Citation
News letter

Material Information

Title:
News letter
Creator:
United States -- Bureau of Plant Quarantine
Place of Publication:
Washington, D.C.
Publisher:
Bureau of Plant Quarantine
Publication Date:
Frequency:
Monthly
Language:
English

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Plants -- Diseases and pests -- Control -- Periodicals -- United States ( lcsh )
Genre:
federal government publication ( marcgt )

Notes

Dates or Sequential Designation:
Began with: no.19 (July 1, 1932)
Dates or Sequential Designation:
Ceased with: no.43 (June 30, 1934)
General Note:
"Not for publication".

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
This item is a work of the U.S. federal government and not subject to copyright pursuant to 17 U.S.C. §105.
Resource Identifier:
030428081 ( ALEPH )
785785040 ( OCLC )
2012229620 ( LCCN )

Related Items

Preceded by:
News letter
Succeeded by:
Monthly letter of the Bureau of Entomology
Succeeded by:
Blister rust news
Succeeded by:
News letter

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NI NE S L ET TE R


BTI AU OF PLMTT1 QRAT I NE

MNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE




Number 29 (NTOT FOR P"JBLICArIox) May 1, 1933.



F ORE I PLANT QUARA1NTIITES

*RECENTrj fNTOrMOLOGICArITI\TE RCEPTIONS OF INTEIREST

Frttfly in ,gra~efxruit.---Six living larnvae of Anastre-pha lumens Loew (orange maggot) -were "interceptedat La'd; Tx-;-,-in-tivo-,,rapefruit in baggage -from 'Mexico.

Thrijos from Germany.--Chirothrips hamatus Tryb. rvas intercepted at Philadel plaia among evergr-een cuttings in the mail from German 'y. J. R. Watson, of*Gaiiiesvi1lle,_FIa., rd~ports'that' t'his thrips is--not'-rec6orded from the United States.

Aphid -on hyacinth -bulbs,.--Anurap]hi s tuli'pae (Boyer) Was intercept ed at Charleston, S. C. on hyacinth bulbs in quarters from Belgi'um. This-is a European species which has been introduced into this country. It infests iris..azidtu .kp.above and below gro-und and continues to feed and breed after the bulb ,s oi rhlizome's have been placed in storate.Bruchid from France.--Bruchidius lividimanus Gyll. (Bruchidae) was intercepted at Washington, fl.*C., in seeds of Cyiu albus in the mail* from France.

Beetle in wood carvings.--Adults of Lichenophanes tristis Fahr.
(Bostri'chidae) wrere intercepted at St. Paul, Minn., in wood carvings in the
mail from the.Uhion of South Africa.
Thitefly frcpmJaR;a.--Tetraleuroe nucubac (Kuwana) (Aleyrodidae)
was intercepted a.t San F'rancisco on ~1b cp, in quarters from Japan. This whitefly is reported as a. pest of citrias in Japan.







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Pomegranates infested.--A larva and pupa of Cry toblabes gnidiella Mill. (Pyralidae) were intercepted at Philadelphia in the blossom ends of two pomegranates in the mail from Italy.

European fruit scale on apple.--Aspidiotus ostreaeformis Curt.
(Coccidae) was intercepted at New York on apples in cargo from Czechoslovakia. This is a common species on deciduous fruit and ornamental trees in Europe and in the eastern United States.

Lepidopterous larvae in acorns.--Larvae of Laspeyresia sp. (01ethreutidae) were found at Philadelphia in acorns of cork oak (Quercus suber) in cargo from Spain. Laspeyresia sp. has been intercepted previously in acorns from China, Germany, Japan, Portugal, and Turkey.

Weevil in packing material.--Acallocrates denticollis Germ. (Curculionidae) was found at Washington, D. C., in packing about grape cuttings in the mail from Rumania.

Lanternfly on bananas.--Helicoptera longiceps Fowler (Fulgoridae) was intercepted at San Francisco on bananas in cargo from Panama.

Scale insect from Japan,--Lepidosaphes cymbidicola Kuwana (Coccidae) was taken at Honolulu on an orchid (0ymbidium sinense) leaf in cargo from Japan. This coccid was described in 1925 on orchids in Japan. It is the first interception record of this scale insect in our files.

Tobacco budworm in gandul pods and tomato.--Larvae of Heliothis
virescens Fab. (Noctuidae) were taken at San Juan, P. R., in gandul or pigeon pea (Cajanus indicus) pods for export in cargo from Puerto Rico to the mainland of the United States. A larva of the same insect was found at New York in a tomato in cargo from Cuba. This budworm is an important tobacco pest especially in the southeastern part of the United States.

Aphid galls from China.--Galls made by Schlechtendalia chinensis Bell (aphid):arrived at Baltimore, Md., in cargo from China. L. H. Weld, of East Falls Church, Va., reports as follows: "This is the Chinese Gall made by a species of plant lice, Schlechtendalia chinensis Bell, on the leaves of a sumac, Rhus semialata.Murr."

RECENT PATHOLOGICAL INTERCEPTIONS OF INTEREST

Diseased husk tomato.--The disease on a husk tomato from Mexico intercepted at 3l Paso was tentatively determined as Phoma destructiva. The determination was verified by Mr. Stevenson, of the Bureau of Plant Industry, who checked the spore measurements withthe description. Apparently this disease had not been reported as occurring on husk tomato.

Another chayote disease interception.--A chayote from Mexico intercepted










at Mobile was fotuhd to be infected with Celletotrichum-.-aenarium. This is the first interception of.this disease on chayote..

Tomato disease in Virgin Islands.--A' tomato disease collected in the field in St. Croix by inspectors from Puerto Rico has been determined as bacterial spot (Bacterim vesicatorium). This is the first collection.of the disease we have had from Virgin Islands.

Pepper disease in Puerto Rico.--Meliola capsicola collected at Adjuntas, P. R., on pepper leaf and stem, was received some time ago but the determination has just been received from J. A. Stevenson, who has been engaged in a study of the genus Meliola for several years.

Diseased cauliflower from France.--Typical fruiting material of Gloeosporium concentricum was found on a caulifl6er leaf from France intercepted at Philadelphia. The only previous interception of this disease was on cabbage from England. .

Grave from Italy diseased.--A grape cutting from Italy intercepted at New York bore the perfect stage of an ascomycete tentatively identified as Mycosphaerella rathayi (7). We have had no interceptions of a Mycosphaerella on Vitis.

Bacterial leaf spot of citrus from Brazil.--An orange leaf from Brazil intercepted at Baltimore was found to have small -blackish spots -full of bacteria. While unlike any of the reported diseases of citrus it is possible these spots were the result of infections with the citrus blast organism (Bacterium citrarefaciens)

Nematode in dahlia.--Nematodes in dahlia tubers from Germany intercepted at New York were determined by Dr. Steiner as Aphelenchoides sp. The only previous interception of parasitic nemas on dahlia was A. parietinus on material from France.

Phytophthora of tomato.--Nogales inspectors have been intercepting many diseases on vegetables from Mexico including a species of Phytophthora on tomato. Whether P. parasitica, as some workers believe, or P. mexicana, a species described from Mexican tomatoes but not generally accepted apparently, would be difficult to determine.

Cercosrora on Cyrella.--Cercospora sp. was found on leaves of Cyrella racemiflora from England intercepted at the inspection house in Washington. Apparently this is the first report of aCercosporaon Cyrolla.

Disease of birch leaves,--A disease of Betula (alba ?) leaves from England intercepted at Washington, D. C., in packing was found to be due to Gnomonia setaceae.







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Tylenchus dipsaci in .potatoes.--Mobile has added Norway to the list of countries from which we have intercepted Tylenchus dipsaci in potatoes. More interceptions of this disease are being made this year than ever before, The first interception of T. dipsaci in potato was made in January 1930. During the year 1930 only 4 interceptions of this nema in, otato were made, of which 1 was made in the first three months, Jaxiua r y to March inclusive. In 1931 there were 31 interceptions of which 16 were made in the first quarter, and in 1932 there were 10 interceptions of which 1 was made in the first quarter. In the first quarter of 1933 there were 22 interceptions of T. diosaci in potatoes.

As observed in the material seen here the characteristic symptoms of the disease are definitely but rather shallowly depressed areas. When cut into the discolored tissue is found to be limited to the surface eighth of an inch with occasional pockets extending some'Ihat deeper. General appearance of the tissue is somewhat similar to the mottled brown of late blight (Phytophthora infestans) except that the latter is likely to be a lighter color if just starting or to extend deep into the tissue if older and dark in color, The nema-infested tissue is frequently invaded by other organisms and the characteristic symptoms largely obscured. In the potato material examined nemas have been sometimes plentiful, sometimes difficult to find, and in general have appeared to be shorter and smaller than they are likely to be in good narcissus material.

nt tons of potatoL dep_9 ry scab.--Receipt of several interceptions of Spogoojora subterranea caused us to examine the records of interceptions of this disease. The number of interceptions per year has been as follows: 1915 16, 1916 4, 1917 0, 1918 1, 1919 1, 1920 4, 1921 5, 1922 1, 1923 3, 1924 12, 1925 17, 1926 12, 1927 29, '1928 20, 1929 10, 1930 8, 1931 23, 193? 22, 1933(January--March material received in Washington only) 7 9. Of the 22 interceptions made in 1932, only 2 came to Washington, the other 20 having been made in San Francisco. This disease has a wide distribution as shown by our interceptions, the country of origin for the past three years being as follows: 1930, Argen tina, England (3), Estonia (2), Ireland, New Zealand; 1931, Argentina, Belgium (2), Brazil, Denmark, England (8), Finland, France, Germany, Italy (2), Mexico, Norway, Scotland, Sweden (2); 1932, Argentina (2), China, England
(3), France, Germany (2), Holland (2), Italy, Japan (6),'1Iorway (2), Scotland Tasmania. It will be noted that Argentina and England are the only countries appearing in all three lists. The fact that diseases are thus erratic in their occurrence is a matter of considerable interest. Projects covering a study of the correlation of the increased occurrence of diseases and insect pests with weather and other conditions of preceding seasons are being carrie out in several parts of the world. More complete information regarding such correlation would enable inspectors to know what diseases to expect on any given product. This would be of value in intercepting incipient stages of the diseases early in the season.









MARCH INTERCEPTIONS BY PORTS

Interceptions and interception records received in 1ashinCton during March were as follows: Baltimore 39, Bellingham 12, Boston 113, Brownsville 82, Buffalo 5, Calexico2S. Charleston 42, Chicago 2, Corpus Christi 6, Detroit 12, Douglas 2, Eagle.Pass 3, El-Paso. 68, Fabens 1, Galveston 19, Hidalgo 1, Laredo 7, Mobile 52, Nao 2, New Orleans 64, New York 254, Nogales 325, Norfolk 74, Philadelphia.212, Port.Arthur 1, Portland 8, Presidio 1, San Juan 198, San Ysidro I, Savannah 11, Seattle 38, St. Paul 2. Of the total of 1,609 interceptions, 882 were of insectsand 727 of diseases.

SEATTLE OFFICE HAS NEW QUARTERS

As of April 1, the Seattle office, A. G. Webb in Charge, has been moved to a new address, 540 Federal Office Building, Seattle, Wash.

BELL APPLES LOOK LIKE LIMES-,

'The vigilance that port inspectors must exercise on all occasions is
well illtstrated by a, little incident from the day.by day doings at Philadelphia. The .ship's officer on an incoming ship reported soie limes in stores to the customs official who passed on the informatioi to the plant Quarantine
inspector. Examination of the so-called limes was made over the protest of the steward against so much inspection, and it was found that though superficially resembling ordinary limes the fruits in reality were bell apples (Passiflora sp.), a knorn. fruit fly host. The Philadelphia inspector remarks that it is undesirable to take too much for granted in ship inspection work.

FOREIGN PLANTS TRY TO CRASH TIHE GATE

WV H. Freeman, of the New York office, presents a succinct but revealing picture of the partplayed by.the plant quarantine inspector in checking the 'constant attempts .made by ocean passengers to bring p1ant materials into this country apparently without the slightest thoughtof the pests that these plants might carry and usually blissfully ignorant of quarantine restrictions.

In passengers' baggage from the S. S. Rex arriving from Italy at New
York on March 9,. :the following varied assortment of plant materials was found by the'inspectorsx. 9 ch rry, 46 fig, and 6 ouine ti:s;, 8 plum and 3 olive seedlings; 65 grape cuttings; 18 carnation, 9 chrysanthemum, 4 elephants-ear, 20 fennel, 1 rosemary, 4 ranunculus, and 1 sedun plants; 75 apples,'*46 oranges, 5 pomegranates, 5 pears, 40 prickly pears, 6 ouince, 7 sweet limes, and 2 chayotes.

For the benefit of any one inclined to make light of the pest-carrying possibilities of these small assorted lots, it is noted that the inspection staff found 22 different kinds of diseases and insects on them. Since 12 out of the 21 lots were apparently destined for planting here, thus providing the







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most favorable conditions possible for propagation of any pests they might carry, the danger of such introductions is obvious.

SFrom another Italian ship-, the S. S. Conte di Savoia, arriving on March 16, the passengers' baggage yielded the following: 6 carnation, 50 fennel, 4 fig, and 48 grape cuttings; 2 opuntia stems; 50 unidentified seedlings; 3 bamboo roots; 24 citrus leaves; 150 apples, 200 globe artichokes, 115 oranges, 22 pears,,88 prickly pears, 48 sweet limes, and 51 tangerines.

Here again 7 out -of these 15 lots were apparently intended to be plante and there were found on them 14 insects and diseases.

When one considers that these two cases represent but a minute fraction of the passenger movement intoour ports from all parts of the world, all year round, and season after season; this fragmentary but vivid picture is significant. It enables one to view the problem of keeping out pests in better perspective,--a task which thbs-1poms in immense magnitude, perplexing in its details and beset with difficulties. We are subjected to a continual pressure from all sides by plants with their accompanying pests striving to enter our borders, seeking blindly and ignorantly for the most part but at times with insistent craftiness, Against this relentless pressure from without we have as a defense,--thesplant quarantine inspector.




DOMESTIC PLANT QUARANTINES

The work of the tomato pin worm (Gnorimoschema lycoversicalla), an insect of economic importance and limited distribution, has been called to the attention of the National Plant Board by this Bureau. This insect has heretofore-been injurious in Hawaii, California, and Mexico, and has been discovered more recently in Pennsylvania and Florida. The Bureau makes no recommendation with respect to the possibility. of quarantine action.

