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News letter

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Title:
News letter
Creator:
United States -- Plant Quarantine and Control Administration
Place of Publication:
Washington, D.C.
Publisher:
Plant Quarantine and Control Administration
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Frequency:
Monthly
Language:
English

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Subjects / Keywords:
Plants -- Diseases and pests -- Control -- Periodicals -- United States ( lcsh )
Genre:
serial ( sobekcm )
federal government publication ( marcgt )

Notes

Dates or Sequential Designation:
Began with: no.1 (Jan. 1931)
Dates or Sequential Designation:
Ceased with: no.18 (June 1932)
General Note:
"Not for publication".

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Source Institution:
University of Florida
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This item is a work of the U.S. federal government and not subject to copyright pursuant to 17 U.S.C. §105.
Resource Identifier:
030428070 ( ALEPH )
785786312 ( OCLC )
2012229621 ( LCCN )

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Full Text







N E V'S L ET T ER


*PLANT QUARANTINE' AND- CONTROL ADMINISTRATION

UINTED STATES DEA?'fENT1 OF AGRICULTURE





INumber 14 (NOT FOR PtJILICATION) February lt1, 9432.



TCBNOLOGICA

The, laboratory at White Horse,-N. 5.,.erocted by the-State of TNTew
Jeprey for 'oboper ative work, with this: Administration on probee~ OC~f the
control of Japanese beetle, is. compTleted.. ,It is a one-story building, 52 by 24 feet, with a well liohted main laboratory, 36 by.24 feet, -and three smaller rooms for preparation rooms and offices. The chemical work on determining the arsenic content of nursery plots treated with arsenate of 1044 for the destruction, of larvae 7o! 57)Yanese beetle' -in the* soil about
nursery stock tViat is to be shipped from-the regulated area will be carried
on here. This work was done by the Japanese beetle laboratory at Moorestovnk.while the treatment was still in the experimental stage and has just
-,beea iaken over b. tt"Adminrst~ration this season. :.The analytical work will
-be healed by G.~.Russell, formerly of the-Buireau of Plant. Industry,, and
more recently research chemist with'th&'Vick Chemical Company at Greensboro, N. C., The laboratory isl well equipp.eidfor' determining arsenic in soils, and 'the work of and1sis-bf.f-sev' -ral hiindred*soil- amplos from- various plots will
begin in March.- .FOREIGN PLANT &UARAIE INE S

-RECENT ENTOMOLQrGICAL --INlTlC ONSlll OF Il7TERE

-Mediterranean fruit fly from.Italy.--Thirteen living larvae of the
Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis caitt Wied.) weri7 intercepted at New
York in or~anges 1n baggage from Italy. .Eighty-five living larvae of the
same f ruit. fl1y were also :intercepted at New York- in, tahgtxrines in baggage
-from Italy.

Apple maggot in tejocotes.--Li'ving larvae of the apple maggot,
4hglei gomonela Walsh, were intercepted at N~gales, Ariz,, in tojocotes
~~ from GuadalaJdr ', 1,xio








Thrips from South Africa.--A thrips intercepted at Philadelphia on cut flowers of Ornithogalum sp. from iSouth Africa is commented on by J. R. Watson, of Gainesville, Fla., as follJws: "This insect is Haplothrips bagnali (Trybom), apparently a common thrips in blossoms in South Afrita, but not known to be present in this country. From the habits of the thrips, it might be a rather serious pest if introduced."

Iris infested with thrips.--Bregmatothrips iridis Watson was inter- cepted at Washington, D. C., on bearded iris leaves in the mail from Paris, France. J. R. Watson reports that this thrips is confined to the Netherlands, Belgium, France, and England.

Dipterous larva in endive.--A living larva of Agromyza pinguis Fallen (Agromyzidae) was intercepted at New York in an outer leaf of endive (Cichorium intybus) in cargo from Belgium. This agromyzid is not recorded from the continental United States.

Philippine termite.--The termite Kalotermes (Neotermes) malatensis Oshima was intercepted at Honolulu, Hawaii, in a wooden support of an orchid in cargo from the Philippines. T. E. Snyder, of the Bureau of Entomology, states that this is a Philippine species.

Pentatomid with bananas.--Mormidea ypsilon (Linn.) (Pentatomidae) was intercepted at San Francisco with bananas in cargo from Panama. This pentatomid was taken previously with bananas from Costa Rica.

Weevil in sapodillas.--Larvae of Conotrachelus sp. (Curculionidae)
were found by Max Kisliuk, Jr., and C. E. Cooley, in sapodillas (Achras sapota) in a market at Port of Spain, Trinidad,, October-ll, 1931.
Inga setifera pods infested.--Larvae of Stenoma sp. (Stenomidae) were found by Max Kisliuk, Jr., and C. E. Cooley, in Inga setifera pods in a market at Port of Spain, Trinidad, October 18, 1931.

Scale insect on cactus.--The coccid Lepidosaphes (Opuntiaspis) philococcus (Ckll.) was intercepted at San Ysidro, Calif., on a cactus plant in baggage from Puebla, Mexico.

Globe artichokes infested with a weevil.--Larvae of Apion carduorumn Kirby (Curculionidae) were intercepted at New York in globe artichokes in cargo from Belgium. This weevil, which is not recorded from the continental United States, has also been taken in globe artichokes from France and Italy.

Tortricid intercepted.--Amorbia emigratella Busck (Tortricidae) was
intercepted at San Francisco on rose in quarters from Hawaii. This leaf roller has also been intercepted at San Francisco on chrysanthemum from Hawaii and on gladiolus and rose from Japan.

Coreid from Central America.--An adult of Capaneus odiosus Stal (Coreidae) was intercepted at Charleston, S. C., on bananas in cargo from Guatemal This coreid has also been taken on bananas from Costa Rica, Honduras, and





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Panama.

.Citrus blackfly from the Philippines.--The citrus. blackfly (Aleurocanthus woglumi Ashby) was intercepted at San Francisco on mango plants in cargo from the Philippines. This represents the.first definite record in our files of the interception of the citrus blackfly from the Philippines.

