Citation
News letter

Material Information

Title:
News letter
Creator:
United States -- Plant Quarantine and Control Administration
Place of Publication:
Washington, D.C.
Publisher:
Plant Quarantine and Control Administration
Publication Date:
Frequency:
Monthly
Language:
English

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Plants -- Diseases and pests -- Control -- Periodicals -- United States ( lcsh )
Genre:
serial ( sobekcm )
federal government publication ( marcgt )

Notes

Dates or Sequential Designation:
Began with: no.1 (Jan. 1931)
Dates or Sequential Designation:
Ceased with: no.18 (June 1932)
General Note:
"Not for publication".

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
This item is a work of the U.S. federal government and not subject to copyright pursuant to 17 U.S.C. §105.
Resource Identifier:
030428070 ( ALEPH )
785786312 ( OCLC )
2012229621 ( LCCN )

Related Items

Succeeded by:
News letter

Downloads

This item has the following downloads:


Full Text


N E W S L E T T E P


PLANT QUAPA IT.INE IJND CONTROL IID INISTRITION

UNITED STATES DEPIaRMEN OF AGRICULTURE






Number 5 (NOT FOR PUBLICATION) May, 1931.





ADMINI STRAT IVE


Mr. B. Connor has been designated Chairman of the Board of Review of Efficiency Ratings of the Plant Quarantine and Control Administration vice Mr. S. A. Rohwer. Dr. Lon A. Hawkins has been designated as a member of the Board vice Kr. Connor.






TECHNOLOGICAL


A portable device for fumigating box cars has been developed for use at ports of entry where no car fumigation house is available. With this hand applicator it is possible to use liquid hydrocyanic acid where only relatively small quantities of gas are needed. The applicator, charged with 10 pounds of liquid hydrocyanic acid, complete and ready for operation, weighs only about 35 pounds, and is compact and convenient to use. In fumigating box cars, one door is left slightly ajar and a spray rQd equipped with ordinary spray nozzle is thrust through this opening. This is connected with a portable applicator, and liquid hydrocyanic acid is forced through this nozzle by means of compressed air furnished by a hand pump. This method of fumigating is simple and safer than the old pot method and has some advantage over the use of discoids or hydrocyanic acid combined with other absorbent material. The device can be used for the fumigation of material in small buildings,orooms, or fumigation boxes, if
desired.

A study of the compression of cotton in the ordinary commercial compress has recently been made with Messrs. A. C. Johnson and W. T. Hunt of the El Paso laboratory. They have found that a bale of cotton under a






2


pressure of about 45n tons was reduced to a density of around 50 pounds per cubic foot, and that in most cases this compression effectively crushed the seeds that were within the bale. The tests were made under both standard compression and high density, and it is interesting to note that the density of the cotton was about the same in the two cases. It requires a pressure of around 60 pounds on a single cottonseed to reduce the original diameter 40 per cent.

Mr. J. M. Luckie is at Laredo working in cooperation with Foreign
Plant Quarantines Division in repairing and reconditioning the car fumigation house at that port.





FOREIGN PLANT QUARANTINES

SOME RECENT ENTOMOLOGICAL INTERCEPTIONS OF INTEREST

West Indian fruit fly from St. Vincent.--Larvae of the West Indian fruit fly (Anastrepha fraterculus) were intercepted at Boston in mango in stores from St. Vincent. This is the first interception of this fruit fly from St. Vincent by inspectors of the Plant Quarantine and Control Administration. (See also News Letter No. 1, January, 1951.)

Vegetable ivory beetle or button beetle.--The vegetable ivory beetle or button beetle (Coccotrypes dactyliperda) was intercepted at 'Vashington, D. C., in the seed of Phoenix reclinata in the mail from France. This scolytid is recorded as damaging the kernels of several different palms, the buttons made from vegetable ivory, which is the hard seed of the palm, Hyphaene crinata, and nutmegs. It is a native of Africa and was recently
found in California infesting the seeds of an ornamental palm, Phoenix canariensis.

Bean pod borer in string beans.--Larvae of the bean pod borer (M1aruca testulalis) were intercepted at Philadelphia in string beans in stores from Porto Rico. ';hilc this insect has been intercepted several times in string beans from Cuba, this is the first definite record of its being taken by
inspectors of the Plant Quarantine and Control Administration in string beans from Porto Rico. In the Journal of the Department of Agriculture of Porto Rico, Oct.,1918, p. 279, Dr. R. T. Cotton discusses this pyralid as
follows: "The pinkish-white larva of this moth is frequently served on the table with string beans. It has the habit of boring into the green pods, and while not generally abundant is occasionally troublesome."

Sweetpotato stem borer from China.--The sweetpotato stem borer (Omphisa anastomosalis) was intercepted at Seattle in sweetpotato in stores from China. This insect is recorded from China, India, Ceylon, New Guinea,
Siam, and the Philippines, and was introduced into Hawaii about 1900 where it has become quite a pest. This pyralid attacks sweetpotato and other
garden crops. It bores in the stem and sometimes in the tuber.






3


A relative of the greenhouse thrips.--Heliothrips bicinctus was intercepted at Washington, D. C., on Haemanthus puniceus in the mail from Holland. This represents the first interception of this thrips by inspectors of the Plant Quarantine and Control Administration. Prof. J. R. Watson of Florida reports on this insect as follows: "This is a European thrips, closely related to our greenhouse thrips, and apparently with about the same habits; i.e., in Europe it is a greenhouse pest. This insect has been reported from Western Europe, England, Holland, France, western Spain, and Northern Africa. It is not known to occur in this country, and from reports of its
habits we do not need it."

New thrips record from Cuba.--The thrips Elaphrothrips tuberculatus was intercepted at Yashington, D. C., in cavities in dried fruit of Cofdia alba in the mail from Cuba. Prof. J. R. Watson of Florida reports that although this thrips is distributed over the United States, this is the first report from Cuba.

Nut fruit tortrix in chestnuts from Japan.--Larvae of Laspeyresia splendana (Olethreutidae) were intercepted at Honolulu, Hawaii, in fresh chestnuts from Japan. This insect is known as the nut fruit tortrix and is reported as being quite destructive to the nuts of chestnut, walnut, and oak in Europe.

Tomato miner of Mexico.--A larva of Phthorimaea lycopersicella (Gelechiidae) was intercepted at Douglas, Ariz., on a tomato in baggage from Fronteras, Sonora, Mexico. This insect is the tomato miner of Mexico, California, Hawaii, and the West Indies. It is a leaf feeder on tomato and closely related to the potato tuber worm (Phthorimaea operculella). It has been intercepted several times with shipments of tomatoes from Mexico as well as with tomatoes in cargo from the Bahamas and Bermuda.

New to the National Museum collection.--A chrysomelid beetle, Coptocycla sordida, was intercepted at Charleston, S. C., on a banana stem in cargo from Honduras. This beetle, which is not reported from continental United States, is new to the National Museum collection.


Oriental fruit moth from Japan.--Flowering cherry from Japan was found by collaborators of the Plant Quarantine and Control Administration in California to be infested with the Oriental fruit moth, Laspeyresia molesta.

Scale insect from Japan.--The coccid Phenacaspis aucuba (Cooley) has been intercepted several times at Seattle on Aucuba sp. in furnishings from Japan. Dr. H. Morrison, of the Bureau of Entomology, states that the determination is based on description only, as there is no authentic specimen available for comparison. This scale insect is recorded in Mrs. Fernald's "Coccidae of the 7orld," 1903, p. 237, as being taken at quarantine in California on Aucuba from Japan.

Scale insect on orchid.--The coccid Lepidosaphes tuberculata was intercepted at Washington, D. C., on orchid (Cymbidium sp.) in cargo from









England. This scale insect has been intercepted on Ophiopogon japonicus (Japanese snakebread) from China, Cymbidium sp., from Belgium, and several species of Cymbidium from England.

Scale insect in the mrail from Cuba.--The coccid Hemaichionaspis minor strachani was intercepted at Washington, D. C., on the stems of Zanthoxylum juglandifolium in the mail from Cuba. This scale insect is recorded from West Africa in Mrs. Fernald's "Coccidae of the World."

Relative of sweetpotato weevil from the Philippines.--Cylas turcipannis (Curculionidae) was intercepted at Philadelphia in sweetpotato in stores from the Philippines. This weevil, which is closely related to the sweetpotato weevil (Cylas formicarius), has been previously intercepted by inspectors of the Plant Quarantine and Control Administration in sweetpotatoes in stores from Japan and the Straits Settlements.


SOME RECENT PATHOLOGICAL INTTE2CEPTIONS OF INTEREST

Sphaeronema on Phlox.--Sphaeronema sp. was found on Phlox Chef d'Or from France (in mail) at Washington, D. C. The Plant Disease Survey has no previous record of the occurrence of a Sphaeronema on Phlox. The genus is familiar because of the common black rot of sweetpotato fungus, S. fimbriatum (now known as Ceratostomella fimbriata). (See also the following item.)

Ceratostomella adiposum on Eleocharis.--The black rot fungus found on Eleocharis tuberosum from China (in cargo), at New York City, was determined as Ceratostomella adiposum by a specialist of the Bureau of Plant Industry after cultural study of the fungus. The fungus was first described by Butler as Sphaeronema adiposum. It is common in the cane fields of India, and does considerable damage to seed pieces under certain conditions. Ordinarily, however, it is considered a weak parasite of little economic importance. It was found in Louisiana during the winter of 1924, growing with slight damage on seed cane stored in sawdust. In the spring of 1926 it caused great loss in a field of cane growing near Houma, La. The fungus was given its present name in 1927, when it was found that the interesting fruiting bodies vith the long slender beaks were perithecia rather than pycnidia, as at first thought. What is apparently the same fungus has been intercepted from time to time on this host and an effort will be made to check all available specimens to determine if it is the same.

Anthracnose.--Anthraenose, fruit "ripe rots," and kindred diseases have been plentiful among the more recent pathological Interceptions. The space available does not permit of discussion of these diseases but a brief summary of many of them will indicate something of the range of this group of diseases.
Glomerella cingulata on apples from Germany (mail, Detroit and Philadelphia), from England (ship's stores, Gulfport); on orange leaves from China (baggage, Seattle); on mango from Mexico (baggage, El Paso); on pepper from Cuba (cargo, New York). G. gossypina on cotton leaves and twigs from Jamaica




5


(quarters, Philadelphia).
Colletotrichum gloeosporioides on avocado from Mexico (baggage, El Paso); C. coffeanum on coffee berry from Trinidad (baggage, Boston) and on coffee berries and twigs from Cuba (baggage, Philadelphia); C. pisi on peas from Japan (ship's stores, Seattle); C. pollaccii on Aucuba leaves from Japan (furnishings, Seattle); C. omnivorum on Aspidistra leaves from Japan (furnishings, Seattle); C. agaves on Agave sp. leaves from Cuba (baggage, Philadelphia); C. falcatum on sugarcane from Cuba (baggage, Philadelphia); C. blighiae on Blighia sapida from Cuba (baggage, Philadelphia); C. nigrum on pepper from Italy (mail, Philadelphial; C. lindemuthianum on string beans from Mexico (cargo, Brownsville), from Panama (ships' stores, Philadelphia), from Cuba (cargo, New York, and ship's stores, New Orleans); C. sp. on Poaceae sp. from Cuba (cargo, New York).
Gloeosporium euonynicolum on Euonymus sp. from Japan (furnishings, Seattle);G. musarum on banana from Iexico (cargo, Brownsville), from Cuba (ship's stores, Philadelphia), on plantain fruit stalk from Cuba (cargo, New York); G. melongenae on eggplant from Cuba (cargo, New Orleans); G. cingulata on okra from Cuba (ship's stores Philadelphia); G. sp. on orchid plants from Brazil (furnishings, New Orleans); on cactus plant from Germany (quarters, Philadelphia); on Sansevieria cylindrica from England (mail, Washington, D. C.); on orange leaves from Spain (ship's stores, Philadelphia); on orange from Egypt (ship's stores, Philadelphia). (See next item.)

Tomato Anthracnose.--Many interceptions of tomato anthracnose (Colletotrichumn phomoides) on both ripe and green fruits arriving in cargo, ships' stores, and baggage have been received from New York, Detroit, Philadelphia, Baltimore, Norfolk, New Orleans, Brownsville, El Paso, Douglas, Naco, and Nogales. The countries of origin were Cuba, Bahamas, Porto Rico, and Mexico. This disease is said to be as widespread as is the culture of tomatoes but is of minor economic importance.

Infected packing material.--II, III Puccinia anomala, a trace of P.
graminis and Erysiphe graminis were found on barley straw, and Helminthosporium oryzae on rice straw, used as packing material for breakable merchandise from Japan, in cargo, at Philadelphia. Packing material including eases, crates, etc., as well as straw, etc., can harbor destructive plant pests. P. anomala is a rust of barley with a general distribution in the United States. H. oryzae is the "sesame" spot disease or seedling blight and is one of the most serious diseases reported on rice. It has been reported from Florida and Louisiana (U. S. D. A. Bul. 1366).

Rusted wheat grains.--II, III Puccinia graminis was found on kernels of wheat from Peru (in mail) at Washington, D. C. Heald (Manual of Plant Diseases, p. 732)says "at present the opinion prevails that stem rust is not transmitted from one wheat crop to the next by means of either contaminated or infected seed, bearing spores or dormant mrycelium."

Black-root of radish from Japan.--Pythium (Nematosporangium) aphanidermatum is reported from widely scattered States east of the Mississippi River. It was intercepted recently at Philadelphia in ship's stores from
Japan.






6


-Other Diseases.--Oidium euonymi-japonici was found on Euonymus sp. leaves from Japan (in furnishings) at Seattle. The disease is a powdery mildew reported on this host from Japan, Argentina, Europe and Louisiana.

Phomopsis cocoes was reported from Ceylon in 1922 as causing a
decay of the fruits of Cocos nucifera. This disease was recently intercepted at Philadelphia on a coconut from Cuba (in baggage).

Coniothyrium diplodiella was found on grape cuttings from Italy
(in mail) at Philadelphia. Stevens (Plant Disease Fungi, p. 349) says this is the cause of a white rot of grapes.

Further data on root-knot.--Caconema radicicola was found in Caryopteris mongolensis (imported under special permit) from Orleans, France, at Washington, D. C.; in a shipment of field-grown rose stocks from Germany (in cargo), at New York City; and in Irish potatoes (in ships' stores) from Dutch Guiana, at New Orleans, La., from Chile at Wilmington, N. C., and from Australia, at Philadelphia. Caryopteris is a previously unknown host genus for this cosmopolitan parasite, according to an advice received from the Bureau of Plant Industry. The same authority states that records of root-knot on field-grown plants from Germany are rare. The infestations in Irish potato from Dutch Guiana and Chile are of interest and, we believe, may add to the known distribution of this disease of potatoes. No information was available to show records of this potato disease in Australia.

.More about nematofles.--Space does not permit of an adequate statement of the scientific information accumulated as a result of the recent nematode interceptions. A few interesting facts follow: Tylenchus dipsaci was found in potatoes (in ships' stores) from France and Italy, at Philadelphia, thereby adding two new countries to the list of localities from which this potato disease has been intercepted by inspectors of the Plant Quarantine and Control Administration. The list now includes England, Germany, Holland, Belgium, Prince Edward Island, New Brunswick, France, and Italy.

Pathoaphelenchus sp. (?) (a subgenus raised to generic rank) was found in a potato from Eaigland (in ship's stores), at Philadelphia. This is the first record in the interception files of the Administration for this genus on any host, An interesting item in connection with the elevation of this genus will appear in this space as soon as we are at liberty to publish it.

Neotylenchus abulbosus (an unpublished genus and species) was found recently in ships' btorez at Philadelphia in potatoes from Holland, and thrice in potatoes and once in carrots from England. This nema is of particular interest in that it is a true plant parasite and one that is likely to be mistaken for Tylenchus dipsaci, which it closely resembles. 77hen we are at liberty to do so we shall publish another interesting item concerning it.

Tylenchorynchus (styriacus?) was found in parsnip from Cape Town (in ship's stores) at Philadelphia. The disease symptoms were very marked and the specialist making the determination advised that they could have been caused by this nema which is a member of a plant parasitic genus.




~jAV15 pLAN I BOA14






-7


Items omitted or held over.--In selecting interceptions for mention in this News Letter it is the general practice to choose from the determninations received since the preparation of the copy for the previous issue. Since this copy is prepared nearly thirty days in advance of issue, some items may be held over or omitted that would otherwise be included had the determinations been received in time.

