Citation
News letter

Material Information

Title:
News letter
Creator:
United States -- Bureau of Plant Quarantine
Place of Publication:
Washington, D.C.
Publisher:
Bureau of Plant Quarantine
Publication Date:
Frequency:
Monthly
Language:
English

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Plants -- Diseases and pests -- Control -- Periodicals -- United States ( lcsh )
Genre:
federal government publication ( marcgt )

Notes

Dates or Sequential Designation:
Began with: no.19 (July 1, 1932)
Dates or Sequential Designation:
Ceased with: no.43 (June 30, 1934)
General Note:
"Not for publication".

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
This item is a work of the U.S. federal government and not subject to copyright pursuant to 17 U.S.C. §105.
Resource Identifier:
030428081 ( ALEPH )
785785040 ( OCLC )
2012229620 ( LCCN )

Related Items

Preceded by:
News letter
Succeeded by:
Monthly letter of the Bureau of Entomology
Succeeded by:
Blister rust news
Succeeded by:
News letter

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Full Text



N E S L E T T E R

BUREAU OF APINT QUARANTINE

MUNTED STATES 'D*p AR7,-NT OF AGRI CLTURE



Number 41 (NOT FOR PUBLICATION) May l, 1934.

(The coihtents of this number, unless specifically stated otherwise, cover the month of March only)



ADMINISTRATIVE


APPROPRIATION ACT FOR TH S FISCAL YEAR 1935

The Act making appropriations for the Department of Agriculture for the fiscal year 1935 was signed by the President on March 26, 1934.

This Act establishes in the Department the Bureau of Entomology and Plant
Quarantine, which is formed by the consolidation of the Bureau of Plant Quarantine with the Bureau of Entomology, including those branches of the Bureau of Plant Industry administratively transferred thereto several months ago. Work transferred from the Bureau of Plant Industry is combined in the Division of Plant Disease Eradication and Control. It includes the eradication and control of phony peach disease, white pine blister rust, barberry, citrus canker, and Dutch elm disease. This arrangement will be unchanged by the formal incorporation of this unit into the new Bureaue

The administrative offices of the Bureaus-of Entomology and Plant Quarantine will be consolidated. A new unit, known as the Division of Control Investigations, will be established. This will be composed of the present technological unit of the Bureau of Plant Quarantine, which is concerned with the coordination and standardization of methods of disinfection of plants and plant products, and the unit, at present carried under the item "Identification and Classification of Insects" in the Bureau of Entomology, engaged in work in Physiology and Toxicology. With these exceptions the subject-matter divisions of both Pureaus will retain their present titles and functions, the only difference in organization set-up being that they will all be included under the one Bureau.

Amounts carried in the Act as passed for the various lines of work conducted by the Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine are as follows:

General Administration 149,109
Fruit Insects .......... 320,759
Japanese Beetle Control ......... 230,000
Mexican Fruit Fly Control........................ 101,652
Citrus Canker Eradication ........... 12,299
Phony Peach Eradication.......................... 45,462









Date Seale Control2o6
Forest Insects 14 5t 65 ..... .. 145,655
Truck Crop and Garden Insects i "" 303,045
Cereal andForage Insects 312t701
European Corn Borer Control....... ... 30,411
Cotton Insects .... ....... .. c..... a.R. *.e. 136,000
Pink Bollworm Control ........................... 254,959
Thurberia Weevil Control 2.. ............. 2,4
Bee. Culture .. ..... . o ........ .... .. .. 45t670
Insects Affecting Man and Animals ................. l09,6O
Insect Pest Survey and Identification ....... 121,616
Control Investigations ,4 ......................... 40,738
Transit Inspection .. 4......... ......... 26,419
Foreign Plant Quarantines.,...... o. 568t966
including $16,000 reappropriated of the unexpended balance for the fiscal year 1933.
Certification of Exports ......................... 16,120
Dutch Elm Disease a............................. 150,000
Gypsy and Brown-Tail Moths ....................... 3b0,000

The appropriation for the last two items is, to a considerable extent, tied up with allotments which have been or may be made from funds of the Public Works Administration, it being specified in the Act that the sum appropriated for the control and preventinn of spread of the Dutch Elm lDisease shall be reduced by an amount equal to any amount that may hereafter be allotted for the purposes named from any Federal -relief or other Federal emergency appropriations; air that the appropriation for Gypsy and Brown-Tail Moths shall be taken from the allotment made for this purpose by the Public Works Administration. The inclusion of the items in the Agricultural Appropriation Bill, however, makes clear the authority for the activities carried on thereundere

It will of course be noted that the Appropriation Act contains no items for Blister Rust Control and Barberry Eradication, two of the lines of work transferred from the Bureau of Plant Industry. The reasbn for this is that these activities will, during the fiscal year 1935, be financed entirely through allotments from the Public Works Administration. The exact amount that will be available is not known at this time, as it will depend on the amount that remains unexpended from allotments already made for that purpose. It is hoped, however, that it will be sufficient to permit the carrying on of a normal program of work*

A comparison of the amounts listed above with the appropriations for the
fiscal year 1934 will in practically every case indicate a distinct reduction. It should be borne in mind, however, that at the present time work under these items is being conducted under a cash withdrawal limitation appreciably smaller than the 1934 appropriations, so that the figures for the fiscal year 1935 are not actually as unfavorable as they appear at first glance*

Despite certain curtailments which will be necessitated by reduced appropriations, it is felt thai the creation of the Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine offers distinct advantages to the units included therein., inasmuch as it sets






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up a logical organization of hitherto separated activities dealing with the control of.insect pests and plant diseases and the administration of quarantines based thereon. The hearty cooperation of 1ll concerned in working out the problems involved in the early days of the functioning of this new Bureau will go far toward injuring its succesEful operation.









FOREIGN PLANT QUARANTINES


RECENT ENTOMOLOGICAL INTERCEPTIONS OF INTEREST

Mediterranean fruit fly from Sicily.--Two living larvae of Ceratitis
capitata Wiedo were intercepted at Buffalo, N.Y., in a bitter orange in the mail from Sicily. This is the fourth time that bitter oranges intercepted at that port have been found to be infested with living larvae of the Mediterranean fruit fly.

Thrips from Europe---Thrips tabaci pullus Uz. was intercepted at Philadelphia on leeks (:7:im prm.uu) in n so from Denmark and Germany. J. R. Watson states that this is the dark European variety of the onion thrips.

Whitefly from the Society Islands.--Aleuroplatus samoanus Laing (Aleyrodidae) was intercepted at San Francisco on the leaves of lime cuttings in baggage from the Society Islands.

Bell pepper infested.--A living larva of Gnorimoschema gudmannella Wlsm. (Gelechiidae) was intercepted at Nogales, Ariz., in a bell pepper'in cargo from Sinaloa, Mexico.

Nut fruit tortrix in chestnuts.--Living larvae of Laspeyresia splendana Hubner (Olethreutidae) were intercepted at New York in chestnuts in cargo from Italy, Portugal, and Spain.

Whitefly on cabbage.--Aleyrodes brassicae Walker was intercepted at Philadelphia on cabbage in stores from France.

Plant bug taken in Puerto Rico.--Living specimens of Macrolophus praeclarus Dist. (Miridae) were collected in Puerto Rico as follows: One on a tomato leaf in the field at Rio Piedras, and one on tobacco in the field at Loiza.

Scale insect from Egypt.--Fiorinia theae Green (Coccidae) was intercepted at Boston on five pomelo fruits in stores from Egypt.









Leaf beetle from Nicaragua.--A living adult of Metriona ~udiaca (Fab.) (Chrysomelidae) was taken at.Mobile, Ala., on bananas in cargo from Nicaragua.

Thrips from Japan.--A living specimen of Androthrips probably melastomma
(Zinm.) was intercepted at New York on an grange fruit in stores from Japan. J. R. Watson reports that this thrips is not known to occur in this country.

Hemipteron on peppers.--Living nymphs of Macrophygium reticulare Fab.
(Pentatomidae) were intercepted at Nogales, Ariz., on long green and bell peppers in cargo from Mexico.

Bruchid from Greece.--Liling adults of Bruchus tristiculus Fahr. were intercepted at Washington, D.C., in legume seed in the mail from Greece,

The Philippine orange moth intercepted.--Prays citri Miller (Hyponomeutidae) was taken at San Francisco in the rind of a pomelo in stores from the Philippines. The larva of this moth lives just beneath the rind next to, but not in, the pulp. It produces a gall-like tumor which remains open at the tip.

Thrips from England.--Parthenothrips dracaenae (Heeger) was intercepted at
Honolulu, T.H., on a leaf of Sobralia colmanae in the express from England. J. R. Watson reports as follows: "It has be en reported from Europe, North America, and Australia, but as far as I know never from the Hawaiian Islands. It is probably 'just as well that this rather severe pest on many greenhouse plants in Europe should not get established in Hawaii. As its name indicates it is most common on dracaena and also common on castor beans,"

RECENT PATHOLOGICAL INTERCEPTIONS OF INTEREST

Peony diseases from Japan.--Peonies imported fro Japan under three special permits were inspected February 19 and 20 at Seattle and found to be infected with Leptothyrium sp., which does not agree with any description availAble of species reported on peony, Monochaetia paconiae, not listed in U.S. 1366 or Seymour as occurrihg in this country, and Mycosphaerella moutan, listed in Stevenson's manual,as occurring in Russia only. This is our first interception of M. moutan.

Croton disease.--Gloeosporium sorauerianum was intercepted at New Orleans on February 12 on a Croton sp. plant from Japan, our first interception of this disease

Botrytis on lily.--A diseased bulb of Lilium jalonicum from Japan was intercepted at Seattle on January 16. Small black sclerotia of the Botrytis type were found in abundance and part of the material referred to Dr. H. H. Whetzel of Cornell who is interested in this group. Dr. Whetzel reports, "Dr. Guterman thinks this is B. elliptica. In fact L. jaonicum is the only species of lily on the bulbs of which he has observed the sclerotia of this Botrytis. We are trying to isolate it. This is our first interception of this disease which is not listed in U.S. 1366 or Seymour as occurring in this country.

Septoria on orange.--The disease on an orange from Greece intercepted at New York on March 12 has been determined as Septoria citri. A previous interception, from Spain, was doubtfully determined as S. citri (see News Letter for April 1933,









p. 3). There are several species of Septoria reported as occurring on oranges in Italy or elsewhere, including an undetermined species in California. The spore measurements of. several of these forms are so close that more or less synonymy is
-probably involved.

Rust on reed.--Puccinia phragmitis was intercepted at New York on Phragmites communis from Germany, being used as packing for rose plants. The only previous interception of the disease from Germany was in 1925.

Cabbage disease from Scotland.--Our first record of an interception of white smut, Albugo candida, from the British Isles, was made March 9 at Philadelphia on cabbage from Scotland.

Nematode interceptions.--Nematode interceptions determined during the month included.Anguillulina dipsaci in potatoes fromGermany at Houston (interceptions made February 26 and March 26), Corpus Christi, New Orleans, and Philadelphia, from England at Boston, from Holland at Baltimore and Philadelphia, from Sweden at Philadelphia, and in onion from Belgium at Gulfport, Miss.; A. intermedia in ginger from China at Buffalo on March 27; Aphelenchqs avenae and Aphelenchoides parietinus in celery from Sweden and A. parietinus in turnip from England at Baltimore, in taro from Japan at Charleston, in beet from Germany at Philadelphia, in ginger from China at Buffalo, and in carrot from Holland at Philadelphia. A single parasitic nema seen in a mount from an Amaryllis bulb from Italy intercepted at New York appeared to be Aphelenchoides parietinus. A single parasitic nema found on a beet from Belgium intercepted at Mobile was determined as Aphelenchoides sp.

A particularly interesting interception was a diseased Hosta (Funkia) sp.
from Italy intercepted at New York on March 15. The following forms were found in this material: Anguillulina robusta, Plectus parietinus, Dorylaimus corii, Tripyla arenicola, Cephalobus (- Acrobeloides) sp., and Dorylaimus n. sp. (unpublished). The only previous interception of A.robusta was in rutabaga from Germany in 1931.

Local collections.--Interesting local collections sent in by Seattle inspectors include Pestalozzia funerea and Phoma thujinum on Thuya orientalis, Pitya cupressi on Juniperus kaizuka, and Cytospora sp., possibly C. subclypeata, on Rhododendron, all from Seattle; and Mycosphaerella sp. and Monochaetea sp., neither recorded for United States, on Arctostaphylos, on what was supposed to be a hybrid between Arctostaphylos uva-ursi and another species from Kitsap County.

SHAMROCKS ARRIVE FROM IRELAND IN BUNDLES OF NEWSPAPERS

The shamrock season, which has just passed, presented several interesting
angles at Chicago this year. It was particularly noted that there was a considerable increase in the number enclosed in envelopes as compared with past seasons, the usual or customary container being a small paper box. Also, this year, a large number of newspapers arrived in the same mail. Obviously, this aroused the suspicion of the inspector and post office segregators, and an examination followed which disclosed the presence of shamrocks with roots and soil intact, carefully concealed in the center of a number of bundles of newspapers.









SUMMARY OF REQUIREMENTS$ ,IN EXPORT CERTIFICATION

The requirement of certification of fruits and vegetables, including potatoes, for exportation to foreign countries has become very general. A considerable body of information on this and related requirements has already been compiled and made available through published summaries of the plant quarantine resitrictions of various foreign countries and through memoranda. The essential information on this subject has now been assembled in concise form for ready reference and guidance of inspectors, with convenient citations for details to the more complete texts of the summazges and memoran da%. This _.igst will be published in the near future as. a circular of the BPQ series.

TEAMWORK

Two plant quarantine inspectorswatched'a 'graceful white ship with its cargo of bananas tie up at a wharfin NewOrleans, watched the passengers who were returning from a Caribbean cruise impatiently going through the entry procedure, and then began with the routine of,inspection, inspector A concerning himself with the ship's stores, quarters, staterooms, and cargo, and inspector B attending to the passengers' effects in the "cage (the enclosure where 'baggage examination is conducted)*. Affairs moved smoothly with the latter and the baggage was about cleared when inspector A appeared on the scene to report that he had found an orchid leaf on the floor of one stateroom and, properly curious, had ascertained the identity of the room's former occupant from the steward. NoQone had declared- possession of orchid plants to inspector B; therefore, to satisfy his own mind on the problem, he asked one of the former occupants of the room where the leaf was found and who was at the moment completing his clearance from customs, concerning the'possession of orchid plants. Astonished,. he replied that his wife had them. The wife, peacefully seated at the exit gate., was completely aurprised by the sudden'turn of event and surrendered five plants which had bee carefully wrapped in her coat.'

Net results: Five orchids translated to orchid heaven via the incinerator route; two inspectors with renewed confidence in the value of keen observation and teamwork; and two passengers contemplating at their leisure on the embarrassment involved in- trying to conceal contraband from the inspector.

HIDING THEM FROM TE INSPECTOR

On March 2e, a Seattle inspector found in the mail from Italy a parcel containing a half of a round cheese, destined to a local address. Noting some unusual round praffin spcts on the exterior, the outer portion of these areas was removed, disclosing a cavity stopped by paraffin plugs. Within were seven grape cuttings themselves well coated with paraffin, presumably in order to prevent their asphyxiation by the odoriferouis emanations from the carrier.

PERMITTEE HAS SENSE OF HUMOR

Some special permit rhododendrons arriving recently at Seattle from England via Canada were found to have two plants infested with Dialeurodes chittendeni, and these two were refused entry. The importer elected to return them to the




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Canadian source but asked the Seattle inspector as a favor to arrange for return on his behalf. Jith his check to the inspector to repay the express charges incurred
was a slip on which were simply the words "In Memoriam".

LEPIDDSAPIES HALLI FOUND AT CHICO, CALIFOPRIA

On February 5, C. F. Kinman, a horticulturist of the Bureau of Plant Industry engaged in making root-growth studies of trees at the Plant Introduction Gardens at Chico, Calif., discovered an infestation of a species of oyster shell scale. The species proved to be L osahes halli, described in 1927 from material collected at Cairo, Egypt. The species was not.heretofore kno:"n to occur in the United States.

Following the discovery of the insect at Chico a preliminary survey of the plantings of the Plant Introauction Gardens was promptly made by D. B. Mackie, entomologist of the California Department of Agriculture, and his associates, with the result that the pest was found to be rather widely distributed on species of Prunus and Amygdalus.

George G. 3ecker, of the Division of Foreign Plant Quarantines, was sent to California to make arrangements with Mr. :ackie for the eradication of the pest. The insect was found to attack over 20 species of Frunus and Amygdalus located on the premises of the Plant Introduction Gardens. Almond proved to be the most susceptible host observed. Limbs of one- infested almond tree were observed to be .completely incrusted. Crataegus, Pyrus, Malus, Dio.spyros, and other hosts growing in close proximity to infested plants were found to be uninfested and the insect is believed to attack only species of Prunus and Amygdalus.

A thorough inspection of nursery stock of Prunus and Amygdalus growing in the Gardens yielded negative results; nevertheless all nursery stock of these genera sent out by the Garden during the current year is being collected and destroyed. A careful inspection of two test orchards in California which have for the past 10 years been receiving increase from many introductions at Chico, likewise yielded negative findings for this insect. Orchards on premises located within a mile of the Plant Introduction Gardens were carefully inspected but no evidence of the scale insect was found.

In the meantime efforts were started to eradicate the pest from the Gardens. About 500 large.Prunus and Amygdalus trees were destroyed, leaving on the premises only a very few lightly infested trees as much as 7 years of age, and some young trees, for the most part 4 years old or younger. Vigorous efforts will be made to complete the eradication next fall. It is not known when or how this insect was introduced.

RHODODENiDRON R-!ITJFLY IN .iAS:LTTON STATE

In June 1937 field inspection of some English rhododendrons brought into
Seattle, 'ash., the previous April as a special permit importation, revealed a few whitefly nymphs which were submitted in the usual way to Jashington and were later identified as Dialeurodes chittendeni, the rhodo:endiron whitefly which had been discovered in England in 126 and there described as a new species.