NEW TERMINAL INSPECTION REGULATION

The recent revision of the Postal Laws and Regulations provides for an alternative procedure for expediting and simplifying the handling of plant shi ments for terminal inspection byStiate inspectors. Heretofore the destination postmaster has been required to send the plants, at the addressee's expense, t a designated terminal inspection point for examination and return. This invol ed considerable delay and often resulted in damage to the plants. Many State quarantine officers have accordingly asked for authority to make the inspectio while the package is en route and before it is delivered to the destination post office.

The new method is outlined in the 1932 revision of the Postal Laws and







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Regu options as paragraph 7 of section 596, page 290, which reads: "When desired ifi order to simplify and expedite the handling of parcels of plant material subject to terminal inspection, the addressee may have the parcels addressed to himself in care of a State plant inspector at an inspection point and arrange with the inspector to have the latter forward the parcels to the addressee, after inspection and passing, upon payment of the forwarding postage which shall be furnished to the inspector by the addressee, or the addressee maj have the sender place a pledge to pay the forwarding postage on the parcels, in which case they shall, after being inspected and passed, be forwarded, rated with the forwarding postage, such postage to be collected upon delivery as provided by paragraph 4, section 769. In following the latter procedure the parcels shall be labeled as follows:
"Shipped for (or on a/c)
W. H. Jones,
Ocean Springs, Miss.

From:
Eastern Nurseries,
Savannah, t.
Forwarding Postage Guaranteed. To:
Contents: W. H. Jones,
_c/o State Plant Tnspector, Biloxi, Miss.

'Then forwarding parcels under the foreg!oiug arrangement, the inspector shall first cross out 'c/o State Plant Inspector,' and the name of the post office at the point of inspection appearing in the original address, and insert the name of the post office to which the parcels are to be forwarded for delivery to the addressee up6n payment of forwarding postage."

Thile this paragraph contemplates action by the addressee in requesting the sender to address the parcel to the inspector, the division of classification of the Post Office Department suggests that plant quarantine officers of States which have adopted terminal inspection could themselves make such a suggestion to nurserymen shipping into the State. The nurseryman would then address all plant parce.ls to the addressee in care of the State plant inspector at the proper inspection point. The parcel would then be inspected and forwarded to the addressee, the forwarding postage being collected from the latter. It would, however, be necessary for the shipper to guarantee such forwarding postage.

The plant quarantine officers of one or tvo States are reported to have proposed this arrangement to the principal shippers who send nursery stock and other plants into their Sta-te. If )lant quarantine officers of other States which have adopted the terminal inspection plan wish to work out such an arrangement, information as to itt operation may be secured from the Bureau of Plant Quarantine.







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TRANSIT INSPECTION

Freight shipments of nursery stock in volume began about March 16, according to observations made by transit inspectors at Chicago. It was noted that about 50 percent of the shipments contained Ribes.

Through the courtesy of the Century of Progress Exposition officials
in supplying passes, the transit inspectors at Chicago have been able to check daily on the certification of shipments of trees coming into the grounds. All such shipments thus far have been found to be properly certified and no shipments bave come into the grounds which were not previously reported upon by the transportation company concerned.

Assistance in checking mail and express shipments of nursery stock at Albany, X. Y., is being given by Arthur Viall incidental to his regular work on European corn borer inspection and certification.

WHITE-PINE BLISTER RUST

White pines to be used on the grounds at the Century of Progress Exposition at Chicago are being supplied from a native planting in Michigan a hundred miles from any known infection of the white-pine blister rust. The trees were inspected before being shipped and will be carefully inspected on the grounds from time to time throughout the summer. They will then be destroyed at the close of the season.

There have been several shipments of currant and gooseberry plants
from such recently infected States as Iowa, Ohio, and Maryland which it has been necessary to return to consignors for the reason that the plants did not fully meet the requirements for movement from infected States, as they were not dormant nor had they been dipped in lime-sulphur solution. The present regulations require either complete dormancy or dipping in order to insure that no blister rust spores are being carried to other States. This is the first season that the States named, as well as Virginia and West Virginia, have been designated as infected, and the nurserymen in those States have not heretofore been affected by the dipping and dormancy requirements*

NACISSUS BUL1J3 PESTS

Narcissus inspectors have often noted that the Chinese sacred lily seems immune from Tylenchus infestation, while Soliel d'Or, on the other extreme, is more likely to be found infested than are other polyanthus types on the same premises. A number of cases in San Diego County, Calif., have recently been found in which the plants of Chinese sacred lily (Narcissus tazetta orientalis) have been found infested with Tylenchus di-psaci. as determined by Dl. G. Milbrath and verified by Dlr. G. Steiner of the Bureau of Plant Industry. This is the first record in the latter office of such infestation of orientalis.







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PRITOW PEACH DISEASE

The Department's announcement under date of February 6, regarding
the revocation of Federal plant quarantine 'No. 67, indicated that, although the primary responsibility for preventing spread of the phony peach disease would hereafter rest with the various States, the revocation of the Federal quarantine did not mean the abandonment of the Dlepartment's interest in this disease but that this Bureau would plan to cooperate with the respective State officials in so far as funds and facilities permit.

Considerable thought has been given to the entire subject of controlling the spread of the phony peach disease under present conditions. Although the available evidence indicates that effective protection against the disease might be obtained through complete elimination of peach-borer infested or injured stock, it, appears thA the great amount of peach nursery stock grown in the South, the large numbers of nurseries involved, and the length of the digging and shipping season, tend to make full supervision of the culling of all such stock impracticable.

To avoid this difficulty, the NTational Plant Board has recommended that the various States "accept stock from a nursery where no disease has been found by a duly authorized State or Federal inspector within a mile from the nursery, or if infected trees are found within the one-mile zone, all infected trees must be destroyed and all peach nursery stock inspected tree by tree at digging by a State or Federal inspector and all trees found infested by peach tree root borer culled out and destroyed."

The environs of most of the peach-growing nurseries have heretofore
been inspected by representatives of this Bureau. The large number of ins-pections made each year by a very limited personnel did not always allow time for adjusting schedules to meet the dates upon w~ich State inspectors might also have arranged to be at the nurseries and, ta-erefore, iz most States the State inspectors have not had opportunity to become as familiar with the methods of inspecting nursery environs for the phony peach disease as would have been desirable. To fill this need, tentative plans are being made to cooperate, in so far as is. desired and is possible 17vith the funds and personnel available, in the environs inspections in each State this summer. Possibly t~ext 'fall there will be opportunities to assist in the development and adoption of improved culling practices to eliminate peach-borer infested and borer-injured stock, and to observe the manner in which such culling practices work ou-t in the different States.

Correspondence is now being carried on zith the respective plant quarantine and nursery inspection officials of the phony peach disease infected States with regard to the amount of assistance desired from this Bureau in connection with inspection of the environs of peac-,f rowrinC nurseries during
the coming summer and next fall,









_DATE $CALE, RAIPATION

Routine inspection, tha is, periodic inspection of the infested
areas, was cut down in March. due to the reduction in tie size.of the field force. Routine inspection 'has '1een carried on since the 'work was reorganized. The plan, of course, was to locate and liminate.the centers of infestation, and then by systematic inspection locate and'elimirate the infestations resulting from the spread. The time inspection should be. carried on after the centers of infestation ,are eliminated, and the distance .of possible spread, are matters of judgment based on past records. No definite rules can be laid ,down because of inspection conditions, etc.,. in the. different areas.

It is planned next fiscal ..year to recall the experienced inspectors
now on furlough and resume routine inspection. If sufficient funds are available, it is prQbable that this type of work may be completed by the end.of the fiscal year.

One important phase of the eradication work which has .been carried on for some time is the careful survey to locate unlisted palms and checking of fields where seedling plantings have been .dug out. Small infested palms from seed and infested offshoots on dead palm stumps have been found in fields where old infested seedling plantings were supposed to have been eliminated several years ago.




SJAPANESE BEETLE AND EUROPEAN CORN BORER

Exclusive Japanese Beetle Work
Arrangements were completed during March for trap storage facilities
throughout North Carolina, South Carolihia, West Virginia, and Virginia. Central shipping points convenient to 'the localities to be trapped were thdn Selected in order that full. arload shipments, might be made to points advantageous from the standpoint of distance. of hall, road conditions, speed"6f
freight movement, and .freight"rates. The first carload of trap equipment left South Norwalk," Conn., on March 21 and arrived at R6cky Mount, N. C., on the morning of March 27. Four government tricks reached Rocky Mount the same morn ing the car arrived, and the drivers immediately began unloading operations. From this car, set-ups, each consisting of 33.canes (96) 'metal trap assemblie 4 cans of bran-mix bait, and 66 bundles '(396) rods, were trucked to the follow ing trapping points in North Carolina: Emporia, Virginia, Weldon, Elizabeth City, Greenville,, Kinston, Goldsboro, Rocky Mount, and Wilmington. A second
car of trap equipment, was. loaded out of South Norwalk on March 25 and arrived at Durham, N. C., on March 29. The same four government trucks proceeded to
Durham and accomplished the unloading of the car on April 1. Trip equipment for similar set-ups as mentioned above were trucked to each of the following







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North Carolina localities: Danville and South Boston (one set-up), Virginia, Oxford, Raleigh, Durham, Burlington, Greensboro, High Point, Winston-Salem, Sanford, and Fayetteville. The third car to leave South Norwalk was loaded on March 31 and dispatched to Columbia, S.C.

Featured in the booth of a Delaware tree surgery company exhibiting at the Philadelphia Flower Show was a large, framed painting, 3 by 4 feet, depicting in colors a Japanese beetle approximately 1 inches long, below which on a smaller scale were seven Japanese beetles resting'on a rose. leaf. A*New Jersey'insecticide manufacturer exhibited a life history Riker mount of the Japanese-beetle. Life history mounts were also shown of the Mexican bean beetle, peach tree borer, tent caterpillar, and Cblorado potato beetle. Pamphlets were distributed giving details of the use bf arsenate of lead for protection of lawns and golf courses, oleate coated arsehate of lead for foliage protection, and a rotenone and pyrethrum contact spray, all recommended for Japanese beetle control. Recognition was given to the Japanese Beetle Laboratory for the perfecting of the oleate coated arsenate of lead spraying material and the methods of applying arsenate of lead to lawns and golf courses. An interesting bit of information in the pamphlet on coated arsenate of lead is to the effect that "Oleate Coated Arsenate of Lead is different from ordinary Arsenate of Lead, each microscopic particle having a coating of Lead Oleate Soap which makes it palatable to the beetle, thus causing an 80 percent kill as against only a 30 percent kill on foliage sprayed with ordinary Arsenate of Lead." The insecticide firm reported having received many inquiries concerning sprays and lawn treatment for Japanese beetle control.

Distribution of Japanese beetle quarantine literature which has heretofore been accompji&nd through each State headquarters office will in the future be made through the general headquarters of the project. Mailing lists prepared by the field offices have been forwarded to South Norwalk and are being combined with addresses from other sources. Addresses thus secured have been typed on stencil cards for use in an addressing machine. Forty thousand yellow Japanese beetle quarantine map-posters, 12 by 20 inches in size, were received on March 11. These were sext out in mailing tubes purchased on General Schedule. Franked labels were printed on the addressing machine and these in turn were pasted on the mailing tubes. Distribution of the posters to agents of the Railway Express Agency and the Southeastern Express Company was accomplished through the mailing bureau of the Railway Express Agency in New York City, to which bureau 3,000 copies of the map were supplied via "deadhead" express. Approximately 25,000 copies of the printed Notice of Quarantine No. 48 (9th Revision), with supplemental rules and regulations (11th Revision), were received on March 23. Distribution of the quarantine notices was still in progress at the end of March. Mailing of 15,000 Japanese Beetle Shipper's Guides to interested firms, individuals, and agents of certain common carriers was completed through the district offices early in the month.

Border patrol operations began on March 28 with the establishment of a






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road patrol post on the principal highway leading ~outh f6m~'the District of C06lumbia-northern Virginia isolated reguated zone. Predarations for the posts began on March 22, when the booths used at last ye rs stations were moved from" their temporary..storage sites near their previous locations to the new locations required by the extension of the regulated zones. By March 31 there were nine stations in operation. Thes& We'e located on U. S. Highway No. I at the Fredericksburg, Va., cty lifiltsU.'S. I ighways Nos. 211- and 50., west of Fairfax', Va.; UT. S. Highway No. 340'it the Harpers Ferry, W. Va., bridge; Maryland State Route No. 34 at Shepherdktown, W. Va., bridge U. S'. Highway No. 11 at Williamsport, Md., bridgi Ut~' S, tHighway No. 40, west of Oumberlad, Md.; U. S. Highway No. 19, south of Mount Morris, Pa.; and .U. S. Route No. 40, west of:-West Alexander, Pa. Each' of these stations is mannedby one 'inspector WIe worl eight hours daily. Additional men will be added and the hours eachzstation is operated will be increased as soonas is evident the usual heavy spring movement of quarantined material.

Live adult Japanese beetles obtained from an uncertified' greenhouse
near Philadelphia were used as an exhibit in connectionn with the motion pictures "Old Jake Wakes Up," a corn borer film, and "fHolding the Japanese Beetle," shown at a men's club meeting in"Norwalk, Conn., on March 28. Approximately 350 live J apanese beetles were also collected on March 14 and
*shipped via express to WV. C. 0'Kane, Deputy Commissioner, Department of Agriculture, Durham, N H, Durham is within the Japanese beetle -infested zone. Mr. 0 'Kane desire ththe ,beetles for experimental purposess. 'Since the day on SWhich the latter specimens were collected was coudy and shoWery, it was necessary to visit three large ranges of greenhouses before the required number could be obtained. On.a bright, sunashiny "diy the 350 beetles could have been collected in a single heavily infested graen'Ibouse in the Philadelphia section. Adult beetles have been observed in -flight in uncertified greenhouses in the vicinity of Philadelphia every month sihce the disappeararice last fall of adults in the open. ,

Gathering of samples of lead arsenate treated soils in nursery plots and analyses of the samples are approximately one month ift advance of last year's schedule. Collection of samples from lead arsenate treated plots of growing plants,' heeling-in areas, and coldframes began on February 23. In spite of adverse weather conditions, members of the'treating division have been able to supply chemists working under direction of the Bureau's toxological division with an ample supply of representative samples so that their work might progress without interference. There had been gathered up to ,the end of March a total of 746 samples. Four hundred ninety-eighlt of these were secured from plots of growing plants, 231 from coldframes, and 17 from heeling-in areas. There still remained to be taken a total of 187 samples. A modification in the metal sampler has been made to lighten its weight and facilitate its dismantling for sharpening and repairs. The remodeled sampler in addition to being lighter is more balanced and easier to use in the field.

