Citation
News letter

Material Information

Title:
News letter
Creator:
United States -- Bureau of Plant Quarantine
Place of Publication:
Washington, D.C.
Publisher:
Bureau of Plant Quarantine
Publication Date:
Frequency:
Monthly
Language:
English

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Plants -- Diseases and pests -- Control -- Periodicals -- United States ( lcsh )
Genre:
federal government publication ( marcgt )

Notes

Dates or Sequential Designation:
Began with: no.19 (July 1, 1932)
Dates or Sequential Designation:
Ceased with: no.43 (June 30, 1934)
General Note:
"Not for publication".

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
This item is a work of the U.S. federal government and not subject to copyright pursuant to 17 U.S.C. §105.
Resource Identifier:
030428081 ( ALEPH )
785785040 ( OCLC )
2012229620 ( LCCN )

Related Items

Preceded by:
News letter
Succeeded by:
Monthly letter of the Bureau of Entomology
Succeeded by:
Blister rust news
Succeeded by:
News letter

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NEWS LETTER

BUREAU OF PLANT QUARANTINE

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


STATE PLANT ARD
Il
Number 26 .(NOT FOR PUIBLICATION) February 1, 1933.




TECBNOLOGIOAL DIVISION

The solidification of bydrocyanic acid has been noted several times in-the last' few months on the Mexican border and it seems advisable to call attention to the conditions under which thisphenomenon may occur. Hydrocyanic acid is a volatile liquid which boils at 790 F., and solidifies at minus-80 F. It has a high vapor pressure-equal -to. 264.3 millimeters of mercury at 32 F., and a heat of vaporization of 440 B.t.u., that is, it requires 440 British thermal units to evaporate 1 pound of the liquid, the British th6rmal init being the heat required to raise 1 pound of water one degree Fahrenheit. It will therefore reauire considerable heat to boil the liquid and change it into a gas, and this heat mTst be furnished to it or es it-will not be vaporized. When hydrocyanic acid is sprayed into the chamber, part of the liquid evaporates immediately, taking up the heat from the surroundings, including the heat contained in the liauid itself. If it is sprayed on a substance which has a high specific heat or is a good conductor of heat, enough heat may be present or conducted to the liquid to entirely vaporize it. If, however, itis sprayed onto a substance which is a poor conductor of heat, part of the liquid may evaporate and the rest be frozen solid by the removal of the heat from the liquid. Burlap bags, wood, and such organic substances that are low in water content are usually poor conductors of heat, and the spraying of the liquid on such articles is liable to result in the formation of solid hydrocyanic acid. The spraying of liquid hydrocyanic acid oncotton or burlap bags in a chamber under vacuum i.s almost sure to result in the solidification of part of the hydrocyanic acid, and this may remain solid for some time or until sufficient heat is conducted to it to thaw it. Spray nozzles for the delivery of hydrocyanic acid to the fumigating chambers or vacuum tanks should be so placed as to direct the spray away from the commodities fumigated and, if necessary, against the top of the tank or car where it will be possible for the hydrocyanic acid to be volatilized. This solid bydrocyanic acid has the oappearance of snow and is, of course, very cold, having a temperature of 8 below






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zero F. It is, however, dangerous, as it may be readily melted by the heat from the hand, and if the liquid gets into a cut or the crystals penetrate the skin, hydrocyanic acid poisoning may result. It is just as dangerous as liquid or gaseous hydrocyanic acid. The most favorable time for the formation of this hydrocyanic acid snow is in cold weather, rhon the liquid, chamber, and articles -to be fumi gted are cold.




FOREIGN PLANT QARANTINES .

RECENT ENTMOLOGICAL INTERCEPTIONS OF INTEREST

Fruit fly 'pupae from Yugoslavia.--Pupae of Rhagoletis cerasi L. (Trypetidae) were intercepted at Philadelphia on dried sour cherries in cargo from Tugoslavia. This fruit fly, which is not recorded from this country, has also been intercepted in cherries'from France and Italy.

Fruit fly in prickly pear.--A living larva of Ceratitis capitata Wied. (Mediterranean fruit fly) was taken at Chicago in a prickly pear (0puntia sp.) in the mail from Italy.

Coffee berry borer from Africa.--Stephanoderes hamlei Ferr. (Scolytidae) was intercepted at New York in -toffee beans in cargo from Tanganyika and Uganda, Africa. Stephanoderes coffeae Hgdn., which is mentioned on page 3 of the September 1, 1932, News Letter, is a synonym of S. hampei Ferr.

0ecophorid in Eranthis bulb,--A larva of Borkhausenia pseudospretella Staint. (scavenger bulb moth) was intercepted at Boston in an Eranthis bulb in cargo from the Netherlands. This oecophorid is a cosmopolitan feeder in decaying bulbs and other vegetable products..

Scale insect on orchid leaves.--Diaspis cattleyae (Ckll.) (Coccidae) was intercepted at Philadelphia on orchid (Odontoglossum) leaves in the mail from Mexico.

First winged specimen recorded.--Bregmatothrips iridis Watson (thrips) was taken at Washington, D. C., on bulbous iris in cargo from the Netherlands. J. R. Watson, of Gainesville, Fla., remarks as follows: "This is a winged specimen, the first one that I have ever seen, There is no record of anyone else having taken a winged individual. It is important to know that this thrips sometimes produces winged individuals. This will immensely increase their abilities to spread."

Weevil in avocado seeds.--Larvae of Conotrachelus perseae Barber
(Cureionidae) were intercepted at El Paso, Tex., in avocado seeds in baggage from Mexico.







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Miner from Trinidad.--Marmara sp. (Gracilariidae) was intercepted at Norfolk, Va., in the rind of oranges in stores from Trinidad.

Not recorded from the United States.--Frankliniella pallida Uzel
(thrips) was intercepted at Philadelphia on an unknown host (probably Gentianagneumonan) in the mail from Austria. J. R. Watson reports that this species is not known to occur in this country.

Leaf beetle from Nicaragua.--Stilodes fuscolineata Stal. (Chrysomelidae) was intercepted at Mobile, Ala., on banana in cargo from Nicaragua.

Pods of St. John's bread infested.--An adult and larvae of EPhestia
calidella Gn. (Pyralidae) were intercepted at New York in pods of St. John's bread (Ceratonia siliqua) in cargo from Italy.

Beechnut from Switzerland infested.--A larva of Laspeyresia sp. (01ethreutidae) was intercepted at San Francisco in a beechnut in the mail from Switzerland.

Pink bollworm from Anglo-Egyptian Sudan.--A larva of Pectinophora
gossypiella Saunders was intercepted at 17ashington, D. C., in a cottonseed in the mail from Khartum, Anglo-Egyptian Sudan.

Termite from the Canal Zone.--A soldier, workers, and nymphs of Nasutitermes corn.,era Motschulaky were intercepted at Honolulu on the stem and roots of Sobralia panamensis in the mail from the Canal Zone. T. E. Snyder, of the Bureau of Entomology, reports that this termite, which is-not known to occur in Hawaii, is a destructive wood-borer in Panama, where it also damages fruit trees. Further information on this white ant may be found in U. S. Department of Agriculture Bulletin No. 1232.

RECENT PATHOLOGICAL INTERCEPTIONS OF INTEREST

Diseased fir needles.--Fir twigs from Germany intercepted at Philadelphia were found to be infected with Cytospora pinastri and an associated fungus, probably Ceuthosoora abietina. These two fungi are found in association on fir in France.

Interesting Puerto Rican fungi.--Among the field collections sent in from Puerto Rico were plants of Fimbristylis sp. (a small sedge), bearing sori of Puccinia fimbristylidis, and in the cxils an interesting smut, Cintractia axicola, collected at Arecibo, and leaves of Malpighia glabra infected with Cercospora sp., apparently the first report of a fungus of this genus on this host, collected at Mayaguez.

Disease of peppers from Java.--Small peppers from Java intercepted at Philadelphia had a dry rot of the tips apparently caused by LuLa sp., which was sporulating abundantly on the specimen showing the more advanced






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stage of the rot and rather sparsely on .other specimens.

Celery blight from Germany and South Africa,--Late blight of celery was found on celery from South Africa and on:celeriac from Germany, both intercepted at Philadelphia. Another lot of celeriac leaves from Germany was infected with the early blight, Cercospora apii,.

Rot in taro from China.--Taro from China was found showing decay at Boston and New York (3). The material from Boston was found infected with mycelium of a Basidionycete. While no sclerotia were present, the mycelium was much like that of Sclerotium rolfsii, which is reported as causing a rot of taro, All three collections from New York were made at a later date and sclerotia had been produced. Two specimens had small, rounded sclerotia similar to th s,- of S rolfsii but unusually dark. The other material was of scleroth, only anrd oll were larger and elongated instead of rounded, Further me..e..i ac i u.- .y -ll be necessary to determine the identity of these sclerotia,

New fungus on Ephed-a.--Ephedra intermedia received at the inspection house in Wash3ing;to from inTia was found to bear fruiting bodies of Rhabdospora spo, 1 _Lffers from 1he described species of this genus.

Nematoae interceptions Among the interceptions of nematodes during the month were o- c' ause oan German lily of the valley pips intercepted at rPhiia1 i, sLo ~ ,ist report cf T. di-osaci on this host; Paratylenchus sp. and Ah3]eachoides parie tings onAmamayl1is sp. bulb from Brazil, the first interception record of nemas on this host, intercepted at Philadelphia; and potatoes in which Tylenchus dipsaci was unusually active and abundant, one lot from Germany intercepted at Philadelphia and the other from Sweden intercepted at Baltimore.

DECEMBER INTERCEPTIONS BY PORTS

Interceptions received in Washington during December were as follows: Baltimore 7, Boston 69, Brownsville 1, Charleston 44, Chicago 1, Corpus Christi 7, Detroit 4, Douglas 1, El Paso 24, Laredo 9, Mobile 41, New Orleans 34, New York 93, Nogales 18, Norfolk 2, Philadelphia 247, Presidio 1, San Juan 119, San Ysidro 1, Savannah 5, Seattle 61, and Thayer 1. Of the total of 790 interceptions, 485 were of insects and 305 of diseases.

FOREIGN INSECTS SENT IN MAIL

A shipment consisting of eight lepidopterous cocoons sent from Germany was intercepted in the mail at Philadelphia December 12, 1932, addressed to Scranton, Pa. Two of the moths had emerged and died in transit, and two more emerged after arrival at the Philadelphia post office. Of the remaining four cocoons two were alive and two dead at the time of arrival. Two genera of Saturniidae were represented in this shipment, Actias and Antheraea, but specimens of both were too battered for specific identification. The








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latter genus is not represented in the United.States.

FUMIGATION PLANT WORRIES

A recent letter from the Laredo, Tex., office, illustrates some of the troubles they have down on the Rio Grande as follows:

"One of our constant worries is the danger of fumigating
someone here in the plant. On the morning of December 13,
while making the usual examination of freight cars before placing them in the plant, a Mexican was found in one of the box
cars. It was necessary to get up in the car and lead him out.
He said he had been asleep in the car but told several stories
as to where he bane'ffti. *The Immigration Inspector told us
that this Mexican had been deported to Mexico the week before,
so it is evident he had just crossed the river in the box car."

BY-PRODUCTS OF QUARATITE INSPECTION

While practically all the plant quarantine inspectors stationed at our ports of entry to watch for pests on plant materials brought from all. the seven-seas-are well trained in entomology, they are in no sense research workers; their- essential function is to inspect incoming materials. It is, therefore, somewhat surprising to learn that these men have to their credit a rather imposing array of findings which properly belong in the field of research but which represent solely a by-product of their inspection work. The insect interception files d-lring the 20-year period from their inception in 1912 up to the end of 1932 indicate the following contributions to the general fund of entomological knowledge made by these inspectors.

Specimens taken in the course of port inspection have provided 26 entirely new genera of insects, with 6 more cases where the genus is probably unknown and a new one required.

There have been added'in the same way 116 new species of insects, with 104 additional cases which probably involve new species also.

From the specimens sent in by inspectors the entomological collection in the National Museum has obtained 154 specimens of species not previously on file there.

And finally, 223 others of the inspectors' findings of insects have been for one or another scientific reason of more than passing interest.









DOMESTIC PLANT QUARANTINES

TRANSIT INSPECTION

Space in the new parcel post building at, Jacksonville has been
assigned to the three inspectors working cooperatively on transit inspection at that point, according to Florida plant inspector A. C. Brown. The distribution of parcel post is now made at midnight, necessitating a change in the inspection schedule. One man handles the night work, and the other %two take care of day shipments, including those at the river front. Foreign parcel post shipments as well as domestic shipments are checked at Jacksonville for compliance with Federaland State regulations. Jacksonville is especially well located for checking ships' stores as to fruits and vegetables purchased in the Japanese beetle regulated areas, and a considerable number of quarantine violations of this type have been intercepted there.

The return of narcissus bulbs to the growers from Five-and-Ten-cent
stores throughout the country constitutes a class of shipments which transit inspectors often find it necessary to check for compliance with certification requirements of Quarantine No. 62. The bulbs in such shipments are generally found upon investigation to have originated with growers whose stock has been certified. It is then necessary for the office of Domestic Plant Quarantines to instruct the stores that, in making return shipments, they should affix their label certifying that the bulbs were orginally taken from a certified shipment.

During January and February transit inspectors are giving special attention to freight shipments by the nurseries in order to be sure that concerns which handle white pines understand the new modifications of the blister rust quarantine regulations which became effective on the first of January. This change in emphasis has necessitated a number of material modifications in the transit inspection scheduled.