Although the rhododendron planting in which these few infested plants occurred ras given-an oil spray in the fall of 1933, reports of adult *hiteflies found on the premises in.January 1934 seemed to indicate that urgent steps might be needed to stamp out the small infestation before multiplication could take place.

W. A. McCubbin went to Seattle at the end of February and found that similar adult whiteflies had been collected in a number of other plantings, and after a few days it was apparent that this seemingly identical species occurred from Tacoma to the Canadian border. When these adults were at length definitely identified as a native species the planting infested with D. chittendeni was given cyanide fumigation by the tent method, and search was continued for nymphal stages on ether local rhododendrons in order to determine whether the new English species was established elsewhere than in the location first found. As a result of tbis survey D. chit. te~deni has been found in four additional locations in and near Seattle, in at least one of which the evidence indicates that the infestation is probably of several years' standing. It has also been collected from three Tacoma gardens, and has been found in Canada on imported English rhododendrons. Tiis survey was made possible through the assistance of C. E. Cooley of Bellingham, and A. G. Webb and his associates of the Seattle office.

SEATRAINS AND SEATRAIN INSPECTION

Most of us have heard of the "seatrains" which operate on a weekly schedule between New Orleans and Havana,'andwhich likewise ply between Havana and New York* It is assumed, however, that many inspectors have never had experience on one of these curious vessels and, therefore, that the description furnished by the New Orleans office will be of interest.

In general appearance seatrains are not unlike oil tankers. They are 480 feet long with a 63 foot 6 inch beam. There are three decks within the hull, all served by one large hatch which extends across the beam of the vessel amidships Each deck contains four rows of standard-gage railway track extending from stemto stern, except the superstructure deck, which is fitted with four rows aft of the hatchway; the total length of track is almost 1 mile, and it accommdates 100 railway freight cars,

Discharging and loading the vessel are accomplished by a car elevator or
crane which has a normal lifting capacity of approximately 125 tons* A standardgage double railway track runs from the classification yard onto the dock beneath the crane. Directly beneath the crane the tracks are broken to acconwofte 'track sections in the form of large platforms or cradles. A car to be loaded into the vessel is spotted on a cradle by a locomotive, locked securely in place with strong rail clamps, and then the cradle bearing the car is lifted by the crane and moved over the hatch of the ship. The crane then lowers away and the cradle descends into one of four sets of guides which hold it in position exactly in the manner of a platform in an-elevator shaft. When the desired deck is reached the cradle comes to rest upon mechanically operated supports and the car is switched either forward or aft from the cradle by means of a steam-driven car-hauling gear. The operation is reversed to discharge a car. Loading and discharging can be accomplished simul" taneously. The rate is approximately 20 cars per hour for double operation and 15 cars per hour for single operations










Weekly importations totaling from 3 to 60 carloads in the respective seasons are made of avocado, cabbage, chayote, citrus fruit, cucumber, eggplant, crude ginger, melon, okra, pepper, pineapple, potato (white), pumpkin, squash, tamarind bean pod, and tomato. There is, therefore, considerable inspection work to be done upon arrival of a seatrain. A preliminary inspection is made of all cars before they are discharged from the vessel, Each car is opened by a customs inspector and with the customs inspector a preliminary inspection is made to identify the cargo as manifested for that particular car and, further, to determine-that n8 prohibited plant material or litter, used as packing or otherwise, is contained on the floor of the car. After the preliminary inspection is completed in the old of the vessel, the car doors are closed and sealed by the customs inspector. Warning tags bearing proper instructions to customs inspectors are tacked on the doors of the cars containing fruits and-vegetables and other restricted material. The cars are then discharged from the vessel and moved to the classification yard.

Before discussing the activities at the classification yard it should be mentioned that the regular routine ship inspection must be made simultaneously with the preliminary inspection of the cars-. Such inspection includes an examination of all foreign fruits and vegetables carried as ship's stores, plants for ship's decorative purposes, crew's quarters for prohibited plants and plant products, and all parts of the vessel including the superstructure and the holds. Ex perience has shown that a seatrain is no exception to the general rule that a ship has innumerable hiding places in which members of the crew may try to secrete prohibited plant material. A few are: Under pots and pans in the galley, submerged in rice, coffee, and grit bins, under vegetables in chill room and under meats in iceboxes, under bedding, in water coolers, etc. In addition to those of the type mentioned, there are many unsuspected places to test the inspector's keenness.

A transfer platform, approximately 20 feet wide and long enough to accommodate 7 cars on each side; is located in the classification yard. It is equipped with a single standard-gage railway track on each side, covered roof, and electric lights. Those cars containing fruits and vegetables intended for I.T. shipment to interior points are spotted along the side of the transfer platform. After the cars are spotted, the customs seals: are broken and the plant quarantine warning tags are removed* The crates of fruit and vegetables are then removed from the cars, assorted, and loaded into other cars on the opposite side of the platform, for destination, in accordance with instructions of importers. It is during this transfer that the inspection is made. From 3 to.5 percent of the crates in each car are set aside and opened, and a 100 percent inspection is made of the contents of each crate. After the inspection is completed, and if no injurious insects or plant diseases are noted, the shipments are released to the customs officer by signing the entry papers and manifesto It is interesting to note at this point that the cars for shipment in a seatrain may be loaded to the extent of their cubic capacity and as a result contain the equivalent of from tuo'to three carloads of merchandise measured as cars are loaded for regular movement over rails. 0

The inspection of fruit and vegetable shipments for local consumption is carried out in much the same manner with the exception that the cars are s-Witched to the city and spotted at the Fruit Exchange or at some privately owned siding.









DOMESTIC PLANT QUARANTINES
.... INPECTON
TRANSIT INSPCTION

The first apparent violation of the date-palm scale insect quarantine ever
found in transit inspection was discovered by.the inspector at Kansas City on March 31, Shoots bearing female date buds and so labeled were being shipped from Palm Springs, Calif., to New Yoqrk,:. The -shipment was reported to the project leader at Indio, Calif., for determination as to whether .shoots of this type need to be inspected for the Parlatoria scale. The latter states that such small shoots are not capable of propagation and may hereafter be disregarded.

Loyal citizens, attempting to show admiration for the President by sending
him flowers or plants, occasionally fail to take the necessary precautions to avoid shipping dangerous material. A recent shipment of pussy willow and white-pine branches addressed to the White House, and originating in an area infested with the satin moth, the gypsy moth, and the white pine blister rust, was -noted at New York. The inspector was obliged to turn it back. Last fall a citizen of Eau'Claire, Wis., desiring to contribute to the beauty of the-President's property-at.Warm Springs, Ga,, shipped some white pine seedlings to,;that address. The shipper later explained that they "came-from a small island'where there are but few pines, and all in good healthy condition." Owing to the blister rust outbreak near Eau Claire, however, the Bureau could not :issue a permit to reship the pines which had been turned. back in transit.

Other interceptions of interest during.the month include bulbs of Canadian origin found at Philadelphia after first being caught .by the port inspector at Buffalo and stamped for refusal. The package had evidently slipped through, however, and was on its way to the consignee at South Richmond, Va.,,.when discovered by the inspector at Philadelphia and again turned back.

While, poplar and willow are restricted under the satin moth quarantine, it is rather unusual to find both in one shipment, as well as insect eggs (probably those of the forest tree tent caterpillar) encircling a twig, as was the case in a recent shipment from the regulated area, which was caught at New York and turned back4.

A 100-pound bag of poultry grit, moving by steamship from a point in the
Japanese beetle area, was found to contain sufficient sand to require certification under that quarantine. As no such certificate was attached, the shipment was held at Jacksonville, Fla., until it was learned that movement was authorized.

It is not unusual to find lot shipments certified only as to some of the
pieces. Forty thousand seedlings,.labeled "Banks pine," moving from the Japanese beetle area to an outside point, were recently found by the Pittsburgh inspector to be packed in seven pasteboard cartons and only one with a Japanese beetle certif cate attached. The inspector on telephoning the Harrisburg office learned that the entire lot had been certified, and accordingly allowed it to proceed.' -One of the ways in which instances of this kind arise, it is believed, is that when the









certificates are delivered to the nurseryman he attaches them to the order and sends them to the packer who, in making up the packages, attaches the certificates as far as they have been supplied and allows the rest of' the packages to go for-. ward without them* It is necessary therefore for transit inspectors to check up and report lot shipments not completely certified as required by the regulations. In the event all~ are without certificates it is necessary to turn them back.

The inspector at Albany has extended his activities to Mechanicville also, for the purpose principally of' securing information on the movement of stone and quarry products from northern Vermont. In the twio freight transfers located at Mvechanicville there is opportunity of checking both eastbound arnd westbound shipmentsa,

Express shipments are now being checked at New Haven* Formerly only
freight at the Cedar Hill transfer was covered at this point.

At Omaha desk space for the transit inspector has been furnished through the courtesy of the Supervisor of Warehouse Grain Inspectidn. The address is 501
Federal Office Building, Bureau of Agricultural Economics*

At'Indianapolis the inspector has secured space in the office of the State Entomologist, R~oom 404, New State Library Building.

A clerk of the R~ailway Express Agency, Inc., at Boston, intercepted and
turned back on March 29, 15 shipments in violation of quarantines relating to the Japanese beetle and gypsy moth, according to information from the transit inspector at that point. One of the results of the maintenance of the transit inspection system is the interception by express employees of many potential violations of plant quarantines which are never reported to the Department*

WHITE-PINE BLISTER RUST

The inspection of four pine-growing nurseries in Virginia and of three in Maryland was completed by the middle of April, and the work is now in progress in the nurseries of the Middle West whose owners have applied for pine-shipping permits. In Ribes-growing areas, the Division of Plant Disease Eradication and Control of the Bureau of Entomology supervises an annual spring Ribes eradication survey -before the quarantine inspector arrives*






DATE SCALE ERADICAT ION

During the month of March inspection of the districts adjoining the infested area in Coachella Valley was completed and no scale found. These districts have
been inspected once a year since 1928, and although offshoots and pollen from the infested area have been used in many of the planting.i, no infestations have been found except in the Palm Springs District*









Clean-up work was continued; 282 palms were dug in.the infested area, and
leaf-bases and fiber removed from 36ipalms. Little work of this kind remains to be done.

Three plantings in the Indio-District which were infested in 1930 were inspected from ground and ladders and no scale found. Very little more ladder work will be done in this district.

Routine inspection was continued in the Salt River Valley in Arizona and in the Imperial Valley in California and no scale found. Scouting for unlisted palms was also carried on in the Imperial Valley, and previously infested properties checked in all areas for volunteer palms.





JAPAETSE BEETLE, MOTIS, AIfD EUROPEAN CORN BORER

Combination Japanese Beetle and Gypsy Moth Activities

Joint Japanese beetle and gypsy moth quarantine certificates were printed and issued late in March. These have been issued only to nurseries entitled to a class I status under the Japanese beetle quarantine regulations and in addition are located in the lightly infested gypsy moth area where it has been possible to determine the premises as uninfested with moths. Detailed reports are not required concerning the use of the joint certificates by the beetle- and moth-free establishments. Forms showing the number of shipments moving to-the respective nonregulated States and the quantity of certificates used to certify the quarantined articles are submitted monthly by the users of this type of certificate. In form, the joint certificate is similar to the Japanese beetle "A" certificate, being printed on yellow bond paper 2 by 4 inches in size. The joint form certifies that the materials in the package or the products included in the shipment "meet the requirements of Federal and State quarantines promulgated on account of the Gypsy Moth and Brown-Tail Moth (Q.No.45) and the Japanese beetle (QNo.48), as to movement to points outside the regulated areas." Use of this joint certificate in only one large nursery establishment in Connecticut will eliminate'an enormous amount of clerical work formerly involved in writing out gypsy moth certificates to accompany individual containers or carload lots. As many as seven temporary inspectors have been employed during the peak of the shipping seasons at this nursery in writing out the certificates. The revised procedure will shift the routine work of affixing the certificates to the packages and accounting for their use to the nursery personnel, thus eliminating the necessity for the employment of temporary labor for certification purposes, This same system is being applied in several additional nursery establishments in the lightly infested gypsy moth territory in Connecticut.

Japanese Beetle Activities
Coincident with announcement early in March of modification of the New York State Japanese beetle quarantine regulations restricting the intrastate movement of






quarantined articles, B. D. VanBuren, Director of the New York Bureau of Plant Industry, took occasion to w&r4 prospective purchasers ofpnursery stock agains 'irresponsible peddlers of such stock operating in New York.- In commenting on the sale of stock by such peddlers, Mr. VanBuren said; "The spread of the Japanese beetle on nursery stock is lrgely confined to trees or perennial plants which are distributed with soil upon their roots. Prospective planters-in the lightly infested area may help in the delaying of heavy infestation of this insect by purchasing their requirements from nurseries that are certified by the State and classified by the Federal Bureau of Plant Quarantine. They also might well look with suspicion upon the unknown peddler'oT trees, shrubs, and plants with no local place of business, unless such peddlers can show a State inspection certificate covering the stock sold by him together with proof of Federal classification of the nursery where the stock originated." This announcement was given considerable publicity in the newspapers throughout New York. Enactment of an ordinance to. enforce Mr. VanBuren's suggested action was advocated by the Merchant's Association of Scarsdale, N.Y., shortly after the article appeared in the press. It was suggested by the association that peddlers be heavily taxed and the revenue thus secured be applied toward the relief of real estate. As proposed, the tax would apply to peddlers of fruits, nursery stock, and bakery goods.

Seriously injured while proceeding to his automobile in connection with his inspection work in the Kagerstown, Md-., section, Agent H. 0. Windsor was, on March 28, rushed to the Washington County Hospital with a cut jugular vein. Mr. Windsor was attempting to cross Washington Street in Hagerstown at a pedestrian's crossing in the center of a block. Noticing an approaching truck, he waited for its passing about 5 feet in front of a double parked car. Instead of proceeding straight ahead, the truck driver cut sharply to the right in Mr. Windsor's direction. Realizing that he was about to be struck by the truck's fender, the inspector evidently hunched his body, throwing his head forward. Just at that time a man accompanying the truck driver opened the door of the truck cab and Mr. Windsor's head crashed through the glass of the door. Recovering himself, Mr. Windsor went immediately to a nearby doctor. First aid was administered by clamping the severed vein and the injured man was rushed to the hospital in an ambulance. Transfusion of a quart of blood, furnished by the ambulance driver, was necessary. In addition to the cut vein, Mr. Windsor suffered deep lacerations about his face and neck, fracture of the left nasal bone, and evulsion of four upper teeth. It is anticipated that these injuries will confine the inspector to the hospital for about 2 months. Until Mr. Windsor i's able to resume his duties, the inspection work in the Hagerstown and Cumberland sections Will be handled by'd. N. Dobbs, who has been temporarily transferred from the central Pennsylvania district.

C,W.A. workers at the Frankford Arsenal, Philadelphia, early in March were
instructed to clean out the debris from beneath a porch of the old barracks. They continued their cleaning activities until they reached the storage place of the lumber and galvanized roofing used each year in erecting the Philadelphia fruit and vegetable inspection platform. Through a misunderstanding of their instructions, they continued to remove everything found under the porch. When their activities were discovered by G. B. Stichter, district supervisor at the Philadelphia headquarters, the laborers had already hauled one load of lumber to the dump and had lpaded another for removal as junk. It was necessary to take the second load to dump, unscramble the platform lumber from the debris and return it to its storage place. Snow falling at the time added to the difficulties of sorting Out the






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lumber. To add to Mr. Stichter's 't doubles for that day, 2'hours after the lumber had been replaced in storage, the Arsenal fire alarm rang and an excited messenger boy informed the district supervi6or that the fire was in the building where the project's cars and bean inspection machines'are st ord. -Mr. Stichter raced to the buiding, only to find that the Ispector General from Washihgton had set off the fire alarm as a test of the fire depart ent Water was playing on the supposed blaze in 2 minutes and 15 seconds.

,Officials-of this year's Philadelphia Flower Show accorded our inspectors
the customary close.6cooperation in permitting strict supervision-of plant material from nested establishments and certified plants intended for return to classified premise~. As usual,. the certified material was satisfactorily segregated from uncertified plants. This year's show *as open from March 12 to 17. The whole expanse of the Commercial Museum was'designed to present a unified appearane Each one of the thodsands of blooms was arranged to appear as a unit in one great garden, Small.exhibits, enclosed with hedges, were so planned as to represent separate nooks in a garden 'of a suburban estate. Sir Frederick W. Moore and Lady Moore of Ireland were guests of the Flower Show officials on March 15. The Philadelphia show :was the .01Ost exhibition sponsored by the Pennsylvania Horticultural Society. The Garden.Club of America and the Garden Club Federation of Pennsylvania cooperated with the Society in arranging t4' exhibits. A nominal amount of checking of certified and-uncertified plants was also required at the 21st International Flower Show held in the Grand Central Palace, New York City, from March 19 to 24.

Plant quarantine charts of two'types, prepared by the Bureau of Plant Industry of the New Jersey Department of,Agriculture, were recently distributed from the White Horse, N.J., district office to nursery and greenhouse establishments th)'oughout the State. The largest of the, New Jersey charts outlines the respectiw State requirements for nursery. stock shipments from the State for the calendar year 19_i. -It lists the requirements 6oncdrning State certification, fees, bonding, as similar information of interest to nurseries, dealers, agents, and brokers. The second chart summarizes 10 State quarantines and 4 Federal quarantines affecting shipments of nursery stock and othfier articles from New Jerseyk Of particular'valu on either chart is a list of the plant quarantine officials in'47 States who should be consulted for further details of their State regulations.