RECENT PATHOLOGICAL INTERCEPTIONS OF INTEREST

Sclerotinia minor, which was intercepted in December, 1930, on
"witloof" (Cichorium intybus) from Belgium (see p. 5 of the News Letter for March, 1931), was intercepted at New York six times on witloof from Belgium during December, 1931.

Nemas infesting taro root from China were determined by the Division of Nematology as a new species of Cephalobus. It is believed that some nematodes in this group are parasitic at times. The specialist indicated that the nemas in this case were "saprophytic?." The interception was made at Detroit.

Oospora citri-aurantii was intercepted at Boston on an orange from
Algeria. This disease is not-listed inFawcett an:d Lee as occurring in any part of Africa.
Recent interceptions at the Inspe'tion House.in Washington include the following: Phyllost.icta argyrea on Eleagnus macrophylla from England, P. epimedii on Epimedium peraldianum from Holland, P. tinea on Viburnum davidfi from England, Colletotrichum hedericola on Hedera sp. (caenwoodiana?) from England, Ciliophora sp. on peduncles of flowers of Verticordia nitens from Australia, Ascomycetella sp. on Euphorbia sp. from South Africa, and Cytosporella sp. (possibly C. pinicola) on spruce cones from Germany.

The Phyllosticta spp. and Colletotrichum were causing leaf spots not known or not widely distributed in the United States. The Ciliophora is probably not of much economic importance but being rare is of interest to the mycologists. The Ascomycetella does not fit any of the known species as described. No record of a Cytosporella on spruce in Euro.pe sould .be found.

KISLIUK AND COOLEY FIND FRUIT FLIER IN BRAZIL

(Excerpt from letter of C. E. Cooley and
Max Kisliuk, from Rio de .Janeiro., Nov. 28, 1931.)

"In another commercial gr6ve in this section, containing some 20,000 trees of 'Natal' oranges, we found Ceratitis capitata adults quite abundant, and the fruit more heavily infested than in any other grove yet.visited. In about two-and one-half hours'time, we collected 42 adult C. capitata, 2 adult Anastrepha fraterculus, and 2 adult A. serpentina, on about six or seven trees in this grove. It was interesting to note the attitude of the owner, who followed us through -the grove. He stated that there was no fruit fly in






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his grove, and when shown the infested fruit hanging on the trees, with the juice actually dripping from the exit holes made by the larvae, he replied with the remark that that was only the 'juice of the moon.' He explained that when his trees bloomed at the wrong time of the.moon, the fruit always dripped with juice like that, when it got ripe. .It was particularly interesting to note all three species, C. capitata, A. fraterculus, and A. serpentina, all working on these oranges at the same time, and sometimes all three species in the same tree."

ALL STAGES OF FRUIT FLY FOUND IN ONE SHIPMENT

W. H. Freeman, of the port inspection service in New York, calls
attention to an unusually interesting interception of Mediterranean fruit fly made December 16, 1931, in a box of tangerines, oranges, and sweet limes from Italy. In this shipment an egg mass (cluster of eggs in egg cavity) was found in one of the oranges, 6 larvae in a tangerine, 15 pupae in the .paper packing, and 1 adult at large in the box, thus presenting all stages of the life cycle in this one package.

CUBAN LIMA BEANS MOVE INTO SOUTHERN STATES

For some years there has existed an understanding with the trade that Cuban Lima beans, permitted entry at the port of New York only, and during the period November to March inclusive, should not be shipped to points south of Baltimore and St. Louis. This agreement was reached because of the occurrence of the bean pod borer (Maruca testulalis) in Cuba, and since 1930 the finding of the scab disease. (Elsinoe canavaliae) on Cuban Lima beans has made this restriction on the distribution of these beans doubly desirable 'as a safeguard for the southern bean industry. In the past two years there have been strong indications that this understanding was not being fully observed,.since Cuban Lima beans 'have been repeatedly found as far south as Washington,t D. C. Recently Mr C. B. Beamer, of the transit inspection force in New York City, has undertaken to gather information on the southward movement of these Cuban beans, and reports on December 15, 1931, that two shipments have been observed destined to Camden, S. C., and to Charleston, S. C. A later report covers some 40 other lots of Lima beans of Cuban origin shipped from New York markets, all of which, however, were billed to near-by towns in New York and New Jersey.

PORT CHANGES

On December 29 the New York office was moved from 45 Broadway to
the remodeled Appraisers' Stores Building at 641 Washington Street. This move will result in a considerable saving to the Administration, as no rent will be charged for the new quarters.

A new port inspection ..station was opened on January 11 at Blaine, Wash. J. W. Stanton will handle the work at this port under the general supervision of A. G. Webb at Seattle.

Changes in personnel made by the California State Department of
Agriculture have led to the transfer of Fred C. Brosius, Collaborator in






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Chsrge of Port Inspection, San Francisco, Calif., to Oakland, Calif.*

Mr. Brosiu. has been in charge of the Federal plant quarantine inspection activities at San Francisco since January 21, 1924. His keen interest and untiring efforts have largely contributed to the successful enforcement of the Federal plant quarantines at that important port. The Administration has always recognized the high caliber of his services as a collaborator and appreciates the interest he has always shown in the conduct of Federal enforcement measures.

Mr. Brosius is succeeded by H. 1. Armitage, until recently Deputy Agricultural Commissioner of Los Angeles County, Calif.; whose appointment as collaborator of the Administration became effective November 1, 1931. The San Francisco offices have been moved from the Ferry Building, the new address being Agricultural Building, Room 24.

HIDING THEM FROM THE INSPECTOR

The port inspectors at New Orleans maintain a file listing all the strange and unusual places in which articles are concealed aboard ship in order to escape inspection. Each inspector is given the complete file in the form of indexed cards giving vessel, date, material, quantity, owner (if known), and the place of concealment. The New Orleans office claims the following advantages for this practice: It develops a more thorough system of inspection of ships for contraband; reduces to a minimum attempts on the part of ships' officers and crew to "put something over on us"; keeps each inspector informed as to what the other is finding; furnishes advance information as tq what is to be expected on a given vessel; serves as a manual of instruction in training new inspectors; creates an interest to be a "finder" and, last but not least, helps us to not appear so dumb to those whom we try to keep straight--the ships' officers and crew.