Mr. George Nelson, who is engaged in checking both foreign and
domestic shipments of plant material to and through St. Paul, reports that the Canadian packages which involved violations of foreign quarantine No. 37 were unusually numerous this year. As a result it was necessary for the inspector to devote most of his time during the Christmas rush to the foreign mail. Of 584 packages which were inspected, 109 were refused entry and 7 were diverted to Washington. There was little or no movement of Christmas trees and greenery from the gipsy moth regulated area of Yew Zngland to or through Minnesota.

WHITE-PINE BLISTER RUST

Permits to ship 5-leafed pines from the blister rust infected States have been issued recently to six nurserymen in various States under the requirements of the revised quarantine regulations which became effective on











January 1. Three of these nurseries are located in States not hitherto
designated as infected (Iowa and West Virginia); one is located in Wisconsin; one in Idaho, and the sixth is a New York nurseryman whose permit is
being renewed.

The extensive use of white pine for shelterbelt properties in Iowa
is brought out by H. N. Putnam, of the Division of Blister Rust Control,
in an article published in the Blister Rust News for December. As the
result of a rough survey taken by the sampling method on approximately 94
miles of highway, it is estimated that there are nearly 12,000 shelterbelts on the farms of Iowa, of which 3,500 are composed chiefly of white
pine. Such shelterbelts constitute an important market for pines protected from blister rust under the safeguards prescribed in the Federal quarantine relating to this disease.

At the Atlantic City 'meeting of the Plant Quarantine and Inspection
Section of the American Association of Economic Entomologists a paper by S. B. Fracker and R. A. Sheals, entitled "Protection of Forest Nurseries
from White Pine Blister Rust Infection," was read. The authors stated that the cost of establishing a Ribes-free zone around a forest nursery
ranges from several hundred to a thousand dollars or more for a single nur-s ery and that an annual follow up is necessary. Only 5-leafed pines so
p oteoted are allowed to be shipped out of infected States except where the
shipment is consigned to a point in one of the several northeastern generally infected States.

PHONY PEACH DISEASE

7M. F. Turner, of the Bureau of Plant Industry, presented a paper at
the Plant quarantine and Inspection Section of the American Association of Economic Entomologists entitled "Progress in Phony Peach Disease Eradication." The paper showed by comparative figures that the annual reinspection of the same orchards from 1929 to 1932 resulted in a reduction of
phony diseased trees of 84 per cent in the lightly infected area of northern Georgia and 66 per cent in the heavily infected area in the Fort Valley plateau. The number of phony trees in these orchards in the lightly infected
territory totaled 44, 19, ll, and 7 for the years 1929 to 1932, respectively.
In the heavily infected territory the figures were 50,544 trees in 1930, 25,793 in 1931, and 16,815 in 1932. Neighboring infected, escaped, and
home-orchard trees were found to be responsible for certain cases of persistence in these commercial orchards. Owing to the long incubation period for the disease, about eighteen months, it is not until the third annual inspection of an orchard that the figures are significant as indicating a definite
advance in the disease control.









DATE SCALE

The fourth year of the Date Scale Eradication Project under the cooperative agreement of the Bureau and the States of Arizona and California has been completed. Routine inspection was continued throughout the year in the infested areas and the surrounding areas scouted,. Careful scouting for unlisted palms was also carried on in the date-growing areas; and more rapid scouting done in o-utside areas in southern California, Arizona, and in the Rio Grande Valley in Texas. No infestations were found outside the areas already known to be infested. -In the date-growing areas.301,072 palm inspections were made, and in outside areas, 11610. Four infested date palms were found. One of the 4 palms was found in Arizona, near Phoenix. It had been found infested previously and treated but obviously some live scale remained. The palm was dug out and destroyed. The remaining 3 were found in the Imperial Valley in California. One of the 3 showed live scale and was defoliated and sprayed. Only single dead scales were found on the others and they were not treated. No scale was found during the year in the Coachella Valley, the principal date-growing area.

In the Imperial Valley in California an inspection was made of ornamental palms other than date, and 33 Canary Island and 4 fan palms were found infested. These were defoliated and sprayed. Four of the Canary Island palms showed a recurrence due to the fact that scale had penetrated and settled on unexpanded leaves in the bud where they were protected from the spray. These palms were cut back again and sprayed.

The results to date are encouraging, but it is evident that there is considerable work yet to be done. We are not yet sure that all incipient infestations resulting from past heavy infestations have been located. Also it is evident that, without careful leaf base inspection', 1. e., cutting back the fiber to expose living tissue, the scale can survive on leaf bases under the fiber for a long period of time without being discovered. This condition will obtain only on previously infested properties and, as a careful record of all infested properties has been kept, it is not probable that any will be overlooked.



JAPANESE BEETLE AND EUROPEAN CORN BORER

Exclusive Japanese Beetle Work

Award was made during the month of a contract to supply 4,700 wooden packing boxes, 22 inches long, 151 inches wide, and 23) inches deep, inside measurements. These boxes will replace fiberboard cartons in which Japanese beetle traps have been packed and shipped in previous years. Corrugated paper cartons have not proved satisfactory as containers of traps shipped via freight to distant points or trucked to trapping sites outside the regulated zone. Their flexibility permits breakage of the traps, and










the cases themselves as a rule are usable only one season. Specifications for the boxes call for a wooden container of white pine made of well seasoned 1-inch lumber, dressed on one side and free from loose or unsound knots and shakes. The- sides, endt, top, and bottom are to be in one piece, or in two to five pieces, tongued and grooved. Boxes are to have 5/8.inch cleats on each side, with similar cleats on each end of the top. Cement coated nails are specified throughout. Bids received by the Division of Purchase, Sales, .and Traffic ranged from 48 cents to 87 cents per box. The award was
- made to the lowest bidder, whose sample box satisfactorily fulfilled the re.quirements. Instructions for delivery, of the boxes are being delayed until .s-torage space for them is available in the South Norwalk garage, and trap painting is in progress so that the renovated traps may be packed in the containers upon their removal from the drying rack. Boxes made to the dimensions specified will be the exact size to contain one dozen metal trap assemblies and 13 jars. When liquid bait is shipped, 12 of the jars will each contain a capped bait bottle'already charged wit' bait, together with a cork through which has been inserted a wick. In the bottom of each box will be placed a corrugated paper pad. On this will be set a corrugated paper divider containing six compartments, into each of which will fit snugly one of the metal trap assemblies, comprising a cylinder, perforated bait container, funnel, and baffle.. Wings of each baffle will parallel the sides and ends of the box, so that six cardboard-wrapped pint jars may be laid lengthwise on the top of the funnels and parallel with the ends of the box. Each pint jar will contain one 1.8-ounce bottle filled with 30 c c of geraniol-eugenol bait and tightly close with a tin cap. Also in each jar will be a cork bored with a hole through which is inserted a wick for volatilizing the bait. Newspaper or rag waste will be used in the filled jars to prevent rattling of the bait bottle and possible breakage of jar and bottle. On the first layer of six traps will be placed another corrugated pad, and another layer of six traps, jars, bottles, etc., will be packed in the same manner as the first. A seventh empty jar will be packed parallel1 with the side of the box on the top layer to allow for breakage of the larger glass containers. A third corrugated pad will be placed above the top layer before the wooden top is put on and fastened in place with screws. The cleats on the top of each box will permit the final closing of the box with only six screws. It is believed that with a substantially made wooden box of this nature there will be greatly reduced breakage of traps in transit, and that the boxes may be used over a period of years instead of requiring replacement each season, as has been the case with the fiberboard cartons. The 4,700 boxes are sufficient to contain the project's entire supply of 56,000 traps.

Extension of the regulated area farther north and west in New York and to western Pennsylvania requires the establishment of additional suboffices of the project in these two sections. On December 19, J. H. Farman, assistant entomologist, formerly in charge of scouting in the western division 1-generation corn borer area with headquarters at Springfield, Ohio, established a Japanese beetle suboffice' in Syracuse, N. Y. Prior to this transfer, Mr. Harman worked for several months with inspectors engaged










in nursery and greenhouse'suapervision in various New Jersey establishments. quarters in Syracuse were assigned by the Custodian of the Treasury Department in Room 350 of the Post Office Building. The telephone number of the new office is Syracuse 2-5111, Extension 20. Agents D. IT. Millay and E. J. Johnson also were transferred to Syracuse from the New Jersey field headquarters at Trenton and Ruatherford, respectively. Each of these men has had over five years' experience in nursery and greenhouse inspection work and other phases of quarantine enforcement. They will assist Mr. Harman in inaugurating the quarantine work in the newly regulated New York territory. After the opening of the Syracuse office, the remainder of the month was spent in surveying nurseries and greenhouses in surrounding territory to inform all interested'-parties relative to the quarantine to become effective on January 1, 19SZ. Territory assigned to the Syracuse office includes all regulated area north and west of the northern boundaries of Orange and flutchess Counties. This shifts supervision of the work in nine counties in the northern part of the 1933 zone from the New York City office to the Syracuse headquarters. Office space is being sought for the establishment of a headquarters in western Pennsylvania convenient to Pittsburgh and yet so removed from that city as to avoid heavy traffic conditions which might interfere with ready access by automobile to all classified dealers within the surrounding sections. A survey of all plant dealers and growers in western Pennsylvania has been completed, so that information is available concerning individuals and firms who are likely to be affected by the newly promulgated regulations. A large portion of the establishments surveyed are within 50 miles of Pittsburgh. All territory in H~ew Hampshire, Vermont, and Massachusetts will be added to the area now under the supervision of Rt. S. Clifton, whose headquarters are at Boston. Inspection and other quarantine services in the western section of Mr. Clifton's area will be supplied from a suboff ice at Springfield, Mass.

Approval on December 22, 1932, of the 9th revision of Notice of q-uarantine No. 48, with rules and regulations (llth-revision), added to the Japanese beetle regulated area, effective January 1, 19337, the souatherni halves of New Hampshire and Vermont, all of the unregulated portion of~ Massachusetts the remainder of the southeastern third of New York, all the remainder of Pennsylvania except a section in the northwestern corner of the State, and small additional sections in Maryland and Virginia. Regulations covering the movement of fruits and vegetables were modified to exempt commercially packed apples from the certification requirements. In previous years it has been the practice in certifying apples originating in a commercial packing house to make frequent inspections of the manner of grading and to certify all apples handled during the grading process in such a manner as to free them from possible Japanese beetle infestation. Feeding of the apples to the grader normally results in the elimination of beetle infestation. Further handling of the apples in packing the fruit in the container satisfactorily eliminates probability of the insect infesting the final pack. Inspections of grading and packing methods of commercial shippers will continue as heretofore.. Richmond, Va., included in the regulated zone for the









first time, is treated as an isolated area to which quarantined fruits and
vegetables may not be shipped without certification and from which fruits and vegetables may move without certification. Infestation in Richmond is
so slight and the city so remote from other infested sections that the unrestricted movement of fruit and vegetables from that point is not believed to involve danger of spread of the insect. As was the case when incipient infestations first were discovered. in most of the States now under auarantine, this year's enlargement of territory does not bring under regulation a number of points at which beetles in small numbers were gathered. Findings at these outside points do not necessarily indicate established infestations. Eradication measures have been undertaken or are under consideration at most of the distant points where beetles were collected in any quantity. Under these circumstances, the regulated territory was not extended
to include a number of points in Maine, Michigan, Ohio, West Virginia, North
Carolina, and South Carolina, at Which'beetles-were trapped during the past
s= er.

As soon as was available an approved copy of the llth revision of the quarantine regulations detailing the limits of the extended regulated area, as effective at the beginning of 1933, accumulation of data was begun for a new Japanese Beetle Shipper's Guide. In preparing this list of localities within the regulated area, the latest information as to post offices is
obtained from the Postal Guide and its most recent Supplement. In the case
of counties partially within and partially without the regulated area, it is necessary to determine from a detailed map the points that are inside the
area and should be listed. State schedules, supplied by the Railway Express
Aency, listing all designated express offices in a particular State are
then consulted, the respective counties entered opposite each station, and
those stations picked out that are in regulated territory. Points that have
express offices but are without post offices, are then worked into the main
list. The Guide will list those points within the regulated areas in all
States except Pennsylvania. Points shown in the Pennsylvania list will be
those outside the regulated area. Since all except a small section of
Pennsylvania will be under regulation, it is impracticable.to list the large number of cities and towns within the area; consequently, there are listed only the few localities in the State that are in the nonregulated section. Before final mimeographing of the Shipper's Guide, each State list is sent to the district supervisor in charge of the State listed and by him critically checked. Completion of the Shipper's Guide will not be accomplished until late in January or early in February. These are months when only a .small amount of quarantined stock is moving and there is little demand for the specific quarantine information shown in the Shipper's Guide.

Four staff members, C. W. Stockwell and R. W. Sherman, of the South Norwalk headquarters, J. P. Johnson, of the New Haven, Conn., district office, and T. C. Cronin, of the Boston, Mass., district headquarters, attended the meetings ofthe American Association of Economic Entomologists at
Alantic City, N. J., from December 28 to 30. Among the papers presented at the meetings was a report, "The European corn borer situation in the United States at the close of 1932," read by D. J. Caffrey, senior entomologist, of






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the corn borer research laboratory at Toledo, Ohio. Mr. Worthley, as junior author of the paper., contributed a short report of the results of last summer's scouting for new infestations. A: paper on the "Economic Status of the Japanese beetle in 1932," with Messrs. Worthley and Stockwell ,as authors, was read by Mr. Stockwell. The- subject.of the Japanese beetle was further treated in a paper entitled "Preliminary Tests with Liquid Bait in Japanese Beetle Traps," by F. W. Metzger, of the Bureau of Entompology, Moorestown, N. J. 'A comprehensive display of the life history and control measures of the Japanese beetle, arranged by the Moorestown research laboratory, was a principal feature of the Association's exhibit. One of'the bizarre items in the Japanese beetle exhibit was a large replica of the insect prepared in Harrisburg and realistically painted in natural colors at the Moorestown laboratory by 2. J.:Sim.

