Unfortunately, this maximum level of participation is in practic e, rarely achieved even within participatory research approaches ( Herlihy and Knapp, 2003 ) M ethods of participatory research vary as much as the levels of possible participation Traditional research methods such as surveys can be incorporated into par ticipatory research by reporting results back to the community rather than just extracting the information. Communities can also be included in the planning and/or interpretation of surveys to generate more participation ( zerdem, A., & Bowd, 2010 ) Hous ehold livelihood surveys are a commonly used technique in CBNRM programs throughout southern Africa (Jones and Weaver, 2009, Rozemeijer, 2009), but could be adapted to incorporate a more participatory approach. The governance dashboard survey is an adapti ve management tool that has been established to diagnose and address governance issues in CBNRM programs. The tool has been used in communities in Botswana, Namibia, Zimbabwe and elsewhere (Collomb et al., 2008). The purpose of the se surveys is not just to collect information, but to support corrective action. To encourage participation, survey results are reported back to communities within one week for validation, and interpretation as well as to allow corrective action in respo nse to the information Other participatory research methods include interviews, focus groups, and direct observation ( zerdem, A., & Bowd, 2010 ). Both qualitative and quantitative methods are important Q ualitative measurements provide more opportunity for local knowledge and expertise to be voiced but quantitative data provides more legitimacy in the academic world ( Wilmsen and Elmendorf, 2008 ) Ultimately, researchers and participants should be viewed as equals and treated with mutu al respect to support the participatory research process (Herlihy and Knapp, 2003). Unlike tradi tional research methods participatory research benefits from experiential learning. Changes and improvements are frequently made to methods in order to be mo re participatory, useful and or to increase validity (Chambers, 1994b).
11 CBNRM programs have used a participatory research approach to develop a situational analysis as a first step towards understanding and managing individual projects. These situationa l analyses incorporate a variety of partic ipatory activities that are conducted in a workshop resembling a large focus group. The methods include historical timelines, helps/hindrances, relationship assessments, trends in abundance of natural resources, and community vision/needs assessment as described by Slater Jones (2013). Community mapping is another common participatory approach that is often incorporated into CBNRM programs ( Taylor et al., 2006, and Slater Jones, 2013 ) Historically, indigenous land has been claimed more often by maps than by guns (Harlihy and Knapp, 2003). Maps are incredibly powerful and by controlling maps, one can control what they represent (Corbett et al., 2006). Maps are used not only to show where resources are present, but also show proprietorship of these resources; therefore the individual or organization developing the map can exercise their influence over ownership and legal boundaries. For this reason, giving community members the opportunity to develop and own ma ps can lead to greater empowerment and increased opportunities to reclaim or maintain ownership of their land, particularly in situations where legal tenure is unclear (Corbett et al., 2006, Herlihy and Knapp, 2003). Mapmaking is not new to indigenous cul tures, but newer methods can be incorporated with traditional methods to increase legitimacy of the maps. Geographical Information System (GIS) was previously unavailable to rural communities because of the technology and advanced knowledge it required (A bbott, 1998). However, with improvements in technology, GIS has become more readily available and user friendly allowing it to be incorporated in community approaches to natural resource management in the US and elsewhere (Craig, 2002). Because GIS invo lves the use of computers which are still rare in many rural areas of southe rn Africa, Taylor et al. (2006) developed a cost effective method of incorporating community hand drawn maps with GIS data to create digital maps for the community. This new metho d still incorporates community participation and ownership of maps, maintains local knowledge and historical names, and can help capture resource rights which lead to community empowerment. Drafts of the digital maps can be returned to communities for gro und truthing to ensure that information is not altered or mis interpreted during the process. It is important not only to have local people participate in the mapping process, but to also explain the results and confirm the validity of the final maps (Fage rholm & Kyhk, 2009 ). 1.3 Conceptual Framework : CBNRM has the potential to both improve conservation and reduce poverty if properly developed and managed. It is of utmost importance that there is a potential for economic benefit w h ere CBNRM progr ams are initiated. This require s having the appropriate legal framework in place for communities to gain ownership rights to wildlife within their area. Without benefits, the poverty reduction goal cannot be achieved and improved attitudes toward wildlife ar e unlikely to occur, therefore limiting the potential for improved conservation. However, even with economic benefits in place, it is vital for communities to agree to participatory governance.
12 In CBNRM just as in traditional systems of managing wildlife there are winners and losers. Oftentimes traditional leaders and government officials are resistant to devolving rights to community members because it means little or no opportunity for them to ben efit from elite capture (Hulme & Murphree, 2001 ). Witho ut the support of the community and the potential for economic benefits, the CBNRM project should not move past the initiation phase. The transformation phase of the CBNRM project includes brokering a deal to ensure that the potential economic benefits a re realized. In addition to this economic aspect the communities must organize themselves and be trained to manage the economic benefits. This includes conduction of elections, constitution building, revenue distribution, participatory budgeting, project planning, project management and other aspects of micro governance. A situational analysis is also necessary as a first step in order to understand the current situation as well as the goals for the future. The situational analysis helps build the basis for future evaluations as to the success of the project. During the final phase of sustaining the project, a governance dashboard and other adaptive management techniques should be used with financial audits to ensure that the project is performing as desired. Other monitoring and evaluation methods can be used and compared to baseline data from the situational analysis to ensure that the desired impacts of poverty reduction and improved conservation are achi eved.
13 Figure 1 : Learning by Doing Diagram. Source: Brian Child The conceptual framework used is the Learning by Doing process shown in figure 1 Selected Community members can be trained in CBNRM and governance processes while the CBNRM program is implemented. These trainees learn while participating in the process of organizing the communities and establishing good governance practices. In addition to participating in field work to practice skills, trainees must spend s ome time in the classroom to learn the theoretical aspects. Trainings should be supplemented with field trips, role plays, and opportunities to practice skills whenever possible to improve the likelihood that the information is retained and the trainees b ecome effective community facilitators, service providers, or future trainers. The learning outcomes vary depending on who is being trained from community members to gover nment officials, park managers, and trainers. H owever, the learning by doing proces s applies to all aspects of the training. For a more detailed description of the training process in Manga lane, Mozambique, see appendix B
14 This paper addresses the situational analysis aspect of the CBNRM project which occurs in the transformation phase of the project. The information gained serves two purposes: form a better understanding of the situation in order to adapt the proje ct to specific local contexts; and form a baseline for future monitoring and evaluation. The Situational Analysis Workshop s (SAWs) are most useful in explaining the local context and guiding the CBNRM project. The monitoring and evaluation occurs at two levels, the project and the overall objectives. At the project level, governance dashboard surveys are an important method for monitoring conformance and performance that is closely tied to adaptive management in order to improve the project rather than just identifying issues. To measure overall objectives, before and after comparisons of livelihood surveys, governance dash board surveys, and situational analysis reports can be used. Spatial analysis of community maps can also help identify if objectives are being met by showing if more or less land is allocated for wildlife. Background: 2.1 Location: Mozambique is a country in South east Africa bordered by the Indian Ocean to the east, Tanzania, Malawi, and Zambia to the north, Zimbabwe, South Africa and Swaziland to the west (see f igure 1 ) It was colonized by the Portuguese beginning in the 16 th century and did not gain independence until 1974. Following independence, the country experienced a long and violent civil war between the FRELIMO and RENAMO political parties from 1977 until 1992 (Newitt, 1995) Since 1992, Mozambique has been at peace, but after over two decade s the rebuilding process continues.
15 Figure 2 : Map of SGP in the Region The capital city is Maputo in the south. Portuguese is still the official language spoken by the government, but a variety of traditional languages are spoken throughout the country (Newitt, 1995). The national currency is Metacais (mt) and the exchange rate for June 2013 was approximately 30mt to US$1. Sabie Game Park is located in southwestern Mozambique, bordering Kruger National Park in South Africa (see figure 2) To the north of SGP is the Mazintonto River, to the south is the Corumana Dam and to the east is Mangalane. The community of Mangalane is composed of 5 villages, Mukakaza, Mavanguana, Baptine, Ndi ndiza, and Costine as shown in f igu re 3 (Costine and Ndindiza are both small and sparsely populated villages that have chosen to combine for the purposes of this project.) The combined land size of these villag es is approximately 50,000ha. SGP is part of the Great Limpopo Trans Frontie r Conservation Area (GLTFCA) created in 2002 through an international treaty. It includes Kruger National Park in South Africa, Gonorazhou National Park in Zimbabwe Limpopo National Park in Mozambi que and other non protected land bordering these national parks. The goals of the GLTFCA were to conserve biodiversity while including local people in the management of and economic benefits from this biodiversity. The park is still relatively new and little has been done in areas outside the National Parks to achieve the goals ( Spierenburg et al., 2008 ).
16 Figure 3 : Map of Sabie Game Park and surrounding communities 2 .2 Stakeholders: The Southern African Wildlife College (SAWC) is located in Kruger National Park at the Orpen Gate. T skills to manage and conserve their protected areas and associated flora and fauna on a sustainable basis in cooperation with both sh ort and long term wildlife training. In addition, they conduct and compile research in a variety of different topics such as biodiversity levels, ecological studies, and natural resource utilization. Their aim is to transform CBNRM from theory to field l evel results and develop best practice case studies of Learning by Doing and Co Learning. Ultimately, they aim to make these best practice cases the common practice of CBNRM across the region. SAWC, with Brian Child and Rodgers Lubilo, developed the CBNRM governance training program that was piloted in Mozambique and South Africa in June and July of 2013. Sabie Game Park (SGP) in Mozambique wa s granted a 99 year lease in 2000 and the hunting p ermits were obtained in 2009. Approximately 40km of fence separate the 28,000ha game park from the neighboring communities. MacDonald Safaris is the company that runs the hunting safaris within Sabie Game Park. In an effort to improve relations with the nearby communities
17 of CBNRM that would become an example to other regions in Southern Africa. SGP also provided a large portion of the funds necessary to complete the project. On the eastern border of SGP is Mangalane, a region composed of five villages: Mukakaza; Mavanguana; Baptine; Costine; and Ndindiza. All of these villages have been impacted by the creation of the park and certain individuals from each comm unity were forced to relocate from within the park where they lived previ ously to outside the park According to the law of Mozambique, these communities are entitled to 20% of the trophy fees paid by SGP to the government. The Government of Mozambique wants to see communities benefit from the 20% trophy fee income. They have stipulations to ensur e that the money is not appropriated by local elite s. These stipulations include the selection of a ten person committee and opening of a bank account with thr ee signatories. Teresa Nube from the Direccao Nacional de Terres e Florestas (The Department of National Lands and Forests) attended the first community meeting and has aided the process of liberating the 20% and returning it to the communities. 2 .3: Project: CBNRM in southern Africa. The project began with a needs assessment of the site in Mangalane Mozambique and several meetings between stakeholders. Because the communities already have a right to 20% of the hunting fees generated in SGP, there was potential for quick economic benefits for the communities. After th e needs assessment revealed a viable program (economic potential, community interest, a nd stakeholders to manage and monitor the project) the training portion and situational analysis began in June 2013. Training focused on governance topics such as committee elections, constitutions, equitable benefit sharing, participatory budgeting, and reporting information at community meetings. Other general topics on history of CBNRM, value of wildlife, and hunting/tourism were included to provide adequate background understanding to participants that had little knowle dge of the wildlife sector. Th eoretical learning within the benches un der a tree) was supplemented with experiential learning. The Learning by Doing model provided basis for this learning approach as described in the conceptual framework section. Instead of just learning about the topics in a classroom, trainees were able to go out to each of the villages and practice leading a meeting. During this time trainees, taug ht the information they previously learned on wildlife and governance to their communities. The y also led participatory budget processes committee elections, and several role plays. To further supplement the experiential learning section, field trips were included whenever possible to provide a better understanding of the wildlife sector. For exam ple, all trainees visited the perspective. Selected trainees were able to visit private lodges, hunting concessions a wildlife rehabilitation center, Kruger Nati onal Park, and environmental education centers in South Africa.
18 A Situational Analysis was conducted simultaneously to the training in Mangalane to provide guidance for the project itself, baseline data for long term monitoring of CBNRM objectives, and c ommunity empowerment through participatory approaches. The research included two surveys, several informal interviews, direct observation, and a participatory workshop in each community. (See the Methods section for a more detailed description of the Sit uational Analysis approach.) Another aspect of the learning approach was co learning or learning from each other. This was incorporated through the use of another pilot project in South Afric an communities that border Sabi Sands private game reserve nea r Kruger National Park. Three trainees from these communities participated in the training at SGP, Mozambique. In July, a second training session was held at SAWC with these trainees and five of the ten trainees from Mangalane. During this time, trainee s were able to visit South African communities and learn about the potential economic benefits from wildlife in this context. Trainees from South A frican communities and Mozambic an communities were able to learn from each other both in the classroom and i n the communities while practicing what they learned in the classroom. Current and former SAWC students were also included in the training program to be trained as future trainers which provided more opportunities for trainees to learn from each other. M any trainees enjoyed learning about the CBNRM projects these future trainers have worked on in their own countries of Namibia, Zambia, and Zimbabwe. Methods: Baseline data was collected in the form of a census of adults, informal interviews, household li veliho od surveys, situational analysis workshops, a nd community mapping. This information was compiled to give a report of the current situation prior to training and implementation of good governance practices. This information is useful in guiding and adaptin g the pilot project to the specific conditions of Mangalane as well as assisting Mangalane Community members with planning In the future the data will also be used as a basis for comparison in monitoring the effec tiveness of the C B N RM project in m eeting its primary objectives of poverty reduction and improved conservation Timeline of Methods Used: Week 1 Census; Five Interviews Week 2 Governance Dashboard; Training Workshops Week 3 Governance Dashboard; Training Workshops; 9 Surveys Week 4 41 Surveys; Collect GPS coordinates Week 5 3 Situational Analysis Workshops; 3 mapping sessions; 8 Interviews Figure 4 : Timeline of Methods Used 3 .1 Census: Prior to the training, the researcher went from household to household c ollecting names of all adults over age 18. The lists were then compiled and checked by community leaders and commit tee members to ensure accuracy. The final lists were used to determine the percentage of
19 trophy fees owed to each community based on pop ula tion size. (Each adult will receive an equal share of the overall money owed t o the communities.) Additionally, these lists divided by household were used to guide the random sampling for the livelihood surveys. (See appendix K for a copy of the census lists.) 3 .2 Interviews: Prior to conducting the surveys, five informal interviews were conducted during the census to assist in the adaptation of the generic survey to the specific region in Mozambique. These informal interviews provided the researcher wi th a better understanding of the communities in order to get the most effective information during the survey process. Interviewees were asked about their families, livelihoods, living situation, and challenges/concerns. These interviews were more like c asual dialogs with community members. No forms were used to ask questions or record answers during the interviews, but notes were taken afterward. This method was used to allow interviewees to feel more comfortable with the researcher, particularly as th is occurred the researchers into the community to assist future research. A fter conducting the surveys, an additional eight informal interviews were conducted to ensure the accuracy of the information collected from surveys and situational analysis workshops. During these interviews, participants were given preliminary research results and asked if they agree d with the information. Then they were asked to explain some of the results. Finally, any additional questions that arose after reviewing the preliminary results were asked during these interviews. For example, the interviews did not include questions a bout religion, but communities felt it was important to include churches on their maps. Therefore, in the follow up interviews, participants were asked which types of churches are in their community and how many people attend the services. All individua ls to be inter viewed were chosen based on convenience anyone who was available and willing to participate at a time and location that was convenient for the researchers There was no method of selection and no necessary qualifications. Trainees, staff a t SGP and other individuals that were easy to meet with and had time to participate were selected. Several community members approached the researcher to inquire as to why their household was not included in the survey. They were disappointed at not bein g given the opportunity to voice their opinions and tell us about their lives. These com munity members were all encouraged to participate in the situational analysis workshops and also given the opportunity to be interviewed if they desired. All individu als that were interviewed o r surveyed agreed to an informed consent i n the local language, Tsonga 3 .3 Livelihood Survey: Given the number of households and population size in each village, it was determined that 16 surveys would be conducted in Mukak aza, 15 in Mavanguana, nine in Baptine, five in Costine, and five in Ndindiza for a total of 50 surveys in the region. Given the time and resources
