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News letter

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News letter
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United States -- Plant Quarantine and Control Administration
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Washington, D.C.
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Plant Quarantine and Control Administration
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Monthly
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English

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Plants -- Diseases and pests -- Control -- Periodicals -- United States ( lcsh )
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serial ( sobekcm )
federal government publication ( marcgt )

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Began with: no.1 (Jan. 1931)
Dates or Sequential Designation:
Ceased with: no.18 (June 1932)
General Note:
"Not for publication".

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University of Florida
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This item is a work of the U.S. federal government and not subject to copyright pursuant to 17 U.S.C. §105.
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030428070 ( ALEPH )
785786312 ( OCLC )
2012229621 ( LCCN )

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PLANT QUARA4TINE AND CONTROL ADMINISTRATION

UNITED STATES DEARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE




Number 16 (NOT FOR PUJBLICAT[ION) April 1, 1932.



AaNIS'rRTIVF,

Four public hearings to consider t~ae status and possible discontinuance of four important Federal domestic plant quarantines, those on the
European corn borer, the Japanese beetle, the white pine blister rust, and
narcissus bulbs, were held at Washington, D. C., March 24 to 28. These
hearings were held to consider the present value, need, and effectiveness
of the quarantines, and to determine the public sentiment about them. This is in line with the department policy to consider any changes in conditions
which may have taken lace since their establishment. It was proposed to
find out just how much benefit results from our efforts and whether the cost is justified; also whether or not the investigation of control methods, parasit *es, and resistant varieties has reached the stage where Federal quarantines on interstate movement of plants should be removed; whether the spread of the diseases and pests has been so wide as to make further Federal control
undesirable and inexpedient; and whether the States that are threatened by
these pests and diseases are able to fight them as efficiently and economicall.y as the Federal authorities can do it.

The March 24 hearing was on the advisability of revoking the European
corn borer quarantine, now effective in 13 States--Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, Massachusetts, Connecticut, Rhode Island, New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Ohio, Michigan, Indiana, and West Virginia.

In the Japanese beetle hearing March 25, the conference considered es!] pecially whether the advantages of the quarantine restrictions justified the
costs off the administration and the expense to the shippers in complying with
them. The Japanese beetle quarantine is now effective in Pennsylvania, New
Jersey, New York, Delaware, Connecticut, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, District
of Columbia, Virginia, and Maryland. Although there is no quarantine in Ohio
and South Carolina, the beetle-was discovered in those States last year.

The March 26 hearing considered the quarantine on the white pine blister rust. The disease was discovered last year in Iowa, MJaryland, Ohio, Virginia, and West Virginia. if deemed necessary the quarantine may be extended
to these five States, and also to Delaware and the District of Columbia, both









of which are surrounded by infested territory. White pine blister rust has existed heretofore in parts'of Connecticut, Idaho, Maine, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, Montana, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Vermont, Washington, and Wisconsin.

The fourth hearing, March 28, was on the quarantine and certification of narcissus bulbs for interstate movement. The narcissus quarantine covers all interstate shipments. The States which produce a million or morenarcisss bulbs aaFyear are: California, Florida, Georgia, Illinois, Maryland, Michigan,. Miappouri,. New Jersey, New.York,.- Oregon, Rhode IslanduNorth eGarlinA South Carolina, Texas, Virginia, and Washington.




.TTECHNOLOGICAL

Dr. Lon A. Hawkine has been in the Lower Rio Grande Valley since March 4, supervising movements of citrus shipments as affected by the recently amended Mexican fruit.worm quarantine.. J. M. Luckie is assisting.him in this work

'ecause of extremely mild weather during the latter part of February, it was possible to obtain a large number of soil samples from leaded plots at and near the Japanese beetle laboratory at White Horse, N. J. A new .type of tool enables a much more rapid sampling than has heretofore been possible, G. A. Russell, in-charge of the soil analysis tests at White Horse, states that the.time required for taking samples has been reduced at least 50 per cent by use of the new. sampler,




FOREIGN PLANT QUARANTINES

RECENT ENTOMOLOGICAL INTERCEPTIONS OF INTEREST

Thrips on chinkerichee.--Haplothrips nigricornis Bagn. was intercepted at New York and Philadelphia on cut flowers of chinkerichee (Ornithogalum thyrsoides) in the mail from South Africa.

Thrips from South Africa.--The thrips Frankliniella schultzei Trybom was intercepted at Philadelphiaon out flowers of chinkerichee. in the mail from South Africa. This represents the first interception of this thrips by inspectors of the Plant Quarantine and Control Administration.

Bruchid in chiekpeas.--Callosobruchus analis (Fabr,) was intercepted at New York in chickpea (Cicer arietinum) seed in s.tpres from India. This bruchid is not known to occur in the continental United States.






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Erotylid from Panama.--Scaphidomorphus bosci Guer. (Erotylidae) was
intercepted at San Francisco with bananas in cargo from Panama. This represents the first interception of this insect in our files.

Bruchid in the mail.--Bruchidius villosus (Fabr.) (Bruchidae) was intercepted at Washington, D. C., in Laburn vUlgare seed in the mail from Denmark and Italy. This bruchid is reported as occurringin Massachusetts.

Cucujid from Polynesia.--Telephanus insularis Sharp (Cucujidae) was
intercepted at San Francisco with caao beans in cargo from Polynesia. This beetle has also arrived from American Samoa, Guam,. and Tahiti.

Bruchid from France.--Phelomerus germaini Pic (Bruchidae)- was intercepted at Washington, D.'C., in Parkinsonia aculeata seed in the mail from Paris, France. This bruchid is not recorded from the continental United States.

Endomychid from Panama.--Adults of Phalantha chlmpion4Gorh; Endomychidae) were intercepted. at San Francisco on bananas in cargo from Panama. This beetle was taken on bananas in cargo from Jamaica in 1926.

Larva in evergreen cone.--A larva of Ernobium abietis Fabr. (Anobiidae) was intercepted at Philadelphia in an evergreen cone in the mail from Germany. This insect, which has also arrived in spruce cones .fg> Poland, is reported to be very destructive to cones in Europe, where it eats the seeds.

Cucujid from Panama.--Telephanus brontoides Sharp (Cucujidae) was intercepted at San Francisco with bananas in cargo from Panama. This-cucujid has also arrived with bananas from Costa Rica, Guatemala, Honduras, and Mexlco6.

Pyralid in Lima beans.--Adults of Fundella cistipennis Dyar (Pyralidae) were found in Porto Rico in Lima bean pods intended for export in cargo. This insect, which bores in the pods and stems of legumes, is not known to occur in the continental United States.

Sweetpotato weevil from Mexico.--A pupa of the sweetpotato weevil (Cylas formicarius Fabr.) was intercepted at Brownsville',.'Tex.,..in-sweetotato in baggage from ,,exico. This weevil, which was introduced into this country years ago, attacks the sweetpotato tuber both in the field and in storage.

Scale insect from the Philippines.--Lepidosaphes mcgregori Banks (Coccidae) was intercepted at San Francisco on coconuts in the mail from the Philippines.

Thrips on rhododendron.--Hapl6thrips aculeatus forma funebris Pr. was intercepted at Washington, D. C., on a rhododendron cutting in the express from The Netherlands. J. R. Watson, of Gainesville, Fla., states that "M thrips aculeatus is one of the most cormon thrips in EUrope. It is not known to occur in this country."


.. { o t&NTBOA1






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RECEN PATHOLOGICAL INTERCEPTIONS OF INTEREST

Olive knot caused by Bacterium savastanoi was intercepted on olive
cuttings from Italy found in baggage at New York. The specialist who verified the determination found typical pockets with millions of bacteria in them, in sections made through the outgrowth. This disease seems to gain entrance frequently through wounds made in harvesting the fruit and in early stages may be mistaken for callus tissue. It was introduced into California before Nursery Stock, Plant, and Seed Quarantine #37 was promulgated.

Elsinoe canavaliae was intercepted at Boston on Lima beans from Jamaica, in baggage. This 6eems to be the first .report of this disease from Jamaica.

Ascochyta pisi, the asexual stage of Mycosphaerella pinnodes, the
cause of a serious blight, was found in pea ri ship's stores at New Orleans. The peas were from Brazil. vhile the disease is widespread and has been intercepted from several other countries, this is the first interception of it from Brazil.

Colletotrichum lagenarium, mentioned in the March, 1932, News Letter, p. 3, as being collected in Porto Rico on squash, has been intercepted at Boston on narrow, a type of squash, from Cuba.

Puceinia urbaniana, a leaf rustj, was intercepted in a package of
Stachytarpeta sp. mailed locally at San Juan, porto Rico. The host resembles verbena and is in the same family.

Coniothyrium hellebori recently reported .as intercepted from Holland
(see the News Letter for Nov. 1931, p. 5) has been intercepted at New York on Helleborus sp. from Germany, in mail.

Plants of loco weed from Mexico intercepted at Douglas, Ariz., were affected with Phoma astragali and Puccinia sp. Seympur lists Uromyces spp. as occurring on loco weed but does not list any species of Puccinia.

The specialist who was interested in a study of the possible relationship of Cerotostomella adiposurm and Thielaviopsis sp. on Chinese waterchestnuts (see page 3 of the March, 1932, News Letter) has been transferred and will be unable to continue this study at present. He now believes that the Thielaviopsis, which he has determined as T. paradoxa, is distinct from the Ceratostomella in so far as the material studied is concerned.

A specimen of rust collected on tree cotton leaves (Gossypium sp.) in
the field in Porto Rico proved to be Cerotelium- deemium. This disease is list ed under the name Kuehneola gossypii in Stevenson's manual, p. 83.

Cerotelium canavaliae was collected on Canavalia sp. in Porto Rico.
Thus far there have been no reports of Elsinoe canavaliae on this host in Cube









or Porto Rico, making it appear that the Lima bean scab organism is a distinct strain if not a new species.

Aphelenchus avenae was intercepted at Philadelphia in potato from
Italy in the mail. The only previous interception of this pest from Italy was in onion.

PACKING MATERIAL HARBORS INSECTS

That packing material from foreign countries may often serve as hiding quarters for a, numerous and varied assortment of insect life, both injurious and harmless, is well illustrated by a foreign mail shipment examined by plant quarantine inspectors at Philadelphia on February 2, 1932. From the moss packing used in a package of 100 grape cuttings from Czechoslovakia, the inspectors.took out the following living insects. (Interceotion Nos. 14737 14743.)

27 miscellaneous coleopterous adults determined as Atheta
sp.; Stenus sp., Tachyporus chrysomelinus, Meligethes aeneus, Coccinella 7-punctata var. externepunctata, Coccinella 14-oustulata,
Sciaphilus muricatus, Apion sp., Ceutorhynchus sp., Phyllotreta
nemorum, P. vittula, P. atra.

20 hemipterous adults Eurygaster hottentotus, Eurydema
oleraceum, Dolycoris baccarum, Aelia acuminata, Rhyparochromus
chiragra, Peritrechus geniculatus, Trapezonotus ullrichi,*Lygus
pratensis.

4 thrips Haplothrips acauleatus, Limothrips denticornis.

1 dipterous larva and 1 dipterous pupa Sciara sp., sp. of
Syrphidae.

2 coleopterous larvae- Cantharis sp.

3 lepidopterous larvae sp. of Pyralidae: Pyraustinae.

4 ants not yet determined.

All the determinations given were made at Washington by specialists of the Department. As a matter of further interest some notes concerning several of these insects taken from Pierce's Manual and the Rev. App. Ent., are here assembled.

Phyllotreta nemorum, P. vittula, and P. atra (flea beetles) occur in Europe and all injure the foliage of their respective host plants. They are not known to occur in the United States. P. nemorum in Russia attacks rhubarb, hope, and cabbage. P. atra and P. nemorum in Europe injure crucifers, the adults feed on the foliage, and the larvae usually attack the stem or roots.










P. vittula (rape and grain beetle) mines leaves of Setaria; adults feed on beets and rape (Hungary); larvae feed in base of stems of barley, rye, and wheat, causing much damage (Scandinavia; Russia).

Several species of Apion are recorded as very serious cotton pests which are not known to occur in the United States. A number of species of Ceutorhynchus occurring in Europe and not known to occur in the United States are serious pests of such hosts as radish, rape, cabbage, and turnips.

F. Stranak, in the Rev. of Appl. Entomology 1922, p. 503, says that
the damage done by thrips to grain (rye, wheat, barley, and oats) in Czechoslovakia is more serious than is generally recognized. Even the apparently sound spikelets are weakened in an infested ear of rye. The lower ones are those usually destroyed, and the upper ones are deprived of support and the ear breaks. Haplothrips acauleatus is the chief species on rye, which is also infested by Limothrips denticornis. L. denticornis is the principal species on barley. Both species also injure wheat and oats. H. acauleatus is common in Europe but not known to occur in the United States. L. denticornis is likewise common in Europe. It has been reported from two places in New York.

Eurydema oleraceum (cabbage bug) is injurious to cabbage and other crucifers in Russia and Norway, to cereals in Denmark, to lettuce in France, Aelia acuminata is one of the chief pests of cereals in the field in Spain. Dolycoris baccarum is reported to be definitely injurious to cereals and potatoes in Cyprus... Eurygaster hottentotus is reported in Russia on grain. The foregoing Hemiptera are not known to occur in the United States. Peritrechus geniculatus is not recorded in the United States but is not known to be of economic importance. Rhyparochromus sp. is a pest of grapes in Australia. R. chiragra is reported to attack gooseberries in Russia, R. chiragra var. californicus has been taken in central California. Tranezonotus ullrichi (Tripleps niger var. ullrichi) is recorded once in a catalogue from, California,


It may be stated as a summary of this outstanding case that of 62 live individuals found in the moss of this one mail package, 47 were adults belong-! ing to 20 different species of Coleoptera and Hemiptera; 6 larvae and 1 pupa represented three different insect -families; the 4 thrips were of two genera; and the 4 ants are as yet undetermined.

Further, it is of interest to note that 12 of the species represented are undoubtedly to be classed as plant pests and of these 10 are not known to occur in the United States.