Cooperation was again extended by officials of the Pennsylvania










Horticultural Society in segregating certified and uncertified material at the Philadelphia Flower Show held in the Commercial Museum from Mfarch 27 to April 1. The Pennsylvania Horticultural Society has been organized 105 years, and this year's show was its 100th exhibition. Many of the 87 exhibitors
are classified dealers whose plants and other exhibit material came from certified greenhouses. Quantities of the certified plants, moss, hunus, sod, and soil were returned to noninfested greenhouses or shipped to nonregulated territory. An inspector stationed at the show maintained a strict division between uncertified and certified stock and kept accurate check on the arrival and removal of 33,052 plant containers. Frequent observations were made for adult Japanese beetles but none were found. Specimens of 34 other species of insects were noted.

Certification for reshipment from the Japanese beetle regulated zone was required on several consignments of boxwood brought from the Southern States for exhibition at the International Floier Show in the Grand Central Palace, New York City, from March 20 to 25. Commnenting on the spring flower show in New York, a Newark, N. J., daily newspaper stated that "The aspect of blooms in a profusion of hues and loveliness growing amid surroundings so closely counterfeiting nature even a Japanese beetle or other crafty pest would assume Santa Claus actually had arrived, is calculated to dissipate the last vestiges of Winter doldrums."

J. S. Stockbridge, field supervisor in insect control, effective March 16 was transferred from South Norwalk, Conn., to Norfolk, Va. In Norfolk, Mr. Stockbridge will assume charge of Japanese beetle inspection and certification work in the isolated regulated zone comprising Norfolk, Portsmouth, and immediately adjacent territory south of these two cities. The Norfolk suboffice is under the supervision of H. N. Bartley, district supervisor at Richmond.

Notice of Quarantine No. 48 (0th Revision), with rules and regulations (11th Revision), effective January 1, 1933, was reprinted verbatim and issued on February 9 by The New York Central Railroad Company and West Shore Railroad as Joint Circular No. 164.

Bioloj classes in a number of Baltimore, Md., high schools are studying the life history and control of the Japanese beetle. Pupils and students recently obtained literature and specimens for such stu.y from the Baltimore field office.

Three Federal prosecutions for violations of the Plant Quarantine Act
arising from shipments of uncertified farm products and nursery stock contrary to the Japanese beetle quarantine regulations were successfully closed during March. On March 20, counsel for the Merchants and Miners Transportation Company appeared before Judge George A. Welsh in the United States District Court at Philadelphia, Pa., and entered a plea of -uilty to an information alleging transportation without certification of 35 baskets of apples from Philadelphia to West Palm Beach, Fla. The shipment was intercepted on September 3, 1932,






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at the Florida destination point'by Assistant' Plant Qua.rantine Inspector Merton LeRoy., A form of information and supporting affidaVits were delivered to the United States Attorney at Philadelphia on Novehber 22, 1932-. The employee of the common carrier responsible for the acceptance of the uncertified apples accompanied the attorney who represented the defendant company at the pleading The only explanation offered'by counsel or by the employee was that the shipment got by through carelessness. A fine of $25 was imposed and Judge Welsh stated that so far as he was concerned the common carrier might require the employee at fault to pay the same. On the following day, March'21, another case was listed for pleading before JudgeJ. Boyd Avis in the United States District Court held in the new Post Office building at Camden, N. J. The Camden case was against Robert J. Gibbons, who operates at'Pemberton, N. J., a mail order business in nursery stock under the name of The Wrens Nest. From some ten or more violations committed by this individual, three typical uncertified shipments intercepted by-transit inspectors of the Department 'on April
20 .*June 18, and November 11; 1932, were selected and presented in the fdrm of a three-count information to the United States Attorney at Trenton, N. J., on March 9, 1933. The defendant' pleaded guilty to- the three counts of the information. After the details of the violations had been briefly outlined to the Court, Judge Avis emphasized to the defendant the seriousness of the violationt. He stated that while-it was not a matter of life or death to the defen dant, it might be a question of affecting-the livelihood of farmers in uninfes e4 territory. In connection with the conver. :tion, Asistant United States Attorney I sadhre Worth brought out the destructiveness of the Japanese beetle in eating his rose bushes and -sassafras tree, aadJudg. Avis remarked 'about th density of the Japanese beetle in Woodbury, N. J., where he lives. The defendant is'quite elderly, and stated that his business is not proving profitable and that he will not carry it on another year. After the matter was thoroughl discussed, the Court stated that he would' suspend sentence and place the defen dant on probation for.sixmonths, ,.during which time Mr. Gibbons will be require to. report either in person or by, letter to the probation officer. -'The defenda assured the Court that there would be- no further violations as he would person ally supervise all his shipments. The 'thi rd proceedings terminated involved two violations on the part of the Merchants and Miners Transportation Company arising from uncertified shipments of 50 and 355 baskets of apples, respective, ly, accepted at Baltimore,'Md., for transportation via boat to Jacksonville, Fla., on September 2, 1932. 'Papers were filed in this case with the United States Attorney in Baltimore on November 23, 1932. These shipments were -inter cepted at Jacksonville, Fla., on September 6 by Collaborator Hubert W. William! Counsel for the common carrier on March 28 appeared before Judge William C. Coleman in the United States District Court in Baltimore and pleaded guilty to the two-count information. A fine of $25 on each count and $20.50 costs, or a total of $70.50, was imposed by the Court. These were the first Japanese beetle quarantine violations to come to the attention of Judge Coleman. Their successful conclusion may set a good precedent for any further court action which may be necessary in the Dfistrict of Maryland. Proceedings are now pendinig in the Baltimore Federal Court against the two consignors of the shipments involved in the latter proceedings against the transportation company. In ead






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of the three cases closed, th6. D1bpartmetwas represented by R. W. Sherman, of the South Norwalk headquarters. Mr. Sherman was permitted in each instance to outline to the Court the facts developed by the Department in connection with the interceptionsand subsequent investigations.

SpecialisedSorn Borer Activities

Men engaged in survey work to determine, the extent of demands for
Federal inspection required by 'shippers in' the formerly regulated corn borer infested territory in conformity with State quarantine orders met in conference at the South Norwal-k headquarters on March 8. Situations encountered in the various surveyed sections. w ere discussed. After the probable requirements for Federal inspection were summarized,- the. total territory affected by State quarantine regulations was subdivi.ded into areas which could conveniently'be served by single inspectors. Territories .assigned are as follows: Eastern Michigan, western Michigan, northern Indiana, southern Indiana and southwestern Ohio, northern Ohio, southeastern 1io and 'West Virginia, western Pennsylvania, eastern Pennsylvania, New Jersey, southeastern New York and Fairfield County, Conn., western New York, northeastern New York, and the State of .Connecticut other than Fairfield C6unty.- Inspection and certification in the rest of the New England States will be taken care of by inspectors working from the Boston and Springfield, Mass., field offices.

Practical control measures for the'European corn borer were during February, aid Ma'rch brought to the attention of farmers on the lower Del-Mar-Va Peninsula by State officials of Maryland and Virginia. Corn borer infestations have been' found in sections of-the peninsula during the past two seasons. Motion picture's illustrating the life historynand measuresfrecommended for control of the pe.st were shown at various meetings held throughout the affected farming regions. Considerable control information was also brought out in discussions following exhibition of the films. Mo.st farmers in the infested districts are well equipped with tractors-and plows, .with which they may perform the clean cultivation necessary for suppressing an individual infestation. Many.corn growers, however, top their corn and hold their stalks for fodder until after emergence of the corn borer moths. Considerable educational work may be required to change these practices to conform to clean-up measures necessary to destroy overwintering borers.

Samples of field corn intended for shipment to the Worldts Corn Show to be held at Regina, Saskatchewan, Canada, in June 1933, were heat treated at the central district headquarters in Springfield, Ohio. Each sample was composed of 10 ears. Of 59 samples treated, 44 "ere grown in Indiana, 10 in Ohio, 3 in Michigan, and one each in Wisconsin and Pennsylvania.









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MEXI CAN FRUIT FLY

The host-free period became effective this season in the three counties under quarantine on March 1. Under normal conditions citrus trees blossom in February and March, and the fruit begins to ripen in September and has heretofore been practically all harvested by February. Thus, if all trees are thoroughly cleaned of fruit by the end of February, there is no fruit available for oviposition by any female flies that may be in the Valley and the great majority will die before fruit begins to ripen in the fall. Growers are required to go over their trees-at the end of the harvesting period and remove all ripe and off-bloom fruit. Since it is practically impossible to see all of this scattering fruit, the groves are checked behind the growers by the inspectors. In order that this work may be completed as rapidly as possible with a corresponding lengthening of the host-free period, crews of laborers are employed to search the trees under the direct supervision of the inspectors. Where it-is'evident that the owner has made an honest effort to clean the trees of fruit, the laborers garner any occasional overlooked fruit and destroy it. If it is evident that the owner has not made a real effort to clean the trees, the laborers are withdrawn and the owner is required to reclean the grove. This tree-to-tree inspection was started in a small way in February as owners notified the inspectors that their groves were ready. It was started in earnest on March 1, and was completed in about three weeks. It was necessary to closely examine approximately three and one-half million trees in this work. The inspection was doubly difficult this season onaccount of the enormous amount of off-bloom fruit which was on the trees. A severe frost was experienced in March 1932, while the trees were in full bloom. As a result of the shock, many trees continued to bloom all season., Many of the trees had several distinct settings of fruit varying in size from a pigeon egg to that just beginning to ripen. Many of the groves had a full crop of "off-bloom", and some difficulty was experienced in prevailing on the owners to remove this fruit. The greatest difficulty was encountered in those groves in which the fruit was beginning to color. However, all groves were cleaned peacefully with the exception of six small patches in Willacy County. These were noncommercial plantings from which the owners refused to remove the off-bloom fruit. These cases were turned over to the State for action. The Commissioner issued an order condemning the fruit, and the State forces cleaned the fruit from the trees and destroyed it.

During the latter part of the month preparations were made for the
application of a poison spray to the bearing trees of the Valley. Requisitions were written out for each grove, supply depots were arranged for, all sprayers used in the last application were cleaned and repaired, and everything gotten in readiness to start on the 1st of April.






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PINK BOLLWORM

The eradication of wild cotton in southern Florida has been continued in the three areas mentioned in the last News Letter, namely, on Cape Sable, Key Largo, and the west coast

On Cape Sable the cleaning of the area referred to as the marl prairie has been completed. Some 340 acres were cleaned, from which 178,650 large ,.mature plants and 70,650 seedlings were removed. This was the most accessible wild cotton occurring in that section. The clean-up crews are no' engaged in removing the wild cotton along the canals near Flamingo.

On Key Largo 29 acres were cleaned for-the second time,O00rmature,
6,310 seedling, and 2,655 sprout plants being removed. From '18 acres cleaned for the first time 30,607 mature and 11,045 seedling plants were removed. The majority of these came from a large colony discovered. at Point Charleg, near
the Rock Harbor post office. When Key Largo was first cleaned last summer, Point Charles was cut off from the main key-by water, and at that time it was thought to be a separate key. This accounts for the large amount of wild cotton found there at this time.

On the west coast the second cleaning of Hillsborough County has been completed, several additional new colonies having been discovered and cleaned at this time. In addition to the above county, clean-'up has gone forward in Lee and Manatee Counties. Considerably more cotton has been located in Lee County than was expected when the work was begun in February. Due to the numerous keys and bays along the coast line it has been necessary to make n very intensive survey so as to be sure that all of the wild cotton is located. Small acreages of cotton were removed from some 16 different localities in this county during the month, and from 10 different locations in Manatee County.

In connection with the above clean-up, bolls from the wild cotton are being inspected from time to time,.so as to secure as much information as possible on the infestation of wild cotton. From Hillsborough and 'anatee Counties 1,408 bolls were inspected, 690 from Lee County, and 350 from Key Largo, all with negative results. On Cape Sable 50 bolls we're inspected, from which 23 pink bollworm larvae were taken; however', infestation was previously known to exist in this area.

The finding of a pink bollworm larva on March 3 in the blooms that
are examined daily from the cotton plots at Chapman Field, was mentioned in the last News Letter. Since then 10 additional larvae have been found, the last one being on March 24. These larvae have all been taken from blooms from Plat No. 2. This would seem to indicate that the infestation is most likely resulting from overwintering larvae in the soil.

The hotbed cotton at Presidio, in the Big Bend of Texas, has made very










satisfactory progress. By the end of the month some of the first planted cotton was sufficiently large to begin transplanting to the field plots. Approximately 100 plots will be planted, extending from Polvo, about 20 miles down the river from Presidio, to Ochoa, about 20 miles up the river from Presidio. Some 200 plants are being placed in each plot. A 375-gallon water tank has been mounted on a truck, and as each plot is set out.it is well watered. After the soil has dried sufficiently it is cultivated, ana a small amount of nitrate of soda applied to stimulate the growth of the plants. Some 14 plots have already been transplanted, and apparently the cotton is going to continue growing very well.

The ginning season has finally been completed, and practically all of the gin plants and premises have been thoroughly cleaned. During the 1932 crop season some 179,000 bales of cotton were ginned in the regulated area, which is about 32 percent less than the production in the 1931 crop. A company which owns a number of gins has already announced that it will shortly employ a crew to begin overhauling its plants in preparation for the coming season's crop. This is much earlier than such work usually begins.

Preparations for the coming crop are now actively under way, considerable acreage already having been planted in some sections. From present indications there will be an increase in cotton acreage in practically all sections of the regulated area. There seems to be a departure from the general farming practice this year in that some of the acreage is being "planted 1?yt; that is, the seed is planted in dry ground with irrigation to be applied later to make it germinate. This is partly due to the inability of some farmers to pay delinquent water charges pending the granting of new crop loans. Where a farmer has a large acreage this practice is of advantage in that all of his crop germinates uniformly.