Heightening of interest in interceptions noted.--The increase in the numUFer of coll-ect-ions received for dletermination is probably due in part to added stress that has been placed on the field inspection of special permit material, and in part to the new ports that have been opened in the past few months and to additions to personnel in some of the other ports. It is believed, however, that a heightening of interest in the "finding"phase of inspection work is largely responsible for this increase.

quality of pathological interceptions improving.--pathological interceptions have increased in number and improved in quality. The improvement is to be noted both in the average importance of the interceptions and the quantity of the material submitted in the individual collections. "While a few scales on a small piece of host material, or a few larvae in a vial, are usually adequate for an entomological determination, a small fragment of diseased host is frequently worthless to the pathologist who is trying to make the pathological determination. Most of the inspectors are now sending in a satisfactory amount of material in their pathological collections; which practice, incidentally, is increasing the amount of-work required of the force in the Washington office. For example, figures computed for the month of February show that 3,830 pieces of host material (tubers, roots, cuttings, leaves, etc.) were received, each of which was given the customary careful scrutiny for both insects and diseases.

Nemas coming into prominence.--Many of the interceptions of plant
material with various types of infestation and infection are receiving determinations of distinct value to scientific work in general and to the Administration in particular. For example, the finding of nematodes in a wide range of hosts from many foreign localities has added considerably to the existing store of scientific knowledge of these minute animals, and is directing the attention of the Administration more definitely to the importance of the plant pests within the, order Nematoda.


MEXICO EXCLUDES CORN AND PLANTS OR PARTS THEREOF WHICH MIGHT INTRODUCE THfE EUROPEAN COR14 BORER

According to a cablegram from the Commercial Attach6 of the Department of Coimmerce at Mexico City, the Mexican Decree of M1arch 28, 1931, absolutely prohibits the importation into 1.exico of corn aind all other plants and parts of plants which might carry the European corn borer. The following plants are named: Corn (Zea mas and all parts of the plant, broomeorn, sorghum, Sudan grass, celer-y and rhubarb, dried or fresh, beets with tops, cut flowers or the entire plants of chrysanthemum, aster, cosmos, zinnia, mallow, hydrangea, gladiolus, and dahlia (except dahlia tubers without stem ) and straw from all kinds of cereals and grasses, whether imported as such or





w8w


used as packing.

This quarantine may be modified as soon as adequate fumigation and sterilization measures are available.


IIVPORTATION OF WHIEAT INTO MEXICO ABSOLUTELY PROHIBITED

The Mexican Presidential Decree of March 5, 1931, amends Exterior
Quarantine No. 8, by prohibiting absolutely the importation of all species and varieties of wheat (Triticun) into Mexico, as a precaution against the introduction into that country of the flag smut disease, Urocystis tritici, and the take-all disease, Ophiobolus graminis. Wheat may be imported into Mexico only under special permit when intended for scientific study or work.


VIRGIN ISLA17DS, UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, RMIOVE BAN AGAINST IMORTATION OF FLORIDA FRUITS AND VEGEABLES

Executive order No. 4 of February 11, 19:31, cancels that of August 17, 1929, temporarily prohibiting the importation into the Virgin Islands, United States of America, of all Florida-grown host fruits and host vegetables of the Mediterranean fruit fly.


APPEARANCES MAY BE DECEPTIVE

On September 25, 1930, some pupae were found among dried onions in a bin on the yacht Vileehi in the port of San Diego, and at the same time larvae were found in the onions themselves, which were beginning to decay.
The inspector assumed that both larvae and pupae were identical and belonged to the group of scavenger insects. The onions were boiled as a precaution and a few of the pupae were submitted, but no larvae. When these pupae were later identified as those of the melon fly (Bactrocera cucurbitae), the question arose: Were the infested onions a new host for melon fly? Mr. A. C. Fleury, Senior Quarantine Inspector for California, comments on this peculiar situation in a letter to this office on March 17.

His conclusion was that the bin had originally contained other plant material infested with the melon fly; that this material had been used up or
discarded before reaching port; that the pupae which had been found among but not in the onions originated in these proper hosts which were absent at the time of inspection; and that the larvae reported were true scavenger fly stages properly belonging in the onions where they were found. This interesting situation emphasizes rather well the readiness with which one may fall into error. Here as elsewhere "Eternal vigilance is the price of safety." It also illustrates the wisdom of "Getting the facts."


JAPANESE WE{EAT STRAW BEARS RUSTS
Two lots of lapanese wheat straw were recently refused entry in Honolulu under the authority of Quarantine No. 59. A small sample submitted to





9


Washington revealed the presence of two injurious wheat diseases, Puccinia gramiis and triticina. The straw was brought to Honolulu to be used in cooking fish. It is Understood that fish is wrapped in the straw and then steamed, the straw imparting a rich flavor to the fish.


USEFUL COOPERAIION

On February 6, 1931, a memorandum was sent to the Mexican border ports asking them to be on the lookout for bacterial canker in incoming tomatoes, a disease hitherto suspected by Miss M. K. Bryan of the Bureau of Plant Industry as occurring in Mexico but not yet definitely established as existing there. On February 28, diseased tomatoes from Los Machis, Sinaloa, were intercepted at Nogales and were referred to Miss Bryan, who determined the disease as bacterial canker. This case illustrates once more the valuable assistance that port inspection may give in the course of its regular duties in adding to our store of' knowledge on pests and their distribution.


NUM3VIEF OF INTIERCEPTIOIIS INCREASING

The volume of material submitted for identification is steadily increasing, both in the number of collections made and in the amount of material in each collection. In recent months this increase has been markedly rapid. The following figures, which do not include collections-made at the inspection house in Washington, D. C., or collections made by the collaborators except when specimens were submitted to this office for identification, show the number of port interceptions, local collections, special permit field collections,
etc., for the past five years:

1926 6778 Collections 1929 5265 Collections
1927 6902 "1930 8786 i
1928 5803

About 65 per cent of the 1930 collections were received in the last half of the year, and the total for 1930 is about 67 per cent in excess of that for 1929.

In the first three months of 1931, 3,215 collections were received, as follows: J~anuary, 984; February, 987; March, 1,243. The total is almost double that for the corresponding period of 1930 and is more than the total for ~the first half of last year. The collections for M,,arch are nearly two and a half times as many as for March, 1930. It is interesting to note in this connection that several of the smaller ports did not submit a single collection during the three-month period.


NOTES FROM PORTO RICO,

Mr. Richard Faxon,in a recent report from Porto Rico, notes the falling off in citrus shipments this season from the island on account of low prices, and the increasing attention being paid to the growing of export vegetables.






10


These crop volume changes, he notes, have altered the routine of inspection under Quarantine No. 58, and the increased amount of attention now needed for inspection of vegetables in the field has resulted in 133 interceptions since January 1, 1931. Many of these interceptions were new records for Porto Rico and 18 of the plant disease specimens have been deposited in the collection of the Office of T.ycology.

Inspectors in Porto Rico are now equipped with tropical uniforms
consisting of white linen suits and the regulation cap with a white top in place of the forestry-green serge top.





DOLYESTIC PLV1T Q ARANTII7S

TRANSIT INSPECTION

The field office in charge of the European corn borer and Japanese beetle quarantine work has recently transferred to the transit inspection division the responsibility of supervising the transit inspection activities at Philadelphia and Baltimore, which are carried on primarily for enforcing the above quarantines. Two inspectors arE engaged in the work at Philadelphia and one at Baltimore.

At Pittsburgh, inspection work has been initiated in freight and express shipments, Mr. K. S. Rohwer, formerly of the Boston force, having been assigned to this post. The Boston force has accordingly been increased to fill the vacancy occasioned by Mr. itohwer's transfer.

Mr. J. M Corliss, in charge of the transit inspection v rk in the Middle West, recently assisted the staff of the European corn borer office in the inauguration at the stockyards of Indianapolis and Cincinnati, the work of checking on the arrival of trucks and stock cars, to see that cornstalks are not used as bedding. This is a continuation of the work started at Indianapolis in January by the transit inspection service, and later temporarily discontinued on the return of the inspector to his regular duties at Kansas City. Twelve violations of the quarantine were discovered in one day's work at Cincinnati on March 19.

A report of the Boston transit inspection office for the period from
July 28, 1930, to the close of the calendar year, which has recently been submitted to the Administration by Tir. E. T. qcNerney, in charge at that station, shows that Boston is an important location at which to check on the interstate movement of articles restricted under the quarantines affecting the New England States. The work at that point is especially valuable in
the interception of shipments of chrysanthemums, which may carry the twogeneration strain of the European corn borer, and of Christmas greens, which involve danger of spread of the gipsy moth. 11r. LicNerney reports that 351 violations were intercepted at that station during the five-month period, 48 per cent involving infringements of the Europeau corn borer quarantine,









and 26 per cent violations of the gipsy moth and brown-tail moth quarantine. In each of these two groups more than half the intercepted parcels were shipped by private individuals not engaged in the business of handling such products.

An error on the part of an employee of an Indiana nursery in digging, during a snow storm, several dozen white pine trees intended for Austrian pine and filling orders for the latter, was said by the nursery involved to be the cause of a number of violations of the white-pine blister-rust quarantine, which were intercepted by inspectors Scott and Dunlap at Chicago in March. This quarantine prohibits the shipping of five-leafed pines from points east of the western boundary of M, innesota, Iowa, Missouri, Arkansas, and Louisiana to points west of that line. A check of the company's records with the list of violations reported appears to indicate that every one of those shipments which involved a violation was intercepted and turned back.

A recent memorandum to transit inspectors gave an interpretation of
the satin moth quarantine in its application to the shipping of willow twigs when used for tying bundles of nursery stock. The satin moth quarantine restricts only poplar and willow trees and parts thereof capable of propagation. The Administration found that willow twigs employed in this way are not normally used for propagation, and inspectors were accordingly instruQted to allow nursery stock so tied to proceed to destination. This action is believed to involve no danger of spread of the satin moth, as the larvae are not known to hibernate on the smooth bark of slender twigs of the type used for this purpose.


iIITE-PINE BLISTER RUST

According to a notice recently received from the State of Massachusetts, the further planting of currant and gooseberry bushes is now forbidden in 210 towns in the State. Ten years ago the towns so restricted numbered 20, and this number has been increased from time to time during the intervening period. The purpose of such action is to set aside these towns as white-pine growing and Ribes-free areas, and thus to assist in preventing the further spread of the blister rust in the State. Massachusetts was one of the first States to take regulatory action on the blister rust, having issued a quarantine prohibiting the entry of five-loafed pines from Europe prior to the
enactment of the Federal plant quarantine act.

States which have legally-established blister-rust control areas for
the growing of either Ribes or pines, may prevent out-of-State shipments of the restricted plants from entering the' areas, under a provision of Federal
Quarantine No. 63. This provision requires that before either Ribcs or pines may be shipped into such States, a permit must be secured from an official of the State of destination who is designated by the Administr-tion to act in this capacity. States which have set aside such areas Up te this
time are Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Connecticut, Rhode Islnd, New York, Michigan, and Idaho.







12


NIA1CISSUS BTJL3 QTUARATiINE


Mr. C. R. Stillinger, of the Spokane office, has been in conference and correspondence with the nursery inspectors of Oregon and W~ashington during recent weeks, aiding in the preparation of their plans for narcissus inspection during the coming spring and summer. On April 3 and 4, Mr. Stillinger attended a conference of the narcissus bulb growers at Tacoma, at which the State nursery inspectors emphasized the importance of especially rigid restrictions to prevent the establishment of eelworm or the increase of bulb flies on the growers' premises. The State of ',7ashington requires the fumigation of all bulbs produced for sale or shipment, in addition to hot-water treatment of bulbs grown on premises where any eelworm infestation whatever is discovered during the inspection season.

Mr. Corliss, for several days beginning on April 15, assisted in
training the nursery inspectors of Illinois in the field diagnosis of bulb flies and eelworms.


PHONY PEACH DISEASE QUARANTINE INSPECTION


There was considerable movement of nursery stock and other plant material through Atlanta and Birmingham during the latter part of March, but a sharp drop was noted after April 1, and transit inspection at these two points for enforcement of the phony peach disease quarantine was discontinued the middle of April. A marked change in the nature of the April shipments was noted; shipments of fruit nursery stock from southern points practically ceased, but increases were found in miscellaneous shipments from northern States.

During the month of March 189 shipments of peach and other restricted nursery stock consigned for delivery in 17 different States were certified by Administration inspectors for nurserymen at Concord, Ga.






DATE SCALE


During the month of March 33,675 palm inspections were made in the date growing areas of Arizona and California, and 10 palms were found infested. Two palms, one in a commercial Cardon and one an ornamental palm, were found infested in the Imperial Valley and defoliated and torched. Eight palms of no commercial value were. found infested in the Coachella Valley and were dug out and destroyed. No infested palms were found in Arizona. In the same areas 106,683 palm inspections wore made during the quarter ending March 31, and 21 infested palms were found. Only three of these were in






13


conmmercial gardens--one in the Imperial Valley and two in the Coachella Valley. Of the remaining 18, two were ornamental date palms and one a Canary Island palm, which were defoliated and torched, and 15 were date palms of no value which were dug oat and destroyed.

Two of the infested palms in the Coachella Valley were what are called "leaf base infestations." !When a date palm is heavily infested the scale establishes itself not only on the foliage but also on the bases of the leaves, which are protected by several bands of fiber 12 to 18 inches in width which extend around the trunk and are tightened by the expansion due to growth. In treating an infestation of this type the fiber is split and pulled back to expose the scale on the leaf base and the flame of a torch passed over the exposed portion. In sonr cases the fiber is not cut back far enough and not all the scale is killed. Then if a portion of the leaf base remains alive the scale continue to breed. The time of appearance of the scale on the foliage will depend on the size of the living leaf base and its distance from the foliage. Under certain conditions it is possible that the infestation would not reach the foliage for several years.

Because of this type of infestation, leaf base inspection must be carried on in a number of gardens and these gardens must be kept under observation for some time after the rest of the date growing area is considered free from Parlatoria scale.





EUROPEAN CORN BORER ATD JAPANESE BEETLE


Durin the month of M,,arch, transit inspection work was started at
Indianapolis, Ind., and Cincinnati, Ohio. E 1N. Bennett and H. G.
Rowden are stationed at Cincinnati, and Messrs. F. F. Deyo and A. E. Rrymer at Indianapolis.

The work of combining the administrative activities of the European corn borer and Japanese beetle projects has progressed to such an extent that it will be possible to close the Ca-den, N. J., office, which is the field headquarters for the Japanese beetle project, and remove the work and employees to South Norwalk, Conn., before July 1, 1931.

It was at first thought that it would be impossible to Wrfect the organization at South Norwalk in time to close the Camden headquarters before July 1, 1932, but sufficient available office and garage space has now been found at South 11orwalk to house both projects. With offices at Philadelphia and Norristown, Pa., and at Whitehorse, N. T., to take care of field activities, all administration work can be handled at South 'Norwlalk. This consolidation will result in a large saving in rental :.nd clerical help. More important, however, than the saving in funds, will be the greater




14


efficiency and c-onvenience whie,-h will result from having all administration work conducted at one point.

The New York office of the EuroDean corn borer project has been moved from 45 Broadway to 641 Washington Street, New York City, and combined with the Japanese beetle office already at', that location. T."he consolidated office is under the supervision of M1r. Leland W~olfe.

Clean-up operations conducted jointly by the Plant Quarantine and Control Administration and the State of Connecticut in the town of Danbury, Conn., will be taken care of the early part of Ap~ril.

The European corn borer infestation in Unper I,,ontclair Township in
Essex County, N. J., has been cleaned up jointly by the owners of the property, necessitating no clean-up by the Federal or State Departments. A careful inspection has been mad,_ of the entire area, and a very thorough clean-up of cornstalks, corn stubble, weeds, and debris has been carried on by the farm owners. All adjacent premises are likewise clean, the nearest corn stubble being about three miles from the actual point of infestation.

Road patrol inspectors are to start April 1 on the main highways
leading out of the generally infested J~apanese beetle area in New York, to enforce Quarantine No. 48. A number of inspectors-will also be placed on the important roads leading out of the generally infested area in Connecticut on or about April 13.

A lease has been signed for office and storage space at 171 Meadow
Road, Rutherford, N. J., to serve as a combined Euro-pean corn borer--JTapane se beetle office. T-Lhe location is central for carrying on both projects in this area, and will be under the supervision of Mr. H. V. Hotchkin.

