Citation
News letter

Material Information

Title:
News letter
Creator:
United States -- Bureau of Plant Quarantine
Place of Publication:
Washington, D.C.
Publisher:
Bureau of Plant Quarantine
Publication Date:
Frequency:
Monthly
Language:
English

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Plants -- Diseases and pests -- Control -- Periodicals -- United States ( lcsh )
Genre:
federal government publication ( marcgt )

Notes

Dates or Sequential Designation:
Began with: no.19 (July 1, 1932)
Dates or Sequential Designation:
Ceased with: no.43 (June 30, 1934)
General Note:
"Not for publication".

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
This item is a work of the U.S. federal government and not subject to copyright pursuant to 17 U.S.C. §105.
Resource Identifier:
030428081 ( ALEPH )
785785040 ( OCLC )
2012229620 ( LCCN )

Related Items

Preceded by:
News letter
Succeeded by:
Monthly letter of the Bureau of Entomology
Succeeded by:
Blister rust news
Succeeded by:
News letter

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Full Text


IT E 7W S L E T, T 11 P
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:13UM _U OF-PLAIT

Trjj
TED STATE ") 1)"TArTirlIT OF AGPITJYTTJTr'


Ntuaber 34 (Mi. FOR. PUBLICATIOT-T) It 1933o



AD7-aYISr1TkTIVF

On Soptetibor '291'Secret,, i y 7'allace announced tho, tran,3fer of. Lee A StronC
from the Bureau of Plant Quorantine to the T'u -eal:t'of- "'rito!' 01de,yj e f fe e October
1, Avery S, Hoyt has boen deiF 13 a
nated Ict-Ing Chef of this ur s, us

A,,dinner given in Dr, llaPlattls 1,onor, re-, Arirc, chief of the Eureau of
Entomology on th occasion of 1-As 70th bi. thdc,.y on Septe,-.,iber 26, a' -the Cosl.los Club, was Largely attended by representLatives of both bure :,uj,



FOTTI (UT PI AlT f-,U &l -1
'ICAL "TT-TC
MMIT I A 1011OLOCT iTS Of ST

Fruit-f']_-Ir lo.rvee in Cuavas,--Larvae of tbo Ccin-.'Ial Ar:3rican fruit fly
(Ap2a r e, Lia str ,a'U-a Schfr,_jr7_iTc" :j in ter.ce-r,-' .ed at. Larc-do-, Tex, in .0-1).avas in ba,-age
and cRrgo from 17jifec'.

Host recoil of interest.--.A.,T:1-1_yeerus cistelirias (K1uG) (.B-ruchidce) ','!ao interce:pted. at -New 'orI: in seeds of Cuaz-uma ull,.A-folia in ba- from, Vei.ezuela.
i G. D d'Twe 11, of Iff c, s h -i n g to n D, C. I' reports as follo-7s: 171iis is a record of ibl'I'to(I troOiC,considerable interest, the host relations of t1his wide7y _1l
A..1ericall species described in 11)2V bein ., tiaviou,, ,ly un'Movin, 6 6 s t :)lant is,
a close nlly of Theobrona (cacao) in t ( fLr,,,ily Otercullaceae, no *.ien.ber of the
famil, knovri to be affected b-r Bruchidae.11
-Scoly 5 ( 3, 1 s (11" rcmal ted to he 1,,he chiof Means 'Elm logs infe7ted. y !U
of spread in "Purope for the 7T ,,In d4 sea-, e, 7!- s nt- r c t ed. at Paltj., ,ovej
Nsw Yorllt N, Y,, New Orleans, Ta., r.rd lorfoll,,, Va.; in carjo -f1-or, Irance,
Other Coleoptera arrivinC with e1r, lc 7s frcm Frar11ciJz, aro 1,11,Ar--dalic ari-71i,7er- i Ceoff.9
Cvrculionidae) Scolytus nultist:L-iatus Ea_-sh (Serl-tidae) 2te1_e,!)4.us h2watzi
BiPhh. (Scolytid.z eT, Ttesias nerra F. (Dertcstidue), bicclo:r 01.
RrL sp. (6e7r- -nbycid nd Uhana-sinus fornicaiius L. (tenebrionidae aa'
(Cleridae).. 'fhe, last-zxra d _-rccies feeds on tlia ol

Scele il coct on willc-T nnj: r (Chll.) (C, (,cidao) ., as interceptod at 7as"An, ;tc.a, D. C.+t On SCiO:_LS CfL.' ij, iensis in t-_, e-. .7)ross from
Cuba.

J!hrips from Nicaram, a. --Dice ictjiri-)s b r e v c,--,, r i,., IL s 1' 3 1 n c t e a t
Mobile, Kla., on banLna debris in car-;j fro.,L, iason, of
villas Flas states that tlii:; species is not 1-_no,7,,n to occur 1-n tl)e Tjnitc! States.






1-2


Scolytid from Czechoslovakia.--Adults bf Thamnurgus euphorbia e Kust.
(Scolytidae) were intercepted at Philadelphia in a plant of Euphorbia sp. in the
mail from Czechoslovakia.

..Glaliolus thrips from Bermuda.--Taeniothrips gladioli Mi. & So was intercepted at- Boston in and on a gladiolus flower in baggage from Bermuda',

Lepidopterous larvae in an avocado fruit,--Larvae of Stenoma sp. (StenOmidae) were intercepted at New Orleans in an avocado in ship's quarters from i exico.

Thrips on banana debriso--Haplothrips merrilli Watson was intercepted at
Philadelphia on banana debris in cargo from Guatemala, Honduras, and Mexico. J. P. Watson reports as follows: "I described this species.several. years ago from specimens taken in Cuba. We have since had it from most of the ,7est Indies Islands, and from the extreme south of Florida." Professor Watson further states that it is apparently a predator as it is usually found associated with scale insects.

Scale insect on croton.--Parlatoria mytilaspiformis Green (Coccidae) was intercepted at San Francisco on croton in baggage from Hawaii.

Turnips from iorway infested.--Larvae of Psylliodes chrysocephala Linn.
(Chrysomelidae) were intercepted at Philadelphia in turnips in stores from Norway. This is the first record in our files of this insect being intercepted from Norway.

Coccid from Czechoslovakia,--Lecanium coryli (Linn.) was taken at Washington, D. C., on an apple scion in the mail from Czechoslovakia. This is a European species wThich has become established in the State of Washington and in British
Coluombia.

Weevil larvae in white turnips,--Lavvae of Ceucorhynchus sulcicollis Thornms. (Curculionidae) were intercepted at Philadelphia in white turnips in stores from England.

FECE:NT PATHOLOGICAL INTRCEPTIONS OF ITEREST

Bulb season startso--The fall bulb shipping season has started. One shipmont of hyacinths front France end two from Holland have been found infested with the bulb eelworm (Tylenchus dipsaci) at New York,

iscellaneous nemas.--Relatively few parasitic nemas have been intercepted recently. One lot found at iTew York in carrots from Germany has been determined as Hexameris sp. (probably parasite of soimIe insect). Aphelenchoides parietinus was intercepted in beets from England and in potatoes from Norway at Baltimore. Heterodera schachtii was intercepted in beets fro. Mexico at El Paso.

Garlic disease.--Discolored areas on garlic -from China intercepted at Seattle were found to contain numerous spores of Fusariella sp.






-3


Orchid diseqe, e--A nu-mber of tcrchids arriving in Hawaii from the Philippines Were found, on inspection to be infected with Colletotrichurr orr~hidearurr. This is the first intercep-tion of this-disease from the Philippines.

Yew record for rust0--Cetharanthus roseus leaves collected at Santburce,
Puerto, Ricol .1ere found to bear uredinia of a rust. IAdditional rzter'ia_! was obtained and divided vith Dr. So C. Arthur, whose staff detberrilined the rust as ColecsporiaroS,,cynacew~i. This constitutes a new host anid a new locality record for the rust.

Gladiolus scab from Ohile,--Gladiolus bulbs f rm Ch,.ile intercepted at the :1 ~ Wahngo -n~cto house w~ere submitted to ML7iss Lucia IFcCulloch, who confirmed the presence of scab (Bacterivr. r'rrinatui), on th em.

Au cuba ja.onica disease.--.& diseased lea' collected at 3eattle from a plant of Aucuba japonica froia Japan was submitted 'to Miss E. K. Cash, -7ho reports as follows: L" rcosnaerella sp. (spores simple or 2-cell~d); Possibly Spi~aerulina aucubao Shirai &Hara with spores riot yet 2-13 se-tate. A1;e it esritoni general."

DUTCH I L' DI$ AS IK LOGS3 1POK. 7, IRP

The alarming, situation created by t~le Iiseovery of thae Thtch elm- disease
over a considerable aroa in thU nioso hie7: YorIk City, iuainly in the, Stnte of Yew Jersey, has suddenly been complicated b-; tlie ar:'ival of several shipnents of elm logs frdm Eui-ope, consigned tIUo eastern veneer factories. 7he first shipment of this rzterial during] 19113 arrived JUly 2~5 Subseriuent to thct date other lots have been sent firm Europe, arid in all eight entries, comiprising 69 elrn log,.s, have bea made at Jew York (2); Jorfolk (4); 3utx:e(1); an New7 Orleans (1).

'he developrnont of extensive burlo in teelogs mLes then desir-able lor special veneer use, zand aprarLently- there ic now aft increased po"'ular (!emrand for this typ-(e of veneer in furniture,

Tho t--anr-r of brinGing such log;s to thiis country ',as been am)-arent from the
firt arivl, id hough their entry was not covered by ,ny, exsigc0 aat
every effort was taken to surround these imp)ortations wiPadeqvto~ safe-uards. The urge.-t need for protective ,:ieasura,9 is 'yiell indicated by the fact that in every shipm;,ent, dIl of whi.*ch vere received waith th-"e bar.'- in tact, tLe insoct (Scolyt;us scolytu.s), regarded in Europe as thn:p rificipal agent Jin sprea& ng the uchelm disease, -iwa.s found iii considerable ru-mbers. A:nd the ieril in thsunfortunate combination of host and insect carrier fus further iAJly inten.si-2ied v.hen, cultures
disclosed thne rxesence in at ie, st treof t,70,7 S si.)rients of the wilt fungus


'.he shirmont ariin t Yeii Orleans wz7 rlvon a hot-w .ate.r treat c rt under the direction of 1". T. Dad;for those lot...! conrt-g in rat !>Ioril*o!.I arrai-ielnents were made locallyr by K, 0, ich for the aro e fectiv sufe uard,; L. 17, Scott was able to provide for similar hot--ater trc-at, iLrt frthle s!hi-umem~nt enterinF, at Baltimore; an,-" the .1e17 York shi-Xvents were subjected Githecr toc this hot-water treatmrent or to vacuum fuigation.









It is worthy of note that the importers of-these logs, without exception,
have displayed a most cooperative spirit in this emergency. Without this publicspirited attitude on their part it is doubtful if these safety measures could have been effected, owing to a lack of authority in the Plant Quarantine Act to deal with such materials before official quarantine action has brought them definitely under control.

ITo permits have been issued for the importation of elm planting stock from Europe since April 4, 1927, and all trees grown from stock imported since the earliest inmortations in 1923 have been carefully inspected to assure ,their freedom from the disease; elm seeds have been excluded from Europe since December 22, 1930. When the closely related genus Zelkova was reported to be a host of the
Dutch elm disease it was likewise put under suspicion and was not imported after March 30, 1929,

ROSARIES INFESTED BY INSECTS

Two packages containing 684 rosaries, coming from- Ecme, Italy, were received recently at the Washington, D. C., Inspection House through the Customs Division of the City Post Office. These rosaries were made from e silver-like metal chain on which were strung seeds of Gleditsia caspica. On opening the parcels many lepidopterous larvae and pupae were collected in the paper packing and among the rosary chains. These heve been identified by Carl Eeinrich, of the U. S. Bureau of Entomology, as Plodia or Ephestia sp, (?), Although no insect injury wgs visible on the hard seed coating it was very evident, from the frass at the openings in the ends of the seeds, that the larvae had been feeding on the inside. It is doubtful if these tough-coated seeds couldbe injured by this type of insect unless a break occurred in the outer covering. Infestation took place, it is believed, either
after the rosaries were completed, or just after the seeds were prepared for stringing.

INTERCEPTION OF FRUITS AND VEGETABLES FROM HATAII

A recent letter from A. C. Fleury, as collaborator directing port inspection
work in California, includes some interesting comment on the enforcement of Quarantine no. 13, on Hawaiian fruits and vegetables.

We have been making rather frequent and numerous interceptions
of violations of Qulrantine Order No. 13 on vessels operated by the
Matson Navigation Company. No doubt this condition is partially accounted for by the fact that these vessels now operate in a triangular run, and many passengers from Hawaii who intend to disembark at the second port of call at the mainland are under the impression that it is not necessary for them to consume or destroy
Hawaiian fruits or vegetables until they arrive at the mainland
port where they will disembark. On the other hand, a rather frequent turn-over in the crew members on these vessels may partially
account for this condition,

On one vessel recently five different lots of Hawaiian contraband fruits were intercepted, two of these lots in possession of





-5


the crew and three in tile possession of -assenCors. In the case of one lot rf wateri,lelons, they were found to be heavily infested with melon fl-,,, and in the case of one of mangoes in the room of a passen'r"ar, they were not on"- found infested with the le.rvv.e
of t1le .1edit-erranean fouit flir but pupae of the Eediterranean
fruit fly were found in the berth on which the fruit 77"-s beinE",
carried as T--ell as on the floor, under t"he rugs in the rooni.
ITeedless to sa-y, adequate. and necessary di infection and ot' er
safe 7,iiard -.easures Tere ta'ren to rie-.t this situation.
7e h-ve brou,, U Y U
lt tliese matters frequently, to the attention nf
_. y have al-7a7rs coo-t-erated with the 1--atson Favirration Coi-,r-a_,ry and t", :
us in every way in atte.,'-_-)tJLnE; t-lo rei7uce L. 7 .e nuT.iber of such violarT
tions. rar-c:cnlay-ly on the -,Dart cf tu..eir cr--,:T _,,1; Mbcrs_ The-, 11,11
..iediately discharLe arr rna-iiber of c-I'ow careless'-, cr cr --I they dJ si n a r:, _)ntraband- 2v it s Pecen'. Y c1-_ar[,cd t:--,c c1aie-f sTem-d on ono of t'-1eir lar -c- -!, csels had
been 7,ith t7'_--_ co21,)a1iy fcr t-7er);7--. seven years, h',,ve -no. ted
notices of thoir cT,-,l t1a,-roachout the -,-escell snd _'.ave repeatedly
circularizaC). Liasters, on all t:ieir ves;-3els ca7-iin ; their attention
to the quaran'6ine rec_ulati _,ns,
DA:.:LC 0'
'T C,! 7 7 r7 T C 1 1 2,() JE] ID,

.,epcrts from 0. 1). De outy, cie.L -s-ector in ti, c B=Tnisv district, follorin[; t'.'ie hurricane of Se-oter]ber 4 and 5, in, -ictate t'-at ncne --f th _-,, border ins-r.)ection force suffered bcdi!7,- *11-IjUry, tiou-h uwa -e to Droperty bcth -,rivate and governmental was considerable. 7he roof of f, indication house at Brm7iisville
was blown clear awa-y, the w"clis c-,--cl--ed, an(.' +1--e lar -e m7inginC, dcors so badlytwisted out c'L sha,,)e t'Lat it is doubtful ii cla-'n be repaired successfulD7 The roof of the, o-f-L ice held, but a storeroom lost its c(-v,,_- rinC and all records and supplies stored ther.,D were .estro7lreJ or C-anaged, The torrential rains accormanied thr, storr:i flooded the district and delarp-d corTiun i cat ion for da ,s, Airplanes -ere unabl, ,, to 1,and on the flooded air,=ts. The two Governrnent cars were bogCed do vi -he fftL :i*36 -tion house wher- the- were stored; :.:r. Dopu 7 1 m.-in car had the to- ) sheared of-i b T a -fl- n,, roof, Ln tl e tor of I.:r. S-- an' s car was caved in by fallinS debris,

74 t 1l Vao f=il'_; -tion ho,,ise oi:-t of c o 1'. T. i S C 10 IT I T)1 ,ns wero beinC, r.aade next day to pi-pe -as into incominE cars as a te.,l-ncr -r7,r r. -,eans cf 1AI2 rL4gation,

11r. Dej.uty ,-Iivqs the follo -Tin,-: vi-vid picture cf tl o storm.: 11onda-, afternoon I ras advised that tle be 1,arl, ror.ate. was
fallinF ra-oidly and by 3:30 when t,--- cha.-ge of shifts at the
bricl,,, e !as to )e riado it hz i("l fallen to c nd I ordered the rien
on dut-,- to tell tieir relief not to stay at t,-.- bridc -,es. I am
told t]lat barometer finaLiv re,.,c'ded 117:(3q. durinL, the lull thct
)recede(l t,Ao blcvT back -nd tha Q t
t t1,3e (-oached a velocity of 135 iniles aa hour. I hi- Lo-T thct -.--as so strong; tl'i-.t it
uosse6. heavy, tiles of .'-' of ;- -,,,- house as if tl- ,ey Were Cuturm leaves.
T"lley vio,,f_,d 'j,*ail and 'nroak ,-!ith a r-Iotallic sound that .vas constantly re.-_4ndin!- -ro of t1no noise ."aaard in a .hocti r.E- Lalljery.








The storm startedLabor Day morning at 11 when a strong wind
sprang up out of the northwest bringing with it a blinding rain.
The rain came down in such torrents that objects 50 feet away could not be recognized. Hom then on the wind steadily in-reased in velocity until 1:30 the next morning when it gradually
lereased and there was a lull for about 2 hours. At 4:30 in the -orning the winLd returned, this time out of the southeast,
and it blw at gale and hurricane velocities until 1 in the afternoon, making a total of 26 hours that it stormed. The wind
gages at both the local weather bureau and at the air port were broken. It seems that the anemometer at the air port was the last to go and it was registering the wind at 90 miles an hour
when it went off. From 11 pim. on until 1 p.m. the wind was so
strong out of the northwest that it sucked two windows out Of the
leeward side of my house.

