Citation
News letter

Material Information

Title:
News letter
Creator:
United States -- Plant Quarantine and Control Administration
Place of Publication:
Washington, D.C.
Publisher:
Plant Quarantine and Control Administration
Publication Date:
Frequency:
Monthly
Language:
English

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Plants -- Diseases and pests -- Control -- Periodicals -- United States ( lcsh )
Genre:
serial ( sobekcm )
federal government publication ( marcgt )

Notes

Dates or Sequential Designation:
Began with: no.1 (Jan. 1931)
Dates or Sequential Designation:
Ceased with: no.18 (June 1932)
General Note:
"Not for publication".

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
This item is a work of the U.S. federal government and not subject to copyright pursuant to 17 U.S.C. §105.
Resource Identifier:
030428070 ( ALEPH )
785786312 ( OCLC )
2012229621 ( LCCN )

Related Items

Succeeded by:
News letter

Downloads

This item has the following downloads:


Full Text





NEWS LETTER


PLANT QUARANTINE AND CONTROL ADMINISTRATION

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGFICULTIE






Number 8 (NOT FOR PUBLICATION) August, 1931.





1D0'IvNISTRATIVE


The current addresses of the major field projects of the Administration are as follows:

Gipsy Moth and Brown-tail I'oth, A. F. Burgess, in charge,
headquarters 964 Main Street, Melrose Highlands, Mass., P. 0.
Drawer B. (After August 17, 20 Sanderson Street, Greenfield, Mass.)

European Corn Borer and Japanese Beetle, L. H. lorthley,
in charge, headquarters 22 Elizabeth Street, South Norwalk, Conn.

Date Scale Eradication, B. L. Boyden, in charge, headquarters
Room 6, First National Bank Building, Indio, Calif.

Mexican Fruit Fly, M. H. Ford, acting in charge, headquarters
503 Rio Grande National Life Building, Harlingon, Tax.

Pink Bollworm and Thurberia Weevil, R. E. McDonald, in charge,
headquarters 521 Avenue A, San Antonio, Tex. Mail address, P. 0.
Box 798.

Field headquarters for the Western Quarantine Area has
been moved from. 612 Mills Bldg;., to 2716 Grant Avenue, El
Paso, Texas. L'iil address is P. 0. Box 97, Station A.

The address of the field headquarters for the Eastern
Quarantine Area is 217 N. 17th Struct, Alpine, Texas,
P. O. Box 843.

The district office at Pecos, Texas, is now located in
a road station building, located on a lot adjaeLt to the
Electric Gin Co. Mail addre n is P. O. Box 8.













TECHNOLOGICAL


Tests were made recently on the fumigation of bananas in refrigerator cars with hydrocyanic acid discoids as a method of killing Japanese beetles, which are attracted by the odor of bananas, and which are sometimes present in considerable numbers on the pier' when the fruit is transferred from the ship into the refrigerator cars. The method of fumigation tested was to scatter the discs of absorbent material which had been soaked in hydrocyanic acid on a paper tray placed on the bananas in the doorway of the car, the other openings of the car being tightly closed. This method of fumigation, which was developed by the Japanese beetle laboratory of the Bureau of Entomology, in cooperation with this Administration, reduces the cost of fumigating about 70 per cent and makes possible a reduction of one-half hour in the time required to fumigate.

Freezing fruit prepared for market and cooling it to a temperature of
200 F. has recently been authorized as a condition of entry into the continental United States from foreign countries in which the MediterraneanT fruit fly or other similar pests are known to exist. The frozen pack method of preparing fruit for market has been practiced for many years in the United States, particularly as applied to soft fruits, such as berries, cherries, and peac'hes. Overfthundred thousand 50-gallon barrels of fruit are prepared by this method each year. Recently some work has been done on the preservation of some vegetables by this method. The authorization of the process as a condition of entry allows the importation of theseco c~tcon a commercial scale and will probably result in testing the applicability of this method to tropical fruits.

The ethylene oxide fumigation for Japanese beetle has been authorized for application to berries in the heavily infested areas as a condition for movement from that area. Considerable quantities of blackberries, dewberries, and raspberries are fumigated each year in the berry section of New Tersey to
destroy the adult Japanese beetles which are sometimes present in the packed berries. Recent tests by the Japanese beetle laboratory of the Bureau of Entomology indicate that ethylene oxide is as efficacious for this purpose as carbon disulphide and can be used with safety to the fruit. No injury resulted from the use of this treatment with raspberries, dewberries, or blalckberries, though some slight injury was evident when the process was applied to blueberries. This injury is mainly the loss of bloom from the surface e of the fruit whir-h, while it would not affect their edibility, might result in a slight loss in sales value.







3


FOREIGN PLANT QUARANTINES


RECENT ENTOMOLOGICAL INTERCEPTIONS OF INTEREST

Fruit fly larvae in grapefruit.--Anastrepha serpentina was taken at Boston in grapefruit in stores from Trinidad. This represents a new interception record for the Plant Quarantine and Control Administration both from the standpoint of locality and host.

Fruit fly from Costa Rica.--The West Indian fruit fly (Anastrepha
fraterculus) was intercepted at New York in mango in baggage from Costa Rica. This is our second interception record for this fruit fly from Costa Rica, it having been taken in mango in baggage from Costa Rica in 1925. (See also News Letter No. 1, January, 1931; No. 5, May, 1931, and No. 6, June, 1931.)

Gipsy moth from Japan.--A larva of the gipsy moth (Porthetria dispar) was intercepted at Seattle on an azalea plant in furnishings from Japan. In 1930 both larvae and pupae of this insect were found at Honolulu, Hawaii, on maple, pine, and rose from Japan. The gipsy moth is more commonly intercepted in the egg stage.

Scale insect from Costa Rica.--Pseudischnaspis bowreyi (Coccidae) was intercepted at Miami, Fla., on orchid in express by airplane from Costa Rica. This scale insect has been intercepted previously on Agave fourcroydes (henequen), A. sisalana (sisal) from Porto Rico, guava and cherimoya fruit from Cuba, and Agave from St. Thomas, Virgin Islands.

Live pink bollworm intercepted.--Live larvae of the pink bollworm
(Pectinophora gossypiella) were intercepted in cottonseed as follows: In baggage at Baltimore from Porto Rico, in mail at Boston from Cyprus, and in baggage at Boston from St. Kitts. The infested seeds from Cyprus were found in three pounds of raw cotton used as packing for antiques. (See also News Letter No. 1, January, 1931; No. 3, March, 1931, and No. 6, June, 1931.)

Pink bollworm from Antigua and Nevis.--Larvae of the pink bollworm were also intercepted at Washington, D. C., in seed cotton, in baggage from Antigua and Nevis, British West Indies. These are our first interception records for the pink bollworm from Antigua and Nevis.

Cociid on orchid.--The scale insect Furcaspis biformis was collected at Washington, D. C., on Cattleya sp. in cargo from Venezuela. It has also been taken on orchids from Brazil, Canal Zone, Chile, Colombia, Guatemala, Java, Panama, end the Philippines. According to H. Morrison, the species F. biformis has b er variously y assigned to each of the following genera: Aspidiotus, Chr_?_ m, Furcaspis, and Targionia.

Chalcid in soursop seed.--Adults of Bephrata cubensis (Eurytomidae) were intercepted at Philadelphia in the seeds of soursop in crew's quarters from









-4


lamaica. This chalcid breeds in the seeds of several species of Annona in Cuba and is recorded from Florida.

Soursop fruit infested.--A larva of Stenoma anonella (StenorIidae) was found at New Orleans in soursop fruit in baggage from Guatemala. This is our first interception record of this insect from Guatemala. It has been taken
in soursop from the Canal Zone and Honduras.

Weevil in avocado.--Larvae of Conotrachelus sp. (Curculionidae) have been intercepted on several occasions in deseeded avocados from Mexioo. Larvae of this weevil have been found both in the seed and in the flesh of avocados. Interceptions of this weevil in avocados have recently been made at Brownsville, Eagle Pass, El Paso, Laredo, and Thayer International Bridge, Tex. (See also News Letter No. 6, Xuno, 1931.)

Coccid on yam.--The scale insect Targionia hartii was found at Tampa, Fla., on yam in stores from Cayman Brac, West Indies. This coccid is not recorded from continental United States.

Chrysomelid in rutabaga.--A larva of psylliodes chrysocephala was
intercepted at Philadelphia in rutabaga in stores from England. This is our first interception record of this insect in rutabaga. It has been taken in turnip from Denmark, England, France, and Spain. (See also News Letter No. 1, January, 1931, arid No. 4, April, 1931.)

Sour limes infested with coccid.--Parlatoria cinerea (Coccidae) was taken at San Francisco on sour limes in express from Mexico. This scale insect, which is not recorded from continental United States, has also been intercepted on bougainvillea, grapefruit, lemon, and orange. Besides Mexico, it has arrived from the Canal Zone, Panama, Polynesia, Raratonga, Salvador, and Tahiti.

Coccid on Hibiscus sp.--The scale insect Pseudaonidia clavigera was found at San Francisco on Hibiscus sp. in mail from Hawaii. This coccid is not reported from continental United States.

RECEI PATHOLOGICAL INTERCEPTIONS OF INTEREST

A smut, Entyloma ellisii, was intercepted in cargo at New York in
spinach from Cuba. This is the first record we have seen of this disease since it was originally reported in Nev. Jersey by B. D. Halsted (N. 5. Bul. 70, 1890). This smut produces white spots on the leaves and is of interest because the spores germinate in the leaf tissues and produce needle-like basidiospores in groups on the lcaf surface.

A leaf rust of Daphne was intercepted at New York in baggage from
France. The only Daphne rust of which we can find a record was reported from Hongkong. Thus far we have been unable to get this interception definitely determined.







-5


_loeosporium oleandri, & leaf disease of oleander, was it. ircepted at New York in baggage from Bermuda.

Fusicladium eriobotryae was intercepted in baggage at New York on loquat fruit from Italy. This disease is listed in Stevenson's manual as affecting leaves, stems, and fruit of loquat in Australia, Russia, and Italy. It has been reported from California and Florida also.

Rose rust.--Ten rose cuttings intercepted at New York in baggage from Italy had leaves infected with Phragmidium sp. Although several species of Phragmidium occur on roses in this country there are additional species that are not yet known to occur here.

Cephaleuros mycoidea, an alga, was determined as the cause of a leaf spot on lemon leaves from Porto Rico intercepted in baggage at Philadelphia.

PORT INTERCEPTIONS RECEIVED IN WASHINGTON, D. C., DURING JUNE, 1931

The following list includes all foreign interceptions of insects and plant diseases as well as those collected in conjunction with special permit field inspection, and also a few local insects and diseases sent in by port inspectors:

Interceptions collected at the maritime ports are: Baltimore, 6; Bellingham, 15; Boston, 22; Buffalo, 1; Charleston, 49; Chicago, 15; Detroit, 14; Gulfport, 2; Hawaii, 2; M obile, 2; New Orleans, 134; New York, 90; Norfolk, 46; Philadelphia, 164; Port Arthur, 14; San Francisco, 1; San Juan, 18; Savannah, 7; Seattle,
54, and Wilmington, 5.

Interceptions collected at the Mlexican Border ports are:
Brownsville, 23; Del Rio, 2; Eagle Pass, 6; El Paso, 21; Fabens, 2; Laredo, 3; Mercedes (Thayer), 1; Nogales, 2; Presidio, 2; Rio
Grande, 4; San Ysidro, 13; Sasabe, 1, and Ysleta, 1.

INSPECTION OF SPECIAL PEMIT PLANTINGS

J. M. R. Adams, of the Washington Office, is making a field inspection of materials imported under special permit and grown under agreement with this Administration in westernn Pennsylvania, Ohio, and Kentucky. Similar field inspection is being carried out in Minnesota, 1.iichigan, Wisconsin, and North and South Dakota by H. W. Hecker.

GULF INSPECTION CHANGES

R. L. Trigg has been transferred from the Gulfport, Miss., station to take charge of the newly opened port at Corpus Christi, Tex., with office address at 822 Nixon Building. The office at Gulfport has been given up and the inspection at this point will bo handled from Mobile, Ala. To take care of







-6


the extra work thus placed on the Mobile staff S. S. Sheffield, formerly on the Mediterranean fruit fly force in Florida, has been reinstated and assigned to this station.

IM. SCOTT GOES TO CANADIAN BORDER

L. M. Scott has been transferred from the 17ashington office to special duty on the Canadian border with present headquarters at Rouses Point, N. Y. Mr. Scott is scheduled to make a survey of the plants and plant products entering this country from other countries via Canada at the various customs ports from B~uffalo east, and to gather information on the seasonal volume of imports of plants and plant products from Canada at the various ports of entry. He is expected at the same time to have general supervision over the plant quarentin'-e inspection work in this section of the border, and as local liaison officer with the customs officials, to develop as much as possible a high degree of cooperation with that branch of the service in plant quarantine inspection matters.

MEXICAN BORDER TO BE DISTRICTED

In order to provide better unification and closer and more frequent supervision over the inspection work on the Mexican border, a districting system was inaugurated on July 1, 193l. This plan divides the chain of border ports into three numbered districts with a leader in each district. District 1 will extend from Brownsville to and including Del Rio, Tex., with 0. D. Deputy as leader; District 2 will include the stations from Presidio, Tex., to Columbus, N. Mex., with T. A. Arnold in charge; and C. E. Bellis will be responsible for District 3, which will comprise the ports from Douglas, Ariz., to San Ysidro, Calif., inclusive. The leader in each case will have general supervisory charge of the inspection work in his district and is expected to visit the ports in that district at frequent intervals during the year to gather information, assist in solving local problems, and to bring about more uniform handling of inspection matters. It is expected that this supervision, supplemented by the usual visits from the Washington office, will result in a greatly increased uniformity and efficiency ~in inspection all along the border.

On Tune 22 and 23, E. R. Sasscer visited the Mexican border and held a
conference with the above-mentioned district leaders at Laredo, Tex., taking up with them various problems of organization and procedure arising out of the new
arrangement.

MR. SASSCER VISITS GULF PORTS

While in the South in connection with the conference mentioned above, Mr. Sasscer also met in a conference on June 27 at Houston, Tex., the following port inspectors: C. P. Trotter, Port Arthur, Tex.; H. C. Millender, Houston, Tex.; L. R. Dorland, Galveston, Tex.; and V1. T. Dillard, Now Orleans, La. Among the important items discussed at this conference were the inspection of the holds of ships engaged in the transportation of American flour to European countries, and the entry at southern ports of secondhand bagging that has been used as cotton covers.









-7


INSECT ATTACKS MMAPPINGS AND BOX

Peter B~isset reports that on July 1 a box of seeds of Cassia fistula, from India, was received at the l17ashington, D. C., Inspection House, badly infested with a Bruchid, Caryedon fuscus Goez. The case is of interest because the insect in question had not only attacked the seeds but had riddled the wooden box and paper wrappings with perforations, almost as if a 7charge of shot had been fired through it. This insect has already been noted in the News Letter of April, 1931 (No. 4, page 3). One of the synonyms for this insect gives the species name "languidus," which seems to be not very appropriate under the circumstances.

SPECIAL PORTS FOR =NRfY OF CACTUS FROM MEXICO

Cactus plants entering through Mexican border ports have heretofore
been shipped on to Washington, D. C., or to San Francisco, Calif., for inspetion and treatment before being released for shipment to the consignee. This procedure sometimes involved long hauls and heavy transportation charges to and from the point of inspection. An arrangement instituted July 1, 1931, provides for inspection, and treatment if necessary, at the ports of Laredo, El Paso, and Nogales, thus permitting direct shipment to destination from these ports. Mexican border ports other than the three mentioned have as yet no adequate facilities for treatment; cactus plants entering through such ports will therefore continue to be sent on to Washington or San Franci sco as in the past.

