Citation
News letter

Material Information

Title:
News letter
Creator:
United States -- Bureau of Plant Quarantine
Place of Publication:
Washington, D.C.
Publisher:
Bureau of Plant Quarantine
Publication Date:
Frequency:
Monthly
Language:
English

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Plants -- Diseases and pests -- Control -- Periodicals -- United States ( lcsh )
Genre:
federal government publication ( marcgt )

Notes

Dates or Sequential Designation:
Began with: no.19 (July 1, 1932)
Dates or Sequential Designation:
Ceased with: no.43 (June 30, 1934)
General Note:
"Not for publication".

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
This item is a work of the U.S. federal government and not subject to copyright pursuant to 17 U.S.C. §105.
Resource Identifier:
030428081 ( ALEPH )
785785040 ( OCLC )
2012229620 ( LCCN )

Related Items

Preceded by:
News letter
Succeeded by:
Monthly letter of the Bureau of Entomology
Succeeded by:
Blister rust news
Succeeded by:
News letter

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BUREAU OF PLANT QUARAN'TINiE

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT Ol' AGRICULTURE





Number 22 (:uOT FOR PUbLICATION) October 1, 1932.




TECHNOLOGICAL

Construction has just been completed of a bulb-drying room in the
Inspection House i" Washington, D. C. The chamber, through which air conditioned as to temperature and humidity is circulnt ed in large volume, is capable of handling a maximum of approximately 80 bushels of bulbs. Due to the construction of the flocr and the method of circulating the air through the room, uniform temperature conditions are obt:,ined in all parts of the chamber, permitting any quantity of bulbs up to the maximum to be dried with the same efficiency. A special design of trays in v:hich the bulbs are placed in the room facilitates passage of the conditioned air over and around each individual bulb. Control of temperature is maintained automatically by means of a thermostatically controlled valve in a steam line supplying the heat to the
air conditioner. Once adjusted durir.g the drying operation, no further attention is needed in controlling conditions within the rocm. it is thought that use of this chamber, in connection with treatr.&nts accorded material at the Inspection House, will greatly facilitate the handling of large shipments of bulbs. It is also possible that treatments of material other than bulbs might be accomplished in the room.




FOREIGN PLANT QUUARANTINES

PERCENT ENTOMOLOGICAL INTERCEPTIONS OF INTEREST

Fruit fly in cherries.--Living specimens of Rheoletis cerasi L. (Trypetidae) were intercepted at New York in cherries in stores from Italy.

phid on orinrosee--yzus lymthi Theob. (aphid) was intercepted at Boston on the leaves and root of primrose in the mail from England. This aphid is not known to occur in the continental United States.






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Chrysomelid on orchid.--A larva of Prosopodonta corallina Weise
(Chrysomelidae) was intercepted at Washington, D. C., on an orchid (Miltonia endresii) leaf in the mail from Costa Rica.

Weevil in turnip.--Larvae of Baris laticollis Marsh (Curculionidae) were intercepted at Philadelphia in turnips in stores from England.

Banana root borer in Puerto Rico.--Three adults of the banana root
borer (Cosamopolites sordidus Germ.) were collected on the root and trunk of banana in the field at Ponce, P. R. This weevil is widely distributed in the tropics.

Scolytid from Barbados.--Stephanoderes buscki Hopk. (Scolytidae) was
intercepted at Boston in the pod and seed of tamarind in the mail from Barbados.

Gracilariid in bell _eprer.--A larva of Marmara sp. (Gracilariidae) was intercepted at Nogales, Ariz., in bell pepper in cargo from Bamoa, Sinaloa, Mexico.

Scolytid in Puerto Rico.--Sterhanoderes braziliensis Hopk. (Scolytidae) was collected in a decayed flower stalk of banana in the field at Bayamon,
P. R.

Bruchid from Italv.--Bruchidius g jlvus (Gyllenhal) (Bruchidae) was intercepted at Philadelphia in sulla (Hedysarum coronarium) seed in the mail from Italy. J. C. Bridwell, of Washington, D. C., states that this bruchid was not previously represented in the collection of the United States National Museum.

Coccid from Honduras and Trinidad.--Aspidiotus palmae Morg. & Ckll.
(Coccidae) was intercepted at New Orleans on a banana leaf in cargo from Honduras, and at Washington, D. C., on Ficus benjamin var. comosa in cargo from Trinidad.

Cerambycid in cactus.--Moneilema variolare Thoms. (Cerambycidae) was intercepted at Washington, D. C., in a cactus plant (Astrophytum sp.) in the mail from Saltillo, Mexico.

Weevil in stringbean pods.--Larvae of A~ion sp. (Curculionidae) were intercepted at Philadelphia in string bean pods in stores from Colombia.

Scolytid in yam--Adults, pupae, and larvae of Stephanoderes minutus Hopk. (Scolytidae) were intercepted at Philadelphia in yam in baggage from Jamaica.

Red-banded thrips on cashew.--Selenothrips rubrocinctus (Giard) (redbanded thrips) was taken on the leaf of cashew (Anacardium occidentale) in the field at Santurce, P. K. J. R. Watson, of Gainesville, Fla., states that this is a very common thrips in the West Indies and that it also occurs in southern Florida.







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CENT PATHOLOGICAL INITEECEPTIONS OF IE'TEREST

Aphelenchus subtenuis a_synonym.--According to Dr. Steiner, recent work has demonstrated rather conclusively that Ahelenchus subtenuis, which was recently transferred to the genus Aphelenchoides, is in reality only form of Aphelenchoides fraariae. The News Letter note on page 5 of the November, 1931, issue should be changed accordingly as well as any determination slips or indexes in which this species is given.

Fusarium sp. intorceptions.--Interceptions of Fusarium sp. have been more varied that usual for the past month. It is well to keep in mind the fact that Fusarium is a "form genus," so called because it is made up of the conidial stages of a number of different genera in which this stage is similar in form. There are hundreds of species in this form genus, many of them causing serious plant diseases. Months of careful work may be required to determine a specimen and relatively few specialists can determine miscellaneous species at all. Hence very little of our Fusarium material is determined to species.

Aside from the customary numerous interceptions on potato the following interceptions of Fusarium sp. were received during the month: From Argentina on corn cobs, Azores on passiflora fruit, Belgium on orchids, Brazil and Dutch Guiana on string bean pods, England on carrot, France on lily bulbs, Guatemala on bromeliad cones and on string bean pods, Holland on bulbs of crocus, hyacinth, and tulip and on string bean pods, Italy on wheat (this was accompanied by the perfect stage, Gibberella saubinettii) and on garlic bulbs, Jamaica on peppers and red peppers, and Japan on lily bulbs, leek tops, and string beans.

Diseased sugarcane in exhibit.--Pieces of sugarcane in a Puerto Rican
exhibit sent to Atlantic City, N. J., were found by inspectors from the Philadelphia office to be badly infected with IMlelanconium sacchari and were destroyed.

Dwarf mistletoe in New Jersev.--A good specimen of dwarf mistletoe,
Arceuthobium (Razoumofskya) pusillum, was collected by one of the special permit field inspectors on Picea mariana transplanted from a bog at Sussex, N. J., to a nursery at Sterlington, N. Y. The nurseryman wanted the inspector to inform him of control measures. Dr. Perley Spaulding, of the Bureau of Plant Industry, who verified the determination, could give no method of control except pruning out affected parts. He was very much interested in material of this pest occurring so far south.

Spider disease.--Included in the material turned over to the Bureau of Plant Industry and added to their collections during the past month were two good specimens of the fungus Gibellula arachncpbila, collected in the field by inspectors in Puerto Rico. This fungus attacks spiders of the family Attidae. Specimens occur singly so it is difficult to get an adequate supply of material for specimen purposes.






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Black pecks on mangosteen leaves.--Mangosteen leaves collected in the field near San Juan, P. R., bore numerous scattered black dots which proved to be the ascoma of a fungus belonging to the family Micropeltaceae (or Hemisphaeriaceae), possibly Phraimothriella sp. -This interesting material was added to the Bureau of Plant Industry collections.

Sphaeronema in Galanthus.--Pycnidia of Sphaeronema sp. were found buried in the roughened, puffy outer scales of Galanthus bulbs from England intercepted at the Inspection House in Washington.

AIRPLANE MISSING INSPECTION GETS INTO TROUBLE

An airplane making a regular trip from Mexico failed to stop for plant
quarantine inspection at San Diego, Calif., on July 26, 1932. An investigation of this irregularity was made through the Bureau of Customs, and it developed that the pilot, judging it would be unsafe to land at San Diego on account of fog, had proceeded to Inglewood, from which point he had telephoned the San Diego field. He was advised to return to San Diego for inspection, which he did the same day. The evidence indicated no wilful intent on the part of the pilot to violate entry regulations and no penalty was imposed.

SHIPPING-POINT.INSPECTION FOR FRENCH EXPORT FRUIT

In a recent News Letter (June 1, 1932) attention was called to the increased amount of inspection work entailed in certifying apples and pears to meet the requirements of a recent French decree. As a result of these requirements many cars of apples reached the ports last spring and summer which could not be certified to France because of the occurrence of San Jose scale to.an extent which, under ordinary conditions, would be considered negligible. In this connection, it will be recalled that under the provisions. of the French decree, no fruit is to be certified for that country if San Jose scale is found to any degree whatsoever. In order to enable shippers to get cars of apples and pears for French export to the seaboard with more assurance that they will be eligible for certification and to also avoid the holding up of'shipmehts at the ports because of the lack of personnel to give the necessary thorotiugh inspection with dispatch, an arrangement has been entered into between the Bureau of Agricultural Economics and the Bureau of Plant Quarantine whereby this inspection may be done at shipping point and a memorandum issued which will be accepted at the ports as a basis for issuing the required French sanitary certificate without an additional inspection.

This service was inaugurated in the States of California, Oregon, and
Washington during the months of July and August under the supervision of Mr. Becker, who saw the arrangement carried through from shipping point to port. The inspection given is in.every respect comparable to that given by plant quarantine inspectors at the ports of departure, and has the additional advantage of making it possible to secure a more representative inspection as the various lots of fruit are loaded as well as to discourage the offering of fruit from localities







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or premises which the local inspectors know are likely to be infested with the San Jose scale. if the fruit passes the inspection, the shipping-point inspectors issue the regular Bureau of Agricultural Economics export certificate, and also a special type of memorandum following the general wording of the French export certificate. Whenever inspectors at the ports are offered shipments of fruit covered by the Bureau of Agricultural Economics export certificate to
which is attached this memorandum, they are authorized to certify the car in question without an additional inspection for movement to France.

Under the present arrangement there have already been certified approximately 150 cars of apples and pears moving through the ports of Portland and San Francisco. As this News Letter is being prepared the large apple movement from the Pacific Northwest is about to begin and considerable fruit is expected
to be certified under this arrangement from this section. Arrangements will also be made to handle eastern apples, particularly those from the Shenandoah Valley, in the same manner. Most of the fruit certified on the basis of shipping-point inspections will move out through the ports of Seattle, Portland, Snn Francisco, Now York, and Baltimore.

',AX COATING ON CUTTINGS HINDERS INSPECTION

According to Peter Bisset, of the ashington Inspection House, there has been in recent years a steady increase in the practice of dipping plant cuttings or even whole plants in melted paraffin wax before shipping. Though the thin coat of wax thus laid over the surface is a distinct aid in conserving moisture during transit, it frequently renders inspection difficult. It might be supposed that the wax costing would effectually lock up all scales or other insects and thus obviate the need for inspection, but nuch observation of these mwax-treated cuttings indicates that the treatment is utterly unreliable in this respect. It constantly happens that the air held around buds cr caug .1 in masses of hairs prevents complete penetration of the wax, which in such cases merely hardens over an air-filled cavity. Underneath this dome of wax insects or their eggs may survive successfully, escaping later when bud growth breaks the wax coat. The fact that there is frequently a concentration of insects or their eggs around
the buds makes any protective effect of the wax still more doubtful. It is very difficult to detect insects through the waxy covering and the inspector must often resort to warm water to remove enough of the wax to permit inspection to be made.

INSPECTOR PUZZLES OVER REIHISTOhIC I.Cf. CORN

Is an ear of corn which has reposed peacefully with a buried Inca for
2,700 years to be considered as corn any longer, or would one regard it as a mere archaeological curiosity, long since having lost its attraction to insects or
fungi, and thus being utterly without interest from the plant quarantine viewpoint? And how about a mumified piece of yucca rout from the same source? These problems faced a plant quarantine inspector recently at San Pedro, Calif., when an archaeological explorer presented for entry these trophies dug from the









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dim past o0 South America. Apparently the inspector, dazed in the presence of so much antiquity, judged the archaeological aspect of the case to be preponderant, and the relics went on their way. Later he began to have doubts; if "pigs is pigs" then corn must still be corn even though the centuries roll over it. The matter was finally adjusted by the issuance of a formal entry permit for these hoary survivors from the forgotten ages.


FLOODS ON THE XICAN BORDER

Flood waters of the Rio Grande during the recent overflow destroyed
portions of the foot-bridges at Presidio and Del Rio, and part of the railroad bridge at Laredo. No damage to Bureau property or to the personal belongings of inspectors stationed within -the flood area has been reported. It is expected that immediate steps will'be taken to repair the damage, and in the meantime traffic between the two countries will be taken care of by boat.

THE MEDITERRANEAN FRUIT FLY DANGER

Among the insects and diseases which forei n quarantines aim to keep out of this country, the Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata) ranks high as an undesirable. It is now spread widely in the world and would undoubtedly be a frequent immigrant here were it not for our enforcement of quarantine measures against its numerous hosts.

As far as mere figures can express it, the following data taken from the inspection record present a truthful picture of the constant danger of introducing this insect, a danger against which quarantine and inspection are the only defense.

During the year ending July 1, 1932, plant quarantine inspectors in 30 ports of entry intercepted 1,866 lots of fruits and vegetables known to be hosts of the Mediterranean fruit fly, all coming from countries where this insect is known to exist. Of these 1,866 intercepted lots, 695 were taken from baggage, 243 were found in cargo, 306 were being sent in mail, 283 were discovered in ships' quarters, and 334 occurred in ships' stores. A total of 27,509 host fruits and vegetables, every one potentially dangerous, were this intercepted, and to these must be added several miscellaneous bulk lots totaling over 1,000 pounds.

It is interesting to note that while the host fruits and vegetables
found in ships' stores and quarters might not have been landed, the 1,249 lots in the other three categories were definitely headed for entry when they were discovered and turned back at the door. These figures ought also to impress
anyone, who is inclined to think lightly of baggage inspection; 3Y per Cent of all the year's interceptions were taken from baggage.






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DOMESTIC PLANT QUARANTINES

PHONY PEACH DISEASE

Findings of the phony peach disease in one county each of Mvissouri and Oklahoma are reported by the Bureau of Plant Industry. 1'1 number of additional counties outside the previously regulated areas have also been discovered in Axrkansas and Texas and one additional county (Pulaski) in Illinois.

TRANSIT INSPECTION

The checking of pine shipments through Spokane, Seattle, Portland, and St. Paul was resumed for the season during the last week of September, and the station at Omaha will be opened early in October.

WHITE PINE BLISTER RUST

The Federal quarantine relating to the prevention of spread of the white pine blister rust within the United States has 'been revised effective January 1, 1933, to add Iowa, Mlaryland, Ohio, Virginia, Wost Virginia, and the District of Columbia. to the list of infected States. The embargoes which previously prohibited the shipment of five-leafed pine from the eastern United States to the West and from infected to noninfected States were removed, and the shipment throughout the United States of pines which had been protected against blister rust by means of Ribes eradication was authorized under Federal permit. Under the new regulations, currant and gooseberry plants will hereafter not be required to be disinfected in lime-sulphur solution unless shipped with leaves or active buds.



DATE SCALE1

August is probably the most disagreeable month in the desert regions from a climatic standpoint, and a large part of total leave taken on this project is taken durii.g this month. Therefore, inspection is at low ebb. However, considerable territor-,r was covered during the month. In the Coachella Valley 12,751 palms were inspected, 899 of them in infested plantings. In the Imperial Valley 5,377 palm inspections were made, and in the Salt River Valley 43 sections were scouted for palms and 5,056 palm inspections made. No scale was found during the month.

No scale has been found in the Coachella Valley, the principal dategrowing area, since Decei-,ber, 1931. In the Imperial Valley 3 date palms, 4 fn-', palms, and 32 Canary Island palms have been found infested during the present calendar year.






