Citation
News letter

Material Information

Title:
News letter
Creator:
United States -- Bureau of Plant Quarantine
Place of Publication:
Washington, D.C.
Publisher:
Bureau of Plant Quarantine
Publication Date:
Frequency:
Monthly
Language:
English

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Plants -- Diseases and pests -- Control -- Periodicals -- United States ( lcsh )
Genre:
federal government publication ( marcgt )

Notes

Dates or Sequential Designation:
Began with: no.19 (July 1, 1932)
Dates or Sequential Designation:
Ceased with: no.43 (June 30, 1934)
General Note:
"Not for publication".

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
This item is a work of the U.S. federal government and not subject to copyright pursuant to 17 U.S.C. §105.
Resource Identifier:
030428081 ( ALEPH )
785785040 ( OCLC )
2012229620 ( LCCN )

Related Items

Preceded by:
News letter
Succeeded by:
Monthly letter of the Bureau of Entomology
Succeeded by:
Blister rust news
Succeeded by:
News letter

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Full Text





NEWS LETTER


BUREAU OF PLANT QUARANTINE

UNITED STATES PEPAR7ENT OF AGRICULTURE



Number 8 (NOT FOR PUBLICATION) February 1, 1934.

(The contents of this number, unless specifically stated otherwise, cover the month of December only)




ADMINISTRATIVE


ENFORCE: ENT OF THREE QUARANTINES hGED

Due to the overlapping of the areas infested by Japanese beetle and gypsy moth, it was found advisable in the interests of economy to merge the enforcement work on the two quarantines. With the spread of the Japanese beetle in the New England States and the extension of the quarantine in that area, the Bureau was in the position of having two sets of inspectors in the same area while all the work of inspection and certification of products could readily be handled by one unit. The enforcement of the satin moth quarantine which is operative in the same territory was also combined with the other two quarantines. This work will be under the field supervision of L. H. Worthley. The work on eradication of the gypsy moth, including the extensive eradication program in northeastern United States nor in progress and the control measures in the barrier zone, will be in charge of A. F. Burgess. This change became operative January 1.





ICHNOLOGICAL DIVISION


Work is proceeding rapidly on the repairs and alterations of fumigation
equipment on the Mexican-border. WVork is under way on the Brownville fumigation house, which was so badly damaged by the hurricane last September that it became necessary to reconstruct it, The house which is being built has a cnracity of three c-.rs and can, by means of a partition door, be divided into a one- and a two-car compartment. Sliding steel doors are installed at each end of the house and suitable storage space and facilities for vaculm fumigation are installed in the new plant.





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At tlie En., le Fass fumi-ation house the roof, is bein-, re-71'aced, -nd a system for fumi-iat-ion V.,ith volatilized Ir7drocy,-1nic acid is beinr-_ installed in alelition to r --aintin.- the house and. minor repairs. At Lare&o, ne, 'l steel doors are being installed i,-i -:lq.ce of V _e wooden doors which are now in j)lace. A new loc'--ing device for sealing -e d.oors is U- also bei-..-L,-- The fumi,-Dtion chambers are
bein-, -laptere(I and. .,?,i.ited. It is -r.lar-ned to install npn! end .oors and a system fo- -vdrocra iic ncie, for fumi- -io-n at El Paso.
vol- .tilizin, the I j U

Al 1 V ie reservations are bein, fenced vitll woven wire fenicin.,, for the protection of the nroT)ert-r and Vle -- u blic20IEIGN QAN'T QTAW17E7111S


HECEYT XNTTOMOLO -T ICAL RTmRCE:PTIOYS OF IYT-72EST

tdediterr ,nea a fruit -fl-77 fro-r., S-oain.--A larva of Ceratitis ca-,-itata. Wied.
was interceT.,tea at savaaina _-,, Ga. iii a, m .;.la.L-a cxa-pe in stores fro-in Spain.

Yrui t f 1-y te- 'k:en in 1-uerto Tico---ki adult of Anastretha sus-Pensa, Loew
rviDetid.ae) vics collected on a le.,?.' of tro7)ical almond (Tenninalia catapn )in the field. at Arecibo, e.R.

"Tat fruit to-rtri-- from S-Oain.--A livin,- larve. of Las-oevresia si:)1endeo7s, Fbn.
(Olet'larloutidae) ml.s ta _cen at Neviv Yorlc in a chestnut in c!!7 r, o from. Snain.
Scotc'n broom seed.--An
illeevil in adult of Sitona lineata Linn.. (.1"'urcullonidae) was interce-Dted at in a seed of Scotch broom (Cytisus scon s)
in the mail En,Iand.

Scale insect on :- olnsettia.--Lerid.osanhes alba (C,--Jl.) was tacen at Miami; 71,R. 011 '7 0171SE'ttia. Uu7-,horbia ru.lclaerrima) in ba-r, e from 7 as' sau Bahamas. This coccia 'nas been interce- .Vted previously on cassava from Bel:: ian Congo, Brazil,
Jpva, and the 1,i'est Indies. It is r, corC.ed f rom '-Tlorida..

Le--3ido-,-!tero.n in lee leF v &.--Livinr, larvae nid, cocoons of AcroleRia jasect.ella Zeller (Plutellid ,e) were interce,,ted at ilhil,, .delnhla in (AILlum 221. r the leaves of leek
.4m) 1a stores fror, t1oe Netherlands. Rer-orted As causing t considerable dama 16 to and -,articiil?,r1ir to leeks, in the neir-hborhood of Mont,"ellier,
2raiice. Also recorded as a -^)est of o-aions in 11xi.ssia.

lol,'s from Enst Africa rubidus Murray (ITitidulidae)
and Colobicus ,inatus Latr. (Colveij.0,4.e) vere tal,-,en -,t Baltimore, lid. under the barl:c of blacl : 17all-lUt 10,1.s in cnr,, o fro ,,, Enst Africa.

Cric'ret from the Orient.-T11e Ja-anese sin.-An_ cric,:et (Homoeoc rillus
ja-onirus Hnr n) wets Fr,,).-,icisco a-, a cR:'.,:-ed -oet in baggage from Japan.









It has also been intercepted at the same port in baggage from China. This gryllid is not recorded from the continental United States.

Weevil from Guatemala.--An adult of Catolethrus longulus Boh. (Curculionidae) was intercepted at Baltimore, Md., on banana debris in cargo from Guatemala.

Pink bollworm from the *.est Indies.--Seven living larvae of Pectinorhora gossypiella Saund. were intercepted at Boston in four cotton bolls in the mail from Antigua, Lesser Antilles.

New locality record.--Living thrirs were intercepted at Vashington, D.C., on Aster spp. and varieties in the mail from the Netherlands. J. R. atson, of Gainesville, Fla, reports as follows: "Thrips nigririlosus form brachyptera Uz., a species not known to occur in this country. It never has been reported from Holland either, but from practically all the countries arouhd there."

Bark beetle from England.--Adults of Dryocootes villosus Fabr. (Scolytidae) were intercepted at New York in brown oak logs in cargo from England.

Termite from the Philirpines.--Soldiers and workers of Maerotermes gilvus Hagen were intercepted at ?an Francisco in seeds of a rubber tree in begpage from Manila, P.I. T. F. Snyder, of the Bureau of Entomology, reports that this is a fungus-growing species wHIch builds subterranean mounds. This white ant, which also attacks sugarcane, is not recorded from the continental United States. Dr. Snyder further states that this interception represents an interesting host record,

'hitefly from Tahiti.--Dialeurodes kirkaldyi (Kot.) (Aleyrodddae) was intercepted at 1hashington, D.C., on a Gardenia tahitensis plant in the express from Tahiti, Society Islands. This species was described in 1907 by Jacob Kotinsky from specimens taken in Hawaii.

RECENT PT'IOLOGICAL IhTRCPTIONS OF INTaEST

Wisteria disease.--A disease was intercepted at Seattle on special permit material of Iisteria multijuga praecox from Japan and referred to Miss E. K. Cash who reports as follows: "Mycosrhaerella sp. Spores larger than Sphaerella wistareae Oke. and S. wistaricola Turcom." ,,isterias have long been one of the most beautiful flowering vines grown by the artistic gardeners of Japan. It is quite possible that their plants have accumulated diseases to which the Japanese forms are highly resistant but wLich might be destructive to some of the strains frm ether parts t Vhe *orld. Henze it is ipOrtrt. tbt propagating material of these plants be inspected with extreme care and even the most insignificant looking evidences of disease removed, as was done in this case.

Colletotrichum gloeosporioides on beans.--Some specimens of lima benscab (Elsinoe canavaliae) from Cuba sent in by New York inspectors were found to be largely overgrown by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides when they reached Washington. While this fungus attacks a wide range of plants an7d is frequently intercepted, this is the first interception on lima beans since 1925.

Rhizoctonia on tomato.--The shipment of fresh vegetables from Yexico for






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the winter trade has been under way for several weeks. One of the earlier interceptions on tomato was soil rot (Rhizoctonia solani), collected at Nogales on December 9. ,hile this disease is rather destructive some years and has probably been intercepted on previous occasions, this was the first material received in condition to determine with any degree of certainty.

New host and locality for nema.--Our first interception record of Neotylenchus abulbosus from Spain is based on a collection of infested chestnuts found in baggage from Spain at Key West on November 8. According to Dr. Steiner, chestnut is a new host for this parasite.

Palm seed rejected.--A mail shipment of palm seed from Cuba for growing in Florida was returned to the shipper from the Washington Inspection House when inspection showed the presence of Phomopsis palmicola var. arecae (P. arecae) which is apparently not found in this country. The fungus had penetrated to the interior of the seed in some cases and presumablywas responsible for the death of the seed.

Onion smut intercepted.--Although onion smut (Urocystis cepulae) is rather common and widely distributed, it does not appear to have been intercepted until it was found in onions in stores from Germany at Savannah, on December 21.

Nematode interceptions.--Nematode interception determinations for the month included Anguillulina dipsaci in garlic from France at New Orleans and in potatoes .from Germany at Houston, Mobile (3), New York, Philadelphia (2), and Savannah, and from Sweden at Baltimore and Mobile; Aphelenchoides p.arietinus in ginger from China at Buffalo (2), from Japan at Baltimore, in taro from Japan at Baltimore, and in turnip from Sweden at Baltimore; Aphelenchus avenae in tulip from England at Detroit and in turnip from Sweden at Baltimore; and Heterodera marioni in carrot from India at Philadelphia and in Iris laevigate, Yamato Fishiki (new host) from Japan at Seattle.

SOIE OF THE INSECTS iD DISEASES I\TERCEPTED AT NOGALES, ARIZ., IN VEGETABLE SMTIP.NTS FROM T rE WEST COAST OF EXICO DURING THE 1932-33 WINTER SEASON

Gnorimoschema lycopersicellaBusck (Gelechiidae) was intercepted 840 times in tomatoes; Gnorimoschema gudmannella W1sm. (Gelechiidae), twice in bell peppers, once in tomatoes; Heliothis obsoleta Fabr.,629 times in tomatoes, 10 in green peas,
7 in string beans, 4 in bell peppers, 2 in lima beans, 1 in squash; Heliothis virescena Fabr., 56 times in tomatoes; noctuid, 24 times in tomatoes, 3 in peppers; Platynota stultana W'lsm. (Tortricidae), 13 times in peppers Platynota sp. (Tortricidae), 22 times in peppers, 3 in tomatoes; tortricid, 1 times in peppers, 4 in tomatoes, 1 in eggplant; Laphy&ga exigau FHbn. (beet armyworm), twice in tomatoes Phlyctaenia rubigalis Gn. (greenhouse leaf tier), twice in tomatoes; Marmara sp. (Gracilariidae), 3 times in pepper; Loxostege sp..(?) (Pyralidae), twice in squash; Diaphania sp. (Pyralidae), l6 times in squash, 1 in cucumber; curculionid, twice in .eggplant; Diabrotica balteata Lec. (Chrysomelidae), once in eggplant; Apion sp. (Curculionidae), twice in lima beans; Etiella zinckenella Tr. (Pyralidae), twice in lima beans; gelechiid, once in bell pepper; Autographa sp. (Noctuidae), once in pepper; Pseudococcus citri (Risso), once on pepper. Prodenia sp. (Noctuidae),






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Feltia malefida Guen. (Noctuidae), Phalaenophana sp. (Noctuidae), Exptochiomera minima Guer. (Lygaeidae), Crophius costatus Dist. (Lygaeidae), Antillocoris sp. Lygaeidae), Dicyphus minimus Uhl. (Miridae), and Laphygma sp. (?) (Noctuidae) were each intercepted once in tomatoes. An adult of Eutolina mima Harv. (Noctuidae) was taken once on a lug of tomatoes.

Alternaria solani was intercepted 33 times on tomatoes, 10 on peppers; Alternaria sp., 70 times on tomatoes, 12 on lima beans, 11 on green peas, 6 on peppers, 2 on eggplant; Miacrosporium sp., 34 tiL'es on tomatoes, 15 on green peas, 10 on lima beans, 6 on peppers, 1 on string beans, 1 on horse beans; Erysiphe polygoni, 10 times on green peas; Erysiphe sp., 12 times on green peas, 1 on tomato; Oidium sp., 17 times on gree:1 peas; Aplanobacter michiganense, 5 times on tomatoes; Bacteriacae sp., 76 times on tomatoes, 19 on reapers, 9 on lima beans, 6 on string beans, 4 on green peas, 4 on squash, 1 on eggplant, 1 on horse beans; Botrytis sp., 26 times on tomatoes, 10 on limp beans, 7 on green peas, 7 on peppers, 1 on horse beans; Cephalothecium roseum, once on tomato, once on lima beans; Cephalothecium sp., 5 times on tomatoes; Cladosporium fulvum, 16 times on tomatoes,
2 on peppers, 2 on eggplant; Cladosporium sp., 120 times on tom-to3s, 31 on lima beans, 20 on green peak 7 on string beans, 7 on peppers, 5 on eggplant, 1 on squash, 1 on horse beans; Colletotrichum lindemuthianum, 2 times on string beans; Colletotrichum sp., 8 times on tomatoes, 2 on eggplant; Corticium sp., 27 times on tomatoes, 9 on lima beans, 5 on string beans, 3 on peppers, 2 on horse beans, 1 on green peas, 1 on squash; Fusarium sp., 44 times on tomatoes, 30 on lima beans, 7 on peppers, 3 on string beans, 3 on green peas, 1 on eggplant; 0osporg sp., 3 times on tomatoes; Phytophthora sp., 90 tiiaes on tomatoes, 1 on peppers, 1 on horse beans; Sclerotium sp,, once on tomatoes, once on pepper; Uromyces appendiculatus,
6 times on strin: beans; Uromyces sp., 5 times on lima beans, 1 on horse beans; Bacillus carotovorus, twice on tomatoes; Bacterium Phaseoli, 5 times on lima beans,
3 on string beans; 0ospora lectis parasitica, Phoma destructiva, and Bacterium vesicatorium, once each on tomatoes.