Inauguration of the road patrol work for 1934 began on March 27 with the es tablishment of two posts, one on State Route No. 37,'south of Norfolk, Va., and the other on U.S. Route 58, west of Suffolk, Va. Ofl March 29, three additional stations were opened. These arc located on U.S. Route 17 on the southern city limits of Fredericksburg, Va., on U.S. Route 1, south of Fredericksburg;-and State Route No. 3, west of the same city. Another station began operation on March 31 two miles west of Fairfax, Va., on U.S. Highway 211. Each of three posts are man* ned by two inspectors working in two 8-hour shifts. The other three stations are operated as one-man posts during the 8 hours of heaviest traffic. The day follo' ing the opening of the first-named station, a potted hydrangea containing Japanese beetle infestation was intercepted while being transported'by"a motorist from Norfolk, Va4e, to Elizabeth City, N.,
,'The rearing and distribution of certain nematodes which parasitize inspcts, as a control measure for the Japanese beetle, previously performed under the,





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direction of Dr. Glaser at the Rockefeller Institute, Princeton, N.J*, in coopera,tion with the Few Jersey Department of Agriculture, has been transferred to the New Jersey district headquarters at White Horse. The work will continue as a State oontrol project. During I1arch, 150 strawberry plants were placed in 3-inch pots and the soil in each pot infested with 5 Popillia japonica larvae. Five series of pots were infested with nematodes to determine the effect of the parasites on the larvae and further to ascertain whether the nematodes would infest the strawberry plants. Almost a ton of peeled potatoes will be required to rear the nematodes. It is anticipated that the parasites will be transferred to Japanese beetle infested ground during the latter part of April.

Until the latter part of March, weather conditions rendered it practically impossible to dig nursery stock for shipment. Vhen the weather at last permitted the ground to thaw and dry enough for lifting of stock many of the large nurseries required inspections at the same time. This sudden demand on the inspection corps was anticipated and the work was accomplished with only a slight increase in personnel. All demands for inspection were filled with only a few minor inconveniences tO the shippers. In New Jersey inspections were made of considerable quantities of horseradish, asparagus, and rhubarb roots. Hot-water treatment of the rhubarb roots was required before they could be certified. Due to the lateness of the nursery shipping season and the large amount of stock that must be shipped within the next month, it is anticipated that April will be one of the busiest months for nursery inspection in recent years.

"Instructions to Inspectors on the Treatmdnt of Nursery Products, Fruits, Vegetables, and Soil, for the Japanese Beetle" 'was issued on March 14, 1934, as BPK-359. This 17-page mimeographed circular replaces PQCA-224, dated April 16, 1929, and 7 supplements issued subsequent to that date. Arranged in logical order are the treating methods prescribed for soil in the absence of plants, soil about the roots of plants, and miscellaneous quarantined articles. Methods of fumigation and sterilization of soil with raw carboft disulphide, carbon disulphide emulsion, naphthalene, steam, hot water, and lead arsenate are described in detail. Procedures for fumigating bananas with liquid hydrocyanic acid and calcium cyanide, and berries with carbon disulphide or ethylene oxide are outlined. These instructions now assemble in a single manual complete details of all types of treatments currently employed as a basis'6f qiiarantine certification under regulations
6 and 7 of Quarantine 48.

Collections of soil samples for analysis are about a month behind the usual schedule. Poor weather and unsuitable soil conditions during most of the month made it impossible to collect soil samples in lead-arsenate-treated nursery plots until March 22. During the remainder of the month there were several days suitable for gathering the samples, with the result that 195 samples were dug from fields of growing plants. With the exception of leaded heeling-in areas, the lifting of soil samples was completed in one large northern New Jersey nursery. In another the work was nearing completion at the end of the month. These activities required the employment of 15 temporary inspectors. In all, approximately 800 samples will be taken for analysis. dith favorable_ ve3ther conditions, all samples froth fields of growing plants will be completed by the micdle of April.









Florists and wholesale dealers in decorative potted plants throughout the
regulated zone were almost, unanimous in reporting an excellent Easter trade. Raii which in some sections fell in torrents most of the Saturday-before Easter, somewhat reduced pre-Easter sales. Phone orders on Saturday and heavy sales on Easter Day disposed of practically everything grown especially for the Easter season. While a few sections irepdrtea only fair movement of potted stock, the greatE portion of the trade stated that sales were brisk and excelled their expectations. Winter-killing of forcingbulbe buried in open ground resulted in reduced supplies of hyacinths, tulips, and lilies in some sections, with consequent higher prices for the available supply.

Over 400 adult Japanese beetles were.collected in rose greenhouses by inspectors in the Philadelphia district in late February and early March. These were collected in the course of routine inspection work and immediately forwarded to the laboratory of the Toxological Division at Trenton. Considerable cloudy weather during December and anuary followed by severe cold spells somewhat delayed the peak out-of-season emergence of the greenhouse-reared adults. The largest single day's collection was made on March 22, when 134 beetles were picked from roses in one greenhouse and 93 specimens were recovered in another. 'Employees in these ranges were required daily to hand-pick the beetles from the plants to prevent the insects from destroying the rose blooms.

C.W.A. projects S-0-222 and S-0-223 neared completion when it was necessary to terminate the work on March 29. On December 18, 1933, through a transfer from the Emergency Relief Board to the C.W.A. Board, 10 men were continued on labor wor) at -the New Cumberland warehouse under the above-numbered proje-ts titled "Reconditioning Ja;'nese beetle equipment." Of the men retained, 6 were supplied throuw there Cumberland County C.U.A. unit, the remaining 4 men being hired through the Yorl County unit. Practically the entire trap supply of the Bureau wvas unpacked, in-. spectedy traps and jars washed, traps repaired, painted, and repacked in wooden boxes. Remaining to complete the trap reconditioning are'about 5,000 traps to be assembled and packed and 60,000 trap rods to be inspected anderebundled.

In caravan formation, 20 light trucks were moved on March 6 from the White Horse, N.J., garage to the New Cumberland, Pap, warehouse. These cars were former ly in dead storage at the previously occupied Rutherford, N.'., suboffice and the garage space recently vacated at Glassboro, N.J. The trucks will not be placed il service until seasonal activities in connection with nursery and greenhouse scouti and fruit and vegetable inspection begin in June. Practically all of the New Jersey inspection force was commandeered to drive- the cars to New Cumberland. Tw* men from the Philadelphia personnel were also loaned for the occasion. All 20 car arrived at their destination without mishap. A Government owned bus transported the drivers to White Horse on the return trip.

Of more than usual difficulty was compliance with a recenturequest contained in a letter from a private individual in the heavily infested section of Staten Is* land, N.Y. This inquirer wished "information in regard to Japanese beetles, how to get rid of them and how to prevent their return." Information concerning protective sprays, turf poisoning, and trap control was furnished, with the qualifyinE information that it would be practically impossible to prevent beetles flying on







the property in question if this year's infestation in that section proves to be h(avy, ..It was also emphasized that the owner's property may be protected from beetle attack whether or not these measures are.adopted by the neighbors.

Explanations furnished by the iRailiay Express Agency afforded ample grounds for closing an apparent violation intercepted by a transit inspector in Boston. When examined while en route from Torcester, Mass., to Portland, Maine, the shipment appeared to consist of a regular express shipment of uncertified quarantined material consigned by a private individual to his wife. It was learned that the shipment was a gift that an express messenger was taking to his wife, and that the parcel was not covered by a regular waybill. Furthermore, both the messenger and his wife died shortly'after the interception. No further reasons were needed for closing the file.

There were a few snowfalls in some sections of the regulted territory
during March, but warm weather soon melted what snow remained on the-.ground. In the Philadelphia district, the break in the continued cold weather came about March
5. Thereafter rain and moderate temperatures quickly melted the snow, permitting nurseries, Zreenhouses, and seed houses to start their heavy shipping. March business was reported as considerably better than for the same month last year.

The Mediterranean fruit fly files covering the work of the Florida project during the enforcement of Quarantine No. 68 were broughtto the New Cumberland, Pa., warehouse from the Jashington headquarters of the Bureau in NoVember. Later the files were transferred to the Harrisburg headquarters where they are now set up in a ~manner to,permit easy reference to any available record that may be desired.

71inter-killing of buds of azaleas aTd rhododendrons forced two large nurseries in southern New Jersey to withdraw many plants from their salable stock. Since the plants vill not blo-m this yeat, orders from customers amounting to 65,000 were canceled. Six thousand tree roses at one of the establishments were killed outright by the severe weather.

Destruction of aged nursery stock and other stock of little value has been practiced by a number of nurserymen in Pennsylvania in place of complying with the State nursery requirements. The stock destroyed was of so. little value that it did not justiTfy the spraying required to free the trees from scale and other insects.

Corn Borer Certification

Summaries of current State European corn borer quarantine regulations were
compiled by the Division of Domestic ,uarantines of the Bureau and issued as mimeographed circular BQ-346 (Revised M1arch 15, 1934). This revision wds necessitated by the issuance of new regulations by the States of Indiana, Michigan, and Ohio, and revisions of previously issued regulations by Illinois, Kansas, Missouri, Nebraska, and 7lisconsin, The Utah quarantine was also recently revised to provide for a complete embargo on quarantined articles from infested States. An amendment to the Idaho quarantine now provides for acceptance of State certificates on restricted articles. This revised Bureau publication officially brings up to date the State corn borer regulations now in effect#









Farm Bureau officials are cooperating with local motion picture theaters throughout Hartford County, Conn*, in sponsoring a series of showings of the Department's educational motion picture "The European Corn Borer and How to Contro it," At Plainville, the film was shown at a local theater in connection with the regular shows on March 27 and 28. This was only one of a number of theaters that cooperated in thus calling .to public attention the destructiveness of the peat and the measures by which it may be controlled.

Consistent increases were evidenced in the number of shipments certified in compliance, with State corn borer quarantines during the first quarter of 1934. March shipments jumped to 916 as compared to 153 in January and 200 in February. The heaviest shipping during March was from New Jersey, Ohio, New York, Pennsylvania, and Michigan.

Gypsy Moth and Brown-Tail Moth Quarantine Enforcement

What is claimed to be the largest single piece of granite ever to be lifted with a derrick from a quarry in the Barre, Vt., district was recently shipped to CaGasauqua, Pa. When quarried, the piece weighed approximately 67 tons. Stonecutters made the piece into a base measuring 12, feet square and 4 feet high. To lighten its weight, 5 tons of stone were cut from the center of the base. There were two other base sections cut at the same time, a middle base piEce 8 feet sq uare and 4 feet high, and a top base 6 feet square and of the same height. To ,,-n he 3 base sections when the monument finally is erected, is a spire 22 feet
'- y 15 feet tall. All exposed surfaces of the 4 sections were highly polis: e t lii; inscription borne .by the-monument is on the middle base sections When set up, the entire memorial will weigh approximately 90 tons. Transportation of the weighty bottom base was accomplished in a specially constructed well car, whic during th World War was used for transporting heavy field artillery. Heavier stones than uhe enormous base have been quarried at Barre, but they have been roll( from the quarry rather than swung out with a derrick. The gypsy moth inspector in the Barre district inspected the former bridge timber used as blocking in this shipment.
Unofficial temperature records for Barre, Vt., show that during the past
winter there were 65 days on which the mercury dropped to zero or below. Five o: these days were in November, 13 in December, 16 in January, 21 in February, and 10 in March. The temperatures on the 10 coldest days were -400, .330, -320 (2 days) .300 (3 days), -290 (2 days), and -270 F. On 5 days the mercury reached exactly zero. The coldest day recorded was December 30,.when the mercury dropped to -400 This immediately followed a day when -330 had been recorded. The last severely cold day was March 12, when -140 was reached. According to the records of the Weather Bureau observer at Rutland, Vt., 77.3 inches of snow fell in that city dur, ing the past winter. A total. of 14 inches was recorded on January 15. This
-year's record has been exceeded only once during the 18 years that tabulations hay been kept in Rutland. The heaviest year's snowfall was during the winter of 1925 26, when 81.3 inches were recorded.

Fire at Westerly, R.I., on March 5, destroyed a large granite cutting shed with its contents of statues and models. It was estimated that the total damage amounted to $100,000. Nearly 10.0 statues, among which were some of the most. elab rate and costly to be carved at Westerly in recent years, were totally destroyed.j








Three particularly outstanding statues were ruined. One was a figure memorial cut from a stone weighing 40 tons. The statue was 16 feet high and 10 feet wide. After 8 months' work the statue was nearing completion. Another valuable piece destroyed was-an upright -memorial being carved from a second 40-ton piece. A large bird fountain intended for a family in Michigan was also cracked and crumbled by the intense heat. Most serious of the losses from the standpoint of recutting the statues was destruction of the models for all of these statues. The fire-razed cutting shed was 300 feet long. Forty men were temporarily thrown out of employment by the blaze.

Infested oyster buoy poles were freed from 16 egg clusters and certified for shipment from Norton, Mass., to Greenport, N.Y. The poles shipped varied in length from 20 to,30 feet. These poles have a hole bored through their diameter about 2 feet from the bottom. When used to mark the boundaries of private oyster beds, a rope is passed through the hole and the rope tied. The ends of the rope are then tied to an iron bolt and ring set in a concrete block. The pole is thus anchored but is free to move with the tide. It frequently happens that the poles are stored near the oyster wharves in uninfested territory for months at a time." This past winter has been particularly hard on the 'buoy poles. Freezing of sections of Long Island Sound and subsequent heaving and melting of the ice caused many poles to snap off.

Certification of a "totem pole" for a descendant of the Mohegan Indians was made by the inspector in the Willimantic, Conn., district. The pole was shipped .from Norwich, Conn., to a student attending the University of Pennsylvania. Made of maple, the pole was about 4 inches in diameter, hewed square,' except at the base where 2 feet of bark. remained. On one of the square surfaces was nailed a red painted, hand carving of an Indian face. The entire totem pole was about 5 feet in length. The Indian who presented the pole for inspection maintained a characteristic Indian silence concerning the meaning and use of the emblematic post. Remnants of the Mohegans are settled in Norwich, Conn., Green Bay, Wis., and in Kansas*

Lumber inspection in connection with loading operations at the freight car
was impracticable while a carload of planks for Canada was undergoing inspection in the Greenfield, Mass., district. Many of the planks were heavily coated with ice and snow and could not be quickly cleaned to determine freedom from egg clusters* Therefore the inspection was made at the lot, only planks on the tops of piles above the snow line being granted certification. No infestation was found in this particular shipment, although egg clusters were observed on trees near the lumber piles and 12 egg clusters were found in a chicken coop but a few feet away from the stored lumber.

FXamination for egg clusters in a 10-acre rose nursery in the Bath, Maine, district failed to disclose infestation on the rose bushes, but 21 egg clusters on nearby trees were brought to the attention of the proprietors. Owners of the establishment will creosote the egg clusters and apply two summer sprays to the 86 trees in and around their premises. In addition they will voluntarily spray an apple orchard north of the nursery plot. This firm has about 32 acres under cultivation. They informed the inspector that they anticipate a good business this year.






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In the off-seasonsp Finnish stone cutters near Milford, NsHof have purchase
large.,granite -bouldeTs scatter ed about:.tha 41 earl y 111g 'and cut them ifitd p ing bloekso .1. Proigpeat!Ve, ra.centlj -examined "Vhg i' elatedd lots *1th:a'vi6w ti
:corabining, them --into ;earload*shi.pmo-nts,:--'' 1I:f this,.Pdving to be'shi] ped td-no*nregi lated.t.err-i to:ryf..Eis:* is -'rumorexl;;* '.it:*,v*,'1"1) :i-hsP66tioh-6f, e'ach""block IS '6d -througfioiit ihf6s t&d 666i hd
hippeds. The-storage piles tir* att6r la ar a;s a
have ..be6n ovdr 'one or'-t#o 'egg laying. Odeon 4:

i:Uttll raeetitly-*q- limpa ssablv because, 6.f- P ihow, many'-badk-r6.dd' bi
Bangor, Mainet district after the spring thaw will soon be imped b bi,6'__Vecaise of hub-deep muds On March 31, the Coast Guard ice breaker KickaEoo opened a channel:
to Bahgor,* .:.Mov!5m6r!t"o f a,, ba- rgo. '.I;beid "61f, gr'ani t e,'fr6,m -EraAkfojrt,, awa ited opening 'of oint Waldo Cove t6:' e usual: qu6n -:6 ; railnavtigbLtion T vioe th tlt
I dh' 'w e in
road shirartood wa,-s--:6erti.fie& dur, hg Mei, S.!Am iii
demand-. b.0cause thawi urievenh -rhilroad
n S, 6 n rhia hy
tracks,
qua rt y .pt 0 du 6 t s Vt',' ar6 beih iffider
Shippers': of stone., and.-, at Bai-re-' 9*
-Permiti since,- the quar, ntined" odVot's*.' ''they :shlp lar& "itanufdbtu red,*' nd boredd :ih: s=h- a manner. that, AV 4,,* 'no infestati-oh'could. be ttansmitt6d_,-":' !All granit&,that. :ds shippad-fr 'Bajre,,;i 'fjeshjy qu*arried.* stone- or tewl 6it raonumental stock* Lumber used in crating or boxing the pieces is clean spr i cefrom which the bark is removed before its storage in closed sheds, where it is protected(
infastationi -..:
At the-.end'of Y f -frobt retained. -in the 8ftiuind in"
lar6h-'i am -unusual- amount
the.Tortland,-Maine,. district*,,-:,: Digging:6f nursery. ttock, which usual ly;-tiay: .:bit
started:by'April l, will-be delayedi:until-about Apri1'15.& When the 1 gr6und-::. thaws out sufficiently for lifting-,:the:s took, &,.rubh.l.to get :out ord&r8:,wi11. fteeestitate considerablb;-nursery-insp(jetion,,Works-, E6pecially is.this.,true' coicerRilig-stock
to..be'shipted into the Southern.*stat6se.,

Nhite birch was inspected and certified for movement from Monmouthy:-Maindt to Mahopac, N*Y*, where the shipment will be used in the manufacture of rustic furniture '.Af ter' inzpac t ion the "4,46ot' 'lengths -were wound iri,:paper.1 ta the barl from"being scratched Thw,&hij5per' of this
of the wood 'durdng.;1the, next monthso.::-NUtseryiden ln'New Zhg-'lamd,:anticipatd 6 considerable demand 'f63 Ithdi --td6k for rapla'ceme iit 6f trOes shrubs j --6fid 'p !dnt6 viih.t6r-killed durin' th&: uiW-6ual severe weather of -TanuarY 6hd Februatye,: Dne nursery vAn who h6s', shippdd tbo'Wiaftds of heather plants to -Now- York'patks-daring 'the past T6w years epotts 'that all :of certain varieties of heather have been winter-killed and will requir-'ereplacem6nto

'Gi 'sy Moths"' tis -the ti tle- of:-,Rddbook9s Common Sense Edit6rial by Bruce
Bart on, app eari ng, in .,'the- Redbook- Magatine for Februaryo Mr, Berton i observations o.f the gypsy moth's dos t:ruct iten6ss, -.in Aho ;,choi-ce trees on -his estate. last summer furnish the lead for an,..edito-r.ial, eonaerning. the struggle for bXi'stence, in the, plant 'and animal-kingdom*





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Inspection and certification of forest and other quarantined products originating in the gypsy moth infes8ted zone of northeastern Pennsylvania require the Pull-time assignment Of 7 inspectors of the Pennsylvania'*Bureau of Plant Industry. Requests for inspections have increased considerably due to the additional townships recently placed under restriction.

