Citation
News letter

Material Information

Title:
News letter
Creator:
United States -- Bureau of Plant Quarantine
Place of Publication:
Washington, D.C.
Publisher:
Bureau of Plant Quarantine
Publication Date:
Frequency:
Monthly
Language:
English

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Plants -- Diseases and pests -- Control -- Periodicals -- United States ( lcsh )
Genre:
federal government publication ( marcgt )

Notes

Dates or Sequential Designation:
Began with: no.19 (July 1, 1932)
Dates or Sequential Designation:
Ceased with: no.43 (June 30, 1934)
General Note:
"Not for publication".

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
This item is a work of the U.S. federal government and not subject to copyright pursuant to 17 U.S.C. §105.
Resource Identifier:
030428081 ( ALEPH )
785785040 ( OCLC )
2012229620 ( LCCN )

Related Items

Preceded by:
News letter
Succeeded by:
Monthly letter of the Bureau of Entomology
Succeeded by:
Blister rust news
Succeeded by:
News letter

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Full Text


RECEIVEE

E P 9 193

i TEWS LE TTER


BUREAU OF PLANT QUARA IKTINE

UNITED STATES LEPAR1NT OF AGPICULTU





,Iumber 33 (NOT FOR PUBLICATIOiT) September 1, 1933.





TECImTOLOGICAL DIVISION


A. C. johnson recently reported on a series of experiments on the fumigation of freight cars with sulphur dioxide. In these tests, the cars were located on the siding at Alpine, Tex. and tests were rade to see what dosage of sulphur dioxide would be required to kill pink bollworm in infested seeds within the car. In all four tests were conducted with varying dosages of sulphur dioxide the highest dosage being 38 pounds. In no case was a complete kill of the pink bollworn obtained. From these tests it,would seem that undev the conditions of the experiments this method of fumigation is not efficacious.

Funds have been allotted under the National Recovery Act for twenty-two
building and repair projects in the Bureau. Four of those projects are in connection with the New Cumberland station of the Japanese Bdetle Project. The
other eighteen projects are for repairs and construction work on the Mexican border. These include fencing the car fumigation house reservations at six of the border ports; reroofing.the car fumigation houses at Eagle Pass eand :l Paso; installing outside doors at the El Paso fumigation house; replacing doors of the car
fumigation house at Laredo; plastering and painting the interior of the car funmigation house at Laredo; construdlng and installing volatilizer systemsfor-fumigation with volatilized HCN at Eagle Pass and -1 Paso; and items for minor repairs to the houses. Contracts will be let for this work through the Division of Purchase, Sales, and Traffic, and prospective bidders should be referred to that office for information as to nmthods of bidding.








FOREIGN PLANT QUARANTINES

RECENT EiNTD011OLOGICAL INTERCEPTIONS OF INTMR-ST

Mlediterranean fruit fly in mango.-Ceratitis capitata Wied, was intercepte at San Francisco in mango in baggage from Hawaii.

Wireworm from Germany.--Living larvae of Pheletes aeneoniger Degeer (Elate idae) were taken at Baltimore in earth and moss in the mail from Germany. According to J. A. Hyslop, of the Bureau of Entomology, this species is not reported from America.

Pink bollworm from Egypt,--Larvae of Pectinophora go iella Saund. were taken at Philadelphia in raw cotton packing or antiques in he mail from Egypt, and at Chicago and New York in cottonseed in the mail from the same country.

Mealybug from Trinidad.--Pseudococcus probrevipes Morr. was intercepted at Boston on a cacao pod (Theobroma caces) in baggage from Trinidad.

Bark beetle from Guatemala and Mexico.--Adults of Stephanoderes guatemalen Hopk. (Scolytidae) were intercepted at Philadelphia on banana leaves in cargo fro]
Guatemala and Mexico.

Scale insect from Japan.--Phengcaspis kentiae Kuwana (Coccidae) was intercepted at San Francisco on a palm in ship's quarters from Japan.

White ant from Honduras.--Cryptotermes brevis Walk. (termite) was taken at New Orleans, La., in a seed pod of Lagerstroemia' speciosa (queen crape-myrtle) in baggage from Honduras. According to T. E. Snyder, of the Bureau of Entomology, this species occurs in Florida and Louisiana.

Scale insect from Spain.--Aspoidiotus spinosus Comst. (Coccidae) was intercepted at Norfolk, Va., on a palm leaf in quarters from Spain.

Lepidopteron from Englado--Larvae of Hyponomeuta cognatella Hbn. (Hyponomeutidae) were taken at Boston on a leaf of Euonymus sp. in quarters from England

Scale insect on pears.--Le-pidosaphes conchiformis (Gmel.) was interdepted Portland, Oreg., on pears in stores from Japan.

Thrips from Mexico.--Frankliniella ameliae Hood was intercepted at El Paso Tex., on green peppers in baggage from Mexico, and at Elagle Pass, Tex., in a pepp pod in cargo from the same country. T. R. Watson, of Gainesville, Fla., states that this thrips, which was described from Panama, is a Mexican and Central American species. It is not known to occur in the United States.
Mediterranean fig scale from Ital.--Lepidsaphes ficus (Sign.) was intercepted at New York on a fig stem in baggage from Italy. This European coccid wa introduced into Fresno County, Calif., about 1904-1906 on fig trees or cuttings.

Thrips in tuberose flowers.--Frankliniella cephalica (Crawford) var.









molanomata Williams was intercepted at Philadelphia in flowers of the tuberose (Polyanthes tuberrsa) in baggage from Puerto Rico. J. R. Watson reports this to be a common thrips. of the 7West Indies*

Weevil in iris seed pods.--Two adults of Hononychus ireos Pall. (Curculionidae.) were intercepteda-t-ahpingto i-ion, D. in s seFpos in the nail from
F rance. L. L. Buchanan, of the Bureau of Entomology, reports this as new to the National Museum collection.

RECENT PATHOLOGICAL INTERCEPTIONS OF IIT~2ST

Diseased okra.--Phjllosticta sp. was intercepted at New Orleans on nkra from Cuba and at Philadelphia on olkra from Puerto Rico. Stevenson's Manual lists no Phyllosticta as occurring on okra. U.S.D.A. Bulletin 1366 lists P. hibiscina as causing a leaf spot of okra in Illinois, and P. syriaca as causing a leaf spot of Hibiscus syriacus in New York, There was so little material of the fungus on the okra pods intercepted that it could not be studied, but a lookout should be kept for it as it may be a new disease.

Citrus scab from Brazil.--A scabby orange from 3razil, intercepted at Baltimdre, was submitted to Dr. A. E. Jenkins, who is studying thip disease as it occurs on South American citrus, and it was determined as Sphaceloma sp. (possibly S. fawcettii var. viscosa). The material was in poor condition.

Sweet-william rust.--Sweet-william flowers from Germany were intercepted at New York and foundto be infected with Puccinia arenariae, our first interception of this rust.

Carnation disease.--Carnations from Eiland intercepted at Boston were
found to be covered with pink-masses of hFusarium sp. spores. In general appearance, the spore masses and spores were similar to those of this stage 6? Nectria spp.

More iris rust hosts.--Puccinia iridis has been collected in Ohio on Iris fulva from Louisiana and on I. chrysophoenica seedlings being grown at the same place.

Pine rust,--A number of aecia of an undetermined species of Cronartium were sent in from Eagle Pass,. collected from a gall on pine intercepted from L:exico.

Nema again interceted.--Ahelenchoides tenuicaudatus has been intercepted again, this time at New York in ginger from China.

Rose disease may be new.--Cankers on a climbing rose recently imported from Australia and being grown in Pennsylvania, were submitted to Dr. A. E. Jenkins, who reports as follows: "Tentative identification: Ehabdospora or possibly Phlyctaeniella sp. -Evidently same fungus as one I recently examined from Oregon. May not be described."






-4


LOCKED TRUNK GETS TAGGED

(Note by W. H. Freeman, port of New York)

"The following incident is an example of the usefulness of the Quarantine Warning Tag (Form 244). On July 11, we received a notice from the Railway Express Agency at Elizabeth, N. 5., that they had received under a prepaid waybill from Hawaii via the S. S. Malolo, a trunk consigned to an address in Elizabeth, N. T., and that the trunk bore a yellow tag (Form 244) with a notation 'Hold at destination and notify Department of Agriculture', signed Rep. Phelan. We investigated and found that the trunk, as described, had been shipped from Hawaii, locked, and with no key furnished. Apparently the trunk was observed by Mr. Phelan at San Francisco on July 6 and he attached the quarantine tag. The Railway Express Agency secured a key from a lockanith and opened the trunk for examination, but.nothing of a restricted .nature-was found. The cost of the examination, including the cost of the key, and storage charges apparently will be passe on to the owner of the trunk."

IMXICAN BORDER PORT CLOSED

The Mexican border inspection station at Columbus, N. Mexo, was closed on June 14, 1933, and the inspector at that point was transferred to Houston, Tex.

CHANj OF ADDRESS

The address of He W. Hecker, the inspector in charge at Chicago, has been changed from 450 Federal Building to 450 U. S. Court House.

Effective July 16, 1933, W. T. Douglas, inspector in charge at Naco, Ariz. was transferred to Nogales, Ariz. W. R. Sudduth,.inspector in charge at Fabens, Tex., was transferred to Naco on August 1, 1933, and placed in charge of the latt port. Upon his departure from Fabens, C. F. Haller assumed charge of that port

RICE HILLS INTERCEPTED AS PACKING

Since the packing materials quarantine no. 69, came into effect on July 1, 1933, reports are coming in of interceptions made of rice straw and hulls, the en try of which as packing is prohibited by this quarantine. W. H. Freeman, inspector in charge at New York, submits for July a list of 9 lots of merchandise, coming from Japan (5), Java, India, China, and Italy, all packed in rice hulls. The hulls were removed and burned in each case.

CODLING MOTHS TRAVEL IN COTTON

A living larva and two dead pupae of CarEpocapsa pomonella were intercepted at Washington in a mail sample of cotton, presumably of American origin, shipped from England. It is believed that the presence of the insects ih the cotton was quite accidental--that they had merely crawled into the cotton for pupation.






-5


'TAVEIRS OBJECT TO INSPECTION

An incident, fortunately somewhat rare in plant quarantine enforcement procedure, recently occurred at the footbridge at Laredo, Tex., when two local travelers returning in an auto from the Mexican ,side violently objected to inspection and to having peaches which were being carried in the car taken away from them. The inspector, acting throughout with the courtesy and restraint which the officials of this Bureau are required to show toward the public, finally succeeded in having the fruit removed, though in an atmosphere of abusive language and threats of personal violence. This incident emphasizes the present inadequate legal protection for inspectors while in the performance of their duties, and it is hoped
that steps can be taken to remedy this defect in our enforcement system in the near future.

AIR TAJK EXPLODES AT LAREDO

(As reported on July 26 'by V. J. Shiner)

"Yesterday about 11 a.m. one of the two air tanks, in which the air used to force the liquid gas out of the cylinders into the fumigation stalls is stored, blew up with an explosion that was heard for three blocks. No one was hurt. The air. pressure in the tanks registered approximately 120 pounds on the gages just before the explosion. The tanls were stored do n in the generator rou. Mr. House and I were in the small office and the concussicn was so strong that it hurt our ears for a while. When the explosion occurred we glanced through the windows into the generator room and the air was black with smoke and appeared to be filled with pipes, broken boards, and other objects flying around; we also noticed a very strong odor of hydrocyanic acid gas. The only way we can account for the smoke is that the tank had so e oil in it that burned. The oil evidently had leaked front the air compressor and was pumped into the tank. The gas evidently was in the tank also but just how it got in there we do not know. The tank flew up and hit the ceiling, where it made a very plain mark on the concrete, and dropped back on the steps, cracking one of them. Something, probably a piece of pipe, flew into and out of the small office ,nd broke six glasses out of the window. Also something hit the corner of the office on the outside and cracked six bricks.

"7e had two extra tanks and have installed them in place of the old ones. Yesterday afternoon we took them out to the Texas Mexican Railroad shops and had them tested. As they each held a pressure of 220 pounds we feel they are all right for a while but have decided to have them tested every year. 7e also had the gage tested and are going to see if we can get along with 100 pounds of air in the tanks after this,

"We believe the explosion wa caused by the tank being weakened by corrosion from the inside and-that the corrosion was caused in cart at least by the hydrocyanic acid that somehow leaked backI into the tank.

"We believe it would be a .ood idea to :warn all ports using the air tanks to have them tested because while no one 71as hurt here yesterday, we consider it very fortunate that no one hardened to be in the generator room at the t ime of the explosion."









DOMESTIC PLANT QUARWTIMES

The plan which was put into effect last May of issuing joint certificates
for Iproducts moving from areas covered by more than one quarantine is reported by project leaders to be working 6ut satisfactorily in simplifying the shipping requirements. The details of adapting the certificate to include pine-shipping permits are being completed, and consideration is also being given to the possibility of using the certificate to cover control-area permits issued by State officers for individual shipments of pines under the provisions of quarantine no. 6

The New :Jersey outbreak of the Dutch elm disease, to which reference was made last month, is reported by the Bureau of Plant Industry to involve infestations scattered throughout Essex County, which includes the city of Newark. In addition, isolated trees infected with the disease have been found in the countie of Hudson, Union, Middlesex, Passaic, and Somerset, N. J. One infected tree has also been found in Brooklyn, N. Y., one in Lynbrook, N. Y. (both on Long Island), and several on Staten Island., The total number of cases definitely confirmed by laboratory diagnosis through August 15, according to the Bureau, was about 300.
Many of the trees have already been cut, the work being done by the Nemw- shad
tree commissions. The State Department of Agriculture of New Jersey is working out a program of prevention of spread (pending later official action), under whic the nurseries in the infected localities are signing agreements not to ship trees to points outside the infected territory.