The first hurricane we had was mild compared to the one we
just ex perienced. 'The latest one lasted twice as long and did
i any times more damage. The strange part of it was that strong
brick buildings like the high school would have whole corners
or a story blown off of them while some of the Idexican shacks would remain intacto I think that it was all a question of a wind break It appears that nothing could withstand the fury
of.the wind where it got a clean sweep at an object. The
whole northwest corner of the hospital t1.at stood off by itself
was caved in. The wind was so strong that it would pick up the mud from the street and hurl it through- the air. There was but one life lost in Brownsville as far as I have heard,
and there was one boy who had both legs crushed off by a flying roof, but in Matamorns I have heard as high as 120 persons were
killed. It will take several days for the people of the Valley
to get their bearings.





DOMESTIC PLANT QUARANTINES

STRATWERY DWARF

On the recommendation of the Bureau of Plant Industry, the situation with
reference to the strawberry dwarf has been called to the attention of the nursery inspectors of the various States with the suggestion that the presence or absence of the disease in nursery plantings be considered in connection with the issuance of nursery inspection certificates. The various regional plant boards have also been asked to give such consideration to the situation as seems appropriate. It is reported that there is a very high percentage of dwarf disease in some strawberry plantings and that the available evidence indicates that the planting stock was almost certainly infected before shipment. The Bureau of Plant Industry
states that while the economic importance of the strawberry dwarf disease is still











sorlewhait uncertain and nay depend partiall-7 Cli weather co-iiditions, they believe it to be' of' sufficient i'otneto warrant greater attention than has been given. to it by nursery inspectors in Vie 'nast. There is a D e-)artment publication (Circular No,. 174) cn the subject entitled, "Field Observations on the Strawberry Dwarf."1

MITOI-_LKT PI=E-SHOOT 110'=

It is reported that damage caused by thie European pino-shoot moth (Phyacicnia buoliana) is be-o1izv, more serious in the :4,.ew 7nglarnd States ancL Now hv7 and that nursery infestation is- comlicatin,,,y the proble:. Accordinc:-, a s'-ecial conference to consider the situa-ticn was held on Se'i:te~lrber 10, at Nqew. Haven, Conn,, having been called byr tnae Bureau of Plant (urtioat tlhe reo'uEst of the L'cstern Plant Board, Injury from the fall brood cf larvae was eyma Ained on the -nine tlwi~cs in, tha~t vicinity and there was o-.portt'nirty to rma1ke field observations a-- to the economic imrportance of the -pest, he principal subject,- discussed :,er,3 thec best methods. of inspecting nurseries t~o deternine thle -oesencc of theo insect, anrl the policies to be adoptci. for DrevenDtin6g thle spread of the -post and. su-ppres 2mg- infestation,

=cL.YCID BOMMS IlN BM'C0

The discovery of live s'-ecii-me-ns of Cerarnb-cil). borers in bax-boo ocnkins
sticks -at a nurse I -7 in 1Ye'- York State iZ2 re-oorted b:y Dr,, F,. D. Glasgow, Entcomologist of that State* Thec srecimaen.s w~ere tcntativel iedenti -fied, Dr.- Glasgcw reports, as Nioa "jrcata Bates, said to be a -ist of banboo in eastern Asia. The Ton.king stici: had come to the -nursery -irom a company in -hew 'York17 City in two shipments of 1,000 sticks each, eid it is renortod that the insects were found in both shi- ,me:nts. Incluiries are bein- rmade w ithin thle Depart..ent as to any avail able data concerning the in-sect.

D TTCH "U. DISEASE

The number of trees- fol-nd infected with. the Dutch elm disease in N-%ew Jersey and Nezw 'Yor1 waz reported by the Bureau of Plant Indu.stry to have reached about 398 in New J~ersey and 15 i' Kew Y.ork by Se tel"1er 15. Tho center of the infection is .,i Essex County, 1. J,, with a few. trees s"101JIIC the dizea:_e as far weot as Bound Brook and New Brunswich, 1. Jo, and as far east as "Thite Plains, Eye, Port
Yli[gton, and Lynbrook, r- Y,

T2ANTSIT NTCIO

Transit inspection activities will bcl- res1Umied, it is expected, the iat-Ger part of Septem~ber, at St. Pauil3 0,,.aha-, Council B'luffs, Kensas City7, Porotland, Seattle, and S okane, wit> Feder'al inspectors at each of those points, and the
foceatCh-ao is beinj, strengthened with- the assctdance of State insp,-ectors ci' Illinois. It is honed that State ins'-nectors may also- be available for work at St. Louis, Kansas City, Council Pluffs, Lnd 17ilwau ko_,O

A shipmennt of Gladioli frer., Hart fow _d, Corn~,jc Wero infested with gladiolus th.'ips, was recently reuport-ed by eno) the-l',ston imn-_p-ecto~s*









BLACK STEM BUST

During the recent inspection of nurseries in connection with applications for shipping barberry and Mahonia plants, the inspector learned that such plants in an Ohio nursery were being grown from imported seed secured from certain dealers outside the protected States& The fact that the seeds of these plants, as well as other parts capable of propagation, come within the provisions of the quarantine, had evidently escaped the attention of the shippers. Accordingly, they were provided with information from this office as to permit requirements for shipping into States which are being protected from the rust by barberry eradication.

PIONY PEACH. DISEASE

The inspection of nurseries and their environs for the presence of phony
peach disease has been completed in the States of Georgia, Alabama, Tennessee, and Texas. While full reports of the results have not come in, it is learned that there has been some spread of the disease in northern Alabama. Many of the infections found there were justemerging from the incubation period, however, and it is felt that the condition will yield to prompt and thorough eradication. The force of three inspectors is now starting work in South Carolina, Oklahoma, and Illinois.

The State of Tennessee recently revised the regulations applying to the
phony peach disease, to extend to infected areas outside the State, and to include
certification relating to the peach root borer.

WITE-PIE BLISTER B-RUST

Two U. S. Forest Service nurseries in which white pines are being grown for reforestation purposes, are among those for which permits have been issued under the provisions of the blister rust quarantine. One of these, the Parsons Nursery, Parsons, W. Va., was established "to bring the Monongahela (National Forest) back to productivity and to reforest almost 40,000 acres of devasted lands." This national forest protects a part of the headwaters of the Monongahela, Kanawha, Potomac, and James Rivers, end offers excellent possibilities for timber production and recreational purposes. While native red spruce will be the major crop, according to the Forest Service, white pine will also be planted on the forest, and other coniferous trees will be raised in srall numbers for experimental purposes. An annual production of 500,000 white pines is anticipated. Shipments from this nursery have been made during the present year to the George Washington and the Unaka National Forests, the former in Virginia, and the latter in Tennessee,

Another Forest Service nursery for which a permit has been issued is the one at Rhinelander, Wis. Three million white pines are being grown on land donated for the purpose, and the nursery will supply trees for reforesting denuded areas on lands purchased for national-forest purposes in Wisconsin and in the nearby portion
of Michigan.

The procedure for including white pine permits in the joint certification
plan was completed during the month. The joint certificates will show certification under Quarantine No. "63" with respect to those nurseries in the gypsy moth regulated area which also have pine-shipping pennits. Only two such nurseries in
that area have received permits this year, For shipments between the New England








States and 'Ne7. York, where control area permits f~rom the States ri' destination are required, the joint ccrtii'icatO 7-ill read: 1163 Contr. Ar." and notif'ications as to all such control-area certificates issued by the ETypsy moth1 ins',,octors will later be sent to the Q)lant quarantine offiicers of' the States of, destination. Joint ce:tii'ic tes -are used only in cases in which inspec"Uors are assigned to the nurseries tp oertii'y indivi 'dual shipments, and are not use d in *cases such as the Class I nurseries in the Japanese beetle regulated a-rea to whi'hl certificates, are supplied -.-Lonthly,





DATrJ SQAT2- ERADICA'I2ION.T

A survey of the date i'zlantin, ss in the Ccachella Valley is in progress.
Each palm is bein- inspecteC) but only i'onthe ground, no ladders locing used. The reports turned in by the inspectors give the palm., census by age anid also the condition oft' he plantings for inspection, thus indicatingtho necessary work to be done durin" the winter.

Th'',e reports f'om this survey sho'-i I- Great di22 -erence ir. the plantingSs as
contrasted wTit1h those turned in in 1929. There arie no seediinC, jungClos in the infested area and vUry few outside this area. 1M"ost of thc -rthless seedlings have been duS out and, destroyed. The --rowers h1rave .eea, doing consi derable pruning, and most of the offshlocts have teeni rem.'oved fror *ithe w,1alm:s or have had their foliage cut back.i: This means that few Gardens arc diiffLicult to inso ect, and the possibility of overlookin,' scale is lesse-ned. There is a larq e increase in the acreage since 1929, an2 an increase in the height of' palmis0 liony palms whiich could be ins-pected entirely rcrn the g-rcund in 1229 no7 requir,3 ins'-ection from. ladders 14 feet or more in height. Han-y palms ,annot io7. be inspected fror,- 20-footu la-lders.

In t'Arizona all plantings of stanCdard variety ralms are boin- inspected.
Mo1st of the palr,,z rere bD-ought in fro-.m- the Coacholla Valley as offshoots, in so.-,e cases from nronerties that w ere -,raeviously in-fested eron which scale was found. later. Due t7) the, physical structure of the offshoots, it is q uite prssible the sc-ale mirV1. -t exist on pcrItions of then which could not be observed by, ordinary ins-oection, that is) on the leaf-bases u-nder the h ands oi' fiber. Such -in infostation mright escape observation for 42 or 3 years under certain conditions.








E7'cli~raivc- Japaneso Poetle 'Jer1

As noted from a number of re7spaners -:'ri-,ted 1n sections heavily. infested
by the Japanese beetle, active ca :'Tair~as desi'nd to reduce Japanese beetle populations to a mininum were sponsored this sui-nxer by a q.'U'.bur of civic or-,anizations and municipal officials. Arion~g those active in orGanizing this s9,umaer' s cardpaicns





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have been The Kiwanis Club and Park Department of Perth Amboy, N. J.; The Woman's Club of voodbridge, N. J.; The Landscape Service of the Citizens Unemployment Committee of Mount Vernon, JT. Y,; The Spotswood Garden Club, Spotswood, No T.; Supervisor of Public Works, M. Andronico, Hackensack, N. J.; Troop 87, Boy Scouts of America, Earrington, Nf. J; and Postmaster Lester Quigley, Manville, N. J. Probably the most energetic of the campaigns was the one sponsored by the Kiwanis Club of Perth Amrboy. Their campaign was launched on August 2. The Kiwanis Club, three of the theaters of the tovmn, the emergency Relief Colmittee, and the Perth Amboy Hardware Compan-y cooperated. The hardware store was the headquarters for turning in the collected beetles. Ior every pint or more of beetles brought in by boys and girls, a pass to one of the local moving picture theaters was issued. Three thousand five hundred passes were given out. In this manner, nearly six million beetles were collected within a period of 2 weeks. According to the chairman of the public affairs committee oif the Kiwanis Club, the whole project exceeded the Club's expectations. They had no idea that beetles would be turned in in the quantities they received. After the first day they were obliged to call for help. The Emergency Pelief Comittee of Perth Amboy cooperated by rfirnishing men to take care of receiving and recording the collections. In addition to the passes to the theaters, the Kiwanis Club offered weekly prizes of 2 and "1 to the two children turning in the largest quantities. Considerable publicity was given the campaign, since the secretary of the Club is city editor of the local Perth Amboy paper. Supplementing the local campaign, the Park Department of Perth Amboy operated traps, which caught about five and one half barrels of beetles. Children were permitted to collect the beatles in the parks, but were not allowed to empty the traps. According to the Director of Parks, they received a very good lesson on the destructiveness of the beetle, since in one flow-er bed alone, before they had a chance to cope with the situation, the beetles literally "ripped the bed apart."

The severity of the storm of August 23 is illustrated by the experiences of the trap inspector at Annapolis, 11d. Rain started on Monday, August 21, 2 inches falling, that day. The following day there was but a small amount of precipitation Late Tuesday evening the wind. changed to northeast and a 30-mile-an-hour gale started to sweep across the bay. IL1l day Jednesday the rain fell in torrents and the wind increased to 55 miles an hour. Wednesday morning the trap inspector received word that the tide was coming up over the breaLkwvater at the Naval Academy. He went to rescue the traps in his care, and had to wade through 2-1/2 feet of water to where the traps were set up. The wind was blowing so hard he could hardly keep on his feet. Three traps were removed from their position, but four could not be found since they had been blown over and were covered with water. After the storhad subsided on Thursday, the remainder of the traps was located, although the water was still 8 inches deep at that point. One trap had blown through a tennis court fence. Practically all of the traps on the Naval Academy grounds had been blown down. At the State House grounds, three of the traps had been blown over, and one was beneath a 50-year-old locust tree which had been felled. At another point the water was still 4-1/2 feet deep near the bay and it was impossible to tend the traps in that locality. rour other t-raps were found under fallen trees in the town. All standing trans were clogged with small branches or leaves. Many homes and all gardens were ruined. According to report, this was the worst storm in the history of Annapolis. hile en route to Upper Marlboro on August 25, it was necessary for this inspector's machine to be towed through a section of road flooded by the Patuxent !iver. The State Roads Commission furnished a free towing service through 2-1/2 feet of water. On the return trip, the inspector had to wait





-ii


2 hours for a tow through the flooded area. A somewhat siilar condition was experioence( with trays placed in Potomac Gardens in the District of ColIumbia. In the Gardens,the traps were covered with water up to the baffles. A number of them were washed over and drifted away with the strong current.

In N ew Jersey, during August, 700 State-o:ned traps that had been used in
determining degrees of infestation in 15 towns and around several 1 les in the northorn counties were lifted. ursery and greenhouse scouting crews covering uninfested nurseries and greenhouses in North Jersey were dismissed on August 19. During the month, crews picked up 56 beetles or the premises of 10 commercial shippers; and 43 beetles within 500 feet of 11 additional e-stablish ients. As a result of the season's scouting it has been necessary to change the classification of 15 establishments. This ill result in additional regular atory work in the territory served by the Ruthcerford office. Supervision in the Eutherford district heretofore largely has been over Class I, or uninfested premises, There has been very little cut flower inspection work in ITew Jersey due to the are; cnditions for this commodity. No berries were umigated at the Hoamonton berry mrhet, and only 80 crates of blueberries were tiigated at Yew Lisbon. Thle peach crop of the State was so small that markets inside the regulated zone absorbed nost of the crop at attractive prices, although over 4,000 bushels were certified for movement to nonregulated territory. Early in Au(ust outside markets were still attractive for Lima and strin,?g beans, resulting in the certification of over 15,000 bushels. Visits to commercial packers of adpples and each con.inued. Certification of peaches was granted on the basis of satisfactory handling of the fruit in the course of grading and packing. Overhauling of a dozen beetle separators subject to hard usage during the bean inspection season "ill be made shortly.

Soil treatment with arsenate of lead in Erie, Pa., began on August 22. By the end of the month 12 acres hud been sprayed at the rate of 1,000 pounds of the poison per acre. Two high-powered spraying outfits were used, one for applying the insecticide and the other for -raslinC it into the soil. Eleven men comprise the two spraying crews. Applications at the 1,000 pound rate will be made at the sites of all trap finds outside the 1932 treated areas. Excet ions are being made in the case of vegetable gardens, theground in which will probably be sprayed this fall. Experimental results obtained by the Bureau of Entormology indicate that treatment of the soil and turf at this dosage -ill establish a condition toxic to Japanese beetle larvae for a period of over 5 years. Twenty-one tons of arsenate of lead will be applied before the Erie treating is cor.leted. Effectiveness of foliage spraying work performed during July is attested by a published statement released on August 17 by the Erie municipal shade tree ccrrission to te effect that "Citizens had an exceptional opportunity to watch the rapid amd efficient work of the high-powered equipment used by the Federal De-) rtment of Agriculture against the Japanese beetle, Erie ;,ith its trees needs such equirnent. Public opinion can stress the need of an apo-ropriation for its purchase br the parks department. It can be used in parks as well as on streets."

As he was about to leave the farm iprodcts inspection platform in Baltimore at the end of his tour of duty on Saturday -or-in, August 12, Insrpector William penner heard a woman scream., Looking aco-oss 'te st : eet he saw an old lady running down Fallsway Avenue shouting for 2omIeone to "Stop thot thief." Wom the middlJe of the street the inspector saw a colored man with a -ra sweater turning the next







-12


corner at.-,J-ped He halted an arbc ngtruck, jumped 'aboard, an. 'told, the
driver to..go in_ the dqire 'ction he had la'st seen th-e; -hegr_,o. Afte~l' a chase of~ fiveblocks, -the truck overtook two fast fleQing negroes, .both with -ray sw,,eaters, After passinr- the :laein', vaen, the inspector jumped off~ the truck ona the run and from, behind a lar e, truck parklled at the curb. emerged to catch both negroes in his ELMS. He g,-rabbed "beoth Tby their 6ollars. The .t'ro negroes denied -kanwledge. of' any7 thef~ts but after ,,cedn-- a. short distance tov./ard a' police bo.x, the larger ne.G-ro dropped a pocketbook frorn hit.s w~aist. This was r'ecovered by a passer-by attracted by the -sci~l-Co. Shortl~r tklereafter two policemen ariived and relieved the. insapector of' the cul>..rit-sQ Later the two captives wore indicted by the -,rrand jury. They wvern tried on Ailrust 23. B3oth pleaded Cguilty and were sentenced to 6 nmoiths, in -the house of corr ection. The.-pair is also wanted for burglaIpry iin Virginia.