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EUROPEAN CORN BORER AND JAPANESE BEETLE

Exclusive or Combination Japanese Beetle Work

"Riding the rods" was the assignment of two of the New Jersey personnel late in July and for the first half of August. In cooperation with Dr. I. M. Hawley, ia charge of the wo1ogical division of the Japanese beetle research laboratory, and with the consent of the freight officials of the Pennsylvania Railroad-Co., the two men made a number of trips in freight cars to determine temperature pnd humidity conditions in the cars during the period of adult beetle flight and to accumulate data concerning the percentage of adult beetle survival in long distance and short haul freight. Beginning July 26, one of the men made successive trips from Philadelphia, Fa., to Detroit, Mich.; Millville, N. J., to Philadelphia, and Philadelphia t:o Buffalo, N. Y. The trips from Philadelphia to Detroit and Buffalo were for the purpose of obtaining temperature and humidity records only, no beetles being carried in the cars. On each trip a thermograph was installed in the car. In addition hourly readings were taken with a sling psychrome4er. Since Millville, N. J., and all intervening territory from that city to Philadelphia are heavily infested with the beetle, an opportunity was afforded to use live beetles in the car in which the trip was made between these points. Accordingly, 200 live beetles were liberated in an empty box car leaving Millville. Each time the train stopped, the freight car door was opened the equivalent time it would normally be opened for loading and unloading freight. Upon arrival of the train in Philadelphia, the interior of the car was carefully'examinedl for beetles still remaining and the mortality of the beetles found determined. Trips were made by the second employee from Philadelphia to Indianapolis, Ind., and from Philadelphia to Cape Charles, Va. As in ;the instance of all travel to points outside the Japanese beetle infested area, the trip to Indianapolis was for the purpose of gathering temperature and humidity data. On the first trip from Philadelphia to Cape Charles, both points within the infested area, 200 caged beetles were taken along on the trip. Upon arrival in Cape Charles only 7 of the beetles were able to move about the cage while 6 others showed slight signs of lifei.the remainder being dead. On a second trip with similar equipment all of the 200 beetles placed in the car at Philadelphia were dead when the car was opened at Cape Charles 38 hours after: its dispatch from Philadelphia., Date gathered on the trips were turned over to" Dr. Hawley for interpretation and reporting.

Farm products and cut flowers inspected in the Philadelphia zone from
June 15 to August 31 yielded a total of 1,347 adult Japanese beetles. Inspections in the Philadelphia area were made at six inspection centers, comprising the main inspection platform erectod near the market districts, the Philadelphia Navy Yard, two wholesale cut flower establishments, an inspection point in nearby Chester, and the inspection service rendered at the Oakmont district office. Included among the farm products inspected and certified were 341 consignments of ship supplies taken aboard vessels sailing from Philadelphia to ports in the United States outside the Japanese beetle regulated zone. Through a cooperative arrangement with Philadelphia ship chandlers, all quarantined produce intended for ship provisioning is inspected before it is placed in beetle-proof wnre-










houses. Yror: these protect',d 7:arehouIsi!. are cdrpvi the quppli(es as required. En route fro, %wa rehouse to v-~1,tucks loaded with provisions are protected from irnfestptdor by tarpaulins. Woc~rat the piers have been educated to admit only such sh-ip suppl4ies as are accornianie:d by the required certificates. Transfer of the food supplies from -truck to ship is in turn witnessed by an inspector to assure measures to prev-.nt reinfestation of the articles. During tho heavy flight of, the bee tlo on thc- Phili 'deiphia w,'ati;rfront, the maritime inspector supervised the loading ofA certified products in this manner on 75 vessels. This same inspector, durin{ the effective period o' the farmn products quvraniine, boards all vessel, dockedC at PhiladeiphiE, checks the origin of quarantined produce, and adviuos th~e steward cr other proper ship's officer of the quarantine requirements. Itctivities of the maritime inspector have re'sulted thus far this summer in the prcvpr.tion of 24 violations involving uncertified fruits and vege~tables which without-the inspector's intk-rve;ntion would have, been transported to unin-fosted ports. Nurierous other irregulari-ties ir. quarantine procedure were ohs i.rved eind correted by thea inspector operating on the Philadelphia waterfront.

Dostructivorness (,f the Jpanese beetle for the past twno years has constituted a mentace to extensive plantings of eveniLng primrose plants cultivated at Princeton University by Dr. 3eor _. lrirrisoi- Shull, Profcissor of Botany and Genetics. Nearly half a million evening; primrose plants now growing near the campus are the result o' 27 years of gnneticil rEso archb Numerous genetical discoveries are accredited to the extensive intte.rbreeding and classification of these plants. "'cccrdinv.- to report, the rrimrest ex'neriment represents the most expensiv, single scientific Project ef the University. The Japanese beetle is particulThriy fond of soft-potaled bloor..s of rncst every variety. Rapid population increase cf the insect in the Prirceton section, therefore, has in rec .nt years ondanre(.d these important studies of plant heredity. Recont aid proffere:d bhy the Notional Res arch Council it is belIievcd will make possible spra,;'lng and possibly: other control meusurres to prevent beetle damage to the ovenin'7 prin-roso plantings. Advises 11'rcni -ari, i( invecti ,ator at Hopewll, N. *. 1~~.0t, far frcm Princoton, repi.ort i ;terfe'rco vith vineyard experim-ents due to Japane~ie beetle invasion.~ This planter has in full bearing moc-t of the grape varit~tiecs crifri-n-ted by Dr. U. F. Hedric!-, of the New York State
-agricultural Experiment Statien at Ceriova. ','his yi:ar' s riddling of' the grape foliage by the bo(,tlc, it is clainired, has n-Egated much ofL the work done in developing the varieties. Des~ ruction of the leaf area s-tlops photosynthesis, leaving no means for the f rmi,,!nc of starch e!nd cons(-quon tly r-ducing the sugar content in thte gropov TIe- Doepartmenrt has been irque!-ted to recomm.,end effective means of controlling th-, beetle in- the. oxperii ,,oxtal Vinoyard.

Voluntary experi-Ments performed by a ewJersey grower of orchids and gardenias have shown that JaaeebeotleDs are destructive to the bloomts of both of thcse; plartz3. Beetles hanve net y,,t multipliedl sufficiently ir the vicinity of this tg-roweIr's esaihet t 3011*1cAsly ifsthi~ greenhouses.
However,, he de-sir ,d advorice. infLormatior as, t,, thu pos;;,ibilities ef tile insects affecting the sf-alability ol ijs opaie~co ~ ete o h et
were furnished by the 1'it 0 1-so)Cr1f 4(,e. Iesults of thie- experiments werc






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reported by the grower as follows: "The beetle will eat orchid blooms in the presence of srartweed. In no instance would they eat any part of the orchid plant itself. The bloom seemed to be as attractive as the smartweed. In the case of the plant caged with beetles, no evidences of feeding were found, the beetles having died the third or fourth day possibly through lack of nutrition. Young seedlings in the tenderest form were caged with beetles and absolutely no damage was done even when the beetles were placed directly on the foliage. As to the gardenia foliage placed in a cage along with smartweed, there were no signs of injury at all. Foliage caged alone with beetles showed a very slight
damage, this being in the form of minute spots. I would take from this the gardenia foliage had practically no attraction. The beetle, however, would eat the white gardenia bloom, even in the presence of smartweed."

Typical of the home gardener's experience with the Japanese beetle is
the following comment by the editor of the Mount Holly, N. J., Mirror, published just prior to the beetle's heavy flight of this year, "" most of us are just plain dooryard gardeners with whom that Belle of Georgia peach tree, just now laden with still green fruit, and that row of gaunt poles up which green bean vines are winding in ambitious reach for the top, constitute the apple of our eye. Maybe the Ja.p beetle has amended his original plan of campaigning and now has taken to 'sniping' at us little fellows, we of the home garden. We are not slow to confess that we tremble at thought of the approach of that invading bronze green army. We have mobilized our beetle traps, sprayed where it was safe to do so, used lime on our grape vines and raspberry bushes and yet unblushingly we confess that 7e dread the coming of the beetle army. We who have been through other infestations, know." An earlier cotament by the same editor was to the effect that, "Activities of the Japanese beetle are now said to cover 53,000 square miles, but we still adhere to the notion that the center of infestation is in our own garden." Mount Holly is within 11 miles of the site of the original Japanese beetle infestation near Riverton, N. J., and has been infested since 1921.

Composite samples were taken during the month of surface areas in Erie,
Pa., treated with arsenate of lead at the rate of 500 pounds per acre during the fall of 1931. V. A. Johnson, of the treating division, and G. A. Russell, of the toxological division, made the borings. Two composite samples were taken in each of four treated blocks. Eighty borings were taken from each block, making one sample of the surface inch of soil, and a second sample from a 2-inch depth.
These borings were made in lawns. L composite 3-inch sample was taken from gardens in the most heavily infested block. A few ad ltionsl borings were made in four yards which seem to be centers of infestation. Analyses of the samples will
be made at the toxological division's chemical laboratory at White Horse, N. J. While in the vicinity Mr. Johnson proceeded to Painesville, Ohio, where he check
ed the Department-owned thermograph in charge of State Inspector John W. Baringer Since installation of the thermograph last October, Inspector Baringer has serviced the instrument and forwarded its weekly records to the treating division at
White Horse.

At a meeting of the Eastern Nurserymon's Association held at LaBars Rhododendron Nursery, Stroudsburg, Pa., on August 30 Mr. Worthley spoke on the results








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of this season's trap-scouting for the beetle.

At the approach of each beetle season, scouts make periodic visits to sand pits in the heavily infested zone to determine the date of first appearance of the insect. Sand pits in the ih ew Jersey infested territory are concentrated near New Brunswick, Mount Holly, and South Jersey. Infestations were found in practically all sand pits scouted during 1931. During the adult beetle flight fumigation is required of all sand shipped to nonregulated territory for use in other than construction work. Toward the end of the beetle season additional examinations are made to determine the disappearance of the beetle in the vicinity of each establishment. This year it is proposed to use sealed traps to determine the beetle's disappearance. Use of the traps in this manner would dispense with the services of three scout crews. Traps in use in Sussex County, N. J., will be lifted the first week of September anda quantity of them placed in the vicinity of each sard pit. When beetles can no longer be caught in the sectiorisurrounding the pits, the fumigation requirements will'be lifted and the sand made eligible for certification if 12 inches of the surface soil are removed before the sand is dugo

Lifting of the 500 traps used in the beetle depopulating demonstration in Philadelphia will begin on September 1. The season's total catch was 13,530,432, or 2,819 pounds of beetles. Following the customary end-to-end visualization of large quantities, this number of beetles would form a single line 93 miles long, or would cover an area of 11,560 square feet. Letters of
thanks have been addressed to the omers of the six vacant lots used in the demonstration, advising them of the lifting of the traps. The informal agreements with the ov, ners for the use of the lots expire at the end of this year, but permission has been secured for grub diggings to be made on the plots through next spring. The popular manner in which these demonstrations are regarded is evidenced by an unsolicited request on the part of the Commanding Officer of the Frankfort Arsenal of the United States Army in Philadelphia for the staging of a similar demonstration on the arsenal grounds. The Commanding Officer states that the Arsenal has sought protection against Japanese beetles since their first appearance, with sp'raying ahd the use of traps, but even with
these efforts considerable damage is dbne each year.

Coincident with a reduction in the quantities of infested articles intercepted at road posts, it bcca e possible on August 16 to curtail the number of men stationed at the vehicular inspection stations in Pennsylvania, Maryland, and Virginia. In Pennsylvania, the revised schedule calls for the assignment of two inspectors each to six posts and of single inspectors to each of three other posts on roads whose traffic can be handled by one man during the daily periods of greatest travel. Three border posts on the roads leading from the quarantined zone in western Maryland are now manned by five inspectors, while seven inspectors cover the traffic leaving the Virginia regulated areas. A further reduction in the road patrol in Pennsylvania is contemplated on September 1 due
to the necessity of .economizing on State funds.

An additional soil temperature recording station has been established at Charleston, S. C. After securing the necessary authority for the arrangement,


I BRARY







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a soil thermograph, box, post, charts, and ink were shipped to Assistant Plant Quarantine inspector Geraldus Gay, of the port inspection service at Charleston. Mr. Gay mounted the thermograph in a position on the Custom House grounds near the local Weather Bureau station. Some assistance in installing and starting the instrument was given by the Weather Bureau Meteorologist... Soil temperatures at a 6-inch depth are recorded from Monday to Sunday, inclusive, the filled charts being mailed to the treating division in New Jersey on Monday of each week. The instrument was first placed in operation on August 1.

Nursery and greenhouse scouting to determine absence or presence of
adult beetles on or within 500 feet of classified premises was largely discontinued by the end of August, although crews in Connecticut, Massachusetts, New Jersey, New York, and Pennsylvania were continued until Septembet 3 in order to complete a full week's scouting. Crews in Hagerstown, 'Md., and Clarendon and Norfolk, Va., were disbanded on August 13. L f'rm scouting crew employed ohf Maryland funds and workirg out of the Baltimore office was disbanded on August 20. On the same date a single nursery and greenhouse crew assigned to the Baltimore territory was discontinued. Crews operating in Delaware and the Delmarva Peninsula were also laid off on the latter date.

On the basis of soil analyses made by the toxological division in, the chemical laboratory at White Horse, 1,532,969 square feet, or 35.2 acres of nursery plots containing 237,569 plants were determined as of the required lead arsenate content and the plants thereon eligible for certification without further treatment. Heeling-in area to the extent of 335,821 square feet, a or 7.7 acres, was similarly determined as containing 1,500 pounds of lead arsenate per a.cre-and therefore conforms to the disinfection requirements for treated soil in which potted plants eligible for certification might be plunged between October 16 and June 14, the season of adult beetle inactivity.

Extermination of the isolated infestation last year discovered in
Charleston, S. C., is indicated by the negative results of this season's trapping operations in that city. Six hundred traps operated in Charleston from May 4 to August 31, 1931,, resulted in the collection of three beetles early in June, with an additional trap catch of one beetle late in July. The following November 6 tons of powdered lead arsenate were applied to 24 acres of ground surrounding the premises on which the beetles were taken. This season 800 traps were placed in Charleston on May 18 and were operated through August 6. Results of the trapping just concluded were entirely negative,

Abatement of the adult beetle flight in the Philadelphia waterfront and market sections was apparent during the second week in August. Practical disappearance-of the insect in flight proportions by August 12 rendered it safe to restore 24-hour inspection service at the Philadelphia inspection center, beginning at midnight on that date. Interested merchants and commission men were notified of the reestablished full-time inspection service through widespread distribution of advance prepared letters and through news articles prominently featured in the Philadelphia daily papers,









With the virtual disappearance by August 12 of the beetle in appreciable numbers in the vicinity of Philadelphia banana piers, fumigation requirements as a requisite for certification of bananas in carload lots were revoked. Screening of cars shipped with open bunkers was continued as one of the required safeguards.

Dry weather during August interfered somewhat with the usual routine
nursery procedure in New Jersey. In one instance lack of moisture occasioned a halt in hydrangea potting activities.

Trapping activities outside the regulated ar6as were concluded during Lugust in North Carolina, South Carolina, Virginia, Maryland, and a number of points in Pennsylvania.

Specialized Corn Borer ..ctivities

Scouting for the European corn borer began on August 1; 30 crews worked out of the South Norwalk Office, in the States of New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland, and Virginia.

Ten first-record infestations were picked up during the month, as follows

August 1 Temperanceville (Atlantic District), A:ccomac County, Va.
August 4 Locustville (Lee District), Accomac County, Va.
.ugust 6 Kintnersville ((Eockamixon Township), Bucks County, Pa.
-ugust 6 Mappsville (MIetompkin District), iccomac County, Va.
August 9 Upper Black Eddy (Bridgeton Township), Bucks County, Pa.
,ugust 13 Franklin (Tinicum Township), Bucks County, Pa.
ugust 16 Newark (Newark District), Worcester County, Md.
,ugust 17 Snow Hill (Sncw Hill District), Worcester County, Md.
A.ugust 18 Snow Hill (Colbcurne District), Worcester County, Md.
August 26 Girdletroe (Stockton District), Worcester County, Md.

Stockton District, :Id. was found to be infested on a resGout.

A representative of the Outpost Farm and Nursery Corporation of Ridgefield, Conn., called at the Norwalk Office recently to confer with Mr. Worthley and Ir. Johnson on the pcssibility of trapping anid treating an area near their nursery where Japanese beetles have been found. They .ish to do this to prevent the spread of the infestation to their property. Although it was decided
not to do anything this season, because of the short time before cold weather sets in, the owners do intend to do so-ve control work in 1933.