TRANSIT INSPECTION

As a result of observations which transit inspectors have been making at the Chicago MiuLcipal Airport of shipments arriving on airplanes from the East, an interception was recently made of a package of uncertified roses originating
in the Japanese beetle infested area which otherwise would have proceeded to Neva The inspection includes observations to seerhether the beetles may be riding in o on airplanes, but none have been reported as seen. About 40 shipments a day were checked in a 3-week period in July.

Through the courtesy of the transportation agencies at Pittsburgh, the inspector at that point is checking waybills covering reconsignuments of car-lot shi ments, and finds that such checking is needed, in some instances, to prevent uncertified products from going into areas free from the Jap.anese beetle. For exa.rple, a car lot of green beams originating at Burlington, N. J., was consigned t Pittsburgh, As both points are in the infested area, no certificate was require Examination of the waybill showed, however, that the car was to be diverted en route to fill an order from Chicago, and investigation showed the beans had not been certified at origin. When the agent's attention, was called to the quarantine, he promptly refused to divert the car. In a similar instance with respect
to a car of bananas, investigation at the source showed that the fruit had been certified, and accordingly, on receipt of a duplicate certificate, the shipment was reconsigned and allowed to proceed. Irregularities in connection with carlot shipments are frequently found to be simply the inadvertent omission of a car tificate which had been issued. For this reason inspectors find it is .advisab to have the facts fully investigated before retu.Ang such shipments. The questi recently came up as to whether shipments originating outside the regulated areas and reconsigned at points from within them, and probably exandmined at such points






-7


by commission merchants to determine the grade, condition, etc., wvrould subject the produce to infestation. On referring the question to the field office, it was the decision that the possibility of infestation in this manner is unlikely and that any attempt to require certification would unnecesarily complicate a situation which is this year taxing the limited facilities for farm products inspection.

Articles shipped in violation of the Japanese beetle quarantine at this time of the year consist principally of cut flowers, berries, peaches, beans, and corn. Most of such uncertified shipments originate with persons unfamiliar with the quarantine, or with shippers who are urnindful of the fact that certification of these products is required during the suLiier months.

A report received from the 'New York inspectors covering the work of the fiscal year 1933 shows the interception of violations addressed to 37 different States and 4 foreign countries, the latter routed interstate in this country. The shipments were consigned from 14 States. There was a total of 500 violations, including intrastate shipmiients not complying with State ouarantines relating to the gypsy moth and Japanese beetle. Six different Federal quarantines were involved in the violations, the greater number of the interceptions relating to the Japanese beetle, gypsy moth, and narcissus bulb regulations. Interceptions were made each month of the year, the largest numbers in April and October, anf. the least in February.

WHILT~E PI1E BLIS3TE RUST

Favorable action has now been talen with respect to 14 applications for shipping pines grown under rust-free conditions, 3 of which are tentatively approved for planting seed. Eight have been withdravwn or permits refused, for the reason that infection was found or tht .ibes were so prevalent aq to endanger the pines. Some 15 other applications are under consideration, 1ending the completion of field inspections.

The results of the annual inspection of such nurseries indicate definitely that the standard of protection from blister rust required by the quarantine can be reached only when the eradication of Pibes is done by a trained crew working under the direction of an e perienced foreman at a time of the year when the cornpeting vegetation has not developed. In every instance where the owners of the nurseries had attempted to eliminate Eibes in a rather haphazard manner without an adequate or well-supervised crew, Eibes conditions were such that approval of the applications could not be given. This of course does :ot apply in those sections of Virginia where Ribes are not native. Some outstanding examples of the ability of a crew to eradicate wild Ribes under extremely difficult conditions were found in the New rigland States. In one instance, not a single Eibes plant was found within the 1,500-foot zone, which had been covered by the crew working in close formation. In another instance the 1,500-foot zone included a swamp through which large Ribes had been distributed on grassy hinocks widely separated by mud and water of depths varying from 1 to several feet. The crew had literally combed the entire swamp, and inspection disclosed onl> a few small Ribes which had undoubtedly grown after the eradication work was completed. There is no doubt that nursery sanitation work is entirely practicable, even where adverse conditions prevail. This project simply requires more thorough Ribes eradication than is ordinarily considered necessary adequately to protect forest stands of white pine.










PHONlY PEACH DISEASE

Dur ing the past thirty days the entire field force has been engaged in
making the cooperative inspections of environs of peach-growing nurseries, as out lined in the News Letters issued in May and August. Environs inspections have been practically completed in Georgia and about two thirds of the inspections hav been made in Texas. Considerable progress has been made in Alabama and most of the inspections in eastern Tennessee have been completed.

The State Entomologist of Tennessee has requested that, in addition to cooperating in inspecting the environs 6,f all peach-growing nurseries located in thi known infected counties of Tennessee, the Bureau's inspectors assist in making de tailed surveys for the phony peach disease in DeKalb and Warren Counties, where a number of additional ,each nurseries are located but in which counties surveys an inspections made in 1930 and 193l, respectively, failed to disclose any infection of said disease,

It is reported that the respective plant quarantine officers of Alabama an Tennessee have -revised quarantine regulations on account of the phony peach disea in .process of promulgation.

A quarantine relating to the phony peach disease has recently been issued the State of Oklahoma requiring, as a condition of entry of the susceptible plant
(1) disease-free plantings and disease-free environs within a mile thereof; or (2 borer-free stock as determined by hand inspection after digging; or (3) the production of stock in a disease-free county0 These restrictions are similar to those placed within recent months by the States of' Mississippi, Qeorgia, Arkansas and Delaware.





DATE SCA=I ERADICATION

Beginning July 1, 10 inspectors who were on furlough during the latter par of the fiscal year 1933 resumed work and. the inspection of the infested area in t] Coachella Valley was begun. In the Salt River Valley in Arizona inspection of 0 shoots received from the Coachella Valley during the past few years was commenced Inspection in the Imperial Valley was continued and one infested palm was found. This paLm was in a commercial garden, an infestation of long standing.

Dr. Fenner S. Stickney, of the Bureau of Entomology, resumed his hot weath temperature studies in date anc". citrus -plantings in the Coachella Valley which he began last year. Temperatures in the centers and on the surfaces of date and citrus fruits were taken, some protected from the sun, others in direct sunlight. Temperatures were also taken on the surfaces of leaves, stems, and trunks, and in the air at different levels. The readings were taken over 24-hour periods* Bureau of Plant Quarantine is cooperating in this work.









JAPANESE EI~ET AIND EUOPAT CORN BORER

Exclusive Japanese Beetle Work

Ocean-going Japanese beetles commanded considerable attention during the month of July. Early in the month a report was received from the bridge tender at the government bridge at Reedy Point, near Delaware City, Del., on the Delaware River opposite Salem County, N. I., to the effect that millions of Japanese beetles were being washed ashore along the beach. An investigation by W. E. Cranston, district supervisor of Delaware, disclosed that quantities of beetles were being
washed in with the tide all along the nearby beach. Quite an infestation of beetles was observed feeding on nearby foliage. Later, complaints were received
at the Dover office of beetles beinl washed in at Woodland Beach in lower Delaware. The majority of the beetles were dead when washed ashore, but a goodly number of the survivors recovered and began feeding. Six Delaware-owned traps placed at the Reedy Point bridge caught 3-1/2 quarts of beetles in two weeks, and 18 traps set up at Woodland Beach collected 7-1/2 quarts. Beetles in considerable quantities have
been washed ashore along Delaware Bay from Delaware City south to Kitts Hamrmook, a stretch of about 40 miles. Sections adjoining this coastal area are important agricultural*regions of the State. According to a newspaper article quoting Captain Earl Dare, of Fortesque, i. J., a point on Delaware Bay opposite Dover, Del., Japanese beetles form more or less of a black scum covering the bay's waters and are washed up as black ridges on The beach. Captain Frank Schoc, of the ICotcrship Pacific Sun reported that beetles flew on his ship while it was passing Marcus Hook, Pa., and remained on board until the sip was two days,out, when they disappeared. An inquiry for beetle control information from an individualat Great Kills, Staten Island, T. Y., also reported that local swirwners found the salt water covered with live Japanese beetles. Claim was made that the beetles were so thick that when the swimmers opened their mouths the beetles floated in, and that when the swimmers camb out of the ocean their muits and legs were alive with the beetles crawling on them. The southern part of Staten Island is heavily infested with the pest this year, while the central and northern parts are comparatively lightly infested, An investigation at Huguenot Park on the island, as a result of a complaint by the Garden Club of that city, disclosed large numbers of beetles being washed up along the shore near Princess Bay, on the southwestern portion of the island. A large number of beetles could be picked up for a distance of several miles. About 25 percent of them were able to crawl. Some of these were on garbage. Adjacent land is largely marshy, so that there were no nearby desirable
host plants on which the beetles could feed. .While this investigation was being made, the owner of a motor boat stated that when he was half way between Keyport, N. J., and the southern part of Staten Island, a distance of 6 miles, during the heat of the day, a swarm of Japanese beetles flew down upon his boat in such numbers that he could scoop them up in his hands. Further evidence of floating beetles along the southern shore of Long Island was observed by C. 1. Zimer, district supervisor at New York City. A distinct line of Japanese beetles along the beach at high tide was observed on Long Beach. In some depressions there were hundreds of dead' beetles. Along higher points they were much fewer. It was estimated by .r. Zi:mer that there was an average of 100 dead beetles per yard along the high-tide line. Nearly the sa~e number cf beetles was found at Point Lookout, 10 miles farther east. Examination of 10 miles of shore line at Jones Beach disclosed beetles remaining: from.the high. tide o. the day before. These were found to a point in Suffolk County 2 miles east of the Nassau County line.










The highway stops at this point, so no further search was made. At the farthest point examined the beetles present decreased to an average of perhaps 1 per inch. Where bathing is allowed the beetles had been trampled into the sand. This woul indicate an eastward drift of beetles for at least 60 miles from the original fin on Staten Island. At Sea Gate, a private development on Coney Island, Brooklyn, Superintendent A. W. Lott used 41 gallons of gasoline in spraying the beach to bu the beetles.that drifted to that point. Mr. Zirmer estimates that from five to ten millions bf beetles came ashore along this 60-mile stretch between the south point of Staten Island an.d the Suffolk County lithe -on Long Island. This is the first year. that reports have been received of such an extensive flotation of Japanese beetles in bay and ocean.

Fiel inspection trips to' heavily infested sections of southern New Jersey were made on July 19 and 21. In attendance on the July 19 trip were R. H. Aller Director, Division of Plant Pest Control, Massachusetts Department of Agriculture Boston;., Dr. T. T. Headlee, Entomologist, N. J. Agricultural Experimental Station, ITew Brunswick; Harry Horovitz, Superintendent of Field Work, Rhode Island Depart ment of Agriculture, Providence; Dr. George W. Kbiner, Comnissioner, Virginia -De
partmient of Agriculture and ILmigration, Richmond; Dr. George S. Langford, Specie ist in Insect Control, University of Maryland, College Park; J. 0. Pepper, Entomologist, Pensylvania Division o Plant Industry, H!arrisburg; C. E. Smith, Super intendent of Forestry, Department of Parks, Detroit, Mich.; B. D. VanBuren, Director, and P. M, Eastman, Assistant Director, New York Department of Agricultt and Markets, Albany; S. A. Rohwer, Assistant Chief, Bureau of Entomology, Washing ton, D. C.; anmud. C. H. Hadley, Principal Ent6mnologist, Burean of Entomology, Moore to.n, N. Y. A party of Maryland State officials made the trip on Fply 21. These included Harry Holzapfel, Jr., Regent, University of Maryland, Hagerstown; Dr. R. A. Pierson, President; Dr. T. B. Symons, Director pf Extension Service; D3 Ernest N. Cory, State Entomologist; A. F. V ierheller, Extension Horticulturist; a Dr. Langford, all of the University of Maryland, College Park.

The itinerary of the first field trip included assembling at the Hotel
ennsylvania, Philadelphia, at 9:45 a.m. The automobiles containing the. party crossed the Delaware River Bridge to Camdeni, N. J., ai4d proceeded via routes 45 and 46 to the first stop at an asparagus field on route 46 north of Pittsgrove.
Here beetles i large numbers were stripping foliage from plants in a large field of asparagus. One of a large number of experimental trapping plots on which tra with a 40-quart capacityiare being used was next observed. Details of this year
trapping program of the New Jersey Department of Agriculture were explained by Edgar G. Rex, Suppression Agent. After a stop at a corn field showing intensivE damage to corn silk and foliage, a visit was made to the Schober Orchards to observe balling of beetles on peaches and apples. The next stop was at an alfalfE field showing slight damage by the insect. The last stop before lunch was at tT experimental trapping field of the Bureau of Entomology near Sharptown. At 1 o'clock a regular farm dinner was served to the party at the Madara House, Elmer Dinner was finished by 2 o'clock and the party proceeded to damaged corn fields near Aldine and Shirley, and to' a field near Cohansey where rhubarb had been extensively fed upon. Continuing south a stop was made at a sprayed apple orchard of the Del Bay Farms. Although sprayed with bentonite and sulphur, plenty of beetle injury to the fruit was evident. Foliage injury to peaches was also observe4 at another orchard of the Farms. The -final two stops were me de at the









Marro Farm near Bowentown and the Linwood Orchards near Shiloh. At the first orchard beetle damage to apples and peaches was noted, and at the second intense damage to apples was observed. The party then returned to the hotel headquarters in Philadelphia.

The Maryland party covered approximately the same territory but made fewer stops. Noon lunch was eaten at the Cumberland Hotel in Bridgeton. At the conclusion ,of the latter trip, the Maryland officials were driven to the Pennsylvania Railroad depot in Wilmington, where they caught a train for their return trip to College Park. Beetles were swarming in numbers throughout the countryside on both days and abundant foliage damage to crchards snd roadside trees was readily observable from the automobiles after the parties passed 1ullica Hill, 17 miles south of Camden.