To complete the picture it is added that this shipment was being sent through the mails without the safeguarding identification tag, required for all foreign nursery stock brought in by mail, and the vigilance of the inspection system was all that prevented this assorted lot of foreign insect population from being liberated somewhere in the United -States of America.






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HIDING TU FROM THE INSPECTOR

On February 25, William J. Ehinger, while engaged in the examination of foreign parcel-post packages at Philadelphia, intercepted a box which to outward appearances contained dried peas and preserves. A close examination, however, revealed the presence of a false bottom under which were found 57 rose cuttings. The rose cuttings were immediately removed and destroyed.

ROPE CARRIES COTTONSEED

0. D. Deputy, Chief Inspector of District No. 1, at Brownsville, Tex., notes in a letter of February 17, a rather unusual interception.

"Yesterday while on duty at the new bridge, Mr. Haller made a rather
surprising interception. It consisted of some Mexican rope said to have
been made in Monterey, Mexico. At any rate it had evidently been twisted
in an old warehouse that had been used to store everything imaginable,
for the rope had braided into it shooks, small bits of cloth, cottonseed, seed cotton, cotton lint, and other bits of debris. The rope was refused
entry. The importer was allowed to return it to Mexico."

A HALF-CENTURY OF FOREIGN QUARA1rTINE

It is of considerable present historical interest to recall that on March 4, 1881, fifty-one years ago, an act was approved by the California legislature authorizing quarantine action with respect to vine diseases and vine pests. Because of the total absence of any Federal activity in quarantine matters at that time, it may be surmised that this act covered the field of foreign as well as domestic quarantine. On March 13, 1883, this act was amended to include diseases and pests of fruit and fruit trees, and on March 9, 1885, it was further broadened to give it jurisdiction over practically all materials concerned in carrying insects and diseases, coming into the State either from another State or from foreign countries. Apparently this California act was the first legislation in North America to provide for general quarantine action against the insects and diseases of crop plants. Prior to the date of its passage, Massachusetts had placed a ban on the maintenance of barberry plants (1760); Michigan had a peach yellows quarantine (1875); and several States, including Missouri, Minnesota, Kansas, and Nebraska, had passed local grasshopper laws (1877). Apparently the first plant quarantine law in Canada was a local one against peach yellows enacted by the Province of Ontario on March 4, 1881.



DOMESTIC PLAIN QUARAW.INES

Announcement received from the Florida State Plant Board in a special bulletin dated February 17, regarding recent modifications in quarantines of that State, includes the following statement:










A number of the State regulations which have heretofore
been somewhat in conflict with Federal regulations covering the same subject matter have been so revised as to-bring them into
conformity with the quarantine requirements of the plant Quarantine and Control Administration, United States Department of
Agriculture, as applying to both domestic and foreign subjects.

The domestic quarantines referred to are those relating to the Japanese beetle, the European corn borer, the gipsy moth and brown-tail moth, and the Mexican fruit worm. The Florida State rule on the movement of narcissus bulbs parallels now, as heretofore, the Federal quarantine on the subject.

TRANSIT INSPECTION

Nursery stock shipping through Saint Paul and Minneapolis during the fall ot 1931 was almost 15 per cent less than that in the fall of 1930, according to a statement by George W. Nelson, transit inspector at the Twin Cities, in his recent annual report. The week having the largest number of shipments came earlier than last year, the peak of the 1931 fall shipping having been reached the second week in October, while in 1930 it was not reached until Thanksgiving. The total number of violations intercepted, however, Mr. Nelson states, is 20, the same as last year. They were as follows: Four violations of the Japanese beetle quarantine, 9 of the white-pine blister rust, and 7 of the narcissus bulb quarantine. More violations were intercepted in the mail than in express and freight combined.

The importance of Springfield, Mass., as a transit inspection point,
where inspection has been carried on since last May, was emphasized by Inspector E. J. McNerney in his recent annual report for 1931, in which he states:

The outstanding fact noted was that the bulk of the parcels
inspected originated in the generally infested Japanese beetle area.
More than 95 per cent of the parcels were in sacks and made up as
directs from the office of origin to the terminal.

It is safe to say that had no attention been given to this
point, the 129 parcels shipped in violation of the Japanese beetle
quarantine would never have been intercepted.

The report shows that, 175 violations of the various quarantines were found during the year at Springfield. At Boston, 1,017 violations were found.

Among the State inspectors cooperating with the Federal Department of Agriculture on transit inspection this spring are Mr. Rodgers, Knoxville, Tenn.,; Charles Denny, St. Louis, Mo.; J. Carl Dawson, Kansas City, Mo.; V. F. Peterson, St. Paul, Minn.; A. L. Piller, Milwaukee, Wis.; H. F. Seifert, W. R. Jack, and James S. Conard, Chicago, Ill., and P. L. 'Wray, Hamlet, N. C. Arrangements are being made for the assignment of a Nebraska State inspector at Omaha.









PHONY PEACH DISEASE

Florida State offitials announce that a rule has been adopted restrlieting intrastate movement of peach and nectarine trees and roots from the area affected with the phony peach disease. The rule parallels the Federal quarantine on the subject.




DATE SCALE

During February fan and other ornamental palms were inspected on infested properties. Four large fan palms were found lightly infested on a property in the Imperial Valley. In 1928 one large date palm was found heavily infested on this place and dug out. The fan palms were not inspected at that time. ,Treatment in this case consisted in cutting off all the foliage except the bud and spraying.with a heavy oil spray. All leaves were carefully examined and some of the older dead leaves (which were probably the first round of expanded leaves when the date palm was dug out) were rather heavily infested. The scales on these leaves we.e, of course, dead. The intensi ty, of the infestation decreased.toward the green leaves. On one palm 21 dead and 3 green leaves were found infested. On two others scale was found on the dead leaves only.

From this and other instances it would seem that the parlatoria scale
will live and breed on young fan palms and recently expanded crown leaves, As the leaves .become older they harden an4.only a small percentage of the seale lives. The leaves grow rapidly and die in a compa-ratively short time, so the palm naturally has a small top of green leaves with the trunk shielded frcm base to crown with.dead leaves. The bases of the leaves harden rapidly after expanding, so there is no danger of infestation below the fiber line. The leaves of the date palm remain alive for many years, and neither the leaves or leaf bases harden as in the 6ase of fan palms.

The Coachella Valley is a widened continuation of the San Gorgonio pass, a rather narrow out between the San Bernardino and San Jatinto Mountains. From Banning in the pass to Indio in the valley, a distance of about 45 miles, there is a drop of from 2,300 feet above sea level to 22 feet below. Me ec, near the Salton Sea, at the lower end of the Coachella Valley, is 198 feet below sea ltel. The water for irrigation is pumped from the underground reserv,-.r em riJJp d by the run-off of rain and melting snow in the surrounding mzornta:n ,hJ water table in the lower end of the valley is high and mray of the .i3 are artesian. As a result of thisi mesquite and other desert "egetatic: gzow rapidly and in dense masses.

The first development in the valley and the first date [.1 tngr were ib the vicinity of Mecca. Many places were cleared and lat rted 'o e, s dtes and other crops and later abandoned. Parlatoria scale e was brou4.t n on imrlported palms and spread to the seedlings, many of them in mesquite jne.






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The larger plantings and most of the smaller ones were readily located during the first survey and more of the scattered palms were located and listed during the regular inspections following. However, it seemed probable that a few palms would be overlooked, so a careful section-by-section survey to discover unlisted palms in the infested area was begun when tiMe permitted. During February the infested area was completed; 116 square miles were covered and 132 small unlisted palms, none of them infested, were found. M~ore than half were seedlings and offshoots in old plantings which had been dug out.



IEUROPEAN CORN BORER AN~D T.APA.NESE BEETLE

General Project News

Dealers in New York reported unusually poor business conditions during the month. In the U-holesale Flower Market,.the receipt of supple a eo
normal for this period of the year and reports from there indicated that if the demand had been up to normal, the supply would have been greatly inadequate.

S. S. Croesman was transferred from the Japanese Beetle and European
Corn Borer Projects to the Gipsy and Brown-Tail Moth Projects, effective February 19, 1932.

W. G. Bemis, Plant Quarantine Inspector, Port Inspection Service, was elected President of the Boston USDA Club, at a meeting held in Boston on December 17, 1932. The Coordinator, First Area, and sixteen activities of the Department were represented at the meeting.

The question of the *donation of a day's pay for charitable purposes was fully discussed and the following pledge wa's unanimously adopted for presentation to the entire personnel of the Department in Boston, viz:

"VWe, the undersigned employees of the U. S. Department of Agriculture,
located in Boston, Mass., agr .ee to devote 'at least one day's pay, or its equivalent in commodities, by the end of February, 19:32, for charitable purposes, either 'towards the relief of unemployment and destitution personally known to us in the communities in which we reside, or by donating the amount to a worthy public charity.,,

Specialized Corn Borer Activities

Inspectors of the Rhode Island State Department of Agriculture are now engaged in making a survey of the corn-growing areas witIjin theo Stutc nd checking up on all persons who failed to comply with the law in relation to plowing under all corn stubble by December 1. In connection with the suppression of the European corn borer over 4,000 notices were posted throughout the State and several radio talks and press releases were issued, citing the law and the









necessity of doing this clean-up work at the proper time. All persons failing to comply with the law are being notified to appear in person before the Commissioner of Agriculture for hearings. Over 700 offenders appeared before the Commissioner last year for hearings and were warned to clean up their premises. The Department intends to impose penalties on all second offenders found this year.

The new European corn borer regulations, which became effective February 5, greatly reduced the number of calls for inspection, especially in New York City. Activities were so decreased in that area that it was possible to transfer two men to the South Norwalk headquarters for duty.

During the month, the New York City office investigated the movement of' imported dried corn silk, after a shipment of this material was held up at a port in California for lack of a certificate or permit. It was found that this corn silk was imported from Italy and is used for medicinal purposes* It is dried and baled before shipment, and it was thought that there is little likelihood of infestation of the European corn borer being spread by such movement.

In the New Jersey area, a survey of growing conditions was made, with
the assistance of the county agents, and some valuable information was secured pertaining to the numbers of growers and the quarantined products raised in any abundance in the southern and northern part of the State.

On February 24 and -25, M,. J. Kelly, with Frank Irons, of the Bureau of
Agricultural Engineering, made a check-up trip to the farms at Temperanceville, Va4, where the isolated European corn borer infestation was found in October, 1931, and where clean-up work was carried on in December, in cooperation with the Bureau of Agricultural Engineering. It was found that a very good coaerage of stalks had been effected during the clean-up and that no stalks had come to the surface of the ground during the winter.

Preparation of Riker Mounts Containing European Corn Borer Life Cycle and Damaged Corn

The material for the Riker mounts, in which are shown the life cycle of the European corn borer and corn damaged by it, is collected when corn borer pupae, male and female moths, larvae, egg masses, and damaged corn material can be most readily found. Pupae are collected in. June; moths, and corn tassels broken over by the corn borer, in July; and stalks, stubble, and ears showing injury, in September and Octobor. Larvae are collected in January or February, and egg masses are secured with the aid of the Bureau of Entomology,
in July.

To secure the egg masses, male and female moths and sheets of black paper are placed in a room in which temperature and humidity are controlled, and the female moths deposit the egg masses on the black paper. After the deposition of the eggs, the black paper is immediately cut into small sections with






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one to several egg masses on each. They are then placed in a solution of formaldehyde and alcohol for preservation.

The corn material is heat treated prior to the preparation of the mounts to kill any corn borer larvae it might contain.

The damaged corn ears, after the heat treatment, are placed in small metal pans, made for the purpose, and then covered with hot paraffin. When the paraffin has cooled and hardened, the ears are split down through the middle with a power circular saw. The paraffin protects the grain from shattering during the sawing process. The halves of the split ears will show either damage to the grain or tunnels in the pith of the cob, and frequently
plenty of both are visible.

The Riker mounts in which the material is placed for exhibition "are
12"1 x 16"1 x lV1It. In one mount are placed a high stubble, a low stubble, and a tassel. The stubbles are half sections, so that the internal damage can be seen. The tassel is shown with the break caused by the tunneling of the corn borer in evidence, and a section cut out so that the tunnel made by the borer is visible. Preserved larvae are placed in the tunnels of the stubbles and tassel.

The preserved larvae placed in all corn material in the mounts are preserved as follows:

A slit is cut in the anal end of a living larva. The larva is then
laid on a piece of blotting paper and the viscera forced out through the slit by rolling a pencil or some other round object from the head to the rear. The pointed end of a glass tube (one end of the tube is heated and pulled to a point with forceps, the very tip then being broken off so as to have a small aperture) is inserted into the slit made in the borer, the other end of the glass tube-being attached to the rubber tubing of a cautery outfit. A small metal cli- fastened to the glass tube holds the larval skin in place. Before placing tnt, larval skin on the glass tube, the tube is filled with a mixture of hot par2.ffin and beeswax sucked into it by using the bulb of the cautery outfit. The paraffin and wax mixture cools and hardens while the borer skin is being placed on the glass tube, so the tube is held over a small gas burner, the heat of which *soon melts the mixture. A slight pressure on the bulb injects soir.is of the mixture into the empty skin, inflating it to normal size. The inflated, or stuffed, larval skin is imediately dipped into cold water which hardens the wax and paraffin mixture and gives to the whole a realistic appearance.

After the stubbles and tassel are placed on the cotton in the Piker
mount a frame of pasteboard is placed over them. There are three openings in the pasteboard frame, through two of which can be seen either one or the othei of the stubble 's, and through the third the tassel, all lying neatly on cotton. On the pasteboard frame and at the sides and bottom of the openings are legen with explanations of damage and recommendations for control.









The second mount contains the different stages in the life cycle of the European corn borer, and portions of stalks and ears in which damage is apparent.

The moths collected the previous July are now relaxed in small crocks containing moist blotting paper, or moist sawdust, with a few drops of carbolic.acid added to keep out the mold. After the relaxation, the moths are spread in the positioni.desired..