11R. BECI13 VISITS PORTO RICO

Geo. G. Becker spent the period June 1-11 in Porto Rico making a study of the plant quarantine work carried on in the island. While there he also visited the various ports and made observations on the methods used in the inspection and certification of fruits and vegetables for shipment to mainland destinations.





DOESTIC PLANT QUARLTINES

TRANSIT INSPECTION

A summing up of the transit inspection activities for the 6-month period closing June 30 shows that shipments of nursery stock and other plants and plant products were inspected in transit to the number of 854,698, in addition to 206 car lots of nursery stock or livestock. These were examined at 24 different inspection points, the greater number of shipments being seen at Chicago, New York, Philadelphia, Boston, St. Paul, Kansas City, and Pittsburgh. Trucks checked at various city stockyards totaled 1,997. The paroelpost shipments inspected represented approximately 77 per cent of the total, express nearly 21 per cent, and freight about 2 per cent. The violations of







8


domestic plant quarantines found in these shipments totaled 1,250, or 148 to each 100,000 shipments. The Japanese beetle quarantine was violated more than any other, 670 of these shipments representing infringements of the regulations of this quarantine. A considerable number of these, however, were minor infringements, consisting either of shipments originating outside the regulated areas and reconsigned from points within these areas without the required pmv rmit, or of shipments of tuberoses and other bulbs which were not dormant or which had a small amount of soil adhering to the roots. Fifty-one per cent of the violations of the various quarantines were consigned by persons apparently unfamiliar with the regulations. During the samne period in 1930, 715,675 shipments were inspected, 390 constituting quarantine violations, or 55 violations to each 100,000 shipments inspected. This season's increase in the number of violations per 100,000 shipments appears largely due to the relatively high proportion of violations being intercepted at Boston, no transit inspection having been carried on at that point prior to the present fiscal year.

A recent check on correspoondence with persons violating domestic plant quarantines shows that replies are received promptly in response to the first request for an explanation in nearly 98 per cent of the cases. A printed form letter is used for these notices of violation. Previous to last year the form letter that was sent to persons unfamiliar with plant quarantines was worded in the same way as that forwarded to those commercially engaged in shipping the restricted articles. in many instances, it was found that reference to possible lugal proceedings caused undue mental suffering on the part of those who had had no idea that plant shipments are restricted by law. Accordingly the form letter sent to shippers of noncommercial packages was modified a year ago to approach the subject fran a more educational standpoint. The purpose of plant quarantinesis explained by incloaing a copy of a general circular on that subject (PQCA 295). The results of the use of this notice seem as effective as the more severe letter, the responses indicating, for the most part, a desire to cooperate with the work, and assurance that no further infringements will occur. Investigation through direct correspondence with the shipper is made by the Washington office in the case only of violations of quarantines relating to the white-pine blister rust, narcissus bulbs, the black stem rust, and other quarantines for which no field units are established. Violatioffs-o the Japanese beetle, European corn borer, gipsy moth, brown-tail moth, and satin moth quarantines, as well as others for which field units have been estab;4&44d, are referred to the field officers for investigation either by personal call1, letter, or by such other methods as may seem advisable.

BLACK STEM RUIST QTJABANTINE

Federal quarantine No. 38 was revised, effective August 1, 1931. Under this revision the quarantine was extended to cover shipments between as we..u as into, the 13 barberry eradication States which consist of the group extending from Ohio to Montana, Wyoming, and Colorado. Under an additional chaz4gQ_!,n.the regulations, nurseries which grow only immune species of i3,rb--ris and uaiinia will be supplied with Federal permits for the shipment of 1nwiune spe*LLS into and between the 13 protected States. The nursery inspections to determir aah only immune species are present on the premises of applicants for permits are being carried out by the Barberry Eradication Office of the B~ureau Qf Plrc4- --













Industry. That Bureau, on the basis of such inspections will make recommendations to the Administration on the approval or disapproval of the applications.


NARCISSUS BULB PESTS

C. R. Stillinger is rendering some assistance to State inspectors of the Pacific Northwest in the inspection of narcissus bulbs in storage.


PHONY MOU DISEASE

Phony peach disease infections have been discovered at a considerable number of new locations in the Southern States, both by members of the Administration staff checking on peach-growing nurseries and by the scouts of the Bureau of Plant Industry. Florida is the only new State involved thus far, no infections having been discovered north of the States of Arkansas, Tennessee, and North Carolina. The Florida infections are largely located near the Georgia border.





DATE SCALE

During the past seven months only three infested palms have been
found by the routine crews that inspect the commercial gardens. On two of these palms only a single scale each was found. During the previous year scale was found each month, and 139 infested palms were found in the 11 months preceding. The effect on the inspectors was noticeable as evidenced by the number of man-days necessary to inspect the various infested gardens. At first the time increased perceptibly as the inspectors felt that they were overlooking scale that would be discovered behind them. After two or three inspections without finding scale the time decreased until at present it is a little less than when scale was being found consistently. While it is quite possible that under the present conditions light infestations may be overlooked, the inspectors are all experienced and undoubtedly will locate infestations before there is any great danger of spread.

A number of date gardens have windbreaks of Tamarisk trees. A scale
insect somewhat similar in appearance to the Parlatoria scale breeds on these trees and occasionally single specimens are found on date palm leaves. The number of Tamarisk scales reported by the inspectors indicate to a certain extent the thoroughness of the inspection.







10


MMOPEAN COR11 BORER AND JAPANESE BEETLE

Exhibits and demonstrations of corn-borer-control farm equipment, designed by engineers of the Bureau of Public Roads working in conjunction with the Plant Quarantine and Control Administration and the Bureau of Entomology, were held during June at Kingston, R. I., and East Bridgewater, Mass. Binder with low cutting attachment, plows with covering equipment, plow with coulters, jointers, and wires, and hand hoes were shown. At Kingston the event was under the auspices of the Rhode Island Experiment Station and at East Bridgewater the exhibition was in connection with the field day of the State Dairyments Association. Attendance on the first named was reduced by rain but the farmers present manifested much interest in the machinery shown. About 21000 dairymen were present for the second of the demonstrations, nearly all of whom grow corn for ensilage and are interested in the harvesting problem faced in compliance with State clean-up regulations on account of the corn borer. Several county agents attended the meetings, most of whom expressed desire to have demonstrations put on this fall in their territories. Appointments have been made with other extension workers by engineers of the Department for discussion of the methods deemed best for use in low cutting, under conditions prevailing in this territory.

Fumigation of blackberries in the fumigation house of the Hammonton, N. X., market commission began on Tune 29. The Hammonton berry market was officially opened on Tune 22, but the emergence of adult Japanese beetles did not necessitate the fumigation of berries as a requirement for certification until a week later. An air thermograph has been installed on the inside of the house in order to obtain an accurate record of the temperature during the 2-hour fumigation period. This is the third season during which carbon disulphide fumigation of berries has been made in the house. It was erected by the borough of Hammonton and is maintained by the market commission. All treating operations are supervised by employees of the treating division of the project. An inspector is also stationed at tho market to certify the fumigated berries and to inspect other far m products offered. Last year ?,745 crates of berries were fumigated at Hammonton, Hundreds of dead beetles were collected on the floor of the house. Large numbers of beetles were also killed in the crates. The only alternative to the fumigation requirements is the careful inspection of each quart of berries a tedious procedure which causes considerable delay in their shipment. Consequently, with very few exceptions, all berries from South Jersey intended for movement from the generally infested area are fumigated at Hammonton.

organization of a division of information within the combined European corn borer and Japanese beetle project was undertaken early in Tune and scme progress made by the end of the month. The activities will be devoted principally, for the present at least, to the preparation and release of news stories relating to procedure in which the public will be interested and the dissemination of which may tend to better cooperation in the observance of quarantine regulations. During the summer, these releases will deal largely with matters concerning highway station inspection and produce certification. Later in the













season material probably will be prepared for farm papers and miscellaneous periodicals, giving the latest available data as to the control measures which have been found to be the most effective. In the main, if not altogether, the division of information will confine itself to project occurrences and progress, avoiding discussion of policies. Jefferson Thomas, formerly associated in a similar capacity with the Mediterranean fruit fly work in Florida, has been transferred from Orlando to South Norwalk, for duties connected with the new division.

Applications of arsenate of lead as a spray to the sites of Jap anese beetle infestations in Portsmouth, Va.p began on May 25 and were completed in that city on June 2. The apparatus was then moved to the infested areas in Norfolk. Five days were required for applying the treatments in that city. The sprayers and men wero then taken to Newport News, whotre treatments were applied on June 9, 10, and 11. Four high-pressure sprayers were used in these operations, two in applying the spray and two for furnishing the water with which to wash in the arse.-riate of lead. With the completion of the treatments in Virginia, the outfit was moved to Sayrev Pa. Here the spraying crew joined a similarly equipped crew which had moved down from Woesterly, R. I., and started treating on June 15. Both crews operated in Sayre from Tune 17 to 25, inclusive. One crew moved out of Sayre on Tune 26 and treated a small infestation in Waverly, N. Y., on that day. The work in Sayre was also completed on June 26. Both crews then moved to Binghamton, N. Y., where two and onehalt days' work of the combined crews was required to finish treating the infestations.

Farm produce inspection platforms were erected during Tune at Bridgeport and New Haven, in the Connecticut area. All requests for inspections of products requiring certification in the vicinity of these towns are referred to the platforms. The inspection facilities at New Haven will be open 24 hours a day, with the exception of Saturday nights, while the Bridgeport platform is to be operated from 5 a.m. to 6 p.m., except on Saturday nights and Sundays. Inspections will be made for both Japanese beetle and European corn borer infestations. A platform has also been opened at Berman and Steinberg's Commission House, on Water Street, South Norwalk, and another has been located at S. Cohen's Commission House, Canal Street, Stamford. It has been necessary further to place inspectors at the Economy Stores warehouse in East Hartford, and in the A, & P. Tea Company warehouse in Springfield, Mass., because of the movement of quarantined products to points outside the regulated area*

Considerable traffic congestion caused by trucks bringing farm products for inspection and certification to the Baltimore, Md., inspection platform has been eliminated by the assignment of a farm products inspector to the warehouses of two large chain stores in that city. Previous to this arrangement all trucks of these stores loaded with farm products intended for movement from the main generally infested area were required to present such articles at the inspection platform. Here it usually required an hour for each truck to unload. have its produce inspected, and reload. Farmers and independent trucInen thus







12


were frequently delayed. One concern requires the services of an inspector Monday, Wednesday, and Friday nights from 6 p.m. to 2 a.m. Thc same inspector works at the other warehouse on Thursday nights from 8 p.m. to 5 a.m. On the remaining days the inspector is available for duty on inspection platform. It is estimated that 13,000 packages of certified farm products are transported weekly from the two chain-store warehouses in question.

While engaged in observation of sundry governmental activities in New England, Mr. Allen, Executive Assistant to the Director of the Bureau or the Budget, and Mr. Jump, Budget Officer of the Department of Agriculture, visited the headquarters of the European corn borer and Japanese beetle project late in June, accompanied by Mir. iRohwer, Assistant Chief of the Bureau of Entomology. Offices of the eastern division of corn borer control, in Boston, were called on by the Washington officials during their stay in that city on June 27. South Norwalk was reached by the party on the 29th. From this point Mr. Jump and Mr. 1Rohwer were compelled to return to Washington but Mr. Allen remained over, and the next day he made a more careful survey of the offices and warehouses, after which, piloted by Mr. Worthley, Mr. Allen saw some of the field work, the trip having been concluded at the New York offices.

Cooperation of an excellent type from farmers in Erie and Warren Counties, Pa., with reference to proper disposition of the debris of last year's corn crop, has been reported by State officials administering corn borer control. Inspectors for the Pennsylvania Department of Agriculture, which is cooperating in the matter with the Plant Quarantine and Control Administration, visited 6,863 farms, on 4,958 of which it was found that all corn stubble had been plowed under and all refuse and remnants cleaned up. Of 21,2369 acres inspected, it a~as necessary for the State authorities to clean only 36 7/12 acres. In addition, 43 1/2~ hours of labor were devoted to the premises from which some stubble and other material remained to be removed. Total cost of the clean-up done by the inspection force, involving 12 separate cases, was only $171.05.

Agricultural engineers of the Bureau of Public Rloads, engaged in corn borer control work cooperatively with the Plant Quarantine and Control Administration and the Bureau of Entomology, made considerable progress in June on experiments intended to develop changes in farm machinery for disposal of crop debris which will better adapt it to the New England situation, especially in the area infested by the two-generation strain. Plows which can be operated successfully in stony soil and hand hoes suited to this section are having special attention. Modifications of the binder attachments originally perfected for use in the West also are receiving consideration, and experiments are
under way intended to simplify the sled-type cornstalk shaver so it may be made on the average northeastern farm, with the tools at the command of the
owner .

Under an official order issued on June .1 by the Pennsylvania Secretary of Agriculture, a number of additional townships in Wayne and V5yoming Counties of that State were added to the area designated as generally infested in









-13


State Quarantine No. 22 (first revision) pertaining to Japanese beetle. The additional territory was included in the generally infested area in order to permit the unrestricted mQvement of farm products by individuals commuting from Scranton and vicinity to near-by mountain resorts, which previously had been short distances beyond the boundary of the quarantined zone. It is not contemplated that the area under Federal regulation will be similarly enlarged until the next revision of the quarantine regulations, since the movement of quarantined articles concerned is wholly local. and intrastate restrictions are sufficient to take care of the situation at present.

Inspection of fruit and produce under the Japanese beetle quarantine was cornenced in New York City on June 15. At a specially erected platform, 40 feet long, in the middle of West Street, foot of Murray Street, inspectors are on duty 24 hours a day. Several other men are engaged in responding to telephone calls from small stores and shippers. Inspectors also have been located at three up-state points, Middletown, Newburgh, and Peekskill. Their duties mostly relate t0 movement into the resort sections of Sullivan and U~lster Counties. Additional field men engaged in inspecting and certifying flowers and produce are stationed in Nassau and Westchester Counties, End principally occupied with shipping by estate owners to their summer homes.

Early in June Avery S. Hoyt, who had joined the Administration several
months ago for assignment to European corn borer and Japanese beetle work, arrived in South Norwalk, his departure from California having been postponed by reason of delay in acceptance of his resignation as Director of Agriculture for that State. On this project it was the intention that Mr. Hoyt should serve as executive assistant to Mr. Worthley, and immediately the former had reached headquarters he undertook an intensive study of current activities, dividing his time between the main offices and the field. Before the end of the month, M~r. Hoyt was called to Washington to assume the more responsible duties of Assistant Cliief of the Plant Quarantine and Control Administration.

Headquarters of the European corn borer and Japanese beetle projeftt
in South Norwalk, Conn., was visited in June by Lon A. Hawkins, of Washington, in charge of the Plant Quarantine and Control Administration's studies of steritization and related investigations. Cooperation will be extended by Doctor Hawkins and his associates in outlining experimental work which seeks to develop more efficient and less expensive systems of treatment of nursery premises and stock as a means of renoving the danger of infestation from the .apanese beetle. While at South Norwalk, Doctor Hawkins conferred with Mr. Worthley and the heads of several divisions and later he will contact with phases of the field work in beetle control.

