News letter

Material Information

News letter
United States -- Bureau of Plant Quarantine
Place of Publication:
Washington, D.C.
Bureau of Plant Quarantine
Publication Date:


Subjects / Keywords:
Plants -- Diseases and pests -- Control -- Periodicals -- United States ( lcsh )
federal government publication ( marcgt )


Dates or Sequential Designation:
Began with: no.19 (July 1, 1932)
Dates or Sequential Designation:
Ceased with: no.43 (June 30, 1934)
General Note:
"Not for publication".

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
This item is a work of the U.S. federal government and not subject to copyright pursuant to 17 U.S.C. §105.
Resource Identifier:
030428081 ( ALEPH )
785785040 ( OCLC )
2012229620 ( LCCN )

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I NEWS LETTER BUREAU OF PLANT Q,UA.RANTI};1E UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT O:f AGRICULTURE AR A E PLANT BOARD ======c=c=========~=========~ ~=========c=====~=========e=====c=================== Number 37 (NOT FOR PUBLICATION) January 1, 1934. (The contents of this number, unless specifically stated otherwise, cover the month of November only) a~=•-ecccece---c-ce---==-----=c---a---=--------------=--=--===~--------c---=-----FOREIGN PLANT Q,UARANTINES RECENT ENTOMOLOGICAL INTERCEPTIONS OF INTEREST Apple maggot fron Mexico.--Eight living larvae qf th~ trypetid Rhagoletis pomonella Walsh were intercepted at Brownsville, Tex., in an a pple in bag gage from Mexico. Coleopteron in elm log from England.--A larva of Rhinosimus ruficollis Le (Pythidae) was taken at New Orleans, La., underneath the bark of an elm log in cargo from England. Wireworm from the Netherlands.--A living larva of Athous _niger L. (Elateridae) was intercepted at Washington, D. c., in soil ~round t h e roots of Helleborus niger ( Christmas-ro~_e) in the express from the Netherlands. The larva, which is known as the tobacco wireworm in Europe, tunnels the roots of tobacco and other plants. It is not recorded from the United States. Thrips from Scotland .--Taeniothrips vulgatissimus (Hal.) _ was intercepted at Philadel~hia on Sorbus berries in the nnil from Scotland. J. R . Watson, of Gainesville, Fla., reports that this species is not known to occur in this country. Scolytid from Sumatra.--The coffee berry borer (Stephanoderes hampei Ferr.) was intercepted at New York in coffee in cargo from Sumatra. Scale insect f rom Jamaica.--Pseudaonidia trilobitifonnis (Green) (Coccidae) was intercepted at Boston on s our limes in stores from Jamaica. Lanternfly in Puerto Rico.--An adult of Patara albidula Westw . (Fulgoridae) was .collected on a grapefruit leaf in the field at Manati, P.R. ' Hemiptera from Ven ozuela.--Clerada apicicornis Sign. (Lygaeidae), Melano derma picipes Stal (Pentatomidae), and Sysinas floridulus Dist. (Miridae) were taken at Washington, D. c., in packing of Cattleia plants in cargo from Venezuela.


Mahogany 1_~~fested.-~Adults of ~latypus rugulosus Chapuis (Platypodidae) and Xyleborus grenadensis Hopk. (Scolytidae) were taken at New Orleans in mahogany logs in cargo from Mexico. M. w. Blackman, of the Bureau of Entomology, states that both species have been introduced many times and possibly the latter is es~ tablished at places. Dr. Blackman further states that neither is known to cause any considerable damage except in the tropics. Earwig from JaEan.--A male of Anisolabis littorea White was intercepted at Galveston, Tex., in a potato in stores fro, m Ja?~• This spec.i-esis not recorded from the continental United States.• . ~ids from_Japan.--Antonine crawi Ckll. ~d Eriococcus onukii Kuw. were intercepted at Seattle, Wash., on two plants of .Arundinaria japonica in ship's quarters from Japan. Thrips on pineappl~--~aplothrips gowdeyi (Franklin) was intercepted at San ]'rancisco on pineapples in cargo from Hawaii. This species has been recorded from southern Florida, Australia, Mexico; Nicaragua, and the West Indies. Coleopterous larva from Norway.--A larva of Serica brunnea L. (Scarabaeidae) was taken at Boston in soil around the roots of plants in cargo from Norway. ' • . ' . Africa.--An adult of Xzleborus affinus Eichhe \ .. Bark beetle from East (Scolytidae) was intercepted cargo froIJl East .Africa. M. coming cosmopolitan. and that at Baltimore under the bark Qf a black walnut log in w. Blackman reports~:tbat this specie_ s _ is rapidi. y : -be-. it is already establi's'hed i"n -the United States. RECENT PATHOLOGICAL INTERCEPTIONS OF INTEREST Chinkerichee season starts.--Shipments of cutflowers otornithogalum thyrsoides from south Africa began to arrive rn _october, the. first specimens iilfectea, with Puccinia ornithogali-thyrsoides having been intercepiied at Phiiadelphia on October 30. Similar materia~ has been received since then from Boston, Chicago, and Philadelphia (3). Some material showed numerous lesions of Heter ... osporium ornithogali, often on stems affected by the rt.1$t also. Cuban lima bean season. starts.--The first lima bean scab, Elsinoe cana-. -----valiae, received this season was intercepted at New York on November 14, on . me.terial from Cuba. Last year the first interception was mfid e on ijoyember -10._ Intercept ions of lima bean scab are not nearly so frequent ~s :r'ormerly • . .. : . Celery diseases .--On October 27, diseased celery . ~rom Belgium was int.e~ cepted at P~iladelphia and found to be infected withPhyllosticta apii, our first' interception record of t his disease • . At the same port celery from Gibraltar was fou~d infected with Cer_spor,!_ apii on November 18, the first interception.of this disease this year and the first from Gibraltar. Previous interceptions included B E ' rmuda (3), Brazil, Engla:d, and Germany, the last named on celeriac instead of celery. ; • • • \ ,. ' ~ • ... • _,. • w ' ' # 'N :,.• ' \ • • •~ : , : • ., 0 " • I Euonyrnus diseas(? . .-~-A ,Peatal.o zzia,sp.--. leaf .'.~pot or Euonymu& obovatus var. variegate from Japan, intercepted on October 3 at Seattle, has been determined by