Field inspection has been continued in the Thurberia weevil area during the month, but with no further signs of infestation being found. In addition to the field inspection, over 6,000 bolls were inspected at the Tucson laboratory, also with negative results. Practically all fields in the entire area were inspected, and the work hereafter will consist of bollie inspection.

Laboratory inspection at the various locations has gone forward satisfactorily. No signs of infestation were found in any of the material inspected during the month.




PREVENTING SPRIAD OF MOTHS

The State of Pennsylvania has established a quarantine on account of the gipsy moth, effective March 15, 1933, in that part of the State in which this insect has been found and adjacent areas in which there is likelihood of present or early future infestation. The area affected by this quarantine









includes 10 townships and 2 cities in Luzerne County, and 7 townships and 1
city in Lackawanna County. Articles whichcannot be moved from the regulated
area without certification by an inspector include nursery and ornamental
stock, forest products, and surface stones. There are also regulations governing the storage of freight cars on sidings to make sure that the insect is
not carried by this means to points outside of the infested area.

During March, a force averaging 225 laborers, employed by the Pennsylvania State Department of Agriculture and working under the direction of Federal supervisors, was engaged in cutting and burning of tree growth in the
heavily infested area in Pennsylvania. By the first of April over 700 acres of brush had been cut and burned in this area since clean-up work was started
on January 16. From time to time laborers who have shorn more than usual interest and ability in their work have been utilized in treating gipsy moth egg clusters with creosote. These men are divided into crews supervised by Federal agents thoroughly experienced in the work and have been detailed to
this type of work in different settlements in the generally infested area in
order to complete the creosoting before hatching takes place.

Two agents have continued plotting the woodland areas on maps in the
townships in Pennsylvania where it is expected work will later be required.

Scouting work was carried on as usual in the Barrier Zone in the southwestern part of Massachusetts and the northwestern part of Connecticut,' and
progress has been made considering the limited number of men available.

Work was completed during the month at this office on material to be
exhibited at the Chicago Century of Progress Exposition. This was so arranged
that it could be shown in conjunction-with the Japanese beetle exhibit, as
previously planned at'a conference at South Norwalk. This material was not prepared as a finished product but as suggested matter to aid those in Washington whoare to prepare the finished exhibit. Final preparations are being made in Washington so that all sketches, maps, etc., from this project and the Japanese beetle project may be combined in a uniform manner. The exhibit consisted of a large map approximately 4 feet by 4 feet 4 inches which showed in a general way the topography of the Northeastern States, the Barrier Zone, the
two quarantined areas, the present known gipsy moth infestations, and those
that have been exterminated. In the lower right-hand corner of this large map
was inserted a small map of the United States to illustrate the relatively
small area of the United States that is infested with the gipsy moth. To accompany this map, eight sketches were prepared illustrating different phases
of work in the gipsy moth project; namely, scouting, creosoting, clean-up work, spraying, nursery inspection, stone and quarry inspection, Christmas
tree inspection, and inspection of forest products. A large Riker mount was
also prepared showing the life history stages of the gipsy moth. The large
map was so prepared that the sketches and Riker mount might be inserted in it,
thus giving a complete picture of the gipsy moth project and the results accomplished.In Vermont, a location has been chosen at West Rutland for setting up
the weather station equipment this spring which previously has been operated







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at Shelburne, Mass. With the establishment of a permanent weather station at Greenfield, the station formerly maintained at -Shelburne will not be necessary. The location at West Rutland will fill in quite a large gap between Greenfield and Northfield, Vt., from which we have not obtained: wind-dispersion records previously.

Twelve de luxe type trucks were delivered at Greenfield on March 30.
After being equipped for field use they were assigned to quarantine inspectors to replace cars that are worn out.

In accordance with a request received from the Bureau of Entomology, quarantine inspectors and field supervisors of this project have been instructed to be on the lookout for occurrences of the European beech scale which is now known to be present in certain restricted areas in Maine, New Hampshire, and Massachusetts.

The records so far obtained from the survey being carried on by the
quarantine inspectors of the brown-tail moth distribution beyond the quarantine line show a definite spread of this insect in Maine northeast of the present quarantine line, and in New Hampshire north and west of the present quarantined area, including several towns in Vermont. This survey work has not yet been completed. Reports have been received that the infestation in the southwestern part of Maine, including York and Cumberland Counties, and the southern parts of Oxford and Androscoggin Counties, are more heavily infested than usual. There have also been reports of heavy infestation as far east as Castine, Maine, with a very heavy infestation at Rockland. There are very heavy infestations in the older infested section of New Hampshire.

There has been a decided change in the methods of marketing nursery stock at retail and there are strong indications that still further changes will be made. In a way, the changes which have taken place in marketing nursery stock are comparable to those which have been made in the marketing of numerous types of food products. in the past, numerous food*.pr6ducts were sold in bulk to retailers to be measured out as called for to purchasers. In the same way, nursery stock was sold almost exclusively in bulk- to dealers or stores, and even retail orders shipped from nurseries were sent out in what might be called bulk packages; i.e., there were no attempts made to treat individual specimens as units. In the last year or two, the development of package shipments has been on the increase and nurserymen are vying-with one another to create attractive package goods. Changes in marketing stock have been forced on nurserymen because of great increases in the amount of stock sold at department and other stores and also because of exceedingly keen competition.
The old-time preparation of stock with a small amount of moist moss around thb roots was not satisfactory for store trade. Such stock placed on display driedout rapidly and the purchaser was very apt to express dissatisfaction with the results obtained from planting. Much progress has been made by nurserymen in perfecting paclIgies and packing material so that now stoc. intended fr store trade is kept in almost perfect condition for a considerable time even though it may







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be on counters in heated stores. The preparation of package stock has extended even to perennials and some other plants commonly not sol in stores because of their perishable nature. This spring it has been noted at a number of the nurseries that they are making greater attempts to sell stock closer at hand than has been the' practice for years. Formerly, many nurseries spent large amounts of money for catalogues and advertising in trade papers,
and as a result many of their orders came from points at considerable distances from the nurseries themselves. Smaller amounts of money have been spent in the last year or so for these types of advertising and the nurserymen have been endeavoring to dispose of as much stock as possible directly to customers from selling stands located at the nurseries. By this method their costs are reduced considerably as they are able to devote less time to packing, and also there are no expenses involved for crates and packing materials.

Some of the nurseries ,-ere affected adversely by the bank holiday which was declared early in MIarch. Coming as it did almost at the height of the ordering season when many of the nurseries customarily receive numerous orders each day, it deterred people from ordering stock and apparently the delay has caused many to lose enthusiasm, and as a result the flow of orders to the nurseries has not been res-amed in its former volume.

Reports have been received from a number of the inspection districts
which show that the shipments of different types of products, particularly forest products, have been decreased and delayed by the very inclement weather since the first of the new year. In the northern sections of the quarantined area there have been heavy snowfalls which blocked many of the side roads and made it impossible for owners to move such materials as pulpwood. In other districts much rain coupled with some snow and alternate freezing and thawing has left roads almost impassable because of mud, and therefore it has not been
possible for owners to reach woodlots to move forest products which had been cut and left there awaiting shipment. In some sections also the digging of nursery stock has been delayed by the presence of considerable frost in the ground or by the fields being covered with water so that it was impossible to dig. It has been reported that because of ,wet grounds the digging season was delayed more than a week in some sections.

Two shipments of rather unusual noturo hace bc!n madc mccntl yfrm-. points in New Hampshire to a Canadian destination. Both of these shipments consisted of round pebbles which were reported as being about the size of a baseball. One lot came originally from France and had been used for a number of years within steel revolving cylinders to crush mica into por',der. These were being sent to Canada to be used there for the sa,,me type of work. The other shipment consisted of similar pebbles which originated in New Hampshire and w, ere to be used in the same manner for grinding feldspar. The powder from this latter material produced in that way is used in manufacturing porcelain. In both cases the stones were naturally produced, being collected probably from river beds. Only particular types of pebbles characterized by extreme hardness can be used for this purpose.






UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
-22-504
3 1262 09245 0740

A call was recently received for inspection of an evergreen bough lot in the lightly infested area of southern Vermont. The district inspector examined the lot and found there was no evidence of gipsy moth infestation
on the lot or in the immediate vicinity. The boughs, which were fir balsam, were then cut and baled and certified for shipment. This shipment, comprising 10 tons of boughs, was consigned to Jacksonville, Fla;. It is understood that they were to be dyed or colored by some process at Jacksonville, and to
be used or sold for decorative purposes' This is the first incident of any sizable shipment of evergreen boughs at this season of the year, and it may
possibly be the starting of a new industry which might have considerable effect on the volume of evergreen bough lot inspection.

Since the Federal Government withdrew from New Jersey at the close of the fiscal year 1932, a small crew of gipsy moth experts has been maintained by the State of New Jersey for the purpose of check-up work around old infestations. In February 1933, a report was received from the New Jersey gipsy moth office that while doing intensive scouting work at and in the vicinity of an old colony site in Mendham, 'on the Randolph Township line, a new fertile gipsy moth egg cluster was found. This egg 'cluster' is in the southeast corner of Randolph Township near the point where the townships of Mendham, Morristown, and Randolph meet. Prior to this, the last live gipsymoth infested site found in New Jersey was the one discovered in Piscataway Township in May 1929. Since the finding of the egg cluster in February, intensive scouting has been continued in an area cf about a square mile surrounding this infestation, and early*in April a small gipsy moth colony, comprising 19 new and 9 old egg clusters, was located approximately one-quarter mile from the single egg cluster previously found. The infestation is located in very rough, ledgy country. Approximately one acre is infested and practically all egg clusters found to date were deposited on rocks and ledges. This infestation probably resulted from local wind spread in 1927 from an infestation found in Mendham during that year. The egg clusters are small in size and from the low rate of increase it appears that this infestation has increased rather slowly. The finding of these infestations emphasizes the value of expert men in doing check-up work after large infestations are considered eradicated.




Full Text

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. I . '~ . ... .. , . : . .. . "\ -,, . .-, LI RAR ... A _rE PLANT BOARD ... ,. , , N E W S L E T T E R BUREAU OF PLAUT Q,UA~T !NE UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE -"t: ... ,.. .. _ ,,. ..• ~....... . _ ......... _ --~.: .... --. . . ,.. -----Number 29 (NOT FOR PUBLICA~ICN)' . ' May 1, 1933. . . ... .... ..... _ . .. . .. • •• -• •u•• .. • ' .• FOR.EIG:t-! PLANT QUARANTINES REcim Jfw.roM010GtcA-r/--1NTERcEPTI0Ns oF-rNTEREsT -.. Fruit ,fly in grapefruit. --Six. livi_ng la+wae. of Anastrepha ludens Loew ( orange. maggot) -.:Ve;e in terc_.epted .. at. Lare-do .. ~--Tex ~-;-in t{~ o -.. g~apefrui t in baggage -from :Mexico. . . . . ..... Thrips from Germany.--Chirothrips hamatus Tryb. Philadel~hia among evergreen cutt-ing s in the mail fI_'om Watson, of" Gainesvil.Ie, . .F:l.a., ~:ep-0rts ~truft--,-~ -his thl" :ips from the Uni'ted States. wa.'s intercepted at Germc3:n.Y. J. R. is .. n ot : r eoo r de d ..... .... . -..... • .... ... ....... _.. . .. ... Aphid .. on.tw.acinth-bulbs~--Anuraphi~ tuli'pae (:F3'oyer) 1ntercept:ed at Charleston, S. C'.: on hyacinth bulbs _in quart,ers from Belg ium . _This~is a European species which has been introduced into this country. I't infests iris .. anct .. tu;J._i; p above and below groun d and continues to feed and breed after the bui~' s or rl'ii~o~e s hav' e been placed in s torc3:ge . .. .. Bruchid from France.~~Bruchidius lividimanus Gyll. (Bruchidae) as intercepted at Washington, D : C., in seeds of Cyti sus al bus in the mail from France. "'•' " : . . . . . . ... Beetle in w oo d carvings.--Adults of Lichenophanes tristis Fahr. (Bostri'chidae) .. were intercepted at St. Paul, Minn., in wood carvings in the mail from the~.UD;ion of South Africa. Wh~ tef1x._fr.9m JfilJ?ll . --Te_!-ral a .ucubac (Kuwana) (Aleyrodidae) was intercepted at San Frajciscu un Gp. in quarters from 'Japan. This whitefly is reported as a pest of citrus in Japan.