The movement of articles quarantined under the Japanese beetle quarantine regulations from classified nurseries and greenhouses to the annual flower shows at New York, Philadelphia, and Baltimore, and the return of the stock to classified premises, required considerable supervision on the part of inspectors of the project. Certified stock was sealed with lead seals upon its arrival in the show building to assure proper identification upon its return. Frequent observations were made throughout the various exhibits for any possible emergence of adult beetles from stock brought in from unclassified greenhouses. A rather unique situation was encountered at the Baltimore Flower and Garden Show. In the absence of a suitable building in which to house the exhibits, large tents were erected in sections at the Baltimore City Stadium, making one tented area approximately 75 feet by 450 feet. Coal stoves were used to heat the enclosure. Since the stadium is located in an area known to be generally infested with the Japanese beetle, and as the ground surface inside the tent was uncovered, there was a possibility of infestation of plant material exhibited in direct contact with the ground. Accordingly exhibited certified stock intended for return to classified establishments was required to be placed on heavy roofing paper, tarpaul.ins, or wooden platforms. The three flower shows were hold simultaneously during the week of March 16 to 21, although the Baltimore show did not open







15


until March 17.

Road inspection posts were established during the first week in April at the border of the Japanese beetle generally infested area on twenty roads leading from the area. Eight of these are located in Pennsylvania, two each in Maryland and Delaware, six on the District of Columbia--Maryland line, and Virginia and West Virginia each contain one post.

Field treatment of nursery stock as a requisite to certification began on April 10. The treating regulations require a minimum soil temperature of 400 F. before chemical treatments may be applied. Temperatures in excess of the prescribed minimum have obtained rather generally since the last week in March throughout the areas where treatments are applied, but the distant movement of stock from nursery establishments in quantities did not get under way until the middle of April.

Preliminary surveys were made between March 23 and April 10 of cities remote from the Japanese beetle regulated areas at which it is planned to conduct trapping operations to determine possible beetle infestation. Jacksonville, Fla.; Savannah, Ga.; Charleston, S. C.; Wilmington, N. C.; Wheeling, W. Va.; Cincinnati, Columbus, and Cleveland, Ohio; Detroit, Mich.; Chicago, Ill.; and Albany and Rochester, N. Y., were the cities visited. Favorable sites were selected in the vicinity of steamship piers, freight yards, railroad stations, and parks where traps might be placed. The corn borer office in Toledo has also arr inged for cooperative supervision of the trap tenders working in Ohio, Illinois, and Michigan.


The Boston USDA Club


The regular meeting And informal luncheon of the Boston USDA Club was hold at 12 South Market Street, Boston, M.ass., on Tuesday, March 24, 1931. Forty-five members and guests attended the meeting, including Commander William F. Amsdon, U. S. N., Coordinator, First Area; Captain E. K. Brockway, U. S. A., Assistant Coordinator; M1r. Philip Rothrock, Federal Grain Supervision, New York City; and MSr. R. A. Shoals, Plcnt .uarantine and Control Administration, Washington, D. C. Commander Amsden complimented the Club very highly as being one of the most active and interesting organizations he had ever visited, and expressed his hearty approval of such informal gatherings. 11r. C. ;;alter Collins, Bureau of Entomology, delivered an address on the research work conducted "it the Gipsy IMoth Laboratory at Melrose Highlands, Mass., and Dr. John N. Summers and Mr. S. S. Crossman, Plint Quarantine and Control Administration, briefly explained the moth quarantine and the control operations. The three films of the Department devoted to gipsy and brown-tail moth work were shown.

Employees of the Administration h-,ve always been active in the affairs of the Boston USDA Club. The office of President was hold by Mr. L. H. Worthley in 1923, by TvSr. F. I. Smith (deceased) in 1925, and by Mr. A. F. Burgess







16


in 1929. Mr. R. S. Clifton has held the office of Secretary-Treasurer since the formation of the Club in 1921. Through a combination of fortuitous ci:ciumstances, the Administration has also contributed very largely toward the success of the Club by being instrumental in providing a convenient meeting place without expense to the Club or the Department. This meeting place is a large room adjoining the European Corn Borer Quarantine Station. Home-made, collapsible tables are used, the chairs are loaned by the Wholesale Grocers' Association, and the "silver, china, and glassware" service for fifty has been accumulated from the five-and-ten cent stores. A bountiful luncheon (purchased at wholesale rates and at a minimum cost) is prepared and served in the meeting room, and motion pictures of some interesting activity of the Department are shown.

In its ten years of active existence, this Club has entertained many prominent guests, including Federal and State officials, and visitors from foreign countries interested in agriculture. It has performed a real service in bringing together employees of the Department who would not ordinarily come in close contact, and in providing a clearing house for the exchange of ideas and experiences connected with their diversified problems, which has been of benefit to the entire service. Officials of the Department visiting Boston are always welcomed as honored guests.






MEITEPRANEAN FRUIT FLY


Field inspection in Florida under Federal auspices was discontinued with the close of work on March 31. Instructions for this step to be taken had been transmitted the day before from !,,r. Strong. A brief news story announcing the action, for publication on the morning of M.arch 31 and thereafter, also was authorized in Mr. Strong's advices. In this release it was stated that no infestations had been found since July 25, 1930. Decision to bring the field work on account of the Mediterranean fruit fly to a conclusion at this timne followed discussion of conditions, in which Mr. Hoidale participated while at Washing ,ton earlier in the month, and survey in the State made by Mr. Strong, Mr. Carnobell, and Dr. Marlatt, on a trip which commenced March 25 and occuaaied the four ensuing days. Immediate reduction in personnel at district offices released a total of 170 men, 45 employees, including supervising inspectors and stenographers, having been terrorarily retained to complete the records and prepare equipment and property for transfer. The force at the Orlando hsardquaarters was also reduced by the dismissal of a number of persons whose services wore no longer required, apprLoximately 40 persons having been kept on here 2nd ait the garage. Additional reductions will follow at an early date, especially with respect to field offices. Machinery and, equipment will be disposed of as rapidly as possible, much of it by transfer to other projects of the Administration, 7A1 ". 0U\~O~t9







17


Department of Agriculture, or to other departments of the Government. Already more than 50 carloads had been moved from Orlando, in anticipation of the early termination of activities. Records will be assembled in as compact a form as is practicable, for transfer to Washington.

Reactions on the part of growers and shippers to the announcement that the Federal field inspectors had been withdrawn were as varied as the previous attitude of the publi(- toward the rork had been lacking in unanimity. Among the better informed of the leading factors in the fruit and vegetabL-*, industry much concern was expressed as to the possible results of the lack of protective measures. Opponents of the eradication program, on the other hand, were pleased to know that Florida will no longer be under the observation of the Federal authorities. Anticipating the discontinuance of Federal inspection, the State Pl3nt Board had included in its budget, for presentation to the legislature which conv,_,nes early in April, r-conmendation for a biennial appropriation large enough to provide scouting inspection at least
once a year. Request was also made for renewal of the appropriation for citrus canker inspection, on approximately the same basis. A committee composed of 15 members of the legislature, seeking agreement as to finance and taxation measures, urged elimination of the citrus canker appropriation, on the ground that no infections have been reported within five years, when, as a matter of fact, one was discovered about three years ago.

During the last ten days of March the State was flooded with rumors
pertaining to alleged changes in the system of inspection, and charging th'it infestations had been discovered by fiold men instructed to find them or lose their jobs. Origin of the whispering campaign apparently was in the fertile mind of an Orlando insecticide manufacturer, who claims to have been employed in the Department at one time. A contributing cause to the wide dissemination of the reports may have been a speech by a member-elect of the Florida legislature, who announced his intention of introducing a bill to abolish th,-, State Plant Board. In the medley of statements which became current were included allegations that an unreasonable number of inspectors had been concentrated on the properties of grove owners who had objected to eradication procedure, that as high "as 20 men had been placed in single groves or small groups of
-groves where infestations .-iere found during 1929, that men had been imported from California to establish the continued presence in Florida of the fruit fly, and that in consequence of all these high pressure methods additional infestations had been located in four or five widely separated areas.

Numerous meetings were held in March at strategic points throughout the citrus belt for discussion of economies in producing grapefruit and oranges. In most cases the Clearing House Association worked up the attendance and speakers were supplied by the Agricultural Extension Service of the University of Florida. A new process for storing fruit intended to eliminate the necessity for refrigeration is to be exploited by W. T. Howey, developer of a large grove acreage in Lake County. Storage is to be in large steel tanks, from which oxygen has been ejected, and the process is the result of experiment by a former Department of Agriculture chemist, in conjunction with a refrigerating engineer. Early in the month the first car of citrus fruit







18


under mechanical refrigeration to be loaded in Florida was shinped from the DeLand house of the American Fruit Growers, Inc. Satisfactory results are reported and a good price was received.

Prices for citrus fruits continued to improve, ruling averages at the end of March having been considerably better than those prevailing at the close of February. The firmer tone characterizing the markets applied particularly to oranges, grapefruit not having shown pronounced upward tendencies until late in the month. Speculative buyers, inactive since the early part of the season, resumed operations in many sections, their offers of higher figures on contracts calling for de livery at future dates exerting a disturbing influence on the regular marketing agencies, cooperative and privately owned. H;avy bloom, in most sections equaling that of last year, forecasting another big crop for the 1931-32 season, has caused much discussion, there existing no previous record of two full production years in immediate succession.

Agitation for more stringent laws in respect to the shipment of immature citrus fruits gathered momentum in Earch, and agreement as to essential points in the proposed revision of the existing statutes was reached by a composite committee, which the Vinter Haven Chamber of Comm.erce sponsored and included in the membership of which were representatives of the Clearing House Association, of the Citrus Exchange, and of the State Departmnt of Agriculture. Delegates from the Committee of Fifty of the Clearing House declined'to accept-all of the proposed amendments, contending for even stricter regulations and for transfer of enforcement from the Department of Agriculture to the State Plant Board.

The acreage and other statistics in relation to the citrus plantings in Florida, compiled by the Administration in the prosecution of fruit fly eradication, apparently affording more dependable figures than have been assembled by other agencies, arrangements are in process of completion whereby the data will be released to the public through the Bureau of Ajicultural Economics. Requests for the information have been filed by a number of statewide organizations, transportation companies, and similar interests, and it is known that it will be of value to the employees in the State of the Crop and Live Stock Division of Euonomics.

At a meeting in V inter Haven, called by the president of the newly
formed Fruitmen's Association, composed of growers and shippers not affiliated with the Clearing House, which also was attended by representatives of the latter organization, preliminary steps were also taken looking to a voluntary state-wide bait spray campaign, on much the same plan as that followed last summer, sponsored by the Clearing House Association, distributing materials purchased from the Administration by the State Plant Board.

Grove inspection, in an effort to stop the use of arsenic sprays, has been inaugurated by State Commissioner of Agriculture Nathan Mayo. ".71ith the virtual ending of the fruit fly work and the lifting of quarantines incident










thereto, all reason or justification for further use of arsenical spray was, of course, automatically removed," ,:r. Mayo said. Applications have been continued, however, by growers seeking to reduce the acidity in the fruit, thus permitting earlier shipments complying with the maturity laws.

Nearly all the persisting refusals to permit inspection had been overcome before field work was discontinued. A number of the more difficult cases were handled in the last half of .,arch. In only one instance was the inspection accomplished through court order secured by the State Plant Board. Regarding another refusal, legal proceedings were ending at the end of the month.

The biennial report to the Governor from the State Plant Board of Florida officially covers the two-year period ended June 30, 1930. As a greater part of the contents is devoted to a review and summary of the Mediterranean fruit fly eradication work, this is covered in an incidental way to the date on which the Federal quarantine was lifted, November 15, 1930.

Announcement was made by the officials of the Florida State Horticul tural Society that invitation to address its Forty-fourth Annual Convention has been accepted by .11r. Strong. Dates chosen for the meeting are April 14 to 17, inclusive, and it will be held in Miami.

The monthly report of the identification division for M.arch showed the examination of specimens as follows: Mediterranean Fruit Fly PrOject, negative file, 141,976; Mexican Fruit Worm Project, negative file, 2,397; Anastrepha file, 562; total, 144,935.







MEXTCAN FRUIT 710RM


The host-free period for the present season was inaugurated March 1. Under the regulations of Quarantine No. 64, all ripe and ripening fruit must be removed from the trees and placed in approved storage previous to March 1. Immediately upon the inauguration of the host-free period a check was made of each bearing tree in the quarantined area to see that no fruit had been overlooked by the grower. In order to complete this work as soon as possible and to destroy any occasional fruit missed by the grower, each inspector was assisted by three or four laborers. This work was completed in the last district on March 28. It was found that the growers had complied with the regulations exceptionally well this season, it being necessary to have the groves recleaned by the grower in only a very few cases. In only one ease was serious opposition encountered in enforcing the host-free period. This was a case in Brownsville in which the owner of a dozen t:ees in his back yard refused to take the fruit off. This fruit, about three or four boxes in all,





20


was finally removed about the middle of the month through the efforts of the County Judge, County Attorney, and Chamber of Commerce.

In making the tree-to-tree inspection a close watch was kept for alternate host-fruit trees and where found every effort was made to have them destroyed. A total of 383 such trees were destroyed on 100 premises. While the great majority of these trees were seedlings which had come up during the past year, several were old trees that had been maintained by the owners since the quarantine became effective.

Citrus trees were in full bloom during the first half of the month. Experienced growers state that the trees had the heaviest crop of blooms in the history of the industry in this section. Even two and three year old trees blossomed profusely, and the older tre s set a heavy crop of blooms on the inside as well as on the outside. Present indications point to the heaviest crop of fruit the coming season that has ever been produced in this section.

No infestations of fruit worm were found in locally grown fruit on
either the American or M~exican side of the border. Larvae of the fruit fly continue to be found in mangoes reaching the border at l Jatamoros and Reynosa.

In view of the fact that only a very small amount of fruit was held in storage in the Valley, most of which would be consumed locally, the road traffic inspection work was discontinued on the 21st. Appointments of four, agents and five collaborators who had assisted during the shipping season in issuing permit stamps for single-box shipments were terminated at the end of the month.

A public hearing was held by the County Commissioners' Court of Hidalgo County on March 30 for the purpose of hearing discussions on the advisability of requesting the Commissioner of Agriculture of Texas to proclaim a Control Zone, on account of the fruit worm, in Hidalgo County. This hearing was well attended by growers and packers, a number of whom expressed themselves as being very heartily in favor of seeing the work carried on. No opposition developing, the Court unanimously requested the Commissioner of Agriculture to issue the necessary proclamation. A Droclamation had been issued in 1927 creating a Control Zone in this county. Later the general law under authority of which this proclamation was issued was repealed and a new law enacted by the legislature. It was thought best, to correct any legal technicalities, to rehold the hearings and reissue the proclamations under authority of the
new law.





P INK BOLLWOM


The ginning of the 1930 cotton crop in the re4,ulated areas was completed the latter part of L1arch, a total of 336,325 bales having been ginned.










The seven gins in the Juarez Valley and 3ig Bend area, both in M;exico, immediately adjacent to regulated areas in the United States, are operated under regulations similar to ours and are supervised by inspectors of this project. During the past season 11,398 bales of cotton were ginned in these two areas. Our records show that 8,026 more bales of cotton were ginned during the 1929 crop season than during the 1930 season. However, the regulated area did not include the same territory during the two crop seasons. The Salt River Valley of Arizona was not placed in the regulated area until the latter part of October, 1929, and the greater part of the Western Extension of Texas, or the
Big Spring section, was released in November, 1930.

It is interesting to note that the ginning season lasted longer this year than was anticipated due to a considerable increase in the amount of bollie cotton usually harvested. Many of the late bolls open only partially or not at all, due principally to cold :6athOr:These bolls are picked and run through special machinery to remove the trash and burrs, after which the cotton is ginned in the regular manner. This is what is referred to as bollie cotton. The staple is shorter and the grade inferior to regular lint. The increase in the amount of bollie cotton picked resulted from the comparatively high prices paid for this class of cotton, bollie lint selling for only a few cents less than middling lint, and bollie seed for only 44 to ^6 less than regular seed. In fact, farmers realized more from bollie cotton in some sections than from regular cotton, considering grade and staple.

All of the gins have been thoroughly cleaned except some of the last ones to close, at which the work of cleaning is now in the process of being completed. On the whole, a very fine spirit of cooperation w.as exhibited by the ginners.

The sterilization of seed has been satisfactory, the average efficiency being 97 per cent per bale for the season.