SThis s:i.~r for the first time since 1923 it has been possible to,maintain continuous 24-hour farm-products inspection service in the Philadelphia business district. Fumigiation of banana cars loaded on the Philadelphia waterfront has also been unnecessary. In tle xark et and waterfront districts of the city where formerly there have been dense flights of the adult insect, the beetles this year are present in greatly reduced numbers. It is still possible to find beetles in fair quantities in these sections, but swarming of the adults has not taken place as in previous years. In 1924 and the following few years, these unusual and general flights were met by withholding all certification of 7'oduce originating in the Philadelphia markIets. This remlted in a complete. embargo of quarantined produce. Later, this was modified to a curtailed inspection period, resulting in quarantined articles being inspected and certified only between the hours of 8 p.m. to 10 a.m. During this period, the beetles are quiescent and there is no hazard of inspected produce becoming reinfectsed while en route from the inspection center to its destination either by coumon carrier or truck. This curtailment of daily inspection period usually continued for slightly over 4 weeks. This arrangement did not greatly inconveniience shippers, since the heaviest marketing period comes between the hours during which inspection was available. Beetles are quite numerous in isolated spots throughout Philadelphia. In sections around the edge of the city and in parts of adjoining Bucks, obntgomery, Chester, and Delaware Counties the infestation approaches the swarm condition formerly encountered in Philadelphia.
Of Sy a11S, IT. Y. recently a sd nori
The Common Council of the city of Syracuse, Y., recently assed an ordi-nance to the effect that "no farm or garden produce shall be permitted to enter the city of Syracuse from any area which is infested by the Japanese beetle unless the owner of such produce or the person in control thereof has a certificate from a duly authorized officer or agent of the State of New York, or the United States Government, certifying that such ,rouce is free from Japanese beetle." It is further provided tlit "no person shall buy or sell such produce coming from an infested area unless the same is certified free from Japanese beetle as aforesaid." The ordinance provides that any person. violating its provisions is guilty of a misdemeanor and is liable to a fine not to exceed .100. One of the happenings leading up to the passage of the ordinance was te finding of a Japanese beetle in a crate of raspberries from ew Jersey wihen the same was inspected in the Syracuse market preparatory to shipment to nonregulated territory. Last sau mer 27 beetles were trapped in Syracune anL the city w as included within the Japanese beetle regulated zone with the extension of the area on January 1, 1933. Under the quarantine regulations on interstate shipments, there are no restrictions on the movement of fruits and vegetables into the city from points heavily infested with the insect.




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This is the first known instance of a very lightly infested municipality within the regulated zone adopting protective measures to keep out infested farm produce

An unconfirmed report was also received that the city of Rochester, N. Y., contemplates an ordinance similar to that adopted in Syracusee

Control spraying with coated arsenate of lead and placement in sprayed
shrubs and trees of bait dispenser cages were concluded in Colgate, Md., on July
The two sprayer outfits were immediately driven to Erie, Pa., where spraying begE on July 10. Spray applications were made in the approximately 34 residential blocks in which 282 beetles were trapped last year. This foliage spraying rith lead oleate coated lead arsenate was not finished until July 29. Slightly lesi than two tons of the spray ingredient were used in spraying 5,248 trees and 3,34e shrubs. A total of 1,100 bait dispensers were hung throughout the sprayed sections. W, F. Walsh continued as supervisor of the spraying operations. Regular enrloyees manned the sprayer trucks, but labor for the operations was supplied by the chairman of relief work in the city of Erie. Arrangements for third welfare labor were made by Dr. T. L. Guyton, Pennsylvania State Entomologist. Before spraying began, notices concerning the work were served on residents at tl properties concerned by Dr. Guyton and J. 0. Pepper of the Pennsylvania Departmer of Agriculture, and J. K. Gould, district supervisor of the middle and western Pennsylvania Japanese beetle quarantined territory. Distribution of 1,200 trapE in Erie was concluded by Jialy 26. Collections of 13 beetles had been made up July 31. As trap catches are made outside the sprayed area, spraying of the foliage with coated arsenate of lead and spray applications of powdered arsenate
of lead to the soil are made b- the same spraying outfits on and in the vicinity of the new infestations. At all persisting infestations in last year's area, additional soil treatments will be made.

Advantageous prices in Chicago, St. Louis, Detroit, Indianapolis, Clevela and Cincinnati for string and Lima beans grown in southern and central New Jerse3 and eastern Pennsylvania occasioned On unprecedented demand for inspection and cc tification of these commodities. Speedy construction of 10 additional beetle separators was necessary to cope with the bean inspection situation. A dozen of the machines had been constructed last year. To machines were used on farm at Bustletun and Morrisville, Pa. Two were shipped to Baltimore to assist in car-lot inspection of beans in that city. The remainder were assigned to New Jersey bean inspection centers at Cedarville, Bridgeton, Newport, Cream Ridge, ax Pedricktown. The largest number of beetles separated from a single consignment consisted of 430 specimens removed from a carload of 667 bushels of string beans consigned from M1orrisville, Pa., to Chicago. During July 3,795 adult beetles
were removed from 26 carloads of string beans consigned from the two PennsylvaniE shipping centers to the first-mentioned destination points. At five New Terse) inspection centers, 1,842 beetles were removed from 17,981 hampers of string and Lima beans inspected from July 18 to 31, inclusive. So mny beetles were sheil from the beans prior to that date that in the rush of inspection no attempt was made to record themt. During the height of the bean inspection there was a differential of 95 cents -er bushel between the prices obtained in the midwestern markets and those received on the New York rirket.

Nursery and greenhouse scouting, begun in Virginia, Maryland, and Delaware in June, was extended to the classified establishments in New Jersey and Pennsyl vania on July 1. In Connecticut cd northern New York the crews were sent out






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on July 10. Work did not begin in southern New York and Long Island until July 17. In New Hampshlire, Vermsnt, Massachusetts, and Rhode Island the work]: was organized from July 19 to 24. -All scouts in New York, Connecticut, and Rhode Island are being paid from State funds, as are the scouts operating exclusively in Massachusetts. Scouts covering nurseries and greenhouses in New Hampshire and Vermont are being carried on the Federal payroll. Scouting in the regulated area is confined to uninfested classified establishments or infested premises, p'arts of which are entitled to a Class 1 status.

Just after daybreak on the morning of July 14, tarpaulins were spread beneath two apple trees on a farm near Cedarville, N7. J. Both trees were in the regular farm orchard. One tree manifested considerable foliage damage, with little or no fruit damage. The other tree exhibited little or no foliage damage, but considerable fruit injury. Each of the trees was vigorously shaken, and the torpid beetles which fell on the tarpaulins collected, killed, and later counted. The tree on which foliage damage was most aonarent yielded 29,400 beetles, whereas 67,650 beetles were shaken from the tree with th. most fruit injury. Beetles balled on three ?ed Astrachan apples on a single branch were carefully shaken off into a bag. It was found tha t 865 beetles had been clustered on the three fruit.

New placements of traps were rmade during the month in S cities in North
Carolina, 130 towns and cities in Virginia, 42 cities outside the regulated area in Maryland, and in Williamson, W. Va.; Erie, Pa.; and Cincinnati, Ohio. Control trapping inside the regulated zone was extended b-r the distribution of traps in 6 ,additional Maryland communities and in Takoma Park, D. C. Lifting of traps was accomplished during the month in approximtely one half of the cities and towns in South Carolina where traps were distributed in May and June. First-record infestations have been recorded in a number of co-munities in nonquarantined States, but practically all of these new discoveries have been of a single or a few beetles each.

?earran.gement of the tours of duty of the mobile patrol of New York road inspectors in the vicinity of Syracuse resulted in the surrender of a partial truck load of uncertified vegetables and fruit be'inj hauled from the Syracuse market to noninfested territory. Several truckers had been boasting of their ability to escape the inspectors guarding the roads. Consequently, a revision of the inspectors' schedule was made to trap the violators. The surrendered produce was reclaimed on the huckster's return trip. This driver stayed off the market for
2 days following his interception in order to escape the joshing which he received from the other truckers who learned of his detection.

Over 800 Japanese beetle traps owned by the State of 'Delaware are in use at
the points of heaviest infestation throughout the State to kedp down the beetle infestation. These are sQt up in Clayton, Dover, Midletown, Iilford, Smyrna, 17oodland Beach, W7yoring, and in several infested'orchards. The largest number of beetles caught in the traps is 63,934 trapped at Clayton between June 24 and July 31. In Connecticut, 300 State-owned traps were distributed in Hiddletown, Manchester, and Winsted. Distribution was made on July 5. Only a few beetles had been caught in each of these communities up to the end of July.

Treatment of 6 cubic yards of soil in a greenhouse at Washington marked the first disinfection as a requirement for a certified greenhouse on the part of a








privately owned establishment in the District of Columbia. Treatment of this so was performed by the use of naphthalene flakes at the prescribed rate of 5 pounds
per cubic yard of soil. In this type of treatr,,ent the flakes, which must be frei of tar, are evenly spread on the soil and the same mixed with the soil by shoveli. over at least three tires. Treated soil must be left undisturbed for a week aft(
fumigation.

One of the local stores in Wilmington, Del,, reports having sold more
Japanese beetle traps t.is summer than in any previous year since this article hai been on the market.

Enlarged quarters have been occupied by the district supervisor at Syracusf IT. Ye Removal of the office from room 357 to rooms 332 and 334 in the Post Office Building was finished on July 27.

Corn Borer Activities

Sweet corn harvested in Phode Island in the middle of July had from 35 to 75 per cent of the ears affected by the corn borer, according to Harry Horovitz, field representative of the Rhode Island Depart.;ent of Agriculture. Corn borer infestation is general throughout the State, although it is more serious where corn is grown in large quantities. The widespread infestation is attributed to z
unusually large amount of wet weather which prevented a postponed ole.n-up of the corn fields in the spring and also favored development of the corn borer larvae. In Connecticut, the first generation of the borers caused considerable damage in early sweet corn, some fields being a total loss. Beginning July 18, the Connecl cut Agricultural Experiment Station enmloyed a man to iake field observations and notes on the infestation throughout the State. In commenting on the Connecticut
infestation, the Hartford County Farm. Bureau states that "There is considerable doubt as to whether very much corn will be available that is not to a greater or less degree damaged by one or the other or both of these insects (the European col borer and the common corn ear worm)."1 The same Farm Bureau received reports of corn borer infestation in Irish potatoes. In at least one base the potato folial had been practically ruined by the borer. Reported damage was confined to Cobbl( potatoes.

Farm products inspectors stationed on the Japanese beetle quarantine inspe tion platform in the market district of Pittsburgh, while inspecting sweet corn
preparatory to removal under certification via a chain store truck from Pittsburgl to Fairmont, W. Va, made an incidental find of European corn borer infestation il some of the corn. Fairmont, 7. Va., is outside the previously known corn borer infested area. Origin of the infested corn was undetermined but it was understood that it came from Hartville, Stark County, Ohio. Only the northwestern section of West Virginia bordering the Ohio River is known to be infested with thf borer. The entire State, however, is included miong the list of States against which all except seven uninfested States have promulgated quarantine orders. There are no -present restrictions to prevent the rovemrent into all sections of West Virginia of infested corn from the heavily infested sections in the Lake Districts.
Inspections and certifications by the 11 men engaged in Federal inspection to conform to State quarantine requirements decreased somewhat during the month oJ









July due to seasonal reduction in the shipment of articles under quarantine. State corn borer certification of strini beans, when required, was rendered in New Jersey by State-paid Japanese beetle inspectors in connection with their regular inspection duties under quarantine No. 48.






NEICANr FRUIT FLY

As was to be expected, following the receipt of heavily infested mangoes from the interior of Mexico in May and June, a relatively large number of adult flies were taken in the traps in M1atamoros during July. On dissection a number o. the females showed fully developed eggs in the ovaries, which indicated that they had probably oviposited in local fruit before being caught in the traps. A close inspection of the fruit growing in the premises from which these females were taken resulted in the finding of two larval infestations in sour oranges. On one premise
4 fruits were found infested from which 27 larvae were taken, and on the other 94 larvae were taken from 12 fruits.

Under authority of the Mexican inspector, the fruit on these premises was stripped from the trees and, after being insp.cted, was buried. Following the clean-up, the trees were given an application of poison snray, Trees were also sprayed in the four blocks surrounding each of the premises on which adults were taken. In addition to these local precautionary measures, it was deemed advisable to spray all fruit trees in Tatamoros.

Some mangoes infested with larvae reached Iatamoros during July from the interior, but the infestation was very light compared to that in the fruit received in May and June. Fruit fly larvae were also taken from peaches received on the market from the State of Coahuila, Mexico.

Activities on the Texas side of the river were confined largely to the cperation of traps. Some 4,700 traps were operated in approximately 400 selected groves throughout' the Valley. Fermenting malt was used as the attrahent. Hoe ludens were taken; however, 92 A. serpentina and 14 A. pallens were captured in the traps. It will be recalled that an adult A. serpentina (the black fruit fly) was taken in February, which so far as is known- was the first of this species ever taken
in the continental United States. The preferred hosts of this fly as reported fror: Mexico are the sapotas and mnameys. So far as is known, there are none of these plants in the Valley. It is probable that sone native fruiting shrub is the host
of this species as was found to be the case with A. 2nle9ns.

Forty-nine glass traps of the type developed at the laboratory in Mexico were received during the early part of the month. Preliminary tests of these traps under Valley conditions show that they are vastly superior to the wire traps that have been previously used. On the strength of the showing made by these traps, a committee of growers called on the Governor sof the State requesting a deficiency appropriation for the purchase of 5,000 additional traps.







