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News letter

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Title:
News letter
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United States -- Plant Quarantine and Control Administration
Place of Publication:
Washington, D.C.
Publisher:
Plant Quarantine and Control Administration
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Frequency:
Monthly
Language:
English

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Plants -- Diseases and pests -- Control -- Periodicals -- United States ( lcsh )
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serial ( sobekcm )
federal government publication ( marcgt )

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Dates or Sequential Designation:
Began with: no.1 (Jan. 1931)
Dates or Sequential Designation:
Ceased with: no.18 (June 1932)
General Note:
"Not for publication".

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Source Institution:
University of Florida
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This item is a work of the U.S. federal government and not subject to copyright pursuant to 17 U.S.C. §105.
Resource Identifier:
030428070 ( ALEPH )
785786312 ( OCLC )
2012229621 ( LCCN )

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T 1 S L EyTgr"


PLANT QUARIAiYI I11 AND C OW !71,L ADjCUfI STRATI Oi:

UNITED STATES DEPA!T=I'2 OF AGRICULTURE






Number 9 (NOT FOR PUBLICATION) September, 1931.




AD NI STRAT IT-3


The Administration regrets to report the death of Dr. Russell A. Oakley in Monrovia, Calif., or, August C, at the age of 50 years. Doctor Oakley had been in poor health for a number of years and i'a 1929 went to Monrovia in the hope of finding a cure, but without success. He was appointed a member of the Federal Horticultural Board by the Secretary of Agriculture on January 3, 1925, succeeding Doctor Kellerman, and at the time of his death was a meriber of the advisory Federal Plant Quarantine Board. Doctor Oakley always evinced a keen interest in the work of the Administration, and his death represents a great loss.


TECHNOLOGICLL


The car fumigation house at Presidio was completed the early part of August. This house is of six-car capacity and is constructed of brick with a built up tar and slag roof. The house has two galleries, one of
which is arranged so as to ae.o ate both long and short cars with a minimum of waste space. A new type of sliding door weighing about 2,000 pounds apiece is used for the outside doors of the fumigation chamber. The doors are in one piece and so arranged that they seal tightly on all four sides. They are sealed by a cam and lever device with which it is possible for one man to apply about 4,000 pounds pressure to the doors in seating them. The house contains a room equipped for the fumigation of trucks and automobiles as well as freight cars.
It has been noticed that in some cases operators are careless in the handling of hydrocyanic acid or calcium cyanide for fumigation. This is particularly true of commercial operators. Hydrocyanic acid is one of the most deadly poisons known. It is dangerous in concentrations of 120 parts per million and it is liable to be quickly fatal in concentrations of 300









parts per million. In concentrations below 100 parts per million, it is liable
to cause considerable discomfort. Hydrocyanic acid or calcium cyanide should never be handled unless the operator is equipped with a good gas mask. The mask should fit tightly around the face, and the canister should be renewed with sufficiet frequency to be sure that it is absolutely safe and will remove all hydrooyani, acid from the air passing through it. Hydrocyanic acid boils at approximately 800 F., and gives off gas very quickly by evaporation at temperatures below that point because of its high vapor tension, and particular care should be exercised in handling liquid or hydrocyanic acid discoids, calcinum cyanide, or other hydrolyanic acid-bearing compounds in hot weather. While the gas is exceedingly poisonous, if handled with the proper care and the right kind of equipment, there is little danger of injury. To avoid accidents,
however, it should be treated with respect and precautions taken at all times.




FOREIGN PLAT QUARAT'INES

RECENT ENTOiOLOGICAL INTTCEPTIO'S OF INTEREST

Fruit fly larvae in avocados.--Larvae of Anastrepha sp. (Trypetidae)
were found at Brow nsvillo, Tex., in avocados in baggage from Mexico. Four intorceptions of the iexican fruit fly (A. ludens) in avocados from Mexico have been made previously on the Mexican border this year. (See also News Letter No. 1, January, 1951; No. 3, Marc:, 1951; No. 6, June, 1951; No. 7, July, 1951.)

Pink bollworm from Syria.--The pink bollworm (Pectinophora gossypiella)
was taken at Atlanta, Ga., in seed cotton in the mail from Syria. Larvae of the pink bollworm were likewise recently found in seed in raw cotton used as packing for antiques from Syria. (See also Newus Letter No. 1, January, 1951; No. 3, March, 1951; No, 6, June, 1931; No. 8, August, 1951.)

Pink bollworm found in JeTnaica.--The. pink bollworm was collected by Max Kisliuk, jr., at Liguanes, near Kingston, Jamaica, June 7, 1951. This is the first record that the United States National Museum has received of the occurrence of the pink bollworm in Jamaica.

Scale insect from South Africa.--Chionaspis exalbida (Ckll.) (Coccidae)
was collected at Washingtoni, D. C., on Aloe tingitana in the mail from South Africa. This scale insect was intercepted previously on Aloe and Pandanus from Port Elizabeth, South Africa, in 1919.

Bean pod borer intercepted in California.--The bean pod borer (Maruca testulalis) wa, intercepted at San Pedro, Calif., in string beans in stores from Hawaii and at San Francisco in green beans in stores from Tahiti. (See also News Letter No. 2, February, 1931; No. 5, May, 1931; No. 6, June, 1931.)

Nitidulid from Guatemala.--Urophorus humeralis (Nitidulidae) was found at New Orleans on a banana leaf in cargo from Guatemala. This beetle, which






3

is reported from Florida, has also been inter epted from Argentine, British Samoa, Canal Zone, China, Cuba, France, Hawaii, Honduras, T'exico, Morocco, and Spain.

Aphid on gladiolus corms.--The aphid Rhopalosiphoninus tulipaella
Theob., was intercepted at Washington, D. C., on gladiolus corms in the mail
from the Netherlands. This aphid has been taken on the same host from England. It is not known to occur in continental United States.

Scale insect on coconut.--Ripersia palmarum (Coccidae) was intercepted at San Francisco on coconuts in baggage, cargo, mail, and ship's quarters
from Hawaii. Besides being taken numerous times on coconuts from Hawaii, this scale insect has been found to infest coconuts arriving from Pago Pago, Polynesia, Rarotonga, and Tahiti. This coccid is not recorded from continental United States.

Bruchid from France.--Bru'hidius villosus (Bruchidae) was found at
Washington, D. C., in seeds of Cytisus alpinus in the mail from France. This represents our first interception of this bruchid.

Scale insect on soursop.--The coccid Hemichionaspis minor strachani was found at Philadelphia on soursop in quarters from Jamaica. This scale insect is reported as doing considerable damage to NIelicocca bijuga (genip) in the Virgin Islands. (See also News Letter No. 5, day, 1931.)

Citrus psylla from China.--The citrus psylla (Diaphorina citri Kuwayama) was intercepted at Washington, D. C., in a case of citrus plants from China. This insect is a serious pest of citrus in the Orient.

Scale insect on pine from Japan.--The coccid Drosicha sp. was found at Seattle on pine in ship's furnishings from Japan. This represents the first interception of this coccid genus by inspectors of the Plant Quarantine and Control Administration.

Moth on pine from Japan.--The moth Ptochoryctis tsugensis (Xyloryctidae) was taken at San Francisco on pine in baggage from Japan. This insect was found at Honolulu, Hawaii, on pine from Japan in 1921.

Weevil in soil around turnips.--An adult of Ceutorhynchus picitarsis (Curculionidae) was found at Philadelphia in soil around turnips in stores from France. This weevil was recently intercepted in turnips in stores from France. (See also News Letter No. 6, June, 1931.)
RECENT PATHOLOGICAL INTERCEPTIONS OF INTEREST White pine blister rust (Cronartium ribicola) was found on currant leaves from Canada intercepted in mail at Detroit, Mich.

Two parasitic nematodes, one a species of Caconema (possibly C. radicicola) and the other an undetermined species of Tylenchus, were intercepted at Norfolk in roots of a rubber pl at from Sumatra in ship's furnishings.

Phomopsis vexans, which causes a fruit rot and leaf spot of eggplant
in parts of the United States, was determined as the cause of rot in eggplant in stores from Argentina and from Brazil intercepted at New Orleans.






4


Sphaceloma fawcettii, citrus scab, which occurs to some extent on
citrus fruits in this country, w'as intercepted at Philadelphia on lemons from Argentina in stores, at Norfolk, Va., on grapefruit from Panama in stores,
and a belated return on a diseased orange from China intercepted in baggage at Seattle gives the same determination.

Puccinia allii, a rust of onions and related plants, was intercepted
in cargo at New York on leaves of garlic from Italy. Apparently this disease is not reported from the United States and little is known regarding it.

Diseases of reeds intercepted in cargo at New York were determined as caused by Cladochytrium heliochaidis in the case of Scirpus palustris from Holland and by Puccinia pragnitis in the case of Arundo donax.

An orange bearing spots of fungus growth was intercepted at Boston in baggage from Azores. The fungus was identified as Ophionectria coccicola, an entomogenous form said by Fawcett in "Citrus Diseases and Their Control," p. 269, to attack scale insects and help keep them under control in Florida and the West Indies.

LIMA BEAN SCAB SURViEYS

The situation with respect to Lima ban scab (Elsinoo canavaline) was discussed on pp. 4-6 of the Tune News Letter. The cooperative survey by Neil Stevens and colleagues of the Plant Disease Survey has thus far failed to disclose evidence of Lima bean scab in the South rn States. 7. A. McCubbin went to California early in August to carry out a similar survey in cooperation with the officials of that State.

CACTUS SIMUGGLER FINED

An attempt to smuggle iore than one thousand cacti across the Mexican border this spring was frustrated by mounted customs inspectors. A representative of the Administration co-perated in the resulting court action, the smuggler being fined $200.

PROGRESS OF FOREIGN UTSECT PEST SURVEYS

C. E. Cooley of the Washington office and Max Kisliuk of Philadelphia are making frequent reports of progress in their survey of plant pest conditions in the ',Test Indies and are sending in large numbers of specimens for determination or verification. T"hile they are specializing on fruit fly collections much other interesting material has been received from them. Reports on these collections will be issued later.

Both Mr. Cooley and Mr. Kisliuk have written in, praising the splendid cooperative spirit of the diplomatic, agricultural, nd other officials in the countries visited. Their progress and efficiency have been greatly facilitated in many ways by the helpfulness of those with whom they have comu in contact.









The countries visited thus far are the Bahamas, Jamaica, Haiti, Dominican Republic, and Virgin Islands. By the time the News Letter goes to press they will have been to St. Kitts also.

One of the problems met on several occasions was that of transportation particularly where torrential rains had made usual roads impassable. In Haiti the Marine Corps helped out by furnishing an airplane for transportation. Much of the local travel is on foot, however.

The fruit fly survey in western Mexico, which is being made by K. H.
Townsend and 0. C. Trotman, is well under way. Surveys have been completed in the States of Nayarit and Sinaloa, and at the present time those inspectors are in the vicinity of Los Mochis. Officials of the 1exican Government have rendered splendid cooperation in connection with this survey, the inspectors having been accompanied during a portion of the time by Coppel Rivas, Chief of the Officina para la Defensa Agricola, and his assistant, I. H. Olmedo. The survey thus far has developed some interesting information in regard to the fruit flies on the west coast of Mexico.

BA,2300 BORER IN GRASS FROM CUBA

A shipment of approximately 28 tons of Gynerium sagittatum, G. sacharoides, and Arundo donax, imported at Philadelphia on July 28 for the purpose of testing machinery, was found to be very heavily infested, especially the Gynerium, with the bamboo borer (Dinoderus minutus). In view of the condition of the material, approximately half of the shipment was destroyed by burning, the remainder being submerged for 30 minutes in hot water at a temperature of 1710 to 1800 F. The destruction and treatment was performed by the importer under the supervision of representatives of the Administration.

While the bamboo borer has been generally considered a post of the bamboo and related grasses, it develops that this insect in certain countries has been injurious to stored products. In Mauritius it is considered a pest of maize, and in the Dutch East Indies it is reported to attack dry maize and rice. It is said that this insect in Zanzibar reduces all structures built of bamboo within a few years. In Porto Rico it has been found in flour. Apparently there is no record of this insect infesting stored products in the United States. It has been intercepted on a number of occasions in the past, primarily from the Orient, in bamboo fishing poles, Mah Jong sets, furniture, ete. It has also been collected in chestnuts from China, Dioscorea from China and Jamaiea, sweetpotatoes from China and the Straits Settlements, dried persimmons from China, lily and narcissus bulbs from China, and the yam bean (Pachyrhizus) from China.

INSPECTION NECESSARY OF COASTWISE SHIPPING VIA PANAP. CANAL

Ships plying between the east and .west coasts of the United States by way of the Panama Canal sometimes carry contraband material. Recently an inspector at Philadelphia, Pa., boarded an oil tanker which had arrived from San Pedro Calif., via Panama Canal. In the ice box he found nine mangoes taken on






6


board in the Canal Zone by members of the crew. This is only one of the instances where inspectors have intercepted prohibited fruit and plants on ships plying between our east and west coasts.

FOREIGN PLANT QUARANTINIE SUMMARIES

Circular PQCA-314, Plant Quarantine Restrictions of the Countries of
Central America, has now been published and is available for distribution. The same is true of Circular PQCA-321, Plant Quarantine Restrictions of Sweden.

ARGENTINA.--Under date of June 26, 1931, the full text of the Decree of March 9, 1931, regulating the importation of fresh fruit into that country, was transmitted in a memorandum to chief inspectors and collaborators of the Administration. A complete summary of the plant quarantine restrictions of Argentina has been prepared for publication.

LATVIA.--A translation of the text of the list of serious plant pests and diseases whose importation into Latvia is prohibited was reproduced in a memorandum dated July 31, 1931, to chief inspectors and collaborators of the Administration. This was published in the International Bulletin of Plant Protection, V: 5, pp. 79 and 80, May, 1931.

MEXICO.--Undor date of August 3, 1931, a translation of the text of
the Decree of July 27, 1931, was transmitted to chief inspectors and collaborators. This d: rcevokes Absolute Exterior Quarantine No. 11 (see supplement No. 2 to IQ0-A4. Plant Quarantine Decrees and Regulations of Mexico), which prohibits the iPoeruation into MLexico of corn, broomcorn, sorghum, Sudan grass, straw, t 'csoluiion" of the same date declares the countries infested wit! te :r' n e_ borer, Pyrausta nubilelis. These include the Provinces -f vtri ubec, Canada, and the following named States:
Michigan, Ohio. -eu l an~lia, New York, New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Maine, Rhode Island, GunedeL ut Vermont, New Jersey, West Virginia, and Indiana.

The Decrec ,rcy les that interested persons in 1exico shall apply in advance to thu Haxi -an b&rtrent of Agriculturu and Public orks for a permit to import the ub> aed products from infested regions, and the said Department will forit. ~1riatitons on the requirr(ments to be met.

The text of the e' and of the ?Desolution will be published as Supplement No. 3 to Cr c :0r QCA-284.

BRITISI HONDUBTa --A ei-cendum to chief i-spectors, dated August 10, 1931, reports the rk:( 2 a boxt cf Pioclamation No. 3 of 1931, repealing Proclamation Io, p. I aum 2. of Circular PQCA-314), and
abolishing b- eJ :' ate of urigin with shipments of fruits or vegetables f 'n 13, Mtces to 6ritish Honduras.

The tom t hi, oLnlition is being published as Supplement No. 1 to
Circular PQCL-K1 .









UNTJON OF SOUTH AFRICA.--The text of Proclamation No. 173, of April 21, 1931, has been prepared for publication as supplement HNo. 1 to Circular PQCA297. This Proclamation places the seeds of elm (Ulmus spp.), lucerne (Medicago sativa), tea (Camellia thea), and tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum) within the definition of "plant" in Section thr,2e of Act No. 6 of 1924.

According to the Union of South Africa Qovernmernt Gazette of 1-ay 8,
1931, a permit will not be issued to any person to introduce from oversea into the Union: Citrus (all species), plants or seeds of lucerne (Medicago sativa), pome fruit trees, plants and seeds of tea (Camellia thea), plants and seeds of elm (Ulmus spp.) from Europe, and plants and seeds of chestnut (Castenea spp.) from North America. After January 1, 1932, no permits will be issued for tomato seeds from the continent of -orth America unless accompanied by a certificate issued by competent authority that the sed was produced by plants free from bacterial canker (Aplaiobacter michigu-wnese).




DOMESTIC PLANT QUARAJTIUES

TR)A USIT INFECTION

The transit inspection notes in the July issue included a statement to the effect that "two cars of uncertified bananas from Philadelphia" had been discovered in transit at Pittsburgh. This gave a miimression which is now corrected. It has developed that the Japanese beetle inspectors at Philadelphia had, in fact, examined these two cars of bananas and certified thlm for interstate shipment, but throui;h some slip the certificates becamie detached from the waybills, and when tne shipments reached Pittsburgh the inspector at that point rightly intercepted them as apparent violations of the quarantine. On learning that the fruit had actually been certified and therefore offered no danger of spreading infestation, the inspector allowed the shipments to be delivered to the consignee.

More than 200 violations of the Japanese beetle quarantine were intercepted by transit inspectors during the montn of July, the shipments consisting principally of uncertified cut flowers and vegetables and fruits. Shipments of gladiolus without certification as to freedom frori the European corn borer are also frequently found at this season of the year. A certificate is required in shipping cut flowers or entire plants of gladiolus, dahlia, aster, and chrysanthemum from the 2-gen,3ration area of the European corn borer to points outside.

European corn borers were recently found in a shipment consigned to Chicago, Ill., from Syracuse, Y., and intercepted at the former city by Inspector N. H. Dunlap, who promptly turned the shipment back to the sender. A few ears of green corn were being shipped by an individual probably unaware of the quarantine regulations.