Most of the oil mills have completed the season's operations, 97 per
cent of the seed received at the mills having already been crushed. A fewi of the mills are keeping small quantities of seed on hand to be used for planting purposes in case of emergencies. This year 95 per cent of the seed produced has been shipped to the various oil mills.

At the end of March 87 per cent of the cotton ginned had been fumigated.
During the early part of the season most of the cotton produced in the Juarez Valley of M,1exico was shipped to interior points in ,Ie.ico. The American price on lint and linters is now resulting in scme of that cotton being imported to this country. Since the gins in the Juarez Valley arc operated under regulations similar to ours, the cott+n is allowed to be imported in bond and fumigated, after which it isilhndled in the samr manner as cotton produced in reoulated areas in this country. At th end of March 144 boles of M4exican lint and 200 bales of Mexican linters had been imported and fumigated.

The importance of road stations, even during the off season, is demionstrated by the fact that 22 confiscations were made during March. Of this







22


number two lots of material intercepted by G. E. Orr, at the Valentine, Tex., road station, contained specimens of the pink bollworm. On March 7, 74 dead larvae were taken from a pillow made of seed cotton, lint, wool, and mohair. The pillow originated at Presidio, Tex., and appeared to be three or four years old, which probably accounts for the fact that all of the specimens were dead. This is the largest number of specimens ever taken from an interception at any of our road stations. On M11arch 11, two dead larvae were found in some cottonseed and seed cotton taken from a truck. This material was found between the cab and the truck bed.

Mention was made in the March News Letter regarding the approval of an appropriation, on February 6, to compensate farmers in Arizona for losses sustained because of the enforced nonproduction of cotton during the 1930 crop season. Since that time the Compensation Claim Board has been busily engaged in approving and submitting these claims. The majority of the claims have already been submitted to "llashington for payment.

Satisfactory progress is being made at the San Antonio inspection laboratory, 1,589 samples of cotton bolls having been inspected during March. Thes,. samples represented fields in Alabama, Georgia, Mississippi, South Carolina, Tennessee, and Texas. k total of 3,353 samples of 100 bolls each have been inspected to date, with negative results.

The Phoenix, Ariz., office of the Pink B~ollworm and Thurberia Weevil projects was recently moved from 424 Luhrs Building to 1104 North Central Street. The mail address is P. 0. iBox 1355.






PRBV =T ING SPEAD OF MOTHS


Except during the period immediately preceding Christmas, the inspec~tion of evergreen products is confined almost exclusively to parts of evergreen trees and cut laurel used for decorative purposes. Laurel is used very extensively by florists particularly as a foundation for funeral pieces. Shipment of evergreen materials is not permitted from the generally infested area, and practically all of the laurel inspected originates beyond this area in Connecticut. In addition to laurel, florists use Southern boxwood and Oregon huckleberry quite extensively. These originate outside of the quarantined area and are shipped under permit. In northern New Hampshire a considerable amount of balsam is cut to be used in pillows. During March 51 bags of balsam twigs were inspected.

Empty cable reels, fuelwood, hardwood logs, lumber, pulpwood, and ties composed the bulk of the shipments of forest products inspected and certified. Early in the spring each year many long poles for marking oyster beds arc out and shipped from the district in southern MassachLusetts. These are cut in the







23


swamps and are often infested with gipsy moth egg clusters. On numerous occasions the inspectors are called upon to certify shipments of bird houses. These are constructed of rustic materials which might bear egg clusters, and careful inspection is required.

The spring nursery stock shipping season begins in March as soon as
the frost leaves the ground. In addition to this, many nurseries dig materials in the fall and store them. Such articles can be and often are shipped earlier. By the end of March practically all of the nurseries located within the quarantined area are in full swing and the district inspectors often require extra help.

Stone and quarry products are inspected and shipped from all parts of New England. They are of all types, from rough pieces of stone just as they are taken from the quarries, to finished monumental pieces. Paving blocks and curbing are shipped extensively. Unen freshly cut, there is small danger of their being infested, but often paving blocks remain for years before shipment, and these piles when placed near tree growth form excellent places for the gipsy moths to deposit their eggs. This necessitates very careful inspeotion as each block has to be handled.

The Commissioner of Agriculture of the State of Maine has recently
issued quarantines effective April 1, 1931, covering the satin moth, and the gipsy and brown-tail moths. The Commissioner of Agriculture of the State of Vermont has also issued regulations pertaining to the satin moth, effective April 1, 1931. These State regulations have been drawn up with the purpose of having them conform with the Federal regulations.

During March two inspectors of this project were temporarily transferred to do transit inspection service, one of them in New York the other in Chicago.

Arrangements have been made with the Transit Inspection Service for the inspectors in Boston to hold packages of small noncommercial shipments, such as wreaths and flowers, found en route in violation of the gipsy moth quarantine and certain other quarantines. The appropriate inspection organization is immediately notified of such action so that the articles can be inspected and allowed to proceed. This action should prevent dalay of such shipments and is especially desirable in regard to materials sent at times of death.

Due to the negligible likelihood of satin moth larvae hibernating on the smooth bark of willow twigs, the regulations included in the satin moth quarantine will hereafter be interpreted that willow twigs used in tying bundles of nursery stock are not capable of propagation and therefore are exempt from the restrictions of' these regulations.

On April 11, 1931, the Director of the Plant Industry Bureau of the S*"*,ate of New Yoxk released eleven nurseries on Long, Island from the State quarantine which became effective a little over a year ago on account of the gipsy moth. This has been possible as no gipsy moth infestations have been







24


discovered on or near these properties during the past season's scouting. The scouting for gipsy moth infestations on Lon,- Island is carried on by the New York State Conservation Department.

The brown-tail moth infestation, as indicated by the presence of the hibernating webs, is heavier than usual in southeastern Maine and eastern New Han~pshire. In Maine there is infestation in most of the cities and towns south of Augusta and west to the New Hampshire State line, and in some cases the infestations are heavy, particularly on apple, pear, and cherry. State officials in Maine have notified the proper authorities in the cities and townsC as to the proper control methods, and the cutting and burning of hibernating webs is being done in some places. Similar work is being done in New Hampshire by the State and local authorities, as well as by some individuals. In Massachusetts there is a local moth stroerintendent in uach of the infested towns, and in most cases the hibernating 'webs of the brown-tail moth are removed and burned each year.

This project recently transferred to the Boston Post Office 25 new
tires and 69 inner tubes. These were of no further uscQ to this division due to the disposal of certain equipment.

The gipsy moth office at ilelrose Highlands has three 1000-foot motion picture reels: One of them shows the life history of the gipsy and browntail moths and the damage they cause; another illustrates the control work in the Barrier Zone, with views of scouting, creosoting egg clusters, and spraying, and it also has some views of the various types of quarantine inspection work; the other shows views of parasite work, which is carried on by
the Bureau, of Entomology. These f ilm s were shoxvm during Mdarch at New Marlboro and Sheffield, Mass., in the Barrier Zone, and at a noon meeting of the USDA Club at Boston. The tw,1o towns in the Barrier Zone are located in a section that seems to be particularly favorable for gipsy moth infestation, and close scouting and considerable cleaning, chopping, and spraying are necessary. Under such conditions more contacts are had with the property owners, for they are interviewed to obtain permission to chop or spray on their property. It is not the usual practice to obtain permission from property owners to carry on ordinary scouting work. Last year we had some difficulty in obtaining permits to spray from a few property owners in these towns, and it is hoped that the showing of the pictures has given the people a clearer understanding of the nature and necessity of the work, and that less objection to the signing of spray permits will result.

In the April News Letter an idea was given of the meaning of the term "scouting" as applied to gipsy moth work. The terms "cleaning," "chopping," "permits," and "spraying" are used in the preceding paragraph, and in order that those who are not familiar with the gipsy and brown-tail moth work may have a better understanding. of it the following explanation of cleaning arnd chopping is given. In a future letter, somne details will be given pertaining
to permits and spraying.

During the winter months the men doing sc outing work look primarily





25


for gipsy moth egg clusters, but occasionally an infestation is discovered by the finding of gipsy moth oupal cases or molt skins. They also watch for the winter webs of the brown-tail moth. These are rather conspicuous, being from two inches to five inches long and usually on the outer twigs of apple, pear, wild cherry, oak, elms, etc. The gipsy moth egg clusters are buff colored. They vary in size from one-half inch to two inches in length and from one-half inch to three-fourths inch in width. They are deposited on the trunks and under sides of the branches of practically all kinds of trees and shrubs, also on broken branches lying on the ground, fallen trees, or stones in the woodlands, and in stone walls, as ;.ell as on buildings and on most any debris in the woods or in residential sections. Cleaning work is done in sections where gipsy moth infestations are located to get rid of conditions that are favorable for gipsy moth increase and that are difficult to thoroughly scout and spray, such as brambles of growth often intertwined with wild blackberry bushes, bull briars, grapevines, woodbine, poison ivy, etc. Sometimes rivers are bordered by willows and river-birch trees. Often these are large and lean over the water, and are very difficult and often hazardous to examine. Such trees and brambles are cut out and burned during the winter as time permits. Ik[uch of this type of work is done on days when thu woods are too wet or the light too poor to carry on scouting work, and so it serves the dual purpose of keeping the force busy and improving conditions for combating the gipsy moth. Chopping ',ork apolies in some cases to thinning operations in woodlands so that spraying can De done more economically and thoroughly, but often it applies to the chopping of large white oaks or other large trees the foliage of which is especially favorable food for the gipsy moth caterpillars. These trees are difficult to climb and examine for gipsy moth egg clusters
and are costly to spray. Often there are only a few such trees in a woodland or scattered over large pasture areas. By rerDving such trees considerable expense is saved in future scouting viork as well as in spraying operations, for on some occasions it is necessary to lay long lines of hose to spray one
or two large pasture trees.

Arrangements were made during March for the transfer of ten sprayer
trucks frcm the Mediterranean Fruit Fly activity in Florida to this project. These will be shipped by freight to Pittsfield, Mass. The trucks will require mechanical changes in order to adapt them for gipsy moth spraying work, as unusuallyhigh pressure is required when long lines of hose are laid out, as is often necessary. An engineer of the Bureau of Public Roads is preparing the specifications for these changes.

Appointments were made during March of 65 Agents, who are paid on the basis of time actually employed, the rates ranging from "4.24 to 4.56 per day. Thirty-seven agents were appointedat an annual salary of $1500.

During March there were 60 violations reported of Quarantine No. 45. Sixteen of these violations were also violations of Quarantine No. 53, and one of them also violated Quarantine No. 63. All of these violations were
intercepted by transit inspectors. As far as investigations of thest- violations have been made, they were of a minor nature e, due to ignorance of the quarantine on the part of the shipper or misunderstanding on the part of the





26


transportation agents. No prosecutions were instituted. Information concerning quarantine requirements was given by investi-ating inspectors of this project in all cases where the parties could be located.

Because of adverse scouting conditions due to an unusually heavy fall of snow, all men excepting two small crews working in the Massachusetts portion of the Barrier Zone were transferred during the second week in March to southwestern Connecticut where working conditions were more satisfactory. By the end of the month snow conditions in western Massachusetts were much improved and it is expected that the men will be transferred back to the Massachusetts section of the area to complete the scouting program planned there for this season. It will also be necessary to resux:,e cleaning operations in towns where infestations are known to exist as there is a considerable amount of this type of work to be done before the snrayin, season begins.

Scouting work was carried on during Irch in the Barrier Zone in 12 towns in Connecticut, 7 in Irassachusetts, and 2 in Vermont. In 7 of these towns the work was close scouting around the sites of gipsy moth infestations discovered and treated during the previous year. The scouting in the other towns was the 40-foot strip method described in the previous News Letter. Work was completed in 2 towns in Connecticut, with negative results. The scouting has resulted in finding infestations in several towns, but so far the towns of New Ilarlboro, Sandisfield, and Sheffield, Mass., are more seriously infested than any others in the Zone.

Scouting work was continued by the New York Conservation Department in 6 towns in a section of the Zone in New York State and on Long Island. As a result of this work no infestations have been reDorted other than those mentioned in the previous News Letter. On Long Island the work was done in the townshipsof North Hempstead and Oyster Bay, in Nassau County, and in the township of Huntington, in Suffolk County. North Hempstead was completed about the middle of March and the crews that had been working in this township were transferred to the township of Huntington.

The cooperative work between Federal and State offices in New Jersey has not discovered any infestation in this State. The scouting work planned for the township of Bridgewater was finished about the middle of the month and the crews were transferred to Piscataway Tovrnship to work in the vicinity of the gipsy moth infestation which was located there in May, 1929. It is expected that the work in Piscataway and Hillsboro Townships will be finished about the middle of April. If no further infestations are found, this will complete the scouting work planned for New Jersey for this season except for checking up work in the vicinity of infestations that ,ere discovered in the townships of North Plainfield and Warren during the fiscal year 19?8.

The inspection of nursery and forest products in New Jersey and on
Long Island increased materially during the month. There is no Federal quarantine on account of the gipsy moth in New Jersey or on Long Island, but the infested areas are quarantined by State regulations which are enforced by the Federal Government. Several nurseries were released from the State quar,ntine on Long Island, as mentioned earlier in these news items.




UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
11111111111 11111111111 111111111 ill 111111111 ill I I III

3 1262 09245 0914




Full Text
xml version 1.0 encoding UTF-8
REPORT xmlns http:www.fcla.edudlsmddaitss xmlns:xsi http:www.w3.org2001XMLSchema-instance xsi:schemaLocation http:www.fcla.edudlsmddaitssdaitssReport.xsd
INGEST IEID E7BBXQ13B_VV765W INGEST_TIME 2014-09-08T21:15:46Z PACKAGE AA00023275_00012
AGREEMENT_INFO ACCOUNT UF PROJECT UFDC
FILES



PAGE 1

I Number 5 NEWS LETTER l) PLANT QU~,_.~L.N':'INE J JD CONTROL Jill ITNISTRJ..TION UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (NOT FOR PUBLICATION) ADMINISTRATIVE May, 1931. Mr. B . Connor has been designated Chairman of the Board of Review of Efficiency Ratings of the Plant Quarantine and Control J..dministration vice R1r. s. A. Rohwer. Dr . Lon A. Hawkins has been designated as a member of the Board vice Wit'. Connor. TECHNOLOGICAL A portable device for fumigating box cars has been developed for use at ports of entry where no car fumigation house is available. With this hand applicator it is possible to use liquid hydrocyanic acid where only relatively small quantities of gas are needed. The applicator, charged with 10 pounds of liquid hydrocyanic acid, c omplete and ready for operation, weighs only about 35 p ounds, and is compac t and convenient to use. In fumigating box cars, one door is l eft slightly ajar and a spray rod equipped with ordinary spray nozzle is thrust throu gh this opening. This is connected wi~h a portable applicator, and liquid hydrocyanic acid is forced through this nozzle by means of compressed air furnished by a hand pump. This method of fumigating is simple and safer than the old pot method and has some advantage over the use of discoids or hydro yanic acid combined with other absorbent material. The device can be used for the fumigation of material in small buildings,.rooms, or fumigation boxes, if desired. A study of the compression of otton in the ordinary ommercial ompress has recently been made with Messrs. A. c. Johnson and W. T. Hunt of the El Paso laboratory. They have found that a bale of cotton under a

PAGE 2

, . , : 'J. ; ,,? ' .. .1. • ' ,

PAGE 3

2 -pressure of about 45n tons was reduced to a density of around 50 pounds per ,ubic foot, and that in most cases this compression effectively crushed the seeds that were within the bale. The tests were made under both standard compression and high density, and it is interesting to note that the density of the cotton was about the same in the two cases. It requires a pressure of around 60 pounds on a single cottonseed to reduce the original diameter 40 per cent. 11r. J.M. Luckie is at Laredo vorking in cooperation with Foreign Plant Quarantines Division in repairing and reconditioning the car fumigation house at that port. FOREIGN PLANT Q,UJ...RANTINES SOME RECENT ENTOMOLOGICAL INTERCEPTIONS OF INTEREST West Indian fruit fly from St. Vincent.--Larvae of the West Indian fruit fly (Anastrepha fraterculus) were intercepted at Boston in mango in stores from St. Vincent. This is the first interception of this fruit fly from St. Vincent by inspectors of the Plant Quarantine and Control Administration. (See also rJews Lotte r No. 1, January, 1931.) Vegetable ivory beetl e or button beetlo.--The vegetable ivory beetle or button beetle (Coccotrypes dactyliperda) was intercepted at ';fashington, D. c., in the seed of Phoonix reclinata in tho mail from France. This scolytid is recorded as damaging the kernels of several different palms, the buttons made from vegetable ivory, which is the hard seed of the palm, Hyphacne crinata, and nutmogs. It is a native of Africa and was recently found in California infesting the seeds of an ornamental palm, Phoenix canariensis. Boan pod borer in string beans.--Larvae of the bean pod borer ( aruca testulalis) were int0rcepted at Philadelphia in string beans in stores from Porto Rico. Whil e this insect has been intercepted several times in string beans from Cuba, this is the first definite record of its being taken by inspectors of tho Plant Quarantine and Control Administration in string beans from Porto Rico. In the Journal of the Department of Agriculture of Porto Rico, Oct.,1918, p. 279, Dr. R. ~Cotton discusses this pyralid as • follows: "Th e pinkish-v1hi te larva of this moth is frequently served on the table with string beans. It has the habit of boring into the green pods, and while not generally abundant is o casionally troublesome." Sweotpotato stem borer from China.--The s,•,eetpotato stem borer (Omphisa anastomosalis) was intercepted at Seattle in sweetpotato in stores from China . This insect is recorded from China, India, Ceylon, New Guinea, Siam, and the Philippines, and was introduced into Hawaii about 1900 where it has become quite a p~st. This pyralid attacks sweetpotato and other garden crops. It bores in the stem and sometimes in the tuber.