On August 5, while scouting a classified (stablish.ment in East Norwalk, Conn., a member .of the scout crevow found a Japanese beetle on the inside of a screen of the house on adorning property. It is believed that the beetle cnme in produce purchased from a local market since no c:oro beetles could be found in the vicinity after thorough scouting.







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Fruit growers in the towns of'Glastonbury, East Hartford, Coventry, Manbhester, Portland, and South Bolton, Conn., have formed an organization of 90 members with the object of auctioning and pooling their fruit. Fruit not sold. at auction is pooled and trucked to markets. Most of these markets are outside the regulated area, and an inspector has been assigned to the markets to make daily inspections and to certify the material leaving the area.

Scouting was directed from the Springfield, Ohio, office in West Virginia, Kentucky, Irdiana, Illinois, and Wisconsin. The'territory was divided into three districts; each district was divided into sections. A supervisor was placed in charge of each district with an assistant for each section, as follows:

Section No. 1 Section No. 2 Section No. 3
Kentucky Indiana Illinois
West Virginia Wisconsin
Ohio River bottom

A total of 228 men were originally sent to the field. The State of Illinois is furnishing and paying 16 scouts who were trained in the Bureau of Plant Quarantine scout school and were sent to the field in five 3-man crews directly supervised by a State man under the supervision and direction of the Bureau of Plant Quarantine. The State of Wisconsin is furnishing and paying 6 men who were placed in the Bureau of Plant Quarantine crews for supervision.

The prolonged drought and extreme heat during the month has ripened the
corn veryrapidly and such of the corn in West Virginia, Kentucky, and Wisconsin has been placed in the shock and in silos. Comparatively few infestations have been fpund beyond the area known to be infested last year, which is attributed
to the unfavorable atmospheric conditions during the flight of the corn borer roth.
An infestation survey was started on August 15 in cooperation with the
Bureau of Entomology and the Deportment of Agriculture of the State of Indiana, for corn borer population in standing corn. Fifteen 1-man crews and two supervisors were furnished by the Bureau of Plant Quarantine. The survey extends into 25 counties in Michigan, 23 in Indiana, 48 in Ohio, 1 in Pennsylvanian and 23 in New York. Reports indicate an increase of infestation over last year in some counties previously heavily infested and certain sections of counties not previously in survey show heavy infestations. Indications are to date that there will be an increase in borer population in a number of Ohio and Michigan counties.
The most notable increuses at the present writing are in Washtenaw and Lapeer Counties, ich., Pnd Champaign County, Ohio. The last-named county was previously considered a border county as far as infestation was concerned.

On .August 29, the Bureau of Entomology, in cooperation with the State of Connecticut and the Bureau of Plant Quarantines began survey work in Connecticut. The work will cover the entire State and will continue approximately four weeks. The Bureeu is also doing survey work in the Lima bean area on Long Island.






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1EXICAN FRUIT FLY

The first application of nicotine-molasses bait spray was completed during the first week of ;.ugust. total of 3,645,426 trees located in 6,927 groves and 4,456 town ycrds were sprayed. The baiting of these trees required the issuance of 18,779 gallons of molasses and 940 gallons of nicotine. The bait was applied by means of 350 knapsack sprayers. All trees having fruit this season or which had fruit last year were sprayed. Approximately one month was required to apply the bait.

The second application of the bait was started August 15. With the experience gained in the first application, it was thought that the second application could be completed by the 1st of September, and but for the advent of the fall rains during the last two weeks of Lugust, this would have been accomplished. As it was, the great majority of the groves were sprayed by the end of the month.

During the interval between sprays, the requisitions for the material for the second application were written up. To save time and expense and to allow for better organization of the J.ork, supplies of molasses and nicotine were carried in the trucks and the requisiti(ns and materials delivered to the r-jority of the gr powers at the farms. This scheme alowed the work to be organized to a ltrgc.( extent to restricted areas or roads in the districts and resulted in a minimum of back clls in centc'.cting the growers. By having the requisitions already written up it was unnecessary to keep the district offices open, which released all irspectors f'or field duty.

While the growers had been fairly well educated durirg the first application of the bait, it was necessary to impress on some of them the importance of putting the bait spray program ahead of the regular routine grove jobs. Ls in the first round, the inspectors observed long hours during the second application of the bait. Growers were contacted and requisitions and materials delivered duringE the day. Spray guns were visited daily anrid any
repairs necessary -:ere made. Usually these "guns" were picked up after dark from the groves in which the taiting had been completed and delivered to growers on the waiting lists. The ideas of nany of the growers concerning the ease of Government jobs w_,re considerably changed when they were gotten out of bed to receive spray guns in order that they might get an early start the following morning. Considerable rivalry was engendered between the inspectors in Cameron and Willacy Counties and in Hidalgo County by the wager of a barbecue dinner. The inspectors of the county in which the spray program was first completed were to be the guests cf the other inspectors at the barbecue.

Only one refusal to apply the spray was uncUuntercd in the first application and this grower applied the spray during the second application. Another owner applied the first application, but refused to apply the second. There is still a possibility of this grove ceing sprayed the second time.

A most gratifying spirit of helpfulness and assistance to the work was









shown by the various agencies and individuals of the Valley. Innumerable cases occurred of growers spraying neighboring absent-e-owned or abandoned properties. City governments, chambers of commerce, and luncheon clubs donated funds to pay for the application of the bait to back-yard plantings. Storage space for the materials was furnished without cost by packing plants and individuals. In the neighborhood of 400 steel drums were loaned by the various oil companies for storing the molasses. Without this assistance the 100 per cent coverage of bearing trees in the Valley would have been wellnigh impossible.

The work in Matamoros was carried on along the same lines as in previous months. All fruit arriving in Matamoros was examined by both the Mexican and American inspectors before being released to the consignees. The
examination of this fruit during the month showed a remarkably light infestation. Only 3 fruit were found to be infested and only 8 larvae were recovered. The operation of 196 traps in Matamoros resulted in taking 1 adult fruit fly. Poison bait spray was immediately applied to the trees in the four
blocks surrounding thispremise.




PINK BOLLWORM

The eradication of wild cotton in southern Florida has progressed very satisfactorily. T'he principal areas covered during the month were four Gounties on the we st coast, and Key Largo, south of the mainland. On the west coest some 36 colonies, which covered an estimated area of 77-4 acres, were destroyed, consisting of some 26,761 plants, of shrub size and larger, and 3,906 seedlings. On Key Largo it was impossible to estimate the number of plants removed and acreage covered due to the fact that a considerable number
of men were employed. However, the colonies were especially large, several covering from 5 to 15 acr,,s of swamp land, and extending along the hammock for over a mile in one or two instances. The clean-up of wild cotton in the vicinity of the townm of Everglades, in Collier County., was begun on A ugust 29, but because of high water from the tropical storm it was possible to work only one day. During this time 39 individual wild cotton plants were removed from vacant lots in the city limits. It will be recalled theft quite a bit of infested wild cotton was found in this area during the survey in June, but the almost inmpassable roads, caused by the rainy season, have made it impracticable to begin a clean-up before this time. The clean-up will. be resumed as soon as possible.

In addition to the-above clean-up, dooryard plantings were removed in
five southern counties. In 26 locations these dooryard plantings consisted of domestic cotton, 539 plants being removed, while 61 wild cotton plants were removed from 4 loc-ations. In one instance permission had previously been refused for the removal of a dooryard plant, but at this time permission was granted.






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During the montb a party of two inspectors has been performing field inspection in counties in south-central Florida. They have covered 43-3/4 acres of commrcial cotton, 3 acres of volunteer cotton, and volunteer cotton scattered over a 30-acre citrus grove. The commercial cotton acreage includes 29-3/4 acres of cooperative Sea-island plantings. This cotton will be inspected periodically during the season. Practically all available material on the volunteer cotton was examined. No indications of the pink bollworm were found. In addition to the field inspection a gin-trash machine began operating in northern Florida the latter part of the month. Only a small amount of trash was available, end the results were all negative.

Field inspection has been continued in the Salt River Valley of Arizona. At the end of the month practically all of the acreage had been covered. All results in this area have also been negative. The ginning season is now getting under way, and gin-trash inspection will be substituted for green-boll inspection.

The first part of Augu;t two gin-trash machines began operating in the lower Rio Grande Valley of Texas. Later in the month five additional machines began operating in the aret south of San Antonio between Laredo and Corpus Christi. No specimens of the pink bollworm were taken during the month. The machines have now been removed to counties in southeastern Texas.

In the Pig Le-d urea of Texas the first cotton was ginned on August 27, and trash from the first three bales wes inspected with a machine. The first bale contained 241 live pink bollwormrs, 24 dead, and 6, pupae; the second, 1,644 living, 200 dead, and 150 pupae, nd the third, 710 living, 124 dead, and 88 pupae. These results indicate that the infestation at this time is the heaviest in the history of the Bi3g Fcnd.

Plans hove been made fcr a thorough clean-up of the heavily infested Big Bend area as soon as the cotton crop h .s been guthe;red. The area involved consists of about 3,500 acres. The machineryy for this clean-up, consisting of a tractor, side-delivery ra.ke, sled cutter, and all necessary parts, has been sent tq the area, having g been transferred from the European Corn orer Project. The side-delivery rake is a special machine developed by that project for raking cornstalks. It is of special interest to note that the machine has been given a preliminary test aid found to be well adapted for our purposes without making any alterations. The farmriers are very much interested in this clean-up campaign and have all promised full cooperation in the program. In connection with the clean-up, pickable and ronpickable boll counts will be made in .ome 20 different fields. In making these counts 200 stalks will be used, 41 in each corner and 40 in the center of the field. The plants h:ve ben staked off and will be left until the remainder of the crop has beer picked, after which the counts will be made. Similar counts will be made aroir the followjng year, and a comparison of the two counts should give soce indication of the value of the clean-up.

During the month the ginners have been busy ov rhauling their Finnine -nd sterilizer equipment. Inspectors have been supervising this work, which is









practically finished. A few bales of cotton have already been ginned in'most of the areas. The stationary gin-trash machines used within the regulated areas have also been overhauled, and will begin operations as soon as a sufficient supply of trash is available.
'The discoveryoof, the pink bollworm in Florida has made some changes necessary in the inspection work in the Southeastern States. In order to handle the large area involved more satisfactorily, a man hk been placed in each State from Mississippi to South CCarolina, who will be charged with full responsibility to determine whether or not the State is infested. To do this he will operate a gin-trash machine' dring the ginning season and collect boll material for inspection during the'spring and early summer. The States unrcerned are cooperating in so far as'they ere able. The boll material is now being collected, and gin-trash inspection will get under way shortly. It is believed that this is a better plan than to send men into the States for brief periods of inspection.




PPEVENTING SPREAD OF MOTHS

It is felt .that the defoliation observations have been taken in a better manner this season than previously. Some time was spent during the early spring at the Greenfield office in artificially defoliating specimens of deciduous and coniferous trees to definite percentages of defoliation, and most of the field men who took the defoliation records in the field this summer had an opportunity to see some of the work and to estimate known defoliation. Photographs were made of individual trees that had been artificially defoliated to known degrees of defoliation, and the men who made the observations trere supplied with prints of these photographs. This experiment showed that men are likely to underestimate the degree of defoliation. All of the field men who were used on the defoliation work have had considerable experience in mapping woodland areas and in determining acreages, and are well qualified to determine the extent of the area and degree of defoliation in different blocks of woodland.

In order to make the figures obtained more useful in connection with determining the damage, the :defoliation was reported this year under definite degrees rather than by classes as had previously been done. For instance, in 1930 and 1931, defoliation was reported in classes such as 1-10 per cent, 10-50 per cent,-and 50-100 per cent, while this year the defoliation. was reported as
25 per cent,,50 per cent, 75 per cent, and 100 per cent, and in a few cases some defoliation was reported as 90 per cent. About 6,000 acres were reported
as less than 25 per cent. In general, no attempt was made to report defoliation this year that was less than 25 per cent, because the spring studies of defoliation showed that it was'practically impossible to estimate defoliation that. is less than 25 per cent. Of course the defoliation for 1932 less than 25 per cent
was really very mu-ch greater than that shown in the accompanying tabulation, but






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had estimates been ade as in previous years of a class of defoliation from 1-10 per cent, the total figure of area affected would be very much greater.

In the State of Massachusetts the area is divided into districts, each in charge of a State Division man. There are six districts in the eastern half of the State, and a Federal man went over each district with the State Division man making their estimates together. in New Hampshire and Maine, State officials reported the defoliation in areas that were laid out for then.
The rest of the area in these two States where defoliation was likely to occur was divided up and surveyed by Federal r.en.

The summary shows a total of 286,395 acres affected this season, with 42,398 acres entirely defoliated and 10,980 acres 90 per cent defoliated,
which would cause practically as much injury as if the trees were completely defoliated. The summary also shows a large increase in the area affected in Rhode Island and in Connecticut. In New Hanpshire the total area affected as reported is less than last year. This is due to the fact that areas where less than 25 per cent defoliation occurred were not reported this year. However, there was severe defoliation in New Hampshire, especially in the region occupied by the towns north of Lake Winnipesaukee at Ossipee, Freedom, Effingham, Conway, Ladison, and Concord. Over a considerable part of New Hampshire small pockets of infestation are building up, arnd it is expected that next year there will be a considerable increase in defoliation in that State. This is also true in aine and parts of assachusetts. There was more defoliation in Rhode Island and Connecticut than usual this year and if certain areas in these States were surveyed as closely to obtain defoliation records as was done in assachusetts, New Hamrpshire, and laine, the acreages reported affected in the former States would be considerably greater.

Number of Acres Defoliated and the Degree of Defoliation


State Less than 25 25 : 50~ o : 90 : 0 : Total

Maine------------: ,149 : 9,120-: 8430: 11,547:1,070: 5,980: 42,297New Haripshire---- :-------------- :21,883 :13,972 : 5,549: 505: 1,378: 43,287
Vermont ---------- 1 --- : ----:-- ------- : ----- ------: 1
Massachusetts----: 310 :43,370C :51,412 : 60,857:9,415:35,033: 200,387
Rhode Island-----: 1 : 113 : 85 : 172:-----: 37
Connecticut.------ : 3 : 5: 20 : l:-----: 2: 46Total-- : 44 74 492 ,73019.: 78,141:10.980:42.398: 286.395

The work of placirg the assembling cages, properly baited, throughout the barrier-zone area in NIew York and New England was concluded during August for the season. A totai of 5 ,822 cages containing ove'rwintered material were placed as follows: I. Jew York, 201 set out by the Federal force, and
250 by the New York State force; in Vernont, 1,0(!; in L1ssachusetts, 1,102; in Connecticut, 1,275, and in New Jersey, 1,907. Of the total









5 822 there were 25 assembling cages given to the Entomological Branch of the Canadian Government to be-placed in a number of points in the territory on the Canadian side nearest the infestationn found on Letcalfe Island, Highgate, Vt., and. near the site of the Henrysburg infestation of several years ago.

Lale moths have been trapped in several M1assachusetts and Connecticut barrier-zone towns not previously known to be infested. They have'also .been taken at cages in several towns where. a gipsy moth infestation has not been discovered for several years. To date there have been no male gipsy moths trapped at the assembling cages in Vermont, New York, or New Jersey. It is expected that the assembling cages will be collected by the end of September at which time this work will be sum-iarized.

This year in connection with the collection of the female gipsy moth
pupae used in obtaining baitr material for the assembling cages, approximately 50,000 Sturmia scutellata issued from the pupae. This is a Tachinid pupal parasite of the gipsy moth. These insects were turned over to the gipsy moth laboratory for experimental purposes and for colonization.

During August, a hygro-thermograph for recording temperature an.d humidity was set up adjacent to the building on which a combined wind direction and velocity recorder was installed. The latter instrument was put on the roof of one of the storage buildings used by this project in Greenfield, MVass. An 18-foot mast with roller bearing for a 6-foot wind vane at the top and with a cross arm for an anemometer was set up. This equipment has been wired to a mieteorograph for recording the records within the building. The machines .will be in daily operation throughout the year. It is expected that very useful data will be obtained which can be used in connection with the gipsy'moth
problem.

All agents in the scouting force not on special assignments are taking administrative furlough until September 15. No work, therefore, is at present being carried on by the Federal force in.the barrier-zone area, excepting the assembling cage work.