Infestations of gypsy moth to tellingg 72 egg clusters were found in the
course of inspection of car stakes and blockinE to accompany 5 shipments of granite from Concord, N.H. These shipments were destined to Washington, D.C., and points in New York State*

Out of 67 tourist camps inspected in the Bath, Maine, district, 20 were
found infested with the gypsy moth and 2 with the brown-tail moth. These inspections netted 354 gypsy moth egg clusters and 25 brown-tail moth webs*

Collections of gypsy moth egg clusters were made on four occasions during
March and the clusters forwarded to C. 'f. Collins, in charge of the gypsy moth research laboratory at Melrose Highlailds ,,,lass.

Chestnut leaves and twigs of a species which the shipper claims is immune to the chestnut blight were certified at Boston for shipment to G. F. Gravatt, senior pathologist of the Bureau of Plant Industry, Washington, D.C.





MEXICAN FRUIT FLY

Following the taking of a considerable number of adult Mexican fruit flies during the early part of March, a determined effort was made to locate any larval infestation that might exist. Practically every grove having any quantity of fruit was given a close inspection, and in addition all fruit taken in the tree-totree inspection of 1,854 groves was cut and inspected. All larval inspections
gave negative results. With one exception, all previous larval infestations have been found during the spring months, and the inability to locate a larval infestation this spring would indicate either that the fly population is less than in some previous years, or that the trapping and spraying operations are decidedly successful in preventing a larval infestation of the fruit. The great majority of the
female flies taken this season had not developed eggs in the ovaries, indicating that they were attracted to the traps shortly after emerging from the pupae. Where the grove was sprayed within a few days from the time of taking the adult, it is reasonable to believe that any flies not attracted to the traps would be killed be-~ fore having an opportunity of ovipositing.

During the fiscal year to the end of March, 231 adult A. ludens were trapped in 154 groves. More than half of these, or 143, were taken during March. In addition to the ludens, specimens of A. fraterculus, A. serpentina, A. pallens, A. "X"t species, A. "Y" species, and T* curvicauda were taken in the traps during the month. Of particular interest was the trapping of 3 female ludens'in the brush in
3 widely scattered locations* Whether this means that this species is feeding on





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a native host or whether the lack af fruit in the citrus groves is forcing them to wander about in search of material for oviposition, is not known. It is hoped that some light will be thrown on this question by an intensive trapping and inspection program that will be carried on in the brush during the next several months.

The State-operated power sprayer was in operation 22 days during the month, during which time 13,489 trees in 28 properties were treated with nicotine-molasseE spray. With the rate infestations werebeing turned up during the*early part of the month, it'wds realized that the one sprayer could not be expected to reach the groves within a reasonable time after finding the infestations, Accordingly, a representative of the State Department of Agriculture met with the Commissi6ners' Courts of Cameron and Hidalgo Counties and secured appropriations to pay for an additional power sprayer, and also to pay for part of the traps purchased last fall The new sprayer is expected to be in operation during the first part of April.

The operation of traps on the Mexican side of the river from Matamoros to Reynosa resulted in the taking of 3 A ludens, 1 A. striata, and 1 A. pallens in Matamoros. The other traps gave negative results. The specimen of striata was the first ever taken in Matamoros despite the fact that the city has been intensively trapped during the past 4 years. Larvae of striata are recovered occasion. ally from guavas imported to the market, in Matamoros, but seemingly this species has never been able to estabiish itself in the numerous guava bushes growing in Matamoros.

The shipment of mangoes from the southern part of Mexico started during the early part of the month, with 26 boxes of this fruit reaching Matamoros. From these, 18 larvae of A. ludens were taken and forwarded to Mexico City. While the Mexican inspector received no instructions concerning the shipment of mangoes to the border, a number of merchants in Matamoros received notice from the dealers in Michoacan that the shipment of mangoes to Matamoros.was strictly prohibited by the Mexican Government and that they would be unable to -fill future orders for mangoes.

The citrus crop of the Valley was practically harvested for this season by the end of the month. Orders were received on the 24th and given to the industry that the harvesting period.would end with the close of April 5. This action was deemed advisable due to the taking of rather large numbers of adult fruit flies ane because the full extension granted at the opening of the season, when a l5,000-der crop was indicated, was not needed. The industry as a whole was anxious to bring the season to a dlose. Due to the good price prevailing for fruit throughout the month, groves were stripped clean of fruit. Very little off-bloom fruit has been observed on the trees, and it is expected that the Valley will enter the host-free period in better shape than at any time during the past several years. Shipments were steady throughout the month with very little of the end-of-the-season rush in getting fruit out. The majority of the fruit shipped during the month was hauled by trucks which have, throughout the year, handled more fruit than the railroads. A daily average of 68 fruit trucks passed the road station during the month. The total shipment of Truit for the season will probably be in. excess of 4,OOOcars, rather than 2,000 as was estimated immediately after the hurricane of September 4*





-.23.PDh'K BOLLWORM

Weather conditions were more favorable in southern Florida during March than during the previous month, and as a result the eradication of wild cotton went forward very rapidly* All cotton in the area from Naples, in Collier County, northward has been removed. This work included not only the recleaning of areas formerly cleaned, but also the first clean-up of many new colonies which were inaccessible last season or which had not been located. Considerable progress has
also been made in that part of Collier County south of Naples which is being bleaned for the first time. There is still considerable work to do in this area before all of the known cotton will have been eradicatea,

On Cape Sable the area cleaned has been extended considerably. At the close
of the month the crews had work 'ed inland to the prairie and hammock bordering Whitewater Lake, To reach this area it was necessary for the men to cut automobile trails through considerable growth so that the laborers would not have to walk so far to and from work. Some 25 miles of trails have been made this season. It was also necessary to build a number of bridges over clanals. These bridges were constructed without any cost to the Department by using driftwood, logs, and trees. The inspectors have exhibited considerable engineering skill in this trail and, bridge work. One of the crews at Cape Sable began the clean-up program on keys in Florida Bay adjacent to Cape Sable*. By the end of the month those keys accessible by boat from the mainland had been cleaned and a small camp was established on one of the keys as a working base to reach those -more distant from the mainland.

The reclean-up on the mainland keys, from Key Largo southward to Lower
Matecumbe, has progressed very well. Several small keys adjacent to the mainlands have been completed. In thi's area a good many plants are found growing in cracks and crevices in the rocks, and it is almost impossible to dig ~out the plants by the roots in such locations. The eradication of such plants is being undertaken by chemical treatment, sodium arsenite, at the rate of approximately 2 pounds of dry sodium arsenite gray to a gallon of water, ben-z used. This liquid is applied by means of a long-spout oil can equipped with a valve, Preliminary experiments made last fall indicate that this method will prove satisfactory.

The weekly examination of blooms from the cotton plots at Chapman Field was made throughout the month. A total of 1,045 blooms and 27 bolls were examined with negative results. There was not sufficient time to examine any hibiscus blooms*

The sterilization of planting seed in the regulated area of southern Georgia, mentioned in the last News Letter, has been completed. A total of 91J7 tons were
treated, and a considerable quantity of this seed has already been planted. A
farmer recently told one of our inspectors that he had secured a perfect stand, and was thoroughly convinced that sterilization did not injure the germinating qualities of the seed.

As part of their program, and to assist in eradicating the pink bollworm,
the Agricultural Adjustment Administration has established a no-cotton zone to include the area where infest _tion was founo in southern GeorgiJa last fall. At the request of the State Entomnologist of Georgia a small plot of cotton will be planted









in each of the two fields where infestation was found. The blooms from this cotton will be picked and inspected daily. This will give information as to the continued presence of the insect and also serve as a trap for any moths which might emerge and lay eggs.

The State of Texas has made arrangements to sterilize planting seed in the new area in West Texas where infestation was found this past season. Some 21 sterilizers will be installed at various gins throughout the a~rea.. Each machine will be supervised by one of out insppectors to see that the seed is satisfactorily treated. By the end of the month several of these machines had already been installed and were in operation, and the remaining ones will be ready in a short time.

Preparations for the trap-plot work in the Big Bend have gone forward
satisfactorily. The hotbed -cotton is in a healthy condition and is growi n rapidly, the plants now being about 5 inches in heightand containing from 4'to' 6,leaves. As the plants developed they were gradually thinned to where the two' healthiest plants were left in each cup. By the end of the month the field plots had been prepared and with the exception of water everything, was in readiness to begin transferring the plants to field plots. This transplanting will be done the first of the coming month. The two half-acre plots in Brewster County are growing nicely. One of these plots is well protected, and cotton came up to at least a 95 percent stand. The other .plot is not so well protected and does not have such a good stand; however, it does not appear that any replanting will be necessary. The recent cool weather did not extend to this area, and if none is experienced in the future this trap cotton will be well in advance of the main crop. A few farmers requested permission to begin planting a little early, but upon being told that this might interfere with the program, they did not insist, and it now appears that no cotton will be planted prior to April 15.

Laboratory inspection at San Antonio and the various field stations has
gone forward as usual. Last fall some green bolls were collected in the regulated area of West Texas and New Mexico to make a comparison betwen the cost and efficiency of gin-trash inspection as compared to boll inspection under laboratory conditions. Several specimens of the.pink bollworm were found in some of these bolls, but with this exception the results of laboratory inspection were negative. Because of the need of inspectors to supervise machines in connection with the sterilizing of planting seed in the new area of West Texas, the San Antonio laboratory has been temporarily closed. As soon as this program is completed the men will return to San Antonio and resume laboratory inspection.





PREVENTING SPREAD OF MOTHS

Effective March 1, 1934, the State of Pennsylvania extended the area which they had placed under quarantine on account of the gypsy moth to include additional townships in which infestations have been discovered since the start of the present scouting season# Although every effort to discover the farthermost






-25


limits of the infested area were made last year, the magnitude of the task ren-. dered its completion impossible. Before the limits could be fixed the season had advanced so far that the egL clusters had hatched and spraying operations had to be started, In order to protect'the remainder of-the State and other States from the danger of becoming infested through the transportation of ihfested materials, the State of Pennsylvania placed unde)? quarantine an area of 409 square miles which scouting had shown to be infested. One more township, of 19 square miles, was placed under quarantine in December 193j3, as it was found infested* With the start of the new scouting season last fall the crews of men engaged in control work were assigned to the known infested area where.there was the most pressing need for their services in order to perform the eradication work planned* As soon as it was possible to do so, or when working conditions in the known infested area became un-satisfactory, crews were moved into outside territory to continue the search for the border-line of infestation, As w.as expected, infestations were found in some of the outside townships, and the most recent extension by the State of the area under quarantine was made to bring under regulation all townships in which infestations had been found up to March 1. The extension of area increases the total number of square miles to 700. Included in this'700 square miles, lying in the counties of Carbon, Lackavianna, Luzerne, Monroe, and Wayne, are 68 townships, cities, boroughs, or other political subdivisions and a part of one other township*

The materials under restrictions which move from the quarantined area are
shipped moistly to Pennsylvania destinations, As a rule, mine props, lumber, firewood, and jttrik metals compose the major portion of the materials inspected, with a few shipments of nursery stock, cable reels, and miscellaneous articles*

The gypsy moth control work performed by assigned portions of the personnel at the Civilian Conservation Corps camps, located west of the Connecticut River in New England, has varied somewhat in amount accomplished each month* ", hen the camps were started there was nothing but the sites. Roads had to be constructed, areas cleared, living quarters provided, and numerous buildings erected. All these tasks provided plenty of employment for the entire personnel and it was not un 'til most of this work had been done that men could be spared for other assignments. ,When. gypsy moth control work by camp men was first authorized the number of men who co uld be spared for this activity was limited, As the season advanced and camp projects neared completion more and more men were placed on control work* I:t was found, however, that it was impossible to maLitain the force at a fixed number, as other activities made it necessary to direct some of the labor to other tasks. Month by month there was considerable fluctuAtion in the number of men engaged in gypsy moth control* During the winter, which was of unusual severity, there were numerous periods when outdoor work was out of the question, as severe cold and deep snow imposed too great hardships on the men. Immediately after heavy falls of snow many of the men were required for snow removal at the camps and the roads to the camps. As the frost began to come out, camp roads in some plades became nearly impassable as, through necessity, they were built rapidly and have not proven equal to holding up under early spring conditions. Much work by camp personnel has been necessary to keep such roads open to traffic. By the end of March the year of enrollment permitted was completed and the men obliged to leave. New enrollments did not begin at once at some of the camps and it may be several wosk,- beforo quotas are filled, The changes in personnel will remove many of the





.....III~hI~ Y OF LORIDA
61262 09241 6899


men trained on gypsy moth work and this will make it necessary to train the new men to continue control work already begun. In spite of all handicaps imposed by weather and variations in number of men who could be employed on gypsy moth work, many thousands of acres of woodland have been scouted together with over .a thousand miles of roadsides.. A number of dangerous gypsy mothinfestations heve been found and a large number of egg clusters destroyed.
Each spring travel for the scouting force becomes quite dificult because
of the condition of the roads. While much of the territory in Which work is performed is traversed by hard-surfaced roads, only small portions of the-individual towns can be reached from them. The remainder of each town has to be reached over dirt roadsiand these become impassable in many sections when the frost begins to dome out.. The past winter had such excessively cold weather that frost penetrated to record depths and, as a result, dirt roads are in much worse condition this spring than usual. Some-of them are perfect seas of mud through which it is impossible to ,drive motor vehicles, and the transportation of men to some sections of towns in which they are working is not -possible. There has been some slight improvement in spots but-it is expected that rany roads will not be in condition for travel until much later.
Among the infestations diseovered during the course of the scouting this
season is one located in a large camp ground owned by an organization whose members come annually from many portions of the country to spend some time at meetings and exercises. The camp ground covers a considerable area and has many cottages in which the members live during their visits which often last all summer. Many large trees grow on this property; in fact, the entire area is a large grove kept nearly clear of small growth and dead trees-by a caretaker who resides there the year round. It is particularly desirable to eradicate this infestation in order to avoid the transportation of any egg clusters to other sections of the country by visitors what they return to their homes at the end of the season.
During the entire winter the force of men employed at the storehouse and repair shop has been engaged.in-countless tasks connected with the upkeep of the many articles of equipment necessary for the proper conduct of the control work. Highpower sprayers are cleaned, painted, and repaired when needed so that they may all be in first-class condition when sent into the field a4 the start of the spraying season. Small articles, such as bark knives, hand mirrors, and others are made in large lots in order to have ample supplies of these at all times. For the majority of the pieces of equipment nothing is placed in storage for future use until after it has:been put in proper condition. The past monthimiuch work has been done on snowshoes returned from the field after a most unusually long period of hard service. The almost uninterrupted use throughout the winter, over rough cou-ntry and often on hard-crusted snow, .wore off the varnish fr6m the webbing, and mud chafed through the straps of.the foot harnesses necessitating revarnishing and replacing of harness. A specially constructed tank to facilitate dipping shoes in varnish was made, and by this method it has been found possible to handle the large-number of snowshoes much more rapidly than would be possible with hand brushes. --New spray hose is delivered at the storehouse without the couplings attached and the work of fixing two of these on each length of hose is performed there. By the use of specially designed equipment for the attaching of the couplings, the men assigned to this work are able to make rapid progress. All of the hose purchased this year has had the couplings attached and is in storage ready for the coming spraying season.