-3-Miss E. K. Cash as P. neglecta. Our only previous interception record of this fungus is undated but approximately 15 years old, on Cerat'onia siliqua from Spain. Fatsia diseases.--Diseased Fatsia ~onica leaves on plants from Japan were taken at Seattle on October 3, 17, and 22 and referred to Miss E. K. Cash, who reported the October 3 specimen as Gloeosporium (no species reported on host), one October 17 specimen and the October 22 specimen as the Gloeosporium stage of Glomerella cingulata, and the other October 17 specimen as Pestalozzia sp. (None reported on this host -not like only species reported on Araliaceae.) Chrysanthemum rust.--Our first interception of the chrysanthemum rust, Puccinia chrysanthemi, was sent in from Nogales on chrysanthemum cut flowers from Mexico, intercepted on November 7• Citrus black spot on fresh fruit.--Phoma ~itricarpa, the cause of citrus black spot, is often found in abundance on the citrus peel which is imported from the Orient in large quantities but is not often sent in on fresh fruit. Recently specimens of C~trus junos, a Japanese variety of lemon sometimes mistaken for Japanese orange owiI1f:: to its orange shape, were intercepted in stores from Japan at Philadelphia and found to be infected with P. citricarpa. Specimens of Citrus nobilis from China taken in baggage at Seattle were similarly affected. Gardenia leaf spot.--Some very nice material of the coffee leaf spot fungus StDbella (Stilbum) flavida was intercepted at ~ew York on gardenias from Cuba. The material went to the mycological collection. CHESTNUT ROT STUDIES New York inspectors have been collecting specimens of rotting chestnuts from the cargoes being entered at thet port, for study by pathologists in the division of Forest Pathology. Some work was done on the problem of chestnut rots several years ago by the same division but progress was slow owing to the fact that what appeared to be the more important organisms were difficult to culture and did not fruit. It is hoped that newly started studies will be more success ful. BULB NE11ATODE IN RUSSIA We have received an excellent s:r:ecimen of potato infestation by the bulb nematode, Tylenchus dipsaci, intercepted at BaltiP.lore on N ovember 20, 1933, from Russia. This is a new locality record. Of the scattering interceptions of plant diseases from Russia in the past quite a number have been of spe c ial interest. MEXICAN BORDER PORT CLOSE D Owing to the light traffic which has pers i s t _ ed for the past year at Zapata, the plant quarantine office at that port was closed on December 17, 1933. Geo. A. Pfaffman, the inspector in charge, h a s b een transferred t o Larec o on account of recent increased inspection needs there.


-4Q,UARANTINE GREENHOUSE CATCHES FUNGUS The rigid quarantine procedure carried out mt the Arlington farm greenhouses devoted to safeguarding introductions of foreig~ s~garcane enables the Department to bring safely into our national sugarcane cultures hundreds of varieties of cane from all corners of the earth. So effective are the methods used in •freeing these stocks from pests that various other c oun tries are using this system as a model for similar establishments, and in in!lllY cases countries without. such protective facilities prefer to import new varieties by way of our greenhouses . ' rather than take the risks involved in direct import. A recent occurrence -illustrates the value of this stringent supervision over lots of sugarcane held under quarantine. Examination o f a specimen.of cane submitted b) the Office of Sugarcane Investigations to the plant quarantine inspection house disclosed the presence of a fungus fruiting on the leaf sheaths, which was identified as Linospora sacchari Averna.. Hitherto unknown in the United States, t his fungus was first described in Brazil where it is reg~rded as a facultative parasite. What pest would assume in our cane fields no one could predict, but no matter what its pest ranking it is clear that it has been. caught in the meshes of an effective quarantine net. DOMESTIC PLANT Q,UARANTINE S EUROPEAN PINE-SHOOT MOTH A recommendation that this Bureau consider the advisability of placing an interstate quarantine with reference to the European pine-shoot moth was .recently made b y the committee of the Ea stern Plant Board appointed at the New Haven . con~ . , ference on September 19 to study t h e problem and .formulate-a specific course of action to prevent further distribution of the pest. It is proposed by the committee to prohibit the shipment of all pines o u t of the infested areas during the period from June 1 to September 1, and dur'in g the remainder of thEl year to require. certification based on inspection just before shipment. It was recommended that the Bureau of Entomology make a s urvey to estimate the distribution of the insect i n the United States and continue the parasite work. The insect, according to the committee, "has become one of the foremost forest pests" in the regions in which it occurs and "is believed to be generally distributed on ornainental pine plantings throughout northeastern United States***•" "Qui.te systematic in~ spedtions * * *'~ the report states, "offer convincing evidence that severe pineshoot moth infestation in forest plantations is a localized condition of a rather limited nature. Control experiments conducted by several States during the past few years encourag e the belief t ha t control practices are feasible and can beef, fectively a pplied." Other measures recommended were (1) that o wners attempt control in forest and ornam en t a l planting s by clipping, spraying, and destroy'ing -ie badly inj~ed stands; and (2) tha t the States c oncerned treat infested nurseries in a similar


-5manner, provide for a survey of ornamental vlantings, establish intrastate regulations "wherever it seems advisable to prevent infestation over its entire territory," and regulate the transportation of plants by peddlers with heavy penalties for "anyone caught with infested plants or plants . unaccompanied by a proper certificate of inspection." The cozmnittee is co mposed of H. L. McIntyre, Chairman; w . E. Britton, and R. H . Allen. TRANSIT INSP~CTION Someone in Pennsylvania recently s hipped to the West a bottle of rum car.efully pac k ed in peat, apparently little suspecting that peat shipped from the Japanese be~tle area is checked by transit inspactors for compliance with quaran-tine regulations. The package was intercepted by t his Bureau's inspectors at Omaha and was turned over to the postal authorities for a ppropriate action. Parcel-post shipments which are found en route to contain plant material addressed to States maintaining terminal inspection may now be labeled by transit inspectors of t his Bureau (as well as by postal employees) to show that they contain plants, under authority recently granted by the Post Office Department. This arrangement will facilitate the diversion of plant s hipments to inspection points in the case of shipments not already so labeled. The instructions are covered in Circular No. 42-T, dated December 9, to transit inspectors. A revised schedule of inspection t ~urs is being put into effect in New York City under which it will be possible durin[ t h e winter to check freight shipments of nursery stock moving through the principal transfer points in that city. PHONY PEACH DISEASE Bureau employees are now cooperating with the State nursery inspectors in the latters• effort to cull out peach-borer-infested and -injured stock in the case of nurseries w hose premises are located within 1 mile of phony peach disease infection in the Southern and Middle Western States. For this purpose, contact is being maintained with investigators of the Bureaus of Entomology and Plant Industry in connection with methods of distinguishing between slight borer injury and other causes of damage to the trees. The peach-borer moths did not fly as late this fall as they did in 19 32. The young borers were therefore farther advanced at the time shipments of peach nursery stock started. WHITE-PINE BLISTi R RUST It is found that commercial n u r s erymen to whom Federal pine-shipping permits rave been issued for the pres ent f isca l year are growing a total of 243,150 white pines (including seedlings) as c ) mpar e d with 2 1 2,150 pines of salable stze which are bein grow n by nurseryrien w hose appl ications were denies, pending satis factory Ribes eradication in tha surrounding z o ne s . A pproximately 13,800,000 white pines are being grown in nurseries operated b y t h e Federal Government for reforestation purposes and coverec b y blister rust p erm its.