CERTIFICATION OF FESIi FiTRUITS AD VEGET*.BLES FOR EXPORT IN 1933

The function of certifying fresh fruits and vegetables for export, to meet the sanitary requirements of foreign countries, is carried out under a special "Export Certification Act" passed in 1926, and involves a close cooperative relation with the various State inspection authorities as well as the Bureau of Agricultural Economics. The varying demands of different countries for special inspection or certificate procedure in products shipped to them introduce a considerable degree of complexity into what otherwise would seem to be a simple case of examining shipments, and, if they conform to a given standard, issuing a uniform type of certificate.

The demand for inspection and certification of fruits und vegetables and
nursery stock for shipment to foreign countries increased to a marked degree during the fiscal year 1933. Five thousand seven hundred and sixty-six shipments, representing 2,464,321 containers, were inspected and certified. This represents an increase of approximately 71 percent in the number of shipments certified during the preceding year, and approximately 210 p-ercent in the number of individual containers.

TI
STA PANT UW) R









The more important commodities inspected and certified were: pples 2,242 siiyrments, consisting of 1,225, boxes, 90,110 barrels, and 39,543 baskets; pears, 1,065 shipments, consisting of 063,592 boxes, 37,644 baskets,and 527 barrels potatoes, 791 shipments, consistihE of 159,058 bags, 8,402 barrels, and 43 crates and baskets; miscellaneous fruits and vegetables, 899 shipments, consisting of g6,406 packages; End nursery stock, including seeds, 292 shipments, consisting of 46 lots.

These certified shipments left from 25 diiferent United States ports, over 80 percent bein sent from the six ports of New York, Baltimore, New Orleans, San Francisco, Portland, gnd Seattle. Of the 55 countries to which there certified products 7rere destined the largest importers were Argentina, Brazil, Venezuela, Cuba, France, Telgium, and Hollhnd. It should be noted that shipments of certifiE products to a niven country iaay not represent the total exports of our fruits and vegetables to that country since a good deal of these products go abroad without certification.

PUERTO RICO INSPECTOR CONTRIBUTES IITSECTS

In the carrying out of Quarantine No. 58, on fruits and vegetables from
Puerto Rico, the plan is followed of allowing entry of certain products from the island when these are certifieo as free front pests by the Federal plant quarantine inspection service stationed there. In order to make this certification as reliable as possible the inspectors keep closely under observation the fields and groves where fruit or vegetables lor shipment to the mainland are being grown, on the theory that most of the pests which might be found in the pecked product will be detected far more readily in the field.

In the course of tais field inspection a pood many insects are encountered, not all of which are of injurious type. All of them, however, are turned in through the usual interception channels for identification.

Reportin on a recent contribution of a weevil found on Areca catechu on October 30, 133, L. L. Buchanan, of the National museum, comments as follows: "This is one of about 20 species of the subfamily Cryptorhynchinae in Mr. Oakley's lot of weevils that cannot be placed generically without first doinE more or less revisional work on the group. Due to the pressure of other duties it seems impossible to find time (for the present at least) to give this very interesting collection the necessary careful study, no toe species therefore must be left as merely Cryptorhynchines. It is hoped that more definite names can be supplied later, but whether or not there will-be an opportunity to do this some mention should be made of the unusually high quality of material submitted by Mr. Oakley during the past year or more. The specimens are in fine condition, carefully labeled, and include many new and little-known species, hen properly worked up this material will give an entirely new picture ol the Puerto Rican weevil fauna."

IF 'STED ORANGES SIIUGGLED ACROSS T*-.E RIO GRANDE

The nexican border quarantine station at Roma, Tex., reports a typical case of fruit smuggling which is illustrative in simple fashion of the whole quarantine






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problem. Mounted customs officers on patrol about 20 miles above Roma detected several persons in the act of smuggling oranges across the river from Mexico. On being apprehended the smugglers abandoned their sack of fruit and swamn back across the river. In the sack were 70 oranges which when examined by the plant quarantine inspector at Roma disclosed four fruit-fly larvae, later identified as Anastrepha ludens. The biological danger in t is case is clear enough, and with it the need for restrictions on entry. But the case also provides a typical illustration of the universal elements of human ignorance and wzillful disregard for the public welfare necessitating constant vigilance.

LUMBER CAR-IES ELH BARK BeaTLE

when the Dutch :lm Disease Quarantire, No. 70, was being considered there was some discussion of the possibility that the elm bark beetles, Scolytus spp., might be carried in bark attached to the edges of lumber, crates, etc., and the quarantine was drawn to exclude such materials if bark was present. That this action was
timely and correct is well exemplified by a recent report from the New Orleans inspection station. A foreign ship entered thet port December 11, 1933, carrying about 500 elm boards as dunnage. About half of them had bark on the edges and nearly all showed the work of scolytid beetles. From the bark of five of these boards 9 living larvae and 2 pupae were taken, and these proved on identification to be Scolytus scolytus, the insect regarded in Europe as the chief instrument in spreading the Dutch elm disease. Although another scolytid, S. multistriatus, is present in the Northeastern States a d is believed to play a prominent part in the spread of the Dutch elm disease, Scolytus scolytus has not yet been reported from this country. Its interception in this case must therefore be regarded as a double blessing.

INSPECTORS TRASFERRED AT GULF AND MEXIC BORDER PORTS

The following transfers were made in the plant quarantine inspection force at Gulf and Mexican border ports, effective January 1, 19 4: L. R. Dorlard from Galveston, Tex., to Mercedes, Tex.; L. A. Frost from ercedes, Tex., to Port Arthur, Tex.; C. P. Trotter from Port Arthur, Tex., to Galveston, Tex.





DO ESTIC PLATT QUARATINf7.S

The circular entitled, "Synopsis of Federal Plant Quarantines Affecting
Interstate Shipments", formerly issued as mimeographed Circuler 33-T, has been revised to include quarantine regulations in effect on January 1, 1934, and is being printed as a pocket-size booklet for ready reference. It is now design-ted Miscellaneous Publication No. 189. The circular consists of (1) a sumnary of the regulations giving the snipping requirements of the various quarantines; (2) a list of the articles under restriction; and (3) post offices in the areas regulated under the various quarantines, listed by States as heretofore. The new circular uill probably not be available for distribution for several weeks.






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A summary of both Federal and State quarantines wiiich is compiled by the iiestern Trunk Line Conmittee, of Chicago, for information of express and freight agents, wa also recently brought up to date by the committee for reprinting as Circular 5-G.

DurirE the year 1933 the States of Idaho, Georgia, and Wyoming discontinued terminal inspection of paercel-post shipments of plants and plant products.

According to the Bureau of Plant Industry, a considerable number of trees
infected with the Dutch elm disease have been found in native woods west of Newark, N. J. It has been found practicable to make surveys for this disease during the winter months and a large number of men are employed in this work under an allotment from the Federal Civil Works Administration.

TRANSIT INSPECTION

An intensive survey of wholesale freight shipments of nursery stock into and through Chicago is bein made by transit inspectors of that city under rearranged tours beginning the second week in January. By covering the truck shipments at al break-bulk points as well as shipments held at cold storage plants and trucking transfer stations, it is hoped to obtain more complete information of the winter movement of nursery stock. Chicago freight depots are widely scattered and it is expected that inspection will be concentrated principally upon about 12 of the more important ones. The cooperation of transportation agencies in telephoning the in. spectors regarding plant consignments listed on the waybills is of invaluable assistance in securing a check on such shipments for compliance with the regulations.

Studies ol the winter movement of nursery stock throughout the United States based on figures obtained in 1931 and 1932 from officials of class I railroads, show that 97 LCL transfer points handled an average of 50 or more cars a day. Thes transfer points are located in 33 different States. Those States which have 4 or more such points are:

Georgia------------4
Illinois----------- 4
Indiana------------ 4
Iowa--------------Massachusetts -----4
New Jersey--------- 4
New York---------- 12
Ohio--------------- 5
Pennsylvania-----A list of the 97 transfer points is being prepared for the information of.the inspectors.

The checking of mail, express, and freight at Pittsburgh to be sure of compliance with the Japanese beetle quarantine regulations, was discontinued for the winter in December.

Transit inspectors at Jacksonville, Fla., formerly located in the old post









office building, are now occupying Rooms 441 and 445 in the new post office building. Both foreign and domestic shipments are checked by the three inspectors, for compliance with State and Federal regulations, and nursery stock is inspected for insect pests and plant diseases under the provisions of the terminal inspection law. The schedules include the examination of waybills frequently totalling a thousand or more a day.

NACISSUS BULB PESTS

A general summary oi the narcissus inspection in the United States is being compiled from thj reports submitted by the various State inspectors covering the work of 1933.





DATE SCALE LRADICATION

Inspection during the month of December in the Coachella Valley was about
equally divided between the infested area and the adjoining territory. In the infested area ladders were used in most plantings w ile in the adjoining territory ground work only was done.

A crew from the Coachella Valley assisted the Imperial Valley inspectors in inspecting three large plantings. One single scale was found in the Reed Garden. A rather heavily infested palm was found in t:is garden in July of this year during an inspection from the ground. A few scales were found on an offshoot at the base of the palm. Ladders were then used and considerable scale found in the upper part of the palm. The palm was defoliated and sprayed.

In September the Imperial Valley inspectors carefully inspected a small area around this palm and found four lightly infested palms. In October and again in December a Coachella Valley crew inspected the garden and each time only sin_ le scales were found. The infested palms in this planting are the only ones found during the present fiscal year.

Durin& the month inspection of standard variety palms was carried on in the Salt River Valley in Arizona. As most oi these palms originated in the Coechella Valley, some from gardens which later showed scale, there is a chance that there are
some infestations behind tae fiber which have not yet spread to the foliage.






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JAPANESE BEETLE AND EUROPEAN CORN BORER

Exclusive Japanese Beetle Work

Federal Projects 3, 4, 5, and 6 were completed during or shortly after the third quarter of 1933, An allotment of $7,400 was made for F.P. 3, a project involving repairs to the main roof, fire walls, skylights, and skylight flashings on five of the six bays of Warehouse No. 4, assigned for project use at the New Cumberland General Depot of the U.S. Army. This work was let on contract to the lowest bidder, a Philadelphia contractor. '4ork began on November 17 and was completed January 4- It was necessary to practically reconstruct the skylights, since water seepage had rotted the woodwork beneath the flashings. F.P. 4 involved resurfacing of the roadway from the property line of the U.S. Army Depot to ',arehouse No. 4. This work was carried on from September 26 to October 11 under an allotment of 42,500. Coal tar and crushed stone screenings were used in the resurfacing operation. Twelve laborers were given work under this project. In F.P. 5, ',2,000 was allotted for reconstruction of approximately 850 linear feet of a 12-foot-wide concrete loading platform along the railroad spur at the side of warehouse No. 4. After the slabs or squares of concrete forming the top of the platform base had been removed,it was found that the cinder base had settled considerably below the top of the ce ent wall forrin the side of the platform. In reconstructing the platform it was first necessary to fill in the base of the platform and roll the fill till firmed. lieinforcinE fabric was used to strengthen the new concrete work. A 2-bag concrete mixer was use to prepare the mix. Eight laborers were employed from September 21 to November 24 in completing the work on the platform. A private contractor from 14ashington, D.C., was the low bidder on F.P. 6 for reconstruction of the large service door at the storage warehouse. This project was financed by an allotment of '200. Work on the service door was completed on November 17. All men engaged on the projects utilizing local labor were residents of York County, in which the Army Depot is located. The laborers were paid from NRA funds. These projectbegan shortly after the organization of the State Reemployment Service for the administration of allotted NRA funds. In the absence of a State Reemployment Committee in York County, arrangements for employment of the men used on F.P's. 4 and 5 were completed through John McCune, Xr., State Reemployment Director in Hrrisburg. On these projects, the men worked the customary 6 hours per day for 5 days a week, and were paid at the rate of 501 per hour.

Territory which it was necessary to place under regulation as a result of this year's discovered infestations is the least of any year since 1929. Only twice in the past 10 years have the added sections been so limited in extent. This season's added territory of only 1,689 square miles brings the total regulated zone to 99,379 square miles. In Maine, the section placed under regulation includes sufficient territory to make a continuous area from the New Hampshire line to and including the city of Portland. This will permit unrestricted movement of the considerable amount of produce that annually moves from Boston to Portland via truck. 1saterville, Maine, was included as an isolated regulated zone. In Maryland, certain territory within the established boundaries of the ".ashington Suburban Sanitary District was edded to bring under regulation a number of infestations in localities suburban to th ; District of Columbia. Through one Maryland election






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district the area includes only the right of way of U.S. Highway No. 1. This will allowi movement of' uncertified stock over the highway without the customary permit requirement. Coincident with inclusion of the town of Keyser, W7.Va., sufficient Marylcnd territory was added to form a continuous strip from the previously regulated territory in the Cumberland district to the West Virginia line adjacent to Keyser. One *est Virginia township south of Cumberland also was added to concentrate traffic from Cumberland into a single highway instead of the two means of egress which this year required guarding. An additional magisterial district in Henrico County, Va., was added for tI-e purpose of including an infested nursery in that subdivision. i ll of Norfolk County, Va., was taken under regulation. The latter addition will assist in ,uarding south-bound roads by moving the quarantine boundary to a point where there are but two exit highways. By the inclusion of two towns in Cattaraugus County, N.Y., a small area was added to connect this infested locality with the main regulated zone in Pennsylvania.

Other than extension of the regulated territory, there were few important
changes in the twelfth revision of the Japanese beetle quarantine regulations, effective December 1, 1933. iith t,.e addition of a single magisterial district in Henrico County, Va., to the previously isolated regulated section comprising the city of Richmond, and the creation of another isolated section by the addition of the city of Q4z *A, Maine, the regulated territory from which quarantined fruits and vegetables mai be shipped without certification end to which similar articles may not be moved without certification from the remainder of the regulated territory, was extended to include these two isolated sections. For the purpose of permitting movement without certification of thous :nds of samples of imported peat shipped from the metropolitan district of New York nd of similar material When used as packing for exempted bulbs, corms, and tubers, "ground, dried, imported peat in packages of 5 pounds or less to the package" was added to the list of articles exempted from the certification requirements, In order to clarify the regulation exempting from certification between October lb and June 14 certain aquatic plants, the term "fish grass" was replaced with "pprts of submerged aquatic plants Vithout roots.-" In horticultural literature the term fish grass is usually restricted to Cabomba, although a number of types of submerged aquatic plants used for oxygenating purposes in aquariums equally are entitled to exemption on the basis of their growth wholly below water and their shipment without roots. Under the rewording of this provision, the exemption will include such aquatics as Anacharis (Elodea), Cabomba, milfoil (Myiophyllum), Sagittaria sinensis, S. subulata, and Vallisneria. To relieve situations arising when less-than-carload shipments of quarantined articles, such as bags of srnd or marl for filtration purposes, are involved, provision was made that "in the case of lot shipments by freight, one certificate attached to one of the containers and another certificate attached to the waybill will be sufficient." This eliminates the provision necessitating the attachment of an individual certificate to each container in a less-than-carload shipment. The regulation reading "In the case of bulk shipment by road vehicle, the certificates shall accompany the vehicle" was changed by the omission of the word "bulk." This now conforms to preferred practice by which certificates accompany the vehicle in the case of small lots of quarantined articles moving by automobile, as well as in the case of movement via commercial truck.