Canvassing of~ farmers, c.state owners, 'ty residents, and tuperintendents of golfs course -parks, and cerieteries was undertaken durinCg the rniths of July-an4d, August3. in an ofort to deter-Mine ex-,renditure's for- control of' the JTapanese beetle and actual losses firor crop destruction by the insect. -Only two men were avail-. able for assignm ,ent to f\ill-tirie work on the 'canvass. NTuerous inspectors, of the, New, Jersey personnel devoted t 'o.. thie survey all of' their tirae not occupied by regu.lar routine duties* The survey -was deasign'ed to. 1)rocure signed statements -from individuals showingh-- defix~ite, accurate, and.'consorvat"-ive losses o~r control coats. Interviews and corre.~mcndence were confined to individuals in -a aDxea ex.hibi-tiig, continuous J-apanese beetle dcamage. Conditions. reprosen'tative of~ the degree of~ injury to -be f oui:.d throughout thie entire zoneC of continuous darnia[ge were selected., Information conceexning e-reelocalized injury by thie insect wias discarded, In.!. definite or questionable data were also omitted from the -final tabulations. ,As a result of the canvass, there is now availabl e an abundance of authenticated evidence of Japane se' beetle s injury to various crops, to,-e ther with rel iable -costs of protecting from destruction various scjtil farrm. Co, a well as turf and. follw
ag~e in parks, -cemeteries, residential blocks, estates, and Cgolf coursesw1,t the end, of August., 130 men furnished by emn-_~enc-7 relief boards were emnloyred on various phases of Japanese beetle quarantine and cdyntrol ebtivities. Four meon in Pennsylvania and three in Maryland were engaged 'in -inspection. of qua-raf tined fruits and vegetables, Tigh~t workerss were as3igned to *n'mintenancp work at the New, Cin-berlend, Pa., garage. Eleven men were :eitployed as road ins rectors, on the~ Peiuisylvania-West Virg,,inia a-id Pennsylvania-Ohio S -tate lines. Three scouts were enEgaged .n surveys of nursery and grcen).ou.-e cstabl4,shnents in Pennsylyania., ,The' remaining welfare wrorkfers were engag-,d in trbnping work in tUou.ns and cities outside the -regulated zones, Of the latter employees, 6? w~ere employed in Ohio, 34 in 71ov Yrr,7 15 in Perns-y--,vani a, 1-1 in Michigan, '13 in West V!rina 5 in-JNew Hampsh.-Ue) cnd 3 in V7erriont. Many of these %;ere attmewres Arrangements
for furnlishing this 7,elfare labor uoua1l lviexe nade with the chairiuan of welfare work in the respective county in which the activities.17ere performedd, In a few cases the State Frmploymient Oi 2A'ce selected Vale men,. Actuial contact with the men assigned to th1,e project ILYs matained through thie chairman in chexEge of the welfare work in t1he, co,-mm uity concornad.

Protection of Japanese beetle traps often reqi,,res considerabl-e in-Lgenuity or, the part of trap inspectors. rjacently a tram ins-pector in~ a Mgaryland cornunity whiile tending his route found a number of trains missing. Inquiry of local









resi,3(,,nts -developedthe info=_tinn that tlle 11ad been
ta -,en b-,T rtiei,,ibers oi' an organization that was Imaving a mention in tI,, to,,,!n, There r.,,ao no dof:Liite proof cf thi.-, however. In ar. effort to recover sor, ie, if not all of the traps,$ the ilis-pector inserted a r.otice in tio loc ,l paper to thk effort tha't the traps were Governr ent yroporty and would bq of no u86 to anyone as tha season for beetles vra-- nlmoOt ,,,ver. Ti(.,, notice also stated that if the traps were not immediately returned the ones v1jo 1jiSapp-opria4Ued them .7ould be liable: to prosecution, .On the morning, following, 11,,o publication ol' t'he notice, tllne inspector found that the traps had been returned, alt'hoLie;h thoy 7!ere not replaced in their orif inal positions, A, o.-L, 1his tr :.r su-,,),,,ly showeCl all traps accounted
fo-re

Removal of traps created oiitside t* re-;ulE .te(a zone in North Carolina and Virginia ,ma in pi-orxess duTi ,, AuLust. The f.'el traps stil rernining at two lo_,jr711n6 OX,
nations in Soutl Carolina at thc he ;.ionth were 1i fted on Auf;ust 2 and
.15, respectively, TraT ) rei. oval vms accompli3lhed. 1,To-i"th Carolina betreen Aur ust 2 L nd 1'9*. Trap -, still rertmined in o.Terat-ioji in 1:7 Virginia ecrm-uat tho, eiid of the month, but these. .-re scheel-iled for liftia,,,:; ear y in September, All traps operated fol- a period of 30 days i-n 1-arylaiid were collected and shipped back to tln'e ITer Cur. iborland stcra,., ,e Marehouse dur,', ing AugList. Bemoval of the 60-day traps began on 21, cmd i,;- is anticipated. that they Will all be
collected, packedt:md returned to 14ew Cur.,Aerland by September S. Active traps are still being nmintainea in hon-rer'lulated territ-ory in .'e,17 Fai lps,.iira, Vem;iont, 1e,-7 Yb: kt -Ohio 'Pennsylvania, and West Virginia.

0,11,August 5, the Philadelphia Public di-voted a fuill paLe of -its rotogravure pictorial section to a ,eries of se-% e-l photo,,,ranhs illustrating various phases of the Japanese beetle quarantine Trovl: in llhilad .IpIni.a. Those included a photograph al beetles balled oii apples, the Phila(Ilel-olma f:L- uit mid ve. tablebe inspedtion platforra, bm ins ,-_)ector examining a trap in the j '.ranl-ford Lrsenal grounds a scene in the DocI7, Street produce iiarl,'et, picture of ban anas beinp; unloaded fron a ve-sel, an orchard scene a scout e-xamininG a true for beetle ini- -,stationt and an indoor scene at tl-),c Philadelphia -Iist-ri t office at Franford. In r ddition, three phot%-ra-.)hs were include several act-ivities at the 11oorlostown, K. 0., Japanese beetle research laboratory olfl' ',-he 7 ureaLt of Entoziology. Also or August 6, at 8:30 p.m.f Leicester K. Davis', radio reporv-or fo:o thc 'Piblic Led!ner, broadcasted a talk on the "Japanese Beetle ,uarantlinell ov Dr station MiLT.

At the invitation of the su,.)erintondent of the Citizens Conservaticii Ca.-,,p at Hiantic, Conn.,, Poi Johnsong in change of the coop-,rative Stat, ,, &-u! lederil 11apanese beetle and Euroj:oan corn borer 7rorl: in Conrecticut, visited the C. C. C, cam1p on Angust 23 and supplied iniorr ia';icn concp,- TinC- tl-e t,.-,U ii-ects. Posters we:t e also finishedd concernin,3 t.116 life history and control imoasureo practiced for these tro insects as well as foT 'L1.,e Cypsy It wa.- t_(;ar1ied th t the officers in
char(,e of the c-m'.p vre i-astri,,-ctinr tho Gf tb corps in control information rhich 7Till be o-" Zener.-l 2.ntrrG--,t ilr ( om-.ectinn -!ith thcir -)re6ent wor.I: and of assistance in conservation worl'1 upon thuir re' Xara to home cc7:mn.Ltie--*

Umusually r i k.1; "L ood markets in 1,1id,,ves tern Ctates fo-, stri-C ,%.nd Lima bea!.IS -X07n
im"southern New larsey anft'easto rn Penrts- lvaiila, whioli --,,csulted iii tlio ina,.,ectio n I 1 0 !,
and certification of lc.rise quantities (-f th,-, ,: vel-etables for carload move,,Ient fror the reFiilated territory, wero a-'Utribu -Ied by tho shij, ners to C;roi_ ,jt conditions e arl-






-14


in July which affected almost all Western and Southern States. The Century of Progress exposition is also believed to have created an exceptionally high market for these products in Chicago.

Scouting of nursery and greenhouse establishments in Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, and the District of Columbia was completed shortly after the middle of the month and the approximately 50 temporarily employed men engaged in this work were dismissed. Surveys of uninfested classified establishments will continue in
the more northern regulated States until various dates in September.

While adult beetles are in active flight, carloads of sand or soil to be shipped under certification from infested sections must be fiuigated with carbon disulphide at a dosage of 1 pound, or 350 cc to 1 cubic yard of soil. Most of the material fumigated in this manner consists of sand which must be loaded in tight box cars. In fumigating sand loaded to a depth of 3 feet, two series of holes are required, one 18 inches in depth and the other 2 feet deep. These holes are made 18 inches apart, the first series beginning 9 inches from the edge of the car. A crowbar 2 inches in diameter, marked 18 inches from the end, is used to make the deeper holes. A funnel inserted in the end of a rubber hose is used to convey the fUmigant to the proper depth. Surface holes are staggered between the deeper hole and the entire row completed and covered in one operation. This procedure require measuring of each dose in a graduate, and pouring it from the small container. Such constant pouring in the confined space above the sand frequently causes great discomfort to the operator, especially on warm days. Care is also necessary not to step too near the deeper holes before the disulphide is applied. Another disadvantage of this method is the constant destruction of the rubber hose, which, dissolv by the fu.migant, swells, and soon clogs. Fumigation of a carload by this
method requires approximately 2 hours.

Carload fumigation has been considerably simplified by the use of an injector devised by V. A. Johnson, of the treating division. The body of the injector is made from 1/2-inch brass pipe, 36 inches long. A piece of solid brass
rod sweated on the end and machined to a cone shape forms the point of the injector Four small holes, 1/32 inch in diameter, drilled 1-5/8 inches from the tip, provide exit holes for the fumigant. The top of the cylinder is threaded and fitted with a 1/2-inch brass cap. A center hole in the cap is drilled for the plunger rod. This rod is 36 inches long, 3/8 inch in diameter, and is threaded from the bottom to within 9 inches of the top. Two nuts are screwed on the rod so that the length of the stroke nmay be regulated. Screwed to the upper end of the plunger is an automobile gear shift knob, used as a handle. The lower part of the rod is turned down to 1/4 inch and. threaded for a push and pull leather plunger. Hand holds projecting from either side of the upper part ofi the cylinder are provided by a brass collar placed just under the top cap, in opposite sides of which are screwedbrass rods 1/2 inch in diameter and 4 inches long. Another brass flange, 1-15/16 inches in diameter and 13/32 inch thick, is placed 18 inches from the exit holes to act as a depth guide. The latter flange contains a set screw to permit its adjustrient to any desired depth.

For use as a guide in marking out the relative positions of the holes, a collapsible measuring stick has been constructed to take care of the width of a freight car. Marks are etched on the stick 18 inches apart for one row of holes,









ano, two strap iron guides at either end provide for measurerrient bet,1-e,:)n rows.

In practice it has been found that two injectors may incst ad7anta*c Oous1y by used in fu:,ii3atin( a carload o-" sand. Thc, new procedure consistc- of placinG t1ie raeasuiin,- stic'- at ono end (3f the car f-.,r the, first series of" holes. A bucl,..et coataininr- 1: so t' at it is
carbon disul-phide' is -olaced near the center of the stic'
convenient t o i ns' I)ectors working on either side. A--,"ter' careful re-ulation to dro-v,7 u the exact ar,,ioiuit of carbon disulphides the injectors are char, ed b t1a c
tips in the fcim-.,,, nt an! nulling oLit the plun'-f"r.rods" a1e injectors are then pushed by means of the hz nd holds into tbe to the re:iuire denth :.nd the liquid ejected. Their are thie., refilled -ui tij-) T)oints just bu--ied for, the surface injections Each inspector cor plates one lial-f c row, afte: which -the 17Basuring stick is advanced 18 inches eiid the nroc(_ dul-e -14e a,.,ted. T-'y this ; -.etlod the tine required. to f)-uiigate a car is redliced ar-pro:.iTictoly one .alf. Ins-jectors using,
-the injector.-, can stand. erect, I -onos of car' on disalnhide bein ,, heavier thLn air are not near* so amioyinl- e.2 when contin,_i, 111 r-sasurin,", Cf t -,e liruid is required, at nose level. T Ts e of t J-e cve- _-, 7,,xiod. o!' sev -ral months has sho--Tr. that in
every case the corre t dosc- ,,,o is rcleosef at- t,,o rro-ner 7 1. Koles iirade b-, the injector ore qiite, s.;i1-ll oasil ,- covered.. The iiew instru,,-,ent hc s -nroved to be efficient, labor spxi:i, r and c ndlcive to fewe-, ill T hysicr.l effoct5 to onerotors a lyingop ho Seventeen carloads of sand 7oere fumiGat.-a b me,-Las of injectors durin ', the noiith of Au, ust.,

Corn aorer Activities

Specirieno of t'-,e Euro7:,ean -crn boier received from _-.. "I. C'hqmbers, State 1-ntorzqoloList, odison, throuE,.,-,, D. J. Cafir ,7,1 in chLr:-e cf t:ie corn borer field laboratory of the _"ureau of at Tol_ :'or C-io, ind.fCate th,-,t corn borer
lcrvae have been _-ucorered this saasor by b-,- the Stlate of "Tiscon.-in
in the follo7iti- areas: Tornships of Liberty-Grove) Sevasto-)al, and SturCeon B,-,y, in.Door County; towns"Aips of 7eCt K.ewaun--e !,-Ind Cailtuon, in 1,'e1,-iauiee Ccuiity; tC7,,nship of '1 -,o rivers, in 11ariitoroc County; of in"31,,cbo.,:yLn Ccwity;
Township of Calumet, in ::Ton d du Lac County, to--,nsi _, of (,e-n_antc-,-.,n, in Co lnty; Itownship of 11o, ,uon, in Ozauhee Cni:,nty; tow.-Isiips of Grtanville and. 'J Til-%raukee in 11ilwaukee County; tovi-laohip of Caledonia, in IacJLno Pount,--, cm,.J. o-.,nsllips of Somers ai,.d PleasE nt Prairie, in Lenosha County. Infestat-ic)ns h,--;,e previouslyy b- efound in flanitowoc, SIU;boyr :an. and Racine Coi;31ties. Otherwise, t)-a collectio3,s indicate first-recoa d -finds in the re.-) -ctive 2ou)tiDs. 77it'h t.u exception -f the ri to Coil e s, 1 f i- st-r r f" nd s re in infestationsin Fond du Lac; aiO d (, C d
towliships bo-_.-de::-ir ,, Late or conti ,,ouo i-o co,-,,3tal to ,7nshJ!')s festetions were disc.(.-v-.rad in the nort!.ei %*,ioot cnd sorthei ni7, st townsl.i, on the lakes indicatlinL, a wide range T i,.fe,,ta, ic.i alon ., t,ae f:,crite

Federal certification ,to coi,.-Oly witIL State -xro-rear. cc,--n borer qu, rartines ,uere corfir_6d. -T)rircirally to thc ro- stern contrr,.l rjreas. 1.11 bcails chii ped irom southern :,Ow Jerse.- -,r'd en-stern Pe-.ns-,l7r-3- Ja to tatc;, :L-e(:uirin C,)In borer inST)eC4,ion' eertifie,-t, t t! ee'le certific
:Lo cer -,L--d a" sare, ti.,.e 1':Tal ,.ne e b 11
tion was Franted. Inspectors -7'-,o ofo i. h,.ve hr,- ,,n 70r,-inL, e--clusively on ,cornborer in -Ipecti -,n -!orl.: in O iic,.# West Vi. C;j.,Aiej I Ldia*n,-, and wore reassigned to srorvise -a7)ane_-e bee-lie t-,:,jiT 11 rrii
activities in t lcir arcco,
is in excian-o fo7- &T- equal amount of tii.,e devoted to cori. bcrer 11-srcetion -,,o r k by the re,-T.1 ,r Japanese b(-+,ctl(, 1)orso-nc1 in 11 e,-: Jerse-,r and C onnc c t i cut









MEXICAN FRUIT FLY

The work of the Mexican Fruit Fly Projedt was seriously interrupted by a tropical hurricane which struck the Valley on August 4. This part of the Gulf Coast has been remarkably free from these disturbances, none having occurred since about 1370, when the village of Clarksville at the ,cuth of the Rio Grande was destro'ed The velocity of the wind at Brow7nsville was about 70 miles per hour, but decreased rapidly to the westward, being only about 40 miles per hour at Mission.
It was estimated that about 90 percent of the fruit in the Brownsville district was whipped from the trees# while in the Mission district, at the other end of the Valley, only about 2 or 3 percent was blown off. Considerable damage was done to
buildings in Broiwnsville and to plate glass windows and signs as far west as ercedes. Traps which were in the trees were damaged to some extent and quite a number were lost. Rains which accompanied the hurricane made the groves impassable and as soon as they were dry the attention of the inspectors was directed to the remcval of the fallen fruit. This resulted in a considerable lessening of the trapping operations during the remainder of the month.

Following a survey of the damage done to the fruit, the Federal and State Departm ents recommended that the fallen fruit be disposed of by either regulation burial, by piling in Atrrows in the middle of tree rows and covering, or by throwing to the middles and double discing. This latitude in the disposition of the fruit was granted in view of the financial condition of nany of the growers and the fact that the fruit was still immature.

Through agitation by a number of growers end others, the Director of the Reconstruction Finance Corporation of Texas authorized the use of laborers from
that organization in the cleaning of the groves. It was realized that to be effective the destruction of the drop fruit would have to be accomplished quickly The direction of the P. F. C. labor was turned over to the inspectors of this project, and for the few days during which the laborers were able to work, they made good headway in disposing of the fallen fruit. How~v;r 3eavy rains occurred which interrupted their work. Further, an election : held on the 20th au-torizing the issuing of $20,000,000 in bonds to be used in r-i.ef work in Texaso Pending the outcome of this election, the Federal authorities had notified the State that no more funds would be advanced unless the State approved these bonds, For that reason the State officials were conserving the funds on hand and allowing work only to those actually in distress, which cut down the supply of labor needed for the clean-up work. All R. F. C. work in the Valley was stopped on the 25ths when only about two thirds of the fruiit had been disposed of. 'The burden of the clean-up work was then thrown on the growers who made very good headway the remainder of the month.

The operation of traps on the Texas side of the river resulted in the taking of 5 adult A. ludens, 106 A, ser entina, 9 A. _llens, and 2 A. fraterculus. The ludens were taken in a grove at Mercedes and in two groves at Weslaco. These groves were thoroughly s-prayed with the nicotine-molasses poison.

Of particular interest was the identification of a number of adult flies reared by the Mexican inspector at Matamoros from peaches originating in Ramos Arispe, Coahuila, exico, as A. serpentina. Larvae from this same shipment of









peaches showed all the characters of ludens. This is the first record of A. ser. pentina being reared from peaches and establishes a new host for this species. In I'exico serpentina is considered as an enemy of mameys and sapotes.

Preparation for the harvesting of the largest crop ever produced in the
Valley was well under way by the. end of the month. Additions were being made to a number of packing plants and quite a few new plants were being erected. It was estimated by the industry that around 15,000 carloads of frlit would be shipped this season. Preliminary maturity tests showed that quite' a bit of the Duncan grapefruit and navel oranges were ready for harvesting.