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NEW S LETTER BUREAU. _01 ;PJ~T QUARANTINE • 9 • • I •• ' 1 \ • I •• 'UNITED STATES D~~T.tNT OF AGRICULTURE UBRAR =~=:=~=======-= ~=-=~====-==e======= ===. = .=~~~========c==~~~==================== Number 4,i . . (NOT FOR PUBLICATION) May 1, 1934• (The contents of this number, unless specifically stated otherwise, c~ver the month of March only) --------------------------------------------------.------------------------------•• 1. ADMINISTRATIVE ... APPROPRIATION ACT FOR~ FISCAL YEAR 1935 The Act making appropriations for the Department of Agriculture for the fiscal year 1935 was sig ned by the President on March 26, 1934. This Act establishes in the .Department the Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine, which is formed by the consolidation of the Bureau of Plant Quarantine r.ith the Bureau of Entomology, including those branches of the Bureau of Plant Industry administratively transferred thereto several months ago. Work transferred from the Bureau of Plant Industry is combined in the Division of Plant Disease Eradication and Control. It includes the eradication and control of phony peach disease, white pine blister rust, barberry, citrus canker, and Dutch elm disease. This arrangement will be unchanged by the formal incorporation of this unit into the new Bureau. The administrative offices of the Bureaus-of Entomology and Plant Quarantine will be consolidated. A new unit, known as the Division of Control Investigations, will be established. This will be composed of the present technological unit of the Bureau of Plant Quarantine, which is concerned with the coordination and standardization of methods of disinfection of plants and plant products, and the unit, at present carried under the item "Identification and Classification of Insects" in the Bureau of Entomology, engaged in work in Physiology and Toxicology. ~ith these exceptions the subject-matter divisions of both ureaus will retain their present titles and functions, the only difference in organization set-up being that they will all be included under the one Bureau. Amounts carried in the Act as passed for the various lines of work conducted by the Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine are as follows: General Administration •••..••••••.••••••.••.•..•• Fruit Insects ...................................• Japanese Beetle Control ••••••••••• Mexican Fruit Fly Control•••••••••••• Citrus Canker Eradication•••••••••••• Phony Peach Eradication••••••••~• $149,109 320,759 230,000 101,652 12,299 45,462

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.-2Da.te Seale Control. ~ - •'.• ~ •••••••$ 22,768 Forest Insects • • . •••.•.•.•.••••••••..•.•••••.• • , •• 145,655 Truck Crop and Garden Insects~~••••• ; ••••• 303,o~ Cereal and Forage Insects ••••••••••••• 312,701 European Corn Borer Control•••••••••• 30,411 Cotton_ Ins_ects • •••• _ • • •.•.• . .... • • • • _ • . • . , ••••• . • . • _ • .•••••• 136,000 Pink B ollw orm Control • • ••••• •..••.. • • .••••••••• ., ••••••• 254,959 Thurberia Weevil Control•• •••• •• 2,584 . E~e. C\ll~4r:e Insects Aff'e ct.ing Man and Ani:qials •••. •• .••••••••••• _ Ins~ct Pe$t Surv.ey and Identification. • ••••••. ••••• " . ,. ' . ' ' . . .. . Control Investigations , •••••••••••••••••••••••••• Transit Inspection•••• •••••••••••••••••••••~••• Foreig n Plant Q,uarantines • , • •••••. ••••••••••••• , •• including $16,000 reappropriated of the unexpended balance for the fiscal year 1933, Certification of Exports ••••••~•• Dutch Elm Disease • ........... . ................... . Gypsy and Brown-Tail Moths •••••••• 45,670 109,600 12.1, 616 40,738 26,419 568,966 16,120 150,000 350,000 The appropriation for the last two items is, to a considerable e xtent, tied up with allotments which h~ve been or may be made from funds of the PUblic Works Administr_ a,t'ion, it being specified in the Act that the sum appropriated forthe contro1 an d pr_ ev entinn of spre.ad of the . Dutch Elm .Di~ease shall be reduced by an ' . amount e qual to any' amo'unt that may hereafter be , allotted for the purposes named ' from any Federal •relief or other Feq_eral emergency approp!iations; arp that t .he appropriati on for Gypsy and Brown-Tail Moths shall be taken from the allotment made for this purpose by the Pub~ic Works Administration. The inclusion of the i terns in the ,A.gri cul tlira l Appropriation Bill, however, makes clear the authority for the activities carried on thereundere It will of course be noted that the Appropriation Act contains no items for Blister Rust Control and Barberry Eradication, two of the lin~s of work transferred from the Bureau of Plant Industry. The reason for this is that these activities ' . ' will, during the fiscal year 1935, be financed entirely through allotment~ from the Public Works Administration~ The exact amount that will be available is not known at this time, as it will depend on the amount that remains unexpe~ded from all_ot .. ments already made for that purpose • . It is hoped, however• that it will be suffi• cient to permit the carrying on of a normal . pr~gr~m of work • . A comparison or the amounts listed above with the_ appropriations for the fiscal year 1934 -will in practicaily every case indicate a distinct reduction. It should be borne in mind, however, t _hat at t _ he p1•esent time work under. these items i s being co .nducted under a cash withdrawal 1imi tat ion appreciably snaller than _the 19 3 4 appropriatidns, so that the figures for the fiscal 'year 1935 are not actually a s unfavorable as the y appear at first glance. j ' ' ... • • ' -Des p ite c ertain curtailments which will be necessi.tate. d by reduced appropriations, i t is f elt tha t the creati. on of the. Bureau of Entomology and . P;l.ant Quarantine offe r s distinct advantages to.the'uriit' s ' included therein. , . inasmuch a s it sets t ' • • • ... , - • • ' • ' • • • "' I • t ... . .. . .. . . ' . . ,,,, ....

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up a logiqal organization of hitherto separated activities dealing w ith the control of.insect pests and plant diseases and the ad.rn~nistration of quarantines based thereon. The hearty cooperation of qll:COJ?.Cerned in worki-ng out the pro blems involved in the early days of the functioning of t his ne w Bureau will go far toward in9uring its succe s ful operation. -..... FOREIGN PLANT QUARANTINES R~CENT ENTOMOIDGIC.AL INTERCEPTIONS OF INTEREST Mediterranean fruit fly from Sicily.--Two living larvae of Ceratitis c.apLtata .Wied. w are intercepted at Buffalo, N.Y., in a bitter orange in the mail from Sicily. This is th~ fourth time that. bitter orange s intercepted at that port have been found to be infested with living larvae.of the M e diterrarrean fruit fly. Thrips from Rur':lpe~--Thrjp s tabaci pullus Uz. was intercepted at Philadelphia on leeks ( .. ':1_ ~ :,.11...rn _:;,;or ... ~u.:i) i n s .,t.,'c '!.::, f1omDenmarl;c and Germany. J. R. Watson states that this is the dark European variety of the onion thrips. Whitefly from the Society Islands.--Aleuroplatus samoanus Laing (Aleyrodidae) was intercepted at San Francisco on the leaves of lime cuttings in baggage from the Society Islands. Bell pepper infested.--A living larva of Gnorimoschema gudmannella Wl~m. (Gelechiidae) was intercepte d at Nogales, Ariz., in a bell pepper•in cargo from Sinaloa, Mexico. Nut fruit tortrix in chestnuts.--Living larvae of Laspeyresia splendana Hubner (Olethreutidae) were intercepted at New York in chestnuts in cargo from Italy, Portugal, and Spain. Whitefly on cabbage.--Aleyrodes brassicae Walker was intercepted at Philadelphia on cabbage in store~ from France. Plant bug taken in Puerto Rico.--Living sp~cimens of Macrolophus praeclarus Dist. (Miridae) were collected in Puerto Rico as follows: One on a tomato leaf in the field at Rio Piedras, and o n e o n tobacc o in the field at Loiza. Scale insect from Egypt.~-Fiorinia theae G r een (Coccidae) was intercepted at Boston on five pomelo fruits in stores from Egypt.

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-4. . . Leaf beetle from Nicaragua.--A. living aq.ul t of Metriona . judiaca { Fab •) (Chfysomelidae) was taken at. Mobile, Ala.,. on bananas in cargo from _Nicaragua. .. Thrips from Japan.-"'.".A ii vi:pg , spe_ cimen of . .Androthrips probabiy melastomma ( Z imm.) was intercepted at N e w York on an qrange fruit in stores from Japan. J • R. Watson reports that this thrips is not known to occur in this country. Hemipteron on Eepper~.--Living nyrnphs of Macrophygium reticulare Fab. (Pentatomidae) wer e intercepted at Nogales,Ariz., on long green and bell peppers in cargo from Mexico. Bruchid from G~~•--Li~ing adults of -~chus tristic~lus Fahr. were intercepted at Washington, D.c., in legume seed in the mail from Greece, The Philippine orange moth intercepted.--Prays citri Miller (Hyponomeutidae) was taken at San Francisco in• the rind of a pomelo in stores from the Philippines. The larva of this moth lives just beneath the rind next to, but not in, the pulp. It produces a gall-like tumor which remains ~pen at the tip. 1,!!rips from Engla~~ .--Parthenothrips dr_l.caenae (Reeger) was intercepted at Honolulu, T.H., on a leaf of Sobralia colmanae in the express from Engle.hd. J. R. Watson reports as follows: "It has b e eri reported from Europe, Nort'h .America, and Australia, but as far as I know never from the Hawaiian Islands. rt' is probably 'just as well t ha t this rather severe pest on many greenhouse plants in Europe should not get established in Hawaii. As its name . indicates it is most. common on dracaena and also common on castor beans." RECE'NT PATHOLOGICAL INTERCEPTIONS OF INTERE.ST Peony diseases rr'om Japan.--Peonies imported_f .:ro:m Japan under_three special permits were inspected February 19 and 20 at Seattle and found to be infected. with Leptothyrium sp., which does not agree with any description available of spec1es report.'?d on peony, M onooha etia paooniae, not listed i _ n U.S. 1366 . o~ Seymour .as occur .. ring_ ~n this country, and Mycbspha~rella moutan, listed in Stevenson ' s manual . as occurring in Russi. a only. . This is our first interception of M. moutan. ' Croton disease.-~QloeoYporium sorauerl,~ was interce~ted at New Orleans on February 12 on a yroton sp. plant from Japan, our first interception of this disea.se, Botrytis on lily.--A diseased bulb of Lilium japonicum from Japan was intercepted at Seattle on J a nu ary 16. S mall black sclerotia of the Botrytis_type were found in abundance and p art of t he . material refer.r. e . d to Dr. H. H. Whetzel of Cornell who is inte r ested in t his group. Dr. Whetzel reports, -0Dr. Guterman thinks this is B. elliptica. In fact 1.• japoni~ is the only species of lily on the bulbs of which he has observed the sclerotia of this Botrytis. W e are trying to isolate it,1 This is ou::.. .. first interception of t his diseasewli1ch is not listed .in U.S. 1366 or 1 Seymour as occurring in this country • York from . SeEtoria on orange.--The disease on an or?ng e from Greece interc~pted at New on Marqh 12 has been de~ermined as Septoria ci tri. A previous interception, S pa in, was doubtfully determined ass. citri (see News Letter for April 1933,

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. . ~5-P• 3). There are several speo•ies of Septoria reported as occurring on oranges in Italy or elsewhere, including an undetermined species in California. The spore --measurements of. several of thes e : ro rms are so close t hat more or less synonymy is 'probably invoJ.v ed. • Rust on reed.--Puccinia phragmi tis was intercepted at New York on Phragmi te8 communis from Germany, being used as packing for rose plants. The only previous interception of the disease from Germany was in 1925, Cabbage disease from Scotland.-... our first record of an interception of white smut, Albugo candida, from the British Isles, was made March 9 at Philadelphia on cabbage from Scotland. Nematode interceptions.--Nematode interceptions determined during the month included.Anguillulina dipsaci in potatoes fromGermany at Houston (interceptions made February 26 and March 2~), Corpus Christi, New Orleans, and Philadelphia, from England at Boston, from Holland at Baltimore and Philadelphia, from Sweden at Philadelphia, and in oni. on from Belgium at Gulfport, Miss.; A. intermedia in ginger from China at Buffalo on March 27; Aphelench1+s avenae and Aphelenchoides :e_arietinus in celery from Sweden and A. parietinus-in turnip from England at Baltimore, in taro from Japan at Charleston, in beet from Germany at Philadelphia, in ging e~ from China et Buffalo, and in carrot from Eolland at Philadelphia. A single parasitic nema seen in a mount fr0m an Amarillis bulb from Italy intercepted at New York appeared to be Aphelenchoides parietinus. A single parasitic nema found on a beet from Belgium intercepted at Mobile was determined as Aphelenchoides sp. A particularly interef.'\ting interception was a diseased Hos ta ( Funkia) sp , from Italy intercepted at New York on March 15. The following forms were found in this material: Anguillulina robusta, Plectus parieti~, Dorylaimus corii, Tripyla arenicola, Cephalobus (e Acrobeloides) sp,, and Dorylaimus n. sp. (unpublished), The only previous interception of A.robust~ was in rutaba~a from Germany in 1931. Local collections .--Interesting local collections sent in by Seattle' in spectors include Pestalozzia funerea and Phoma thujinum on Thuya orientalis, Pitya cupressi on !uniperus kaizuka, and Cytospora sp., possibly .Q.• subclypeata, on Rhododendron, all from Seattle; and Mycosphaerella sp. and ~~onochaetea sp., neither recorded for United States, on Arcto~)aEhylos, on what was supposed to be a hybrid between Arctostaphylos uva-ursi and another species from Kitsap County, SHAMROCKS ARRIVE FROM IRELAND IN BUNDLES OF NEWSPAPERS The shamrock season, which has just passed, presented several interesting angl.es at Chicago this year. It was particularly noted that there was a considerable increase in the number enclosed in envelopes as compared with past-seasons, the usual or customary container being a small pap e r box. Also, this year, a large number of newspapers arrived in the same mail. Obviously, this aroused the suspicion of the inspector and post office segregators, and an examination followed which disclosed the presence of shamrocks with roots and soil intact, carefully conc~aled in the ce~ter of a number of bundles of newspapers,

PAGE 6

SUMMARY OF REQ,UIREMENT$,.IN EXPORT-CERTIFICATION • • •r l•, . . . .... . .. ~ • . ...... ' The requir~inent of certificati9n_:_of fruits and 'vegetables, including pota toes, for exportation to foreign countries has become very general. Aconsiderable body of information on this and related requirements has already been compiled and made available .thr.ough published.-sumrnari:es _9f _ th,~ plant quarantine re. : .. .-s'.tr .iclions of varfous forf3 ,ign countries :ana:: ' thrc>ugh' ' memora'nda. The essential infbrmation on this subject 'has now been assemble-d in concise form for ready refer.. ' . , . ence and guidance of inspectors, with convenient citations for details to the more complete texts ,o. f the sumrna~i .f?s and memoran4a"' ~ J-'.. t .hJ. ~ . o,tg;~st .:will be published in t~~-.-n :ear_'Ti.ftur~ ; as. a circular:_ of the BPQ ser.ies • ' : ' .. . , .. TEAMWORK , • :.,• i , ~ .,_ , \ • ..I I 1 ',) , • i • : . , , , '.' . ' ~o PJ.8:ri t q1:1araritiu~ i11sp :~etor. swatched ' a :grac. ei'ul.: . whi te ship with its cargo of banan,as .-1i-ie up at a w.ha_rr,:in--~~w . ,Orleans= • watcheci' the passengers who were re turning from a . C~r~bbean; c~ui;'3~ :impatiently :going through the entry procedure, and then_ l:>ega' n .with th.e routi'~e of ,insp.ect:ion,. inspector A concerning himself with the ship's stores• 'g)ia-rter~/\itpteroqm s , and C?_rg9;_ and irispector B attending to the . p as' s ,eng~rs 9 . effects in•_-the "cage_ff' Ctli'e--~e'i-1diosur~ : ... where baggage exaininat ion is con ducted)' • . Affairs moved smoothly with .the lattr and the baggage was about cleared when inspector A app'eared on. the pCen.e -to report -that he had found an orchid leaf on the floor of one stateroom and, properly. curious, ha d ascertained the identity of the room's former occupant from t he steward.. _No' one. had .declared-possesision of orchid plants to inspector B; thert;fore, to satis-fy his own mind on the problem, he asked one of the former occupahti:i' of the room where the leaf was found and who was at the moment completing his clearance from customs, concerning the po ssession of. orchid plants. -Asto'nished,. he replted that his wife had them, The wife, peace~. fully seated at t'he exit gate. , was comple-t.-.ely s.urprised by the sudden ;turn of event'3 and surrendered five plants which had b _ e~ii' carei\it1y wrapped in her coat• . . . . Net results: Fi've orchids translat'ed to orchid heaven via the incinerator route; two inspectors with renewed confidence in the value of keen observation and teamwork; and two passengers contemplating at their leisure on the embanessment involv~d in trying to conceal contraband from the inspector. . . ' .. HI PING ~M FROM. THE r'NSPEC~OR On March 26; a Seattle inspector found in the mail from Italy a rarcel containing a h alf of _ a round ck;.eese, destined to a local address. Noting some un• usual rounc. -i;:,c,:;:-affi'n s p c t,s o n the exterior, the outer portion of these areai was removed, d i s c J ()sing a cav:L t y a topped by paraffin plugs• -Within were seven grape cuttings thems elves well_ c o::it e d witb paraffin, presumably: in order to prevent their asphyxiation by the odorife ,rou,s emanations from the carrier. P EI_tMITT ~E H.AS SENSE OF HUMOR Some special permit rhododendrons ~rriving r~cently at Seattle from England via Canada iete tound to have t w o ~lants infest~d with Dialeurodes chittendeni, and these two were refused entry. The importer elected to return them to the

PAGE 7

-7-Canadian source but asked the Seattle inspector as a -favor to arrange for return on his behalf• 'i'li th his che ck to the inspector to repay the express charges incurred was a slip on which were simply t he words "In 1emoriam". LEPILOSb.PHES HALLI FOUND AT CHICO, CALIFORYIA On February 5, c. F. K inman, a horticulturist of the Bureau of Plant Industry engaged in making root-growth studies of trees at the Plant Introduction Gardens at Chico, Calif., discovered an infestation of a species of oyster shell scale. The species proved to be Lepido~uhes halli, described in 1923 from material collected at Cairo, Egypt. The species_ was not~heretofore k no : n to occur in the Unitei States. Following the discovery of the insect at Chico a preliminary survey of the plantings qf the Plant Introduction Gardens was promptly made by D. B . Mackie, entomol0gist of the California De artMent of Agriculture, and his associates, with the result _that the pest was found to be rather widely distribut~don species of Prunus and .Arnygdalus. George G . Bec ker, of the Division of Foreign Plant Quarantines, was sent to California to make arrangements Tii th :W.r. :Mackie for the eradication o f the pest. The insect was found to attack over 20 species of Prunus and .Amygdalus located on the premises of the Plant Introduction Gardens. Almond proved to be the most susceptible host observed. Limbs of one infested almond tree were observed to be .completely incrusted. Crataegus, Pyrus, Mal us, Dio .spyros, and other hosts growing in close proximity to infested plants were found to be uninfested and the insect is believed to attack on l y s_pecies of Prunus and Amygdalus •. A t horough inspection of nursery stock of Prunus and .Amygdalus growing in the Gardens yielded negative results; nevertheless all nursery stock of these genera sent out by the Garderaduring the current year is being collected and destroyed. A careful inspection of t w o test orchards in California which have for the past 10 years been receiving increase from many introductions at Chico, likewise yielded negative findings for this insect. Orchards on premises located within a mile of the Plant Introduction Gardens were carefully inspected but no evidence of the scale insect Tias found. In the meantime efforts were started to eradicate tLe pest from the Gardens. About 500 larg e . . Prunus and Amygdalus trees were destroyed, leaving on the premises only a very few lightly infested trees as much as 7 years of age, and some young trees, for the most part 4 years old or younger. Vi gorous efforts will be made to complete the eradication next fall. It is not known when or how this insect was introduced. RHODOD~NDRON '.illiITJ F L Y IN ~ iAS~U: GTO' STJ1.TE In June 1933 field inspection of some Znglish rchododendrons brought into Seattle, Wash., the previous April as a special permit importation, revealed a few whitefl y nymphs which were submitted in the usual way to '.'{ashington and were later identified as Dialeurodes chittendeni, the rhodod e nd ~on whitefly which had been discover ed in England in 1926 and there described as a new species.