Persistence of lead arsenate in the soil at isolated infestations poisoned
for one or more seasons since 1929 was determined this fall through analyses of soil






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samples from six widely separated cities. Single blocks in the treated cities were arbitrarily selected from maps of the poisoned sections, and these designations, together with the history of the treatments, submitted to the technological division with the request that analyses of the soil therein be made, Samples of soil in Richmond, Va., to which was applied 500 pounds of lead arsenate per acre in November 1931, showed an apparent total persistence of the insecticide in the soil. Samples analyzed from Providence, R.I., disclosed the least residuum of lead arsenate. In the latter city, spring treatments in 1930 and 1931 totalle 700 pounds per acre. The 1933 analyses showed the presence of 377 pounds per acr A section in Hartford, Conn., which had been poisoned in the springs of 1930 and 1931, showed a residue of the insecticide almost equal to the total dosage of 650 pounds per acre applied in the 2 years. Similar results were obtained from the samples dug in Erie, Pa., and Springfield, Mass. In Erie, fall applications of 500 pounds per acre each in 1931 and 1932 showed up in approximately full content this year. Spring treatments in 1929, 1930, and 1931 at Springfield, Mass., tota ling 646 pounds of poison, were shown by analyses to persist at the original dosag Samples from a block successively treated during 1929, 1930, and 1931 at Sayre, Pa with a total dosage of 678 pounds per acre, showed a residue of the poison close t the 3 years' dosages.

Final collection of bait dispenser cages distributed in Laurel, Elkton, and Colgate, Md., was made from Dece-mber 4 to 12. Originally 1,4100 cages were distributea in each community. Preliminary collections had been made early in September of cages that were not hidden by foliage. Little difficulty was experienced in final gathering of cages in the residential section of Laurel. At the Ricketts 1,1ill infestation on the outskirts of Elkton, about three fourths of the cages had been set in trees and shrubs along the banks of Elk Creek. A heavy flood in the creek late in August washed away many of the cages. As many as 4 and 5 cages were dug cut from piles of driftwood washed up on the banks by the flood. One Japanese beetle trap, which had been overlooked by the collecting inspector because of a dense growth of blackberry bushes, was found filled with mud washed in durin- the flood. Surrounding trees showed the -vater to have been full 18 inches higher than the trap, which was itself 4 feet from the ground. The infested section at Colgate is more or less open country. Here collections were difficult even in the absence of foliage. A 6-inch snow added to the difficultie Cages placed in the foliage on the sides of a mound covering a sewer line fared rather badly as a result of their use as targets by boys with 22 caliber rifles. Approximately 50 cages had been set alone the mound. Boys gathered some 30 of these, removed the glass containers of liquid bait, and lined up the perforated cages on top of the mound as targets. Plenty of additional perforations in the cages gave evidence of the boys? marksmanship. Only 10 of the cages in this immediate section were worth recovery&

Although New Jersey inspectors made 80 fewer inspections during December
than in November, only about 50,000 fewer plants were certified. Over a quarter of a million plants were certified in New Jersey for movement to nonregulated territory, ard some 120,000 were certified for movement to classified dealers within the area, Digging of field-grown roses, freeing them from soil, and their storage in certified houses was about completed during December. Since the past season's scouting activities in North Jersey disclosed infestations in a number of






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additional nurseries and greenhouses, demands have considerably increased for the services of inspectors to examine stock requiring certification. Dahlia tubers were shipped in considerable quantities from South Jersey during December. About the middle of January it is anticipated that dahlia growers will begin placing their tubers in greenhouses for propagating purposes. One inspector is kept busy attending to inspection calls on the New Jersey coast, Removal of the upper 12 inches of soil from fields or pits where molding sand is dug under certified conditions was completed during December. Shipments of roots of bleeding heart and spirea will start the latter part of January. Certified shipreants from New Jersey to noninfested territory durinE December as compared to the same month of last year show an increase of approximately 100,000 plants.

F. L. 0'Rourke, junior plant quarantine inspector, stationed at the Baltimore Japanese beetle quarantine office, had an exciting experience when on the morning of December 11 he was blown across Chesapeake Bay in a 14-foot rowboat. Mr. O'Rourke, while on annual leave, boarded his boat at the mouth of the Bush Waiver for the purpose of proceeding 200 yards across the stream to a duck blind where he intended to hunt. while in the stream, a sudden squall caught the boat and it was impossible to row or even guide the boat with the oars. The small craft was soon blown into the bay. To add to the dilemma, the boat sprang a leak. A length of cord was the only t-ing available with which to plug the leak, but this was ineffective. A pasteboard cartridge box first was used to bail out the water but this soon became useless. Mr. 0'Bourke then drank some hot coffee he had in a thermos bottle and used the bottle as a bail. Several 1-rge boats failed to observe Mr. 0'Rourke's distress signals. The boat wcs adrift for 4 hours before it finally landed at Wharton's Point on the Eastern Shore of Maryland, 9 miles from the starting point. As the boat reached shallow water, a lerge wave swamped it and Mr. 0'Rourke was forced to wade ashore. At a nearby house he dried his clothes and secured some warm food. Natives on the Eastern Shore asserted that a small boat could not weather the storm which Mr. 0'Rourke survived. Fortunately Mr. O'Rourke has suffered no ill effects from his 4-hour exposure and final dousing.

Reconstruction and reconditioning of some 30 Federal high-pressure sprayer trucks is now in progress at the New Cumberland garage. This work began on September 20, and will probably extend for several months into 1934. There are 14 mechanics and 3 laborers now employed on the sprayers. These tank trucks are to be used by the gypsy moth control unit. They were brought to New Cumberlend from the control area of Luzerne and Lackawanna Counties, Pa. Mechanics receive I1.20 per hour and unskilled laborers 50, per hour for a 30-hour week. All are paid from NRA funds. In addition to the work on the Federal bumpers, 100 light trucks with pick-up bodies were repaired, repainted, rnd transferred to the gypsy moth project. This work began on September 29 and was completed by the end of December. At the peak of the work 16 mechanics and 9 unskillea laborers were employed in getting out the 100 machines. Most )f the light trucks were driven to Greenfield, sass., while a few were delivered to the gypsy moth control project at ilkes-Barre, Pa.

Under the prevailing moderate weather conditions, nursery stock continued to move from the Philadelphia district until fPece-ber > 1ieather conditions also were favorable for digging of stock anci its storage for spring shiEment. The temperature in Philadelphia on Novenber 30, Thanksgiving Day, was 73 F. The most active







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shippers from the Philadelphia territory late in December were the wholesale seed houses Pnd the pansy growers. Occasional shipments of plants free from soil were certified for private individuals and several nurseries. Most greenhouses reported a good trade in decorative plants for Christmas.

Visits by inspectors connected with the Baltimore district office were made during December to all important nurseries, greenhouses, post offices, and freight and railway express offices in the newly regulated portion of Allegany County in western Maryland, and in the recently added Maryland regulated section adjacent to the District of Columbia. The survey was also extended to the very limited section of Mineral County, W.Va., embraced within regulated territory with the extension effective December 1, 1933. The quarantine regulations were explained to the firms and individuals interviewed and they were furnished with copies of the new regulations.

First copies of a 40-page mimeographed Japanese Beetle Shipper's Guide were available on December 9. Distribution of the guides to classified dealers, occasional shippers, postmasters, and agents of common carriers within the regulated area began as soon as quantities of the publication were available. Kraft envelopes were addressed on an addressing machine fed with the stenciled names and addresses of approximately 15,000 firms and individuals in 13 States and the District of Columbia on the project's mailing list. Distribution of the guides to practically the entire mailing list was accomplished by the end of December.

The territory in the State of Maine brought under regulation, effective
December 1, has been placed under supervision of the Boston district office. Certification of quarantined articles moving from the small portion of Mineral County, lii.Va., added to the restricted zone in the vicinity of Cumberland, Md., will be granted by inspectors under the supervision of' the Baltimore district office. The small addition to the regulated zone in Cattaraugus County, N.Y., comes under the jurisdiction of tixe Syracuse district office, while the slightly extended Henrico County, Va., area ia added to the section served by the Richmond district office.

Investigation of a violation intercepted on October 26 by a transit inspector in Omaha, Nebr., involvin the mailing of a wooden box filled with uncertified peat used as packing for a bottle labeled "rum", disclosed that the shipper had apparently inserted a false return address on the pacirage. The box was en route in the mails from Philadelphia to Alliance, Nebr. After its interception the contents of the shipmentw:,R confiscated by the Post Office DepartIent as unmailable matter and the peat packing was returned to the address given by the consignors

Seven Yew Jersey State inspectors furloughed from Japanese beetle work have secured temporary positions with the Dutch elm tree disease control project. A2though no definite date is set for completion of the work on t',is new control project, it is anticipated that it will terminate by themiddle of February, at which time available funds may permit reemployment of the men in their regular capacity.






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Corn Borer Certification Activities

Redivision of Federal corn borer certification work in New Jersey has been
effected. Starting December l, territory in New Jersey was subdivided into northern and southern divisions. Corn borer inspection service, both Federal and State, south of a line connecting Phillipsburg and Perth Ar-boy will be rendered by State inspectors under the supervision of G. K. Handle, district supervisor of Japanese beetle quarantine work in New Jersey. H. V. Hotchkin, who formerly supplied all Federal corn borer certification in New Jersey, will perform this service in the northern section oi the State and will also handle similar inspection work on Long Island.

Federal corn borer inspectors certified a total of 222 shipments for movement from formerly quarantined territory into noninfested States. The majority of the inspections were made in the States of Massachusetts, Connecticut, and New Hampshire.





MEXICAN FRUIT FLY

The activities of the fruit fly project were devoted throughout the inonth principally to the operation of some 5,156 glass traps in 455 selected groves throughout the Valley. The operation of these traps resulted in t!'e taking of specimens of Anastrepha ludens, A. fraterculus, A. serpentine, A. striata, A. pallens, and Toxotrypana curvicauda. Ludens were taken in 10 grovs in 6 7istriits? In no grove was more than 1 ludens taken durin the month. In most oi the groves in which ludens were taken, traps had been operated approximately 3 months with negative results so far as ludens were concerned.

So far as is Vnov.n, the adult A. striata taken on the 14th of the month is the first of this species ever taken in the continental United States. Larvae of this species are taken frequently from guavas shipped from the interior of Mexico
to tlie Mexican border cities.

t ith the advent of cooler weather it was found that the attrahent used in the traps was effective for at least 3 or 4 days. It was also found that a bait usinV only one half the amount of malt which had previously been used was apparently as effective as the Old mixture. Accordingly, instructions were issued to the inspectors to run the traps twice weekly, rather then at 2-day intervals, and to use only half the malt previously used in prenaring the bait. This resulted in a considerable saving without impairing the effectiveness of the trapping operations.

Arrangements were made by the State Department of Agriculture to purchase a power sprayer of 50-gallon capacity for use ir spraying the groves in which ludens were taken. These are usually taken in the largest trees in the Valley in which it is practically impossible to Cet a good coverage of the nicotine spray with hand guns. It was expected that this machine would be ready for operation during the first days of January.









Close inspection of the fruit remaining in groves in which ludens were take, gave negative results insofar as larvae of Anastrepha were concerned.

Fruit importations into Matamoros were considerably less in December than in November. New rates became effective on the National de Mexico during the first days of January, increasing freight charges about half, and an immediate decrease in the shipments of fruit into Matamoros was observed. Only two cars of oranges were received from Montemorelos, compared to eight received in November. Some 4,000 spoiled fruits were collected from the fruit stands during the month from which 120 larvae of ludens were recovered from oranges, and 2 of striata fror guavas. The operation of 157 traps in Matamoros resulted in the taking of 4 adull ludens. The trees on the premises in which these flies were taken were immediat ly sprayed with nicotine-molasses.
More fruit was shipped during the month of December than during the whole
of the preceding harvesting period. It was estimated that around 40 to 50 percei of th, crop had been moved by the end of the month. For the first month this season the shipments by rail exceeded those by truck. Truck shipments were particularly heavy for several days near the middle of the month; on the 12th, 110 trucks carrying fruit were passed by the Falfurrias road station. Durin the month 409 master permits were issued to truckers moving fruit to 16 different States.





PINK BOLLWORM

Field inspections have been continued in the Iffestern Extension counties of Texas throughout the month. Since the last News Letter was issued infestation has been found in Terry County. This leaves only 4 counties--Bailey, Cochran, Dawson, and Hockley--in which gin-trash findings have not been traced to the field In Dawson County the records at the gin, where a specimen was found in trash, have, been gone over in an effort to obtain information which would help in tracing the infestation to the field. Apparently, all but 20 fields were eliminated, and in spections are now being concentrated in these fields*

Effective December 23, the pink bollworm quarantine was revised, whereby
the counties involved in the Jiestern LZxtension findings were placed under regulation, This included all of 2 counties in New Mexico, 5 in Texas, and parts of 3 others in Texas. Sinaoe the first specimens were found the movement of Vouif products hns been controlled through cooperation with the ginners and others involved. Therefore, the placing of this area under regulation has resulted in ver3 little change in the method of handling products, and has caused practically no con mente

The above revision of the pink bollworm quarantine also released from regulation the counties of Maricopa end Pinal in Arizona. Continued gin-trash inspection in the Salt River Valley had failed to reveal any signs of the pink bollworm. It will be recalled that the initial infestation was found in October 1929 in gin trash, and was traced to a field 5 miles east of Gilbert, in the extreme






17..V


eastern end of the cultivated area* some 3,000 to 5,000 acres in this particular area W~ere found to be heavily infested, from 50 to 75 percent of the green boils remaining in the field containing live pink bollworms. The infestation gradually decreased in intensity from this point, arnd when finally delimited was found to extend about 10 miles into the cultivated area, involving approximately 40,000 acres of cotton*

In past years the cotton acreage was around 14,000, with an annual production of about 100,000 bales. The soil is especially fertile, being watered largely from the Roosevelt Dam reservoir,' located about 65 miles above Phoenix on the Salt River. The cultivated area begins about 25 miles east of Phoenix and extends about 40 miles west, the average width beinp perhaps 20 miles. The altitude is around 1,000 feet, with a subtropical climate, thus making conditions almost ideal for the pink bollworms

The area was placed underregulation on Zctober 31, 1929. Sterilization and fumigation machinery was installed within about 30 days, and the remainder of the 1929 crop was treated. A noncotton zone was established in tile spring, extending 2 miles beyond the outermost known infested sections, and after picking was completed all fields in the noncotton zone, amounting to approximately 47,000 acres, were cleaned. It is customary to grow cotton from stubs for 4 or 5 years without replantinL-,p and a large part of' tl-)e acreage cleaned sprouted e good stand of stub cotton, which also had to be destroyed. The noncotton zone was maintained during the 1930 crop season. Field and gin-trash inspections were carried on in the remainder of the valley, and as a result it was found that the infestation was more widespread than was at first thought. In view of this situation it did not seenpracticable to maintain the noncotton zones duriiC the 1931 crop season. Consequently, the State authorities established regulated areas where infestations had been fuund, and in these areas it was require, that the fields be thoroughly cleaned and plowed, no stub or volunteer cotton be allowed to grow, and the planting of' the new crop delayed to April 1 for long staple and April 20 for short staples The cleaning of fields was to be done by individual farmers, but due to their financial condition only 62 percent of the acreage waes cleaned. This 62 percent, however, included practically all infestea fields and those immediately adjacent*

Inspections during the 1931 season disclosed that very light infestations still existed in two areas; therefore, as part oi their relief work, the State of Arizona appropriated money for cleaning the acreage involved, the work being supervised by this Bureau*

Intensive field and gin-trash inspections were carried on during both the 1932 end 1933 crop seasons without any further signs of the insect being found. DurinFr these two seasons practically all of the gin trash produced was inspected, and in view of the demonstrated efficiency of the gin-trash machines it would seem that this is conclusive evidence that Vie infestation has been eradicated. Considering the intensity of the infestation when discovered, and the ideal conditions for the insect in this important cotton-producing area, the successful eradication of the insect is a very outstanding piece of work,

The quarantine was also extended to cover parts of three counties in southern Georgia and an additional county in northern Florida. A party continued field






-18


inspections in Madison County, Fla., during mpst of the month, but with negative results. The inspection work now consists of th examination of bollie material, 21 bushels having been inspected from Florida and 6 bushels from Georgia, with negative results.