... 6-DATE SC.ALE ERADICATION During the month .of November most of the inspection in the Coachella Valley was carried. on outside the infested area. Ladders were not used in this terri tory as any infestations would, in all probability, result from the introduction of infested offshoots, and such infestations could be found readily from the ground. The inspection with i n t h e infested area was both from the ground and ladders as the spread of the scale in this area has been caused, to a large extent, by wind and birds~ Infestatio ns caused by ~pread by means of w i nd are ofteh established on the u pper leaves of' t all palms and develop to a point where there is c0nsider ... able spread before they can b e located by ground inspection. Durine_: the m onth the Johnson planting was inspected and no scale found. The last scale iocated in the Coachella Valley w a s found on this place in November 193 1. The Johnson planting was a jungle of approximately 2,000 seedling palms when first found infested. Seed had been planted so thickly in rows that in many cases the trunk s c:,f the palms touched and the fronds interlaced. 1Uhen scale was first found the jungle was thinned out, spacing the remaining palms about 30 feet a part i n t h e rows and leaving , where possible, t r e largest palms. As in all s eedling plantings, t h e palms remaining w:ere abo11t 50 perqent males, and the fruit on the females varie d in size and all other characteristics. There are about 300 palms remaining in the planting and the owners will probably-keep less than 50 as a family garden and ornarnentals; the rest are t o be destroyed. In t h e Imperial Valley the danger zone surrounding the infested area was carefully inspected , most o f the places for t h e last time. Np scale-has been found in this area, w hich has bee n under observation since systematic inspection commenced in 1929. ' Durin e t h e month scattered date plantings in the Salt River Valley, including palms distributed to the Indians on reservations, were inspected and no scale found. J APANE~:F~ BEI;TLE U'ID EUROPE.A N CORN BORER Exclusive Japanese Beetle Work Four reels o f motion-pictures describing Ja~anese beetle quarantine and control work were released• by the Department early in November. Preparation of this film has been in progress since July 15, 1932, on which date a scenario of 98 scenes, prepared by R. w . Sherman, wa. s assigned to the Office of Motion Pictures of the Department. A tentative sequence, to be used as a guide for field work, was prepared by H. B . McClure on July 25. From July 26 to August 11, 1932, more than 200 scenes were made. The field party consisted of C,, w . Stockwell, subject m atter. specialist; Mr. M cClu _re, motion picture director; and Carl Turvey, cameraman. Scenes were made in New Jersey,. near Philadelphia, Pa., and near South Norwalk, Conn, G . K . Handle also as-sisted in subject matter supervision in Mr. Stockwell's absence . Roadside inspection scenes were . made in Virginia. Lawn spraying sce ne s were taken i n Erie, Pa. A series of scenes for two breakfast


-7-•set-ups were made at a pr~vate home in Washi~ton, D. c. Studio close-ups and animated maps were complete d in the motion picture la bora~ory at Wastington. A number of conferences subsequently were held by Messrs. Stockwell and McClure in reference to the subject matter. Titles were prepared by Mr. McClure and revised by the Japanese beetle staf. f • Critical examination of t h e final s.cenario was made by the personnel of the Japanese beetle research laboratory of. t~e Bureau of Entomology. Final viewing o . f the completed• picture by Bureau representatives and interested officials of other bureaus was held in the proje~ting room of the Office of Motion Pictures on November 10 last,'after which the film We$ released for public exhibition. The new film will replace an old Bureau of Entomology onereel production, "Holdipg the Japanese Beetle." Although the old film had been dressed up with modern titles. ~nd . from it had been cut msny antiquated methods, it did not meet the needs .ror an educational picture such as is now available in the recently sc~eened film. The Arlinf;ton ~xperimental Farm of the Bureau of Plant Industry. at Rosslyn, Va., has maintained a classified status under the Japanese beetle qu?rantine regulations ever since the quarantined zone was extended on February 15, 1929, to include the county of Arlil1ton, Va. At that time the nearest infestation was 3~ miles distant ~rom the experimental farm. In 1929, beetle infestation had approached to wi'thin 2 miles of the farm, but not unti l the current year has any infestation been determined on the experimental farm property. With limited scouting facilities ' t his year, it was possible to m a k e only three surveys of the farm, one on June 19,another on July 15 and 17, and a final survey on August 9, 10, and 11. Three scou~s covering the approximately 350 acres of the farm on August 10 found one Japanese _beetle in a section devoted to peach experiments. Discovery of this specimen has resulted in subdivision of the farm into Class I and Class III status. The subdivision within 500 feet o f t h e point of discovery of t h e insect is amenable to the Class III requirements. Permanen~ boundaries of the subdi vision are formed by roadways, .divisions b etween plots, a ditch, and the banks of the Little River ... This section includes plots devoted to peaches, cherries, forage crops, ornamente l shrubs, specimen trees, and lawn. Experimental stock shipped under certificatiDn from the infested area must be shipped soil free, or else subjected to chemical fumigation or disinfection similar to that practiued in any infested ccxnmercial nursery. E. c. Butterfield, senior horticulturist and superir.tendent of the experimental farm, has b een very cooperative in advising the various employees at t h e farm of the reclassification and has authorized any additional action necessary to insure compliance with the quarantine regulations. Initial public projection of the Bureau's recently released four-reel motion picture on the subject of Japanese beetle quarantine and control was made at a meeting of the Entomological Society of Ontario held at Toronto on N ovember 23. Preceding the film,-a p~per entitled "Quarantine and Control Operations for the Japanese Beetle in the United States't, was read by L. H. Worthley. Proximity to the Canadian border of a number o f incipient Japanese beetle infestations in western New York was the contact point cited as warranting some consideration of the Japanese beetle by members of the Dominion society. Although the center of infe&tation of the insect is some 275 miles south of the Canadian border, there are a number of isolated infestations within comparatively short distances o! Ontario. Emphasis was placed on the methods employ e d by the Bureau in preventitlg artificial dissemination of t he insect-to infested States, and incidentally to Canada, since t h e Dominion plant pest authorities require Japanese beetle certifi-