PAGE 8

-8-Altho~gh the rhododendron planting in' which these few infestedp~ants occurred was giy~n-an oil spray in the fall of 1933, reports of ~dult whiteflies found on t he premise s ill" Ja:riuary 1934 seemed to indicate that.urgent steps might be needed to stamp out the small infestation before multipiication could take ' place. w. A. Mccubbin went to seattle at the end .bf February and found that similar adult whi teflies had be e n collected in a number of othe r plantings, and .after a few days it was apparent that this seemingly identical species occurred from Tacoma to the Canadian border. When these adults were at length definitely identified as a native species the planting infested with D. chittendeni was given cyanide fumiga tion by the tent method, and search was continued for nymphal stages on other local rhododendrons in order to determine whether the new English sp~cies was established. elsewhere.than in the locati'on-first found. As a result of t his survey D. chit ... tend.eni has been found in four additional locations in and near Seattle, in at least one of which the evidence. indicates that the infestation is probably of several years' standing._ It has also be e n collected from three Tacoma gardens, . and has been found in Canada on imported English rhododendrons. Tnis survey was made possible through the assistance of c. E. Cooley of Bellingham, and A.G. Webb and his associates.of the Seattle office. SEATRAINS AND SEATRAIN INSPECTION Most of us have heard of the "sea trains" which operate on a : _weekly schedule between New Orleans and Havanl,l-,; _ and -which lik-ewis. e ply. between Hava.i1a. and New York. It is. assumed, however, that many inspectors have never had experienc e on one of these curious vessels and., .therefore, that the description furnished by the New Orleans office will be of interest. In general appearance seatrains are not unlike oiltankers. They are 480 feet long with a 63 foot 6 inch beam• There are three decks within-the hull, all served by one la~ge hatch which extends _across the beam of the vessel amidship. Each deek contains four rows of standard-gage railway track extending from stem.to stern, except the.superstructure deck, which is fitted with four rows aft oJJ the hatchway; the total length of track is almost 1 mile, and it accorrn.nrulates 100 railway freight cars. Discharging and loading the vessel are accomplished by a car elevator or crane which has a normal lifting capacity of approximately 125 tons. A standardgage double railway .track runs from the classification yard onto the do ck beneath the crane. Directly beneath the -crane the tracks are broken to acco.nroo:fulte track sections in the form of large --platforms or cradies, A car to be loaded _ in~o the vessel is spotted on a cradle by a locomotive, locked securely in place with strong rail clamps, and then the cradle bearing the car is lifted by the c rane and moved over the hatch of the ship. The crane then lowers away and the cradle descends into one of four sets of guides which hold it in.position exactly in_ t _ he manner of a platform. in an elevator shaft. When the desired deck is reached the cradle comes to rest upon mechanically operated supports and the qar is switched either forward or aft from the cradle by means of a steam-driven car-hauling gear. The operation is reversed to discharge a c:ar. Loading and discharging can be accomplished simul• taneously. The rqte is approximately 20 cars per hour for double operation and 15 cars per hour for single operation~

PAGE 9

-9.. . ' Weekly importations totaling from 3 to Go'carloads in the respective seasons are made of avocado, cabbage, chayote, citrus fruit, cucumber, eggplant, crude gin ger, melon, okra, pepper, pineapp'le, potato (white), pumpkin, squash, tamarind bean pod, and tomato. There is, therefore, considerable inspection work to be done upon arrival of a seatra:fn. A 'ffreliminary inspection is ma,d: e of all cars before they are disch~rged fr'orn the vessel. Each car is opened by a customs inspector and with the custo~s insp~ctor a preliminary inspectio~ is made ,to identify the cargo as manifested for that 'particular car and, fu:i::ther, to determine t -hat no prohibited plant ma'terial or li tt~r, used as packing or -oth~rwise, i~ contai'ned on the . ' .. . . . . floor of the car. After the preliminary inspection is completed in the hol.d of the vessel' the car doors are Clos ea and sealed by the cust0I)1S 11'!,Spector. . _Warning tags pearing proper instructions to customs inspectors are tacked on the doors of the Gars cont~i.ning fruits and vegetables and other restric;:ted material. The cars are then discharged from the vessel and moved to the classtfication-yard~ ! •. Befor e discussing the ~ctivities at, the classification yard it shpuld ' be men tioned that the regular routine ship inspeetion must be made simultan:3o~sl.y with the preliminary insp~ction of.the cars~ Such inspection includes an ex?~ination of all foreign fruits and vegetables carried as ship's stores, plants for ship's decorative purpo'ses, crew's' quarte~s fo r prohibited plants and ; planp. pro51uc'ta, and all parts of the vessel including the superstructure and the holds. Expe~ience has shown that a s~a train i"s no exception to the general rule tba t a ship ~as innumerable hiding places in which members of the crew may try to ?ecrete prohibited plant material. A few are: Under pots and pans in the galley, submerge a. in rice, coffee, and grit bins, under vegetables in chill room and under meats in iceboxes, under bedding, in wate_r coolers, etc. In addition to t .hose of the type mentioned, there are many unsuspected plac~s to t~st the inspector's keenness. A transfer platform, approximately 20 feet wide and long enough to accommodate 7 cars on each side; is located in the classific~tion yard. . _It . .is equ,ipped with a single standard-gage railway track on each side, covered roof, and electric lights. Those cars containing fruits and vegetables intended.for I.T. shipment to interior points are spotted a16ng the side of t .he transfer pla tforrn.. After the cars are spotted , the customs seals-' are broken and the plant quarantine warriing tags are removed. The crates of fruit and vegetables are then rem0ved from the carst assorted, and loaded into other cars on the opposite side of the platform, for destination, _in accordance with instructions of importers. It is during this transfer that the inspection is made. From . 3 to,5 percent. of the crates in each car are set aside and opened", and a 100 percent inspection is made of the contents cif each crate . After the inspection is completed, and if no injurious insects Of _plant diseases are notea,the shipments are released to the customs officer~ sig~ing the entry papers and manifest, It is interesting to note at this point that the cars for shipment in a seatrain may be loaded t'o the extent of their cubic capacity and as a result contain the equivalent of from two to thre e parloads of merchandise measured as cars are loaded forregular movement over rails. The inspection of fruit and vegetable shipments for local consumption is carried out in much the same manner with the exc.ept ion that the cars' are s-Wi tched to the city and spotted at the Frui• t Exchange or at some privately owned siding. UB

PAGE 10

-10-DOMESTIC PLANT QUARANTINES ! . ' ' ; ,, . .. .'.TRANSIT INSP~CTION 1 ' •• , • . . . . ... . . , . . . . . The firs. t ,apparent. _vio.lation of ,-th~ . date'"'!palm scale insect quarantine ever found in _transi t inspection was discove:red by .the inspector at Kansas Cityon March 31, Shoots bear,ing fem .ale. _dat. e buds -and .so labeled were being shipped from Palm Spring s ,. Cali~., to New :(o .rk;.-: .,.Tn.e :e'hi,pment-:was reported to :the project 1e ader at Indio, Calif., for determtnatir9n as. to , whether .snoots of this type need to be in. . . spect_ed for the _l?arl_atoria scale: • . TP,e }att:er. :s.tates that such small shoots are not capab_le of propagatiqn and may .h~:r.eafter be -di.sregarded .. . . ' . . ' . ' ' .... Loy~l.citizen_s,-attemptipg. to _sh.ow aqini _ration for the . President by -sending him flowers or plants, occasionally fail .to .-take .the necessary precautions to avoid shipping ' a.'a:ngerous . material . A recent shipment of pussy willow and white-pine branches addressed to the White H~mse a . nd origd.nating in an area infested with the satin .moth, the gypsy moth, ano. -the wtiit. e pine bl.ister rust, was noted at New York. T4e inspector was obliged. to turn. it. back •• -Last, fall a citizen of Eau Claire, Wis., desiring to contribute to the beauty of the
PAGE 11

-11certificates are delivered to the nurseryman he attaches them to the order and sends them to the packer who, in makin g up the packages, attaches the certificates as far as they have be e n supplied and allows the rest of the packages to g o forward without them, It is necessary therefore for transit inspectors to check up and report lot shipments not completely certified as required by the regulations, In the event all, are without certificates it is necessary to turn them back. The inspector at Albany has extended his activities to Mechanicville also, for the purpose principally of securing info:rmation on the movement of stone and quarry products from northern Vermont, In the two freight transfers located at Mechanicville there is opportunity of checking both eastbound and westbound shipments. Express shipments are now being checked at New Haven, Formerly only freight at the Cedar Hill transfer was covered at this point. At Omaha desk space for the transit inspector has been furnished through the courtesy of the Supervisor of Warehouse Grain Inspection, The address is 501 Federal Office Building, Bureau of Agricultural Economics. At 'Indianapolis the inspector has secured space in the office of the State Entomologist, Room 404, New State Library Building, A clerk of the Railway Express Agency, Inc., at Boston, intercepted and turned back on March 29, 15 shipments in violation of ~uarantines relating to the Japanese beetle and gypsy moth, according to information from the transit inspector at that point, One of the results of the maintenance of the transit inspection system is the interception by express employees of many potential violations of plant quarantines which are never report~d to the Department. WHITE-PINE BLISTER RUST The inspection of four pine-growing nurseries in Virginia and of three in Maryland was completed by the middle of April, and the work is now in progress in the nurseries of the Middle West whose owhers have applied for pine-shipping per mits, In Ribes-growing areas, the Division of Plant Disease Eradication and Control of the Bureau of Entomology supervis~s an annual spring Ribes eradication survey -before the quarantine inspector arrives. DATE SCALE ERADICATION During the month of March inspection of the districts adjoining the infested area in Coachella Valley was completed and no scale found. These aistricts hav e been inspected once a year since 1928, and although offshoots and pollen from the infested area have been used in many of the planting~, no infestations have be e n found except in the Palm Springs District,

PAGE 12

. . ~12Clean-up. work was continued; 282 palms were d1,1g in. the infested area, and leaf-bases and fiber removed from 3b(pa,+ms• Littl~,~ork.of this kind remains to be done. Three spected from will be done p~antings in the Indio Di~t~ict which were infested in 1930 were inground and ladders and no. sc.ale • found. Very little more ladder work in this district • . ' Routine inspection was con.ttn ed in t . he . Salt River Valley in Arizona and in the Imperial Valley in Californi~ and no scale _found. Scouting for unlisted palms was also cl;i.rried on in the Impe~ial ValJ,.-ey, and .prev.iously infested properties ch e cked in all areas for volunteer palms • . , . ... J .APANESE. BEE TLE, MOTHS, AND EUROPEAN CORN BORER Combination Japanese Be~tle and Gypsy Moth Activities Joint Japanese beetle an? gypsy moth quarantine certificates were printed and issued late in March. These have been issued only to nurseries entitled to a class I s . t _atus under the Japanese beetle quarantine regulations and in addition are 1 o'cated in the ii ghtly infested gypsy moth area where it has been possible to determine the premises as uninfested with moths. Detailed reports are not required concerning the use of the joint certificates by the beetle-and.moth-free establishments. Forms showin g the number of shipments moving to-the respective nonregulated States and the quantity of certificates used to.c~rtify•the quarantined articles are submitted monthly by the users of this type of certificate. In form, the joint certificate is similar to the Japanese beetle "A" certificate, be .. ing printed on yellow bond paper 2~ by 4 inches in size. The joint form certi-fies that the materials in the package or the prod~cts i _ncluded .:Ln the shipment "meet the requirements of Federal and State quarantines promulgated on account .of the Gypsy Moth _ and : Brown -Tail Moth (Q.No.45) and the Japanese beetle (Q.-No.48), as to movement to. points outside the regulated areas." .Us. e of this joint certificate in only one large nursery establishment in Connecticut will eliminate an enormous amount o f clerical work formerly invol~ed in writing out gypsy moth certificates to accompany individual containers or carload lots. As many as seven temporary inw specters have been employed during the peak of the shipping seasons at this nursery in writing out the certificates. The revised procedure will shift the routine work of affixing the certificates to the packages and accounting for their use to the nursery personnel, thus eliminating the necessity for the employment of temporary labor for certification purposes. This same system is being applied in s everal additional nursery establishments in the lightly infested gypsy moth territory in Connecticut. . Japanese Beetle Activities Coincident with announeement early in March of modification of the New York State Japanese beetle quarantine regulations restricting the•intrastate movement of

PAGE 13

quarantined art-iGle.s, B . D • . VanBu~en, Director of the New York Bureau of Plant Indu stry, took occasion 't9 war!} p_r<;>-~pectiye purchaser s o f nursery stock against-: irr esponsible peddlers o r ' ~uch stock operating in New York. In commentin g on the sale o f stock by s u ch pe .ddlers, Mr. Van.Bure n said , t1Thespread of the Japanese beetle on nursery.stock is l~rgely co~fin~d to trees or perenrtial plants w h1ch are distributed with s6il ~~on .thei~rools. Prospective planters-in the lightly.infested area may help.in the delaying ofheavy infestation or this insect by purchasing t heir requirements from nurseries that are certified by t h e State and clas.sified by _the Federal Bureau of Plant Q,uaranti n e . The y also m i ght well look with suspicion upon the' unkn o w n peddler: ' o'i' trees, shrubs, and plants with no local place of business, ~nless such ped~iers can show a State inspection certificate _covering the stock sold_ by him together with proof of Federal classification of the nursery where the stock originated." Thi's announcement was give n considerable pub ... l icity in the newspapers th~oughout New York. Enactment of a n ordinance to. en-. force Mr. VanBuren •s, suggested action f m s advocated by the Merchant's Association of Scarsdale, N.Y., shortly after the article appeared in the press. It was suggested by the association that peddlers be .heavily taxed and the rev?nue thus secured be a pplied toward the r e l .ief of real estate. As proposed, the tax would apply to peddlers o f fruits , nursery stock, and bakery goods. Seriously injured while proceeding to his automobile in conn ecti on with his .inspection work in the Hagerstown, t1d., s ection, A gent H. o. Windsor was, on March 28, rushed to the Washington County Hospital with a cut jugula r vein. ~ 1r. Windsor was attempting to cross Washington Street in Hagerstow n at a pedestrian's crossing in _the center of a block . Noticing an approaching truck , he waited for its passing about 5 feet in front of a double p arked car. Instead o~ procee d i ng straight ahead, the truck driver cut sharply to the right in Mr. Windsor's direction • . Realizing that he was about to be struck by the truck's fender, the inspector evidently hunched his body, throwing his head forward. Just at that time a m an accompanying the truck driver opened the door of the truck cab and Mr. Windsor's head crashed through the glass _of the door. Recovering himself, Mr. Windsor went immediately to a near ... by doctor. First aid was administered by clamping the severed v ein and the injured ~an was rush~d to the hospital in an ambulance. Transfusion of a quart of blood, furnished by th~ ambuiance driver, was necessary. In addition to the cut v ein, Mr. Windsor suffered deep lacerations about his face and neck, fracture of the left nasal bone, and evulsioh of four upper teeth. It is anticipated t hat these injuries will ~onfi~e the inspector to the hospital for about 2 months. Until Mr. Windsor i , s able to resume his duties, the inspection work in the Hagerstow n and Cumberland sections'Will be handled by w . N. Dobbs, who has been temporarily transferred from the ~entral Pennsylvania district. 9.w.A. workers at the Frankford Arsenal, Philade l phia, early in March were instructed to clean out the debris from beneath a porch of the old b arrackp. T hey continue~ their cieaning activities until. they reached the storage place of the lumber and galvaniz..ed roofing used e ach year in erecting the Philadelphia fruit and vegetable inspecth:m platform. Throug h a misunderstand ing of their instructions, they continued to remove everythi n g foun d u nder the porch. When their activities were discovered by G. B. St'ic.hter, d istr ict s u pervisor at the Phila d elphia h eadquarters, the la borers had already h aule d on e load' of lum b e r to t h e dump ,a.nd had lpaded-another for r e moval as junk. It w a s necessary to take the seco n d load t o dump, unscramble the platform lurnb e r from the d eb ris and return i t t o its storage place. Snow falling at the time added to the dif ficulties of sorting out t h e