,iith favorable weather and a plentiful supply of labor the cleaning of cotton fields in the Big Bend of Texas has gone forward without any interruption whatever. At the close of the month 2,330 acres had been cleaned. This includes all of the heaviest infested fields, which were cleaned first, before there was much chance of worms going into the soil. There now remains only a small acreage to be completed.

The cleaning of fields on the Mexican side of the river has also been
started. The agricultural inspector at Ojinaga, and the Mexican Consul at Presidion, are taking quite an interest in the work. Many of the leading farmers on this side, who are aCquainted with the Mexicans in the settlements opposite their farms, are also cooperating in the cleaning of Mexican fields, end in general considerably more interest is being shown this season than last. It now appears that a fairly good job of field cleaning will be done.

During the month 21 interceptions were made at the Marfa road station, of which 9 were infested. A total of 59 pink bollworms was found, 40 being alive. As the field clean-up has been completed to the extent that there is very little chance of infested material being taken from the big Bend section, the road station has been discontinued. Since the station began operating the first of September, 49 interceptions have been made. Of tlis number 20 were infested with the pink bollworm, 122 living and 34 dead specimens bein.' taken.

The eradication of wild cotton in southern Florida has progressed satisfactorily. During the month 17 colonies, covering approximately 15 acres, have been recleaned, from which 45 mature, 3,345 seedling, and 311 sprout plants were rer~oved, Whien the ar'e number of plants originally removed is taken into consideration, the above results indicate that rapid progress is being made. In addition to recleaning these colonies, the inspectors have been conducting surveys for any new colonies which might have been overlooked. They have been going into places where wild cotton is least likely to occur, but which have to be covered, and only 2 small colonies were found, 1 Qonsistiin of only 3 plants. Other parties have been working in areas not previously covered. along the mainland bordering Flcrida Day and keys in Florida Bay. Out of over 100 keys visited, wild cotton wz found zrowin on 23. It was estimated that around 255000 plants were growing oa the 23 %ey. Some 33 colonies were located along the maal*M in (011itr rd
Dade Counties. When these surveys are completed we will have a definite knowledge as to the amount of wild cotton yet to be removed and the areas in which it is growing.

During the month the cotton blooms at Chapman Field have been inspected on one day of each week. On the remaining days they are collected and destroyed by the Bureau of Plant Industry. This plan is being followed because of the need for men on other work. No signs of the pink bollworm were found in any of the blooms examined.





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PRInTING SPREAD OF MOTHS

The scouting for gypsy moth infestations has been continued in the highland sections of northern Vermont, western Massachusetts, and northwestern Connecticut. Unusually severe weather, particularly during the last days of December, made such work quite difficult and the amount of snovwfall impeded progress. .oodland scouting in winter, particularly in sections of heayy snowfall, can be accomplished only if the men engaged use snowshoes, as otherwise they use up time and energy floundering around and only small progress can be made. Because of the deep snow in the more northern sections many pairs of snowshoes are now in use, about 400 men using them daily. The most severe weather of the month came during the last few days, with heavy snow followed by subzero temperatures Vv ich made outdoor working unbearable. However, as many of the men were home for the holidays during that period, they were not exposed to that bad weather. The training school for unexperienced men was continued throughout the month in southeastern Vermont. As the system for training these unexperienced men under skilled instructors consists in learning their duties while performing them, all of the work done is just so much accomplished in gypsy moth control. Men at such training schools in Vermont have scouted 18,000 acres of w:,oodland, 105 miles of roadsides in open country, and about b4,000 scattered trees, and while doing this work have found and destroyed over 27,000 gypsy moth egg clusters*

During December scouting of woodland was continued in five towns in northeastern New York bordering on Lake Champlain, As the total area to be scouted in that section is not large, only a few crews of men have be en assigned there. In common with other northern sections where gypsy moth scouting is being done, work in New York was handicapped to some extent by adverse weather conditions. 'Early in the month snow fell to a depth of about 7 inches, and w ile this was not sufficient to make travel too difficult, it did interfere with scouting by coating all of the trees and brush in such a manner as to make examination difficult.

In spite of all weather obstacles, progress was made in all three of the New England States and in New York. The work rformed during the month brought the total acres of woodland scouted up to about 700,000.

Operations in Pennsylvania continued with the scoutinC- of woodland, the examination of scattered trees along roadsides and river banks, and the cutting out of dead and worthless trees in the more heavily infested sections of the area. The number of crews engaged in scouting: varied alightly; at one time 35 crews were thus engaged. The open season for deer hunting in this State began on December 1, and because of that it was necessary to relocate a large percent of the scouting crews. Many had been working in wooded areas containing a large amount of sprout growth ana dense underbrush where hunters go in large numbers throughout the season. All of the crews working in such areas were transferred t., sections where it was possible to scout with a greater degree of safety.

In the early part of December men engaged in gypsy moth control work at the different C.C.C. camps west ol the Connecticut hiver had been increased slightly in numbers so that 457 were engaged daily in this -ork. This number was increased






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gradually until by the middle of the month the daily average was 515. During the holiday season, however, many of the men were away from the camps on leave and the daily average declined, to mount again after the holidays so that by the beginning of the new year the average was back again to over 500. Continued progress has been made in the scouting and control work, and while not so much was accomplished as would have been possible 'if the full complement of men were available at all times, there is reason to be gratified at the work done. Thus far men working in towns in the vicinity of the camps have scouted over 88,000 scres of woodland, and durinE the course of this work have found and destroyed over 51,000 gypsy moth egg clusters.

In the past, from time to time, shipments of second-hand red bricks have been inspected and certified from the gypsy moth quarantined area to points out-. side. Such shipments were usually small in size, consisting of only a few barrels. For the most part the tricks were to be used in constructing fireplaces in restaurants, and only old bricks which showed considerable signs of having been exposed to smoke, fire, or to the elements were marketable for such purposes* Most of the shipments were made by one firm which obtained its supply from ruined houses or houses which were being dismantled. For fireplace construction only selected bricks were shipped and these were packed carefully to avoid breakage en route. There has been so little demand for such articles during the past year or two that the firm has accumulated a considerable stock which 1>as bc- en piled in the open end which has been exposed to gypsy moth infestation*- During December the firm received an order for a large number. of bricks to be used partially for the construction of a house being erected~ in New York and for the construction of a wall around the premises. Two carloads consisting Of 37,000 bricks were shipped to destination. Because of the danger of infestation each brink had to be examined individually and the inspection work connected with this shipment extended over quite a number of days. A few gypsy moth egg clusters were found during the course of inspection~ and these were entirely removed before shipment was certified&

The principal manufacturers of telephone cable reels are located outside of the area quarantined on account of the gypsy and brown-tail moths. Reels loaded with cable are shipped frum the manufacturing centers to various destinations inside of7 the quarantined area, and after-having the cable removed for installation, are shipped back to the cable firms. Because of the value of these reels it is not often that they stay in the quarantined area for a sufficient length of time to be exposed to infestation, and even if present during the period when egp, clusters are being deposited may not be exposed, because firms handling them have become accustomed to assembling and storing tl iem in yards or buildings well away from* infestation prior to shipment. 'When cables ae strung through woodland areas the unloaded reels may remain for a period close to trees and it is for this reason that during inspection some gypsy moth egg clusters may be found. Ordinarily the inspection of such reels, particularly if they have not been exposed to infestationix is not a very lengthy process, as they may be examined without dismantling* When exposed to infestation it becomes necessary to remove one side of the reel so that the inside of the inner drum may be examined, and such removal is often. quite difaficult as the bolts and nuts may have become rusted through exposure to the elements Occasionally a *shipment of reels is presented for inspection which has been in the field for some time, and such shipments always call for careful inspection* Such




-21-.


a shipment was inspected recently in New Hampshire, the reels having been in the field for more then, a year; inspection of them required 2 full days as they had to be taken apart* One reel was found to be badly infested, 15 egg clusters being removed.

A few years ago when all nurseries were very active in selling stock, particularly various species of evergreen trees for foundation planting around new houses, numerous nurseries planted extensive acreages of the different species most in de.'iand in anticipation of a continued active selling* ,With the decrease in business they have found that they are considerably over-stocked in such trees and they are adopting all sorts of methods for the disposal of the extra stocks In many cases these trees have been planted quite close together in rows and in consequence many of them are now growing- too thickly for the production of' specimen trees. Extensive transplanting is necessary and most of the nurseries do not have funds available fbr such work. Durinr the past season, particularly toward the end, there has been considerable shippinE of evergreen trees from nurseries to other than the usual type of customer. One firm made arranger~ents with a maple candy manufacturing firm to ship a small growing tree with each package of candy. The candy orders were shipped direct from thne manufacturing company; then a list of customers was sent to the nursery where the trees were dug, inspected, wrapped individually, and shipped direct to the candy purchasers. Such orders increased the volume of shipping for that particular nursery to quite a considerable extent. Another nursery, through arranre'nents with a New York newspaper which solicited contributions for a, "Christmnas fund", ar&. ed to supply a living evergreen tree to every person who contributed at least two dollars. Because of the fact that the Lund closed just prior to Christmas, dig~:ing difficulties were anticipated and a considerable number of trees were duE prior to severe freezinE and placed in a protected shed where they could be obtained easily at shipping time. In some sections nurserymen cut evergreen trees growing in their nursery rows and sold them for Christmas trees. This was the first year that any considerable number of such trees were handled in this way, as, of course, the amount received for each tree was fsr less than could be obtained in normal seasons for the tree with roots. Somewhat over 7,000 small evergreen trees cut in a nursery were shipped from one section Of Connecticut.

The inspection of Christmas trees this year has been handicapped to a considerable extent by the extremely inclement iveathar in some of' the cutting sections. !Lerly in the season there was considerable cold weather and snow which, coming as it did when the operators were cutting trees, hampered this cutting considerably and delayed the transporting of the trees from the cutting lots to the assembling points at the various freight stations. The abundance of snow interfered to quite an extent with the transfer of trees from the lots where they were cut and also hampered inspection considerably. Bundles of trees at the assembling points are thrown into piles and if much snow falls over these piles it makes inspection extremely difficult,particularly if there is alternating thawing and freezing which binds bundles together. During the latter part of December in the Christmas tree territory in Maine, New Hampshire, and Vermont there was, severely cold weather with quite a few carloads of trees remelinine to be inspected. Travel for the inspectors was decidedly dangerous as the roads were covered with ice anct snow. In spite of the handicap imposed by bad weather, satisfactory progress in the inspection of trees was made, and it was possible for the operators to get all of their




UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


-22- 3 1262 09241 6410


shipments away in time to reach the markets for Christmas. At several shipping points in Vermont near the Canadian line a considerable number of trees,which origi,~ nated in Canada, were shipped from Vermont points. Due to the scarcity of balsam trees in Vermont some of th~e operators cut such trees in sections of Canada quite close to the United States line. In many cases such trees are shipped from points in the United States because of lack of railroad facilities near where the trees are cut# The United States duty on Canadian trees has been reduced from 51 to
4, per bundle, andi this reduction is quite a saving for operators who handle a considerable number of Canadian trees.

The inspection of all types of Christmas greenery has progressed about as
usual th-is year. Beginning in the latter part of October manufacturers of Christmnas wreaths, roping, set pieces, etc., began to assemble stock for use in the prepa. ration of such pieces. As the season advances, more and more stock is collected, being taken to some of the larger plants by the ton. As it is impossible to inspect the stock in the finished' piece, all materials are examined immediately after being transported from the area where cut to the manufacturing plants. In size
these manufacturing plants vary from tnose which make and sell thousands of pieces, to homes :where only a dozen or two wreaths may be made for the purpose of' obtainine a little extra money at Christmas time. There is a multiplicity of designs for Christmas pieces, with wreaths being the most popular. The wreaths may vary from the simple ones composed only of laurel, to large ones several feet in diareter made up of numerous types of evergreens, cones, and red berries, Centerpieces end table decorations, sprays, roping of different kinds, baskets, and in fact almost every type of piece imaginable, is made by the more progressive firms. This year one firm made large crosses some of which were 5 feet high which were in.tended for plain in cemetery lots.




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I I NEWS L ETTER BUREAU OF PLANT QUARANTINE BRAR STATE PLANT BOARD UNITEn STATES 1'EPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE =============....======...,===e=~-,;;:;-=================:::=============:=====-===c;:=========:::=e=, Number 38 (NOT FOR PUBLICATION ) February 1, 1934. (The contents of this numter, unless specifically stated ~therwise, cover the month of D ecember only) AIMINISTRATIVE ENFORCE~ ~NT OF THREE Q,UAR&~ I'INE S LERGEJ Due to the overlapping of the areas infestec by Japanes e beetle and gnsy moth, it :as found advisable in the interests of economy to merge the enforcement v.-ork on the t'V'o quarantines. Wit h the spread of the Jaranese beetle in the New England States and the extension of the quarantine in that area, the Bureau was in the rosition of having t w o sets of inspectors in the same area while all the ~ork of inspection and certification of products could readily be handled by one unit. The enforcement of t r1e satin moth quarantine which is o perative in the same territory ~as also combined Mith the other t w o quarantines. This work will be under the field supervision of L. H. Worthley. The work on eradication of the gypsy moth, including the extensive eradication program in northeastern United States nor ; in progres$ and the control measures in the barrier zon will be in charge of~. F. Burgess. This chnnge became operativ~ Janary 1. TECHNOLOGICAL D IVlSION __________ ..,._ Work is proceeding rapidly on the rerairs and alterations of fumi gation equipment on the Mexic a n -border. Work i s und e r w a y on t he Bro w n s v ille fumigati on hous~, r :hich ~ !as so badly damaged 1:-y the hurricane last Sep temh e r that it becam e nec~ssary t o reconstruct i t " The house ,1hich is bein g b u i l t har a caraci ty of thre e .:!hIs and can, by means of a pa rtit i on d o or, be J.i vided into a one•• and a. two-car co m partment. S liding steel d oors are installed at each end of the hous Q and suit e ble storage srace e n d f a c ilities for vacuum fumigation are installed i n the new plant.