Following a conference betwen Federal and State officials 6on July 31, the harvesting period for Valley fruit was extended three months. .'The seasbn will accordingly open September 1 and close April 30. This extension was made necessar by the increase in the amount of fruit on the trees this year, estimates placing tl probable crop this season at twipe..that of any previous year. Two Valley-wide applications of a poison spray were made during the spring, and since the operation of traps during July gave negative results, it was felt that the extension could bc safely ade.






PINK BOLLWOI M

The inspection of gin *trash frori the 1933 crop season 'is: now under wayi
About the 20th of July a sizurvey was. made of the area below San Antonio, to and including the lower Rio Grande Valley, and it was found that the ginning season was in full swing. Work in the San Anftonio laboratory was therefore discontinued, and on July 24 seven crews, each equipped with a mobile gin-trash machine, were sent to that area. By-non of the .following day all of these machines were in actual opex ation. Local rains have caused some interference, but, on the whole, the work has beenfi'very bdtisfactory. N-one of the specimens received for identification thus far-have been pink bollvwoms.

Laboratory inspection at the other field stations has been continued through out the month. The inspection- of all g3en bolls collected in. northern Florida, some of which were from the regulated area, and of all of thetbollie materialcol-lected in California, has' been completed The results of all.laboratory inspection during the season have been negative.'

The plowing up of cotton, in connection withthe Department's acreage reduction program, is'now under way in-all of the-regulhted areas, Through the coOperation of the agricultural agent of Maricopa County, Ariz a list of fields that were to be destroyed was obtained, and a. cohsi derable a-ount- of material was collected from these fields before, they were plowed up .- In making these collections, particular attention was given to sections in vhich infestations were last found. -This material is now being inspected..at the Phoenix laboratory. The results have been negative to date.

Inspectors of the Florida Plant. Board are now engaged in the inspection of groves in Dade County, Fla. They are cooperating with this project by being con
stahtly on the lookout for dooryard -cotton plants..- During the month of July there inspectors destroyed 156 domestic dooryard cotton plants from three different local tions. Prior to the destruction of the plants, all.bolls on them were examined, with negative results.

Some interesting results have been obtained from the trap plat cotton in the Big Bend section of Texas. During the month infestations were found in 12 additional plats, bringing the total to 59 and leaving only 8 plats in which specimens have not been found. Inspections made in adjacent field cotton resulted in I




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finding infestation in 23 additional fields, vhich brings the total to 37. All blooms are examined from each plat daily, and then the same number of blooms are examined from the adjacent field cotton, so that the results are comparable. During the month of July 1,557 specimens were collected from the pat cotton, and only 216 from the adjoining fields. This indicates that the plat cotton is much more attractive to the moths.

The latter part of the month some of the field cotton had reached the stage where it was about the same size as the adjacent plat cotton, and was also fruiting about as heavily. Therefore, on July 21, 32 of the trap plats were discontinued, and on July 28, 20 additional plats were dis continued. This left 15 plats to be continued for another week or so. The results of the work will then be carefully analyzed so that the fall value of the trap plantings can be determined. This information will undoubtedly be available for the next News Letter.

Two of the roads which lead out of the Big Bend area of Texas come together about a mile south of IJarfa, and a site has been selected at this junction for a road station. The station will be opened as soon as the cotton crop is advanced to
the stage where there is danger of infested material being transported, which will probably be about the first of September. The road which leads up the river from the Big Bend is in such condition that it is not being used at the present time. Therefore, the one station will be sufficient to handle all of the traffic for the presents It may be necessary, however, to open other stations a little later in the season.






P E IITG SPEAD OF I!OTiS


In the New England area men not engaged on special work, such as collecting
pupae for assembling cace material, testing and storing hose, putting out assembling cages, etc., were employed in the barrier zone patrolling burlap and destroying larvae found under them, and patrolling barbed wire fences enclosing Sprayed areas, making repairs, and otherwise strengthening the fences where necessary. It is -articularly important that the fences be patrolled following thunder showers or high winds, as uprooted trees and large branches sometimes fall on these fences breaking the fence posts or wires and thus making it possible for animals to enter sprayed areas. A small amount of scouting work was carried on in territory outside of the areas that had been sprayed.

Spraying was discontinued on July 7 in the Pennsylvania area. As a large
percentage of the larvae had pupated or were full fed, effective spraying could not have been done beyond that date. The 16 sprayer machines loaned to this activity
from the Japanese Beetle-Corn Borer project were returned to New Cumberland, Pa., upon completion of spraying. A total of 3,227 acres of woodland, 5,7,7 trees in open country, and 5,2.55 properties in residential sections were sprayed this season in Pennsylvania. To do this work 109,250 pounds of arsenste of lead (approximately 54-1/2 tons) and 2,243 gallons of fish oil were used.







The men assigned to patrolling burlap bands in the Pennsylvania area located and destroyed more than 8,900 larvae, 2,500 pupae, and 210 new egg clusters durin&'the month of July. With the exception of the laborers engaged in crushing larvae and pupae beneath burlap bands, all local laborers were assigned to knocking sprouts from stumps in the area cut over last winter. The heads of worn out axes are used to do this work. These men also cut with scythes the small brush growing between the stumps. As a result of this work it is hoped that many of the stumps will be killed and the smaller growth retarded, thus making it possible to limit
spraying work in the cut-over area next season to the treatment of trees in the imV mediate vicinity of infestations found during the fiscal year 1934.

At the Greenfield storehouse, the first two weeks of July were largely taker up in freighting, handling, and checking spraying machines, equipment, and miscellaneous supplies returned to storage immediately after the termination of the spraying work. Several echanics, assisted by a small force of men temporarily withdrawn from field assignments, were thus engaged throughout the month, devoting practically all their time the last half of July to carefully overhauling, repairing, and testing nearly 70,000 feet of spray hose and about 1,000 feet of drafting hose, The spray hose, sorted and stored according to the pressure withstood durinG a 0-minute test, is divided finally into lots tested at 1000, 900, 800, 600, and 400 pounds pressure. Each lot is stored in a separate bin, and is thereafter readily accessible for loading and distribution in the field the following spraying season. The older hose, weakened by service and deterioration, usually falls into the lots tested at the lower pressures. Hose capable of withstanding only 400 pounds working pressure, although no longer of much use on the spray line, is
used regularly as a supply line from portable pumpers to the sprayers. Approximately 70,000 feet of hose used in the Pennsylvania area this season was sorted and tested in the same manner and stored in Pennsylvania.

In addition to the hose work described above all special tools, parts, and accessories with which each sprayer is equipped while in the field, were carefully
checked and assembled, replacements being made where necessary, and placed in lockers especially provided for the purpose.

During the month scouting has been carried on to determine the extent and degree of gypsy-rioth defoliation in the New England States, as is done each year. The records this year are being taken over a considerable section of the infested area by district quarantine inspectors in conjunction with their regular inspection duties, which at this season of the year do not require all their attention. A few men from the scouting force have also been employed on this work. The system of determining defoliation used last year for the first time is being followed out this season. Under this plan areas are reported as 25, 50, 75, or 100 percent defoliated. Although up to the end of the month work was not completed on estimating defoliation, records obtained to July 31 indicate a heavy increase in the number of acres defoliated by the gypsy moth in New Hampshire and Rhode Island as compared with last year. A suimiary of the defoliation survey will be given in the next News Letter.

A small force of men has been engaged during the month at the Middleborof
Mass., substation collecting gypsy moth pupae and preparing attrahent for the assembling cages. This year the percentage of emergence from collected pupae was somewhat greater than has been obtained in past years, And in consequence the men engaged in the work were able to prepare a considerably greater amount of attrahent for winter storage than has been possible other seasons. This work will be finished early in August,





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The work of placing assembling cages in the various selected towns in
Vermont, M1assachusetts, and Connecticut, and in New Jersey arnd Pennsylvania was near completion by the end of the month. Records received to the end of July show that four male gypsy moths were caught at cages in the Pennsylvania area, two of these cages being located outside of the area scouted during the fiscal year 1933. One male gypsy moth was caught at a cage in New Jersey in the township of Randolph, not far from where the anall gypsy moth colony was found during the past scouting season. No moths were caught at cages in the New England area up to the end of the mnnth.

The defoliation of apple trees and snall patches of red and white oak woodland by the brown-tail moth in central New Hampshire, in the counties of Herrimack, Belknap, and Carroll, is the heaviest in a number of years. This also applies to Maine, in the southern part of Oxford, Cumberland, Sagadahoc, and Lincoln Counties. In the areas defoliated by the brown-tail moth the apple and oak trees have taken on new foliage, and heavy deposit of brown-tail egg clusters was noticed throughout the defoliated areas on the under surface of the new leaves.

Occasionally, during comparatively few days of the flight of adult browntail moths, under what might be termed exceptional circumstances, there is some danger that quarantined material may serve as a means of s-read, either through the moths themselves or through egg clusters which may be deposited. In the Concord, N. H., district, because of numerous rush orders, it has been necessary for a few firms to work their employees 24 hours a day, the night work being performed with the aid of high-powered electric lights. These lights have attracted considerable numbers of brown-tail moths, and it has been necessary for the district inspector
to examine all materials which were to be shipped outside of the quarantined area just prior to movement, so that he could be certain there were no moths or egg clusters on them. During the height of the flight, a car of finished granite was
moved from Concord, N. H., to a Hew York destination. The district inspector examined this a few moments before it was destined to move and removed 17 adult
moths from the car and from tlhe granite in the shipment.


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I HEWS LETTER • 1 BUREAU OF PLANT Q,UARANTINE UNITED STATES DEPARTMEN'J.1 OF. AGP.ICULTURR LIBRARY '. ,i.__[~V : -., "'~ T • ' , N TATE PLANT BOARD ==========-~--===i, :_:::.=====:;=::=::;==================== Humber 33 . (i-JOT FOR PUBLICATIO.rr) September-1, 1933 • =====================-===----===---=-============= TECHNOLOGICAL Dr'VISIOH A. c. Johnson recently reported on a series of experirne~t~ on tp.e flllnigation of freight cars with sulphur dioxide . In these tests, the cars were located on the siding at Alpine, Tex. and tests were made to see what dosage of sulphur dioxide would be re(1uired to f cill pink bollworm in infested seeds within the car. I:q. all, four tests were conducted with var.ring dosages of -sul~hur dioxide, the highest dosage being 36 . pond _s. rn no ca.~.e was a co nplete kill of the pink boll-.worm 9btainedo From these tests it. vrnUld seem that under t h e conditions of the experiments this method of fumigat~on i~ not efficacious. Funds have been allotted under the National Recovery Act fox t wenty-two building and repair projects in the Bureau. Four of these projects a'.rE? in con-nection with the New CU1Jberland station of the Japanese Beetle Project. The othar eighteen projects are for repairs and construction vrork on the Me~ican bor. der. ~hose include_ fe~9ing th~ car fumigatio n house reservations at -~jx of the , bord'er ports; reroofiri.g -the. car fumigation houses at Eagle Pass arid E l '.p a so; installing outside doors at the El Paso fumigation h ouse; replacing doors of the car fumigation house at Laredo; p~astering end painting tpe_ i teri9r of the car fumi gation house at Laredo; constructing and installing volatilizer systems•for-fumiga tion with volatilized HCN at Eagle Pass and 3 1 Paso; and item s for minor repairs to the house so Contracts will b e let for t his w ork throug h the Di visipn of Purchase, Sales, and Traffic, and prospective bidders s hould b e referred to tha t of ficefor information as to rrethods of bidding. t •

PAGE 2

-2FOREIGN PLA1TT QUARAJ."\JTINES RECEN T ENTOI-JiOLOGICAL IN'IBRCEPTIONS OF I NTEREST Mediterranean fruit fly in ma_!lgo.--Ceratitis ca_J)itata Wied .. was intercepte at San Flancisco in mango in baggage fro~ Hawaii. Wireworm from Gennany.-~Living larvae .of Pheletes ~~oniger Degeer idae) were talcen at Baltimore in earth and moss in the mail fio:m. Germany. cording to J. A. Hyslop, of the Bureau of Entomology, this species is not fi'om .America. (ElateJ Ac reportec Pink bollworm fromEgzyt,--Larvae of Pectinophora gossypiella Saund. were r . taken at Phj_ladelphia in raw cotton packing Wr'"aritiques in the mail from Egypt, and at Chicago and New York in cottonseed in the mail fro1;1 the same country. Mealybug from Trinidad.--~dococcus probrevipes Morr. was intercepted at Boston on a cacao pod (Theobroma cacoo) in baggage from Trinidad. _Bark beetle from G~~er11_ala and Mexico.--Adul ts of Stephanoderes guatemalen, Hopk. (Scolytidael were intercepted at Philt;;delphia on banana leaves in cargo frrn Guatemala and Mexico. Scale insect. from Japan.--Phens:1-caspis }:entiae Kuwana (Coccida.e) was intercepted at San Francisco on a palm in s hip's quarters from Japan. _yv>nite ?-TI,_t_ j2'om Hondur..E_.--_CrYJ?totermes brevi~ Walk. (termite) was , taken at New Orleans, La., in a seed pod of La gerstroemia1~J2ecio~ (queen crape-myrtle) in baggage from Honduras. According to T. E. Snyder, of the Bureau of Entomology, this specie s occurs in Florida and Louisianao Scale ins.2_,ct f rom Spain,-~spidiotus spinosus Comst . (Coccidae} was intercepted a t Norfolk, Va., on a palm lea f i'n quarters from S pain. Lepidopteron from Englando--Larvae of Hyponomeuta cognatella Hbn. (Hypono meutidae) were taken at Bosto1-i"on a leaf of Euonymus sp. in quarters from England. ' _ __. ___ -Scale insect on :pears_.--~ sa:phes conchiformis ( Gmel.} was interdepted Portland, Oreg.,, on pears in stores from Japan. Thrips fron.1 Me~. --Frankliniella ameliae Hood was intercepted at E l Paso Te x., on g r een peppers in baggage from Mexico, and at Eagle Pass , Tex., i n a pepp1 pod in carg o from the same country. J. R. Watson, of Gainesville, Fla., states tha t this thrips, which was described from Panama, is a M exican and Central .American species. It is not kno w n to occur in the United States. Mediterranean fig scale from ItalI•---~pidosaphes fi_~ (Sig n.) was inter-cepted at New York on a fig stem in bagga g e from Italy. This European coccid wa introduced into Fresno County, Calif., about 1904-1906 on fig trees or cuttings. Thrips in tuberose flowers.--Jranklini~ cephalica (Crawford} var.