-8-cation as a requisite for export of ~1arantined articles from the regulated territory. Desirability was suggested of placing traps throughout a limited area of the Niagara peninsula to determine whether any beetles had found their way across the border • . There are a great many grape vineyards on the peninsula. Since grapes are among the highly preferred food plants of the beetle, it is evident that the insect could extensively damage local crops were it to become establishe4 in the Province. Such an infestation would force vineyardists to apply sprays specifically for Japanese beetle control, thus. increa'sing their cost of production. ''Hitch hiker" was the appellation applied by a greenhouseman in nonregulated Maryland territory to a single Japanese beetle found in one of his greenhouses during Auguste The find was made about 100 feet from a garage an automobile which had returned from a trip to Philadelphia at 1 a.m •. on the morning of the find. From his intimate contact with the stock on his premises and observa-. tions of insects present in t h e vicinity, the owner felt certain that the beetle arrived on his place in the automobile from densely infested sections and was an isolate d individual, rather tban a specimen from a local infestation. Continued scouting failed to locate any further infestation in the establishment or on adjacent premise,s. Since the estab:Jnmnent was, a. t th_ e time of the finding of the infestation, in nonregulated territory, it was necessary to secure the owner's voluntary compliance with the regulations applicable to infested premises. The rang e of gree nh ouses was giv_en an uninfested status with the exception of the house in which the single beetle was found. The latter was infested. As soon as the crop of chrysanthemums and violets in the affected house is d1sposed of locally, the soil in t b e house will be chemically treated and .the range restored to a certified condi t_ion. Extension of the regulated section on December 1, 1933, to include considerable territory contiguous to the~ District of Columbia brought this establishment under the quarantine regulations. Al though t his year's public hearing to consider the sabili ty o . f extending the Japanese b eetle quarantined area to cover States. in which infestations wer _ e discovered during the ::i;:a st season was held later in October than during any of the past 4 years, the revision of the quarantine and. supplemental reguiations was approved and made effective earlier than in any year since 1927. .Approval on November 23 of the 10th revision ,:,f Quarantine No• 48 with supplemental regulations, 12th revision, to. become effective December 1, 1933, permitted irnmediate'revision of the Japanese Beetle Quarantine Shipper's Guide. .Al_though there are but a limited number of changes in the sections under regulation, and the additions to the list of post offices, express, and freight stations within the regulated. zone are comparatively few, a complete revision o f the Guide is being made. This is much m~re satisfactory than the issuance of a supplement to the 19 3 3 Guide, which would require search in two publications to determine t h e presence inside or outside the regulated territory of questionable localities. Moderate weather during most of November permitted_ many nurseries to continue the digging of larg e quantities of roses and shrub$. Ordinarily it is not po ssible to dig this rnate:;-ial much after the latter part of October. At infested nurseries, the plants are brought to t h e packing sheds in an uncertified condition. During inclement or freezing_ weather, employees of the nursery free the roots from soil. An inspector then examines and certifie s all bushes satisfactorily freed from soil. The plants are then placed in storag e for early spring shipment. In the Philadelphia district, it was necessary for inspectors to work several


-9Saturday afternoons, as the nurseries worked at top speed to wash and store their stock before the g _round froze.. .sufficient material already has been dug to require the services of the inspectors untia the ~iddle of December. In southern New Jersey and the Philadelphia t~rritory, roses constitute the principai item dug during November, with dahlia tubers a close second. Nurserie~ in the Phila-delphia area are reported as anticipating an increase in spring trade. The wholesale seed houses also expect more orders and for larger quantities than in 1933• As indicated by a report received during November from city officials of Detroit, Mich., Japanese beetle trapping activities in that locality were supplemented by city spraying of sectio~s in which infestations previously had been found. The spray was applied by a nozzleman regularly employed by the city, with the assistance of four welfare workers acting as hosemen. The spraying operations began on July 25 in two sections known as the Baby Creek Park or Dix Highway area, and the Bagley and Porter Streets area. In the Baby Creek Park Section, the area sprayed was equivalent to spraying the street trees, and trees and shrubs in the • yards on either side of the street for a distance of Keven blocks. In the second area, the s~rayed section was nine blocks in length. All spraying equipment w~s furnished by the City of Detroit, Department of Parks and Boulevards. Lead oleate coated lead arsenate was supplied by the Bureau of Plant Quarantine. A total of 535 trees was sprayed in the two sections; no count was made of shrubs. The in secticide was applied at the recommended dosage of 9 pounds per 100 gallons of water. Fourteen full loads of a 400-gallon capacity sprayer were required to thoroughly cover the foliage in the sprayed sections. Interesting data concerning stomach contents of birds, gathered in 1931 b some deputy game protectors and other officials and cooperators of the Pennsylvania Game Commission have r3cently been submitted for our examination. Confirming previous observations made by research workers of the Department, these data indicate that starlings, purple grackle, and pheasants are important predators of the Japanese beetle in both its immature and adult stages. Instances were frequently encountered of starling s being found gorged with Japanese beetles. Stomach contents of English sparrows and robins evidenced less feeding on the insect than the three species mentioned. Starlings, purple grackle, and pheasants, when recovered in sections heavily infested with the beetle, invariably contained quantities of Japanese beetles among the stomach contents. One of the outst~nding birds examined was a hen pheasant recovered near Norristown in Aue;ust 1 931. In the crop of the bird were counted 128 Japanese beetles, 1 grasshopper, and 1 "hump" wonn. The gizzard was gorged with grasshoppers, Japanese beetles, and other beetles which were too far digested for an accurate count. Manure mulches were utilized to maintain soil temperatures at 40 F. about the roots of most of the nursery stock treated with miscible carbon disulphide emulsion during November. Disinfection instructions require that the temperature of the ~oil 6 inches below the surface must be at least 40 during the 48-hour period of treatment. Treatments were applied to 527 plants in four nurseries. Five of the plants were large trees, reQuiring insertion of a series of collars about the base of the trees so that the surface of the soil ball to be dug and an additional surrounding safety zone could be treated. Since the soil temperatures at a depth of 6 inches fell below the minimwn in a nwnber of inst?nces throughout the month, mulches of certified manure were spread on the treated soil to maintain the required temperature for the 2 days during whic~ the collar and soil remained undisturb~d.