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-2At t h e EE.i.~le P ass fumi ' ;at ion house the roof is bein• ~ re~ lacea. , And . a s ystem for fum i ,(8.t ion y fi t h vo l ati li zed h ;rdroc7c1nic acid is bein, ~ inst al lea. , in addition to re'a,i~tilv : t h e hous e and minor re1.:iairs~ At Laredo, ner.r steel doors are being ins t all.ea i n ~ l g .ce of t h e wooden doors which are now in p l ace. A new loc1dw; devic e for s e alin.g t h e doors is also beh-1 g installed. . The fumi:s-;ation chambers are bei n ~ _:-la2tere0.-cmd .-• ainted. It is :.1 3l1ned toi nstall neY: end a .oars and a s ystem for vol?.t i lizing t h e hydroc7 ap.ic n.cid for fumiga.tion a t El P aso. All t h e reservations are being fenced Tiith woven wire fencin~ for the protection of t h e ,:;rop e r t y cmd t h e -::ublic. 70RE IG N i-LAN T Q,UAR.hl~':1IF:ES RECENT E NTO.MOLOiHCAL I WTERCE PTIO N S OF I N T EREST i-: iedi terra~1 ean fruit fly fro~ . S n ain. --A l arva of Cerati tis ca.-,~i:tata Wied. w a s intercepted a t S a vannah, G a., L. 1 a rnalaf~a g r1:3. :) e i n stores from S pain. ,.,. 3'rui t f l 7 t 2 "'cen i n iuerto I1ico. --Al1. adult of Anast re~oha, suspensa Loew C rrypetid .ae) wc1s collected on a lea.f of troT,Jica l almon c i ( Te r minalia catapnahri t h e field a t Arecibo, f.R. Nu t f r-u.i t tort rix from S-pain. --A l i vine l a .rva . of Lci. s ;)eyres i a s1Jlendar.1.a Hbn. ( Oleth r e utidae) v1.:~,s taken a . t Ne w York in a c hestnut in c g,rz.o from S?ain . . Yleevil in Scot c: 1 broom seed. --A.."1 a d .ult o f Si tona lineata Linn . . ( Curculioni dae) wa s intercepted at .f hilP.tc.el~ )riia in a s e~d of Scotch bro9m. ( Cytisus scop> arius) in t h e mail frmn Ene: l and. _',;Y' See.le in.sect on ~_,oinsettia.--teria.osa,:--ihes a;t..ba (C1,:::ll.) 'Yas :taken at Miami, st :t!'l1:1.,, on ,_.oinsettia . ( E u-:-ihorbie, 1:-ulcherrirna ) in bar eviously on c a ssa.va from Bele;ian Congo, :Brazil, J:::.va, and. t h e Yie s t Indies. It is r ecorcJ.ed from 3'lorida . Le~)idortero. n in leeJ.r. leave.... --Li vin~ : larva e B l1 0. cocoons of Acrolepia assect~lli Z e l ler ( P l utellid.ti.e) were in. terce~?tec1 a.t E h i l D . c tel:;-•hia. in the ).e aves of leek ( A,ll, i ~ p .orr~) i . n ~tore~ from t~te N ethe 1lands. R e p o 11ted: ~ s ca.--usin g .con id,$rab:1& clama f : e to ga,rlic, and -~•a.rt icu . l e ,rl~ r to leei . cs, in t h e nei, ~1borhood of Mon t r•e llier, :J'~~ 1ce. Als o recorded as a p e s t o f b'.!c1 io11s i n Rt1.ssia . Lo .:s from E,q_st Africa infe s t e d . --B radw , , er,1 u s rubidus Murra y (1'Ti tidulidae) and Colobicus m 3ndnatus L atr. ( Colvdiidae) v ;ere ti1.rnn 2.t :Be ,ltimore, Md., under t h e bar1.?.: o f bl a c1c vral nut lo, ~ s in c,:-1r.:: ; o f:!.o,,, East A f r ica. Cric1rn t f r o m the Orient . ..--'I'll e J a : a:nese sin,,..L1, ; cric1cet (Homoeo .e;ryllus jp, 'Onicus H ar m ) wa s ta'rnn a t S a n F:tancisco as a c a,;e d : _ )et i n bagg a g e from Japan.

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-3It has also been intercepted at the same port in baggage from China. is not recorded from the continental United States. This gryllid Weevil from Guatemala.--An adult of Catolethrus longulus Boh. (Curculionidae) was intercepted at Baltimore, Md., on banana debris in cargo from Guatemala. Pink bollw<:1rm from the ,:est Indies .--Seven living larvae of Fectinophora gossypiella Saund . were intercepted at Boston in four cotton bolls in the mail from .Antigua , Lesser Antilles. New locality record.--Living thrirs were intercepted at Jashington, D.C., on Aster spp . and varieties in the mail from the Netherlands. J. R. \ ,atson, of Gainesville, Fla, reports as follows: "Thrips nigri:rilosus form brachYrtera Uz., a species not knoNn to occur in this C')untry. It ne-;er has been reported from Helland either, but fror.i practically all the countries arouhd there." Bark beetle from England.--Adults of Dryoco~tes villosus Fabr. (Scolytidae) were intercepted at New York in brown oak logs in cargo from Englend, Termite from the Philirpines. -Soldiers and workers of Macrotermes gilvus Hagen were intercerted at ,..an Fr:01ncisco in seeds of. a rubber tree in be .g1tage from Manila, P . I . T . E . Snyder, of the Bureau of Entomology, reports that this is a fungus-growing s,ecies w tich builds subt~rranean mounds. This white ant, which also attacks sugarcane, is not recorded from the continent? l United States. Dr. Snyder further states that this interception ra:rresents an interesting host record. ~~efly from Tahiti.--Dialeurodes ~kaldyi (Ko~) ( Aleyrodddae) was intercepted at 111ashington, D .C., on a Gardenia tahitensis plant in the express from Tahiti, Society Islands. This species was described in 1907 by Jacob Kotinsky f'rom specimeno tRken in Hawaii. MC~NT P.b.THOLOGICAL Ih"TiRCiI'TI01'1S OF I NTc.;BEST Wisteria diseaBe.--A disease was intercepted at Seattle on special permit material of Wisteria multijuga praecox from Japan and referred to Miss E. K. Cash who report3 as follows: 111\rTycosrhaerella sp. 2pores larger than Sphaerella _ wistareae Cke. and s. wis~!.!.la Turcom." 'vtisterias have long been one of the most beautiful flowerin, vines grown by the artistic gardeners Qf Jaran. It is quite possible that their plants have accumulated diseases to which the Japanese forms a~e hi&hly resista]lt but wtich might be destructive to soma of the strains frc.m ~th.;r put$ .oi tm.e 1'orld. E:en,-eft it ts i ~~t-tn1t th.i?il ,rope&atillg .material of these plants be inspected with extreme care and even the most insignificant looking evidences of disease removed, as was done in this case. Colletotrichum gloeos_poriode s on beans. -Some specimens of lima bea.nscab (Elsinoe canavaliae) from Cuba sent i n by New York inspectors were found t o be largely ov-ergrown by Colletotri~hum gloeos p o r ioides whe n they reached V ia h i n gton. V.,nile this funf.Us attack s a wide ranf e of p l e nts a ncl i s frequently intercepted, this is, the first interception on lima beans s ince 1925. nhi.zoctonia_~ tomato.--The shipment of fresh veg e t eble fr0m i1exico for

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-4-the winter trade ha s been und e r way for several weeks. One of the earlie~ interceptions an t omato vms soil rot (Rhizoctonia solani), collected at Nogales on Dece m ber 9 . While this disea s e is rather destructive sOCTe years and has probably been intercepted on previous occasions, this was t h e first material received in condition t o determine with any degree of certainty. N e w host 13.nd locality for nema.--Our first interception record of Neotylenchus abulbosus from S pain is based on a collection of infested chestnuts found in bag t a g e fro m S p ai-n at Key West on N ovember 8. . According to Dr. Steiner, chestnut is a new ho s t for this parasite. Palm seed rejected.--A mail shipment of palm seed from Cuba for growing in Flori.da was r eturneq to the shipper from the Washington Inspection House when inspecti on showed the presence of ~opsis palmicola var. arecae (Ps arecae) which is app arently not found in t his country. The fungus had penetrated to the interior o f the seed iIJ. some -cases and presumably.was responsible for the death of t he seed. Onion smut intercepted .--A l thoug h onion smut (Urocy .stis cepulae) is rather common and widely distributed, it does not appear to have been intercepted until it w a s found in on i on s i n sto. res from Gernany at Savannah, on December _ 21. Nematode interceptions , . --Nematode interception determinations for the ; :rionth : included Anguillulina dipsaci in e .arlic from France at New Orleans and in potatoes; . from Germany at Houston, Mobil~ ( 3), New York, Philadelphia (2), and Savannah, and• from Svre den at Baltimore and Mobile; Aphelenchoides parieti~ in ginger from Chin~ at Buffalo (2), from Japan at Baltimore, in taro from Japan at Baltimore, 8I1d in turnip from Sw-eden at Baltimore; A,;ph~lenchus avenae in tulip from England at Detroit and in turnip from Sweden at Baltimore; and Eeterodera marioni in carrot from India at Philadelphia and in Iris laevigata, Yamato Pishiki (new-host) from Japan at Seattle. --SOME OF THE INSECTS 1 lli 1} DISEASES IJ\1TERCEPTED AT N9GALES, .ARIZ., I N VEGETABLE S ~ I IH'.:8NTS FRQ111! TEE WEST COAST OF M E XICO DURING THE 1932 -33 W I NTER SEP..SON . Gnorimo.~c~~ ~~er;icella: Bus ck ( Gelechii,dae) was intercepted 840 times in tomatoes; Gnorimoschema g udmanne-lla Y Hsm. f Gelechiidae), twice in bell peppers, once in tomatoes; Hel iothis obsoleta Fabr. , 629 times in tomatoes, 10 in green peas, 7 in s t.r i n g beans, 4 in bell peppers, 2 in lima beans, 1 .in squash; Helfothis . vir~E.!?.. Fabr., 56 times in tomatoes; noctuid, 2 4 -~imes in tomato~s, 3 in peppe~e; Platynota stultana W l sm. (Tortricidae), 13 t~mes in peppers;, Platynota sp. (To~tricidae), 22 times in pepp ers, 3 in tom~toes; tortricid, lC, time s in pepper~, 4 in tom atoes, 1 in eg g plant; L ~ hygmaexig ~ ~bn. (beet armyworm), twice in tomatoes Phlyctaeni~ !,_~_bi~J.is Gn, ( g r e enhouse leaf tier), twice in tomatoes; Marmara sp. ('Gracilariidae), 3 time s in pepper; Lox o stege sp • . (?) (Pyralidae), twice in squash; Diaphania sp., (Pyralidae), lb times -insquash, 1 in cucumber; curcul1onid, twice in .eggp lant; Diabrotica balteata Lee. (Chrysomelidae), once in eggplant; Apion sp. ( c:urculionidae), twice in l ima beans; itiella zinckenella Tr. ( Pyralidae), tw ice in l i .ma beans; gelechiid, onc e in bell pe pper; Autographa sp, .(Noctuidae), once i n pepper; Pseudoco...S_~ citri ( Ri s so), once on pepper. Prodenia spe (Noctuidae),

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-5-Feltia malefida Guen. (Noctuidae), Phalaenophana sp. (Noctuidae), Exptochiomera minima Guer. (Lygaeidae),-Crophius costatus Dist. (Lygaeidae), Antillocoris sp. (Lygaeidae), Dicyphus minimus Uhl. (11iridae), and Laphygma sp. (?) (Noctuidae) ; were each intercepted once in tomatoes. An adult of Eutolina mima Harv. (Noctuidae) was taken once on a lug of tomatoes. Alternaria ~olani was intercepted 33 times on tomatoes, 10 on peppers; Alternaria sp., 70 times on tomatoes, 12 oh lima beans, 11 on green peas, 6 on peppers, 2 on eggp lant; Macrosporium sp., 34 times on tomatoes, 15 on green peas, 10 o n lima beans, 6 on peppers, 1 on string beans, 1 on horse beans; Erysiphe polygoni, 10 times on green peas; ErysiEr-~ sp., 12 times on green peas, 1 on tomato; pidium sp., 17 times.on gree~ peas; Aplanobacter michiganense, 5 times on tomatoes; Bacteri~cae sp., 76 times on tomatoes, 19 on pe ppers, 9 on lirra beans, 6 on string beans, 4 on green peas, 4 on squash, 1 on eg ;plant, 1 o n horse beans; B-:>trytis sp., 26 times on tomatoes, 10 on lima beans, 7 on green peas, 7 on peppers, 1 on horse beans; Cephalothecium roseum, once on tomato, once on lima beans; Cephalothecium sp., 5 times on tomatoes; Cladosporium• fulvum, l b times on tomatoes, 2 on peppers, 2 on eg fplant; Cladosporium spo, 120 times on tom Ptoas, 3 1 on lima beans, 20 on green peas-7 on string beans, 7 on peppers, 5 on eggplant, 1 on squash, 1 on horse beans; Colletotrichum lindemuthianum, 2 times on stril1 beans; Colletotrichum sp., 8 times on tomatoes, 2 on eggplant; Corticium sp., 27 times on tomatoes, 9 on lima beans, 5 on string beans, 3 on peppers, 2 on horse beans, 1 on green peas, 1 on squash; Fusa~ sp., 11;4 times on tomatoes, 3 0 on lima beans, 7 on peppers, 3 on string beans, 3 on ~Tee n peas, 1 on eggplant; Oospor~ sp., 3 times on tomatoes; Phytophthora sp., 90 times on tomatoes, 1 on peppers, 1 on horse beans; Sclerotium sp., once on tomatoes, once on pepper; Uromyces appendiculatus, 6 times on strin: beans; Uromyces sp., 5 times on lima beans, 1 on horse beans; Bacillus carotovorus, t wice on tomatoes; Bacterium phaseoli, 5 times on lima beans, 3 on string beans; OosEora lacti~ parasitica, ~hom~ destructiva, 2nd Bacterium vesicatorium, once each on tomatoes. CERTIFICATION OF FJSr FRUITS AND VEGETLBLES FOR" EXPORT IN 1933 The function of certifying fresh fruits and vegetables for export, to meet the sanitary requirer11ents of foreign countries, is carried out under a special "Export Certification Act" passed in 1926, and i nvolves a close cooperative relation with the various State inspection authorities as well as the. Bureau of Agricultural .Sconomics. The varytng demand s 01' diffe rE::nt countries for special inspection or certificate procedure in products shipped to them introduce a considerable degree of complexity into TThat otheTwise would seem t~ be a simple case of examining shipments, and, ii' they conform to a. given standard, issuing a uniform type of certificate. The de ~ and for inspection and certification of fruits e nd vegetables and nursery stock for shipment to fore i gn c ~untries incr eased to a marked degree during the fiscal year 1933. Five thousand seven hundred and sixty-six shipments, representing 2,464,321 containers, were inspcted and certified. This represents an increase of a pproximately 71 percent in the number of ship1ents certified during the preceding year, and approximately 2 1 0 percent in the number of individual containers. B STATE LANT BO 0