PAGE 14

• ' -;~ t' • • I • • • t 1/•:' : ; . lum~er~_ --~o,.add to Mr.sticht_erfs 'tt6ubles f6'rtoo:t day, 2 1h01xrs after the.lumber had bee~ replaced in storage,. th e Arsenal ;ffrEf.alarm rang and an excited messenger bqy ~nform~ 'q__the district superv:t&i or ~hat :tfie/ .fire was in the building where the P!:9,je~t ' s . c !3.i's _ _ 1:;nd. bean inspect'f9n •machines'are std'r~d. . : Mr. Stichter raced to the but~ding , , .-o~ly to find that t~e, ifis})e~ tor G~nerai from' Washilrigton had set off the firea.i_~. rm . a . s a test of the fif., e-a.epar~,nent ( : ~Vate:r• ' was playingon the supposed blaze in 2 mi _nutes and 15 seconds. .,.,_,._ . . "' ,., ., . . : . . 5lrtidia,ls, ai'.iahfa year;s Phu~~: ~pli~a ;16wer ShoW accorded our inspectors :t,he ._cus, ioriia;ry cl.' 6se _ ' coop eration in permit't'ing strict 'su-pervision -of plant material . . . r f .om_,iif.est'ed -~st. abfis~funents and ce1~t-ified prants intended for return to classified pr~_1.nis ~8i . . . _ As .u~~al.,'. t~ e certified riiaterial was satisfactorily segregated from uncertified. :piairt;s. . . This year's s how -vflas open from March 12 'to 17• The whole exp _tJ?,se o r t lie C'omme.rcial . Museum _ was ' designed to present a unified appearanee.. Each o:n,e . of_ t _he tp.ousands of blooms ,'wa_ s arranged to appear as a unit in one great garden.,. Sma+l ) 3~hi b.its encl_osed With hedges, were so planned as to represent separate nooks in a .. •garden 'of a suburhan estate. Sir Frederick W. Moore and Lady Moore of Ireland were guests of the Flower Show officials on March 15. The Philadelphia ~how : was . the . l.Ols _ t exhib:i, tion sponsored by the Pennsylvania Horticultural Society. The ,.aar.den : Club of America ari : d the Garden ciub Federation of 'Pennsylvania cooperat---~d; ~ i -th. the' S
PAGE 15

directiop of Dr. Glaser at the Rockefeller ~pstitute, Princeton, N.J., in coopera-. tion wi~h the New J ersey Department of A g r iculture, has been transferred to the New Jersey d~strict headquarters at White Horse. The wor k will continue as a State oontrol project. During March, 150 strawberry plants were placed in 3-inch pots and the soil in e.ach pot infested with 5 Popillia japonica larvae. Five series of pots wer e infested with nematodes to determin e the effect o f the parasites on the I . larvae and further to escertain whethe r the nematodes would infest the strawberry pl~nts. Almost a ton of peeled potatoes will be required to rear the nematodes. It is anticipated t hat t he parasites will be transferred to Japanese beetle infested grounct during the l atter part of" April. Until the l a tter par~ of March, weather conditions rendered it practically impossible ~o, dig nursery stoc~ for shipment. W hen the weather at last permitted the ground to thaw and dry enough for lifting of stock many of the large nurseries required inspections at the same time. This stidd ' en demand on the inspection corps was anticipated and the work was accom plishe d With only a slight increase in personnel. All de mands for inspection v , ere filled w i t h only a few minor inconveniences tQ the _s'hippers. In New J ersey inspections were made of considerable quantities of ho!,'ser .adish, asparagus, and rhubarb roots . Not -water treatment of the rhubarb root's was required before they could be c ertified . Due to the lateness of the nursery shipping season and the large amount of stock that must be shipped within the next month, it is anticipated that April will be on e o f the busiest months for nursery inspection in r ecent years. "ins:tructions to Inspectors on the Treatm~nt of Nursery Products, Fruits, Veg~tables, ~nd Soil, for the Japanese Beetl e " was issued on March 14, 1934, as BP~-359• T~is 17-pag~ mimeographed circular replaces PQCA-224, dated April 1 6 , 1929, and 7 supplements issued subsequent to that date. Arranged in logical order are th~ treating methods prescribed for soil in the absence o f plants, soil about the roots of plants, and miscellaneous quarantined articles. Meth od s of fumigation and sterilization. of soif with rau carbon disulphide, carbon disulphide emulsion, naphthalene, steam, hot water, and lead arsenate are described in detail. Proce rures for fumigating bananas with liquid hydrocyanic acid and calcium cyanide, and berries with carbon disulphide or ethylene oxide are outlined. These in structions now assemble in a single manual complete details of all types of treatments currently employed. a s a basiq'of quarantine certification under regulations 6 and 7 of Quarantine 48. Collections of soil samples for analysis are about a month behind the usual schedule. Poor weathe r and unsu.ita.ble soil conditions during most of the month made it impo~sible to collect soil samples in lead-arsenate-treated nursery plots until March 22. During the remainder of the month there were severa!l: days suitable for gathering the samples, with the result that 195 samples were dug from fields of growing plants. With the exception of leaded heeling-in areas, the lifting of soil samples was completed in one large northern New Jersey nursery. In another the work was nearing co mpletion at the e n d of the month . These activities require d the employment of 15 temporary inspectors . In all, approximately 800 samples w ill be taken for analysis. With favorable weathe r conditions, all samples fro~ fields of growing plants will be compl e t e d by t he m i ddle of April.

PAGE 16

Florists and. _ w ho _lesale deaLe:rs i_n. dec.orative potted: pfuants throughout the regulated zone were !:!-lmost . tinanimos ,in rep,orting an excellent: Easter trade. Rair which i n some s .ect.ions. fell .ini to 1 •ren,ts. -most o . f. th e Saturday befor' e Easter, somewhat reduced pre-East. er. salei9.. Phone .Qrders on Saturday and heavy sa:les on Easter Day disposed of pxa .ct.ic.ally, everything grown . especially for the Easter sea-son • W hile a few sectiohg: > i-ibpoi-te .cionly fair mo-vement of potted stock, the greate portion of the trade sta.te, d thei.t. sales were :brisk and excelled thefi." expectations. Winter-killing of forcing: ; bulb.a bu~ied in open ground resul tea. in reduced supplies of hyacinths, tu1ips, and _.lil1es . ,tn some sections; with consequen~ hig~e. r prices for the available supply. _ov. ~ ,r 400 adult Japanese b~~tl~s were . c otlected in .rose greenhouses by in-spectors 1 : n the Philadelphia dis.trict in late February and early March. These were c611ected in! th e c ourse of routine inspectiort work arid immediately forwarded to the laboratory . o~ 1 •• tb,e Toxologica.l Division a't Trenton. Considerable cloudy weather duririg December and January followed by severe cold spells somewhat delayec the peak o'ut-of-1;rn .ason emergence of' the. greenhouse:-reared adults. The l~rgest s i n gr~. d.ay•s collection was made on March 22,' when 134 beetles were pickef fr.oiri ._ roses in one greenhouse an~ 93 spec;i.m~ns were recovered in another. 'Employees in theseranges were required daily to'hand-pick the beetles from the plants to pre vent_the insects from destroying the rose blooms. c.w.A. projects S-0-2~2 and s-o~ 223 neared completion when it was necessary to terminate the work on March 29. On December -J:-8, 1933, through a transfer from the Emergency Relief 13oard to the Q. w.A. Board, 10 men were continued on labor wor~ at -the New oumberland warehouse under the above-numbered proje-o-t s titled 0Recon-di tioning Jar::.nese beetle equipment~ " . _ Of t,h _ e men retained, 6 were suppliS'd throug the, Cun1berland County C. ~7 .A. unit, the :remaining_ 4 men being hired through the YorH County: unit. Practically the entire trap supply •of the. Bureau was unpacked, inspected; traps and jars washed, traps r~pair~d, painted, and repacked in wooden bo xes. 'Remaining to complete the trap reconditioning are' about 5,000 traps to be assembled. and' packed and 60,000 _trap rods t9 . be inspected and, re bundled. .. In caravan_ formation, 20 light trucks were moved on March 6 from the White Horse; .. N.J. , garage to the New Cumberland, Pa., warehouse. These cars -were former ly in dead storag e at the previ.ously occupied Rutherford, N.J ., suboffi:ce " anq. the garag e -'space recently vacated at Glassboro, N.J • The truoks will not be .placed iri service until seasonal activities in connection with nursery and greenhouse scoutin and fruit and vegetable inspection be gin. in .June. Practically all of the New Jersey insp~ctio• n force was . commandeered to dr.i.ve the cars to New Cumberland. Two men from the Philadelphia personnel were also loaned for the occasion. All 20 car, arrived at' their destination without. mish~P• A Government owned bus tran~ported the drivers to White Iiorse on the return trip. Of more than usua l difficulty wa~ compliance with a recenturequest contai~ea in a lette r fro~ a private indiv:j,dual in the heavily infested section of Staten Is land, N .Y. This inquirer wished "informatio. n in rega.rd to Japanese beetles,_ how to get r i d of them and how to prevent t h .eir return." Information c oncerning pro• tect i ve sprays , turf poisqning, and trap .control was furnished, with the quali fyin!l information tha t it would be practically impossible to prevent beetles flying on

PAGE 17

-17' . the propertyin question if this year's infestation in that section proves to be ffea..J'!/.' . . It Vyas also emphasized thc. t .the owner's properi;;y ma y. be prot-ecte' d _ f'rom • • t •. I ' beetle.attack whether or not these measures are.Eidopted by the neighbors. • \ j • • . , : Explanations furnished by the Railway_ Express Agency afforded ample grounds for closing an apparent violation inte':rcepted by a transit inspector in Bo1?ton. Whe ri examined while en route from ' Vorcester, Mass., to ~ortland , Maine, the shipment appeared to consist of a .regular express shipment of uncertified quarantined material consigned by a private individual to his wife. It was learned.that the s hipment was a gift that an express messenger . was t-aking to his wife, and that the • parcel was not covered by a_regula r waybill. Furthenn.ore, both the messenger and hiB wife died shortlyafter the interception. No further reasons were needed for c l!=Jsing the file. There were a fev, snowfalls in some sections of the reguic .ted territory during March, but warm weather soon melted what snow remained on the.ground. In the Philadelphia district, the break in the oontinued co' l'd weather came about March 5• Thereafter rain and moderate temperatures quickly melted the. snow, permitting nurseries, isreenhouses, and seed houses ~o start their heavy shipplng. March business.was reported as considerably better than for the sai~e month last year. The Mediterranean fruit fly files covering -the work of t • he Florida project during the enforcenent of Q,uarant ine No. 68 were brought to t~e • N e w Cumberland, Pa., warehouse from the Washington headquarters of the Bureau in Nq\rember. Later the files were transferred to the Harrisburg h~adq,uarters -where they are no w se-t up in a manner to permit easy reference to any available record that , may be desired. . . . Winter-killing of buds of azalea s -~v.o rhododendrons forced tv10 large nurseries in southern New Jersey t
PAGE 18

Farm Bureau offic_ials are cooperating.with local motion picture theaters throughout Hartford County, Conn., in sponsoring a .series of showings of the Department 's educational mot fon pi ctur~ "The Europea. n Corn Ber.er and How to ControJ it." At Plainville' the film was show:ri" at. a 'iocal theater in connect.ion With the regular shows on March 27 and 28. This was only one of a number of theaters that ' . . .. . ' ' . c_ooperated in thus calling .to public ~ttention the_ d -es-tructiveness of the peat and the measures by which it may be contrqlled • . I • • • • . • • • '. Consistent increases were evidenced in the' number of shipments certified in compliance With State corn borer quarantines d\l+i.ng the first quarter of 1934~ March shipments jumpe _ d to . 9 _16 a _ s com;iared to '153. in January and _200 in February. The heaviest shipping during March was fro!!l~ew Jersey, Ohio, New York, Pennsylvania,and Michigan. Gypsy Moth and Brown-Tail Moth Quarant_ine Enforcement What is claimed to be the largest single piece of granite ever to.be lifted with , a derrick from a quarry in the Barre, Vt., district was recently shipped to Cacasauqua, Pa. When quarrie. d,' the piece weighed a 'pproximately 67 tons. st'one-cp.~ters ma.de the piece into a b~se measuring 12, fe.et square and 4 feet' high. To lighten its weight, 5 tons of stone were cut from the center of the base. There were two pther base sections. cut at the same time,. a middle base piece 8 feet . square ? ,nd 4 feet high, and a top' base 6 feet square and of the same height. To • t ( .~f:1 t h e 3 base sections when t ' he monument finally, is. erected, is a spir_ e 2~ feet . sQ:L ~tr 3 _ :1y 15. ,;t:eet tall. .All exposed surfaces of the 4 sections wer. e highly polisl 8(t/ !l'ri. o in$Cription borne .py the monument is on the: m~ddl,e _ ba;5e section, When se+. up, the entire memorial will weigh approximately 90 tons. Transportation of the weir,liby bottom base was accomplished in a specially constructed well car, whicr duripg. tha World War. was used for transportipg heav:y field artillery . . Heavier stones the n the _ enormous base have been quarried at.Barre, but they have been rolle from the quarry rather than swung out With a derrick. The gypsy moth inspector in the Barre district inspected the former bridge timber used as blocking in this shipment. \ Unofficial temperature records for Barre, Vt., show that during the past winter there were 65 days on which the mercury dropped to zero o-r below. Five oj these days were in November, 13 in December, lb in Ja.nuary, 21 in February, and 10 in March. The temperatures on the 10 coldest days were -40, ... 33, -3-2 { 2 days) 1 -30 (3 days), -29 (2 days), and -27 F. On 5 days the mercury reached exactly zero. The coldest day recorded was December 30, . wl_len the mercury dropped to .. 40 ! This immediately followed a day when -33 had been recorded. The last severely : cold day was March 12, when -140 was reached. According to the records of the Weather Bureau observer at Rutland, Vt., 77.3 inches of snow fell in that city dur• ing the past winter. A total. of 14 inches was recorded on January 15. This I ~ear's record has been exceeded only once during the 18 years that tabulations hav1 been-kept in Rutland. The heaviest year's snowfall was during the winter of 1925, 26. when 81.3 inches were recorded. Fire at Westerly, R.r., on March 5, destroyed a large granite cutting shed with its contents of statues and mod$ls. It was estimated th.at the total dam~ge amounted to $100,000. Nearly 10.0 statues, among which were 1;,ome of the :most . _elab rate and costly to be carved at Westerly in recent years, were totally destroyed.

PAGE 19

-19-; , Three. parti:cularly out.standing statues w ere ru-ined. One was a figure memorial cut from a st-one .weighing 40 tons. The ' statlie was lb feet high and 10 feet wide. After 8 months' work the statue uas nearing completion. Another va~uable piece destroyed was an upri'ght-memorial being carved from a second 40-ton piece. A large bird fountain• int ended for a family in Michigan was also crac~ed an~ . crumbled by t,Jie intense heat. Most serious of the losses from the standpoint of recutting the statues was destruction of the models for all of these statues. The fire-razed cutting shed was 3 . 00 .feet long. Forty men were temporarily thrown out of employ ... men-t by the blaze • • Infested oyster buoy poles were freed rrom lb egg clusters and certified for shipment from Norton, Mass., to-Greenport, N.Y. The poles shipped varied in length from 20 to, 30 feet i. Thesepoles have a hole bored through their diameter about 2 feet from the bottom. When used to mark the boundaries of private oyster beds, a rope is passed through the hole and the rope tied. The ends of the ~ope are then tied to an iron bolt and ring set in a concrete block. The pole is thus anchored but is free to mov~ with the tide. It frequently happens that the pol es are storei near the oyster uharves in uninfested territory for months at a time. This past winter has been particularly hard on the ' buoy poles. Freezing of sections of Long Island Sound and subsequent heaving and melting of the i c e caused many poles to snap off• Certification of a "totem pole" for a descendant of the Mohegan Indians was made by the inspector in the Willimantic, Conn., district. The pole was shipped . from Norv1ich, Conn., to a studen t attending the University of Pennsylvania. Made of maple, the pole .was about 4 inches in diamet-e r, hewed square, except at the base where 2 feet of barkremained. On on ' e of the square surfaces was nailed a red painted, hand carving of an Indian face. The entire totem pole was about 5 feet in length. The Indian who presented the pole for inspection maintained a characteristic Indian silence concerning themeaning and use of the emblematic post. Remnants of the Mohegans are settled in Norwich, Conn., Green Bay, Wis., and in Kansas. Lumber inspection in connection with loading operations at the freight car was impracticable while a carload of planks for Canada was undergoing inspection in the Greenfield, Mass., district. Many of the planlts were heavily coated with ice and snow and could not be quickly cleaned to determine freedom from egg clusters, Therefore the inspection .was made at the lot, only planks on the tops of piles above the snow line being granted certification. No infestation was found in this particular shipment, although egg clusters were observed on trees near the lumber piles and 12 egg clusters were found in a chicken coop but a few feet away from the stored lumber. Eocamination for egg clusters in a 10-acre ro~e nursery in the Bath, Maine, district failed to disclose infestationon the rose bushes, but 21 egg clusters on nearby trees were brought to the attention of the proprietors. Owners of the establishment will creosote the egg clusters and apply two summer sprays to the 86 trees in and around their premises. In addition they will voluntarily spray an apple orchard north of the nursery plot. This firm has about 3 acres under cultivation. They informed the inspector that they anticipate a good business this year.