It is interesting to note some of tie recent entries in this file:

Ten orange trees, hidden under rope in Doop deck, from Honduras; 3 mangoes foundunder pots in galley, and one found under pillow in crew's quarters; 10 mangoes submerged under rice in rice bin in dry store-room, from Cuba; 9 mangoes wedged between bananas next to stalk (in bunch) in first assistant engineer's room, from Honduras; 2 mangoes under bedding in' bunk, right-hand side, forward, crew's quarters, from Guatemala; 1 mango under tomatoes in icebox, from Mexico; 10 avocados and 11 peaches under bread in icebox, from Honduras; 12 oranges in fireman's quarters forward in locker behind two suitcases, from Nicaragua; 2 sweetpotatoes (Ipomoca batatas) in mattress in compartment No. 1, crew's quarters, from Nicaragua; 5 oranges under bread in breadbox in pantry, from Mexico; and l papaya, hidden under sack of garlic in icebox, from Canal Zone,

MEDITERRANEAN FRUIT FLY STILL TRIES TO ENTER

One of the chief functions of Quarantine No. 56, the Fruit and Vegetable Quarantine, is to prevent the introduction into this country of fruit flies, and particularly the Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata), which object










is Accomplished by shutting out host fruits and vegetables from countrie-s known to be infested. With such a prohibitory measure in effect all danger of the entrance of this fruit fly would seem to be removed, theoretically at least. But in many cases the theoretical danger and the actual danger do not coincide; the latter may be greater or less than theoretical-considerations would indicate, according to circumstances.

Is there any way of arriving at the actual danger in this case? Yes;* if we look into the matter through'the eyes of the port inspector who examined the actual materials themselves and thus meets the problem face to face as a stern reality, it ought to be possible to determine fairly accurately the safety or danger of actual conditions.

If we thus look through his borrowed eyes we see at once that forbidden fruits and vegetables are still knocking at the door for entry, not only in spite of the quarantine as cargo, .but in baggage, ships' stores, passengers' belongings, crews' effects, and parcel post. Are these materials likely to carry fruit fly? Let the records of the port inspectors tell the tale.

From April 1, 1930, to December 26, 1931, 59 lots of prohibited frUits and vegetables coming from 9 countries were intercepted at 15 different ports, These included 20 kinds of fruit and vegetable hosts of the Mediterranean fruit fly. In 43 of the 59 lots this insect was found to be present as follows: Orange, lots intercepted, 14, lots infested, 11; loquat, 3 3; mango,
6 1; fig, 17- 0; avocado, 4 0; lemon (over-ripe) 1 1; prickly pear,1 1 '; pepper, 3 1; tangerine, 8 7; citron, 2 2; mandarin orange, 1 1; sweet lime, 2 2; cotoneaster seed, 2 2; pear, 2 2; peach, 4 4; grape (leaf), 1 1; almond, 1 1; sorbus, 1- 1; apple, 1 1; persimmon, 1 1. In all cases the identification was made by Bureau of Entomology experts.

The records further show a high degree of infestation in'scae of these cases. The following are quoted: Seven of the pears contained 67 larvae; 7 tangerines, 70 larvae, one of these fruits having 30; 4 peaches, 35; 1 peach, 14; 1 lemon, 16; and 1 orange, 11. There were taken from the 43 lots of in~fes,ted host fruits and vegetables 568 larvae and 45 pupae, or 613 in all. ThE average insect infestation of these lots is-thus 14.2. Further, if it were assumed that any lot containing 10 or more larvae would be capable of introducing fruit fly successfully if it was dropped into proper surroundings, ther 17 of these infested lots could be considered distinctly dangerous.

Are we not justified in concluding that considerable danger of fruit fly introduction still exists and that the vigilance of the port inspectors continues to be our only real defense against this pest?

In the December, 1931, News Letter, the statement was made that Aleyrodes azaleae B. & M. was not known to occur in continental United States. Sinc then a letter has been received from G. B. Merrill, Gainesville, Fla., pointing out that his records showed the occurrence of this whitefly at four locali ties in Florida and one in South Carolina.






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DOIESTIC PLANT QUARANTINES

TRANSIT INSPECTION

The inspection schedules at Chicago have been rearranged for the
'light shipping season from January to March in order to dlinate need for overtime and reduce the number of tours in which the daily duty is divided into separate morning and evening periods of employment.

Thirty-five potted Christmas trees, with roots and soil, from one
shipper in New York City were intercepted by transit inspectors at railway terminals in that city on December 18 and 19. The shipments were consigned without Japanese beetle certificates to points in the nonregulated territory.

The first violation of the phony peach disease quarantine found for
the season was intercepted by H4 J# Conkle at 'ashington, D. C., on January 7.

It is not unusual for inspectors examining interstate shipments to
find violations of foreign plant quarantines. A. W. Clark, checking shipments at Boston for compliance with regulations relating to the gipsy moth and brown-tail moth, as well as other domestic plant quarantines, recently intercepted a shipment containing fivo-leaf pine boughs from Nova Scotia en route to California. The port inspector at Boston, W. G. Bemis, on being notified of the discovery of these boughs entering the United States in violation of the Federal quarantine, whicb prohibits their importation from Canada, Europe,
-and Asia, promptly removed and dcstroyod the boughs. The white-pine blister rust is not known to have reached the valuable forests of sugar pine and other five-leaf pines of California.