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-2-Pomegranates infested.--A larva and pupa of Cry toblabes gnidiella Mill. (P yralidae) were intercepted at Philadelphia in the blossom ends of t w o pomegranates in the mail from Italy. European fruit scale on e.pple.--Aspidiotus ostreaeformis Curt. ( Coccidae) vvas i n t ercepted at .New York on apples in cargo from Czechoslovakia. This is a common species on deciduous fruit and ornamental trees in Europe and in the eastern United States. Lepidopterous larvae inacorns.--Larvae of Laspeyresia sp. (Olethreutidae) were found1at Philadelphia in acorns of cork oak (Qu.ercus suber) in cargo from Spain. Laspeyresia sp. has been in tercep.ted previously in acorns from . China, Germany, Japan, Portugal, and Turltey. Weevil in nacking material.--Acallocrates denticollis Germ. (Curculionidae) was found a t Washington, D. C., in packing about grape cuttings in the mail from Rumania. Lan ternfly on bananas .--Hel icopt,era longiceps Fowler (Fulgorie.ae) was intercepted at San Francisco on bananas in cargo from Panama. S,cal e insect from Ja12an, --Le12idosa12hes cymbidicola Kuwana (Coccidae) was taken at Honolulu on an orchid (Cymbidium sinense) leaf in cargo from Japan. This coccid was described in 1925 on orchids in Japan. It is the first int~rception_record_of this scale insect in our files • . ' ' Tobacco budworm in. gandul pods and tomato.--Larvae of J!eliothis vir~scens Fab. (Noctuidae) were taken ~t San Juan, P.R., in gandul or pigeon pea (Ca.janus indicus) pods for export in cargo from Puerto Rico to the mainland of the United States. A larva of the same insect was found at New York in a tomato in car g o from Cuba. This budworm is an important tobacco pest especially in. the southeastern p art of the United States. Aphid galls from China.--Galls made by Schlechtendalia chinensis Bell (aphid): arrived at Baltimore, Md., in cargo from China . L . H. 11\Teld, of East Falls Church, Va., reports as follows: "This is.the Chinese Gall made ~ya species of plant lice, Schlechtendalia chinensis Bell, on the leaves of a sumac, Rhus semialata Murr.11 RECENT PATHOLOGICAL INTERCEPTION S OF.INTEREST Diseased husk tomato.--The disease on a husk tomato from Mexico intercepted at -El Paso was tentatively determined as Phoma destructiva. The determination was verified by Mr. Stevenson, of the Bureau of Plant Industry, who checked the spore measurements with the description. Apparently this disease had not been report e d as occurring on husk toma t o . Anothe r c , ha;yo te disease interception .--A cha yote from Mexico in tercepte

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-3at :vfobile :Va:s 1fdund to b~ Jnfec.te_ ~-_AV ~ th -~l•l-etc'~:i:ch~:ia:g. ena~i-m. This is t h e first .inter.cep.t.ion .of -th'is disease on chayote • . • • I T-otna to cii sease in Virgin Islands. --A -tomato o.isease colle~ted, i~ the field in St~ Croix by ltispectors from Puerto Ri~o h a ~1 9.~e!l dete~i~ ri?d. as bacterialspot (Ba.cterium-vesicatorium). This is the 11rst. coilectlon. of the disease we have Bad from Virgin'" Islands. Pepper dis~ase in Puerto Rico.--Meliola capsicola qollected at Ad.juntas, P. R., on pepper leaf and stem, was received some time ago but'.the d.tftermination has just been received from J. A • . Stevenson, who has be~n engaged in a study of the genus Meliola for several years . . . . ' Diseased ca.uliflow~r from France.--'r
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Tylenchus dipsaci in potatoes.--Mobile:has added Norway tothe list of count.r1es fr.om whi .c we have intercepted Tylenchus dipsa-ci in potatoes. More interceptions of this disease are being made this year than ever before. The first interception of 1• ,dipsaci in potato was made in January 1930. During the year 1930 only-4interce':f)tions of .. this n~ma . inpotato were made, of which 1 was ma.de in the fi.rst three months, J~nuary to Maroh inclusive. In 1931 there were 31 interceptions o f which'16we're~ made in the first quar ter, and in 1932 there were 10 interceptions of which 1 was made in the. first quarter. In the first quarter of 1933 there w _ e,.,r,e 22 i~t,e_ :rce12tio11s of T. dinsaci in potatoes. As observed in the material seen here the-,characterist~c symptoms of the disease are definitely but rather shallowly depressed areas. When cut into thediscolored tissue is_ found to. be limited. to the surface eighth of an inch with occasional pockets extending some 'what deeper. General appearance of the tissue is somewhat simi_lar tq the mottled br'own of late blight (Ph:y:tophthor,a infestans) except that the latter is lik~ly to be a lighter color if just starting or to extend deep into the tissue if older and dark in color. The nema-infested tissue is frequently invaded.by other organisms and the characteristic symptoms largely obscured. In the potato material exa,mined . nemas have been s9metimes plentiful, sometimes difficult to find, and in general haye appeared to be shorter and smaller than they are likely to be in good narcissus material. In tercept'i o~_potaJ.9..:i..9.wdery scab . _ _:Receip' t o :t several interceptions of fu2.Q.p_gQj~ora SUE}~~~..:. caused us to examine the.records of inter ceptions of this disease, The number of interceptions per year bas been as follows: 1915 -16, 1916 -4, 1917 -0, 1918 -1, 1919 -1, 1920 4, 1921 -5, 1922 -1, 1923 6 , 1924 -12, 1925 17, 1926 -12, 1927 -29, 1928 -20; 1929 -10, 1930 .8, 1931 -23, 1"93~ -22, 1933(Janua~y--March material .received in Washington only) 9~ Of the 22 interceptions made in 1932, only -2 came to Washington, the other 20 having been made in San Francisco. This disease has a wide distribution as show n by our interceptions, the country of origin for the past three years being as follows: 1930, Argen tina, En gland (3); Estonia (2), Ireland, New Zealand; 1931, Arge.ntina, Belgium (2), Brazil: Denmark, En gland (8), Finland, France; Germany, Italy (2), Mexico,. N'or v tiay, Scotland, S weden (2); 1932, Argentina (2), China, England (3), France, Germany (2), Holland (2), Italy, Japan (6),'1Jorway (2), Scotland Tasmania. It will be note d that Argentina and England are 'the only countries1 appearing in all three lists. The fact th:1t diseases are thus erratic in their occurrence is a matter of consid.era,ble interest. Projects covering a study of the correlation of the increased occurrence.of diseases and insect pests with . w eathe r and other condition s of preceding seasons are being carrie out in several parts of the world. More complete informa.tion regarding such correlation wou.:i.d .enable inspectors to _ know what diseases to expect on any given product. ' This \VOul ' d b e of va)ue in intercepti'ng incipie_nt stages of the diseases early in the season.

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,. -5MARCH INTERCEPTIONS.BY PORTS . . Interceptions and interception records received in Washington during ~~rch_ we"!-'~ _as follows: _:S~lti~or~ 39, -B~liingham 12, Boston 113, :srownsyille 32, B~tfalo 5, Calexico. ~ -,. Charlest9n 42, Chicag o 2, ?Corpus Christi 6, De-. . . . ' \ \ . ' . . . trait 1~, Douglas 2, ]Jagl~.~I'ass.3, ElPg.so :68, Fabens 1, Galveston 19, Hidalgo . . .... . . . l,Laredo.7, Mobil~ 52, -N/ic.o 2; lf~'ii'. Orlea~s8'l, NewYork 254,-Mogales 325, Norfolk 74, Phila9-elphi'a, .~21,?, -P.o~t . ..A.r.thur. l , Portland 8, Presidi0-1 ; ; San Juan 198, San Ysidro I, Savannah 11, Seattle 38, St. Paul 2. Of the total of 1,609 interceptions, 882 _were of insects -and 727: o;f cli seases. . .. . . . . • ' SEATTLE OFFICE HAS NEW Q,UARTERS ' . -' ' , ..... ( '" As of Ap+,,il 1 . , the Seattle office, A. G. Webb= in Cha:rgef , : ms beeh: moved to a new address, 540 Federal Office Building, Seattle, i!Ta.sh.- •.: , . 1 • . ~ , , ' , : ..... BELL APPLES LOOK LIKE LI ms~.: . . } . •~e. vigi;I.~pc e ~hat port inspectors must exercise on all occasio n s is well i],.lustrated by a.little incident from the day/bYc;day doings at-Philadel phia. : th~._. ship'~ -o:ff:i'._cer on an incoming ship reported some -limes in stores to the customs official who passed on the information to the.plant ~u.arantine inspector. Examination of the so-called limes was made over the protest of the steward against so much inspection, and it was found that though superficially resembling ordinary limes the fruits in reality were bell apples (Passiflora sp.) 1 u-kr_v1i1 fruit fly host. The Philadelphia inspector remarks that it is undesirable to take ~ucr for granted in ship inspection work. .•: .. -. . • • "I-• • • r FOREIGN PLANTS, TRl-TO CRASH THE t;ATE r.__ ~, • 0 I•: .. r:• . . . .. ~-' .., .. , wi. H. Freeman, of the New York office, prese-nt. s a succinct but revealing picture of the _part i piayed by. the plant quarantine inspe.ctor in checking ,th~ constant atte~vts .m~d e by oc~an passengers to bring plant materials ~nto this country apparc!lt:y wi\hout-the slightest thought,-of the pests that these plants might carry and usually blissfully ignorant of quarantine restrictions. " • • I •. •,•• • ~ • • ). a • In pas sengers' baggage from the S. S. Rex arriving from Italy at New York on .March 91 : tb.e fo1.Jowing varied assortment of plant materials was found by the'inspector~ s'. .;. hc:r:::-y, 46 fig, and 6 auj_n2e tr~~s~ 8 pl.um a:nd 3 olive seedlings; 65 g.1:a,:>8 cuttings; 18 carnation, 9 ch..:ysanthemum, 4 elephant's-ear, 20 fennel, 1 r qse:mary," 4 ranunculus, and 1 sedum plants; 75 apples,J.46 oranges, 5 pomegranates,. 5 pears, 40 prickly pears, 6 quince, 7 -sweet lim•es, and 2 chayotes. For the ben8fit of any one inclined to make light of the pest-carrying possioilities of these small assorted lots, it is noted that the inspection staff found 22 different kinds of diseases and insects on them. Since 12 out of the 21 lots were apparently destined for planting here, thus providing the

PAGE 6

-6-mos t favorable conditions possible f _or propagation of any pests they might carry, the danger of such introductions is obvious . . ."JI From an.other Italian ship , th. e . s. S. Conte di Savoia, arriving on March 16, the passengers I baggage yielded the following: 6 car.nation, 50 fen~el, 4 fig, .and 48 grape cuttings; 2 opuntia stems; 50 unidentified seed-1 ings;: _ 3 bamboo r:oots; 24 ci tru,s leaves; 150 apples, 200 globe artichok~..s, 115 oranges,.Z2pf3ar _ s:•, . 88 p,ripkly pears, 48 sweet limes, and 51 tangerin~s. ' .. \ . .r • • Here again 7 out o . f these 15 lots were apparently intended to be. plant e and there were found on them 14 insects and. diseases. .... .. :., .,, Wben one consid~rs t':hat . these two case s represent but a minute fraction of the passenger moyement tptp_or ports from all parts of the.world, all year round, and season after.; s~aso_IH. this fragmentary but vi vtd pic.ture is significant. It enables one to view the problem of keeping out pests in better perspective,--a task whici) tp.us--1:oom s•in immense magnitude, perplexing in its details and beset with difficulties. We are subjected to a continual pressure from.all sides by plants •wi.th .th.~ir accompanying pests _striving to enter our borders, se.eking blindly -and i gnorti,ntly for the most part but at times with insi_.s .tent c:r$.f tiness, Agatns t this relentless pres.sure from without. we . have as a ,defense,-:---the.plant q'l?E,rantine -inspector • . . DOMESTIC PLANT QUARANTINES The work of _the tomato pin w orm (Gnorimoschema l;ycopersicalla), an insect of economic importance and limited distribution, has been called to the attention of th~ National Pl~nt Boardby thi. s Bureau. This inse_qt has heretofore. been injurious: in Hawaii, C .al if ornia, and Mexico , and has be en discovered more recently in l?ennsylvania and. Florida. The Bureau makes no recommendation with respect to the possibility. of quarantine action. NEW TERMINAL INSPECTION REGULATION r • The recent revision of the Postal Laws and Regulations provides for an alternative procedure for expedittng and simplifying the handling of plant shi: ment_ s for terminal inspection by ~$tiate ~nspectors. Heretofore the destina tionr postmaster has been required to send the-plants, at the addresse. e1s expense, t a designated terminal inspection point for examination and return.. This invol ed considerable delay and often resulted in damage to the plants. Many State quarantine officers have accordingly asked for authority to make the inspectio: while the p~ckag e is en route and before it is delivered to the destination post office. The n e w method is outlined in the 1932 revision of the Postal Laws and

PAGE 7

-7-.. ,, ... . .~ . Reg,.c1tions as paragraph 7 of section 596t pag e 290, which reads: "When desired': {~ order to simplify and expedite the handling of parcels of plant material subject to tenninal, i~~pection, the addressee may have;the parcels addressed to himself in care of a State plan_ t inspector at' an inspection point and arrang e with the inspector to have the latter forward the p arcels to the addresseet after inspection an4:passing, upon payment of the forwarding postage whic~ shall be furnished to t~e inspector by the addressee, or the addressee may-_,1iave the sender plac~ a pledge to pay the forwarding postage on the parcels, ih vb ich case they shp.11, after being inspected and passed, be forwarued, rated with the forwarding postage, such postage t~ be collected upon delivery as provided ' by p~ragraph 4, section 769. In following the latter procedure the parcels shall be labeled as fallows: ., "Shippedrfor (or on a/c) W. H . Jones, Ocean Springs, Miss . From : 1 , Eastern Nurseries, Sa vanna:1 t Ga . • Forwarding Posta.ge Guaranteed. Contents: j,, , ____ • .._ _ ___,.. ________ _ To: . • H. Jones , . .. c/o State.Plant 1nspector, -Bi~oxit W.iss. 1111TJ.1en forwarding parcels under the foregoing arrangement, the inspector shall first cross out 1c/o Sta."t'e Plant Inspector, 1 and the name of the post office at the poin t of insp;ction appearing in the original address, and insert the name of the post office to which th0 parcels are to be forwarded for delivery to the addressee u.pori payment of forv,arding postage." T.nile this paragraph contemplates action by the addressee in requesting the sender to address the parcel to the inspector, the division of classification of the Post Office Department suggests that plant quarantine officers of States which have adopted terminal inspection could themselves make such a suggestion to nurserymen shipping into the State. The nurseryman would then address all plant parce.ls .to the addressee in care of the State plant inspector at the proper inspection point. The parcel ~oul d then be inspected and forwarded to the addressee, the forwarding postage being collected from the latter. It would, however, be necessary for the shipper to guarantee such forwarding postag e . The plant auarantine officers of one or t r o States are reported to have proposed this arrangement to t~e principal shippers who send nursery stock and other plants into their St.-l.te. If plant _u.arantine officers of other States which have ad0pted t n e terminal inspection plan ~ish to work out sueh an arrangement , infor:nation as to i • t s operation may be secured from the Bureau of Plant Quarantine. . , ... .

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-8TRANSIT IlJSPECTION Freight shipments of nursery stock in volume began about March 16, according to observations made by transit inspectors at Chicago. It was noted that about 50 percent of the shipments contained Ribes. Through the courtesy of the Century of Progress Exposition officials in supplying passes, the transit inspectors at Chicago have been abie to check daily on the certification of shipments of trees coming into the grounds. All such shipments thus far have been found to be properly certified and no shipments have come into the grounds which were not previously reported upon by the transportation company concerned. .A.ssistance in check:ing mail and express shipments of nursery stock e . t Albany, N. Y., is being given by Arthur Viall incidental to his regular work on European corn borer inspection and certification. WHITE-PINE BLIS'J!ER RUST White pines to be used on the grounds at the Century of Progress Exposition at Chicago are being supplied from a native planting in Michigan a hundred miles from any known infection of the white-pine blister rust. The trees were inspected before being shipped and will be carefully inspected on the grounds from time to time throughout the summer. They will then be destroyed at the close of the season. There have been several shipments of currant and gooseberry plants from such recently infected States as Iowa, Ohio, and Maryland which it has been necessary to return to consignors for the reason that the plants did not fully meet the requirements for movement from infected States, as they were not dormant nor had they been dipped in lime-sulphur solution. The present regulations require either complete . dormancy o:t dipping in order to insure that no blister rust spores are being carried to other States. This is the first season that the States named, as well as Virginia and West Virginia, have been designated as infected, and the nurserymen in those States have not heretofore been affected by the dipping and dormancy requirements. NARCISSUS BtJLB PESTS ~arcissus inspectors have often noted that the Chinese sacred lily seems immune from Tylenchus infestation, while Soliel d10r, on the other extreme, is more likely to be found infested than are other polyanthus types on the same premises. A number of cases in San Diego County, Calif., have recently been found in which the plants of Chinese sacred lily (Narcissus tazetta orientalis) have been found infested with Tylenchus dipsaci as determined by D. G. Milbrath and verified by Dr. G, Steiner of the Bureau of Plant !ndustry. This is the first record in the latter office of such infestation of orientalis.