20 available, 50 surveys were considered feasible and they represen t 17 % of the households in Mangalane which is sufficient for this analysis. The numbers in each village were based on the relative household and population sizes of each village. The households were numbered in each village and a random number generator was used to determine which households woul d be surveyed. In addition to the desired number of households, numbers were generated for replacement households. These households were surveyed in the event that a household on the original list declined to participate in the survey or if there was no adult present to complete the survey. In only one circumstance did the household members decline to participate in the survey, but in multiple cases, hous eholds were found empty In these circumstances, as a result of time restraints, researchers had to continue to the next house hold on the list until the previously determined number within the village had been reached T he 12 page survey took approximately one hour to complete. It included questions about production and consumption as well as assets for an economic analysis of each household. There were additional questions regarding health care, education, trends in natural resources, food availability/affordability, and human wil dlife conflict. (See appendix C for a copy of the survey.) The surve ys were written in English and a translator (who was familiar with the survey and the objectives of the research) was used during the survey process. The economic information was analyzed and graphed to show production and consumption of different product s by household. Other information such as resource trends was analyzed separately. The results as well as the raw data were given to the SAWC for future comparisons in ongoing monitoring of the training program. 3 .4 Situational Analysis Workshops: The situational analysis workshops (SAWs) were conducted in three of the four communities. While there are five villages, Ndindiza and Costine villages decided to combine into one community for the purposes of meetings, decision making and benefit sharing because they both have such small populations and are located very close to each other. Ndindiza/Costine members then failed to either attend the original meeting for the workshop or to reschedule for another meeting. Therefore, a SAW was not conducted for Ndindiza/Costine villages. This workshop can be conducted in the future if community members are willing to participate. All SAW d ates were chosen through an agreement with researchers and community leaders. These leaders worked with trainees from t he village to disseminate information to all members of the community. A minimum of 20 individuals, both male and female were requested, with an emphasis on elders that know the history of the region. The work shops were conducted in Tsonga with the help of a translator and the trainees from the community. Each workshop took approximately four hours and consisted of five different participatory methods as described below: 1. Historical Timeline: Participants were asked to think of important events in the hi story of their community. As participants shared events, they were each written on a separate
21 index card along with the year that the event occurred. Ideally, a month or season would be included as well, but participants could rarely remember the time of year, only the year itself. Each card was then pinned to a rope that stretched across the front of the meeting space. By moving pins and index cards around, the events were arranged in chronological order to create the final timeline. All participants agreed upon the accuracy and completion of the timeline and when they were satisfied with the result the historical timeline was finished. 2. Helps/Hindrances: Participants were asked to think of things that have helped or hindered the development of the co mmunity. These could be internal or external factors that have influenced them in either a positive or negative manner. Two flip charts were placed on easels, one for positive things and one for negative things. In addition, two different colored index cards were used, with yellow representing positive things or helps and green representing negative things or hindrances. Only when participants were satisfied that both lists were complete did this segment come to a close. 3. Vision for the Future: Partici pants were asked to envision the ideal community. From this information they were asked to suggest a list of goals that they hoped to achieve in the future. It was stressed that this was not a wish list to be given to the government, Sabie Game Park or a ny other organization for fulfillment. Instead the community itself would decide which goals were necessary to build the fut ure community that they desired; then the community itself would lobby and work together to achieve these goals while partnering wi th government or other organizations. Recommendations were listed on index cards and put up on the flip chart for all participants to observe. When community members were satisfied with the final list, they were asked to choose several goals that were of highest priority. Each community selected the five most important goals. If time had allowed, a complete needs assessment would have been conducted to list all goals in order of importance. 4. Relationships: Participants were asked to list organizations that they had a relationship with. Then they were asked to describe the type of organization the strength of the relationship and the importance. The strength and importance were graphed on a flip chart using small medium and large circles. The impor tance of the relationship was captured visually by the size of the circle used to represent the organization. The strength of the relationship was demonstrated through the distance from the community in the center of the chart. 5. Natural Resource Trends: Participants were asked to make a list of natural resources that they use. When this list was completed, they were asked to choose several of these resources that may have changed over time such as trees, fish and wildlife Then, they were asked to thi nk back to 1960, before the war, and explain the abundance of fish in the area. Once a consensus was reached fo r the 1960s, they continued characterizing the abundance in each decade leading up to the present. Abundance over time was graphed using a diff erent symbol for each resource. Participants were able to see the pictorial
22 representation and decide if more symbols should be added or some taken away to ensure the accuracy of the trend over time. When the chart was completed, participants were asked to explain some of the reasons for the changes over time and the meaning behind the chart. Tools Needed For Situational Analysis Workshop and Community Mapping: Flip Chart Easels (2) Flip Chart Paper (2 3 pads) Colored Pencils Colored Markers Colored Index Cards Colored Paper in different size circles String (6 8 meters) Scissors Sticky Tac Clothes pins Ariel or Satellite View Maps GPS device Camera to document findings Figure 5 : Tools Needed For SAWs and Commuity Mapping The information from t he SAW s was compiled into a report for the community itself. The report was then given to trainees to verify accuracy and approve the final product for printing and distribution to the community leaders and committee members. A copy of the report in English was also developed to assist SGP, SAWC, and other partners in understanding the current situation of each community as well as their goals for the future. 3 .5 Community Mapping: Community mapping sessions occurred after the situati onal analysis workshops in each of the three villages. A community mapping session was also held with the leaders and some trainees from Ndindiza and Costine. Workshop participants were invited to stay for the mapping, but those who were uninterested or u nable to stay were excused. Each community developed a hand drawn map on flip chart paper using multi colored markers to display important aspects of their community geographically. Upon completion of the hand drawn maps, a large satellite view photo of the area was introduced. Participants were asked to then locate important aspects from the hand drawn map on the photo using different colors to code the different aspects. These aspects included households, farm land, grazing land, privately owned land, schools, clinics, shops, and water sources in addition to village boundaries. GPS points were then taken for the schools, clinics, shops, churches, boreholes, and other relevant infrastructure. GPS points were also taken for some, although not all, of t he households. The drawings on the photo map
23 and the GPS points were later digitized using GIS to create a finished digital map for the communities. This final product was added to the report from the situational analysis workshops as well as the hand dr awn map from the session. 3 .6 Governance Dashboard: The Governance Dashboard Survey consisted of 33 statements to which participants respond community is org can be answered with to signify strongly agree, for agree, for neutral, for disagree and for strongly dis agree. This is a simple and visual tool for identifying issues in governance that need to be a ddressed. The governance dashboard survey used was adapted from previous surveys in Botswan a and can be found in appendix D The survey was administered non randomly to 50 individuals. T en individuals were selected fro m each village including the tradit ional leaders These individuals were surveyed one at a time before or during the CBNRM workshops (described in appendix B ). Each survey took approximately 15 minutes. While the survey forms were written in English, all surveys were conducted in Tsonga by a trained research er who is fluent in Tsonga and English The results were put on flip charts and presented back to trainees, community leaders and committee members that attended the final workshop. During feedback, participants were asked to verif y or contradict t he results and identify probable underlying factors. This feedback session was vital to verifying the data and more fully understanding the factors contributing to the identified trends. Results and Discussion : 4 .1 Census: Before beginning the census, researchers met with local chiefs and leaders to gain permission for data collection related to the project. The data collection process for the census was straightforward in that the researchers simply had to drive from house to house and inquire about the number of adults. However, as the researchers were not from the region assistance was needed to locate the houses and ensure that none were missing from the final list. T he two t rainees from e ach village were asked to aid the researchers in locating each household They also provided additional legitimacy for the project because they are from the region and could explain that we had permission and support from local leaders and that the information would be used to benefi t the community. Additionally, SGP provided a vehicle, and a driver who knew the region well. The most difficult aspect of the census wa s determining the requirements for being a community member. After discussions with a few individuals at SGP we dete rmined that 18 years was an appropriate cut off age for adults. During the census process we met several women younger than 18 who were already married and had children. In hindsight we determined that it may have be en more appropriate to consider indivi duals 16 years and above as adults Unfortunately, records could not be altered to include individuals ages16 and 17 as there was not enough time to
24 re conduct the census. Instead community members were encouraged to work with trainees, leaders, and elec ted committees to determine specific requirements of community members (age, length of time spent in community, permanent vs. temporary resident and so forth) and to adjust the lists accordingly. This was another opportunity for empowerment by showing com munities how we conducted the census and then allowing them to alter the list and control who is or is not considered a member according to specific requirements agreed on by the community as a whole. Ultimately, this information will be included in commu nity constitutions when they are developed. Any individual who considered him/herself a member was counted in the census regardless of how much time they actually spend in the vi llage. Community members assisted us by including the names of family membe rs or neighbors who were temp orarily absent during the census but still considered community members. Census names were typed up and returned to communities to be checked for accuracy. Any adjustments made by the communities were incorporated into the f inal list of community members. Communities are able to change membership criteria in the future and are expected to update the lists annually to determine the individual share of the financial benefits from wildlife. There are 21 households in Ndindiza 23 in Costine, 73 in Baptine, 75 in Mavanguana and 94 in Mukakaza. Village Name Number of Households Number of Adults Baptine 73 201 Ndindiza 24 69 Costine 23 46 Mavanguana 75 264 Mukakaza 94 238 Total 289 818 Figure 4: Village Size 4 .2 Interviews and Surveys: Interviews proved useful in both designing the surveys and further explaining some of the underlying causes of the trends that were revealed in the data. Even with interviews to guide the development of the surveys, some additional changes were made after testing the survey on the first 5 individuals. The final survey that was developed is specifically designed for these 5 villages and adaptations would be necessary for use in othe r regions. While the author thinks the final surve y is a useful tool for future monitoring, minor changes can still be made and additional questions may be helpful in revealing more of the situation. The final interviews were conducted after only preliminary analysis of survey results. Without time or t ravel constraints, more interviews or focus groups could have been conducted after the full analysis of results was completed.
25 4 .2.1 Human Wildlife Conflict: T here have been many incidences of human wildlife conflict in the region as s hown in more detail in figure 5 in section 3.3.1 Only 2 of the 50 households surveyed attributed livestock death in the previous year due to predators. However, when the topic arose, all households told a story of either a previous predator attack that personally af fected them and their herds or a recent attack on a n eighboring herd. It is most likely that the perception of attacks is greater than the actual occurrence because it is based on past problems that overwhelm current trends. This possibility was confirme d in part by asking if predator attacks have decre ased in the past 10 years (see appendix J for the graph of results to this question) to which the majority of households answered yes. Interviewees explained that while they do not like the fence because i t Even if livestock attacks are decreasing, they have not been eliminated and the fear of them (based on historical evidence) continues to be prevalent. This fear seems to be compounded by a sense of helplessness. Villagers are well aware that it is illegal for them to kill the wildlife that threatens them. In an effort to comply with the law, they have attempted to seek help from both disappea red before SGP is able to respond to the report Regar dless, the sense of fear of wildlife and the feeling of helplessness to address the issue was clear in many conversations, interviews, and workshops. While livestock is an important concern, the concern for human life was equally important although the in stances of threat to human s by wildlife were fewer. Figure 6 : Damage to Crops by Wildlife 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 All instances of damage affected at least half the field Damage to Crops By Wildlife in the Most Recent Agricultural Season No damage Damage
26 Twenty of the 50 households surveyed reported damage to their crops by wildlife in the past year. In all of these cases, the damage was said to affect at least half of the field (although in some cases, the farmer had one or two additional fields.) Wild pigs were the most common perpetrator and they were most commonly found in Mavanguana. Efforts to catch or hunt wild pig are unsuccessfu l. Elephants had damaged fields throughout the region and when they entered a field, they generally destroyed the entire crop. Hippos were only reported in Costine, where farms border the Corumana Dam. Hippos may not destroy the entire field in one nigh t, but they will return to the same field until it is destroyed and there is little a farmer can do to protect the remainder of his field after a hippo or elephant has discovered it. SGP is not responsible for human wildlife incidences and in fact they h ave helped to mitigate these issues by erecting the fence around the park and responding to some reports of dangerous crocodiles, buffalo or other species. Even so, the perceptions of SGP in the community can greatly impact the perceptions of both wildlif e and conservation. Historically, the relationship between SGP and local communities was poor. In a stakeholder evaluation during the situational he relationship [with SGP] is very important, but so far i t is not a good relationship. We need Sabie to fulfill its promises and also want Sabie to help us kill problem animals and even let us use the tractors for ploughing our fields each year t fulfilling promises such as providing boreholes, building clinics, employing local people, and providing meat from hunted animals. The clinic in Baptine was attributed to SGP and the community was very grateful for this. According to members of Mavangua Sabie Game Park promised jobs, but there is no one from Mavanguana who is employed by the Game Park from Costine and Ndindiza are employed by SGP either annually or temporarily as these are the closest villag es to the main gate. One woman from Baptine is employed at the game park and a few people from Mukakaza are hired to maintain the fence in their area. There was a repeated complaint of SGP hiring outsiders instead of locals, but the outsiders who have been hired have extensive experience in their area of work. Another barrier to emp loyment for local communities is their inability to speak English which is needed in the jobs that directly deal with guests such as guides and trackers. Only 40% of households surveyed had ever received meat from SGP. Even though hunting quotas are still relatively low, SGP professional hunters occasionally shoot hippos solely to provide additional meat to the communities. The reasons for the discrepancy in meat provided at SGP and meat reaching community members were unclear, but are likely attributed to elite capture. Some interviewees explained that they may not have been present on the day meat was distributed. Others thought the chief kept a large portion that prevented others from receiving any, still others rep orted that SGP staff would sell the meat or distribute it to girlfriends leaving only a small steak for the community as a whole. Researchers witnessed a meat distribution in Mavanguana community in which local leaders very carefully divided the pieces as equitably as possible and made every effort to ensure that even individuals unable to travel to the meeting
27 spot would in fact receive their fair share. At another point in time researchers witnessed a SGP representative taking a leg of buffalo that was originally allocated to the community by SGP staff While SGP managers and head staff are making an effort to distribute meat to the comm unity, not all members of the community are benefitting. While the size of the meat was usually only 1 5kg and the fr equency reported at one or two times per year per village, the meat was seen as an important gesture from SGP. Even if SGP is not at fault for the missin g meat, they lose out on a tremendous opportunity to improve relationships with local community by not ensuring that meat reaches all community members. Currently, the word mistrust and the phrase false promises occur repeatedly in conjunction with SGP. A leader from Mukak a za clearly stated the main issues. ause there is too much mistrust. They have made many false promises such as water, school, clinic and have not fulfilled them so we do not trust Sabie Game Park. We must see some benefits from the wildlife, like the 20% and meat for the community, before we can work together with Sabie. Then we can help them by reporting the poaching activity that we see or become aware of, but for now we cannot help them. It is like a foreign rancher who lived in our area; he would support the community and provided wa ter so we did not steal his cattle. But other ranchers, we would steal from. And if anyone tried to steal Community members acknowledge their willingness to assist private landowners by reporting illegal a ctivity as they have done for one private cattle rancher in Mukakaza Village. However, this potential assistance is only availabl e to private landowners with whom they have a good relationship built on trust and mutual benefits. Currently, the community has nothing to gain by reporting poachers, although SGP could benefit enormously. On the other hand, poachers could choose to use their wealth and connections to retaliate against community members that reported them. In a situation with potential costs and no foreseeable benefits, community members will act in their own best interest and not report poaching. SGP has a lot to gain from a good relationship with the neighboring communities, particularly in their ability to help prevent and/or report rhin o poaching. Representatives of SGP realize this potential and there is evidence that they are genuinely trying to improve the relationship. For example, by initiating and helping fun d the CBNRM Governance Training. The current manager is extremely popul ar with the communities and has earned their trust. 4.2.2 Livelihood s : Households in this region primarily rely on natural resources for their livelihood. Figure 6 shows the different resources that contribute to household use as well as the goods that are exchanged at the market level. Formal employment has historically been low in this region as it is very rural. The few formal civil servants teachers and nurse s are provided by the government and do not
28 come from the region itself. They serve here temporarily and often seek better positions in more urban areas. The household livelihood survey revealed few cases of formal employment outside of tourism and thes e individuals travel to different cities, daily, weekly, or seasonally to work. An individual in Mukakaza explained that he works as a security guard in neighboring Magudo town and has to commute daily in a situation where transportation is expensive and often unreliable. Figure 7 : Household Resources Flow With the opening of SGP, there are new jobs available in tourism and several households surveyed have family members that work for the park. This is most common in Costine a s it is closest to the park entrance, although people in Mukakaza have also been hired to build/repair the fence that borders that park. The tourism season in SGP runs for approximatel y half the year, so few year round positions are available. Even durin g hunting season, full time positions are limited and many are filled by foreigners who have the necessary skills, training, and experience. The majority of community members, employed by SGP work part time or seasonally. Therefore, the income from SGP e mployment only contributes a portion of the overall household income, which still relies on other informal income opportunities.