School for inspectors stationed in the New Jersey territory was held
for the third successive year at the New Jersey district headquarters in White Horse, from June 1 to 4. The curriculum, arranged by Stato Supervisor G. K. Handle, included an opening address by Hon. W. B. Duryee, New Jersey Secretary of Agrit-ulture, lectures and demonstrations by three of the personnel fran the
Moorestown Japanese beetle research laboratory, arnd the presentation of papers on important quarantine problems by members of the inspection force most







14


familiar with the work. The school was held on Tune 1 and 2 for one-half the New jersey personnel, and was repeated for the remainder of the men on the following trio days.

Additional lapanese beetle scouting crews were placed in the field
during the month. Three new crews of four men each started work in Virginia during the first three days of the month. Three southern crews continued their scouting work in North and South Carolina and Virginia. Crews in Maryland and Virginia were organized on Tune 10. Scouting in southern New Tersey was started on Tune 29. Supervisors of the scout crews which will operate in the northern section of the regulated area reported for duty late in the month in order to complete final arrangements for the intensive scouting program which will commence Tuly 1. Several scout finds of importance were made during the month.

June activitiesof the Oustern area in corn borer and beetle control included the inspection and certification of farm products and cut flowers on account of the European corn borer at Boston, Mass.p Portland, Me., and Providence, R. I.; the inspection and classification of henhousee and nursery establishments on account of the Tapanese beetle in-the lightly infested area of Bristol and Plymouth Countiesp Mass., and in Rhode Island; the supervision of Tapanese beetle soil treatments in Boston, Mass., Newport, Providence, and Westerly, R. I., and preparations for border patrol, trap control, and scouting.

Inspection of farm products in the Boston Wholesale Market was approximately 75 per cent lighter during Tune, 1931, than for the corresponding month of last year. This was partly due to the elimination of string beans from the quarantine and the extension of the regulated area, and partly to damage to native-grown products by heavy rainstorms which considerably reduced the quantity brought in from the greater Boston market garden district. Most of the gladiolus shipped from the Boston Wholesale Flower Market in Tune were greenhouse grown. The first native field-grown flowers were from Dighton, Mass., and were received at the market on June 29.

The Boston Federal Business Association has compiled a very attractive directory of United States Government activities in Metropolitan Boston. All of the executive departments are represented in Boston, and under the Department of Agriculture eight separate bureaus are listed. The Plant Quarantine and Control Administration is represented by European Corn Borer Control, Port Inspection Service, and Prevention of Spread of Moths. An edition of 800 copies of the Directory was published, the printing and paper having been supplied by the Boston Post Office.

Quarantine line personnel selection in the western area was begun in
Tune, and all equipment placed in first class condition for the opening of highway activities. Divisions by States have been assigned, and all supervisors and highways have been approved for the erection of road stations. Ten divi-sions will operate under the direct supervision of the Springfield, Ohio, office







15


in West Virginia, Ohio, Indiana, and Mgichigan. An approximate total of 110 road stations, and 15 ports Of inspection on the west shore line of Michigan, will be in operation this season.

Transfer of all corn-borer-control supplies and equipment from Toledo, Ohio, to Springfield, Ohio, began April 1 and was completed June 30. A total of 204 checked loads was moved by truck between the points mentioned--a distance of 135 miles. Incident to the confusion and inconvenience of moving headquarters, the task of assembling lists of prospective scouts was accomplished. When letters from scout applicants were received, their records of previous employment were examined. Each candidate was classified and listed accordingly, thus facilitating later selection of the personnel.

Quarantine inspectors in the Boston Wholcosale Market occasionally come in contact with tarantulas, which are brought into the wholesale fruit and vegetable establishments with bunches of green bananas from the tropics. These specimens are sent to Nathan Banks, Curator, Department of Entomology, Harvard Museum of Comparative Zoology. Recently a specimen which proved to be a rather uncommon species from Honduras was taken alive and delivered to Doctor Banks.

Training school of the western area in corn borer control f or this
season will start about July 13 and is to be located on a 100-acre experimental farm operated by the Bureau of Entomology and the Bureau of Agricultural Engineering. on a convenient woodlot office tents will be erected. A plot of corn has been set aside for use in illustrating the methods practiced in connection with field operation. In the neighborhood of 400 scouts will be
employed for the summer season.

Distribution of Japanese beetle traps in various cities throughout
Maryland and Virginia started early in the month and all were placed and in operation by July 1. Traps and the necessary bait and equipment had been distributed to cities in West Virginia, Pennsylvania, New York, Connecticut, Rhode Island, Massachusetts, Ohio, and Michigan in anticipation of the trap work to start in these States early in July.

New York offices of the European corn borer and Japanese beetle project are in constant touch with the transit inspection service of the Administration, effecting close cooperation between the two units. Inspectors from the former assisted the transit inspectors on the night of June 26 in a check-up of flower shipments which were believed to have been made under unauthorized certification.

Notwithstanding a large correspondence and many personal visits to
greenhouse and nursery establishments during June by inspectors working out of the Boston headquarters, transit inspectors noted a number of minor violations in the shipment of cut flowers, very largely due to misunderstanding of the Japanese beetle quarantine regulations covering the movement thereof.











Temporary chemists employed by the project and working under the
supervision of the 13ueeau of Entomology Japanese beetle research laboratory at Mvoorestown, N. I., during June completed th6ir analyses of samples of lead arsenate treated soil collected from. treated plots in nurseries. The accumulated data are now being compiled as a basis for the re-treatment of the nursery plots.

Additional inspectors have reported for duty at the various wholesale flower and vegetable markets in the New York City area, in order to take care of increased demands for European corn borer and Japanese beetle inspection and certification. It is believed that these enlargements of the force mnke it sufficient to handle the situation in this area.

All equipment and supplies at the former administrative offices of the Japanese beetle project, Cand.en, N. 5., were imov(ed during the month to the South Norwalk headquarters. The building was vacate-d a few days previous to the expiration of the Department's lease on June 350. A large wooden shed was razed at Camden and reerected at South Norwalk.

Requirements for the certification of farm products and cut flowers under the Japanese beetle summer quarantine became effective on June 15. Very little actual inspection of these articles prior to certification waes required until late in the month, since beetles had not emerged in sufficient numbers to infest the produce maarketed earlier.

Soil treatment work for the Japanese beetle with arsenate of lead,
sprayed on the turf by use of power sprayers, was completed before the end of June in Hartford, Willimantic, and New London, Conn.; Springfield and Boston, Mass.; and New~port, Providence, and Westerly, I1. 1.

During the month Assistant Secretary Dunlap and Congressman Mouser, the latter of Marion, Ohio, inspected the new headquarters of the western area at Springfield and expressed their satisfaction with the new location.

Combined European corn borer anid Japanese beetle certificates were
placed in use early in June to replace the separate certificates previously used by each project.




MDITERRANIEAN FRUIT FLY

Final disposition of all records, supplies, and equipment accumulated at Orlando over a period of two years in connection with Mediterranean fruit fly eradication, was effected during June. All1 building and utility leases 'Were terminated on June 30 and appointments of personnel, with- the exception of a small number transferred to other projects or bureaus, were terminated as of June 30, thus bringing to a close this project which was begun in April, 1929.







17


On June 1 approximately two-thirds of all property had been transferred to other projects of the Administration and to other bureaus of the United States Department of Agriculture. Th re being no further demands within the Department of Agriculture for this equipment, thc remainder had been transferred during the latter part of Kay to the Chief Coordinator for disposition to other departments of the Governmnt.

No orders were received from the office of the Chief Coordinator during the first half of June and, as it was necessary to close the project by June 30, an eleventh-hour rush seemed inevitable. This, however, was averted by prompt action on the part of officials of the Administration in Washington in rushing large orders from the Department of Justice and Department of Interior for steam boilers, tractors, and other heavy equipment, and in clearing for sale, through special boards of survey, temporary sheds and remaining property for which there was no demand by government agencies.

Equipment surveyed and sold consisted of temporary sheds, 170,000
pounds of sugar, 4,200 gallons of molasses, 21 motor vehicles, 45 power sprayers, 23 stubble shredders, 200 heavy duty truck tires, and various light equipment.

Preparation of proposals for bids was begun on June 18 and final sales effected on June 29. Surprising activity was shown in bidding on most items and it was necessary to readve2tise only one item, a power sprayer, which the purchaser on original bid declined to accept due to erroneously naming an item different to the one on which he intended to bid. The price received for most
items was very satisfactory considering general economic conditions and the off season in Florida.

Total transfers representing 308 shipments, 98 of which were car lots, had an appraised valuation of $439,521.34. Sales by various boards of survey represented 26 lots bringing a total of $9,188.73.

Nonexpendable articles of no further service and having no sale value were surveyed and destroyed. These represented a cost value of $370.20. Galvanized steel tanks constructed as part of fruit destruction units at a cost
of over $270 are included in this lot. Nionexpendable articles lost or unaccouLto- for totaled $17.90.

Alterations and permanent fixtures, consisting of partition walls,
lighting fixtures, and locks, placed by the Administration in the Old Court
House which was used as headquarters offices throughout the project, were left intact by request and consent of the County officials.

In compliance with leasa contract, alterations and fixtures placed in &arage on West Central Avenue were removed and the building turned over to
owner in same general condition as when leased.







18


Tomporary storage sheds, fronting the garage on West Central Avenue, were sold on June 20 on condition that they were to be removed and ground cleaned of debris and levelcd before July 1. Wehon this work was comp]eted a written acceptance by the owner of this land as being surrendered in compliance with lease provisions was proc-u-ed from an agent of the owner.






LXICAN FRUIT FLY

The work on the American side of the river consisted of checking
groves for "off-bloom" fruit, inspecting fruit held in storage and offered for sale in stores and on stands, and working up inspection records and census sheets in preparation for next season's work.

In Matamoros, on the Mexican side of the river, inspections were continued of fruit growing locally and of imported fruit offered for sale in the markets. In the fruit from the interior of Mexico- infestations were found in shipments of apricots, guavas, mangoes, oranges, and plums. Infestations were found in White Sapotes, Sargentia greggil and sour oranges growing in Matamoros. The fruit from these trees has bein picked off and destroyed by burial. Of special interest in explaining how infestations are started in Matamoros was the finding of a decayed mango which had been thrown out in the yard of a house in the northwest part of the city. Upon inspection 14 larvae of the fruit fly were found in this mango. Some 200 fly traps were placed in various yards during the month in addition to the 84 ahich were already out. These traps are baited with an orange sye'up solution and inspected twice weekly. Twenty-two adults of the fly were caught in these traps during the month.

All trees within the area of four blocks around each point of infestation are being sprayed at weekly intervals with a poison-bait suray. About a pint of this bait is applied to uach tree by Mexican laborers, using knapsack sprayers.

Two employees of this project were transferred to the Bureau of Entoanology for work on the cotton 1eaf hopper, and two were transferred to the Division of Foreign Plant Quarantines for an inspection trip on the WVt't Goact of Mexico.




PINK BOLLWORM

The field inspection performed in the Salt River Valley of Arizona
prior to July I has been more or less at random, in an endeavor to locate infested fields. At this time 6 such fields have been found, 3 south of Lavecin and 3 in the Goodyear-to-Queen Creek area. Beginning with July, weekly










19


infestation counts are to be made from some 90 fields in the Salt River Valley and several fields in the vicinity of Coolidge and Casa Grande in the Gila Valley. Some of the fields are in stub cotton and others in planted cotton of both short and long staple varieties. Each of the fields selected is representalt-dive of the conditions for that particular class of field. Bolls, or squares when bolls are not available, will be. collected and kept on ice until they can be inspected.

Studies begun some. time ago to determine the length of time elapsing between planting and fruiting of long and short staple cotton have been eompleted. It was found that the average time was 49 days in the case of long staple cotton and 39 days for short staple. This rould indicate that approximately 60 days must elapse from th6 time of planting until squares are large enough to become infested for long staple cotton, and 50 days for short staple.

The alfalfa inspection and crop survey has progressed satisfactorily
during Tune, when 78,419 acres of alfalfa had been inspected. Cotton in some form was found to be present in approximately 30 per cent of this acreage. At the same time 81,107 acres devoted to other crops were inspected, with cotton being found present in 10 per cent of the acreage. The crop survey shows that there are 107,9961 1 acres being cultivated to cotton. It has been found that 2?,755 acres planted to cotton in 1930 had been abandoned; however, since the acreage was checked some of this land has been watered and is now being eultivated with a view to making a crop of stub cotton.

Observations have been made from time to time to determine the effect of mowing cotton plants at the time alfalfa hay is cut. In a number of young alfalfa fields, in which cotton was growing, it was found that volunteer plants died if cut below the branches, but survived if one or more branches were left. The stub cotton puts out new shoots as soon as the first growth is destroyed, but it is not known just hoT many times this will occur. In young alfalfa, stub plants "stool" or spread out close to the ground after being cut, in which case they are too loi,7 to be cut by the mower at the next cutting. These observations will have to bu continued before definite information is obtained,

Some damage to young cotton by hail was reported during the month in the El Paso Valley, the Big Bend section of Texas, and the Pecos Valley of New Mexico. The most serious damage occurred in the Big Bend section, where some 200 acres were practically destroyed.

There was a decided increase in traffic at the road stations during .Tune, due to tourist travel; however, confiscations remained about the same.. On June 16, a pillow made of seed cotton was confiscated at the Valentine, Tex., station. An examination of the seed cotton resulted in the finding of one dead pink bollworm larva. At the Ft. Davis, Tex., station, on J-une 25 four lo-eks of seed cAton and a small amount of cottonseed cake were intercepted. The seed cotton had apparently been damaged by the pink bollworm;







20


however, no specimens were found.

The inspection of boll samples at the San Antonio laboratory was completed during June, lb98 samples having been inspected that month. Since the laboratory was opened in January, 9,b80 samples of 100 bolls each have been inspected. These samples represented fields in Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, and Texas. No signs whatever of the pink bollworm were found in any of the samples.

Field headquarters of the Western Quarantine Area have been moved from 612 Mills Building to a small house at 2716 Grant Avenue, El Paso, Tex.

The main headquarters of the Pink Bollworm and Thurberia Weevil Project have been moved from 801 Smith-Young Tower to a two-story house at 521 Avenue A, San Antonio, Tex., effective July 1, 1931. The mailing address is Post Office Box 798.




PREVETING SPREAD OF T&VTHS

This project has leased property at Greenfield, Mass., from the Greenfield Tap and Die Corporation, consisting of 65,000 square feet of floor space distributed in four buildings with a sufficient amount of land around each building. All of the buildings are one story except the office building which is two stories, and are of fireproof construction ;,ith cement floors. The lease is effective August 17, 1931, and moving will be started near that date. One of the buildings is to be used for a workshop and for storage. The other two large buildings are for storage, supplies, anl equipment. All of the buildin-,s are within five minutes walk of each other and are connected by a private right of way. The office building will be at .0 Sanderson Street,
but this announcement should not be considered as notice of change of address. Headquarters will continue to be at !,Lelrose Highlands until further not ice.

The whole of the Connecticut Valley from Brattleboro, Vt., to Hartford, Conn., was searched for a desirable location and necessary buildings in wh-ich
to centralize this activity. The arrangement or the buildings at Greenfield is very satisfactory, and geographically the location is ideal. Greenfield
is a town of about 16,000 people. It is an important railway center, being the junction of two main lines of the Boston & Maine system. There are two main automobile routes through Greenfield--No. 2 from Boston through Fftchburg and Athol to .oany, and U. S. Route No. 5 from New Haven through Hartford, Conn., and Stringfield, Mass., to White River Junction, Vt. Greenfiold is 98 miles from Boston, 102 miles from New Haven, 81 miles from Albany, a d 89 miles from White River Tunction.