PAGE 9

-9-PHONY-PEACH DISEASE The Department's announcement under date of February 6, regarding the revocation of Federal plant quarantine No. 67, indicated that, although t_he primary responsibility for preventing spread of the phony peach disease would hereafter rest with the various States, the revocation of the Federal quarantine did not mean the abandonment of the .Department's interest in this disease but that this Bureau would plan to cooperate with the respective State officials in so far as funds and facilities permit. Considerable thought has been given to the entire subject of controlling the eppeod of the phony peach disease under present conditions. Although the availo.ble evidence indicates that effective protection against the disease might be obtained through complete elimination of peach-borer infested or injured stock, it. appears that the great amount of peach nursery stock grown in the South, the larg e numbers of nurseries involved, and the length of the digging and shipping season, tend to make full supervision of the culling of all such stock impracticable. To avoid this difficulty, the National Plant Board has recommended that the various States 11accept stock from a nursery where no disease has been found by a duly authorized State or Federal inspector within a mile from the nursery, or if infected trees are found within the one-mile zone, all infected trees must be destroyed and all peach nursery stock inspected tree by tree at digging by a State or Federal inspector and all trees found infested by peach tree root borer culled out and destroyed.11 The environs of most of the peach-growing nurseries have heretofore been inspected by representatives of this Bureau.. The large number of inspections made each year by a very limited personnel did not always allow time for adjusting schedules to meet the dates upon wiich State inspectors migh t also have arranged to be at the nurseries and, tnerefore, in m o s t State s the State inspectors have not had opportunity to become as familiar with the methods of inspecting nursery environs for the phony peach disease as would have been desirable. To fill this need, tentative plans are being made to cooperate, in so far as is_ desired and is possible 11ith the funds and personnel nvailable, in the environs inspections in each State this summer. Possibly ~ex~ fall there will be opportunities to assist in the dev elopment and adoption of improved culling practices to eliminate peach-borer infested and borer-injured stock, and to observe the manner in which such culling practices work oDt in the different States. Correspondence is now being carried on v,ith the respective p lant quarantine and nursery inspection officials of the phony peach disease infecte d States with regard to the amount of assistance desired from this Bureau in connection with i~spection of the environs of peach-growing_n:urseries duriLg the coming summer and next fall.

PAGE 10

• . -1.0,~4", ~ :?-0~ 1 . E ,i~t,QA,-TION . -=,,: .. ~ , ••. r .. J , .. ~. 'I •• , •• Routine in~pec.tj,9 _n,. ,t}lat i~t p~r:i _odi_ c . :i,_ r;i,s,Peqt.to . n _of the infested areas, was cut ~ow n _in 'MarciL_.du _i?. _'9 . ,the___r~q.u_cti'on }~ the. 'size .. of t h e field force. Routine irispection 'h~s. 9 e,_en ,.<-~: a .rrie~. ori. ~~ri-qe . .t:he wo r~. ~as reorganized. The plan, of cour_ s ' e ~ -Wfl. S tc, loG, a _t"El, 'and 't?i.tm':tna,,t'e. ) ~e \~e_nter' s of infestation, and then by sys tem~:t.ic:( _ipspection lo o~ t~-: ~ .nd.'el.jjn {rifl t.e the inf es tat ions re su.1 ting from the. spr~a. d _ / . The .t'ime . i~!;,i/ec _tion \,hQuld be. 'carried on after the centers of inf$s'ta. ti'chi' :ar. e elirri{nate<:1. . , , ~nd the : 4i$:tan.ce .of possible spread, are matters of Judginent base' d o i:i p 'ast records • . No aefini te rules can be laid _d,owi:i because of. i~_spec_ t\c;ni c .ondi tions , . . etc • . , . in t:he . . different ar.eas. . . '. . . . . . . . . . . \ ' . ~ : 1 • It is pl_ann;i . ~ :ext _ 'risc;:ai .. y e .ar . to'} ~ ;ca 1 1. t'he expe _rienc;ed in.~pe{tlrs ... now on furloug h ' and r e sume ro\1ti'ne . inspection. . lf. :~;-fficient funds ar' e ... availa~le • it is proqapl. ~ . :t~at., thi. s ,type, .. of wo~k: may be : c .omplete. d by the e??,d . _of thl\ / i :scal year. . ... .... .: ,._ -: ': ... . . , .. . . . '• , • • . . . • . . . t,• . • '; 1 . : • ' : : . One importa n t phase o'f the-eradication wor~ w.hich has .been car~le_ d on for some time is the careful survey to locate un1isted palms and checkihg of fields where .. ~eedli. ng _ptanting s _hp,y_ e been _9:ug o~t... Small infested palms from seed .and infested offpho9~s. on d _ eaa. _pal~ s0h'ifnp .. s .have __ peen found in fi_elds where old infe~ted_ se~ _ : dJ,in g plantings_ 'lflier~ s _u:pp_ci~, ~d_ to have been eliminited several years ago. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . _ . .. . • . . . . ; "'':: . . JAPANESE BEETLE AND EUROPEAN CORN BORER ,. ... . . . . . ~ . ' . ' : . ' ',, t' • ~ .... ':. _' .. : . Exclusi v~. J~pane\ e ~e~t 1' Work . , . . ,. . . . . ; ' . . .. . Arr~~gem k~t~~~-W~r~ c~idpl, ~tea. _du.r)~g ' M a te~ for t;ap storage facil1fies t ,hrour .,hout lfor:th' Oaroii: ne.., Sou,th, ,Ca_:ri9Jiria_ , , west' Virginia, and Virginia.' .. Cen .... : f~ai shipping . poi~t_ s ~ o . nv:eniejit to 1t .he. 10 .cai'i_fiis_ . to b~ ttapp~d were thd-n . . . . . . , . , . ' . . . , , , ,' . . '. . . : ', . t ',, . . _ selecte. d in o _rder. t~t fi,il).. ,c?,rload sriipm e:nt~ .. might be made to points advan-. tageous from the .. st;3 : n .Q.poi_nf o ( ~i;tance. of_ haul,: : io?,q c ondi tions , . speed' 'of . frei_ ght movement', . an~:-f'r-~:j.g h ( rayes , • . _,The : rJr:~t: _ca:tloa~ d of trap eqi.:1:ipm-~nt left South Nor walk,: . . Co. rip. ~ .. .on arch 2i_-anf. a,t,r'_ived~ at", ~ : ockyMount, N. c.;'on the morning of Mar.c)1_,2 7 • . Fo':ur g o ve r nra e . ~ . t .. t .:rc;k_ s re a _ched:Rocky Mount the same morn .ing the car ar.~ive.d~-; ,anc l ,t 'h e , d ~ri,ver' s:.' irruned~a tely ~~ -gan unloading operations. From this car, set~upst each corisis'ting o.f. 33 _ _ .6a~{ e s . (.~96) :meJal trap assemblie 4 cans of bran-mix bait, and 66 bundles "(~96)'.rod~,-were trucJ.i:ed to the follow ing trapping points in Nor . th, C a .rolin(.;t _ : ~por,t~, Virginia, Weldon, Elizabeth cf ty I Gre enville . , Kin . s tpn, 0:9l dsporo , . Roclcy . 1,i.9\ :ixit ,' apd w:i.1m{ngton. A second car of trap equip:nen~ ... w:a ~:: 19. a ) i ~ d ' o'u,t of'._ s . 6-0.. t;ii' }:Jo_ r wal k on March 25 and a:rri ved at Durham, N. C., on March 2 9 _ . :Th~--$aine four gc;,ver.~ep:t t _rcks procee_ded to Durham and accomplished the unl'oading of the car on April 1. . Trip equipment for similar set-ups as mentione d above were trucked to each of the following

PAGE 11

-11-North Carolina localities: Danville and South Boston (one set-up), Virginia, Oxford, Raleigh, Durham, Burlington, Greensboro, High Point, Winston-Salem, Sanford, and Fayetteville. The third car to leav.e South Norwaik was loaded on March 31 and dispatched to Columbia, S. C. . Featured in the booth of a Delaware tree surgery company exhibiting at the Philadelphia Flower Show was a large, framed pai'nting, 3 by 4 feet, depicting in c~lo:ts a Japc3:riese 1;,eetle approximately 16 ~ nches ~ong, below whic~ op a smaller scale were seven Jap~nese be~tles restingon a rose. leaf. A'New _Jersey'insecticide manufacturer exhi"bited a life history Riker mount of t4e Japanese-beetle. Life pistory mounts were also shown of the Mexican bean beetle, peach 'tree borer, tent caterpillar, and Colorado,potato beetle. Pamphlets were distributed giving detail. s -of the use of arsenate of lead for protection of lawns and golf courses, oleate coated arsehate of iead f-0r foliage protection, and a rotenone and. pyrethrum contact spray, all rec ommended for Japanese beetle control. Recognition was given to the Japanese Beetle Laboratory for the perfecting of the oleate coated arsenate of lead spraying material and the methods of applying arsenate of lead to lawns and golf course9 . An interesting bit of information in the pamphlet on coated arsenate of lead is to the effect that 110leate Coated Arsenate of Lead is different from ordinary Arsenate of Lead, each microscopic particle having a coating of Lead Oleate Soap which makes it palatable to the beetle, thus causing an 80 percent kill as against only a 30 percent kill on foliage sprayed with ordinary Arsenate of Lead." The insecticide firm reported having received many inquiries concerning sprays and lawn treatment for Japanese beet~e control. Distribution of Japanese beetle quarantine literature which has heretofore been accomrlii'nd through each State headquarters office will in the future be made through the general headquarters of the project. Mailing lists prepared by the field offices have been forwarded to South Norwalk and are being combined with addresses from other sources. Addresses thus secured have been typed on stencil cards for use in an addressing machine. Forty thousand yellow Japanese beetle quarantine map-posters, 12 by 20 inches in size, were received on March 11. These were se.tout in mailing tubes purchased on General Schedule. Franked labels were printed on the addressing machine and these in turn were pasted on the mailing tubes. Distribution of the posters to agents of the Railway Express Agency and the Southeastern Express Company was accomplished through the mailing bureau of the Railway Express Agency in New York City, to which bureau 3,000 copies of the map were supplied via 11 deadhead" express . Approximately 25,000 copies of the printed Notice of Quarantine No. 48 (9th Revision), with supplemental rules and regulations (11th Revision), were r eceived on March 23. Distribution of the quarantine notices was still in progress at the end of Mal'ch. Mailing of 15,000 Japanese Beetle Shipper's Guides to interested firms, individuals, and a gents of c e r tain com~on carriers was completed throug h the Qistrict offices early in t h e month. Border patrol operations began on March 28 with the establishment of a

PAGE 12

-12road patrol post on the principal higp.way"lea.dingJ south fiemTthe District of Co'lumbia-northe~n Vi:r.ginia .isol.ated. r.e@.1..ated zomf. . PF~pAtciti .ons for the posts. began o . n _ March ~ -2, w~en t,he booths :used -at :1a-st y .ei.r 1 s < s ta tions were moved from .. their temporary . . stqrage sites neat :thei.r• :pre~fou.s-'locations to the new locations required by 'the .. extension of the regulated zones. By March 31 there were nine. 9tati.pns ._in operation • . These: -wcff~ e Yocated on U. S. Highway No; . rat 'the. F,r~d~rick~b:u.r ~g,:. Va,, Ci. ty liful t's . i ; : t q f . • . ; S 11 Highways Nos. 211 and. 50•; -west .of Fai.i-fai, .Va ... . i u.: .S. Highway;.No. i,00.( iH ;the Harpers Ferry, .w. Va. : , bridgf;Mar;yli3.I?-d State Route No. 34 .at,Sh:epherdst own, W. Va., bridge .. :u. s . Highway ~0 ~ 11a~ Williamsport, Md., bridget • U i : S • . Highway No. 40, west , of Cumberland , Md.; U. s-! Highwa:y No. 19. , south of :.Mount Mo:rris; Pa.; and . ,, ! ' \ . , : . . . . ' .. :.U. S. 'Route No, . :4q,wetit of , .W~qt Alexander, Pq;. Each:of these station~ is mnnned by one ''i' n 'spect6' r who worli~-: e _ight ho~s daily'.: : 1.A.c1di t'ional me'ri• wfl1 be . .. . , . , . . • ...... , .. . , . . -r .. . added and the hours eac_ h st~t~on ,.is operated . W :i-11.be :,i'nc-reased as s'ooh as is evident the tisu.ai he~V:Y .. spring ,m,ov.ement of_ g;uaran'.tined: •material • . _. .. ~ . • . . ' • • ., .. • , . ' I• ~. ,, :' ( • '• . i • •• I Live adult Japanese beetles. ob tai~~d :r:r~m. an -.ncertified: grienh6il.se near Philadelphia \~ere used a . s an exhibit. tn connection with tb.e mbtion_ pictur,es '-" Old' Jake Wakes Up, II a c 'orn borerfilm,' and 11Ho1dihg; th~ Japanese Beetle , 11 sho w n.a t a "m~n Is clb meeting. i.p.: Nor walk,. Conn. ~ on March :28. Approximately 350 LLve. Japanese beetles v ~erC:?. al$o', collecte'd on March 14 and shipped via express .. t~ w ~ • . C. 0 'Kane,. Deputy Comrni ssiorier, n~partment of Agri cul tur-e, . Du.rhc~,
PAGE 13