One male and one female'moth'are placed in the second mount on the
cotton filling. Next' the female., and to the right of it is set a small vial containing 'an egg mass still on a small section of the black paper on which it was deposited.by the .femKle moth during the oviposition period the previous July. The edge of the black paper containing the egg mass is pressed between the glass of the.vial and.the cork, so that there is no chance for it to become turned around-and the egg mass hid from view. To the right of the vial containing theegg mass is-placed a vial containing a corn borer larva. _The oorn. borer i glued to a narrow strip of celluloid, one end of which-is placed ina slit in the'cork of the vial to prevent the borer from becoming turned around. 'It is desired to show the dorsal or-back view of the borer larva on account of the characteristic markings that can be seen there. The vials containing the egg mass and the punae are filled with a solution of alcohol and formaldehyde which acts as a preservative.

In thia~ second mount are also placed three halves of the split ears previously described, and pertiois-of two stalks. One of'the half ears is deonc:or, one is -sweet-coi A, and the third is flint corn. In some instances the ears are-placed sd that.the damage to the grain can be seen; in others, so that ,the tunnels in the pith of the-cobs are,visible. Inflated larvae are placed inthe'tunnels of ,the ears and-stalks.

A pasteboard frame is then placed over the above-mentioned material as in the first mount. There are four openings in the frame. Through one the stages in the, corn borer life cycle are visible; in one a half ear of damaged flint corn appears; in oneois seen a-damaged half ear of sweet corn; and, in
the f-ourth,, two portions of damaged stalks with a damaged ear of flint corn between them complete the picture.. Legends With explanations of the life cycle and.damage are printed at the sides and bottoms of the openings in the
frame.

Glass covers are then fastened on the mounts by means of passe part: t tape. A hole 1)" iri diameter is cut 'in the back of the mount and through it is poured l ounces of paradichlorobenzine to serve as a repellant for dermestids and other museum pests.

The mounts are then placed in: boxes, one of each in a box, the box packed with excelsior, and the set is ready' to' be sent out for educational purposes. One hundred sets of these mounts were made up in February of this year. A set of these mounts is usually termed "A County Agent Set of Corn Borer Mounts."






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Exclusive or Combination Japanese Beetle Work

After the receipt of the new regulations, work was begun in New York City on the posting of plant dealers and the Tholesale Flower Market, and informing dealers of the new regulations.

On February 17, H. N. Bartley attended a conference at Albany, N. Y., with Messrs. P. 111. Eastman, C. P. Norgord, and Commissioner B. A. Pyrke, of the State Department of Agriculture, on the Japanese beetle and European corr borer quarantines. New York State's policy was explained by Commissioner Pyrke. Briefly, New York is not in favor of road patrol work as it affects the stopping of all vehicles. They would operate stations on roads leading out of the heavily infested districts for the purpose of stopping trucks that might be carrying uncertified balled nursery stock.

Messrs. C. H. Hadley and W. E. Fleming, of the Japanese beetle -researc laboratory of the Bureau of Entomology, Moorestown, N. J., on February 3 conferred with officials at the South Norwalk headquarters concerning methods an practices in chemically treating nursery stock as a requisite for certification. Dr. Lon A. Hawkins, of the Administration's technological division, ar Messrs. V. A. Johnson and G. K. Handle, from the project's New Jerpey distric office, were also in South Norwalk on February 4 for the purpose of similar discussions.

Conferences have been held with H. B. Weiss, of the New Jersey Department of Agriculture, in anticipation of a program involving the use of approi imately 1,250 traps in Sussex County, N. J., during the coming season of adu! Japanese beetle flight. Past scouting in this northernmost county of the State has been with negative results. As contemplated, the trapping activiti are designed as a check on the negative finds of previous years., The results should also give some indication of the relative efficiency and economy of scouts and traps in covering a definite territory,

For the purpose of testing and certifying Federal and State automobile equipment used on the Japanese beetle project in Pennsylvania, the State Department of Revenue in Harrisburg has designated the garage operated in conjunction with the new Japanese beetle district office at Oakmoont, Pa., as an official testing station. Brakes, lights, horns, and windshield wipers on th motor vehicles are being thoroughly serviced so that they may be inspected an certified before March 31, the concluding date of the Commonwealth's safety campaign.

Available personnel of the project suboffices, not otherwise assigned,
were during February engaged in a survey of all greenhouses, nursery establis ments, and plant dealers located in the zones of Japanese beetle quarantine operations. Visits are being made principally to those unclassified establis ments with whom the inspection corps' does not usually contact. This is the most intensive visitation campaign undertaken within recent years throughout the entire restricted zone. It should prove of considerable value in inform






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dealers of their privileges of moving quarantined articles under certification. Each firm or individual visited is being supplied with a copy of the regulations, and such verbal information As circumstances require.

A survey was completed during February of 24 nurseries and 41 greenhouse establishments located in those portions of Erie, Blair, Lycoming, Clinton, Wayie, and Pike Counties, Pa., added to the regulated territory under the 10th revision of the regulations effective January 1, 1932. An inspector visited'each establishment, furnished the management with quarantine information, and obtained data concerning the extent of their business, with particular reference to shipments requiring certification. None of the establishments visited are within a quarter of a mile of a Japanese beetle infestation. Most of them are a mile or more from a beetle find. Accordingly, such of these 65 establishments as desire certification may obtain the same under Class I conditions, which entail a minimum of inconvenience to the shipper..

Letters were dispatched during the month to all classified establishments for the purpose of securing information as to the different units of their'premisesthey desire scouted during the coming summer. On several occasions last year nurserymen failed to notify suboffices of additional leased or purchased ground isolated from their establishments. Since a Class I status-.is conditioneAdapon determination by scouts of freedom from infestation of the premises concerned and adjacent area within a radius of 500 feet, it is necessary to impose Class III requirements upon such unscouted units until opportunity is afforded during the next adult season to determine absence or presence of the insect. Requests for information dispatched to classified establishments erphasize the desirability of supplying us with advance information of plots to be scouted so that their premises may acquire as preferential-status as possible.

Cost data have been compiled to show comparisons between lead arsenate applications as a dry mixture in combination with sand and a fertilizer, and in spray form. Since the first lead arsenate-sand-tankage mixture was applied with fertilizer distributors in Springfield, M ass., in June, 1929, a total of 137,743 pounds of lead has been applied by this method to 565 acres at isolated infestations. The average rate of application has been 244 pounds, which has been applied at a cost of $65.12 per acre or 26.71 per pound. The last dry mix was spread at the Boston Navy Yard in Mayj 1931. Spray applications to soil surface have been practiced in all subsequent treatments. Almost identical acreages have been treated by the two mthods, a total of 558 acres having been poisoned through the wet application. A much larger quantity of the arsenical, 248,158 pounds, has been applied by the latter method and at a lower cost. It has been possible through spraying to apply an average dosage of 444 pounds per acre at an acreage cost of $60.99, or 13,7/ per pound. The spray method is now exclusively employed in soil poisoning of infestations rermte from the zone of continuous infestation. iTests are being conducted at the New Jersey district office of a number of mechanical contrivances, constructed at that office for the purposo of removing adult beetles











from string beans. Enforcement of the farm products quarantine this coming summer will require the thorough inspection of thousands of bushels of beans that in the past have in the most part been eligible for certification without inspection on the basis of freedom from infestation of the premises where grown. Cedarville, Cumberland County, is the center for the bean-growLng section in southern Jersey. One grower alone raises 175 acres of string beans. Prior to last summer's scouting season only scattered infestations had been evidenced in this vicinity. Inspection of a percentage of the beans shipped and the fields in which they were grown failed to disclose any beetles in 35,627 units inspected during 1930. Last year 67 beetles were removed from 61,708 units certified. It is anticipated that the infestation- in 1932 will be sufficiently general to require actual inspection of the major portion of the beans shipped from the Cedarville district to points outside the reguelated territory. Accordingly, it is essential that some satisfactory means of expeditiously removing beetle infestation from the beans be perfected. Beans used in testing the mechanical "debeetlers" are infested with live Japanese beetles obtained from uncertified greenhouses in the Philadelphia area.

Reconditioning and painting of.traps continued throughout the month. Failure to fulfill specifications of white paint purchased for painting baffles and funnels necessitated discontinuation of spray painting for a short period. A large movable drying rack has been constructed on which may be stored baffle and funnel combinations between coats. Accumulation of green painted cylinders finished during the interim when paint was not available for completion of the remainder of the trap assemblies formed a pile 7 feet high, occupying 540 square feet of floor space.

Potted A,.U3r hinodegiri have successfully been grown in soil containing a dosage of ca ;a+ cf lead equivalent to 1,840 pounds per acre. Plants so grown appee-r tL 1 o ark.r ,, foliage and to be stockier and heavier budded than specimn.s pct-ed i coi co.ntaining lesser dosages cf the poison. These results were obtained in a few pr~:li1n~,ry chemical treating tests made to determine effect of the arsenical soil insecticide on growth of this plant species.

February collections of adult beetles in greenhouses connected with
Horticultural Hall, Fairmcunt Park, Philadeiphia, netted a total of 376 beetle During a similar period in 1931, 757 were ~clected. A log of daily hand col lections is .ep by X E. Schmtt, si irt;rdenrt cf the greenhouses. This
city-owned instituion, does not cpera7 corneCially, nor do exhibit plants housed there in mrovei to toioi ti reulated environs.

Readj-stren, of nursery and gre iunoe cla7 sification records to conform to rev-ied re1uirenht3 in newly pra.gacd relations has been accomplished. A c, tli f t9'7 Clss 1 e, ;J.isb'e ..utr ica 1y reverted to
Class 1 stat:.s. riJs means a esse.n:g o re,;rietuies .n all unn:sted prem ises pievic-iAv cf Cluss II status, irrespective of theii proximity to infesta tion beyond the 500 feet radius prescribed by the regulations.






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Numerous complimentary responses have been received from classified
nurserymen, postmasters, and others to whom have been distributed the recently mimeographed "Shipper's Guide" containing a list of cities and towns within the territory regulated under Quarantine No. 48. Guides have been delivered to classified establishments and are in process of distribution to all post offices within the regulated area.




P111K BOLLWORM

At the close of the gin trash Inspection season the findings made in the Salt River Valley of Arizona were carefully analyzed to determine the present status of the infestation, and it was found that light infestations still exist in the vicinity of Laveen and in a small area southeast of Chandler, both of which are in Maricopa County. This is a considerable reduction in both the number of specimens found and the area infested over the previous year, and seems that we are now in a very favorable -position to eradicate the insect entirely from the Salt River Valley. Therefore, definite recommendations as to the procedure to be followed in producing the coming crop were
submitted to the Arizona Commission of Agriculture and Horticulture early in February. These recommendations were that all fields in the infested areas be cleaned, plowed, and irrigated, and the planting of the new crop be delayed as late ag practicable; also that no stub, cotton be grown or allowed to grow within the two areas. A survey was made in the two areas to determine the intention of the growers for this year's operations. Due to economic conditions it was impossible to obtain definite information in a number of cases. It was learned, however, that approximately 1,800 acres would be planted to cotton and 1,350 acres would be stubbed. on 4,200 acres the owners were undecided. It was further learned that some 2,300 acres in cotton the past season Muld be abandoned. The latter part of February the Chairman of the Commission called a meeting of growers and other cotton interests to discuss ways and means of complying with the recommendations. The growers were somewhat hesitant to clean their own fields unless some way could be found to take care of the abandoned acreage. An effort is now being made to devise plans for cleaning this abandoned acreage.

A considerable amount of field.inspection has been performed in Maricopa County for the presence of the pink bollworm, and also to determine the condition of the roots of cotton stalks. In some sections practically 100 per cent of the roots are alive, while' in others only 25 Der cent are alive. The roots seem to be in a much better condition in light sandy soil than in the heavier soils. A number of farmers who had intended to stub some of the ,fields have recently stated that not enough plants are alive to make this profitable, and that they would plow them up and plant in the regular way. Rains and cool weather have retarded the stub cotton, and up to the present time no new growth has been observed.










A laboratory for the inspection of seed samp-les has been opened at E1 Paso, using the quarters formerly occupied by the Technological Division. The seed samples to be examined were collected from local gins throughout the El Paso Valley, and also a considerable supply from various oil mills in east Texas. The method of inspection is the same as that followed at the San Antonio laboratory last season; that is, the seeds are imbedded in paraffin blocks and then sliced. Some 76 samples of seed grown in Hudspeth County have already been inspected, 54 of which gave negative results. From the remaining 22 samples 98 pink bollworms were taken.

Satisfactory progress has been made in;-the inspection of green bolls at the San Antonio laboratory. To date approximately 240 samples have been inspected, representing cotton fields in the States of Arkansas, Oklahoma, North Carolina, and South Carolina. No signs of the pink bollworm have been found in any of the material inspected.

Traffic at the road stations remains approximately the same as last month; however, interceptions have decreased considerably. A large percentage of the interceptionsconsists of' small lots of cotton being carried by tourists as souvenirs. Since the harvesting of the present crop is almost completed, a decrease in interceptions is naturally to be expected. Two interceptions made during February were found to be infested with the pink boll-" worm. One was made at the Alpine, Tex., station on February 4, and consisted of 45 cottonseed taken from-cracks in the body of .a truck. One dead larva was found in the seed. The other interception was made at the Van Horn, Tex., station on February 6, and consisted of a quarter of a pound of cottonseed, also taken from a truck body. From this material 8 dead larvae were taken. It is interesting to note that during the entire season all specimens found in seed interceptions have been dead, thus indicating that sterilization has been efficient.

Regulatory activities have'progressed satisfactorily and are nearing eompletion. A small amount of cotton retains to be ginned, most of which is in the Salt River Valley of Arizona. This season approximately 91, per cent of the seed produced has been shipped to designated oil mills, 88 per cent of which has already been crushed, Also 86 per cent of the cotton ginned this season has already been treated and shipped.

The Thurberia plant and weevil survey betng conducted in southeastern. Arizona has made very good progress, although excessive and continuous rains during February have interfered, Nb new plant colonies have been found. A considerable amount of inspection has been .made in the old plant olonies, but no specimens of the Thurberia weevil were taken. It was considered advisable to have the men make these inspections so as to become more familiar with the general appearance of the plants. This seems to have helped them considerably in locating isolated plants by their rather peculiar- and outstanding color. As soon as the new foliage appears it is thought that much better time can be made in getting over the large area involved.