The present leases of property including the property in Melrose, Shelburne, and Pittsfield, Mass., will be terminated as soon after August 17 as











moving to Greenfield can be accomplished. This change in location of headquarters and centralization of the various activities of this section involves approximately 30 Federal employees, who with their families bring tihe total to about 100 people. This change should be advantageous to the entire project as the location uf headquarters will be much nearer the Barrier Zone where a large proportion of our funds are expended.

Due to the fact that extermination work in New Jersey has progressed to the point where a smaller force is required to satisfactorily conduct the work, the office building which has been used for a number of years has been given up and quarters in a portion of the storehouse located nearby on Lincoln Road in Bound Brook is being used for office headquarters.

As is usual during June, there was a decrease in inspection work necessary for the aforcement of Quarantiae No. 45. There was not much activity in the shipment of evergreen products, although there -was an increase in the shipment of balsam twigs. A few laurel branches were shipped by people who took advantage of the recent revision allowing for such shipment after inspection. There were no carload lots of evergreens shipped, and the less-than-carload lots decreased from 405 during May to 114 this month. There was also a small decrease in the number of carloads of forest products inspected and certified,
but 1 bargeload was shipped as was the case in May. There was a small increase in the number of less-than-carload lots, and lumber, pulpwood, and empty cable reels formed the greater part of the forest product shipments. The spring shipping season for nursery products was practically closed and only 1 carload, as compared with 45 carloads in the previous month, was inspected and certified. Only 1,410 less-than-carload lots as compared with 11,679 of May were inspected and certified. There was considerable activity in the shipment of stone and quarry products, although the number of inspected and certified carloads dropped from 1,144 in May to 800 in June. There were 2 bargeloads shipped in June after inspection, although no bergeloads were inspected in May. The less-than-carload shipments which were inspected and certified in June of stone and quarry products dropped from 42,422 to 2,945.

Some nursery stock was moved throughout the nonth and blooming roses
in pots were in demand especially by transient automobilists. Some evergreens
and shrubs were dug with a ball of soil and placed in storage where they were thoroughly wetted. This seemed to revive the plants and they were moved 7ith no loss reported. This procedure has been reported as a new method of handling nursery stock in June.

During June an old cooper's shop in the infested area was dismantled and after inspection shipped to Michigan. Collectors of old and historic buildings occasionally arrange for moving such articles from the infested area.
These usually are taken down with great care and most of the materials are saved, including the wood, hardware, nails, chimney bricks, stepping stones,
and often parts of the foundation. Often such buildings or parts of them are likely to carry gipsy moth infestation and must be carefully inspected.










22


An unusual inspection and certification was made during June. A
builder of rustic articles constructed a small log cabin on a truck body to be used for advertising purposes. In this cabin were placed samples of rustic fence and other articles and a number of evergreen trees in tubs for decoration. As t-he owner intender to use this truck just outside of New England, all of the material required inspection and certification. Accordingly, the driver was supplied with the certificates to be shown if necessary. As the truck is likely to re-enter the quarantined area, arrangements were made by the inspector to make additional examination in the event that it is to move outside of the area again.

Oa Long Island 103 lots of nursery stock and in New Jersey 28 lots of nursery stock and forest products were inspected and certified by Federal inspectors for shipment from the controlled area. The restrictions in these two States are due to State regulations which are enforced by Federal employees. No infestations were found as result of these inspections.

The scouting in the Barrier Zone planned for the fiscal year 1931 was completed during the third week of7 June. Four scouting crows were engaged in scouting the wooded areas in two townships in Connecticut and two in Massachusetts. In three of these the scouting was very, intensive as it was carried on around the sites of infestations that were discovered and treated during the previous year. In the other town the scouting was the 40-foot strip method previously described. As result of this scouting work infestations were found in three towns where intensive scouting was carried on.

Reports from the New York State Conservation Department indicate that the scouting work planned for in Ancran, Austerlitz, and Canaan was completed early in the month and the force was transferred to spraying operations in the townships of Hillsdale, M,1ilan, and Rhinebeck, N. Y. Spraying on Long Island, referred to in the previous News Letter, was completed during the last week of June. The equipment, such as sprayers, hose, etc., is being stored temporarily at Bound Brook, N. J.

Only a skeleton force was in 'New Jersey during the month, for most of the men were in New England helping with the spraying work. Two men remained in New Jersey, and about the middle of the month one returned fran New England. These mon made the necessary nursery and forest products inspections and attended to burlap bands which had beon placed around tree trunks at the
sites of infestations which appear to have been exterminated. The trecs in the areas considered most dangerous in the townships of Bridgewater, Franklin, Piscataway, and Hillsboro, were banded with burlap early in June. The gipsy moth caterpillars have a tendency during the heat of the day to seek shade. For this reason bands of burlap are placed around tree trunks, in which the caterpillars are likely to hide when ascending3 or descending the trees. The men turning these bands of burlap discover and destroy them. The bux'laping of trees to aid in discovering the presence of gipsy moth caterpillars and pupae is simply one more avenue of search for the last few specimens. The scouting for gipsy moth egg clusters during most of the







23


winter, the search for the caterpillars and pupae beneath the burlap bands during Tune, and the assembling cages (explained later) which were placed in the field last July to catch male gipsy moths, have all failed in shovdng any indication of the existence of a gipsy moth infestation in New jersey this year.

Tune is the month for spraying in New England to control the gipsy moth. This operation may start the last of May and run into the early part of Tuly. The length of the spraying period is governed by the season, for spraying should not be started until the foliage is of sufficient size to hold the material, and it must be concluded before the caterpillars have pupated. Accordingly the scouting work is arranged so that much of it will be completed by the last of 1,fay and early in Tune as most of the forze of the scouting and extermination section is needed for the spraying operations. All of the detailed reports of the spraying which has just been completed have not as yet arrived at the office and it is not possible at this time to give this information. It willj however, be included in an early News Letter. With the exception of a small number of men detailed to miscellaneous work such as the erection of temporary fences, patrolling of burlap bands, and the delivery of small supplies from central concentration points in the field, the entire scouting and extermination force is required to operate the spraying outfits. Spraying at and in the vicinity of the infested locations commenced on Tune 2, and it was necessary to increase our force temporarily during the month. The work was hampered considerably during the first 10 days of June by abnormally rainy weather, but the conditions were favorable throughout the remainder of the month and spraying vias completed early in Xuly. Thirty spraying units were in full operation during the greater part of Tune by the Federal force and stx more fully equipped outfits were loaned to the New York State force to conduct its spraying in Nassau County on Long Island and in Columbia and Dutchess Counties in the Hudson River Valley in the Barrier Zone. It has been reported from the field that we were exceedingly fortunate this season in driving several sprayers over old roads that are ordinarily considered impassable to points from which extensive tracts of woodland were successfully sprayed.

In several cases this season sprayers were operated in pairs pumping lead arsenate solution in a continuous stream through a single hose line. This was accomplished by using a Y connection between the tvn sprayers and the main spray line, so that one sprayer delivered solution while the other was loading and mixing a tank of spray material. By previous arrangement between the foreman in charge at the nozzle end of the hose line and the operators of the sprayers, a schedule for shutting down for about five minutes at one or two, hour intervals during the day allowed for the crew manning the hose line to change positions and cut off or add lengths of hose as they progressed through the woodlot. Spraying was carried on during the month by the Federal force in the townships of New Marlboro, Sandisfield, and Stockbridge, Mass., and in Canaan, Cornwall, Norfolk, Salisbury, Wallingford, Warren, and Washington, Conn. With the exception of a few small isolated locations, all kno= infested spots will have been thoroughly sprayed by the close of the spraying season early in Xuly. The unsprayed infested locations have been thoroughly










24


treated by other control measures such as creosoting egg clusters, chopping and cleaning out of underbrush, and burlaping the remaining trees. These
burlaps of course are examined throughout the caterpillar season and any caterpillars and pupae which are found are destroyed.

In the last paragraph on page 22 of the July News Letter, mention was made of the assembling cage work in the discussion of the colonization of Sturmia scutellata. Thousands of this imported gipsy moth pupal parasite are obtained each year incidental to the assembling cage work. They are liberated merely to save them and to help in building up the parasite population just east of the Barrier Zone.

For a good many years the Bureau of Entomology at the Gipsy Moth Laboratory, Melrose Highlands, Mass., has carried on experimental work to obtain an attractant for male gipsy moths. Up to this time the best attractant has been obtained by clipping the last one or two abdominal segments of virgin female moths into various solvents. The information obtained by this research work is being applied by the Plant Quarantine and Control Administration in connection with the field work. Cages are put out each year in the Barrier Zone and in New Jersey during the flying period of male gipsy moths in an attempt to attract them. This is done as an auxiliary to the scouting work, and in past years gipsy moth infestations have been discovered in this way. The present
practice is to pour the solvent and the posterior tips cut from female moths onto cotton batting which is fixed in small tin cans. Those are then nailed to the tree trunks and inverted to prevent rain frou entering. Sticky banding material is placed on the tree around the can, and the males flutter around the attractan1; in tii can and become caught in the sticky material.

In order to obtain a supply of the attracting material it is necessary to collect large numbers of female ipsy moth pupae during July. These are placed on coarse wire-bottom trays in racks. As the female moths issue they are picked off and placed in pasteboard boxes to prevent mating. After they have been held for 24 or more hours, the posterior abdominal tips are clipped into the solvent to be used. During the clipping the moths are held in a glasscovered case where suction is appliGd to draw the hair and fuzz away from the operators, for these arj very irritating to the delicate membranes of the eye, nose, and throat of many people.

Because the seasonal history of the gipsy moth in New Jersey (when there are any there) is earlier than in New England, where the material must be obtained, it must be gathered during the previous year and held in cold storage during the winter. Benzol is thu solvent used for the material that is going to New Jersey, as the attractant seems a little more stable in it than in other solvents when held over the winter. For several years xylene has been the solvent used for the material thnt is placed in the Barrier Zone. This is liberated the same season that it is obtained. This year both xylene and high
test gasoline are being used as the solvent for the rraterial that is to be used in the Barrier Zone, as experiments conducted by the Gipsy Moth Laboratory with high test gasoline have given excellent results in attractinC male moths. When







25


clipping into benzol 30 tips are used to each ounce of material, but when the
tips are clipped into xylene or high test t-asoline for iiUmediate use, 15 tins to 1 ounce of material are sufnficient. La.t July and early August approximately 147,500 female gipsy moth pupae were collected. From this material sufficient tips were obtained to char-e 67U cages which wore used in the Barrier Zone, and 590 cages which were kept in cold storage during the winter. The latter are being placed in New Jersey at this time (July 13, 1931). The material that was placed in New Jersey last sunmer--853 cages--was obtain d the previous year.

This whole problem is still considered to be in an experimental stage, but with the slight improvements that are muade annually in manipulation it seems that gradually this work will become more and more valuable as an aid in the discovery of unr nown gipsy moth infestations. This will aid materially in the prevention of the spread of this pest. In using this method to attract male moths in preference to using female moths in cages, all danger of establishing an infestation through accident is eliminated, as the few eggs which may be in the clipped tips of the females are infertile, and furthermore are killed by the solvent.

Evidence based on the number of brown-tail webs which were cut in New7 England during the winter of 1930-31 showed that this insect was more abundant than usual in some sections. This wa- particularly true in southwestern
Maine where the infestation was especially heavy on small groups of apple trees in villages. This also applies to a considerable extent in central and
southeastern New Iiampshire. In Massaihusetts the wiebs are cut annually rather consistently by the local moth superintendents, and considerably less webs were cut last winter than during the previous winter. In TMaine a total of 32C,964 webs and 69 bushels of webs were cut in the 9 towns which reported, the greatest number for any one town being 307,000 webs at Biddeford. In Now Hampshire a total of 655,076 webs were nut in 50 towns, the greatest number in any one town being 80,757 at Pembroke. In Massahusetts there we2.e 36,564 webs and 312- bushels cut in the winter of 193-31 as compared with ?5,684 Vlebs and 307 bushels cut the previous winter. In some cases the number of webs cut are reported by bushels. It is practically impossible to arrive at the average number of webs in a bushel for they vary greatly in size and also in the amount of twig that is left on each web. Figures range from 1,500 to 2,800 vebs to the bushel, and if we take as an average 2,000 webs to the bushel, it gives us 763,000 webs. Using this figure, with the 1,012,604 webs which were reported cut, gives a grand total of 1,775,604 webs cut and destroyed during the Mnter of 1930-31 in New England. Webs vere cut in several other towns especially in M.1aine, but no record as to the number is available.

During July each year information is gathered as to the amount of defoliation caused by the gipsy moth. Last year there was considerably less reported than the previous year, and early indications are that there will be less reported this season than last year. There is, however, severe defoliation in the area in Massachus 'ts south of Brockton, which will be reported on later.








26


During lune and early July approximately 2, 000 posters, depicting the life history of the gipsy moth vith information pointing out the danger of spreading this insect, were distributed to Federal employees and State off icials for posting in thle gipsy moth area at locations where tourists and cam~pers are likely to stop.

During June this office supplied L. S. McI~aine, Chief or Division of
Foreign Pests Suppression, of the Canadian Department of Agriculture, with 10*0 artificial gipsy moth egg clusters. These are prepared at the Meirose office and are used occasionally in the field. They are placed on trees in locations favorable for female gipsy moths to deposit their egg clusters. These arf.- put out in sections uknown to the scouts in order to (-heck the efficiency of their scouting and serve to keep the men on the alert in their Search for gipsy mroth egg clusters, especially in territory where the iniL'estation is extremely light, if present at all.

During the month 27 members of this force made a total of 91 insect collections which were sent to the Gipsy Moth Laboratory. These consisted of P.2 collections of gipsy moth, 11 of the brown-tail moth, 10 of the satin moth, and
48 of miscellaneous insects.

There were a total of 128 violations during the month. One hundred and twenty-six of these were violations of quarantine No. 45 alone; 1 violated Quarantine No. 53 as well as Quarantine No. 45, and 1 violated Quarantine N"o. 635 as well as Quarantine No. 45. Sixteen violations were by express, 112 by mail. All of these violations were reported by transit inspectors of the Plant Quarantine and Control Administration. Many of the violations have been investigated and in all cases were found to be of minor nature, and no prosecutions were instituted.





UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 3 1262 09245 0948




Full Text
xml version 1.0 encoding UTF-8
REPORT xmlns http:www.fcla.edudlsmddaitss xmlns:xsi http:www.w3.org2001XMLSchema-instance xsi:schemaLocation http:www.fcla.edudlsmddaitssdaitssReport.xsd
INGEST IEID E8PQX05W0_YZRXGU INGEST_TIME 2014-09-08T22:01:42Z PACKAGE AA00023275_00014
AGREEMENT_INFO ACCOUNT UF PROJECT UFDC
FILES



PAGE 1

I I Number 8 NEWS LETTER PLANT QUARANTINE AND CONTROL ADMINISI'RATION UNITED ST.ATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (NOT FOR PUBLICATION) ADMINISTRATIVE August, 1931. The current addresses of the major field projects of the Administra tion are as follows: Gipsy Moth and Brown-tail Moth, J ... F. Burgess, in charge, headquarters 964 :Main Street, Melrose Highlands, Mass., P. o. Drawer B. (After August l?, 20 Sanderson Street, Greenfield, Mass.) European Corn Borer and .Japanese Beetle, L. H. Worthley, in charge, headquarters 22 Elizabeth Street, South Norwalk, Conn. Date Scale Eradication, B. L. Boyden, in charge, headquarters Room 6, First National Bank Building, Indio, Calif. Mexic ' an Fruit Fly, M. H. Ford, acting in charge, headquarters 503 Rio Grande National Lifo Building, Harlingen, Tex. Pink Bollworm and Thurberia Weevil, R. E. McDonald, in charge, headquarters 521 Avenue A, San .Antonio, Tex. Mail address, P. o. Box ?98. Field headquarters for the Western Quarantine Area has been moved from 612 Mills Bldg., to 2716 Grant Avenue, El Paso, Texas. ~ ail address is P. o. Box 9?, Station A. The address or the field headquarters for the Eastern Q,uaruntine Area is 21? N. 17th Street, Alpine, Texas, P. o. Box 843. The district office at Pecos, Texas, is now located in a road station building, loco.tad on a 1ot adjaccm.t to the Electric Gin Co. Mail address is p. o. Box 8.