Plans are being prepared for the coming summer's trapping activities. Supervisory areas comprising near-by trapped cities or towns, the trap insp'ctors in each of which can be checked by one supervisor, .are being mapped and the details of the traps to be set in each locality determined so that convenient storage facilities may be secured and-the traps concentrated at the storage6-point for later distribution On the basis. of trap shipments in the.. new wooden boxes 'being secured this season, complete equipment for a set-up of'400 traps, the custoffary number placed in each.town,'will weigh 4,212 ponds when the bran bait is used and 4,176 pounds. when liquid bait is packed, i! the boxes'with the metal trap assemblies. Approximately 225 cubic feet of transportation space-will be occupied in each instance. With these details at hand the advance inspectors- visiting the localities to be trapped may more readily secure the'required amount of. storage space, and where necessary make lbcal arrangements for the trucking of the equipment from the freight station to-the place of temporary storage.

Preliminary-'plans for the Japanese beetle project's contribution to the exhibit of the Bureau of Plant Quarantine at the Century of Progress Exhibition in Chicago, to: be held from June 1 to October 30, 1933, were discussed at the Soith Norwalk :office on -December .23 with S. S. Crossman, of the gipsy moth staff. Space of the same dimensions on the rear vall 6f tne Bureau's booth has been assigned to each project. The conference with Mr. Crossman was for the purpose of developing a general idea of each project's proposed layout and so arranging the two that they wil-1 present a balance and equally proportioned display of the principal phases of quarantine ar:.i control operations for the two insect-pests. Since the Bureau of Entomo.Iogy is not planning to prepare 'an exhibit of their research work with these insects, the two plant quarantine units are in a position to develop with considerable latitude their display materials.

Visits to three golf cobiirses-in Ocean County,. N. J., in an examination" for typical sod damage by Japanese beetle larvae, disclosed that the clubs last summer practiced their own program of trap -contrl. On a course at Pinewald, 48 quarts of beetles were trapped. during the past. sugm r. Greens only on this course were treated with arsenate. of lead. At a Toms











River course, 191 quarts of beetles were collected. Their greens were treated but nothing was done to their fairways. Traps in operation on a course at Lakewood caught 400 Quarts of beetles. Greens on this course were treated. The fairways had also received one previous treatment. Greens and fairways on these three courses show less larval feeding than does the sod on most courses in the Philadelphia district. These examinations.were made for the purpose of selecting typical golf course damage suitable for photographic purposes.

Inventory of nonexpendable and semiexpendable property assigned to the Japanese beetle and corn borer projects was begun during December. Annual checking of assigned property involves considerable detail, since the chargeable property is distributed among the South Norwalk headquarters and field offices in Springfield, Ohio; Boston and Springfield, Mass.; New Haven, Por,.; New York City and Syracuse, N. Y.; Rutherford, Trenton, and Glassboro, N. J.; Oakmont, New Cumberland, and Lancaster, Pa.; Dover, Del.; Baltimore, Md.; Washington, D. C.; and Richmond. and Norfolk, Va.

Considerable potted stock for the holiday trade was moved just
prior to Christmas in the Philadelphia area. Certification by G. B. Stichter, of the Oakmont, Pa., headquarters, of seeds shipped by the wholesale seed houses of Philadelphia was made during December in larger quantities than in any previous season. Mr. Stichter, a cooperative agent, performs this seed certification work in the capacity of an inspector of the Pennsylvania Bureau. o.f Plant Industry.

Specialized Corn Borer Activities

Transfer to the Bureau of Agricultural Engineering of a number of plows, tractors, and corn binders previously used in connection with corn borer demonstration work at the Berkley Farm, Berkley, Mass., was effected during the month. This transferred property was trucked to 12 Pierce Street, Trenton, N. J., at which address a building has been leased in which will be housed the field headquarters of the mechanical corn-borer control unit of the Division of Mechanical Equipment, Bureau of Agricultural Engineering, previously located at South Norwalk. The Trenton headquarters will be officially occupied on January 5, the beginning of the lease period. This change of headquarters involves the transfer of Frank Irons, associate agricultural engineer, V. D. Young, assistant agricultural en-ineer, and Homer Goyings and L. M. Barlow, assistant farm mechanics. At Trenton, the agricultural engineers will be convenient to an agricultural section in which are grown large quantities of sugar corn and in which the European corn borer has only recently been discovered.

European corn borer regulations issued by various States subsequent to the cancellation on July 15, 1932, of the Federal quarantine on account of this insect, were compiled by the Washington office and issued as BP(346, dated December 10. The State embargo and quarantine orders are grouped as to-their status as embargoes, .embargoes with special provisions,


iiiiiiiiiiiiSTATE LAN BOARE)






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quarantines under which State certification of certain products is accepted, and quarantines with'special provisions under which State certification is accepted. A convenient synopsis in tabular form is included as the last two pages of the circular. This compilation replaces an earlier and briefer digest of the regulationsprepared at the South Norwalk headquarters. The new summary is being widely distributed to shippersin the formerly regulated corn borer areas whose shipments are affected by the State orders,




MEXICAN FRUIT FLY

The operation of traps and inspection of fruit produced locally in Matamoros gave negative results during December. Traps were baited with fermenting malt extract. Inclement weather interfered to a considerable degree with the effective operation of the traps and also with inspection of local fruit.

Four carloads of oranges, in bulk, were received in Matamoros during the month from Montemorelos. Some 6,000 of these fruits which had spoiled were taken up from the various stands throughout the city. Examination showed 22 of them to be infested with larvae of fruit fly. Sixtyseven larvae were recovered. Oranges were retailing during the month at one cent (Mexican) each, or about one-third of a cent American money. As a result of the low prices, oranges were scattered all over the city with a corresponding danger of the establishment of a local infestation.

The second application of nicotine-molasses bait spray to the trees of Matamoros was completed on the 24th. While no Anastrepha ludens have been taken in the traps in Matamoros since the first application of the. bait was completed, 10 Anastrepha pallens were taken during December.

In contrast to the ideal weather conditions during November, the weather during December was cold with continuous drizzling rains. This interfered to a considerable extent with grove inspection work, the collection of specimens, and the harvesting of fruit, Two freezes occurred during the month, neither of which was severe enough to damage the fruit on the trees. However, tender growth on the trees was scorched,"1 but fruit wood for next season's crop was thought to be uninjured.

Groves were found to be in a fairly satisfactory sanitary condition. The inclement weather prevented some of the growers from getting into their orchards to pick up the "drops." The regular monthly routine of grove inspection fell behind somewhat on account of the weather .and the necessity of additional regulatory work to handle the holiday shipments of fruit.

The effect of the depression is indicated in the number of single box permit stamps issued for the shipment of gift boxes of fruit. During










the month only 56,916 such stamps were issued as compared with 116,347 in
December, 1931, This decrease occurred, too, in spite of drastic reductions in express rates to all sections of the country.

Truck shipments were fairly heavy throughout December. Approximately 650 carloads of fruit had been transported from the valley by this means at the end of the month. Master permits were issued during December for vehicular movement of fruit to points in States as far away as Illinois,
Michigan, New York, and South Dakota.

Two lots of fruit were refused permits pending better identification of the groves-of origin. One lot of about 20 bushels was destroyed by burial by the Mexican who claimed to own it. The other lot was placed in storage and the man claiming to own it was placed in jail by the sheriff of Hidalgo County. Both cases were turned up as a result of the master permit requirement and the alertness of the district inspectors in checking the origin of fruit offered for shipment.

Vehicular traffic past the road stations was considerably heavier than in November as was also the percentage of cars carrying fruit. ConfioQations were fairly light and of small quantities of fruit. The mobile .,patrol operating on the ranch roads in northwest Hidalgo and Starr Counties was discontinued on the 24th. This patrol was in operation for a month and in that time no movement of fruit from the Valley was encountered.




PINK BOLLWORM

Field clean-up in the Big pend area of Texas went forward very satisfactorily during December. We were fortunate in being able to maintain a large number of laborers, an average of 500 being used each week. The area to be cleaned and the method used was given in the last News Letter. At the close-of the month stalks had been cut and piled on 2,485 acres, while 2,031 acre .had been hand-picked and material burned on 1,992 acres. There were very few interruptions or delays. Some heavy dews were a slight handicap in getting the stalks burned, and a few cold mornings interfered to some ext-nt with the hand-picking of the fields. The clean-up is expected to be completed in the most heavily infested area within the next week or so.

Since the clean-up was begun two prominent farmers living at Ruidosa and Candelaria, which are both up the river from the Presidio section, have requested that the lean-up program be extended to include their communities. They stated that because of the floods last fall many of the fields would not be picked. These infested bolls would be left throughout the winter, and if the fields were not cleaned the pink bollworm carry-over would be heavy enough to endanger their production for another season. They estimated that there are around 600 acres of cotton-rlJthe two communities. After considering






-16


the above situation it was thought advisable to extend -the clean-up to
these sections, and work will be begun immediately upon completion of the Presidio area. This will eliminate any possibility of infestation spreading from these sections back into the Presidio area and thus undoing our efforts to reduce the infestation there. Special mention should be made
of the excellent cooperation we are receiving on the part of all concerned
in this clean-up campaign.

Mexican officials are taking quite an interest in the clean-up.
The Mexican Consul at Presidio has gone over the area with one of our inspectors to observe just how the work is being carried on, with a view to having the same work ,conducted bn the MexiCan side of the river. The Mexican quarantine requires that all cotton fields be cleaned as soon as the picking is completed., That Government commissions a man in eachfarming' section to see that the clean-up is carried out. Contact has been made with the agricultural inspector at Ojinaga, Mexico, and he advised that the clean-up is now well under way, and that all fields would probably be cleaned within the next two or three weeks.

The clean-up of all cotton fields within a 5-mile radius of 't'he two infested fields in the regulated area of northern F i has been completed. k total of 847k acres was cleaned, 521 being in Alachua County' ancl 326 in Columbia County. This is a much larger acreage than was given in the original estimate, and is probably due to the fact that numerous small fields, which were located back in the pine woods, were overlooked the first time, and also to the fact that the tenant farmers, most of whom are negroes, have a very vague idea of what constitutes an acre, Inspections made after the clean-up was completed showed that a very efficient job was done.

The sterilizing of all cottonseed held in the above area for planting purposes, etc., has been completed. A total of 105,000 pounds of seed were treated. Due to the fact that the machine was new to the men operating it, considerable care was exercised, and a careful record of the seed temperatures was kept. In the very beginning a few sacks of seed were overheated. However, these were set aside with the suggestion that they be not used for planting purposes. This seed belonged to a gin, but by the time seed belonging to individuals were handled the machine had 'been adjusted so perfectly that none was overheated. A few farmers inquired from time to time whether sterilization would injure the seed for planting purposes, and upon being assured that it would not they had no further comments to make. As this is the first time sterilization has ever been carried-on in that area, samples of each lot of seed were taken, and a little later germination tests will be run. We will thus be in a position to answer any complaints that might be made later that sterilization would injure the seed for planting purposes.

The recleaning of the keys south of the Florida mainland has been
continued and is making satisfactory progress, wne crews continue to find







-17


and remove wild cotton plants which were missed during the first clean-up. It is easy to understand how a few plants can be missed when one takes into consideration the fact that because of the dense growth one may pass within a few feet of a wild cotton plant ~without being able to see it. Another fact which may have had something to do with cotton being overlooked is that large crews were used during the first clean-up, which did not permit close supervision.* It has been. found _'that the laborers must be supoervised at all times or they will overlook some plants. Therefore, during the present cleain-up much smaller crews are being used. They are spread out in a line and move forward over the ground. It is thought that this method should result in practically no plants being-overlooked. In addition to the wild plant s, one of the crews has removed a number of large dooryard plants from the city of Key West. In most cases these plants were located by State inspectors and reported to our men.

The daily inspection and destruction of blooms from the cotton plots at Chapman Field has been continued. There has been no particular let-up in the number of blooms produced by this cot-ton; in fact, this seems to be the normal fruiting time for wild cotton in southern Florida. The examina-tion of blooms has continued to give negative results during December.

Laboratory inspection is now being carried out by the men assigned to the various southern cotton States and also at San Antonio. At Miami dry bolls are being inspected. During December some 36 bushels, which had been collected in counties just outside the regulated area of Florida, were inspected wi th negative results. The other men are engaged in the inspection of green bolls, over 54,000, representing 21 counties, having been inspected with negative results.

A gin- trash machine has been set -up on the lot in the rear of the Phoenix office, and the most suitable first-cleaner trash from the Salt River Valley of Arizona is now being handled. No suspicious specimens have been found to date. One other gin-trash machine is still operating at Mexicali in Lower California. This machine was continued in operation so that some trash from all areas in that part of Mexico could be inspected. This was expected to be accomplished early in January, after which the machine will cease operating. No suspicious specimens have been found in this area.