-13-Horticultural Society in segregating certified and unc,ertified material at the Philadelphia Flower Show held in the Commerci a l Museum from March 27 to April 1. The Pennsylvania Horticultural Society has been organized 105 years, and this year's show was its 100th exhibition. Many of the 87 exhibitors are classified dealers whose plants and other exhibit material cam e from certified greenhouses. Quantities of the certified plants, moss, hu.mus, sod, and soil were returned to noninfested greenhouses or shipped to nonregulated territory. An inspector stationed at the show maintained a strict division between uncertified and certified stock ~nd kept accurate check on the arrival and removal of 33,052 plant containers. Frequent observations were made for adult .Japanese be etles but none were found. Specimens of 34 other sp ecies of insects were noted. Certification for reshipment from the Japa nese beetle regulated zone was required on several consignments of boxwood brought from the Southern States for exhibition at the International Flower S how in the Grand Central Palace, New York City, from March 20 to 25. Commenting on the spring flower show in New York, a Newark, N. J., daily ne wspaper stated that "The aspect of blooms in a profusion of hues and loveliness grow i ng amid surroundings so closely counterfeitinb nature even a Japanese beetle or other crafty pest would assume Santa Claus actually had arrived, is calculated to dissipate the last vestiges of Winter doldrums." J. S. Stockbridge, field supervisor in insect control, effective March 16 was transferred from South Norvralk, Conn., to Corfolk, Va. In Norfolk, Mr. Stockbridge will assume charge of Japanese beetle inspection and certification work in the isolated regulated zone comprising Norfolk, Portsmouth, and immediately adjacent territory south of these two cities. The Norfolk suboffice is under the supervision of H. N. Bartley, district supervisor at Richmond. Notice of Quarantine No. 48 (9th R evision), with rules and regulations (11th Revision), effective January 1, 1933, was reprinted verbatim and issued on February 9 by The New York Central Railroad Company and West Shore Railroad as Joint Circular No. 164. Biology classes in a number of Baltimore, Md., high schools are studying the life history and control of the Japanese beetle. Pupils and students recently obtained literature and specimens for such stu~ y from the Baltimore field office. Three Federal prosecutions for violations of the Plant Quarantine Act a .rising from shipments of uncertified farm products and nursery stock contrary to the Japanese beetle quarantine regulations were successfully closed during March. On March 20, counsel for the Merchants and Miners Transportation Company appeared before Judge Gear e A. Welsh in the United States District Court at Philadelphia, Pa., and entered a plea of guilty to an information ~lleging transportation without certification of 35 baskets of apples from Philadelphia to ~est Palm Beach, Fla. The shipment was intercepted on September 3, 1932,

PAGE 14

-14:..:. at the Fl_qrida desti'n~ tion. poin( by _Asi~stanf : p1 •ant ~a.ran tine Inspector Mer ton. LeR.oy A ' form of in" f ormation and supportingaffida~ i ts were del fvered to . ; . ti'ie ' Uni t~l stafes' Attorney at ~hiladeiph~a o n Nov~rnber:, 22, 1932: ~ The employee . . :--~{ th~ cornmcrn ~arrfer re}rponsible fo r the acceptaric e of 'the uncertified apples .•.acc ompartied :the , at-torney ~ho :represente d the ~e'f~ndan t . company at the pleading Th~ only expl'anation offered' by counsel or bi the employee was t'hat the ship__ m!:lht got''by'. thro'ugh ca r elessn: e ~ s. . A fine of $25 was :i.mposd and" Judge \~elsh ' st.a.ted that so far as he ' was concerned the commo n carrier might require the employee at fault to pay the sam~. bn the follow:i.ng day, March 21, another ... ~ase. was listed for pleading before Judge J • . Boyd . Avis in the Uni tea States District C Court held in the ' new Pos t Office building at Camden, N. i. The Camden case was against Robert J. Gibbons, who operates at Pemberton , N. J., a mail order business in nursery stock under the name of The Wrens Nest. From sbme. ten_ : or more _violath:ms bommi ttea. by this individual, three typical uncer-. t1fiep. ship~ents intercepted: by transit inspectors of -the Department on April , . _2 o ~ tJun_ 18, and November 11; 1932 , Were sel e _ cte"d and pr~sented 1n the f'o"rm of a three-co_unt information tothe United States Attorney at Trenton, N. J~ , on 1 .~ Ma.:rch 9 ; 1933. The defendant pleaded guifty• to the thr'ee counts of the infor m:a:tion. After. the details of the violations had been briefly outl-ined to the . Cciurt,-~Judge Avis ~mphasized to ~he . :defendant the. seriousnes s of the viola-. t:i.ons.' He stated that while it ,~as not a matter of lffe or death to the 'defendant, it mi ght be a question of affecting-the livelihood of farmers in uninfes1 e .q. territory . In connect ion with the conver.3E : . t :i.on, Assistant United States . .~tto. ~hey I.s ' adr)t"8 w9rth brought out_ ' the dest-~ucti vene .. s s 6-f the J2.pa.nese beetle ir/'"ea"t'ing his l ,ose'bushes a .nd-sassafra s tree, ::lGdJudt:l Avis remarked about tht _denii.ty of _the Japanese.beetle in Woodbury'; N. J~, where he lives. The d"efen p.arit 1s qui t _ e $lde.r1y , and stated that his business is not proving-profitable apci that he will not carry .it o n ano.theryear. After the matter was thoroughl; . 'd.i~cussed, the Court sta'ted' that he would suspend sentence and -place the defen dapt on probation for. six, mop.ths, . . during which time Mr. Gibbons will be requir1 to' . repo.rt eithe r in p~rson or by_ l _etter to -the probation officer • . :. The defendai assured the Co.urt that ther'e would be no f'urther violJ,tions as he would person~lly supervise all his. shipments: . The .. thLrd proceedings.' terminated involved two violations on the part of the Merchants and" Miners Transportation Company artsing from uncertifie4 shipments of 50 and 355 baskets of apples, respectively, accepted at Bal timbre, Md~ , f _or transportation via boat to Jacksonville, Fla., on September 2, 1932. 'Papers were: filed in this case with the United States Attorney in Baltimore " on November 23, 1932. These shipments were inter• cepted at Jacksonville, Fla., on September 6 by Collaborator Hubert _ W • . Williamf Counsel for the common carrier on March 28 appeared before Judge William C. Coleman in the U r i.i ted States .. District Court in Baltimore and pleaded guilty to the two-count infonnation. A fine of $25 on each count and $20.50 costs, or a total of $70 , _50, was imposed by t-he Court. These were the first Japanese beetle quarantine violations :t_o come to tlie attention of Judge Coleman. Their successful conclusion may set a good precedent for any further court action whi'ch rrtay be necessary in t-he Dfstri'c.t of Maryland. Proceedings are now pend irig in the Baltimore Federal Court a gainst the t w o consignors of the shipments involved in the latte r 'proc~eding s again s t the transportation company. In eac]

PAGE 15

-15...:. of the three cases closed, tne.Jrepartmentw~~ represented by R. W. Shennan, of the South Norivalk headquarters. Mr. Sherman was permitted in each instance to outline to the Court-the facts developed by the Department in• connection . with the intereeptions ""and. sUbse-quent investigations. I ' . . . . ' ; ,: Speciali~e-d , 6;,orn Borer A~tiv-tti~s . J J. . -. ' . Men engaged 1n survey1 work to dete.rm;i.n~the extent of. demands . {or Fed~ral. inspection i-equired by 'snippers in• the. fo~er.ly: .regulated cor11: : borer i~f.ested terri.tory "in confotmi tywith State quarant.ine. or.ders met in: . qonference at the South ~orwal-k headquarter~ :o. n : March 8. Si t1l!3-~.ion~ enco~ter_ed in the . va_rious surveyed sections. w.ere dj.-stussed. After .the: .probable req:ui"rements for .. Fede~~l 1nspection were sumtnarized,'. th~ total terr~-~ory affected, . by Sta'te quarantine regulations was subdivi.ded "into c;1reas \ 7hich could convenientlybe served ''):>ysingie inspect6ts-. Terri torie2 assigned .ar~ us fo1 1o ws: Eas~ ~~r!j _ Michigan, : western ~nchigan, northern Indiana. , southern Indiana and .southwes-tern Ohio, '. __ northern Ohio, southeastern Ohio and W .est _Virginia, west.ern . P .ennsy, 1 vani.'a, east . erri Pennsylvania, New Jersey, southe~st~rn New: York :and Fairfield. Courit' y, Conn., w _este.rn New York, northeastern New York, and .the State ,of. Coniiect{cut o ther than Fairfield County-. Inspection ~nd ce-r,tifiqati. 0 n . in the re.st of the New Eng.. land States will be taken care of by inspeqto-rs working fJ;"OID; the Boston and Springfield, Mass., field offices~ ' Practical coht:rol measures for the rEuropean corn bo-;er were during Feb ruary, and March brought to the attention of.fanners bn. th~ io;v~; Del-Mar-Va Peninsula by State officials of Maryland a~d .Vi.rginia: Cq~n borer ~n:f'estations have been found in sections of~ thEl pe_ninsula. during the pas_ t two se~~q -rts. Motion picture's illustrating the. life-.histo:cy . . and.mec;1,sure: s rrt:~o~ended for control of the pe_s"t were shown at various• meeti:;igs -held .throughout. the" affected farmi~g regions. Considera1)le control inf0rmation was also brought o-.t in discussions following exhibition of the films. Mo.st farmers in the infested dist~icts are well equipped with tractors and :plows, .with . w.hich . they may : perform the clean cultivation necessary for suppressing an individual infestation. Many . co rn growers, however, top. their corn and hold 'th,e .ir stalks for fodder until afte. r emergence of the c~rn borer moths. . Considerable educational work may be requir•ed to change these practices to conform to clean-up' measures necessary to destroy overwintering borers . . . . Samples of field corn intended for shipment to the World Is Corn ' Show to be held at Regina, Saskatchewan, Canada, in-June 1933, were heat treated _at the ceptral district headquarters in Springfield,. Ohio. Each sample was compo _sed of 10 ec;1,rs. Of 59 samp1es treated, 44 •ere grown in Indiana, 10 in Ohio, 3 in Michigan, and one each in WisC0nsin and Pennsylvania.

PAGE 16

-16-MEXICAN nzurT FLY The host-free period became effective this season in the three counties under quarantine on March 1. Under normal conditions citrus trees blossom in February and March,. an~ the f.~1:-,:j,, t begins to _ripen in September and bas heretofore been practically a.11 harvested by February. Thus, if all trees ~re thoroughly c _leaned of fruit by _the end of February, there is no fruit available fo~.qviposition by any female flies that may be in the Val ley-and the great majority will die before :fruit begins to ripen in the fall. Growers are required to go over. tl?,eir trees .a't the end of the harvesting ;period and remove all ripe arid off-bioon fttiii. Since it is practically impossible to s~e all of this 9~~tteririg fruit, the.groves are checked behind the growers by the in.specters. In, order' that this work may be completed as rapidly as possible with a corre~ponding lengthening of the host-free period, crews of laborers are employed, . to .. search_ the tr.ee s under the direct supervision of the inspectors. Wher,e i t, . . is' evid'ent that the owner has made an honest effort to clean the tr-ees o'f fruit~. the laborers garner any occasional overlooked fruit and destroy it. I _fit is evident that the owner has not made a real effort to c~ean the trees, _the laborers are withdrawn and the owner is r equired to r eclean th~. g:rove. This tree-to-tree inspection was started in a small way in February as owners notified the inspectors that their groves were ready. It was started in earnest on March 1, and was completed in about three weeks. . . It . was necessary to closely examine approximately three and one-half million _ t.r .ees in this work. The inspection was doubly difficult this. season on account of the enonnous amount of off-bloom .fruit which was on the trees ... .. A severe frost was experienced in March 1 ~932, while the trees were in fulL bloom.. As a result of the shock, many tree s .' continued to bloom all season. , Many of the trees had several distinct set'tings of fruit varying in size. from a pigeon egg to that just beginning -to ripen. Many of the groves had a full crop of 11off-bloom11, and some . dif.ficul-.. ,, ty. was experienced in prevailfng .. _ on _ the owners to remove this fruit. The greatest difficulty was encoUI1tere_ d in those groves in which the fruit was beginning to color. However,. all groves were cleaned peacefully with the exception of six small patches in W~llacy County. These were noncommercial -plantings from which the owners refused to remove the off-bloom fruit. These cases were turned over to the State fo~ action. The Commissioner issued an order condemning the fruit, and the State forces cleaned the fruit from the treesand destroyed it. During the latter part of the month preparations were made for the application of a poison spray to the bearing tree s of the Valley. Requisitions were written out for each grove, supply depots were arranged for, all sprayers used in the last application were cleaned and repaired, and everything gotten in read~ness to start on the 1st of April.