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-3-mola.~ommata Williams was intercepted at Philadeluhia in flowers of the tuberose {Polyanthes tuber0sa) in baggagefrom Puerto Ric~. J~ R. Watson reports this to be a common thrips_ of tbfa West Indieso . . . We~vil ill iris seed po:s.--Two adi.11 ts of Mononychus ireos Pall. ( Curculi-c;m19-a~.)-were interceptern Washington, D. c.,,'" in-T~ls seed pods in the 1:1.ail from l , ' -Fr?-ll~e. L. 1. Buc~anan, of the Bureau of Entomology, re~orts this as new to the .N:ational Museu.m collection. • "' I • RECEN T PATHOLOGICAL INTEBCEPTIONS OF INTEREST f' ,~. ' , , . ; .. Diseased okra. --Phyllost feta sp-. was inte.rcepted at Ne11 Orleans on okra l • -----.. from Cuba and at Philadelphia on olcra from Puerto Rico. Stevenson's Manual lists ... ~o 'Fhyllosticta as occurring on okra. U .SeDo.A.. Bulleti.n 1366 lists J:• hibiscina as causing a leaf spot cf okra in Illinois, and .E.• syriaca as causing. a leaf spot of Hibiscus syriacus in J\ew Yorko There was so little material of the fungus on the okra podsinterce:pted that it could not be studied, but a lookout should be kept for it as it may be a new disease. Citrus scab fr.o m Brazil.--A scabby orange from Brazil,-in~ercepted at Bal• timdre, was subm i tted ~Dr. A. E . Jenl
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-4-LOCKED TRUNK GETS TAGGED (pot, e _ by V{. H • . Freeman, .port of New York). "The following incident is an example of the usefulness of the Q,uarantine Warning Ta g (Form 244). . On July 11, we received a notice from the Railway Expres s A gency atElizabeth,N~ J.,. that the. y had received undera prepaid waybill from H a waii via t .he s. s~ Malolo, a trunk consigned to an address in Elizabeth, N. J., and t bat the trunk bore a yellow tag (Form 244) with a . notation ,Hold at destination and notify Department of Agriculture', signed Rep. Phelan. We in-_ v estigated and found that the trunk, as described, had been shipped from Hawaii, locked, and with n o key furnished. Apparently the trunk was observed by Mro Phelan at San Francisco on July 6 a n d he attached the quarantine tag. The Rail-way Express Agenc y s ecured a key from iocksmi th .and opened the trunk for exami. _ nat1on, . but. nothing of a restr:icted ~ natu:r:e . was found. The co st of the examina-tion, including the cost. o f the key,_ and st_orag e charges apparently will be passe on to the owner of the trunk." MEXIC.AJ-T BORDER PORT CLQSED Th e M exican border inspection station at Columbus, N. Mex. , . WEJ..S. closed on June 14, 1933, anc1 the inspector at that po~nt . was transferred to Houston, Tex. CHANGE OF ADDRESS The address of How. Hecker, the inspector i: charge at _Chicago, has been chang ed _ from 450 ]'ede_ral Building to 450 u. s . Court Hous e . Effective July 16, 1933, w. J. Douglas, inspector in charge at N a.co, Ariz!' was transferred to N o gales, Ariz. w. R. Sudduth,-inspector in charg~ at Fabens,, Tex., was transferred to Naco on August 1, 1933, and placed in charge of the latt port. Upon h i s departure from Fabens, c .. F. Haller assume d charg e of that port., ' RICE HULLS INTERCEPTED AS PACKING . . Since the packing materials quarantine _no. 69, came into effect o . n July 1, 1933, reports are co ming in of interceptions ma.de o i' rice straw and hull_s, the en try of which as packing is prohibited b y this quarantine. w. H. Freeman, in spector j,n charge at New York, submits for July a list of. 9 , lots o f merchandise, coming f rom Japan (5), Java, India, China, and Italy,. all packed in rice hulls. 'I'he h ulls were removed and turned in each case. CODLIN G .MOIBS TRAVEL I N COTTON A livin g larva an d . tv1 0 dead pupae of _C_arpocap~ 12omonella were intercepted at Washington in a mail sam ple of. cotton, p resu:mab.ly of American origin, shipped from England. It is b elieved t h a t the presence of the insects ih the cotton was quite accident al--that they had' merely crawled into the cotton -:or pupation.

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. -5-TRAVEL~S OBJECT TO INSPECTION An incident, -f9rtune.. tely somewhat rare in plant qua~ant ine enforcement procedure, recently occrred at the footbrid6 ~ ~t Laredo, Tex., when two local .. travelers returning in an aut. o from the Mexican ,.side violently objected to in sp.ection and to having peaches which were being carried. ip the car taken away from them.. The inspector, acting throughout with the courtesy and restraint which the officials of this Bureau are required to show toward. the public, finally succeeded in having the fruit removed, though in.an atmosphere of abusive language and threats of personal violence. This incident emphasizes the present inade~uate legal pro-tection for inspe9tors while in the performance of their duties, and it is hoped that steps can be tal::eri to remed.,r tl is defect in ou r enforcement system in the near future. AIR TANK EXPLODES AT LAREDO ('As reported on July 26 'by v . J. Shiner) "Yesterday about 11 aom o one of t'he two air tanks, in which the air used to force the + iquid gas out of the c ylj_nders into the fumigation 'stalls is stored, blew up wfth an explosio n that was eard ... or three blo.cks. No one was hurt. The air. pressure in the tanks registered approxinately 120 pounds on the g~es just before the explosion. The tnnLs V:ere stored do m in tho generato r rou.Lii• Mr. House and I were in the s all office and the c o. cussicn was so strong that it hurt our ears for a while. When. the explosion occurred we glanced through the windows into the generator room and the air vrc:...s black m tL sm:>ke and appeared to be filled with pipes, broken boards, and other objects flying around; we also notice d a very strong odor of hydrocyanic acid gas. The only .uay we can account for the smoke is that the tanl: had sor1e oil in it that burned. The oil evidently had leaked from the air compressor o.nd was pumped into the tank. The gas evi-dently was in the tank also but just how it got in there vre d.o not tnow. The tank flew up and hit t h e ceiling, where it made a very plain mark on t h e concrete, and dropped back on the s teps, cra cking one of them. Sometl1ing, probably a piece of pipe, flew into and out o ~ the smal1 of~ice end broke six glasses out of the window . Also sor. 1et ing hit the corner of the oi'-<>ice o n the outside and cracked six bricks. "rye had two extra tank s and have installed them in place of the old ones. Yesterday afternoon we took them out to the Texas Mexican Railroad shops and had them tested. As they each held a pressure of 220 pounds we feel they are all right for a while bu:t have decided to have t em tested every yeo.r. ':Te also had the gage tested and are going to see if vre can get along with 100 pounds of air in the tanks after t his. " .Ve believe the explosion was caused by the tank being weakened by corrosion from the inside and that the corrosion was caused i n po.rt at least by the hydrocyani c acid tha t somehow leaked bac_~ into the tank. " W e believe it TTould be a good idea to "Iarn all ports using the air ta11.ks to have them tested because w ' 1ile no one \7as hurt here ,esterday, we consider it very fortunate that no one ha pened to be i n the generator room at the t . e of the explosion."

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, ,. -6-~STIC PLANT QUARAN'.l1INES The plan which was ,put into effect last May of issuing joint certificates for :products moving from .a'reascovered by more than one quarantine is reported by project leaders to be workiirg eiut satisfactorily i n simplif-y-ing the shipping requirenents. The details of adap'ting the certificate to include pine-shipping pe r mits are being co mpleted, and co nsider~tion is also being given to the possibility of Usingthe certificate to cover control-area p 'ermits issued by State of ficers for individual shipments of pines under the provision s of quara'l'ltine no. 6 ~rhe New:Jersey outbreak of the Dutch elm disease, to which reference was made last mO:nth, is reported by the Bureau of Plant Industry to involve infestations scattered throughout Essex County, which includes the city of Newark. In addition, isol ated t rees infected with tho disease have b e e n found in the countie of Hudson, Union, M:iddlesex, Passaic, and Somerset, N. J-. One infected tree has also been f o und in .Brooklyn, N. Ye. , one in L y nbrool<:, Ne Y. (both on Lon g Island)~ and several on Staten Island.~ 11he total nwnber o f cases :definitely confirmed by laboratory diagnosis throug h August 15, according t o the Bureau, was about 300. Many of the trees have already bee n cut, the work being done b y the New::-Ybtt shad tree comrniss i ons. 11he State Department of Agriculture of New Jersey is working out a program of prevention of spre a d (pend,in g later official actio'n), under whic the nurseries in t h e infected localities are signing agreer:1ents not to ship trees t o points outside the infected territo ry. TRANSIT INSPECTION As a result of observations whic h t r a nsit i n spector s hav e been n:aking at the Chicago ll/lm.1icipal Airp0rt of s hipments arriving on airplanes from the East, .an interception was recently made of a package of uncertified roses originating in the Japanese beetle infested .area which other wise would have proceeded to Neva The inspect ion includes ooservat ions to see wh8'ther the beetles may be riding in o o n airplanes, bu t none have been reported as seen. Abou t 4 0 shipments a day were checked in a 3-wee k period in July~ Through the c ourtesy of the transportation agencies at Pittsburgh, the in-1 spector a t that point is checking waybills c ov ering reconsig . rnnen t s C'.lf car;..lot shill m ents, a nd finds that such checking i s needed, in som e instances, to prevent un ' c ertified products from going into areas free from trie Japanese b eetle. For exa1m;ile, a c a r lot of green beans ori ginating at Burlingt o n , N., J., was consigned t , Pittsburgh., As both points are i n the infested area , no certificate was require Exam ination of the waybill showed, however, that the car was to be diverted en route t o fill on o rder from Chicago, imd investigatio n s howed the beans h a d not been certified at o r i gin. When the agent's attention•vm.s called to the quarantine, he promptly refused to divert the car. I n a s i milar instance with respe.ct t o a c'ar of bananas, investigation at thes ource showed that the.fruit had been certified~ and accordingly, on r e c e i p t of a duplicate c ertificate., the shipment was r e consigned and allo wed to proc e edo Irre[;ularities in connection with car-lot shipments are frequently f ound to be simpl y the inadvertent omission of a cer tificate wl1ich had be e n issued o For t his reason i :.'.lspectors find it is . .advisab to have the f acts fully investigated before retu..,:i-lng such shipments. The questi recently came u p as to whethe r shipment s orig inating outside the regulated areas .and recons i gned at points from within the m , ancl probably examined at such :points I

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-7-by commission rrerchunts to determine t he grade, condition, etc., wouid subject the produce to infestation. On reierrin3 the question to the field office, it was the decision tha t the possibility of iRfestation in this rmnner i s unlikely and that any attempt to req_uire certification would unnecesarily complicate a situation which is this year taxing the limited facilities for farm products inspection. Articles shil)l)ed .in violo.tion of the Japanese beetle quarantine at this t i m e of the year consist pri ncipally of cut flowers, berries, peaches, beans, and corn. Most of such uncertified shipnents originB.te with :persons unfamiliar with the q_uar antine, or ,rith shippers who are un..Dindful of the fact that certification of these products is required during the su.rn.n1er monthse A report received from the 1Iew York in cpectors coveri21g the wo!'k of the fiscal year 1933 shows the interception of violations addressed to 37 diffe~ent States and 4 foreign co 1ntries, the latter routed interstate in this country. The shipments were consigned from 14 States. There was a total o f 500 violati ons, including intrastate shipr.1en ts not c onp l ying with State q_uaranti?1es r elating to the gypsy moth and Japanese beetle. Six different Federal quarantines were involved in the violations, the greater number of the interceptions relatinfs t o the Japanese beetle, gypsy moth, and narcissus bulb regulations. Interceptions were made each month of the year, the larr:;est nu_r._bers in April and Octob er, aru:~ the least in February. WHITE PINE BLIS'I'.1:::R RUST Favorable action has nou been taten vrith respect t o 14 a pplications for shipping pines grown under rust-free c onditions, 3 of which are tentatively approved for planting seed. Eight have been withdrawn o r permits refused, for the reason that infection was f o und or thc.t Ribes were so prevalent as. to endanger the pines. Some 1 5 othe r applications are under consideration, pending the completion of field inspections. The results o f the annual ins}:"Jection of such nurseries indicate de finitely that the standard of protection from blis t e r rust reCJ_uired by the quarantine can be reached only when the erGdication o f Ribes is done by a trained crew working under the direction of an eA1_)erienced foreman at a time of the year nhen the competing vegetation has not developed. In every instance where the owners of the nurseries had attempted to elir.linate P.ibes in a rather haphazard rra.nrer without an adequate or well-supervised c r ew, Ribes conditions :were such that ap proval of the a pplications could not oe given. This of course does not apply in those sections of Virginia where Ribes are not native. Some outstanding examples of the ability of a crew to eradicate wild Ribes under extremely d ifficult c onditions were found in the New England States. In one instancet not a single Ribes plant was found within the 1, 500-foot zone, which had been covered by thecrew working in close formation. In another instance the 1,500-foot z on e included a sTiamp through which large Ribes had been distriouted on grassy humr1ocks widely separated by mud and water of depths varying from 1 to several feet. The c1ew had liter lly combed the entire swamp, and ins1ectio n disclosed onl~ a few small Ribes which had undoubtedly grown after the eradication work was conpleted. There is no doubt that nursery sanitation work is entirely practicable, even where adverse conditions pre vail. This project simpl~r requires more thorough Ribes eradication than is ordinarily considered necessary adequately to protect forest stands of white pine.