29 As shown in figure 7 the household income sources are diverse, particularly in the less wealthy households where members see k any opportunity to earn income which is necessary for the purchase of certain goods on the market. These households simultaneously seek natural resources that can substitute for purchased goods in a more subsistence based lifestyle. The idea of subsist ing on natural resources rather than informal trade or formal markets is very common in Mangalane. For households without access to formal employ ment, livestock and wild products contribute greatly to household income. Wild products is a general term, bu t in all but one case, it refers to charcoal (the exception is a woman who earns a small amount of money selling reed mats that she makes). The large majority of community members are farmers and livestock herders. The agricultural products are exclusiv ely for home consumption in all households surveyed. Cattle herding can be a source of informal employment for young men, but rather than being paid in cash, herders are given one cow annually. This is an important opportunity for young men to develop th eir own herds. Livestock are a valuable asset, both culturally and economically. Cows are considered the most important source of wealth and individuals are reluctant to sell these valuable assets, but in times of need, when all other income generating o ptions have been exhausted, cows may be sold to ensure the survival of the household. With few other opportunities, many households are forced to sell livestock annually during the dry season when food is scarce. At other times livestock is sold to pay h ospital bills, or school fees. Hunger was identified as an issue in several community meetings, but only 20 of the 50 households said they experienced hunger and these households ranged from the poorest to the wealthiest. The explanation for this trend may come from an inefficient use of finances (e.g. money is spent on alcohol, or other non essential goods rather than on food) or it may be a result of inaccurate data. More discussions with community members can lead to a greater understanding of the is sue of hunger and if the data is inaccurate, community members may be able to help redesign survey questions related to hunger in an effort to receive more accurate information on future surveys. The overall expenditures tended to be higher than income. This contradictory finding may stem from an under reporting of income, an over reporting of expenditure or a combination of both. Households surveyed had little difficulty recalling number of livestock sold and at what prices. Similarly, information on charcoal sales, and formal/informal employment wages were easy for participants to recall. Determining monthly expenditure was more difficult; prices were well known but individuals had difficulty in determining amounts purchased, especially as these can have a large seasonal variance. In this survey, participants were asked to think of average expenditures, but the average may be difficult to determine when food products in particular are purchased in larger quantities during the dry season, but in other months, most households rely on their own agricultural production. To improve expenditure information, households could be asked to keep simple records of income and expenditure on a weekly basis throughout the y ear. While this method would require much more time, it could be cost effective and improve
30 financial decision making in households by encouraging individuals to track their own earnings and spending. Another issue which would not be addressed by more reliable reporting is the participation in i llegal activities such as poaching of rhinoceros. Community leaders confirmed that members of the community participate in poaching, but they are unwilling to report these individuals. It is possible that one or more households that report no annual inco me and no hunger are benefitting from illegal and unreported activities. Figure 8 : Annual Household Income Per Capita by Sector 0 5000 10000 15000 20000 25000 30000 35000 * * * * * * * * * * Metacais Households surveyed *signifies household reported hunger Annual Household Income Per Capita by Sector Government grants from SA Wages-Non tourism Wages-Tourism Selling beer/food products Wild Products Livestock
31 Figure 9 : Household Income and Expenditure Comparison 4.2.3 Health: Although a clinic has been built in each of the four communities, health care is not necessarily available. For example, the clinic in Ndindiza/Costine is not currently staffed nor is it operative. Other clinics have only one health care worker; therefo re any illness or family emergency can result in the clinic closing until further notice. Even when the health worker is able and willing to operate the clinic, he/she may be limited by access to supplies and equipment. Major c hallenges to accessing heal th care include the quality of clinics in the region and the distance to the closest hospital in Kaboka. All households surveyed mentioned that transport to Kaboka was difficult and even impossible at times. While the cost of transportation can be a dete rrent to many families, the physical state of the road can prevent even the wealthiest families from accessing the hospital, especially during the rainy season. According to one woman who The cost of a visit to the clinic or hospital is only 5mt which is considered affordable to all families surveyed. However, the cost of transportation to Kaboka varies from 50 to 150mt one way depending on the village ( se e Map of M anga lane in appendix F ). Access to clean water also varies by village. In Costine, Ndindiza, and Baptine, community members get their drinking water from the dam. In Mukakaza, drinking water is obtained from rivers, either Mazintonto or other smaller rive rs in the south Members of Mavanguana community use a borehole for drinking water and this is the only improved water source in the area All households surveyed in Mavanguana reported that they did in fact have access to clean water daily, while no households in Ndindiza or Costine reported having access to clean water 0 50000 100000 150000 200000 250000 300000 350000 Metacais Household Income and Expenditure Comparison total income expenditure
32 every day. Two people from Baptine and three from Mukakaza claimed to h ave access to clean water although they obtain it from the same source that is considered unclean by other people in the same communities. Of the people who have access to clean water, some reported still getting sick from the water. This could result fr om an undiagnosed illness being attributed to water quality when in fact it was not. Another likely explanation is that clean water is stored in unclean jerry cans or 50 gallon plastic drums where bacteria can contaminate the previously clean water. Furt her research would be necessary to determine the type of sickness and the cause. When asked if children suffered from Kwashiorkor (a disease of malnourishment) in the past year, 6 households said yes. One additiona l household said no, but a young boy ap peared to currently be suffering from Kwashiorkor The main illnesses of concern were Malaria, Cholera, and HIV/AIDS; these three diseases were brought up repeatedly in surveys and interviews. any diseases started to afflict us such as Malaria, Cholera and HIV/AIDS. It was very difficult because there was no hospital or clinic 4.2.4 Agriculture: Most households in Mozambique rely on agriculture to provide food for the h ousehold. The commonly grown crops are maize, peanuts, watermelon, and pumpkin. In addition to these crops, many households also grow sorghum, millet, cow peas, beans, vegetables, sweet potato, sweet reed, and/or cassava. The agricultural yield is typic ally low. All 50 households surveyed reported that the crops grown are not enough to supply food for the household throughout the year. They must supplement their food production with purchased food that is imported from nearby towns such as Sabie, Moam b a, or Magudo They also reported that if they had a surplus of food produced in their fields, they would sell some, but they currently do not produce enough for the market. Of the 50 households surveyed, only one household purchases and uses fertilizer a nd chemicals and the owner is also an agricultural laborer in South Africa for six months of the year Crops are grown from saved seeds rather than purchasing improved seeds. Occasionally, a family may spend 5 10mt to purchase a package of vegetable seed s ; however, staple crops such as maize, peanuts and tubers are planted with leftover seeds or cuttings from a previous crop The only monetary input into agriculture is the hiring of tractors to plow the fields of some households. SGP plows the fields of several individuals who were relocated from within the park. Other individuals must hire a tractor if they can afford to or use oxen to plow their fields. Poorer households that cannot afford to hire a tractor and do not own oxen struggle to plant enoug h crops to feed their families using only hand held hoes. 4.2.5 Education: Of the oldest generation, individuals 41 years and above, only 19% reported having any formal education. The middle generation, individuals ages 19 to 40 are almost evenly divided between no education and some education. The youngest generation, ages 5 18 or school aged, are primarily attending school. Only 11% of children in this ag e group have never attended school. The reasons for these children not attending school were varied and the
33 gender of children not attending school was balanced. In some families, one young boy is needed to herd the cattle and he therefore is unable to a ttend school. In other families, one of the daughters, usually the eldest is unable to attend school because she is needed to assist with household chores such as fetching water, collecting firewood or cooking. In Mavanguana community, there were two hou seholds that reported children being unable to attend school because the distance to the closest school was too far for the children to manage. In both of these cases, no children in the household were attending school or had attended school in the past. The majority of school aged children are currently attending school or they have completed primary school. Unfortunately, there is no secondary school in any of the 5 communities; therefore, it is difficult for students to continue their education past p rimary level. Some families are able to send students to Moamba, or other tow ns to attend boarding school for the secondary level but the cost of boarding is prohibitive to many families. In developing a vision for the future, all communities addressed the need for higher grades in their local schools. Figure 10 : Education Level of Individuals 5 18 Years Education Level of Individuals 5 18 Years No education Some Primary Completed Primary Some Secondary Completed Secondary
34 Figure 11 : Education Level of Individuals 19 40 Years Figure 12 : Educat ion Level of Individuals 41 Years and Above 4 .3 Situational Analysis: SAWs were intended to be completed in all four communities; however, they were only completed in three communities. In Ndindiza/Costine, only three community members showed up to the pr e arranged meeting despite the community choosing the time and date themselves. The participa tory methods require more than three individuals to represent the community, and rescheduling efforts were equally unsuccessful. As other villages receive their final reports and are able to use them for planning, it is likely that Ndindiz a /Costine will be more interested in developing their own report. If this interest occurs, it is possible for other researchers to conduct a SAW in the summer of 2014. The comp lete reports fro m SAWs for Mukakaza, Mavanguana, and Baptine can be found in appendices G, H, and I respectively. Education Level of Individuals 19 40 Years No education Some Primary Completed Primary Some Secondary Completed Secondary Education Level of Individuals 41 Years and Above No education Some Primary Completed Primary Some Secondary Completed Secondary
35 In general, it is valuable to allow the communities to choose the time, date, and location of the meeting and to have ample time to relay this information to all community members. This makes it more likely that both men and women, elderly and young adult s from all sections of the community will be able to attend the meeting. While there is no magic number of people required to complete the activities, it would be difficult to get representative information with less than 20 individuals. All three worksh ops had at least 25 individuals in attendance. The workshops were planned to last approximately 3 hours, but in order to fully complete all the activities with ample discussion time, at least four hours was necessary. The researcher was advised by a SGP representative not to provide any snack or drinks at the workshops because it would result in expectations of snacks and beverages at all future meetings or workshops putting greater pressure on SGP. However, this prevented attendee s from remaining focus ed on the activities and ultimately, several people had to leave early. It would have been beneficial to complete all the activities. For future application of SAWs, it is advised that communities are able to choose the time and place and given at least 2 days to inform all community members of the workshop date, time and location. Every community member was invited and encouraged to attend. A simple snack suc h as biscuits, or fruit should be provided to maintain energy levels and interest throughout the workshop. A minimum of 20 individuals seems appropriate, but it is more important to ensure that participants represent the community than to focus on overall attendance. For example, it is necessary to have both men and women, elderly and younger adults. Furthermore if multiple tribes, religions or other groups are present in the community they should all be represented in the workshop to ensure that the inf ormation pertains to the entire community not just a portion. In this case communities were ethnically homogenous and there were few religious differences. The priority in Mangalane was to have representatives of both genders and different age groups. I n addition, workshop times were chosen to allow SGP staff from the community the opportunity to attend. The activities were conducted in the order they were described in the methods section. While the order can be adjusted as needed, it is helpful to st art with something simple such as introductions and/or an icebreaker. After individuals have stood up to say their name, they will be more comfortable participating in the remainder of the workshop. To encourage everyone to participate it may be helpful to pass out cards and ask everyone to write down at least one contribution. This will allow shy or quiet people to comfortably participate and may increase participation of women in contexts where they do not speak out in front of men. In this context, p articipants were illiterate, but researchers were able to ask specific people for contributions. Also, while one person was conducting the SAW from the front, another person was able to talk to quitter participants one on one for additional contributions. As facilitator it is vital that one ensures broad participation of the group.
36 4 .3.1: Historical Timeline: Figure 13 : Timeline for Mangalane Establishing a chronological timeline can be difficult in a culture w here exact dates are less important as is common in man y African cultures Instead, many cultures focus on the chronology of events relative to each other, but do not assign specific dates to each event. For instance even major events like starts and ends of war varied in these reports. Historical records say that independence was won in 1974 when FRELIMO defea ted the Portuguese colonists; h owever, all three villages placed 1974 as the start of the war between the FR ELIMO and the Portuguese despite records saying the war for independence actually began 10 years before independence was finally granted. Participants remembered events clearly and were able to describe them in great detail, but they were always hesitant to place an exact date on an event. Instead they think of events as occurring in certain periods of time. The three main time periods discussed were before independence, during the civil war, or after the civil war. Within these time periods, the group would discuss events in relation to each other before deciding on a final year to be published in the report. Because the method allowed events to be placed onto the timeline and then rearranged in relation to each other, communities were able to place ev ents in chronological order even if they were unsure of the specific year in which each event occurred.
37 It was common for events to be given a year based on the relation in time to the creation of SGP or the building of a school/clinic. Events that can b e verified by outside sources show some discrepancies. Because the report was established by and for the communities themselves, no corrections were made to the Situational Analysis Reports. In this context, however, community timelines will be addressed in light of known historical records. Historical Records show the civil war between FR ELIMO and RENAMO was initiated in 1977. Participants in Mukakaza placed the start of this civil war in 1982 and Baptine participants placed it in 1986. No participan ts in Mavanguana directly mentioned the civil war although they said the reason people moved away in the 1980s was as a result of violence in the area. The differences can be attributed in part to a confusion of trying to combine traditional African histo rical records that lack specific dates with a more western approach to making a chronological timeline. Another likely contribution is that while fighting began in 1977 it did not immediately affect the entire country. Mangalane region was not directly a ffected at the start of the war, but later during the 1980s. No attempt was made to verify the accuracy of the dates attributed to the creation of the Corumana Dam, the building of the schools and clinics, or the wildlife incidences. Participants in all three workshops described li fe under Portuguese rule very de scriptively. The colonists living in the area were primarily cotton farmers and herders but they also grew rice, potatoes, and other crops. They constructed several small towns in the area wit h schools, churches and shops. Individual farm houses were scattered throughout the region, including in what is now SGP. Many people described the Portuguese as forcing them to work in the fields for free. Participants explained the strictness of their colonial masters through two specific incidences that were described verbally and completed with physical actions for a visual f a Portuguese found someone who looked clean, that person was reprimanded fo r not working hard enough e would spend all day bent over in the fields and if we stood up, we would be kicked with boots for not working hard enough received food rations. Several elderly community members explained that the rations were never enough and that in addition to laboring on Portuguese farms, they would have to plant and tend to their own small plots in order to provide adequate food. The most positive view of c olonial times was the presence of shops near their communities. rom the time the Portuguese left, there were no shops left. Even if you had money, there was nowhere to buy supplies d freed om from colonial masters because they finally enjoyed the opportunity for paid employment. They realized with great sadness that not only was employment difficult to obtain, there was little use for money when it could b e earned because the Portuguese own ed markets were closed and no others replaced them for some time. From independence through the civil war, formal employment was practically non existent in Mangalane as were shops. Instead of joining the formal economy, people in this area were forced t o develop a subsistence lifestyle
38 involving the use of available natural resource, traditional agriculture and livestock farming. Goods could be traded with neighbors in an informal market situation. To purchase goods that were unavailable in the region, people had to travel far and often had to sell a cow. Cattle were one of the few opportunities for generating cash in the formal markets in Maputo or other cities. Even today, formal employment is scarce and only 4 small tuck shops exist in Mangalane. Local people suffered not only at the hands of Portuguese colonists, but at the hands of their he chief used to collect 2mt from each household annually as a tax. He also took the best portio n of meat from any animal that was slaughtered. Each year we would hold a festival together where the chief would perform a ritual so that the rains would some power as well as respect from their constituencies. The taxes and demands of the chiefs were largely ignored, although the traditional leaders continued to play a role in cultural ceremonies including the request for rain and the honoring of ancestors. All three communities de scribed the issues of the past i n a similar manner. Additiona lly, they all discussed FRELIMO in a positive manner for bringing freedom and help to the people. (It is important that although we did not ask about political allegiances, some people who spok e positively of FRELIMO also stressed that they supported RENAMO or other political parties over FRELIMO.) Members of all communities agreed that many people were forced to move out of the area in the 1980s due to violence. Some people moved to distant p arts of Mozambique, others to Swaziland or South Africa. Several who had fled to South Africa said had to leave our livestock, our houses, and most of our belongings here in the village when we fled ain stationary either. Many of these individuals moved into the Lebombo mountains to hide in caves and trees when the attacks become more intense. In two separate interviews, accounts of this fearful escape were given. One man explained that he would go and live in the hills with his family until the sound of abandoned during the escape and some or all would be missing when the family returned. Indirect ac counts of mothers helplessly watching as their children died from land mines, children watching as parents were killed by wild lions, and orphans left to fend for themselves in the caves were abundant. When SGP was brought up in the historical account, many negative words were used. The people describe being forced off their land, deceived by park staff/representatives, and left without access to water. Historically, herders would take cattle into the Lebombo Mountains to access water in the dry season. In drought years whole families and communities would temporarily move to one of the water sources that were later enclosed in SGP. Initial fears at being isolated from important water sources as well as ancestral graves were mitigated through SGPs promises for employment and creation of water sources, schools, and clinics. The relationship between SGP and local communities will be expanded on in other sections.
39 The recent history focused heavily on the construction of school s and clinics in each village as well as wildlife incidences. Many of the incidences mentioned were of predators (usually lions [being ] unable to attend school for some time because it was too dangerous to walk with buffalo around reportedly attacked and killed by an elephant in 2011. Although the year of each incidence may not be historically accurate, the ti melines developed by each community are extremely valuable for understanding the communities themselves. It is impossible to fully understand the current situation without at least a cursory understanding of the past. This is particularly true in an area that has been heavily affected by an extended civil war. Their past experiences continue to shape their present situation and are important in guiding future development goals. 4 .3.2: Helps and Hindrances: This section gave the community an opportunity to think about factors both within and outside their control that have had either positive or negative impacts. A full SWOT (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats) would go well with this section by allowing communities to think more about ho w factors may affect them in the future as well as those that have affected them in the past. Communities primarily focused on the provision of infrastructure or support as helps. Hindrances varied, but many were related to SGP and the false promises. Below is an example of Helps and Hindrances from Baptine. Helps: Foreigners came (possibly from Italy) after the war to give them food, mosquito nets, pangas and other things in an effort to help them get resettled. School was built in 2000 Clinic was built by Sabie in 2008 Hindrances: Not enough classes in the school it ends at grade 7 and there are only 2 classrooms for everyone to share Many relatives died in the war now elderly are without children to care for them, many children were orphaned, people were widowed Many issues with wildlife they destroy fields, take livestock and cause safety issues for the people There is hunger every year Poverty there are not enough houses, and many of the houses are not built well enough to provide adequate protection from the rains Nurse at the clinic only works part time, and there are not always enough medicines
40 Figure 14 4 .3.3 Vision for the Future: Developing a vision for the future can be of great use in guiding development projects. In the past, these communities were grateful for any support that was offered, whether or not it was a top priority for them. With a list of goals as well as a needs assessment of which goals are more imp ortant than others, communities can request the most useful projects from donors. They can also use this information to guide budgeting of money from wildlife hunting in order to ensure that the most important needs are met first. A sample vision from Ma vanguana is below: Vision for the future Bridge over the river to improve transport in the rainy season (currently children are unable to cross the river for school during the rainy season) Water for cattle during the dry season Water for people, need mor e boreholes for the other side of the village Hospital (currently just a small clinic sometimes there is no nurse or no medicine so we have to travel all the way to Kaboka village which is far) More employment (many pe ople are not working now). We know that job creation is the only way to help develop the village Want to expand the school to have more classrooms and to include higher grades (currently it only goes to grade 7) Need a grinding machine or hammer mill (currently the women must grind a ll the mealies by hand) Tractor for the whole communi ty to plough their fields. Many of us have large fields and the oxen get too tired from pulling the plow Need food ai d and/or seeds for farming we are hoping the government or an NGO can assist them P ensions or grants for the elderly and the disabled who are unable to work and support themselves should come from the government like it does in South Africa. BOLD: indicates top 5 priorities Figure 15 e Future 4 .3.4: Relationships: This activity proved the most difficult to adequately explain to participants. Because of time constraints, the activity was not completed in any of the communities. It would be useful to complete this activity in the futur e for a better understanding of local and national organizations that impact or could impact the region. Mukakaza did provide verbal insights on the strength and importance of relationships with three separate entities, although there was no visual repre sentation as planned. No traditional leaders attended the workshop in Mukakaza giving participants more freedom to speak openly about the leaders. In the future, it may be useful to discuss traditional leader systems both with and
41 without leaders present to develop an unbiased understanding. The description of relationships between Mukakaza and three other entities are listed below Sabie Game Park: We do not have a good relationship now because there is too much mistrust. They have made many false prom ises such as water, school, clinic and have not fulfilled them so we do not trust Sabie Game Park. We must see some benefits from the wildlife, like the 20% and meat for the community, before we can work together with Sabie. Then we can help them by repo rting the poaching activity that we see or become aware of, but for now we cannot help them. Traditional Leaders: We have traditional leaders within the community that hold some power; however, since the war, the chiefs and traditional leaders have less power and respect in the community than they used to. Private Cattle Rancher: We respect the one private rancher that lived near the community because the community was able to benefit from the ranch. Even though, we used to steal from other cattle farmers in the area, we never stole from this man because we respected him. 4 .3.5: Natural Resource Trends: Participants easily grasped the idea of mapping trends in natural resource s on a visual timeline. They would discuss together and then add or take away symbols in each category in an effort to accurately portray the amount of a resource that was present at each stage in history. A sam ple from Baptine is shown in figure 16. Whi and memory, it alone offers little insight into why these trends exist. The real value of this exercise is in the discussion that ensues after resources have been graph ed. In this example, community members explained that there were no fish found within Baptine until the dam was built in the 1990s. The increase in resources such as trees and wildlife during the 1990s was explained by the migration during the war. As m ost people moved away from the region in the 1980s, the resources that were previously being depleted by human use had an opportunity to increase in the absence of human pressure. By the time people began returning in the mid 1990s, they found many more o f these resources than when they left. The community has also noticed that the numbers are already quickly declining again as a result of human use. Despite the community recognizing this trend and understanding the potential implications, there has been no effort to halt or reverse the trends thus far.