PAGE 4

I ,

PAGE 5

3 A relative of the greenhouse thrips.--Heliothrips bicinctus was intercepted at Washington, D. c., on Haemanthus puniceus in the mail from Holland. This represents the first interception of this thrips by inspectors of the Plant Quarantine and Control Administration. Prof. J. R . Watson of Florida reports on this insect as follows: "This is a European thrips, closely related to our greenhouse thrips, and apparently with about the same habits; i.e., in Surope it is a greenhouse pest. This insect has been reported from Western Europe, England, Holland, France, ';,estern Spain, and Northern Africa. It is not known to occur in this country, and from reports of its habits we do not need it." New thrips record from Cuba.--The thrips Elaphrothrips tuberculat-us was intercepted at 1:";-ashington, D. C., in cavities in dried fruit of Cordia alba in the mail from Cuba. Prof. J. R. Watson of Florida reports that although this thrips is distributed over the United States, this is the first report from Cuba . Nut fruit tortrix in chestnuts from Janan.--Larvae of Laspeyresia splendana (Olethreutidae ) ore intercepted at Honolulu, Hawaii, in fresh chestnuts from Japan. This insect is known as the nut fruit tortrix and is reported as being quite destructive to the nuts of chestnut, walnut, and oak in Europe. Tomato miner of Mexico.--A larva of Phthorimaea lycopersicella (Gelechiidae) was intercepted at Douglas, Ariz., on a tomato in baggage from Fronter as, Sonora, ~ . ,..exico . This insect is the tomato miner of Mexico, California, Hawaii, and the West Indies. It is a leaf feeder on tomato and closely related to the potato tuber TTorm (Phthorimaea operculella). It has been intercepted several times with shipments of tomatoes from Mexico as well as with tomatoes in cargo from the Baha.~as and Bermuda. New to the National Museum collection.--A chrysomelid beetle, Coptocycla sordida, was intercepted at Charleston, s. c., on a banana stem in cargo from Honduras. This beetle, nhich is not reported from continental United States, is now to the National Museum collection. Oriental fruit moth from Japan.--Flowering cherry from Japan was found by collaborators of the Plant Quarantine and Control Administration in California to be infested with the Oriental fruit moth, Laspeyresia molesta. Scale insect from Japan.--The coc id Phenacaspis aucuba (Cooley) has been intercepted several ti~es at Seattle on Aucuba sp. in furnishings from Japan. Dr. H. Morrison, of the Bureau of Entomology, states that the determination is based on description only, as there is no authentic specimen availabl e for comrarison. This scale insect is recorded in :Mrs. Fernald's "Coccidae of the .. orld," 1903, p. 237, as being ta.ken at quarantine in California on Aucuba from Japan. Scale insect on orchid.--The coccid Lepidosaphes tuberculata was intercepted at 1ashington, D. c., on orchid (Cymbidium sp.) n car o from

PAGE 6

. ' . , .

PAGE 7

4 -England. This scale insect has been intercepted on Ophiopogon japonicus (Japanese snakebread) from China, Cyrn.bidium sp., from Bel gium, and several species of Cymbidium from England. Scale insect in the mail from Cuba.--The coccid Hemichionaspis minor strachani was intercepted a t Washington., D. c., on the stems of Zantho:r.:ylum juglandifolium in the mail from Cuba. This scale insect is recorded from West Africa in Mrs . Fernald' s "Coccidae of the World." Relative of sweetpotato w~il from the Philippines.--Cyl~s turcip en nis (Curculionidae) was intercepted ut Philadelphia in sweetpotato in stores from the Philippines. This weevil, which is closely related to the sweetpotato weevil (Cylas formicarius), has been previously intercepted by inspectors of the Plant Quarantine and Control Administration in sweetpotatoes in stores from Japan and the Straits Settlemants. SOME RECENT PATHOLOGICAL INTERCEPTIONS OF INTEREST Sphaeronema on Phlox.--Snhaeron~ma sp. was found on Phlox Chef d'Or from France (in mail) at Washington, D. c. The Plant Disease Survey has no previous record of the occurrence of a E._haeronema on Phlox. The genus is familiar because of the common black rot of sweetpotato fungus, s . fimbriatum (now known as Ceratostomella fimbriata). (See also the following item.) Ceratostomella adiposum on Eleocharis.--The black rot fungus found on Eleocharis tubero~um from China (in cargo), at New York City, was determined as Ceratostomella adiposum by a specialist of the Bureau of Plant Industry after cultural study of the fungus. The fungus was first described by Butler as Sphaeronema adiposum. It is connon in the eane fields of India, and does considerable damage to seed pieces und e r eertain conditions. Ordinarily, however, it is considere d a weak parasite of little economie importance. It was found in Louisiana during the winter of 1924, growing with slight damage on seedcane stored in sawdust. In the spring of 1926 it caused great los s in a field of cane growing near Houma, La. The fungus was given its present name in 1927, when it was found that the interesting fruiting bodies with the long slender beaks wore petithecia rather than pycnidia, as at first thought. What is apparently the sam0 fungus has been intercepted from time to time on this host and an effort will be made to check all available spsc imens to determine if it is the same. Anthracnose. --Anthra nose, fruit "ripe rots,'' and kindred diseases have been plentiful among the more recent pathological interceptions. The space available does not permit of discussion of these diseases but a brief summary of many of them will indicate somvthing of the range of this group of diseases. Glomerella cingulata on apples from Germany (mail, Detroit and Philadelphia), from England (ship's stores, Gulfport); o n orange leaves from China (baggage 7 Seattle); on mango from Mexico (baggage, El Paso); on pepper from Cuba (cargo, Now York). G. gossypina on cotton leaves and twigs from Jamaica

PAGE 8

• • ,1. ', .. ' '' ,.:, . ..... ,_.,. ' . . . , . . . . . . '. ! . . ' .. . ..... .. .. , I •• • .... . . Digitized by the Internet-Archive ' . . i n :013 .. . . . . . . ' . . , t • .; l • • . . ' : . http://archive.org/details/news1'etter31 no5

PAGE 9

5 (quarters, Philadelphia). Colletotrichum ~loeosporioides on avocado from l.lexi o {baggage, El Paso) ; C. coffeanum on offee berry from 'l'r inidad (bag g age, Boston) and on offee berries and twigs from Cuba (baggage, Philadelphia); c. pisi on peas from Japan {ship's stores, Seattle); Q.• pollaccii on Aucub a leaves from Japan (furnishings, Seattle); c. omnivorum on Aspidistra leaves from Japan (furnishings, Seattle); C. agaves on Agave sp. leaves from Cuba (b aggage, Philadelphia); C. falcatum on sugarcane from Cuba (baggage, Philadelphia); • blighiae on B1ighia sapida from Cuba {baggage, Philadelphia); .Q_. nib rum on pepper from Italy (mail, Philadelphi~'; C. lindemuthianum on string beans from Mexico (cargo, Brownsville), from Panama {ships' stores, Philadelphia), from Cuba (cargo, New York, and ship's stores, New Orleans); C. sp. on . Poaceae sp. from Cuba (cargo, New York). Gloeosporium euonymicolum on Euonymus sp. from Japan (furnishings, Seattle); G. musarurn on banana from Hexico (cargo, Brownsville), from Cuba (ship's stores, Philadelphia), on plantain fruit stalk from Cuba (cargo, New York); G. melongenae on eggplant from Cuba (cargo, New Orleans); G. cingulata on okra from Cuba {ship's stores , Philadelphia); G. sp. on orchi_d_ plants from Brazil (furnishings, New Orleans); on cactus plant from Germany (quarters, Philadelphia); on Sansevieria cylindrica from En gland (mail, Washington, D. C.); on orange leaves from Spain (ship's stores, Philadelphia); on orange from Egypt (ship's stores, Philadelphia). (See next item.) Tomato Anthracnose .--Many interceptions of t omato anthracnose (Colletotrichum .:iomoides) on both ripe and green fruits arriving in cargo, ships' stores, and baggage have been received from New York, Detroit, Philadelphia, Baltimore, Norfolk~ new Orleans, Brownsville, El Paso, Douglas, Naco, and Nogales. The countries of origin were Cuba, Bahamas, Porto Rico, and Niexico. This disease is said to be as widespread as is the culture of tomatoes but is of minor economic importance. Infected packing material.--II, III Puccinia anomala, a trace of P. graminis and Erysiphe graminis were found on barley straw, and Helrninthosporium oryzae on rice straw, used as packing material for breakable m erchandise from Japan, in cargo, at Philadelphia. Packing material including cases, crates, etc., as well as str aw, etc., can harbor destructive plant pests. P. anomala is a rust of barley with a general distribution in the United States. H. oryzae is the "sesame" spot disease or seedling blight and is one of the most serious disease s reporte d on rice. It h a s b aen rq:>orte d from Florida and Louisiana (U. s. D. A. Bul. 1366). Rusted wheat 6rains.--II, III Puccinia graminis was found on kernels of wheat from Peru (in mail) at W ashington, D. c. Heald (Manual of Plant Diseases, p. 732)says "at present the opinion prevails that stem rus t is not transmitted from on e wheat crop t o the n ext by means of oitho r ontarninatod or infected seed, b earing spores o r dormant mycelium. '' Black-root of r adish from Japan.--P~thium (Nematosporang ium) aphanidermatum is reported from widely scatte r e d Sta t e s east of the Mississippi River. It was intercepted recently a t Phila d elphia in ship's store s from Japan.

PAGE 10

• I ,. • •. ' ' ,,

PAGE 11

6 -Other Diseases.--Oidium euonymi-japonici was found on Euonymus sp. leaves from Japan (in furnishings) at Seattle. The disease is a powdery mildew reported on this host from Japan, Argentina, Europe and Louisiana. Phomopsis cocoes was reported from Ceylon in 1922 as causing a decay of the fruits of Cocos nucifera. This disease was recently interepted at Philadelphia on a coconut from Cuba (in baggage). Coniothyrium diplodiella was found on grape cuttings from Italy (in mail) at Philadelphia. Stevens (Plant Disease Fungi, p . 349) says this is the cause of a white rot of grapes. Further data on root-knot.--Caconema radicicola was found in Caryop teris mongolensis (imported under special permit) from Orleans, France, at Washington, D. c .; in a shipment of field-grown rose stocks from Germany (in cargo), at New York City; and in Irish potatoes (in ships' stores) from Dutch Guiana, at New Orleans, La., from Chile at V/ilrnington, N. c., and from Australia, at Philadelphia. Caryopteris is a previously unknown host genus for this cosmopolitan parasite, according to an advice received from the Bureau of Plant Industry. The same authority states that records of root-knot on field-grown plants from Germany are rare. The infestations in Irish potato from Dutch Guiana and Chile are of interest and, we believe, may add to the known distribution of this disease of potatoes. !Jo information was available to show records of this potato disease in Australia • . More about n ematones.--Spac e does not permit of an adequate statement of the scientific information accumulated as a result of the recent nematode interceptions. A few interesting facts follow: Tylenchus dipsaci was found in potatoes (in shipe' stores) from France and Italy, at Philadelphia, thereby adding two new countries to the list of localities from which this potato disease has been intercepted by inspectors of the Plant Quarantine and Control Administration. T11e list now includes Eng land, Germany , Holland, Belgitnn, Prince Edward Island, NeTT Brunswick, France, and Italy. Pathoaphelenchus sp. (?) (a subgenus raised to generic rank) was found in a potato from ~ilgland (in ship's stores), at Philadelphia. This is the first record in the interception files of the Administration for this genus on any host. An interesting item in connection with the elevation of this genus will appear in this space as soon as we are at liberty to publish it. Neotylenchus abulbosus (an unpublished genus and spe~ies) was found recently in ships' ~tores at P~il~delphia in potatoes from Holland, and thrice in potatoes and once in carrots from En~land. This nema is of partic ular interest in that it is a true plant parasite and one that is likely to be mistaken for Tylenchus dipsaci, which it closely resembles. V/hen we are at liberty to do so we shall publish another interesting item concerning it. Tylenchorynchus (styriacus?) nas found in parsnip from Cape Town (in ship's stores) at Philadelphia. The disease symptoms ~ere very marked and the specialist making the determination advised that they could have been caused by this nema which is a member of a plant parasitic genus. RD

PAGE 12

-:., I . _•,t_ . :;. , .. ,.1 . . , .. ' • . =: '., " . ., ,t••• . ' ' •, ,' • I,-' •;. •',."} 7 : . : . :.~ ... ' ' .. ... ~ l •• ,i ... _: .'. .:. _ r . '. !• .• I••• .. , I

PAGE 13

7 -Items omitted or held over.--In selecting interceptions for mention in this News Letter it is the general practice to choose from the determinations received since the preparation of the copy for the previous issue. Since this copy is prepared nearly thirty days i n advance of issue, some items may be held over or omitted that would otherwise be included had the determinations been received in time. Heightening of interest in interceptions noted.--The increase in the number of collections received for determination is probably due in part to added stress that has been placed on the field inspection of special permit material, and in part to the new ports that have been opened in the past few months and to additions to personnel in some of the other ports. It is believed, however, that a heightening of interest in the "finding" phase of inspection work is largely responsible for this increase. Quality of pathological interceptions irnproving.--Pathological interceptions have increased in number and improved in quality. The improvement is to be noted both in the average importance of the interceptions and the quantity of the material submitted in the individual collections. iJhile a few scales on a small piece of host material, or a few larvae in a vial, are usually adequate for an entomological determination, a small fragment of diseased host is frequently worthless to the pathologist who is trying to make the pathological d etermination. ~ost of the inspectors are now sending in a satisfactory amount of material in their pathological collections; which practice, incidentally, is increasing the amount of work required of the force in the Washington office . For example, figures computed for the month of February show that 3,830 piece s of host material (tubers, roots, cuttings, leaves, etc.) were received, each o f which was given the customary careful scrutiny for both insects and diseases. Ncmas coming into promincnce.--Many of the interceptions of plant material with various types of infestation and infection are receiving determinations of distinct v alue to scientific work in general and to the Administration in particular. For example, the finding of nematodes in a wide range of hosts from many foreign localities has added considerably to the existing store of scientific knowl e dge of these minute animals, and is directing the attention of the Administration more d efinitely to the importance of the plant p ests within the. order Nematoda. :MEXICO EXCLUDES CORN AND PLANTS OR PARTS THEREOF WHICH MIGHT INTRODUCE THE EUROPEAN CORN BORER According to a cablegram from the Commercial Attache of the Department of Commerce at r.1exico City, the Mexican Decree of March 28, 1931, absolutely prohibits the importation into Uexico of corn and all other plants and parts of plants which might carr y the European corn borer. The following plants are named: Corn (Zea mays) and all parts of the plant, broom orn, sorghum, Sudan grass, celery and rhubarb, dried or fresh, beets with tops, cut flowers or the entire plants of chrysanthemum, aster, cosmos, zinnia, mallow, hydrangea, gladiolus, and dahlia (except dahlia tubers without stem), and straw from all kinds of cereals and grasses, whether imported as such or