The pink bollworm quarantine regulations were amended effective February 1, 1932, so as to authorize the issuance of permits for the interstate movement of cottonseed from ce-tain lightly infested sections of the pink bollworm regulated areas. This permit is issued on the condition that such seed shall be heated to a terimperature of not less than 1450 F. and held at such temperature for at least one hour; that the maintenance of such temperature shall be witnessed by an inspector, and that cottonseed so treated shall be iinediately placed in sacks or other approved containers and shipped, or shall be segregated in a manner satisfactory to the inspector, Under this amendment some seed has already been treated and shipped from the El Paso Valley of 'oxas to be used for planting purposes.




PREVENTING SPREAD OF I0THS

Seventy men were transferred to New Jersey.from the scouting fcrce
that was working in the barrier zone area of assachlsetts and Connecticut. The first of these scouts left on February 12, and three days later the transfer of the remainder was completed. In addition to these men, there were
three field supervisors transferred to assist in supervising the scouting work there.

During the current fiscal year, it is planned to scout approximately 4,300 acres of woodland in the northern portion of Bridgewater Township and approximately 2,700 acres 'in the southern portion of Hillsboro Township. Six scouting crews, totaling 47 men, were assigned work in the extreme eastern part of Bridgewater Township and they will work vestward toward the borough of Somerville. This procedure wvas deemed advisable owing to the fact that the last known gipsy moth infestation in New Jersey was found and eradicated in a small area in Piscataway Township which borders partly on the eastern limits of Bridgewater Townshin. There has not been any scouting work done in that section of Bridgewater Township which is now being examined since the fiscal year 1930. Three scouting crews, aggregating 23 men, began work in the southwestern end of Hillsboro Township, near Zion, N. J. It is in this area that the largest amounV of woodland is found in Hillsboro Township. In past years, when work in this township was conducted (particularly in the western and south western parts) the roads wore in most instances impassable during March and April due to the mud conditions. To relieve the unemployment situation, the county and townvship authorities have had considerable -iork done on these roads and they have been greatly improved. In addition to other road work, many trees on both sides of wooded roads were cut down, affording the roads a chance to dry out. The wood from the trees was distributed among the needy in the immediate vicinity.

The scouting work in Nev Jersey has always been of an intensive nature
owing to the fact that exterminative rather than control measures were employed and numerous trees were climbed for the purpose of removing loose bark, cleaning







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out cavities, etc., thus revealing any gipsy moth egg clusters that might have been concealed. The necessity of stripping the bark from trees in Bridgewater and Hillsboro Townships to any great extent is eliminated and will result in speeding up the scouting work appreciably. In New Jersey, a scouting crew of 5 men will examine approximately 50 acres of woodland a week on an average, using the close intensive scouting method. By this method, the men are deployed in line, each man examining every tree that is in his respective strip. All debris, scattered or piled in the vicinity of the trees, cavities, bird nests, fences, etc., are examined. Nothing is omitted which would afford concealment to the gipsy moth female adult in laying her eggs. Each scout has a distinctive mark which he places on every tree, fence, stone wall, etc., examined. This mark is made either with a special knife or lumber crayon, depending on the type of tree that is to be marked. Smooth bark trees, fruit trees, or seedlings are usually marked with crayon in order not to disfigure them.

In addition to the work now in progress in New Jersey, there are two scouting crews in Dorset, Vt., and two in Rupert, Vt., engaged in the examination of wooded areas by the 40-foot strip method. In this type of scouting there are usually eight or more men in a crew. The scouts in going through woodland work about 40 feet apart, marking each tree as they are examined. This type of scouting is used only in areas where no gipsy moth infestations are known to exist. To February 29, approximately 8,200 acres and 9,000 acres of woodland were scouted in Dorset and Rupert, respectively, with no infestations discovered.' This leaves about 8,000 acres more in Dorset and about 1,800 acres more in Rupert to be scouted.

There remain three scouting crews in the barrier zone area in Massachusetts engaged in an intensive survey of the wooded areas in New Marlboro, Sandisfield, and Sheffield. To February 29, a total of 33 infested places consisting of 265 new gipsy moth egg clusters were found and treated with creosote. Seventeen of these-sites are located in New Marlboro, 3 in Sandisfield, 12 in Sheffield, and the remaining 1 in Tyringham. All of the ground work, in the areas considered most likely to be infested with gipsy moths in the Massachusetts portion of the barrier zone, has been finished. This work is confined chiefly to the examination of stone walls, debris, and trunks of trees for a distance of approximately 3 feet about the ground, and was given priority in order that as much of it as possible could be done before deep snow would interfere with it.

Five scouting crews were left in Connecticut after the transfer of men to New Jersey. These are engaged in intensive scouting of woodland in Canaan, Salisbury, !,',arren, and 'ashington. Up to andincluding February 29, there were 7 infested sites discovered consisting of 109 new gipsy moth egg clusters, all of which have been treated with creosote. Three of these sites are located in Canaan, 1 in Salisbury, and the other 3 in W7arren. All of the ground work planned for this year in areas likely to be infested with the gipsy moth in tho Connecticut portion of the barrier zone has been finished.









During February, the weather in the New England section of the barrier zone has been to a great extent unfavorable for scouting and much time was lost on account of rain, snow, and ice. In New Tersey the weather has been rather dark during the latter part of February. While this condition would ordinarily retard the progress of the scouting work, it was possible for the crews in New Jersey to select for such Work small growth in the area to be examined during the dark, overcast days. Consequently, very little time was lost on account of the weather condition in New Jersey during the month.

There were 51 s);ipments of quarantined products !nd 4 -cords of wood
inspected and certified in Now Jersey during February, on which no gipsy moth egg clusters were fo.ind.

On Long Island there were only eight shipments of nursery stock inspected during February and no gipsy moth infestation was found on them. The quarantine inspector there continued to scout certain areas in the vicinity of Roslyn, L. I., as prearranged with the New York Conservation Department. He has examined a quarter of a mile of roadside and 14 acres of woodland with negative results.

A ma-p received from the New York Conservation Department indicates that 41 scouting crews were engaged in the examination of wooded areas during February in the following barrier zone towns in New York: Fort Ann and Hartford, in Washington County; Chatham, in Columbia County; Stanford and Amenia, in Dutchess County; Kent, Phillipstown, and Southeast, in Putnam County; Courtlandt, Bedford, Lewisboro, North Castle, Rye, Mamaroneck, Scarsdale, and Pelham, in-Westmhester County. No sign of the gipsy moth has been found in the barrier zone area scouted by the State force during this current fiscal year.

There are four scouting crews at rork on Long Island: Two in Babylon, one. in. Hempstead, and- the other in the Borough of Queens. The entire area on Long Island that was originally infested with the gipsy moth has now been scouted. In addition thereto, an area extending approximately 6 miles east and west of the infested zone centering at Roslyn, Nassau County, and bordered on the north by Long Island Sound and on the south by the Atlantic Ocean, has also been scouted. Up to and including February 29, a total of 30 infested si-tes consisting of 601 new egg clusters have been found and treated-with creosote by the New York Department of Conservation. These colonies, with the exception of one located near Glen Cove and another near Great Neck, Nassau County, are within approximately a 2-mile circle with North Roslyn, Nassau
County, as a center.

The largest infestation found on Long Island this fiscal year is situated near Glen Cove and consists of 307 new egg clusters. The size of this colony is undoubtedly accounted for by the fact that locust trees are abundant there. These trees are infested with the locust borer, Cyllene robiniae, and as a consequence numerous trees are losing their bark. This shaggy bark condition frequently prevails from the base to the top of the tree affording ideal hiding places for the females to deposit their eggs. It is evident that






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some egg clusters concealed under the loose locust bark were overlooked when' the trees were scouted during the fiscal year 1930. This year, in searching for gipsy moth egg clusters, the scouts stripped the loose, dead bark from many locust trees. The discovery of a gipsy moth egg cluster on one of these, trees necessitated,the removing, by permission of the owner, of considerable dead bark resulting in the finding of additional egg clusters. In this phru ticular area, an unusual 8444 spectacle resulted on about 12 large locust' trees situated, directly in front of a mansion on a large estate.

The next largest colony in size is one of 141 new egg clusters. 1o6ted near Roslyn. An unusual condition exists at this colony. It is conflhied 'to a few locust trees in a bull pen. Several strips of furring about 4 feet long were nailed perpendicularly to the trunk of each tree, upon which a'fine mesh wire of about the same height was wound several times. The purpose of this was to keep the cattle from injuring the trees. The bulls were evidently loose in this yard when the scouts reached there on the 7oo.asion of the previous examinations as there were no scout marks on the trees or any other evidance that would indicate the trees had been examined. During the absence of" the bulls from the pen this year, the trees in the enclosure were examined and the 141 new egg clusters were found concealed under the wire.

It has been found that forest ground cover (leaves, branches, ad other debris) has been raked up in and around gipsy moth infested ,sites and carted to leaf compost piles within the gipsy moth infested woodland blocks before the property ownvers were aware that the gipsy moth was present .in the localities where the materials were gathered. This year a special effort was" made to learn of the disposition of such material when removed from.the vicinity of gipsy moth 'sites. It appears that this.transfer of debris accounts for 5 or 6 infested sites ranging from 4 td 16 egg cluster infestations.

During the latter part of February several nurseries in central Connecticut in the gipsy moth quarantined area started shipping deciduous shrubs from storage for the spring trade in the Southern States, Seven carloads and over 400 less-than-carload'shipments were certified. This .material was inspeted about the middle of October at the time it was placed in storage. A large percentage of these shipments this month were rose bushes for department store trade.

A unique process, which is said to be an important horticultural discovery, has been recently patented. This process aims to keep the life-giving sap intact within rose bush stalks and other small deciduous plants by preventing moisture evaporation and consequent drying, when these plants are exposed for sale over a period of at least six weeks in heated stores where the temperature averages 750 F. When the rose bushes and other smal1 plants are freshly dug, the roots with the soil clinging to them, are carefully encased in damp moss or peat. A water-proof, asphalt-lined, three-ply paper is then wrapped about the moss. This protects the roots. The stalks are then dipped into a vat containing a special solution of paraffin and wax, heated to 1900 F. A quick dip is all that is required to form a moisture-proof transparent film






_23


that seals the plant and prevents evaporation. When the shrubs are eventually planted, the buds start and break through the wax film. It has also been stated that this coating retards the development of fungi appearing on the plant at the time previous to the dipping process.

Rose bushes for shipment are packed in large corrugated pasteboard cartons. As many as 3b,000 bushes are packed in a single carload.

Since cellophane has been generally used for wrapping purposes, an
attractive container for individual rose bushes and shrubs is being used at many nurseries in the gipsy moth quarantined area. one side of the paper container, which varies in length up to 3 feet, has a cellophane window through which the contents may be seen. A colored plate of the inclosed plant in bloom is pasted at the top of the cellophane.

The association of the gipsy moth quarantine with the preparation of
medicine was evidenced during February when an inspection was made of 26 bags of black birch chips at Preston, Conn., for shipment to Cincinnati, Ohio. Birch branches ranging from 10 to 25 feet in length were gathered and put through a machine which cut them into chips. These black birch chips axe brewed in 5team vats to extract an oil which is used in a medical preparation recommended by the manufacturer in the treatment of rheumatism. Approximately nine tons of black birch branches are used daily in the process, About three pounds and ten ounces of oil are extra--ted from a ton of these branches.

The testing at 1,000 pounds working pressure of 22,OOC feet of 111 high pressure spray hose which was delivered during Tanuary has now been completed.





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I' NEWS ~:ST~ER RA ~TE PLANT BOARD PLANT QUARANTINE AND CON.rROL ADMINISTRATION UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Number 16 (NOT FOR PUBLICATION) . April 1, 1932. ADMINISTRA'l'T\TE Four public hearings to consider the status and possible discontinuance of four important Federal domestic plant quarantines, those on the European corn borer, the Japanese beetle, the white pine blister rust, and narcissus bulbs, were held at Washington, D. c., March 24 to 28. These hearings were held to consider the present value, need, and effectiveness of the quarantines, and to determine the public sentiment about them. This is in line with the department policy to consider any changes in conditions which may have taken place since their establishment. It was proposed to find out just how much benefit results from our efforts and whether the cost is justified; also whether or not the investigation of control methods, para~ sites, and resistant varieties has reached the stage where Federal quarantines on interstate movement of plants should be removed; whether the spread of the diseases and pests has been so wide as to make further Federal contro+ undesirable and inexpedient; and whether the States that are threatened by these pests and diseases a.re able to fight them as efficiently and economically as the Federal authorities can do it. The March 24 hearing was on the advisability of revoking the European corn borer quarantine, now effective in 13 States--.1aine, New Hampshire, Vermont, Massachusetts, Connecticut, Rhode Island, New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Ohio, Michigan, Indiana, and West Virginia. In the Japanese beetle hearing March 25, the conference considered especially whether the advantages ~f the quarantine restrictions justified the costs of the administration and the expense to the shippers in complying with them. The Japanese beetle quarantine is now effective in Pennsylvania, New Jexsey, New York, Delaware, Connecticut, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, District of Columbia, Virginia, and Maryland. Although there is no quarantine in Ohio and South Carolina, the beetlewas discovered in those States last year. The March 26 hearing considered the quarantine on the white pine blister rust. The disease was discovered last year tn Iowa, Maryland, Ohio, Virginia, and West Virginia. If deemed nece~sa.ry the quarantine may be extended to these five States and also to Delaware and the District of Columbia, both