-10-Cessation of. road patrol operations a:t .the border of t he reg'u.Ja ted areas was accomplisheq. fro m November 9 to 15 . Closing of 31 stations in Virginia and on the Pennsyl van_ia~-Ohio, Penrisyl vania-West Virginia, and Maryland-West Virginia lines was involved. Since_ the revised quarantine regulations-effective December 1, 1933 , do not extend t h e b oundaries on which the road stations were operated this year, t'he roa d booths ~t ~ach post were. stored on properties near the estab._ lished posts. This facilitates t heir replacement when the work is reorganized. A single road inspector employed b y -:the Virg -inia Department of Agriculture v1ill r~main on duty on route l south of ] 'redericksburg until December 15, on which date all border g u arding will terminate for the year . A t the request o f the custodian of the .Federal:building in Springfield, Mass.,. approval was granted for remova l of the Japaneso beetle quarantine suboffice, in charge of T. M . Cannon, from room 428 of thlil post office to room 328, on the floor b elow. Boom 428, .formerly shared with the Bureau of Agricultural Economics, is_ now occupied b y ~he Home Owners Loan Corporation. Prior to the transfer on Novem ber 17,. the Home _ Owners Loan Corporation occupied.-three separate locations, occu• pancy of contiguous space by t h e . local corpora ti.on officials is possible by relocation o f tl~e Department of A griculture office. The two bureaus 1o f the Depart-me:nt are now . in r ooms 328 and 328-B, which are separate offices with a common en.;. trance. Two temporar y per diem,State employees previously engaged in Japanese beetle quarantine enforcement have s ecured positions with n@wly created Government pro Jects. One employee, who has been on transit. inpection work in Nevi' York City, wa s given. a position as instructor at a CCC camp in Massachusetts and. reported for work on November 14• Another employee, previously: engaged in nursery inspection work f rom the New Haven, Conn., office, h a s b e .en placed on t h e C W A program a ' s .. a connection with the Connecticut mosquit~ elimination program. Inquiry recently was r eceived from a common carrier as to fumigation of car-. loads of bananas moving from )?hila delphia on A u gust 4, 1930. '.: This information was desired in d efending a sui:t a gainst the carrie r in c onnection with transportation of several cars of b~nanas from Philadelphia to Pi ttsburgi and, points in Ohio, Virginia, and VlestVirginia. _ Any asststanc? which the common carrier might have anticipated from fumigation procedure was d,ispelled when it . was found thatduring 1930 no cars o f bananas,.were , :fumi[.ated for the shipper after July 24. Of 393,491 b~etles captur4d in a limite d number of traps placedon the 1!lhite Horse, N . J., plot, which, during 1932, was treated with arsenate o f lead and seeded t o smartweed, 37 percent of the beetles were caught in traps baited with the old type bran bait mixture, while 63 percent were captured in an equal . mumber of alternating trap s baited with the geraniol-eugennl liquid ,bait now exclusively used i~ our trapping activities. Another r equest for literature regarding the Japanese beetle and European corn bore r from a n informational o fficer at a Civilian Conservation Corps camp was r Gceived r ecently . T hi~. t i ; n e t_he request was from an employee at Camp No. 70-A at North Adams , Mass. The individu(3.l to whom the information was sent gives weekly t alks t o the members of t hE: corps on i nsects thc1.t are injurious to shade and forest tree s and to fari11 crops. .::=; • r


-11Final observations for the season of an adult Japanese beetle in the field was made near the packing house of a South Jersey nursery on November. 1, This is 1 day later than the last find of an adult beetle reported by the Moorestown, N. J., research laboratory of the Bureau of Entomology. Several beetles were re ported found in greenhouses by unclassified gr~enhousemen at Newtown and Chester, Pa• , dur int., the week of November 13 • Miscellaneous beetles, other t han Japanesa beetles, collected in Japanese beetle traps in their respective States were sent to Franklin Sherman, Clemson College, s. c., and to R. V . Leiby, Raleigh, N. c. State Entomolo gists of these two States requested the -:-, 1is'cellaneous beetle collections as items of interest in their o w n insect-pest surveys. Several carloads of nursery stock were shipped from South Jersey area during November. One establishment, heretofore unclassified, has bee n advertising extensively and expects to ship 5,000 azaleas during Dece mber. This will require actual inspection. The nurseryman is fumigating a greenhouse, so that in the future he will be in a position to offe r certified potted stock. District supervisors in charge of the subdivisions of the regulated territory in the 11 States under ~uarantine were called in for a conference at the Harrisburg field headquarters on' November 1. Discussions at the conference centered principally on a proposed change in the method of affixing Japanese beetle certificates to containers of certified material. Dr. Fracker met with the fisld workers. "Results of treatments at Erie, Pa., for control of the Japanese beetle", is the title of a paper presented by c. w . Stockwell, of the Harrisburg headquarters, a t the annual meeting of the Eastern Plant Boerd, held at the Robert Morris Hotel in Philadelphia on November 22. The first paper to be read at the Board's annual meeting was a "Survey of the Federal Quarantine Situation", by A. s. Hoyt. Project employees who attended one or more sessions of the fifth annual me~ting of the Eastern Branch of the American Association of Ec onomic Entomologists held at the Academy of Natural Sciences in Philadelphia on Novembe r 23 and 24 were G. K. Handle, J. P. Johnson, V. A. Johnson, R. 'iv . Sherman, and G. B . Stichter. Corn Borer Certification Activities The majority of the Federal certificates issued during November for the movement of articles restricted under State European corn borer quarantines were issued in Massachusetts and New Hampshire, from which States 154 shipments were moved under certification. Shipments in fewer numbers were also certified from New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Connecticut, Ohio, Michigan, and Indiana. MEXICAN FRUIT FLY The principal activity of the month was the operation of 5,136 glass flytraps. These traps were located in 491 selected groves scattered throughout the