A list of post offices in areas regulated under Federal plrt .









quarantines has recently been compiled, showing what Federal quarantines apply to each post office in the United States. Opposite the name of each office the numbers of quarantine notices affecting shipments from that office are given as a reference. Consideration is being given to having the lists printed in notebook form for the convenience and information of the employees and collaborators of the Administration.

WE1ITE-PIIT1E BLISTER RUTST

The discovery of the white-pine blister rust in July at three places in Washington County, M~d., bordering on the Pennsylvania State line, is reported by the Division of Blister Rust Control, Bureau of Plant Industry. Maryland has not heretofore been designated in the white-pine blister rust quarantine as an infected State. The disease was found at two points on yellow flowering currants (TRibes aureum) and in one location on a European
black currant bush (Bibes nigrum). Inspections were made of flowering currants at 40 places in Washington County, id., and Franklin County, Pa., but no rust was found on them except as noted. The white-pine areas of the Appalachians south of this infestation are still free from the blister rust, so far as has been discovered, as are also the valuable sugar pine forests of California, and other five-leafed pine areas of the States of Colorado, Utah, Nevada, Arizona, and New 11exico. The European black currant is said by the Bureau of Plant Industry to have been responsible for firmly establishing the rust in hundreds of square miles of white-pine forests which otherwise would have remained free from the disease for many years. This species of currant has boon nearly or quite eradicated from important pineproducing States of the Nlorthwest and of the Pacific Coast, and several of the Northeastern and Lake States are freeing themselves from these plants. The Department of Agriculture recognizes the black currant as a distinct menace to the white-pine timber supply of the country and advises against the growing of this species of currant anywhere in the United States.

A scouting trip to determine whether the white-pine blister rust has reached the States of Iowa, Illinois, Indiana, and Ohio, is being made by R~. A. Sheals, of this Administration, in company with R. G. Pierce, of the Bureau of Plant Industry, and with State inspectors of the States concerned.

NARCISSUS BULBS

The number of narcissus bulbs injured by the inspectors making warehouse inspections to determine whether the bulbs are infested with eelworns, is practically negligible, according to a recent letter from C. R. Stillinger, who has observed conditions in the bulb-growing areas of the Northwest. The inspection is usually done by cutting the top of the bulb off at the nec'k, and above the area where the growing bud tissue occurs. Occasionally it is necessary, of course, to cut open an entire bulb if there are indications of infestation. Cutting th,_ nocks of a considerable number is absolutely necossary, Mr. Stillinger believes, to avoid losses in the long run,

An *active general field infestation" of the lesser bulb flies in
Tennessee, where the capture of one spec-imen earlier in the season was









reported in the Jul-, issue, is disclosed the-ouh field observations by 3. 1. Davidson. Several adult flies w;ere observed in most of the plantings, end in the Victoria variety they were quite numerous. At one Georgia planting a nutmber of larvae of the lesser bulb fly, some apparently full grown and others about half grown, were found in one variety of bulbs irrmmediately after digging.

R. A. Sheals, working with the New Jersey iiispectors, reports an eeliorm infestation in the southern part of that State.

J. M. Corliss and H. J. Conkle left for Michigan about the middle of
August to assist the State inspectors there in the regular fall inspection of narcissus bulbs, including warehouse inspection, and especially to aid the State inspectors in eelwormn diagnosis.

PHONY PEACH DISEASE

A public hearing has been announced by the Denartment to be held in Tashington on Septerber 15 "to consider the advisability of extending the quarantine on account of the phony peach disease to the States of Arkansas, Florida, Illinois, Louisiana, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, and Texas. As an alternative to such extension," the announcement states, "the question of possible discontinuance of the Federal restrictions on account of this disease will also be discussed. * The possible extension of the quarantine to include most of the States named was given consideration at a hearing on November 14, 1930, but action was deferred at that time. It was felt that the scouting had not yet been extensive enough to make the situation fully known and that the principal danger of spread of the disease on poach and nectarine nursery stock would be the shipments from the areas of Georgia and Alabama already under quarantine.

"Surveys during the surrier of 1l31 have shown that scattering instances of the disease occur in Florida and Illinois in addition to the States known to
be infected last Novomeor and that the infections in the other States, especially North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, and Arkansas, are considerably more numerous and widely scattered than had previously been known."

In Florida, the scattering instances of the disease referred to were
found in seven countieL in the northern part of the State, by an inspector of the Bureau of Plant Industry during the second week in Tune. The Illinois infection was found in Jackson County.

G. R. Davidson and 1. 7. Conlnolly are now engaged in checking the
nurseries of Louisiana, Mississippi, Txuas, and Arkansas to determine whether phony peach disease infections occur in or near them.

BL! ,CK S'TTL: _TST

As a result of the recently revised black stei rust qua.rantine, about
twenty-five nurserymen growing rust-resistant species of Mahonias and barberries have applied for permits to ship these plants into or between the 13 States from









which the common barberry plants have been radioated. Permits are no issu for shipping into these States the cormmnon baroerry (Berberis vulgaris) or ,ny other species, hybrids, or varieties of Berberis or IMahonia sufficiently susceptible to infection by the blac. stem rust to involve danger of spread of the rust.




DATE SCALE

Inspection during the month of July w is hampered to some extent by extreme heat accompanied by an unusual humrid condition and very little wind. July 2 was the hottest day, the thermometer in the Governrent weather shelter registering 1200 maximum and 87' minimum. 7he thermometer in the P. 0. C. A. office registered 980 at 7.30 a. In., and reached a maximum of 1150 at 4 p. m. The official average maximum for the month w-ls 1100 aid tle average minimum was 800.

During the summer months date gardens are irrigated at approximately
10-day intervals. This creates a very humalid condition, esnecially where cover crops are planted, when inspection is being carried on. Records indicate that the effectiveness of inspection is not lowered during the summer months but is slowed up to some extent.

The date scale eradication program is based on the fact thael an infested palm can be located by inspection before the infestation has become severe enough to spread to adjoining palms. The individual palm is taken as the unit. This calls for very careful inspection.

The inspector is equipped with a hook with a: 4-foot handle. With this
hook he pulls the frond of the palm to him and carefully scrutinizes each side. The smaller palms can be inspected from the round but they grow rapidly and soon stepladders are needed. The heights of the stepladders vary from 12 to 20 feet. Stepladders over 20 feet high built strong, enough for field work are too heavy to be used advantageously. Straih(it ladders were used on palms too high for 20-foot stepladders but the inspection consumed considerable time and was not entirely effective. Other methods of inspecting the increasing number of palms too tall for 20-foot stepladders ;ere tried but none were entirely satisfactory. Finally a tower with an adjustable inspection platform was built vhich could be set uoon a truck and drivn through the gardens. This solved the Oroblem satisfactorily.

Recently a man purchased an infested planting of tall date palms and established a tourist camnp. Several small cabiis were built under the palms and several lines of wire for electrical equipment run through the planting. This made it impossible to set stepladders for inspection under some of the palms and the tower could not be used. A straight ladder was built which, 7ith one end anchored, extends over a movable support into the foliage of the palm. The ladder is strengthened oy three-eighths inch steel cables which also serve as






ii


hand rails. The steps at the top of the ladder are 6 inches wide and set at an angle giving sufficient foothold for the inspector. gvith this apparatus all the palms in the planting can be inspected effectively and in little less time than with the ordinary equipment.




EUROPEAN CORN BORER AND JAPANESE BEETrLE

General Project News

Survey of the principal activities in New Jersey of the European corn
borer and Japanese beetle project was made by the Chief and the Assistant Chief of the Administration during the week beginning July 12. On '7 ednesday, the 15th, Mr. Strong joined iMKr. ,orthley in Now York City and together they drove through a number of the more important quarantine line stations where vehicles are inspected both for the borer and the beetle. At Philadelphia the next morning the party was joined by Mvr. Hoyt, for a tour of the heavily infested beetle area in southern New Jersey, in connection with which the flight of the pest was observed in some detail. One week later Hr. loyt again visited this territory, accompanied by Mr. Allen, executive officer of the Bureau of the Budget, for a further study of the situation, having, been joined on this occasion by Mr. O'Kane, New Hampshire state entomologist, and several members of the South Norwalk headquarters force.

"Human-interest" stories of the European corn borer and Japanese beetle quarantine enforcement activities, based on information gathered by feature writers and usually containing numerous inaccuracies, recently have appeared in several newspapers of the areas under regulation. Inspiration also has been found in the beetle work by some cartoonists, most of whom in their drawings on the subject have dealt with road station phases. "Judge," a humorous weekly of national circulation, had a cartoon in one of its July issues, which attracted considerable attention. It depicted a waman motorist, stopped at a vehicle inspection station, answering the question askud by the uniformed inspector, with these words: "No, I haven't any Japanese beetles and I wouldn't give you one if I had."

Interest of the public in the spread of the European corn borer and Japanese beetle is reflected in the requests for information about specimens believed to indicate infestation by one or the other of these pests. During July an unusually large number of such inquiries were received at several of the offices of the corn borer a ad beetle project. In most cases the specimens submitted were identified as of other insects, but the contacts and correspondence in connection therewith afforded opportunity for data concerning the borer or the beetle to be furnished to people apparently concerned regarding the menace of these pests. One report from outside tho territory previously known to be infested led to the trapping of some 2,000 Japanese beetles in a 3-day period.

Vehicle inspection at highway stations along the boundaries of the






12


quarantined areas was started for both irooean corn borer and Ta-nanese beetle, in the central section, during the week beginning July 12. In many instances the stations make insnections in accordance with the quarantines for both the pests, having been located where the borders of the 2-generation borer area and the generally infested beetle area coincide. At a few points vehicles going one way are inspected for borers and those moving in the other direction are examined on account of beetles. All inspectors utilized in this activity were schooled in methods, etc., before going on duty, and their work will be checked at frequent intervals by different supervisors.

"Honor system'' affording special consideration at vehicle inspection stations to cars bearing windshield stickers showing that the owners have signed cards pledging themselves not to carry products quarantined on account of the 2-generation strain of corn borer, has been sufficient of a success
in the New Jersey sections from which there is most corauting into New York City as to justify its adoption in other areas. During July the workings of the plan were extended to include the stations in New York State and Connecticut, located on the borders of the 2-generation area, at which inspection of vehicles also is made for the Japanese beetle.

On July 1 the South Norwalk headquarters of European corn borer and Japanese beetle quarantine activities was visited by P. A. Hoidale, who has charge of the Mexican fruit worm project of the Administration, and who had just concluded a several-months' period of similar service on the i.-editerranean fruit fly work in Florida.

Visit to 'ashington was made by Mr7. U-'orthley on July 24, for conference with Administration officials in relation to se-veral problems which had arisen in European corn borer and Japanese beetle quarantine enforcement. Among these matters was that involving the change in the boundaries of the 2-generation corr borer area, adjusted by modification of the quarantine decided upon while Kr. Worthley was at the Capital. For a large portion of July, Mr, Worthley was engaged in field work which kept himl away from headquarters.

Connecticut newspa-oers recently gave considerable space to an opinion
rendered by the United States district attorney whose offices are in Hartford, to the effect that plant pest control quarantine enforcement agents have the authority to seize and confiscate intoxicating liquors found in vehicles that they may examine. No official orders have been issued, however, in respect to th addition of prohibition law duties to the responsibilities of either State or Federal men.

Specialized Corn Borer Activities

Training school for scouts in the western area of corn borer control was opened July 13, at the farm of the IBureausof -ntomology and Agricultural Engineering, near Toledo, Ohio. One group of men reported on that date and another on July 16, all having been given instruction for a period of one week. Throup;h the splendid cooperation extended by farmers of the vicinity, field zorP also was done in sweet corn on about 50 privately-orned premises. Indications









of infestation in the ears, the tassels, and the lower parts of the stalks were pronounced in the sweet corn, and leaf damage in the field corn on the government farm was plentiful. Lectures were given on the control of the borer, life cycle of the pest, scouting for specimens and the packing of these, reports on field work, care of cars, etc., in a tent set up in a wood on the Department farm. Both the excellence of the field conditions under which they worked and the satisfactory personnel of the students were reflected in the high grades made--averaging 91.5 per cent for the first group and 91.2 per cent for the second.

Inspectors whose duties pertain to quarantine line vehicle inspection in the western corn borer area reported on July 19 for two days of special instructions, at the following points: Michigan City, New Castle, and Richmond, in Indiana; Iron Mountain, in Michigan (July 23); Hamilton and Lucasville, in Ohio, and Fairmount and Point Pleasant, in W)est Virginia. All of the stations on the main traveled roads were in operation by the morning of July 22. On secondary roads they were established as soon as possible thereafter. Inspection at norts along the western shore line of Michigan and at most stations on the MichiganWisconsin State line was under way by midnight of July 27. At the end of the month highway stations were active as follows: Indiana, 40; Ohio, 36; West Virginia, 21; Michigan-Yisconsin State line, 13; total, 110. Port stations included 19 on the Michigan west shore line and 1 in Indiana.

Farm products requiring inspection have shown a steady decline this season as compared with last, in the eastern section of the European corn borer project. In large measure the changed condition is attributed to the modifications in the last major revision of the corn borer quarantine. Mtiovement of produce from within the regulated area during the present summer principally has consisted of beets with tops, celery, and string beans, going to Canada. Shipments from points outside of the area, permitted through the Boston terminal market, mostly have been composed of celery, green corn on the cob, and shell beans, for Canadian ports. Beets and rhubarb have been the only products certified at Portland, Me., and Providence, R. I. 1Jholesale and retail flower markets have been fairly active, with large quantities of gladioli inspected for Maine, Massachusetts, and Vermont destinations, and exceptionally large shipments of asters into Maryland, Ohio, and Vermont.

Mechanical devices for control of the European corn borer, recommended to farmers by the cooperating State and Federal agencies, were exhibited and demonstrated as a part of the program for farm and home week, at the M.1assachusetts
Agricultural College, Amherst, July 28 to 31. They were shown also at three Farm Bureau meetings in Rhode Island on July 28, 29, and 30, under the direction of county agents. Arrangements also were completed during the month for a sinrilar participation in the Connecticut farm and home week early in August. A number of demonstrations at other farmers' meetings are planned for the remainder of the summer or early in the fall.

Modification of the European corn borer quarantine, approved by the Secretary and effective July 24, removed from the 2-generation regulated area that portion of Hudson County, 11. J., heretofore included therein. This change was






14


made after consultation with officials of the I4ew Jersey Department of Agriculture. It did not involve, in the judgment of the Federal and State authorities, any marked increase in risk of spreading the corn borer. Highway stations for vehicle inspection, previously maintained on the western boundaries of Hudson County, immediately were transferred to the New York side of the Hudson River. Here they will be operated at the ferries and at the Holland Tunnel.

Patrol of roads leading across the New Hamoshire-Vermont line, which
constitutes part of the boundary between the 2-generation and the 1-generation corn borer areas, was started on July 6, with two experienced inspectors assigned thereto, their headquarters having been located at whitee River Junction, Vt. The same men also attended to field inspection of asters and gladioli in New Hampshire. Highway activities in this section largely are maintained for the educational effect, as few travelers carry articles affected by the quarantine. Of more than 15,000 vehicles stopped in July, only 40 were found to have prohibited products.

When the training school work in the western area had been finished,
365 corn borer scouts were placed in the field, 345 of them Federal employees and 20 State men. Distribution of this scouting force was as follows: Indiana, 111, all Federal; Ohio, 10Z, all Federal; Kentucky, 58, all Federal,, West Virginia, 35, all Federal; Illinois, 25, 17 Federal and 8 State; Wisconsin, 18, 13 Federal and 5 State; Missouri, 13, 6 Federal and 7 State; boat on Ohio River, 2 Federal. Scouting crews will be shifted as the progress of the work warrants.

Scouting to ascertain spread of the corn borer was begun July 20, outside of the regulated areas in the central section. Crews reporting for work on that date were assigned at first as follows: IMaryland and Pennsylvania, 19; New Jersey, 9, and New York 5. Transfers of a part of the scouts from time to time probably will be necessary. By July 20, also, practically all the highway station inspection had been started in this territory.

While the removal of Hudson County, 1T. J., from the area under quarantine on account of the European corn borer tended to simplify the work of the highway station vehicle inspection, it has greatly increased the market inspection of produce, large quantities of which are moved into New Jersey from New York City. Additional men were assigned to the latter activity during the last part of July.

Increase in infestation of the corn borer over most of the territory is indicated by a summary of the field reports on the egg survey in the western area, which was completed on July 22. This undertaking, conmenced on June 25, was conducted by the Administration in cooperation with the Bureau of Entomology. Sections of New York, Ohio, and Hichigan were covered by the 22 men employed, 20 of whom made the counts with 2 acting as supervisors.

Field inspection of greenhouses and of aster and gladioli gardens was
made during June in the eastern area under regulation for the corn borer. This activity covered Maine, New Hamnshire, and Rhode Island. Where conditions were found to be satisfactory, the issue of certificates followed, in accordance with the informal agreement used for several years past.






15


In the western section of the corn borer project an investigation was instituted during July into the sources of supply for green corn used in the dining car service of railways and steamship lines operating interstate from
regulated areas into free territory. Permits are issued to carriers purchasing their supplies in unregulated regions.

School for the training of European corn borer scouts who were to wcrk in the central section was held in Schenectady, N. Y., from July 13 to 18. A total of 68 men reported for this training period, after which they were assigned to different territories where scouting was to be carried on.

Address before the Lion's Club of Waterbury, Conn., outlining some of the main phases of European corn borer quarantine and control work, was made at a weekly luncheon, July 30, by T. M. Cannon, in charge of the Hartford offic-e of the Administration.