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of which are surrounded by infested territory. White pine blister rust has existed heretofore in parts of C.onnecticut-, Idaho, Maine, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, Montana, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Rhode . Island, Vermont, Washington, and Wisc-onsin. The fourth heai;-ing, March 28, was on the quarantine and certification of narcissus bulbs for interstate movement. The narcissus quarantine covers all interstate shipments. The States which produce a million or more n~rcis• • ' ., ,.; f .1::. ,:.. • , ' : ... , ' : . ' ,1,;• a ' !. • " -.. •• , ,._. , ' ::. •~,;l.. • ... • • • .' :, .. i .. '' - • • • 'l ,; ,; ' ' s1.1s bulbs a . ye.at' a~e California, Flo.rid~, OeQrgia, Ill1.nois l Maryland, M ic;tJ.itan , . . Mt~. $.9ur.i ,. N,ew Jersey, New. York , ,.,-Oregon. , . -Rhode . Island. , .,. No:L'th ,Oar~lin~ south Carolina, Texas, Virginia, and W~shington . . , ' -. . . • • ' • # •• P A 1 • • .:. , ... 1 .... ' • .. ..... . . I ' ; I • ""t • • ' • r • • , ' . . Dr. Lon . A• Hawkin~ has 9een in the Lower Rio .Grande .Valley since March 4, supervising movements of citrus shipments as affected by the recently amendE;d Mexican fr~i t . worm quaranti:n~.. ;f. I v I. I.uckie. is assisting .1?,im i-n this work. ..... •' . • ' ' ' ,I i3ecaus. e o;f extremely mild w;eath,er during t _he Latter part. of February, it was . pos.;;ible to .obtai_ n a. lar;ge numb-er of soil samp;Le _ s . from leaded plots_ at and near _the. Japanese beetle laboratory at White Horse, N. J. A new .type of tool ena-ble _ s a muc . h more rap id sampling than has heretpfore been possible. G! A. _Russell, in. charge or the soil analysis tests at V/l:l.i te Horse, states that the . . time. re_qui;r~d for. t .a:king samples has been reduced at least 50 per .. cent by use. of -the new , ~0.TTlpler • . FOREIGN fLANT QUARANTINES ' .... ~. . . . RECENT ENT01IOLOGICAL INTERCEPTIONS OF INTEREST . Thri';Es on chinkerichee .... -Haplothrips nigr.-~cor.ni.s Bagn. was intercepted at New York and Philadelphia on cut flowers of chinkerichee (Ornithogall.Ul'l _!;hyr,soides) tn . the mail from So .uth Africa. : . : Thrips f .rom Sout:p. Africa."'.'_-The thr-ips __ 1"rank:J_i~iell~1 sehultzei Trybom was . intercepted at Philadelphi. a -on cut flowers of chinke;r_ichee . . i-n the mail• from South Africa. This represents the first intercept ion of this thrips by in.si,ectors of the Plant Qu,arantine and Co:n:trol Administrat io:n• Bruchid at New York in bx-uch.id i.s not I ,, ',t , I , in chiekpeas .... Callosobruchus anal is'.• {Fabr.) was intereepted chickpea (Cicer ariet inurn) seedi~tpre~ fr0m Indj.a. . This known to occur in the continental United states.

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-3-Erotylid from Panama.--scaphidomorphus bosci Guer. {Erotylidae) was intercepted at San Francisco with bananas in cargo from Panama. This represents the first interception of this insect in our files. Bruchid in the mail.--Bruchidius vil;losus {Fabr.) (Bruchida.e) was intercepted at Vlashin gton, D. C, , . in Laburnum wlgare seed in the mail from Den mark and Italy. This bruchid is reported ~s occurringinMassachusetts. Cucujid froL'l Polynesia.--Telephanus insl,llaris• Sharp (Cu~ujidae) was intercepted at San Francisco i,1i th cacao -beans_ in c .arg0 from Polynesia. -This beetle has also arrived from American Sarooa,. , Quam, . and Tahiti. Bruchid from France. --Phelorneru.s germaini Pie- • ... {Bruchidaa) V?8S intercept ed _at Washington, D. c., in Parkinsonia aculeata seed in the mail from Paris, France • . This bruchid is not recorded from the continental United States. Endomychid from Panama.--Adults of Ph~lantha chrunpion.J. -qorh.{Endomy chidae) were in:tercept~d. at San Francisco on bananas in cargo from Panama. This beetle was t aken on bananas in cargo from Jamaica in 1926. . . Larva in evergreen cone.--A larva of Ernobium abtetis Fabr . (Anobiidae) was intercepted at Philadelphia in an evergreen cone in the mail from Germany. This insect, which has also arrived in spruce co _ ne _ s . _t;':ro-Ul Pqi~d, i~ re' po:r;ted to be very destructive to cones in Europe, where {t eats the seeds. . . Cucujid from Panama. --Telephanus b rontoides Sharp (Cucuj.~dae) we.s intercepted at San Francisco with bananas in cargo from Pa,nama. This-.-cucujid has also arrived with bananas from Costa Rica, Guatemala, Honduras, and Mex:tc. ; : Pyralid in Lima beans.--Adults of Fundella cistipennis Dyar (Pyralidae) were found in Porto Rico i.r!' Lima bean pods intende d .. fo. r expor:tin ca_rgo. Thi.~ insect, which bores in the pods and stems of legumes, is not known to occur in the continental United St.ates. Sweet otato weevil 'rrom Mexico.--A pupa of t he sweetpotatq weevil (Cy. las formicarius Fabr. was intercepted at BrownsviJJe' , •.'T .e:ic. • . , .. in• tweet-potato in baggage from Mexico. This weevil, which was introduced into this country years ago, attacks the sweetpotato tuber both in the field and in storage. Scale insect from the Philippines.--L~pidosaphes mcBregori Banks (Coccidae} was intercepted at San .ItTancis co o n c9eonut. s in the mail from the Philippines. Thrips on rhododendron.-Haplothrips aculeatus forma funebris Pr. was intercepted at v:ashington, D. c., on a rhododendron cutting in the ~xpress from The Netherlands. J. R. Watson, of Gainesville, Fla., states that "Haplo thrips aculeatus is one of the most cor.nnon thrips i n Europe. It is not known to occur in this country." • 4 ,,. ' ;TAT

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-4RECENT PATHOLOGICAL INTERCEPTIONS. OF INTEREST Olive knot caused by Bacterium savastanoi was intercepted on olive cuttings from Italy found i _ n b , aggage at New York. The specialis t who veri ... fied the determination found tyrii~al pockets with millions of bacteria in them; in sections made through the outgrowth. This disease seems to ga1n entrance frequently through wounds made in harvesting the fruit and in early stages may be ,mistaken for callus tissue. It was . introduced into. Cal:i,fomia before Nursery stock, Plant, and. Seed Q,uarantirie _ #37 wa:s promulgated. Elsinoe canavaliae was intercepted at Boston on Lima beans from jamai ca, in baggage. This se-ems to be the firs_ t _ :report _of this diseas e from ja maica. Ascqchyta pisi, the asexual stage of Mycosphaerella :pinnodes, the cause of a serious blight, was found in peas-:in ship's stores at 1-Jew Orlean_s. The peas were from Brazil. While the disease is widespread and has be~n intercepted from several other countries, this is the first interception of it from Brazil. Colletotrichum.lagenarium, mentioned in' the March~ 1932, News Le.:tter, p. 3 , , as being collected in Porto :Rico ' on squash; has been intercepted at Boston on :ciarrow, a tYPe of squash, from Cuba. Puccinia. urbaniana, a leaf rust: , was interc~p:te.. d in . a p ,ackage of Stachytarpeta sp. mailed locally at San Juan, Porto Rico. The host resembles . verbena and is in the same family. Coniothyri um helle bori recently reported. _ ;ls inte:rce.pt.ed from Holland (see the News Letter for Nov. 1931, p. 5) has been intercepted at New York on Helleborus sp. from Germany, in mail. Plants of loco weed from Mexico intercepted at Douglas, Ariz., were affected with Phoma astragali and Puccinia sp. Seymqur lists Uromyces spp. as occurring on loco weed but does not list any species of Puccinia. The specialist who was interested in a study of the.possible relationship of Cerotostomella ~diposurn and Thielaviopsis sp. on Chinese waterches~nuts (see page 3 of the March, 1932, News Letter) h a s been transferred and will be unable to continue this study at present. He now believes that the Thielaviopsis, which he has determined as T. paradoxa, is distinct from the Ceratostomella in so far as the material studied is concerned. . . A specimen of rust co .llected on tree cotto n leaves (Gossypium _sp.) in the field in Porto Rico proved to be Ce~otelium desmium. This disease is.list ed under the name Kuelmeola gossYJ>ii in Stevenson's manua _l, p . .83. Cerotelium canavaliae w a s collected on Canaval.ia sp. in Porto Rico. Thus f a r there have been no reports of Elsinoe can~valiae on this host in Cuba

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-5or Porto Rico, making it appear that the Lin1a bean scab organism is a distinct strain if not a new species. Aphelenchus avena~ was intereepted at Philadelphia in potato from Italy in the mail. The only previous interception of this pest from Italy was in onion. PACKING MATERIAL HARBORS INSECTS That packing material from foreign countries may often serve as hiding quarters for. a . numerous and varied assortment of insect lir'e, bot.h :Lnjurious and harmless, is well 'illustrated by a foreign mail shipment ~xamine~ by plan~ quarantine inspectors at Philadelphia on February 2, 1~32. From the moss pa.eking used in a package of 100 grape cuttings from Czechoslovakia, the in spector~. took out the following living insects • . (Int~rcepti6n Nos. 14737 147 43. ) . . . . . . ' ' : . 2? miscellaneous coleopterous adults determined as -A theta. sp;; stenus sp., Tachn,orus chrysomelinus, Meligethes aeneus, ~ cinella 7-punctata var. externepunctata, Coccinella 14-pustulata, Sciaphilus muricatus, Apion sp., Ceutorhynch~ sp., Phyllotreta nemorum, l:, vittula, P. atra. . , . . 20 hemipterous adults Eurygaster hottentotus, Eurdema oleraceum, Dolycoris baccarum, Aelia acuminata, Rhn,arochr'olnus chiragra, Peri trechus geniculatus, T~ap~z9notus ~llrichi, Lygus pratei;isis. 4 thrips HaplothriJ?S acauleatus, Limothrips denticotnis; 1 dipterous larva and 1 dipterous pupa -Sciara sp.; sp. of Syrphidae. 2 coleopterous larvaeCantha.ris sp. 3 lepidopterous larvae -sp. of Pyralidae: Pyraustinae. 4 ants -not yet determined. All the determinations given were made at Washington by specialists of the Department. As a matter of further interest some notes co~cerning several of these insects taken from Pierce• s Manual an_ d the Rev. App. Ent. , are here assembled. Phyllotreta nemorum, P. vittula, and p. atra (flea beetles) occur in Europe and all injure the foliage of their respective host plants. They are not known to occur in the United States. P. nemorum in Russia attacks rhubarb, hops, and cabbage. p. atra and p. nemorum-in Europe injure crucifers, the adults feed on the foli~ and the larvae usually attack the stem or roots.

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-6-P. vittula (rap e and grain beetle) mines leaves of Setaria; adults feed dn beets and rape ( Hungary); larvae feed in base of stems of barley, rye, and wheat, causing much damage (Scandinavia; Russia). Several species of Apion are recorded as very serious cotton pests which are not known to occur in the United States. A number of species of Ceutorhynchus occurring in Europe and not known to occur in the United States are serious p ests of such hosts as radish, rape, cabbage, and turnips. F. Stranak, in the Rev. of Appl. Entomology 1922, p. 503, says that the dama g e done by thrips to grain (rye, wheat, barley, and o~ts) in Czecho slovakia is mo~ e serious than is generally recognized. Even the apparently sound spikelets are weakened in an infested ear of rye. The lower ones are those usually d estroyed, a nd the upper ones are deprived of support and the ear breaks. Haplothrips acauleatus is the chief species on rye, which is also infested by Lhnothrips denticornis. L. denticornis is the principal species on barley. Both species also injure wheat and oats. H. acauleatus is common i n Europe but not known to occur in the United States. L. denticornis is likewise common in Europe. It has been reported from two places in New York. E urydema oleraceum (cabbage bug ) is i~jurious to c~bbage and other cruc ifers in Russia and Norway, tb. cereals in Denmark, t o lettuce in France. Aelia acuminata is one of the chief pests of cereals in the field in Spai:n. Dolycoris baccarum is reported to be definitely injurious. to cereals and potatoes in Cyprus • .. Eurygaster hottentotus is ~eported i _ n Russia on grain. The foregoing Hemiptera are not known to occur in the United States. ~eritrechus geniculatus is not recorded in the United States but is not known to be of economic importance • . RhyParochromus sp. is a pest of grapes in Australia. R. chiragra is reported to attack gooseberries in Russia, R. chiragra var. californicus has been taken in central California. Trauezonotus ullrichi (Tripleps niger var. ullrichi) is recorded once in a catalogue from California, It may be stated as a summary of this outstanding case that_ of 62 live individuals found in the moss . of this one mail package, 47 were adults belong-: ing to 20 different species of Coleoptera and Hemiptera; 6 larvae and 1 pupa represented three different insect ~amilies; the 4th.rips were of two genera; a nd t~e 4 ants are as yet undetermined. Further, it is of interest to note that 12 of the species represented are undoubtedly to be classed as plant pests and of these 10 are not !mown to occur in the . United states. T o c ompl ete the picture it is added tnat this shipment was being sent throug h the mails without the safeguarding identification tag, required for all foreign nursery stock brought in b y raail • and the vigilance of the inspec tion system was all t hat prevented this assorted lot of _foreign insect population from being liberated s omewhere in the-United -states of America.