Twenty-five ears of corn being shipped as feed with a hog from Burford, Ontario, to Salem, Oreg., were recently seen in transit at Chicago by Inspector M. Moran. Burford is in that part of Canada generally infested with the European torn borer. Action was taken to arrange for the destruction at destination of any corn in the shipment which may have came from Canada or from areas in the United States that are regulated under the European corn borer quarantine,

At St. Paul and Minneapolis, all foreign plant material passing through the Customs Bureau is examined by the transit inspector, George W. Nelson. During the fall of 1931, 43 packages of foreign plant material were inspected, of which 8 were diverted to 7'ashington, 20 refused entry, 3 destroyed, and 12 released. All mail matter from foreign countries liable to customs duties entering'the 'United States through New York, Chicago, San Francisco, and Seattle, and destined for Minnesota through New York and Chicago for North and South Dakota, and through San Francisco and Seattle for points in Wisconsin, is examined by customs at St. Paul before redispatch to destination. In addition, considerable Canadian mail from the provinces of Saskatchewan, Ontario, Manitoba, and British Columbia to points as far east as Vermont, south to Georgia, and west to California, is examined at the St. Paul Customs Bureau. Packages containing plant material are referred to the transit inspector of the Administration there.








A list of nursery stock shipments moving without State nursery inspection certificates attached is received from the Chicago office. The list shows that 256 such shipments were seen by inspectors of the Central States during a period of slightly less than four months, ending December 15. These were reported to the nursery insp ctionoffidlis of the States concerned, as probable infringements of the State regulations. The parcel-post shipments, which included 75 per cent of the total, were reported to the Post Office Department as infringements of the postal,.regulati.on requiring a State nursery inspection certificate in shipping woody plants. The number given does not include-those wh i0 also constituted violations of Federal plant quarantines.

The Administration is at present assisting the Solicitor in assembling records of. decisions in State courts on cases relating to plant quarantines and pest sutppRession. Inthis work the active cooperation of the State nursery inspection and plant quarantine officers is being received. I),is anticipated that .the decisionswill be arranged for publication, at least in abstract form, when assembled.

NARCISSUS INSPECTION

Reports from State. officers on the bulb inspection work of 1931 have
now been received.from ;narly all States and the results eare.being tabulated.

S-. PHONY PEACH DISEASE

Quarantines restricting the intrastate movement within Texas and Illinois of peach and.-nectarine trees and roots, on account of the phony peach .disease,' have been issued by-these States. These are in addition to the Nort Carolina. quarantine reputed last month. The Administration is now in corres pondence with the plant quarantine officials of Arkansas, Florida, and Tennes see regarding the provisions of similar State quarantines pending in those States.

S- The States included in the area quarantine by the Federal Department on. account of the::-phony-peach disease conferred, at New Orleans on December 28 regarding appropriate- restrictions to prevent the further spread of. infection within' the-States through the intrastate movement of. nursery stock.




S. .. DATE SCALE -.

In December intensive scouting of the Salt River and Yuma Val-eys was begun to'locate unlisted palms., Most of this territory can be easily scouted but properties not cultivated.for a few years and.waste land along-irrigation canals are generally covered withdense growths of desert brush.and,,weeds whi sometimes hide small abandoned date palms, '

In the Yuma Valley along the Colorado River there is quite an ara
thickly-overgrown with timber, brush,.and weeds in which are a number of small clearings where farming is or has been carried on. Quite often date, palms ai







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found in these clearings, either grown from seed or from offshoots. As the area around the city of Yuma was once-~generally infested, there is a possibility that some of' these palms are infested.

Intensiv 'e scouting is now being carried on over the entire date-growing area and it is hoped that all date palms in the area will be located.




EUROPEAN CORN BORER AliT) JAPANESE BEET'LE

General Project News

Project functionings during December mainly consisted of work preparatory to seasonal enforcement of the European corn borer and the Tapanese beetle quarantines in the periods of maximum field activities. Headquarters officials were engaged much of the time on the pending revisions of the regulations. Nuerous conferences and considerable correspondence with State plant pest officials were conducted. Clerical help mostly was employed in comnpilation of records and in arranging to inform other personnel in reference to the new requirements. Mechanical employees had a busy month in repairing and reconditioning equipment.

On December 1, Administration officials conferred in Harrisburg with
Pennsylvania department of agriculture officers concerning changes in the regulated areas under both the European corn borer and Japanese beetle quarantines. Details were discussed between Mrt'. Strong, Chief of the Administration, Mr. Worthley, the project leader, and Mr. Bell, Director of the State Bureau of Plant Industry. Understandings reached were approved by the Pennsylvania Secretary of Agriculture, Mr.-McSparr-an. Changes decided upon in the territory covered by the beetle quarantine were included in the revision announced on December 12. In reference to the corn borer, it is planned to modify existing boundaries in a minor degree only.

A general conference on the extension within New Jersey of the areas
under regulation in consequence of the corn borer quarantine was held at Trenton, on December 21. Agricultural leaders, county agents, farmers, growers, and shipping organizations were represented. State Secretary of Agriculture Duryee, Bureau Chief Weiss, and Entomologist Headlee were present as the New Jersey official delegation, and Messrs. Worthley, Crossman, and Bartley, from the South Norwalk headquarters, appeared for the Administration. Agreement
was reached to recommend the placing of approximately four-fifths of the State under the provisions of the two-generation quarantine, including all portions except the southwestern section.

New York plant pest control agencies were consulted at Albany, on December 4, by Mr. W~orthley, in charge of the European corn borer and Japanese beetle project of the Administration, as he was returning from a trip to Chicago in connection with the corn borer exhibit at the International L~ive Stock Exposition. In the enforced absence of Commissioner of Agriculture Pyrke, Assistant








Commissioner Norgord and Director Yan Buren, of the Bureau of Plant Industry, represented the State. New boundaries of the part of New York regulated on account of the beetle are indicated in the revised quarantine. Recomnendstions in respect to the borer contemplate addition to the two-generation area of considerable territory in the eastern portion of the State.