PI1NK BOLLWORM

Gin-trash inspection has been continued in the area below San Antonio to and including the lower Rio Grande Valley. On the whole, working conditions have been
satisfactory, and i.ore material has been examined this season than ever before without any signs of thA pink bollwor:i being found. Ginning was largely completed by 'the end of August. The machines were therefore moved to new areas east and northeast of San Antonio.

Permission was secured to operate the two machines in Mexico, and one of the mobile machines was set u'p at iatmoros, opposite Brornrsville, where six gins are 'in operation. Due to the practice of shipping seed cotton into Hatamoros in railway cars, the men were able to secure samples of trash from many -different localities. Ginning goes on almost continuously, hence rains did not interfere with gin-trash inspection at this place as much as in other locations. One of the small hand machines first began operating at Nuevo Laredo, Mexiec, which is opposite Laredo, Tex. Some cotton is also shipped to this point for ginning, therefore trash was very plentiful. This machine was later moved to the Don Kartin Project, which is soime 60 miles from the border. There are some 25,000 acres of cotton on this project, and with three gins operating there was plenty of trash'. Aside from the boll weevil and leaf worm, insects were very scarce. All trash inspected by both of the above machines gave negative results.

Inspectionsof the 1933 crop'have been begun in the Southeastern States. In northern Florida and southern Georgia both field and gin-trash inspectirsare being carried on, while in Nississippi, Alabama, and South Carolina only gin-trash inspection is now being performed. The results of all inspections have been negative to date.

The daily collection and examination of cotton blooms from the plats at
Chapman Field, Fla., wore continued throughout the month, with negative results. From time to time okra and other hibiscus blooms have also been exanined. On August 23, two pink bollworm lrvae were found in hibiscus bl6oms. The plant on which the insect was found is a hybrid, Hibiscus rosa-sinensis. Immediately after this finding, two inspectors began an intensive examination of hibiscus blooms,









and at this time 10,000 have been inspected without finding any firther specimens* It would therefore appear that there was no general infestation in hibiscus.

During the month an inspection trip was made down on the Florida keys to see
how much growth had been made by wild cotton seedling and sprout plants since the clean-up work. Sprout plants were observed along the road on the extreme lower end of Uppei Matecumbe and on Lower Matecube Keys. Only three or four plants wer
found tOb riig h ra i rt aetyhvny three most four pth s rt
found to be fruiting, the great majorityy apparently having made most of their growt] since the rainy season began. The plants where sodium arsenite was applied last fall were also inspected. -It was found that where the solution had been poured around the roots of the plants t"ey had not been killed. In cases where the base of the stalk had been bruised beire the solution was mlied, the plants had been killed. Plants that wre sprayed witnh the solution merely shed their leaves and put out new7 Growth. It is therefore a-pparent that in order to kill the plants, the stalks will have to be bruised in some manner before the solution is Epplied.

The trap-plat work in the Di- Bend of Texas was brought to a close on
August 18. At this tiie only three of the plats were being used, and these continued to show higher infestation than the adjacent fields. Boll counts made in the fields indicated that the infestation was increasing, so that there seemed to be no particular advantage in continuing the plats. Bloom and boll inspections made at random in various fields throughout the Presidio section have shown a light infestation. On Augiust 25 the first cotton of the 1933 crop, consisting of 5 bales, was &ined at Presidio. Fromn these 5 bales, 1-1/2 bushels of gin trash obtained was run through one of the small hand machines, and resulted in the finding of 683 pink bollworms, or an average of 136.6 woIms per bale. The first ginning of the 1932 season was from this some field, and from 2 bales, three fourths of a bushel of gin trash contained 2,321 pink bollworms, or an average of 1160.5 worms per bale. This is a reduction of 83 percent over the 1932 season. On August 30, one half bushels of trash was obtained from 2 bales from another farm,
from which 673 specimens were taken, or an average of 336.5 worms per bale. The first bale from. this farm in the 132 season resulted in the finding of 922 pink boilnTorms in the one half bushel of trash obtained. This siiows a 77 percent reduction over the 1932 season. From the above results it seems that the control measures enforced in the Big Bend have made a considerable reduction in the worm population.

The inspection of material collected from fields in the Salt River Valley
of Arizona, before they were plowed under, has been completed. In addition, green bolis from all parts of the area hive been inspected during themonth, rthout any signs of the pink bollworm having been found. Toward the close of the month a few bales of cotton were ginned. All of the trash was collected and run through one of the small machines with negative results. It now appears that ginning will be well under way in this area by the middle of the coming month, at which tie it is planned to put four gin-trash machines in operation.

A considerable amount of material from the 1933 crop has been inspected in
the Thurberia weevil area, without any signs of either the weevil or the pink bollworm being found. Investigations have also been made to determine just how near to the eastern plantings of cultivated cotton Thurberia plants are growing. However, some further investigations will be necessary before this can be obtained









acuratelyr. It is of intl ,rest t,, note that the Thurboria p]'oants are no-7 blooming
rre 7usey, nd there are prospects for a hoavT crop of' bolls. 7oovils have already beC-un rin~nd have started to attack the buids oznd sr-all bolls. It will be
sormc time,. jet before gi-nning gets under .,ay in this area. Only oneo gin vrill be operated again this season, and they will naturally wait until a considlerable aimoiunt of seed cotton has a ccumulated before beginnin;- operations. It is molanned to use one of the small gin-trash maac. irnes in this area







PREVW "IiG SPIRL2AID OF UTMS7

Begular scouting work was re.3umed durin- -the month in the barrier zone in IMassachusetts, and Connecticut. In the Pennsy,,lvania area a:Jproxiirmtely 175 local laborers continued wi;th thr,. -xor]k of clearirfg s'urouts and s.,-,l1l brush from the infosted territory cut over dunn',- theo fiscal year 1933. On Aug2.st 21, scoutinc- 7as started in thL lowlands aln~the banks o-l- thco Siisqcuehlimina and Lackuwanna Rivers, but on account of flood conditions which resulted fr-om the heavy raiLn, it -as found necessary to tenmporanil-%r discontinue scoutin- after only a- fow daysv ,.ork. At one tiine the water in these rivers -as 20 feet above t'he lu,7 ato iark.

Effective August 16, under the -ITational Indu~tria l 1Pecovery Act, fthnds
a-iountinf- to Q2',O?, 20 2 90 were allot-teq to t'-., bureauau of P-lait '.uarantine for -yrsy moth work. This money is to be exixnded iii Vermiont, "lassachu-setts, Connecticut, New. York, and nennsyrlvania. Scoutinr,, is to be car-ried on in Koa Zn lad Ih barrier zone and east of the zone to thje Copnncticut _--'iver, the northern mart o f Few York State in Clinton County,, acmc. in Pernns-lvania. *Tr a r.oitl started in securinE 2,en for sunervisory positio-ns on th-is -roiect,.all such poositions beinj filled by -men experienced in' gms- noh or.:. 'These man, 'to getller with the re,7ular suprer-visor,,- mrsormnal, will train and. direct a force of about 1,000 men to be secured through the Nat-ional -iee.inmlo'-Mont Service in each State where Federal jgypsy m-othl work has been authorized, One of the first steps taken wms to establish locations for training schools, as very, few men. -ill. have had previous experience in such work and Most of thorn wiill ha-ve to be taugh- torcgizh n
sect in the various stages of its life history a-nd how7 and whore to look for it. These training schools a::e bei-u -established. in Connecticut2 assalise.hstts, southern Vermont, and in Penrsylvania, whore t'Uhe gypsy moth is plentiful in wocdian( An important factor inlctn training schools wa,.s the neGcs--it-T of securinboarding facilities for such a hIare number of m~n at c-, near these locations Upon completion of a short trailing period the nen will be as: einblerl in crows and assigned to various -prts of the territory for re,;i:l-r ;coutii< 'ork

The gypsy moth program in thei neoncy Con,-servation. camps, is being- devoled~ rapidly, but there -ill bu no duplication of thei -'yorak conducted under the National Industrial Recovery Act. Dun>-, .'u. usta averag-e of 150 men weroe n-g god o n gy-psy moth work in tho COC.C, camps in Connecticut a-nd Ve-rmont, and good proress
is~ bein mdo. ItU has been di -i-icult to secure ,.,in for gmymt eki hs
caraps as so fmany are engaged in construction w,,ork and various capduties. NO






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gypsy moth work has as yet been started in camps in Massachusetts, but foremen are to be appointed to these caemps early in September.

A total of 6,737 assembling cages have been placed this season in States as follows: 1,823 in 54 towns in Pennsylvania; 1,893 in 49 towns in Connecticut; 1,212 in 29 towns in Hassachusetts; 703 in 17 towns in Vermont; 1,081.in 26 towns in New Jersey; and 25 cages in Canada (put out by Canadian officials), A large number of male gypsy motI have been caught in Pennsylvania, Connecticut, and Massachusetts. To the end of the month 61 male gypsy moths were caught at 30 cages in 15 towns in Pennsylvania; 461 male moths at 271 cages in 34 towns in Connecticut; and 136 male moths at 43 caGes in 11 towns in 1assachusetts. One male moth was caught in a cage in New Jersey, as was mentioned in the September News Letter. This makes a total of 659 male moths caught at cages up to the end of Auigust. No moths were taken at cages in Vermont, and no report has been received of any catche being made in Canada, By the first of September work was started in removing the cages, but reports were still being received of a few catches of male moths.

For several years from reports received from employees of this project,
State officials, and various other sources, there have been indications that gypsy moth infestations.were building up in woodland areas in many towns not r.iore than 20 or 2w miles from the eastern border of the barrier zone in I.assachusetts, Connecticut, and southern Vermont. This year, several serious infestations have been found in this area east of the zone. In lIbssachusetts, infestations have been found in Westfield, Hatfield, andAxLnherst. The.infestation at Hatfield is located on a large white oak tree in a field in level country. As this tree is to 'be cut down and sections of it used as I-art of the State exhibit at the Eastern States Exposition, it was decided to make a rough count of the egg clusters, and it' was found that there were nore than 5,200 new egg clusters on this tree. $gg clusters were also located on tobacco plants, stones, and debris nearby. At .Limherst, an area of approximately 150 acres is generally to very heavily infested. The infestation is on high elevation in growth consisting of. gray birches, pine, and other species averaging 25 to 30 feet in height, and is ideally situated for wind spread regardless of wind direction. The towns of Westfield and Hatfield are between the zone and the Connecticut River, the infestation at Westfield being ap-. proximately 15 miles and the one at Hatfield about 20 miles from the zone. Although Ariherst is situated on the east side of the Connecticut River, the infestation existing there is only 20 miles air line from the nearest point in the zone.
In addition to the infestations referred to above, serious infestations are khown to exist in Erving, Mass., Hinsdale, N. H., and Rockingham, Vt. None of these infestations are more than 25 miles air line from the east zone,line. At Groton, Conn., approximately 30 acres were defoliated this year, and an additional 200 acres showed evidence of feeding. The gypsy roth infestation conditions at Groton are the most serious to exist in that State since infestation was first discovered there.

Observations have been made during the month of the amount of injury to
cranberry bogs by gypsy moth larvae in the Cape Cod section of Massachusetts, which is the center of the cranberry growing industry in this State. Many of the owners of these bogs have been interviewed. for estimates .on damage caused by gypsy moth larvae. It was found that in soei cases, where serious infestations of the gypsy moth existed in the surrounding woodland, heavy losses resulted from the drift onto the bogs from surrounding woodland. In some places the injury was so severe that






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there will be very few cranberries harvested from the affected areas. One small bog, approximately 5 acres in extent, which yields normally about 00 barrels of berries, has so few berries on it now that it is practically a total loss. Owners of these bogs have adopted an extensive spraying campaign anid in some instances, where surrounding woodland areas are under their control, have cut out excessive tree growth aid underbrush in areas surrounding their bogs and have sprayed other trees to reduce the infestation. Bogs in the infested areas have been sprayed two or three times and so-ectimes more with arsenate of lead, and in some cases these spray programs have served to save part of the crop.

It has been noticed from time to time that more publicity is being given in the Hew England newspapers to the gypsy moth ad the damage it causes.. Considerable attention has been iiven to the serious injury to trees caused by the gypsy moth in the Cape Ccd section of Cassachusetts. Although the gypsy moth is present in the western section of the New England States, the insect has not as yet caused sufficient damage to arouse intense interest of the general public in this area. The August 13 number of the Sprin field Sunday Union and Pepublican carried a full page write-up of the gypsy moth project, relating the history of the gypsy moth in this country and the work that hlas been carried on to prevent the spread of this insect. The article described clearly and interestingly all phases of the control and eradication activities of this project and contained several illustrations of the work. It is believed that as a result of this article, many people hitherto
rather unfamiliar with the gypsyr moth will have a clearer understanding of the work that is being carried on to prevent the spread of this pest.

The importance of inspection of freight cars to prevent the spread of gypsy moth infestation was made very evident this month -hen infestation was found on a considerable number of these cars on a railroad track which had been :bandoned for general traffic in Cumberland, R. I. A total of 344 cars were stored on this abandoned line extending over a distance of about 4 miles. These cars are to be repaired and placed in service as soon as possible, after which they may be moved to almost aiy point in the United States. A total of 217 new gypsy moth egg clusters were creosoted on these cars, most of the clusters being on the wheels and iron work of the cars. Apparently caterpillars had crawled from nearby areas where small tree growth was rather heavily infested and had found shelter from the sun under the cars as they stood on the tracks. Four hundred and fifteen egg clusters were creosoted on the rails and railroad ties. Considerable difficulty was encountered in creosoting the eg clusters as many of the wvheels on the freight cars were hollow and egg clusters had been laid inside of them. In order to creosote these egg clusters, it was necessary to spray the insides of hollow wheels with the use of a suction pump end pov:er spra; nozzle. rhe hand pump ras worked i2 a bucket of creosote outside the cars by one inspector ond the spray hose handled underneath the car by another.

A number of years ao a survey was made to deterl-in t' possibility of gypsy moth infestation being, carried on railroad cars that micht be stored on sidings. It was determined ac that ti e tW t practically all the sidin where cars were held did not have trees gro in nearby. However, durin the last few years a considerable mileage of railroad tracks has be n abandoned in How Enwland for regular service and on some of these trac s surplus cars have bon stored. The movement of freight cars has been very greatl: curt iled during te de ression





(1211 1 1111111 0 i li 2 4 l 16 8i 7 3i fli ff
-22- 3 1262 09241 6873


but many are now being put back into service. Contact has been made with railroad com-panies in the quarantined area and their cooperation secured. .,All sidings where cars are stored are being inspected and if infestation is found, treatment will be ap-lied before they are permitted to move.

The district inspector of the Bangor, aine, district, while taking gypsy moth defoliation records in some of the towns which were assigned to him in the Bath, Maine, district, located a moderately heavy infestation of beech scale in the town of Wash ington, Maine, which is located in the extreme northwestern part of Knox County. According to this observation the infestation extended over a considerable area. It is about 4 miles from a heavy infestation of this scale located in the town of Liberty, Maine, which was discovered by men from the Gypsy ioth Laboratory at Melrose Highlands, Mass.

Scouting for the satin moth egg clusters in towns just outside of the present satin moth quarantine line .in iNew England was completed in August The only towns outside of the present quarantine line that have been found infested are one in New Hampshire and eight in Taine. The trend of the spread is toward the northeast parts of Maine2 the farthest tovn north being Houlton, which borders New Brunswick, Canada.

The fall season for the shipment of nursery stock usually begins sometime in the middle of September. At first, shipments are few and it is not until about two weeks later that the r eal bulk of the shipping starts. This year one of the nurseries located in a northern section of the gypsy moth quarantined area adopted
a new method of advertising, and if successful results are noted they plan to use this method more extensively in the future. If such proves to be the case, it will serve to increase the amount of inspection and also to make the beginning of the inspection season considerably earlier than in the past. From their list of old customers they selected 1,000 names. To each person on this list they sent a copy of their latest catalog and included with it a small blue spruce. All of these went to points outside of -Lh quaranted area, and therefo e iG was necessary that each tree be inspected and ach package certified. If Lhis custom should spread to other nurseries it will undoubtedly result in a veiy ml.ch increased amount of inspection, as most of the nurseries have large mailing lists composed of individuals and firms to whom catalogs are sent.regularly.