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-?-HIDING THEM FROM THE INSPECTOR On February 25, William J. Shinger, while engaged in the examination of foreign parcel-post packages at -Philadelphia, intercepted a box which to outward appearances contained dried peas and preserves. A close examination, however, revealed the presence of a false bottom under which were found 5? rose cuttings. The rose cuttings were immediately removed and destroyed. ROPE CARRIES COTTONSEED ,. o. D , Deputy, Chief Inspector of ~istrict No, l, at Brownsville, Tex., notes in a letter of February l?, a rather unusual interception. yesterday while on duty at the new bridge, 11r. Haller made a rather surprising interception. It consisted of some Mexican rope said to have been made in Honterey, Mexico. At any rate it had evidently been twisted in an old warehouse that had ~een used . . to store everything iroaginab le, for the rope had braided. into it shoo.ks. , small bi ts of cloth, cottonseed, seed cotton, cotton lint, and othe~-bits of debris. The rope was refused entry. The importer was allowed to return it to Mexico." A HALF-CENTURY OF FOREIGN Q,UARA.NTINE . . It is of considerable p~esent historical interest to recall that on l viarch 4, 1881, fifty-one years ago, an. aet was approved by the California legislature authorizing quarantine action with respect to vine diseases and vine pests. Because of the tqtal.absenpe of a ny Federal activity in quaran tine matters at that time,. it may be , surmised that this act covered the field of foreign as well as dqmestic quarantine. On JI.Larch 13, 1883, this act was amended to include diseases and pests of fruit and fruit trees, and on Tu1arch 9, 1885, it was further broadened to give it jurisdiction over practically all materials concerned in carrying insects and diseases, coming into the State either from another State or from foreign countries. Apparently this California act was ~he first legislation in North America to provide for general quarantine action against the insects and diseases of crop plants. Prior to the date of its passage, Massachusetts bad placed a. ban. on the maintenance of barberr:y plants ( 1760); Michigan had a peach yellows quarantine (1875); and several States, including I.1issouri, ll!innesota, Kans as, and Nebraska, had passed local grasshopper laws (1877). Apparently the first plant quarantine law in Canada was a local one against peach yellows enacted by the Province of Ontario on March 4, 1 _881. DOMESTIC PLANT QUARANTINES .Announcement received from the Florida State Plant Board in a special bulletin dated February 17, regarding recent modificat i ons in quarantines of that State, includes the follo~ing statement: •

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-8A number of the State :regulations which have heretofore been somewhat in conflict with Federal regulations covering the same subject matter have been so revis~d as to bring them into conformity with th~ quaranti~e requirements of the-Plant Quarantine and Control Administrati.on, United States Department of .Agric.ulture; a? applying'to both domestic and foreign subjects. ' ' . The domestic quarantines referred to are those relating to the Japan-ese beetle, the European corn borer, the gipsy moth and brown-tail moth, and the Mexican fruit worm. The Florida State rule on the movement of narcissus bulbp parallels now, as heret.ofore, the Federal quarantine on thesubject. TRANSIT INSPECTION . . Nursery $tock shipping through Saint Pau~ and Minneapolis during the fall of 1931 was almost 15 per.cent less than tha t .in the fall of 1930, according.to a statement by George \i • . 1-Jelson, transit inspector at the Twin Ci ties , i n his recent annual repo1t; The week having the largest number of shipmertts c811').e earlier .than last year, the peak .of the 19 . 31 :fall shipping having been reached the second w e ek in October, while in 1930 it was not reached until Thank~giving. The total number of violations intercepted, however, tft. Nelson states, is . 20, the same as last year. They were as fol~ lows: Four violations of the iapanese beetle quarantine, 9 of the white-pine blister rust, and 7 of the narcissus bulb quarantine. More violations were intercepted in the mail than in express_ and freight combined. The importance of Springfie.J_d, Mass . • , as a transit inspection point, where i~spection has been carried on since last May, . was emphasized. by Inspec-: tor E. J . McNerney in his recent annual report for 1931, in which he states: . ' . The outstanding fact noted was thqt the bulk of the p~rcels inspected originated in the generally. infested Japanese bee~le area. More than 95 pe _ r cent of i;he parcels were in sac;ks _and made up as directs f);om the office of origin to the terminal. It is safe .to .say that had no attention been given to this point, the 129 parcels shipped in violation of the Japanese .beetle quarantirie would never have been intercepted. . . . The report shows that, 175 violations of the various quarantines were found during the year at Springfield. At Boston, 1, 0,17 vi. o _la ti ons were. found. Among the State inspectors cooperating with the Federal Department of Agriculture on transit inspection this spring are Mr. Rodgers, Knoxville, Tenn.,; Charles Denny, st. Louis, Mo.; J. Carl Dawson, Kansas City, Mo.; V. F. Peterson, st. Paul, Minn.; A ; L. Piller; Milwaukee, V iis.; H.F. Seifert, w. R. Jack, and James s. Conard, Chicago, Ill., and P. L. Wray, Hamlet, N. c. Arrangement.s are being made for the assignment of a Nebraska State i _nspector at Omaha.

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-9-Florida State offi~ials announce that a rule has been ad0~ted restrieting intrastate movement of peach and nect~ine trees .. and roots from .tl\e area a:t'feeted with the ~hony pea~h disease. The rule parallels the Federal quar~ I antine on the subject. During February fan and oth~r,ornam.~ntal palms were inspected on infest ed properties. Four large fan pa1ms were . found lightly infested on a property in the. Imperi~l Va,lley. In . 1928 one larg~ date palm was found h~avily infested on tihis place and dug , out, The fan'.pal.m$ were not inspected at that time. ,Treatment !in this case co~sisted .1n ~uttingoff .all the.~oliage excep~ the bud _and sprayi~g. wt t _ h a };leavy oil $pray. All leaves 1nere carefu~ly examined and some of the older dead 1eave s ('which were . prohably the first .. round of. ~xpanded leaves when the date palm was dug out) were rather heavily infested. The .scal~s. on these leaves wer.e, .of cours~, dead • . The intensi ty,of the infesta tion dec~e~sed. towarg the gree n lea,yes • .ori. one: palm. 21 .. dead and 3 green leaves were found infested. On two others scale was found on the 4ead 1~aves only • . . From this and other instan,.ces . it would .seem tr:tat the Parla~oria scale wii. l live and .breed on young fan paimsa.nd .recently expanded crown leaves. A:!!r the leaves . become older they harden and.only a small percentage Of the seale lives. The leaves grow rapidly and die i~_-a .comparativeiy short t~, so the palm naturally has a small.top ofg;een leaves with the trunk shielded fran b.ase to crown with. dead leaves. The -bases of, the leaves harden. ra-pidly after .. expa.nding,. so there is no danger of infestation below tb.e fiber line. The leaves of the date palm remain alive for many years, and neither the ieaves or leaf bases harden'as in the base 00f fan palms. I • . The C~ach~ .l~a .Valley is a widoned ciontinoot ~on of. th. e San Gorgonio t,e.ss, a rather narrow c ut ._bet~e.en _ t}?.e. Sl!lll Bernardino and s~ Ja~ into Momitains. From Banning in the pass -to Indio in the valley, distance of about 45 miles, there is a drop of. r'rom 2,300 .feet. above sea level to 22 feet below. Mee , near t h o Salton Sea, at the lower' end of the Coachella Valley, is 'igs feet,_ b elow ~ea l 8V el. The water for irrigation is pumped from t}1e underground :i--e.J ry10;. r rJV .J J c d by the run-off of rain and melting snow in the surrounding m o , mtr.>.::... .. 3 ':'t0 water table in the lov;er end of the valley is high and many o f t:H-'l 1"'11.s are artesian. _As. a .result of this, mesquite and oth~r desert -:1egetaticrJ grow rap idly and in dense.masses. The first de velopment . in -the valley ~ nd the f irst date . l~.rt t t gc; w e r e i, the vicinity or M~cca. Many places VTere cl~are d and -olur .te. d : o '" e•~~~; n dt..te"' and other crops and .later abandoned. ParlatcrJ a sea] 6 ms brru1if:t :..n 'Jn import ed palms and spread to the seedlings, many of them in roosquite jun0J2~.

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-10-The larger planting s and most of the smaller ones were readily located during the first survey and more of the scattered palms were located and listed during the regular inspections following. However, it seemed probable ~ t that a few palms would be overlooked, so a careful section-by-section survey to discover unlisted palms in the infested area was begun when time permitted. During February the infested area was completed; 116 sq_uare miles were covered and 132 small unlisted palms, none of them infested, were found. More than half were seedlings and offshoots in old plantings which had been dug out. EUROPEAN CORN BORER AND JAPANESE BEETLE General Project News Dealers in New York reported unusually poor business conditions during the month. In the Wholesale Flower 1\/larket, .the receipt of supplies was below normal for this period of the year and reports from there indicated that if the demand had been up to normal, the supply would have been greatly inadequate. s. s. Crossman was transferred from the Japanese Beetle and European Corn Borer Projects to the Gipsy and Brown-Tail Moth Projects, effective February'l9, 1932 . w . G. Bemis, Plant Quarantine Inspector, Port Inspection Service, was elected President of the Boston USDA Club, at a meeting held in Boston on December 17, 1932. The Coordi.nator, First Area, and sixteen activities of the Department were represented at the meeting. The question of the donation of a day's pay for charitable purposes was fully discussed and the foil'owing p _ledge was unanimously adopted f9r presentation to the entire personnel. of' the Depart~Gnt in Boston, viz: ' ' " We, the und e rsigne
PAGE 11

-11neces~ity of doin this clean-up work at the proper time. All persons failing to c . omply with the law are being .notified to appear in person before the Commissioner of Agriculture for hefl;rings. Over 700 offenders appeared before the Connnissioner last year for hearings and were warned to clean u~ their premises. The Department intends to impose penalties on all second offenders found this year. The new European corn. borer regulattons, which became effective Febru• a:ry 5, greatly reduced the number of calls.for inspection, especially in New York City. Activiti~s ~ereso decreased in that area that it was po~ible to transfer two men to th~ South Norwalk headquarters for duty. During the mont'h, the New York City office investigated the movement of imported dried cqrn silk, after a shipment of this material was held up at a port in California for lack .of a oertifioate or permit, It was found that this.corn s1lk was imported from. Italy and is used for medicinal purposes. It is dried and baled before shipment, .and it was thought that there is little likelihood of infestation of the European corn borer being spread by such movement. In the Nev, Jersey area, a survey of grov n.ng .conditions was made, with the assistance of the county agents, and some valuable information was secured pertaining to the numbers of grov,ers and the quarantined products_ raised in any abundance in the souttlern and northern part of the State. . On February 24 and 25, M. J. Kelly, with Frank Irons, of the Bureau of Agricultural Engineering, made a check_..up trip .t~ the farms at Temperanceville, Va,, where the isolated Euro~ean corn borer infestation was found in October, 1931, and where olean-up work was carried on in December, in cooperation with the Bureau of .Agricultural Engineering. It was found that a very good co~eragri of stalks had been effected during the clean-up an. d that no stalks had come to the surf ace of the ground during the winter. preparation of Rike~ MQunts Gontaining Euro~ean Corn B~rer Life Cycle and Damaged C .9rn . ' ' O 1 •P The material ror the 'Riker mounts, in which are shown the life cycle of the European corn borer and: corn damaged by, it, is collected when corn borer pupae, male and female moths, larvae, egg masses, and damaged corn material can be most readily found. Pupae are collected in.June; moths, and corn tassels br9ken over by the corn borer, in July; and stalks, stubble, and ears phowing injury, in ~eptember and October • . Larvae ~re collected in January or February, and egg masses are secured with the ~id of the Bureau pf Entomology, in July. ' To secure the egg masses, male and female moths and sheets of black paper are placod in a room in ;-1hich ' temperatl).re and .humidity are controlled, and the fem.ale moths deposit the egg masses on the black paper. After the deposition of the eggs, th~ black paper is immediately cut into small sections with •

PAGE 12

-12-one to several egg masses on each. They are then placed in a solution of formaldehyde and alcohol for preservation. The corn m ateria. l is heat treated prior to the ;preparation of the mounts to kill any corn borer larvae it might contain. The q.amaged corn ears, after the heat treatment, are placed in small metal pans, made for the purpose, and then covered with hot paraffin. When the paraffin has cooled and hardened, the ears are split down through the middle with a power circular saw. 1'he paraffin protects the grain from shattering during the sawing process. The halves of the split ears will show either damage to the grain or tunnels in the pith of the cob, and frequently plenty of both are visible. The Riker mounts in which the material is place d for exhibition are 12" x 16 '' x l"fz''. In one mount are placed a high stubble, a low stubbie, and a tassel. The stubbles are half sections, so that the internal damage can be seen. The tassel is shown with the break caused by the tunneling of the corn borer in evidence, and a s ection cut out so that the tunnel made by the borer is visible. Preserved larvae are placed in the tunnels of the stubbles and tassel, The preserved larvae nlaced in all corn material in the mounts are preserved as follows: A slit is cut in the anal end of a living larva. The larva is then laid on a piece of blotting paper and the viscera forced out through the slit by rolling a pencil or some other round object from the head to the rear. The pointed end of a glass tube (one end of the tube is heated and pulled to a point with forceps, the very tip then being broken off so as to have a small aperture) is inserted into the slit made in the borer, the other end of the glass tubebeing attached to the rubber tubing of a cautery outfit. A small metal clip fastened to the glass tube holds the larval skin in placee Before placing tnt, larval skin on the glass tube, the tube is filled with a mixture of hot par~ffin and beeswax sucked into it by using the bulb of the cautery outfit. The paraffin and wax mixture cools and hardens while the borer skin is being placed on the glass tube, so the tube is held over a small gas burner, the heat of which soon melts the mixture. A slight pressure on the bulb injects sons of the mixture into the empty skin, inflating it to normal size. The inflated, or stuffed, larval skin is immediately dipped into cold water which hardens the wax &nd paraffin mixture and gives to the whole a realistic appearance. After the stubbles and tassel are placed on the cotton in the Riker mount a frame of pasteboard is placed over them. There are three openings in the pasteboard frarne, through two of which can be seen either one or the other of the stubble.s, and through the third the tassel, all lying neatly on cotton. On the pasteboard frame and at the sides and bottom of the openings are legend with explanations of damage and recommendations for control.