Exclusive or Combination Japanese Beetle Work

Flight of the Japanese beetles in the heavily infested areas of New Jersey and Pennsylvania was studied during June by plant pest control off icials from several other States. In a amnber of the localities visited, damage to crops was found to be greater than in preceding seasons. on the first of two trips through the regions reporting the heaviest infestations, which took place on Thursday, July 23, the party included Mr Allen, Executive Assistant to the Director of the Bureau of the Budget, and Mr. Hoyt, Assistant Chief of the Administration, both from Washington, Mr. O'Kane, State Entomologist of New Hampshire and Chairman of the National Plant Board, Mr. Hadley, of the Moorestown laboratory of the Bureau of Entomology, and Mr. Worthley, Mr. Stockwell, and Mr. Thomas, of the South Norw~alk headquarters staff. Responding to a telegram from Mr. O'Kane, urging them to make a personal investigation of the situation, a larger group of representatives from States menaced by the spread of the beetle, on Wednesday, July 29, toured the sections where the flight of the pest could be best observed. Among those present were Commissioner of Agriculture Cuthery, and State Fair Exhibits Manager Sandles, of Ohio, Director of Plant Industry Bureau Van Buren,of New York, and State Entomologists Yeomans, of Georgia, Anderson, of Louisiana, Sherman, of South Carolina, and Rumsey, of West Virginia. For the Administration Mr. Hoyt, and Mr. Sasscer, in charge of port inspection, attended. The South Norwalk offices were represented by Mr. Worthley, Mr. Bartley, and Mr. Stockwell. Arriving on the previous day, State Entomologist Flint, of Illinois, had been conducted over the territory by Mr. Hadley.

In a report of the quarantine Committee of the American Association of
Nurserymen, presented to the annual convention in Detroit during July by Chairman Albert F. Meehan, reference was made to the Japanese beetle quarantine and to the general policies of the Administration in the following statements: "The first matter to come before the Committee was the clearing (held Oct. 3, 1930), to consider extending the Japanese Beetle Quarantine to include the State of Rlhode Island, at which time consideration was also given to the extension of the present area. As a result of the hearing that State now is included in the





16


quarantine area. During the past year there have been several conferences with the Administration on Japanese beetle quarantine regulations as the result of which many differences have been ironed out; and, in many cases, modified regulations have permitted better working conditions for nurserymen inside the area without increasing the danger of spread."

This year's Japanese beetle scouting program was fully organized and all scouts were placed in the field during the first few days in July. Two types of scouting are performed. The first involves nurseries, greenhouses, farms, and similar premises from which quarantined articles are shipped to points outside the regulated areas, and is confined, of course, to the territory included under quarantine supervision. During July there were 59 crews of scouts and two men scouting independently, engaged in this type of survey. These operated in Connecticut, Delaware, District of Columbia, Massachusetts, Maryland, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Virginia. The second type of scouting, intended to determine the spread of the insect, is performed wholly outside the infested areas, and in the month, 29 crews were assigned to it. They were stationed in Massachusetts, Maryland, M1ichigan, New York, Pennsylvania, Virginia, and West Virginia. Practically all of the outside scouting activities are performed in towns and cities, frequent transfers being made from place to place as the season progresses. Past experience has indicated that the insect is more likely to spread through populated regions than in open country. Accordingly, most of the surveys are made in urban corniunities.

Early in July the results of the cooperative analyses performed at the Japanese beetle research laboratory of the Bureau of Entomology, MHoorestown, N. J., became available. Collection of soil samples in nursery plots, heelingin areas, cold frames, and plunging plots had been completed early in June and all analyses were finished by June 30. The services of seven temporary chemists were required for three months on this phase of nursery and greenhouse supervision. As soon as the data were available concerning the lead arsenate content of previously-treated nursery areas, this information was conveyed to the owners of the establishments in order that additional quantities of the treating material might be incorporated in the treated plots to bring their lead arsenate content up to the required l,500 pounds per acre. Re-treatments were completed in all nursery and greenhouse establishments concerned by August 1. In a niunber of instances the analyses determined lead arsenate to be present in the treated sections in excess of the required dosage.

Ships' stores taken aboard vessels at ports in the generally infested
Japanese beetle area are regarded as dangerous carriers of infestation. Within the regulated territory, the principal ports of departure for coastwise or intercoastal ships are New York, Philadelphia, and 3altimore. The situation at Philadelphia presents the gr(atcst hazard of beetle spread. At the latter port, an inspector daily patrols the 14 miles of docks and piers on the river front. All boats arc boarded shortly after docking and the stewards interviewed to assure that all requirements of tne Japanese beetle quarantine are met before the ship departs for ports in unregulated territory. Many unintentional violations are prevented by this ship inspection. A rather anomalous situation was encountered by an inspector recently in difficult attempt to explain the






17


restrictions to the steward of a Japanese ship who had purchased uncertified produce from a ship chandler in New York and intended to proceed to a port in the United States outside the restricted zone before leaving for Japan.

Scouts working in communities whose residents largely are unfamiliar with the Japanese beetle in past years frequently encountered difficulties with the local police and with owners of the properties that were examined. All scout foremen when entering a connunity for the first time now are required to visit police headquarters, explain their activities, and request the
*ooperation or the local authorities in facilitating their work. A prepared article is also submitted to the local newspaper or newspapers, describing in detail the work to be performed by the scouts, the methods used, and a brief description of the life history and control of the Japanese beetle. This news item requires approximately 18 inches of newspaper space. In the larger maetropolitan papers the article is frequently cut, while the smaller dailies and weeklies usually print in its entirety. This publicity has materially facilitated the work of the scouts. It also furnishes an excellent avenue for enlist. ing public cooperation in quarantine activities.

Flight of the adult Japanese beetle in the market and waterfront districts of Philadelphia reached such proportions that beginning July 10, it was necessary to curtail the period during which farm products could be inspected and certified for movement from the generally infested area. From Tune 15 until that date inspection service had been provided at the farm Droducts inspection platform, located beneath the Delaware River Bridge, continuously from midnight Sunday to 1 p. m. Saturday. Afterwards this service was curtailed so that quarantined articles were eligible for inspection only between the hours of 8 p. m. and 10 a. m. During the latter quiescent period of the adult beetle, inspections could be satisfactorily made. While the beetles were in full flight, however, inspected produce was subject to reinfestation before it could be trucked to express or freight terminals and loaded for shipment, or reloaded on covered trucks and sealed for transportation from the regulated area. The beetle flight was still in progress at the end of the month.

Fumigation with hydrocyanic :as of carloads of bananas at the Philadelphia loading piers was required beginning July 15. Philadelphia is one or the principal banana receiving ports on tile Atlantic coast. The majority of the bananas unloaded from the boats to wagons on the piers are for local (.consumption. Local haulage of bananas is still done largely by horse-drawn vehi('les, in this case the ability of wagons to maneuver in confined spaces on the piers apparently making their use more advantageous than trucks. These bananas are sold at auction to waiting buyers on the piers, who immediately haul their purchases away. Bananas intended for distant shipment are unloaded from the boats directly into freight cars on barges tied to the side of the ship. The loading operations cover such an area that screening to prevent beetle infestation is impracticable, and can not be compared in effectiveness to carload fumigation.

Cooperation on the part of postal employees in assisting in the enforcement of the Japanese beetle quarantine was manifested recently when an individual deliberately sought to violate the regulations by making a false declax'atioi






is


of the contents of a parcel-post package presented for mailing at the Lancaster Avenue sub-post office in Philadelphia. In response to the clerk's inquiry, the consignor stated the package contained only clothes and that absolutely there was no fruit in it. She further said that she knew all bout the "beetle law" and wouldn't mail any prohibited produce. The clerk, however, detected the odor of fruit about the package and opened it in the shipper's presence, disclosing a quantity of several kinds. An investigation of this attempted violation is under way.

Inspection of farm produce under the Japanese beetle quarantine was carried on in July at one or more places in each of the following cities of the regulated area in the States named: Conneaticut, Bridgeport, New Haven, South Norwalk, and Stamford; New Jersey, Bridgeton, Cedarville, Del-Day, Fairton, Hanmonton, Glassboro, Landisville, Mlalaga, Mount Royal, Newfield, Pedricktown, Rosenhayn, Rutherford, Swedesboro, Trenton, Vineland, Wheat Road, and Woodruff. Most of the offices were open from 8 a. m. to 5 p. m., but at sae inspection was by appointment only and longer hours were observed at several market platforms, a few of these working on a 24 hour a day schedule.

Trapping for the Japanuese beetle was at the peak during July. Traps were in operation in 39 cities at the beginning of the month. Placement was accomplished in 16 additional cities by the cad of July. The trapping program was completed by the distribution of traps in 5 other cities during the month. There were in operation on July 31 approximately 24,000 traps in 61 cities and towns in Georgia, North and South Carolina, Virginia, West Virginia, Ohio, Michigan, Illinois, Maryland, Delaware, Pennsylvania, New York, Connecticut, Rhode Island, and Massachusetts. The Dersonnel assii ned to this work comprised
3 permanent employees and 47 temporary trap tenders.

Most of the space in the August issue of the "Telephone News," published at New Haven, Conn., was devoted to the Japanese beetle, material for the several articles having been furnished by the South Norwalk office of the Administration or by the State experiment station. This periodical is the "house organ" of Southern New England Telephone Company, and a copy is mailed to every subscriber with the monthly bill for services. In July requests for information from a number of other publications for data on which to base news stories were complied with by the division of in-formation within the project.

Inspections under the Japanese beetle qurxn.ntine in the eastern section of the corn borer and beetle project in large degree are confined to intrceptions of cut flowers at the terminals and of funeral decorations held at boat and railway baggage rooms. Nearly all of the larger dealers in the lightly infested areas of Rhode Island and eastern Massachusetts have been classified and the issue to them of ;ederal Permits hlas decreased the office work connected with certification. Smaller classified dealers and private individuals making occasional shipments are still operating on a certificate basis.

Trapping for the Japanese beetle in the regulated areas under sunerision of the central section of the joint corn borer and betle work was inaugurated during the first week of July. Intensity of infestation and rapidity of spread






19


are developed by the findings in the traps but their use is not included among the recommended control measures. Soil treatment in the New England territory under the jurisdiction of the central division was completed early in July.

Representatives of the soil insecticide division of the Japanese beetle research laboratory at 'Moorestown, N. J., have collected soil samples at the various sites treated with lead arsenate this spring in Boston and Springfield, Mass., Newport, Providence, and W1esterly, R. I., Hartford, Willimantic, and New London, Conn., Binghamton, Kingston, and Waverly, 11. Y., and Sayro, Pa. Samples will also be collected in Cape Charles, Newport News, Norfolk, and Portsmouth, Va. All will be analyzed for load arsenate content.

Trap work for the Japanese beetle was delayed by heavy rains, both in Massachusetts and Rhode Island. At certain points numerous of the jars were destroyed and the traps injured by boys. Assistance in handling these depredations was received from the Boston city 'olice and from the New York, New Haven. and Hartford Railroad police. Trapping is under way in Attleboro, Boston, New Bedford, and Plymouth, Mass., and in Newport, Providence, and 'Vesterly, R. I.

Special inspection of tourist camps located on main traveled roads from the area under regulation on account of the Japanese beetle so far has failed to find infestations at any of them. Similar work during the 1930 season also produced negative results. This year some of the camps inspected were a considerable distance from the boundaries of the quarantined area. A scout supplied with a motor car has been exclusively engaged in this inspection.

Scouting for the Japanese beetle was done in Massachusetts during the month by five crews working throughout the month and by a sixth crew added on July 23. Athol, Attleboro, Boston, Camridge, Dorchester, Fall River, Fore
River, Lynn, Newton, Quincy, Salem, Somerville, Taunton, and 7orcester were the cities and towns covered. In Rhode Island one cr ew was engaged in both
field scouting. and work at classified establishments.

Authorities of the city of Baltimore have purchased several thousand
Japanese beetle traps. lhile these are largely for use in the parks, arrangements have been made whereby the traps are rented to residents of the city at the rate of 42 per trap for the season. Persons renting traps are required to attend to the placement and maintenance.

Instruction in their duties was given to Japanese beetle scouts engaged in Connecticut, at South Norwalk, Hartford, and Bridgeport, for several days starting July 6 and 7. Men working in this territory ,ue scouting both to determine spread of field infestations and with greenhouse and nursery inspectors




fIv=XICAN FRUIT FLY

Due to the enforcement of the host-free period no host-fruits in a stago
susceptible to infestation are available for inspection during the summer






20


months. During P)eiOVous yenrs the inspection .work du,,ring thlis time has been confined to wild native fruits. As la sup7rl,inent to this insTpection work this summer, 1,077 fly traps similar to thoseuc in Florida were placed in 11". selected groves Otlrina; the: first part of Jully. TV ; uce of those trnns rrsu-Ite:d in the taking of one adult Anus t_ rIla (not ludens) July 14, in a grove one mile south of Mission, Tox. 1A dditional tr-aps placed in this -and the -.urroundin- groves gave nega tive r-esults the remainder of the month. Arrangemrients were made with the owimer of this Lrove to apply a poison-bait spray at weekly ints rvals to the 2,100 bearing trees in the grove. Under the rtan,,,emcnt the Adn-rinistration furnishes the mitrial for the bait sp- nd thr, cro .cr furnishes thE; labor and machinery for applyingt it. rIhe firs-t a-pplicat'Uion was made July 29. The plans call for three morn a-nplicotions of the boil; spray provided no further infestations are found.

Adult flies -onitinue to be tcke n in theo traps in 1Matarnoros. 11)ring the month 1.76 traps were maintained in b7 diff-r, nt premises scattered throu ghout the city. The use of ths)sc trains resulted in the- takin; of 30 adult fliEs on 13 different promises. Of inte-rest ia thiis connection is the fact tnat in only 4 of these premises woere reinfestations found. All trees within an area of four blocks around each point of infestAltion woere sprayed nat weekly intervals with poison-bait spray.

The cooperation of the UTLexican officials and citiz-ens in thle eradication work continues to be of the highest order. Th;e, ismortation of infested fruit to the market in Matarioros hjias been practically stopped thr-oughi the Cranting of authority to the 'Mexican inspector to impose. finres ul.-on the mnerchl!nMt importin'. this fruit and to also seize and destroy shiph,.entcj, of infested fruit. One mcrchant was fined 50 pesos during the month for ii .mTorting infe.1sted oranges from Rio Verde, San Luis Potosi, Teio.Onea ship7ment of' pears from the State of Coahuila was found to be infes-ted following) "aXici tinj'pr'tl 2 ms '






PINK BOLL7.7R71

During the month of July, f ield inspection in the Sf-lt TIlver Val-ley oa Arizona consisted ofL makin,- infpnctatioli cotunts ft-o.- 23 selected field, 20 oif which are in Ifaricota County and 3 in Pinal County. The results', have ('11 been negative. This is somewhat run'sn hen iF I" 'cle thnt 2 of the fields
selected in Final County 'and 9) in :Kriop on reI 1.ics ed Las,,t season.
Also 2 of the fields in 1Mvaricopa Couinty we-re (adto be infested this season prior to the beginnin,- of the in 7ostation cont1.1 is .!ould seem to indic!_Ate that the infestation is still apparently 7cr,' Li One of~ tho m-ost logical1 conclusions for not findin[- specii~nn, especial ly ir the 2C- fields where the, were found earlier in the season, is tha t the bolls are now' (Iev-eloping much more rapidly than the infestation.

An infestation count consists of the inspect tionl Of 100 boils. 1Estim,,ates were made recently to determine the number ol, bulls per acr, which wAs found. to






21


be 919,080. In examining 100 bolls from this number, it can be readily seen that the chances of finding socimens are very slight, except where the infestation is heavy.

Field inspections have also been nade in the Tucson area. By using 10 squares or green bolls per acre, 1,225 acres have already been inspected with negative results. Practically all of the cotton acreage in the district will be covered by this method of inspection in another month.

One of the new gin trash machines mounted on a truck was sent to the
Lower Rio Grande Valley of Texas on July 24. Otrer machines were sent out as they were completed, so that by the end of July there were five machines operating in the above area. These machines inspected 265' bushels of trash from 25 gins, with negative results.

At the present time each machine is operated by three regular inspectors. As the ginning season advances, and more machines are needed, two of the inspectors with each machine will be replaced by temporary men, leaving a regular inspector in charge of each machine.

The alfalfa inspection and crop survey was continued during July. At this time it has been found that 20 per cent of the alfalfa acreage and 6 per cent of the acreage devoted to other crops in Maricopa County has cotton present, while 44 per cent of the alfalfa acreage and 34 per cent of the acreage devoted to other crops in Pinal County has cotton present. The total cotton acreage is shown to be 132,114, and the abandoned cotton acreage 36,031. The area remaining to be inspected consists of 11 sections near Mesa, in Marlcopa County, and the Indian Reservation in Pinal County. These areas will be completed shortly, and more information on this work will be given in the next News Letter.

In connection with the above work, several young alfalfa fields were
reinspected to obtain further information on the effect of mowing cotton plants at the time alfalfa is cut. It can be readily seen that at each mowing of the alfalfa a number of cotton plants are destroyed. It was previously stated that volunteer seedlings do not survive unless one or more branches are left. In a few instances it has been noted that dormnant buds near the ground hAve put out leaves and made some growth after the upper stalk had been cut off. However, it is doubtful if such growth would ever fruit to any extent. In another field
it was noted that after two mowings the cotton plants produced a considoieible number of squares, but no bolls of any size have developed. Cotton plants are rarely ever found in fields which have been in alfalfa for two years or more.