Repair shops at the South Norwalk headquarters in December serviced and prepared for road use 39 half-ton trucks, changing gas and oil, fixing ignition and lighting systems, straightening fenders, and attending to minor deficiencies. Ten light cars and 14 large trucks wore completely overhauled-drive and rear shafts, motors, steering gear, and transmission, In addition, bodies, curtains, and tops of trucks were repaired, car, washed and polished, both cars and trucks were repainted, and repairs were gi on to lighting and power plants and to tents. In the stock room, all car and truck tools and supplies and quarantine line equipment were sorted and placed in bins, with nane stencilled thereon, many fittings and parts 'ere cbved. to quarters where they will be more e-i essible, and keyboard for 350 cars was -re- arange1d, and numerous ct.her- sifilJar tecks were performed. MisceIaneous cranisactions on the part b cf mechanical employees included removal from.outh Norwalk to the army d.pot at N1ew Cumberland, Pa., of six trucks and one trailer, checking and soldering of 11,000 beetle traps, and like activities. Springfield, Ohio, subheadquarters forces were active during the period on related work pertaining to machinery and supplies. All project field equipment is made a bronze green as repainted and the Department and Administrdtion shield placed on trucks in decalcomania, greatly improving the appearance.

Training schools-for'employees of th@ European corn borer and Japanese beetle project, current items concerning which appeared in suzmer issues of the Administration News Letter, are of major importance in providing competent and informed personnel. 'Additional facts in relation to this phase of project activities, collected in Deember for transmission to the Bureaq of Personnel and Business Administratior of the Department, furn'ished a more complete picture of the schools than heretofore has been assembled. In the western section of corn borer control, the special training courses were inaugurated in 1926, in the central section they were started during 1928, and for exclusive Japanese beetle purposes the first was conducted in 1929. In 1926 and 1927, however, the western section schools also applied scouts for the central section. Only one school on corn borer control was held in 1926, but in 1927 three were conducted. From 1928 to 1931, inclusive, annually there was a single general training unit in the western section and another in the central. Expenses of the undertaking principally have been provided through special assignments of regular personnel. Western section corn borer schools have been attended by an average of approximately 375 men, and the central section courses 'by about 100. In the western section schools 7 instructors usually are engaged, in the- central section2, and in the Japanese beetle division there have been as many as 11. Many of the instructors 'have college degrees; others possess long experience in field practice. Students failing to perform satisfactorily, or failing to pass examinationsheld at the-close of the school either are dismissed or transferred to duties requiring lesser qualifidations. All courses closely parallel actual field Work and are designed with special reference to the practical side of things. Corn borer'school students in fact devote nearly 90 per cent of the period to field'demonstrations and practice,






while in the beetle school a somewhat greater proportion of attention has been paid entomological aspects. All available data appear to definitely indicate direct and worth-while results from the training schools, observable in the increasing efficiency and improved diplomacy of .the employees who come into contact with the public.

Specialized Corn Borer Activities

At the conclusion, on December 5, of the International Live Stock Exposition in Chicago, which had opened on November 28, as reported in-'the last issue of the News Letter, it was estimated. that 75,000 persons had viewed the E~ropean corn borer exhibit prepared at western section'headquarters. Deep interest in the 'material shown was manifested up to the end of the event. Both city and country people in-large numbers operated the mechanical questions and answers device. Corn belt farmers manifested-particular concern in respect to the control section of the display.. The quarantine enforcement part also attracted a great many people,-as did the portion devoted to seasonal activities and development Of the borer. Three men from the Administration were assigned.tb the exhibit, with alternating shifts so that two Department representatives were on duty at all times. Sixty-one samples of corn containing 616 ears, submitted by 50 growers, had been heat-treated at the Springfield offices. Twenty-one of the lots were from Michigan, 15 from Indiana, 10 from Ohio, 7 from New York, 7 from Pennsylvania,' and 1 from Ontario, Canada. Of this treated corn, that from Michigan: was awarded 10 prizes; Indiana had 13 prizes out of 15 lots; Ohio's received 6; the New York -sanples, 1; all of Pennsylvania's 7 were prize winners.

Report of the second annual field dsy and European corn'borer conference at Berkley Farm on September 17, 1931, was distributed during the early part of December to Department-officials and-others interested in control of the borer. In connection with the mailing out of copies, a new and up-to-date mailing list was compiled, assembling' the addresses of State department of agriculture officials, agricultural experiment station and extension officers, college of agriculture staff members, county agents, and related personnel associated with
plant pest work in Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Jersey, New Hamnpshire, Rhode Island, and Vermont. Delay in issue of the report, which was produced entirely in the South Norwalk headquarters of the project, was due to the fact that it was handled by employees having other major duties, in odd moments of spare time. The book contains 48 pages and covers, and includes considerable material explanatory of the Berkley .demonstration-farm, in addition to reproductions in full of the addresses delivered on the occasion of the field day and conference. A few extra copies-are available,.and persons associated with other projects wh9 may wish to fead'the'report should make application for it
promptly, through their official'superiors. .

Clean-up work as a control measure was completed about the middle of
December in the vicinity of the isolated infestation found some weeks earlier, at Temperanceville, Va. Approximately 35 acres of land were covered in the operations, which consisted of plowing 22 acres and handpicking some 13 acres
-seeded to rye, as well as four-small gardens, for disposal of crop remnants. Corn stubble on the land plowed was from 3-to 7 inches high, and in most cases the soil had been ridged, rendering it more than ordinarily difficult to obtain






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complete coverage. Results regarded as practically 100 per cent efficient were secured, however, by frequent adjustments of the equipmentiused. Stalk shavers widened to 46 inches for the 60-inch rows were found to work splendidly. Much interest in the undertaking was manifested by farmers, who came from all parts of the county to observe the operations and to get information concerning the corn borer. The county agent was present much of the time. Equipment was supplied from the South Norwalk headquarters and in the undertaking the Administration had the cooperation of the Bureau of Agricultural Engineering and the Virginia Department of Agriculture.

Inspectors of the Rhode Island State department of agriculture now are engaged in a survey of corn-growing sections in that State and checking up farmers who failed to comply with the law in relation to plowing under all corn stubble by December 1# In this connection, over 4,000 notices were posted, several radio talks were delivered, and a number of press releases were issued, citing the law and the necessity for clean-up Work at the ,proper time1 Persons who have failed to comply with the law are notified to appear before the Commissioner of Agriculture for hearings. Over seven hundred offenders appeared last year and were warned to clean up their premises. The Departmeni intends to impose penalties on all second offenders found this year.