PAGE 14

, ; , / :,,

PAGE 15

used as packing. This quarantine may be modified as soon as adequate fumigation and sterilization measures are available. IMPORTATION OF WHEAT INTO MEXICO ABSOLUTELY PROHIBITED The Mexican Presidential Decree of March 5, 1931, amends Exterior Quarantine No. 8, by prohibiting absolutely the importation of all species and varieties of wheat (Triticum) into Mexico, as a precaution against the introduction into that country of the flag smut disease, Urocystis tritiei, and the take-all disease, Ophiobolus graminis. Wheat may be imported i~to Mexico only under special permit when intended for scientific study or work. VIRGIN ISLANDS, UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, RE1'.10VE BAN AGAINST' IMPORTATION OF FLORIDA FRUITS AND TIGErABLES Executive Order No. 4 of February 11, 1931, cancels that of August 17, 1929, temporarily prohibiting the importation into the Virgin Islands, United States of America, of all Florida-grown host fruits and host vegetables of the Mediterranean fruit fly. APPEARANCES MAY BE DECEPTIVE On September 25, 1930, some pupae were found among dried onions in a bin on the yacht Vileehi in the port of San Diego, and at the same time larvae were found in the onions themselves, which were beginning to decay. The inspector assumed that both larvae and pupae were identical and belonged to the group of scavenger insects. The onions were boiled as a precaution and a few of the pupae were submitted, but no larvae. When these pupae wer e later.identified as those of the melon fly (Bactrocera cucurbitae), the question arose: Were the infested onions a new host for melon fly? Mr. A. c. Fleury, Senior Quarantine Inspector for California, comments on this peculiar situation in a letter to this office on March l?. His conclusion was that the bin had originally contained other plant material infested with the melon fly; that this material had been used up or discarded before reaching port; that the pupae which had been found among but not in the onions originated in these proper hosts which were absent at the time of inspection; and that the larvae reported were true scavenger fly stages properly belonging in tho onions where they were found. This interesting situation emphasizes rather ~ell the readiness with which one may fall into error. Here as elsev7hcre ''Eternal vigilan~e is the price of safety." It also illustrates the wisdom of ''getting the facts." JAPANESE WHEAT STRAW BEARS RUSTS Two lots of .Japanese wheat straw were recently refused entry in Honolulu under the authority of Quarantine No. 59. A small sample submitted to

PAGE 16

,. . . I , • , , .e!~. r , • J ' . ,., : : . ' r . , J'

PAGE 17

-9 -Washington revealed the presence of two injurious wheat diseases, Puccinia graminis and triticina. The straw was brought to Honolulu to be used in cooking fish. It is understood that fish is wrapped in the straw and then steamed, the straw imparting a rich flavor to the fish. USEFUL COOPERATION On February 6, 1931, a memorandum was sent to the Mexican border ports asking them to be on the lookout for bacterial canker in incoming tomatoes, a disease hitherto suspected by Miss M. K. Bryan of the Bureau of Plant Industry as occurring in Mexico but not yet definitely established as existing there. On February 28, diseased tomatoes from Los Mochis, Sinaloa, were . intercepted at Nogales and were referred to Miss Bryan, who determined the disease as bacterial canker. This case illustrates once more the valuable assistance that port inspection may give in the course of its regular duties in adding to our store of lmowledge on pests and thoir distribution. NUMBER OF INTERCEPTIONS INCREASING The volume of material submitted for identification is ste.adily increasing, both in the number of collections made and in the amount of material in each collection. In recent months this increase has been markedly rapid. The following figures, which do not include collections-made a t the inspection house in Washington, D. c., or collections made by the collaborators except when specimens were submitted to this office for identification, show the number of port interceptions, local collections, special permit field collections, etc., for the past five years: 1926 6778 Collections 1929 5265 Collections 1927 6902 " 1930 8786 " 1928 5803 " About 65 p0r cent of the 1930 collections were received in the last half of the year, and the total for 1930 is about 67 per cent in excess of that for 1929. In the first three months of 1931, 3,215 collections were received, as follows: January, 984; February, 987; March, 1,243. The total is almost double that for the corresponding period of 1930 and is more than the total for the first half of last year. The collections for March are nearly two and a half times as many as for March, 1930. It is interesting to note in this connection that several of the smaller ports did not submit a single collection during the three-month period. NOTES FROM PORTO RICO Mr. Richard Faxon,in a recent report from Porto Rico, notes the falling off in citrus shipments this season from the island on account of low prices, and the increasing attention being paid to the growing of export vegetables.

PAGE 18

i : . , .. . ., ., . ' . ' ...... ::_ .... , .r , . . : -, .. .J 't_ :

PAGE 19

-10 -These crop volume changes, he notes, have altered the routine of inspection under ~uarantine No. 58 , and the increased amount of attention now needed for inspection of vegetables in the field has resulted in 133 interceptions since January 1, 19 31. r-any of these interceptions were n e w records for Porto Rico and 18 of the plant disease specimens have bee n deposited in the collection of the Office of !Aycolo gy. Inspectors in Porto Rico are now equipped with tropical uniforms consisting of white linen suits and the regulation cap with a white top in place of the forestry-green serge top. DOMESTJ.1IC PL~ Q,UARANTIN:!:S TRANSIT INSPECTION The field office in charge of th~ European c orn borer and Jap~nese beetle quarantine work has recently transferr e d to the transit inspection division the responsibility of supervising the traDsit i nspection activitie s at Philadelphia a nd Baltimore , which are carrie d on primarily for enforcing the above quarantines. rrwo inspectors are engaged in the work at Philadelphia and one at Baltimore . At Pittsburgh , inspection w o r k has been initiated in freight and express shipments, Mr. K . s. Rohwer, formerly of the Boston force , having been assigned to this post. The Boston force has accordingly been increased to fill the vacancy occasioned by I\/Ir. Rohwer' s transfer. Mr. J.M . Corliss, in charge o f the transit inspection mrk in the Middle West , recently assiste d the staff of the European corn borer office in the inauguration at the stockyards o f Indianapolis and Cincinnati, the work of checking on the arrival of trucks and stock cars, to see that c o rnstalks are not used as bedding . This is a continuation of the work started at Indianapolis in January by the transit inspection service, and later temporarily discontinued on the return of the inspector to his regular duties at Kan sas City. Twelve violations of the quarantine were discovered in one day' s work at Cincinnati on Marc h 1 9 . A repor t of the Boston transit inspection office for the period from July 28 , 1930, to the closG o f t he alendar year, which has recently been submitted to the Administration by Hr . E. J. M c 1Jerney, i n ch a r eat that station, shows that B osto n is an important location at which to che k on the interstate movement of articles restricted under the qua antines affecting the New England States. The work at that point is especi ally valuable in the interception of shipments o:' chrysanthemums, which may carry t he two generation strain of t he European corn borer, and of Christmas greens, whi c h involve danger of spread of the gipsy moth. Mr. McNerney r0ports that 35 1 violations WGre intercepted at that station during the fiv e -month period, 48 p e r cent involving infringements of the European corn borer quarantine,

PAGE 20

: ~: :

PAGE 21

-11 -and 26 per cent violations of the gipsy moth and brown-tail moth quarantine. In each of these two groups more than half the intercepted parcels were shipped by private individuals not engnged in the business of handling such products. An error on the part of an employee of an Indiana nursery in digging, during a snow storm, several dozen white pine trees intended for Austrian pine and filling orders for the latter, was said by the nursery involved to be the cause of a number of violations of the white -pine blister-rust quarantine, which were intercepted by inspectors Scott and Dunlap at Chicago in March. Th i s quarantine prohibits the shipping of five-leafed pines from points east of the w estern boundary of f,~innesota, Iowa, Missouri, Arkansas, and Louisiana, to points west of that line. A check of the company's records with the list of violations r opo~ted appears to indicate that every on e of those shipments which involved a violation w a s intercepted and turned back. A recent memorandum to transit inspectors g .3.ve an interpretation of the satin moth quarantine in its application to the shipping of willow twigs when used for tying bundles of nursery stock. The satin moth quarantine restricts only poplar and willow trees and parts thereof capable of propagation. The Administration f o und that willow tTTigs Gmployed in this way are I not normally used for propagation, and inspoctors w er0 accordingly instruc-ted to allow nursery stock so tied to proceed to destination. This aetion is believed to involve no dange r of spread of the s atin moth, a s the larvae are not knom1 to hibernate on the smooth bark of slendo r twigs of the type used for this purpose. WHITE-PINE BLISTER RUST According to a notic0 recently received from the State of Massachusetts, the further planting of currant and gooseberry bushe s is now forbidden in 2 1 0 towns in the State. T G n years a g o the towns so restricted number e d 2 0 , and this number has been increased from time to timG during the intervening period. The purpose of such action is to set aside these towns as white-pine growing and Ribes-free areas, a..~d thus to assist in preventing the furthe r spread of the blister rust in the State. ~assachusetts w a s one of the first States to take regulatory ction on the blister rust, hnving issued a quarantine prohibiting the entry of five-leafe d pines from Surope prior to the enactment of the Federal plant quarantine act. States which have legally-established blister-rust control aren.s for the growing of either Ribes or pines, m a y prove n ~ out-of-State shipments o f the restricted plrmts from entering the areas, w 1 d e r a provision of F e d e r a l Quar a n tine No. 63. This provision requires tha t b ei'oro eithe r Ribc s or pines may be shipped into such Sta t es, a p ermit must be s ecured from an official of the State of d esti!l'1tion 1,1110 is d esig n a t e d by the Ad.i.7linistr'-ltion to act in this c~pacity. States which h 3 v e set aside such area s Up t o this time are Mnine, Massachusetts, New Hamps hire , C onnecticut, R hod a Islend, New York, Michigan, and Idaho.

PAGE 22

.. , ,, ' , .. ... ,. . . ' •

PAGE 23

12 NARCISSUS BULB QUARANTINE Mr. C . R. Stillinger, of the Spokane office, has been in eonference and correspondence with the nursery inspectors of Oregon and ~ashington during recent weeks, aiding in the preparation of their plans for narcissus inspection during the coming spring and summer . On April 3 and 4, Mr. Stillinger attended a con:ference of the narcissus bulb growers at Tacoma, at which the State nursery inspectors emphasized the importance of especially rigid restrictions to prevent the establishment of eelworm or the increase of bulb flies on the growers' premises. The State of l//ashington requires the fumigatio n of all bulbs produced for sale or shipment, in addition to hot-water treatment of bulbs grovm on premises where any eelworm infestation whatever is discovered during the inspection season. Mr. Corliss, for several days beginning on April 15, assisted 1n training the nursery inspectors of Illinois in the field diagnosis of bulb flies and eelworms. PHONY PEACH DISEASE QUAR.ANTDJE INSPECTION There was considerable movement of nursery stock and other plant material through Atlanta and Birmin~ham during the latter part of March, but a sharp drop was noted after April 1 , and transit inspection at these two points for enforcement of the phony peach disease quarantine was discontinued the middle of April. A marked change in the nature of the April shipment s was noted ; shipments of fruit nursery stock from southern points practically ceased, but increases were found in miscellaneous shipments f rom northern States. During the month of l.arch 189 shipments of peach and other restricted nursery stock consigned for delivery in 17 different States were certified by Administration inspectors for nurserymen at Concord, Ga. DATE SCALE During the month of March 33,675 palm inspections were made in the date growing areas of Arizona and California, a nd 10 palms were found infested. Two palms, one in a cormnercial garden and on e an ornamental palm, were found infested in the Imperial Valley and defoliated and torch ed. Eight palms of no commercial valu e wore found infested in the Coa hella Valley and were dug out and destroyed. No infested palms were found in Arizona. In the same areas 106,683 palm inspections were made during the quarter ending Warch 31, and 21 infested pal.ms were found. Only three of these were in

PAGE 24

,',!. :

PAGE 25

-13 commercial gardens--one in the Imperial Valley and two in the Coachella Valley. Of the remaining 18, two were ornamental date palms and one a Canary Island palm, which were defoliated and torched, and 15 were date palms of no value which were du5 out and destroyed. Two of the infested palms in the Coachella Valley were what are called ' 'leaf base infestations. ' ' When a date palm is heavily infested the scale establishes itself not only on the foliage but also on the bases of the leaves, which are protected by several bands of fiber 12 to 18 in hes in width which extend around the trunk and are ti htened by the ex-pansion due to growth. In treating an infestation of this type the fiber is split and pulled back to expose the scale on the leaf base and the flame of a torch passed over the exposed portion. In so~e cases the fiber is not cut back far enough and not all the scale is killed. Then if a portion of the leaf base remains alive the scale continue to breed. The time of appearance of the scale on the foliage will depend on the size of the living leaf base and its distance from the foliage. Under certain onditions it is possible that the infestation would not reach the foliage for several years. Because of this type of infestation, leaf base inspection must be carried on in a number of gardens and these gardens must be kept under observation for some time after the rest of the date growing area is considered free from Parlatoria scale. EUROPEA."J\J CORN BORER A N D JAPANESE :3EETLE Dlli'in 5 the month of March, transit inspection work was started at Indianapolis, Ind., and Cincinnati, O hio. ] cssrs. E. N . Bennett and H. G. Rowden are stationed at Cincinnati, and 1Aessrs. E. F. Deyo and A . E. Bry mer at Indianapolis. The work of combining the ad..""nini strati ve activities of the European corn borer and Japanese beetle projects h~s progressed to s uch an extent that it will be possible to closo t~e Crunden, N. J., office, TThich is the field headquarters for the Japanese beetle proje t, and rerrove the work and employees to South Norwalk, Conn., before July 1, 1931. It was at first thought that it wo11ld be impossible to re rfect the organization a t South Norwalk in timo to close the Camden headquarters be fore July 1, 1932, but sufficient available office and g ra e space has now been found at South Nor\ialk to house both projects. With offi es at Philadelphia and Norristmm, Pa., and at Whitehorse, N. J. , to take care of field_ activities, all administration work can b8 handled at South Norv1alk. This c onsolidation will result in a large saving in r~ntul a nd clerical help. More important, however, ithan tho saving in funds, .:ill be the g eater

PAGE 26

.... . . .

PAGE 27

-14 -efficiency and onvenience whi~h will esult from having all administration work conducted at one point. The New York office of the European corn borer project has been moved from 45 Broadway to 641 Washington Street, New York City, and combined with the Japanese beetle office already at that lo ation. The consolidated office is under the supervision of Mr. Leland Clean-up operations conducted jointly b y the Plant Quarantine and Con trol Administration and the State of Connecticut in the town of Danbury, Conn. , will be taken care of the early part of April. The European corn borer infestation in u,per ~~ontclair Township :i.n Essex County, N. J., has been cleaned up jointly by the owners of the property, necessitating no clean-up by the Federal or State Departments. A careful inspection 'ms been made of the entire area, and a very thorough clean-up of cornstalks, corn stubble, weeds, and debris has been carried on by the farm owners. All adjacent premises are likewise clean, the nearest corn stubble being about three miles from the actual point of infestation. Road patrol inspectors are to s .tart April 1 on the main highways leading out of the ge nerally infeste d Japanese beetle area in New York, to enforce Quarantine No. 48. A number of inspectors.will a lso be placed on the important roads leading out of the generally infested are a in Connecticut on or about April 13. A lGase has bee!l signed for office and storage space at 171 Meadow Road, Rutherford, N. J. , to serve as a combined European corn borer--Japanese beetle office. ~he location is central for carrying on both projects in this area, and will be under the supervision of Mr. H. v. Hotchkin. The movement of articles quarantine d under the Japanese beetle quarantine regulations from c lassified nursories and greenhouses to the annual flower shows a t New York, Philadelphia, and Baltimore, and the return of the stock to classified premises, required considerable supervision on the part of inspectors of the project. Certified stock was sealed with lead seals upon its arrival in the show building to assure proper identification upon its return. Frequent observations were made throughout the various exhibits for any possible emergence of adult beetles from stock brought in from unclassified greenhouses. A rather unique situation was encountered at the Baltimore Flower and Garden Show. In the absence of a suitable building in which to house the exhibits, large tents were erected in sections at the Baltimore City Stadium, making one tented area approximately 75 feet by 450 feet. Coal stoves were used to heat the enclosure. Since the stadium is located in a n area known to be generally infested with the Japanese beetle, and as the ground surface inside the tent was uncovered, there was a possibility of infestation of plant material exhibited in direct contact with the ground. Acc o rdingly exhibited certified stock intended for return to classified establishments was required to be placed on heavy roofing paper, tarpaulins, or wooden platforms. The three flower shows were held simult eously during the week of March 16 to 21, although the Baltimore show did not open