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-8-. . . PHONY PEACH DISEASE ;; . ,,. . . Dm~in g the past t hirty d~y ~ _the entire field.force nas been engaged-in makin g the cooperative ~nspec~ion? bf.environs o f peach-growing nurqeries, as out• lined-in the N ws Letters iss~ed :b+ ~Y and -August. Environs inspections have ,been practicall y co mpl-eted in Georgia and about t r m t hirds of the inspections havE been made in Texas. C~:msi derable progre_ss has -been r nade in Alabama and most of the inspections :in eastern Tennesse'e . ha\re been completed. The State Entomologist or 'J\fr1L1essee has requested t hat, in addition to co operating in inspecting the environs 6:t' ll peach-growing nurseries-_loca-ted in the l m own infected c o unties of T ennessee, the Bureau's inspectors assist 1.n making de• tailed surveys for the phony p e a c h disease in DeKalb and Warren younti.es, where a nwnber :of additional peach nU1'seri_es are located but in which counties surveys anc inspect-ions made i n 1930 and 1931, r e s pectiveiy , failed to disclose -any infect.ion: of said disease. .. :' ., _ It_ i s reporte d t he. t the res:pe cti ve plant: quarantine officer_ s of Alabama aru T ennessee have revised CJ.Uarantine r egulations .on account of ~l+e phony peach diseaf 1nprocess of promulgation. .A quarantine relating to the phon~ r peach disease has recently been issued l the State of Oklahom a requiring, as a condition of entry of the susceptible plant: (1) disease-free plantings and disease-free environs within a mile thereof; or {2' borer-free sto c k as determine d b y hand inspection after digging; or (3) the pro-duction of stock in a disease-free c ounty., These restrict io.ns are s inJ,ilar to t hose placed within recerrt months by t h e States of Mispissippi, G,-eorgia, .Arkansas a..r1d Delaware. DATE SCAL: ~ ERADICATION , . . . . Beginning July 1, 10 inspectors w ho were on furlough during the latter par of the fis c a l year 1933 resmned work ana. the inspection of the infested area in tl Coachella Valley was begun. In the Salt Rive r Valley in Arizona inspection of o' shoots recei v ea. from the Coa che~la V a lley during the past few y ears was commenced Inspection in_ the Imperia l Valley was continue d an d one infested palm was found. T~is paim was in a commercia l garden, an i nfestation of l on g standing. Dr. Fenner So Stickney, of the Bureau of Entomology, reswned his hot weath temperature studies in date ant citru s plantings in the Coachella Valley which_he began last year. Temperatures i n the center s a n d on the surfaces. of date and citrus fruits were taken, some protected from the sun, others in dire ct sunlignt. Temperatures we1.~e also taken on the surfaces of leaves, stenis, and trunk~, and in the air at dif.ferent levels. The rea dings were taken over 24.;_hour periods. Thi Bureau of Plant Q,uarantine is coo p erating in t his work.

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-9-.JAPANESE BEETIE .Al'ID EUROPE.AW CORN BORER Exclusive Japanese Beetle Work Ocean-going .Japanese beetles commanded considerable attention during the month of July. Early in the month a report was received from the bridge tender at the covernment bridge at Reedy .Point, near Delaware City, Del., on the Delaware River opposite Salem County, N. J., to the effect that millions of Japanese beetles were being washed ashore along the beach. An investigation by W 4 E. Cranston, district supervisor of Dela~are, disclosed tha t quantities of beetles were being trashed in with the tide all along t'• e nearby . bee.ch. Quite an infestation of beetles was observed feeding on nearby foliage. Later, complaints were received at the Dover office of beetles beinL, .1ashed in at Woodland Beach in lower Delaware. The majority of the beetles uere dead when washed ashore, but a goodly number o f the survivors recovered and began feeding. Six Delaware-owned traps placed at the Ree dy Point bridge caught 3-1/2 quarts of beetles in.tuo weeks, qnd 18 traps set up at Tioodland Beach collected 7-1/2 quarts. Beetles in considerable quantities have been washed ashore along Delaware Bay fro1_. Delawarc City south to Kitts Harnmo~k, a stretch of about 40 miles. Sections adjoinin0 this coastal area are important agricultural regions of the State. A.ccor•din g to a newspaper article quoting Captain Earl Dare, of Fortesque, '.. J •, a point on Delaware Bay opposite Dover, Del., Japanese beetles form more or less of a black scum covering the bay's waters and are washed up as ble. ck ridges on tl: . e beach. Captain Frank Schoo~ of the Motor ship Pacific Sun re,orted that beetles flew on his ship while it was passing Marcus Hook, Pa., aria. :rer.1ained on board unti'.h the ship vras t;ro days, out, vrh~n they disappeared. .An inquiry fo r beetle control inforrrBtion f"om an individal~at_Great Kills, Staten Island, H. Y. , also re9orted that local swicners found the salt water covered with live Japanese beetles. Claim was nade that the beetles were so thiok that when the swirmners opened their m~uths the beetles floated in, and that when the swimmers ca'1le out of the ocean their suits and legs r,ere alive vri th the beetl e s cra~ling on them. The southern part of Staten Island is heavily infested with the pest this year, while the central and r;.orthern parts are comparatively lightly infestedo An investigation at Huguenot,Park on the islc:l1ld, a s a result of a eom plaint by the Gai,den Club of that city, disc lo sea. large numbers of beetles being washed up along the shore near Princess Bay, on the southwester~ portion of the island. A larg e number of beetles could be picked U:!.J for a distance of several miles. About 25 percent of them were able to crawl. Som e of these were on garbage. Adjacent land is largely marshy, so that there were no nearby desirable host plants on which the beetles could feed. Vfuile this investigation was being me.de, the ovmer of a motor boat stated that when he was half way bet\7een I:eyport, N. J., ~nd the southern part of Staten Island, a distance of 6 miles, during the heat of the day, a swarm of Japanese beetles flen dovm upon his boa t in such numbers that he could acoop them up in his hands. Further evidence of floating beetles along the southern shore of Long Island was observed by c •• Zimmer , district supervisor at New York Cit:,,. A distinct line of Japanese beetles along the beach at high tide TTas observed on Long Beach. In some depressions there were hundreds of dead' beetles. Along higher points the:r were much fewer. It was estimated by I:ir. Zi.!llller that tl:ere was an average of 100 dead b eetles per yard along the high-tide line c N eo.rl:,r the same numbor of beetles wa.s found at Point Lookout, 10 miles fa~ther east. E~ ,ination of 10 iles of sh ore line at Jones Beach disclosed beetles remai in.; f~or.1the high tide 0.1. the day before. These were found to a point in Suffolk County 2 miles east of the Nassau County line.

PAGE 10

-10-The highwa y stop s at t h _ i s point, .so no further sear9h WfiS made. At the farthest point e x anri.ned the beetles present decrease d to an averag e of perhaps 1 per inch. Where bathing is allowed the beetles.had b een trampled into the sand. This woul indicate an eastward drift of beetles for at least 60 r ailes from the original fin _ o , n S~ ~ten Island.. A t Sea. Gate,. a . private development on C _oney Isl2-nd, Brooklyn, S . uperi ~ten r:lent A. W , ~ -Lo~t. _used 41 gali~ns of gasoline in spraying the reach to bu the beetles. that c1rifte d to.that point. Mr. Zinmer estimates tbat-from five to •• • • • .. ' ,t• • f - • t e n lilillions. of beetle s came ash_ o;r. e aJ.6"ng th is 60-mile stretch be tween the sou the .Poi_nt _.of. _ ~~at_en Is~_9-nd fill.. d t h e Suffolk Co~nty line ~011: Long !sland • . ' This is• '.the first year. that. re1)or'ts h ave been received o _ f such an' e xtensive flotation of Japanese. be e't.les in bay and ocean. . ... . Field ins.r,, ectiori. trips_ to' he nvily ihfested sections 'o'f . . southern Ne w .Jersey were m a d e on July 19 o.rvJ 21. In attei.1dance on the .Jul' y 19 trip were R. H. Allen . _Director, Di.vision of Pla.YJ. t _Pest. Control, Massachusetts De.:partr : 1ent of Agri.cul ture <-Bo$ton;, D1~ . T. J • Heidi• ee, Kntomologist' , N. J • Agricultura.1 E xperimental Station, .. liew B1-i.inswick; H arry Eo 1.;ovi tz, Su;oerintenaent of Fie.ld W oi"k, :Rhode Island ;De-part.-_. m ent .or' Ag:r;-icul ture' .Provicl.en, ce ;' Dr .. Georg e w. Koiner, Comnissioner; Virginia De . partmf:3nt of. Agric ulture and Irnmi g r atiori, Rich niorid; Dr. Geor g e s.,:Langford, Specia i s t "in Insect Control, University Of Mary l and, Colles e Park; J. O. Pepi:,er,. Ento _ mologist, Pen..ris ybrnn. ib. Diyision o f Plant Industry, Harrisburg; C . E. Smith• Su,per . ' -intendent of Forest:ry'. Debartm e n t of Parks,. Detroit,,' Mich.; i3:. D. Van-Buren, : Director, a J 1ff P • . ~ . 141 Eastman, Assistant Director, N e w York Department __ o,;f.' A~ricultu . . . an.d. M arkets, Albany; _s. A. Rohwer; 'Assistant -Chief, Bureau of Entomology,: Washing . . _ _. ton, D. c.; ai.1a. c. H . H adley, Principal E n /tor.riologtst, B ureau o . f Entomology,_ Moore -toyr:n, . N • . J.. . A pai.,ty of Mary l2.nc1 State of'ficials made t h e .tripon {Iy ? _1., -These incluct,ea: H?-rry m >lzapfel, Jr., :Ree;ent~ Univers.ity of_ N iaryl~nq. ,' Hagerstown; -~ . I?r• R. A. Pier.son, President; Dr. -T. B . Symons, Director Pf:.E~t_ensio: . . sepri_ce; Dr Ernest N . Cory, .St. ate .. EntomoJ.o g i st; A. F. V.ierheller, E xtension Horti.culturist; a Dr, Langford', all o;f the University of Uaryland, Colleg e Part. T , he itinerary o _ f _ the.-first field trip incl \lded assembling at the Hotel J?:.ennsylvania, Philade l phia, at9:45 a.m. 'I'he automobiles containing the_. _party crosse d t h e Delawar e River Bride;e to C a rilde1i', 1 r . J., and proceeded via rotes.:45 z.n d 4 6 to the . first thop at an aspara ';U S 'field on route -45 n,o~th of Pittsgrove • .IJ;ere b e etles 1 4 l a t g e rnu 1bers were stripping foliag e 1~r.qm plqnts in a large field of aspar ~gu s~ . one o f a larg e mnnbe r of experinental trapping plo~s 011, Whic _ h tra with a . 40-:qu art capacity 1are bei:ng used was next observed. Details of this year trappi~g . p r:o gram o f the N e w Jersey De:9artment of A griculture were _explained by E d gar G. Rex, Suppression Agent .... After a stop at a corn field ,showing intensive dama g e to co r n sill<: a nd foliage, a visit was made to the Schober. Orchards to ob serv_ e bailing of b eetle s on p e a c hes and apples. The next stop was at an alfalfa f i eld shoi,"fing sltght dama g e by the insect. The last s.top before lunch was at th ~xperimental tra:pping field of the Bureau o ' f Entomolo(:;y near _Sharptown. At 1 o' _qloc k _ a regular f a r m di. nner was _ s erved to the pa1~ty at the Madara Hou~e, Eimer • . Dinner w?,s finished by 2 o'clock and the JB rty proceeded. to damaged c;o.rn fields near Al~ine a nd Shirley , 61,1 d to• a field near Cohansey where i-hubarb had been ex-tensively . feci u pon. Con'ti~uing south a stop was made at a -spraye. d apple orchard of the Del Bay Farins. Although sprayed with bentonite and sulphur, plenty _of be eble . injury to _the fr1..~it w a s evident. ;E'oltage injury to peaches was also obs erved, a t another o r chard of the F arms. The •fi_nal two; stops were ~de .at the