Ji
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Full Text

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N E W S L E . T . . T E R . . .: ,_:);31J.E.llif-t! qF ) ?LA11T r-pN:..ANT-I _NE. : . , . . L R RY tL. ITED s11.P. TE3 DEPAR'rME:l\JT o ;-~a;i~:~~-_-fATE-PLANT BOARD ---~--------' .-:--=-==:;::== . ==::-=== ~ Nun 1ber 34 ( NOT FOR. P1JBLIC ATI01'T) .. Octobe r 1, 1 9 3 3 ~ ====;.:_: = ---=.....-.=====-================-:::::=-::==:=====-=====-======-================= ........ AD /II1 1ISTRATIVE ---------.J . 9n Scpte 1ber 2 9 , Secreta r y W a:)..l a ce anno uqceo. tl1e. transfer o f Lee .{i. Strong from the Ru:re~u of Plant Quarantine to t he : B u r e a1.1 ' o f Ehtom olci g y , efiectiv.e October 1. J Aver. y s. i-Ioyt h a s b een designate d .cttng Chief of'. t h i s Bu reau~ • • I • A .dinner giverr in Dr . Mar-latt's J:ionor , retiring c hief of the Bureau o f Entomolosy, on t h'3 occ a sion or b .is 7 o t h b i rth d n y 011: , . • e-pt ember 26, at tie Cos nos Club, was l
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' -2-Scolytid fr_~ Cz~choslovakiao--Adults of Tha:nmurgus -~horbiae Kust. ( Scolytidae) were intercepted at Philadelphia in a plant of Euphorbia sp. in the mail from Czechoslovakia()-. . Gla:iiolus thrips from J3er muda.--Taeniothrips gladioli :M .. & So was interc~pted a~ Boston in a.11.d on a glaci:Loius flo\Tver i'.n baggage fro-in Bermuda;, _!,ep -id.optero_~~larvae i ~ aij_ S.?_O_aj.b . .J..tli_iJ .. ~Larvae of Stenoma sp. (Stent>.. midae ) were intercepted at l':rew Orleans in a n avocado in ship's quarters from 1'/Iexicoo , Thrip s ~ n banana deb.E.i_~o--Eaplo~_r:i_s merrilli 1Vatson was intercepted at Philadelphia on banana debris in cargq from Guatemala, Hondtrr'as, and Me~ico. Jo R. Watson reports a s follbvTS: ''I des c ribed t his species. sev~ral. year~ ago from s ... ecimens taken i n C uba. We have since had it from most of the ifest Indies Isl ands, a.YJ.d from the e xtrem e sout h of Floridao" Professor Watson further states that it is apparentl y a p redator a s it i s usually found associa t e d with scale insect So :3cale insect on crotono--Ps.rlo.toric;1 mytilaspifo1-mis Green (Coccidae) was in t ercepted at San Francisco on c roton. i n baggage f ron 1 I awaiio Turnip s from ITor;my infested~.::-la rvae of Psyllio des chrysocephala Linn. ( Chrysomelidae) were intercepted.at Philadelphia-in tur71:i, p-s-insto-res ;from Norwaye . Th i s is the first r ecord i n ou r file s of this i nsect b e i n g intercepted from Norway. Coccid from Czechoslo vakiao-:--L .$canium cor: vli (Linn~) was taken at Washington, ----------------------' ' DG c., on an appl e scion i n the !D.ail from Czechoslovakia., This is a Eur~pean species v:rhich has b e come established in the Sta t e of Washington and i n Br'itish CollL.111biao 1.Ve evil larvae i n white turnips.,--Larvae of Ceu.Gorhynchus sulcicollis Thoms. ( Curcul•ionidae') were intercepted a t Philad e lphia in white turniI)s in sto_res from Eneland11 RECE11T PATHOLOGI C A L IJ\TTERC EPT IONS OF I3\fi1EREST Bulb season startso--The f all bulb shippi n g .sea~on has started. One shipm ent of-hyacinths fron France snd tvva from Holland hav e been found infested with the b u l b eelTTorri1 ( Ty~enchus . .._i_Es~i) a t l'Je1,;r York~ M i s c ellaneous nemas~--:Relatively few parasitic nemas have b e e n intercepted r e cently. On e lot" found-a t N evr York in c arrots from Germany has. b een determin~d as Hexam .eris s p . (p-robabl y .. :parasit e o f s o n e i nsect). Aphelenchoides. parietinus was-:G.1.terce:pt e d in beet s from England : and in pots.toes. fro:mNorway at -Baltimore. Heterodera sc. 10,chtii wa s interce pted in beets fror.i Mexico a t E l Paso. • . . ..... ... ---:-. Garlic dise_~.--Discolored areas on garlic .. ;r-..c-017 1 c11-irta intercepted at Seattle were found t o conta i n nwnerous spores o f Fu,sariel~ sp.

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-3-' . . ~. . •. . . Orchi~ dise~o--A nu_mber of o~chidsarriving in Hawaii fro~ the Philippines were found on inspection to be iLfected with .Colletotrichum or~hidearum. This is ~he fi:i;-st irit~rception o f this disease from ttie-Philippines. Hew record for rusto-~Catharanthus roseus lea ves collected at San,turce, Pu~rto Ri(!o , wer e found .,_f; b earuredinia-of a rust. Additional pnte.riaJ, was ob -tained i:.1.lld_divided rTith Dr. Jo c. Arthur, whose staffdete. rniined the rust a s Cole_os;nori~~ a po _~a~~., This _constitutes a ' new host and a new locality record for the rust. Gladiolus scab from Chilec,--Gladi o lus bulbs from Chile interceuted at t h e ----------# • ' •• Washington inspection house \7ere submitted to ~/Iiss Lucia I.1cCulloch~ who confirmed the presence of scab (j3acteri~.E! ri,arr;inat1!!.1,l) . op. themo Aucuba japonica diseaso~--A diseased leaf collected a t Seattl(3 from a plant of Aucu~_j~oni' i:ite~sified when cultures disclosed the pr0senc e i n at .1.east throe of -t Je2e s hipments of the wilt fune;us (p r~~ium ulmi) • i:i1b.e shipment arriv::..:n.g at Yew Orleans vras e,i vE:;n a hot-vrator treo.tr.10nt under the direction of vr. 'I' . D i lard; for t hose lots co n .::.ng in a t Tortolk arra gements were m.o.de localbr by M . Co Rich f'or the s::n:e ef .1.ectivo safe ard.; L. M o Scott was able to provide for sinilar hot--:-ater trec..tq{.;nt for tie shipment enterin at Baltimore; anc. the I~ew York shipr:1ents were subjected either to this hot-water treat ment or to vacuum fumigation.

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-4-.. It is worthy of not e that t h e impo:riters of. these logs, without excepti"n, h a v e disp layed a mos t c o operat i.ve . s pi_ri t i . n this emergency. . W .i-thout -this 1Jublics p iri t ecJ. attitude o n their part -it is doubtfu l if these safety measures could have been effected~ o wing to a lack of authority in the Plant Quarantine Act to deal vJith such materials before official.quarantine action has b!ought them definitely under c ontrol. N o p ermits have been i ssued f o r t h e importation o f elm planting stock from Europe since April 4, 1 927, and all trees grow n fro m stock i mported. since the earliest i m p ortations in 1923 have been c arefully ins:pected to assure , .. .their freedo m fro m t h e disease; elm seeds have b een e x c luded from Europe since December 22, 1930. When the closely related genus Zelkova vifas re~1orted to be a host of the Dutch elm disease it was lik e-riise put urider-:Uspicion a n d was not imported after March 30, 19290 RO$ARIE S I N Fl!~STED BY I N SEC.'rs T w o pack a ges contain ing 6 8 4 ros~ics, co mine from }'.o m e , Italy) were received recently a t the Waship.gton, D., C.,; Inspection House throug h the Customs 'Div;i.sion of the City P ost Office., Th ese rosaries were m a d e fro m e silver-like aetal chain on w h ich were strung seeds of G l editsia c a s picao On opening the parcels many lepi-dopterous larvae and pupae were collected in the pape r packing and a mong ihe rosary chain so The s e hav e b e e n identifie d b y Carl H e i nrich~ o f the U. S~ Bureau of Ento mology, as Plodia or E phestia spe (?)o Altho u g h n o i nsect injury w;s visible on t h e h ' a r d seedcoatin g it w a s very evident, from the frass at the openings i1: the ends o f the seeds, t h ~ t the l arvae had be0 n feedin g o n the inside. It is doubtful i f t hese tough-coated se~ds c ouldbe injured b y t his type of i n sect unless a break occurred in the outer covering o Infestation t ook place; it is believed, either afte r t h e rosaries were completed., or just afte r the seeds were. prepared for s ,t.rin ging . INTERCEP TIO N OF FRUITS A N D VEGETABLES FROM HAITAII A r ecent letter from A. c. Fleury, as c o i :laborator directing port inspection work in California, includes som e i n t eresting com ment on t h e enforcement of Quar antine no. 13, on Hawaiian fruits. and vegetableso We have b e e n 111a:dng rather frequent anc7. mm1er ous interceptions of violations of Qu2 T antine Order No" 1 3 on vessels operated by the Matson Navigation Company o No a.oubt t his condition is partially accounted for b y the fact that these vessels now operate in a tri angulai" run, and many passeng ers fro 1'.1 Eawaii who intend to dis~mb ark a t the seco n d port of call at the mainland are under the impress i o n that it is not n ecessary for them to cons u m e or destroy H a w aiia n fruits or vegetables until the y ar:ri v e at the mainland port w h e r e t h e y will d.isenbarke On t h e o t h e r hand, a rather frequent turn over in the crew m e mbers o n these vessels may partially account for t his conditionQ On one vessel recently five dJ. ffe r ent lots o f Hawaiian contraband fruits w ere i ntercepted, t w o o f these lots i n p ossessio_ n of

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-5-the crew and three in the possession of passengers. In the case of one lot o f watermelons, they were found t o be heavily infested with melon fly~ and in the case of one 1 t of mangoes in the room of a passenger, they were not only foW1d infested with the l arvae of t_1e Hedi terranean f-rui t fly but pupae of the Mediterranean fruit fly were found in the berth on which the fruit was being carried as Y. ell as on the floor~ under the rugs in the room. Needless to say~ adequate and necessary disinfection and ot~er safegu.ard measures were ta.1cen to me::t this si tuationo e have broueJ1t these matters frequently to the atte1-tion of the 1atson Nav-igation Com!)an~r and t :iey have always cooperated with us in every way in atter . :pting to re1]uce t.he nm:1ber of such viola tionsJ J _ ar1;::c1...1.larly on the part o f their crevr rr.embersThey im mediately discharge any nember of tl1eir crew who carelessly or other.Tl se bri!lgs iri. any contraband fl' •ui ts,, Recently they dis-c arce d t 1e c~1ief s"tew0.rd on one of t~eir larger veosels_; TTilo had been i;-rith the co1,11)any for t wen:;i-~seven yearso Th6y have po.::lted notices of their ow:::i throughout the vessel 3.nd have repeatedly circularized masters on all their vessels _calling their attention to the quarantine re6ulationso EURIUC.Al~ DA;.'.fAG:E O N "'~IC.b.lT BORDER ~eports from Oo D o De~uty~ chief i n spector in the Brownsville district, fol loning the hurricane of Septenber 4 o.nd 5, indic te th~t none o f the border inspec .... tion force suffered bodily injur y , t 1ough the damage to property both private and governmental was considerableci '.!:he roof of t h e fu:.:1igation house at Brorrnsville was blown clear avm.y, the \78.lls cracl:ed, ano. the large swinging doors so badl tw~sted out of s~ape that it is doubtful i f ti1e~ c ~n be repaired successfullyc The roof of the off j_ce held, but a storeroom lost its covering and all records and supplies stored t he r e were destroyed or damaged, The torrential rains w ich acconpai1ied the storm flooded. the ,;1hole district and delayed coDmunication for days" Airplanes TTere unable t o land on the flooded uirportso The two G.overnrnent cars were bogged dorm in the fu..r:-iigation house where they 11er e stored; .::r. Deputy's onn car had the to:9 sheare d off b y a flying roof, and the top of Hr. Svran7s car wa s caved in by falling debris. ~ith the fumi3ation house o~t of co1J .r.1ission plans were being made next day to pipe gas into incoming cars as a temporary means o f fum..'..gation. 1'-Jr. Deputy gi v~s the follorrinc; vivid pict '.lre of the storm: Zarl -Eonda; afternoon I TTas advised that the barometer was falling ra:9idly a_r1d by 3 : 30 pon: . VThen t h e c~1ange of shifts at the bridGe ne.s to be made i-t :iad fallen to 29: 29 and I ordered the men on duty to tell their relief not to stay at the brid, s . I am told that the barometer finally reoched 27 :89 during the lull thet preceded the blow back and that the wi:;:id ;rGached a velocity of 135 miles an hour. I lc..11.011 that tho 1.7:;.:1d :ns so strong that it tossed l av-y tiles off of n, house as if they were autumn leaves. They vrould fall and "break with a metallic sound that 11as constantly reninding 1.1e of t;ie noise heard in a shooting gallery.

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-6--. • : T~e storm. started . Lab.or . Day :n10rning at J,l -rrheri a , strong wind ,sprang .:up out of the northwest bringing with it a bl:i'..ndin g raino Tl1e r _ain :crune down i n such torrents that -objec:ts 50 feet away .. cduld n o t _ be reco gnized. o Jr_jom, then on the wind steadily in. ~ :re , a s-ed ;i.n v elo_ci t y untD., 1: 3 _ 0 the next morning wl1en i t gracluall. y lef:,.1:-Caood a..nd there _ was a lull• for:about 2 hours" At.4!30.in .. the -mrni.ng t h e wil:1d returned, this t ime out of the s outh e , a _sti _ and it _blmv at. ga :le and hurricane velocities .until 1 in the after-noon, making a to-tal o:f 26 hours that it stormed~ The wind gages at both the l ocal weather bureau and at the ai; port. were b:r;oke n a . I t seems that the anemometer at .tho air. port was the last to go .and it was registering t-h e wind at 90 miles an hour . when it went off., From 11 p .;m.. o n un ti 1 1, :p .me the 7vi.nd was so strong out o f the northwest t h a t it sucked t w o . window s o _ut of the leeward side of my house a The first hurJiqarie we h a d was mild compared-to .the one we just exper5.enced., 'Tli.e latest one lasted t wice as long and did many ti.mes more dai n a ge~ The strange part o f it -was that st.rong bricl:: building s .like the high school fou:).d h ave whole co rners. o r a stor y blown off of t hE?m whj l e some of t h e Mexican. s hacks -v.rould remain intc:;cto I thinl~ that it wa s all a que stion o'f a wind bree.k~ It a ppears that nothing could withstand the fury of.the w in9-where i t got a clean si;-mep at an obje0to The wh0le northv:rest corner.of the hospit~l--t liat E?tood -off by itself was caved _ ii;ie The Vlind was so strong that ~t woul d pick up the mud from the street and hurl it thrc;:rngh the air.. There was but one life lost i n Brownsv~lle a s f a r as I h ave hea_rd, and there w:as one boy who had both legs crushed off by a . flying r oof, but in Matamoros I have heard as high as 120 per(3ons were killed_ . It w ill tak e several days for the people .of the Va) .. ley to get .their bearings., DOMESTI C PI.AN T QUARANTINES . ----------STRAWBERRY DWARF On t h e r ecommendation of the Bureau of ~lant Industry, the situation with rei'erence to t:1 e strawb e rry dwar f h a s been calJ.ed to the attenti o n of the nursery inspectors of the various States vli th the suggestion tha t the p r esence or absence of the diseasein nursery planting s be conside r : e d i n connection. with the issuance of nursery ins~Jection certi i':i,.c'a tes. The v a riou s regional plant toards_ have also been asked. to give such consideration to the situation as seems appropriate., It is reported that there i s a very h i g h perce11ta f ; e o f dwarf disease in some strawb e rry pl.antings and that the available ev~dence indi •cates that t h e planting stock wa s ah:;.ost c ertainly infected before shipment. r;I1he Bureau of Plcu:it Industry states that whil e the econo'.rnic importance of the . strawberry dwarf disease is still

PAGE 7

--7-some~1ha t uncertain and may depend part iall~r on weather co ndition s~ they believe it to be of' sufficient .. i m p rt'ance to waTrant greater attention than has b een given to it oy nursery ins~)ectors in the ,ast. T he Te is a De,artment publication (Ci~cular Noo 174) on the subject entitled, ''Field O'bservatio~s on the Strawberry Dvrarfo" E1IDOPEA1\J PINE-SHOOT MOTE It is repO:!..'te _ d that darm ge caused. b y the :Eur opean_ pine-shoot moth (Rhyacioni~ buoliana) is b e co ninc more serio 1.s in t h e l ei'l ::J:ngland States and N m York, and that 'iiu:r'sery infestt.. tion is com11licat ing the problem o Accordingly, a S:!Jecial conference to consider the situnti o n was held on Sep~ e 6ber 19 at Ne~ Haven, Conn o , having been called bf t .. 1e Bureau o f Plant C\1.urant i n e at the re~uest of the Eastern Plant Board. Injury from the fall broo d of larvo.e was e:x:a1ined on t h e pine t T
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-8-BLACK STEM RUST . During tl:i.e recent inspection o f nurseries in c onnection with applications for shipping barberry and l\1ahonia plants, the inspector learned that such plants in an Ohio nursery were being grow n from imported seed secured from certain deal ers outside the protected Statesc '11he fact that the seeds o f these plants, as well as other parts capable of propagation, com e with i n the provisi ons o f the quarantine, had evid entl y escaped the attention or the s h i ppers. Ac cordingly, they were 11ro~ vided with information from this office a s to pe:rmi t .requirements for shipping into States which are betng p r o-tected fro m the rust b y ba_:rberry e r adication. P H ONY PEACH DIS EASE The i nspectio n of nurseries and their environs :f,'o_ r the presence-of pho-~y peach disease has been comp leted in the States of Georgia, Alabama, Tennessee, and Texas. Whi l e fu.11 repo rts o f the results h ave not con e in, it is learne d that there has been s 0rae s p r ead of t"he diseq.se in northern Ala bamao Many of the in..,. fections found there were just emerging from the incubatio n _period, however, and it i s felt that the c o n dition ,;i i l l y i eld to prompt and thorough eradication. The f orce o f tln~e e i n spectors is now starting work i n S outll Carolina, Oklahoma, and Illinois. The State o f Tennessee recently revised -cn e _regulation s appl y;i.ng to the p ho n y peach disease, to extend t o i nfected areas _outside the State, and to include c ertifica-t:~on relating to the rieac h r o o t bo r ero V[~Ii7E-PINE BLIS'TI~R-RU ST Two Uo So Vorest Service nurseries in vmich white pines are being grown for I reforestatio n purposes, are amo nc; t hose f o r whi c h pe. r mits have been issued under the provisions o f the blister rust quarantineo One of these, the Parsons Nursery, P arsons, w .. Va., was estab lished "to bring the Monongahel a ( N ational Forest) back to productivity and to ref o rest almost 40,000 acre s of dev2.sted lands." This nati onal forest prot e c t s a l)a;rt o f the headw a ters of the Mon o n gahel a , Kanawha, Potomac, and J ames Rivers, end offers e xcellent possi bilities f o r timber product ion a n d recreational purposes. While nati v e red srJruce wiil b e the major crop, according to the Forest Service, white pine will also b e p lanted on the forest, and other c oniferous trees v:ri l l b e r aised i n small numbe r s f o r experimental purposes. An annu a l proa _uction of 500,000 white pines i s anticip ated. Shipments :from this nurs ery have been made during the ;;iresent year to the George Washington and the Unaka National J!'orests, the former in Virgi nia, and the lat ter in TennesseE?o Another Forest Servic e nursery for wh ich a permit h a s been i s s ued is the one at Rhinelander, Wis . Th re$ million white p ines are b e iD..g grov m o n land donated for the purpose , an d the nursery Yrill supply trees for reforesting denuded areas on lands p u rcha s e d fo r nationalforest purposes in Wisconsin and in the nearby portion of Mich i g an., The procedure for including w hite pine p e r mitp in the join t certification plan was completed durinc the month~ The joint certificates nill sho w certifica-tion under Quarantine No., "63'' w ith res:pect t o those nu;rseries in the gyps y moth regul ated area which also have pine-sh i pping pennits.. Only tvm such nurseries in that area h a v e received iJe;rmits this year, For shi pments betw e e n the New E n gland