Heretofore both fumigation and compression have been required as a
safeguard to prevent baled cotton lint from carrying pink bollworms to uninfested areas. Recent investigations have confirmed the importance of compression as a measure for greatly reducing or, under most favorable circumstances, entirely eliminating infestation in th; bale. Accordingly, the pink bollworm quarantine regulations were amended, effective August 1, whereby the fumigation requirement was removed for the movement of cotton lint produced






2


in areas so lightly i-ifested th nink 'Oollworm th! t in the iud-,rient oL -,.he Plant Quarknti.i.rie Lnd Control A(hnini-str,_,tior, ,ny possible dan ,,er of the spread of that insect i.-t baled lint. 7ould be by hi,,;h compression -:7ithout f=.-.
igation. The aroas designated ac lightly infcsU(.%d include tblo Counti,-.-s of Chaves, Edd Otero, Dona Ana, rand Lxaa, in .1---.T. and all thc, rC,;(;ulat,.;d part of Texas except the Couniios of Pi-csidio, relaster, and tlie soutLeast T)nrt
of Hudspeth County, beginning at a point west of tht--,, to,.n of
The release from fumigation applies oily to squwe bal(,, s 7,1'ii(,h have been compressed so that when ready for transportation t.hcy liavr, a d ;nsity of Fit least 22 pounds to the cubic fout.

The inspectors form,, rly enF.-)Lg:3d in th,.;. San Antonio 1.-.boratory devot d most of the month to the study and di3CU3Si,:)--'l of v,,j.rious subjects connected with inspection work. Some of 1"'111-le s1.'_,je(,, ts covered u5 re:

1. Picking,, of cotton wilu111 to findin!-pink bollworn3 in Lin trnsh.
2. Principles involved in frinnin,,' cotton; rilso bollie cotton.
3. Cotton cleaners.
4. Study of Quarantines 'Nus. and 61.
5. Larvae likely to b,,,, coafused --ith t],e -Pink bollworm.
6. 1,711orld distribl,)tion -,nd loss,_-- c-luscd by tne pink boll-. iorm.

Considerable titrie was also 2iv, .n 'Go tli,,; stady and a-tLi-il o-,,)(,, -utio-n of tile gin trash machine ,s and Uin nl;! ,,nts- A visi-G .v::,s mudc.- to t-,,.,o wller,
-rious proc 'Sse,,_: of 7in,
expert on gin machinery exo1ain,?d in d;..ail t",;-. V i I'l
It is thought that a ,;Xeat _imoiuit of 7ood wris -ccoriplisl.ed ill th_, ,_ studi ,s. The information obtained witli to cotton (,leaners- &ijuld result in mriking the gin trash inspection mor, efficient. incroas,,d knowledt-o -f the
subjects discussed should ma!,.e t1,,e insp, (,tors riorc valuable to the. DeDal'tmr;nt.
V rs such matters
They vill be in a position to discuss intellil ",, .,ntly with inn( as cotton cleaning, and the oper!.ition of (_rins.

On Tuly 23 a road station o-pon, d about 5 r.ilos uest of Las Cruces, N. lex. on t ie BanRhead 11if_*l_.1!vay. ':he purpo3e ol' this Ftation is to iotect the eastern cotton 7 L) rowingnt_ a-rea, 17-rofia tl!e fossil 1r, z-,). ,-eAd of pinl- boll infestation from the S Alt Riv(?r Val"1.( y o' Ari-,o.-a. 'rh,-,, rosults obtained duri.-uthe next few Tnonths will d :,t- ,,rrainc wlhotl!'-. 3r or not this -t%tion will be : Aintained perman-,ntly. A nirober c." confiscations ,.rv, re made ,,t th four stations, during July, none of which ;- ere inf(-,Stod -,-,,it1l V-Le nin"', 11011*aorm. Dur-in ,- the same period 6,798 r-art; inspect ,d.




SPl EAD 01.' T-16T

The bringinE togf thor ,-t 11rr,,(,nf ield t : nzs. ok' the v-rious off ices of
this project is, now well under ,Tiay. S,:, vcrnil havo al .-eady becn movod,






23


and bids have been sent out for the moving of most of the rest of the families during, August. The moving of the Governmuent property is being done by our own
force with Government trucks, and many loads have already been delivered at the new quarters in Greenfield.

After August 2b, 1931, communications formerly sent to the office at
Melrose Highlands, and to the Moth Quarantine Office, 408 Atlantic Ave., Boston, Mass., should be forwarded to the new Central Office at 20 Sanderson Street, Greenfield, Mass. Telephone, Greenfield 2290.

A suboffice of the Quarantine and Inspection Project will be continued
at Room 303, #408 Atlantic Ave., Boston, Mass., to handle local inspection matters. All special inquiries or matters affecting quarantine and inspection policies should be taken up with the Greenfield office.

In July shipments of two types of quarantined products, namely, evergreen and nursery products, were at a low ebb. Shipments of the former were in excess of those recorded for the month of Tune due to the fact that the blooming of laurel was over and the branches were in condition to be picked for decorative purposes. During Tune, because of the growth and blooming, laurel is not in a satisfactory condition for use. As soon as blooming is over, pickers begin to gather it. It is shipped for the most part in bales to New York. In the northern section of the quarantined area a considerable quantity of balsam twigs was gathered and shipped in bags to be used for the manufacture of pillows and other novelties. Very few shipments of nursery products were sent out. During the summer the nurseries do not attempt to sell stock to any appreciable extent. A few nurseries, particularly those located on arteries of travel, sell somie stock to persons traveling by automobile. This class of trade has not as yet developed to any considerable extent, but a few sales are made, and as time goes on this type of shipment will increase. The inspections of forest, and stone and quarry products were entirely of a routine nature. The general classes of forest products were shipped about as usual and no infested materials were found. The stone and quarry products, consisting mainly of granite and marble, were num.erous. Towards the latter part of the month some new gipsy moth egg clusters were& found while inspecting these materials.

During July in New Jersey 101 lots of nursery stock and forest products, and on Long Island bl lots of nursery stock, were inspected and certified for shipment by Federal men. No gipsy moth infestations were found as a result of these inspections.

SprayinC work for the fiscal year 1931 was completed during the second
week of July. All infestations, except a few single unbroken egg- cluster infestations and a few infestations located on isolated trees which were discovered in the Barrier Zone during the year, wero thoroughly sprayed. The exceptions noted above were; treated by creosoting the egg clusters or by cutting down and burning isolated infested trees. In such ,ases the surrounding trees were banded with burlap, and these were patrolled during the caterpillar season to discover any infestation which might have been overlooked.






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When the spraying work was completed the bulk of the force was transferred to northern New York, where they bean scouting in G townships borderig Lake Champlain. Twelve regular scouting arews were engaged in this work. Some woodland scouting has been done in previous years in some of these tow-'ships. Such areas will not be scouted this year. The rest of the area in these townships will be scouted by Lthe regLular 40-foot strip method. During the month no towns were completed and no inf stations were found. As soon as other men can be released from special assigrlnments they will be transferred to northern New York, to assist in the scouting :ork being carried on there. Scouting work in the northern area of the Barrier Zone is done early in the season so that as much as possible of it can bc finished before snow makes nonditions unsatisfactory for scouting.

In the part of the 3arrior Zoie in Yew York State which is cared for by the New York Conservation Department, scoutia% was carried on during July in the townships of Ancram, Austrlitz, Cunaan, and Hillsdale, and apparently no infestations ;core discovered during the month. On Lonz Island the New York Conservation Department had 5 crav.s doing intensive scouting in Lorth Hempstead Township. No indications of gipsy moth infestation were found as a result of this work.

In New Jersey the force has een engaged during the month in patrolling burlap bands which were previously placed around trees at the sites of old infestations but no gipsy moths were found in this work. In addition to this the men have put out a large number of assembling -cages to attract male moths which may be present. After these cages are put out they are visited at least once a week to gather any male moths which may be caught. No moths have been caught in New Jrsey as a result of this work. Howov;r, this work is not entirely completed at this time and there is -a -nossibility that same gipsy moth infestation may be discovered before its completion.

Spraying work in New Larlboro, Sandisfield, and Sheffield, Mass., and Canaan, Cornwall, Salisbury, and Harren, Conn., was completed early in July. The following figures will give some idea as to the Ctent of this work: In Miassachusetts there were 2,022 acres of woodland sprayed, and in Connecticut, 1,746 acres, making a total of ',763 acres. In doing this work, 159,22 pounds of arsenate of lead and 3,157 gallons of fish oil were used.

For several years r-nords have baun kept of the degree and extent of defoliation of trees in New Eneland caused by the gipy m.oth. These records have been gathered from State and Town officials, from members of the Federal Bureau of Entomology, as well as by the force of the Plant Quarantine and Control Administration. Reports are obtained from most of the towns in the generally infested area. Most of the Federal men ascigned to this work have had considerable experience in exariing towns and drwing the wooded areas in thm onto blue print maps. This helps them in determining the extent of defoliated areas, and with a little experience they soon become expert at estimatin the degree of defoliation. There was less defoliati,)n caused by the pipsy moth this summer than for several years, and the trees in most of the area were practically free from gipsy moth feeding. Defoliation was severe in the counties of Bristol, Plymiouth, and :irnstable, Mass. ?hero wis recorded a total






25


of 204,720 acres in 1Te*.,., 'Tnl,' 'land .711i3h show, ,,! sorne fleedinC by the toi-psy rqot'-',. caterpillai-s, but over one- ialf of' this was class if ied a-,- lcss than 10 per cent defoliated, leavinli7 101,b6-5 ac2es classified as from 10 to 10(1 per cent defoliated, and over one-half of this a:aount ( -)4,?10" acres) was in the southeastern
section of Massachusetts. Practicnli- all (.)f defoliation records arc now available but there may bo a frjw scatter d noc r,.(, ived lalt.C, r, so that thrl-sr, figures may have to be somGwhat, but il, i-,- no+ ex-o ,cted that an,%r Mnt-rial chanL e in them will !De n,:. c- ssary.

On pages 24 and 25 .)C tl--e AuG;ust PTe'.7s, Lett,: r is j.-iv,1-n a brief description of the assemblin;_- cage zork. The of tI-io niaterial to be, us, O for
attracting male gipsy moths is done di-ing Tuly. llhi. ,. y D,,:i.2 t1io rlat 2rial obtained from the ar a around Middloboroj ,, ,ass. In. p.-,--.vious seasons tnc mrcentage of female moths issuin,- from tiie 7,olle(,ted -,pupae has br;en low, ranging from 10 to l", ner cent, and thit, lias nenc.ssitatc-d _-atherin!, large numb rs of pupae in ord(-.r to obtain a suf-"icient siipT)ly, low nercr, nt. of 1 male tips. Th l
age of issuance of moths has b-,,c-n duE; to several facto2-, the irmortant ones being the presence of wil-u dis3a_- in the pu-ae, T) ,raAtism of thei:i by S. scutellata, injury due to 11,rindlinp!, and uvei-.c_.-oTdinn- in the tray. The niethi ds-of collectin- and corino, for the material were improved in several ways this season, and the wilt disease and parasitism we.: e -not as severe as usual. This summer nearly 50 per cc .nt uf the pupaE !7 ive female moth s. 3ecause of this hiCh peroontaj.e of issuan-e- of ;!1oths -i unusually larF_,c amw nt of material was obtained. Th ,,re about 3'# l,,:')1A,1 pubuo collected, frorn which approximately 176,490 tuips wt: .-e obtained. About )0,720 of thes" T,(,,-.(: put into 3,024 cans for use in New le-sey -next year. 'Eac-11 c'.1i cc)n-:,iiris 3(, fer.. .le tiz)s and 1 ounce of benzol. About ),7?0 ti Ps used t]-iis Eurii,:ier in tlir)
B-irrier Zoie Dr just east of it, and in J.1ae:--e coiit ained
female tips in 1 ounce of xyl- Dnj (:,r hi.-a tue,,:'. ,asolino, tKere was )nowh material to fill 5,'718 cagi. 3. T'he oxant nur_ bor of cai,-es that v7pre. but out can not be given at this time as sonie o2 tnis -as usnd ',o refill (,a ._res and
all of the no t(-,,s have not as Yet bevn ec(-A- ,ed lat ti,.e office. '11'he refillincages gives two periods when t11,7 nlltrac1oa -it i b vc-c". Y 3 t r on,! I d I llo"-s f ov t 1-,.e cages to auL traot over lonc-.: i- p,,riod. 1-i dditioa to Mae alcove, therc were
g_;s of benzol rateri.al ia llul:i, lac,;d in N 2w Jorso.,,,.
Cages were placed in ev,-;ry to,,. Tq ")f 1,Te,7 7,1_,,'i. land nart of Vie Parrier Zone in which any gipsy moth inlestatio-i ',.--.s ever bc n disc ove-ed. In the 73arrit r Zone cages were planned in 16 toxins in 77; !rrl,,.ont, 20 to*.rn7 in 1T11ss,,1o,- US,,ttS 2 4 ownF Connecticut, and 12 toms -in York 11 ,-tate. "Tc;,s 7-or'.- Stnt Conservrati on Depa rtmont cit.cid 9 Df the-c 12 tn-,iaS -a th .;u-Pnlied fro.i the Federal of f ice In addition -'U-o '%-.his, placed of th ,, i ,irrior 7on, in 5 tow!z
iii 7Aassachuso-Gts and in 8 towns in Con-').entic-ii.t. T-A 7-1 w Tcr.:ey cages were placed in 119 towns.

Sever,: male rrio hs have :il -,-ady t)-P,,n cu,,:'at &t ca -rcs in NOT ETm*lr_-nd, but no catches have been made in Ner, It, nirry be n -r.essary to slightly :-evise thene fiCurcs in a latoo is -uo of t jr, T,(7 tt,,r I,,, t,,(, season's work is not quite completed at t1nis time.

During July ocoutirig has been carried o L i-i co,:)T)ov,-Aion with v ,i-ious
C






26


State officials to determine the extent of this summer's dispersion of the satin moth. Much of the area just beyond the present quarantine line has been examined, and a few infestations have been found in towns beyond the present controlled area. The satin moth has been found outside of the quarantine line in 8 towns in Connecticut; 2 towns in Massachusetts, one of which (Williamstown) borders the Vermont and New York State lines; 1 town in Vermont, and 9
towns in M"aine. No infestation beyond the quarantine line in New Hampshire was found as a result of this aork. This work is not entirely completed so that recommendations for changing the present quarantine line can not be made at this time.

About 70 collections, including the gipsy moth, brovn-tail moth, satin moth, and miscellaneous insects, were made dur inrr the month for the GiDsy M.oth Laboratory at Melrose Highlands. This work is done incidental to the regular duties of the men and is helpful in adding valuable records to data assembled
at the laboratory.

During July there was a total of 46 violations reported. Investigations were completed in July on 2 violations reported in May, and on b8 violations reported in June. No prosecutions were instituted as all cases appeared to be of minor nature due to ignorance or misunderstanding of the requirements. All of the violations were reported by transit inspectors of the United States Department of Agriculture.






UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 3 1262 09245 0955




Full Text

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I l B R L E T ':' 3 R ~TATE LAN BOARD J Number 9 PLANT Q,UARAlITINE A N D cor-rrr~O L .An ITlTISTRA TIOn UNIT E D S TATE S DEP T i1, ~""T O F AGRICULTURE (NOT FOR PUBLICATI O N ) September, 1931. AD1 1INISTRATIVE ?he Aruninistration regrets to report the de ath of Dr. Russell A. Oakley in Monrovia, Calif. , o~ August G, at t h e age of 5 0 years. Doctor Oakley had been in poor health f o r a numbe r of years a n d i n 1929 went to Monrovia in the ~o p e of finding a cure, but without s ucc ess. He w a s appointed a member of the F e d eral Horticultural B oard by the S e cret ary of .Agriculture on January 3, 1925, succeeding Doctor Kellerman, a n d at t he time of his death was a me~iber of the advisory. Fed eral Plant Quarantin e Board. Doctor Oakley always evinced a keen interest in t h e worl-: of t h e Administration, and his death r epresents a great loss. T ECHNOLOGIQ_A,.L The car fumi gation house at Presidio was compl e t e d the early part of August . This house is of six-car capacity a nd is constructe d of brick with a buil t up tar and s~ag roof. The house has two galleries, one of which is arranged so a s to acco.-.::.-.o]a.t e both long and short cars with a minimum of waste space. A nev,T type of sliding doo r weighing about 2 , 000 pounds apiece is used for the outside doors of t he fumigation hamber. 'l'he doo r s are in on e piece and so arranged that the y seal tightly on all four sides. They are sealed by a cam and lever device with which "it is possible for on e man to apply about 4 , 000 pounds pressure to the doors in seating them. The house contains a room equipped for the fumi gation of trucks and automobiles as well as freight cars. It has been noticed that in some c ases operators are c a r e l e s s i n t he handling of hydrocyanic acid or cal c ium cyanide for fumigation . This i s particularly true of commercial ope r ators. B yd.ro c y unic acid is o ne of t h e most deadly poisons known. It is d a 1gerous i n conc entrations of 12 parts per million and it is liable to be qu i kly f a t a l in conc entrations of 300