PAGE 13

.-13The second mount contains the different stages in the life cycle of the European corn borer, and portions of stalks and ears in which damage is apparent. The moths collected the previous July are now relaxed in small crocks containing moist blotting paper• , , or moi'9t sawdust, with a few drops of carbolic. acid added to keep ie.ut the mold. After the relaxation, the moths are spread in the position. desir.e.d • . • I One male and t0ne female moth: are. placed in the second mount on the cotton filling. Next t-he female, , .and to. the right o'f it is set a small vial containing 'an egg mass -still' on a sin:al1 section of the black paper on which it was deposited. by the!.fema.1-e inoth-(iurtng the oviposition peri-od the previous July. The edge of the black paper containing the egg mass is pressed between the glass of the, ,viS:l and. the cork, so that there is no chance for it to become turned around . a.nd the. egg. m'ass hi'd from view. To the rigt of I the vial. oontaining_ the.•egg mass is,.placod a viai containing a corn borer larva.. ~ The ' 001"n.. borer. .. -is, glued to a narrow strip of celluloid,' one end of which i~ piJ..aced in' a slit .. in, the1 cork of the. vial to prevent the borer from bec cming turnea, around. .-rt is desired to show tfie dorsal or baek view of the borer larva ort account-of the ehailacteristic markings that can be seen there. The vials containing ttle egg Mass and the puae_are fiiled with a solution of alcohol and formaldehyde whi h acts as a preservative. . ' . . . In this .. second mount arealso -placed three haives or the split ears previously described; . and p0rt ioris •-of twb stalks. One of the half ears is de . n't . corri~ one is -sweet--coil:d, and the third is flint corn. In some instances t lie earse:re ,placed. sd that.'tha damage to the grain can be seen; in others, so that :the tunnel's 'in the ~ ,pi th of the, cobs a:f'e •visible. Inflated larvae are pla-ced in: the tunnels o'f 1t~ 'ears ,an:d -sta~s • ... . • •'• ; ' I ; . . ,. A pasteboard frame is then placed over the above-mentioned material as in the first mount. There ru.~e . fo'\.ti' 'operrfngs in• the. frame. Through one the stages tn the. corn borer. :life c'ycle are 11-is'i'ble; 'in -one a half ear of damaged flint corn 1appears ; in one • -is seen a d amaged half ear of. sweet corn; and, in , the, fo~;th, , two portio'rts o ' f ~ d a.mag'ed stalks with a damaged ear of flint corn between them com'plete the picture.-Legends wi t-:ti ' e xplanat fons of the life cycle and. , damage. are printed at the 's'ides ano. bottoms of t1ie openings in the frwne. Glass covers are then fastened on the mounts by meahs of passe part~ i tape. A" hole 11" •in "diametsr ,is cut 'iri the'•ba-ck of the mount and through it is poured 1~ ounces of .. parad-ichlorobanzi'ne to serve as a repellant for dermestids and other museum pests . • The mounts.are then placed in boxes, one of each in a box. the box packed with excelsior, .an~ !the set is ready' tc>' be sent out for educational purposes. One hundred sets of these mounts war m ade up in February of this year. A set of th se mounts is usually termed "A County Agent Set of Corn Borer Mounts."

PAGE 14

-14-Exclusive or Combination Japanese Beetle Work After the receipt of the new regulations, work was begun in New York City on the posting of plant dealers and the Wholesale Flower Market, and informing dealers of the new regulations. On February 17, H. N. Bartley attended a conference at Albany, N. Y., with Messrs. P. M. Eastman, c. p. Norgard, and C9mmissioner B. A. Pyrke, of the State Department of Agriculture, on the Japanese beetle and Europe , an corn borer quarantines • . New York State's policy was explained by Commissioner Pyrke. Briefly, New York i$ not in favor of road patrol work as it affects the stopping of all vehicles. They would operate stations on roads leading out of the heavily infested districts for the purpose of stopping trucks that might be carrying uncertified balled nursery stock. Messrs. c. :H. Hadley and Vf. E. Fleming, of the Japanese be~tle -researc laboratory of the Bureau of Entomology, Moorestown, N. J. , on Feb~uary 3 conferred with officials at the South Norwalk headquarters concerning methods an practices in chemically treating nursery stock as a requisi t~ for ce r1;if ication. Dr. Lon A. Hawkins, of the Administration's technological division, an Messrs. V. A. Johnson and G. K. Handle, from the project's New j~r~ey dis tric offic~, were also in South Norwalk on February 4 for the purpose of similar discussions. ' . Conferences h~ve been held with H.B. Weiss, of the New Jersey Depart-ment of Agriculture, in anticipation of a program involving the use of approx imately 1,250 traps in Sussex County, N. J., during the coming season ~f adul Japanese beetle flight. Past scouting in. this northernmost county of the State has been with negative results. As contemplated, the trapping activiti are de?igned as a check on the negative finds of previous years. The results should also give some indication.of the relative efficiency and economy of scouts and traps in covering a dafinite territory. For the purpose of testing and Qertifying Federal and Stat'e automobile equipment used on the Japanese beetl~ project in Pennsylvania, the State De partme~~ ,,of Revenue in Harrisburg has designate d the garage operated in conjunction.with the new _Japanese' beet-le district office at . Oakmont, '.Pa., as an official testing station. Brakes, lights, horns, and windshield wipers on th motor vehicles are being thoroughly serviced so. that they 'may be inspected an, certified before March 31, the concluding date of the Commonwealth's safety campaign. Available personnel of the project subof:fices, not otherwise assigned, were during February engaged in a survey of all' greenhouses; nursery e _stablis: ments, and plant dealers located in the zones of Japanese beetle quarantine operations. Visits are being made principally to those unclassified establisl ments with.whom the inspection corps' does not usually contact. T.b,is is the most intensive visitation campaign undertaken within recent years througi.out the entire restricted zone. It should prove of consi~erable value in inform~

PAGE 15

-15dealers of their privileges of moving quarantined articles under certification. Each firm or individual visited is being supplied with a copy of the regulations, and such verbal information as circumstances require. A survey was completed during February of 24 nurseries and 41 greenhouse establishments located in those portions of Erie, Blair, Lycoming, Clinton, Wayne; and Pike Counti'es, Pa. , added to the r egulated territory undeP the 10th revision of the regulations effective January 1, 1932. An in-.. specter visited each establishment, furnished the managem ent with quarantine information, and obtained data concerning the extent of' their business,-with 1articular reference to shipments requiring certification. None of the establishments visited are within a quarter of a mile of a Japanese beetle infestation. Most of them are a mile or more from a beetle find. Accordingly, such of these 65 establishments as desire certification may obtain the same under Class I conditions, which entail a minirn:um of inconvenien ce to the shipper. Letters were dispatched during the month to all classified establishments for the purpose of securing information a s to the different units of their premises'they desire scouted during tl'le comin g summer. On several oc casions last year nurserymen failed to notify suboffices of additional leased or purchased ground isolated fromtheir establishments. Since a Class I sta tusis conditionexfupon determination by scouts of freedom from infestation of tne ~remises concerned and adjacent area with~n a radius of 500 feet, it is necessary to impose Class III requirements upon such unscouted units.until opportunity is afforded during the next adult season to determine absence or presence of the insect. Requests for information dispatched to classified establishments emphasize the desirability qf supplying us with advance information of plots to be scouted so that their premises may acquire as preferential:status as possible. Cost data have been compiled to show compa risons between lead arsenate appli'cations as a dry mixture in combination with sand and a fertilizer, and in spray form. Since the first lead arsenate-sand-tankage mixture was applied with fertilizer distributors in Springfield, Mass., in June, 1929, a total of 137,743 pounds or lead has been applied by this method to 565 acres at isolated infestations. The average rate of application has been 244 pounds, which has been applied at a cost or $55.12 per aore or 26.?i per pound. The last dry mix was spread at the Boston Navy Yard in May, 1931. Spray applications to soil surface have been practiced in all subsequent treatments. Almost identical acreages have been treated by the two Dl3 thods, a total of 558 acres having been poisoned through the wet application. A much larger quan tity of the arsenieal; 248,158 poun d s , has been applied by the latter method and at a lower cost. It has been possi b l e throug h spraying to apply an average dosage of 444 pounds p e r acre at an acreage c o s t of $60.9~, or 13.?I per pound. The spray method is now exclusively empl o ye d in soil poisoning of infestations rerwte from the zone of continuous infestation. C]frests are be i n g . , conducted at the New Jersey district office of a nurJber of m echa nical con-trivances, cbnstructe d at that office for the purpose o f removing adult beetles

PAGE 16

-16from string beans. intorcement of the farm prod\lcts quarantine this coming summer will require t h e thorough inspection of thousands of bushels of beans that in the p ast h a ve in the most part been eligible for certification without-inspection on the b asis of freedom from infestation of the premises where grown . Cedarvi+let C1JI11berland County, is the center for the bean~growing section in southern Jersey. One grower alone raises 175 acres of string beans. _Prior . to last summer's scouting season only scattered infestations had been evi denced in this vicinity. Inspection of a percentage of the beans shipped and the fields in which they were grown railed ix> disclose any beetle~ in 35,627 units inspe~ted during 1930 • . Last year 67 beetle~ were removed from 61, 706 units certified. Jt is anticipated-that the infestation-in 1932 will be sufficiently general to require actual inspe_ction of .the major portion of the beans shipped from the Cedarville district to points outside the regu~ l ated territory. Accordingly, it is essential that some satisfactory means of expeditiously removing beetle infestation from the beans be perfected. Beans used in testing the mechanical "debeetlers" are infested with live japanese : beetles obtained from uncertifi~d greenhouses in the Philadelphia area. Reconditioning and painting of.traps continued throughout the month. Failure to fulfill specifications of white paint purchased for pa.inting baffles and funnels necessitated discontinuation of spray painting for a short. period. A large movable drying rack has been. constructed on which may be stored baffle and funnel combin ations between coats. Accumulation of green painted cylinders finished during the interim when p _aint was not available for completion of the remainder of the trap assemblies formed a pile? feet high, occ upy i ng 540 square feet of floor space. Potted A ~El0P ~inode giri have successfully been grown in soil containing a dosage c f-:-c..~ ~-,E. ,~{~ :+."i -"'7 ... 'f'J .ead. equivalent to 1,8 40 pounds per acre. Plants so grown ap_p8 e-:-'L) h"'. \ : o J . .};,iy,l:{;.;:: :t'c-liage a nd to b e stcc~i e r and heavier b11dded than specirr.;311s ;)c~ ; : eo. i , 20: L::.. 8::-,nt.a i ::1:L!:.g lesssr dos a g e s cf .the poison. These results w e r e obtained i n a f&w pr3l! m in3ry c ha mi cal ~ r eating test~ made to determine effec t of t he a rsen i c a l soil ir.s ecticide on growth of this.plant species. February collections of adult beetle s in greenhouses connected with Horticultural !-ia.11, F airmcun t Park, P!:j_l a delphia, netted a total of 376 beetle: During a s im i l a r pe ri.od in 1 9:?,::, 7 5 7 v 1.3:r9 . .;c.,} lec t e d , A log of daily hand col• lection s J s ),::e, p .. ; by X . E, s ~ h m ~ _ i ~ t , s , mi:::~ i.r. ~ ; u::-d.?:.i L.t cf the greenhouses. This ci ty-ow n 9 d ii:E>t i t u sion d ,Je s 1:.c-t c per':!.-:..=; c::-: r . : r _,c::,.'c.i a J: i .J : no r fl. o e xhibit plants housed thE-,r 8 l n mc-,v-=; + , o ~c L1 t :-, u11 t .::;i_a.~ tl1 2 regul a t ecl -:: nv i r ons • • R ea.c.jls"'.:;r".e n-t-: o f ,1urs~ry ar.d g . r e p't'J.-:..cu,:e c l a i r:LI'~_cat i o n :r:ecords to conform to r~v i sed :r0 7 _ u irf, mE-; 1 , t . , L;. n e1::.'ly l ' .'.',J.r. iJ~_ g a cc-d Y e6 : , l a t ior . s h a 3 bBen accom plished . . P: ~cs :. l • ~,f l-9'1 C l , ~ .ss 1 I f; s ,;F>_t J ~.E:1.r, , E n.:r: s .utu:r •.t , ; i . ~a: ly r1:;verted to Cla s.s l ' .'C.: . .:.js :rr.euns a :-__ess f . n :.l ~ g ' . i t :ce:, o'.: r i c
PAGE 17

-17-Numerous complimentary responses have been received from classified nurserymen, postmasters, and others to whom have been distributed the recently mimeographed ''Shipper's Guide" containing a list of cities and towns within the territory regulated under Quarantine No. 48. Guides have been deiivered to classified establishments and are in process of distribution to all post offices within the regulated area. PINK BOLLWORM At the close of the gin trash 1nspection ~eason the findings made in the Salt River Valley of Arizona were carefully analyzed to determine the present status of the infestation, and it was found that light inf'estations still exist in the vicinity of Laveen and in a small area southeast of Chandler, both of which are in Maricopa County. This is a considerable reduction in both the number of specimens found and the area infested over the previous yea-i:, and seems that we are no1, 7 in a very favorable position to eradicate the insect entirely from the Salt River Valley. Therefore, definite recommendations as to the procedure to be followed in producing the coming crop were submitted to the Arizona Commission of Agriculture and Horticulture early in February. These recommendations nere that all fields in the infested a.reas be cleaned, plowed, and irrigated, and the planting of the new crop be delayed as late a~ practicable; also that no stuq cotton be grown or allowed to grow within the two areas. A survey was made in the two areas to determine the intention of the grouers for this year's operations. Due to economic conditions it was impossible to obtain definite information in a number of cases. It was learned, however, that approximately 1,800 acres would be planted to cotton and 1,350 acres would be stubbed. On 4,200 acres the owners were undecided. It was further learned that some 2,300 acres in cotton the past season muld be abandoned. The latter part of February the Chairman of the Commission called a meeting of growers and other cotton interests to discuss ways and means of complying with the recommendations. The growers were somewhat hesitant to cle~n their own fields unless some way could be found to take care of the abandoned acreage. An effqrt is now being made to devise plans for cleaning this abandoned acreage. \ I A considerable amount of field inspection has been performed in Maricopa County for the presence of the pink bollworm, and also to determine the condition of the roots of cotton stalks. In some sections practically 100 per cent of the roots are alive, while in others only 25 per cent are alive. The roots seem to be in a much better condition in light sandy soil than in the heavier soils. A number of farmers who had intended to stub some of the fields have recently stated that not enough plants are alive to make this profitable, and that they would plow them up and plant in the regular way. Rains and cool weather have retarded the stub cotton , and up to the present time no new growth has been observed.