Movement of cut flowers from the wholesale markets in New York City,
requiring certification or permitting under the corn borer quarantine, decreaE ed considerably in December, except in respect to gladioli, on which there waE an increase. Gladioli from the Southern States began to arrive early in the month and they were present in fairly large quantities by the middle of the ,period. Green corn on the cob, from Florida, was received in about the same amonts as during November, at the wholesale produce markets. More permits for shipments to points outside.the regulated area were issued this month that last, but the total number of packages moved was somewhat less.

Through the offices of the western section of corn borer control, the recommendations approved by the Administration regarding the location of the quarantine lines for 1932 were presented to the officials of the Departments of Agriculture in the various States concerned. In no case were the proposed revisions of the regulated area for the one-generation strain of the borer notably extensive, though some expansion was made necessary by the findings of new infestations and the showings as to greater density of infestation recorded last season. On December 31, all of the interested States except Ohio had signified their concurrence in the proposed changes.

Exhibit of material illustrating the habits and life history of the corn borer and of machinery for control of the pest, to be made at Trenton, N. J., January 26 to 29, was planned and in part prepared for during December. The New Jersey department of agriculture is sponsoring the event, and the Administration field headquarters at South Norwalk will be cooperated, with by the Bureau of Agricultural Engineering in features relating to mechanical control practices.,

Trucks temporarily placed at the disposal of Post Office Department of ficials by the South Norwalk corn borer headquarters, for use during the Chri mas season in promptly handling the abnormal quantities of mail requiring






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attention, were as follows: For Bridgeport post office, 14; for Stamford, 4; for Danbury, 3; for Norwalk, 3; and for South Norwalk, 2. All these cities are in Connecticut. Trucks were utilized for varying periods, ranging fran
4 to 15 days.

Inspection during December in the eastern section of corn borer control, principally of garden products and cut flowers from outside the regulated area in movement to other uninfested sections, disclosed no specimens of the borer, but a rather heavy infestation of the corn ear worm was found in gladioli'of Florida origin. Practically every consignment from that State contained large numbers of well developed larvae.

Cu flowers inspected at Boston for certification, under which shipments could be made to points outside the European corn borer regulated area, showed a further heavy decline in volume during December. The 1931 total was only 20,439, as canpared-with 317,773 in the corresponding month of 1930. Extension of the quarantined territory to include New York City, made early in the year, accounted for most of the difference.

With the expiration on December 31 of the seasonal requirements of the corn borer quarantine respecting certain products in the two-generation area, all per diem men engaged in inspection and certification of farm produce in the central section were released. Cut flowers and other articles renlainr4g undet regulation will be looked after by regularly appointed employees.

Exclusive or Combination Japanese Beetle Work

Abandonment of the two-area system of Japanese beetle quamantite opel'ation took place with the 10th revision, effective January 1, 1932. Since March 1, 1930, quarantine activities have been based on a division of the regulated zones into generally and lightly infested sections, with somewimt differing requirements for the movement of quarantined articles therefrom. The territories now affected are not contiguous but all are subjected to the same measure of restriction. On the basis of previous years' records of farm products inspection, it also has been considered practicable to materially reduce the number of fruits and vegetables under regulation and to eliminate entirely restrictions on the movement of grain and forage cross. rarm products requiring certification under the revised rules are limited to green corn on the cob, beans in the pod, bananas in entire bunches or in clusters of 25 or more, apples, peaches, blackberries, blueberries, huckleberries, an4. raspberries. These are the articles of produce subject to infestation at the farm or port of entry. They are the only commodities in which insprption over a period of years has evidenced consequential beetle infestation. In exeationally rare instances, beetles have been removed from a few other articles of produce, but only under conditions which also subject nonagricultural.ommodities to equal infestation. Evidences of long-distance spread from the latter-sources are lacking. Modification of rules for nursery "ertififsation has resulted in the elimination of the Class II status for nursery t.remisee. Class II establishments comprised premises in which there was believed to be likelihood of early future infestation. Abandonment of this intermediary,' status limits nursery classification to Classes I and III. Claas .1 status





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requires the evidencing of freedom from Japanese beetle infestation of the nursery premises-and all adjacent properties within approximately 500 feet -thereof. Nurseries so determined are accorded certification without chemical treatment or inspection of their stock. Nurseries in which grubs or
adults have been found, or situated within approximately 500 feet of an infe-station, are placed under Class III requirements. Requisites for certification of stock from Class, III, premises call for. chemical treatment of stock .or other safeguards adequate. to assure freedom from infestation. In the additional territory added to the regulated zones under the revised regulations. are the two southeastern tiers.of New York counties, as far north as
Lake George. Primarily, extended to embrace within the zone of quarantine
activity the newly-discovered infestations in Albany and Fort Edward, inclusionof. this southeastern-portion of the State.permits unrestricted movement of farmI products to summer resorts in the Catskill Mountains. Previously required certification of large quantities of uninfested farm produce transported to mountain resorts will be eliminated. Additional advantages also
accrue from the. fact that the two-generation. European. corn borer, quarantine
line in southeastern New. York -is, conterrminous withe-Japanese beetle quarantine boundary, thus permitting operation of joint road stations. Small
sections of uninsested territory heretofore included ia the-lightly infested Hampden County, Mass., zone have been restored ..to.nonregulated status. Other wise Massachtsettsl spheres of quarantine activity remain unchanged. Connecticut andDelaware have acquired the status of-. New Jersey and Rhode Island as
entire States under.regulation. Pennsylvania's restricted areas coincide largely with previously-regulated territory. Small uninfested sections of
Mifflin and Bradford Counties. have been released from quarantine requirements.
Wayne and Pike Counties, and isolated zones in Blair and Erie Counties, have
be0 included within thp-limits of the quarantine for the first time. In
western Maryland, the regulated zones are confined to the.previously-restricte
generally infested sections, together with two small isolated units in the
northwestern counties of the State, Remaining.districts of the Stateheretofore included in the lightly infested zone, but in which no infestation has been determined by persistent. scouting, have reverted-.to nonregulated conditions. .Wlith the exceDtion of a section of the eastern shore of Maryland, the
D el-Mar-Va Peninsula has been included in its -entirety. Aside from reduced
quarantine jurisdiction of uninfested regions in Fairfax County, Va,, no
material change in actual regulated area is evidenced in the latter State.
Zones under regulation will consist of the main regulated territory together with 10 isolated localities. Most,of the -detached districts are so small that it is impracticable to permanently station aninspector therein. The regulations as originally promulgated conditioned unrestricted movement between isolated zones of quarantined articles by truck or .other road vehicle upon
,.affixing of seals.by an inspector at the point of origin and the maintenance .of the seals intact until examined by an inspector in the separate regulated area to which the stock was transported. The new situation created by the establishment of numerous separate sections. has been met by elimination of
, the sealing requirement, through a modification of -the quarantine requirements .to become effective simultaneously with the revised regulations,