Unfavorable weather conditions during the month of December interfered considerably with picking and ginning of the cotton crop throughout the regulated areas. The greatest amount of cotton remaining to be ginned was in the Salt River Valley of Ariz6na, where the crop has opened rather slowly; In the remaining areas the gins have begun setting certain days on which to operate. A considerable amount of bollie cotton is being gathered this year, which will naturally extend the ginning season. It now appears that with the exception of the Salt River Valley practically all ginning will be completed by the end of January.










PRVETING- SPREAD OF MOTHS


At the beginning of the Christmas tree season this fall most of the operators planned to cut and ship fewer trees, as last year many of them sustained losses due to the overloading of markets with trees. However, as the season advanced it was found that the supply of trees sent to various eastern markets was not large enough-to meet the demand. As a result of this shortage there were calls for additional trees which had to be obtained hurriedly, resulting in somewhat later inspection and later shipping. The inspection and certification of carload shipments of Christmas trees was not completed -until December' 22', and several truck'loads of trees were certified as late as the 24th of December. According to newspaper reports, bundles of trees were bringing much higher prices in the Boston and New York markets than are customarily obtained for them.

The extreme cold at this late season made the inspection of trees rather slow and difficult, as the trees were full of frost, causing the branches to snap when handled and ruining the tree as a salable product. Heavy snow~ in some sections also made travel very difficult for inspectors. The shortage of trees in the near-by New York markets also resulted in increased activity in inspection of truck shipments, as it is-only a day's drive from sections of New York State to the quarantined area in southern Vermont.

Whenever a shortage of trees is nioted-in the New York market there are numerous rumors and reports that trees are being taken illegWlly from Boston to New York. It has been the practi-ce each year to assign an inspector to the various freight yards in Boston for the purpose of checking the arriving trees, to avoid any possibility that carloads of uncertified trees might be reshipped from Boston points to New York or other destinations outside of the quarantined area. A careful check Was made of all trees arriving- at Boston and no evidence was secured that they were being transported to New York either by freight or by truck.

There was a marked decrease in the number of Christmas trees inspected and certified this past season as compared with any other year since 1924. (It was July 1, 1924, when the quarantine regulations were changed and the movement of inspected Christmas tree 's 'was allowed only from"T the lightly infested areas.) This past season only 930,534 Christmas trees were inspected and certified for shipment as compared with an average of 1,500,000 trees for each of the eight previous seasons of 1924-1931 inclusive.

There are several contributing factors responsible for the decrease in number of Christmas 'trees presented for inspection this past season. Although business conditions in 1931 did not warrant a normal cut of Christ mas trees, our records show that 1,423,934 trees were inspected and certified during the'season, The result was that the markets were overloaded










and operators, wholesalers, and retailers were left with unsold trees on their hands, As a result of this experience, operators this past season .were not inclined to cut as many trees, and because of the increased business depressiQn they had difficulty in placing early orders. Consequently, during the latter part of the season, when it was realized that
there was a shortage of trees for the markets, it was too late to cut and
ship to the markets any great number of trees.

Another factor in the Christmas tree shortage this season is the
,increasing demand for balsam in place of spruce. While the spruce is more bushy and was the original Christmas tree, the tendency of the public is
-to-prefer the balsam trees as they hold their needles longer and have the .balsamfragrance. The needles are sometimes used for small pillows after the Christmas holidays. Good balsam Christmas trees are much scarcer in New England than spruce.

As is usual, there was much activity in the Boston inspection district during the period immediately preceding Christmas. About the usual .number of shipments were sent out by florists and other concerns but these Were somewhat smaller than is ordinarily the case. The number of boxes of Christmas greens certified this year was somewhat less than the numbers recorded for past seasons. This may be due, in part, to slightly decreased shipping this year, but the main difference may be accounted for by the increased size of packages permitted under the new parcel post regulations. Lastbyr packages were limited to 84 inches combined length and girth. This year the limit was increased to 100 inches, and in consequence the large shippers of evergreen materials were able to send more individual pieces in each package shipped. As each package is certified as a unit there were fewer units recorded this year because of the increase in permitted size.

Two gipsy moth egg clusters were found on spruce wreath material at Woburn, Mass. The spruce branches originated in southern Maine and were
-inspected at Woburn, Mass., prior to making up into finished wreaths that were to be shipped to New York City. This is the first record for several years of egg clusters being found on materials which were to be used in the manufacture of wreaths.

Up to within the last two or possibly three years, all of the ever.green trees shipped to be used as Christmas trees were cut from various localities in northern and northeastern New Ergincand. In general, these were all fairly large trees, but there were a few operators who specialized in shipping what they termed "table trees." These were usually small trees not much over 2 feet in height and were shipped with wooden blocks to be vsed as stands. In the last few years, however, a few firms, particularly one or two nurseries, have endeavored to biild ap a market in small potted evergreen trees, prin(AJ.ally spruce. These have beon shipped in special cartons with decorative labels and have been advertised as living trees which might be planted after the Christmas season. Many nurseries within







-20


the quarantined area are heavily stocked with. small evergreen trees, and in their quest for markets have begun to investigate the possibilities of selling potted evergreen trees for Christmas use. Each year more and more nurseries are building up this trade, which serves the double purpose of marketing extra'stockc and giving employment to nursery employees during a season of inactivity.

During the winter season there is usually quite an increase in the
shipment of certain types of forest products, particularly pulpwood. Abundant snow in the northern sections where pulpwood is cut permits transportation, as it is easier to reach pulpwood lots with sleds when there is considerable snow on the ground. *Among the forest products which are shipped most commonl y during the winter season are hardwood logs cut from yellow birch, beech, and maple. These are cut in 4-foot lengths and are usually shipped in carload lots approximately 10 cords to the car., Practically all of such logs are shipped to a shoe machinery firm which manufactures them into wooden heels for ladies' shoes. Approximately 10,000 cords of these logs are shipped every year.

Materials which are apparently of little value have an occasional usefulness for particular purposes, and sometimes if these are exposed to gipsy moth infestation, may present out-of-the-ordinary inspection activities. For a number of years there have been occasional shipments of old chimney bricks which are used for constructing fireplaces in certain types of restaurants. Practically all of these bricks are shipped from southern Rhode Island, where a dealer specializes in collecting old chimney bricks from destroyed buildings or from ones that are being torn down. He collects these bricks whenever opportunity presents, and as he usually has a supply on hand at'all times,, they may be stored at bis place for considerable intervals before being shipped. Because of long storage in piles there is a possibility that they will become infested with gipsy moth egg clusters. In fact, in the past egg clusters have been found and removed. Through an arrangement, these bricks are now stored some distance away from trees and thus the dangers of infestation are avoided. The bricks are shipped in barrels, each containing about 100, and they are packed quite carefully so that they may arrive-at destination in satisfactory condition. Apparently the major portion of the value attached to these bricks is in their being old bricks which show signs of having been used over a long period.

There is an indication that the coming nursery inspection season will witness a change in the method of shipping some of the nursery stock. Tp to the present, practically 'all stock has been shipped in wooden boxes or cases which were either constructed from new stock at the nurseries or were old containers which had been saved. Occasionally nurseries did not tuse containers specially made for stock, but purchased empty boxes which had'been used originally for other materials. A change to paper cartons by some of the nurseries is indicated as it is reported tVhat orders have been sent in for large numbers of these cartons to be used next season.









The following information has been prepared from a survey of the brown-tail moth records at that office. In general, the brown-tail moth infestation in New England during 1932 was somewhat lighter than during the previous year. This is based -on field observations made during the summer months and on-the number .of hibernating webs cut from the trees during the winter. A summation-of the records at the office shows that from 1922 to ,and including the spring of 1932 there were over 10,000,000.webs cut from trees in Massachusetts, New Hampshire, and Maine. Records are available fortowns in Massachusetts from 1922, but in New Hampshire they begin with 1930, and for Maine with 1931. In 1930, a total of 1,183,379 webs were cut, .89,6.84 of which were in Massachusetts, and 493,695 in New Hampshire. In 1931; a' total of 1,656,045 webs were cut as follows: Massachusetts, 661,613; New Bapshire,' 652;768; and Maine, 341,664. In 1932 the total number of webs cut was 896,469as follows: Massachusetts, 314,919; New Hampshire, 513,760; and Maine, 67,790. There were, of course, other webs cut by individuals, of which we 'have no record.
In Massachusetts the webs are cut annually by the local moth superintendents, and this work.is generally done ouite thoroughly. In New Hampshire and Maine the work is done by the State organizations and by towns in a few cases when advised to do so by the State officials. During 1932 the infestation was scattering and lighti:in the eastern half of Massachusetts except for heavy infestation in southeastern and northeastern parts of the State. In New Hampshire, the southeastern section, along the New Hampshire and Maine State lines, the Atlantic Ocean, and west to and including the Merrimac Valley as far north as Lake Winnipesaukee, was rather heavily infested, and light infestations were found as far north as Bartlett, Conway, and Albany. The infestation in Maine was general and heavy in spots throughout the southwestern section including the area from Lewiston and Auburn directly south to the Atlantic Ocean and westerly from Lewiston and Auburn through Poland, Casco, and Sebago to the New Hampshire State line. Infestation was observed as far easterly as Castine on the Penobscot River where 7,000 webs were cut.

A report has been received from the State of Connecticut indicating
that the State force have discovered a large gipsy moth infestation in woodland in the town of Wolcott, Conn. They have already treated over 4,500 egg clusters in an area of about a square mile and a largc amount of additional work will have to be done before work is completed there. The presence of so large an infestation within 5 miles of the eastern border of the barrier zone might prove to be serious had it not been discovered, for there would be considerable danger of the small gipsy moth caterpillars drifting into the barrier zone during the spring if the wind were blowing in a westerly direction. As no Federal funds are available for work east of the barrier zone and as there are not sufficient State or town funds appropriated to do a great deal of woodland scouting, there is no means of knowing whether or not similar infestations exist in other localities near the eastern border of the barrier zone.




UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA .

3 1262 09245 0880

-22


As there is considerable travel from the region infested with the gipsy moth near Scranton and Wilkes-Barre, Pa., through Stroudsburg and Easton, Pa., into the northern portion of New Jersey, officials of the New Jersey Department of Agriculture considered it advisable to do some scouting work as a precautionary measure along the main highway extending eastward from the State line near the two Pennsylvania towns last mentioned. A distance of approximately 25 miles has been scouted along each of these main thoroughfares. Considerable scouting has also been done near sites of old infestations in the townships of Mendham and Piscataway, X. J., by the four gipsy moth experts employed by the State of New Jersey. No infestation of the gipsy moth has been located to date as a result of this wor.

A. F. Burgess attended the annual meeting of the American Association of Economic Entomologists held at Atlantic City, N. J., in December. At this meeting he read three papers, entitled: "The Gipsy Moth Problem," "The Present Status of the Gipsy Moth," and "A-Method of Determining losses to Forests Caused by Defoliation."




















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I Number 26 NEWS LETTER BUREAU OF PLAJ.\JT Q,UARANT !NE UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ~ATE (NOT FOR PUBLICATION) TECHNOLOGICAL DIVJSION February 1, 1933. The solidification of hydrocyanic acid has been noted several times in the last few months on the Mexican border and it seems advisable to call attention to the conditions under which this• phenomenon may occur. Hydro _cyanic acid is a volatile liquid which boils at 79 F., and solidifies at minus s F. It has a high vapor pressure --equal -to-264. 3 millimeters of mercury at 32 F., and a heat of vaporization of 440 B.t.u., that is, it requir~s ~40 British thermal units to evaporate 1 pound of the liquid, the British thermal unit being the heat required to raise 1 pound of water one degree Fahrenheit. It will therefore require considerable heat to boil the liquid and change it into a gas, and this heat must be furnished to it or else it will not be vaporized. 1Vhen hydrocyanic acid is spray e d into the chamber, part of the liquid evaporates im.~ediately, taking up the heat from the surroundings, including the heat contained in the liguid itself. If it is sprayed on a substance which has a high specific heator is a good conductor.of heat, . enough heat may be present or conducted to the liquid to entirely vaporize it. If, however, itis sprayed onto a substance which is a poor conductor of heat, part of the liquid may evaporate and the rest be frozen solid by the removal of the heat from the liquid. Burlap bags, wood, and such organic ~ubstances that are low in water content are usually poor conductors of heat, and the spraying of the liquid on such articles is liable to reslt in the formation of solid hydrocyanic acid. T he spraying of liquid hydrocyanic acid on cotton or burlap bags in a chamber under vacuum is almost sure to result i~ the solidification of part of the hydrocyanic acid, and this may remain solid for some time or until sufficient heat is conducted to it to thaw it. Spray nozzles for the delivery of hydrocyanic acid to the fumigating chambers or vacuum tanks should be so placed as to direct the spray away from the commodities fumigated and, if necessary, against the top of the tan1: or car where it will be possible for the hydrocyanic acid to be volatilized. This solid hydrocyanic acid has the appear-. Q _ ance of snow and is, of course, very cold, having a temperature o f 8 beloTT