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-6The more important commodities insp2cted and certified were: Apples 2,242 s hipments, consisting of l,225,4?_boxes, 90,ilO bc1rrels, and 39,543 b~skets; pears, 1,065 shipments, consisting of 663,592 boxes .. , 37,6~ 4 baskets,and 527 barrels potatoes, 791 shipments, consistirir of 159,058 bags, 8,402 bar.rels, a n d 43 crates and baskets; miscellaneous fruits and vegetables, 899 shipments, consisting of 96,406 packages; 2.n d nursery stock, includil1, s eeds, 292 shipments, consisting of 846 lots. These certifie d s'~dprnents left from 25 dii'ferent United States ports, over 80 percent beinc sent f rom tha six ports of New York , Baltimore, New Orleans, San Francisco, Portlan~ a n d Seattle. _Of the 53 countries to w hich these certified products i i rere destined the largest importers were .Argentina, Brazil, Venezuela, Cuba, ] 'ranee, :i=lelgium, and Eolland. rt s:~ould b e noted that s hipments o f certifie p1~oducts to a [ . iV'er: c ountry , "JB.Y not represent the total exports of our fruits and veretable s to that c ,mntry since a good deal of ttess products g o abroad without certific 2tion. PUEHT O RICO INSP BCTOR CONTRIBUTES Il' J SECTS In the carrying ou.t of Q,uarantine No. 58, on fruits and vegetables from Puerto Rico, the plan is followed of allowing entry of certain products from the isle.nd whe n these are. c ertifieo as free fro:11 pests b y the Federal plant quarantine inspection service stationed there. In order to ma~e t his certification as re-l iable a s possible the inspectors_kee p clos~ly under observation t h e fields and groves where fruit or vegetgbles _for shipment to the mainland are being grown, on the theory that most o f t h e pest s w hich migl, t be found in the po . e ked product will be detected far more readily in t h e field. I n t h e course of t his field inspection a f , oo d many insects are encountered, not all of whicl: are of' injurious t -ype. All o f them, however, are turned in throu g h the usua l interception channels foI' ' i dentification. ~eportine, on a recent contribution o f a weevil found on .Areca ~techu on Octobe r 3 0, 1933, L. L. Buchanan, o f t h e Netional r , t .fuseum, comments as follows: "This is one of about 20 specie s o f tha subfamily Cr yptorhynchinae in Mr. Oakley's lot of weevils t hat cannot be plac_ed generically w i tho_ut first doin & more or less revisional work on the group. Due to the pressure of othe r duties it seems impo..,sible to find time ( f o r the present.at least) to 6i v e t his very interesting collection the necess a r y careful study, ~ n o t 1 1 e specie s therefore must be le ft as ~erely CryptorhFpchines. It is hoped that more definite names can be supplied later, but whetl).er or not there w:ill be an opportunity to d o tl'-.is some mention should be made of' the unusually high quality of material submitted by Wir. Oakley dutin6 the past year or more. T h e specimei1s a r e in fine c ondition, carefully labeled, and i nclude many new and li ttle~know n species. .,hen properly worked up t his material will give an entirely new picture o i t h e Puerto Rican weevil fauna." IW.i'Ji;STE D ORANGES S } ! U G G L E D .A.CR OSS T h i RIO GRANDE The Mexican border qua r antine station at Roma, Tex., reports a typical case of fruit smuggling which is illustrative in simple fashion of the whole quarantine

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-7-problem. ~iTounted cu stom:a officers on patrol about 20 miles above Roma detected several persons in the act of smuggling oranges across the river from , T ex ico. On being a ~ prehended the smugrlers abandone d their sack of fruit and swai_~ back across the r i v~r. In t he sack were 70 oran{;es w~.ich when ex amined by the plant quarantine inspector at Roma disclosed four fruit-fly l arvae, later identified as ~nastrepha ludens. T~e biological danger int' is case is clear enough, and with it the n e6 d for restrictions on entry. But the case also provides a tY])ical illustrati on of t L e universal elements of hu man ignorance and v7illful disregard for the public welfare necessitating constant vigilance. LUMB.ri:l-< CJUL I~S E LI\::! B.ArtK B..::ii:..TLE \hen the Dutch i-1.m Disease Q,uarantiI+e , No. 70, was being considered there was some discussion of the possibility t ha t the e l m bark beetles , Sco lytus s p p., might be carried in bark attached t o t he edges of lumber, crates, etc., and the quarantine was drawn to exclude such mate rials if bark was p resent. That t ~1is action v.ras timely and correct is well exem plified by a recent report from t he New Orleans inspection station. A foreign ship entered thet port Dece mber 11, 1933, carrying about 500 elm boards .as du nnage. About half of the m had b ark on the edges and nearly all showed the work of scolytid beetles. From t h 6 bark of five of these boards 9 livin[ lar~ae and 2 pupae were taken, and these proved on identification to be Scolytus scolytus, the insect reg arded in Europe as the chief instrument in s preading the Dutch elm disease. Alth ou5h another scolytid, _. multistriatus, is present in the Nort~;.eastern States a:_d is b elie ved to play a p rominent part in the spread of the Dutch elm disease, Scoly tus scolytus has not yet been reported from this country. Its interception in this case must therefore be regarded as a double blessing . IljSP:2;CTORS TRANSFERRED AT GULF A~ID n~EXIC.h1' BORDER PORTS The following transfers ~ere made in the plant quarantine inspection force at Gulf and Mexican border ports, effective January 1, 1 934: L. R . Dorland from Galveston, Tex., to Mercedes, Tex.; L. A . Frost from . . iercedes, Tex., to Port .Arthur, Tex.; C. P. Trotte r from Port Arthur, Tex., to ~alveston, Tex . DO::ESTIC P _UNT QUARAI:TINES The circular entitled, "Synopsis of Federal P lant Quarantines Affecting Interstate Shipments", formerly issued as m imeo graphed Circulc1 . r 33-T, has been revised to include quarantine r egu l8tions in effect on January 1, 1934, and is being printed as a p oc ket-size b ooklet for r eady reference. It is now desi~ n rted Miscellaneous Publication No. 189. The c ircular con ists of (1) a summar y of the regula tions ~iving t h e shippine requirei1ents of the various quarantines; (2) a list of the articles under restriction; and (3) post offi ces in the areas regulated under toe various ~ uarantipes, listed by Sta~es as heretofore. The new circulc r will probably not be available for distribution for several weeks .

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-8-A summary of both Federal and State quarantines which is co mpiled by the ~estern Trunk Line Committee, of Chicago, for information of express and freight agents, ' .'la$ also r e c ently brought up to date by the committee for reprinting as Circlar 5-G .. Durir,f t h e year 1 933 the States of Idaho, Georgia, and W yoming discontinued terminal inspection of pe.rcel-post sl~ipments of plants and plant products. . . According to t h e Bur .eau of PJ,ant Industry, a considerable number of trees infectea with the Dut ch elm disease have be e n found . . in native woods west of Newark, N. J. It has been foun d practicable to make surve:/s for t his disease during the winter months and a l srge number of men are employed in this work under an allotment from the Fed eral Civil Works Adrninistra.tion. TRAJ.\T SIT INSPiCTION An intensiv e survey. of wholesale freight shipments of nursery stock into and throug h C hicag o is b einf made by transit inspectors of that city under rearranged tours be ginning the second w e e k in January. By covering the truck shipments at al. break-bulk points as well as shipments held at cold storage plants and trucking transfer statto n _s, it is hoped t o obtain more complete infor1:12tion of the winter movement of nu rsery stock . CJ:.icago frei[ h t depots are widely scattered and it_ is expected tha t inspection wiilil be concentrated principally upon about 12 of the more important ones. The c ooperation of transportation agencies in telepponing the in-,. specters regarding plant consignments listed on ti1 e waybills is of invaluable assistance in securing a check on such s hipments for complic:,nce with the regulatJons~ Stu di es o 1 . the w inter m ove:ri-1ent of nursery stock throughout the United States: base d on figures obtained in 1931 a nd 1932 from officials of class I railroads, s h o w tha t 97 LCL transfer points handled an average of 50 or more cars a day. ThesE transfer points are located •in 33 different States; Those States which have 4 or .more such points are: Geor gie------------4 Illinois---------~-4 Indiana-----------4 8 Iowa-----------~--Massac husetts-------4 New Jersey---------4 New York-----------12 Ohio--------------5 Fennsylvania-------o A list.of the 97 transfer points fs being prepared for the information of. the in..:. specters. The che ck i n g of mail, e xpress, a nd freight at Pittsburg h to. qe sure of compliance with t he J a panese b eetle quarantine regulations , was discontinued for the winter in Dece mber. Transit inspectors at Jack sonville, Fla., formerly located in the old post

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-9office building , are now occupyin5 Rooms 441 and 4 4 5 in the n e w post office building. Both foreig n e . nd domestic shipm ents are checked by the three inspectors, for co mpliance with State and Federal regulations, and nursery stock is inspected for insect pests a nd plant diseases under the provisions of the terminal inspection law. The schedules i nclude the exa mination of w a ybills frequently totalling a thousand or more~ day. NARCISSUS BULB PESTS A general su.'Tlffiary of the narcissus inspectiom in t h e United States is being compiled from tha reports submitted by t he various State inspectors covering the work of 1933. DATE SCALE ERADICATION Inspection during the month of December in the Coachella Valley equally divided between the infeste d area and t h e adjoining territory. fested area ladders were used in most planting s w :.ile in the adjoininf ground work only was doneo w a s about In the in .. t-erritory A crew from t h e Coachella Valley assisted t h e Imperial Valley i nspectors in inspecting three large plantings. One single scale was fou nd in the Reed Garden. A rather heavily infested palm was found in t Y is garden in July of t l : i s year during an inspection from the ground. A few scales were found on an offshoot at the base of the palm. Ladders were t'1en use d and co nsiclerable scale found in the up per part of the _palm. The palm w ~s defoliated and sprayed. In September the Imperial Valley inspectors cRrefully inspecte d a small area around this palm and found f our li;.htly infested pabns. In Octob e r and again in December a Coachlla Valley crew i nspected the garden and each tiP1e only sinlle scales were found. The infested palms in t:hi s planting are the only ones found during the present fiscal year. Durine, t ... ie month inspection of standard variety palrns was carried on in the Salt :i:tiver Valley in Arizona. As m o s t o i' thes e palms originated in the Coachella Valley; some from gardens which late r showecl scale , there is a chance that there are some infestations be '1j_nd tn.e fiber wr..ich h ave not yet spreed, t0 the fol\age.

PAGE 10

-10-JAPANESE BEETLE AND EUROPE.AN CORN BORER E xclusive Japanese Beetle Work Federal Projects 3 , 4, 5, and 6 were c ompleted during o r shortly after the third quarter of 1933• An allotment of $ 7,400 was made for F.P. 3, a project involving repairs to the main roof, fire walls, skylights, and skyli[ :tht flashings on five of the six bays of Warehouse N?• 4, assigned for project use at the New Cum-berland General Depot of the U~Se Army. This work was let on contract to the lowest b i dder, a Philadelphia contra~tor. l,f/ork began on November 17 and was com p leted January 4. I t was necessary to practically reconstruct the skylights, since water seepage had rotted the woodwork beneath the flashin@ s . F.P. 4 involved resurf:'acing of the roadway from t h e property line of the u.s. Army Depot to , i , ,areh0 use No. 4. This work was c arried on from September 26 to October 11 und e r an allotment of : ; ,2, 500. Coal tar and crusted stone screening s were used in the resurfacing operation. Twelve laborers were given work under t his project. In F.,P. 5, ~.2,000 was allotted for reconstruction of a pproximately 850 linear feet of a 12-foot-wide concrete loading platform along the railroa d spur at the side of v-vareh ouse No. 4. After the slab s or squc1.res of concrete forming the top of the platform basehad been r emoved,it was found that t h e cinder base had settled considerably below the top of the c e_1ent wall forminf the side of the platform. In reconstructing the platform it was first necessary to fill in the base of t h e platform and roll the fill till firmed. :.:~einforcing fabric was used to strengthen the new concrete work. . A 2-ba g concrete mixer. was u sed to prepare the mix. Eight laborers were employed from September 21 to November 24 in completing the work on the platf orm. . A private c ontractor from Hasl!ington, D.C., was the low bidder on F.P. G for reconstruction of the larg e service door at t h e store . ge warehouse. This project was finance d b y an allotment of $200. work on the service door was complete d on N ovemb e r 17. All men engaged on t h e projects utilizing local labor were residents o f York County, in which the Army Depot is loceted. The laborers were paid from NRA funds. These projecw began-shortly after the organization of the State Heem:ployment Se rvice for the administration of allotted NRA funds. I;n I • • the absence of a S t ate Reemployment _ Committee in York County, arrang e ments for employment o f the men used on F.P's. 4 and 5 were compi_eted throue h John McCune, Jr., State Ree mplo yment Director i n Harrisburg . On these projects, the men worked the customary 6 hours per day for 5 days a week, and were paid a t the rate of 50 per hour. Terr"itory which it was necessary to place under regulation as a result of t his year's discovered infestati ons is t h e least of any year since 1929. Only t wice in the past 10 y ears have the added sections been so limited in extent. This season's add ed territory of' only 1,6 8 9 square miles brings the total regulated zone to 99,379 squara miles. In Maine, the section :placed under ~eguJa tion inelude s sufficient territory to make a continuou s area from the :New Hampsh:ir e line to and i ncluding the city of Portland. This will pe r mit unrestricted movement of the considerable amount of prod uce that annually moves from Boston to Portland via truck. Vjaterville, Main e , was included as a n isolated r egulate d zone. In Mary l and, certain territory within the established boundaries o f the \:.ashington Suburban Sanitary District was ndded to bring under r egu l ation a number of infestations in localities suburban to th~ District of Columbia. Throu g h one Maryland election