The preliminary scouting work being carried. on. in porxthoastern Pennsylvania to dete'rrine the approximate area generally infested -ith the gipsy moth was continued during August. In this class of scQuting wo:rk, no attempt is made to thoroughly examine the territory covered,. but as FQ.Qn as an infestation is discovered the men 'discontinue scouting work in the.reg.ion, -infested and take up work approximately .1 mile further on, and this procedure is continued until'no infestation is found. Work was first started about l1 mile from Inkerrnan.

To date infestatior is known to exist in 8 tovalships, namely: Pittston, Jenkins, Plains, Bear Cre(k, Vilkes-Barre, Kingston, andl Exeter in Luzerse County, and Lackawanna, in Luckawanna County.

All nurseries located within and those just outside of the area known to







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be generally infested have been thoroughly scouted and no living gipsy moth infestation was found. An old gipsy moth egg cluster was discovered, however, on a spruce tree plur.ted in the Wyoming Valley Nursery situated in the Borough of Wyoming, Kingston Township, and 91 new egg clusters were found on trees and fences within 100 yards of the nursery. Arrangements have been made with the owner of this nursery to have any stock that is to be shipped reinspected before it is dug.

On days unfit for scouting work but satisfactory for other out-ofdoor work, the scouting force have been instructed to creosote egg clusters found on walls, fences, trunks of trees, etc., particularly so where there is great danger that they may be disturbed or broken. Very little of this work has been done to date because the weather has been either favorable for scouting or too evere to carry on outside work.

Information received from a district quarantine inspector indicates that the evergreen shipping season this fall will cormmence somewhat earlier this year. Because of soil conditions with an abundance of moisture, the new growth on the evergreens seems to be well hardened, making it possible to dig and transport plants of this class.

That the Federal quarantine inspection service provides more protection to noninfested sections of the country than is indicated by the infestations removed on material that is shipped, continues to be evident. It has been reported that a quarry located in southern N ew Hampshire has quite a heavy gipsy moth infestation in the woodland immediately surrounding it, and some of the trees close to the stored quarry products are infested. This quarry is a small one which has not shipped outside of the quarantined erea for many years, if ever. As no calls for inspection had been received from there, the clean-up recommendations which are customary hnd not been giver. The first shipment inspected at the quarry was found infested with gipsy moths. The district inspector pointed out the severity of the existing gipsy moth infestation to the quarry foreman, who has promised to undertake control measures. These measures consist of cutting trees and brush close to the quarry, and possibly others in the woodlands immediately surrounding the quarry. The inspector will satisfy himself that all necessary work is done.

Because of the unusually dangerous gipsy moth infestation existing in southeastern Ivhassachusetts, the district quarantine inspector at Middleboro has been instructed to spend as ruch time as possible visiting tourist camps located in this vicinity and to look over the equipment particularly when the stay at such camps has been of fairly long duration. At present most of the egg clusters have been deposited by the female moths and the equipment of tourists who arrive at the camps from now on will not become infested. In a few cases, it hps been reported that parties have been starYing at camps for long periods. In one such instance egg clusters were fcu on the equipment b-longing to a man vho l0 i. ends to move further sZ oi. His equipment ill be inspected carefully and all infestation will be r..oved before he leaves.






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At South Yarmouth, Mass., the district inspector creosoted and removed 12 gipsy moth egg clusters from a camp trailer and equipment. The egg clusters wj ere found on the trailer itself and on boxes and boards used in the equipment. The owner of the camp trailer and equipment is a traveling photographer who expects to start for Florida before September 1. Arrangements were made to have his trailer and equipment given a final inspection when he starts for the South.

Ariong the numerous types of camps inspected were several "gipsy camps" operated by the Stanleys, a well known tribe of nomads, who weave baskets and practice palmistry. At the Thonmas SQ Stanley gipsy camp at West Yarmouth, Lass., 730 new gipsy moth egg clusters were removed from 5 tents and 2 trailers. The district inspector was assisted in removing the egg clusters by the State District Moth Superintendent and one of his men. Although all but two of the tents were to be stored in Yarmouth, Mass., for the winter, it shows the danger of spread by camping equipment carrying infestations. Mr. Stanley intends to travel by auto during the winter, stopping at over-night camps.
Arrangements have been made for a final inspection of autos, trailers, and tents before he breaks camp.

There are five infested canaps found in the vicinity of Newfound Lake and Lake Winnipesaukee, N. H. Over 500 gipsy r.oth egg clusters were located on the trees in the camp grounds. Instructions were given to the camp owners by the quarantine inspector to creosote all egg clusters as soon as possible and to thoroughly spray the trees on the camp grounds next spring with arsenate of lead. No camp equipment was found to be infested.

Nearly every ronth it is recorded in the monthly reports of the quarantine activities that egg clusters and other stages. of the gipsy moth are found on materials being inspected prior to shipment. Such infestation is always removed before certificates are issued. Each year the annual report shows that egg clusters or other stages are rerioved by the hundreds, and the necessity for inspection is therefore quite evident. Although the total infestations removed from inspected materials each year is sufficient to be quite impressive, it does
not compare with the amounts found and removed years ago when inspection activities were newer and when the inspectors in the field did not obtain the cooperation from the shippers which is now very general. It can not be claimed that all of the decrease in infestation found on inspected materials is due to greater care on the part of the shippers, for there have been decreases in the general infestation in sorm2e localities. The added restrictions imposed upon nurseries in 1923 reduced to the vanishing point the infestations found on nursery stock. It is certain, however, that the major portion of the decrease is due to action taken by shippers following advice given by the district inspectors. Control r.easures around quarries and storage yards, the storage of materials away from trees and bushes, and the selection of noninfested articles for outside shipment has added much in keeping materials free from infestation and reducing the findings during inspection. Only a few years ago, the yearly totals of egg clusters and other stages of the gipsy moth and brown-tail moth were recorded in thousands rather than in hundreds. In the 20 years that the






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gipsy moth and brown-tail moth quarantine has been in force, i. e., from November 25, 1912, to date, 101,016 gipsy moth egg clusters, together with 11,260 of the other stages of the same insect, have been removed fror shipmeents. There have been removed .,lso 1,027 winter webs of the brown-tail moth and 1,547 of the other stages of this insect. Shipments of one or more of all of the different types of quarantined products, which are evergreen, forest, nursery, and quarry, from which infestations have been removed, have gone to 44 of the States and the District of Columbia. Only Idaho, Montana, ievada, and Oregon have received none. Such shipments have gone also to Alberta, New Brunswick Nova Scotia, Ontsario, and Quebec in the Canadian Provinces, and to England. For a few of the States, only occasional shipments from which infestations were removed, were recorded as being shipped. but for most of the States many such shipments have been recorded end on numerous occasions many gipsy mroth egg clusters were removed from. such shipments. It is quite evident that had no inspection restrictions been imposed, both of the insects would row have been established in almost all portions of the United States where food plants were favorable,

In addition to shirnents consisting entirely of quarantined products,
the district inspectors rust be on the watch for shipments of different natures which nay include articles regulated under the quarantine. Because Quarantine No. 45 has been in force for a long time and due to the educational work which has been performed by all those engaged' in its enforcement, agents of co.mm.on carriers and shippers are well acquainted with the regulations and will not knowingly accept for shipment regulated articles unless they have been inspected and properly certified. here shipments from. the quarantined area consist almost entirely of articles not regulated, the shipper or agent may overlook the fact that small amounts of regulated articles are included and that these inclusions necessitate inspection and place the whole shipment under the quarantine requirements. Occasionally the district inspectors locate shipments entirely foreign to the gipsy mroth quarantine which have included with them materials regulated by the qu rantine. Such a shipment was reported recently by the inspector stationed at lyrouth, Y. 17. He found poles and lumber in a cattle car which had been used for the construction of stalls. On inspection, these were found to be infested with six gipsy moth egg clusters. The egg clusters were crocoted and removed. This particular finding emphasizes the fact that continual watchfulness on the part of the inspectors is necessary and points conclusively to the fact that the insect may be spread by innumerable rieans.

During periods of business inactivity the duties of the quarantine inspectors may be lightened to some extent, but it often happens that following such inactivity the inspectors find that their work has increased. This is due in many cases to the fact that aterials do not move rapidly during times when business is slow, and for this reason they are stored for long periods and aron cons ;quently exposed to infestation much beyond the usual time. During periods of business inactivity, the inspectors advise the owners of the best place to store the materials so that they will b! away from possible sources of infestation. This is particularly true of certain types of stone and quarry




UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA

3 1262 09245 0864
-24-.


products such as paving blocks, or forest products where lumber may be cut
and remain in-pil s for years before it is shipped for pulpwood, and where an overproduction of a number of other materials can not be absorbed by markets.

We have received indications that some materials produced some time ago, which have been stored awaiting markets, are beginning to move slowly' and because a long time has elapsed since their production, infestations have developed in the immediate vicinities and careful inspection will be necessary. In the Portland, hie., district, there is a large pile of scrap metal which is infested and which will require thorough inspection before shipment. Because of the low price which has prevailed for this kind of material for the past
three or four years, several carloads of this metal have accumulated. In the past, the dealer has not accurulated such large amounts of this junk but has shipped it quite regularly. Then there was small chance of its becoming infested before shipment. Practically all of these shipments went to points outside of the quarantined area, and when he is able to find a market for his
present stock, it is quite probable that most of it will be sent outside* Arrangements have been rmade for thorough inspection prior to shipment. At the present time, because of the nature of the material, inspection is impossible. It will be necessary, no doubt, to discard certain hollow pieces of
metal, because if these are infested, it would be very difficult to remove the egg clusters found on the inside.


















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Nu _ber 22 N E. W _S L E T T E R BUREAU OF PLANT QU RAN1'I E U ITED STATES DEPARTME T O F AGRICULTURE LIBRARY STATE PLANT BOARD ====---==== ( JOT FOR PUBLICh.TI01 ) October 1, 1932. -------==================---------=====-===-= TECENOLOGICA1 ------Construct~on has just been co mpleted of a bulb-drying room in the Inspection House i n Vashington, D. C. The ch a .ber, through , hich air condi tioned as to temperature an d hurnidi ty is circuln .ted in .lar.g~ volume, is capable of handling a maximum of approximately 80 bushels of bulbs. Due to the construction of the floo r and the method of circulati ng the air through the room, uniform teMperatu~e con ditions are obta i ned in all parts of the chamber, permitting any quantity of blllbs up to the maximum to be . dr.ied with_the same efficiency. A s pecial design of trays in w ich the bulbs are plac ed in the room facilitates paseage of the coriditioned air over and around each individual bulb. Control of temperature is maintained automs.tically by means of a thermostatically controlled valve i n a steam line supplying the heat to the air conditioner. Once adjusted during the drying operation, no further attention is needed in.controlling conditions within the room . It is thought that use of this chamber, i n connection with treatruent s accorded material a t the Inspection House, will ereatly facilit te the h andling of large shipments of bulbs. It is also possible that treatQents of material other than bulbs might be accomplished in tie room. OREIGr~ PLANT ~ARAN TINE S PECE T ENTO MOLOGICAL I TE CE TI01 J S OF I NTEREST Fruit_flL.in cherri~.--Living specimens of Rhagoleti Q~~i L. (Trypetidae) ~ere intercepted at tlew York i n cherries in stores from Italy. f.!.Ehid_D_prinrose,--,Mr1~ .12..21.YQnthi Theob . (aphid) was intercepted at Boston on the lAave s a~d roo t of primrose int 1R rnail:fr0m England. This aphid is not known to occur in the col'itinental United States. . .,_

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-2-Chrysomelid on orchid.--h l arva of Pros...Qdonta corallina Weise (Chrysomelidae) was intercepted a t Washington, D. C., on a n orchid (Miltonia ~dresii) leaf in the mail from Costa Rica. -------Weevil i n t~mil2.---Larvae o f Baris l aticollis Marsh (Curculionidae) were i n t ercepted a t Philadelphia in turnips in stores from England. Banana root bore r i n Puerto Rico.--Three adults of the banana root bore r (Co~;op;lites~didus Ger;;.-)-;;;:e collected on the root and trunk of banana in the field at Ponce, P.R. This weevil is widely distributed in the tropics. Sco).;JCtid f rom buscki Hopk. (Scolytidae) was intercepted at B o ston i n t h e pod and s ee d of tamarind in the mail from Barbados. G r~ci1_ ariid i n bell_~Jmfil:•--A l arva of&!..~.; sp. ( G r acilariidae) was intercepted a t N o g a l e s5 Ariz.; in bell pepp e r i n c argo from Bamoa, Sinaloa, Mexico. C01yti d i n PuertQ_Rif.!_--~hanoder~ braziliensi~ Hopk. (Scolytidae) was collected in a decayed flower s t alk o f banana in the field a t Bayamon, P. R . Bruchid from Italy. --Bruchidius g JJ-vus (Gyllenhal) (Bruchidae) was intercepted at Philade l ph i a in sulla (Hedys.,Q;~~ ..Q.I.QQ~rium) seed i n t he mail from Ita l y . J.C. Bridwell, o f Wash ington7 D . C., sta t e s that this bruchid was not previously represent ed i n the collection of t he United Sta tes National M useum. Qoccid from Hond~ras and Trinidad. hs.12.i!li ot us :lli!;lrn~ Morg . & Ckll. (Coccida;r-was intercep t ed a t New Orleans on a banana leaf in cargo from Honduras, and a t Washington, D. C., o n ~...,icus benjamina var. comosa in cargo from Trinidad. C e r ambycid i n c actus.--Moneilema variolare Thoms. (Cerambycidae) was intercep t ed a t W ashington, D. C.s in a cactus plant (bs tr.Q.Pbytu m sp.) in the mai l from Saltillo, Mexico. Weevil i n strin.&_Q.~sUL.!2.2.9&.!.--Larva e of AJ2i..Q,U s p . (Curculionidae) were intercepted at Philadelphia in string bean pods i n stores from Colombia. Sc,21y:t.._id_i~_yam~--hdults~ pupae~ and la~vae of St~hanQde12~ m inut~~ Hopk. (Scolytidae) were intercepte d a t Phila d e l phia in yam in baggage from Jamaica . . . Red-banded thri2s on_ ~as hew. --Selenothrips rubrocinctus ( G i ard) ( redbanded thrips) was take n on the lea f of cashew (Anacardium occidentale) i n the field at Santurce, P . R . J. R. Wat son, o f Gainesville, Fla., states that this i s a v e r y common thrips i n the West I nd ies and tha t i t also occurs in southern Florida.

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-3-ECENT PATHOLOGICAL Ii'TERCEPTIONS OF INTEREST rtphelenchus subtenuis_ a ....smonyp1. --according to Dr. Steiner, recent work has demonstrated rather conclusively that ~~1enchus subtenuis, which was recently transferred to the genus hphelenchoides, is in reality only~ form of J.phelenc hoides frar,arja~ The ews Lett e r note on page 5 of the ovember, 1931, issue should be chan ged accordingly as well as any determination slips or indexes in which this specie s is given. Fusarium ..12• interc~tions.--Interceptions of Fusarium sp. have be . en more varied tha t usual for the past month . It is well to keep in mind the fact that Fusarium is a "form genus," so called because it is made up of the conidial stages of a number of different genera in which this stage is similar in form . There are hundreds of species in this form genus, many of them causing serious plant diseases. Months of careful work may be require d to determine a specimen and relatively few specialists can determine miscellaneous species at all. Hence very little of our Fusarium material is determined to species. Aside from the customary numerous interceptions on potato the following interceptions of [~rium sp. were received durirg the month: From J..rgentina on corn cobs, Azores on passiflora fruit, Belgium on orchids, Brazil and Dutch Guiana on string bean pods, England on carrot, France on lily bulbs, Guatemala on bromeliad cones and on string bean pods , Holland on bulbs of crocus, hyacinth, and tulip and on string bean pods, Italy on wheat (this was a ccon ipan i e d by the perfect stage, Gibberel1~ ~aubinettii) and on garlic bulbs, Jamaica on peppers and red peppers, and Japan on lily bulbs, leek tops, and string beans. Diseased sugarcane in exhibit.--Pieces of sugarcane in a Pu erto Rican exhibit sent to Atlantic City, N . J., were found by inspectors from the Philadelphia office to be badly infected with Melanconium ~hari and were destroyed. Dwarf mist_1eto o in N!lw Jersey.--J-. goon specimen of dwarf mistletoe, Arceuthobiurn"lRazoumofskya) rn~llum, was collected , by one of the special permit field inspectors on Pi~ mar iana transplanted from a bog a t Sussex, N . J., to a nursery at Sterlington; 1 . Y. The nurserynan wanted the inspector to inform him of control measures. Dr. Perley Spaulding, of the Bureau of Plant Industry, who verified the determination, could give no method of control except pruning out affected parts. He was very much interested in material of this pest occurring so f a r south. ~ider diseas~.--Included i n the material turned over to the Bureau of Plant Industry and added to their collections during the past month were two good specimens of the fungus Gibellula ara. ch!lQPhj.la, collected in the field by inspectors in Puerto Rico. This fungus attacks spiders of the family Attidae. Sp ec imens occur singly so it is difficult to get an adequate supply of material for specimen purposes.