PAGE 2

_ Digitized . bY the Internet Archive in 2013 http://archive.org/details/newsletter31 no8

PAGE 3

2 TBCHNOLOGICAL Tests were made recently on the fumigation of ba...~anas in refrigera tor cars with hydrocyanic acid discoids as a method of killing Japanese beetles, which are attracted by the odor of bananas, and which are sometimes present in considerable numbers on the pier when the fruit is transferred from the ship into the refrigerator cars. The method of fumigation tested was to scatter the discs of absorbent material whi c h had been soaked in hydro cyanic acid on a paper tray placed on the bananas in the doorway of the car, the other openings of the car being tightly closed. This method of fumigation, which was developed by the Japanese beetle laboratory of the Bureau of Entom ology, in cooperation with this Administration, reduces the cost of fumigating about ?O per cent and makes possible a reduction of one-halr hour in the time required to fumigate . Freezing fruit prepared for market and cooling it to a temperature of 20 F. has recently been authorized as a condition of entry into the continen tal United States from foreign countries in which the Mediterranean fruit fly or other similar pests are kn.own to exist. The frozen pack method of prepar ing fruit for market has been practiced for many years in the United States, particularly as applied to soft fruits, such as berries, cherries, and peach es. Over ft. hundred thousand 50 gallon barrels of fruit are prepared by this method each year. Recently some work has been done on the preservation of some vegetables by this method . The authorization of the process as a con dition of entry allows the importation of these coIJUoc' . i ti cs on a commercial scale and will probably result in testing the applicability of this method to tropical fruits . The ethylene oxide fumigation for Japanese beetle has been aut h orized for application to berries in the hea~ily inf'ested areas as a condit i on for movement from tfiat area. Considerable quantities of blackberries, dewberries, and raspberries are fumigated each year in the berry se~tion of New Jersey to destroy the adult Japanese beetles which are sometimes present in the packed berries. Recent tests by the Japanese beetle laboratory of the Bureau of En tomology indicate that ethylene oxide is as efficacious for this purpose as carbon disulphide and can be used with safety to the fruit. No injury re sulted from the use of this treatment with raspberries, dewberries, or bJackberries, though some slight injury was ovident when the process was appl i ed to blueberries. This injury is mainly the loss of bloom from the surface of the fruit which, while it would not affect their edibility, might result in a slight loss in sales value.

PAGE 4

.' '

PAGE 5

3 FOREIGN PLAl'rI' QUARANTINES RECENT ENTOMOLOGICAL INTERC:EPTIONS OF INTEREST Fruit fly larvae in grapefruit .-Anastrepha serpentina , was taken at Boston in grapefruit in stores from Trinidad. This r epresents a new inter ception record for the Plant Quarantine and Control Administration both from the standpoint of locality and host. Fruit fly from Costa Rica.--The West Indian fruit fly (A.nastrepha fraterculus) was intercepted at New York in mango in baggage from Costa Rica. This is our second interception record for this fruit fly from Costa Rica, it having been taken in mango in baggage from Costa Rica in 1925. (See also News Letter No. 1, .January, 1931; No. 5, May, 1931, and No. 6, .June, 1931 . ) Gipsy moth from .Japan. --A larva of the gipsy moth (Porthetria dispar) was interceptoo at Seattle on an azalea plant in furnishings from .Japan. In 1930 both larvae and pupae of this insect were found at Honolulu, Hawaii, on maple, pine, and rose from .Japan. The gipsy moth is more commonly intercepted in the egg stage. Scale insect from Cost a Rica.--ps~udischnaspis bowreyi (Coccidae) was intercepted at Miami, Fla., on orchid in express by airplane from Costa Rica. This scale insect has been intercepted previously on Agave fourcroydes (hene quen), A. sisalana (sisal) from Porto Rico, guava and cherimoya fruit from Cuba, and Agave from st. Thomas, Virgin Islands. Live pink bollworm intercepted.--Live larvae of the pink bollworm (Pectinophora gossYpiella) were intercepted in cottonseed as follows: In bag gage at Baltimore from Porto Rico, in mail at Boston from Cyprus, and in bag gage at Boston from st. Kitts. The inf'ested seeds from Cyprus were fotmd in three pounds of raw cotton used as packtng for antiques. (See also News Let ter No. 1, .January, 1931; No. 3, March, 1931, and No. 6, .June, 1931.) Pink bollworm from Antigua and Nevis .-Larvae of the pink bollworm were also intercepted at Washington, D. c., in seed cotton, in baggage from Antigua and Nev t s, British West Indies. These are our first interception records for the pink bollworm from Antigua and Nevis. ~oc c id on orchid.-•The scale insect Furcaspis biformis was c oll ec ted at Washingt o n, n. c., on Cattleya sp. in cargo from Venezuela. It has also b ee n taken on orchids from Brazil, Canal Zon e , Chile, Colombia, Guatemala, .Java, Panam a , and the Philippines. Accord i ng to H. Morrison, the species F. biformis has b.:..:ie-r. var iously assigned to each of the following genera: Aspidiotus, Chr ys0r.t,...: .:::.~-~!3 _, Furcaspis, and Targionia. Chalcid in soursop seed .-Adults of Bephrata cubensis (Eurytomidae ) were intercepted at Philadelphia in the seeds of soursop in crew's quarters from

PAGE 6

..

PAGE 7

4 Jamaica. This chalcid breeds in the seeds of several species of Annona in Cuba and is recorded from Florida. Soursop fruit infested.--A larva of Stenoma anonella (Stenomidae) was found at New Orleans in soursop fruit in baggage from Guatemala. , This is our first interception record of this insect from Guatemala. It has been taken in soursop from the Canal Zone and Honduras. Weevil in avocado.--Larvae of Conotrachelus sp. (Curcu.lionidae) have been intercepted on several occasions in deseeded avocados from Mexi o o. Larvae of this weevil have been found both in the seed and in the flesh of avocados. Interceptions of this weevil in avocados have recently been made at Brownsville, Eagle Pass, El Paso, Laredo, and Thayer International Bridge, Tex. (See also News Letter No. o, june, 1931.) Coccid on yam.--The scale insect Targionia hartii was found at Tampa, Fla., on yam in stores from Cayman Brae, West Indies. This coccid is not recorded from continental United States. Chrysomelid in rutabaga.--A larva of psylliodes chrysocephala was intercepted at Philadelphia in rutabaga in stores from England. This is our first interception record of this insect in rutabaga. It has been taken in turnip from Denmark, England, France, and Spain. (See also News Letter No. 1, January, 1931, and No. 4, April, 1931 . ) Sour limes infested with coccid. --P arlatoria cinerea (Coccidae) was taken at San Francisco on sour limes in express from Mexico. This scale insect, which is not recorded fron 1 continental United States, has also been intercepted on bougainvillea, grapefruit, lemon, and orange. Besides Mexico, it has arrived from the Canal Zone, Panama, Polynesia, Raratonga, Salvador, ' and Tahiti. Coccid on Hibiscus sp.--The scale insect Pseudaonidia clavigera was found at San Francisco on Hibiscus sp. in mail from Hawaii. This coccid is not reported from continental United States. RECENI' PATHOLOGICAL INTERCEPTIONS OF INTEREST A smut, Entyloma ellisii, was intercepted in cargo at New York in spinach from Cuba. 'I'his is the first record we have seen of this disease since it was originally rep o rted in New Jersey by B. D. Halsted (N. J. Bu.l. 70, 1890). This smut produces white spots on the leaves and is of interest because the spores germinate in the l e af tissues and produce needle-like basidiospores in groups on the leaf surface. A leaf rust of Daphne was intercepted at New York in baggage from France . The only Daphne rust of which we can find a record was reported from Hongkong. Thus far we have been unable to get this interception definitely determined .

PAGE 9

5 _9loeosporium oleandri, leaf disease of oleander, was h. 1'rcepted at New York in baggage from Bermuda. Fusicladium eriobotryae was intercepted in baggage at New York on lo quat fruit from Italy. This disease is listed in Stevenson's manual as affect ing leaves, stems, and fruit of loquat in Australia, Russia, and Italy. It has been reported from California and Florida also. Rose rust.--Ten rose cuttings intercepted at New York in baggage from Italy had.leaves infected with Phragmidium sp. Although several species of Phragmidium occur on roses in this country there are additional species that are not yet known to occur here. Cephaleuros mycoidea, an alga, was determined as the cause of a leaf spot on lemon leaves from Porto Rico intercepted in baggage at Philadelphia. PORT INTERCEPTIONS RECEIVED IN WASHINGTON, D. C., DURING JUNE, 1931 The following list includes all foreign interceptions of insects and plant diseases as well as those collected in conjunction with special permit field inspection, and also a few local insects and diseases sent in by port inspectors: Interceptions collected at the maritime ports are: Balti I!lore, 6; Bellingham, 15; Boston, 22; Buffalo, l; Charleston, 49; Chicago, 15; Detroit, 14; Gulfport, 2; Hawaii, 2; Mobile, 2; New Orleans, 134; New York, 90; Norfolk, 46; Philadelphia, 164; Port Arthur, 14; San Francisco, l; San Juan, 18; Savannah, 7; Seattle, 54, and Wilmington, 5. Interceptions collected at the :Mexican Border ports are: Brownsville, 23; Del Rio, 2; Eagle Pass, 6; El Paso, 21; Fabens, 2; Lar-edo, 3; Mercedes (Thayer), l; Nogales, 2; Presidio, 2; Rio Grande, 4; San Ysidro, 13; Sasabe, 1, and Ysleta, _ l. INSPECTION OF SPECIAL PERMIT PLANTINGS J.M. R. Adams, of the Washington Office, is making a field inspection of materials imported under special permit and grown under agreement with this Administration in ~estern Pennsylvania, Ohio, and Kentucky. Similar field in spection is being carried out in Minnesota, M ichigan, Wisconsin , and North and South Dakota by H. w. Hecker. GULF INSPECTION CHANGES R. L. Trigg has been transferred from the G ulfport, Miss., station to take charge of the newly opened port at Corpus Christi, Tex., with office ad dress at 822 Nixon Building. The office at Gulfport has been given up and the inspection at this point will be handled from Mobile, Ala. To take care of

PAGE 11

6 ... the extra work thus placed on the Mobile staffs. s. Sheffield, formerly on the Mediterranean fruit fly force in Florida, has been reinstated and assigned to this station, trn. SCOTT GOES TO CANADIAN BORDER L, M. Scott has been transferred from the Washington office to special duty on the Canadian border with present headquarters at Rouses Point, N. Y. Mr. Scott is scheduled to make a survey of the plants and plant products enter ing this cowitry from other countries via Canada at the various customs ports from Buffalo east, and to gather information on the seasonal volume of imports of plants and plant products from Canada at the various ports of entry. He is expected at the same time to have general supervision over the plant quarantine inspection work in this section of the border, and as local liaison officer with the customs officials, to develop as much as possible a high degree of co operation with that branch of the service in plant quarantine inspection mat ters. MEXICAN BORDER TO BE DISTRICTED In order to provide better unification and closer and more frequent supervision over the inspection work on the Mexican border, a districting system was inaugurated on July 1, 1931. This plan divides the chain of border ports into three numbered districts with a leader in each district. District 1 will extend from Brownsville to and including Del Rio, Tex., with o. D. Deputy as leader; District 2 will include the stations from Presidio, Tex., to Colum bus, N. Mex., with T. A, Arnold in charge; and c. E. Bellis will be responsible for District 3, which will comprise the ports from Douglas, Ariz., to San Ysid ro, Calif., inclusive. The leader in each case will have general supervisory charge of the inspection work in his district and is expected to visit the ports in that district at frequent intervals during the yoax to gather information, assist in solving local problems, and to bring about more uniform handling of inspection matters. It is expected that this supervision, supplemented by the usual visits from the Washington office, will result in a _ greatly increased uniformity and efficiency _ in inspection all along the border. On june 22 and 23, E, R. Sasscer visited the Mexican border and held a conference with the above-mentioned district leaders at Laredo, Tex., taking up with them various problems of organization and procedure arising out of the new arrangement. MR. SASSCER VISITS GULF PORTS While in the South in connection with the conf e rence mentioned above, Mr. Sasseer also met in a conference on June 27 at I l ou s t o n, Tex., the following p o rt inspectors: c. p. Trotter, Port Arthur, Tex.; H. c. M illender, Houston, Tex.; L. R. Dorland, Galveston, Tex.; and w. T. Dillard, N~w Orleans, La .Among the important items discussed at this eonferonce were the inspection of the holds of ships engaged in the transportation of Amorican flour to Europ e an countries, and the entry at southern ports or secondhand bagging that has b ee n used as cot ton covers,

PAGE 12

... ,, .. t . I ', ,:

PAGE 13

7 INSECT ATTACKS WRAPPINGS AND BOX Peter Bisset reports that on July 1 a box of seeds of Cassia fistula, from India, was received at the Washington, D. c., Inspection House, badly infested with a Bruchid, Caryedon fuscus Goez. The case is of i~terest be cause the insect in question had not only attacked the seeds but had riddled the wooden box and paper wrappings with perforations, almost as if a charge of shot had been fired through it. This insect has already been noted in the News Letter of April, 1931 (No . 4, page 3). One of the synonyms for this in sect gives the speoies name "languidus," which seems to be not very appropri ate under the circumstances. SPECIAL PORTS FOR ENTRY OF CACTUS FROM MEXICO Cactus plants entering through Mexican border ports have heretofore been shipped on to Washington, D. c., or to San Francisco, Calif., for inspec tion and treatment before being released for shipment to the consignee. This procedure sometimes involved long hauls and heavy transportation charge s t~ and from the point of inspection .An arrangement instituted July 1, 1931, provides for inspection, and treatment if necessary, at the ports of Laredo, El Paso, and Nogales , thus permitting direct shipment to destination from these ports . Mexican border ports other than the three mentioned have as yet no adequate facilities for treatment; cactus plants entering through such ports will therefore continue to be sent on to Washington or San Francisco as in the past . r.m. BECKER VISITS PORTO RICO Geo . G. Becker spent the period June 1-11 in Porto Rico making a study of the plant quarantine work carried on in the island. While there he also visited the various ports and made observations on the methods used in the inspection and certification of fruits and vegetables for shipment to mainland destinations . DOMESTIC PLANT QUARANTINES TRA..~SIT INSPECTION A sunnning up of tho transit inspection activities for the 6-month per iod closing June 30 shows that shipments of nursery stock and other plants and plant products were inspected in transit to the number of 854,698, in ad dition to 206 car lots of nursery stock or livestock. These were examined at 24 different inspection points, the greater number of shipments being seen at Chicago , New York, Philadelphia , Boston, st . Paul, Ka.""1.sas City, and Pitts burgh . Trucks checked at various city stockyards totaled 1,997. The parcel post shipments inspected represented approximately 77 per cent of the total, express nearly 21 per cent, and freight about 2 per cent. The violations of

PAGE 14

'~ .. " ,, ' . .. . ~. . ' .