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n -parts per million. In Mncentrations below 1 0 0 parts pe~ million, it is liable to cause ~onsiderable discomfort. Hydrocyanic acid or calcium cyanide should never be handled u...11.less t he operator is oquippo d with a go od gas mask . The mask should fit tightly around the f a c e , and the canistGr should be renewed with suffieient freq_uenc•y to be sure that it is absolutely safe and will remove all hyd.rogya;1i~ , acid frotn the o.ir passing throug h it. Hydrocyanic acid boils at approximately 80 ?., and gives off gas very quickly by evaporation a t temperatures below that point because of its high vapor tension, and particular care should be exercised in handling liquid o r hydrocyanic acid discoids, cal ciwn cyanide, or other hydro0yani~ acid-bearing compounds in hot ~eather. While the gas is exce0dingly poisonous, if handled w ith the proper c0,.Te and the right kind o f equipment, there is li ttl0 da..11.ge r of injury. To avoid accidents, h owever, it shot..ld be traatod , -vith r0spect and precautions taken at all times. FORSIGN PLANT Q,TJARAN'J.'INES RECEN'? ENTOMOLOGICAL INTERCE.:PTIOl s or LITEREST Fruit fly larvae in avocados. --Larvae of Anastrepha sp. (Trypet idae) vrere found at Brovmsvillc , Tex., i n 8.vocados i n baggage from M e xico. Four in t0:rc 0ptions of the Mexican fruit fly (A. ludens) in a vocados from Mexic o have been made previously on the Mexican border this year. (See also News Letter No. 1, January, 1931; No. 3, Maren , 1 0 31; No. 6, June, 1 931; No. 7, July, 19 31.) Pink bollworm from Syri~.--The pink bollworm (Pectinophora gossypiella) was taken at Atlanta, Ga., in seed cotton i n the mai l from Syria . Larvae of the pink bollworm rere likevise rece::.1tly found in seed in raw cotton used as packing for antiques from Syria . (Sr.:~e also Nev1s Lette r No. 1, January, 1931; No. 3, Mareh, 1931; No. G, June , 19 31 ; No. 8, August, 1 931,) Pink bollworm found in Jamaica.--The pink bollworm was collected by Max Kisliuk, jr., at Liguanea, near Ki ngston, Jamaica, June 7, 19 31. This is the first record tha t the United Sta t i)s National Museum has received of the occurrence of the pink bollworm i'n Jamaica. Scale insect f rom South Africa.--Chionaspis exalbida (Ckll.) (Goccidae) was collected at Vlashington, D. C., on Aloe tingi tana in the mail from South Africa. This seale inseo t was intercepted previously on Aloe and Pandanus from Port Elizabeth, South Africa, in 1 919 . Bean pod borer interce ted i n California.--The bean pod borer ( Maruca testulalis wa~ intercepted at San Pedro, Calif., in string beans in stores from Hawai i and at San Francisco in g r een beans in stores from Tahiti. (See also News Letter No. 2, February, 19 31; No. 5, May, 19 31; No. 6, June, 1931.) Nitidulid from Guatemala.--Urophorus humeralis (Nitidulidae) was found at New Orleans on a banana leaf in cargo from Guaten1 ala. This beetle, which

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Digitized by the Internet Archive in 2013 http://archive.org/details/newsletter31 no9

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3 -is report d fro. ~lorida, has also been intercepted from Ar gentine, British Samoa, Canal Zone, China, Cuba, F ance, Ha'i7aii, Honduras, Mexico, Morocco, nd Sp a i n . Aphid on g l diolus corms.--The a p hid Rhopalosiphoninus tulipaella mheob., was intercept e d at Viashington, D . C., on g l adiolus corms i n the m ail from the Netherlands. This aphid has been taken on the sam e ho s t from E n l and. It is not known to occur i n continenta l United States. Scale insect on coconut.--Ripersia pal.rnarum (Coccidae) was intercepted at San Francisco on coconuts in baggage, cargo, mail, and ship's q u~rters from Hawaii. Besides being taken numerous t imes on coconuts from Hawaii, this scale insect h a s be e n found to infest coconuts arriving f rom Pago Pago, Polynesia, Rarotonga, and Tahiti. This coccid is not rer-orded from continental United States. Bruchid from France.--Bruchidius villosus (Bruchidae) was found ~ r ;ashington, D. C. , in seeds of Cyt i sus alp inus in the mail from France. represents our first interception of this bruchid. a t This Scale insect on soursop.--The coccid Hemichionaspis minor strachani was found at Philadelphia on soursop in quarters from Jamaica. This scale insect is reporte d as doing considerable damage to Melicocca bijuga ( genip) in the Virgin Islands. (Se e also News L ette r Jo. 5, May, 1931.) Citrus psylla from China.--The citrus psylla (Diaphorina citri Kuwayarna) was intercepted a t Washington, D. c., in a case of _ citrus plants from China . This insect is a serious pest of citrus in the Orient. Scale insect on pine from Japan.--The coccid D rosicha sp. was found at Seattle on pine in ship's furnishings from Japan. This represents the first interception of this coccid genus by inspectors of t h e Plant Quar antine and Control Administration. Moth on pine from Japan.--The moth Ptochoryctis tsugensis ( Xyloryctidae) was taken at San Francisco on pine in baggage from Japan. This insect was found at Honolulu, Ha~aii, on pine from Japan in 1921. Weevil in soil around turnips.--An adult of Ceutorhynchus picitarsis (Curculionidae) was found. at Philadelphia in soil around turnips in stores from France. This w e evil was r e cently intercepte d in turnips in stores from France . (See also News L ette r No. 6 , June , 1931.) RECENT PATHOLOGICAL INTERCEPTIO S OF INTEREST White pine blister rust (Cronartium ribicola) was found on currant leaves from Canada intercepte d in mail at Detroit, JAich. Two parasitie nem atodes, one a species of Caconema (possibly Q• r adii~) and the other an undetermined species of Tylenchus, were intercepted at Norfolk in roots of a ru~ber pla~t from Sumatra in ship's furnishings. Phomopsis vexans, which causes a fruit rot and leaf spot of eggplant in parts of the United States, was determined as the cause of rot in e ggpl~nt in stores from Argentina and from Brazil intercepte d at New Orleans.

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... : ' . . , : . , 1' , . , . !' .,_.• : . . . ~ -:;~.-. ,. ... : ,, ,•.l .... J '

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4 -Sphaceloma fawcettii, citrus scab, ':'hich o c urs to some extent on citrus fruits in this country, ~as intercepted at Philadelphia on lemons from Argentina in stores, at Norfolk, Va. , on grapefruit from Panama in stores, and a belated return on a diseased orange from China intercepted in baggage at Seattle gives the same det1:;rmination. Puccinia allii, a rust of onions and r e l a t e d pl nts, was intercepted in cargo at New York on 1 aves of garlic from Italy. Apparently this disease is not reported from t he United States and little is kno i m regarding it. Diseases of reeds intercepte d in cargo a t ew York were determined as caused by Cladochytrium h eliochandis in th8 c use of Scirpus palustris from Holland and by Puccinia pragm i tis i.1 the c ase of Arundo donax. An orange bearing spots of fungus growth was intercepte d at Boston in baggage from Azores. ~he fun0us was identifie d u s Ophionectria coccicola, an entomogenous form said by Fawcett in ''Citrus Disease s and Th o ir Control," p . 269, to attack scal0 insects tln d h olp k eep the m und e r control in Florida and the West Indios. LIE A BEA.t~ SCAB SURVEYS Th e situation with r espect t o Lin:a boan scab (Elsinoe canavaliae) was discussed on pp. 4 6 of the .Tu.,.'1.o News Letter. The coop e r ti ve survey by Neil Stevens and colleag u e s o f the Plant Disease Survey h a s thus far failed t o disclose evidence of Lima bean s ab in the Southern -Str tes. !, • A. I\CcCubbin went to California early in August to carry out a simil a r survey in coope r ation with the officials of that State . CACTUS S NIUGGLER FINED An attempt to smuggle n:ore tha_ o ne thousand cacti across the ,fexican border this spring was frustrated by m ounted custons inspectors. A representative of the Administratio n c v < )pere.ted in the resulting c ourt action , the smuggler being fined ~ 200 . P ROG~SS OF FOREIGN INS3CT PES T SURVEYS C . I;. C ooley of the ,.Vashin0to:i offi e and t1ax K i sliuk of Philadelphia are making frequent r eports of p r o r ess in their survey_ o f plant pest conditions in the 1!!est L dies and arc sendin in l a r g e n umbers of spe i mens for determination or verification. 1.7,nile the y o.re spe ializing on fruit fly collections much other interestin material has been re eive d from them. Renorts on these collections will b e iss u e d l a ter. Both ~ Coo ley and l~. Kisliuk h ave written in, pra1s1ng the sple_did cooperative spirit of the diploma-ti , a ricultural, n d other officials in the countries visited. Their progress and effi~iency have been grea ly facilit a ted in many ways by the helpfulness of those with I h o m they have com~ i contact.

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5 -The countries visited thus far are the Bahamas, Jamaica, Haiti, Dominican Republic, and Virgin Islands. By the time the News Letter goes to press they will have been to St. Kitts also. One of the problems met on several occasions was that of transportation particularly where torrential rains had made usual roads impassable. In Haiti the Marine Corps helped out by furnishing an airplane for transportation. Much of the local travel is on foot, however. The fruit fly survey in western Mexico, which is being made by K. H . Townsend and o. c. Trotman, is well under way. Surveys have been completed in the States of Nayarit and Sinaloa, and at the present time those inspectors are in the vicinity of Los Mochis. Officials of the Mexican Government have rendered splendid cooperation in connection with this survey, the inspectors having been accompanied during a portion of the time by Coppel Rivas, Chi e f of the Officina para la Defensa Agricola, and his assistant, I. H . Olmedo. The survey thus far has developed some interesting information in regard to the fruit flies on the westcoast of Mexico. BAMBOO BORER IN GRASS FROM CUBA A shipment of approximately 28 tons of Gynerium sagittatum, G . sacharoides, and Arundo donax, imported at Philadelphia on July 28 for the purpose of testing machinery, was found to be very heavily infested, especially the Gynerium, with the bamboo borer {Dinoderus minutus). In view of the ondit1on of the material, approximately half of the shipment was destroyed by burning, the remainder being submerged for 30 minutes in hot water at a temi:erature of 17 1 to 180 F. The destruction and treatment was performed by the importer under the s upervision of representatives of the Administration. While the bamboo borer has been generally considered a post of the bam boo and related grasses, it develops that this insect in certain countries has been injurious to stored products. In Mauritius it is considered a pest of maize, and in the Dutch Sast Indies it is reported to attack dry maize and rice. It is said that this insect in Zanzibar reduces all structures built of bamboo within a few years. In Porto Rico it has been found in flour. Apparently there is no record of this insect infesting stored products in the United States. It has been intercepted on anumber of occasions in the past, primarily from the Orient, in bamboo fishing poles, Mah Jong sets, furniture, ete. It has also been collected in chestnuts from China, Dioscorea from China and Jamaiea, sweetpotatoes from China and the Straits Settlements, dried persimmons from Chi~a, lily and narcissus bulbs from China, and the yam bean (Paehyrhizus) from China. INSPECTION NECESSARY OF COASTWISE SHIPPING VIA PANAMA CANAL Ships plying between the east a n d west coasts of the United States by way of the Panama Canal sometimes ca:rry contraband material. Re ently a~ inspector at Philadelphia, Pa., boarded an oil tanker which had arrived from San Pedro , Calif., via Panama Canal. In the ice box he found nine mangoes taken on

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~. ~~: , ;t\:.c'.• ... ,,., ' .

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6 -board in the Canal Zone by members of the crew. This is only one of the instances where inspectors have intercepted prohibited fruit and plants on ships plying between our east and west coasts. FOREIGN PL.ANT QUARANTINE SUMMARIES Circular PQCA-314, Plant Quarantine Restriction s of the Countries of Central .America, has now been published and is available for distribution. The same is true of Circular PQCA-321, Plant Quarantine Restrictions of Sweden. ARGENTINA.--Under date of June 26, 1931, the full text of the Decree of March 9, 1931, regulating the importation of fresh fruit into that country, was transmitted in a memorandum to chie f inspectors and collaborators of the Administration. A complete summary of the plant quarantine restrictions of Argentina has been prepared for publication. LATVIA.--A translation of the text of the list of serious plant pests and diseases whose importation into Latvia is prohibited was reproduced in a memorandum dated July 31, 1931, to chief inspectors and collaborators of the Administration. This w a s published in the I nternational Bulletin of Plant Protection, V: 5, pp. '79 and 80, May, 1931. MEXICO.--Und0 r d a t e of August 3, 1931, a translation of the text of the Decree of July 27, 1 931, w a s transmitted to chie f inspectors and collaborators. Thi s d ec2 33 Yev c kes Absolute Exterior Qua r antine No. 11 (see supplement No. 2 to P~ ~ } 884, T'l o.nt Quarantine Decrees and Regulations of 1exico) , which proh i b i t1:. c.:. ti0 im~or ~at:on into r.exico of corn, broomcorn, sorghum, Sudan grass, straw1 8~: ~ , 1, ''t1csul .t:on'' of the same d a t e d eclares the countries infested w i t r tl.e ~:,.:rr:?JD. , 20..:11 borer, Pyrausta . nubilalis. These include the Provinces ,:,f ur~~;-..:.:ci r , , } r1-: . Qt-:.ebe , Canada, and the f o llowing named States: Miehigan, Obi, ) .... 81::... sy .:.. vanj. & , N e w York, New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Maine, Rhode Island~ C1...:n.ne1.!t L •:"t.1.t ; V ermont, New Jersey, West Virginia, a nd Indiana. Th e :JecreP. fn' c v i , :..es that interested persons in '[e xico shall apply in advance to the Mcxi..?an l Je,_:i(.;.r~nient of Agricul tu. r e a n d Public 11_1orks for a permit to import t h e 8.b::,' , ..,_ , L a rciGd p roducts from infest e d r e gions, and the said Department will f o:rm,,.'t_:J+;; -r,->;:1 l3.t 1ons on the r e q uire ment s to be met. The text o f 1;h e D eere':: anc. of the R e solution will . be published as Supplement No. 3 to Ci .re .. : l.far 1 :QGA-284. BRITISH HOl\,TTJlJ.SA'~.--A '1J.P.m rr: e l 1dum t o chief i :spectors, dated August 10, 1931, reports t he r•.::! ,-,;It n f -the ~ e x t cf Proclamation No. 3 of 1931, repealing Proclamation r0. ~3 . [H 1~8 t' .see :rp. 1 a nr~ 2 of Circular PQCA-314) , and abolishing t ' 1 1•?•;_;.ri:.'crt"::nt _it 3. c e t~f2 c ate of uri gin with shipments of fruits or vegeta bles L . ' , -:'1 .:_.._ L,, ~ , ~1-j_ Stt , tos to B l' i tish Hondur s. r.ih e t e::_ t c:: thi s f' _~oc lurr..1ti on is being p u blished as Supplement No. 1 to Circular P Q C ~_-r , 1 ,

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-7 -UNION OF SOUTH AFDI CA,--'l'he text of Proclamation N o . 173, of April 2 1 , • 1931, has been prepared for publi ation as Supplement To. 1 to Circular PQ,CA297 . 'rhis Proclmnation places the seeds of elm ( U lrnus spp.), lucerne (_[edi cag o sativa), tea (Camellia thea), and tomato (Lycop ersicum escule ntum) within the definition of "plant" i n Section three of Act No. 6 of 1924. According to the Union of Sout~ Afric GoverTu.'Tlent Gazette of I v~ay 8 , 1931, a permit will not be issued t o any perso _ t o introduce from oversea into the Union: Citrus (all s _ ecies), p lants or seeds of lucer~e (t'Iedicago sativa), pome fruit trees, plants and se0ds of tea (Cam0llia thoa), plants and seeds of elm (Ulmus spp. ) from Europe , and plants and seeds oi~ chestnut (Castanea spp. ) from North America. After January 1, 1932, no p e r mits will be issued for tomato s eeds from the contine, t of :Jorth Americ a unless acco mpan i ed by a certificate issued by compet ent authority that t he s eed was produce d b y plqnts fT e e from bacterial canker (Aplanobacte r michig u n e,se). TRAlfSIT INSPECTIO N The transit inspection notes in tile July issue incl' ded a s tatement to the effect that "two cars of u _ certified bananas f'roI'l P hiladelphia" had been discovered in trans i t a t Pittsburgh. This ave a m i s impression which is now corrected. It has d 8 velop e d tha t the Japanese beetle i n s p ectors a t Philadel p h i a had, i n fact, examined these two cars of bananas and c ertified the m for interstate shi pment , but throug h some s lip the certific~tes b~came detached from the waybills, and when t h e s hipments r e ache d Pittsburgh the inspector a t that point rightly intercepted the m rs appa r ent violations of the quarantine. On l earning that the fruit had actu ally b e1.:-n ertifie d and therefore offered no danger of spreading infestation, th ins ector allowed the shipments to be delivered t o the consigne e . More than 200 violations of the Tapanese beetle quarantine wer e inte r cepted by transit inspectors during the m o ni;h of July, the shipments consisting principall y of uncertified cut flowers and vegetabl e s and fruits. Shipments of g l adiolus without certification as to freedo m from the European cor~ borer are also frequently found at this seaGon o ~ tho year . A c~rtificate is required in shipping cut flow0rs or entire p l nts of gladiolus, dahlia, ast e r , and chrysanthemum from the Jcneratio a ea of the European corn b orer to points outside. European corn borers were r ecently fo md in a s h ipm ent consig n e d to Chicago, Ill., fro m Syracuse, n . Y •• an d intercepted at the former city by Inspector N . H . Dunlap, who pro mptly turne d t : e shipment b ck to t he s 0 nder. A few ears of green corn w re being shippod by an i ndividual probably unaware of the quarantine regulations. A list of post offi es in ureas re ul~ted under F e d eral l~~t,