42 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s 2000s Present Timeline [ -Colonial Rule -] [ -------Civil War -------] [ --------Post War Recovery -------] Trees Fish Animals Wild Fruit Figure 16 : Trends in Natural Resource Abundance for Baptine 4 .4 Community Mapping: The hand drawn maps were very well done and includ e aspects that the community identified as important. Although they were not drawn to scale and were not checked for accuracy, they were perspectives. Some communities struggled to unders tand the satellite view maps, making it difficult for them to add anything. When the researcher added GPS points for the school, the chief s residence, or other landmarks, it was easier for participants to understand the map and then add other aspects. O ver 200 of the 289 households were identified by GPS and incorporated in the digital maps. Google Earth was used to obtain the satellite view maps, accuracy of additions was checked using GPS points and by comparing with Google Earth imagery from 2005 ( few households or farmland have been moved since then) and the final digital maps were produced using Google Earth Pro These digital versions should be added to over time to incorporate additional layers such as location of important resources, dry seas on water sources or other important aspects. The digital maps can assist communities in land use planning and in future negotiations with private individuals interested in purchasing land.
43 Figure 17 : Hand drawn and digitiz ed maps of Mukakaza 4 .5 Governance Dashboard: The survey sho wed that communities perceive wildlife being of little value to them. Furthermore, the y do not like the fence that borders SGP (see f igure 17 ) The results of the survey were very interesting on their own, but the full value came from presenting the results back to community members for verification and explanation of the trends discovered. Some of the reasons for the low value of wildlife were f alse promises from SGP, low benefits from wildlife to the communities, and human wildlife conflict. If the pilot project is able to unlock the financial benefits from trophy hunting and SGP fulfills promises to the communities, the perceived value of wild life could improve. While the fence is considered valuable in reducing human wildlife incidences, it is ultimately disliked because it separates communities from important dry season water sources and ancestral graves. One of the promises by SGP is to pr ovide adequate water to the communities; when this is fulfilled there should be a less negative perception of the fence. However, the issue of ancestral graves will remain. SGP could allow community members to visit graves for specific celebrations, but this may present a greater threat of poaching. One contradictory finding was a very positive attitude toward SGP despite many negative comments in interviews and SA workshops as described in previou s sections as shown in figure 18 To explain this diffe rence in information, community members said that the perception of the relationship with SGP was greatly improved as a result of the manager recently encouraging
44 SAWC to come and hold workshops and help communities to receive the money they deserve from w ildlife. Even with improved attitudes, community members attributed all positive aspects to the current manager regardless of behind the scenes players that were actively involved. One in the dark you thank him, he [the manager] has shown us the way so we thank him, but we have not seen any others to When asked if SGP was a good idea, younger respondents generally agreed because of potential for employment, meat, and financial b enefits. Elderly respondents, particularly those with livestock, were more concerned about the threat that wildlife like leopards pose to cattle and therefore disagreed with the statement. Most respondents were unclear of what a constitution was and mos t villages have not held annual general meetings (AGMs). There has been little to no transparency as far as number of animals shot and trophy hunting fees generated within SGP. However, results suggest that people are willing to attend meetings and that they have the ability to elect their leaders. When the 20% income does get transferred to the communities, it will be important to monitor that it is being spent according to participatory budgets and that decision makers are accountable to their communit ies and that information is transparent and properly reported back to communities and government leaders. See graphs 20 37 of appendix J for additional results from the dashboard survey. Figure 18 Attitudes on Wildlife and th e Game Fence 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 Wildlife is important to our future 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 The game fence is a good thing
45 Figure 19 : Attitudes toward SGP Conclusion: The Situational Analysis of Mangalane, Mozambique, revealed that communities are diverse, but highly reliant on natural resources and the environment for their own survival. Formal employment within and outside of tourism is limited and even when informal employ ment exists, it often pays in kind rather than in cash. When income is necessary for purchase of market goods such as clothing, cooking oil, or health services, it is often earned through the sale of value added goods produced directly from the environment such as charcoal, livestock, and traditionally brewed beer. With such a heavy depen dence on the environment, community members are vulnerable to changes in re source availability. Surveys, i nterview s, and SA workshops findings suggest that resources are becoming less abundant as a result of over use. Despite understanding the decrease s in natural resources and the importance of these resources for survival, community members have yet to address the issue of resource depletion. The results of this study suggest several key recommendations for addressing development and natural resource conservation in Mangalane, Mozambique. First, is to encourage community management of natural resources in order to avoid continued decli nes in resource abundance. Training in governance and monitoring conformance to governance principles is vital to ens ure that all community members are able to benefit equitably from the r esources in their area. It is also important to encourage and support community land use planning and economic development. There is much potential for increased econom ic contributio n from wildlife, fish farming, and improved agriculture However, it will be important to carefully manage land use in order to incorporate these activites without losing important land for grazin g or other cultural activities. Perc eived value of wildli fe is low in this region as a result of false promis es made by the game park, the continuation of human wildlife conflicts and the lack of benefits A successful CBNRM program should bring financial benefits from trophy hunting to communities in an 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 Sabie Game Park is an excellent idea 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 Our relationships with Sabie Game Park are excellent
46 equit able manner Ensuring that 20% of the trophy fees are distributed to the community is vital. Outside of this financial benefit, SGP can improve the situation by fulfilling some of the outstanding promises and improving meat distribution. By distributing one whole carcass of a buffalo, hippo, or other large animal to one village at a time, it will be easier to account for pieces missing before delivery (due to SGP staff). This will also reduce the opportunity for elite capture within the village, as ther e will be enough for everyone to get a portion and without refrigeration, leaders will have difficulty keeping more than their fair share. By improving the logistics of the meat distribution alone, the relationship between SGP and the communities stands t o improve greatly. Even if communities begin to benefit financially and poverty is reduced, attitudes toward conservation may remain high if the perceived cost is higher than the perceived benefit regardless of actual cost benefit ratio Education can h elp tackle differences in perception and reality by providing feedback on actual human wildlife conflict levels If people begin to understand that the frequency of conflicts is low, their perception may change despite the severity of events when they do occur. A more participatory method of addressing perceptions would be to have communities themselves monitor incidences of human wildlife conflict and report findings at quarterly meetings. With this information, communities may develop methods of further preventing human wildlife conflict incidences and/or compensating affected individuals (assuming they are receiving financial benefits with which to do so) The findings of this case study are primarily from qualitative data. When quantitative m ethods were used, the sample size was often too small for certain statistical analyses. The objective was to understand the local context and to develop a baseline for before after comparisons in the future. Any extrapolation of this data to other region s would be inappropriate although a comparison of different CBNRM sites using similar methodology is possible. This comparison could show similarities and differences in communities neighboring protected areas. It could also be used to support CBNRM and generate funding if it shows that these projects are able to achieve their goals of improved conservation and reduced poverty. The methods used in this Situational Analysis have been applied to different CBNRM projects but not comp i l ed together as in th is research While each component of research provided useful information on its own, the different components supported each other as well. Interviews improved the development of the survey and survey results helped shape SAWs and information from SAWs and surveys were validated and explained in further interviews. As this specific combination of methods is new, several potential improvements were discovered du ring the case study which are described in the methods and results section s Furthermore, fu ture applications of these methods will likely lead to greater knowledge and more improvements. When applying these methods, adjustments s hould always be made to adapt to the specific context and can easily be incorp orated into the participatory methods As the governance training program was a pilot project, having a specific methodology for the situational analysis p ortion of this program is valuable to SAWC as they continue to expand the program. The methodology is also useful for
47 other conservation o rganizations that are attempting to initiate or improve CBNRM programs. Applications in Mozambique or other SADC countries will likely require fewer adjustments than applications in other parts of the world. The research methods described in this paper were completed in a span of fiv e weeks by two individuals (and additional translators at times) with few supplies. Given the importance of the local community and the relative simplicity of these research methods to quickly and cost effectively analyze the situatio n, th ere should be no reason for not gaining an understand ing of the local context before designing or implementing a community based conservation initiative. References: Abbot, J., Chambers, R., Dunn, C., Harris, T., Merode, E. D., Porter, G., ... & Weiner, D. (1998). Participatory GIS: opportunity or oxymoron?. Participatory Learning and Action Notes International Institute for Environment and Development Arnold, J. E. M. (2001). Forests and people: 25 years of community forestry. Brock, K., & McGee, R. (Eds.). (2002). Knowing poverty: Critical reflections on participatory research and policy Earthscan. Byers, B. A. (1996). Understanding and influencing behaviors in conservation and natural resources management (No. 4). Washingto n, DC: Biodiversity Support Program. Chambers, Robert. "The origins and practice of participatory rural appraisal." World development 22.7 (1994): 953 969. Chambers, Robert. "Participatory rural appraisal (PRA): Challenges, potentials and paradigm." Wo rld development 22.10 (1994): 1437 1454. Child, B., & Barnes, G. (2010). The conceptual evolution and practice of community based natural resource management in southern Africa: past, present and future. Environmental Conservation 37 (03), 283 295. Child B. (2003, February). Origins and efficacy of modern community based natural resources management (CBNRM) practices in the southern African region. In a workshop Local Communities, Equity and Protected Areas, Centurion, South Africa (pp. 26 28). Child, B Resource Management by the People. IUCN ROSA Environmental Issue Series No. 2, IUCN ROSA, Harare, Zimbabwe. Corbett, J., Rambaldi, G., Kyem, P., Weiner, D., Olson, R., Muchemi, J., ... & Chambers, R. (2006). Overview: mapping for change the emergence of a new practice. Participatory learning and action 54 (1), 13 19.
48 Craig, W. J., Harris, T. M., & Weiner, D. (Eds.). (2002). Community participation and geographical information systems CRC Press. Fabricius, C., & Collins, S. (2007). Community based natural resource management: governing the commons. Water Policy 9 83 97. Fagerholm, N., & Kyhk, N. (2009). Participatory mapping and geographical patterns of the social landsc ape values of rural communities in Zanzibar, Tanzania. Fennia International Journal of Geography 187 (1), 43 60. Hart, R. A. (1992). Children's participation: From tokenism to citizenship (No. inness92/6). UNICEF Innocenti Research Centre. Herlihy, P. H., & Knapp, G. (2003). Maps of, by, and for the peoples of Latin America. Human organization 62 (4), 303 314. Hulme, D., & Murphree, M. (2001). African wildlife and livelihoods: the promise and performance of community conservation James Currey Ltd. H utton, J., Adams, W. M., & Murombedzi, J. C. (2005, December). Back to the barriers? Changing narratives in biodiversity conservation. In Forum for Development Studies (Vol. 32, No. 2, pp. 341 370). Taylor & Francis Group. Jones, B., & Weaver, C. (2009). CBNRM in Namibia: growth, trends, lessons and constraints. Evolution and innovation in wildlife conservation in southern Africa. UK: Earthscan 223 242. Korten, D. C. (1980). Community organization and rural development: A learning process approach. Publi c administration review 480 511. Murphree, M. W. (2009). The strategic pillars of communal natural resource management: benefit, empowerment and conservation. Biodiversity and Conservation 18 (10), 2551 2562. Newitt, M. D. D. (1995). A history of Mozam bique Indiana University Press. zerdem, A., & Bowd, R. (Eds.). (2010). Participatory research methodologies: Development and post disaster/conflict reconstruction Ashgate Publishing, Ltd.. Prinsloo, M. (2008). Community based participatory research: a case study from South Africa. International Journal of Market Research 50 (3), 339. Rozemeijer, N. (2009). CBNRM in Botswana. Evolution and innovation in wildlife conservation: Parks and game ranches to Transfrontier conservation areas 243 256.
49 Spierenburg, M., Steenkamp, C., & Wels, H. (2008). Enclosing the local for the global commons: Community land rights in the Great Limpopo Transfrontier Conservation Area. Conservation and Society 6 (1 ), 87. Slater Jones, S (2013). The First Stage of the Strategic Management Process in CBNRM: Situational Analysis in Kasika and Impalila Conservancies, Eastern Caprivi, Namibia. Community Based Natural Resource Management in Southern Africa 215. Taylor, J., Murphy, C., Mayes, S., Mwilima, E., Nuulimba, N., & Slater Jones, S. (2006). Land and natural resource mapping by San communities and NGOs: experiences from Namibia. participatorylearningandaction Mapping for change: practice, technologies and communi cation 79. Wilmsen, C. W., & Elmendorf, W. (Eds.). (2008). Partnerships for empowerment: participatory research for community based natural resource management Earthscan. World Bank http:/ /data.worldbank.org/indicator/PA.NUS.FCRF Appendices:
50 Appendix A: Photographs Participatory mapping in Mukakaza Interviews with women from Mavanguana Borehole in Mavanguana (one of only 2 boreholes in the region) Cattle kraal with thorny fence to protect from predators/theft Cattle are an important source of wealth Traditional home with clay pots for brewing marula beer
51 Walls of traditional homes are constructed with rocks then covered with m ud The team visiting an environmental education facility in South Africa Elephants are plentiful in the region and can be a good source of trophy fees Leopards, lions, and buffalos generate much of the trophy fees in SGP Ndindiza School Small tuc k shop in Mavanguana
52 Participatory mapping exercise in Mavanguana Author conducting a livelihood survey Thabisile Sibuye and Dr. Brian Child explaining participatory budgeting Environmental Education outreach Theresa Nube explaining the government rules for receiving the 20% from trophy fees Elected Committee of 10 individuals in Mukakaza
53 Thabisile Sibuye conducting a governance dashboard questionnaire Locals traditionally relied on wildlife for meat as well as products like this Woman in Baptine requesting chairs/desks for the school be added to the budget Forget Sithole leading a community meeting on CB NRM and governance
54 Sign at SGP main gate SGP Author with Thabisile Sib uyi after completing fieldwork in Mozambique Mukakaza community meeting Ivonne Ubissi (Mukakaza trainee) leading a community meeting on the value of wildlife SGP staff Alex McDonald and Shadreck Midzi explaining trophy hunting
55 Process of Trophy hu nting fees to the government and 20% back to communities Drinking water source in Mukakaza Hand drawn mapping exercise with Killion Mabunda Mukakaza clinic
Appendix B : Overview of Governance Training in Mozambique Day 1: In addition to trainees, local headmen/leaders and some of Sabie staff attended the session on the first day. The morning began with a prayer and introductions of everyone present as well as a brief introduction to the program. In short, Sabie Game Park (SGP) approached the Southern African Wildlife College (SAWC) asking for assistance to improve their relationship with the model throughout the Sou thern African region. Next Fernando (from the board of directors for SGP) gave a history of Sabie and local leaders responded with more information about their history. [INSERT summary of agenda] History: In 1998, they began to plan for Sabie Game Park an d a lodge. They had previously developed Zongweni Lodge in Xai Xai district on the coast which was successful, but they also wanted a lodge in the bush away from the coast. The project plans would take a lot of time and patience, but they were persistent The Paramount Chief in the area quickly agreed that a wildlife park like Kruger would be beneficial to the community. Then, the Counselor of Ministries had to approve the purchase of any land over 10,000ha. When the land was approved, they began to mak e roads and put up a fence. There was a lot of concern over land mines in the area and workers were hesitant to make roads until after the area had been cleared of mines. The construction process was stalled for a long time and the agency that clears lan d mines never came out. Finally, the manager convinced the workers to resume work and he would ride the tractors with them so if there was a land mine he would be the first to die. Fortunately, they did not come across any land mines during the construct ion of the roads. In the beginning, there were practically no animals in the entire 30,000 ha reserve, but by now the wildlife densities are growing. In 2009, they received the first hunting permits from the government. The trophy fee for each animal ki lled must be paid to the government and then 20% goes back to the community from the government and the meat from each animal killed is to be distributed to the communities. To date, the community has not received any money from the government for hunting and in dig boreholes and make dams to provide water for the people as well as their cattle. According The community acknowledges that Sabie is trying to improve the relationship and they are thankful to the new manager, Ferdie for his efforts. However, they need more help from Sabie, particularly with water, which is a major concern. People were living in the area during the time when the Portuguese ruled, but as the war became too intense, most of the people moved away. After the war ended in 1992, people slowly began to return to the area. At first, it was just the
57 Paramount Chief in the area because the headmen had not returned yet. It was the Paramount Chief who approved SGP. As the f ence was being erected, the people realized that their water sources and the graves of their ancestors were inside the park and they would no longer have access to them. They would need no water sources and they would no longer be able to hold traditional ceremonies to honor their ancestors. Mukakaza village refused to move from their homes so the fence had to be shifted to go around. Sabie made a dam in the north, but it no longer provides water. They built boreholes with solar, but the solar panels di sappeared so there is no water for the people. They do get some meat from Sabie, but they need to also get the 20% that is owed to them. They are excited to have all these people from other countries to bring new ideas. They hope that they are on the ri ght path now and that the project will actually help them. Value of Wildlife: Professor Brian Child explained his experiences working with white farmers in Zimbabwe as a government extension agent. Originally, everyone was farming cattle because they co uld own the cattle and sell it, wildlife on the other hand was owned by the government. In 1975, a new law in Zimbabwe allowed farmers to own the wildlife that was on their land. Similar laws have also been established in Namibia and South Africa. Becau se wildlife is more profitable than cattle, the white farmers quickly switched to farming wildlife. Then, as an extension agent, he began working to get the locals to also switch from cattle to the more profitable wildlife. Here a skit was presented to d epict the value of wildlife. The farmer had a cow and then sold the cow and received the correct value for this cow. Then another farmer had a buffalo when he sold the buffalo to the hunter he received the full value which is much more than the value of a cow. From this full payment he had to give some money to the government official and then the government official was supposed to give 20% back to the community. The buffalo represents money for two important purposes 1) to stop poverty and 2) to impro ve conservation or protect wildlife. In Mozambique, the communities are currently unable to benefit from the wildlife on their land because hunting is restricted to problem animals. There are many animals such as wild pigs and hippos that destroy their c rops. When presented with the information on the relative prices of cattle and buffalo, the community was asked which they would choose to farm, cow sells for l and they would probably choose to continue keeping cattle. Hunting: Alex MacDonald who runs the hunting safaris at SGP, explained how the money is generated from hunting an d where that money goes. First, they must estimate the number of each species living in the park and then give that information to the government when they apply for a quota. The quota is based on the number of each species that can be harvested sustaina bly. After obtaining the quota from the government, they sell these hunting permits to clients from all over the world. Then the client comes and pays to hunt specific animals, such as 1 buffalo and 1
58 leopard. Some of the money from the client goes to r unning the park because it is expensive to maintain roads, vehicles, and buy other necessary supplies as well as salaries for staff. Some of the money goes to the government to pay the trophy fee which is a set amount of money for each species that is sho t. From this, 20% goes back to the community by law, although currently not by practice. The client keeps the trophy skull and skin of the animal, but the meat generally goes to the staff and communities. Community organization: 1. Who is a member of th e community and how do you decide. Is it based on age, time 2. Animals how many of each species are included in the quota times the price per animal divided by the number of members will show the individual share for th e year. For example 2 lions x $1000= $2000 + 5 buffalo x $500= $4500/100 community members=$45 per person. 3. Community meets to discuss how to use the money. They discuss priorities and then vote on each item until a decision is met. During this process, everyone must be allowed to voice their opinion and explain why they think a certain item should be considered a priority before the voting occurs. A precise budget must be developed according to the results of the vote. 4. Money is distributed to each ind ividual ($45 in this case) and then each individual puts the agreed upon amount into the bucket for the project. For example, they agree that each person puts $20 toward a chigayo and $5 toward the school then they can keep the remaining $20. When each p erson has received their share and placed the correct amount in each project bucket, the bucket is given to the overseer of the project in view of everyone in order to create accountability. Everyone knows who took the money, so if e or the school does not get new desks, the people will know who is to blame. It is valuable to establish a constitution in order to address issues and avoid fighting. The community will agree upon a set of rules which will be written in the constitutio n and followed in the future. When issues arise, the community can look to the constitution to solve the problem. The treasurer reports the accounts back to the community every month at first and then every 3 months after the community is well organized and the committee is functioning properly. This is to ensure that if any money does go missing it can be inquired about and found before it is too late. If accounts are only presented annually, it is possible for large sums of money to disappear and it may be impossible to get them back after such a long period of time. A minimum number of meeting must be held each year. While a committee is elected to handle the money and run the meetings, all decisions must come from the community as a