PAGE 15

8 domestic plant quarantines found in these shipments totaled 1,250, or 146 to each 100,000 shipments. The Japanese beetle quarantine was violated more than any other, 670 of these shipments rep~esenting infringements of the regulations of this quarantine. A considerable number of these, however, were minor in fringements, consisting either of shipments originating outside the regulated areas and reconsigned from points within these areas without the required per mit, or of shipments of tuberoses and other bulbs which were not dormant or which had a ~11 Br.1.ount of soil adhering to the roots. Fifty-one per cent of the violations of the various quarantines were consigned by persons apparently unf'amiliar with the regulations. During the same period in 1930, 715,675 ship ments were inspected, 390 constituting quarantine violations, or 55 violations to each 100,000 shipments inspected. This season's increase in the number of violations per 100,000 shipments appears largely due to the relatively high proportion of violations being intercepted at Boston , no transit inspection having been carried on at that point prior to the present fiscal year. A recent check on correspondence with persons violating domestic plant quarantines shows that replies are received promptly in response to the first request for an explanation in nearly 98 per cent of the cases. A printed form letter is used for these notices of violation. Previous to last year the form letter that was sent to persons unfamiliar with piant quarantines was worded in the same way as that forwarded to those commercially engaged in shipping the restricted articles. In many instances, it was found that reference to possible ]Lgal proceedings caused undue mental suffering on the part of those who had had no idea that plant shipments are restricted by law. Accordingly the form letter sent to shippers of noncommercial packages was modified a year ago to approach the subject fran a more educational standpoint. The purpose of plant quarantinE8iS explained by incloaing a copy of a general circular on that subject (PQ,CA 295). The results of the use of this notice seem as effec tive as the more severe letter, the responses indicating, for the most part, a desire to cooperate with the work, and assurance that no further infringements will occur. Investigation through direct correspondence with the shipper is made by the Washington office in the case only of violations of quarantines re lating to the white-pine ' blister rust, narcissus bulbs, the black stem rust, _ and other quarantines for which no field units are established. Violations of the Japanese beetle, European corn borer, gipsy moth, brown-tail moth, and satin moth quarantines, as well as others for which field units have been es-tab-lJ.-fiAed., are referred to the field officers for investigation either by personal call, letter, or by such other methods as may seem advisable. -BLACK STEM RUsr Q,UARANTINE -., Federal quarantine No . 38 was revised, effective August 1, 1931. Under this re vision the quarantine was extended to cover shipments between aswall as into, the 13 barberry eradication States which consist of the group extending from Ohio to Montana, Wyoming, and Colorado. Under an additional che.uge ..in.the regulations, nurseries which grow only immune species of B,:;rboris and M.e.h.,onia --.... will be supplied with Federal permits for the shipment of i~ m une s~e.,aies into and between the 13 protected States. The nursery inspectior.s to deteNlillB\ha..t. only immune species are present on the premises of applicants for p~ts a.r~ being carried out by the Barberry Eradication Office of the ~ureau of Plrm-t __ _

PAGE 16

....... ~.. ,... .. , . -.. --.. ..... , __ .,.,._ ... _ . .,._~ ...... --., ._,'. ~ . ... . , -..... _ ........ _.. .....

PAGE 17

9 .. Industry. That Bureau, on the basis of such inspections, will make rec01n. mendations to the Administration on the approval or disapproval of the ap plications. NARCISSUS BULB PESI1S c. R. Stil_linger is rendering some assistance to State inspectors of the Pacific Northwest in the inspection of narcissus bulbs in storage. PHONY PEA.cili DISEASE Phony peach disease infections have been discovered at a considerable number of new locations in the Southern States, both by members of the Admin istration staff checking on peach-growiJJ.g nurseries and by the scouts of the Bureau of Plant Industry. Florida is the only new State involved thus far, no infections having been discovered north of the States of Arkansas, Tennes see, and North Carolina. The Florida infections are largely located near the Georgia border . DATE SC.ALE During the past seven months only three infested palms have been found by the routine crews that inspect the connnereial gardens. On two of these palms only a single scale each was found . During the previous year scale was found each month, and 139 infested pal.ms were found in the 11 months preceding. The effect on the inspectors was noticeable as evidenced by the number of man-days neeessary to inspect the various infested gardens. At first the time increased perceptibly as the inspectors felt that they were overlooking scale that would be discovered behind them. After two o~ three inspeotions without finding scale the time decreased until at present it is a little less than when scale was being found consistently. Whil e it is quite possible that under the p~esen~ conditions light infestations may be overloo k ed, the inspectors are all experienced and undou b tedly will locate infestations before there is any great danger of spread . A number of date gardens have windbreaks of Tamarisk trees . A scale inseot somewhat similar in appearance to the Parlatoria scale breeds on these trees and o~easionally single specimens are found on date palm leaves. The number of Tamarisk scales reported by the inspectors indicate to a certain extent the thoroughness of the inspection .

PAGE 18

I' I :,

PAGE 19

10 .. EUROPEAN CORN BORER AND J AP .ANESE BEETLE Exhibits and demonstrations of corn-borer-control farm equipment, de signed by engineers of the Bureau of Public Roads working in conjunction with the Plant Quarantine and Control Administration and the Bureau of Entomology, were held during June at Kingston, R. I., and East Bridgewater, Mass. Binder with low cutting attachment, plows with covering equipment, pl ow with coulters, jointers, and wires, and hand hoes were shown. At Kingston the event was un der the auspices of the Rhode Island Experiment station and at East Bridgewater the exhibition was in connection with the field day of the State Dairymen's Association. Attendance on the first named was reduced by rain but the farmers present manifested much interest in the machinery shown. About 2,000 dairymen were present for the second of the demonstrations, nearly all or whom grow corn for ensilage and are interested in the harvosting problem faced in compliance with State clean-up regulations on account of tho corn borer. Several ccunty agents attended the meetings, most of whom expressed desire to have demonstra tions put on this fall in their territories. Appointments have been made with other extension workers by engineers of the Department for discussion of the methods deemed best for use in lo~ cutting, under conditions prevailing in this territory. Ftnnigation of blackberries in the fumigation house of the Hammonton, N. J., market commission began on June 29. The Hammonton berry market was officially opened on June 22, but the emergence of adult Japanese beetles did not necessitate the fumigation of berries as a requirement for certification until a week later. An air thermograph has been installed on the inside of the house in order to obtain an accurate record of the temperature during the 2-hour fumigation period. This is the third season during which carbon disul phide ftnnigation of berries has been made in the house. It was erected by the borough of Hammonton and is maintained by the market commission. All treating operations are supervised by employees of the treating division of the project. An inspector is also stationed at tho market to certify the fumigated berries and to inspect other far~ products offered. Last year ?,?45 crates of berries were fumigated at Hammonton. Hundreds of dead beetles were collected on the floor of the house. Large numbers of beetles were also killed in the crates. The only alternative to the fumigation requirements is the careful inspection of each quart of berries, a tedious procedure which causes considerable delay in their shipment. Consequently, with very few exceptions, all berries from South Jersey intended for movement from the generally infested area are fumiga ted at Hanmonton. Organization or a division of information within the combined European corn borer and Japanese beetle project was undertaken early in June and sane progress made by the end of the month. The activities will be devoted princi pally, for the present at least, to the preparation and release of news stories relating to procedure in which the public will be interested and the dissemin ation of which may tend to better cooperation in the observance of quarantine regulations. During the summer, these releases will deal 1argely with matters concerning highway station inspection and produce certification. Later in the

PAGE 20

~' ! .... ' ' .~ ,.; . 7 :_,.;_. _.: I ,. ., ,. ,., t ' , ,, .. ,. J , .. ; 1'/ ,•. "

PAGE 21

11 season material probably will be prepared for farm papers and miscell a neous periodicals, giving the latest available data as to the cQiltrol measures which have been found to be the most effective. In the main, if not alto gether, the division of information will confine itself to project occurren ces and progress, avoiding discussion of policies. Jefferson Thomas, formerly associated in a similar capacity with the Mediterranean fruit fly work in Florida, has been transferred from Orlando to South Norwalk, for duties con nected with the new division. Applications of arsenate of lead as a spray to the sites of Jap?,nese beetle infestations in Portsmouth, Va., began on May 25 and were completed in that city on June 2. The apparatus was then moved to the infested areas in Norfolk. Five days were required tor applying the treatments in that city. The sprayers and men were then taken to Newport News, w e treatments were applied on June 9, 10, and 11. Four high-pressure sprayers were used in thes e operations, two in applying the spray and two for furnishing the water with which to wash in the arsenate of lead. With the completion of the treatments in Virginia, the outfit was moved to Sayre, Pa. Her~ the spraying crew joined a similarly equipped crew which had moved down from ~esterly, R. I., and started treating on June 15. Both crews operated in Sayre from June 17 to 25, inclusive. One crew moved out of Sayre on June 26 and treated a small infes tation in Waverly, N. Y., on that day. The work in Sayre was als o compl e ted on June 26. Both crews then moved to Binghamton, N. Y., where two and one halt days' work of the combined crews was required to finish treating the infestations. Farm produce inspection platforms uere erected during June at Bridge port and New Haven, in the Connecticut area. All requests for i nspect i ons of products requiring certification in the vicinity of these towns are re ferred to the platforms. The inspection facilities at New Haven will be open 24 hours a day, with the exception of Saturday nights, while the Bridg e port platform is to be operated from 5 a.m. to 6 p.m., except on Saturday nights and Sundays. Inspections will be made for both Japanese beetle and European corn borer infestations. A platform has also been opened at Berman and Stein berg's Commission House, on Water Street, South Norwalk, and another has bee n located at s. Cohen's Commission House, Canal Street, Stamford. It has b e en necessary further to place inspectors at the Economy Stores warehouse in East Hartford, and in the A. & p. Tea Company warehouse in Springfield, Mass., be cause of the movement of quarantine~ products to points out s ide the r e gulat e d area. Considerable traffic congestion ca u se d by trucks bringing farm p rcducts for inspection and certification to the Baltimore, Md., insp e ction p latform has been eliminated by the assignment of a farm produ c ts inspector to the ware houses of two large chain stores in that city. Prev i ous to this ar r angement all trucks of these stores loaded with farm products intended for movement from the main generally infested area were required to present such articles at the inspection platform. IIer e it usually required an hour for each t ru c k to un l oad: have its produce inspected, and reload. Farmers and independent tr u ~kmen thus

PAGE 22

I ,. •.,. '::,: J. ' "~ . ? ' . : . ; , .. ,• . . ,.

PAGE 23

12 were frequently delayed. One concern requires the services of an inspector Monday, Wednesday, and Friday nights from 6 p.m. to 2 a.m. The same inspector works at the other warehouse on Thursday nights from 8 p.m. to 5 a.m. On the remaining days the inspector is available for duty on inspection platform. It is estimated that 13,000 packages of certified farm products are transported weekly from the two chain-store warehouses in question. While engaged in observation of sundry governmental activities in New England, Mr. Allen, Executive Assistant to the Director of the Bureau of the Budget, and 1ft'. Jump, Budget Officer of the Department of Agriculture, visited the headquarters of the European corn borer and Japanese beetle project late in June, accompanied by I-/Ir. Rohwer, As~istant Chiof of the Bureau of Entomol ogy. Offices of the eastern division of corn borer control, in Boston, were called on by the Washington officials during their stay in that city on June 27. South Norwalk was reached by the party on the 29th. From this point Mr. Jump and Wi.r. Rohwer were compelled to return to Washington but Mr. Allen remained over, and the next day he made a more careful survey of the offices and warehouses, after which, piloted by 111'. Worthley, Mr. Allen saw some of the field work, the trip having been concluded at the New York offices. Cooperation of an excellent type from farmers in Erie and ~arren Coun ties, Pa., with r0feronce to proper qisposition of the debris of last year's corn crop, has been reported by State officials administering corn borer con trol. Inspectors for the Pennsylvania Department of .Agriculture, which is cooperating in the matter with the Plant Quarantine and Control Administration, visited 6,863 farms, on 4,958 of which it was found that all corn stubble had been plowed under and all refuse and remnants cleaned up. Of 21,~69 acres inspected, it ~as necessary for the State authorities to clean only 36 ?/J.2 acres. In addition, 43 1~ hours of labor were devoted to the premises from which some stubble and other material remained to be removed. Total cost of the clean-up done by the inspection force, involving 12 separate cases, was only $171.05. Agricultural engineers of the Bureau of Public Roads, engaged in corn borer control work cooperatively with the Plant Quarantine and Control Admin istration and the Bureau of Entomology, made considerable progress in Jwie on experiments intended to develop changes in farm machinery for disposal of crop debris which will better adapt it to the New England situation, especially in the area infested by the two-generation strain. Plows which can be operated successfully in stony soil and hand hoes suited to this section are having special attention. Modifications of the binder attachments originally perfec ted for use in the West also are receivin g consideration, and experiments are under way intended to simplify the sled-type cornstalk shaver so it may be made on the average northeastern farm, with the tools at the command of the owner. Under an official order issued on June.l by the Pennsylvania Secretary of Agriculture, a number of additional townships in Wayne and Wyoming Coun ties of that State were added to the area designated as generally infested in

PAGE 25

13 Stato Quarantine No. 22 (first revision) pertaining to Japanese beetle. The additional territory was included in the generally in:f"ested area in order to permit the U...'1.restricted mQvement of farm products by individuals commuting from Seranton and vicinity to near-by mountain resorts, which previously had been short distances beyond the boundary of the quarantined zone. It is not contemplated that the area under Federal regulation will be similarly en larged until the next revision of the quarantine regulations, since the move ment of quarantined articles concerned is wholly local and intrastate restric tions are sufficient to take care of the situation at present. Inspection of fruit and produee under the Japanese beetle quarantine was commenced in ~ew York City on June 15. At a specially erected platform, 40 feet long, in the middle of West Street, foot of Murray Street, inspeetors are on duty 24 hours a day. Several other men are engaged in responding to telephone calls from small stores and shippers. Inspectors also have been located at three up-state points, Middletown, Newburgh, and Peekskill. Their duties mostly relate tb movement into the resort sections of Sullivan and Ul ster Counties. Additional field men engaged in inspecting and certifying flowers and produce are stationed in Nassau and Westchester Counties, md Jrincipally occupied with shipping by estate owners to their summer homes. Early in June Avery s. Hoyt, who had joined the Administration several months ago for assignment to European corn borer and Japanese beetle work, arrived in South Norwalk, his departure from California having been postponed by reason of delay in ac•eptance of his resignation as Director of .Agrirulture for that State. On this project it was the intention that 11r, Hoyt should serve as executive assistant to Mr. Worthley, and imnediately the former had reac hed headquarters he undertook an intensive study of current activities, dividing his time between the main offices and the field. Before the end of the month, Mr. Hoyt was called to Washington to assume the more responsible duties of Assistant Chief of the Plant Quarantine and Control Administration. Headquarters of the European corn borer and Japanese . beetle proje~t in South Norwalk, Conn., was visited in June by Lon A. Hawkins, of Washington, in charge of the Plant Quarantine and Control Administration's studies of ster ilization and related investigations. Cooperation will be extended by Doctor Hawkins and his associates in outlining experimental work which seeks to de velop more efficient and less expensive systems of treatment of nursery prem ises and stock as a means of rerrDving the danger of infestation from the ~apanese beetle. While at South Norwalk, Doctor Hawkins conferred with Mr. Worthley and the heads of several divisions and later he will contact with phases of the field work in beetle control. School for inspectors stationed in the New Jersey territory was held for the third successive year at the New jersey district headquarters in White Horse, from jW1.e 1 to 4. The curriculum, arranged by State Supervisor G. K. Handle, inc luded an opening address by Hon. w . B. Duryee, New jersey Secretary of Agri~ulture, lectures and demonstrations by three of the personnel frcm the Moorestown japanese beetle research laboratory, and the presentation of papers on important quarantine problems by members of the inspection torce most