Measures to assure thorough riddance from tra-ps of accumulated beetles .must be taken annually. Activity on the part of..trapped beetles often leads them to become hidden in parts of the trap other than the collecting jar,





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The insects someti.-ies gain access to the inside of the traps and lodge themselves in the perforated metal bait container or become crushed between the bait container and the bo.ttom of the cylinder forming the body, especially when large numbers have been caught. only by thoroughly cleansing the entire trap assembly may freedom from beetles be secured. Unless clean traps only are distributed each year, there is always the possibility of carrying dead adults of the previous year's catch to new localities in unwashed traps. Subsequent discovery of such adults might lead to the erroneous assumption that specimens had been trapped in the new location, whereas they were actually carry-overs. Frequently the beginning of the trapping season is accompanied by high temperatures. Trapped beetles remaining in the glass collecting jars, for several days subjected to the extreme heat in the confined air of the Jar and the sun's drying effect, become desiccated and are almost identical with dried specimens held over from the previous year. Ylashing of the baffle, funnel, cylinder, and bait container assemblies was last summer accomplished by trap tenders immediately after the caaipletion of their sunmer's5 activities, and just prior to placement of the traps in temporary storage. When the trap 's receive their annual reconditioning, the encrusted bait material and other accumulations of the summer are completely removed. This winter all traps have been assembled at the South Norwalk headquarters, where the metal portions will be repaired, and the baffles, funnels, and cylinders painted. Painting of iron supporting rods is accomplished by dipping them in a small elongated wooden tank containing black asphaltum paint. Cleansing of the glass jars is performed in connection with the slotting operation described in a previous issue of the News Letter. The jars are so carefully and thoroughly cleaned, during the process of overhauling them; as
-to afford complete assurance that no beetles, lodged therein during the past season, will remain when the work is finished.

Consolidation in a new subheadquarte's Aear Oakmnont, Pa., of the project's two Pennsylvania cooperative suboffices previously located at 141 South 52nd Street, Philadelphia, and Germantown Pike, near Norristown, 4uas accomplished on December 29. Moving operations started three weeks prior to the opening date. Transfer of the office furniture, supplies, motor vehicles, garzhge and other equipment frcn Norristown to O~icnont constituted the greates, item involved in the changed headquarters.. A large automobile storage shed at Norristown was sectioned and re-erected at Oakmont, as was also a smaller temporary building used as a repair shop. The new headquarters is an L-shapec one-story, high-ceilinged brick and sash building, having over 10,000 square feet of floor space. It was previously occupied by a manufacturing concern. Surrounding ground is available for expansion should conditions warrant. An oil-burning boiler supplies st *eam to two enclosed coils within the building. Blowers integral with the coils force heated air to all parts of the building. Ground adjacent to the building has been plowed. When fill is available the environs of the building will be graded and grass sown. The building is located' on West Eagle Road, near oalanont, Delaware County, Pa. Post Office address of the new headquarters is Box 508, Llanerch Branch, Upper Darby Post Office, Pa. G. B3. Stichter, previously in charge of the Philadelphia office, and J. K. Gould, supervisor of,the Norristown territory, remain in charge of their respective quarantine activities.








Immediately upon determination of the scope of the revised Fapanese beetle regulated area with the promulgation on December 12, 1931, of the 10th revision of the regulations, effective Tanuary-l, 1932, work began on a shipper's guide. The guide will include a brief digest of the regulations, together with a list of United States post offices, express stations, and freight offices, shown by available guides and maps as situated within the new area. Approximately 40 mimeographed sheets containing 100 cities and towns per page will be necessary. Counties in which the various communities are included will also be shown. Probably the most. bothersome routine encountered by shippers in interpreting the quarantine is the hecessity for determining cities and towns to which their shipments are destined as inside or outside the regulated area. Reference to the guide will determine whether a community is within the area, when the shipment may go forward without restriction, or is outside the area, in which case the movement of the stock must be made under certification.

United States Attorney Oliver D. Burden, from Syracuse, N. Y., reports that on December 1, 1931, Carmon Dagostino, 409 N. State Street', Syracuse, appeared in the United States District Court at Utica and entered a plea of guilty to an information alleging a violation on JuIy 21, 1931, of the Plant Quarantine Act arising from the transportation contrary to the TJapanese beetle regulations of an uncertified truck load of miscellaneous vegetables and fruit from S$edesboro, N. J., to Syracuse. The defendant was fined $35. Although stopped at the quarantine line station at Factoryville, Pa., and warned of the possible consequences of violating the regulations, the defendant elected to proceed to .his destination with the contraband. Form of information was filed with.the United States Attorney on November 6.