59 whole. They must be able to participate in the planning, discussion and voting to ensure that decisions are not forced on them. Bank accounts should have at least 2 signatures for money to be released, preferably one from t he community and one from an NGO /gov ernment official to ensure that the community is complying with the rules and the money is benefitting everyone not just one or two powerful individuals. In Mozambique, the government requires 3 community members to sign the bank account for transparency and they expect a certain amount of community organization before money is released. Conclusion: Development requires the efforts of the communities. Outsiders can come in and give knowledge such as in this training project, but that is all they have to offer. When the training is finished, it is up to the community to use that knowledge in order to bring change and improve their own lives. Day 2 Agenda: 1. 20% and rules 2. Community mapping/organization 3. How to divide the money 4. Rules, constitution, budget, and dis tribution 5. Oversight, monitoring, and training 20% and rules: Presented by Theresa Nube government official Money paid by SGP to the government in trophy fees 2009 970,170.00 20% > 194,034.00 2010 768,358.00 20% > 153,671.00 2011 126,321.00 20% > 25,2 64.00 2012 405,375.00 20% > 81,075.00 Total: 2,270,224.00 20% > 454,044.00 Communities are required to elect a committee of 10 individuals and to have 3 of these individuals open a bank account for the community. Then, they government will release the f unds to the communities. Community Mapping:
60 Trainees and community leaders divided into groups according to each of the 4 villages, Mukakaza, Mavanguana, Baptine and Ndindiza/Costine. Each group was given flip chart paper and colored markers and asked t o draw a map of their community showing all the important elements. The foreigners were divided between the groups in order to help explain the process as well as to learn about the communities. After the maps were completed each group was asked to list their organizational structure or different organizations that are very important to the community such as the government, political organizations, SGP, etc. This process took longer than expected, but the groups developed very nice and colorful maps and t hen presented them back to the entire group at the end. How to divide the money: The money will be divided among the communities based on the number of adults living in each community. A census was conducted previous to the training to list all adults o ver the age of 18 and the lists were presented to community leaders to ensure their accuracy. In the future, the communities can change membership requirements and adjust the lists. Village Number of households Number of Adults Mukakaza 94 238 Mavanguana 75 264 Ndindiza 24 69 Costine 23 46 Baptine 73 201 Rules: 1. Every adult gets an equal share, but they choose how to use the money together as a community 2. Annual Group Meeting (AGM) where people decide how to use the money, create a budget for cash dividend, projects, wildlife management (later), and membership fee for administration (no more than 10%) 3. Elect a Committee annually and the people instruct the committee, they do not act apart from the community 4. Bank Accounts and financial books no loans allowed 5. Monthly then quarterly financial report to the community and the government 6. The role of the government is to 1) conduct a financial audit to compare the budget for last year with the money that was spent 2) ensure participatory budgeting and development of a plan for community plans. In addition to these annual requirements, the governm ent should ensure that
61 expenditures are presented monthly/quarterly to the whole community and compared to the budget that was agreed upon to ensure accountability. Planning: Discuss and develop a tentative agenda for the week to include an initial meeti ng and a follow up meeting in each community. This gives the community time to contemplate the information and discuss the priorities for the budget before making a final decision which will then be presented at the follow up meeting. The final two days will be reserved for cash distribution, assuming the money will arrive in time from the government. Day 3: Meeting in Mukakaza Village The meeting began with a prayer and introduction of visitors from SGP, SAWC, and government. The meeting was conducted in part by the trainees from Mukakaza village (practical training to help them learn the necessary skills for running community meetings) and other trainers from SAWC. [INSERT number of community memb ers in attendance] Theresa Nube gave a summary of the 20% of the money and the requirements for the community to receive the money. The community had many questions about when they would receive the money in their bank account. They were informed that they need to first elect the committee of 10 individual s and have 3 people from the committee open a bank account. The community then presented the committee that had been elected and the treasurer, secretary, and president who would sign for the money at the bank. Surprisingly, 2 of the 3 bank members were women and the committee itself was fairly gender balanced. After the introductions to the program, there was a discussion and explanation of the relationship between SGP, the Government, and the community and how the money flows between the different gro ups. The process of selling animals from the quota to clients, then paying the required trophy fee amount to the government and then the government theoretically sending 20% back to the communities was explained. In addition this aspect of the meeting in cluded information about the value of wildlife and the potential for wildlife to benefit the communities. One man was very concerned about the negative impact of wildlife on the community and voiced of predators taking live stock, it was explained that we are working to create a better future relationship and avoid similar issues in the future, but that this is not the appropriate forum to deal with past grievances. In reference to the elephants, it was explained that the co mmunities do not own the wildlife on their land and therefore cannot benefit from selling them to hunters in the current situation. Instead, they are only allowed to shoot problem animals and even then they must report the problem animals to the governmen t and wait for the government or SGP to come and shoot the animals for the community. In the future, it may be possible for the community to
62 apply for their own quota and then sell these to hunters in which case they would receive the full 100% of the tro phy fee without the government keeping any of the money. When these issues they able to access this money for the community? This was followed with an explanation of the trophy fees complete with current prices of each species, and a graph showing how much money Sabie paid to the government in trophy fees each year for the pre vious four years as well as the calculations of 20% for each of the 4 years and the total amount due to the communities. Here there was concern over the accountability when nimal, who The process of dividing the money based on the number of adults in each community was explained. The community was shown the individual share that was calculated according to the recent census that was c onducted. There was much concern over the accuracy of the census and people explained that the number s could not be correct because there were more people in the area. They explained that the village is divided into two parts and the smaller part, or Muk akaza 2, was not included in the census. They agreed that this other section should be included and the committee was given their first task to review and rectify the list of community members developed in the census. After explanations of the benefit of wildlife, the requirements for receiving money, and the distribution process, they went on to discuss budget possibilities. At first, the community said they wanted to take all the money as cash and not use any for projects, which is allowed. Then the y began saying that the individual share is so low that it would not even make a difference in the household. Instead it would be better to put their money together and do a project that can benefit everyone. They really like the idea of a chigayo or gri nding mill, but said they would not be able to decide now because they have to discuss with other community members that were not at the meeting. This is why the training was set up to include a follow up meeting, acknowledging the benefits of having time to discuss amongst themselves and think over the possibilities before reaching a final decision. At first they were hesitant to really discuss ideas, but eventually they opened up and debated different needs and priorities. Some of the hesitancy resulte fear that we were trying to tell them how to spend their money and what they should do. Others thought that no one from Sabie should be present because they feared that SGP was trying to fulfill promises like water and schools. Eventually they made a list of the top priorities for the community including water, cell network, chair s for the school, a chigayo. They know that Sabie should provide the water as promised, but worried that if they spend the money on something else and Sabie does not fulfill this promise then they will have no water and no money to provide water. While c ell network is a top priority, they do not have enough money to get a
63 cell tower. Only a few women were concerned about the chairs in the school and the lack of windows, saying that children come home dirty every day because they have to sit on the ground After discussing the options they requested two days to think it over and then they would vote and report their budget decisions back to us. However, they started discussing more and voted on the spot for a chigayo which everyone seemed pleased with. We were told there was no need to come back for a second meeting and we would wait until the money arrived to do the cash distribution. Day 4: Ndindiza/Costine Community Meeting Welcome and prayer led by a trainee from Ndindiza community and one of the c ommunity leaders. We went around introducing ourselves and gave an introduction to the program. No one from SGP or from the Government was present for this meeting only trainees through the SAWC. There were approximately 42 community members in attendan ce, which is a large proportion of the adults in the two villages. Because both villages are small, they had previously decided to combine for the purposes of opening a joint account and distributing the money. Community Based Natural Resource Management (CBNRM) was explained in general with specific examples from Namibia and other parts of Southern Africa. The agenda was the same as that for the meeting in Mukakaza he previous day, but it the process was smoother as it was the second time for the traine es and trainers to be presenting the information. Some questions and issues raised by community members were: We have seen the road the money takes to get to the government, but we have not seen the road for the money to come back to the community in re sponse to the diagram of the flow of money. What about the water, school and other things that were promised by Sabie? There are issues with hippos eating maize and destroying fields. There are other conflicts with animals that destroy crops as well as pr edators that take livestock. When these problem animals are killed, the community does not benefit even if the wildlife is valuable. This issue was addresses by several different people. In the end, they agreed that they were relating these issues to th e wrong people and declared that Sabie should be present in order to provide an opportunity for the community to discuss these issues. Sabie employs many people from far away instead of from the community originally promised employment to the communities. This issue was refuted by a woman who works for Sabie that claimed Sabie does employ many people from the community, but if there are no skilled workers in the community, then they hire from outside. She said Concern that peo ple may be missing from the list of Community members or that they were registered in the wrong village. They agreed to look over the list and make changes as necessary.
64 The community had already elected a committee of 10 people with 3 individuals to sign for the money at the bank. Therefore, after the explanation of the amount of money that was owed to them for the previous four years as well as the individual share based on number of adults in the combined villages, they were able to move to discussions of the budget. Most of the men wanted are much smaller than the other villages and the total cash when pooled is still not a large sum. They agreed to cont inue to discuss the budget and vote as a community. We would come back in a few days to learn of their final decision. Day 5: Mavanguana Community Meeting The agenda was the same as in the previous community meetings. Here, we faced fewer issues and everyone seemed supportive of the process. There were approximately 50 community members in attendance. There was concern about the accuracy of the membership list, but in the end they agreed that everyone in the community was on the list. They understood the idea of a committee to represent the people and agreed that the committee must not decide for the people, but must act on behalf of the people. Like in the other communities, they had already elected the committee and the 3 signatories for the bank. When a list of attributes of committee members was presented, the discussed the possibility of including a local headman (the training discourages election o f headmen or traditional leaders into the committee.) The headmen on the committee said he was elected not because of his role as a headman, but because the people know that he is a fighter and that he will fight to get the money to them. It is agreed th at he will remain on the committee for now to ensure that they money comes and next year he will step down and only retain his position as a traditional leader. In discussing the budget, there was much interest in pooling the money and using it for a pro ject. They agreed that the individual share was too small to make a difference, so it would be better to agree that they need a dam or a well for water, particularly for their cattle. However, some people do not want to use their funds to provide water since SGP promised to provide water and they should be made to fulfill this promise. In discussing the iss ue of water, they acknowledge that they do have a borehole, even if it is far. However, their roads are very bad and become impassable during the rains. They need a hospital in the area, but they also need better roads in order to be able to get to the c linic/hospital in Kaboka or to get to Maputo. They also need more than one school because currently some of the children have to walk very far through the bush in order to attend the school in the village and even then, it only goes through primary school They request time to think about the decision for a few nights and will report their decision back to us later.
65 and shift us again. We are thankful for this and that Sabie has agreed to provide water for our money that they had in the past only heard rumors about. They thought the money was eaten by someone else and that t hey would never see it. Thankful to everyone helping in the process, but also request that the dam for cattle be built quickly as they are suffering from a water shortage. Day 6: Day Off Day 7: Baptine Community Meeting The meeting followed the same age nda as the previous meetings and by now, the trainees from Baptine were prepared to conduct almost the entire meeting on their own which sped up the process. There were 93 adults in attendance which is a large proportion. A representative from SGP also a ttended the meeting. The community was very organized and prepared for the meeting. In discussing the budget, they agreed that they need electricity, better roads, and a hospital to share with other communities. All these comments were from men, but la ter some women began speaking up and requesting a chigayo, saying that the men are able to rest every day and now they want to rest also. A man agrees that they need electricity, better roads and a hospital, but he ponsibility to provide these things and that the community itself should not have to pay for what the government is supposed to supply. He then supports the chigayo. They discussed the options for some time, but decided that they would wait to vote on th eir own and report back to us later. Days 8 and 9: Final budget reports and revised membership lists back from the communities and Review for Trainees. Mavanguana agreed to spend the money on road improvement. SGP agreed to provide the equipment and wor kers free of charge so the community only has to pay for the diesel to run the tractor and grinder. Mukakaza was busy with another meeting so we had to wait an d come back the next day. In the end, they also decided to repair their roads with the help of SGP. Baptine voted to get a chigayo and agreed that they would charge community members a fee for grinding maize meal in order to pay for the fuel and repairs. If the money from the government is not sufficient to purchase a chigayo, then they can buy on credit and use the fees to help pay off the rest of the payment. Their community was very organized and prepared to present the results of their budget vote.
66 Ndindiza when we arrived there were only a few individuals, some of whom were drunk. They ex plained that they had not yet voted and we would have to come back another time. In the end, they never reported back to us with a finalized budget. On the evening of day 8, we drove through the park to the large dam where we had drinks and celebrated o ur work over the week of training. Review: We discussed what had been learned, what still needed to be addressed in future training and how to move forward. On the final night, 1 trainee from each village was selected to take part in the second part of t raining to be held in South Africa at SAWC at the end of July. Trainees were evaluated from 1 to 10 based on key competencies. In order to attend the next training the student must obtain higher than a 5. In cases where both trainees from the same villa ge received a score above 5, the student with the highest score would be selected. In the case of Costine village, neither trainee received a score of over 5 so neither student was selected to attend. Fortunately, there is still a trainee from Ndindiza t hat can help run community meetings and Ndindiza and Costine are combined for these purposes. We held a small graduation ceremony and presented each trainee with a certificate of completion for the course and announced those who would be attending the nex t training.
67 Appendix C : Household Livelihood Survey Livelihood Questionnaire Interview Code (Interviewer Initials, Date, Interview #) ______________________________ Name of Interviewer_______________________________________________ Village_______________________________________________________________ Survey Number _____________________________________________________ S TATEMENT ABOUT INFOR MED CONSENT : 1. This survey should take one hour 2. You do not have to answer any question you do not want to 3. All information is confidential and anonymous; your name will not be connected with your answers 4. No identifying information will be collected, and therefore none of your responses can be linked to your identity 5. You can stop the interview process a t any time 6. You can ask for clarification on any question at any time Section A: Participant / Household Demographics 1. a. Have you always lived here? b. If no, when did you move here? c. Where did you move from ? ____________________________________ d. Why ? ____________________________________________________________ Provide a brief narrative description of this household:
68 1 Drought 2 Flood 3 Job 4 Health 5 Security/Safety 6 Government Program 7 War 8 Other (Describe)
69 2. For each household member, please fill in a row of the table: Enumerator: please account for each member of the HH that is part of the core family and all other contributors and all other dependents Core family = live underneath roof for 6 or more months per year. Other dependents = depend on the HH but live outside the house for more than 6 months per year. Other Contributors = contribute to the HH but live outside the house for more than 6 months per year.. Code Name Relationship with head of household 1 grandparent 2parent 3child 4 neph ew/niece 5 cousin 6 grandchild 7 orphan/other Age Gender 1 Male 2 Female Education level 0 none 1 some 2 completed primary 3 some secondary 4 secondary Salaried Employment 1 yes 0 no (note where employed) Ethnic group How many months do you live here? Where do you live during the other months? Respondent 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18
70 Section B: Access to Technology, Water, Market, Health Services 3. Please mark the following assets your household owns or has access to: Asset Own Borrow Hire Notes Car Bicycle Canoe/boat Sledge/sley Plough Hunting equipment Fishing equipment Tin Roof Water Storage Tank Pit Latrine Radio Television Cell phone Generator and/or solar panels Tractor Brick House Ox cart Motorbike Tree Cutter Refrigerator OTHER (Write) 4. Where does your household get drinking water? 1 PUBLIC TAP 2 WATER IN HOUSE/ STANDPIPE 3 WELL/BOREHOLE 4 RIVER/Dam 5 OTHER ____ 5. In the past year, have any of your children had kwashiorkor ? 1 yes 2 no 6. How much time does it take you to get to closest hospital/ clinic? _______________________________________________________ ____
71 7. How much does it cost to see a doctor? ____________________________________________
72 Section C: Ecosystem Production 8. We would like to know wild products that you use in your house (goal estimate value of ecosystem services) Type of resource Do you use it Yes/No How did you get it: Collect Bought Units Local prices of a unit How many units did you use in a month? How many months a year? Enumerator to calculate total annual value produce by the HH Firewood Reeds Thatching grass Wild fruit/amarula Edible insects Fish Medicinal plants Own hunting Meat from safari hunter Other game meat Charcoal Other 9. Wild products that you sell P roduct/material Sold? Yes No Number of months in last 12 months in which this was sold A verage income per month when sold Total income over 12 months 1 Fire wood 2 Baskets 3 Furniture made from wood from the bush 4 Wooden carvings (e.g. statues, mortars, spoons etc. ) 5 Poles 6 Reed mats 7 Palm / Marula beer 8 Marula nuts 11 Edible insects 12 Thatching grass 13 Twig hand brooms 14 Grass hand brooms 15 Medicinal plants
73 16 Charcoal Section D: Farming 10 How many plots of land does the household own? ______________________________ 11 Are these plots average sized, smaller, or larger than other plots? ___________ 12 How far are the plots from your household? ______________________________________ 13. Do you buy seed/fertilizer/chemicals etc. for farming? (explain)_______________________________ Q14 Which crops did your household grow in your yard or field outside the yard during the last 12 months? Production Sales (or barter) Type of crop Grown in Last 12 months? W here? Garden/HH yard Dryland Field outside of yard Field (acres) Total amount harvested in the last season Number / volume units (mug, bucket, bundle, kg bag) Describe unit carefully Price per unit Total Value of crop Did you sell any? Yes No Total amount sold ( Volume unit) Income per season (Pula) Where do you sell? 1 Maize 2 Sorghum 3 Millet 4 Peanuts 5 Cow peas 6 Watermelon 7 Melons 8 Sweet reed 9 Vegetables 10 Pumpkins 11 Other 15 a. Have your crops been damaged by wildlife last growing season? (not cattle) 1 ALL (100%) 2 MOST (>50%) 3 SOME (<50%) 4 NONE 15 b. What species damaged the crops?