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-2-zero F. It is, however, dangerous, as it may be readily melted by the heat from the hand, and if the liqui'd. :gets into a cut or the crystals penetrate the skin, bydrocyanic acid poisoning may result. It is just as dangerous as liquid or gaseous hydrooyanic acid~ The most favorable time for the formation of this bydrocyanic acid snow is i.n cold rrea.th0r, , . -.ho:i. the liquid, chamber, and articles :to be . fumi\gated are cold, FoRErmr PLA1TT-Q,UA.RANTi1iEs:~..~ ... :-... _ : . -'. -.... . -~ . -RECENT-EiTTb~flOLOGICAL. -iNTERCEPT.IONS. OF INTEREST Fruit fly pupae from Yugoslavia.--Pupae of R.agoletis cerasi L. (Trypetidae) were intercepted at Philadelphia on dried sour cherries in cargo from Yugoslavia. This fruit fly, whi ch is not recorded from this country, has also been intercepted in cJierr":i~es ' from France and Italy. Fruit fly in prickly pear.--A 1-iy , i.ng larva of Ceratitis ca-pitata Wiod. (Mediterranean fruit fly) was takenat Chicag o in a prickly pear (Opuntia sp.) in the mail from Italy . . Coffee be+ry borer from Africa.--Stepnanoderes hamuei Ferr. (Scolyti dae) was intercepted at' New York in.boffee beans in cargo from Tanganyika and Uganda, Africa. Stephanoderes coffeae Hgdn., which is mentioned on page 3 of the September 1, 1932, News Letter, is a synonym of Q• hampei Ferr. Oecophorid in Eranthis bulb.-~ A larva of Borkhausenia pseudospretella Staint. (scavenger bulb moth) was intercepted at.Boston in an Eranthis bulb in cargo from the Netherlands. This oecophorid is a cosmopolitan feeder in decaying bulbs and other vegetable products .• Scale insect on orchid leaves.--Dias{is cattleyae (Ckll.) (Coccidae) was intercepted at Philadelphia on orchid Odontoglossum) leaves in the mail from Mexico. First winged specimen record.ed.--]regmatothrips iridis Watson (thrips) was taken at Washington, D . C., on bulbous iris in cargo from the Netherlands. J. R. Watson, of Gainesville, Fla., remarks as follows: 11This is a winged specimen, the first one that I nave ever seen, There is no record of anyone else having taken a winged individual. It is important to know that this thrips sometimes produces winged individuals. This will immensely increase their abilities to spread.11 Weevil in a v ocado seeds.--Larvae of Conotrachelus perseae Barber ( curm.fionidae ) were intercepted at El Perno, Tex., in avocado seeds in bagg a g e from Mexico.

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-3-Miner from Trinidad.--Marmara sp. (Gracilariidae) was intercepted at Norfolk, Va., in the rind of oranges in stores from Trinidad. Not recorded from the United States . _--Frank,lin,iella pall.id.a Uzel (thrips) was intercepted at Philadelphia on an unknown host (probably Gentiana. pneumonan) in the mail from Austria. J. R. Watson reports that this species is not known to occur in t _his country. Leaf beetle from Nicaragua.--Stilodes fuscolineata Stal. (Chrysomelidae) was intercepted at Mobile, Ala., on banana in cargo from Nicaragua. Pods of St. John's bread infested.--An adult and larvae of Ephestia calidella Gn. (Pyralidae) were interc~ptecl at New York in pods of St. John Is bread (Ceratonia siliqua) in cargo from Italy. Beec::.rrmt from Sd tzerland infested.--A larva of Laspe~rresia sp. (Ole threutidac) was intercepted at San Francisco in a beechnut in the mail from Switzerland. Pink boJ.lworrn fro!Il Angl o -EgyptiF.:.n Sud[' , n .--A larva of Pectinophora gossypiella_ Smmders was intercepted at 1.7ashington, D. C., in a cottonseed in the mail from Khartum, Anglo-Egyptia!'l Sudan. Termite fro~ the Q ~Pa l Zone.--A soldier, v.orkers, and nymphs of Nasuti termes cor~~-_::era. :11otschulsky were intercepted at Honolulu on the stern and roots of l:30 bra.J ia -oar. amens is in the mail from the Canal Zone. T. E. Snyder, of the Bureau of Entomolo gy , reports that this termite, which is not known to occur in Hawaii, is a destructive wood-borer in P anama, where it also damages fruit trees. Further information on -this white ant may be found in U. S. Department of Agriculture Bulletin No. 1232. RECENT PATHOLOGICAL INTERCEPTIONS OF INTEREST Diseased fir needles.--Fir twigs delphia rere found to be infected with fungus, probably Ceuthospora abietina. ciation on fir in France. from Germany intercepted at PhilaCytospora uinastri and an associated These two fungi are found in asso-Interesting Puerto Rican fungi.--Among the field collections sent in from Puerto Rico were plants o..cFimbristylis sp. (a small sedge), bearing sori of Pucci:nia fimbristylidis, and in tr~e r.xils an interesting smut, Cintractia axic0la, collected at Arecibo, a!ld leaves of Malpighia glabra infected with Cercospora sp., apparently the first report of a fungus of this genus on this host, collected at Mayaguez. Disease of peppers from Java.--Small peppers from Java intercepted at Philadelphia had a dry rot o:: the tips apparently caused by Fusarium sp., which was sporuluting abundantly on the specimen showing the more advanced

PAGE 4

-4-stag e of t h e rot and r a t her sparsely o n _ othe r s pecimen~~ ' Cele,ry blight from Germany and South Africa .--Late blight of celery was found on celery from South Africa and on :Celeriac from Germany, both intercepted at Philadelphia. Another lot of celer .iac leaves from Germany was infected with the early blight, Cercospora apii. Rot in taro from China.--Taro from China was found showing decay at Boston and New York (3). The material from Boston was found infected with mycelium of a Basidionycete. While no sclerotia were present, the myceliurn was much like tha t of Sclerotium rolfsii, which is reported as causing a rot of taro. All three collection,s from Ne. w York were made at a later date and sclerotia h a & been produced. T w o specimens had small, rounded sclerotia similar k 1 the s,, 0: .fl roifsiJ.-but unusually dark. The other material was of scleroti/3, c,n i.y m:id 2 1 1 wer e large r and elongate d ir:stead of rounded. _ Furthe r ::n2.'.-8.,. i .q,~ :i . .-, f _ , h 1J.~-N::,11 be neces sary t0 d etermi:1.E: the identi.t.y of these scl t ' r::it j a , , New fungus o ~ _Ephe~ !~---Ephedra ~rmedia r eceived at the inspection house in liJ'as:1:1. :i1:.;t.v.1 f c"'orn J 11-'iia was found t o bear fruiting bodies of abdospora sp " ,v~1:l :-.::.1 ":i.:... f f s:r s :fr:.irn , .. l1e , ~ . escrir, e d s pecie s of this genus. Nemat•JQE.; :,n ter.:::Aptiul"'. S;,• .. .J._.,_71cmg the L1t e rc:e-ptions of nematodes during . . -----.... the mont h vve:re .'-:Y~--=-~f\1 ;'.~ ::!-; -Jl~~f : _~,\ < )r... Ger:r1c1,n l i.l i, o f t h e valley pips inter-cepted a t Fl1~1a,1P.~/}-,i::., -~ht~ r:..::-l-:st :i:e,;i< Jrt cf _T_. di~g_s_ac; i on this host; Paratylenchus sp. a n d _'.,.ph.:oJ~ 1ch0icies p arie,tin;us o n Arna;rylli. sp. bulb from Brazil, the first interception record of nema s on this host, intercepted at Philadelphia; and potatoes in which Tylenchus dipsaci was unusually active and abundant, one lot from Germany intercepted at Philadelphia and the other from Sweden intercepted at Baltimore. DECEMBER INTERCEPTIONS BY PORTS Interceptions received in Washin gton during December were as follows: Baltimore 7, Boston 69, Bro wnsville 1, Charleston 44, Chic ago 1, Corpus Christi 7, Detroit 4, Dou g l a s 1, El P a so 24, Laredo 9, Mobile 41, New Orleans 34, New York 9 3 , Nogaie s 18, Norfolk 2, Philadelphia 247, Presidio 1, San Jua.n 119 , San Ysidro 1, Savannah 5, Seattle 61, a nd ~hayer 1. Of the total of 79 0 interceptions, 485 were of insects and 305 of diseases. FOREIGN I NSECTS SENT IN M AIL A shipment consisting of eight lepidopterous cocoons sent from Germany was intercepted in tho mail at Philadelphia becember 12 , 1932, addressed to Scranton, Pa. T w o of the moths had emer ged and died in transit, and two more emer g e d after arrival a t t h e Philadelphia post office. Of the remaining four cocoons t w o wer e aliv e and two de a d a t t he time of arrival. Two g enera of Saturniidae wer e r e presented in this shipment, Actias and Antheraea, but specimens of both wer e too battered for specific identification. The

PAGE 5

-5-latter genus is not represented in the United.States. FUMIGATION PLANT WORRIES A recent letter from the Laredo, Tex., office, illustrates some of the troubles they have dow n on the Rio Grande as follows: 110neof our constant worries is the dange r of fumi gating someone here in the plant. On the morning of December 13, while making the usu.al examination of freight car_ s before plac-. ing them in the plant, a Mexican was found in one of the box cars. It 1.ivas necessary to get up in the car and lead him out. He said he had been asi'eep in the car but told several stories as to where he cane f.ron. The Immigration Inspector told us that this Mexican had been deported to Mexico the w eek before, so it is• evident he had just crossed the river in the box car.11 BY-PRODUCTS OF QUARANTINE I~SPECTION While pra.ctically all the plant quarantine tnspectors stationed at our ports of entry to watch _for pest~ on plant materials brought from all the seven seas are well trained in entomology, they are in no sense research workers; their• essential 'function is to inspect incoming m aterials. It is, therefore, somewhat surprising to learn that these men have to their credit a rather imposing array of findings which properly belong in the field of research but which represent solely a by-product of their inspection work . The insect interception files during the 20-year period from their inception in 1912 up to the end of 1932 indicate the following contributions to the general fund of entomological knowledge made by these inspectors. Specimens taken in the course of port inspection have provided 26 entirely new genera of insects, with 6 more cases where the genus is probably unknown and a ne w one required. There have been added in the same way 116 new species of insects, with 104 additional ca-ses which probably involve new species also. From the specimens sent in by inspectors the entomological collection in the National Museum has obtained 154 specimens of s pecies not previously on file there. And finally, 223 others of the inspectors' ftndings of insects 'have been for one or another scientific reason of more than passing interest.

PAGE 6

-9DOMESTIC PLANT 9pARANTINES TRA.NSIT INSPECTION . . . Space in the ne w parcel post building at. Jacksonville has. been assigned to th~ three . . inspect~rs working c .oopera ti vely on transit inspection at that point, according to Florida plant inspector A. C. Brown. The distribution of pa.reel post is now made at midnight, necessitating a change in the inspection schedule. One man ha:ndles t h e night work, and the other t w o tak e care of day shipments, including those at the river front. Foreign parcel. post shipments as we.11 as domestic shipments are checked at Jacksonville fo_ r compliance .. _with Federal. and State regulations. Jacksonville is especially well located for c hecking ships' stores as to fruits and vegetables purchased i~ the Japanese beetle reg:i.llated areas, and a considerable number of quarantine violations of this type have been intercepted there. The return of narcissus bulbs to the growers from Five-and-Ten-cent stores throug hout. the country -constitutes a class o f shipmen ts which transit inspectors often find it necessary to check for compliance with certification requirements of Quarantine No. 62. The bulbs in such shipments are generally found upon investigatio~ to have originated with growers whose stock has been certifi.ed. It is then necessary for the office of Domestic Plant Q;uarantines to instruct the stores that, in making return shipments, they should affix their label certifying that the.bulbs were o:r~ginally taken from a certified shipment. During J anuary and February transit inspectors are giving special attention to freight shipments by the nurseries in order to be sure that concerns which handle white pines understand the new modifications of the blister rust quarantine regulations which became effective on the first of January. This c hang e in emphasis has n ecessitated a number of material modifications in the transit inspection schedules . . Mr. George Nelson, w ho is engaged in checking both foreign and domestic shipments of plant material to and throug h St. Paul, reports that the Canadi a n packages which involved violations of foreign quarantineNo. 37 were unusually numerous this year. As a result it was necessary for the inspector to devote most of his time during the Christmas rush to the foreign mail. Of 584 packages whi'c;:h were inspected, 109 were refused entry and 7 were diverted to Washin gton. There was little or no movement of Christmas trees and greenery from the gipsy moth regulated area of New England to or throug h Minnesota. W HITE-PINE BLISTER RUST P ermits to ship 5-leafed pine s from the blister rust infected States have been issued recently to six nurseryrn $ n in various States under the requirements of the r evised quarantine regulations which became effectiv e on

PAGE 7

-7-January 1. Three of these nurseries are located in States not hitherto designated as infected (Iowa. and West Virginia);_ one is located in Wisconsin; one in Idaho, and th~ sixth is a New York nurseryman whose uermit is being renewed. ~ne extensive use of white pine for shelterbelt properties in Iow a i~ brought out by H. N. Putnam, of the Division of Blister Rust Control, in an article published in the Blister Rust News for December. As the reslt of a roug h suryey taken by the sampling method on approximately 94 miles of hig hway, it is estimated tbat there a.re nearly 12,000 shelterbelts on the farms of Iowa, of which 3,500 are composed chiefly of white pine. Such shelterbelts constitute an important market for pines protected from plister rust under the safeguards .prescribed in the Federal quarantine relating to this disease. At the ~tla.nt.ic City meeting of the Plant Q,uarantine and Inspection Sect.ion of t'he American Association of Economic Entomolo gists a paper by S. B. Fracker and R. A. Sheals, entitled "Protection of Forest Nurseries from White Pine• Blister Rust ~nfection, 11 was read. The authors stated that the cost of establishing a Ribes-free zone around a forest nursery ranges from several hundred to a thousand dollars or more for a single nursery and that an annual follow up is necessary. Only 5-leafed pines so protected are allowed to be shipped out of infected States except where the shipment is co1~signed to a point in one of the several northeastern generally infected States. 'PHONY PEACH DISEASE Wm. F. Turner, of the Bureau of Plant Industry, presented a paper at the Plant Q,uarantine and Inspection Section of the American Association o f Economic Entomolo gists entitled "Progress in Phony Peach Disease Eradication.11 The paper sho wed by comp?,rative figures that the annual reinspection of the sam e orchards from 1929 to 1932 resulted in a reduction of phony diseased trees of 84 per cent in the lightly infected area of northern Georgia and 66 per cent in the heavily infected area in the Fort Valley plateau. The number of phony trees in these orchard s in the lightly infected territory totaled 44, 19, 11, and 7 for the years 1 9 29 to 1932, respectively. In the heavily infected territory the figures were 50,544 trees in 1930, 25,793 in 1 93 1 , n~1d 16,815 in 1932. Neighborir:g infected, escaped, and home-orchard tree3 were found to e responsible f~r certain cases of persistence in these commercial orchards. O wing to the long incubation period for the disease, about eighteen months, it is not until the third annual inspection of an orchard that the fi6'Ures are significant as indicating a definite advance in the disease control.