PAGE 15

8 -quarantines has recently been compiled, s h owing what Federal quarantines apply to each post office in the United States. Opposite the name of each office the numbers of quarantine notices affecting shipments from that office are given as a reference. Consideration is being given to having the lists printe d in notebook form for the convenience and information of the employeesand collaborators of the Administration. M!ITE-PINE BLISTER RUST The discovery of the white-pine blister rust in July at three places in Washington County, Md., bordering on the Pennsylvania state line, is reported by the Division of Blister Rust Control, Bure a u of Plant Industry. i~aryland has not heretofore been designated in the white-pine blister rust quarantine as an infected State. The disease was found at two points on yellow flowering currants (Ribes aureum) and in one location on a European black currant bush (Ribes nigrum). Inspections were made of flo~ering currants at 40 places in Washington C ounty, Id., and Franklin County, Pa. , but no rust was found on them except as noted. The white-pine area s of the Appalachians south of this infestation are still free from the blister rust, so far as has been discovered, as are also the valuable sugar pine forests of California, and other five-leafed pine areas of the States of Colorado, Utah, Nevada, Arizona, and New Mexico. The European black currant is said by the Bureau of Plant Industry to have been responsible for firmly establishing the rust in hundreds of square mile s of white-pine forests which otherwise would have remained free from the disease for many years. This species of currant has boo n nearly or quite eradicated from important pineproducing States of the JJorthwest and of the Pacific Coast, and several of the Northeastern and Lake States are freeing themselves from these plants. The Department of Agriculture recognizes the black currant as a distinct menace to the white-pine timber supp l y of the country and advises a gainst the growing of this species of currant anywhere in the United States. A scouting trip to determine whether the white-pine blister rust has reached the States of Iowa, Illinois, Indiana, and Ohio, is being made by R . A. Sheals, of this Administration, in company with R. G. Pierce, of the Bureau of Plant Industry, and with state inspectors of the States concerned. NARCISSUS BULBS The number of narcissus bulbs injured by the inspectors making ware house inspections to determine whether the bulbs are infested with eelworrns, is practically negligible, according to a r e c ent lette r from c . R . Stillinger, who has observed conditions in the bulb-growing areas of the Northwest. The inspection is usually done by cutting the top of the bulb off at the ne k, and above the area v 1her e the growing bud tissue oc urs. Occasionally it is necessary, of course, to cut open an entire bulb if there are indications of infestation. Cutting th~ n ecks of a consid erable numbe r is absolutely n e c essary, Mr. Stillinger believes, to avoid l o sses in t h e long run, An "active general field infestation " of the lesser bulb flies in Tennessee, where the capture of one specimen earlier in the season was

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g -reported in the ul~ issue, is disclosed t ough field observations by G . TT. ~ Davidson. Several udult flie s were observed in mos t of the plantings, Gnd in the Victoria variety they were quite numer ous. At on e Georgia plantin a nu.._~ber of larvae o f t he lesser bulb fly, some appar ently full g rown and others about half grown, nere f o und i n one v ariety of bulbs im.111ediately after digging. R . A . Sheals, working with the New Jr; r sGy inspectors , eports an ee l worm infestation in the southern part of tlat State. J. M . Corliss a nd H . J. Co11kle left f'or I\ ichi_.,an about the middle of August to assist the State inspectors there i n the regular fall inspe tion of narcissus bulbs, including warehouse inspection, and especially to aid the state inspectors in eelworm diagnosis. PHONY PEACH DISEASE A public hearing has been announced by t he De-oartment to be held in V.ash ington on September 1 5 " t o onside r the advisability of extendi ng t:1e quarantine on account of the phony peach disease to t he State s of Arkansas, Florida, Illinois, L ouisiana, Mississippi, North Ceroli a , South Carolina, Tennessee, and Texas. As a n alternative to such extensio:i," the announcement states, ''the question of possible discontinuance of the Feder a l r estrictions on account of thi s disease will also be discuss ed.*** The possible extensior-of the quarantine to include most of t h e St tes named was g iven consideration a t a hear ng on N ovember 1 4 , 1930, but ction was d e ferred a t that time. It v , a s felt that t he scouting had not yet b0en extensiv~ enou gh to m?ke the s ituation fully known and that the principal d anger of spread o f tho disease o n poach and nectarine nursery stock would be the shipments from the areas of Georgia a nd Alabama already 1.Lnder quarantine. "Surveys during the summer of 1931 have shown that scattering instances of t h e disease occur in Florida and Ill inois i n addition t o the States known to be infected last Novemb e r and that the inf6ctions ir. the other State s , e~pecially North Carolina, South Carolina, rTe nn essee, and Arkansas, are onsidorably more numerous and widely scatte:-ed than had previously been knomi . '' In Florida , the scattering instP,nc e s of t h e disease referred t o were found in s e ven cotL.rities i n t he northern part o f the State , by a'1 i nspe tor of the Bureau o f Plan t Industry durin0 the seco d week in June . The Illinois i n fection was found in Jackso Count~,. G . !! . R . Davidson a nd M . E . Connolly are no'T! en aced in che king the nurseries of Louisiana, Mississippi, '11e x a , and Arkansas to determine whether phony peach disease i n f ections occur i n or near them. BLACK ST?,_ 'i R ST A s a result of the recently re •ised blauk stem rust quarantine , about twenty-five nurserymen growin0 rust-rv=::istant spe ies or' _ , ~ a h onias and barberries have applied for permits to ship these p lants i to or between the 13 States from

PAGE 19

10 -;1ich th, common barberry ple.nts hav e been eradicated. Permits are not issued for shipping into these States the common barberry ( Berberis _vul ari~) or any other species, hybrids, or varieti e s or Be~be is or 1 a honia sufficiently s usceptible to infection by t he black stem rust to i volv e danger of spren d of the rust. DATE SCALE Inspection during the month of July w3.s hampered to some extent by extreme hea t accompanied b y an unusual humi1 co:'ldi tion a n d very little wind. July 2 was the hottest day, t he ther m omet e r in the Gov ernment weather shelte r registering 120 maximum and 8 7 J:11n1mum. 'l'ne therr.J.ometer i n the P. _ . C . A. office registered 98 at 7.30 a . m., and reache d a maximum of 115 a t 4 p . m . The official average maximum for the month was 110 and tne average minimum Wu.S 80. During the swn mer months dat e gardens nre irrigat e d at approximately 1 0-day intervals. This creat e s a v ery hu.rnid condit::.on, es ecially where cover crops are planted, whe~ inspection i s being carried on. Records indica t e tha t the effectiveness of i!lspection is not lowe ed du r i ng the summer months but is slowed up to some extent. 'rhe date scale eradication "9rog1~am is based on the fa t that an infested paL~ can be located by inspection before the infestation has become severe enough to spread to adjoining palm s . 'The i!ldi v i dua l palm is taken as the w1i t. ~his calls for v ery careful inspection . The inspector is equipped with o. hook w ith' 4-foot landle. With this hook he pulls the frond of the pal m to h i1~ and carefully scrutinizes each side . ~he smaller palms can be i ns:pe cted fron the -'=:round but they grov: rapidly and soon stepladders are needed. 7he he ight s o f the stepladders vary from 12 t o 20 feet. Stepladders over 20 feet h ibh built strong enough for field work are too heavy to be used advantageously. Stra ight le.dd ers were 1.:sed o n palms too higi.'l for 20-foot stepladders but t he inspection con sumed considerable time and was not entirely effective . Othe r methods of ins-pecting the increasing number of palms too tall for 20-foot. stepladders vvere tri e d but none were entirely sat is factory. Finally a tower with an adjustable irispection platform was built v;hich could be set u-pon a truck and drive n through t'1e gardens. This solved the -prob lem satisfactorily. Recently a man pu~chnsed a~ infested planting of tall date palms and established a tourist cnmp. Sever3.l small abilS were built u nde r the palms and several lines of wire for e lectrical e quipment run through the plantin. This made it impossible to set siLepladders for i r s e tion under some of the palms and the tower could n o t be used. A straight l adder w0s built 1hich, with one end a:achored, e xtends over a movable support into the foliage of the palm. The ladder is strengthened by three -ei,,hths inch steel cabl e s 1:1hich also serve as •

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11 -hand rails. The steps at the top of the ladder are 6 inches wide and set at an angle giving sufficient foothold for the inspector. r i th this apparatus all the palms in the planting can be inspected effectively and in little less time than with the ordinary equipment. EUROPEAN CORN BORER AND JAPANESE BEErLE General Project :Jews Survey of the principal activities i n New Jersey of the Eur opean corn borer and Japanese beetle project was made by the Chief and the Assistant Chief of the Administration during the week beginni n g July 12. On :ednesday, the 15th, Nir. Strong joined 1r . Worthle y in Now York City arid togethe r the y drove through a number of the more important quarantine lino stations where vehicle s are inspected both for the borer and t h e beetle. At Philadelphia the next morning the party was joined by 11r. Hoyt, for a tour of the heavily infeste d beetle area in southern New J ersey, i n connection vii th which the flight of the pest was observed in some detail. Ona ~o k late r Ivlr. H oy t again visited this tGrri tory, accompanied by :Mr. Allon, e xecu tive office r of tho Bureau of tho Budget, for a further study of the situation, having b oo n joine d on this occasion by I\IIr. O'Kane, New Hampshire state entomologist, and several members of the South Norwalk headquarters force. ''Human-interest" stories of the European corn borer and Japanese beetle quarantine enforcement activities, based o n information gathere d by feature w-riters and usually containing numerous inaccuracies, recently have appeared i n several n ewspap ers of tho areas under r0gulation. Inspiration also has been found in the beetle work by s ome cartoonists, most of whom i n their drawings on tha subject have d aalt with road station phases. "Judge," a humotous weekly of national circulation , had a cartoon in o n e of its July issues, which attracted considerable attention. It depicted a wanan motorist, stoppe d at a vehicle inspection station , answering the q uestion aske d by the uniformed inspector, with the s e words: " No, I haven't any Japanese beetles and I wouldn't give you one if I had." Interest of the public in the spread of the European corn borer and Jap anese beetle is reflected i n the requests for informatio n a bout specimens believed to indicate infestation by o ne or the other of these pests. During July an unusually large number of such inquiries were r e c eive d at several of the offices of the corn borer a 1 d b eotle project. In most caso s the s-pecim on s submitted wer e identified as of other insects, but tho c ontacts and correspo n denc e in connection therewith afforde d opportunity for data concerning the borer or the beetle to be furnished to p eople appare:1tly concernvd regarding t he mena e of these pests. One re~ort from outsido tho t 0rritory previously known to b e infested l e d to tho trapping of som e 2,000 Japane s e b eetl e s in a 3 -day p eriod. Vehicle inspection at highway stations alon g the boundaries of the

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-12 quarantined areas was started for both European corn borer and Japanese beetle, in the central se tion, during the week beginning July 12. In many instances the stations make inspections in accordance with the quarantines for both the pests, having been locate d where the borders of the 2-generation borer area and the generally infested beetle area coincide. At a few points vehicle s going one way are inspected for borers and those movin g in the other direction are examined on account of beetles. All inspectors utilize d in this activity were schooled in methods, etc., before going on duty, and their work will be checked at frequent intervals by different supervisors. "Honor systemr affording special consideration at vehicle inspection stations to cars bearing windshield stickers showing that the owners have signed cards pledging themselves not to carry products quarantined on account of the 2-generation strain of corn borer, has been sufficient of a success in the New Jersey sections from which there is most commuting into New York City as to justify its adoption in other areas. During July the workings of the plan were extended to include the stations in New York State and Connecticut, located on the borders of tpe 2-generation area, at which inspection of vehicles also is made for the Japanese beetle. On July 1 the South Norwalk headquarters of European corn borer and Japanese beetle quarantine activities was visited by P.A. Hoidale, who has charge of the Mexican fruit worm project of the Administration, and who had just concluded a several-months' period of similar service on the ~ :'.i:edi terranean fruit fly work in Florida. Visit to '.i,ashington was made by ]I/Jr. :orthley on July 24, for conference with Administration officials in relation to SSJTeral problems which had arisen in Suropean corn borer and Japanese beetle quarantine enforcement. Among these matters was that involving the change in t r1e boundaries of the 2-generation cor!l borer area, adjusted by modification of the quarantine decided upon while 11r. Worthley was at the Capital. For a large portion of July, Mr. Worthley waa engaged in field work which kept him away from headquarters. Connecticut newspa~ers recently gave considerable space to an opinion rendered by the United States district attorney whose offices are in Hartford, to the effect that plant pest control quarantine enforcemen t agents have the authority to seize and confiscate intoxicating liquors found in vehicles that they may examine. No official orders have been issued, however, in respect to the addition of prohibition law duties to the responsibilities of either State or Federal men. Specialized Corn Bore r Activities Training school for scouts in the western area of corn borer control was opened July 13, a t the farm of the Bureausof Zntomology and Agricultural Engineering, near Toledo, Ohio. One group of men reported on that date and another on July 16, all having been given instruction for a period of one week. Through the splendid cooperation extended by farmers of the vicinity, field vi:orr also was done in sweet corn on about 50 privat0ly-ov,ned premises. Indications

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-13 of infestation in the ears, t he tassels, a nd the lower parts of the stalks were pronounced in the sweet corn, and leaf dama g e in the field corn on the govern ment farm was plentiful. Lecture s were givon on the control of the borer, life cycle of th0 p est, scouting for specimens and tho packing of these, reports on field work, care of cars, etc., in a tent set up in a wood on the Department farm. Both the excellence of the field conditions under which they worked and the satisfactory personnel of the students wer e reflecte d in the high grades made--averaging 91.5 per cent for the first group and 91. 2 per c ent for the second. Ins,ectors whose duties pertain to quarantine line vehicle inspection in the western corn borer area r eporte d o n July 19 for t w o days of speci a l instructions, at the following points: Michigan City, New Castle, and Richmond, in Indiana; Iron Mountain, in Mich i gan (July 25); Hamilton and Lucasville, in Ohio, and Fairmount and Point Pleasant, in West Virginia. All of the stations on the main traveled roads were in operation by the morning of July 22. On secondary roads they were establishe d as soon as possible thereafter. Inspection at ports along the western shore line of Michigan and at most stations on t h e 1ichiganWisconsin State line wus unde r way by mid~ight of July 27. At the end of the month highway station s were active as follows: I ndiana, 40; Ohio, 36 ; Viest Vir ginia, 21; Michigan. .-isc o nsin State lir1e, 13; total, 110. Port stations inc luded 19 on the HichigaI1 west shore line and 1 i n I ndiana. Farm products requiri:1g inspection have sho,m a steady decline this season as compared Tvi th last, i n the eastern section of the European corn borer project. In larg e measure the changed co ndition is attribute d to the modification s in the last major revisio! 1 of the co.rn bore r qu arantine . i1o vemen t of produce from within the regulated area during the present summe r principally has consisted of beets with tops, c e l ery, and strin beans, going to Canada. Shipments from points outside of the area, p ermitte d through t he Boston terminal market, mostly have been composed of celery, green corn on t he cob, and shell b eans, for Canadian ports. Beets a n d r ~ubarb have been the only products certified at Portland, Me., and Providence, R. I. Wholesale and retail flower markets have been fairly active, with large quantities of gladioli inspected for Maine , r.'assachusetts, and Vermont destinations, and exceptionally lar e shipments of asters into Maryland, Ohio, and Vermont . Mechanical devices for control o f t h e Suropean corn borer, re ommended to farmers by the cooperating $tate and Fede r a l agen ies, were exhibited and demonstrated as a part of the program for f arm and home week, at the Massachusetts Agricultural College, Amherst, July 2 8 to 31. T he y vmre s hown also a t three Farm Bureau meetings in Rhode Island on July 28 , ~9, and 30, und e r t he directi ~n of county agents. Arrangements also wer e completed during t he month for a sinrilar participation in t he Connecti cut f arm and h ome woek early in A ug u st. A number of demonstrations at othe r f armers' meetin0s are planned for the remainder of the summer or early in the fall. • Modification of the European corn borer quarantine, approved by the Se retary and effective July 24, removed from tle 2 -generation regulated area that portion of Hudson County, N . J., heretofor0 in luded therein. This hange was

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-14 made after onsultation with officials of the New Jersey Department of A griculture. It did not involve, in the judgment of the Federal and State authorities, any marked increase in risk of spreading the corn borer. H ighway stations for vehicle inspection, previously maintaine d on the western boundarie s of Hudson County, immediately were transferred to the New York side of the Huds on River. Here they will be operated at the ferries and at the Holland Tunnel. Patrol of roads leading across the New Hampshire-Vermont line, which constitutes part of the boundary between the 2-generation and the 1 -generation corn borer areas, was started on July 6, with two experienced inspectors assigned thereto, their headquarters having been located at !!hite River Junction, Vt. The same men also attended to field inspection of asters a~d gladioli in New Hampshire. Highway activities in this section largely are maintained for the educational effect, as few travelers carry articles affected by the .quar antine. Of more than 15,000 vehicles stopped in July, only 40 were found to have prohibited products. When the training school work in the western area had been finished, 365 corn borer scouts were placed in the field, 345 of them Federal employees and 20 State men. Distribution of this scouting force was as follows: Indiana, 111, all Federal; Ohio, 103, all Federal; Kentucky, 58, all Federal~ ~est Virginia, 35, all Federal; Illinois, 25, 17 Federal and 8 State; Vlisc onsin, 18, 13 Federal and 5 State; Missouri, 13, 6 Fed eral aad 7 State; boat on Ohio River, 2 Federal. Scouting crews will be shifted as the progress of the work warrants. Scouting to ascertain spread of the corn borer was begun July 20, outside of the regulated areas in the central section. Crews reporting for work on that date were assigned at first as follows: I~aryla"'ld and Pennsylvania, 19; New Jersey, 9, and New York 5. Transfers of a part of the scouts from time to time probably will be necessarr. By July 20 , also, practically all the highway station inspection had been starte d in this territory. ?Jhile the removal of Hudson County, N . J., from the area under quarantine on account of t he Suropean corn borer tended to simplify the work of the highway station vehicle inspection, it has greatly increased the market inspection of produce, large quantities of which are moved into New J Grsey from N e w York City. Additional men were assigned to t he latter activity during the last part of July. Increase in infestation of the corn borer over most of the territory is indicated by a summary of the field reports on the egg survey in the western area, which was completed on July 22 . This undertaking , commen e d on June 25 , was c onducted by the Administration in cooperation Tiith the Bureau of Entomology. Sections of New York, Ohio, and 1ichigan were covered by the 22 men employed, 20 of whom made the counts nith 2 acting as supervisors. Field inspection of greenhouses and of aster and ladioli 0ardens was made during June in the east0rn ar0a under regulation for the corn borer. This activity covered Maine , New Hampshire, and Rhode Island. Where conditions were found to be satisfactory, the iss ue of certificates folloned, in a cordan e with the informal agreement used for several years past.