Valley. No A. ludens wer . e taken in Texas duri_ ng the month; however, 43 specimens of 3 species of Mastrepha _w:ere captured 'in the traps. Frequent rains during the first half 6f the month int_ erfered with thi~work, but during the latter half ideal weather for trapping was ~xperienced. ' ' . . Experiments conducted in October in screening the opening of the traps with 1/4-inch hardware cloth for t h e purpose of keeping out the moths were so favorable that one half the trap s in t~1 e fielg were equipped with screens. The inspectors kept a record of the catxH1of ]n.ptera in the screened and unscreened traps and reported t hat t he screened traps wer~ mucp: more effec~ive. . . ' The use of t he screens resui ted in a cons.iderable saving in the amount of bait used. From 1-1/2 to 1-2/3 cupfuls of bait were required in the unscreened traps, whereas .. one cupful was f'ounc,l to be sufficient in the screened. . . . . , . . .. .One adult ltideris was taken .in: Matamoros on the 27th. This was not une xpected since orange s arriving in. Matamoros during October and November from the Montemorelos area were found to be consistently infested. As a result of the large i mportations of' t hese oranges and their low cost innumerable small fruit sta nds sprang up throughout the city. This made the collection of spoiled fruit e x p .eedinely di ffic-ql t arid undoubtedly much infested fruit was thrown. out in the yards when found to' be VfO~my • . Infested fruit is evidently culled out closely at the point of s hipping s . t nce very l_t tt~e fr1H t '' s h owing symptoms of infestation ; is found on arrival at M atamo'ros; however• after being held on the stands for a few da y s infestations begin to show up.' o n t w o occasions during November, residents of Mat a moros reported to the Il,1exi.can inspector that a pparently sound fruit purc hased on the r ark~~ developed symptoms of infestation after being held in their homes for a few da ys. It is doubtful if"any l arval infestation will develop in Matamoros since practica~ly no fruit was left o n the treE?s 'by the hurricane of S eptember 4. T he ~rees on the premise in w hich the adultwas tak en were sprayed with the nicotine-molasse s solution. ;_' A total of 230 infested o r anges were collected from t h e stands and from the cars on arrival; from these 560 larvae of A. ludens were taken. One larva of A. s+.riata was taken from a guava s hipped into Matamoros from the State of Michoacan • .. The shipment of citrus fruit from the Valley continued sl ng gish throughout N ovember.. Aprroximately_ 390 carloads were shipped, better than h alf of which moved b y truck. Truck s have consistently handled more fruit this season than the railroads, which is unusual. Until the 1 5th of t h e month packers experience~ d i fficulty in finding groves of seedless fruit t h e t w ould pass the State maturity t ests. After that date the seedless fruit was tested on a sliding scale and ship~ m ents began to pic k up. It w a s estimated. tha t approximately one fourth of ~he crop had been m oved by the 6 n d of the month. One case of a willful intention to violate the quarantine was intercepted at the road station on the 7th. In this-case. the trucker arrived at the station with a load of 111 bushels of fruit on which he had proper clearancEE for only 70 buehels. He w a s returne d t o the V alley where an i nvestigation developed that h e had purchased 7 0 bushels o f g0od fruit from a grower who had given him 41 bushels o f storm-blown f'rui t which had failed to pass the State maturity test. In view of certain extenuating circumstances no action was taken other than to require the


-13-trucker to destroy the 4-1 bushels of fruit and to have th~ remainder of the load regraded. A number of truckers were returned to the Valley for proper c ertification 'under the Standardization Act. During last season the various district inspectors were called upon to is xue a n average of 800 master permits monthly after office hours, To relieve these inspectors of this extra work; an inspector was placed on duty at Edinburg from 5 p.m . until 1 a,m. to release loads leaving the Valley during those hours. Since practically all trucks leaving the regulated area must of necessity pass through Edinburg, this system worked very nicely. PINK BOLLW0IDJI Gin-trash inspections were continued in the Western Extension counties of Texas and the two eastern counties of New Mexico. In addition to the four counties in Texas and one in New Mexico , mentioned in the last News Letter, speci mens of the rink b0llworm were found in Bailey, Cochran, and Lamb Counties, Tex., and Roosevelt County, N. Mex. Toward the middle of the i11onth the volume of trash per bale had increased to the extent that efficient gin-trash inspection could not be continued, therefore the machines_ were closed and the inspectors began field inspections. At the present time infested fields ha ve been located in Gaines, Lamb; and Yoakum Counties , Tex,, and in Lea County, N • Mex. As this is be i ng writte n word has been received that suspicious specimens have been found in Roosevelt County, N. Mex. These have since been received for identification and are pink boll worms. As mentioned in the last News Letter, pending the extending of quarantine regulations to the above area, the movement of products is being handled through the cooperation of the gins and oil mills. Such arrangements have continued to work out quite satisfactorily. It is now estimated that over 90 percent of t he crop has been ginned in the southern part of the area and at least 80 percent i n the northern part. Two of t he oil mills have a considerable amount of seed on hand to be treated, which will probably r equire from Go to 90 days; however, the other mills have been able to treat the seed as it was received. Gin-trash inspecti on was continued in southern Georgia through the f irst week in November. By that time the majority of the gins h a d cloaed and others wc:~e operating irregularly, s o that it was impossible to secure sufficient trash to justify the operation of the machines. Field inspections were also continued until t h e middle of the iTlOnth. In Madison County, Fla., both field and gin-trash inspections were continued the entire month. In the above a r e a s over 12,000 bushels of trash were inspected t his s eason. No additional specimens of the pink bollworm have been found since the last News Letter was issued. The only gin-trash mach ines operating within regulated are&s wer e in the salt River Valley and Tucson areas of Arizona. In the alt~ iver Valley practically all of the available trash was inspected. In the Tucson are a t h e inspection s wer e not