PAGE 28

. " ... •, : .. ~ '1 •

PAGE 29

-15 -until March 17. Road inspection posts were established during the first week in April at the border of the Japanese beetle generally infested area on twenty roads leading from the area. Eight of these are located in Pennsylvania, two each in Maryland and Delaware, six on the District of Colurnbia--Maryland line, and Virginia and West Virginia eac h contain one post. Field treatment of nursery stock as a requisite to certifi' cati on be gan on April 10. The treating regulations require a minimum soil temperature of 40 F. before chemical treatments may be applied. Temperatures in excess of the prescribed minimum have obtained rather generally since the last week in March throughout the areas wher. e treatments a r e applied, but t h e distant movement of stoc k f rom nursery establishments in quantities did not get un der way until the middle of April. Preliminary surveys were made between l\iarch 23 and April 10 of cities remote from t he Japanese beetle regulated areas at which i t is planned to conduct trapping operations to d e t ermine possible beetle infestation. Ja k sonville, Fla.; Savannah, Ga.; Charl eston, S. c.; Wilmington, N. c.; Wheel ing, W . Va.; Cincinnati, C olum bus, and Cleveland, Ohio; Detroit, Mich. ; Chicago, Ill.; and Albany and R ochester, N . Y., wer e the cities visited. Favorable sites were selected in tho vicinity of steamship piers, freight yards, railroad stations, and parks where traps might be placed. The corn borer office in Toledo has also arranged for c ooperative supervision of the trap tenders working in Ohio, Illinois, and Mic11igan. The Boston USDA Club The regular meeting ~nd informal luncheon of the Boston USDA Club was held at 12 South Market Street, Boston, Mass., on Tuesday, Mar h 24, 1931. Forty-five members and guests attended the meeting, including Commander William F. Amsden, V • s. N., Coordinator, First Area; Captain E. K. Brockway, U.S. A., Assistant Coordinator; R'lr. Philip Rothr ock, Federal Grain Supervision, New York City; and Mr. R . A. Sheals, Plant Quarantine and Control Admini s trntion, Wash i n gton, D. C . Commander Amsden complimented the Club very highly as bein g on e of the most active a nd interesting organiza tions he h a d e ver visited, a nd expressed his hearty approval of such informal gatherings. 1r . C. ialter Collins, Bure u of Entomology, delivered an address on the research work onducted t the Gipsy Moth L bor tory at Melrose Highlands, Mo.ss., and Dr. John N . Summers a nd Mr. s . s. Crossman, Pl:1nt Q,uarsntine and Control Administr tion, briefly cxplnined the moth quara ntine ~nd the control operat i on s . The thrGe films of the Depnrtment devoted t o g~psy and brown-tail moth work were shown. Employees of the Administr,.:. tion h ve always been a.cti ve in tho aff9 irs of the Boston USDA Club. Th o offico of President wns held by M:r. L. H. Vforth ley in 1923, by . Mr. R . I. Smith (d e ea.se d) in 1925, a.nd by Hr . A. F. Burgess

PAGE 30

" " I I , •

PAGE 31

16 -in 1929. Mr. R. s. Clifton has held the office of Secretary-Treasurer since the formation of the Club in 1921. Through a combination of fortuitous ircumstances, the Administration has also contributed very largely toward the success of the Club by being instrumental in providing a convenient meeting place without expense to the Club or the Department. This meeting place is a large room adjoining the European Corn Borer Quarantine Station. Home-made, collapsible tables are used, the chairs are loaned by the Wholesale Grocers' Association, and the "silver, china, and glassware'' service for fifty has been accumulated from the five-and-ten cent stores. A bountiful luncheon (purchased at wholesale r ates and at a minimum cost) is prepared and served in the meeting room, and motion pictures of some interesting activity of the Department are shown. In its ten years of active existence, this Club has entertained many prominent guests, including Federal and State officials, and visitors f r o m foreign countries interested in agriculture. It has performed a real service in bringing together employees of the Department who would not ordinarily come in close contact, and in providing a clearing house for the exchange of ideas and experiences connected with their diversified problems, which has been of benefit to the entire service. Officials of the Department visiting Boston are always welcomed as honored guests. :MEDITERRANEAN FRUIT FLY Fiel d inspection in Florida under Federal auspices was discontinued with the close of work on March 31. Instructions for this step to be taken h a d been transmitted the day before from nr. Strong. A brief news story announcing the action, for publication on the morning of March 31 a nd there after, also was authorized in Mr. Strong's advicss. In this release it was stated that no infestatio~s had been found sine July 25, 1930 . Decision to bring the field work on account of the f . edi terranean fruit fly to a c onclusion at this tL~e followed discussion of conditions, in which Mr. Hoidale participated V7hile at Washin gton earlier in the month, and survey in the State made by Mr. Strong, Mr. Campbell, and D r . Marlatt, on a trip which c om menced March 23 and occupied the four ensuing days. Immediate reduction in personnel at district offices released a total of 170 men, 45 employees, including supervising inspectors and stenographers, having been temporarily retained to complete the records and prepare equipment and property for transfer. The force at the Orlando he~dquarters was also educed by the dismjssal of a numbe r of persons whose services were no longer eq_uired, approximately 40 persons having been kept on here and at the gar~ge. hdditional reductions will follow at an early date, especially with respect to field offices. M hinery and equipment will be disposed of as rapidly as possible, much of it by transfer to other projo~ts of tho Ad..rninistration, tc r t: , 1 ':Ju:r -.. us 0.1. t .1. ~

PAGE 32

,: ... •; , ' , • ''.'(• ,, , .. , . . .-:: { '

PAGE 33

-17 -Department of AgriculturB, or to other departments of the Government. Already more than 50 carloads had been moved from Orlando, in anticipation of the early termination of activities. Records will be assembled in as compact a form as is practicable, for transfer to Washington. Reactions on the part of growers and shippers to the announcement that the Federal field inspectors had been withdrawn were as varied as the previous attitude of the publict oward the work had been lacking in unanimity. Among the better inforned of the leading factors in the fruit and vegetabh industry much concern was expressed as to the possible results of the lac k of protective measures. Opponents of the eradication program , on the other hand, were pleased to lmow that Florida will no longer be under the obso rva tion of the Federal authcr itios. Anticipating the discontinuance of F ederal inspection, tho State Plant Board had included in its budge t , for presentation to the legislature which convenes early in April, r ecommendation for a biennial appropriation large enough to provide scouting inspection a t least once a yeaJ:. Request was also made for renewal of the appropriation for citrus canker inspection, on approximately the same basis. A committee composed of 15 members of the legislature, seeking agreement as to finance and taxation measures, urged elimination of the citrus canker appropriation, on the ground that no infections have bGen reporte d within five years, when, as a matter of fact, one was discoverod about three years ago. During the last ten days of March the State was flooded with rumors pertaining to alleged changes in the system of inspection, and charging that infestations had be e n discovered by field men instructed to find them or lose their jobs. Origin of the whispering campaign apparently was in the f ertile mind of an Orlando insecticide manufacturer, who clains to have been employed in the Department at one time. A contributing cause to the vride dissemination of the reports may have b0en a speech by a member-elect of the Florida legislature, who announced his intention of introducing a bill to abolish tho State Plant Board. In the medley of statements v1hich became current v1ere included allegations that an unreasonable number of inspectors had been concentrated on the properties of grove armers Tiho had objected to eradication procedure, that as high as 20 men had been pl~ce d in single groves or small groups of groves where infestations were found during 1929, that men had been imported from California to establish the continued presence in Florida of the fruit fly, and that in consequence of all these high pressure methods additional infestations had been located in four o r five widely sep.::lrated areas. Numerous meeting s were held in March a t strategic points throughout the citrus belt for discussion of economies in producing grapefruit and oranges. In most cases the Clearing House Associ~tion worked u p the attendance and speakers TTere supplied by the Agricultural Extension Service of the University of Florida. A new process for storing fruit intended to eliminate the necessity for refrigeration is to be eX()loi ted by VI. :r. Hm;rey, developer of a large grove acreage in Lake County. Storage is to be in large steel tanks, from which oxygen has been ejected, nnd the process is the result of experiment by a former Department of Agriculture chemist, in conjunction with a refrigerating engineer. Early in the month the first car of citrus fruit

PAGE 34

' ' ' : " : '. ... , ! ,,: ',! It;: r'.•' ,,.,: ,• . . . ' ' '. ~. ,., •l'•j .r . ; > .: :_,. •: . . :.: . . : ... ) :J,': .-> .;;. : ").(:'• ... .; ... ,•• •: : .Y ,. ' . , . ... L~ : : . . . ' : :: . ( . . •, . . • ' ',. ''!' . I'. 1 • • • • .... . . •. , : '

PAGE 35

-18 -under mechanical refrigeration to be loaded in Florida was shi~ped from the DeLand house of the .American Fruit Growers, Inc. Satisfactory results are reported and a good price was received. Prices for citrus fruits continued to improve, ruling averages at the end of March having been considerably better than those prevailing at the close of February. The firmer tone characterizing the markets applied particularly to oranges, grapefruit not having shown pronounced upward tendencies until late in the month. Speculative buyers, inactive since the early part of the season, resumed operations in many sectio~s, their offers of higher figures on contracts calling for delivery at future dates exerting a disturbing influence on the regular marketing agencies, cooperative and privately owned. H~avy bloom, in most sections equaling that of last year, forecasting another big crop for the 1931-32 season, has caused much discussion, there existing no previous r0cord of two full production years in immediate succession. Agitation for more stringent laws in respect to the shipment of immature citrus fruits gathered momentum in t Carch, and agrcem,.mt as to essential points in tho propose d revision of the existing statutes was reached by a composite commi ttoe, which the Viinter Haven Chamber of Commerce sponsored and included in the membership of which were representatives of the Clearing House Association, of t he Citrus Exchange, and of the StGte DepartITBnt of Agriculture. Delegates f rom the Cor:unittee of Fifty of the Clea.ring House declinedto accept'all of the proposed amendments, contending for even stricter regulations and for transfer of enforcement from the Department of .Aariculture to the State Plant B oard. The acreage and other statistics in relation to the citrus plantings in Florida, compiled by the AGininistration in the prosecution of fruit fly eradication, apparently affording more dependable figures than have been assembled by other agencies, arrangements are in process of ompletion whereby the data will be released to the public through the Bureau of A~i ultural Economics. Requests for the information have been filed by a number of statewide organizations, transportation companies, and similar interests, and it is known that it will be of v alue to the employees in the State of the Crop and Live Stock Division of Economics. At a meeting in Hinter Haven , called by the president of the newly formed Fruitmen's Association, c omposed of grower s and shippers not affiliated with the Clearing House, whic h also was attended by representatives of the latter organization, preliminary steps were also taken looking to a voluntary state-wide bait spray campaign, on much the same plan as that followed last summer, sponsored by the Clearing House Association, distributi n ~ materials purchased fror, 1 the Administration by the State Plant Board. Grove inspection, in an effort to stop the use of arseni sprays, has been inaugurated by Stute Commissioner of Agriculture Nathan 1ayo . " With the virtual ending of the fruit fly work and the lifting of quarantines in ident

PAGE 37

-19 -thereto, all reason or justification for further use of arsenical spray •nas , of course, automatically removed," l iir'. Mayo said. Applications have been continued, however, by growers seeking to reduce the acidity in the fruit, thus permitting earlier shipments complying with the maturity laws. Hearly all the persisting refusals to permit inspection had b e en ove -come before field work was discontinued. A number of the more difficult cases were handled in the last half of .'larc h . In only one instance was t he inspection accomplished through court orde r secured by the State Plant Board . Regarding another refusal, legal proceedings were pending at the end of the month. The biennial report to the Governor from the State Plant Board of Florida officially covers the two-year ~eriod ended June 30, 19 30 . As a greater part of the contents is d evoted to a review and summary of the Mediterranean fruit fly eradication work, this is covered in an incidental way to the date on which the Federal quarantine was lifted, N ovember 15, 1930 . Announcem ont was made by the officia l s of the Florida State Horticul tural Society that invitation to address its Forty-fourth Annual Convention has been accepted by Wu. Strong. D a tes chosen for the meeting are April 14 to 17, inclusive, and it will be h eld in Hiami. The monthly report of the identification di vision for !\'"arch showed the examination of specimens as follows: Mediterranean Fruit Fly Prdje t, negative file, 141,976; Mexican Fruit Worm P roject, negative file, 2,397; Anas trepha file, 562 ; total, 144,935. MEXICAN FRUIT W ORM The host-fee period for the present season was inaugurated March 1. Under the regulations of Quarantine No. 64, all ripe and ripening fruit must be rerro v e d from the trees and placed in approv e d storage previous to March 1. Irmnediately upon the inauguration of the host-free period a heck was made of each bearing tree in the quarantined area to see that no f uit had been overlooked by the grower. In order to omplete this work as soon as possible and to destroy any occasional f ruit missed by the growe~ each inspector was as sisted by three or four laborers. This work was completed in the last district on March 28 . It was found that the growers h d omplied with the reg ulations ex eptionally well this season, it being ne essay to have the oves re leaned by the grower in only a very few cases. In only one se was serious opposition encountered in enforcing the host-free pe •iod. Thi was case in Br ownsville in which the owner of a dozen t ecs in his ba k yard e fused to take tho fruit off. This fruit, about three or four boxes in 11,

PAGE 38

. .

PAGE 39

20 was finally removed about the middle of the month through the efforts of the County Judge, County Attorney, and Chamber of Commerce . In making the tree-to-tree inspection a close watch was kept for alternate host-fruit trees and where found every effort was made to have them destroyed. A total of 383 such trees were destroyed on 100 premises. While the great majority of these trees were seedlings which had come up during the past year, several were old trees that had been maintained by the ovmers since the quarantine became effective. Citrus trees were in full bloom during the first half of the month. Experienced growers state that the trees had the heaviest crop of blooms in the history or the industry in this section. Even two and three year old trees blossomed profusely, and the older tree s set a heavy crop of blooms on the inside as well as on the outside . Present indicatio~s point to the heaviest crop of fruit the coming season that has ever been produced in this section. No infestations of fruit worm were found in locally g rown fruit on either the American or 1i1exican side of the border. Larvae of the fruit fly continue to be found in mangoes reaching the border at ~.r.atamoros and Reynosa. In view of the fact that only a very small amount of fruit ~as held in storage in tho Valley, most of which would be c onsum e d locally, tho rod traffic inspection nork was discontinued on the 21st. Appointments of four agents and fivG collaborators who had assisted during the shipping season in issuing permit stamps for single-box shipments were terminated at the end of the month. A public hearing was held by tho County Commissioners' Court of Hidalgo County on March 30 for the purpose of hearing diccussion s on the advisability of requesting tho Commission8r of Agriculture of Te xas to proclaim a Control Zone, on account of the fruit worm, in Hidalgo County. This hearing was well attended by growers and packers, a number of whom expressed themselves as being very heartily in favor of seeing the work carried on. No opposition developing, the Court unanimously requested the Commissioner of Agri ulture to issue the necessary proclamation. A proclamation had been issued in 1927 creating a Control Zone in this county. Later the general law under authority of which this proclamation was issued was repealed and a new law ena ted by the legislature. It was thought best, to correct any le a l te hni alities, to rehold the hearings and reissue the proclamations under authority of the new law. P INX BOLL WORM The gin~ing of the 1930 otton crop in the re ulated areas was ompleted t he latter part of ~ . I"'rch , total of 336, 25 bales h ving been ginned.