PAGE 11

-11-district the area includes only the right of way of U.S. Eighway No. 1. This will allovr movement of uncertified stock over the highway without the customary permit requirement . Coincidant with inclusion of the tow n of Keyser, ?i/,.Va., sufficient Maryland territory was added to form a continuous strip from the previously regulated territory in the Cumberlc1. nd di strict to tl1e West Virginia line adjacent to Keyser. One 'Vest Virginia township south of Cumberland also was added to concentrate traffic from Cumberland into a single highway instead of the two means of egress which this yea r require guarding . .An additional magisterial district in Henrico County, Va., was added f o r t ~ e purpose of including an infested nursery in that subdivision. All of Norfolk County, Va., was taken under regulation. ThG latter addition will assist in g uarding south-bound roads by movin c the quarantine boundary to a point where there are but two exit highways. By the inclusion of two towns in Cattaraugus County, N.Y., as all area was added to connect this infested l ocality vii t h the ma in reffeUla ted zone in Pennsylvania. 7,J -t:''t,, :... . Other th~n extension of the regulated territory, there were few important changes in the twelfth re~ision o f the Japanese beetle quarantine regulations, effective December 1, 1933. ,-Ji th t.t, e addition of a single magisterial district in Henrico County, Va., to the previously isolated regulateo section comprising the city of rtic mond, and the creation of a notha r isolated section by the addition of the city of l:"-~~a-nd, Maine, the regulated territory from which quarantined fruits and vegetables m a y be shipped without certification and to which similar articles may not be moved wit hout certification from the remainder of the regulated territory, was extended to include t he s e t w o isolated sections. For the purpose of permitting movement without certification of :th ous c nds of samples of imported peat shipped from the metropolitan district of W e w York and of similar material when used as packing for e:>:e mpted bulbs, corms, and tubers, "ground, dried, imported peat in packages of 5 pounds or less to the package" was added to the list of articles exempted from the certification requirementso In order to clarify the regulation exempting from certification betwee n October lb and June 14 certain aquatic plants, the term "fish grass" was replaced with "p~rts of subPJ.erged aquatic plants v : i t hout roots. " In horticultural literature the term fish grass is usually restricted to Cabomba, althoufh a nurnber of t}pes of submerged aquatic plants used for oxy genating purposes in aquariums equally are entitled to exemption on the b asis of their growth wholly below wete r and tteir shipment without roots. Under the rewording of this provision, the exemption will include such aquatics as Anacbaris (Elodea), Cabomba, milfoil (!&!'.iophyllum), Sagittari~ sinensis, S. subul~ta, and ~lisneria. To relieve situations arising when less-than-carload shipments of quarantined articles, such as bags of s e nd or marl for filtration purposes, are involved, provision was 11ade that "in the case of lot shipments by freight, one certificate attached to one of the containers and anot11er certificate attached to the waybill will be sufficient." This eliminates the provision necessitating the attachment of an individual certificate to each container in a less-than-carload shipment. The regulation reading "In the case of bulk shipment by road vehicle, the certificates shall accompany the vehicle" was chan g ed b y the omission of the word "bulk." 'I'his now conforms to preferred practice by wltich certificates accompany the vehicle in the case of small lots of quarantined articles moving by automobile, as well as in the case of movement via commercial truck. Persistence of lead arsenate in the soil at isolated infestations poisoned for one or more seasons since 1929 was determine d this fall t hrough analyses of soil

PAGE 12

-12samples fro~ six widely separated cities. Single blocks in the treated cities were arbitrarily selected from maps of the poisoned sections, and these designations, toge.ther W:i th the history of the treatments, submitted to the technological division with the request that analyses of the soil therein be made. Samples of soil in Richmond, Va., to which was applied 500 pounds of lead arsenate per acre in November 1 931, showed an a pparent total persistence of the insecticide in the soil. Samples a na lyzed from Providence, R.I., disclosed the least residuum of lead arsenate. In the latter c _ity, spring treatments in 1930 and 1931 totalle, 700 pounds per acre. The 193 3 analyses showed the presence of 377 pounds per acr, A seetion in H artford, Conn., whi.cb had been poisoned in the springs of 1930 and 1931, showed a residue of the insecticide almost equal to the total dosage of 650 p ounds per acre a pplied in the 2 years. Similar results were obtained from the samples dug in Erie, Pa., and Springfield, Mass. In Erie, fall a:?plications of 500 pounds p e r acre. each in 19 3 1 and 1932 showed up in approximately full content this year. Spring tr-eatments in 1929, 1930, e.nd 1931 at Springfield, Mass., tota ling 646 pounds of poison_ , were shown by analyses to persist at the original dosag, Samples from a block successively treate d during 1929, 1930, and 1931 at Sayre, Pa with a total dosage of 678 pouns per acre, showe d a residue of the poison close ti the 3 years' dosages. Final collection of bait dispenser cages distributed in Laurel, Elkton, and Colgate, Md., was made from Decanber 4 to 12e Originally l,~ 00 cage s were distributed in each community. Preliminary collections had been made .early in September of cages that were not hidden by foliage. Little difficulty was experienced in final gathering of cages in the residential section of Laurel. At the Ricketts Mill infestation on the outskirts of Elkton, about three fourths of the cages had b ee n set in trees a nd shrubs along the banks o f Elk Creek. A heavy flood in the creek late i n August washed awa7 many . of the cages. As many as 4 and 5 cages were du g Qll)t f rom piles of driftwood washed up on the banks by the flood. One Japanese beetle trap, which had been overlooked b y the collecting inspector because of. a dense growth of blackberry bushes, was found filled with mud washed in durin., the_ f'loodo . Surrounding trees showed the F c1ter to have been full; 18 inches higher than the trap,. which was its elf 4 feet from t h e ground. The in-, fested section a~ Col gate i s more or less o pen c ountry. Here collections were difficult ev e n , in the absenc e of foliage o A 6-inch snow added to the difficul tie: Cages placed in the foliage on the sides of a mound covering a sewer line fared rather badly a.s a re.sult of their use as targets b y boys wi~h 22 caliber rifles. Approximately 50 cages h a d been set alon2 . the mound. Boys gathered _ some 30 of these, removed the glas s containers of liquid bait, ~ nd lined up the perforated cages on top of the m ound as targets. Plenty of additional perforations in the cages gave evidenc e o f the boy~v marksmanship. Only 10 of the cages in this immediat e section were worth recovery. ' A l thoug h N e w .Jersey inspectors made 8 0 fewer inspections during December than in November, only about 50 , 000 fewer plants were certifieff. Over a quarter of a milli on plants were certified in NewJersey for move m ent to nonregulated territory, a . n d some 120,000 were certified f o r m ov ement to classified dealers within the area~ Digging of field-grown roses, fre eing them from soil, and their storage in certified houses was about completed during Dece mber. Since the past season's scouting activities in North Jersey disclosed infestations in a numl:Br of

PAGE 13

-13-additional nurseries and greenhouses, demands have considerably increased for the services of inspectors to examine stock requiring c ertification. Dahlia tubers were shipped in considerable quantities from South Jersey during December. About the middle of January it i s anticipated that flahlia growers will begin placing their tubers in greenhouses for propagating purposes. One inspector is kept busy attendiI1, to inspection calls on the New Jersey coast. Removal of the upper 12 inches of soil from fields or pits where molding sand is dug under certified conditions was completed during December. Shipments of roots of bleeding heart and spirea will start the latter part of January. Certified s~ipments from New Jersey to noninfested territory during Dece mber as compared to the same month of last year ~how an increase of approximately 100,000 plants. F. L. O'Rourke, junior, plant quarantine inspector, stationed at the Baltimore Japanese b setle quarantine office, had an exciting experience when on the morning of December 11 he was blown across Chesapeake Bay in a 14-foot rowboat. Mr. O'Rourke, while on annual leave, boarded his boat at the mouth of the Bush Hiver for the purpose of proceeding 200 yares across t h e stream to a duck blind where he intended to hunt. ' 1Jhile in the stream, a sudden squall cau ght the boat and it was impossible to row or even guide the boat with the oars. The small craft was soon blown into the bay. To add to the dilemma, the boat sprang a leak. A length of cord was t h e only t .ing available with whi ch to plug the leak, but this was ineffective. A pasteboard ~artridg e box first was used to bail out the water but t~is soon became useless. ~Ir. O'Rourke t hen drank some hot coffee he had in a thermos bottle and used t ~a bottle as a bail. Several l ~rge boats failed to observe Mr. O'Rourke's distress sign~ls. The boat was adrift for 4 hours before it final.ly landed at Wharton's Point on the Eastern Shore of .Maryland, 9 miles from the starting point. As the boat reached shallow water, a l e r g e wave swamped it and Mr. O'Rourke was forced to wade ashore. At a nearby house he dried his clothes and secured some warm food. Natives on the Eastern S hore asserted that a small boat could not weat~er the storm w >ich Mr. O'Rourke survived. Fortunately Mr. O'Rourke has suffered no ill effects from his 4-hour exposure and final dousing. Reconstruction and reconditioning of some 30 Federal high-pressure sprayer trucks is now in progress at the New Cumberland garage. This work began on Se p tember 20, and will ~robably extend for several Months into 1934• There are 14 mechanics and 3 laborers now employed on the sprayers. These tank trucks are to be used by the gypsy moth control unit. They were bro.lght to New Cumberland from the control area of Luzerne and Lackawanna Counties, Pa. Mechanics receive %,1.20 per hour and unskilled laborers 5oi per hour for a 30-hour week. All are paid from NRA funds. In addition to the work on the F 'ederal :p'.l!!lpers, 100 light trucks with pick-up bodies were repaired, repainted, and transferred to the gypsy moth project. This work began on September 29 and was completed by the end of December. At the peak of the work 16 mechanics and 9 u.nskillea laborers were employed in getting out the 100 mac.ines,l Most )f the light trucks were driven to Greenfield, :Mass., while a few were delivered to the gypsy moth control project at ;iHlkes-B arre, Pa. UndP.r the prevailing moderate weather conditions, nursery stock continued to move from the Philadelphia district until Dece ~ber 9 • eather conditions also were favorable for digging of stock and its storage for spring s ~igment. The temperature in Philadelphia on Nove1nber 30, Thanlrsgi ving Day, was 73 F. The most acti vs

PAGE 14

-14-shippers from the Philadelphia territory late in December were the wholesale seed houses A .nd the pansy growers. Occasional shipments of plants free from soil were certified for private individuals and several nurseries. :t1ost greenhouses reported a good trade in decorative plants for Christmas. Visits by inspectors connected with the. Baltimore district office were made during December to all important nurseries; greenhouses, post offices, and freight and railway express offices in t h e newly regulated portion of Allegany County in western Maryland, and in the recent'ly added Maryland regule.ted section adjacent to the District of Columbia.. The survey was also extended to tl-te very limited sec-t ion of Mineral C ounty, W. Va e , e mbraced within regulated territory with the extension effective Dece mber 1, 1933. ' The quarantine regulations were explained to the firms and individuals interviewed and they were furnished with coptes of the new regulations. First copies of a 40-page mimeographed Japanese Beetle Shipper's Guide were available on Dece mber 9. Distribution of t h e guides to classified dealers, occasional s hippers, postmasters; a nd agents of common carriers within the regulated are a began as soo n as quantities o f the publication were available, Kraft envelopes were addressed on an addressing machine fed with the stenciled names and addresses of a pproximately 15,000 firms and individuals in 13 States and the District of Columbia on the project's mailing list. Distribution of the guides to practically the entire meiling list was accomplished by the end of December. The territory in t h e State of Maine brought under regulation, effective Dece mber 1, has been placed under superv'ision of the Boston district offic.e. .Certification of quarantined articles moving from the small portion of Mineral County, w .va., added to the restricted zone in. the vicinity of Cumberland, Md., will be granted by inspectors under the supervision of the Baltimore district office. The small addition t o the regulated zone in Cattaraugus. Count~;, N.Y., comes under the jurisdiction o f th-e Syracuse distr.ict office, while the slightly extended Henrico County, Va., area isadded to t h e section served by the Richmond district office. Investigation of a violation intercepted on October 26 by a transit inspector in• omaha, Nebr.,, involvinf the mailing of a wooden box filled with uncer ti:f'ied peat used as packing for a bottle labeled "rum", disqlosed that the shipper had apparently inserted a false return address•on the pacb'a ge, The box was en route in t h e wails from Philadelphia to Alliance, Nebr. Aft er .its interception the contents of' the shipment w . ~ confiscated b y the Post Office Depart!'.• 1ent as unmailable matter and t h e peat packing was returned to the address giwen by the cons j _gnoro Seven New Jersey Stat0 inspectors .furloughed from Japanese beetl. e work have .secured temporary positions wi t h the Dutch elm tre e disease control project. .AJ.thou~ h no definite date. is set for complet.ion o f t h e work on t >is new control project, it is anticipated that it will terminate by t he1 middle o f Februnry, at which time avail0.ble funds may permit reemployment o f the men 1n their regular capacity.

PAGE 15

Corn Borer Certification Activities Redivision of Federal corn borer certification work in New Jersey has been effected. Starting Deqember 1, territory in New Jersey was subdivided into northern and southern divisions . Corn borer inspection service, both Federal and State, south of a line connecting Phillipsburg and Perth Amboy will be rendered by State inspectors under the supervision of G., K. Handle, district supervisor of Japanese beetle quarantine work in New Jersey. H. v. Hotchkin, who formerly supplied all Federal corn borer certification in New Jersey, will perform this service in the northern section o f the State and will also handle similar inspection work on Long Island. Federal corn borer inspectors certified a total of 222 shipments for move ment from formerly quarantined territory into noninfested States. The majority of the inspections were made in t h e States of Massachusetts, Connecticut, and New Hampshire. I vrEXICAN FRUIT FLY The activities of the fruit fly project were devoted throu16hout the mont h principally to the operation of some 5,156 glass traps in 455 selected groves throughout the Valley. The operation of these traps resulted in tre taking of specimens of Anastrepha ludens , A. fraterculus, A. serpentina, A. striata, !• pallens, and Toxotrypana curvicauda. Ludens were taken in 10 groves in b distri~tsr In no grove was more than 1 ludens taken durin the month. In most of the groves in which ludens were taken, traps had been operated approximately 3 months with negative results so far as lud~ were concerned. So far as is k not:".n, the adult A. stria ta taken on the 14th of the month is the first of t tis species ever taken in the continental United States. Le.rvae of this species are taken frequently from guavas shipped. from the interior of Mexico to t:1e Mexican border cities. \,i th the advent of cooler Vleather it was found that the attrahent used in the traps wes effective for at least 3 or 4 days. It was also found that a bait usinc only one half the amount of malt which had previously been used was apparently as effective as the Old mixture. Accordingly, instructions were issued to the inspectors to run the traps twice weekly, rather then at 2-day intervals, and to use only half the malt previously used in preparing the bait. This resulted in a considerable saving without impairing the effectiveness of the trapping operations. Arrangements were made by the State Department of Agriculture to purchase a power sprayer of 50-galJ.on capacity for use in spraying the groves in which ludens were taken. These are usually taken in the largest trees in the Valley in which it is practically impossible to feta g o0d coverage of the nicotine spray with hand guns. It was expected that this machine would be ready for operation during the first days of January.