PAGE 8

-8-DATE SCALE The fourth year of the Dat e Scai ~ Eradic~tion Proj'ect under the ~o...: op erative a greement of the Bureau and the States of Arizona and Califorpia has been completed. Routine inspection was continued throughout the y'ear in the infested areas and th$ surrounding areas scouted. . Careful scouting for unlisted palm s was also carried oh in the date-gro\ving areas; and more rapid. -scouting done in outside areas in southern California, Arizona, and i n the Rio Grande Valley in Texas ~ No infestations w ere found outside the areas already known to be infested. ::i:n the date-growing are.as. 301,072 palm inspection s were mad.'e, a n d in outside areas, 11,610. Four infested d ate palm s were found. One o f t:1e 4 pa1ms was found in Arizona, near Phoenix. It had bee n found infested. previously and treated but obviously some live scale remained. The .palm was dug out and destroyed. Th,e remaining 3 were found in the Imperial Valley in California. One of the 3 shov ved live scale and was defoliated and sprayed. Only single dead scales were .found on the others and t hey vvere not treated. No scale wns found during the year in the Coachella Valley, the principal date-~owing area. In the Imp erial Valley in California an 'inspection was made of ornamental palms other than da ,te, and 33 caiary Island and 4 __ fa, n palms wer~ ;fou..vid -infested. These were d efoliated and sprayed. Four of the Canary Island palms showed a recurrence due to the fact that scale had penetrated and settled on unexpanded leaves in the bud where they were protected from -the spray. These palms were cut back a gain and sprayed. The results to date are encouraging , but it is evident that there . . . I is considerable work yet to be done. 1fo are not yet sure that all incip-ient infestations resulting from past h eavy infestations have been located. Also-it is evident that, without careful leaf base inspection ~ i. e., cutting back the fiber to expose livin g tissue, the scale can survive on leaf base s under the fiber for a long period of time without being discovered. This condition will obtain only on previously infested properties and; as a careful record of all infested properties has been kept, it is not probable tha t any will be overlooked. • .TAPANESE BEETLE ANTI EUROPEAN CORN BORER Exclusive Japanese Beetle Work A ward was made during t h e month of a contract to supply 4,700 wooden packing boxes, 22 inches long , 15 inches wide, and 23 inches deep, inside m easurements . . These boxes will replace fiberboard cartons in which Japanese beetle tra ,ps have been packed and shipped in previous years. Corrugated paper cartons have not proved sa,tisfactory as containers of traps shippe d via freig h t to distant points or trucked to trapping sites outside the regulated zone. Their flexib~lity p ermits breakage of the traps, and

PAGE 9

the case s themselves as a r~le are usable only on e season. Specifications for the boxes call for a wooden container of white pine made of well seasoned --inch lumber, dress.ed on on e side and free from loose or unsound knots and shakes. Thesides, ends, top, and bottom are to be in on e piece, or in to to five pieces, tongued and grooved. Boxes are to have 5/8-inch cleats on each side, •ith similar cleats on ~ac h end of the top. Cement coated nails are specifie d throughout. Bids receive d by the Division of Purchase, Sa. les, .and Traffic ranbe d from 4 8 cents to 87 cents p e r box. The a ward was made to the lowes t bidder, wnose sample box satisfactorily fulfilled the re-. quirements. Instructions for delivery. of the boxes are being delayed until .storage space for them is available in the South Norwal k garage , a nd trap painting is in progress so tha. t the renovated trp.ps may b e packed in the containers upon their removal from the drying r a c k . Boxes made to the dimensions specified will be the exact size to cont~in one dozen metal trap assemblies and 13 jars. When liquid bait is _shipped, 12 of the jars will each contain a capped bait bott1ea1ready charged wit:1. bait, together with a cork through which has been inserted a wick . In the bottom of each box vill be placed a corrugated paper pa.d. On t his will be set a corrugated paper divider containing six compartments, into each of which will fit snugly one of the metal trap assemblies, co ~prising a cylinder, perforated bait container, funnel, and baffle . . W'ing s of each baffle will parallel the sides and ends of the b ox, so tnat six cardboard-wrapped pint jars may be laid length~ise on the top of the funnels and p arallel with the ends of the box. Each pint jar will contain one 1.8-ounce bottle filled with 30 cc of geraniol-eugenol bait and tightly close; ith a tin cap. Also in each jar will be a cork bore d rri th a hole through which is inserted a wick for volatilizing t he bait. Newspaper or rag raste will be used in the filled jars to prevent rattling of the bait bottle and possible breakag e of jar and bottle. On the first laye r of six traps 1,;.rill be placed another c orrugated pad, and another layer of six traps, jars, bottles, etc., ~ill be packod in the same manner a s the first. A seventh empty ja.r will be pac~rnd paralle. l with the side of the box on the top layer to allow for bre akage of the larg~r glass containers. A third corrugated pad rrill be placed ab o ve the top layer before the w ooden top is put on and fastened in place Tiith screws. The cleats on the top of each box will permit the final closing of the box with only six scre;rn. It is believed that ith a substantially made woode n box of this nature there will be greatly reduced breakage of traps in transit, and t at the boxes may be used over a period of years instea d of r e quiring r eplacement each s e a son, as has been the case \'! i th the fiberboard cartons. The 4,700 boxes are sufficient to contain the project's e ntire supply of 56,000 traps. Extension of the regulated area farther north and rrest in ev.1 York and to 17estern P ennsy lvania requires the establishment of additional suboffices of the project in these tno sections. On December 19, J. H. Harman, assistant entomologist, formerly in charge of s couting in the western division 1-generation corn borer area vith headquarters .at Springfield, Ohio, established a Japanes e beetle subo'ffice in Syracuse, N . Y. Prior to this transfer, Mr. Har man r orked for several months ith inspectors engaged

PAGE 10

-10-in nursery and greenhousesupervision in various New Jersey establishments. Q;uarters in Syracuse were assigned by the Custodian of the Treasury Department in Room 350 of the Post Office Building. The telephone number of the new office is Syracuse 2-5111, Extension 20. Agents D. W. Millay and E. J. Johnson also were transferred to Syracuse from the New Jersey field headquarters at Trenton and Rutherford, respectively. Each of these men has had over five years1 experience in nursery and greenhouse inspection work and other phases of quarantine enforcement. They will assist Mr. Harman in inaugurating the quarantine work in the newly regulated New York territory. After the opening of the Syracuse office, the remainder of the month was spent in surveying nurseries and greenhouses in surrounding territory -to inform all interestedparties relative to the quarantine to become effec-tive on January 1, 19 32 . Terri"tory assigned to the Syracuse office includes all regulated area north and west of the northern boundaries of Orange and Dutchess Counties. This shifts supervision of the work in nine counties in the northern part of the 1933 zone from the New York City office to the Syracuse headquarters. Office space is being sought for the establishment of a headquarters in western Pennsylvania convenient-to Pittsburgh and yet so removed from that city as to avoid heavy traffic conditions which might interfere with ready access by automobile to all classified dealers within the surrounding sections. A survey of all plant dealers and growers in western Pennsylvania has been completed, so tha t information is available concerning individuals and firms who are likely to be affected by the newly promulgated regulations. A large portion of the establishments surveyed are within 50 miles of Pittsburgh. All territory in New Hampshire, Vermont, and Massachusetts will be added to the area now under the supervision of R. S. Clifton, whose headquarters are at Boston. Inspection and other quarantine services in the western section of Mr. Clifton's area will be supplied from a suboffice at Springfield, Mass. Approval on December 22, 1932, of the 9th rev1s1on of Notice of ~uarantine No. 48, with rules and regulations (llthrevision), added to the Japanese beetle regulated area, effective January 1, 19 33, the southern halves of New Hampshire and Vermont, all of the unregulated portion of Massachusetts, the remainder of the southeastern third of New York, all the re~ mainder of Pennsylvania except a section in the northwestern corner of the State, and small addi ti.anal sections in Maryland and Vi"rginia. Regulations covering the movement of fruits and vegetables were modified to exempt commercially packed apples from the certification requirements. In previous years it has been the practice in certifying apples originating in a commercial packing house to make frequent inspections of the manner of grading and to certify all apples handled during the grading process in such a manner as to free them from possible Japanese beetle infestation. Feeding of the apples to the grader normally results in the elimination of beetle infestation. Further handling of the apples in packing the fruit in the container satisfactorily eliminates probability of the insect infesting the final pack. Inspections of grading and packing methods of commercial shippers will con tinue as heretofore • . Richmond, Va., included in the regulated zone for the

PAGE 11

-11-first time, is treated as an isolated area to which quarantined fruits and vegetables may not be shipped without certification and from which fruits and vegetables may mdve without certification. Infestation in ~ichmond is so slight and the city so remote from other infested sections that the unrestricted movement of fruit and vegetables from that point is not believed to involve danger of spread of the insect. As was the case when incipient infestations first were discovered .in most of the States now under quarantine, this year's enlargement of territorY. does not bring under regulat-ion a number of points at which beetles in small numbers were gathered. Findings at these outside points do not necessarily indicate established infestations. Eradication measures have been undertaken or are under consideration at most of the distant poi~ts where beetles were collected in any quantity. Under these circumstances, the regulated territory was not extended to include a number of points in Maine, Michigan, Ohio, West Virginia, North Carolina, and South Carolina, at which .beetles were trapped during the past summer. As soon as was available an approved copy of the 11th revision of the quarantine regulations detailing the limits of the extended regulated area, as effective at the beginning of 1933, ~ccumulation of data was begun for a new Japanese Beetle Shipper1s Guide. In preparing this list of localities within the regulated area, the latest information as to post offices is obtained from the Postal Guide and its most recent Supplement. In the case of counties partially within and partiaily without the regulated area, it is necessary to detennine from a detail~d map the points that are inside tbe area and should be list"ed. State schedules, supplied by the Railway Express Agency, listing all designated express offices in a particular State are then consulted, the respective counties entered opposite each station, and those stations picked out that are in regulated territory. Points that have express offices but are without post offices. are then worked into the main list. The Guide will list those points within the regulated areas in all States except Pennsylvania. Points shown in the Pennsylvania. list will be those outside the regulated area. Since all except a small section of Pennsylvania will be under regulation, it is impracticable to list the large number of cities and towns within the area; consequently, there are listed only the few localities in the State that are in the nonregulated section. Before final mimeographing of the Shipper1s Guide, each State list is sent to the district supervisor in charge of the State listed and by him critically checked. Completion of the Shipper's Guide will not be accomplished until late in January or early in February. These are months w hen only a small amount of quarantined stock is moving and there is little demand for the specific quarantine information shown in the Shipper1s Guide. Four staff members, C. W. Stockwell and R. W. Sherman, of the South Norwalk headquarters, J.P. Johnson, of the New Haven, Conn., district office, and T. C. Cronin, of the Boston, Mass., district headquarters, attended the meetings othe American Association of Economic Entomologists a t Atlantic City, N. J., from December 28 to 30. Among the papers presented at the meetings was a report, 11The European corn borer situation in the Unite d States at the close of 1932,11 read by D. J. Caffrey, senior entomologist, of