PAGE 17

-17PINK :BOLLWORM The eradication of wild cotton in southern Florida has-been' continued in the thr-ee areas mentioned -in the last News L~'t ter,: namely, on Cap~ Sab1~, Key Largo, and the vtest coasti ,> •.: .. . On Cape Sable the cleaning of the area referred to as the marl ~rairie has been completed: Some 340 acres were cieaned, from which 178,650 large .mature plants and 70,650 seedlings were removed. ". This was the most accessible wild cotton occurring in that section. The clean-up crews 'are nov engaged in removing the wild cotton along the canals near Flamingo. . . . On Key Large 29 acres were cleaned fdrthe's~cond time,600'rnat~e~ 6,310 seedling~ and 2,655 sprout plants being r emoved. From 78 acres cleaned for the first time 30,607 mature and 11,045 seedling piants were re~oved. The majority of tliese came from a large colony discovered at ~oint Cbaries, ,near the Rock Harbor post off'ice • . Wheri Key 1ar:9o was 'fir~~ cl~_aned last: ?~er, Point Charles was -cut off from the rriain key'bywater, and at that time it was thought to be a separate key. This accounts for the large amount of_ wild cotton found there at t'his time. On the west coast the secnrid cleaning of Hillsborough County has been completed, several additional new colonies having been discovered and cleaned at thi S. tim • e . . : rn addition to the ' above coun . ty, clean_:_up has gone forward in Lee and Manatee Counties. Considerably more cotton has been located in Lee County than was expected when the work was oegun in February. Due to the numerous keys and bays along the -coast line it has been necessary to make n very intensive survey so as 'to be sure t~t all 6f tFfe wi_ld cotton is located. Small acreages of cotton were removed from some l& different localities in this county during the month, and from 10 different locations in Ma~~tee Coun-ty. , In connection with the above clean-up, bolls from the wild cotton ar~ being inspected from time to time, so as to secure as much informati~nas possible on the infestation of wild cotton. From t!illsborough and Manatee Counties 1,408 bolls were inspected, 690 from Lee County, and 350 from Key Largo, all with negative tesul ts. On Ca.pe Sable 50 bolls we're inspected, from which 23 pink bollworm larvae were taken: however , infestation was previously known to exist in this area. The finding of a pink bollworm larva on March 3 in the blooms that are examined daily from the cotton plots at Chapman Field, was mentioned in the last News Letter. Since then 10 ad9-itional larvae have been found, the last one being on March 24. These larvae have all been taken from blooms from Plat No. 2. This would seem to indicate that the infestation is most likely resulting from overwintering larvae in the soil. The hotbed cotton at Presidio, in the Big Bend of Texas, has made very

PAGE 18

-18satisfactory progress. By the end of the month some of the first planted cotton was sufficiently large to begin transplanting to t h e field plo~s. Approx-imately 100 plots will be planted, extending from Pol.vo, about 20 miles down the river from Presidio, to Ochoa, abo u t 20 miles up the river from Presidio. Some 200 plants are being placed in each plot. A 375-gallon water tank has been mounted on a truck , and as each plot is set out:it is well watered. Af ter t he soil has dried sufficiently it is cultivated, an~ a small amount of nitrat~ of soda applied to.stimulate t4e growth of the plants. Some 14 plots have already been transplanted, and apparently the cotton is going to continue growing very well. The ginning season has fina.lly been completed, and practically all of the gin plant s and premises have been thoroughly cleaned. During the 1932 crop season so m e 179,000 b ales of cotton were ginned in the regulated area, which is about 3 2 percent l ess than the production in the 1931 crop. A company which o wns a number of gins has already announced that it will shortly employ a cr e w to begin overhauling its plants in preparation for the coming season's crop. This is mucl-: earlier than such work usually begins. Pre pe ,rations for the corning crop are now actively und e r way, considerable acre a ge already having been plante d in some ~ections. From present indications there will be an increase in cotton acreage in practically all sections of the regulated are a . There seems to be a departure from the general farming practice this y ear in that some of the acreag e is being "planted dry"; that is, t he seed is planted in dry ground with irrigation to be applied later to make it germinate. This is partly d u e to the inability of some farmers to pay d elinquent water charges pending the granting of new crop loans. lb.ere _a' farrne r has a large acre a ge this practice is of advantage in that all of his crop germin a t e s uniformly. Field inspection has been continue d in the Thurb eria weevil are a during the month, but with no furthe r signs of infestation being found. In addition to the field inspection, ov e r 6,000 bolls were inspected at the Tucson laboratory, also with negative results. Practically all fields in the entire are a were inspected, and the work hereafter will consist of bollie inspection. Laboratory inspection a t th~ various locations has g one forward satisfactorily. No signs of infestation were found in any of the material inspected during the month. PREVENTING SPREAD OF MOTHS The State o f Pennsylvania has establis hed a quarantine on account of the gipsy moth, . effective March 15, 1933, in that part of the State in which this insect has been found and adjacent areas in which there .is likelihood of present or early future infestation. The are a affected by this quarantine

PAGE 19

-19-includes 10 townships and 2 cities in Luzern,~ .C9_ un-t -y, a nd 7 to,._vn ships a nd 1 city in Lackawanna County. Articles whic h c~~not be moved from .the regulated area i thout c ertification by an inspector includ~ .nursery a nd o rna _.nienta.l stock, forest products, and surface stones. %1here ar:~ a-1 so r egul~ti. ons governing the storage of freight cars on siding s to make sure that the Insect is not carried by this means to points outside of t h e infested area. During arch, a force averaging 225 laborers, employed by the Pennsylvania State Department of Agriculture and working under the direction of Federal supervisors, was engaged in cutting and burning of tree growth in the heavily infested area in Pennsylvania. By the first of Apr~l over 700 acres of brush had been cut and burned in this area since clean-up work was started .on January 16. From time to time lab.or ers who have shown more than usual interest and ability in theirwork hav e been utilized in t reating gipsy moth egg clusters with creosote. These men a.re ~ivide d into crew s supervise_ d by Federal agents thoroughly experienced in the work and hav e be e h detailed to this type of \fork in different settlements in the generally infested area in order t~ c _ ~mple te the creosoting before hatching takes place. . Two agents have continued plotting the woodland areas on maps in the towr).ships in Pefuisylvania where it is e?C-pected : work will later b _ e required. Scouting work was carried on a.s usual in t he Barrie r Z one 'in the southwes t .ern part of Massachusetts and the northwester.n part of Connecticut, and progress has been made considering_ the limited number of men available. Work was completed du.ring the month at this office on material to be exhibited at the Chicago Century of Progress Exposition. This was so arranged that it could be shown in conjuncti.Qn: ,rri th t}?.e J?-panese b eetle exhibit, as previously plannedat a conference at South. Norwalk. This mat erial was not prepared as. a finished product but as. ugge~ted matter to aid those in Washington who._are to prepare the finished exhibit . . : Final preparations are being made in Washington so that all sketches, maps, etc., from this project and the Japanese beetle project may be combined in a uniform manner. The exhibit consisted of a large map approximately 4 feet by 4 feet 4 inches which showed in a general way the topography of the Northeastern States, the :Barri e r Zone, the two quarantined areas, the presertt known gipsy moth infestations, and those that have been exterminated. In the lower .right-hand corner of this large map was inserted a small map of the United States to illustrate the relatively small area of the United States that is infested with t he gipsy moth. To accompany this map, eight sketches were prepared illustrating different phases of work in the gipsy moth project; namely, scouting, creosoting , clean-up work, spraying, nursery inspection, stone and qua.rry inspection, Christmas tree inspection, and inspection of forest products. A larg e Riker mount was also prepared showing the life histor y stages of the gipsy moth. The large map was so prepared that the s ketches and Rike r mount might be inserted in it, thus giving a comple-te picture of the gipsy m oth project and the results ac-e ompl i shed. In Vermont, a location has been chosen at West Rutland for setting up the weather station equipment this spring which previously has been operated

PAGE 20

-20-at Shelburne, Mass . With the establishment of a permanent weather station at Greenfield , the station _formerly maintained at -Shelburne will no t be necessary. The location at :Ves~ Rutland_ will fill in quite la. r g ~ gap. betwe~n Greenfield ~ and Northfield, v t., from which we have not obtained w1-nd-d1spers1on records I previously. Twelve de luxe type trucks were a elivered at Greenfield on March 30 . . :After bei1:, g equippe d for field use they were assigned to quarantine inspectors to re~lace cars that are worn out. In accordance with a request received fr.om the Bureau of Entomo.logy , quarantine inspecto_.rs and field superv_isors of this project have been in structed to .be on the lookout for occurrences of the European beech scale which is now known to be present in certain restricted areas in Maine, New Hampshire, and M,a~sachusetts. " ' The records so far obtained. from the survey being carried on by the quarantine :i'.nspectors of the brown.:..tail moth distribution beyond the quarantine line show a definite spread of this insect in Maine northeast of the present quarantine line, and in New Ha~pshire north and west of the present quarantined area, including several towns in Vermont. This survey work has not yet been compJ,.eted ... Reports have been received that the infestation in the southwestern part of Maine,_ including York and Cumberland Counties, and the souther. n pc\.rts qf Oxford and Androscoggin Counties, are more heavily in fested than usual.. There have also been reports of heavy infestation as far east as Castine, Maine, with a very heavy infestation at Rockland. There are v ery he~yy infesta tio'ns in t he oJder infested sect~on of New 'Hampshire. There has been a decided change in the methods of marketing nursery stock at retail :and there are strong indications that still further. changes will b e made. _In a way, the changes which have taken place in marketing nursery stock are comparable to those which have been made in the rnarket~ng . . ! ... " of numerous types of food products. In the past, numerous food'..' products were sold. in bulk . to retailers to be measured out as called for to purchasers. In U1e same.w?-y, nursery stock was sold almost exclusively in buJ.k~to.dealers or stores, and even retail orders shipped from nurseries were sent out in what mi g h t b e calle d buJ.k packages; i.e., there were no attempts made to treat in-. d.ividual specimens as units. In the last year or two, the development of package shipments has been on the increase and nurser~111eri are vying-with one an othe r to create attractive.package goods. Changes in marketing stock have been forced on nurserymen b e c ause of great increases in the amount of stock sold at 1 department and othe r stores and also because of exceedingly keen competition. Th e old-time preparation of stock with a small amount of moist moss around the roots was not ::atisfactory for store trade. Such stock placed on display dried out rapidly and the purchaser was very apt to express dissatisfaction with the res~l ts obtaine d from planting. Much progress has been made by nurse~en in perfecting packa_g ,es and packing material so that nmv stock intended for store trade is kept in almost perfect condition for a considerable time even though it may

PAGE 21

-21be on counters in heated stores. The preparo.tion of ~ackage stoc k has extended eve1 to perennials and so ~ e othe r plants commonly not sold in stores because of their perishable nature. This spring it has been noted at a number of the nurseries that they are m~ing greater attempts to sell stock closer at }iand than has been the'practice for years. Formerly, many nurseries spent large amount s of money for catalogues and advertising in trade papers, and as a result many of their orders came from points at considerable distances from the nurseries themselves. Smaller amounts of money have been spent in the last year or so for these types of advertising and the nurserymen h a ve been endeavoring to dis9ose of a.s much stock as possible directly to customers from selling stands located at the nurseries. By this method their costs are reduced considerably as they are a.ble to devote less time to packing, and also there are no expenses involved for crates and packing materials. Some of the nurseries were affected adversely by the bank holiday which was declared early in ~ ~arch. Coming as it did almost at the height of the ordering season whel1 many of the nurseries customarily receiv e numerous orders each day, it deterred people from ordering stoc~c and apparently the delay has caused many to lose enthusiasm, and as a r esult the flow of orders to the nur series has not been res""C..med in its fo~~er volume. Reports have been r e c eived from a numbe r of the inspection districts which sho w that the shipments of different types of products, particularly forest products, have bee;,1 decreased and . delayed by the v ery inclement weathe r since the first of the new year. In the northern sections of the quarantined area there have been heavy snowfalls which blocked many of the side roads and made it imp ossible for owners to move such materials as pulpwood. In other districts muc h rain coupled with some snow and alternate freezing and thawing has left r oads almost impassable because of mud, and therefore it has not been possible f o r o wners t o reach woodlots to move forest products which had been cut and left there awa iting shipment. In some sections also fue digging of nursery stock has been delayed by the presence of considerable frost in the ground or by the fields being covered w i t;.-1 water so tha t it was impossib l e to dig. It ms been r eported that because of 1.ll!et grounds the digging sea.son was delayed more than a week in some s ections. Two shipm ents of rather unusual nature ha.1 bem r:udc :rcccn _tlJ rfrr:r . : _ points in Ne~, Hampshire to a Cana dian destination. Both of these shipments consisted of round pebble s which were r eporte d as b eing a bout the size of a baseball. One lot came originally from France and had be e n used for a number of years w i ~hin steel revolving cylinders to crush mica into poi ,,der. Thes e were being sent to Canada to be used there for tl1e same type of work. The other shipm ent consisted of similar pebble s 1.1hich originnted in New Hampshire a nd \1ere to be used in the sam e manner for grinding feldspar. The powder from this latter material produced in that way is used in manufacturing porcelain. In both cases the stones were naturally produced, being collected probably from river beds. Only particular types of pebbles characterized by extreme hardness can be used for this purpose.

PAGE 22

-22A call w a s recently received for inspection of an evergreen bough 1 ot in the lightly infested area of southern Vermont. The district inspector examined-the lot. and. found there was no evidence of gipsy moth infestation on the lot or in the. immedi _ a .te vicinity. The boughs, " which were fir balsam, J_' _ were then cut and baled and c~rti:f~e. d for s ~ 1.ipment. : Thi's shipment , comprising 10 tons of boughs~ was consigned to Ja.ckson:ville, Fla; It is understood J that. the y v ~ere to pe dye~. or _colored by some-' process at Jacksonville, and to be used or sold for decora.ti_ y~ purposes . This is the first incident of ~ny sizable shipment of ev_e;rgreeh boughs at this seas oh of the -year, and it may possibly p e t . he starting_ of a new industry which might. have considerable .. effect on the volume o_f evergree n bough 1ot' irispecti'o:n.' .. , , . r , , , , • , Since the F ederaiGove r-mnent withdrew from'New-J.ersey a-t the close'.of the fiscal y ear 1932, a small crew of gips-y mo.th experts .;has been maintained by the State of New Jersey for the purpose of check-up work around old i nfes ta tions. In February 1933, a report was received from the l\l'ew .Jersey gipsy mot_ h office_ that . whi_le dotng intensive scouting work at and in the vicinity 9f an old colony st te in M endham, . on the Ra,ndolph Township 1 ine, a new fer-. tile gipsy moth .. egg .clu.ster was _found. : _This E?gg cluster ris in the southeast corner of Randolph 'l:ownship near the point 1.vhere the townships of Mendham, Morristown, and 'Randolph mee~. Pfior to this, the last live gipsy.-moth infested site found in Ne\ v J ersey was the. o 'ne discovered in Piscataway T . ownship in M a y 1929. Since the finding of the egg cluster in February , i' .. nten-. sive scouting h1s been continued in an are a c . f a.bout a sauare mile surround ing this infestation, and early in April a small gipsy m;th colony, comprising 19 new and 9 old egg clusters, ' was located. clpprbximately one-.quarter.,mile from the single E;;gg_ clu.s-ter p r eviously found.' The infestation is located in very rough, l e dgy country. Approximately one acre is infested and-practi-,. _callyall e g g clust~rs found to date werE!:deposited on rocks and.ledges. . This infestation probably r esulted from local ~ind spread in 1927 from an infestation found in 1.if?ndham during that year. The:egg, clusters are sm~:1.1 _.in size a ~1d from the low rate of increase -it appears that -tl'lis infestation has increased _rather slowly. The .findinG o'f these inf.estations emphasi.~es th:,e value of exp ert m e n .. in doing check-up: wor1:c after large infestations are . considered eradicated: ***'*** • ! ~: , . 'I•_'


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