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-4Bl~Lne c k s Qn._filfil}g Qst~~n lefil~•--Mangosteen leaves collected in the field n ea r San Juan~ P. R., bore numer.ous scattered black ct'ots which proved to b e t he a scoma of a fungus h~longing to the family Micropeltaceae {or Berni~ sphaeria.ceae), possibly Phragmoth,y,dtl~ sp. "This -inter.est ing mate.rial was added to t h e Bure au of f~ant industry c,a_l~~ction s . • SRh~ronema in• Ga.l a nth.l!. --Pycnidia of Sphaeronema sp • . were found buri. ed in the roughened, puffy _9uter scales of Gal anthus ~Ulbs from ingland intercepted at the I nspection R ouse 1n W ashington. AIRPLAN E MISSIN G I NSPECTION GETS INTO .. TROUBLE .. An airpla ne m aking a regular trip from Mexico failed to stop for plant quarantine i ns:rection a t . s a n Die g o j Calif., on Julr 26, 19 32 . • An investigation of this irregularity w a s m _ ade throug h the Bure a u of Customs, and it deve1oped tha t the pilot, judg iri g it w6uld be unsafe to land at S a n Diego on account of fog, had proceedeq to Ing lewood? fr. o . m . which point he had telephoned. t;he San Die g o field. H e was advis ed . to r~turn to_ San Die g o for inspection, which he di~ the s a m e d ay. The evidence indicated no wilful intent on the part of thepilot to viola t e entry regulations and no p enalty wa s imi)osed. SHIPPING-POINT, . I N SPECTION FOR FRENCH EXPORT F'RUIT In a r e c en t N e w s . L ette r _(June 1, 1932) attentio'i-1 was called to the increased amount ~f in~pection work entalle d in certifying apples and pears .to meet the r equirement s of a r ecent French decree . As a r esult of these require ments m a ny c ars of apple s rea.ch e d the pottslastspring and summer which could not be c ertified to France because of the occurren_ ce of San Jose scale to .an .ext ent which, und e r ordinary con .di t ions, w ould b e co .'nsider~ d . n egli_gi ble. In fhis conn e c tion , _it will b e r ecalled that under the provipions. of the French decree, n o fruit is to be cert i f i e d fo~ tha t country .. if San J~se scale is found to any de gree whatsoever. In order to enable_ shippers to get cars of apples and pears for French export to t h e seaboard with more assurance that they will be eligible for c ertification and toalso avoid the holding up of s :hipmeht. s at the ports be~ . c ause of the l a ck of p ersonhe l :to give the necessary thorougri 'inspection with dispatch, a n irrangement : h a s b ee n enteied into b~tween th~ B~r~iu of Agricultural Econo mics a nd the Bureau of Plant Quarahtine whereby this inspection may be done at shipping point a nd a m e morandum issued which will be acc-epted at the ports as a ~ asis for issuing ihe r equire d French sani~arycertific~t~ without an addition-a l inspection. This s e r vice was inaugurate d in the States of California, Orego~, and Washington during the months of July a nd A u g u s t under the supervision df Mr. Beck er, w h o saw the arra n gemen t c arr~e d throug h from shipping point to port. The inspection give n is in. e v ery r espect comparable to that given by plant quaranti~e inspectors at the ports ~f d e p arture, and h ~ s ihe a~dition~l~ ~dv antage -of ~~fi~g it possible to secure a nore r epre s entative i n spection as the various lots of fruit a r e loa d e d a s w ell as to discourag e the offering of fruit from localities .:

PAGE 5

-5-or premises which the local inspectors know are likely to be infested with the San Jose scale. If the fruit passes the i n s pection, the shipping-point inspectors issue the regula r Bureau of A gricultural Economics export c ertificate, and also a special type of memorandum following the general wording of the French export certificate. Whenever inspectors at the ports are offered shipments of fruit covered b y the Bureau of Agricultural Economics export c ertificate to which is attached this memorandum ? they are authorize d to certify the car in question without an additional inspection for movement to France. Under the present arra n g e ment there h ave already been certified approximately 150 cars of apples and pears movin g throug h the ports of Portlanda nd Sun Francisco. As this News Letter i s being pre p a r e d the large a pple movement from the Pacific Northwest i s about to begin a nd considerable fruit is expected to b e certifie d under this arrangement from this s ection. Arrang e ments will also be made to handle eastern apples, p articulerly thos e from the Shenandoah Valley, in the . sam e m a nn er. M o s t of the fruit c ertified on the -basis of shipping-point inspections will move out throug h the p orts of S eattle? Portland, S 8 n Francisco, New York, a nd Baltimore. i'.'AX COATI r G O N CUTTI GS HINDERS I NSPECTION Accordin? to P a t e r Bisset, of the ~as h i ngton Inspection Hous e , there h~s been in recent years a stoady increas e in t h , practice o f dipping plQnt cuttings or even whole plants in m elte d p a r affir w a x b efore shipping . Thou g h the thin coat of wax thus laid ov e r t h e surfa c e i s a distinct a i d i n c onserving moisture duri ng transit, it frequently r e nd ers inspection difficult. It m i ght b e suppose d that the w a x co ating would effectually lock up all s c a l e s o r othe r insects and thus obviate th:i need for i nspection, but m uc h ob s ervation of these vvax-treated. cuttings indicates tha t the treatmen t is utterly urreliable i n this respect. It constantly happer::s tha t t h e air held a round buds e r c a u ght in m asses o f h airs prevents complete p enetration of t h e wax9 which i n such c ases m erely h ardens over an air-filled c avity. U nderneath this dome o f w a x i n s ects or their e gg s may survive successfully, escaping l a t e r when bud growth breaks the w a . x coat. The fact that there is frequently a c oncentration of insects or their e gg s around the buds makes any protective effect o f the wax still more doubtful. It is v ery difficult to deterit insects through the waxy c overing a n d the inspecto r mus t often resort to warm water to remove en o u g h of the wax t o p ermit i 1 spection t o b e made. I NSPECTOR PUZZLES OVER PREHISTOR IC I N C CORN Is an ear of corn which has repose d p eacefully with a burie d I nca for 2,700 years t o be c o n sidere d a s corn any lon g e r, o r woul d one regard it as a mere archaeol og i c ~ l curiosity9 l o n g sin c e h aving lost its attraction t o inse c t s o r fungi9 and thus.being utterly witho u t interest f rom the plant qu a ranti ne viewpoint? And how about a m um1ified p iece o f yucca r oo t from the same s ource ? These p roblems f aced a plant qu a rantine i n s pe ctor r e c e n tly at San Pedro , C alif., when an archaeologica l explo r e r pre s en t e d f o r entry these trophies du g from the

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-6-dim past 6t' S outh America. Appar~ntly the inspector, dazed in the presence of so much a ntiquity, judged the archaeol~gical aspect of the case to be pre ponderant, and the relics went on their wa y • . Later he began to have doubts; if "pigs -is ~igs" then corn mu~t still be corn even th. ough the centuries roll over it. The matter was finally adjusted by the issuance of: a formal entry permit for these hoary survivors from , the _ i ;orgotten ages. FLOODS ON THE' MEXICAN BORDER Flood wat ers of the Rio . Grand e during.the recent overflow destroyed p 0rtions o f the foot-bridges at Presidio and Del Rio, and part of the railroad bridge at Laredo. No damage to Bureau property or to the personal belongings of inspectors station~ d within-th~ flood area has been reported. It is expect ed that immedi ate steps will' b$ ta~en to repair the damage, anq in t he meantime traffic b e tween the two countiie s ~ill be taken c~re of by ~bat~ THE MEDI~ERRANEAN FRUIT FLY DANGER • ' J' Among the i nsects and diseases which f orei~n qua rantines aim to keep out of this country, the Medit erranean fruit fly (Ceratiti~ apitata) ranks high_ as an und esirable. It is now spread widely in the world and would undoubt edly be a frequent immigrant here were it not for our enforcement of quarantine measures against its numerous hosts. A s far as m ere figure s can express it, the foii~wing data taken from the inspection r ecord present a truthful picture of the constant-.danger of introduc ing .this. insect, a d anger against which quarantine and inspection .. are the only defense. Durin g t he y ea r ending July 1~ 1932, plant quarantine inspectors in 30 ports of entry intercepted 1,866 lot_ s of fruits and vegetabJ.,es _known to be hosts of the Mediferranea n fruit fly, all coming from countries where this insect is known .to exist. Of these i ,866 in_tercept ed _ 1 ots, 6 95 were taken from ba gg a ge, 243 were found in cargo, 306 were ~eing sent in ~ail, 283 were discovered in ships' quarters 'J. and 334 occurred in ships' st ores. A total of 27,509 host fruits and vegetables, every one potentially dangerous, were thUs intercepted, and to these must _ be added several miscellaneous bulk lots totaling over 1,000 pourids; It is interesting to note that while the host fruits and vegetables found in ships' st ores and quarters might not hav e been landed, the-1,249 lots in the othe r three c ategorie s were definitely headed for entry when they were discovered and turned back at --the door. These figures ought ~lsq to, impress any ope _ _ wh_ o is inclined to thin~_ l .ightly of_ baggag e i!lspec"ti orl; 3'Y_ p . e r cent of all the year's interceptions. w ere taken from baggage.

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-7DOMESTIC PLANT QUARANfINES PHONY PEACH DISEhSE Findings of the phony peach disease in one county each of Missouri and Oklahowa are reported by the Bureau of Plant Industry. number of additional counties outside the previously regulated areas have also been discovere d in hrkansas and Texas and one additional county (Pulaski) in Illinois. TAANSIT I NSPECTION The checking of pine shipments through Spokane, Seattle, Portland, and St. Paul was resumed for the season during the last week of September, and the station at Omaha will be opened early in October. \VHITE PINE BLISTER RUST The Federal qu arantine relating to the prevention of spread of the white pine blister rust within the Unite d States has been revised effective January 1, 1933:; to add Iowa, Maryland, Ohio, Virginia, West Virginia, and the District of Columbia to the list of infected States. The embargoes which previously prohibited the shipment of five-leafed pine from the eastern United States to the West and from infected to noninfected States wer e remov ed , and the shipment throughout the United States of pines which had been protected against blister rust by m eans of Ribes eradication was authorized und e r Federal p ermit. Under the new regulations, currant and gooseberry plants will hereafte r not be required to be disinfected in lime-sulphur s olution unless shippe d with l ea v e s or active buds. DATE SCALE August is probably the most disagreeable month in the desert regions from a climatic standpoint, and a large part of total leav e taken on this project is taken during this month. Therefore, inspection is at low ebb. However, considerable terri tor, was covered during the month. In the Coachella Valley 12,751 palms were inspected , 4,899 of them in infested plantings. In the Imperial Valley 5,377 palm inspections were made, and in the Salt River Valley 43 sections were scouted for palms and 5,056 palm inspections made. No scale was found during the month. No scale has b een found in the C oachella Valley, the principal dategrowing area, since D ecembe r5 1931. In the Imperial Valley 3 dn.te palms, 4 an palms, and 32 Canary Island palms have been found infested during the present calendar year.

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-8-EUROPEAN CORN BORER AND JAPANESE aEETLE Exclusive or cumbi~atioi Japanese Beetle Work "Riding the rods" was the assig nment of two of the New Jersey personnel late in July and for the first half of August. In cooperation with Dr. I. M. Hawley, i n ch a r ge of the ECologi'ca1 division o f the Japanese beetle research laborat ory, and with. the con~ent of the freight officials of th.e Pennsylvania Railroad, .Co.,• the two men rriade a number of trips in freight cars to determine temperature ~nd humidity conditions in the cars during the period of adult beetle flight and to accumul a t e data concerning the percentage of adult b~etle survival in l ong distance and short haul freight. Beginning July 26, one of the men made successive tripp from _ Phile.d,elphia, Pa., to Detroit., M _ich.; Millville, .. _ N • J. , to: _P.hiladeJphia, and Philadelphia t:o Buffalo, N. Y. _ The t-rips from Philadelphia to Detroit and Buffalo were for the purpose of obtaining temperature and humidity records only, no beetles being carried in the cars. On each trip a thermograph was installe d __ in the car. In addition hourly readings were t a ken with a sling psychrorne ~er. Since Millville, N. J., and all interv~ning territory from that city to Philadelphia.-areheavily infested with the beetle, an opportunity wa s afforded to use live beetles in the c ,ar in which the trip was made between these potnts • . hc6ordingly~ 200 live beetle~ were liberated in ari empty box car-leaving Millville. E ach.time the trairi stopp~d~ the freight car door was opened the equ i v al~nt, tim.e it would normally be o _pened for loading and unloading freight; Upo'n a rriv!:)..l of the train in Philadelp4ia, the interior of the _car. was c arefully' exarni~ed : .for _beetles -still remaining and the_ mortality of the beetles found determine~. ~ trips were made by the s~c6nd _ employee from Philadelphia t o Indianapolis, Ind., and from Philadelphia to. Cape _9harles, Va. J ~ s in ;the instance of qll travel to points outside the Japanese beet,le infested area, t _he .. trip t o Indianapolis was for the purpose of gathering temperature and humidity d a ta. On the irst trip from Philadelphia to Cape Charles, both points within the infested area, 200 c aged beetle~. were taken along on the trip. Upon arrival in Cape Charles only 7 o f theb~~tles were able to move about the cage while 6 others showed sli ght signs of_ life..,~ .. the remainder being dead. On a second trip with similar equipment all of the 200 beetles placed in the.car.at Philadelphia were d ead when the car was opened at Cape Charles 38 hours after : .. its dispatch from Philadelphia • . D?-te gathered on the trips were t urned over t:o. : _ Dr. Hawley for interpretation and repprting. Farm products and cut flowers irispected in the Philadelphia zone from June 1 5 to A u g ust 31 yiolded a t o t a l _ of-li347 aduit Japanese'~eetl~s. Inspec• tions in the Philadelphia a r e a were made at six inspect'ion cepters. , comprising the main i n~pection platform e r ecte d near the market districts, the Philadelphia Navy Yard, two wholesale cut flower establishments, an inspection point in nearby Chest er, and the inspection s ervice rendered at the Oakmont distri,ct office. I ncluded among the farm prtiducts inspected and certifie~ were 341 consignments of ship supplies taken a~oard vessels .sailing from Philidelphia to ports -in the United States o utside the Japa~ese beetle regulated zone. Through a cooperative arrang ement with Philadelphia ship ch andlers, all quarantined produce intende d f o r ship provisioning is inspecte d before it is placed in beetle-proof wqre-