PAGE 12

-12-the corn borer research laboratory at To~edo , . Ohio. M r . WorthleiV, ?,S junior author of the paper., contribut.ed. !3, short r . epo .rt of the :re .sul ts 9f last summer rs scout'ing for. new inf es tat ions . , _ A .paper on_ the .. "Economic s ta tus . of the Japanese beetle in 1932,11._with Messrs. Worthl:ey and Stockwell ,!3,S autl1.ors, was read by Mr. Stockwell. The subject. of the Japanesebeetle was . further t'reated in: a paper en~ • i tled 11pre.liminary T .ests with Liquid Bai.t in Japanese Beetle Traps,"-by F • . . W . Metzger . , o f:. the , ;Bureau of Entom ,ology , : Mooresto_ wn, N. J. . A comprehertsi ve .di splay of t-h~ l , i f~ his:tory and "corit:rol measures of' the Japanese beetle, arrar.iged by the Mooresto.wn. r ,esearch labor atory; _ was a princ'ipa1 feature of.the Associatio~'s.-exJiib.it~ "bne of'the bi_ z .arre i terns in the Japanese beetle exhi hit w _a-s a large replica of the in:sect prepare d in Harrisburg and realistically pni~ted in .nat_:ral col.ors at the: Moorestow n .. laboratory by R. J.: Sim . Plans are being prepared for the coming summer's trapping activities. Supervisory areas comprising near-by trapped cities or towns, the trap in~ p ~ c tors in each of which can be checked oy one supervtsor, ,are being mapped and the _ a etails of the traps to be s e t in each ~oc~l~ty_determined_ so that qo~venient storage facilities may be secured and the tr?,ps conc~ntrated at the storag e point for l a t e r distribution. . . OIJ. the basis. of trap sh~pments in the: . new wooden boxe s being sec1.i.red this season, complete ~quipment for a , . se~:-Y.P.-of~400 traps ~ the customary nutnber placed,_ in each . . town, will weigh . 4~21?.po ilild s when the'bran bait is used ,and 4,176 pound s . when_liqutd b?,it .. is pa6k~d: irt the boxes with the.metal trap .assemblies. . Approxim~_tely 225 . _ cubh~ : f~e--t of transportation space .. will be. occupied i~ e _ach . instance . . With . these details at h and the advance. inspectors visiting the J.ocali ti.es to be trapped may more readily secure t h e : r.equi.re, d a mount of. st o ,rage space, and wher~ nece ssar'y make :1bcn:1 arrange ment-s f_or the trucking' .ol _the equipment . from the freight station to the place.of temporary storage. , . . . . .. .. Preliminary 'plans for: . the Japanese: beetle proj.ect 1 s c.qntri but ion to the exh_ibi t of the Bureau of Plant Quarantine at _the Century of Progress Exhibi t i'o n i n Chicago, t('.): b e h-e:ld from June 1 to Octobe r . 30, 1933, w ere dis. c u ssed at' the South No rwal k :office on D ~c-embe_ r .2;3 with _i{. s ~ Cro~sman, of the gip. s y m o th staff. Spac e of the sam e -dimensions on the rear \7cJ.ll o f t:i.8 . :Bt~e a u1s booth h a s been as.signe d to .eacb project . _ Th e c o nfer~nce with Mr. _ Crossman \vas for the purpose of 'deve.loping a general ide a of each pr~._iect Is prop o s~ d iayo u t and so arranging the t w o that they will present a b a lancf'J and _ e q1.ial.ly proportioned di spla y of the principa l phases of qua.ran tin e a ::.:d. control operation s for t h e t w o insect p ests. Since the Bureau of Entomo~. ogy i s h o t plann i'n g to pre p are an e xhibit o f -their re.search work with these . insects_, t h~ t w o plant _quarantine uni ts are in a position to develop with co nside r able l atitud e their display material9 .. _ .. . _ Vi sits to t h ree golf coursesin Oce a n Co7,,mty,. N. J., in an e xamina tion for typica l sod dama g e b y Japanese be_ etle .iarvae, disclosed that t t : 8 clubs last surrnner practiced their o w n prog ram o f t ra-o •control. On a coH:::se • '. • • ..L: ' • ' • • . at_ Pinewa 1 d , 48 quarts o f beet1es were t:ra ppe d , dur.ing the past', s ummer. Gr~~ns" only on t h i s c ourse were trea.te d w i.t_h arsei 1a _te. of lead . At a Toms

PAGE 13

-13-River course, 191 quarts of beetles were collected. Their greens were treated but nothing was done to their fairways. Traps in operation on a course .at Lakewood caught 400 1uarts of beetles. Greens on this course were treated. The fairways_ had al so received one previous treatment. Greens and fairways on these three courses show less larval feeding than does the sod . on most courses in the Philadelphia district. These examinations. wer e made for the purpose of selecting typical golf course damage suitable for photographic purposes. Inventory of nonexpendable a~d semiexpendable property assigned to the Japanese beetle and corn borer projects was begun during December. Annual checking of assigned property involves considerable detail, since the chargeable property is distributed among the South Norwalk headquarters and field offices in Springfield, Ohio; Boston and Springfield, Mass.; New Haven, Conn.; Ne York City and Syracuse, N . Y.; Rutberford, Trenton, and Glassbor_o, N. J.; Oakmont, New Cumberland, and Lancaster, Pa.; Dover, Del.; Baltimore, Md.; Washington, D. C.; and Richmondand Norfolk, Va. Considerable potted stock for the holiday trade ~as moved just prior to Christmas in the Philadelphia area. Certification by G. B. Stichter, of the Oakmont, Pa., headquarters, .of seeds shipped by the wholesale seed houses of Philadelphia was made during December in larger quantities than in any previous season. Ar. Stichter, a cooperative agent, performs this seed certificati. on work in the capacity of an inspector of the Pennsylvania Bureau. o . f Plant Industry. Specialized Corn Borer Activities 1ransfer to the Bureau of Agricultural Engineering of a number of plows, tractors, and corn binders previously used in connection with corn borer demonstration work at the Berkley Farm, Berkley, ass., was effected during the month. This transferred property was trucked to 12 Pierce Street, Trenton, r . J., at which address _ a puilding has been leased in which will be housed the field headquarters of the mechanical corn-borer control unit of the Division of Aechanical Equipment; Bureau of Agricultural Engineering, previously located at South Norwalk. The Trenton headquarters wiil be officially occupied on January 5, the beginning of the lease period. This change o~ headquarters involves the transfer of Frank Irons, associate agricultural engineer, V. D. Young, assistant agricultural en ~ineer, and Homer Goyings and L. M. Barlow, assistant farm mechanics. At Trenton, the agricultural engineers will be convenient to an a gricultural section in which are grown large quantities of sugar corn and in which the European corn borer has only recently been discovered. European corn borer regulations issued by various States subsequent to the cancellation on July 15, 1932, of the Federal quarantine on acco P.t of this insect, were compiled by the Washi~ gton office and issued as BP346, dated December 10. The State embargo and quarantine orders are groape d as to-their status as embargoes, embargoes with special provisions, O RD

PAGE 14

-14-quarantines under which State certification of certain products is accepted, and quarantines. with. special provisions under which State certification is accepted. A convenient synopsis in tabular. form is included as the last t w o pages of the circular. This compilation replaces an earlier and briefer digest of the regulations prepared at the South Norwalk headquart$rs. Tae new summary is being widely distributed to shippers:in the formerly regulated corn borer areas whose shipments are aff$cte~by the State orders. MEXICAN FRUIT FLY The operation of traps and inspection of fruit produced locally in Matamoros gave negative results during December. Trap s were baited wi.th f ermenting malt extract. Inclement weather interfered to a considerable de gree with the effective operation of the traps and also with inspecti o n of local fruit. Four carloads of oranges, in bulk , were received in Matamoros during the month from Montemorelos. Some 6,000 of these fruits which had spoiled were taken up from the various stan ds throughout the city. Examination sho w ed 22 of them to be infested with larvae of fruit fly. Sixtyseven larvae were recovered. Oran ges were retailing during the month at one cent ( M e xican) each, or about one-third of a cent American money . As a result of the low prices, _oranges were scattered all over the city with a corresponding dan ge r of t h e establishment of a local infestation. The second application of nicotine-molasses bait spray to the trees of Matamoros was completed on the 24th. While no Anastrepha ludens have been taken in t h e traps in Matamoros since the first application of the. bait was completed, 10 Anastreph~ pllens were taken during December. In contrast to the ideal weather conditions during N ovember , the weather during December was cold with continuous drizzling rains. This interfered to a considerable extent with grove inspection work, the collection of specimens, and the harvesting of fruit, T w o freezes occurred during the month, neit h e r of which was severe enough to damag e the fruit on t h e trees. However, tender growth on the trees was 11scorched,II but fruit w ood for next season's crop was thought to be uninjured. Grove s were found to be in a fairly satisfactory sanitary condition . T h e inclement weathe r prevented some of the growers from getting into their orchards to pick up the 11drops.11 The regular monthly routine of grove inspection f ell behind so m e w h a t on account of the weather __ and the necessity of additi on a l regulatory work to handle the holiday s hipments of fru it. The effect of the d epression is indicated i n the number of single box permit s tamps issue d for the shipment of gift boxes of fruit. During

PAGE 15

-15 the month only 56,916 such stamp s were issued as compared v i th 116,3 47 in Decemb er, 1931. This decrease occurred, too, in spite of drastic reductions in express rates to all sections of the country. Truck shipments were fairly heavy t hroughout December. Approximately 65 0 carloads of fruit had been transported from the valley by this means at the end of the month. Master permits were issued d uring Dece mber for vehicular movement of fruit to points in State s as far a way as Illinois, Michigan, New York, and South Dakota. T w o lots of fruit wer. e refused permits pending better identification of the groves of origin! One lot of about 20 bushels was destroyed by burial by the Mexican who claimed to o w n it. The other lot was place d in storage and the man claiming to o w n it was placed in jail by the sheriff of Hi dalgo Count7. Both cases were turne d up as a r esult of the maater permit requirement and the a1crtness of the district inspectors in checking the origin of fruit offered for shipment. Veh~cular traffic past the road stations was considerably heavier than in November as was also the percentage of cars carrying fruit. Confi~catios were fairly light and of small quantities of fruit. The mobile patrol operating on the ranch roads in northwest Hidalgo and Starr Counties was discontinued on the 24th. This patrol was in operation for a month and in that time no movement of fruit from the valley. was encountered. PINK BOLLWORM Fie~d clean-up in the Big Bend area of T exas went forward very satisfactorily during December. We were fortunate in b eing able to maintain a larg e number of laborers, an average of. 500 b eing used each week . The a rea to be cleaned and the method used was given in the last e w s Letter. A t the close of the month stalks had been cut and piled on 2~485 acres, ~hile 2,03 1 acres had been hand-picked and material burned on 1,992 acres. There wer e very few . interruptions or delays. Som e heavy dews were a slight handicap in getting the stalks burned, and a few cold mornings -interfered to some extznt with the hand-picking of the fields. The clean-up is expected to be com~leted in the most heavily infested area within the next week or so. Since the clean-u p was be gun t w o prominent farmers living a . t Rui dosa and Candelaria, which are bo t h up the rive r from the Presidio section, have requested that the clean-up prog ram be extended to include their communities. They stated that because of the floods last f all many of the fields woul d not be picked. These infeste d bolls would be left throughout the winter, a nd if the fields. were not cleane d the p i nk bollwonn carry-ove r would be heav y enough to endanger their production for anothe r season. T he y estimated th~t there are around 600 acre s of cot ton lr.. tl1e t w o c ommuni t i es. After considering

PAGE 16

-16-the above situation it was thought advisable to extend the clean-up to these sections, and work will be begun immediately upon completion of the Presidio area. This will eliminate any possibility of infestation spreading from these sections back into the Presidio area and. thus undoing our efforts to reduce the infestation there. Special mention should be made of the excellent cooperation we :are receiving on the part of all concerned in this clean-up campaign. Mexican officials are taking quite an interest in the clean-up. The Mexican Consul at Presidio has gone over. the area with one of our inspectors to observe jus. t . how t _ he work is being carr'ied on, with a view to having the same work . conduc~ed on the Mexican side of the river. The. Mexican quarantine requires tha.t all cotton fields be cleaned as soon as the picking is complet~d~ . Tha:t, Government commissions a man in each. farming seetion to see _that the clean-up is carried out. Contact has been made with the agricultural inspector at Ojinaga, Mexico, and he advised that the clean-up is now well unde r way, and that all fields would probably be cleaned within the next two or three weeks. The clean-up o _ f all cotton fields within a 5-mi"ie radius of 'the two infest_ed fields in the regulated area of northern ~rida has been completed. A total of 847 acres was cleaned, 521 being in Alachua County and 326! in Columbia County. This is a much larger acreage than was given in the original estimate, and is probably due to the fact that numerous small fields1 which were located back in the pine woods , were overlooked the first time, and also to the fact that the tenant farmers, most of whom are negroes, have a very vagu . e idea of what constitutes an acre. Inspections made after the clean-up was completed showed that a very efficient job was done. The sterilizing of all cottonseed held in the. above area for pl~nting purposes, etc. , has been completed. A total of 105,000 pounds of seed were treated. Due to the fact that the machine was new to the men operating it, considerable care was exercised, and a careful record of the seed temperatures was kept. In the very beginning a few sacks of seed were overheated. However, these were set aside with the suggestion.that they be' not used for planting purposes. This seed be-longed to a gin, but by the time seed belonging to individuals. were ha'ndle d the machine had been adjusted so perfectly that none was overheated. A few farmers inquired from time to time whether sterilization would injure the seed for planting purposes, and upon being assured that it would not they had no further comments to make. As this is the first time sterilization has ev er be~n c?-rried on in that area, samples of each lot of seed were taken, and a little later germination tests will .be run. We will thus be in a position to answer any complaints that might be made later that sterilization would injure the seed for planting purposes. The recleaning of the keys south of the Florida mainland has been continued and is making satisfactory progress. ~ Tfie c;ews continue to find

PAGE 17

-17and remove 1.vild cotton pl.ants which were missed during the first clean-up. It is easy to understand how a few plants can be missed when one takes into consideration the fact that because of the dense growth one may pass within a few feet of a ~ild cotton plant . without being able to see it. Another fact which may have had somet hing to do with cotton being ov erlooked is that la.rge cre.'!s were used during the first clean-up, which did not perrni t close supervision. It has been found that the laborers must be supervised at all times or they will overlook some plants. Therefore, during t h e present clean-up muc. h smailer crew.s are being used. They are spread out in a line and move forward ov e r the ground. It is thought that this method should result in practically no plant.s being overlooked. In addition to the wild plants, one of the crews has rer.10v.ed a number of large dooryard plants from the city of Key West. In most cases the9e plants were located by State inspectors and reported to our men. The daily inspectio~ and destruction of blooms from the cotton plots at Chapman Field has been continued. There has been no particular let-up in the number of bloom s produced by this cot.ton; in fact, this seem s to be the normal fruiting time for wild cotton in southern Florida. The examination of blooms has continue d to give ne gative results during December. Laboratory inspection is now being carried out by the men assigned to the various southern cotton States and also at San Antonio. At Miami dry bolls are being inspected. During December some 36 bushels, which had been collected in counties just outside the regulated area of Florida, were inspected with ne gative results. The other men are engaged in the inspection of green bolls, over 54,000, representing 21 counties, having been inspected with negative results. A gin-trash machine has been set up on the lot in t he rear of the Phoenix office, and the most suitable first-cleaner trash from the Salt River Valley of Arizona is now being handled. No suspicious specimens have been found to date. One other gin-trash machine is still op erating at Mexicali in Lower California. This machine was continue d in operation so that some trash from all areas in that part of Mexico could be inspected. This was expected to be accomplished early in January, afte r which the machine will cease ope rating. No suspicious specimens have been found in this area. Unfavorable weather conditions durin g the month of December interfered considerably with picking and ginning of the cotton crop throughout the regulated areas. The greatest a~ount of cotton remaining to be ginned was in the Salt River Valley of Arizona, where the crop hns opened rathe r slowly. In the remaining areas the gins have begun setting certain days on which to operate. A considerable amolmt of bollie cotton is being gathered this year, which will naturally extend the ginning season. It now appears that with the exception of the Salt River Valley practically all ginning will be co mpleted by the end of January .