PAGE 16

Close inspection of the fruit rema1n1n g in groves in which ludens were take11 gave negative results insofar as larvae of Anastr' epha were concerne-d. Fruit importations into Matamoros were considerably less in December than in N ovember. New rates b e came effective on the National de r
PAGE 17

.-17. eastern end of the ~ultivated area. Some 3,000 to 5,000 acres in this particular area rrere found to be heavily infested1 from 50 to 75 percent of the green bolls remaining in the fie.ld containing live pink boll worms. The infestation gradually decreased in intensity from this point, and w h en finally delimited was found to extend about 10 miles into the cultivated area, involving approximately 40,000 acres of cotton. " In past years the cotton acreage was around 144,000, with an annual production of about 100,000 bales. The soil is especially fertile, being watered largely from the Roosevelt Dam reservoir,' located about 65 miles above Phoenix on the Salt River. The cultivated area beginsabout 25 miles east of Phoenix and extends about 40 miles west, the average width being perhaps 20 miles. The altitude is around 1,000 feet, with a subtropical climate, thus making conditions almost ideal for the pink bollworm. The area was placed under'regulation on October 31 , 1929. Sterilization end fumigation machinery was installed within about 30 days, and the remainder of the 1929 crop was treated. A noncotton zone was established in the spring, extending 2 miles beyond .the outermost kno w n infested sections, and after picking was completed all fields in the noncotton zone, amounting to approximat9ly 47,000 acres, were cleaned. It is customary to grow co~ton from stubs for 4 or 5 years wi t hO'IJt' replant in,, and a large part of t ~ . e acreage cleaned sprouted e. good stand of stub cotton, which also had to be destroyed. The noncotton zone was maintained during the 1930 crop season. Field and gin-trash inspections were carried on in the remainder of the valley, and as a result it was found that the infestation was more widespread than was at f irst t hought. In view of t his situation it did not seen.practicable to maintain t h e noncotton zones duri~, the 1931 crop season, Consequently, the State authorities established regulated areas where infestations had been fuund, and in these areas it was requireo. that the fields be thoroughly cleaned and plowed, no stub or volunteer cotton be allowed to grow, and the planting o i the new crop delayed to April 1 for long staple and April 20 for short staple. The cleaning of fields was to be done by indi victual farmers, but d ' ue to their financial condition only 62 percent of the acreage was cleaned. This be percent, however, included practically ali infested fields and those immediately adjacent. Inspections duri!1, the 1931 season disclosed that very light infestations still existed in two areas; therefore, as part 01 t)1eir relief work, the State of Arizona appropriated money for cleaning the acreage involved, the work being supervised by this Bureau. Intensive field and gin-trash inspections were carried on during both the 1932 end 1933 crop seasons without any further signs of the insect being found. Durinf these two seasons practically all of the gin trash produced was inspected, and in view of t he d emonstrated efficiency of t h e gin-trash machines it would seem that this is conclusive evidence that the infestation ha s been eradicated. Con sidering the intensity of the infestation when discovered, and the ideal conditions for the insect in this important cotton-producing area, the successful eradication of the insect is a very outstanding piece of work . The quarantine was also extended to cover parts of three counties in southern Georgia and an additional county in northern Florida. A party continued field

PAGE 18

-18inspections in Madison County, Flao, during mpst of the month, but with negative results. The inspection work now consists of th"e examination of bollie material, 21 bushels having been inspected from Florida and 6 bushels from Georgia, with negative results. 1vith favorable weather and a plentiful supply of labor the cleaning of cotton fields in the Big Bend of Texas has gone forward without any interruption what-ever. At the close of the month 2,330 acres had been cleaned. This includes all of the heaviest infested fields, which were cleaned first, before there was much chance of worms going into the soil. There now remains only a small acreage to be completed. The cleaning of fields on the Mexican side of the river has also been started. The agricultural inspector at Ojinaga, and the :Mexican Consul at Presidion, are takin g quite an interest in the work. Many of the leading farmers on this side , w ho are acq_u3.inted with the Mexicans in the settlements opposite their farms, are also coope:r:-ating in the cleaning of Mexican fields, and in general considere .bly mor e i nterest is ,being shown this sason than last. It now app ears that a fairly g ood job o f field cleaning will be done. During the month 21 interceptions were made at the Marfa road station, of which 9 were infested. A total of 59 pink bollworms was found, 40 being alive. As the field clean-up h~s b een completed to the extent that there is very little chance of infested mBterial being taken from the }Jig B end section, the road station has been discontinued. Since the station began operating the first of September, 4 9 interceptions have been made. O f tllis number 20 were infested with the pink bollworm, 122 living and 34 dead specimens 'beinf taken. The eradication of wild cotton in southern Florida has progressed satisfactorily. During t h e month 17 colonies, covering approximately 15 acres, hav:e been recleaned, from which 45 mature, 3,345 seedling, and 311 sprout plants were renoved. When t h e J.arg e number of plants originally r e moved is taken into consideration, t he above r esult s indicate tha t rapid progress is being made. In addition to recleaning these colonies, the inspectors h~ve been conducting surveys for any new colonies w hich mi6 h t have been overlooked. They have been going into pli:ices w p.ere wiJ, d cotton is l east likely to occur, but which b.a"';i:e to be coveredt and only 2 small colonies w ere found, 1 c;onpisttng l)f only 3 plantE?. Other parties have been workinf in areas not previously -coverea along the rnainland bordering F lc.rida Bay and keys in Florida Bay. Out of over 100 keys visited, w ild cotton w ~t1 f ou;nd grow;LJ,Je on 2 3. It -was estimated that e,round 25,000 :pla.t-s w-ere growing 0'11 t : tie 3) t~1l$ • . So~ 1 e 3 3 ~ o1t}n.ies were -lo-ca:ted ~ cing t ne m,;1inll:n;ll i;~ OP,-11,iatr-Lade Counties. When thes e surveys are co m p1-eted w e will hav e a d!3finite kno wledge as to the a r nount of wild cotton yet to be removed and the areas in which it is growing . Durin[ the month the cotton blooms at Chapman Field h a ve been inspected on one day o f each week. On the remaininf days they are collected and destroyed by the Bureau of Plant Industry. This plan is being followe d because of the need for men on other work. No signs of the pink bollworm were found in any of the blooms examined.

PAGE 19

-19-PREVENTING SPREAD OF MOTHS The scouting for gypsy ~oth infestations has been continued in the highland sections of northern Vermont, western M~ssachusetts, and northwestern Connecticut. Unusuall severe weather, particularly during the last days of December, made such work quite difficult and t he amount of snov 1fall impeded progress. : :oodland scout ing. in winter, particularly in sections of hea~ snowfall, can be accomplished only if the men engaged use s 1 owshoes, as otherwise they use up time and energy floundering around a n d only small progress can be made. Because of the deep snow in the more northern sections many pairs of snowshoes are now in use, about 400 men using them daily. The most severe weather of the -~.onth came during tbe last few days, with heavy snow followed by subzero tempera_tures W 1 .ich rr.ade outdoor working unbearable. However, as many 01' the men vrnre home fo r the holidays during that period, they were not exposed to that bad weather. The training school for unexperienced men v1as continued throughout the month in southeastern Vermont. As the system for training these unexperienced men under skilled instructors consists in learning thei! duties while performing them, all of the work done is just so much accomplished in gypsy moth control. Men at such training schools in Vermont have scouted 18,000 acres of ~oodland, 105 miles of roadsides in open country: and about 64,000 scattered trees, and while doing this work have found . and destroyed over 27,000 gypsy moth egg clusters. During Decenber ?couting of woodland was continued in five towns in northeastern New York bordering on Lake Champlain. As the total area to be scouted in that section is not large, only a few crews of men have b een assigned there. In com.man with other northern sections where gypsy moth scouting is being done, work in New York was handicapped to some extent by adverse weather conditions. ~arly in the month snow fell to a depth of about 7 inches, . and w ile this was not sufficient to make travel too difficult, it did interfere with scolting by coating all of the trees and brush in such a manner as to make examination difficult. In spite of all weather obstacles, progress was made in all three of the New England States and in New Y.ork. The work P3 rforrned during the month brought the total acres of woodland scouted up to about 700,000. Operations in Pennsylvania continued with the scoutiI1 : of woodland, the examination of scattered trees along roadsides and river banks, and the cutting out of dead and wor .thless trees in the more heavily infested sections of the area. The n_umber of crews engaged in sc0uting varied alightly; at one time 35 crews were thus enga ged. The open season for deer huntinG in this st~,te began on December 1, and because of that it was necessary to relocate a large percent of the scouting crews. Many had been working in wo
PAGE 20

-20-gradually until b y the m iddle of the nonth the daily average was 515. During the holiday season, however, many of the men were away from the camps on leave and the da ily avera ge dee lined, to mount again _after_ the holidays so that by the beginning of the new y ear the average was back ag~in to over 500 • . Continued progress has been made in the scouting and control work, and while not so much was accomplished as would have been po ssible_ if the full complement of men were available at all times, there is reasC?n to be gratified at the work done. Thus far men working in towns in the vicinity o f the camps hav~ scouted over 88,ooo seres of woodland, and during the course of this work.have found and destroyed over 51,000 gypsy moth egg clusters. In the past, from time to time, shipments of second-hand red bricks have be e n inspected and certified from the gypsy moth quarantined are. a to points outside. Such shipments were usually small in size, consisting of only a few barrels. For the most part the bricks were to be used in aonstructing firepla-ces in restaurants; and only old_ bricks which showed considerable signs of having been e xposed to smoke, fire, or to the elen1ents were mar~etable for such purposes. Most o f the shipments were made b y one firm which obtain:ed its supply from ruined houses or houses whfch were being dismantled. For fireplace construction only selected bricks were shipped and these were packed carefully to avoid breakage en route. There has been so little demand for such articles during the past year or two that the firm has accumulateei a considerable stock which ri.as bc-en piled in the open and which has been exposed to g ypsy moth infestation. Duri ng December the firm received an order f o r a large number . of bricks. to be _used partially for the construction of a house being erected in New York and for the construction of a wall around the premises. Two carloads consisting of 37,000 bricks were shipped to destination. Because of the dan g .er of infestation each brink had to be examined individually and the inspection work connected-_with this shipment extended over q uite a number of days. A few gypsy moth . eg g clusters were fou~d during the course of inspection a nd these were entirely removed before ship ment was certified. The principal ma_nufacturers of telephone cabJe reels are located outside of t h e area quarantined on account of the gypsy :and brown-tail moths. Reels loaded with cable are shipped frurn the manufacturing centers to various destinations in., side o f the quarantined area, ~nd after-having the cable r$rnoved for installation, are shipped back to the cable firms. .'Becaus~ _of th1;, value of these reels it is not o ften that they stay in the quarant i11ed area for a sufficie.nt length of time to be e xposed to infestation, and even if present during the period when e~ clusters are being depo .si ted may not be exposed, because firms handling them have . become accustomed to assembling and storing them in yards qr buildings well away frorrf infes,tation prior to s hipment. W hen cables ere strung -through woodJ.ttnd areas , the unloaded reels may remain for a period close to trees and it is for this reason' ! that during inspection some gypsy moth e gg clusters may be found. Ordinarily the inspection of such reels, particularly if they hav-e not been exposed to infestation,1 is not a very l engthy process, as they may be examined without dismantling. When exposed to infestation it b e comes necessary to remove one side of the reel so that the inside of the inner drum may be examined, and such removal is often.quite difticult as the bolts and nuts may have become rusted throug h exposure to the elements Occasionally a shipment o f reels is p r e s ented f o r inspection which has been in the field for s o m e time, and such shipments always call for careful inspection. Suc h '

PAGE 21

-21-a shipment was inspected recently in New Hampshire, the reels having been in the field for more the n a year; d.nspection of them required 2 full days as they had to be taken apart. One reel was found to be badly infested, 15 egg clusters being removed. A few years ago ~hen all nurseries were very active in selling stock, particularly various species of evergreen trees for foundation planting around new houses, numerous nurseries planted extensive acreages of the different species most in de 1 nand in anticipation of' a continued active selling. 1i th the decrease in business they have found that they are considerably over-stocked in such trees and they are adopting all sorts of methods for the disposal of the extra stock. In many cases these trees have been planted quite close together in rows and in consequence many of them are now growing too thickly for the production of specimen trees. Extensive transplanting is necessary and most of the nurseries do not h~ve funds available for such work. Durin[ the past season, particularly toward the end, there has been considerable shippine, of evergreen trees from nurseries to other than the usual type of customer. One firm made arrangeMents with a maple ca ndy manufacturing firm to ship a small growing tree with each package of candy. The candy orders were shipped direct from the manufacturing company; then a list of customers was sent to the nursery where the trees were dug, inspected, wrapped individually, and shipped direct to the candy purchasers. Such orders increased the volume of s~ipping for that particular nursery to quite a considerable extent. Another nursery, through arrane e:nents with a New York newspap~r which solicited contributions for a "Christmas fund", a c r eed to supply a living evergreen tree to every person who contributed at least two dollars. Because of the fact that the fund closed just prior to Christmas, dig[ing difficulties were anticipated and a considerable number of trees were dug prior to severe freezing and placed in a protected shed where they could be obtained easily at shipping time. In some sections nurserymen cut evergreen trees growine in t heir nursery rows and sold them for Christmas trees. This was the first year that any considerable number of such trees were handled in this way, as, of course, the amount received for each tree was far less than could be obtained in normal seasons for the tree with roots. Somewhat over 7,000 small evergreen trees cut in a nursery were shipped from one section of Connecticut. The inspection of Chris~nas trees t cis year has been handicapped to a considerable extent by the extremely inclement weathar in some of' the cutting sections. iarly in the season there was considerable cold weather and snow \'lhich, coming as it did when the operators were cutting trees, hampered this cutting considerably and delayed the transporting of the trees from the cutting lots to the assembling points at the various freight stations. The abundance of snow interfered to quite an extent with the transfer of trees from the lots where they were cut and also hampered inspection considerably. Bundles of trees at the assembling points are thrown into piles and if much snow falls over these piles it makes inspection extremely difficult,particularly if there is alternating thawing and freezing which b~nds bundles together. During the latter part of December in the Christmas tree territory in Maine, New Hampshire, and Vermont there was severely cold weather with quite a few carloads of trees rema ininf to be inspected. Travel for the inspec tor,s was decidedly dangerous as the roads were covered with ice and snow. In spite of the handicap imposed by bad weather, satisfactory progres s in the inspection of trees was made, and it was possible for the operators to get all of their

PAGE 22

U NIVERSITY OF FLORIDA -22 ... II I II IIIIII Ill Ill lllll lllll Ill llll lllll llll II IIIIII IIII IIII Ill I I 3 1262 09241 6 410 shipments away in time to reach the markets for Christmas. At several shipping po ints in Ver mont near the Canadian line a considerable number of trees, which origi-r neted in Canada, were shipped from Vermont points, Due to the scarcity of balsam trees in Vermont some of t11e operators cut such trees in sections of Canada quite close t o the Upited States line. In many cases such trees are shipped from points in t h e United States because of lack of railroad facilities near where the trees are cut, The United States duty on Canadian trees has been reduced from 5t to 4 1 per bundle, an d this reduction is quite a saving for operators who handle a considerable number of Canadian trees. The inspection of all types of Christmas green~ry has progressed about as usual t his year. Beginning in t h e latter part of October manufacturers of Christmas wreaths, roping, set pieces, etc., began to ass. emble stock for use .in the prepa ... ration of such pieces. As.the season advances, more and more stock is collected, being taken to s ome of the larger plants by the ton. As it is impossible to inspect the stock in the finished' piece, ~11 materials are examined immediately after being transporte d from the-areas where cut to the manufacturing plants. In size these manufacturing plants vary from tnose which make and sell thousands of pieces, to homes where only a dozen or two wreaths may be made for the purpose of obtain ing a little extra money at Christmas time. There is a multiplicity of designs for Christmas pieces, with wreaths being the most popular. The wreaths.may vary from the simple ones composed only of laurel, to large ones several feet in dian1e ter made up of numeros types of evergreens, cones, and red berries. Centerpieces and table decorations, sprays, roping of different kinds, baskets, and in fact almost every type of piece imaginable, is made by the more progressive firms. This year one firm made large crosses some of which were 5 feet high which were in~ tend. ed for plact_ng in cemetery lots. * * * * * * . { '