74 1 ELEPHANT 2 HIPPO 3 PIGS 4 ANTELOPE 5 OTHER 16 Please fill in the following table regarding the number of other livestock your household owns: Livestock species Own # Look after # Where are they? # sold this year # eaten this year #died this year Cause of death Cattle Goats Chickens Donkeys Sheep Ducks Other:
75 Section E: Livelihood Part 1 17. Please fill out the following table regarding your monthly expenditure for the household. Please list all activities regarding your primary needs and what is spent on each: Category Item B ought? (yes/no) Estimated total expenditure in last 30 days 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 2525 26 27 Purchases of food TOTAL EXPENDITURE ON FOOD Bread / flour Maize meal Sorghum Rice /pasta Vegetables Tinned foods Milk Meat Salt Sugar Cooking oil Tea / coffee Alcohol/ cold drinks Other Household consumables (, toiletries, house cleaning products TOTAL EXPENDITURE ON CONSUMABLES Candles Matches Toothpaste Body lotion / Vaseline Tissues/toilet paper Sunlight soap/washing powder Other Other 25 Clothing (in year, and divide by 12) 26 Communication Cell time Transport
76 28 Home repairs (in year, and divide by 12 ) 29 Farming supplies (in year, and divide by 12) 30 31 32 Water and energy Water (including paying transport of water) Paraffin Firewood 33 34 35 Savings Savings cooperative/ Funeral policy/Burial society Other savings accounts/policies/investments (bank, 36 37 Debt and accounts Paying back debt/accounts 38 39 Insurance Life insurance policy Medical aid/health insurance 40 Education ( in year, and divide by 12) School/university fees and tuition 41 42 Child care Child care minder Creche 43 44 45 46 Health care Visiting dentists, doctors or nurses Hospital fees Medical supplies e.g. medicines and bandages Traditional healers fees 47 48 49 Support to others Support to a temporary migrant (including student) Support to relatives in other households Support to unrelated individuals or households 50 51 Miscellaneous Church and donations Domestic help (e.g. somebody to do washing)
77 18. Please fill out the following table regarding cash income activities for the HH. Include regular work and piece work: Person Activity (WRITE): Employer Employer 1 GOVT 2 Private 3 CBO 4 NGO \ 5 south Africa Sector 1Tourism 2Other Location of work Seasonality (months/year) Income Earned (monthly) Remittance to HH (monthly)
78 1 9 a. Did your household receive meat, cash loans, other cash income, or any sort of non cash Type Last year (2009) Yes No $/Amount From whom? Sabi e Game Reserve, Other (if other: WRITE) Meat Dividends from Wildlife Cash Ploughing Projects Other (WRITE): 1 9 b. Did your household receive meat, cash loans, other cash income, or any sort of non cash charities last year (2012)? Type Last year (2009) Yes No $/Amount From whom? Govt, Other ( if other: WRITE ) Food Aid Cash Pension (social security) Orphan Fund Drought Fund Other (WRITE): 19 c. What did you receive? (please list any items or cash, including food or employment) __________________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___ _______________________________________________________________________________________________
79 Section F: Experience of hunger Q20 Please think about what has happened in your household in the last 30 days and tell me how often you have experienced the following situation which I will read. ( read the options: never, rarely (1 2 times, sometimes (3 10 times, or often >10 times) Household food insecurity and access scale Never Rarely (1 2 times) Sometimes(3 10 times) Often ( > 10 times 1 How often was there no food in the house because there was not enough money 2 How often did you or a member of your household go to sleep hungry because there was not enough food 3 How often did a member of your household go a whole day without eating because there was not food Q21 Over the past 12 months has your household experienced a shortage of food? Yes / No Month No Rarely 1 2 days Sometimes 3 10 days Often Cause (Key 7) June July August September October November December January February March April May Q22 Did you experience hunger in the past: (children have one or less meals in a day) Yes/No Cause 2013 2012 2011 2010 2009 Section G: Livelihood Part 2 23 What are the three biggest challenges to your livelihood that you are worried about? a.____________________________________________________________________________________ b.____________________________________________________________________________________ c.____________________________________________________________________________________ 24 a. Compared to 5 years ago, is your household more or less prosperous today? 1 MORE PROSPEROUS 2 LESS PROSPEROUS 3 EQUAL 24 b. Please explain : ________ ________________________________________________________________________ 25 Have y ou heard of a TFCA Trans Frontie r Conservation Area?/ Do you know what a TFCA is? Key 7 Cause 1. Crops failed 2. Unemployment 3. Loss of job 4. Death of breadwinner 5. Remittances not sent 6. Normal situation 7. Other (specify)
80 Section G: Trends in ecosystem services and other services (ten years ago) 26 Agre e Neutral Disagree Know Comment: Natural resources Soil fertility is better now than it was ten years ago. Firewood is easier to get now than it was ten years ago. Wild fruits and vegetables are disappearing from the environment There are more animals to hunt now than ten years ago. We are able to fish more than ten years ago Predator attacks on livestock have decreased in the past ten years I have access to clean water every day. It is easy to find local building materials nowadays (grass, poles, reeds) Livelihood activities We farm more now than we did five years ago We have more jobs in tourism than ten years ago We have more jobs in town than ten years ago Services and health Drinking water has been easier to get in recent years. It is easy for me to get health care if I am sick. Children in the HH have access to a school. The clinic provides good services. Members of the HH get sick from the water we use. In the event of sickness, members of the HH receive medical treatment.
81 Appendix D : Governance Dashboard Survey ASSESSMENT FORM for INDIVIDUAL SATISFACTION WITH COMMUNITY Know 1. The AGM in 2013 was highly satisfactory The AGM was very bad or not even held 2. We hold enough meetings in the Village to discuss community issues We hold few or no meetings in the Village to discuss community issues 3. I am highly satisfied with the Constitution The Constitution is bad 4. We meet regularly with Sabi e Game Park to discuss issues We never meet with Sabi e Game Park to discuss issues 5. Relationships with Sabi e Game Park are improving Relationships with Sabie Game Park are getting worse 6. People always come to meetings when called People seldom/never come to meetings when called 7. I can choose the leaders I want Leaders are imposed on me 8. We were told how much money we got from hunting We are never told anything about money from hunting 9. I participate fully to decide how community money should be spent I have no say in deciding how to use Community money 10. Sabi e Game Park does a lot for us Sabi e Game Park does nothing for us 11. I know exactly how we have agreed to spend our money this year (i.e. I know the budget) I have no idea how we have agreed to spend our money this budget) 12. I am told exactly how we spend our money. I understand / trust the report I am never told not allowed to check on money 13. Money is used in the best possible way Money is wasted or stolen 14. The elections for choosing leaders are free and fair Elections are rigged 15. Leaders are honest and work hard Leaders are lazy and dishonest 16. Employment by Sabi e Game Park is what we expected Employment by Sabi e Game Park is much less than we expected Number:
82 the answer is nil, write nil or 0 32. 33. 34. 35. household 36. 37. hunting? 38. D o you have the following rights (tick the box if yes)? 17. We are highly satisfied with number of projects We are very dissatisfied with lack of projects 18. I know exactly how many animals were shot last year I have no idea how many animals were shot last year 19. I know the price that we sell elephants, buffalo to the hunter I have no idea of how much our animals are worth to us 20. Wildlife is important to our future Wildlife is very problematic to us 21. The benefits of wildlife outweigh the costs The costs of wildlife are greater than the benefits 22. The Game Park is valuable to us The Game Park only causes us problems 23. The Community is well organized Organization of the Community is bad 24. We got an excellent financial report at the AGM Finances are hidden from us and reports are bad 25. Sabi e Game Park is an excellent idea Sabi e Game Park is a very bad idea 26. The leadership gives us a lot of useful information We get no information from the leadership 27. The fence is a good thing The fence is a bad thing 28. People poach less than before People poach more than before 29. Our relationships with Sabi e Game Park are excellent Our relationships with Sabi e Game Park are very bad 30. We trust the leaders to manage our money well The leaders misuse or steals our money 31. The area set aside for wildlife is too small and should be increased We should never set aside any area for wildlife 32. Overall the wildlife idea is excellent The wildlife idea is bad 33. In our area, we should combine cattle with wildlife In our are we should have both cattle and wildlife
83 Yes No 39. To stand in an election 40. To make decisions on the use of wildlife/Community money 41. To check how community money was spent 42. To remove incompetent/corrupt officers 43. To remove incompetent/corrupt employees 44. To vote / choose Community leaders 45. To amend the constitution 46. To demand for a meeting and/or explanation about finances 47. To set hunting quotas 48. To choose yo ur safari operator
84 Appendix E : Hand drawn Maps
88 Appendix F : Digital Maps
97 Appendix G : Situational Analysis Report for Mukakaza Mukakaza Community Report Prepared June 28, 2013 Authors: 27 community members Editors: Leandra Clough and T h abisile Sibuyi
98 History 1974: The first war started between Frelimo and the Portuguese 1982: Second war started between Frelimo and Renamo. There was a lot of suffering and problems for the people living in this area during the second war. 1980s: Most of the people from the region scattered, we fled to other regions or countries such as M aputo or South Africa/Swaziland. We had to leave our livestock, our houses, and most of our belongings here in the village when we fled. Only a few people stayed (approximately 15 families) but these people were running to hide in caves in the Lebombo Mou ntains along the border whenever the fighting got worse. It was 16 years of suffering for the people here. Even though many of us fled the region, others were also moving in to escape fighting in other regions of the country. 1992/1993: The war ended an d people slowly started to return to the village. When we came back, we found that our homes and cattle etc., were all gone and we were forced to start their lives anew. 1990s: Chris from South African came here as a missionary to help us after the war and solicited more help from South Africa. Robbie and Lorens also came later to help us learn to stand on our own again after the fighting. They gave us clothes, food, meat clean water, and other things. 2000s: Some people in our village are still struggling to rebuild their lives after the war. 2000: School was built 2004/2005: Representatives of Sabie Game Park came and made a lot of promises to us (for borehole, scho ol, clinic, houses, network, etc.) but they never fulfilled them. 2009: Clinic was built 2010: Woman killed by an elephant 2010/2011: Many predator attacks on livestock hyenas, leopards, and lions.
99 Helps Mariana, Robbie, Laurence from South Africa C linic built by Spaniards in 2009 School built by Portuguese in 2000 Clinic built in 2004 but it is just a building, it was never operating as a clinic Hindrances Sabie Game Park made empty promises Predator attacks on livestock Elephants eating crops
100 Relationships Sabie Game Park: We do not have a good relationship now because there is too much mistrust. They have made many false promises such as water, school, clinic and have not fulfilled them so we do not trust Sabie Game Park. We must see some benefits from the wildlife, like the 20% and meat for the community, before we can work together with Sabie. Then we can help them by reporting the poaching activity that w e see or become aware of, but for now we cannot help them. Traditional Leaders: We have traditional leaders within the community that hold some power, however, since the war, the chiefs and traditional leaders have less power and respect in the community than they used to. Private Cattle Rancher: We respect the one private rancher that lived near the community because the community was able to benefit from the ranch. Even though, we used to steal from other cattle farmers in the area, we never stole from this man because we respected him. Vision for the future Increased employment (currently no formal jobs) Water need boreholes for drinking water Better roads (transport is very bad in the rainy season) Clinic needs more medicine (if the clinic does not have the proper supplies, people have to travel very far to Kaboka and the roads can be a problem especially in the rainy season) Bridge (over the southern river to allow travel during the rains dry season) Houses to live in (some people do not have houses and others need more secure structures) Support for orphans and elderly pensions, food aid, orphanages etc. from the government Cell phone network Windows for the school (they are all broken or missing) and chairs/desks for the students and teachers to use (just sitting on the ground for now) School need to add higher grades because after grade 7, students often cannot continue since the secondary school is far. Community Tractor for ploughing all the fields Preschool/crche for younger children Possibly want a commercial far m for fruit or something so we can have a lot more jobs in the area. The private cattle farmers in the area do not employ many people BOLD : top 5 priorities
102 Natural Resource Use Trees poles for building, hand grinder for m aize meal, firewood, charcoal, marula, jackleberries, sour plum, other wild fruits Stones for building houses Clay soil for pots and houses Grass for thatching Fish Wild Animals rabbits, guinea fowl, francolin, small antelope Water for drinking and for cattle Land for grazing and for farming Edible insects: locust, flying termites Trends in Natural Resource Abundance 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s 2000s Present Trees Fish Animals Wild Fruit Timeline [ -Colonial Rule -] [ -------Civil War -------] [ --------Post War Recovery --------]
104 Appendix H : Situational Analysis Report for Mavanguana Mavanguana Community Report Prepared June 27, 2013 Authors: 25 community members Editors: Leandra Clough and T h abisile Sibuyi
105 History: 1960s: Many Portuguese were living in this area. They kept cattle and planted large fields of cotton. The people from the community were forced to work for the Portuguese farmers, but we did not receive payment for the work. If a Portuguese found someon e who looked clean, that person was reprimanded for not working hard enough. The Portuguese did build towns and open shops where we could buy some supplies. The chief used to collect 2mt from each household annually as a tax. He also took the best porti on of meat from any animal that was slaughtered. Each year we would hold a festival together where the chief would perform a ritual so that the rains would come. We used to take our cattle into Skikuza (where Sabie Game Park is now) to get water in the dry season. 1974: Frelimo came and started the war against the Portuguese. When the Portuguese left there were no more shops to buy supplies near the village. After Frelimo came, the traditional leaders had less power over us and they no longer collected the taxes. 1975: Frelimo flag was put up 1980s: Many of us moved away from this area to escape the fighting. 1990s: We slowly began returning to the community after the fighting was over. 1994: The first school and clinic were established in Mavanguana 1996: Many diseases started to afflict us such as Malaria, Cholera and HIV/AIDS. It was very difficult because there was no hospital or clinic. 2005: Sabie Game Park took half of the land for Mavanguana and those of us who were living on that land had t o shift to outside of the new park. 2010: Lions and leopards came out of the park and attacked livestock in our communities. 2013: June, one person lost 50 goats to predators like leopards.
106 Helps School Clinic Clean water from the borehole Hindrances Elephants co me and destroy crops. When we c omplain to Sabie Game Park, we do not receive any assistance Only one borehole it is not enough and it is too far for some people in the community Sabie Game Park promised jobs, but there is no one from Mavanguana who is employed by the Game Park Currently, the nurse is sick and in hospital outside of the village and there is no one else to run the clinic
107 Vision for the future Bridge over the riv er to improve transport in the rainy season (currently children are unable to cross the river for school during the rainy season) Water for cattle during the dry season Water for people, need more boreholes for the other side of the village Hospital (curr ently just a small clinic sometimes there is no nurse or no medicine so we have to travel all the way to Kaboka village which is far) More employment (many pe ople are not working now). We know that job creation is the only way to help develop the village Want to expand the school to have more classrooms and to include higher grades (currently it only goes to grade 7) Need a grinding machine or hammer mill (currently the women must grind all the mealies by hand) Tractor for the whole communi ty to plough t heir fields. Many of us have large fields and the oxen get too tired from pulling the plow Need food ai d and/or seeds for farming we are hoping the government or an NGO can assist them Pensions or grants for the elderly and the disabled who are unable t o work and support themselves should come from the government like it does in South Africa. BOLD: indicates top 5 priorities
108 Natural Resource Use Trees poles for building, hand grinder for maize meal, firew ood, charcoal, marula and other wild fruits Stones for building houses Clay soil for pots and houses Grass for thatching Wild Animals rabbits, guinea fowl, francolin Water for drinking and for cattle Land for grazing and for farming Edible insects: locust, flying termites Trends in Natural Resource Abundance 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s 2000s Present Trees Fish Animals Wild Fruit Timeline [ -Colonial Rule -] [ -------Civil War -------] [ --------Post War Recovery --------] Trees were abundant when we were young, before the first war. The trees were slowly declining over time as they were cut down for household uses. By the time the fighting was severe and we left the area, there were few trees remaining. When we returned after the war, we found many
109 trees had grown while we were away. Since then the trees have slowly been declining due to human use, but we still have enough trees in the area now. We do not have fish within our community. If we want fish, we have to go and fish at the big dam or we buy fish from other people. In the past we were able to buy fish very easily, but now, there are fewer fish to buy. A purchase is now limited to three or four small fish for 50mt when we used to get larger fish for the same price. Wild Animals were plentiful when we were younger, before the war. Each decade the animals were fewer and fewer and by now, there are very few animals left. It has become very difficult for us to hunt, because so few animals remain in this area. Wild fruit abundance fluctuates annually depending on rain and other factors.