PAGE 18

-18 -PREVENTING SPREAD OF MOTHS At the be ginning of the Christmas tree season this fall most of the operators planned to cut and ship fewer trees, as last year many of them sustained losses due to the overloading of markets w'ith trees. However, as the season advanced it was found that the supply of trees sent to various eastern mar kets was not larg e enoug h to meet the demand . As a result of this shortag e there were calls for additional trees which had to be obtained hurriedly , resulting in somewhat later inspection and later shipping . The inspection and certification of carload shipments of Christmas trees was not completed until Decembe:r; 22 , and several truck loads of trees w e r e certified as late as the 24th of December. According to ne wspaper reports, bundles of trees were bringing much higher prices in the Boston and N e w Yor k markets than are customarily obtained for them • . The extreme cold at this late season made the inspection of trees r a t he r slow and difficult, as the trees were full of frost, causing the branche s to snap when handled and ruining the tree as a salable product. Heav y sno w in some sections also made travel very difficult for inspectors. The shortag e of trees in the near-by New York markets also resulted in increase d activity in in~pection of truck shipments, as it is only a day's drive from s ections of New York State to the quarantined area in southern Verr.nont. V\Thenever a shortag e of tree s is noted-in the New Yor k market there are numerous rurnors and reports that t'rees are being taken illegally from Boston to New York . It has been the practice each year to assign an insp ector to the various freight yards in Boston for the purpose of checking the arriving tree s , to avoid any possibility that carloads of uncertified trees might b e reshipped from Boston points to New York or other destinations outside of the quarantined area. A careful check was made of all trees arriving at Boston and no evidence was s ecured that they were being transported to N e w Yor k eithe r by freigh t or by truck. The r e was a marked decrease in the number of Christmas trees inspected a nd c ertified this past season as compared with any other year since 1924. (It was J uly 1, 1 924, when the quarantine regulations were changed and the m ovement of inspected Christmas trees was allowed only from the lig h t l y infested a reas. ) This past season only 930,534 Christmas trees w ere inspecte d a nd c ertified for shipment as compared with an average of 1,500,000 tree s for each o f the eight previous seasons of 1924-1931 inclusive . The r e are sever a l contributing f actors responsible for the decrease in numbe r of C hristmas t rees p r e s ented for inspection this past season. Alth ough busi n ess con ditions in 1 93 1 did not warrant a normal cut of Christm a s trees, our r ecords show that 1 , 423,934 trees were inspected and c ertif i e d d uring the s eason. The result was that the markets were overloaded

PAGE 19

-19-and operators, wholesalers, and retailers were left with unsold trees on their hands, As a result of this experience, operators this past season were not incl ine. d to cut as many trees, and because of the increase'1: business depression they had ~ifficulty in placing early orders. Consequently, during the latter part of the season, when it was realized that there was a shortag e of trees for the mar kets, it was too late to cut and ship to the mar kets any great number of trees. Another fa.ctor in the Christmas tree shortage this season is the increasing demand for balsam in place of spruce. While the spruce is more pushy and was the original Chriptmas tree, the tendency of the public is toprefer the balsam trees as they hold their needles longer and have the 'balsam fragrance. The needles are so metimes used for small pillows after . .the Christmas holidays. Good balsam Christmas trees are much scarcer in New England than spruce. As is usual, there was much activity in the Boston inspection district during the period immediately preceding Christmas. About the usual number .of shipments were sent out by florists and other concerns but these were somewhat smaller than is ordinarily the case. The number of boxes of Christmas greens certified this year was so m ewhat less than the numbers recorded for past seasons. This may b~ due, in part, to slightly d ecrease d shipping this year, but the main ~ifference may be accounted for by t h e increased size of package s permitted under the new parcel post regulations. Last ye~r. packages were limited to 84 inches co mbine d length and girth. This year the limit w a~ increased to 100 inches, and in consequence the larg e shippers of evergreen materials were able to s e nd more ind i v i dual pieces in each package shipped. As each package is certified as a unit there were fewer units recorded this year because of the increase in permitted size. T w o gips y moth egg clusters were found on spruce w r eath m aterial at Woburn, Mass. The spruce b ranches originated in s outhern Mai ne a nd were .inspected at Woburn, Mass., p1ior t o making up into finishe d w r e aths that were to be shipped to N e w York City. This is. t h e firs t record for several years of egg clusters being found on material. ~ which were to be used in the manufacture of wreaths. Up to within t he las t tw o or possibly three years, all of the ever-green t r ee . .:i ship_ped t o be used as Christma s trees were cut from vari ous localities i n nor thern and northeastern New E q;lc?.!ld. In general; these were all fairly large trees, but there w ere a few ope rators who sp~cialized in shipping what they t ermed "table t rees.11 These wer e usually small t r e e s not much over 2 fee t in hei gh t and were ship:_:,ed wit h woode n blocks to be used as .stands. In t he last few years, ho ,re-rer, a few firms, particularl y one or t w o n:.1:rs eries) b.nve endeavored to b1.'..ilcl o . p a rnarke t i n small potted evergree n trees, pr ir;.e,i~:--ally spru c e . The sc hav be e n shipped in special cartons with d ecora tive l abels and h ave been advertised as l ivin g trees which mi ght be plante d afte r the Christma s season. any nurseries within

PAGE 20

-20-the quarantined a rea are heavily stocked with small evergreen tree s , and in their quest for mar kets have begun to investigate the possibilities of selling potted evergreen trees for Christmas use. Each year more and more nurseries are. building up this trade , which serves the double purpose of market ing extra s~ock and giving employment to nursery employees during a season of inactivity. . . During the winter season there is usually quite an increase in the shipme~t of c ertain types of forest products, particularly pulpw ood . Abundant sno w in the northern sections where pulpw ood is cut permits transportation, as it is easier to reach pulpw ood lo ts with sleds w hen there i s considerable sno w on the ground~ A111ong the forest products which are shipped most commonly during the winter season are hardwood .log s cut from yellow birch, beech, and maple. These are cut in 4-foot lengths and are usually shipped in carload lots approximately 10 cords to the car. Practically all of such logs are shipped to a shoe machinery firm which manufactures them into w ooden heels for ladies1 shoes. Approximately 10,000 cords of these log~ are ship ped every year. Materials which are a pparently of little value have an occasional usefulness for particula r purposes, and sometimes if these are exposed to.gipsy moth infestation, may present out-of-the-ordinary inspection activities. For a number of years there have been occasional shipments of old chimney bricks which are used for constructing fireplaces in certain types of restaurants. Practically all of these bricks are shipped from southern Rhode Island, where a dealer specializes in collecting old chimney bricks from destroyed buildings or from ones that are being torn down. He collects these bricks whenever opportunity presents, and as he usually has a supply on hand at all times,. the y may be stored at h'is place for considerable intervals before being shipped. Because of long storag e in piles there is a possibility that they will b ecome infested with gipsy moth egg clusters. In fact, in the :past e g g clusters have bee n found and removed. Throu g h an arrang ement, these bricks are n o w stored some distance a way from tree s a nd thus the da~gers of infestation are avoided. The brick s are shipped in barrels, each containing about 100, and they are packed quite ce . r efully so that they may arrive at d estination in satisfactory condition. Apparently the major portion of the value attached to these brick s is in their being old bricks which sho w signs of having been use d ov e r a long period. The r e is an indication that the co ming nursery inspection s eason will witne s s a change in the meth o d of shipping some o f the nursery stock. Up to the pre s ent, practically_ all stock has bee n shipped in w ooden bo xes or cases whicl'l were eithe r constructed from new stock at the nurseries or were old containers which had been saved. Occasionally nurseries did not use containers sp ecially made for stock , but purchased empty bo xes which had been used originally for othe r mat erials. A change to paper cartons by some of t h e nurserie s i s indic'?-te d L S it is r eported that o ~ a . ers l'k'lV G been s ent in for l a r ge n u'nbers of t h ese carto!ls to be used next sea son.

PAGE 21

-21-The follo\.ing information has been prepared from a survey of the brown-tail moth records at that office. In general, the brown-tail moth infestation in New England during 1932 was somewhat lighter than during the previous year' . This is basedon .field obse~vations made during the su.mmer months and on the number . o f hibernating webs cut from the trees during the winter. A summation of the .records at th~ office shows.that from 1922 to and_including the spring -of 1932 there were over 10,000~000webs cut from trees_in_Massachusetts, New Hampshire, and Maine. Records are available for towns in Massachusetts from 1922, but in.Ne1.v Hampshire they begin with l930, and for Maine with 1931. In 1930, a total of 1,183,379 webs were cut, .689, 6_134 of which were in Massachuset t 9 , and. 493,695 in New Hampshire. In 1931 , a _ total of 1,656,045 , . vebs were cut as follows: Massach-u.setts~ 661,613; lie1 , Hampshi're,' 652;768; and ~ine, 341, .664. In 1932 the total numb'er of webs cut was 896,469 as follows: Massachusetts, 3i_4,919; New Hampshire, 513,760; and Maine, 57,790. There were, of course, other '."ebs cut by individuals, of which we. have no record. "in Mc3:_s~achu.setts the \ ebs are cut apm,ially_ by the local moth superintendents, and this work : is gener:a1ly done _ quite thor9 u ghly. In New Hampshire and Maine the vork is done by the Stat'e organizatibns and by towns in a fer cases when advised to do so by the State officials. During 1932 the infestation was scattering and light• = in the astern half of Massachusetts except for heavy infestation in southeastern and northeastern parts of the State. In New Hampshire, the southeastern section, along the New Hampshire and Maine State lines, the Atlantic Ocean, and west to and including the Merrimac Valley as far north as Lake Wi1mipesaukee, was rather heavily infested, and light infestations were found as far north as Bartlett, Conway, and Albany. The infestation in Maine was general and heavy in spots throughout the southwestern section including the area from Lewiston and Auburn directly south to the Atlantic Ocean and westerly from Lewiston and Auburn through Poland, Casco, and Sebago to the New Hampshire State line. Infestation was observed as far easterly as Castine on the Penobscot River where 7,000 webs were cut. A report has been received from the State of Connecticut indicating that the State force have discovered a large gipsy moth infestation in woodland in the town of Wolcott, Conn. They have already treated ov e r 4,500 e g g clusters in an area of about a square mile and a larg e amount of additional work will have to be done before work is completed there. The presence of so large an infestation within 5 miles of the eastern border of t h e barrier zone might prove to be serious had it not been discovered, for t here would be considerable danger of the small gipsy moth caterpillars drifting into the barrier zone during the spring if the wind were blowing in a westerly direction. As no Federal funds are a vailab l e for wor k east of the barr i e r zone and as there are not sufficient State or town fund s appropriate d to do a great deal of woodland scouting, there is no means of knowing\ hethe r or not similar infestations exist in other localities near t h e eastern border of the barrier zone.

PAGE 22

-22-As there is considerable travel from the region infested with the gipsy moth near Scranton and Wilkes-Barre, Pa., through Stroudsburg and Easton, Pa., into the northern portion of New Jersey, officials of the New Jersey Department of Agriculture considered it advisable to do some scouting work as a precautionary measure along the main highway extending eastward from the State line near the two Pennsylvania towns last mentioned. A distance of approximately 25 miles has been scouted along each of these main thoroughfare~. Constiderah~le sfcoMutindhg has adlso been doneNneaJr sbiteshof f old infestati_ ons in the owns lpS o en am an Piscataway, •• , y t e four gipsy_ moth experts employed by the State of New Jersey. No infesta{ j tion of the gipsy moth has been located to date as a result of thi~ work. • A. F. Burgess attended the annual meeting of the American Associatiort of Economic Entomologists held at Atlantic City, N. J., in December. At this meeting he read three papers, entitled: 11The Gipsy Moth Problem," 11The Present Status of the Gipsy Moth," and "AMethod of Determining Losses to ;Forests Caused by Defoliation. 11