'-14s o satisfactory. The aqreage P+.?nt~q. to not suffici~nt.'to. keep the gin o perating c ontinuously1'therefbre"the cotton is picked and stored until a sufficient quantity i s on han d to justify operating the gin. It has been found that where seed cotton is stored any l _eng~h qf time. ins~,cts have a tendency to leave the cotto::.i r Therefore, very : f e w ~insects of any kind were found in-the trash in the Tucson area, : and no s pecimens of' either the pink bollworm or the Thurberia weevil. I t was c o nsidered advi_sa~le_ to clean all cotton fields within approximately a mile and a half -r adius of t h e two .infested fields in southern Georgia. Th i s work was ' begun'in November, and at the end of t h e month ha.d been about,•half com p l.eted. The c1een-up. will probably be completed within the next 2 weeks . The clean-up of cotton acreage at Castolon, in Brewster County, Tex., was begun on N ovem~er 6 and completed on November 22. This clean-up consisted of cut-t i ng the stalks ;with machetes to prevent s hattering of bolls from the plants. The laborers the n went ov0r the acreage and picked up all material from the ground, after which this material, together with the stalks, was burned. A total of 1 3 0 acres, or the ent ire cotton acreage in Brewster County, was cleaned. Clean-up of the acreage in Pre s idio County was _begun on November . 1 3, and with favorable weathe r and plenty of laborers availabfe, the work went forward very rapidlJ. All of the farmers are giving whole-h~arted cooperation in this work. The nanager of the _larges t farm i n t r ~ e Big-Bepd . \i spe. n dir{g all' of b.:l,.s time in the fields hel:p.fng t h _ foremen a n d supervisors. He is doing thi? work ~-i tho'\lt pay, 'even -though he . w as .. :offe r e d a job as foreman • . Another farmer,-who-also operates a gin, is furnif,_h . ing a truck and driver to help transport the laborers. Other farmers are rur-nish_ i ng any equipment _ t h e y _ have which w ill help spf}~ed up the work. • , . . • . . . Earlyin t:t-e month the eradication of wild cotton was resu.rned in southern F lo'rida . All'of ~h ~ work done.sq far:h~s been alol?, the west. coast, and--it•is especially grati fyin g to note that location where 22 colonies were-formerly cleaned, 9 were found t o be e ntirely free off any wild cotton at this t L;1e. Some 2b colonies, covering a bout 3G acre_ s , were recleaned, and only 120 plants were found w hich had been mi ssed _duri~g t t e P1:' clean-up. .In . .ad d i ti.on, 23,138 '~s eed1-ing aEd.. 3 ~ 4 sprout plants: were rem~ved. Dur i n , clean'.""U P a eonsiderable numher of g:.e h 'bolls had been examined _ r rom ttme to time; bowev .er, no specimens o'f the pink., b o l l wo'rm were f ound. ', / I , • . : .. '. .. During the :pas t severa 1 months i:P.$j)ectors of the Florida.1.Plant Board: have been reporti n g the loc a tio' n of any doo;r,-yard cotton, either wild. or domest'ia, , . en;;. . countered in connection with their regular grove-inspection work. This has_ enabled or-:r i nspectors t o g o right to such cotton without ap.y loss of time. DJ.ring November 2G7 large, 84 small, and 49 3 . seedling plants were r e moved from 93 different . l o c ations , mos t of which were. in the vicini t_y of Miami and _ Miami Beach. Ii/: wi 11 be a simple matte r to visi t .thes e locations.from time to time to make sure that IlO s e edling or sprout plants have com e up • • f. • ' T he steam p ressu r e s t e :rilizer, er~c-ted at Alpine by the state of Texas, was describe d i n the N o v e m b e r News . Let_ter. A simil.:1r plant has been. erected at Fabens, Tex.• t o treat cotton 'from t .he h eavily infested portion of Hudspeth County. This plant begaD; o :per~ting _ on N o vemb er 17. : f • , . 1 . ''. . • , ,,. ' . . ,, . ' . -:, . : ' ' : Dur i n g t h e month. _ of ,November 938 oars wer~--.i .nspecte d .at . t-he -Marfa;\i'oad station. from which lb interceptions were made. Of this number 4 were found to be


... 15infested by the pink bollworm, 43 living and 9 dead larvae being taken • . This makes 11 interceptions which have been found infeste d since this station opene d the first of September, 82 living and 15 dead larvae being taken. The traveling public ha~ continued to give the best of cooperation toward this statio~, not a single car having gone by without stopping. PREVENTING SPREAD OF MOTHS For November, gypsy moth scouting crews were active in towns in northern Vermont, southwestern Mass~chusetts, northwestern Connncticut, and in a small group of towns in northeastern New York immediately wes t of Lake Champlain. Practically all of the scouting was done in highland sections to accomplish as much of ,this work as possible before severe weather conditions prevented actiYi ties in the inaccessible sections of those States. At the beginning of the month, 77 crews were engaged in scouting in Vermont, and gradually more and more men were assigned to that State until by the end of the month 99 crews were scouting there, Since the beginning of the fall scouting in V ermont, nearly 400,000 acres of woodland have been examined and approximately 800 miles of roadsides in more open country. Throughout the month 7 crews have been engaged in scouting in the highland areas of southwestern Massachusetts and working in territory contig uou s to t hat section in Massachusetts, and 10 crew~ have been working in similar h ighland sections in northwestern Connecticut. Since the begin~ing of this work some 14,000 acres of' woodland have been scouted in Massachusetts and nearly 20,000 a~res in northwestern Connecticut~ In addition, a considerable number of mile s of roadsides in open country have been examined in both States. Due to weather conditions, scouting in New England and New York was considerably retarded duri ng certain periods of the month. Severe snowstorms occurred which made it impossible for the men to examine the trees thoroughly; als o if required to work un der such conditions the men soon became very wet, which made them quite s u sceptible to coldso As a result of those storms there was at least 6 inches of sno w on the ground in the lowland sections of Vermont with 2 f eet or more present i n the higher sections. Such conditions made .walking extremely difficult and progres s slow, as~ large part of the work being done in that State was in the more mountainous sections. It has been a number of y ears s ince scouting work ha s b e e n handicapped by so great a fall of snow thus early in the season. During the month it became necessary to reope n one of the training schools w hich h a d be e n in operation in one of' the towns bordering the Connecticut R iver in s ou theastern Vermonto In connection with the trainf n g of scouts for r egular work it is in terasting to note the amount of work which ha s been accom plis h ed. From t h e o pen iEg o f the first training school in Vermont over 1 6,000 acres of woodland w e r e examined by the men in training and nearly 2 3,000 gy p s y moth e g ~ clus t e r s w ere destroyed with creosote. In Pennsylvania the men eng a ge d in gypsy raoth work were for the m ost part placed in scouti ng crews examining woodl and, scatter e d t rees along roadsides i n open country, and growth along river bank s . A t the beginning o f the m on t h 24 crews were active on suqh work and this numbe r was increased to 29 by t h e end of the month. Scouting performed was very intensi v e , a treeby-tree examination