PAGE 40

i•

PAGE 41

-21 -The seven gins in the Juarez Valley an.d Big Bend area, both in L1exico, imme diately adjacent to regulated areas in t he United States, are operate d under regulations similar to ours and are supervised by inspectors of this project. During the past season 11,398 bales of cotton w ere ginned in these two areas. Our records show thn t 8 ,026 more bales of cotton were ginned during the 1929 crop season than during the 1930 season. However, the regulated area did not include the same territory during the two crop seasons. The Salt River Valley of Arizona was not placed in the regulated area until the latter part of October, 1929, and tho greater part of the Wostorn Extension of Texas, or the Big Sprin7 section, was r e leased in N ovember, 1930. It is interesting to note that the ginning season lasted longer this year than was anticipated due to a considerable increase in the amount of bollie cotton usually harvested. Many of the late bolls open only partially or not at all, due principally to cold ~eather:These bolls are picked and run through special machinery to remove the trash and burrs, after which the cotton is ginned in the regular manner. This is what is referred to as bollie cotton. The staple i s shorter and t he grade inferior to regular lint. The increase in the amount of bollie cotton picked resulted fro m the comparatively high prices paid for this class of cotton, bollie lint selling for only a few cents less than middling lint, and bollie seed for only $4 to $6 less than regular seed. In fact, farmers realized more from bollie cotton in some sections than from regular cotton, considering grad e .and staple. All o f the gins have been thoroughly cleane d except some of the last ones to close, at which t he work of cleaning is now in tho process of being completed. On the ~hole, a very fine spirit of cooperation rlas exl~ibited by the ginners. The sterilization of seed has been satisfactory, the avera e efficiency being 97 per cent perbale for the season. Most of the oil mills have completed the season' s operations, 97 per cent of the seed received a t the mills having alrea dy been rushed. A few of the mills are keeping small quantities of seed on hand to be used for plantin0 purposes in case of emergencies. This year 9 5 per cent of the seed produ ed has been shippe d to the various oil mills. At the end of March 87 per cent of the cotton ginn e d had been fumi ated. During the early part of the season most o f the cotton produced in the Juarez Valley of Mexico was shipped to interior points in iexico. The Ame ican price on lint and linters is now resulting in some of that cotton being imported to this country. Since tho gins in tl10 Juarez Valley o op e rated under re ulations similar to ours, the cott~ is allowed to b1.:: imported in bond and fumigated, after which it is handlec in the samo manner as cotton pro du e d in ro0u lated areas in this country. At thu ond of ~.1arch 144 b lcs of 1exican lint and 200 bales of Mexican linters h d been impo ted and fumi ated. The import nee of road stations, even du:rin,~ tho off season, is demonstrated by the fact that 22 confiscations were mado durin T-. a h. Of thi

PAGE 42

: • :,' I • . , . : , . . :t ' .1• } .... 1 . , ; J. ~,. . .. .:, :-: •.! : ... •. • • J ;': .ti . . '•

PAGE 43

-22 -number two lots of m a terial i ntercepted b y G . E . Orr , a t t h e Valentine, Tex., road station, conta i ned spec i mens of t h e p ink b o l lwo rm. On March 7, 7 4 dead larvae were taken from a pillow made of seed cotton, lint, wool, a nd m oh ir. The pillow originated a t Presidio, Tex. , a n d ap peared to b e three or four years old, which probably accounts for t h e fact tha t all o f t he speci mens were dead. This is the largest numbe r of s p e c i mens ever t aken from a n inter-eption at any of our r o a d stations. On '\1arch 11, two de a d larvae were found in some cottonseed and s eed cotton taken from a t ruck. T his material was found between the cab a nd the truck bed. Mention was m a d e i n the March News Lette r regarding the a pproval o f a n appropriation, on February 6, to c o mpensate farn ers in Ar i zo n a for losses s u s tained because of t h e enforced nonproduction of cotton during the 1930 crop season. Since tha t t im e t he Com p e nsation C l a i m B oard has b e e n busily e ngaged in approving and submitting these c l aims. The majority of the c l a i m s hav e already be e n submitte d to Washingt o n for payment. Satisfactory progress i s bei n g made at the San A n t on i o inspection labor atory, 1,589 samples of cotton bolls having been inspected during Marc h . Thes samples represente d fields in Ala bama, G e orgia, M ississi pp i , South Carolina, T ennessee, and Texa s . A tota l o f 3 ,353 sam.ples of 100 boll s each have been inspecte d to date , with negat i v e results. The Pho e n i x , Ariz. , offi ce o f the Pink B o l l w o rm and Thurberia V/eevil project s was recently move d fro m 424 Luhrs Building to 1104 North C entral Street. The mail address is P . o . B o x 1355. PR~IUG SPR_,AD OF MOTHS Except during t h e period irmnediately preceding Chr i s t m as, the inspe -tion of evergreen products is confined almost exclusively to parts of evergreen trees and cut laure l used for decorative purposes. Laurel is used very extensively by florists particularly as a f o und ation for funeral pieces. Shipment of evergreen material s is no t perm i t ted from the generally infested area, a n d practically all of the laurel inspec t e d originates beyond this area in C o nne -ticut. I n add ition to laurel, florists use Southern boxw oo d and Oregon hu kleberry quite extensively. These originate outside of t h e quarantined area and are shippe d u n der permit. In n orthern New Hampshire a considerable amount of balsam is cut to be used in pillows. During March 51 bags of balsam twigs wer e inspected. Empty cable reels, f uelwood, hardwood logs, lum ber, pulpwood, and t ies c omposed t h e bulk of the shipments of forest products inspected a nd ertified. Early in t he s p r i ng each year many long pole s for marking oyste r beds arc ut and shipped fro m t h e distri c t in southern Massachusetts . These are cut i n the

PAGE 44

j • , ' .. ~ :~ 1..

PAGE 45

-23 -swamps and are often infested with gipsy moth egg clusters. On numerous occasions the inspectors are called upon to certify shipments of bird houses. These are constructed of rustic materials which might bear egg clusters, and careful inspection is required. The spring nursery stock shipping season begins in March as soon as the frost leaves the ground. In addition to this, many nurseries dig materials in the fall and store them. Such articles can be and often are shipped earlier. By the end of Mar h practically all of the nurseries located within the quarantined area are in full swing and the dist~ict inspectors often require extra help. Stone and quarry products are inspected and shipped from all parts of New England. They are of all types, rrom rough pieces of stone just as they are taken from the quarries, to finished monumental pieces. Paving blocks and curbing are shipped extensively. Wnen freshly cut, there is small dang0 of their being infested, but often paving blocks remain for years before shipment, and these piles when placed near tree growth form excellent places for the gipsy moths to d eposit their eggs. This necessitates very careful inspection as each block has to be handled. The Commissioner of Agriculture of the State of Maine has recently issuGd quarantines effective April 1, 1931, covering the satin moth, and the gipsy a nd brown-tail moths. The Commissioner of Agriculture of the State of Vermont has also issued regulations pertaining to the satin moth, effective April 1, 1931. These State regulations have been drawn up with the purpose of having them conform with t he Federal regulations. During March two inspectors of this project were temporarily transferred to do transit inspection service, one of them in New York, the other in Chicago. Arrangements have been made with the Transit Inspection Service for the inspectors in Boston to hold packages of small noncommercial shipments, such as wreaths and flowers, found en route in violation of the gipsy moth quarantine and certain other quarantines. The appropri~te inspection organization is inrrnediately notified of such action so that the articles can be inspe ted and allowed to proceed. This action should prevent dolay of such shipments and is especially desirable in regard to materials sent at times of death. Due to the negligible likelihood of satin moth larvae hibernating on the smooth bark of willow twigs, the regulations included in the satin moth quarantine will hereafter be interpreted that willow twigs used in tying bundles of nursery stock are not capable of propag tion and the efore are exempt from the restrictions of these re ulations. On April 11, 1931, the Director of the Plant Industry Bureau of the S~ate of New York released eleven nurseries on Long Island from the State quarantine which became effective a little over a year ago on a count of the gipsy moth. This has been possible as no gipsy moth infestations have been

PAGE 46

' ;'. . . :. : . :,, ; •,• I•', J : ', ',,

PAGE 47

24 discovered on or near these properties during the past season's scouting. The scouting for gipsy moth infestations on Long Island is carried on by the New York State Conservation Department. The brown -tail moth infestation, as indicated by the presence of the hibernating webs, is heavier than usual in southeastern Maine and eastern New Harrpshire. In Maine there is infestation in most of the cities and towns south of Augusta and west to the New Hampshire State line, and in some cases the infestations are heavy, particularly on apple, pear, and cherry. State officials in Maine have notified the proper authorities in the cities and towru: as t o the proper control method s , and the cutting and burning of hibernating webs is being done in some places. Similar work is being done in New Hamp shire by the State and l ocal authorities, as Tioll as by some individuals. In Massachusett s there is a local moth superintendent in oach of the infested towns, and in most cases the hibernating webs of the brown-tail moth are re moved and burned each year. This project recently transferred to the Boston Post Office 25 new tires and 69 inner tubes. Thes0 were of no further uso to this division due to the disposal of certain equipment. The gipsy moth office at Melrose Highlands ~as three 1OOO-foot motion picture reels: One of them shows the life history of the gipsy and brown tail moths and the damage they cause; another illustrates the control work in the Barrier Zone, with views of scouting, creosoting egg clusters, and spraying, and it also has some views of the various types of quarantine inspection work; the other shows views of parasite v,ork, which is carried on by the Bureau of Entomology. These films were sho,,m during 11.'iarch at New arlboro and Sheffield , Mass., in the Barrier Zone, and at a noon meeting of the USDA Club at Boston. The to tovms in the Barrier Zone are located in a se tion that seem s to be particularly favorable for gipsy moth infestation, and close scouting and considerable cleaning, chopping, and spraying are necessary. Under such conditions more contacts are had with the property owners, for they are interviewed to obtain permission to chop or spray on their property. It is not the usual practice to obtain permission from property owners to carry on ordinary scouting work,' Last year we had some difficulty in obtaining permi ts t o spray from a few property owners in these towns, and it is hoped that the showing of the pictures has given the people a clearer understanding of the nature and necessity of the work, and that less objection to the signing o f s pray permits will result. In the April News Letter an idea was given of the meaning of the term "scouting" as applied to gipsy moth work. The te ms " leaning," "chopping,'' "permits,'' and "spraying" are used in the preceding paragra h, and in order that those who are not familiar with the gipsy and brown-tail moth work may have a better understanding of it the following explanation of cleaning and chop ping is given. In a future letter, some details will be iven pertainino to permits and spraying. During the winter months the men doin s~outing work look primarily

PAGE 48

i ' ' • r-. ,,, ' : , . • I ;:. • : '

PAGE 49

-25 -for gipsy moth egg clusters, but occasionally an infestation is discovered by the finding of gipsy moth pupal cases or molt skins. They also watch for the winter webs of the brown-tail moth. These are rather conspicuous, being from two inches to five inches long and usually on the outer twigs of apple, pear, wild cherry, oak, elms, etc. mhe gipsy moth egg clusters are buff colored. They vary in size from one-half inch to two inches in length and from one-half inch to three-fourths inch in width. They are deposited on the trunks and under sides of the branches of practically all kinds of trees and shrubs, also on broken branches lying on the ground, fallen trees, or stone s in the woodlands, and in stone walls, as ,'!ell a s on buildings and on most any debris in the F.oods or in residential sectio~s. Cleaning work is done in sections where gipsy moth infestations are located to get rid of conditions that are favorable for gipsy moth incre s e and th tare difficult to thoroughly scout and spray, such as brambles of growth often intertwined with wild blackberry bushes, bull briars, grapevines, woodbine, poison ivy, etc. Sometimes rivers are bordered by willows and river-birch trees. Often these are large and lean over the water, and are very difficult and ofte n hazardous to examine. Such trees and brambles are cut out and burne d during tho winter as time permits. Much of this ty:9e of work is done on days when the woods are too wet or the light too poor to carry on scouting ~ork, and so it serves the dual ~urpose of keeping the force busy and improving conditions for combating the gipsy moth. Chopping ',rnrk applies in some cases tG thinning operations in woodlands so that spraying canoe dono more oconomically and thoroughly, but often it applies to the chopping of large white oaks or otho r large trees the foliago of which is especially favorable food for t~e gipsy moth caterpillars. 7hese trees are difficult to climb and examine for gipsy moth egg clusters and are costly to spray. Often there are only a fe\-r su h trees in a VToodland or scattered over largo pasture areas. By ren:oving such trees considerable expense is saved in future scouting i,-1ork as 'Nell as in s . raying operations, for on some occasions it is necessary to lay long lines of hose to spray one or two large pasture trees. Arrangements were made during March for the transfer of ten sprayer trucks frcm the Medi terranea..'1 Fruit Fly activity in Florida to this proje t. These will be shipped by ~reight to Pittsfield, ~ass. The trucks will require mechanical chan0es in order to adapt them for gipsy moth spraying work, as unusually.high pressure is required when long lines of hose are laid out, as is often necessary. An engineer of the Bureau of Public Roads is preparing the specifications for these changes. Appointments were made during March of 65 Agents, who are paid on the basis of time actually employed, the rates ranging from f~4.24 to t4. 56 per day. Thirty-seven agents were appointedat an annual salary of $1500. During March there were 60 violations eported of Quar antine Jo. 45. Sixteen of these violations were also violations of Quarantine No. 53, and one of them also violated Quarantine No. 63. All of th0se violations were intercepted by transit inspectors. As far as investigations of these violations have been made, they were of a minor natui-e, due to i0no an e of the quarantine on the part of the shipucr or misundt.:rstand ing on the p rt of the

PAGE 50

-: ,'( /. ,I, :

PAGE 51

-26 -transportation agents. No prosecutions we~ e instituted. Information eon cerning quarantine requirements was given by investigating inspectors of this project in all cases where t~e partie s could be located. Because of adverse scouting conditions due to an unusually heavy fall of snow, all men excepting two SI~all crews workin0 in the Massachusetts portion of the Barrier Zone were transferred durin0 the second week in March to southwestern Connecticut where working conditions were more satisfactory. By the end of the month snow conditio!ls in western Massachusetts were much improved and it is expected that the men will be tre.nsferred back to the Massachusetts section of the area to complete the scouting program planned there for this season. It will also be necessary to r esurJe cleaning operations in towns where infestations are k:nm'7n to exist as there is a considerable araount of this type of work to be done before the sprayin season begins. Scouting work was carried on during Mo.rl;1l in the Barrier Zone in 12 towns in Connecticut, 7 in Massachusetts, and 2 in Vermont~ In 7 of these towns the work was close s couting around the sites of gip s y moth infestations discovered and treated during the previous year. The s couting in the other towns was the 40-foot strip method described in the previous News Letter. Work was completed in 2 towns in Conne ticut, with negative results. The s couting has resulted in finding infestations in several towns, but so far the towns of New r.Iarlboro, Sandisfield., and Sheffield, Mass., are more seriously infested than any others in the Zone . Scouting work was continued by the New York Conservation Department in 6 towns in a section of the Zone i n Ne~ York State nd on Long Island. As a result of this work no infestations have b een reported other than those mentioned in the previous News Letter. On Long Island the work was d one in the townships of North Hempstead and Oyster Bay, in Nas"au County, and in the township of Huntington, in Suffolk County. North Hempstead was complete d about the middle of i.1arc h and the crews tha t had been 1orkin:, in this township were transferre d to the tovvnship of Huntington. The ooperative work between Federal and State offi es in New Jersey has not discovered any infestati on in this State. The s outin work planned for the township of Brid gewater was f i nished a bout the middle of the month and the crews were transferred to Pis ataway To'Nnship to wor k in the vicinity of the gipsy moth infestation whi h was located there i n May, 1929 . It is expected that the vmrk in Pis ataway and Hillsboro Townships will be finished about the middle of Apr il. If no further infes t a t ions are found, this will complete the s ,outing ~ork planned for New Jersey for this eason ex ept for checking up work i n the v i ini ty of infestations that ';;rere dis overed in the townships of lJorth Plainf ield and Warren during the fis 1 year 19 8 . The inspe~tion of nursery nd forest produ ts in New Tersey and on Long Island in reased materially durin the month. There is no Fe de al qua -antine on a ount of th~ gip s y moth in New Jersey or on Lon g Island, u t the infested areas are quarantined b y State regulations whi hare enfor ed by the Federal Government. Severa l nurseries .11,1ere releasen f om th , tate q u a n tine on Long Island, as mentione d earlier in these news items.

PAGE 52

. . . ' UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA II I II IIIIII Ill Ill lllll lllll Ill llll lllll llll llll 11111111111111111 3 1262 09245 0914 • • ' 1 .' • • ' I ~ . , . • , t • : . ' ' ! ; . . • ' . . , . . , . . . : . •. -: ,. : ; . : : ' : .. . : ,', . , . , . . . . ' .. , . .'. : . _,: \ \t J } . • . ; r . :_; :''. . i: • ' • _• _ ; . . . . '/ •• .• • !'. • ' • ' -••• ,. ... '~r , ' . : ; -.: . '.: . . . , . . . . . . .. . . : ., , . . . . . . : •) • :• '. 1 •. ' • .' : • ' • : • • ,; ' : • • I . . . ' : . : ' . . . . . . ...._._. 1~1 .j: .: '.. . '; .:. . . ': . : . . . ' ' . . ' ., / . • •,, < • r • • • , • . • ' ~ J ' • . • ' • : J • . • • • • • I I > . ' . . . •' , . , . . . . ' : . j . . . . 1 ' ' • ' • . . . . . ... ' . . . . ' . I \ I , I I