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-9State s and ~ew York, were contro l area permits _rom the States o f destination are r equired, t h e join.t 9ertificate ,;ill reaq.: "63 Contr • .A:r,." and no tifications as to all snch control-a:cea.certificates issued by the gypsy moth inspectors will l at&r be se~t to ~ h e plant qu~rantine officers of t h e States of destination. Joint ce:rti.fico..tes a;r e used only in cases in which inspectol's are assigned to the nurseries tp oertify individual s hipmentsJ and are not used in ~ases such as the Class I nu.rseries in the Japanese beetle regulated area to w hi'ch certificates are supplied 1:. nthly, DATE SCALE ERADICATION A survey o f the date plantin6 s in the Ccachella Valley is •in ~r gress. Each :palm i s b eing inspected but only from the ground,. no ladders being used~ The reports turned in by the inspectors give the palm c ensus b a g e nnd also the condition of the plantin6 s f o r inspection, thus indicating the n ecessary work to be done durinG the wintero . The reports from this survey show a BJ'.'Sat difference in t h e plantings as contrasted with tnose turne d in i n 19290 Th ere ~re no seedling jungles in the in-fested area and v o r y fe"l7 outside t his nrea. Lost of the --"Orthless seedlings _have been dug out ana destroJ edc The g r wers have bee n d oing considerable pruning, and most of the offshoots h ave bee n removed fror.1 t h e palia s or have h a d their foliage cu.t back. This means that fev 7 gardens are diff'icul t to ins:1ect, a nd the possibility of overl?Okinc; scale is lessened. T h ere is a larg e i ncrease in the acreage since 1929, and an increase in the height of pails., Lo.ny palm s w _ 1ich could be in Sl')ected ent.:.rely from the ground in 1929 no w require i n s pectio n fror1 ladders 14 feet or more in he i g.1t. Many p aLms <.,annot uo v b e i n spected from 20-foot ladders. In Arizona o.11 planting s o f standard vo.rioty rialms are b eing inspected" H o s t of t h e palms were broucht in from the Coachella Valley as o f f s hoots, in s 01.e cases from properties that were nreviou.sly infested , o r on w hich scale was f ound. later. Due t o t:.1e physica l structure of the o f"shoots, it is quite prssible t h e sen.le mic;ht exist on p ortions of t hem which could not be observed by ordinary in s :oection, tha t is, on the leaf-bases U:i.1der the bands of fi.oer. Such nn infest a tion miglt escape observation for 2 or 3 years under certain conditions. -----J .APAN.tBSE BE: ~ TIB fuffi EU O PZA.1 C O.r. N BORER E:-:clusi ve Japanese e e tle TTo r l ~ As noted from a numbe r of neTTs p a . ers printed in sections heavily . i nfested by the Japanese beetle, active ca-rui gn s desi ~ ne d t o r educe Japanese beetle populations to a mini mum we1e sponsored this summer by a nu m b e r of civic o r ganizations and munici;pa,l officials. : Among t hose active in organizing t his surnn:er' s campaigns STATE PLANT BOARD

PAGE 10

-10-have been The Kiwa nis Club aI1d P a r k Depa:r t:ment o f Perth .Arn oy, N . J.; The . V{o man' s Club of :rJ. J.; The L a n d s c a p e S ervice o f the Cit izens U nemployment Com mittee of Moun t Vernon, H .. Y e; '11he. S po tswood Crarden Club, S p o t s wocd, N o J.; Super visor o f P'ubl ic Works , M . A ndronico , Hac k e nsack; N . J • . ; Troop 87, B o y Scouts o f Ame r ica, Barring t o n , N . Je; and P o s tmaster Lester Q,uigley~ Manville, N o J". Probably t h e r:J. o s t ener getic o f the c ampa i g n s v m s t h e one . s p o :1sored b y the K i wanis Club of Perth Amboy. Thei:r: caHpaign was laun ched o n Auesus t 2. The K iwanis Club, three o f the theaters of the t ovm, t h e '.Emer genc y Peli e f Committe e , and the P erth Amboy Hardware Company cooperated. Tl1e'. hardware store was the headq u arters for turn i n g in t h e collected beetles., ii' o r e very p i n t or mor e of beetles bro u ght in b y boy s o.nd g irls, a :pns s t o one of the loc a l moving picture theat e r s was iss u ed. Three t ho u s and five hundred pas ses wer e given out. I n this manner, n early six m illion beetles were c ollected wit h i n a p e riod of 2 1,7eeks. A c c ording t . o t h e chairman of the public affa i r o committee of' the K i wanis Club, t h e ,7ho l e project e xceeded the Club' s expectations. The y had no i d e a that beetles wol'-l d be turned i n in t h e q uantitie s they :re c e ived. Afte r the first day they w e r'e obl i ged t o cal l for h elp. '11h1.:, Emergency Re lief Commi t tee o f Pert h Jun.boy cooperatea. b ? furnishing rnen to tal;:e -care o f receiving and recording th8 collec t i ons., I n addition t o t h e passes to the theaters, the K i wanis Clu b offered , ,1eekl y :-,;r izes o f ~;\2 and :j~l to the t w o children turning in. the l a r gest q uantities., Conside rable pub l i city was given the campaign, since the secrete.ry o f t h e C lub i s cit}~ editor o f t he l ocal Perth Junboy p ape;ra Suppl ementing the l o c a l c ampa i g n , the Park Department of Perth Ambo y oper ated traps, whic h c au.gh t abou t :fiv-e and m 1e half barrels o f beetles., Child r e n were .permitte d t o collect the be3tles i n the parks , but were no t a l J.owed to empt y the traps. Ac-cor d ing t o the Director of Par k s , t hey r 8ceived a very cood lesso n o n the d estructiveness of the beetl e , since i n o n e bed alone, be for e the y had a chance to cope wit h the situ a t i o n , the beetle s lit e rally "ripped.' the bed apart." The severity of the s to1~n of A ug'U.s t 2 3 i s illustrated by the ~Xl)eriences of the trap inspector ;::d; Anno.polis , J 1 Id.. R a i n stnrte d on Monday, A u g ust 21, 2 i nche s fal.lin2; tha t day. The fol l owins day there was but a s n a l l arnou n t o f precipi t atio n i ' L a t e Tues d a y even i n g the nind. chanf;ed t o northoast and a 3Om ilean-hour gale started t o sv1eep a e r o ss the ba.y . All day \7ednesd.ay the rain f ell in torrents and the ;:rind i n creased to 55 m i le;:, a n hour. Wec:1-nesday mor ntng the t rap inspector r e ceived word that the tide na. s coming up over the breakvmter a t the :Naval Academy. He went t o rescu.0 the tra1)s i n h i s • c a r e , and . hs. d to w a d e throu g h 2-1/2 .feet of vrater to v1here the trap s •;rer e s e t up. The w ind was b lowing s o hard h e could hardly keep on his feet., ThTee traps w ere removed f1•om their po s i t i on, but f our could no t be found sinc e they hac1 been blown over and w eT e covered with water. A fter the storm had subsic3-ed on Thursday, the renair.d e r of the trap s was located, a ltho ugh the weter was still 8 inches d eep at that poiht., One trap had blown throug h a tennis court fence., Practi c ally all of the traps o n the Naval A c adem y grounds had been blown do,1n 9 At the Sta t e Hous e grounds, three o:f the traps had been blown over, e.nd one was beneath a. 5Oyear-old l o cust t r e e w h ich had been felled . At another lJoint the wat e r was still 4 -1/2 f e o t deep near the b a :r and i t was impossible to tend t h e trap s in that locality . ]Tour oth9r traps were f oi.m d u nd.e r fall e n trees in the t own . A l l s tanding traps i:rn.r e clogr;e d with srnal l branches o r leaves., Many homes and. all c;arclens were ru i.n ec1. .According t o report, this wa s the worst storr.i i n the hi:=rtory of .Annapol i s ~ 1:lhile en rout e to UJ)per M arlboro o n Aug ust 25 , t w a s necessary for t h i s inspector' s machine to be towed through a s e c tion of road f l ooaed b y the Patux ent n iver., The Stat e Roads Corn.171ission f urnished a f ree towing service through 2 1/2 feet of water. On t h e ;retu r n trip , the inspe c t o r h a d to wait

PAGE 11

-11-2 hours fo_ a tow throug h t h e flooded area. A some n h2tt simila r c ondition wc:.s experienced •vith traps placed in Potomac Gardens i n the Distric t o:f Columbia. In the Gnr dens, t he traps wer-e covered with water up to t he b affles. A numbe r of t hem nere w ashed over ancJ. drifted avray vrith t h e stronc; current. In .!.fow Jersey, during August, 700 State-o.,ned traps the.t had bee n used in determining degree s of infestation in 15 towns and arou n d severa l lak e s i n the nort hern counties vrere lifted., 1-Jursery an d E;reen h ous:e scouting crews c o v ering unin-fested nurseries mid greenhouses in North Jersey we1e dis11issed on August 190 Durine; t h e 1;1onth, crevTS pick e d up 56 beetles on. the yiremises of 10 eommerci a l shippers; and 48 beetles within 300 feet of 11 a dditio nal establishments. As a result of t h e season's scouting it has b een necessc..r: r to chang e the c l a s sification o f 15 establishments. This will resu l +,, in ad6. i t io:n.c . l regul t o r y TTork in t he territory served by the Ruth0rford office. Supervisio:a i n the Rutherford district heretofore l argely has been over Class I, or uninfe.sted pre i . 1isesQ There ha s b e e n very little cut flower ins1 1ection w ork in N e17 Jersey du e to the n arl:et c ; nditions f o r this com mocli tf. .rJo berries v7ere f'ur d gated at the Hammonton berry mar ket 1 and only 80 crates of blueberries nere fu:nigated at New Lj_sbon. The ,e ach erop of the State was so s mall that m z.r;;:ets inside t r e regulated zone absorbed nost of t h e crop at attractive prices, although over 4,000 bushels ' . 7ere certified . f o r movement to nonrec;ulated territory . Earl'y in A ue;ust outside rr..ark ets vrere still attractive for Lima ana. string beans, resultine i n the certifi c ation of over 1 5,000 bushelso Visits t o co : .un.ercia l packers of apples and :'.)e a c l: e s continued. Certification of peaches w a s granted o n t h e basis o f satisfactory handling of t h e fruit in the course of grading and :pc:.c king . Overhaulin6 of a dozen beetle se9arators subject to hard. usage dt:ring t h e bean i n sl)ection seaso~ ,rill b e m a d e shortly . Soil treatm ent nith arsenate of lead in Erie, Po.., be gan on August 22. By the e ~1d of the month 12 acres h P d been spra :re d a t t _ 1 e rate o f 1,000 l)Ounds of the poison per acre. T w o highpowered s praying outfits were used, one for applying t h e insecticide and t h e other f o r ';..ras ~ 1ine; it into the soil. Eleven m e n c omprise the two s Jrayin[; crews. A 1)plications at tl1e 1,000 pound rate will be made a t the sites of all trap finds outside the 1932 trea t e d areas. Exceptions are being made in the case of vegetable gardens, the ground i n w hich rrilJ. probably be s prayed this .fall. Experimental results obtained by the Bureau of ~ntomology indicate tha t treatment of t h e soil and turf at this dosas e 1ill e stablis h a condition toxic to Japanese beetle larvae fo1 a perio d of' over 5 yearso T wenty-one t ons of arsenate of lead 1/7ill be ap1)lied before t h e Erie treati nr::; i s cor.1plet edo E f fectiveness of f'oliae;e sprayirit:; W 'Ork :performed clu r :ing July is attested by a pu.blishe d sta tement released on Au.c;ust 17 by the Erie municipnl sha de tree comtL i s s i o n t o t h e effedt t hat "Citizens had an exceptj_onal oppo rtuni t i to we. tell the r apid aT1d efficient work of the high-po.rnred. equipment used b y the Fede ral D e 7ortment of A gricu l t u.re a gainst the Ja,anese beetle. Erie ~itll its trees. eeds such e quipment. Public o pinion can st1 ess t 1e need. of an a_?~;ropriation for its p urc11r:1. s e b y t h e parks de partment C> It can be used in par:;:s as well e . s o n streets.11 A s re r:as about to le e v e the f a r m proCtuc t s ins1)ec tion platform i n Bal timor at the end of his t our o f d.ut y on S aturday m ornin3, Aus1.1 s t 1 2 , In.:,:pector William !:ienne r heo.rd a woma n scream., L oo l ~ i n 3 acr-o s s the st eet h e savr an old l a d y running down Fallsway Avenue shouti!l[~ fo::. s o m e o n e t o trStop that t hief.11 From t h o middle of the street t L e inspector saw a colored man with a era: r s weater turninG t h e next

PAGE 12

--12 ... . • ... corne r at. :tv.:l;J~ ,speed. He h alted. an. a ppro~ 'thing tr1ick, . jtunped 'aboard,. ano. told. t -he driver to .. g o i n .:the p.ire.ct ion he had J.ast s een the' :heg:co. A 'f.ter •B. c hase of five. blocks, the truck ove;rtook two fqst fie(:l:i.n g negroes both with gray s weaters0 After passi n g the fleeing r!1en, the ins,ector jtunpea'.' o tf t h e truck o n .the run and f:::-om be.hind a . l a r g o , truck pa:rked at the curb. emerged to catch both nesi--oes in his arms. H e r,rabbed _both r ) Y the:i,r calla.rs. . Th e . t •/ro ne.gI'oes denJpd "},:i1.o,;1ledge, of any theft$ but after ~ ) :ro ceedi,n g a short distance 'tOtmr' d a poltc e bo .x, t h e . lar ger ,ne.gro _ dropped a pocketbo o k f:r .011 ~ ~-~s waist. ._ 11his w u s r~co-vered b y .,a :passer-by a-t-t-racted. by the sc11 f f l . e . Shortly there aft.er two pol:ice.n1en ar:ri ved anc1 relieved -the. ins,pec-tor o'f the : culprit_sQ . L ater the two captives v.rere -i'naJcied b y the ,e;rand jury • . They were . tried o:n .A.U'E;u.s t 23. .Doth pleaded guilty and were. Aentenced to 6 months. in -the hot1.se of correctiono T . he .. pair: is. aiso wanted for -burglary in, Virginia;' . , . • • •. \ • N•, • • f-f Ca n vassing. of f armers, Gstate ovmers, cf't y resi dents, and sunerintendents of golf courses~ parks, a n d cer:ieter1.es w a s undertaken durinc ' tho 'r1"Dnth; of J:uiy .and. August~ i n an effort to deternline ex.penditure: s fo:r con-t rol of -the' Japanese beetle a n d actual l o sses f1'or:1. crop cJ.estr \1ctfon h y the insect . Only two men were avail-. able for assignr : 1.en t to full--tim e work 9:,1 .the ~ urivasso N urnerous ins:pectors, ~f the .. l'fow Jersey personne l devoted . t . o .. t h e SU:rv.ey ' ail of t heir tim e not oc-cupie'd py regu. ~ lar r outing duties. The _surve y vT<-1s d0:sig:ne c1. to l) _rocure sig n e'd sta_t0r:1ents -from i _n..:. dividuals s howi-hg . d efi.ni.tej 8.Ccurs:t;e, ana. cons,6rvative l'OS.:GS o r control-cos,.:ts. . Interview s and corre,s~Jcndence _were .cori.fineq_ to individua1s-in an area e:irJlibi -ting. : continuous Japanese b e etle dmnageo . Condi tioi 'is _ reprose:o'.tati v e of' the degreie. of . : injury to be f ourid . t h l~ough out the entire z ' one Qf continuous d amage were selected._ Information ccmcer ning . e:ctrome localize. d . injury b y t h e . i nsect was di scardedG In:-:definite or questionable data v1ere s.lso o m i t _tea. f~com t h e _ final tabula t,ions •.. As a result of the ~anvas s? ther e is nov1 a v ailable an a bundance of' authenticated evidenc, of J apanese beetle, injury to various ,cro' S s., t ocether 'r/ith reliable:cost$ of pro-: tecting froL 1 dest:ruction various susce, ptib~e ,rare. c-ro:pih' as well as turfi and. foli~ age in parks ; -cemeteries, residential blocks,' Efstatei, a nd golf' courses.• : " ' P... t the enc1 of Aug ust, 180 men furn:i..s h o d by e me:rg e:nc ~ r reTief boards were employed on. v arious . :phases o f Japane s e beetle ( Ua:r-antin e and c o n ?crol ' -a.'cti vi tie s D li'ou r men. in Pe:n'.nsylvania and three in Maryland TTere engage d 'in ir1sJ1ection of. qu a:r~n , tine d fruits and veget ables" E i gll t n : o;rters wer~ assigned to :rllaintenanc~ wor.k -at . ~the N e~.1 Cumberland, -Pa .. , garaa;e. Eleven m~n v .rere1 e inployed as road i n s ~ectors-qn the PennE!y l vania-West Virsinia sn d Pennsy l yania-Ohio S'tate lines.. Three scouts . w ere engaged i n surveys of -nurseyy a n d g r eenho u s e 0stabli sh. ments, in Pennsyiyania., T h e reme.lnin g welfare 1;rorkers w erEl enesag";Jq. in tray,p:'tng w o r k in t o vms and cities . . out side the regulate d zon0s,. Of the latter e .mulovees, 67 were e : nployed .in Ohio; 34 in New Y ork~ 1 5 in P e nn, syl vani::1., . 1--1 i n . M i'.c l { i ~an~ ,i 3 in Vfost Virginia, 5 in< -1'Tew H einpshir-e, ~md 3 in Verl:i.onto Me,ny of' .ti1ese •(;eri 1 )art-tim 0 -rrorters. Al"rangernent~ for furnishing t his vrnlfare labo. r u sually 0 e:r.' e Eia.de with ~che chairman of w~lfare work in the r espective county i n whic h the activit;ies . were perform ed~ In a few .. c ases t h e State Empl oyment Of:f.'ice selec:ted t~:1e men... .Actu a l contact with the m . e n assigned to t h e :project W:J.s 1naintained t hrou g h t: h e chairman in charge of the wel .fare wor k in t h e c or.ilimnity c o:qccr : o.~dG Protect ion o.f Japanese beetle traps o:'.'.'ten req t i . ires considerable ingenuity or: the part :of trap i b:Spe cto1"80 :R~cently a trari i.r..spec t6r iri a Maryland. comrnpnity while tendinB his route found a nu.rn.ber o f trap s missinge . Inquiry of lo.cal