110 Appendix I : Situational Analysis Report for Baptine Baptine Community Report Prepared July 1, 2013 Authors: 29 community members Editors: Leandra Clough and T h abisile Sibuyi
111 History: 1970s: The Portuguese were living here. People used to work for the Portuguese in their rice, potato and cotton farms. We did not get paid in cash, only received a meal at the end of the day, but it was not enough to share with our fami ly at home. We would spend all day bent over in the fields and if we stood up, we would be kicked with boots for not working hard enough. Most of us used to live farther north near the other villages before the wars. 1980s: From the time the Portuguese left, there were no shops left. Even if you had money, there was nowhere to buy supplies. Also, there was no water in this area, so we used to go to the border with South Africa to collect water from a river there. 1982: A severe drought occurred and ma ny of our cattle died for lack of water and grass to feed on. 1986: The second war Frelimo versus Renamo. At this time everyone moved out of the area for safety. Many went to South Africa, although some moved to other parts of Mozambique. 1990s: After t he war, people began moving back into the area, but we mostly settled inside what is now Sabie Game Park. 2000s: A few Tuck shops opened to sell basic supplies, but for other things you still have to travel far. There is no formal employment for the area, people are just farming and raising livestock. Each year hippos come out of the dam and destroy fields, but we are not allowed to kill them. 2000: The big dam was constructed and flooded the area where some people were living. Now there is water closer, but also problems with hippos. The school was built by Italians. 2001: We moved out of the game park and settled in Baptine where we are currently living. We were promised houses and water for moving out of the park, but these promises have not been fu lfilled. Many of our cattle have died from shortages of water. We were also promised jobs, but the jobs have gone to people from other communities. 2007: A Leopard came out of the park and took six cows. When we reported it to Sabie Game Park, we were told that the gate was never opened to allow the leopard out nothing else was done about the situation. 2008: Sabie built a clinic for the community 2013: Five buffalo came into the area. Children were unable to attend school for some time because it wa s too dangerous to walk with buffalo around. We reported the buffalo to Sabie, but nothing was done.
112 Helps: Foreigners came (possibly from Italy) after the war to give them food, mosquito nets, pangas and other things in an effort to help them get resettl ed. School was built in 2000 Clinic was built by Sabie in 2008 Hindrances: Not enough classes in the school it ends at grade 7 and there are only 2 classrooms for everyone to share Many relatives died in the war now elderly are without children to care for them, many children were orphaned, people were widowed Many issues with wildlife they destroy fields, take livestock and cause safety issues for the people There is hunger every year Poverty there are not enough houses, and many of the houses are no t built well enough to provide adequate protection from the rains Nurse at the clinic only works part time, and there are not always enough medicines
113 Relationships Sabie Game Park: The relationship is very important, but so far it is not a good relatio nship. We need Sabie to fulfill its promises and also want Sabie to help us kill problem animals and even let us use the tractors for ploughing our fields each year Traditional Leaders: They are close and we can go to the traditional leaders, but there is not much that the leaders can do for us Government: A very distant relationship, but also important because the government can provide the hospital, roads, secondary school, pensions, food aid and other things we need
114 Vision for the Future Clean dr inking water for people Adequate water for cattle Employment Roads Electricity Seeds for Farming A hospital Houses that provide better protection from the rain Meat from Sabie when there are hunters in the camp A tractor to use for ploughing want to borrow from Sabie Dip for cattle Want a good relationship with Sabie so we can get help with problem animals when necessary Government support in other areas people were given 1 cow or other things to help them start over after the war Need the governm ent to come here to process ID applications because it is too far to Maputo and there is not enough money for transport Food aid from the government for those who are unable to farm the elderly or widows that stay alone Pensions for elderly and disabled especially those whose children were killed during the war BOLD: top five priorities
115 Natural Resource Use Trees poles for building, hand grinder for m aize meal, firewood, charcoal, marula, other wild fruits Stones for building houses Clay soil for pots and houses Grass for thatching Fish Wild Animals rabbits, guinea fowl, francolin, small antelope Water for drinking and for cattle Land for grazing and for farming Edible insects: locust, flying termites Medicinal plants for treating illnesses Trends in Natural Resource Abundance 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s 2000s Present Trees Fish Animals Wild Fruit Timeline [ -Colonial Rule -] [ -------Civil War -------] [ --------Post War Recovery -------]
116 Trees were abundant in the area in the past, but they slowly declined as they were used for were few trees left in the area. However, by the time we returned, a decade later, many new trees had grown and were plentiful in the area. From then until today, the trees have been slowly declining again due to human use primarily for charcoal and firewood. In the past, there was not enough water to support fish in th e area. After the dam was constructed and the region where we used to live was flooded, the fish population developed. Now we are able to fish in the dam, but the population size has been decreasing as a result of overfishing. A long time ago there were plenty of animals to hunt in this region. The animals, like the trees began to disappear in the decades leading up to and during the war. When we left the region during the bad fighting, there were few animals left to hunt. By the time we returned in mi d 1990s, the animals were plentiful, but have since begun to decline again. Most likely the populations were restored to high levels because no one was here to hunt the animals. Now that many people have moved back and begun hunting again, the animals ar e fewer. Marula and other wild fruits fluctuate annually. It depends on the rain, the weather and other factors; therefore, it cannot be graphed in the same way as the other natural resource trends are shown by decades. However, we agree that there hav e been fewer marula fruits presently than there were at times in the past and it is possible that the fruits are disappearing from the environment.
117 Appendix J : Additional Graphs Graph 1: Graph 2: Graph 3: 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 Agree Neutral Disagree It is Easy for Me to Get Health Care if I am Sick 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 Agree Neutral Disagree The clinic in Kaboka Provides Good Services
118 Graph 4: Graph 5: 0 5 10 15 20 25 Agree Neutral Disagree My Family's Health Has Improved Over the Past Five Years 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 Agree Neutral Disagree In the Event of Sickness, Family Members Receive Treatment
119 Graph 6: Graph 7: 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 Agree Neutral Disagree I Have Access to Clean Water Everyday 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 Agree Neutral Disagree Members of the Household Get Sick From the Water We Use
120 Graph 8: Graph 9: 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 Agree Neutral Disagree Drinking Water is Easier to Access Than it Was 10 Years Ago 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 Agree Neutral Disagree Children in the Household Have Access to School
121 Graph 10: Graph 11: 0 10 20 30 40 50 Agree Neutral Disagree We Have More Jobs in Tourism Than 10 Years Ago Agree Neutral Disagree 0 10 20 30 40 50 Agree Neutral Disagree We Have More Jobs Outside of Tourism Than 10 Years Ago Agree Neutral Disagree
122 Graph 12: Graph 13 : 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 Agree Neutral Disagree We Farm More Now Than 10 Years Ago Agree Neutral Disagree 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 More Prosperous Same Less Prosperous Do You Consider Your Family More Prosperous than 5 Years Ago More Prosperous Same Less Prosperous
123 Graph 14 : Graph 15 : 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 Agree Neutral Disagree Predator Attacks on Livestock Have decreased in the Past 10 Years Agree Neutral Disagree 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 Agree Neutral Disagree It is Easier to Find Building Materials (Poles) Now Than 10 Years Ago Agree Neutral Disagree
124 Graph 16 : Graph 17 : 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 Agree Neutral Disagree We Are Able to Fish More Now Than 10 Years Ago Agree Neutral Disagree 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 Agree Neutral Disagree There Are More Animals to Hunt Now Than 10 Years Ago Agree Neutral Disagree
125 Grap h 18 : Graph 19 : 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 Agree Neutral Disagree Wild Fruits Are Disapperaing From the Environment Agree Neutral Disagree 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 Agree Neutral Disagree Firewood is Easier to Get Now Than 10 Years Ago
126 Graph 20: Graph 21: 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 Agree Neutral Disagree Soil Fertility is Better Now Than 10 Years Ago Agree Neutral Disagree 0 5 10 15 20 25 How satisfactory was 2013 AGM?
127 Graph 22: Graph 23: 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 We hold enough Village meetings to discuss issues 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 Satisfaction with the constitution
128 Graph 24: Graph 25: 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 We meet regularly with Sabie Game Park to discuss issues 0 5 10 15 20 25 Relationships with Sabie Game Park are improving
129 Graph 26: Graph 27: 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 People always come to meetings when called 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 I can choose the leaders I want
130 Graph 28: Graph 29: 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 We were told how much money we got from hunting 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 I participate fully to decide how community money should be spent
131 Graph 30: Graph 31: 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 Sabie Game Park does a lot for us 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 I know exactly how we agreed to spend the money (i.e. the budget)
132 Graph 32: Graph 33: 0 5 10 15 20 25 Employment in Sabie Game Park is what we expected 0 10 20 30 40 50 I know exactly how many animals were shot
133 Graph 34: Graph 35: 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 Wildlife is important to our future 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 Sabie Game Park is an excellent idea
134 Graph 36: Graph 37: 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 The game fence is a good thing 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 Our relationships with Sabie Game Park are excellent
135 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 In our area we should combine cattle with wildlife
136 Appendix K : Household Membership Lists by Village Community Membership List For Mukakaza All adults 18 years and above that live within the borders of Mukakaza are listed below and the list is divided by household. There are a total of 238 adults living within the 94 households in Mukakaza. HH1: 1.Rosa Silonia Tsani 2.Ivone Carlos Ubissi 3.Dercio Jjose Tsani 4.Admina Manuel Ngombamo 5.Felislierto Ndzovo 6.Media Sibuyi 7.Salvo Nelson Ubissi HH2: 8.Jose Vilanculo 9.Maria Jeromias Chivambo 10.Marta Chilengue HH3: 11.Jaim Fernando Makamu 12.Olga Mkondo 13.Fernando Makhamu HH4: 14.Izaia Mbiza HH5: 15.Joaquine Arimando Vilanculo HH6: 16.Mar ta Ubisse 17.Lague Bungele 18.Davida Mathue HH7: 19.Vironica Ubisse HH8: 20.Mirando Simango HH9: 21.Morisi Chavango 22.Matilda Sibue 23.Roti Cossa HH10: 24.Sipho Mulhovo HH11: 25.Visenti Cossa 26.Batriz Ubisse 27.Eva Machave 28.Sibongile Cossa 29.Meri Ngonhama 30.Jemise Cossa HH12: 31.Amessi Mulhovo 32.Jooani Mulhovo 33.Leti Madosele
137 34.Pindile Mabivila 35.Maria Sitole 36.Colen Mulhovo 37.Crisente Mulhovo 38.Nomotandozo Mulhovo HH13: 39.Pedro Ubisse 40.Aida Ubisse HH14: 41.Winase Mulhovo 42.Filora Mulh ovo HH15: 43.Pita Ubisse 44.Nsacani Ubisse HH16: 45.Francisco Mulhanga 46.Argentina Nhadevele 47.Paulo Mulhanga HH17: 48.Amosse Nduvane 49.Ivone Chabgnhambi 50.Gesani Mambani HH18: 51.Sipo Nduvani 52.Bongi Nuvunga HH19: 53.Rimemba Machave 54.Artimissa Marengule HH20: 55.Afiyossi Richavaa 56.Rasa Mulhovo HH21: 57.Elson Machave 58.Jotal Wanzani HH22: 59.Rosar Movan HH23: 60.Isague Nduvan 61.Ana Masinge HH24: 62.Aida Chanti HH25: 63.Nomisa Nduvani HH26: 64.Talivina Simango 65.Nhico Chavango 66.Obea Chavango 67.Alivina Muconto 68.Macoya Tembe HH27: 69.Sidowele Richava Nduvane 70.Berta Mulhovo
138 HH28: 71.Nhelete Macuvele 72.Zandi Chaugue 73.Fatima Mulhovo 74.Abugel Mulhovo 75.Alda Mulhovo 76.Samaria Mulhovo HH29: 77.Jovita Ubisse 78.Antonio Timani 79 .Carlto Timani 80.Ericilia Sitoi 81.Argentina Mucaveli HH30: 82.Saimon Ngonhama 83.Robia Macuvele 84.Sipiwa Ngonhama HH31: 85.Filisberto Marengule 86.Mateos Marengule 87.Inesguecivel Marengule 88.Filorinda Cossa HH32: 89.Jezemia Madosele 90.Fatima Madosele HH33: 91.Jose Mbiza 92.Salimina Masinge 93.Rosan Ubisse 94.Marcos Mbiza 95.Lefranca Mbiza 96.Vitorino Mbiza HH34: 97.Luiz Ubisse 98.Brenda Ubisse 99.Sadra Sitowe 100.Paulo Ubisse 101.Sonia Mambo 102.Eufrazia Xivure HH35: 103.Alfredo Matsinhe HH36: 104 .Robeti Simango 105.Marta Minisse HH37: 106.Saizose Malhaela 107.Regina Masinge HH38: 108.Crestina Ubisse HH39: 109.Zo zomira Ubisse 110.Rafael Ubisse HH40: 111.Ivone Ubisse
139 HH41: 112.Fernando Timba 113.Inogue Timba 114.Glora Cossa 115.Golisa Muconto 116.A lise Mbungele HH42: 117.Alfredo Cossa 118.Cristina Macuvele HH43: 119.Erigue Samanhanga HH44: 120.Tomas Tivane 121.Lino Tivane 122.Mario Tivane 123.Vitoria Manhico HH45: 124.Ernesto Simango 125.Melecina Malhule HH46: 126.Ana Mucava 127.Siphiwa Mucave HH47: 128.Aida Ubisse HH48: 129.Jorge Sibui 130.Lindia Molhavani HH49: 131.Elviz Machel 132.Carlos Machel HH50: 133.Metol Sitoe HH51: 134.Palmira Bila HH52: 135.Antonio Matsimbe HH53: 136.Borje Nhanal 137.Promis Zitha HH54: 138.Lucasse Muconto 139.Solesta Chavango 140.Robete Muconto 141.Nkhesani Cossa HH55: 142.Eva Muconto HH56: 143.Sara Chivamba HH57: 144.Amerco Cossa 145.Joise Cossa HH58: 146.Talvina Ihongo