-15being made~ , 'rhis. type ofscouting is of necessity quite slow but it is al:>solutely e .ssential in such t e _rri tory as is present in the p ennsylvania infest.ed area• In gene:;:•al, the area is quite heavi;Ly infested and the gr9wth in many places is• thick and tangled, making it extremely slow work to make a thorough examination of the area, w hich is particulerly desirable as complete eradication is the goal. In adcition to the crews engaged in scouting, 6 or 7 crews were assigned to cutting dead trees, small trees of no commercial value and brush, and cleaning up areas in the more heavily infested sections so as to permit spraying next spring and summer. Certain sections o f t h e infested area were overgDown with birch, poplar, and other comparatively short-lived trees. Many of these had been broken by storms and the result was a tangled mas s of splintered tree trunks and ragged stumps which made conditions for gypsy moth scouting almo, ? t i mpossible. Crews .a.i?a. sent into such areas to cut out all but tl;le most desirable of the living trees; brush and slash is burned, and in this way many egg clusters ere destroyed • . For a part of the month one crew w a s engaged in cleaning old 'trails in part of the infested area; these trails which.penetrate i:nany woodland blocks have been overgrown. After clearing . . .. , .. . . . . . it will m ake it possible for employees to r each woo9-land blocks where scouting is to be c arried on more easily than could be done through untracked woodland. Such cl. ~a t-ed trai_ls will also be of' very great assistance next spring in permitting sprayer trucks to b e driven-closer t'o' infested. blo.cks' of woodland. • . . . . ; J '. ' . . . ' In. t~e. Civilian Conservat~on Corps camps iocated we~t of th~:C6nne6ticut River, from which gYJ)sy moth sco11ting and eradice.t'ion work is being performed by p srt of t il e personnel, there was a gratifying increase in the npmber of men who c0u.ld be assigned daiiy to such work. Toward the e nd o'f November there' was a dt: i l y average of about 450 men engaged in gypsy and control work. D :-:. i n r the early part of the month woods c ' o:ndi tions were 'not of the best due to considerable snow which made everything very wet . The men at the camps had not b e e n equipped with suitable f ,6otv,ear for such work and also lacked proper out'.door c . ~o thing, and for thes e reasons could not work' i'n comfort.. Later,' proper footwear and clothing were issued and the work was resurr~d. There has been a decidedly satisfring amount of gypsy moth scouting and c : 1 .oa'n-up work performed by men at. the camps; who ip spite of en tire lack of train i r g _previous to bein[ assigned to gypsy moth work have taken hold well and ... i'n many c ases have adapted themselves to control acttvities. When gypsy moth work by men at certain c.c.c. camps was .first authorized, it was planned to use a cons'iderable number of men from each of the. selected camps, but owing to unforeseen circumstances t his nUJ.~ber has not b een so large as was hoped for. At;first, all of ~he men at each of the camps were required for the necessary constructional work to make the camps livable and to undertake some of the immediately pressing conservation work. Gradually as such work neared complet'ion men could be assigned to gypsy moth work and there is hope' the. t the numbe r will continue to increase. Because the men w ere without kno wledg e of scouting or control work there had_ to be suitable periods of training under experienced foremen. Gradually this 1ack of knowledge was reme died, and now the work being performed by those who have been on it for some -time i s quite satisfactory. Since its inception the men at the crunps have been able to sco~t some 60,000 acre s of woodl and, over 450 miles:of roadsides in open country, a n d have d estroyed nearly 3 5,000 gypsy moth ~gg clusters. The establishment of c.c . • c. camps in various sections of New' England has added somewhat to the duties of' the quarantine inspecto'rs. . Men located at some


-17-of the camps hav e d esired to ~end to relatives or friends small -evergreeir: trees which they have taken from the woods or evergreen materials to rre used for-decorative purroses. All such shipments have been inspected and:certified before being sent. From some of the more eastern districts a consideraole amount of lumber has been trucked to be use d for construction purposes at some of the camps located farther northward and westward. Although this lumber for the most.part is free from bark, it has been stored in the open and therefore requires careful inspection before certificates are issued. Various wood-productmanufacturing concerns located in the gypsy moth quarantine area have been in the habit of marketing at least . a port'ion of their• vraste wood for kindling, using the other portion for fuel at their manufacturing p~ants. Kindling wood shipped had to be inspected and certified. It has been reported that it is extremely difficult to find a ready market for kindling in large quantities and therefore it has become quite difficult for some of the firms to dispose of waste wood from t ~.eir saws. At least one manufacturing company which makes dowels, tool handles, etc., has installed machinery for converting all waste wood into sawdust. The latter material is in considerable demand and can be disposed of much more easily than the waste wood. This wood as it comes from the saws is carried to the machine where it is ground into sawdust and blown into a tower from which cars and trucks can be loaded. During the course of the year quarantine inspectora in some of the districts inspect and certify for shipment small bird houses. These are often constructed of rough materials on ~hich a considerable amount of bark remains. The usual procedure is to inspect such materials before they are rrade up into houses and then certify shipments as they are sent out. In practically all cases such houses a~ e quite small, but recently from one of the Maine districts a house was sent which was of decidedly unusual size. This house was a pproximately 3 feet in each one of its dimensions. The sides were covered with birch bark and the floor and roof were made of small spruce roles which had been split and put on to represent logs. This house was shipped from Maine to California and was intended not only for birds but also as a lawn ornament. Tor the last year or so the general decrease in business has affected the shippers of stone and quarry products probably a s much as those of any other industry. In consequence, there has been somewlJ?t of a decrease in the number of shipments inspected and certified. It appears that a considerable amount of the activity at different quarries and finishing plants is due to orders which have been received from contractors who are erecting public or memorial buildings. One of the interesting reports received states that one firm is working on a contract for four giant statues to be placed at the Roosevelt Memorial Building in Central Park, N, Y~ These figu es are all carved from solid blocks of granite and are to be 13 feet high and 5 feet square at the base. The carving of these statues began in December 1932, and work on them is not yet completed. Although the statues themselves have not been exposed to gypsy moth infestation, there will be considerable i~spection involvea as a large amount of lumber will be used in crating to prevent damage and also in blocking to secure the crated pieces on the cars. From another section o f the quarantined area a considerable amount of granite is being shipped for the construction of a new post office building at Philadelphia. The first four stories of tti~ building are to be constructed of polished granite.


-181111111111~1~1~1i1~1]1'~~11~111111111~1il '1111i1111111111 3 1262 09241 6881 However, the specifications do not call for the same shade of granite for all parts of the four stories, and for this reason granite from other sections is being shi,ped to t _he firm under contract to furnish the pieces so that it may be rut in proper condition for use in the new building. Some of the pieces are of decidedly large size , two being reported as weighing at least 30 tons each. In connection with the granite industry it is of interest .to note ~that there is a very great amount of variation in color depending upon point of origin. Granite is. quarried in New England which will range in color all the way from nearly pure white to. almost jet black. Any given locality usually produces only one shade of color, and oftentimes granite-cutting firms find it necessary to buy rough blocks of the desired shades from many sections of New England in order to complete a contract awarded. * * * * * *

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