PAGE 18

A laboratory for the inspection. -Of seed. samples has been opened at JU Paso, using the quarters formerly occ.upied by the 'I'echn.'ological Division. The seed-~amples to be examined were collected from local gins throughout the El Paso Valley, and also a considerable supply fromvarious oil mills in east Texas. The method of inspection is the same as that followed at the San Antonio laboratory last season; that is, the seeds are imbedded in paraffin blocks and then sliced. Some 76 samples of seed grown in Hudspeth County have already been inspected, 54 of which gave negative results. From the remaining 22 samples 98 pin~ bollworms wer e taken. Satisfactory progress ha.s been me.de in: the inspection of green bolls at the San Antonio laboratory. To date approximately 240 samples have been inspected• representing cotton fields in the States of Arkansas, Oklahoma, North Carolina, and South Carolina. No signs of the pink bollworm have ooen found in any of the niaterial i-nspected,. • . ' Traffic at the road statione r~maip.; : ap~roximateiy .. _ the same as last . month; however. interceptions have decreased cons'iderably'. . .';,. large percent-age of the interception~consi~ts of small lots of cotton being ca:rri~d -by tourists as souvenirs. Since the harvesting of .the present crop ~s almost eompleted, a decrease in int.erceptions is naturally to be expe.cted ... Two interceptions made during February were .found to be infested with the pink boll-worm. One was made at the .Alpine• Tex. , station on February:4, ~no. consisted of 45 cottonseed taken fromcracks in the body .of .a truck~ One dead larva was. found in the seed. The other interception was made at the Van Horn: , Tex., station on February 6, and con~isted of a qu _arter qf a pound of cottonseed, also taken from a truck body. li'rom this_ ma_terial 8 .dead larvae were taken. It is interesting to note that duringthe.entire season all specimens found 'in seed interceptions have been dead, thus indic. B;~ing that st_eril-iz~~i. on has been efficient. ,' '' . . . Regulatory activities have: pr.egressed satisfactorily and ~re nearing eompletion. ',A small amount 'of :cot tori remains .. ta be ginned~'I'!').OSt . of which i~ • , ' in the Salt River Valley of Arizona.'. Thts . s~ _aso11.approx: i.matel.y ~l, per cent of the seed produced has been shippe d to. das}.gnated o -il mi).J,s ; . 8 _ 8 per cent of ... which has already been crushed, :Also 86 .. per 9~nt of: the cotton . g .inned "th is : season has already been tr~ated and shipped. The Thurberia plant and weevil survey . pe:i . ng conduct;d in. southeastern..: Arizona has made very good progress, altho~gh; e .xcess i v e ahd conti-nuous rains during February have inte~fered . no new .pl.ant colonies have bE3en found. A . eonsider::::ble amount or: .inspect ion has been made. in: the old plant . oo lonies, but. no spec irn.ens of the Thurberi-a weevil we.re lake!). • . rt Was considered, advisable . to have the men make these inspe'ctfons SQ (iS t • O becorne more 're.mi.liar ' with the general appearance or' the plant~. Thts. se ems to hav e helped them considerably in locating isolat~d p~ant9 by their rathe~ peculiar. and outs~an~i~g eolor. As soon as the new 1'o1iage appear-s it is thought that much better. time qan be made in getting over.the large area involved.

PAGE 19

The pink bollworm quarantine regulations were arr.ended effective Febru ary 1, 1932, so as to authorize the issuance of perraits for the interstate movement of cottonseed from ce~tain lightly infested sections of the pink bollworm regulated areas, This permit is issed on the condition that s.ich seed $hall be heated to a teMporatl,tre of not less than 145 F. and held at such temperature for at least one hour; tlat the maintenance of such tempera ture shall be witnessed by an inspector, and that cottonseed so treated shall be iminediately_placed in sacks or other approved _containers and s~ipped, oT shall be segregated in a manner satisfactory to the inspector. Under this' amendment some seed has already been treated and shippe d from the El Paso Valley of ~oxas to be used for plElllting purposes. I ' PREVENTING SPREAD OF MOTHS Seventy men were transferred to New Jersey. f.rom the scouting farce that was working in the barrier zone area of 1assachusetts and Connecticut. The first of these scouts left on February 12, a::id three days later the trans fer or the remainder "!-las comple .ted. In addition to these men, there were three f~eld supervisors ~ransfer.red to assist in supervising the scouting work there. During the curren_ t , fiscal year, 1 t is planned to scout approximately 4,300 acres of woodland in the northern portion of Bridgewater Township and approximately 2,700 acres 'in the southern portion of Hillsboro Township. Six scouting crews, totaling ~7 men, were assig ned work in the extreme eastern part of Bridgewater TolP!lship and they will work wes t ward toward the borough of Somerville. This procedure was d eemed advisable o wing to the fact that the last knonn gipsy moth inf~station in N~w Jersey nas found and eradicated in a small area in Piscataway Township which borders partly on the eastern limits of Bridgewater Township. There has not been any scouting work done in that section of Bridgewater Township which is now being ex8I!1ined since the fiscal year 1930. Three scouting crews, aggregating 23 men, began work in the southwestern end of Hillsboro Township, near Zion, N. J, It is in this area that the largest amouni of woodland is found in Hillsboro Tormship. In past years, when work in this township was conducted (particularly in the western and south western parts} the roads ~ere in most instance s impassable during March and April due to the mud conditions. 7o relieve the uac mployr.ient situation, the county and tovmship authorities have had considerable ':7ork done on these roads and they have been greatly improved. In addition to othe r road work, man.y trees on both sid8s of wooded roads v,ere cut do'\711., affording the roads a chance to dry out. The ':!Ood from the trees was distributed among the needy in the immediate vicinit?~ The scouting work in Nerr .Tersey has ah,ays been Qf an intensive nature owing to the fact that exterminative rather than control measures were employed and numerous trees were climbed for the purpose of removing loose bark, cleanin

PAGE 20

-20-out cavities, etc., thus revealing any gipsy moth egg clusters that might have been concealed. The necessity of stripping the bark from trees in Bridgewater and Hillsboro Towns.hips to any great extent is eliminated and will result in speeding up the scouting work appreciably. In New Jersey, a scouting crew of 5 men will examine approximately 50 acres of woodland a week on an average, using the close intensive scouting method. By this method, the men are deployed in line, each man examining every tree that is in his respective strip. All debris, scattered or piled in the Vicinity of the trees, .cavities, bird nests, fences, etc., are examined. Nothing is omitted which would ~f'ford concealment to the gipsy moth female adult in laying her eggs. Each scout has a distinctive mark which he places on every tree, fence, stone wall, etc., examined. This mark is made either with a special knife or lumber crayop,, !'.}ep8ndi.ng on the type of tree that is to be marked. Smooth bark trees, fruit trees, or seedlings are usually marke4 with ,rayon in order not to disfigure them. In addition to the work now in progress in New Jersey, there are two scouting crews in Dorset, Vt., and two in Rupert, Vt., engaged in the examination of wooded areas by the 40-footstrip method. In this type of sew.t ing there are usually eight or more men in a crew. The scouts in going through woodland work about 40 feet apart, marking each tree as they are examined. This type of scouting is used only in areas where no gipsy moth infestations are known to exist. To February 29, approximately 8,200 acres and 9,000 acres of woodland wer e scouted in Dorset and Rupert, respectively, with no infestations discovered. This leaves abouts,ooo acres more in Dorset and about 1,800 acres more in Rupert to be scouted. There remain three scouting crews in the barrier zone area in Massachusetts engaged in an intensive survey of the ~ooded areas in New Marlboro, Sandisfield, and Sh0ffield. 'I'o Jtebruary 29, a total of 33 infested places ) consisting of 265 new gipsy moth egg clusters were found and treated with creosote. S ev entee11 of.thesesites are located in New Marlboro, 3 in Sandisfield, 12 in Sheffield, and the remaining 1 in Tyringham. All of the ground work, in the areas considered most likely to be infested with gipsy moths in the Massachusetts por,tion of the barrier zone, has been finished, This work is confined chiefly to the e xrunination of stone walls, debris, and trunks of trees for a dista nce of approximately 3 feet about the ground, and was given priority in. o rder tha t a s much of it as possible could be done before deep snow would interfere with it. Five scouting crews were left in Conn ecticut after the transfer of men to New Jersey. These are engaged in intensive scouting of woodland in Canaan, S alisbury, 1.'iarren, and 1Jashington. Up to andincluding February 29, there were 7 infested sites discovered consisting of 109 new gipsy moth egg clusters,all of whi c h have been treated wfth creosote. Thr0e of these sites are located in Can aan, 1 in Salisbury, and the othe r 3 in \Varren. All of the ground wor k planned for this yaar in areas likely to be infested with t ~e gipsy moth in tho Connecticut portion of the barrier zone has been f inishe.d.

PAGE 21

During February, the weather in the New England section of the barrier zone has been to a great extent unfavorable for scouting and much time was lost on account of rain, snow, and ice. In New Jersey the weather has been rather dark during the 1atter part of February. While this condition would ordinarily retard the progress of th~ scouting work, it was possible for the crews in New Jersey to select for such work small growth in the area to be examined during the dark, overcast days. Conse-que 'ntly, very little time was lost on account of the weather condition in New Jersey during the month. There were 51 shipments of quarantined pro~ucts and 4gcords of wood inspected and certif1~d in Now ~ersey during FebNary~ on which no gipsy moth egg clusters were fotlnd. 011 Long Island there were onJ.y . eight shipments of nursery stock inspect•. ed during February and no gipsy moth infestation was found on them. The quarantin& inspector there continued to scout certain areas in the vicinity of Roslyn, L. I., as prearranged with the Kew York Conservation Department. He hae examined a quarter of a mile of roadside and 14 acres of woodland with negative results. A mapreceived from the New York Conservation-Department indicates that 41 s~outing crews were engaged in the examination of wooded arees during Feb•' ruary in the following barrier ZOIJJ3 towns in New York: Fort Ann and Hartford, in Washington . County; Chatham, in Columbia County; Sanford and Amenia, in Dutchess County; Kent, PhilliDstown, and Southeast, in Putnam County; Court landt • Bedfo rd, Lewisboro, Nor .th Castle, Rye, Mamaroneck, Scarsdale, and Pelham, 1nwest~he~ter County. Nb sign of the gipsy moth has been found in the barrier zone area scouted by the State force during this current fis~al year. There are four scouting crews at v.rork on Long Island: Two in Babylon, ona in.Hempstead, anfr the other in the Borough of Queens. The entire area on Long Islaud that w a s originally infested with the gipsy moth ha now been so.outed. In addition thereto, an area extending approximately 6 miles east and west of the infested zone centering at Roslyn, Nassau County, and bordered on the north by Long Island Sound and on the south by the Atlantic Ocean, has also been scouted. Up to and including February 29, a total of 30 infested si~ee consisting of 601 new egg clusters have been found and treatedwith creosote by the New York Department of Conservation. These colonies, with the exception of one located near Glen Cove and another near Great Neck, Nassau County, are within approximately a 2-mile circle with North Roslyn, Nassau County, as a center. The largest infestation found on Long Island this fiscal year is situated near Glen Cove and consists of 30? new egg clusters. The size of th is colony is undoubtedly accounted for by the fact that locust trees are abundant there. These trees are infe~ted with the locust borer, Cyllene robiniae, and as a consequence numerous trees are losing their bark. This shaggy bark condition frequently prevails from the base to the top of the tree affording ideal hiding places for the females to deposit their eggs. It is evident that

PAGE 22

-22-some egg cluste r s concealed under the l_oo.se locust bark were overlooked w h e n the trees were scouted during the fi seal ye _ a r : 1930. 7his year, in sea:rching for gipsy moth egg c~usters the' scol!_ts stripped the loose, dead bark from .. , many locust t!'.e ~s. _The discovery of a gipsy moth egg cluste r pn one of these,. , trees necessi t a.'ted. the: removfng , . by_ permission of the owner, or cons iderabl~. .. dead bark resulting in t he f in'ding of addi t ~onal e g g clusters. In this piir-,; ticular area, ,an unusual gP.,)_?~~ speetacle r e s ;ulted on about 12 large locust ' trees situated, dir~ctly in rront of a m ansion ona large estate. The . next largest colony in size is one of 141 new e gg clusters. :loclitecf. : near Roslyn. An unusual condition exists at this colony. It is confined to a few1ocust trees in a bull pen. Several strins of furring about 4 feet long werenailed p erpendicularly to the trunk of each tree, upon which a ' finemesh. wire of about the same height was wound several times. The purpose of thi's :,' was to keep ~he cattle from injuring the trees. T h e bul;ls vv.ere evidently loose in this y ard whon the scouts r0ache_ d there on th~ :6c,c.asion of the -previ._ ous examinations as there were no scout markson the tre e s or any other evid ence that would. indicate the tree s had be. e n examined. During the absence of .. the bulls from tho pen this year, the tree s in the enclosure were examined and the 141 new egg clusters were foimd concealed unde.r the wire. . . . ,. It has b een found tha t forest -ground cove r (leave~,' branches, and otJ::ier debris) has beeh raked up in an
PAGE 23

• T ) -23-that seals the plant and prevents evaporation . W h e n the shrubs are eventually planted, the buds start and break throug h the w a x film. It has also been stated that this coating retards the development of fungi appearing on the plant at the ti.me previous to the dipping process • Rose bushes for shipment are packed in large corrugated pasteboard cartons. As many as 35,000 bushes are packed in a single ca~load. Since cellophane has been generally used for wrapping purposes, an attractive container for individual rose bushes and shrubs is being used at many nurseries in the gipsy moth quarantined area. One side of the paper container, which varies in length up to 3 feet, has a cellophane window through which the contents may be seen. A colored plate of the inclosed plant in bloom is pasted at the top of the cellophane. The association of the gipsy moth quarantine with the preparation of medicine was evidenced during February when a n inspection was made of 26 bags of black birch chips at Preston, Conn., ~or shipment to Cincinnati, Ohio. Birch branches ranging from 10 to 25 feet in l ength were gathered and put through a machine which cut them into chips. These black birch chips a.re brewed in steam vats to extract an o~l which is used in a medical preparation recommended by the manufacturer in the treatment of rheumatism. Approximately nine tons of black birch branches are used d aily i n the process. About three pounds and ten ounces of oil are extracted f rom a ton of these branches. The testing at 1,00 0 pounds working pressure of 22,00 C feet of l" high pressure spray hose which was delivered during January ha~ now been completed.

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