PAGE 11

'-11-.. 1arro Farm near Bo_wentovm and the Linwood Orchards near Shiloh. At the fir st orchard beetle drurage to apples and peaches was noted, end at the second . in•. tense damage to a pples was observed. The party then returned to the hotel head. quarters in Philadelphia. The Maryland party covered arproxima tely the same t er1' i tory but made fe-:,er stops. ifoon lunch v1as eaten at the Cumberland Hotel in Bridgeto;n. At the conclusion ,o f the latter trip, .the 11ar :t la110. officials -were driven to the Pennsylvania Railroad depot in Wilin:l:ngton , -where they caug_rit a train for "their r~turn trip to Colle~e Park. Beetl e s were swanning in numbers ,throughout the co4ntrysi de on both days and abundan t foliag e darnace to. orchards end roadside trees was readily observable from the auto.nobiles after t he parties passed M~llica Hill, 17 miles south of C amden . . ' Tbis sm.1rn.er f o r the first t . ii;rn since 1923 it has been possible to , maintain continuous 24-hour farm-products inspecti o n service i n the.Philadelphia business district. Fumigation of banana c ars loaded o:a the Philadelphia waterfront has also been um1ecessary. In t h e market and waterfront districts of the city where formerly there have been dense flights of the adult insect, the beetles this year a r e present in greatly r e dllced nul!111er~. I t is stiil possible to find beetles in fair quantities in t hese sections, but swarming of th~ adults has _ ot :taken place .as in p revious years. In 1924 and the folloTTin g few yea;rs, these unusua l and general flights were met b y withholding all certification of oduce originating iri the Philadelphia r.1c. rl~ets. T his resulted j _ n a complete. embargo o f quarantined proauce. Later, this was modified to a curtailed inspeotion period,'resulting in quarantined articles being inspected and certifi e d onlv bet\1een the hours or 8 p . m . to 10 aom• During thi s period, the beotlos are quies~ent and there is no hazard of inspected produce be coming re infes t,ed wl1ilo en r oute fr. o m the insvection center to its destination either by co 11t1on carrier or truck. This curtailment of daily inspection period usually continued ,for slightly over . 4 weeks. This arrangenent did not g r eo.t l y i nconve:i:lience shippers, since the heaviest marketing period comes between the hours during v,i1ich inspectio n was avail~bl~. Beetles ere quite numerous in isolated s pots throughout Philadelphia~ In sections aro1hd the edge of the city and in parts of adjoining Buck ,s, Montgomery , Chester, ~d Delaware Counties the infestation a pproaches the ,swarm co ndition fornnrly en~ountered 'in Philadelphia, The Co:rnnon Council of the c.:. t-( of Syr& cuse, 1J. Y., recently :passed an ordi nan,ce to the .effect tha t " no farm or garden produce shall be permitted to enter the city of Syracuse from any area which is infested by the Ja1Janese beetle unles the owner of such T_)roduce or the person i n control thereof has a certificate from a duly authorized officer or agent qf the S t n.tc of .few York, or the United States Governnent, certifyin[s that such p r o .uce is free f:r:om Japanese beetle." It is further provid e d tha t "no person shall buy or sell such produce coming from an in fested area unless the scme is certifj_ed f1~ee from Japs3-nese beetle as aforesaid.'' . .-The ordinanc e provides tha~ any person. violatin~ its provisions i[; guilty of a mis-demeanor and i.., liable-to a fine not t o exceed ~ ~100 . One of the happenings lead-ing up to the passage of the ordim•.ncc wus tbe f L1ding of a Japanese bectlEJ in a crate of raspberrie s from 1:ew Jersey vrhen the sar1e wc:.s ins1) ected in the Syracuse market preparatory to shipmen t to non:cegula ted territory. La.st summer 27 beetles were trapped in S,rr . cw:ie and t~1e city v,as includ.ed within the Japanese beetle regulated zone with the e}:tnsi o n of the area on January 1, 1933. Under the q_uarantine regul ations on interstate shipments, there are no restrictions on the movement o f fruits an9vec;etables into tJ.1e city from points heavily infested vli th the insect.

PAGE 12

--12This is the first known instance of a very lightly infested municipality within the regulated zone adopting protective measures to keep out infested farm produce An unconfirmed report was also received that the city of ::Rochester, .N. Y., contemplates an o:r:dinance similar to that adopted in Syracuse. Control spraying v;ith coated arsenate of lead and placement in sprayed shrubs and trees of bait dispenser cages w ere c oncluded in Colgate, Md., on July The two sprayer outfits were immedi ately driven to Erie, Pa., where spraying bega on July 10. Spray applications were made in the approximately 34 residential blocks in which 2 0 2 beetles were trapp ed . l ast year. This foliage spraying i : 7ith leaa oleate coated lead arsenate was not finished until July 29, Slightly less than two tons of the spray ingredient were used in spraying 5,248 trees and 3,346 shrubs. A total of 1,100 bait dispensers were hung throughout the sprayed sec-tions. w. F. Walsh c ontinued a s supervisor of the s praying operations. Regu-lar e n~loyees manned th0 sprayer trucks, but labor for the operations was sup-plied by the chairman of relief viork in the city of Erie. Arrangements for this welfare labor were made by Dr. T. L. Guyton, Pennsylvania State Entomologist. B efore s praying be gan, notices concerning the work were served on residents at th properties concerned by Dr. Guyton and J. o. Pepper of the Pennsylvania Departmen of Agriculture, and J. K. Gould, district supervisor of the middle and western Pennsylvania Japanese beetle quarantined territory. Distribution of 1,200 traps in Erie was concluded b y July 26. Collections of 13 beetles had been made up t July 31. As trap catches are made outside the s prayed area, spraying of the foliag e with co2,ted arsenate of lead ancl. s pray a pplications of powdered arsenate o f lead to the soil are made b y the same s praying outfits on and in the vicinity of t h e new infestations. At all persisting infestations in last year's area, a dditional soil trea t m ents will be made. Advantageous prices in Chicago, st. Louis, Detroit, Indianapolis, Clevelan and Cincinnati for string and Lim a b eans grow n in southern and c'entral New Jerse;,1 and e astern Pennsylvania occasioned s n unprecedented demand for inspection and ce tificat i o n of t hese corn.modi ties,. S peedy construction of 10 additional beetle separators was necessary to cope with t h e bean inspection situation. A dozen of the mac/lines had been constructed last year. T v m machines were used on farms at Bustletun and Morrisville, Pa. Two were shipped to Baltimore to assist in car-lot inspection of beans in that city. The remainder were assigned to New Jersey bean inspection centers at Cedarville, Bridgeton, Newport, Cream Ridge, an P edricktown. Th e larg e st n umber of beetles separated from a single consignment consisted of 430 specimens removed from a -carload of 667 bushels of string beans consigned from Morrisville, Pa., to Chicago. During July 3,795 adult beetles were removed from 26 carload s of string beans consi g:ne d from the two Pennsylvania shipping centers to the first-mentioned destination points. At five New Jerse;,1 ins,ection centers, 1,842 beetles were removed from 17,981 hampers of string and Lima b eans inspected from July 18 to 31, i nclusive. So many be etles were shdw from the beans prior to t hat d a t e that in the rush of inspection no attempt was made to r e co r d them. During the height of the b ean inspection there was a dif .. , ferential of 9 5 cents r,e:r bushel betw e e n the p r ices obtained in the midwestern markets and t hose received on the New York market. Nursery and greenhouse scouting , begun in Virginia, Maryl3.nd, and Delaware in June, was extended to the classified establishments in New Jersey and Pennsyl-vania on July 1. In Connecticut 2~d northern New York the crews were sent out

PAGE 13

-13on July 10. Nork did not bogin in southern New York and Long Island until July l?. In lJ" w Hampshire , Vermont, Massachusetts, and Rhode Island the rorl: was organized from July 19 to 24.: , :All scouts in New York, Connecticut, and IThode Island are being paid from State funds, as are -the sc outs operating s xclusively in t1assachu setts. Scouts coverins; nurseries end greenhouses in Hew Hampshire and Vermont are beins carried on .the Federal payroll:.,. ScoutinG in the regulated area is confined to uninfested classified establishments or infested premises~ # p'arts of which are entitled to a Class 1 status • . . Just after daybreak on the morning of Ju1y 14, tarpaulins were spread beneath two apple trees on a farm near Cedarville, N . J. Bot~ trees were in the regular farm orchard. One tree manifested considerable foliage darri.age, with little or no fruit daina ge . The other tree exhibited little or no f oliag e damage, but considerable fruit injury, Each of the tree s was vigorously shaken, and the tcrpid beetles which fell on the tarpaulins collected., killed, and later counted. • The tree on which foliage damage ~as n1ost ap~arent yielded 29,400 beetles, whereas 67,650 beetles i-,ere shaken from the tree with tho most fruit injury. Beetles balled on three Red Astrachan ap _les on a single branch were carefully shaken off into a bag. It was found -tha t 865 beetles had been.clustered on the three fruit • .rrew p~acements of traps were made durinc; tho month in 8 cities in North Carolina, 130 towns c:..nd cities in V~rginia, 42 cities outside the re~J,.ated area in Mary.land., and in Williamson, W . Va.; Erie, Pa. ; and Cincinnati, Ohio. Control trapping inside the regulated zone nas extended b y .the distribution of traps in 6 ,additional Maryland communities and in Takoma Park, D. c. Lifting of traps vras accomplished during, the m9nth in ap:9roxima tely one half of the ci tie~ and totJns in SouthCar9lina where traps were distributed in May and June. First-record in festations have been recorded in a number o f communities in nonquarantined States, but practically all of these n e u discoveries have been of a single o r a few beetles each. .. !learranr,ement of t h e tours. of duty of the mobile patrol of Ne11 York road in-spectors in the vicinity of Syracuse resulted in the surrende r of a partial truck load of uncert if'ied vegetables and frt:.i t be1D hauled _from the Syra_cuse market to noninfested territory. S everal truckers had beon boasting of their ~biiliity to escape t h e inspectors guardinr; the roa'ds. Consequently, a revision of the inspectors' schedule was made to trap the violators. The surrendered produce was reclaimed on the hucl'::ster ' s return t1ip. This driver stayed off the narket for 2 days following his interc~ption in order to escape the joshing which he received i'rom the other truckers who learned o.f his detection. Over 80 0 Japanese beetle traps owned by the State of ' D e l~Tiare are in use at the points of heaviest infestation throughout the State to keclp down the beetle infestation. 'I1he se are s~t up in Ola ton, Dove r~ I.lidd.letown , I "ilford, Smyrna , Wood land Beach, Wyoning , and i n several infestec.lor chardso The largest number of beetles caught in the traps is 631934 trapped at Clayton betwe e n June 24 and July 31. In Connecticut, 300 St te-ovmed traps were distributed in Midd letm{fn, Manchester, and 1insted. Distribution was made on July 5. Only a few beetles had be e n caught in each of these co:mm.unities up to ti1e end of July. Treatment of 6 cubic yards of soil in a greenhouse at Washington rno.rked the first disinfection as a requirenent for a certified greenhouse on the part o f a .,.

PAGE 14

--14privately owne d establishment in the District of Columbia. Treatment of this so: TTas performed by the use of naphthalene flakes at the presc1:i..bed rate. of 5 pounds per cubic yard o f soil. In this type of treatment the fl~kes• , which must be freE of tar, are evenly spread on the soil and the same r2cixed with the soil by shovelir over at least three times. Treated soil must be left undisturbed for a week afte fumigation. One of the local stores in Wilmington, Del., reports having sold more Japanese beetle trap s this sunE1er than in any previous year since this article ha~ been on the marketo N. Y. Office Enla~ge d quarters have been occupied b y the d1strict supervisor at Syracuse Removal of the. office from roo m 357 to rooms 332 and 334 in the Post ?uilding was finished on July 27. Corn Borer Activities Sweet Gorn harvested in Rhode Isla nd in the middle of July had from 35 to 7 5 :per cent of the ears affected b y t he c orn borer, according to Harry Horovitz, field representative of the Rho de Island De:partr ,:.e n t of .Ae;ricul tu.re. Corn borer inf.estation is general t hroughout the State, al though it is more serious wb.ere corn is grow n in larg e quantities. The widespread infestation is attributed to a unusually larg e amount of wet. weather which p revented a postponed clean .... up of the corn fields i n t h e spring and also favored development o f the corn borer larvae. In Connecticut," the first generation o f the borers co.used considerable damage in early s w e e t corn, so m e fields b eing a total lossG . Beginning July 18, the Connect cut A gricultural Experiment Station employe d a man to mak e field observations and notes o n the infestation throughout the State. In commenting on the Connecticut infestation, the Hartford County Fann B ureau states that "There is considerable d oubt as to whether very much corn will be available that is not to a greate'r or less degree damaged b y one o r the othe r or both of these insects (the European cor borer and the common corn ear worm) • n The sarr.e Farm Bureau received. report S Of corn borer infestation in Irish potatoes. In a t least one base the potato foliat had been p r actically ruined by the borer. Reported damage was confined to Cobble po tatoes. F a r m products inspectors statio n e d on the J a1)anese beetle quarantine inspec tion platform in t h e m2r ket district of Pittsburgh, while inspecting s weet corn preparatory to remova l under certification via a ch ain store truck from Fittsburgt t o Fai rmont, w. Va., made an i ncidental find of Europea n corn borer infestation ir some o f the corn. Fairmont, Yl Va., is ou tsi_de the previously known corn borer infested area. Origin of the d.nfasted corn was undetermined but it was under-stood t h a t it came from Hartville," Stark Coun t y , Ohio. Only the northwestern section of West Virginia borderin g the Ohio River is known to be inf~sted with the b orer. The entire state,. ho v mv er, is included an.on.g the list of States against which .all except seven uninfested . S tates h av.~ promulgated quarantine orders. Th ere are no } Jresont restrictions to prevent the moverient into all sec~ions of West Virg i nia of infested corn f rom t h e heavily infested sections in the Lake Districts. Inspections and certifications by the 11 men engaged in Federal inspection to conform to State qu arantine requirenent s decreased somewhat during the month of

PAGE 15

•-15July due t(l seasonal reduction in the shipirent of articles under quarantine. State corn borer cexvtification of string beans, when required, was rendered in New Jersey by State-paid Japanese beetle i nspectors in connection with their regular inspection duties under Q u arantine No. 48. :MEXICAN :EBUIT FLY As was to be expected, following the receipt of heavibr infested mangoes from the interior of Mexico in May and June, a relatively lar[;e number of adult flies were taken in the traps in Matamoros durinc July. On dissection a number o i' the femalea showed fully developed egc s in the ovo.ries, which indicated that they had :probably oviposited in local fruit before being caught in the traps. A close inspection of the fruit growing in tbs premises from which these females were taken resulted in the finding of two larval infest?tions in sour oranges0 On one premise 4 fruits were found infested from which 2? larvae were taken, ,and on the other 94 1 arvae were taken from 1 Z fruits. Under authority of the Mexican inspector, the fruit on these premises was stripped from the trees and, after being ins::_:,n ctec3 . , Yras b).lried,. Following the clean-up, the trees were ~iven an a~9lication of poisons_ ray, Trees were also sprayed in the fo u ~ block s surrounding each of the premises on which adults were taken. In addition to these local precautionary measures, it was deemed advisable to spray all fruit trees in ITat:..moros. Some mangoes infested with larvae reached Viatamoros .during July from the interior, but the infestation was very light compared to that in the fruit received in May and .Jqne. Fruit fly larvae were also taken from peaches received on the market from the State of Coahuila, Mexico. Activitieson the Texas side of the river were confined largely to the oper-ation of traps. Some 4,700 traps were operated in approximately 400 selected groves throughout the Valley. Fermenting malt was used as the E!.ttrahent. Ho luden~ were taken; hovreve:r, 92 ~..!.. serp~nti~ and 14 A. pal~_ens were captured in the traps. It v:ill be recalled that an adult A. serpentina (the black fruit fly) vms taken in ~ebruary, which so far as is known:v;as the :first of this species ever taken in the continental United States. 'fh.e preferred hosts of this fly as reported frorr Mexico are the sapotas and rnameys. So far as is known , there are none of these plants in the Valley. It is probable that son e nat.ive f~ui ting shrub is the host of this species as Pas found to be the case with A. n_allens. Forty-nin e glass traps of the tY9e developed at the laboratory in Mexic were received durinE the early part of the month. Preliminary test of 'these traps under Valley conditions show that the~, are vastly superior to the wire traps that have been previously used. On the strength of the showing made by these traps, a cormni ttee of growers called on the Goveri1or ,of the State requesting a deficiency appropriation f o r the purchase of 5,000 additional traps.