PAGE 13

'-JiB'I • ,. •., • ( ' • (' • residents -d~veloped :the ~nfo.rnl," ,tion that t e ni;3sing traps &;Ppare n.tl. r had been taJ:en by mer:!bers of an organization that wo.s heving .a convention in the tov1n. There vms no defi.1 i te proof of this, however. In an effort to recover some, if no t all. of tlle tr.aps._, the inspector inserted a notice in t11e local paper to the effect that the traps were Government lJroperty and would be of no ute to ai1.yone a,s th& • • t • see.son for beetles vras almos_ t over. . The 1otice also s~ateEl. that if the traps -vrere not ir:nnediately returned, the ones wl10 :'liso.ppro priated them would be liable to prosecution. . . Qn the morning following the p-qblication of t:n.e notice, the inspector found the t the traps had been returned, althongh they ,ere not replaced in their original positions. -A . che. clc oa,his trcp su:opJ_y showed all traps accounted for. I ' .. emcval of traps o perated outside te regulated zone in North Carolina and Virginia Yms in progress during August. The -:>ew traps stil,;J .. renainin. a:t two ,lo-cations in South Carolina at the bogim1ii.ng of the mo!1.t h .Yvere lifted on August 2 and -15, respecti vel~ r . Trap re1i1oval was accompliGhed t uroug hou.t North Carolina beti.,een August 2 and 1'9.. Traps still remained in operation in 17 v.:.rginia coil111lU ni ties at theend of -the .month, but -these are scheduled for lifting earJ Y in Sep-tember. All traps operated for a period of 30 days in lio.ry land r,ere collected and s h:i,J;Jped baclc t o the Her1 Cumberlo..nd storau;e warehouse d uri. ng August.. Removal of the 60-day traps began on Au6ust 21, e,nd it i $ ant:l-.c patea.. that they will all be collected, packed,:ma:-. returned to Hew Cunberland by September 8. .. Active traps ar(:} still being maintained in nonregula ted territory in 1:e-, Hiliilps:1ire, Vermont, He11 York, Ohio, Michd.gnn, Pennsylvania, and West Virginia to • On August 6, the Philadelphia Public Ledger devoted a iull pa5 e of its rotogravure pictorial section to a series of se7en photographs illustrating various phases of the Japanese beetle quarantine vrork in PhiladGlphj_a. ':l.1hese included a photograph of beetles balled on a~ples, the Philadelphia r-.cuit and vegetable i1 speo tion platforrn, an inspector examining a trap in th~ Frankford Arsenal grounds, a scene in the Dock Street produce n0.rirnt, a ,picture of bananas being unloaded from a • ve,:;sel, an orc:1ard scene snoTT L11/, a scout examining a pe&ch tree for beetle infestation, and an i ndoo r scene. at the Philadelphia r'listrint office at Franl ford. In a d-dition, three photographs were inciu.decJ sbo..-Jing several activities at the Moor~s-~, town, 1 . ; • , Japanese beetle research laborator J of tbe Burea of Ento,nology. .Also on .August 6 , at 8 :30 p . m., Leiceste r K . Davis, radio repor•.;er for the Pnblic Lede;er: broadcasted a talk on the "Japanese Beetle 1uarantine" over station 1VHAT • .At the invitation of the SUl)er:i:ntendent of the Citizens Conservation Ca.mp at Niantic, Conn .. , J e P. Johnson, in charge of t r..e cooporative State a :id Feder, l Japanese beetle and European corn borer HOrk in Conrecticut, visited the c. C. C. camp on Aug ust 23 and supplied i ::itorI:1.at ion concerni1) the t'\o"lo 1 1 1 eqts. Posters were also f\1rnished concerning the life history and c ontrol measures practiced for these two insects as 11ell as for v , e gypsy mot h . I t v,ac:• learned th t the of icors in charg e of the camp c.re instr, .ctin[, tho mer, bers of the corps in coutrol information TThich r1ill be of general interest in con11ection ;;ri ti their present work and of assistance i n conservation 1-1orl~ upon their re~urn to home communitieso Unusually goo d markets i n Mic1western States fo~, string ond Lima beans wrorvn southerri New Je1~sey end east ern Pe .nns:r:lvauia, which rcsul ted in tl e i,n~:pectiop; and certification of l~rge quantities of these vegetables for carload rrtove 1ent frorr. the regulated territory, were attributed by the ship1Jers to drou::;ht conditions earl :

PAGE 14

-14-in July which affected aLmost all Western and Southern States. The Century of Progress exposition is also believed to have created an e xceptionally high market f o r these products i n Chicago. Scouting of nnrsery and g i~eenhouse establishments in Delaware, Maryland, Virginia , and the Di strict o f Colun1bia Yv!_S co npleted shortly after the middle of the month and the approximately 5 0 temporarily emplo yed men engaged in this 1i10rlc were d i s missed. Su:::-veys of uninfested clc-.ssified estE'cblish..rnents will continue in the more nortl10rn reg11latea. Sta tes until v arious dates in September. While ad1.1.lt b eetles are i n active fl"ight, carloads of sand o r soil to be s h ip1Jed under certification f1•om j_nfested sections mus t be fumigated with carbon disulphide at a dosage of 1 p ound, or 350 cc to 1 cubic yard. of soil. Most of the material fumigated in this m a n n e r consists of sand which must be loaded in tight box carso In f\unigating sand loaded to a depth of 3 feet, two series of holes are required, one 18 inches i n de~':)th a nd the other 2 feet deep. These holes are made 1 8 inches apart, the first se1 .. ie s b e g inning 9 inches from the edc;e of the car. A crowbar 2 inches in dia:n:e ter, marke d 18 inches from the end., is used to make the deeper holeso A funnel inserted in the end of a rubber hose is used to convey the fumigant to the p r oper deptho Surfo.ce holes are stag~~ered b e tween the d e eper hole: ana. the entire row completec. and covere d i n one o p eration. 'l'h:i,s procedure require: measuring of each dose i n a g rad.u a te, a nd p ourinc it f rom the small container. Such constant pour i n g i n the confined space above the sand frequently causes great discomfort to the operator, espe cially o n war m days. Care is also necessary not to step too near the c1eeper holes before the disulphide i s applied . Another disadvantage of this method is the constant des true tion of the rubber hose, which, dissolveil b y the f wnigant, s wells, anc1 soon clogs. :Bumigation o f a carload by thi~ method requires ai1proxime.t e l y 2 hours. C arload fumigation has b een co nsiderabl y simplified b y the use of an in,jector devised by V. A. Johnson, o f the treating division. The bod y of the injector is made from 1/2-inch b:r.ass pipe, 36 inches l o ng. A piece o i' s olid brass 1~od s1rnated on the e nd and m a c hined to a c o n e s h ape forms the point of the inj e cto;r, Four small holes, 1/32 inch in diameter, drilled 1-5 / 8 inche s from the tip, provide exit holes for the fumigant.. The tori o f the cylinder i s threaded a n d fitted with_. a 1/2 -inch brass cap. A center hole in t h e cap is drilled for the plunger rod. This rod is 36 i nches long, 3 / 8 inch in diaI1eter, and i s threaded f rom the bottom • to within 9 inches of the top., Tvro nuts are screwed on the rod so that the lengt;h of the stroke may be regula t ea. . Screwed t o the upper end o f the plunger is an . aut omobile gear shift knob, used as a handle.. The lower part of the rod is turned down to 1/ 4 inch 8.J.7.d. threaded for a push and pull lea th e r plunger.. Hand holds projecting from either s i d e of the u p9er part of' the c ylinder are provided by a brass collar placed just under the top cap, in opposite sides of which are screweg. ;_ brass :r:-ods 1/2 j_nch i n diameter 21.nd 4; inches long. Another brass flange, 1-15/16 inches in diameter and 13/32 inch thick;, ;is p l aced 18 inche s from the exit holes to act as a depth guide. The J,atter flang e co;J. tains a set screw to permit its ad-justment to any desired c1epth. li'or use as a gutde i n marking o u t the r e lative positj_ons of the holes, a collapsible mea,sur ing stick has been constructed to take care of the width of a freight car~ Marks are etched. on the stick 1 8 inches apart for one row of holes,

PAGE 15

-, -15a n d t w o strap iron guides a t either end provide for mea s u remen t bet~een row s . In practice i t h a s b e e n found that t w o injectors may mos t advantageou s l y by used in fl.U7ligating a carload o i' sand. T h e n ev, procedre consists of p l acing the measuri ~18 st icl:: a t one end o f t h e car f 0 r the. first ser _ies of holes. A b u c ket c o"lt aining carbon disul:phi d e is l)lace d near t he c e n ter o f t he sticl -.. so that i t is co n ~e nient t o inspectors work i ng o n e ither s i d e . After careful ree u laticin to draw up the exact amoun t o f carbo n disu lphide , the injectors are c lla r G e d b y_ ... laci n g the tips in t h e fumigant a n d pulling out the plunser .ro.ds. ' The injectors are t hen pushed bv means o f the hund holds into the san . t o the r e(luired depth n d t h e l iqui d ejected. T hey are the.n refilled an tJ.~e .P9int s j u s t b uried for. the surface injection. Each ins:r,ector co fipletes one half a row , afte r whic h the measuring stick i s adva n ced 1 8 inches a n d tl:.e :9r o b 8dure :;_~epeated. By t h i s method the t i m e required. t o fumigate a car i s red11c e d a.ppro:;c i mo.tely o n e ~ 1alf. I n s 1mct0rs using _-the injectors co.n stand erectt-F1ur.es of' car' )o n disu lphide bciil[, h e a vier than air a r e not near s o ann oyin g a.s whe n conti n u , 1 Jtp.etsu:rinG of t:1e liquid i s r e quired. at no s e l e v el. Use o f the j n:je .cto:-ov-e r n , eriod. o f several months h-s sho01 n that in every case the correct dos:J.ge fs roleaset1 at t . e 1')roper level o Holes made b7 the injector e r e q , i i t e sw:i.11 <.,. na. easily cove red. 'I'h e now instrunent ha.s :: r o ved to b e efficient, l a bor S'''
PAGE 16

,,..16 .... MEXICA N FRUIT FLY The work o f theMexican Fruit :ffly Proj eat was seriously interrupted by a tropica l hurrica n e wh ich stru c k the Valley on Au gust 4. This part of the Gulf C o ast h a s b een remarkably free from these disturbanc~s, none having occurred since a bo u t 1 3?0, whe n the villag e of; Clarksville at t h e mouth of the Rio Grande wa s destro-yed_, The velocity o f the vJin d at B rownsville was about 70 miles 1'1er hour, but d ecrease d -rapidly to the westward, b ei'ng only about 40 miles per hour at Mi-ssion . • I t was estir i a ted t h a t about 90 percent o f t h e fruit in-the B.rownsville district was . whipped from the t r e e s , while in the Miss i o n . district, at the other end of the Valley, onl y about 2 or 3 percent vms blow n off. Considerable damag~ was d_.one to buil d ings i n B r0v7.i:1sv1lle and. to plate glas w i n dows a.nd s if;ns a s far west as Mercedes. Traps :which were . i n t h e trees were damaged to some extent and quite a numb e r nere lost. Bains which accompanied t he hurricr-1ne made the groves-impassabJe, and as soo n as they were d r y the E.ttention o f the i n sp0ctors was directed to the re-mcv a l of the fa. l len fruit. T h i s resulted i n a considerable lessening of the trap-p ing c.,perations durin g the r ema inder of the rronth. Follow i n c a survey of the a.a.1:iage done to the fruit, the Federa_ l and State De_pa r t ments recommended that the f allen f-r 11. i t be disposed of b y either regulation burial, b y pilin g in fUrrows i n t he middle of tree r o w s ane. covering , or by throv J'in g to t h e middles a n d d ouble discing . This latitude in the dispositio n of the fruit wa s granted i n view o f the financia..l condition of r 1any o f t h e growers and the f act that the fruit was still immature. Throug h agitation b y a nwnber o f g rowers and others, the Director of the Reconstruction Finance Corporation o f Te xas aut horized the use of laborer_ s . from that organization in the cleaning of the grove s., It was realized that to b _ e e f fecti v e the destruction of t h e drop fruit would have to b e a c complished quicklyo Th e direction o f the P.. F. c. labo r was turned ove r to the inspectors of this pro j ect, and for the few days durinc; which the laborers 1ivere able ,to work1 they made goo d headv1ay in disposing of t h e fallen f.ru it. Hmv::.:--.i•:,r~ } ~ GB.vy r ain s o cc-ur r 0d which interrupted their work. F urther, a n election '.,1,f; ::1.Ec!ld on the 201-h a u ,:t.or-i z:ir1g the issuing o f ~~20:,1000,000 in bonds to be used i21 r . .:;::.,ief work in Texaso Pen d inc;'the outoo.t:1e o f this election, the Federal authorities had notified the StG..t e that n o nore funds would b e advanced. u.nl es::; the State a:,iproved these bonds, For t hat reason the State officials were co nserving the funds on hand and allowing wor k onl y to t h o s e actually in distress, whic h cut down tho supply of labor needed for t h e clea.n-up work. All R. F . c. work in the Vc..i.ley W9..S stopped on the 2 5ths v1hen onl y about t v.ro t hird s of the i':ru.it had been dis10• osed cf. '17he bu rden of the clean-up work w a s then t hravm on the g r o wers who me.de .very good h e a d w a y the :re-• mainde1~ o f the month. The operati o n of traps o n the Texas side o f the rive r resulted in the .taking o f 5 adult A .. ~e~, 106 ." ~ s e r_p_E:ntina, 9 A. 122)-le_p.~, and 2 A. fratercu~.. Th e ludens were taken in a grove at hlGrcedes and in t w o groves a t Weslaco. These groves were thoroug hlJl s prayed with the nicotine-molasses poison. Of particular interest was t he identification of a nwnb e r o f adult flies reared b y the M e x ican inspector a t Matamoros f.ro m peaches originating in Ramo s Arispe, Coahuila, Mexico, as !• _serp~tin a . Larvae f r o m t h i s same shipment of

PAGE 17

-1?-" peaches showed all the characters of ludens. . This is t h e f irst record of A. setp entine. being reared from peaches and establishes a ne ~-:r host for t h i s s pecies.-In Mexico serpentina is considered e..s an ene!fly .. of mameys and sapotes. Prep:-ation for the harvesting of the 1crgest crop. ever produced in the Valley 1ms rrell _under way by t h e, end o f tl1e month. Add'i tions vrere being made to -a number of packing plants and q uite a Jev,r nev1 plants w~r!3 being erected. It vras es-timated by t h e industry that around 15,009 carload_ s of fri .. it would be shippe'Cl this season. Preli11inary maturity tests showed that q_uite a bit of the Duncan grapefruit and navel' oranges were ready for harvesting . • , l . PilJK BOLLWORM Gin-trash inspection h a s b een continued i n the area below San Antonio to and including the lower Rio Grande Valley,. On the whole, TTO rking co ndi ti'ons have been satisfactory, and r:or~ m aterial h a s been examined t his season than eve r before nithout any signs of the pink bollv10rm being found. Ginning was l a r gely completed by the end of August. The m achines were therefore moved to neH areas east and north-east of San Antonio • . Permission was secured to operate t he t v m mac hines in ~ exico, and one o f the mobile machines was set u'p at Matrunoros, o ppos~te Bromnsville, where si:r.: gins are 'in operation. Due to the l)ractice of shipping see d cotton into Matamoros in rail way cars, the I11en wer~ _able to secure sarnpl es oftrash from many •different 1 cali-ties. Ginning goes on almost continuously, ,hence rains did not interfere with gin-trash inspection at this place as much as in othe r locations. One of the smalJ h~d machines first began o perating at Nuevo Laredo, Mexicc, which is opposite Laredo, Tex. Some cotton is also shipped to this point ~or ginning, therefore trash was very plentiful. This nach ine wo.s lat~r moved to the Don } tart in ;p:r-9ject, which is som e 60 miles from the border. There are som e 25,000 acres of cotto n on this project, end vri th three gins operatinr; there was plenty of trash. Aside from the boll weevil and leaf worm , insects were very scarce. All trash inspected by both of t h e above mac hines gave negative results. Inspectiomof the 1933 crop'have been begun in the Southeastern States. In northern Florida and southern Georeia both field and gin-trash 'inspectir>rs are b eing carried on, while in Mississipp i , Alabama, and South C a r olina only gin-trash in-spection is now being per.formed. Tho r csul ts of a 11 i nspection s have been nega-tive to date. The daily co -llection and exam inatio n of cott o n blooms from the plats at Chapman Field, Fla., wore corttin.ued t hrougho u t the month, with ne gative results. From time to time okra and other h ibiscus blo o m s hav e also been e xanined. On August 23 , t w o pink bollworm l ~rvae were f o und in hib i scus blooms. The plant on which the insect wo.s found is a hybrid, Hibis cus. r oso.-sinensis. Immediately after this finding, two inspectors began an intensive e xominati o n of hibiscu s bioo ms,