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-15 -In the western section of the corn borer project an investigation was instituted during July into the sources of supply for green corn used in the dining car service of railways and steamship lines operating interstate from regulated areas into free territory. Permits are issued to carriers purchasing their supplies in unregulated regions. School for the training of European corn borer scouts who were to wcrk in the central section was held in Schenectady, N. Y., from July 13 to 18. A total of 68 men reported for this training period, after which they were assigned to different territories where scouting was to be carried on. Address before the Lion's Club of Waterbury, Conn., outlining some of the main phases of European corn borer quarantine and control work, was made at a weekly luncheon, July 30, by T. M. Cannon, in charge of the Hartford office of the Administration. Exclusive or Combination Japanese Beetle Work Flight of the Japanese beetles in the heavily infested areas of New Jersey and Pennsylvania was studied during June by plant pest control officials from several other States. In a number of the lo alities visited, damage to crops was found to be greater than in preceding seasons. On the first of two trips through the regions reporting the heaviest infestations, which took place on Thursday, July 23, the party included ~fr . Allen, Executive Assistant to the Director of the Bureau of the Budget, and Mr. Hoyt, Assistant Chief of the Administration, both from Washington, 1,rr. O'Kane, State Entomologist of New Hampshire and Chairman of the National Plant Board, Mr. Hadley, of the Moorestown laboratory of the Bureau of Entomology, and Mr. Worthley, Mr. Stockwell, and Iv1r. Thomas, of the South Norwalk headquarters staff. Responding to a telegram from Nir . O'Kane, urging them to make a personal investigation of the situation, a larger group of represerntatives from States menaced by the spread of the beetle, on Wednesday, July 29, toured the sec tions where the flight of the pest could be best observed. Among those present were Commissioner of Agriculture Guthery, and State Fair Exhibits Manager Sandles, of Ohio, Director of Plant Industry Bureau Van Buren,of New York, and State Entomologists Yeomans, of Georgia, Anderson, of Louisiana, Sherman, of South Carolina, and Rumsey, _ of West Virginia. For the Administration 11!'. Hoyt, and Mr. Sasscer, in charge of port inspection, attended. The South Norwalk offices were represented by Mr. Worthley, Mr. Bartley, and Mr. Stockwell. Arriving on the previous day, State Entomologist Flint, of Illinois, had been conducted over the territory by Mr. Hadley. In a report of the Quarantine Committee of the American Asso iation of Nurserymen, presented to the annual convention in Detroit during July by Chairman Albert F. Meohan, reference was made to the Japanese beetle quarantine and to the general policies of the Administration in the following statements: "T he first matter to come before the Committee was the hearing (held Oct. 3, 1930), to consider extending the Japanese Beetle Quarantine to include the state of Rhode Island, at which time consideration was also given to the extension of the present area. As a result of the h earing that State now is included in the

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-16 -quarantine area. Durinp, the past ye a r there have been several conferences with the Administr~tion o~ Japa nesG beetle Quarantine regulations as the result of which many differences have been ironed out; and, in many cases, modified regulations have permitted better working conditions for nurserymen inside the area without increasing the d~~ger of spread." This year's Japanese beetle sconti ng program was fully organized and all scouts were placed in the field during the first f e w days in July. Two types of scouting are performed. The first involves nurseries, greenhouses, farms, and similar premises from which quarantined articles are shipped to points outside the regulated areas, and is confined, of course, to the territory included under quarantine supervision. During .July there were 59 crews of scouts and two men scouting independently, engaged in this type of survey. These operated in Connecticut, Delaware, District of Columbia, Massachusetts, Maryland, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Virginia. The second type of scouting, intended to determine the spread of the insect, is performed wholly outside the infested areas, and in the month, 29 crews were assigned to it. They were stationed in Massachusetts, IV:aryland, ]!ichigan, New York, Pennsylvania, Virginia, and West Virginia. Practically all of the outside scouting activities are performed in towns and cities, frequent transfers being made from place to place as the season progresses. Past experience has indicated that the ins0ct is more likely to spread through populated r egions than in open country. Accordingly, most of the surveys are made in '.lrban communities. Early in July the results of ti10 cooperative analyses performed at the Japanese beetle res8arch laboratory of the Bureau of Entomology, Moorestown, N. J., became available. Collection of soil sampl~s in nursery plots, heeling in areas, cold frames, and plunging plots had been completed early in June and all analyses were finished by June 30 . The services of seven temporary chemists were reciuired for three months on this phase of nursery and greenhouse supervision. As soon as the data were available concerning the lead arsenate content of previously-treated nursery areas, this information w a s conveyed to the owners of the establishments in order that additional quantitie s of the treating material night be incorporated in the treate d plots to bring t heir lead arsenate content up to the reQuired 1,5 0 0 pounds per acre. Re-treatments were complete d in all nursery and greenhouse establishments concerned by August 1. In a number of instances the analyses determined lead arsenate to b e pre s ent in the treated sections in excess of the require d dosage. Ships' store s take~ aboard v essels a t ports in the generally infeste d .Japanese beetle area are regarded as dangerous carriers of infestation. ~ithin t~e regulated territory, the principal ports ot d e p arture for coastwisa or intercoastal ships ar0 N e w York , Philadelphia, &"'ld Baltimore . Th e situation a t Philadelphia presents tho groatost h a zard of beetle spread. At the l atter p o r t , an inspector daily patrols tho 14 mile s of docks and piers on the rive r front. All boats aro boarded shortly oi't8 r docking a nd the t e w ards interviewed to assure that all requirements of t n e Japanese beetle quarantine are met before the ship departs for ports in unregulated t erritory. Many unintentional violations are prevented by t his ship i n spection. A r athe r unomalous situa t i on was encountered by an inspector r e cently i n u difficult atte m p t to explain the

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-17 restri tions to the steward of a Japanese ship who had purchased uncertified produ e from a ship ~handler in New York and intended to proceed to a port in the United States outside the restrieted zone before leaving for Japan. Scouts working in communities whose residents largely are unfamiliar with the Japanese beetle in past years frequently encountered difficulties with the local police and with owners of the properties that were examined. 11 scout foremen when entering a commu....~ity for the first time now are required to visit police headquarters, exp+ain their activities, and request the 8ooperation of the local authorities in facilitating their work. A prepared artiele is also submitted to the local newspaper or newspapers, describing in detail the work to be performed by the scouts, the methods used, and a brief description of the life history and control of the Japanese beetle. This news item requires approximately 18 inches of newspaper space. In the larger metropolitan papers the article is frequently cut, while the smaller dailies and weeklies usually print in its entirety. This publicity has materially facili~ tated the work of the scouts. It also furnishes an excellent avenue for enlist• ing public cooperation in quarantine activities. Flight of the adult Japanese beetle in the market and waterfront districts of Philadelphia reached such proportions that beginning July 10, it was necessary to curtail the period during which farm products could be inspected and certified for movement from the generally infested area. From June 15 until that date inspection service had been provided at the farm products inspection platform, located heneath the Delaware River Bridge, continuously from midnight Sunday to 1 p . m. Saturday. Afterwards this service was curtailed so that quarantined articles were eligible for inspection only between the hours of 8 p. m. and 10 a . m. During the latter quiescent period of the adult beetle, inspe~tions could be satisfactorily made. While the beetles were in full flight, however, inspected produce was subject to reinfestation before it could be trucked to express or freight terminals and loaded for shipment, or reloaded on covered trucks and sealed for transportation from the regulated area. The beetle flight was still in progress at the end of the month. Fumigation with hydrocyanic ~as of carloads of bananas at the Philadelphia loading piers was required beginning July 15. Philadelphia is one of the principal banana receiving ports on the Atlantic coast. The majority of the bananas unloaded from the boats to wagons o n the piers are for local onsumption. Local haulage of bananas is still done largely by horse-drawn vehi les, in this case the ability of wagons to maneuver in confined spaces on the piers apparently making their use more advantageous than trucks. These bananas are sold at auction to waiting buyers on the piers, who immediately haul their purchases away. Bananas intended for distant shipme~t are unloaded from the boats directly into freight cars on barges tied to the side of the ship. The loading operations cover such an area that screening to prevent beetle infestation is impracticable, and can not be compared in effectiveness to arload fumigation. Cooperation on the part of postal employees in assisting in the enforcement of the Japanese beetle quarantine was manifested recently when an individual deliberately sought to violate the regulations by making a false de laratio1

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-18 -of the contents o f a par el-post pa kag e presented for ml:l.iling at the Lancaster Avenue sub-post office i:i P h iladelphia. In response to t he lerk' s inquiry, t h e consignor stated t he package contai ned only clothes and th8.t absolutely there was no fruit in it. She further said that she knew all about the "beetle law" and wouldn't mail any prohibite d produ e . rrhe clerk, how0ver, detected the odor of fruit about the package and op e n ed it in the shipper' s presence, disclosing a quant ity of several kinds. An investigation o f this attempted violation is under w ay. Inspection of farm produce und e r the Japanese beetl e quarantine was arried on in July tone or mor e places in eac h o f t he following ,itie s of the regulated area i n the states n amed : Connecti ut, Bridgeport, New Haven , South 1Jorwalk, and Stamford; New Jersey, Bridgeton, Cedarville , Del-Bay, Fairton, Hammonton, Glassboro, L andisville , Ivialaga, Mount Royal, Newf ield, P edri k town , Rosenhayn, Rutherford, Swedesboro, Trenton, Vineland, Vlheut Road , and Woodruff . M o s t of the offices wer e op e n from 8 a . m . t o 5 p. m., but at som e insper.tion was by appointment only and longe r hours werG observe d at several market platforms, a few of these workin g on a 24 ~1our a day schedule. Trapping for the Japar1ese :Jeetle vlaS at t he p eak during July. T:r:aps were in operation in 39 cities at the beginning of the month . Placemen t w a s accomplished in 16 additional i ties b y the e nd of July . Th e trapp i ng progran1 was completed b y the distribution of traps in 5 othe r cities during t he month. There v1ere in op eration o n July 31 approx im::1.t oly 24,000 traps i n 6 1 itie s a nd towns i n G eorgia, North a nd South Carolina , Virginia, West Virginia, Ohio , Michigan, Illinois, Mary l cnd, D e laware, Pennsylvania, New York, Connecticut, Rhod e Island, and Massachusetts. 'I'he _pers orrn e l assi gned to this work com11l'ised 3 permanent employees and 47 t 0mporary trap tend ers. Most of the space i!l the August issu e of the " Te lepho ne News," pub lishe d a t New Haven, Conn., was devote d to the Jap a nese beetle,material for the several articles having been furnishe d b y t h e South (forwalk office of the Admin istration or by the State experiment station . This periodica l is the "house organ" of Southern New Ene;l n d :;l ephone Company, and a copy i s maile d to every subscriber with the m o nthly bill for services. In July requests for information from a number of other publications for d3.ta on whic h to buse new s stories were complied -.vi th by th'; di visio~1 of i nformation within the proje t . Inspectio n s under t h e Japw-ies e beetl e o _ u c r antine i.!1 the eastern section of the corn bore r and beetl e project i n large degree are o nfine d to inte rceptions of c u t flowers at the t erminals nn d of f uneral de ,orations h eld et boat u.nd railway baggage rooms . N0arly all of the: l a rger dealers in the lightly i nfested areas o f Rhod e Island and eastern Massachusetts have been lassified and the issue to them o f lt'ederal pe:r m i ts :~as dccreu s 9 d the office work onn e t ed with ertification. Smalle r classifieu d ualers and private individuals mak ing occasiona l shipments are still oper ting o n a certificate basis. Trapp i n for t ho Ja-paneso bdetle i n the regulated areas under s uer ision of the centra l section of the joint corn borer and beetle work was ine.u,urated during the first week of July. Intensity of infestation a nd rapidity of spread

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19 -are developed by the findings in the tra.ps but their use is not included among the re ommended control measures. Soil treatment in the New England territory under the jurisdiction of the central division was completed early in July. Representatives of the soil insecticide division of the Japanese beetle research laboratory at Moorestown, N. J . , have collected soil samples a t the various sites treated with lead arsenate this spring in Boston and Springfield, Mass., Newport , Providence, and VJesterly, R . I., Hartford, Willimantic, and New London , Conn . , Binghamton, Kin gston, and Waverly, N . Y. , and Sayre , Pa. Samples will also be collected in Cape Charles, Newport News, Norfolk, and Portsmouth, Va. All will be analyze d for load arsenate content. Trap work for the Japanese beetl e was delayed by heavy rains, both in Massachusetts and Rhode Island. At certain points nur::ierous of the jars were destroyed and the traps injured by boys. Assistance in handling these depredations was received from the Boston city ~olice and from the New York , New Haven. and Hartfo r d Railroad police. Trapping is under way in Attleboro, Boston, New Bedford, and Plymouth, Mass . , and in newport, Providence, and Westerly, R . I. Special inspection of tourist camps located on main traveled roads from the area under regulation on account of t he Japanese beetle so far has failed to find infestations at any of them . Similar work during the 1930 season also produced negative results. This year some of the camps inspected were a considerable distance from the boundaries of the quarantined area. As out supplied with a motor car has been exclusively engaged in this inspection. Scouti ng f'or the Japanese beetle was done in Massachusetts during the month 'by f'i ve crews working throughout the month and by a sixth rew added on July 23. Athol, Attleboro, Boston, carn,ridge, Dorchester, Fall River, Fore River, Lynn , Newton , Q,uincy, Salem, Somerville, Taunton, and Worcester were the cities and towns covered. In R hode Island one rew was engaged in both field scouting and work at classified establishments. Autho~ities of the city of Baltimore have purchased severa l thousand Japanese beetle traps. While these are largely for use in the parks, arrange ments have been made wher e by the traps are rented to residents of the city at the rate o f ~ 2 per trap for the season. Persons renting traps are required to attend to the placement and maintenan e. Instruction in their duties w s given to Japanese beetle scouts engaged in Connecticut, at South Norwalk, Hartford, and Bridge ort, for several days starting July 6 and 7. Men working in this territory are scouting both to determine spread of field infestations and with greenhouse and nursery inspector MEXICAN FRUIT FLY Due to the enforcement of the host-free period no host-fruits in a stage susceptible to infestation are available for inspection during the summer

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-20 -months. Dirring :rirevious yea:rs the inspect ian work during this time ho.s been confined t,) wild n tive fruits. As a supplomEmt to this inspection wor k this summer, 1 , 077 fly traps similar to those usec i~ Florida were placed in 118 sele ted groves c3urin8 the firs t part of July. 'l'r ,., use of these traps resulted in the takin0 of one adult -=4-nastrephu (not ludens) , July 14, in a grove one mile south of Mission, Tex. Additional traps placed in this and the surround ing groves gave negc.tive res1-1lts the !' emainde r of the nonth . .Arrangements were made with the owner of this grove to appl y u poison-bait spr&y at weekly inte r vals to the 2,100 bearing trees in the grove . Und0r the ar~".'angement tho Ad.rrrin istr tion furnishes the mJtcri:1l for the bait spra y and the grower furnishes the labor and machinery for applyinb it. The first a:,)plication vras made Jul; 20. The pl~ns cal l for three mor e applications of the bait spray provided no further infestations are found. Adult flies continue to be t k e n in the traps in L'.tats.moros . During the month 1 7 6 traps were maintained in 5 7 differ •nt premises scr ttered througho 1t the cit y . The use of these traps resulted i n the takin6 of 30 adult flies on 13 different premises. Of interest i n this connection i s the fact that in on l y 4 of these premises w ere reirlfest ations found. All trees within an area of four blocks around each point of infest"tion were sprayed a t weekly interv als with poison-bait spray. 'I'he c ooperation. of t::ie I.Iexica:n officials a;1d citizens in the eradication r.ork continues to oe of the highest orde!'. 'I'he import~tion of infested fruit to the market in Matam oros has been practic ally stopped th..:-ou7h the granting of authority to the Mexican inspector to impose; fines upon the merclnnt importin~ this fru i t and to also seize and destroy s hipm~nts of infested fruit. On~ mer chant was fined 50 pesos during the month for iwporting infested oranges from Rio Verde, San Luis Potosi, Mexico. One shiprr1ent of pears from the St::ite of Coahuila v,as f ound to be infested follo,1ing v :.ic~1 ti1c i _p0rt:.iti0n f p.)a_ s f:o-rn t ~1::t rc:...; ic:1 : s p!'1.Jb1.:;ited. PINK BOLL WORM Dur ing the mo!lth of July, field inspection in the S L1l t River Valley or' Arizona consisted of making infe tat ion cow1ts fron 23 selected fields, 20 ol' which are in Marico~a County and 3 in Pina l County. The results h v e all been :;-iegat i v e . Th i s is somewhat surprising w hen i t i-~ G alled that 2 of the fields selected in Pinal County and ~1 in l'A9.ricopa Corn 1 t :re re infesLed 1 t,t se3son. Als o 2 of the fields in Maricopa Connty were 1.':n1 1 to be infested this season prior to the beginnin0 of the in:f.ect ation count:. 'J'his r!ould seem to indicate that the infestation is still appn.rontly ver-.; l icrht. One o:: the most lo i :J.l con lusions for not findi~g speci~ona, especiall/ in the 2 fieldc nhere they were found earlier in the season, is tl nt the bolls are no,.,,r developing m u h more rapidly than the infestation. An infestation count consists of the i.nsne tion of 100 bolls. Estimates were made recentl y to determine the number of bolls per .flcrc , hi h was found to