140 147.Nosinat Muzinba 148.Silva Mbunguel HH59: 149.Mapase Sibui 150.Anabela Zitha HH60: 151.Julase Mbunguel 152.Maria Marengol HH61: 153.Joana Sitoe 154.Lucia Sitoe HH62: 155.Zabela Ndima HH63: 156.Rosalina Chavango HH64: 157.Safira Mazivila HH65: 158.Castigo Mulula HH66: 159.Argentina Sitoe HH67: 160.Elfasse Mulhovo HH68: 161.Gidion Mkondo 162.Angelca Mazivila HH69: 163.Phineas Mkondo 164.Johannes Mkondo 165.Amelia Chavangu HH70: 166.Joaque Matsinhe HH71: 167.Lukas Mbungele 168.Selina Mbungele 169.Maria Mbungele 170.Falima Mbungele 171.Sinna Mbungele HH72: 172. Simion Ubissi HH73: 173.Mario Ubissi 174.Lizenta Ubissi 175.Vetina Ubissi 176.Johana Ubissi 177.Zenica Ubissi HH74. 178.Ablonson Ubissi 179.Doissi Ubissi HH75: 180.Eriky Mbungele 181.Lusinda Mbungele
141 HH76: 182.Jonas Mbungele 183.Uestalina Mbungele 184.Pedro Mbungele 185.Uisente Mbungele HH77: 186.David Nkuna 187.Selina Nkuna 188.Soffy Nkuna 189.Alinture Nkuna HH78: 190.Lumbela Nkuna HH79: 191.Adamu Mathebale 192.Sipiwe Mathebale 193.Sidiwele Mathebale HH80: 194.Audris Mathebale 195.Kelemelina Mathebale 196.Lacy Mathebale 197.Jinoca Mathebale H H81: 198.Jana Mathebale 199.Amenti Mathebale 200.Derik Mathebale 201.David Mathebale HH82: 202.Roberto Chavango 203.Fina Chavango 204.Ana Chavango HH83: 205.Katarina Ubissi HH84: 206.Arindo Mambunda 207.Ameli Mambunda 208.Salina Mambunda 209.Serinje Mambunda 210.Jolia Mambunda 211.Mario Mambunda 212.Fostini Mambunda HH85: 213. Amos Machele 214.Zaura Machele HH86: 215.Masoni Mandosele 216.Felezimina Mandosele 217.Laui Mandosele 218.Krisi Mandosele 219.Pindile Mandosele HH87: 220.Thomas Muthango 221.Re membrasa Muthango 222.Ndulovu Muthango
142 HH88: 223.Falinta Mandosele 224.Abenico Mandosele 225.Givine Mandosele HH89: 226.Peresina Ubissi HH90: 227.Reshent Ndlovu 228.Kessani Ndlovu HH91: 229.Dendro Manyise 230.Maiilina Manyise HH92: 231.Elimon Chavango 232 .Felisandondi Chavango HH93: 233.Jona Mandosele 234.Bekisisa Mandosele 235.Kaributo Mandosele HH94: 236.Jambu Ubissi 237.Jetina Ubissi 238.Nwamement Ubissi
143 Community Membership List for Mavanguana All adults 18 years and above that live within th e borders of Mavanguana are listed below and the list is divided by household. There are a total of 264 adults living within the 75 households in Mavanguana. HH1: 1.Zakaria Moconto 2.Zabel Khosa 3.Lidiya Sibuyi 4.Crestina Ubisi 5.Ruti Muconto 6.Sailenci Muconto 7.Julia Muconto 8.Pedro Muconto HH2: 9.Afiyosi Mathosi 10.Jona Mathosi 11.Joyisi Mathosi 12.Peresina Gundand HH3: 13.Albino Chihesi 14.Eliza Msimangu 15.Fatima Msimangu 16.Lurda Ubisi 17.Rosi Ubisi 18.Elvis Chihesi 19.Erick Chihesi 20.Lo drick Chihesi 21.Jack Chihesi 22.Javulan Chihesi 23.Thavis Chihesi 24.Gilda Chihesi 25.Dindile Chiesi 26.Eleni Chihesi 27.Busi Chihesi 28.Anatersa Chihesi HH4: 29.Armando Mkonto 30.Delefina Mkonto 31.Talita Mkonto 32.Lex Mkonto HH5: 33.Estel Sibuy HH6: 34 .Fenias Sibuy 35.Natalia Sibuy HH7: 36.Elfasi Khosa 37.Seleste Khosa HH8: 38.Simon Suthu 39.Eneya Suthu
144 40.Yugin Suthu 41.Laura Suthu 42.Violeta Suthu HH9: 43.Nelson Zitha 44.Siphiwe Mabunda HH10: 45.Margarida Tivana 46.Jose Zitha HH11: 47.Sebastao Zitha 48.Fatma Machava HH12: 49.Luis Chihesi 50.Lida Chihesi 51.Lili Chihesi 52.Sol Chihesi 53.Gift Chihesi 54.Siphiwe Chihesi 55.Khenet Chihesi 56.Benet Chihesi 57.Julias Msimangu 58.Gilora Msimangu 59.Nkateko Msimangu 60.Promis Msimangu 61.Jodid Msimangu HH13: 62.Vasco Khosa 63.Madalena Khosa 64.Fina Khosa 65.Boaventura Khosa 66.Agelca Khhosa 67.Jeque Khosa 68.Penina Khosa HH14: 69.Domingo Khosa 70.Isaura Khosa HH15: 71.Chico Nkanyi 72.Selestina Khosa 73.Tomas Nkanyi HH16: 74.Carlos Masangu 75.Elisa Masangu 76 .Marta Masangu 77.Neli Masangu 78.Rosa Masangu 79.Jorge Masangu HH17: 80.Alsino Masangu 81.Nomsa Masangu 82.Delfina Masangu 83.Felgimina Masangu 84.Daito Masangu
145 HH18: 85.Jose Mundlovu 86.Nomia Mundlovu 87.Vitora Mundlovu 88.Alisi Mundlovu 89.Ivona Mundlov u 90.Atalia Mundlovu 91.Elvis Mundlovu HH19: 92.Emelina Mukhonto 93.Rofina Mukhonto 94.Gabriel Mukhonto 95.Dalina Mukhonto HH20: 96.Joanqui Thovela 97.Elen Thovela HH21: 98.Jose Thovela 99.Florina Thovela 100.Fatiminha Thovela HH22: 101.Daniel Bila 102 .Alcina Bila HH23: 103.Domingo Matseve 104.Floriana Matseve 105.Lazaro Matseve 106.Nora Matseve 107.Agelca Matseve 108.Nomsa Matseve HH24: 109.Moses Sibuy 110.Marieta Sibuy HH25: 111.Madala Sibuy 112.Nomia Sibuy 113.Luis Sibuy 114.Laila Sibuy 115.Khesan Sibuy HH26: 116.Abiner Mathosi 117.Rabeca Mathosi HH27: 118.Moses Mathosi 119.Veli Mathosi HH28: 120.Jaime Mathosi 121.Fatma Mathosi HH29: 122.Lianora Ubisi 123.Samson Ubisi HH30: 124.Simon Ubisi
146 HH31: 125.Zakaria Mazive 126.Elina Mazive HH32: 127 .Calisto Nyankumbe 128.Salimina Nyankumbe HH33: 129.Calari Manhlavana 130.Vironica Mvanaanhla HH34: 131.Titos Sithoye 132.Rosalia Sithoye 133.Pedro Sithoye 134.Emelia Sithoye HH35: 135.Rosalina Mabunda 136.Joana Mabunda 137.Zequia Mabunda 138.Sisilia Mabun da HH36: 139.Jona Chauke 140.Rishet Chauke 141.Jolieta Chauke 142.Lodrick Chauke HH37: 143.Paulo Mhelembe 144.Rishet Mhelembe 145.Pedro Mhelembe 146.Carlota Mhelembe 147.Rosita Mhelembe 148.Losinda Mhelembe 149.Ana Mhelembe 150.Rebeca Mhelembe HH38: 151 .Alberto Khosa 152.Marta Khosa 153.Ana Khosa HH39: 154.Boasi Dzimba 155.Silvester Dzimba 156.Jema Dzimba 157.Rosi Dzimba 158.Nomsa Dzimba 159.Sindile Dzimba HH40: 160.Elias Mathosi 161.Beti Mathosi HH41: 162.Quesar Manhlavana 163.Crimilda Manhlavana HH42: 164.Fikile Mkhonto HH43: 165.Filmao Mukhonto
147 166.Ronaldo Mukhonto 167.Delina Mukhonto 168.Cristina Mukhonto HH44: 169.Celina Mukhonto 170.Fred Mukhonto 171.Dani Mukhonto HH45: 172.Iseck Mukhonto 173.Selestina Mukhonto 174.Monica Mukhonto 175.Isac Mukhonto 176.Sara Mukhonto 177.Lusi Mukhonto HH46: 178.Elmon Sibuy 179.Regina Sibuy 180.Maria Sibuy 181.Olga Sibuy 182.Thulisile Sibuy HH47: 183.Solomun Mukhonto 184.Eliza Mukhonto 185.Joseph Mukhonto HH48: 186.Tomas Mukhonto 187.Petrosi Mukhonto HH49: 188.Morisi V uma 189.Thembisile Vuma HH50: 190.Nwadeyingana Vuma HH51: 191.Isac Sibuy 192.Javulan Sibuy 193.Musa Sibuy 194.Glendisi Sibuy 195.Rainita Sibuy 196.Manuel Sibuy HH52: 197.Sofi Mbambu 198.Makisi Mbambu HH53: 199.Krestina Mukhavele 200.Olga Mukhavele HH54: 201.Amosi Zandamela 202.Olivia Zandamela HH55: 203.Carlota Mbambu 204.Veregina Mbambu 205.Detarens Mbambu HH56: 206.Delefina Mbambu
148 207.Ripo Mbambu 208.Nikholasi Mbambu 209.Melba Mbambu 210.Milion Mbambu HH57: 211.Percina Zitha 212.Matilina Zitha HH58: 213 .Nea Xiviti 214.Amina Makamo 215.Laurinda Ubisi HH59: 216.Julias Mukhonto 217.Lenat Mukhonto 218.Ana Makhuvele 219.Thandi Ubisi HH60: 220.Petros Mukhonto 221.Sizekele Mukhonto HH61: 222.Antonio Madosele 223.Rotina Khosa HH62: 224.Eliot Ubisi 225.Flora Manh lavana 226.Jobe Ubisi 227.Dina Manhlavana 228.Luisa Ubisi HH63: 229.Lorens Thovela 230.Flora Khosa 231.Sara Khosa HH64: 232.Jorge Sibuy 233.Joana Manhlavana 234.Thandi Sibuy 235.Agel Sibuy HH65: 236.Pilato Mbambu 237.Airina Khosa HH66: 238.Elvis Mukhonto 239.Nostina Mukhonto 240.Ali Chabangu HH67: 241.Fatima Mhelembe 242.Lorens Mhelembe HH68: 243.Inock Sibuy HH69: 244.Julias Sibuy HH70: 245.Elvis Sibuy 246.Nalia Thovela
149 247.Amosi Sibuy 248.Thandi Mbendana 249.Queliwe Chauke 250.Crestina Khosa HH71: 251 .Patric Mundlovu 252.Melina Muhianga 253.Salma Ubisi 254.Niki Mundlovu HH72: 255.Jose Chauke 256.Beretina Khosa HH73: 257.Alici Muhlanga 258.Joao Muhlanga 259.Samson Muhlanga 260.Fernando Chissano 261.Betrija Khosa HH74: 262.Tomas Dakati 263.Polina Dzimba HH75: 264.Marquel Julia Community Membership List for Baptine All adults 18 years and above that live within the borders of Baptine are listed below and the list is divided by household. There are a total of 201 adults living within the 73 households in Baptine. HH1: 1.Elias Carlos Ubissi 2.Spiwe Silvestre Mulhovo 3.Carvalho Carlos Ubisse 4.Paulina Matlavana 5.Sindile Carlos Ubisse HH2: 6.Roslina Kossa 7.Fatima Mashava HH3: 8.Lianora Tovela 9.Ema Kumbana HH4: 10.Catarina Nkuna 11.Beta Magagule 12.Sfisso Sbuyi 13 .Thulane Sbuyi 14.Mozisi Sbuyi 15.Sbusiso Sbuyi HH5: 16.Roza Matlhavana 17.Thembekile Sbuyi
150 HH6: 18.Rabeka Sbuyi 19.Joao Ntimana 20.Alsina Nkuna 21.Lukas Ntimana HH7: 22.Mandey Mathevule 23.Melita Mashava HH8: 24.Tomas Xivite 25.Tereza Sbuyi 26.Laurinda Ub issi HH9: 27.Alisse Zitha Nkuna 28.Thulane Nkuna 29.Jossef Nkuna 30.Egnes Madonssela 31.Joana Ubissi HH10: 32.Magreta Nkuna 33.Tuli Gumbe HH11: 34.Diolinda Ubissi 35.Alfredo Madonssela 36.Jhon Madonssela HH12: 37.Rossia Madonssela 38.Dumigo Sbuyi HH13: 39 .Jose Mudlovu 40.Regina Mbendane 41.Guiloria Nguenha 42.Marta Nkuna HH14: 43.Eliot Mbokodo 44.Inacia Mbokodo 45.Mario Mbambo 46.Salia Mbokodo 47.Thuli Sibuyi HH15: 48.Lukas Ntuyi 49.Sandra Mudaka HH16: 50.Atonio Mbendana 51.Rozita Chauke 52.Rossina Nhati HH17: 53.Ezekia Mokonto 54.Lurdes Kossa HH18: 55.Erik Matlhavana 56.Thulissile Makamu 57.Nomssa Mulhovu HH19: 58.Ernesto Xivumbe
151 59.Anita Mudlovu 60.Elvis Xivumbe 61.Selia Mpinga 62.Themba Xivumbe HH20: 63.Maria Mudlovu 64.Thomas Mashevele HH21: 65.Aroni M azivi 66.Muzeria Shambali HH22: 67.Roslina Mudaka 68.Emelina Mbokodo 69.Anita Matlavana 70.Ernesto Makamu 71.Perssina Makamu HH23: 72.Adelina Makamo HH24: 73.Egnes Chauke 74.Semu Makamu HH25: 75.Elfassi Nhambi 76.Selemina Kuboyi 77.Eliza Xongo 78.Neli Mukonto 79.Busi Mukonto 80.Kenssani Nhambi HH26: 81.Silivetri Mudlovu 82.Nostina Massinga 83.Nikiwe Nhambi 84.Zanele Mudlovu HH27: 85.Amos Mashava 86.Ema Kossa HH28: 87.Wiliasi Mbambu 88.Selina Nhalungu 89.Selemina Sibuyi 90.Jossofina Makuvela 91.Delefina Sibuyi HH29: 92.Samueli Mbambu 93.Sindile Ubisse HH30: 94.Josani Mathevule 95.Thembi Mathevule HH31: 96.Lazaros Mbambu 97.Thoko Ntamelo 98.Ana Nkuna HH32: 99.Johannes Mbambu 100.Atalia Makuvele 101.Alissi Simangu
152 HH33: 102.Lussia Kossa HH34: 103.Alifiado Nhati HH35: 104.Zabela Nkuna 105.Merri Sibuyi 106.Thembi Nkuna 107.Nomiya Manhissa HH36: 108.Assa Sibuyi HH37: 109.Wilisoni Mawolele 110.Beti Zitha HH38: 111.John Madonsele 112.Lurde Nhambi HH39: 113.Joao Xirindza HH40: 114.Selia Manhissa 115.Samihel Mnissi HH41: 116.Katilina Mudlovu HH42: 117.Beti Nkuna 118.Marta Matukana 119.Jimisoni Sibuyi 120.Feniasi Sibuyi 121.Tenbasi Sibuhia 122.Jefri Sibuyi 123.Busi Xivambu 124.Honlanha Tembe 125.Promisi Zitha HH43: 126.Antonio Xivambu 127.Maria Melembe 128.Ani ta Jozina 129.Eva Xivambu 130.Mario Xivambu 131.Solomuni Xivambu 132.Ana Matsimbi HH44: 133.Tsakana Sibuyi 134.Thandi Xivambu HH45: 135.Pita Mudlovu 136.Regina Makamu 137.Regina Mavota HH46: 138.Ximunu Chavango 139.Simoni Tembe 140.Rozalina Ubissi HH47: 141.Andres Nuvunga 142.Romia Tivana
153 143.Saritina Kosa 144.Niko Nuvunga 145.Elmoni Nuvunga 146.Nora Nuvunga 147.Thembi Nuvunga HH48: 148.Soli Sibuyi 149.Gressi Mbambu HH49: 150.Aroni Munamati 151.Atalia Zinko HH50: 152.Piter Zitha 153.Salimina Xitivi 154 .Delefina Mudaka 155.Lussia Sibuyi 156.Krestina Mpinga HH51: 157.Betiriza Zitha HH52: 158.Fabiao Sitole HH53: 159.Elimoni Mudlovu 160.Ivoni Amanda HH54: 161.Alissi Mambunda HH55: 162.Mundawu Mavila 163.Rosalina Tivana 164.Krestina Tivana 165.Selesta Tivana 166.Thuli Nwandzu 167.Sem Mavila 168.Alberto Nhongo 169.Karlos Mbahula HH56: 170.Roza Zinka 171.Fernando Zinka HH57: 172.Aroni Sibuyi 173.Sara Nhati 174.Distens Sibuyi HH58: 175.Fennios Sitoe 176.Maria Chauke HH59: 177.Joze Matlavana 178.Karlina Ntimana 179.Thuli Kossa 180.Simbongile Chauke HH60: 181.John tivana HH61: 182.Milioni Gumana HH62:
154 183.Frans Mudlovu 184.Margarida Simbundeni HH63: 185.Samuel Matola 186.Elssa Xiviti HH64: 187.Ernesto Matusse HH65: 188.Flora Matusse HH66: 189.Eliza Suwele HH67: 190.Jhona Nguenha 191.Roza Sitoe 192.Ana Nguenha HH68: 193.Armando Sambu 194.Selestina Sitoe HH69: 195.Makossini Mudlovu HH70: 196.Kelemtina Sitoe HH71: 197.Izaki Kossa HH72: 198.Pedro Nhachenga 199.Safira Makuvele HH73: 200.Abel Simangu 201.Thembi Mukavel e Community Membership List for Ndindiza All adults 18 years and above that live within the borders of Ndindiza are listed below and the list is divided by household. There are a total of 69 adults living within the 24 households in Ndindiza HH1: 1.Fernando Alberto Zevute 2.Luntis Luis Zavala HH2: 3.Jose Howana 4.Satira Sitoe HH3: 5.Agosto Kuna 6.Izabel Babila 7.Visset Kuna HH4: 8.Maria Zitha 9.Vuss Mathevul 10.Ressa Mathevul
155 11.Tholi Sibui 12.Karlota Simago 13.Aida M athevul HH5: 14.Joseph Goveni 15.Samaria Thovela 16.Theli Goveni HH6: 17.Lukas Mawelele 18.Vironika Mawelele 19.Selestina Inoki Kumako HH7: 20.Mario Tembe 21.Zabela Melembe 22.Saulina Melembe 23.Siphiwa Melembe 24.Ortega Melembe 25.Sibisso Mario Tembe HH8: 26.Miliassi Mathevul 27.Atalia Malil 28.Selina Ubissi HH9: 29.Rithet Thovela 30.Rute Tyuzi 31.Cristelia Simamgo 32.Timphalo Bambo 33.Mathavu Bambo HH10: 34.Lidia Zitha 35.Jouna Vibente 36.Pemina Jonas Goveni 37.Lazaro Bambo HH11: 38.Julias Mathevul 39 .Floridi Chavago 40.Telima Mathevul 41.Pehissi Mathevul HH12: 42.Marieta Juliuss Mathevul 43.Angeli Mathevul 44.Ana Mathevul 45.Mateus Matussi HH13: 46.Filora Luna HH14: 47.Robina Zitha 48.Piluti Pendro Bambo HH15: 49.Andribi Sitoe 50.Cretina Alberto Maz ie HH16: 51.Elile Mubhovo 52.Sofi Wakana HH17:
156 53.Katilina Mathevul HH18: 54.Jooa Simamgo 55.Siddile Eliassi Lumula HH19: 56.Julius Monghana 57.Maria Kossa HH20: 58.Elfassi Bombo 59.Timoti Bombo 60.Rikardina Bambo HH21: 61.Siphiwa Bambo HH22: 62.Zatania Tivana 63.Neli Nelidhozi 64.Emesi Mabuza HH23: 65..Jutassi Sitoe 66.Clemetina Yowana HH24: 67.Eliza Mulhovo 68.Tembo Ubissi 69.Aikek Ubissi. Community Membership List for Costine All adults 18 years and above that live within the borders of Costine are listed below and the list is divided by household. There are a total of 46 adults living within the 23 households in Costine
157 HH1: 1.Regina Mbissa 2.Wiliamo Alberto Cossa 3.Beneti Fernando Tovela HH2: 4.Amerco Mucoss e 5.Lintiwa Sibui HH3: 6.Esimeta Mucasse HH4: 7.Samania Ubisse HH5: 8.Lima Mulhovo HH6: 9.Costantino Julhoa Gumbe HH7: 10.Mossses Mucasse 11.Tuli Jose Mulhovo HH8: 12.Sabina Guilana Matheule 13.Eliasse Jose Mulhovo 14.Elvise Jose Mulhovo 15.Pedro Jose Mulhovo 16.Nora Nelssone Sibue 17.Lidia Simango 18.Figuile Nhambi HH9: 19.Amos Xichava 20.Ndeima Malavi 21.Jona Machava 22.Josefa Machaba 23.Ruthi Tivana 24.Antrieda Tivana HH10: 25.Celina Mambice 26.Elisabeti Ncomana 27.Emelina Mudhovo HH11: 28.Abel Alberto Jaine Vilanculo HH12: 29.Antonio Puanibera HH13: 30.Felesmina Pedro Sitoi 31.Lorenco Timbane 32.Marta Timbane 33.Bussi Mbambo HH14: 34.Mavassana Changue 35.Bussi Ubisse HH15: 36.Elimone Ubisse HH16: 37.Antonio Khosa
158 HH17: 38.Elisa Lamula HH18: 39 .Jona Mbambo HH19: 40.Emilia Mbambo HH20: 41.Rita Mucanto HH21: 42.Artur Ubisse HH22: 43.Tovana Muconto HH23: 44.Josuwa Ubisse 45.Laura Vondade 46.Tabito Cossa
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