PAGE 18

and a t t his tim e 10,000 have been inspected without finding any further specimens. I t woul d t herefor e a ppear tha t there wa s no general infestation in hibiscus. During t h e month an inspectio n trip was made dovm on the Florida keys to see h o w much :SrOwt h had be e n made by wild cotton se0dling and sprout plants since the clean-up work. S p r out plants were observed along t h e roa d o n the extreme lower end o f U pper Matecumbe and on Lowe r Matecwnbe Ke:rs. Only thre e o r four plants were found t o b e _ :r.rui ting , the great majority a pparently having made most of their growtl since the rainy season began. The plants H h ere sodium arsenite w a s arrnlied last fall were also i n spected. It was found tha t where the solution had. b~; n poured a round the roo t s o f the l)l a nts t >ey had not been killed. In cases where the base of the stalk h a d b e e : 1 bruised befor e tlie solution was apiJlied, the plants had been killed. Plants that w e r e spraye d 1,-rith the solutio n merely she d t h eir leaves and put out neu g rowt h . It i s therefore ar,1Jar . e n t that in order to kill t h e plants, the stalks r dll h a v e to be bruised i n some man ner before +.he solution is qi :plied. The trap-plat work i n the B i g Bend of Texas was brought to a close on Aug u s t 1 8 . A t thi s time only throe o f t h e pla t s were b eing used, and these con-tinu e d t o shOT'J higher i nfestation than the adjacent f i elds. Boll conts made in the fields indicated that t h e infest atio n was i ncreasing , s o tha t there seemed to b e n o particu l a r advantage in c ontinuing t h e ::_:ilats. Bloo m and boll inspections made a t random in various fields thro ughout t h e Presidio section have. shown a light infestation$ On .Aue,ust 25 the first cotton of the 1933 cro1J, consistin g of 5 bales, was ginned at Prosidio. ]'rom thes e 5 b ales, 1-1/2 bushe1ls of g _in trash obtaine d was run throu.g: 1 o n e of the small h and mach ines, ond resulted in the finding of 683 pink b ollw o r m s , or a n a v erag e of 136.6 -rrorms per bale. The first ginning of the 1932 season wa s from t h i s s ame field, and. from 2 bal os, three fourths qf a bushel o f gin trash c ontained 2,321 pink bollworms, or an average of 1160.5 w orms per b ale. This is a reduction o f 8 3 p ercent ove r the 1932_season. On AuGust 30, one half bushels of trash was obtained from~ bales from another farm, fro m which 67 3 sp eciri1ens were t aken, or a n a v erag e of 336. 5 worms per bale• The first bale from t h:l.s farm i n the 1 9 . 3 2 season resuJ.ted in the findine; of 922 pink bollworms in the one hal f bushel of trash obtained.. This sb.ows a 77 percent re-duction over the 1932 season. From the a11ove results it seem s t h a t the control measures enforced j_n the Big Berni have made a considerable reduction in the norm p o pulation. Th e insp ection of material collected f r o m fields in the S alt River Valley of Arizona, before they "7ere l)low e d under, has been completed. In addition, green borls from all parts o f the area h ave been i n spected durin g t hemonth, v Ji thout an.y signs of the p ink bollworm havin c bee n found.. Toward the close o f the month a f e w b a l e s o f cotton were g inned. All of' the trash was collected and run through one _of the small machine s with negativ~ results~ It now a1) pears thc:, t ginning will b e well under way in t h i s area by t h e middle o f the coming month, at which t ir.ie it is planned to put four gin-trash machines in o per2tiono A considerable a mou.."1.t of material fro m the 1933 crop has b een in.spected in the Thurberia weevil urea, with ou t any signs of either the weevil or t h e pink boll-worm b eing found. Investigations h a v e 0J.so b e e n made t o determine just how near to the eastern plantings of cultivated cotto n Thu rberia plants are growing. Howe v e r , some further investigation s " ill b e necessary be fore this can be obtained

PAGE 19

19 accurately. I t i s of into rest t,1 not e that the Thurbori a plants are nob looming profusely, end there a r e :;::>rospects f'or a heavy crop of bo lls. ,.'eevils h ave already begun e uerging , a n d h2.ve started to attack the buds and sno.11 bolls. It will be sor. c tine yet befor e g inning gets under way in this area. Only o n e gin will be operated a a i n t h i s season, and the~r will naturally wn.i t until a considerable ar , 1ount of se~d cotton h a s e,;.Ccumu lE•.tcd befor e begirmin;; operations. I t is planned to use one of the snall g i n -trash mac'hi:r .es i n t l is area. PREVEY !TI N G SPREAD OF MOTH S Regul a r sco u1;1 ng vror k 1rns recumed duril1 the month i n the b arrier z one in l\1ass achuset t s and Connecticut. I n the Pennsylvani a area a pproximately 1 7 5 local laborers cont inued with th, J m r l of clearing s p routs and small brush :f:rom the infest e d territory cut o v e r durin;; t11e f i s cal year 1933. On August 21, scouting nas started i n the lm1lands along the banks o l the Susquehf.1nno. and Lackawanna Rivers, but on accoun t o f f lood c onc. i tions which r es'J.l ted f:rom the heav r rain, it ,;;as f ound necessar y to temporari l y discontinue scouti n_s e .fter onl:r a few days~ 1ork. At one tiae the w ater i n these rivers a s 20 feet above the lu' 11at e r l!lark. Effective August 1 6 , under the i-Tational Industria l recovery Act, funds a 1ounti n G t o ~~2s020 ,620 wer e a l lotted to the Bureau o f P lant t..,uarantine for gyps y moth TTor k . This r.1oney i s to be expended in Vermont, .:Iassachusetts, Connecticut, Ne 7 Yor k , and :Pennsylvania. S c o utin c is to be carried on in New 3:ngland in the barrier zo n e and c ast of t h e zone to the Conn ecticut River, the northern ps..rt o f fo11 York S tate in Clinton County , end in Pen.ns ylvaniao i7or1r was i:m.L1ediately started in s e c urin g men fo r SU~')ervisory posit ions on t his project, . all such posit i ons bei nr-r f i lled b y men e2..'"Perie nced i n g:,r:ps :r riOth norko These ffi3n , 'toc;ether with the re3Ul a r s upervisorporsonn.:;l, w ill train and direct a force of a bout 2 ,000 men t o be s ecured th.r ou g h the National Reerrnlo~1m1:mt Service in each State where Feder a l gypsy noth w r k h a s been authorized ~ One o f the first steps taken was to establish l ocations f o r training schools, as v e r r few men ,. ilJ. h ave had previous experienc e i n such wor k and mo st of the m will have to be taucht to recognize t _1e in sect i n the vario u s stages of i t s life history a nC:. how encl whe r e to l oo k for i t . The s e tra i ning schools a r e beL established in Connecticut, I ass2.c rn. s etts, s outhern Vermont, and i n Pennsylvo.ni a , ,vher e ~he f!,yps y moti 1 is plentiful in vroodlanc A n i mpor tant f a c tor i n l o c atiLg training schools -r1c.s the necessity of securing b oarding facilit i e s for s u c h a larc e nurnbe r of m G n at o ~ n oar these loc~tionso Upon completion o f a short trai ning peri od the men will be assembled in creTTs and assig n e d t o various ports of the terr' i tory for reguh. r scouting :rork. The gYJ)sy moth progran in the :Sr:1erc;oncy Conservation car.1ps i s being deve loped rapidly, but the r e ill be no duplication of the • ork conducted u n der the National Industria l R e c o very A c t . Dur i c_ 1 .... ul~ust, ar.. average o f 150 men Tiero e ngaged o n gypsy m o t h work in the C0C.C c e n :1ps in Conn ecticut a nd V ermont, and goo d progress is b eine; mado . I t has b een d i ficult to secure nen for GYPSY oth work in th se camps as so many are engaged i n construction work and various crunp duties. No

PAGE 20

-20gyp s y mobh work.has as yet been started in camps in Massachusetts, but foremen. are to be a-_pyiointed to these ea111ps early in Septe mber. A total o f 6, 737 assembling cage s l:tave been plaqed t his season in States. as follows: 1,823 in 54--towns in fennsylvania;_ l0893 in. 49 towns in Connec ticut; 1,2 1 2 i n 2 9 t own s in I-.'iassa,chusetts; 703 in. 1'7 towns in Verr!1ont; 1,081. in_ 26 towns in New J ersey; and 2 5 cages in Ca nada .(put out b y Can adian officials)., A l arge n umber of mule gypsy rnoth, h ave beE::n caugh t in Pennsylvania, Connecticut, and Massa-chusetts. 1'o t h e end o f the month 61 male g ypsy moths were caught at 30 cages in 15 towns in Pennsylvania; 461 male moths at 271 cages in 34 towns in C onnecticut; ai."1.d 136 mal e moths at 4 8 cac;es in 11 towns in Massachusetts. One male moth was caught i n a cae;e in J.fow Jersey , as w a s .mentioned in the September N ews Letter. This makes a t otal of 659 male moths c~ught at cage s Ul) to the end of Aug11st. . No moths were taken nt cages i n Verm ont, and no report h a s been received of any catche; being mad e . i n Canada, ~ By the fir-st of September work . was starte.d in r$moving the cages, bu t reports were still . 1)ei n g .received of a f~w .catches o f ,male motns. For s .everal years from reports received f r o m em:ployee s of tJ;iis project, State off i c i als, and various oJcher sources, t he r e h ave : been indicat"ions tha t gyp _sy m oth infestations. were building u p i n v'roo d land areas i n many towns not more tban 20 or 2~ miles f.rom' the eastern border of the b 0 r rier zone in Massachusetts, Con necticut, and, southern Vermont. . -This year, several sel'.ious infe~tations have bee:q. found in this area east of the zone. In ~ . 1 a ssachusetts, i nfestations h ave been foun d in Westfield, Hatfie ld,, and .A+1Jherst. '.I'he . j,nfest a t i o n a t . Hatfield is located o n a large white oak tre~ :i..; a .field in leve l country. As t his tree is to ,be cut dowri a;n.d sections .or' _it used_ as 111r t o f the State exhibit at the Eastern States Exposition, it w a s decided to ria}.,:0 , a rougn c o u n t of t _ h e egG clus'ters, and: it v7as found that ther , e vrnre nore tha n 5,200 new ~gg c1usters on t his tree. ,gg clusters Tiere a l s o -:Loca t e d on tobacco p l ants, stones, .. ana. debris nearby. At .At~erst, a n area of approx:irriBtely 150 acres is g enerally to very heavily infested.' The infestation is on h igh. e l e v ation ;i.n growth consisting of_ gray birches, pine, and otr~er specie s a veraging 25 to 3 0 feet i n h e ights and is ideally situated for , n incJ. s:~)read regc:trdle.ss o~ wiri d ui:rection. The towns of W0s tfield and Hatfield are bet_ 11een the zone and the Connecticut River, the infestatio n at Westfield being .?-P~p r o:xi 1 mtel y 1 5 uiles and t h e one at Hatfi eld about 20 miles from the zone. . Al~ , .-thout::;h .A.m herst i s situated on the east side of the connecticut River, t h e :infe-~ta~ tio n exi sting there is only 20 mile s air line from the neare.st point. in the zone. In ac1q.ition to the infest ations referred 'to a bove, ser i ous infes tati ons ar~ k n own to exist in S:rving , Mass.~ Hinsdale , lJ,. H., and Roc k ingham~ Vt. N one of these infestations a r e more than 25 miles air line from th3 east zone. line. At Groton, Conn . • , approxim.:1.tely 2 0 acre s were defoliated thi s yaar, and an. adq.itio;na l 200 ; a cres show e d evidence o f feeding, The gypsy r;,oth infestation cond1tions at Groto n are the most serious t o e xist in that Stat e since infestation was first d i s co v e r e d there. O l ;rnervations h a v e been raaa. e . du:i."'in0 t l . e 1:1.onth o f the aii1ount of injury to cranberry bogs by gyiisy moth larva e i n the Cap e C od section of :Massachusetts, which is. the center of t h e cranberry growing , inclustry i n t h i s .State. Many of the owners of t hese. bo g s'. have beon intervi e w e a. for estimates .c:in.-d.amag e , caused by gypsy _ moth ls.rvae. It nas found tha t in som e case s," where serious i n;fe s . t ati,ons of the gy:psy mot h existed i n the surrounding wood land,. heavy losses resulted f rom the . dr.ift onto the bo g s from surrounding Ymodland. In some places t he injury was so severe that

PAGE 21

-21-there will be very few cranberries harvested fro11 the affecte d areas. One small bo g , approxi mately 5 acres in e xtent, wh i c h yields normally about 200 barr els of berries, has so few berries on it now that i t is practical l y a tot~ 1 loss. Owners of these bogs have adopted a n extensive spraying camp a ign alld in some instances, where surrounding woodland areas are under thei r control, have cut out excessive tree growth m1d underbrush in areas surrounding their bogs and have sprayed other trees to reauce the infestatione Bogs i n the infested areas have been sprayed tTTo or three tir.e s and s o-r1eti mes more with arsenate of lead, and in som e cases these spray programs hav e served to save part o f the crop . It has bee n :1oticed from tL1e to tiI'.l e that more ;:mblici ty is being given in the Few I:n gland newsp !3-pers t o the gyps y moth ana. the damage it causes. _ Consider-able attention has been given to the serious injury to trees caused by the g ypsy moth in the Cape Cod section of r.:assa chuse-tts. Although the gypsy moth is p r esent in the nestern section of the Hew England States, tb.e insect 'as not as yet caused sufficient damag e to arouse i ntense interest o f the general public in this area. The Augu s t 13 number o~ the Sprin ~field Sunday Union and Republican carried a full page write-up of t h e gypsy mot h project, relating the historv o f the f;ypsy moth in this c ot1.ritr y und the workthat ha s been carried on to prevent the spread of this in" sect. 'I'he a:rticle described clearly 2md interestingly all p hases o f the control and eradication activit.:..es of t his roject and contained several illustrations o f the work. I t is believed t hat as a result of this article, many people hitherto rc.th0 r unfamiliar with t h e gyps7 moth Tiill have a clearer understanc.ing of the work that is being carried on to pre--ren t the s prea d of thi s p est, The im port2nce of iri. s pection of freight ce.Ts to prevent the spread of gypsy moth infestetion Tias mad e v ery evident this 1:onth 1 h e n infestation '.'fas found on a considerable number of t hese cars o n a railroad tr1.ck which had been .J.bandoned for general traffic in Cumberlnnq, R . Io A total o f 344 cars were s t ored on this abandonEld line e xtending over a distance o f about 4 miles~ These cars are to be repaired and placed in service as s oo n as possible , after whic h they may be n oved to almost nny point in the United States. A total oi 217 new gypsy moth eg5 clus-ters 1.-.,ere creosoted on these cars, mo"'t of the clusters beinG on the wheels and iron vrork of the cars. A pparently cate rpillars had c::i.awled from nearby areas where small tree Grov;-t h was rather heavily infested and haa. found shel te from the sun under the cars a s they stood on the tracks. F our hundred and fifteen egg clus-ters were creosoted on the rails anu railroad t ies. Considerable difficulty wus e ncountered i n creosoting the egg clust ers as many of the vrheels on the freighc; cars V:ere hollow and egg cluster s had b Len laid inside of them. In order t o creo-sote these egg clusters, it was neceosary to spray the insides of hollovr wheels ,.,:ri th the use of a suctio n pump an p o wer s pray no z zle. '.i'he hc:.nd punp •as wor ced i a bucket of creosote outsid e t he c o.rs b y one inspector and the spray lose handled underneath the car b y anothero A number of years a co a su:-vey was made to deteri.:im, t:10 possibility of gypsy moth i . n festation b e inc curried on railroad cars that m ight be stored o n sidings. It was determined at t1at ti~ thEt practically ell the sidingn where cars ere h e l d did not have trees gr0winc nearby. However, du:cin, the la"'t fe.7 years a consio.erable :mileage of rr: ilroad trac rn has be n abandoned in lfoTI : n land for reQJ.lar service and on sor.1.e of these tr~. cks s11rplus cars 1avc bnen stored, . The movenent of fre ig~1t cars ho.s l:>een very grec..tly curt ilod durinc tl.e depression

PAGE 22

-2211111111111/1~i1/11/1}U1/111/li1 fl/ /~Iii 111 ~111111111 3 1262 09241 6873 but many a;re now b eing ;put . b .ack int9 service. Cont(:l.ct has been ma9-t.3 with rail-road compqnies in tl1e quarantined 1:1-rea and their coope , ratici11; secureq. . : A11 sidings ' where c ars a ;re stored are being .inspected and if infestation i,s found, treat'ra.ent will b e ap ~ )lied be fore the.y are i:e ni1i tted to m oveo The district inspect q r of t h e Bangor, r..!ain.e, disti/ict, while t aking gypsy motJ::i defoliation records in some of the to,ms which were _assigned to him in the Bath, Maine, .. district, :).oco.ted a modero_.tely . heayy tnfestation of beech scale in: the town of Washington, I.iaine, which is. located. in the extreme _ no r thwestern part bf'. Kno x County. According to t his observation t he . infestat:r'ori e xt~nded over a co risiderable . area. It is ~ •bout 4 miles from a h e avy infestayion of this scale lo-c . ated i n the tow n _O.f Liberty , Maine , whl c h was discovered by men . from the Gypsy :Moth Laboratory a t ~!Ielr_ose l ighlands, Mass. .Sc outinG for t he sat.in moth. ~gg cl1:1,steis in tow ris jt1.s t . outside of the :l?Fe.:.. sent sc.1tin moth q_uarantine line. i Ji N e w E ngland was ' co 1 ; }p1eted in August,. The qp.ly towns outside. of t h e , present quarantine line that have been found infested are one i n N e w Hampsh ire and e ight in Mai n eo The t:r:end of the s pread is toward tp.e north-east parts of M~ine~ the farthes t town nort h b eing Houlton, rrhich borders New Brunswick, Canada •.. . . The fall season. for the shipment of D.\.1.2'.'sery stock usually begins sore time i11, the middle of September,, . At first, s h ipm ents are few a n d i't _is not until about. two weeks later that t:O,e real bulk of the sh ipping s-tartsa T his year one o:f.' the nurseries located in a nort:1er n s ection of the gypsy moth qua1antined area adopted a nevi method of advertisi ng~ &7.cl i f successful results are noted the:r plan to use this method mor e e xtensively i n t he future. If i;mch proves.to be the cas.$, it will serve to increase the arnount .of inspection. a n d also t o . nake tlJ,e beginning of the inspection season co nsiderably e arlie r than in the :past. From _ :th eir l .ist of old cus-tomers t hey selected 1,000 names. To e a c h person oi1. t his. list they sent a copy o-f their latest cata.logu.nd incJud!3d. with it a smal l blne spruce ~ . All of these went t o points outside of tts qu..J.1.'.'c.nt : .i1ed .aTea. and c.hei'.:'el'-.-;~~0 i c vias necessary that each tre e be inspected and . c .ach :pcck [ , g<::J certified. If tl-tis u us~o m should . s::;:,read to other nurserie s it w ill undoubtedly result in a very 11.nch 1ncreased amount of inspection, as most o{ t t e nurseries have large nailine;. lh,t . 3 . composed .of individuals and firms to whom catalog s are .Sent. regul arly. ' . :!: * * * * * ,, t I I


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