PAGE 27

14 familiar with the work. The school was held on June 1 and 2 for one-half the New Jersey personnel, and was repeated for the remainder of the men on the following two days. Additional Japanese beetle scouting crews were placed in the field during the month. Three new crews of four men each started work in Virginia during the first three days of the month . Three southern crews continued their scouting work in North and South Carolina and Virginia . Crews i~ Mary land and Virginia were organized on June 10 . Scouting in southern New Jersey was started on June 29 . Supervisors of the scout crews which will operate in the northern section of the regulated area reported for duty late in the month in or d er to complete final arr an gements tor the intensive scouting program which will coIIm1ence July 1 . Several scout finds of importance were made dur ing tho mon t h . June activi ties of the Oustern area in corn borer and beetle control in clu d e d the inspection and certification of farm products and cut flowers on account of the European corn borer at Boston, Mass ., Portland, Me., and Provi d ence , R . I . ; the inspection and classification of greenhouse and nursery es tablishments on account of the Japanese beetle in the lightly infested area of Bristol and P lymouth Counties , Mass ., and in Rhode Island; the supervision of Japanese bee t le soil treatments in Boston, Mass ., Newport, Providence, and W esterly , R . I . , and preparations for border patrol, trap control, and scoot ing . Inspection of farm products in the Boston Wholesale Market was approx imately ?5 per cent l ighter during June, 1931, than for the corresponding month of las t year . This was partly due to the elimination of string beans from the quarantine and the extension of the regulated area , and partly to damage to native grown products by heavy rainstorms which considerably reduced the quantity brought in from the greater Boston market garden district . Most of the gladiolus shipped from the Boston Wholesale Flo\\er Market in June were greenhouse grown . The first native field grown flowers were from Dighton, Mass . , and were received at the market on June 29 . The Boston Federal Business Association has compiled a very attractive directory of United States Government activities in Metropolitan Boston . All of the executive departments are represented in Boston, and under the Depart ment of Agriculture eight separate bureaus are listed . The Plant Quarantine and Control Administration is represented by European Corn Borer Control, Port Inspection Service , and Prevention of Spread of Moths. An edition of 800 cop ies of the Directory was published, the printing and paper having been supplied by the Boston Post Office . Quarantine line personnel selection in the western area was begun in June , and all equipment placed in first class condition for the opening of high way activities. Divisions by states have been assigned, and all supervisors and highwa y s hav e been approved for the erection of road stations. Ten divi sions will operate under the direct supervision of the Springfield, Ohio, offic~

PAGE 28

, . . , , J.: .:

PAGE 29

15 in West Virginia, Ohio, Indiana, and Michigan. An approximate total of 110 road stations, and 15 ports of inspection on the west shore line of ~,lichigan, will be in operation this season. Transfer of all corn-borer-control supplies and equipment from Toledo, Ohio, to Springfield, Ohio, began April 1 and was completed June 30. A total of 204 checked loads was moved by truck between the points mentioned--a dis tance of 135 miles. Incident to the conrusion and inconvenience of moving headquarters, the task of assembling lists of prospective scouts was acccm plished. When letters from scout applicants were received, their records of previous employment were examined. Each candidate was classified and listed accordingly, thus facilitating later selection of the personnel. Quarantine inspectors in the Boston Wholesale Market occasionally come in contact with tarantulas, which are brought into the wholesale fruit and vegetable establishments with bunohes of green bananas from the tropics. These specimens are sent to Nathan Banks, Curator, Department of Entomology, Harvard Museum of Comparative Zoology. Recently a specimen which proved to be a rather uncommon species from Honduras was taken alive and delivered to Doctor Banks. Training school of the western area in corn borer control for this season will start about July 13 and is to be located on a 100-acre experimen tal farm operated by the Bureau of Entomology and the Bureau of Agricultural Engineering. On a convenient woodlot office tents will be erected. A plot of corn has been set aside for use in illustrating the methods practiced in connection with field operation. In the neighborhood of 400 scouts will be employed_for the summer season. Distribution of Japanese beetle traps in various cities throughout Maryland and Virginia started early in the month and all were placed and in operation by July 1. Traps and the necessary bait and equipment had been distributed to cities in. West Virginia, Pennsylvania, New York, Connecticut, Rhode Island, Massachusetts, Ohio, and Michigan in anticipation of the trap work to start in these States early in July . New York offices of the European corn borer and Japanese beetle project are in constant touch with the transit inspection service of the Administra tion, effecting close cooperation between the two units. Inspectors from the former assisted the transit inspectors on the night of June 26 in a check-up of flower shipments which were believed to have been made under unauth
PAGE 30

~, .. . ' ,. ,I :_ .. ",, 1,, J. : ... . ,. 1' .•

PAGE 31

16 Temporary chemists employed by the project and working und0r tse supervision of tho Blli'eau of Entomology Japanese beetle research labcratory at Moorestown, N. J., during June completed their analyses of samples of lead arsenate treated soil collected from treated plots in nurseries. The accumulated data are now being compiled as a basis for the re-treatment of the nursery plots. Additional inspectors have reported for duty at the various whoiesale flower and vegetable markets in the New York City area, in order to take care of increased demands for European corn borer and Japanese beetle inspection and certification. It is believed that these enlargements of the force make it suf'ficient to handle the situation in this area. All equipment and supplies at the former administrative offices of the .Japanese beetle project, Can:den, N. J. , were mo .. ,red during the month to the South Norwalk headquarters. The building was vacated a few days previous to the expiration of the Department's lease on June 30. A large wooden shed was razed at Caznden and reerected at South Norwalk. Requirements for the certification of farm products and cut fl.ewers under the .Japanese beetle sunnn.er quarantine became effective on .Tune 15. Very little actual inspection of these articles prior to certification was required until late in the month, since beetles had not emerged in sufficient numbers to infest the produce marketed earlier. Soil treatment work for the Japanese beetle with arsenate of lead, sprayed on the turf by use of power sprayers, was completed before the end of .Tune in Hartford, Willimantic, and New London, Conn.; Springfield and Boston, Mass.; and Newport, Providence, and Westerly, R. I. During the month Assistant Secretary Dunlap and Congressman Mouser, the latter of Marion, Ohio, inspected the new headquarters of the western area at Springfield and expressed their satisfaction with the new location. Combined European corn borer and Japanese beetle certificates were placed in use early in .Tune to replace the separate certificates previously used by each project. MEDITERRANEAN FRUIT FLY Final disposition of all records, supplies, and equipment accumulated at Orlando over a period of two years in connection with Mediterranean fruit fly eradication, wa~ effected during Ju...~e. All building and utility leases were terminated on .Tune 30 and appointments of personnel, with the exception of a small number transferred to other projects or bureaus, were terminat~d as of June 30, thus bringing to a close thio project which was begun in April, 1929.

PAGE 32

•' ,' .•.

PAGE 33

17 On june 1 approximately two-thirds of all property had been trans ferred to other projects of the Administration and to other bureaus of the United States Department of Agriculture. There being no fu~thcr demands within the Departm ent of Agriculture for this equipment, the remainder had been transferred during the latter part of Ma.y to the Chief Coordinator for disposition to other departments of the Gov0rnment. No o?ders were recoivod from the office of the Chief Coordinator dur ing the first half of jun~ a.~d, as it was necessary to close the project by june 30, an eleventh-hour rush seemed inevitablo. This, howevor, was averted by pram.pt action on the part of officials of the Administration in Washington in rushing large orders from the Department of justice and Department of In terior for steam boilers, tractors, and other heavy equipment, and in clear ing .for sale, throug..1. special boards of surv ey , temporary sheds and remaining property for which there was no demand by govern..~cnt agencies. Equipment surveyed and sold consisted of ton~orary sheds, 170,000 pounds of sugar, 4,200 gallons of molasses, ~l motor vehicles, 45 power spray ers, 23 stubble shredders, 200 heavy duty truck tires, and various light equipment . Preparation of proposals for bids ~as begun on jnne 18 and final sales effected on juno 29 . Surprising activity wes shown in bidding on most items and it was necessary to readvertise only one item, a power sprayer, mich the purchaser on original bid declined to accept due to erroneously naming a~ item different to the one o~ which he intended to bid. The price received for most items was very satisfactory considering general economic conditions and the off season in Florida. Total transfers representing 308 shipments, 98 of which were car lots, had an appraised valuation of $439 ,521.34. Sales by various boards of survey represented 26 lots bringing a total of $9,188.73. Nonexpendable articles of no further service and having no sale value were surveyed and destroyed. These represented a cost value of $370 .20. Gal vanized steel tanks constructed as part of fruit destruction units at a cost of over $270 are included in this lot. Nonoxpendable articles lost or un uccow1totl for totuled $17.90. . Alterations and permanent fixtures, consisting of partition walls, lighting fixtures, and locks, placed by the Administration in the Old Court House which was used as headquarters offices throuppout the project, were left intact by request and consent of the County officials. In compliance with lease contract, alterations and fixtures placod in @;;arage on West Central Avenue were removed and the building turned over to owner in same general condition as when leased.

PAGE 35

18 Temporary storage sheds , :fronting the garage on West Central Avenue, were sold on June 20 on condition that they were to be removed and ground cleaned of debris and leveled b e fore July 1. When this work was completed a written acceptance by the owner of this land as being surrendsred in com pliance with lease provisions was procured from !:lll agent of the owner . MEXICAN FRUIT FLY The work on the American side o'f the river consisted of checking groves for " off-bloom " fruit, inspecting fruit held in storage and offered for sale in stores and on stands , and working up inspection records and cen sus sheets in preparation for nex t season ' s work . In Matamoro s, on the Mexican side of the river, inspections were con tinued of fruit growing local l y and of importod fruit offered for sale in the markets. In the fruit from the interior of Mexico_ inf'esta.tions were found in shipments of apricots, guavas , mangoes, oranges , and plumn . Infestations were found in White Sapotes , Sargentia greggii and sour oranges growing in Matamoros . The f r uit f r om these trees has beon picked off and destroyed by burial. Of special interest in explainins how in:f"estations are started in Matamoros was the finding of a decayed mango which had been thrown out in the yard of a house in the northwest part of the city . Upon inspection 14 larvae of the fruit fly wer(;: round in this mango . Some 200 fly traps were placed in various yar d s during the month in addition to the 84 which were already out. These traps are baited with an orange syi-up solution and inspected twice week ly. Twenty-two adults of the fly were caught in these traps during the month . All trees within the area or four blocks around each point of infesta tion are being sprayed at weekly intervals with a poison-bait spray . About a pint of this bait is applied to uach tree by Mexican labcrers , using knapsack sprayers . Tno emp l oyees of this project were transferred to the Bureau or Entom ology for work on the cotton lea1' hopper , and two were transferred to the Division of Foreign Plant Quarantines for an inspection trip on the Wt:8t Ooact of Mexic o. PI NK BOLLWORM The f ield inspection performed in the Salt River Valley of Arizona prior to July l has been more or less at random , in an endeavor to locate in fested fie l ds . At this time 6 such fields have been found, 3 south of Laveen and 3 in the Goadyee.r-to-~ueen C r eek area . Beginning with July , weekly

PAGE 36

..

PAGE 37

19 infestation counts are to be made from some 20 fields in the Salt River Val ley and several fields in the vicinity of Coolidge and Casa Grande in the Gila Valley. Some of the fields are in stub cotton and others in planted cotton of both short and long staple varieties. Each of the fields seleeted is representative of the conditions for that particular class of field. Bolls, or squares when bolls ure not available, will be collected and kept on ice until they can be inspected. Studies begun some time ago to determine the length of time elapsing between planting and fruiting of long and short staple cotton have been eom pleted. It was found that the average time was 49 days in the case of long staple cotton and 39 days for short staple. This would indicate that approx imately 60 days must elapse from the time of planting until squares are large enough to become infested for long staple cotton, and 50 days for short staple. The alfalfa inspection and crop survey has progressed satisfactorily during June, when 78,419 acres of alfalfa had been inspected. Cotton in some form wns found to be present in approximately 30 per cent of this acreage. At the same time 81,107 acres devoted to other crops were inspected, with cotton being found present i n 10 per cent of the acreage. The crop survey shows that there are lO'l,99~} acres being cultivated to cotton. It has been found that 27,755 acres planted to cotton in 1930 had been abandoned; however, since the acreage was checked some of this land has been watered and is now being eulti vated with a view to making a crop of stub cotton. Observations have been made from time to time to determine the effect of mowing cotton plants at the time alfalfa hay is cut. In a number of young alfalfa fields, in which cotton was growing, it was found that volunteer plants died if cut below the branches, but survived if one or more branches were left. The stub cotton . puts out new shoots as soon as the first growth is destroyed, but it is not knovm just how many times this will occur. In young alfalfa, stub plants "stool" or spread out close to the ground after being cut, in Which case they are too low to be cut by the mower at the next cutting. These observations will have to be continued before definite infor mation is obtained . Some damage to young cotton by hail was reported during the month in the El Paso Valley, the Big Bend section of Texas , and the Pecos Valley of New Mexico. The most serious damage occurred in the Big Bend section, where some 200 acres were practically destroyed. There was a decided inerease in traffic at the road stations during June, due to tourist travel; however, confiscations remained about the same. On June 16, a pillow made of soed cotton was confiscated at the Valentine, Tex., station. An examination of the seed cotton resulted in the finding of one dead pink bollworm larva. At the Ft. Davis, Tex., station, on June 25 four locks of seed co~ton and a small amount of cottonseed cake were inter cepted. The seed cotton had apparently been damaged by the pink bollwor~;

PAGE 38

I•

PAGE 39

20 however, no specimens were found. The inspection of boll samples at the San Antonio laboratory was com pleted during June, 1,098 samples having been inspected that month. Since the laboratory was opened in January, 9,580 samples of 100 bolls each have been inspected. These samples represented fields in Alabama, Arkansas, Flor ida, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, south Caro lina, Tennessee, and Texas. No signs whatever of the pink bollworm were found in any of the samples. Field headquarters of the Western Quarantine Area have been moved from 612 Mills Building to a small house at 2716 Grant Avenue, El Paso, Tex. Tho main headquarters of the Pink Bollworm and Thurberia Weevil Project have been moved from 801 smith-Young Tower to a two-story house at 521 Avenue A, San Antonio, Tex., effective July 1, 1931. The mailing address 1s Post Of fice Box 798. PREVENTING SPREAD OF IDTHS This project has leased property at Greenfield, Mass., from the Green field Tap and Die Corporation, consisting of 65,000 square feet of floor space distributed in four buildings with a sufficient amount of land around each building. All of the buildings are one story except the office building which is two stories, and are of fireproof construction with cement floors. The lease is effective August 17, 1931, and moving will be started near that date. One of the buildings is to be used for a wo,rkshop and for storage. The other two large buildings are for storage, supplies, and equipment. All of the buildings are within five minutes walk of each other and are connected by a private right of way. The office building will be at 20 Sanderson Street, but this announcement should not be considered as notice of change of address. Headquarters will continue to be at Melrose Highlands until further not ice. The whole of the Connecticut Valley from Brattleboro, Vt. , to Hartford, Conn., was searched for a desirable location and necessary buildings in which to centralize this activity. The arrungement of the buildings at Greenfield is very satisfactory, and geographically the location is ideal. Greenfield is a town of about 16,000 people. It is an important railway center, being the junction of two main lines of the Boston & Maine system. There a.retro main automobile rou~es through Greenfield--No. 2 from Bonton through Fitch burg and Athol to Albany, and u. s. Route No. 5 from New Ha7en through Hart ford, Conn., and Springfield, Mass., to White River Junction, Vt. Greenfield is 98 miles from Boston, 102 miles from New Haven, 81 miles from Albany, a11d 89 miles from White River Junction. The present leases of property including the property in Melrose, Shel burne, and Pittsfield, Mass., will be terminated as soon after August 17 as

PAGE 40

, . ' t : .: .. . •,, . . '\l•V .... . ..... ~ .. ' .. '."!' ' ., '-. , , L ., J 'I ..