PAGE 9

-9houses. From these prot ccte d warPho lses ~re dra ,,n the supplie., a required. En route from 'Na.rehouse to vessel, trueks loaded with provisions are protected from infest~t.ion by tarpaulins. Wa.tch~,1en at the piers have been educated to admit only suc h s hip supplie s as are accompanied by the required certifica tes. Transfer of the food ~upplies f rom truck to ship is in turn witnessed by an inspector to assure measures to prev ent reinfestation of the articles. During the heavy fli~ht of the b~e+ ,le on the P.lilo.delphia waterfror1t, the maritime inspector supervised the loading of certified products i n thi s manne r on 75 v0ssels. This same jns:rector, durinG the effective period of the farm products qua raniine, ~cards all vessel~ dockGd ~ t Philadelphia , checks the origin of que rantined produce, and advhrns t};rn stc~war d or other proper ship's office r of the quarantine r equirements . Activities of the maritime inspector have r esulted thus far this summer i n the prevention of 24 violations i r 1volving uncertified fruits and vegetables which withoutthe inspector's intervention would ha ve . been transported to u n infested ports. Numerous other irregulari ti ,s ili quarantine p rocedure wer e o Sf_\rved and corr octed by the inspector operating on the Philadelphia v;atc;rfront. D es-tructi vori.oss of the Japanese beetle for the past tw.o y ears has constituted a menace to extensi e plantings of evening primrose plants cultivated at Prince t.o n :Jniversity by D r . Geor g Harrison S hull , Professor of Botany and Genetics. Nearly half million even i ng prir.u-os e plants now grow i ng near the campus are t he result of 27 year s of geneticQl research . Numerous genetica l discoveries are accred ited to t_.e extensi ve interbreeding and classification of these plants . According to report, the primrrse experiment represents the most e xp en~ i v e sing l e scientific p rojec t of the Un~versity. The Japanese beetle is articularly fond of soft-pet l ed bloous of most ever y variety. Rapid popul~tion increase of the insec t in the P i n ceton section, t herefor e , has i n r e cAr.t years e ndang o rod these inportant studies of plant heredity. Re CFmt aid prof!er'3d by the t'.ationo. l Resear ch Council it i s believ ed vi.rill make possible s p r a:ing and possiblj other cor.trol measurP.s to revent oeetle damage to t he o ve n j ng prim~ose plantin s . Advices f rom a private investigator at Hope well~ • J. , ::ot far from P rine et on, r e' ort interference with vine, ard experiments due to Japanee beetle invasion. This planter has in full b earing most of the grape varieties ori inrted b; Dr. U . P . Hedrick , of the ew York State ttgricultura l Experiment Station at Gene va. Thi s year's riddl i ng of the g rape foliage by the bcc.,tle, it i s claimed , has n egated much of the work done i n de v eloping t.,e va r .:.et ies. D est, ruction of the leaf 11rea ~tops photosynthesis, leaving no means for the form tion of starch •nd consequentl y r educing the nuga r con ten t in the grapes. T' 10 Dopart:ncmt has been re1uest ed to r ecommend ef f ective means o f controlling t1e beetle in the experiment 1 vineyard. V olunt r y expe riments perf orrne d by a. . e,,., Jersey g r ower of orchids and gardenias . h vc shovm that J1.pan0sc beetles are dcstructi v e to the blooms of bot}'i of these plants. Beetles hAve not yet multiplied sufficiently in the vicinity of this grower' establis~1ent t0 seri usly irf9st his greenhouses. Howev e r 9 he desired advancrj i1dormation as t " the pos:.:ibili ties of the in~ects affecting the s ~lability of his expensive blccm . C aged beetles for the tests wor e furnished by t!1e White Horse office. Results of the expedments werG

PAGE 10

-10-r e p orte d by the g rowe r a s foll o ws: "Th e beetle will e a t orchid b looms i n the p r e s en ce o f smartweed. I n n o instance would they eat a n y part of the orchid plant itself. T h e bloom s eeme d to be a s attractive a s the s martweed. In the c a s e of the p lant cag ed with beetles , n o eviden c e s of feeding were foun d , the b eetle s havin g d i ed the t hird o r fourth day possib l y t h r oug h lack of nutrition. You ng s eedlin g s i n the t en d e rest form were caged with beetle. s and absolutely no d amage w a s d ' one e v en when the b ee tles w ere pla c ed directly on the foliage. A s t o the gar d e n i a f oliage placed i n a cage a long with smartweed, the r e were no sig n s o f i n jury a t all. Foliage c a g e d alone w i t h b e e tles show ed a v e r y sligh t damage, this be i ng i n the form o f minute spo ts. I would take from this the garde n i a foliage h a d p r acti cs.l l y n o attraction . The beetle, h o wever, would eat t he white gardeni a bloom, e v e n i n the p r e s e nc e of smartweed." Typical of t h e home gardener's e xp erien c e with the Japanese b eetle is the follow i ng comment b y the editor o f t h e M o unt H olly , N . J., M i rror, pu blished just prior to the beet l e ' s h e a v y flight o f this year , "~* mos t of u s a r e 0iust pla i n dooryar d gardeners with whom t h a t B elle of Geo r g i a p e a ch t r e e , just nov,r l a d en w i t h s t ill g r e e n fruit, and tha t row o f gaunt poles up which g r ee n be a n vine s are w i n d i n g i n a mbi tiot.~s r e a c h for the top, c o nstitu t e the apple o f our e y e . M a yb e t h e J a p b e etle h a s amend ed his orig i n a l plan o f campaigning a nd no w h a s t a k en t o 'snipi n g ' a t u s l i ttle . f e llows, we of t he home garden. W e are not slow t o co n f ess t h a t we t remb l e a t though t of the approa c h o f tha t i nvading bronze g reen a rmy. We hav e mobili z e d our b eetle trap s , s p r a y ed where it was s a f e t o . d o so, used l ime o n our gr~pe v i n e s a n d raspb erry bushes a nd ye t u nblushi ng l y we c onfess tha t we drea d t h e comi n g of t he beetl e a rmy. we w ho have b e en t h roug h o t h e r i nfestations , kno w." A n e a r l i e r c o i 1 1 m en t b y t h e same ed;i. tor was to the effe c t t hat, " A c t iviti e s of the Japa nr-rne beet l e a r e no w sai d to c o v e r 53 ,OOO squa r e mile s , but we s t ill adhe r e t o the notio n t h a t the c ente r o f infestation i s in our o w n garden." M oun t Holly i s w i thin 11 m i les of the site of the orig ina l Japan e s e beet l e i n festatio n n e a r Riverton$ N . J.9 and has bee n i n f este d sin c e 1 9 2L, Compos ite sample s wer e t a k en q_urin g the month o f s u rfac e areas i n Erie, Pa., treate d w i t h arsenat e of l e a d a t the rate of 500 po un ds p e r acre d uring the f a l l o f 19 3 1 . V . A . Johnson, o f t h e treatin g division s a n d G. A . R u ssell, of the t oxolo gica l d ivisi on , made t h e borin g s . Two composite samples were take n in each of four t r eate d b locks. E i g h t y b o r i n g s wer e t aken f rom e a ch block , making o n e sam p l e o f the s urfa c e inc h o f s oil, a nd a s e c ond samp l e f rom a 2-in c h d epth. These bor i ngs wer e made i n l avms . J. composite 3-iric h samp l e was taken f r o m garde n s i n the m o s t heav i l y infested block. A few ad~ i t i o~a l boring s were made in f o u r yards w h i ch seem t o be c enters of infest ation. A n a J . y s e s of the s a m p les will b e mad e at the t o xolo gica l d ivision ' s chemica l laboratory a t White Horse , N . J. Whi l e in the v i c i n i ty; Mr. J ohn son p r oc ee ded to P a:.nesvil l e , O hio, whe r e h e check e d the Department-own ed ther m o graph i n char ge of State I nspector John W . Baringer, Sin c e installa t i o n of t h e the rmogr a ph last O c t o be r ~ Inspecto r Baring e r h a s service d ihe i ~ strumen t a nd f o rwarded its_ weekly r e c o~d s to the t r e ating division at White Horse . A t a m eeting of the East e r n Nurserymen' s Asso c i ation h ~ld a t LaBars Rhodode nd ron Nursery, Stroudsburg , P a . 9 on h.u gust 30 M r . Worthl ey spo k e on the r c sul ts

PAGE 11

-11of this season's trap-scouting for the ~eetl~At the approach of each beetle season, scouts make periodic visits to sand pits in the heavily infested zone to determine t1e date of first ~ppearance of their-sect. Sand pits in the 1 ew Jersey infested territory are concentrated• near New Brunswick, Mount Holly, and South Jersey. Infestati9ns were found in practically all sand pits scouted during 1931. During the adult beetle flight fumigation is r equired of all sand shipped to n~nregulated territory for use in other than construction work. Toward the end of the beetle season additional examinations are made to determine the disappearance of the beetle in the vicinity of eac h establishn-e~t. This year it i s proposed to use sealed traps to determine the beetle's disappearance . Use of the traps in this manner would dispense with the services of three scout crews. Traps in use in Sussex County, N. J., will be lifted the first week of September and. a quantity of them placed in the vicinity of each sarid pit. When beetles can no longer be caught in tne sections surrounding the pits, the fumigation requirements will be lifted and the sand made eligible for certification i f 12 inches of the surface soil are removed before the sand is dug. Lifting of the 500 traps used in the beetle depopulating demonstration in Philad~lphia will begin on S eptembe r 1. The season's total catch v~s 13 ,530,432, or 2,819 pounds of beetles. Following the customary end -to-end visualization of large quantitiesj this number of beetles would form a single line 93 miles long , or would cove r an area of 11,~60 square feet. Letters of thanks have b e en addressed to the o,mers of the six vacant lots used in the demonstration, advising them of the lifting of the traps. The informal agreements with the owners for the use of the lots . expire at the end of this year, but permission has been s ecured for grub diggings to be made on the plots through rtext spring. The popular 1Janne r in which these demonstrations are regarded is evidenced b y an unsolicited request on the part of the Commanding Officer of the Frankfort Arsena l of the United States Army i n Philadelphia for the staging of a similar demol:st ration on the arsenal g r o unds . The Commanding Officer states that the Arsenal has sought protection against Japanese beetles since their first appearance, with spiaying and the use of traps, but even with these efforts co~siderable damage is dbne each year. Coinciden t with a reduction in the quantities of infested articles intercepte d at road posts5 it became possible on .~ugust 16 to curtail the number of men statior.ed at the vehicular inspection statioris in Pennsylvani 1 , Maryland, and Vi ginia. In Pennsylvania , the revised schedule calls for the assignment of two inspector s each to six posts and of singl e inspectors to each of three other posts on roa ds whose traffic can be handle d by one man during the daily periods of greatest tra v e l . Three border posts on the roads leading from the quarantined zone in western Maryland are now marned by five inspectors, while seven insp8ctors cover the traffic leaving the Virginia regulated areas. A further reduction in the roa d patrol in Pennsylvania is contemplated on September 1 due to the necessity of s conooizing on State funds. :m additional soil temperature recording st8.tion has been e tablished at Charleston, S. C. After secu1ing the ne c essary authority for the arrangement, ARD

PAGE 12

-12a soil t he r m og raph, box, post, ch arts, and ink ~ere shipped to Assistant Plant Quarantine Inspector Geraldus Gay, of the port inspection service at Charleston. Mr. Gay mounted the thermograph in a pos'ition on the Custom House ,.gfounds n~a r .the local WeathBr Bureau station. Some assista~ce in installing a nd . starting the inst'rument was given by the Wee.ther Bureau Meteorologist • . Soil ternper atures a t a 6-•inch depth are recorded from M ond a y to Sunday inclusive , the fi_lleld ch arts being me.'iled to the treating division in New J;rsey on . M ond a y of each week• The instrument. w2.s _first placed iri opera.ti on on J~ugust 1. . . . . Nursery and greerl'h .ouse s coutin'g' to determin e a bsence or presence of adult be . etles o _ n or within 5 00 . feet of classified premises w a s l argely discon . tinu,ed by the end of .hu g u st, altho'ug h crews in Conn ecticut, Mass achusetts, New J ersey , New York, a nd Pennsylvania were continued until Septe mber 3 in order to complete a full 'week's scouting . Crews in Hagerstown, . Md., e.nd Cl arendon and Norfolk, Va., wer e disba ~ded on ~ u gust 13. A fprm scouting ~rew employed o~ Maryland funds a nd working out of the Balt~more office was disbanded on August 20~ On t h e same date a single nursery and" greenhouse ctew assigned to the Baltimore t erritory was discontinued. Crews operating in Delaware and the DeJ_rp.arva P eninsula _ were also l e .id of'f on the latter date • . O n the basis_ of soil ~nalyses m~de by the toxological division in the chemical labo r atory a t White Horse, 1,532,96 9 . square feet, or 35.2 acres of nurser y plots 6 orit~ i n i ng 2379569 plants ~ori determined as of the required . l ead arsenate content and the p l ants thereon eligiblefor certification without further treatment. Heeling-in area to the extent of 335,821 square feet, • or 7.7 acres, was i i milarly d e t e r mined as co~taining 1,500 pounds of lead.arsena t e pe r a .ere an d therefore conforms to the disinfection requirements for treate d soil i n whi ch potte d planis eligible for certification might be plunged betwee n Oct obe r 1 6 a nd Jun~ 149 the season of adult beetle inactivity. * .Exte rmination of the isolated infestation last year discovered in• Charleston, S. C., i s indicated by the negative results of this seaso1;•s trapping operations i n that city. Six hundred.traps ope r a t e d in Charleston from May 4 to A u gust 31, 1931 . , resulted in the collection of three. beetles early in June , with an additional trip c atch of one be etle lats in July. The following Novembe r 6 tons ofpowdered l ead a rsenate wer e applied to 24 acre s of ground surrounding the p remises on. whi ch th~ b eetle s were taken • . This season 800 traps wer e placed in Charleston on May _ 18 an d were operated through A u gust.6. Results of the trapping just c oncluded_w~r e ' entirely n egative. • . Abatement o f the aduJ_ t .beetle flight in the fhiladelphia waterfront and marke t sections was apparen t during the s ec ond wee k in t u gust. Practical disappear~nc~ of the insect i n flig h t proportions by August12 r en d ered it safe to restore 24~hour inspection service at th~ Phila d elphia inspectirin center, beginni ng a t midn i gh t o n that date. Interested m erchants and commission men were noti f i ed o f the r eestablished full~time inspection s ervice throug h widespread distribution of advance prepared l etters and through ne w s article s prominently featured in the Philadelphia .daily p apers-

PAGE 13

-13-With the virtual disappearance by hugust 12 of the beetle in appreciable numbers in the vicinity' of Philadelphia banana piers, fumigation requirer1ents as a requisite for certification of bananas in carloa d lots were revoked. Screening of c ars shipped with open bunkers was continued as one of the required safe0uards. Dry weather during Jmgust interfered somewhat with the usual routine nursery procedure in Jew J erseJ . In one instance lack of moisture occasioned a halt i n hyd rangea potting a e tivities. Trapp i ng activities outside the regulated areas were concluded during ~u gust in North Carolina, South Carolina, Virginia, Maryland, and a numb~r of points in Pennsylvania. S pe cialized Corn Borer ~ctivities Scouting for the European corn borer be ga n on August l; 30 crews worke d out of the South rorwalk Office , in the S t ates of New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, :Maryland$ and Virginia. Ten first-record infestations were picked up during the month , as fol lows : .ugust 1 ;.ugust 4 ,,ugust 6 ;,ugust 6 ;,ugust 9 ,,u gust 13 ;,ugust 1 6 ;,ugust 17 : u gust 18 ;1ugust 26 Terore r a nc eville (Atlantic District), ~ccomac County, Va. Locustville (Le e District), hccomac County, Va. K intnersville (},octamixon Township) , Bucks County, Pa . Wappsville (Wetompkin D istrict), ~ccomac County, Va. Uppe r Black Eddy ( Bridgeton Tovmship), Bucks County, Pa . F r anklin (Tinicum To~mship), Bucks County, Pa . Newar k C ewark District), Worcester County, Md. Sno w Hill (Sno,v Hill District), \Vorc e-ster County, Md. S no~ Hill (Co l bcur~e District), Worcester County, ~d . Girdletree (Stockto n District), Worceste r County, ~d . Stockton District ~ d., was found to be infested on a res, out. t, representetive cf the Outpost F arm and .Iursery Corporation of Ridge field, Conno, c a l l e d a t the dorwalk Office recently to confer w:th M r . Worthley and Llr. Johnson on the possibility of trapping and treating an a rea n3ar their nursery ,here J a pc:.nese beetles hr..ve been found. They ,,ish to do this to prevent the spread of the infestation to their property. ~lthough it was d ecide d not t o do anything this season, be c a us e of the short ti~e before cold weather s ets in, the owners do intend to do some central work in 1933 . On ; , ugust 5 , whi16 s couting a clc..ssified establish1:1ent in East orwalk, Conn. , a member .of the scout c1 r1 found a Jape.nose beetle on the inside o f a screen of the house un c.d.jcining: propertyo It is believ e d that the be tle cc.me in produce purchased from a l o c=1.l 111c.rket s ince no J re beetl e s c ould b f o u nd in the v icinity afte r thorou6h scouting.