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-21 -be 919,080. In examining 100 bolls from this number, it can be readily seen that the chances of finding spe i:r.i.ens are very slight, except where the infestation is heo.vy. Field inspections have also been made in the Tucson area. B y using 10 squares or green bolls per acre, 1,225 acres have already been inspectd with negative results. Practically all of the cotton acreage in the district will be covered by this method of inspection in another month. One of the new gin tresh machines mounted on a truck was sent to the Lower Rio Grande Valley of Texas on July 24. Other machines were sent out as they were completed, so that by the end of JulJ there were five 'ma hines operating in the above area. These machines inspected 265 bushels of tras~ from 25 gins, with negative results. At the present time oach machine is operate d by three regular inspe -tors. As the ginning season advances, and nore machines are ne e ~ e d , two of tho inspectors with each rr.achino will be replaced by temporary men, leavi:ig a regular inspector in charBe of each machine. The a lfalfa inspection nn d crop survey was continued during July. At this time it has been found tha t 20 per ceat of the alfalfa acreage and 6 per cent of the acreage devoted to other crops in Maricopa County has otton present, while 44 per cent of the alfalfa acreage and 3~ per cent of the a re age devoted to other crops in Pinal County h a s cotton present. The total cotton acreage is shown to be 132,114, a n d the abandoned cotton acreage 36,031. The area rema ining to be inspected consists of 11 sections near Mesa, in Maricopa County, and the Indian Reservation in Pinal County. These areas will be completed shortly, a:i.d more information on this work will be given in the next News Letter. In connection with the above work , several young alfalfa fields were reinspected to obtain further information on the effe t of mowing otton plants at t he t inE alfalfa is cut. It can be readily seen that at each mowing of the alfalfa a nU1nber of cotton plants are destroyed. It was previously stated that volunteer seedlings do not survive unless one or more branches are 10ft. In a few instances it has been noted thnt dormant buds ne r the ground h3ve put out leaves and made some growth after the upper stalk had been cut off. However, it is doubtfu l if such growth would ever fruit to any ext~nt. In another field it was noted that after two mowings the cotton plants produced a onside •able number of squares, but no bolls of any size have developed. Cotton plants are rarely ever found in fields which have been in alfalfa for two years or more . Heretofore both furaigation and compression have bee:i. required as a safeguard to prevent baled cotton lint .from carrying pink bollworms to uninfested areas. Recent investi6ations have conf'irmod the importance of compression as a measure for greatly reducing or, under most f vorable circumstances, entiral y eliminating infestatio!1 in thG bale. Ac ordingly, the pink bollworm quarantine regulations were amended, effective Au ust 1, whereby the fumigation requirement was removed for the movement of otton lint rodu ea.

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22 in are s so lightly i fested with the -pink bollworm thc..t in the judg 1ent of ~he Plant Quar~ntine anJ Control Ailininistration ~ny poGsible danger of the spread of th:1t insect in bale lint would be p1evf ;nted by high compression -nithout fumigation. The araas designat e d u::: lightly infostG d include t h e Countios of Chaves, Eddy, Otero, Dona Ana, and Luna, in ITE:V7 Jl~exico, and c.11 tho rC;gulatvd p art of Texas except the Coun~ios of Presidio, rlrewster, and the southeast part u:t' Hudspeth County, beginning at, a point iP.1.!""lAdin.te ly west of the tovm of LclTary. The release from fumigation uppl i e s 0 1ly to s~u:rre bal8s ~hi h have been om pressed so that when r eady for tr3.nsporta ,ion tLe y have a d unsi ty of a t least 22 pounds to the cubic foot. '11he inspectors formsrly G ngaged in the San Antonio l<>bor.&tory 1.ievot0d. nost of the m onth to the study and discussion o f v arious subjects con n ected wi t h inspection work. Some of the subjects covere d w0re: 1. Picking of cotton w ith r ef'urqn 9 to f i adinf pink bollw~r~o in gi~ trash. 2. Principles involved in ginning cotton; also bollie cotton. 3 . Cotton cleaners. 4 . Study of Q,uar"::i.tin e s Nos. r~2 2.nd 61. 5. Larvae like l y to br; confused v ; i th t lle pink boll worm . 6. World dis~ribution nnd losses c~usod by t he pink bollvwrm. Considerable time was al[;o g i vsn to t hr:: study o.nd a tu::i l oper~,tion of tllc gin trash machines and g i n plants. A vis i t W [, s m d o to two 0ins, where '.l!l expert on gin machinery explained. in d Gtail tl1e v rious procasses of ginni!l6 • It is thought t l::at a g r eat D.II10lli"1t of food vms n c omplisLod i n th:::.s e studi3s . The information obtained with :!:sference to cotton cleaners should re"'ult in mak ing the gin trash inspection more efficient. Tl i c i_ reas~d knowledre o f the sub jetJts discussed should r!'lake t h e insp Gctors r1ore v aluable to the Departm0nt. The;y will be in a posit ion t o discuss intelligently wi t h Jinners such 11.atters as cotton cleaning and the oper-tion o f gins. On July 23 a road station wa3 o:pen•J d ah0t1t N . Mex. , on the Bankhead Hig h:vay . The purJ103e of the eastern cotton rowin~ araa from the ossiblA :f estation from the Sc.tl t River Valle y of Ari ,onP.. the next f ev.i months will d e t e rmine whetJ.e r or not 5 n :iles 1 ,'est of Las Cruces, this ctation is to ,rote t s~~e~d of pin} boll~onn i n T h o rosul ts obtainecl duri n0 tliis ..... t" tion will be main-tained permanr..mtly. A number o.z confiscatiori.s werP, made a t the four stat ions during July, none of which were infest e d 1Ji th t:1e pink boll n o m . Durin th8 sill!le period 6,798 ('ar , . wero inspecte d . PP.EVEN'TING SPREAD 01!' 1 0T,S The bringing together o. t G-re ,ntiel d , : :<\ss . , of t1.e vnrious offi es of this project ic now VJell u 1d e r v,:.,:,,.y. S,wernl f .. 1 nilic s hc.vo o.l 1 e:1dy been m oVGd,

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J .: ., , • : ' . , • I •~ '• t.' .. \~ . \

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-23 -and bids have been sent out for the moving of most of the rest of the families during Aw;ust. The moving of the Govc:rnrnent property is being done by our own or . e with Governm8nt tru ks, and many loads have already been delivere d at the new quarters in Greenfield. After August 25, 1931, communications formerly sent to the office at Melrose Highlands, and to the I 10th Quarantine Office, 408 Atlanti Ave. , Bos ton, Mass . , should be forwarded to the now Central Office at 20 Sanderson Street, Greenfield, Mass . Telephone, Greenfield 2290. A suboffice of tho Quarantine and Inspection project will be continued at Room 303, #408 Atlanti c Ave., Bosto n , Mass . , to handle local inspection mat ters. All special inquiries or raatters affecting quarantine and inspection poli ies should be taken up with the Greenfield office. In July s hipments of two types of quarantine d products, namely, overgreen and nursery products, were at a low ebb. Shipments of the former were in excess of those recorded for the month of June du8 to the fact that the blooming of laurel was over and the branches were in condition to be picked for decorative purposes. During June, because of the growth and blooming, laurel is not in a satisfactory condition for use. As soon as blooming is over, pickers begin to gather it. It is shipped for the most part in bales to New York. In the northern section of tho quarantined area a considerabl e quantity of balsam twigs was gathere d and shipped in bags to be used for the manufacture of pillows and other novelties. Very few shipments of nursery products were sent out. During the summer the nurseries do not attempt to sell stock to any appreciable extent. A few nurseries, particularly those located o n arteries of travel, sell some stock to persons traveling by automob ile. This c lass of trade has not as yet developed to any considerable extent, but a few sales are made, and as time goes on this type of shipment will increase. The inspections of forest, 3n d stone and quarry products were entirely of a routine nature. Th~ general classes of f orest products were shipped about as usual and no infested materials were found. The stone and quarry produ ts, consisting mainly of granite and marble, were numerous. Towards the latte r part of the month some new gipsy moth egg clusters wer e found while inspocting the s e mat o r ials. During July in New Jorso y 101 lots of nursery sto k and forest produ ts, and on Long Island 51 lots of nursery stock, w ore inspocto d and certifie d for shipment by Federal men. No gipsy moth infestations were found as a result of these inspections. Spraying work for the fiscal year 1931 was ompleted durin the second week o f Jul y . All infestations, except a few single unbroken egg cluste infe s tations and a few infestations located 0 1 isolate d trees whi h were dis ove r d in the Barrier Zone durin g the y ear, wor e thorou hly spraye d . The ex e tions n oted above vJerc treated b y creosoti:ig the e g clusters or by utting down and burn ing isolated infested trees. In such cases the surrounding trees w e r e banded with burlap, and these were patrolle d du ring the aterpillar s eason to discover any infestation which mi ght h a v e been overlooked.

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-21 ... When the spraying work was omploted the bulk of t h e force w'Js tra.i.s ferred to northern Ne7i' York, where they begc.n ::,couting in 6 townships border ing Lake Champlain. 'Iw~Jl ve regular scouting crews were engage d in this vrork. Some woodland scouting has ber m done in preYious yea1s in some 01' the s e tow n ships. Such a:reas will not b e scouted t his year. Tlle r est of' the area in these townships will be scouted by t h e regular 4 0 -foot strip method. During the month no towns were complete d and no i:-1.i'eatatior .. s were found. As soon as other men can be released from special assig mnen t s they will b e tran"'ferred to northern New York, to assis t in the scouting work being c arrie d on there. Scouting work in the northern ar0a of the Barrie r Zone is dono enrly i n the soason so that as much os possible of it can b e finishe d b efo:r;-e srww mak e s 0on ditions unsatisfactory for scouting . Ir1. the part of the Barrie r Zo11c i n U ov , York State which is cared for by the New York Conservation Department, scouting Nas carried on durine; July in the townships of Ancram, Austerlitz, C : .1J1aan, and Hillsdale , and apparently n o infestations 1 10re discovere d during the.; month. O n Lo.:i g Island the N e w York Conservation D epartment had 5 crav:s doiJ;.g intonsi v e scoutin g in North H empstead Township. N o indicl'ltions of gipsy moth inf es tat io~ v1e.re found as a result of this w ork. In New Jersey t he force has :Jeen engaged du.ring the month in p atrolling burlap bands which wee previously place d around trees at t h e siteR of old infestations but no g ipsy moths w ere r'ound in t r.is work. In addition to this the men have put out a larg e number of assembling-cages to attract male moths which may be present. After these cages are put out the y are visited a t least once a week to gathGr any male moth f\Thich may !Je c a u ght. .Jo moths have been caUf ;ht in New J ersey as a r esult of this 7:ork. Howev ,r, this work is not entirely complete d at this time and there is a possibility th::lt som e gips y moth infestl3.tion may b0 discovered. b efore its completion. Spraying work in New Marlboro, Sandisfield, and S effi e ld, Mass . , and Canaan, Cornw all, S2.lisbury, and \ nrren, Conn . , was omple t e d early i n July. The following figures ril l 8 i ve sor.ie idea as to the ext ent of this work : In 11.'iassac husett s there were 2 ,022 ac.1.e s of woodland sprayed, and in Conn ecticut, 1 ,746 acres, making a total of 3 ,768 acre s . In doinc; this vmrk, 159,c pounds of arsenate of lead and 3 , 1:::57 gallons of fish oil were use u . For s e v eral years r ecords have bC:Jon k ept of the degree and e x t ent of defoliation of trees in New Eng land cause d b y the biP y n;_oth . T h ese eco ds have been gathered from State and 'I'oYm officia l s , f .ro m members of the Fed r a l Bureau of Entomology, as w ell as by the force of the Plant Q ,uar ntine and Con trol Administration. Reports ar'J obtaine d fron most of t h e to1 m in tho generally infeste d area. ~ : l o s t of the F e d eral m e n nscig n e d to this V\Ork h a v e had considerable experience in examining towns nnd d ~ aw i n the wooded are s i n thP m onto blue print maps. This helps them i n d e t , J r mining tho extent of d efoliate d areas, rmd with a little exporience they s o o n b e com e xp e.r t at estinating the degree of' defoliation. There was l13s s defolL..i.ti or t < use d by the Gipsy moth this summer than for severa l years, a n d the trees i n most o f the " rea wore practicall y free from gipsy moth feeding. Defoli.ution was se ere in th8 oun ties of Bristol, Ply1:1outh, and 1J r nstable , Mass. Ther1.J wrn r e O l' d e d a tot \l

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-25 f 2 04,720 a e s in Ne,v E n gland \ "lhi h showed some fe0ding by tt0 ripsy rn.ot!1 caterpillars, but ovar one-half of this wa3 lassified ac l ess than 10 per cent defolinted, leavinc 101,563 ac~os lassified as from 1 0 to 1 0 0 per cent defoliated, and ov0r one-half of this a:nount ( ~4,710 acres) was in the southeastern section of Mc:1ssachusett.s. Pra ti all:' all o f the d efoliation records are now nva il~ble but there :nay bo a f er? scattere d .Jn>:3 s r 1:; ,:;i v e d later , so that th0s,:3 fi0ure s may have to be chan,:,ed so;,1ewhat, but i 1; i s n o t expecte d that any mate r ial change in them will be n e c-;ssary. On pages 24 and 25 o f tl:..e August J\:ewn Lett G r is r;i vr;n a brief d e scrip-t ion o f the assembling cage work. The gutlwring of the material to b e use d for attracting male gipsy moths is done during July. 'I'his y oar the r.mt orial w 4s obtained from the are a arom1d Middleboro, Mass. In prsvious s easons the n c r centage of female moths issuing from tlla collecte d pupae has hE.;e n lovJ , ranging from 10 to 1 5 per cent,, and this llas necessitate d gatherin6 larce numb ers of pupae in ordc; r to obtain a sufficient supply of f emale tips. Thr-, low !:)erc ontage of issuance of moths has been due to severa l factors , :.he mo:;:e imp ortant ones being the presence of i'Jil ""t; dis3ase in the pupae, p a rasitism of ther:1 by s . s utellata, injury due to hr-mdlin~ , and ove1--c.rowding in the tray. The m ethods of collectin and caring for the material were i rrrproved in several ways this season, and the wilt disease and parasitism we~e not as severe as usual. This summer nearly 50 per c ent of the collucta pupae ge1.ve f eraale moth0. Be c3.use of this high percenta5e of issua..'lce of moths a n unusually large arnm nt of mate.rial was obtained. There were about 371,350 pupa e collected, from which approximately 176,490 tips WCJ1.'e obtaine d . About 90, '?20 of thes'3 w e e put into 3 ,024 cans for use in ... ~ ew Je:::-sey ;i e x t y ear. Each c r:111 ccm-C1Ji s 3 (1 fem'-'le tips a a. 1 011nce of benzol. A bo1.:.t 85,770 tip s r mrD used c .u.ring t J1is surar-e r in the B'l.rrier Zone or just east of it, a.nd in Nla c e d in N e w J erse., . Cages were placed iu every to:m o f the N e w ~; v ;land !)art o f t:1.e nurrier Zone in which any gipsy moth infestatio'l. h:1s e re r bee n discovered. In the Barri0 r Zone cages were placed in 16 . t o wns in Terrr .ont, 2G to' : m s j _ n U a s::::achusetts, 23 tow:H~ in Connecticut, .q_nd 12 towns in H o w York State:. T h e new Yorl : S tate Conse vat on D epartment C3 t;od 9 ~f thes e 12 to m s th mat8rin . l s u pnlie d from the Fede r 1 office. In addition to this, cc. g e e WP.r e pla c e d e 4 c t of' th.3 BTirie r Zone in 5 towna in TAassachusects and in 8 towns in Con : 1e~ t ic1 1 t . I.t ~ow J e r 0ey ca es w e r e place d in ~g towns. Severa l m0.le moths have lrnady b 3 8 n c a ui-;h t t ca.~es i n Ue w Encland, but no catches have been made in NeN J0rsey. It may be n e essary to sli::,htly -re vise these f i ~ur0s in fi later i sf: 10 of t l 1e New s L ette r a.::; the sea.son' s w o r k i s n o t quite completerl at t:i.is time. During July ocouti has b een c' r-rie d 0"'.1. i coop e r ntion with v,. ious

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26 -State officials to determine the extent of this summer's dispersion of the satin moth. Much of the area just beyond the present quar'ntine line has been examined, and a few infestations have been found in towns beyond the present controlled area. 'l'he satin moth has been folll1.d outside of the quarantine line in 8 towns in Connecticut; 2 towns in Massachusetts, one of which (1.i7illiams town) borders the Vermont and New York State lines; 1 town in Vermont, and 9 towns in I\';aine. No infestation beyond the quarantine line in New He..mpsl:ire was folllld as a result of this u ork. This work is not entirely completed so that recommendations for changing the present quarantine line can not be made at this time. About 70 c ollections, including the gipsy moth, brovm -tail moth, satin moth , and miscellaneous insects, were made during the month for the Gipsy :oth Laboratory at Melrose Highlands. This work is done incidental to the regular duties of the men and is helpful in adding valuable records to data assembled at the laboratory. During July there was a total of 46 violations reported. Investigations were completed in July on 2 violations reported in Tay, and on 58 violations reported in June. No prosecutions were instituted as all cases appeared to be of minor nature due to ignorance or misunderstanding of the requirements. All of the violations were reportea by transit inspectors of the United States Department of Agriculture.

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