PAGE 20

-20-In the off-seasons, Finnish stone cutters near Milford, N.H., have purchasec 1 .a. r.ge,.-granit. e . b .ouldexs scattefed.it=.rbout':, t . 'he-rtearbyJn. .ftls' .-a-rld'' Cut thert(fritd paving bloe,~s • -~ : .. P.rospee!ti V 'E?: , p urcha:ser.s _ :re.-ce-n,tl--y :.examined ?tih:.S-fs-ola"ted lots: w1th, _ ' a -view tc , comq_ining them into,;carlaad :shipm:entS:: e h:'•T f thts -:-~~ rfn, g i i s to be shipped td • rion regt la . .ted .t,er-rttory; .as ,ts-rumoreu;;,::1 t : .. w j:Jl 'il;, :re,4utre. : da:Te: ru1 : i-nspe'cition ;_•:of ~ach l:i1oek .. .. ishi.pped;. ,, ,T.he : • s -torage pile1S ,;,ar: s1 .:'s c~ttered'.:,'hrougnout': infe;s'te'ci : wood}an'd ei-eas and . liave : .. been tn . ith:eir present:: CT!.6cati'Onsf ov:Sr lone: or' : t -wo ,:egg la~irig'; se3asbrfa : . : = : ... ~": :. lJ-, , : . ~ .-.!.: :,: -~ '..:~:. :,:-L., :~.~ f l~-~ 1t\:;'r : r ~;.:1 .. ).'.l .:l'~ '. ,. ' ! • • •• : .: •. ::. :-t~ -..:t:--:.~ . , , , : . . . . ',.! :.'. ,' ' . : . ; ,Unti• l re.c,en :tly:, 1.im-p_a,~sa~ler. bt~ol3.use:.:.o : f'. .. deep snow, rnany / -l:iack''rcfau ' s ' fif ; t'he:: Bangor, Maine, district after the spring thaw Will soon be impe.' s 'sa;ble' i,iecaus; e : o r hub-deep mud. On March 31, the Coast Guard ice breaker Kickapoo open~~ a channe) to Bango.r, .:: : Movemertt :. or,a , ba~ge'. ,1:oa:~ a -:ot: grarii te: ; f':rbni Frarikfor.f, , Me:::i.'iie : , , : awaited , open'.ing :Of'. ,the''Mount Wa1do Cove t,o :'. riav-i -ga-tion.( '-Twioo the usua1": q_uartt-'i ty~ cd \ rail. r,o:ad shimwood wai s ; c:erti-ff'E~d t f-r -oniJ'.the ;:..: 1~~.: -~:. • J .. .:: : ! • . ~--,. ... .. t ~ .... ! . ! : . . : ; : . . : , ~ •i:., .li # ~: " 1 ; ~ :_. , . .. -~ t1 .. ... : . . ' ' ' Sh( i ,pper~' or s -tonef• and;_ quarr:Y,Y;pi:'ciducts at;:Barre / Vt~ ,.., a ' rEi befhg 'placed under : pe;rmit* , 'since. : the qu.aran : t . inl3d ; 'i'.irod'uc ts::.they 'sh'i' p ,1are-"rhanu fact-ured9 'j;>'i'ocefssed , , ,and ,s;tbred :=in: :su-ch: a manner . : that• ~ : •,Ji<: .. •::ot-no= eou1a:. he transmit'ted ~ : n : : Alf granite, .tha:t.::is; sh.ippe: d , , from.r Barre: ; i~; :freshly .qu.'arried s-tone' br n :ew1t:efrt monumental stock. Lumber used in crating or boxing the pieces is clean spria'ee 'from which the bark is removed before its storage in closed sheds, where it is protectec . :_from-gypsy, moth• inf.-estat ion . • :_,_,,:: ... : . -:-i; .: •:. , =. " , , .. c-i ,-,; ... c.. : , . ; ,. . 1 . '.: ~<-r; :.i ; . : , ::: , •• , ,, : ( •l ; •'_}\ • • : : ,;: , , • t . j :,\;~: •#_ • : • : ; :.:.: • l' ~.' : .. : . • :; : ::,.: : • .. : ',. •~:: . : : :;7 ~ i \ : : • 1 ,' i , • , . At the, .. end _ ; _of. March " t • , atl' :iinusual''. em.cunt , . o.f: fl.'ost re:mained:-in tlie: greund-ln , the.-:Portland; • : Ma~ne, ; p.s trict. t ~ :
PAGE 21

-21-Inspection anel certification of forest and other. quarantined products originating in the gypsy moth inf~sted zone of northeastern .Pen~sylvania require .the full-time assignment of 7 inspectors of the Pennsylvan~aBureau of Plant Industry. Requests for inspections have increased considerably due to the additional towns hips recently placed under restriction. Infestations of gypsy moth to.talling 72 egg clusters were found in the course of_ inspection of car stakes and blocking to accompany .5 shipments of granite from Concord, N.H. These shipments were destined to Washington, D.c., and points in New York State. Out of 67 toufist camps inspected in the Bath, Maine , district, 20 wer~ found infested with _the gypsy moth and 2 with the brown-tail moth. These inspections netted 354 gypsy moth egg cl~sters and 25 brown-tail moth webs. Collections of gypsy moth egg clusters were made on four occasions during March and the clusters forwarded to c. W . Collins, in charge of the gypsy moth research laboratory at t~elrose Highlands, I\llass. ' Chestnut leaves. an~ twigs of a species which the shipper claims is immune to the chestnut blight were certified at Boston for shipment to G. F. Gravatt, senior pathologist of the Bureau of Plant I~dustry, Washington, D.c. MEXICAN FRUIT FLY Following the taking of a considerable number of adult Mexican fruit flies during the.early part of March, a determined effort was made to locate any larval infestation that might exist. Practically every grove having any quantity of fruit was given a close inspection, and in addition all fruit taken in the tree-to tree inspection of 1,854 groves was cut and inspectedo All la~val inspections gave negative results. With one exception, all previous larval infestations have been found during the spring months, and the inability to lo"cate a larval infestation this spring would indicate either that the fly population is less than in some previous years, or that the trapping and spraying operations are decidedly successful in preventing a larval infestation of the fruit. The great majority of the female flies taken this season bad not developed eggs in the ovaries, indicating that they were attracted to the traps shortly after emerging from the pupae. Where the grove was sprayed within a few days from the time of taking the adult, it is reasonable to believe that any flies not attracted to the traps would be killed be fore having an opportunity of ovipositing. During the fiscal year to the end of March, 231 adult A. ludens were trapped in 154 groves. More than half of these, or 143, were taken during March . In ad dition to the ludens, specimens of A . fraterculus, A . serpentina, A . pallens, A . "X" species, A. "Y" species, and T. curvicauda w ere take n in the traps during the month. Of particular interest was the trapping of 3 female ludens'in the brush in 3 widely scattered locations. Whether this means tha t this species i s feeding on

PAGE 22

-22 ... a native host or whether the lac. k o ; f f:r,ui t in the citrus groves is forcing them to wander about in search .'~f mat~ria1,;.;for . oviposi tion, is not known. It is hoped that some light will be . throw,n . . .qn thts question by an -intensive trapping and inspection program that will be .. c _arr• i : ed on in the brush during the next severai . months. The State-9perated power sprayer was in operation 22 days during the month, during which time. 13,489 _ t:rees_ in 28 properties were treated with nicotine-molasse s spray. Vvi.th the rate .infestations were . being turned up during the, early part :of the month, it'w~s realized that the one sprayer could not be expected to reach .the groves within a reasonable time after finding the infestations, Accordingly, a representative of the State . Depal;'tment of Agriculture met with the Commissi:dners' Courts of Cameron ~ri~ _Hidalgo Co~nt .ies and secured appropriations to pay for : an _ additional power spra'yer, .and also ;to pay . :for part of the traps purchased last fall The new sprayer is. expected. to be in operatio n during the first part of April. The operation of traps on the Mexican s.ide of the river from Matamoros to Reynosa resulted in the taking of 3 A ludens,. l A. striata, and 1 !• pal-lens in . Matamoros. The other traps gave negative results. The specimen of striata was the first ever taken in Matamoros despite the fact that the city has been :i!ntensi vely trapped during the 'past 4 . years, Larvae of striate are recovered oc casion ... ally from guavas imported to the market.in Matamoros, but seemingly this species I • • \ has never been able to establish itself in the numerous guava bushes growing in Matamoros. The shipment of mangoes from the southern part of Mexico started during the early part of the month, with 26 boxes of this fruit reaching Matamoros. From these, 18 larvae of A, ludens were taken and forwarded to Mexico City. While the Mexican inspector received no instructions concerning the shipment of mangoes to the bqrder, a number of merchants in Matamoros received notice from the dealers in Michoacan that the shipment of mangoes to Matamoros. was strictly prohibited by. the Mexican Government and that they_ would be unable to ,fill future or-ders for mangoes. The citrus crop of the Valley was practically harvested for this season by the end o r the.~onth. Orders ~ere received on the 24th and given to the industry that the har~.(~sting per.iod. would end with the close of April 5. This action was deemed advisable due to the taking of rather large numbers of adult fruit flies and because the ful4 extension granted at the opening of the seas0n,when a i5,ooo-c~r crop was indicated, was not needed. The industry as a whole was-anxiotis:to bring the season to a close. Due to the good price prevailing for fruit throughout the month, groves were stripped clean of fruit. Very li.ttle off-bloom-fruit has been observed on the trees, and it is expected that the Valley will enter the host-fr~e period in better shape than at any time duri,ng the pas-t several years. Shipments were steady throughout the month with very little of the end-of-the-season rush in getting fruit out. The majority of the fru.it_ shipped during the month . was hauled by trucks which have, throughout the year, handled more fruit than the raflroads. A daily average of 68 fruit trucks passed the road station during the: month. The total 'Shipment .. of fruit for the season. 'will probably be in, excess. of 4,000, cars, : rath~r: .t~an. 2 , . ooo as was estimated immediately after the hurri can\3 of. Septembe~ 4• I : .

PAGE 23

• PINK BOLLWORM Weather conditions wer e _ more favorable in southern Florida during March than during the previous month, ~nd as a result the eradication of wild cott~n went forward very rapidly. All.cotton in the area from Naples, in Collier County, northward has been removed. T~i s work included not only the recleaning of areas formerly cleaned, but also the first clean-up of many new colonies which. were inaccessible last season or.which had not been located. Considerable progress has also been made in that part of Collier County south of ~aples which is being clean ed for the first time. The~e is still considerable work to do in this area before all of the known cotton will. have been eradicatea. On Cape Sable the area cleaned has been extended considerably. At the close of the month the crews had work _ed inland to the prair.ie and hammock _bordering White water Lake. To reach this area it. was necessary for the men to cut automobile trails through considerable growth so that the laborers would not have to walk so far, to and from work. Some ~5 miles of trails have been made this season. It was also necessary to build a number o~ bridges over canals. These br~dges were constructed without any cost to the Department by using dri'ftv10od, logs, and trees. The inspectors have exhibited oonsiderable engineering skill in this trail_and, bridge work. One of the crews at Cape _Sable began the clean-up prog 4am on keys in Florida Bay adjaceni to Cape Sable. By the end of the month those keys accessible by boat from the mainland had been cleaned and a small camp was established on one of the keys as a working ?ase to reach those more distant from themainland. The reclean-up on the mainland keys, from Key Largo southward to Lower Matecumbe, has progressed very well. Several small keys adjacent to the mainlands havebeen completed. In this area a go od many plants are found growing in cracks and crevices in the rocks, and it is almost impossible to dig .out the plants by the roots in such loc_ations. The eradication of such plants is being under-taken by chemical treatment , sodium arsenite, at the rate of approximately 2 pounds of dry sodium arsenite gray to a gallon of water, being used. This liquid is applied by means of a long-spout oil can equipped with a valve. Preliminary experiments made last fall indicate that this method will prove satisfactory • .. The weekly exa mination of blooms from the cGtton plots at Chapman Field was ' . made throughout the month . A total of 1,045 blooms and 2 3 bolls were examined with negative results. There was not sufficient time to examine any hibiscus blooms. The sterilization of planting seed in the regulated area of southern Georgia, mentioned in the last News Letter, has bee n completed. A total of 91 tons were treated, and a considerable quantity of this seed has already been planted. A farmer recently told one of ou r inspectors that he had secured a perfect stand, and was thoroughly convinced that sterilization did not injure the germinating qualities of the seed~ As part of their program, and to assist in eradicating the pink bollworm, the Agricultural Adjustment Administration ha s established a no-cotton zone to include the area where infestc.tion was found in southern Georgia last fall. At the request of the State intomologist of Georgia a small plot of cotton will be planted

PAGE 24

in each of the two fields where infestation was found. The blooms from this cot-ton will be picked and inspected daily~ This will give information as to the continued presenc~ of the insect and. also. serve, as. a trap for any_ motbs which • • • • • • , , , .. , • • • • ) , I• • • might emerge and lay eggs• . . The State of Texas has mde arrangements -to st'er.ilize planti.ng se: ed in the new area in West Texas w~ere-.-._inf~;~a~ion ' .was .. ~o_ un~ th~)3, past season. •,: Spme 21 sterilizers wil} be installed/at various gins throughout the area • . Each .machine will be supervised by one: of our i.nsppect9~s. to s .ee ;th~t the. seed .is satisfactorily treated, : By the end of. .the mont . h . s~v.eral or' :thes~ machines. ha.d .already _peen ~nstalled and were in operation,, Jmd-_tJJ,e-.. r~maining ,ones wtl1 _lie:, :r:~a-<;l.y_ in a s ,hort time. ' • • \ •.. J '. .: • • • • •' • • ' . • Preparations for th~ trap-plot work in .the Big. Bencl hav~ gone forward .sati:Sfactorily. The _ hotbed -~otton is in a healthy co1+di' t19:n ancf 1 !:l. growi~ rapid-_ly. , . the plants now beipg about 5 inches in 'teight: :and conta'ini:qg: ; from 4 tc:f 6 , ieaves. As -the plants developed they were gradually thinned t . o'. w,p.ere tne .. t .wo heal th. :f.~st plan.ts, were left in eacp. cup., By_ the _end of the mont h -the _r:teld plots h~ ~ d . : be . en prepared and with the e;cception of wat~r e .ve.rythfng, was i.n ~ r~adines~ _to beg_i~ trans-. ferring_ th,e plan. ~s . -to. field plots• . Th.is. transplanting vi.'ill . be done 'the first of the coming month _ . The . two half-acre plots 1n Bre:wst.er C,ounty are g~owing nicely• One of these. plotp is. well protected, and: cotton C$ne ' up, to at least'. a 95 percent stand. The other .plot is not . so well protected an d doe _ ~ _ n:ot have 'such a good stand; however, it does not appear. that any r~piaritipg w_i11 be n~ces~ary. The reqent cool weather did not. .extend to thi~ er.ea,: and_ if no11. e is exper'ienced in the future this trap cotton wil'i be well in advance of the main crop. ' A few farmers requested permission to begin planting a li tt_le. early, but upon being told that thii;; might interfere with. the program, they did ;ot . i .nsist,: an'd_. it now appears that no cotton will be planted prior to April 15. . ' Laboratory inspecti.on at San Anto'nio and the various fi'eld stations has . . . . . , : ; , • ' . . ' gone forward as usual. .. Last fall. some green boll.s were Gpll.ec . te.d . in the regulated area o;f West Texas and New Mexico to piake a compar,isoii _ be . twe\~n the _cost and effi• ciency -of gin-trash inspection as compared to _boll inspection under lab. o .ratory conditions. S~veral ,specimens of the .pink bollwo.rm were round in some; of these . bolls, but with this exception the results of laboratory inspect'ion were'nega~ive. Baca .use of-the need of inspectors to supervise IT_1achines in connection with the sterilizing of planting seed in the new area of W-est Texas, the Sa.n Aritc;mio laboratory has be_ en temporarily closed.. As soon as this program i~ completed the men will return to San Anto.nio and resume laboratory inspecti'on. PREVENTING SPREAD OF MOTHS Effective March 1, 1934, the State of Pennsylvania exte-nded the area which they had placed under quarantine on account of the gpsy mqth to include addition al townships in which infestations have been discovered since the start of the present scouting season, Al though every effort to discove, r the farthermost

PAGE 25

limits of t he infested area were made last year, the magnitude of the t ask rendered its completion impossible. Befo re the lim~ ts could be fixed the season had advanced so far that the egr clusters had hatched and spraying operations had to be started. In order to protectthe remainder of the State and other States from the dan ger of becoming infested through the transportation of infested materials, the State of Pennsylvania placed under quarantine an area of 409 square miles w hich scouting had shown to be infesteds One more township, of 19 square miles, was placed under quarantine in December 1933, as it .was .found infested. With the start of the new scouting season last fall the crews of men engaged in control work were assigned to the known infested area where , there was the most pressing need for their services in order to perform the eradication work planned. As soon as it was possible to do so, or when working conditions in the known infested area became un -satisfactory, crews were moved into outside territory to continue the search for the border-line of infestation. As was expected, infestations were found in some of the outside townships, and the most recent extension by the State of the area under quarantine was made to bring under regulation all townships in which infestations had been found up to March 1. The extension of area increases the total number of square miles to 700. Included in this• 700 square miles, lying in the counties of Carbon, Lackawanna, Luzerne, Monroe, and Wayne, are 68 townships, cities, boroughs, or other political subdivisions and a part of one other township . The materials under restrictions which move from the quarantined ~rea are shipped mostly to Pennsylvania destinations. As a ru~e, mine props, lumber, fire wood_ , and junk metals compose the major portion of the materials inspected, with a few ~hipments of nursery stock, cable reels, and miscellaneous articles. The gypsy moth control work performed by assig ned portions of the personnel at the Civilian Conservation Corps camps, located west of the Connecticut River in New England, has varied somewhat in amount accomplished each month. Vhen the camps were started there was nothing but the sites. Roads had to be constructed, areas cleared, l.iving quarters provided, and numerous buildings erected. All these t~sks provided plenty of employm ent for the entire personnel and it was not until most of this work had been done that men could be .spared for other assignments. . , W hen gypsy moth control work by camp men was first authorized the number of men who co:uld be s p a _red for this activity was limited. As the season advanced and camp projects neared completion more and more men were placed on control work. It was found, however, that it was impossible to mai~tain the force at a fixed number, as other activities made it necessary to direct some of the labor to other tasks. Month by month there was considerable fluctuation in the number of men engaged in gypsy moth control. During the winter, which was of unusual severity, there were numerous periods when outdoor work was out of the question, as severe cold and deep snow imposed too great hardship s on the men. Immed i ately a f t e r heavy falls of snow many of the men were required for sno w removal at the camp s and the roads to the camps. As the frost began to come out, camp roa d s in some plades became nearly impassable as, throug h necessity, they were built rapidly and ha v~ not proven equal to holding up under early sprin g conditions. Much work by camp personnel has b e en necessary to keep such roads op e n to traffic. By the end of March the year of enrollment permitted was completed and the men obliged t o l eave . New enrollments did not begin at once at some o f the c amps and it m a y b e sever a l w osks be~oro quot.as are filled. The changes i n personnel ~ill remov e many of the

PAGE 26

\' men trained on gypsy moth work and this will make it necessary to train the new men to continue control work alrea_ dy begun. In spite of all handicaps imposed by vre_ather and v~riatlons iri_ number of men who could• be employ 'ed on gypsy moth work, many tp.ousands of'. acre: s of woodland have 'b eeri , scouted. together with. ov .er . a ~housand miles o f roadsides.; A . number :of dangerous gypsy. mo.th: . infestations hE\ve b _een found an d a . iarge nuniber of egg clusters 'destroyed • . : .• .. -.~ , .. • • .!# ' I ; j; I • • r • • \ • ; Each spring travel .for the scouting force be.com.es quite 'difficult because of the condition or the .roads.. While ~uch of .the._territ.ory in which work is performed is traver_sed by hard-surfaced roads, 9niy" .~m.a_ll port.ions of' the tndi vi dual towns can be reached from them. .. The remainder .of each town has to be reached over .dirt roads:and these become impassable in many s~~ttons _ when the frost begins to come out • . The past winter had such excessively qold weather tha:t frost pen~trated to record depths and, .asa -result, _dirt ro~ds ar_e ' 1n : tj111~h worse. condition this spring than usual • . Some :of them are p1,;rfeot seas