PAGE 14

-14_ Fruit growers in the t ovms of G l astonbury, East Hartford~ coventry, Manc h ester, PortlEmd, and South Bolton, Conn., have formed an orga,nization of 90 members with the object of auctioning and pooling their fruit. Fruit not sold a t auction is pooled and trucked to markets. Most of these markets are outside the regulated area , and an inspector h a s been assigned to the m arkets to make d aily inspections and to certify the material leaving the area. Scouti~g w2. s di:ec~ e d from -~he Sp:,ingfi el~, Ohio, office in West Virginia, Kentucky, I nd 10.na, Ill1no1s1 and W i s co nsin. The t erritory was divided into three districts; each district we.s divided i nto sections. A supervisor was placed in charge of ~ach district with an a ssi~tant fo~ each section, as follows: S ection No. 1 K entucky West Virginia Ohio River bo t tom Section No. 2 ---------I nd i ana Secti~ Qll_No. 3 Illinois W i sconsin A total of 22smen wer e originally sent to the field. 1he state of Illinois is furnishing a.nd p aying 16 scouts w ho were trained in the Bureau of Plant Quarant~ne scou t s c hoo l and wer e sent to the field in five 3-man c rew s directly super vised by a State man under the supervision and direction of the Bureau of Plant Quarantine . The Sta t e of W isconsi n i s furnishing and paying 6 men who were p l a c ed in the Bureau o f Plant Quarantine crew s for supervision. The prol ong e d drought andextreme heat during-the morith has ripened the c orn v eryrapidly and much of the corn i n West Yirginia,.Kentucky, and Wisconsin h a s been p laced in th~ shock and in silos . Com p a r atively few infest ations have been f_ound beyond the a rea know n t o b e infest ed last year, which is attributed to the unfavorable atmospheric conditions during . t he fl~ght of the corri borer moth. An infestation survey was stante d on A ugust 15 in coop eration with the Bureau of Entomo l ogy and the Deps .rtmept of Agriculture of the State of Indiana, f o r co r n bore r population in standi ng .corn . Fifteo ~ 1-m a n crews and two supervisors wer e furnishe d by i;he Bureau of Plan t Qua rantine. The survey extends into 25 counties i ~ Michigan, 23 in I nd iana, 48 in Ohio, l in Pennsylvania, and 23 in New York. Reports indicate an increase o f infestation ov e r last y ear in some counties previously heavil y infested and certain s ections of counties not previously i n surve y show heav y infestation~. Ind icati ons a r e t o date that there will be an i ncrease i n borer population in a numb e r o f Ohio and Michigan counties. The most notable increases at the pre s ent writing a r e in Washtenaw a nd Lapeer Counti es,. Mich.~ and Champaign County, Ohi o . The last-named county was previously con s ider e d a borde r county as far as infestation was c on c erned. O n A u gust 29j the Btirea u of Entomologyj in coope r ation with the State of Conn~cticu t and the Bureau of Plant Q u erantine, began survey work in Connecticut. Thci work will cover the ~ntire State and will continue approximately four weeks. The . Bureau is also doing survey work in the Lim a bean a rea on Long Island.

PAGE 15

-15MEXICAN FRUIT FLY The first application of nicotine-molasses bait spray was completed during the first week of ~ugust. total of 3,645,426 trees located in 6,927 groves and 4,456 town yards were sprayed. The baitin0 of these trees required the issuance of 18,779 gallons of molasses and 940 gallons of nicotine. The bait was applied by means of 350 knapsack sprayers. ~11 trees having fruit this season or which had fruit last year were sprayed. Approximately one month was required to apply the bait. The second application oi' ti1e bait was started f,ugust 15. With the experience gained in the first application, it was thou ht that the second application could be completed by the 1st of Se pterr:ber, "nd but for the advent of the fall rains during the lo.st two weeks of Lugust, this would have been accomplished. As it was , the great majority of the groves were sprayed by the end of the month . During the interv 1 between sprays, the requisitions for the material for the second application were 1f.lri tten up . To save timJ and expense and to allow for better organization of tho rk, supplies of molasses and nicotine ,ere carried in the truc~s and the requisitions anrl materials delivered to the ~~jority of the growers at the farms. This scheme allo~ed the work to be organized to a l2rge oxte~t to restricted areas orroads in the districts and resulted in a m i nimum of back calls i n cont~cting the growers. By having the requisitiors alruady written up it was unnecessary to keep the district office s open, which released all i~spector0 for field duty. While the growers had been fairly v:ell educDted d iring the first ap plication of the bait, it was necessary to i~press on some of them the importance of putting the bait spray progrRm ahead of the regular routine grove j hs. L s in the first round, the insrectors observed long hours during the second application of the bait. Growers were contacted and requisitions and .~teri~ls delivered during the day . Spray g uns wsre visited daily and any rep2.irs necessary ";ere made . Usually these "guns" were picked up after dark from the groves in which the baiting h d been corrpleted ond delivered to growers on the \aiting lists. The ideas of many of the g rowers concerning the ease of Gove r nment jobs were consirlerably changed when tl1ey were gotten out of bed to recGi ve spray gun s in order thnt the:' might get an early start the following niorning. C onsiderable rivalry was engender e d between the i~spectors in C ameron and 'Villacy Counties and in Hidalgo County by the wager of a barbecue dinner. 'The inspectors of the cc-,unty in which the spray progr m we.s first completed were to bA the guests cf the other inspectors at he barbecue. Only one refusal to apply the s r ay ~as en cuuntered in the first application and t:ii ~rower applied the spray during the secorid application• :.r -other owne r ap~lied the first application, but refused to apply the second. Thero i q still a possibility of thi s grove being prayed the second time. Ji. most gru.tifying spirit of helrfulness and assistance to the work was

PAGE 16

-1.6-show n by the ve.rious agencies and individuals o f the Valley. I nnumerable cases occurred of growers sprayi ng ne i ghboring absent~e-ovmed or abandoned properties. City g ov ernments, c hambe r s o f co mmerce , and luncheon clubs don a t e d funds to pay for the application of the bait t o back-y ard plantings. Stora g e space for the mat eria l s WP. s furn ished wi t _hout cost by packing p l ants and i ndividuals. In the neighbo.rhood of 400 steel drums w e r e loaned by the various oil c ornp:. : rn i e s for storing the m o lass es. With out this assistance the 100 p e r c en t c~verag e of bearing trees in the V alley would h ave b~e~ wellnigh i mposs i b le. The work i n Matamoros w a s c arrie d o n along the same lines as in previous months. All fruit arrivin g i n Matamor o s was examined by both the Mexican and American inspectors b efore be i ng released to the co nsignees. The ex a min ation of this fruit during the mont h showed a remarkably light infest~ tion. Only 3 f r it were fou n d to b e infested and only 8 larvae were recovered. The operation of 196 traps in Matamoros resulted in taking 1 adult fruit fly. Poison b a i t spray w a s immedi ately applie d to the trees in the four b locks surroundi n g this prem i s e . ---------PINK BOLLWORM Th e 8radi c ation of wild cotton in sout-he-rn Florida h a s progressed very s a t i s f actorily . T he principa l areas cov ered during the month were four ~aunties o n t h e w est co ast, and Key Largo, so~th of ihe mainland. On the west c oest some 36 colonies~ which covered, a n esti m a t e d area of 77 acres, were d estroyed, con s isting of s ome 2 6,761 plants, of shrub size ari d l e r ger, and 3,906 seedli n g s . On K e y L&tr go it we.s impossible to esti m ate the numbe r of plants r emov e d a nd r1.creage covered, due to the fact that a considerable number of n o n were emp l oy ed. However, the .colonie s weie especially l a r ge , several cov e r i n g from 5 to 15 acr0 s o f swam p land, a nd extending along the hammock for over a mile in one o r two ins tances . The c lean-up of wild cotton.in the vicinity of the t o1J1m of Ev e r g lades, i n C o llier County , was beg un o n J..u gust 29, but b e c ause o f hig h w a t e r f rom the tropical stor m .it w a s possible to work only one d ay. During this time 3 9 individu 1 wild cotton plant s were remov e d from va d nn t lot s in t he c i t y l i m i t so It will be recalle d tha t quite a bit of infested wi l d cotton w e . s f ound in this area d u r i n g the survey i n June , _but the almost i m p a s s a b l e roads, c nuse d b y t h e r ainy season, h a ve m ~ de it i mpracticable to begin a clea n up b efore this time. The c l e an-up will b e resumed a s soon e.s possible. In additio n t o theabov e c l ean-up, dooryard plantings were removed in .five southe r n counties. I n 26 loc~ t i ons these do o r y ard planting s consisted of domestic c otton, 539 plant s be ing removed, while 6 1 wild cotton plants wer e r emov e d from 4 l o c ations . I n one i nstance p ermission h act previou sly been ref u s e d f o r the remov a l of a dooryard plant, but a t this time permission was g r anted.

PAGE 17

-17-During the montl" a party of two inspectors has been performing field inspection in counties in south-centra l Florida. They have covere d 43-3/4 acres 0f commercial cotton, 3 acres of volunteer cotton, and volunteer c otton scattered over a 30-acre citrus g r ove . The commercial cotton acreage includes 29-3/4 acres of co operative Sea-island plantings. This cotton will be inspected periodically duri ng the season. Practically all available material on the volunteer cotton was examined . No indications of the pink bollworm were found. In addition to the field inspeetion 0. gin-trash machine bega . n operating in northern Florida the latte r part of the month. Only a small amount of trash was available, e . nd the r osul ts wer e all negative . Field inspecti on has been continue d in the Salt River Valley of Arizona . bt the end of the month practically all of the acreage had been covered. hll results in this a rea have also been negative. The ginning seas o n is now getting under way, and gin-trash inspection ,ill be substituted for r;reen-boll inspection. The first p art of hu g ur,t two gin-trash machines began ope rating in the lower Rio Grande Valley of Texas. Later in the month five additional m achine s began ope rrrting in the a rea s outh of S a n :1ntonio between Lare do and Corpus Christi. No specimens of the pink boll r orm wer e taken during the month. The machines have now been removed t o co unties in southeastern Texas. In the Pig Ben d e.rea of Texas the first cotton was ginned on u gust 27, and trash from the first three b Rles was inspecte d with a machine. The first bale contained 241 live pL1k bo llwor, s , 24 dead , and 62 pupae; the second, 1,644 livings 200 dead, and 150 pupae, e . nd ti1e third, 710 living , 124 de a d , and 88 pupae. These results indicate that the infestation at this time is the heaviest in the history of the ig Bend . Plans have been made f o r a thoro ugh cle a n up of the heavily infested Big Bend area as soon as the c ctton ciop h a s been gnthe r ed. The area involved con sists of about 3 , 500 acres. The~ c h inery for this clean -up, consisting of a tractor, side-delivery r ke , sled cutter, &nd all necessary p arts, h n s be e n sent tq the area, having been trar1sferred from the European Corn Eorer Proje t. The side-delivery rake i s a specia l mach ine d eveloped by that project for raking cornstalks. It i of special interest to note tha t the machine has bee n given a preliminary test ~nd fou d to be vell adapted for our purposes without making any alterations . T ! e farmers a r e very much intere ted in this cleanup campaign and have all promised full cooperation in the progr~1 . In conn ection with the cleanup , pick ble and nonpi~kable boll c o unts will be made in some 20 diffe rent fields. I n making thes0 cunts 200 stalks will be used, 40 in ee ch corne r and 40 i n the C8nt e r o f the field. The plants h a v e be en staked off and will b e left until the remainder o f the crop has been picked, after which the counts will e made. Sjwilar c ounts ~ill o m~de again the followjng year, and a comparison of the two counts should give sone indication of the value of the cleanu . During the wonth tho ginnors h a ve been busy ov erhauling their innin and sterilize r equipm~nt . Ins p ectors h a ve bee n supervising this work , which is

PAGE 18

-18-practically fin i s h ed. l1 few bales of cotton h a ve already been ginned in' most of the areas. The stationary gin-trash machine s us e d w ithin the regulated areas have also been ov erhauled, and will b~gin operations as soon as a sufficie~t s~pply of trash i s availabl ~ . The d iscovery ,of, t he pirik . boliwo~m i n Florida h a s made some ch a nges neces~a~y in the inspection wor k -i~ th~ Sbutheastern Sta t es. I n order to handle the large area involved more satisfactorily, a man hiits bee. n placed i n each state fro m Mississippi to S outh _ C,,.,roline.; who will be ch arged with full responsibility to deternJ i ne whethe r o r not the State is infested. To do this he will_ oPer?te a gin-tra~h mac h ine' during _ t he . ginning season an d " colle~t ,boll materi a l . for inspection . during the spri ng c.;.nd e arly summer. The states e. ~.nc;erned are cooper2 i i ng in so far asth~y are able • . T h e boll mat eria l is now being collec t ed , and gin-trash inspection will g _ e t unde r way s hortly . It is bel:i..ev .,d tha t thif3 is a b etter plan tha . n to send men into the States for brief periods of; inspection. --------_PF.EVENTING SPREAD OF MOTHS It is felt .tha t the defoliation observati ons h ave been taken in a better manner this season .tha n previously. Some time was spent during the early spring a t t he Greenfield office in artificia lly defoli ating specimens_ of deciduous a nd coniferous trees to definite percentages o f defoliation~ a nd most of the field men who took the defolis.tion records i n the field this s1unrner had an opportunity to see spme of the work and to estimate knovm defoliation. Photographs were m a de of individua l t rees that had be en e .rtificie.lly defolh:.ted to known degrees of d efoliation , a nd the men w ho made the ocs. ervations vrnr e suppli ed with prints of these photog r aphs. This experiment ~hawed the t men are likely to und ~restirnat~ the degree of defoliation. Al l Qf the field men w ho wer e used on the d efoliation work have had cons i d e rable e xperience in mapping woodland areas a n d in det e r min i ng acreages, and are well quali f i ed to determi n e the extent of the area and de g ree of ~efoliation. 1n differe~t blocks of woodland. In order to make the figures obtained more useful in connection with oe terrnining the d~mage , the :defoliation was r eported this year under d~finite de g rees rath~r than.by classes as had previously b a en done. F~r instance~ in 1930 and 1 931 _ , d efoliation was reported in classes such a s 1-10 p e r c ent, 10-50 p J r cent, and 50-100 p e r c .ent, while thi . s year the defoliation. was r eported a~ 25 per cent,. 50 per cent, 75 per cent, a n d 100 p e r cent, and in a few cases , some defoliation w a s repo~t~d as 90 p e r cent. About 6,000 acres wete_reported as less than 25 p e r cent. I n general, no attempt was made to report defoliation this year i hat was less thin 25 pe r cent~ because the spring .studies of d e f oliation showed that .it was practically i mposs i b l e to estimate defoliation-tha_ t . is less than 25 per c e nt. O f ~ourse ~he . defoliation for 1932 l es~ than 25.pei cent was really v ery rnu ch g r oat.e r than that shown in the accompanying tabulation, but

PAGE 19

-19-had estimates been nade as i n previous years of a class of defoliation from 1-10 per cent, the total figure of area affected would be very ~uch greater. In the State of Massachuse~ts the area is divided into districts, each in charge of a State Division man. There are six districts in the eastern half of the State, and a Federal rna.n went over each district with the State Division man Daking their estimates together. In ew Hampshire and liaine, State officials reported the defoliation in areas that were laid out for The rest of the area i n these two States where defoliation was likely to occur was divided up and surveyed by Federal ' The summary shows a total of 286,395 acres affected this season, with 42,398 acres entirely defolioted and 10 , 980 acres 90 per cent defoliated, which would cause practicall y as much injury as if the trees were completely defoliated. The sur~ary also shows a large increase in the area affected in ,hode Island and i n Connecticut. I n New Hanpshire th e total area affected as reported is less than last year. This is due to the fact that areas where less than 25 pe r cent defoliation occurred wer e not reported this year. How e ver, ther e was sever e defoliation in New Hampshire, especially i n the region occupied by the to1J1ms north of L a ke Vi/innipesaukee at Ossipee , Freedom , Effing har 11, Conway , i\~adison, and Concord . Ove r a considerable part of New Hampshire small pockets of infestat'ion are building up , arid i t is expected that next year there will be a considerable increase in defoliation i n that State. Thi s is also true in l\'.aine and parts of Massachusetts. There was r.10re defoliation in Rhode Island and Connecticut than usual this year and i f certain areas in these States were surveyed BS closely to obtain defoliation records as was done in Tuiassachusetts, New Han:pshire, and !Vlaine, the acreages reported aff acted in the fernier States would be considerably greater. Nurabe r of J,cres Defoliated an( the De~__of_]2efoliation __ _!a t e ______ :Less than_ 25~:_25i__: _ SO!__: 75% ; 90%: 10_Q%.__o __ Total 1,ia in e ------: 6 , 14 9-} : 9 , 12 o: 8 , 4 3 o1 : 11 , 5 4 7 : 1 , 0 7 0 : 5 , 9 8 0 : New Hampshire----:-------~-----:2 1 883 : 13 972 : 5 549 : 505 : 1 378 : ' ' ' ' Ver mont----------: 1 :-------:-------:-------:-----~------: Massachusetts----: 310 :43,37d :51, 412 60,857:9, 4 5 : 35 , 033 : Rhode Island-----: 1 : 113 : 85 : 172:-----: 5 : Connecticut"-----: 3 : 51: 20 16:-----: 2: 42,2971 43,287 1 200,387 37 461 The work of placi g the asser1bling cages, properly baited, throughout the barrierzone area in 1lew York and New England was con luded during August for the season. A totAl of 5,822 cages containing overwintered naterial wer e placed as follows: I ~ New York, 201 set out by the F ederal force~ and 250 by the New York State force; in VerFlont, 1,061; in Kassachusetts, 1 ,103; in Connecticut, 1,275, and in New Jersey, 1 ,907. Of the total