PAGE 41

21 moving to Greenfield can be accomplished . This change in location of head quarters and centralization of the various activities of this section invol ves approximately 30 Federal employees, who with their families bring the total to about 100 people . This change should be advantageous to the entire project as the location of headquarters will be much nearer the Barrier Zone where a large proportion of our funds are expended . Due to the fact that extermination work in New Jersey has progressed to the point where a smaller force is required to satisfactorily conduct the work, the offico building which has been used for a number of years has been given up and quartors in a portion of the storehouse located nearby on Lincoln Road in Bou.,11.d Brook is being used for office headquarters . As is usual duri~g June , there was a decrease in inspection work neces sary for tho e nforcement of Quarantine No. 45 . There was not much activitf in the shipment of evergreen products , although there was an increase in tre ship ment of balsam twigs . A few laurel branches were shipped by people who took advantage of the recent revision allowing for such shipment after inspection. There were no carload lots of evergreens shipped , and the less-than carload lots decreased from 405 during May to 114 this month . There was also a small decrease in the nmnber of carloads of forest products inspected and certified, but 1 bargeload was shipped as was the case in l\f.i.ay . There was a small increase in the number of less than carload lots, a~d ltm1ber, pulpwood, and empty cable reels formed the greater part of the forest product shipments . The spring shipping season for nursery products was practically closed and only 1 carload, as compared with 45 car l oads in the previous month, was inspected and certi fied. Only 1 , 410 less-than carload lots as compared with 11 , 679 of May were inspected and certified . There was considera~le activity in the shipment of stone a~d quarry products, although the number of inspected and certified car loads dropped from 1,144 in May to 800 in J une . There were 2 bargeloads ship ped in June after inspection , although no bargeloads were inspected in May . The less than carload shipments which were inspected a11.d certified in Jrme of stone and quarry produc.ts dropped from 42,422 t0 2,945 . Some nursery stock was move d throughout the 1~onth and blooming roses in pots were in demand especially by tro.nsient automobilists . Some evergreens and shrubs were dug with a ball of soil and placed in storage where they wero thoroughly wetted . This seemed to revive the plants and they were moved \: ~ ith no loss reported . This procedure has bee~ reported as a new method of hand ling nursery stock in June. During June an old cooper's shop in the infested area was dismantled and aftor inspection shipped to Michigan. Collectors of old and historic buil di ngs occasionally arrange for moving such articles from the infested area . These usually are taken down with great care and most of the materials are sa v e d, including the wood, hardware, nails, chimn e y bricks, stepping stones, and often parts of the foundation . Often such buildings or parts of them are likely to carry gipsy moth infestation and must be car e fully inspected .

PAGE 42

..... ; . .

PAGE 43

22 An unusual inspection and certification was made during June. A builder of rustic articles constructed a small log cabin on a truck body to be used for advertising purposes. In this cabin were placed samples of rus tic fence and other articles and a number of evergreen trees in tubs for decoration. As the owner intender to use this truck just outside of New England, all of the material required inspection and certification. Accord ingly, the driver was supplied with the certificates to be shown if necessary. As thetruck is likely to re-enter the quarantined area, arrangements were made by the inspector to make additional examination in the event that it is to move outside of the area again. On Long Island 103 lots of nursery stock and in New Jersey 28 lots of nursery stock and forest products were inspected and certified by Federal in spectors for shipment from the controlled area. The restrictions in these two States are due ta state regulations which are enforced by Federal employ ees. No infestations were found as result of these insp~ctions. The scouting in the Barrier Zone planned for _ the fiscal year 1931 was completed during the third week of June. Four scouting crews were engaged in scouting the wooded areas in two townships in Connecticut and two in Massachu setts. In three of these the scouting was very intensive as it was carried on around the sites of infestations that were discovered and treated during the previous year. In the other town the scouting was the 40-foot strip method previously described. As result of this scouting work infestations were found in three towns where intensive scouting was carried on. Reports from the New York State Conservation Department indicate that the scouting work planned for in Ancram, Austerlitz, and Canaan was completed early in the month and the force was transferred to spraying operations in the townships of Hillsdale, Milan, and Rhinebeck, N. Y. Spraying on Long Island, referred to in the . previous News Letter, was completed during the last week of June. The equipment, such as sprayers, hose, etc., is being stored temporarily at Bound Brook, N. J. Only a skeleton force was in New Jersey during the month, for most of the men were in New England helping with the spraying work. Two men remained in New Jersey, and about the middle of the month one returned frcm New Eng land. These men made the necessary nursery and forest products inspections and attended to burlap bands which had been placed around tree trunks at the sites of infestations which appear to have been exterminated. The t r ees in the areas considered most dangerous in the townships of Bridgewater, Frank lin, Piscataway, and Hillsboro, were banded with burlap early in June. The gipsy moth caterpillars have a tendency during the heat of the day to seek shade. For this reason bands of burlap are placed around tree trunks, in , which the caterpillars are likely to hide when ascending or descending the trees. The men turning these bands of burlap discover and destroy them. The bUflaping of treos to aid in discovering the presence of gi psy moth caterpillars and pupae is simply one more avenue of sear c h for the last few spec1mens. The scouting for gipsy moth egg clusters during most of the

PAGE 44

r C\ ,-, '

PAGE 45

23 winter, the search for the caterpillars and pupae beneath the burlap bands during June, and the assembling cages (explained later) which were placed in the field last July to catch male gipsy moths, have all failed in showing any indication of the existence of a gipsy moth infestation in New Jersey this year. June is the month for spraying in New England to control the gipsy moth. This operation may start the last of May and run into the early part of July. The length of the spraying period is governed by the season, for spraying should not be started until the foliage is of sufficient size to hold the material, and it must be concluded before the caterpillars have pu pated. Accordingly the scouting work is arranged so that much of it will be completed by the last of May and early in June as most of the for~e of the scouting and extermination section is needed for the spraying ope~ations. All of the detailed reports ~ of the spraying which has just been completed have not as yet arrived at the office and it is not possible at this time to give this information. It will, however, be included in an early News Letter. With the exception of a small number of men detailed to miscellane ous work such as the erection of temporary fences, patrolling of burlap bands, and the delivery of small supplies from central concentration points in the field, the entire scouting and e~termination force is required to operate the spraying outfits. Spraying at and in the vicinity of the infes ted locations commenced on June 2, and it was necessary to increase our force temporarily during the month. The work was hampered considerably during the first 10 days of June by abnormally rainy weather, but the conditions were favorable throughout the remainder of the month and spraying was completed early in July. Thirty spraying units were in full operation during the great er pa.rt of June by the Federal force, and si.x more fully equipped outfits were loaned to the New York State force to conduct its spraying in Nassau County on Long Island and in Columbia and Dutchess Counties in the Hudson River Valley in the Barrier Zone. It has been reported from the field that we were exceed ingly tort'llll.ate this season in driving several sprayers over old roads that are ordinarily consider~d impassable to points from which extensive tracts of woodland were successfully sprayed. In several cases this season sprayers were operated in pairs pumping lead arsenate solution in a continuous stream through a single hose line. This was accomplished by using a Y connection between the tm sprayers and the main spray line, so that one sprayer delivered solution while the other was loading and mixing a tank of spray material. By previous arrangement be tween tho foreman in charge at the nozzle end of the hose line and the opera tors of the sprayers, a schedule for shutting down for about five minutes at one or two hour intervals during the day allowed for the crew manning the hose line to change positions and cut off or add lengths of hose as they progressed through the woodlot. Spraying was carried on during the month by the Federal force in the townships of New Marlboro, Sandisfield, and Stockbridge, Mass., and in Canaan, Cornwall, Norfolk, Salisbury, Wallingford, Warren, and Washing ton, Conn. With the exception of a few small isolated locations, all !mown infested spots will have been thoroughly sprayed by the close of the spraying season early in July. The unsprayed infested locations have been thoroughly

PAGE 46

....... _ .,

PAGE 47

24 treated by other control measures such as creosoting egg clusters, chopping and cleaning out of underbrush, and burlaping the remaining trees. Th e se burlaps of course are examined throughout the caterpillar season and any caterpillars and pupae which are found are destroyed. In the last paragraph on page 22 of the July News Letter, mention was made of the assembling cage work in the discussion of the colonization of Sturmia scutellata. Thousands of this imported gipsy moth pupal parasite are obtained each yeo.:r incidental to tho assembling cage work. They are liberated mere+y to save them and to help in building up the parasite population just east of the Barrier Zone. For a good many yea.rs the Bureau of Entomology at the Gipsy Moth Labor atory, Melrose Highlands, Hass. , has carried on experimental work to obtain an attractant for male gipsy noths. Up to this time the best attractant has been obtained by clipping the last one or two abdominal segments of virgin female moths into various solvents. The information obtained by this research work is being applied by the Plant Quarantine and Control Administration in connec tion with the field work. Cages are put out each year in the Barrier Zone and in New Jersey durin~ the flying period of male gipsy moths in an attempt to attract them. This is done as an auxiliary to tha scouting work, and in past years gipsy moth infestations have been discov e red in this way. The present practice is to pour the solvent and the posterior tips cut from female moths onto cotton batting which is fixed in small tin cans. These are then nailed to the tree trunks and i~verted to nrevent rain from entering. Sticky band ing material is placed on the tree around the can, and the males flutter around the attractant in tho can and becomo oaught in the sticky material. In order to obtain u supply of the attracting material it is necessary to collect large numbers of female gipsy moth pupae during July. These are placed on coarse wire-bottom trays in racks. As the female moths issue they are picked off and placed in pasteboard boxes to prevent mating. After they have been held for 24 or more hours, the posterior abdominal tips are clipped into the solvent to be used. During the clipping the moths are held in a glass covered case where suction is appli~d to draw the hair and fuzz away from the operators, for these are very irritating to the delicate membranes of the eye, nose, and throat of many people. Because the seasonal history of the gipsy moth in New Jersey (when th e re are any there) is earlier than in New England, whe re the matorial must be ob tained, it n1ust be gathered during the previous year and held in cold storage dur-ing the winter. Benzol is the solvent u se d for the material that is go i ng to New Jersey, as the attractant seems a little moro stable in it than in o ther solvents when held over the winter. For sev e r a l years xylene has been the solvent used for the material thAt is placed in the Barrier 2one. This is lib erated the same season that it is obtained. This year both xylene and high test gasoline are being used as the solvent for the material that is to be used in the Barrier Zone, as experiments condu~ted by the Gipsy Moth Laboratory with high test gasoline have given excellent results in attracting ma.le moths. When

PAGE 49

25 elipping into benzol 30 tips are used to each ounce of materiel , but when the tips are clipped into xylene or high test Gasoline for inmed i ate use, 15 tips to 1 ounce of material are sufficient. Lant .July and early August approxim atel y 147,500 female gipsy moth pupae were collected. From this material sufficient tips were obtained to charge 6?e cages which were used in the Bar rier Zone, and 590 cages which were kept in cold storage during the winter . The latter are being placed in New .Jersey at this time (.Tuly~l3 , 1931) . The material that was placed in New .Jersey last sunmer -853 cages -was obtaired the previous year . This whole problem is still considered to be in an experimental stage, but with the a l ight improvements that are mad<.; annually in manipulation it seems that gradually this work will become more and more valuable as an aid in the discovery of unknown gipsy moth infestations . This will aid materially in the pre v e n tion of the spread of this peat. In using this method to attra,t male moths in preference to using female moths in cages, all danger of estab lishing an infestation through accide:1t is eliminated , as the few eggs which may be in the clipped tips of the females are infertile, and furthermore are killed by the solvent . Evidence based on the number of brown tail webs which were cut in Ne~ Englan d during the winter of 1930 31 sl!owed that this insect was more abun dant than usual in so~e sections. This was pc.rticularly true in southwestern Maine where the infestation was especially heavy on small groups of apple tree s in vi l lages . This also applies to a considerable extent in central and southeastern New Hampshire . In Massachusetts the webs are cut annually rather consistently by the local noth superintendents, and considerably less webs were cut last winter than during the previous winter . In Maine a total of 320,964 webs and 69 bushels of v:ebs were cut in the~ towns which reported, the great est number for m1y one town being 307 , 000 webs at Biddeford . In New Hampshire a total of 655 , 076 webs Wore cut in 50 towns, the greatest number in any one town being 80 , ?5? at Pembroke . In Massachusetts there were 36,564 webs and 312 bushels cut in the winter of 1930-31 as compared with 75,684 webs and 30? bus h els cut the previous winter . In some cases the number of webs cut are re ported by bushels. It is practically impossible to arrive at the average num ber of webs in a bushel for they vary greatly in size and also in the amrunt of twig that is left on each web . Figures range from 1,500 to 2,800 Vlebs to the bushel , and if ue take as an average 2 , 000 webs to the bushel, it gives us ?63 , 000 webs. Using this figure , ~1th the 1 , 012,604 webs which were reported cut, gives a grand total of 1 , ??5 , o04 webs cut and destroyed during the winter of 1930-31 in New England . Webs were cut in several other towns especially in Maine, but no record as to the number is available . During .July each year information is guthered as to the amount of defol iation ~aused by the gipsy moth. Last year there was considerably less re ported than the previous year , and early indieations a.re that there will be less reported this season than last year. There is, however, severe defolia tion in the area in Massachust ~.:ts south of Brockton, which will be reported on later .

PAGE 51

' 26 During June and early July approximately 2,000 posters, depicting the life history of the gipsy moth w!th ini"ormation pointing out the danger of spreading this insect, were distributed to Federal employees and State offi cials for posting in the gipsy moth area at locations where tourists and cain:p ers are likely to stop. I During June this office supplied L. s. McLaine, Chief of Division of Foreign Pests Suppression, of the Canadian Department of .Agriculture,with 100 artificial gipsy moth egg clusters. These are prepared at the Melrose office and are used occasionally in the field. They are placed on trees in locations favorable f.or female gipsy moths to deposit their egg clusters. These are put out in sections unknown to the scouts in order to ~heck the efficiency of their scouting and serve to keep the men on the alert in their search for gipsy moth egg clusters , especially in territory where the infestation is extremely light, if present at all . During the month 27 members of this force made a total of 91 insect col lections which were sent to the Gipsy Moth Laboratory. These consisted of 22 collections of gipsy moth, 11 of the brown-tail moth, 10 of the satin moth, and 48 of miscellaneous inse~ts. There were a total of 128 violations during the month. One hundred and twenty-six of these were violations of ~uarantine No. 45 alone; 1 violated Quarantine No. 55 a~ well as Quarantine No. 45, and 1 violated Quarantine No. 63 as well as Quarantine No. 45. Sixteen violations were by express, 112 by mail. All of these violations were reported by transit inspectors of the Plant Quarantine and Control Administration. Many of the violations h ave been inves tigated and in all cases were found to be of minor nature, and no prosecutions were instituted.

PAGE 52

UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 11111111111111111 IIIII IIIII Ill llll lllll llll llll Ill lllll II IIIII I I 3 1262 09245 0948 J