PAGE 16

-16-: _ -~ . :, ;. ... 1. ,, : • ..... ,. ' \ ,,• ., ... . . t . .,. . ' ; ~ . _: .;,.~ .. ! .. : ,-,; ; , ( r •:. .. -.. . . .: , , .. ,. -: "Following a conference. b~tw~en .Federal artd State officials 6ri. July -31; the harvesting period for Vailey fruit waif extended three months • . : The -seasbn will ac .. cordingly open September l and close April 30. '11his extension was made necessary by the increase in the amount of fruit on the trees this year, estimates placing th probable crop this season at twi.~~ .. tb,.a t . qr. ~ny previous year. Two Valley-wide ap plications of a poison spray were made during the spring, and since the operation of traps during July gave negative re~ults, it was felt that the extension could be safely made. ; . , . . .. \ . .. . :, ' .. ' . ,.,.. . : .. , . . . . \ ... ' •• , ' • • • ) ,,. ! -• /~ I • ; : ' < , I . . .. ' . ' .. .. : . . . : ' ... . .., . . . ,. * , -PINK BOLLWbP.M ::, .' -. 'i : : • : _ ... J ., .. :: ;' ' ' ~ ' The i.nspect'ion. of gin trash' fi'Ol: 'l' the 1933 crop. season .-1s~:riow--under way; About the 20th of July a survey was_ made of the -area below San Antbnlo, to and including the lower Rio Grande Valley, and it was found tha t the gil"inirig sea s-on was in full swing. Work in the San Antonio laboratory was therefore discontinued, and. : on Juiy 24 _sevc'h1 crews, e ach equi:ppe d . with : a mol>ile gin-trash :machine,. were sent to 'that area~.By-no o n of''the • .following day all. of these mac hines were --in actual aper a ti0ri.11 .. Local rai.ns have -caused some . interference, : but, on the whole, . the work has ' lbeen 'i'ery satisfactory~ None of the specjJn.ens r.ecetv-ed for identification thtts -far-have be en pink bo 11 worms e . Laboratory inspection at the other field stations has been continued through out the _ :m~rith. The inspection: of all -glfeen bolls collected in: northern Florida, ' some Of which were from the r~gUlated area, and of all of. the : ballie material ,col --lecteti. iir California • , he : s , b . een. completed.,. The r.esul ts of all. laboratory ine:pection during the season have been negativ.e . : ' .. :.: _ The plowing up o:f c otton;.vin connection with the: Dep-ar .tment' s ?creage reduction program, isnow ti.nder way •inall of the •regulrrted areas.,_ .. ,.Through th~ co operation of the agricul tura:1: agent of 'Maricopa County~-•Ariz~ -,a 1.-is~ • of fields that were to be _cl.estroyed'.was obtained, -and. a, coi'i.siderable. annv.nt o .f' m_o .. ter.ial was ' . collected from the-se fi_ 11is .befor~-they were .plowed~-up.,.-. •_ .... I -Ii l'naking. these. collec :.:, ; 'tions, pa .rticular attention was giv.en to. s .ections in v'filio;h \infe~tatiqns. were last f ou na.t-.-,This material is now . being ins!)ected~ at the _Phoenix ... laboratorye • -Tb,~ re-sults ho.v-e .beennee;ative to date_ • . . -;. ' . ': ' ' .. . . .. ••,•: I Inspectors of t _h~ -~lor,ida Plant Board are now ,engaged.• in tp~ inspe_c-tion of groves in D ade County, _Fla. They are cooperating with this project by being con~ t stahtly. on the lookout for dooryard cotton plants,,:.: Durin.2; the mor:i,th of July thes, inspectors destroyed 156 domestic .dooryard co .. t -ton _ pl~ il1tS from _thr~e dif'.f~rent-local tions. Prior to the destruction of the plant~. , all. bolls on them were examined, with negative resul tso ~ . ,•,' Some interesting results have been obtained from the trap plat cotton in the Big Bend section of 1:exas, During the month ~nfestations were found in 12 additional plats, bringing the tota l to 59 ar1d leaving only 8 plats in which specimens have not b een found. Inspections made in adjacent field cotton resulted in

PAGE 17

-17finding infestation in 23 additional fields, rfuich brings the total to 37. All blooms are examined from eac_1 plat daily, and then the sane numbe r of blooms are exa mined from the adjacent field cotton, so that the results e.re comparable. During the month of July 1,557 specimens were collected from the it.at cotton, and only 216 from the adjoinine fields. This indicates th.at the plat cotton is much more at-tractive to the moths. The latter part of the r.:ionth sone o:: the field cotton had reached the stage where it was about the same size as the adjacent plat cotton, and wa~ also fruiting about as heavily. Therefore, on July 21, 32 of the trap plats were discontinued, and on July 28, 20 adQitional plats were di~continued. This left 15 plats to be continued for another week or so. The results of the work will then be carefully analyzed so that the full value of the trap plantings can be determined. This in-formation will undoubtedly be available for the next News Letter. Two of the roads which lea d out of the Big Bend area of Texas come together about a mile south of 1',Elrfet and a site has b een selected at this junction for a road station. Tl1e sta~ion will be opened as soon as the cotton crop is advanced to the stase where there is danger of infested material being transported, which wi 11 probably be abou. t the first of Septer:_ber. The road ,;fhich leads up the river from the Big Bend is in such condition that it j_s not be inc; used at the present time. Therefore, the one station will be sufficient to handle all of the traffic for the present, It :rr1ay be necessary, however, to open other stations a little later in the season. PREVEf!TilTG SPBEA.D O :B' MOTHS In the New England area men not engaged on special oorlc , such as collecting pupae for assembling cage material, testing and storinc hose, puttins out asse~bling cages, etc., were eJ.:1:9loyed in the barrier zone patrolling burlap ruid destroying larvae found under them, and !.)E. trolling barbed uire fences enclosing S prayed areas, makine repairs, and otherwise strengthening the fences vrhere necessar:r . It is rar t icularly L'nportant that the fences be pa trolled follov,incs thunder sho'r ers or high winds, as uprooted trees and l arge brunches oonetimes fall on these fences breal:ing the fence posts or wires and thus making it possible for anir.lals to enter sprayed areas. A small ar.ount of scouting work rras carried on in territory outside of the areas that had been sprayed. Spraying nas discontinued on July 7 in the Perinsyl vania area. As a lar~e percentage of the larvae had pupated or ,-ere full fed, effective spraying could not h~ve been done beyond that date. The 16 sprayer me.chines loaned to this activit, from the Japanese 3eetle-Corn Borer project were returned to New Cumberland, Pa., upon completion of spraying. A total of 3,227 acres of woodland, 5,78 7 trees in open country, and 5 , 255 properties in residential sections were sprayed this season in PeILrisylvania. To do t his work 100 , 250 pour-ds of arsenate of lead ('proximately 54-1/2 tons) and 2,24 3 gallons of fish oil were used.

PAGE 18

-18The nIBn_ ass igned to patrolling burlap bands in the Pennsylvania.area lo c ated a !~d de stroye d 0ore' than 8,900 larvae, 2,500 pupae, and 210 new e g g clusters duri:t?.g.'the month 'of July. With the exception. o f the laborers engaged in crushing lar_vae ana. pupae_ ben eath burla p bands, all local laborers were assigned to knocking sprouts from stu..rnps in the area cut ove r l ast winter. The heads of worn out axes are used to do t h is worl<:. These men also cut with scythes. the small brush growing between the stumps. Ji.s a result of this work it is hoped that many o , f the stumps wi,11' be killed and the smaller growth retarded, thus mak i ng it possible to limit s praying work in tlre cut-over area next. season to the treatment of trees in the im [ med iate vicinity of infestations found during th1;, fiscal year 1934 . • . . . . At t h e Gre enfield storehouse, the first t w o v ree k s of luly ,vere largely take u p in fre i ghting , handling, and checking sprayine ; '.mac hines, equipment, and miscel 1 aneous supplies returned to storage irnm.edi ately afte r th e termination of the spray-ing work . Several nDchanics, assisted b y a sr aall far•ce of men temporar_ily with-.drawn from field assignments, were thus engaged tnroughout t h e month, devoting practically all their time the last half. of July to carefully overhauling, repairing, ana. testing ne arly 70,000 fee t of spray hose and about 1,000 fet of drafting hoseu TJ+e spray hose, sorted and stored according to the pressure withstood dur ing ~-~0-minute test, is divide d finally into lots tested at 1,000, 900, 800, 600, 'and 400 pounds pressure. Each lot is stored in a separate bin, and is thereafter readily accessible for loading and distribution in the field the foilowing spray-ing season. The older hose, weakened by service and deterioration, usuilly falls into the lots tested at the lower pressures. Hose capable of withstano.ing only 400 pounds working pressure, although no longer of much use on t he spray line, is use d regularly as a surJply line from portable pumpers to the sprayers. Approxi mat ely 70 , 000 feet o f hose used in t h e Pennsylvania area this season was sorted and t ested in the same manner a nd stored in Pennsylvania. In addition to the hose work described above all special tools, parts, and accessories with which each sprayer is e quipped while in the field, were carefully checked m1d ass e mbled, replacements being made where necessary, a nd placed in lockers especially provided for the purpose. Durin[; the month scouting has been c a r riedon to determine the extent and degree of gypsy-,,moth defoliatio n in the. N e w England Stat.es. , as is do~e each year. The records this year are being taken over a cohsiderable section of the infested area by district quarantine inspectors in conjunction wtth their regular inspection duties, which at this season of the year d o not require all their attention. A few men from the scout j_ng force h ave also been employed on this work. The system of determining defoliation used las t year for the first time is being fo .llowed out this season. Under this plan area s are reported as 25, 50, 75, or 100 percent defoliated. Althou g h up to the end of the month work was not completed on esti mating defoliation, records obtaine d t o July 31 indicate a heavy increase in the , number of acres defoliated by the gypsy mot h in New Hampshire and Rhod e Island as compared with l ast year. A sunm1ary of the defol~ation survey will be given in the n ext N ews Letter. A small force of' men has been engaged during t h e month at the Middleboro, Mass., substation collecting gypsy moth pupae and preparing attrahent for the assembling cages. This .year the :percentage of e rncrgence from collected pupae was somewh a t greater than has b een obtaine d in past years, ~nd in consequence the men engaged in the wor k were able to prepare a considerably greater amount of attrahent for wint e r storage tha n has been possible other seasons. This work will be finishe d early in August,

PAGE 19

-19-The work of placing assembling cnges in the various selected towns in Vermont, Massachusetts, and Connecticut, and in Uew Jersey arrl Pennsylvania was near completion by the end of the month . :Records received to the e nd f July show that four male gypsy moths were caught at cages in the Pennsylvania area, two of these cages bein6 located outside of the area scouted during the fiscal year 1933. One male gypsy moth was caught at a cage in New Jersey in the township o f :Randolph, not far fron where the small gypsy moth colony was found during the past scouting season. No moths were caught at cages in the New England area up to the end of the nnnth. The defoliation of apple trees and m nall patches of red and white oak woodland by the brown-tail moth in central new Eampshire, in tbe oo u.."lties o f . 1errimack, Belknap, and Carroll, is the heaviest in a nw~ber of years. This also applies to Maine , in the southern part of Oxford, Cumberl and, Sagadahoc , and Lincoln Counties. In the areas defoliated by the broTTn-tail moth the apple and oak trees have taken on new foliage, and heavy deposit of brov;n-tail e gg clusters ,as noticed thro~ghout the defoliated areas on the under surface of t h e neu leaves. Occasionally, during conparatively fevr days of the flight of adult browntail moths, under 11hat might be termed exceptional circumstances, there i s some danger that quarantined material 2:1ay serve as a means of s Jread, either through the moths themselves or through egg clusters which may be de:pos itea. o In the C oncord, N. H., district, because of numerous rush orders, it has been necessary for a few firms to work their employees 24 hours a day, the nig h t work being performed m th the aid of high-powered electric lights. These lights have attracted considerable numbers of brown-tail moths, and i t has been necessary for the district inspector to examine all Materials which vrere to be shipped outside o f the quarantined area just prior to movement, so t hat he could b e certain there were no moths r e gg clusters on them. During the heigbt of the f1 ight, a car of finished granite was moved from Concord, N . H., to a rew York destination. The district inspecto r examined this a few moments before it was destined to move snd removed 17 adult moths from the c a r and from tr..e granite in the shipment. * * * * * *

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