PAGE 20

-:-20--5.r?;z2 ~her e w e r e 25 a s s embling cages given.to the . Ent ornolog .i"cal Branch of the Can a d ian Go~ern~enl t o be. p l a c e d in a num b ~ r of . po ints in the t erritory bn the Cane.di a n side nea r e . s t the , infestation f o u n d on Iv:etcalfe Islaml;-Hig hgat e , Vt., and. near the s ite o f the Hen r y s burg inf e.sta-tton of s e y e r a l y ears. a go. :\ . ., 1 j : a l e r11oth s .'h13.v ~ been _ trapped 'i n . s e v e r a l _Massa. c husetts and Conn~cti.cut b ard. er-z one towr i s not p _revi. o u s ly.' known to, be. infest.ed. Tn~y h a v e _ aiso.-.been take n a t cages i n .severa l towns whe r e a gipsy moth i11f,estation has not. been d iscover ed for sever a l yea~s. To d a t e t rie re have . be. e n no m ale gipsy moths t rapped a t tho asser.1bling c a ges i n V e r mont, -New York _ , or New J ersey._ It is. expected that t h e assemb~ing cages will b e 6olle c ted b y the end of S eptembe r a t w h:i. c h t iri1e thi s work will be surnr.1a:ri zed . • . -... . Th i s year i n connec tion with the collection or tho female gipsy moth pupae used i n o b t a i ning b aitmat oria l for the assembling cages, approximatei'y so_ ,000 i!!.!JDia. ~if11a t a is stie d from the p upae. This is a T achinid pupal p arasite o f the gips i moth. These insects wer e turne d o~ e r to the gipsy moth l a bar. a t ory . f o r experi111er i t a l purpo s e s a n d for colonization. Durir1g A u g u st, a hygro:..t h e r niog r a ph for r ecor.dirg temperature an.d_ hu E1:i.dity was s e t u p adja c en t to the building on which a c~ mbine d .. wind direction and vel ocity .recorde r was ins t a .lled. T h e l atte r i nstrumen t was put on the_ . r oo f of one o f the storage bui l d i n g s use d by t h ;is project in Greenfield, Mass. An 1 8:-f oo t mast with r olle r bE-) aring for a -6. f oot w i n d vane at the fop and with a crosi a r m for an anem omet e r wai s e t up. This equipment h a s ~een wired to a . r i1eteorog ruph for r e cording th0 r ecords within the building • . Th e .machine s . will be i n daily oper ation thr o u ghout the year. It is expected t _ h a t very useful d ata w i l l be obta ined whic h can be u.se d in connection with .the gipsyn: otl} prob lem. , i • All agent s i n the scouting force not adm i nL:it-rative furlqugh un.til Sep_t.E;r.19 e r _ 15. bei n g ca .rried o n b y the F'ed e r a l f orc . e . in ,the ~ssem bling cag e work o on s~eci i a l .isii g nments are taking , N o Work, therefore , is i t -pre a ent barrie ~-z-0ne a rea, excepting the 'I'h e p r elim inar y scouting w o r : k b e i _ ng . c-aTrie d . o n .in ,nor..t.ho a ~tern Pe n~sylvani a todet eirr.1 ine the a.pprox:i.mat e a r e . a gen e r ally i n f est e d ,w.tth t h:e gipsy .moth was . c on t i n u ed d uring ' Aug u _st. I n tl1isc 1ass o f -SCQ Ut i u g Vv'_ O . r: .k, ;no at'ten)Pt ~ s . made to thoroughly .exan i n e the i erni tor y c o v e r ed~.but a s ,S..Q .OJ'l _ _ as a n infesta-. tion i s disco'vered .the meh ' d isconti-nue scouting work i n th.e . . r ~g.ion. -in_feste d .. :and" t8;k8 up , _ o _rk appro x imat e l y . l m i;l. e J urther _On, and t.his pr.oc . edu. r e :is Con t • inued until.no i n •festatiorr i s :ourid. Work .. was' first sti1,rte . d -about l'. mile from I nk e rman. ,. -~ .. , ' .. To date infestatiori i s kriown to ex ist i n , 8 t ownsi ps, name l y : Pittsto n ~ Jenki'1s, P}ains~ Bear Cree k,-Wilkes-Barre ; K i n[~s t o ,n, an, : Ex eter, i n Luz e r : 1e .. C ou n.ty , and L r.ck wanna_, ~.::-1 Lucke.wanna C . ounty. . . . . . . : _ . All nurserie s l o c a t e d wftpi n and t h ose jus t ou tside_ of t h e are a known to

PAGE 21

-21-be generally infested have been thoroughly sco~ted and no living gipsy moth infestation was founcl . ~n old gipsy moth egg cluster was discovered however . ' ' on a spruce tree plar..ted in the Wyoming Valley Nursery situated in the Bar ugh of 'Vyoming, King ston Township, and 91 new egg clusters were found on trees and fences within 100 yards of the nursery. Arrangements have been made with the ovvner of this nurser y to have any stock that is to be shipped reinspected be fore it is dug . On days unfit for scouting work but satisfactory for othe r out-ofdoor work , the scouting force have been instructed to creosote ~gg clusters found on walls, fences$ trunks of trees, etc . , particularly so where there i s great danger that they riiay be di st urbed or broken. Very little of this work has been done to date because the weather has been either favorable for scouting or too eever e to c a rry on outside work. Information received from a district quarantine inspector indicates that the ever green shipping season this fall will commence somewhat earlier this year. Because of soil cond itions with an abundance of moisture, the new growth on the evergreens seems to be iVell hardened, making it possible to dig and transport plants of this class. That the Fed eral quarantine inspection service provides more protection to noninfested s ections of the country than is indicated by the infes t ations removed on materia l that is shipped, continues to be evident. It has been r e portod that a quE..rry locate d i n southern Nei'I Hampshire has quite a heavy gipsy moth infestation in the woodland i n~ediately surrounding it, and some of the treas close to the stored quarry products are infested. This quarry is a small one which has not shipped outside of the ~uarantined a rea for 1any years, if e v er. As no c lls for inspection h a d been r e c eived from the r e , the cle .n-up recommer.dations which are cu stor1ary h, d not been give • The first shipment inspected at the quarry was found infeste d with gipsy ~oths. The district ins~ector pointed out the s 0 v erity of the existing gipsy moth to the quarry foreman, who h a s promised to u ndertake control measures. These measures consist of cutting trees and brush close to the qu arry, and possibly others in the woodlands inrr1ediately surrounding the qu arry. The inspector will satisfy himself that ~ 11 necessary work is done . Because of the unusually dan gerous gipsy mot h infestation existin in couther:.stern Iviass'achusetts, the district quarantine inspector at Middleboro has heeri instructed to spend as ~uch time as possible visiting tourist c amps located in this vicinity and to look over the equipri1e! : t particularly when the stay at such earns has been of f airly long duration. At pre sent 110st of the egg clusters have boen deposited by the female moths and the equipment of tourists who arrive at the ca1~s from now on will not becorre infested . In a few c ases, i t has been reported thqt p~rties have been staying at caops for long perirds. I n one such i~stLncc, egg clusters were nn the be lcng: ~g to a r.an v~ho l rd 0, i ends to move further s c : ; :1. His equipr1ent wi.l 1 be inspecte d card'ully and all infest.~tion Nill be re1..ov0d before he leaves•

PAGE 22

-22. A t South Yarmouth, Mass., the d istrict inspector creosoted and removed 12 gipsy moth e g g clusters from a camp trailer and equipment • . Th. e egg clusters w e r e found on the traile r itself an~ on boxes. and boards use d in the equipment O The owner 9f the camp trn.ile r and equipment is a traveling photogr apher who exp?cts t? start for Florida before September 1. Arrangements were made to have his trailer ~ nd equ~pment • given a final inspection when he starts for the South. Amo ng t he numerous types of camps inspected were several "gipsy camps" operated by the Stanl e ys~ a well k n ovm tribe of nomads who weave baskets and ~ractice palruistry o At the Tho mas So Stanley gipsy ca~p at West Yarmouth . Mas s • 5 7 ,3.0 new g ipsy moth egg clus t ers were removed from 5 tents and 2 tr~ilers. The district inspector was assiste d in removing the egg clusters by the State District Moih Sup erintendent and one of his men. Although all but two o f the tents were to be stored in Y a r mouth, Mass., for the winter, it shows ~he danger of spread by camping ~quipment carrying infestations • . Mr. Stanley intend s to travei by auto -during the winter, stopping a t over-night camps. Arrangements h a ve beer:i made for a final inspection of autos, tra-ile_rs, and tents b efdre he ~reaks camp. The r e are five i n fested camps foun~ in the vicinity of Newfound Lake and Lake W i nnipesa: uk e e 3 N • . H. Ove r 500 gipsy moth egg clusters were located on the -tree s i n the, camp grounds. Instructions wer e given to the camp owners by the quarantine inspector to creosote all e g g clusters as ioon as possible and t o thoroughly spray the trees on the ~amp grounds next spfing with arsenate of l ead. N o cam p equipment was found to b e infested. I Nearly e very r:1onth it is recorde d in the monthly r eports of the quarantine activitie s that egg clusters and ~the r stage s . of the gipsy moth are found on nat erials being inspected prior t o shipment. Such infestation is always removed before c ertificates are i ssued. Ea ch y ea r the annual report shows that egg clusters or othe r stages a r e rer:10v ed by the hundreds, and the . n ecessity' for inspection is therefor e quite evident.Al thoug h the total infestations removed from inspected mat e rials each year is sufficient to be quite impressive, it does not compa r e with the amounts found and remov ed years a g o when inspeGtion a ctivities wer e newe r and whe n the ins pectors in the field did not obta~n the coope ration from the shippers ~hich is now very general. It can not be claimed tha t all of t h e d ecreas e i n infestation found on inspected materials is due to g r eate r oars on the part o f the shippers, for there have been de~reases in the gener a l infestatio~ in s ome localities. The a dd e d r e s trictions i mposed upon nurseries in 1923 reduc e d to the vanishing poin t the infestations found on nur sery stock. I t is c ertain, ho wever, ihat the majo r portion of the d ecrease is du ~ to action take n by shippe r s following advice give n by the district inspectors. Control measure s around qu arries and s~orage yards, the storag~ of materia l s awa y from trees an d bushes, and the sel ection of noninfested articles for outside shipment has added much in k eeping materials f ree fror:1 infestation and r e du cing the f i nding s during inspectiono Onl y a few years ago, the yearly totals o f egg cluste r s and oth e r stages of the gipsy moth and brown-tail moth were r ecorde d in thousands rather tha n in hundreds. In the 20 y ears that the

PAGE 23

-23 ... gipsy Ii:oth a.nd brown-tail moth quarn ntine has been in force, i . e., from ovember 25, 1912, to date, 101,016 gipsy moth e gg clusters, together with 11,260 of the other stages of the sace insect, h&ve been removed from shipPents. There Lave boen rernove d :.:.lso 1,027 winter webs of the brown-tail moth an d 1,54-7 of the other stages OJ., th:.s insect. Shipments of one or more of all of the different types of quarantined products, which are evergreen, forest , nursery, and quarry, froQ ~ich infestations have been removed, have gone to 44 of the States and the District of C olur.1bia. Only Idaho, Montana, i ievada, and Oregon have receive d nc;me. Such ship1:1ents have gone also to Alb erta, ~ew Brunswick, ,!.ova S~otia, Ont ario, and Que.be e in the Canadian Provinces, and to England. l' or a 1 ew of the States, only occasional shipments fror. 1 vrhich infestations were re~oved, were recorded RS being shipped5 but for nost of the States Many s~ch shipments have bee n r ecorded and on nu0erous occasions nany gipsy moth e g g clusters were r ar 1 oved froc such shipoents. It is quite evident that had no inspection iestrictions been i~posed, both of tho insects would no~ have been established in alcost all portions of the U~ited Sta t e s wher e food plants were fa rorable, In addition to shirnents consisting entirely of qua r nt ine d products. , the district inspectors 1 ust be on the w atch for shipQents of different natures which nay include orticle s regulated und ; r the quc..rantine. Because Quarantine No. 45 has been in force for a long time and due to the educational work which has beE,n perforned by all thoso engaged' in its enforcement, a gents of comr.ion carriers and shippers are well a cqu a i nted with the r egulations and will not knowingly accept for shi~rren t regulated articles unless they h a ve be n inspectd a nd properly certified. r;h ere shirr j1ents fron the qu c rantine d a rea consist alr:ost entirely of articles not r egulated , the shippe r or Agent nay ov erlook the fact that sr•all arou~ts of regulated articles ere i ncluded and that these inclusions n e cessitate i~spection and place the wl ole shipcent under the quarant irni r equirer1ents . Occasionally the district inspec t ors locate shipments entirely forei~ n to the gipsy moth quarantine which h a v e included with them ri1at erie ls regulated by the quarantine. Such c.. shipment was re ort ed r e centl y by the inepector statione d at Pl nouth, : • I • He found poles and lun b e r in a cattle car which h ~ d been used for the construction of stalls. On inspection, these were found to b e infested ith six gipsy ~oth egg clus t ers. The egg clusters w(lru crt;c:fl oted and rer.10ve d . This particular finding er1phas i z es the fact th~t co ntinual watchfulness on the p art of the inspectors is necessary nd pointc conclusively to the fact th~ t the insect may be 0pread by innumerable neans. During p eriods of business inactivity the duties of the quarantine i n spectors may be lightened to some e xtent, but it often happens th t following such inactivity the inspectors find that their work has incre~sed. This i s du e in r.:any cases to the fact ttat r.1at e ri. l s do not rove rA.pidly durin~ tir.es ,hen business i s slow9 and for this reason they are stored for long periods and "'r : cons(Jqu .ntly C'X p os ed t o :infestation r tch beyond the usu a l time. During periods o::.' b1...si11ess inactivity ~ the inspectors advise the ovmers of the est pla c e to store the raterials so that they will h9 away possible sources of infestation. This is p artici l arly trio of certain type s of stone and quarry

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UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA II I II IIIIII I l l Ill lllll lllll Ill llll l l lll lll l llll II 1111111111111 1 1 3 1262 09245 0864 -24 ... products ,suer a s pavi ng blocks 9 or f o . rest produ.cts w h ere lumb e r may be cut and in• pile s for years b efor e it is shippe d for pulpwood~ and w h ere an ov e rproductio n of a n umbe r of othe r mat erials can rtot be absorbed by ma~kets. W e h a v e received i ndications tha t some materials produced som e time_ J a go, w hich h a ve been ston~d awaiting markets, are beginning to r;1ove slowly~ J and b e cause a long time has elapsed since theirproduction, infestations have , developed i n the immediate vicinitie s a n d careful inspection will be necessary. In t h e Portland9 fie .~ district~ there is a large pile of scrap metal which is inf e s t ed and which will require t-horough inspection b efore shipment. Because ~f the low price which has p revaile d for this kind of for the past three o r f our years, several c arloa d ~ o f t his metal have accumulated. In the past, the d e a l e r has not accur:1Ulated such large ar:wunts of this junk but has shi p pe d it quite regularly. Then the r e was small chance of its becoming inf este d b e f ore shipm ent. Prac tically ali of these shipments went to points_. outside of the q u a rantine d e . rea, a . nd when he is able to find a market fo_ r _his pre sent stock, it i s quite prob a b l e that m o s t o f it will be sent otitside. Arrang ements h a v e been for thoroug h i nspection prior to shipment. At t he p r e s ent t i me, b ecaw:H; of the nature of' the mat erial~ inspection is ir.1pos• s ible . It will b e n e c e ssary, no dou bt, tci _discard a orta.in hol_low piece s of m e t al,b c c ause if the s e a r e i n f e s t ed , it would be v ery difficult to remove t he e g g clusters found on the i n side .