H. J. Dougherty and .C. R.,Gaunt, agents of the project, who have
heretofore performed transit inspection at the Philadelphia postal terminals and railway express platforms, respectively, under the immediate supervision of Mr. Stichter, in charge of the Philadelphia quarantine suboffice, have been transferred to work under the direct supervision 'of the transit inspection division in Washington. Desk room has been furnished for use of these men in the office of Mr. Brinton', chief of the Philadelphia field inspection service station of the Food.. and Drug Administration, located at 134 South Second Street.

Mild weather during much of December has permitted movement of nursery stock for a considerably longer period than is usually available for winter digging and shipment. Although the actual shipment of nursery stock under certification has been comparatively limited, a considerable movement within units of nursery establishments.has taken place., This additional demand for certification and supervision of movement on classified premises has resulted in active employment for many of the skeleton force of inspectors who would otherwise have been assigned to .maintenance or other out-of-season occupations

A draftsman from the South Norwalk headquarters in company with an inspector from the Dover, Del., suboffice was occupied during the month in mapping classified establishments on the Del-Mat-Va Peninsula. Accurate maps to scale are required in connection with application of lead asenate to






etions of nursery plots, treatment of heeling-in and plunging areas, and as basis for determining classification boundaries.

A survey of six plots in Philadelphia,on which smartweed planting
and lead.arsenate application were completed early in December, indicates that the majority of the broadcasted seeds have been washed in by recent rains and all surface signs of the arsenate have disappeared. Treated sections have been staked out, and warning signs erected to prevent trespassing on the demonstration plots.

Considerable equipment used at quarantine line stations whose locations do-not conform to the revised regulated zones was collected during the month and brought to the South Norwalk headquarters. Over winter the equipment will be cleaned, repaired, or painted as.required.

Cooperation during the Christmas mail rush was extended to the Post Office Department through the loan of two of the project's delivery trucks to the Postmaster at Norristown, Pa., and the transfer for a short period of a similar truck to the Postmaster at Dover, Del.

Transfer of an inspector from the Dover, Del., office to Salisbury,
Md., marked the establishment of readily available inspection service in the lower Del-Mar-Va. Peninsula.




mxIcAN FRUIT WORM

The operation of traps in Matamoros resulted in the taking of five adult Anastrepha ludens in three premises during December.. Four of these were females. On dissection no egg development was observed, indicating that they had been caught shortly after emerging from the pupal stage. A close inspection of the citrus fruits growing in these premises gave .negative results. Upon the determination of these infestations spraying operations were instituted in the area comprised in the four blocks surrounding the points of infestation. Bait spray was applied in 49 premises and will be continued at weekly intervals until 4 applications have been made.

A number-of sour orange trees were cut down by their owners in Matamores with the idea in view:of. budding the sprouts to sweet fruit.

Spoiled oranges, guavas, -cherimoyas, pomegranates apples, grapefruit,
and sweet limes were secured from Matamoros, inspection of which resulted in taking 92 larvae from oranges imported from Montemorelos, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.

No fruit flies in any stage, of. development were found oni the American side of the river.

The fourth round of grove inspection was completed during the month. Inclement weather and the necessity of attending to regulatory duties interfered to some extent with field work, resulting in a slight decrease in the









number of specimens submitted for identification. Due to the small sizes of the fruit and the practice of the packers in ring picking, very few groves have been completely cleaned of fruit.

Rail shipments were light for the month. The holiday gift box shipment was about as heavy as last year for the two weeks period preceding Christmas. However, the movement of fruit by truck showed an unprecedented increase. An equivalent of 376 carloads were shipped by this means during the month compared to 585 cars by rail. While the majority of fruit shipped by truck is consigned to Texas points a casual inquiry among the drivers as to their destination revealed a number of trucks making regular runs to New Mexico, Kansas, Oklahoma, Arkansas, Louisiana, and Colorado. Outlying points to which fruit was hauled in trucks during the month were in Illinois and Minnesota. During the early part of the season there was one trucker making regular runs between the Valley and New York City, completing the round about every two weeks. However, this trucker did not make the trip during December.

A violation involving the improper use of permit stamps was encountered on the afternoon of December 31. A Mexican from Donna, engaged in a small way in the trucking of fruit to points upstate, bought the fruit from a grove south of La Feria. In the sales contract this Mexican agreed to take care of the orchard and keep it properly cleaned. On the 15th it was found to have too much drop fruit on the ground, and "Certificate of Grove Inspection" was withheld. On rechecking this grove on the 31st, it was found that a-truck load of fruit had been cut and was in process of being loaded on a truck. The baskets had permits from a Donna packing company attached. Upon investigation it appeared that the Mexican was considerably ignorant of the regulations; that he had been to the Donna inspector for stamps for this fruit and had been referred by him to the La Feria inspector in whose district the grove was located. However, instead of applying to the La Feria inspector, he had picked up a pad of stamps in the packing house at Donna which he was intending to use. In view of his apparent ignorance of the requirements of the regulations, he was allowed to move the fruit under La Feria permits after putting a crew in the grove and thoroughly cleaning it.




PINK BOLLWORI1

Ginning operations were very materially retarded throughout the regulated areas during December, as a result of unfavorable weather conditions. There has also been a shortage of pickers, especially in the lower part of the El Paso Valley of Texas. In the Salt River Valley of Arizona, a number of pickers have left the cotton fields to assist in harvesting the winter lettuce crop. As a result of the above conditions, less cotton was ginned during December than in any previous month since the season actually got under way. Probably the greatest amount of cotton yet to be ginned is in the Salt River Valley of Arizona, the latest estimate showing that some 29 per cent of the crop remains to be picked and ginned.







.It is very gratifying to note that the sterilization of cottonseed has
bqen very satisfactory, in view of.the cold weather that has been experienced. Atthe end of December, seed from 211,971 ales had been sterilized, at an average efficiency of 98 per cent per bale. During the past two months a
survey 6f the sterilizer equipment has been under way. The most serious defects revealed by this survey have already been corrected. A fine spirit of
cooperation was shown by the ginners in correcting such defects.

Two ,gin-trash machines were in operation most of the month outside the
regulated areas, both of these being in the San Joaquin Valley of California. Trash was examined in Kern,.Tulare, Madqra and Kings Counties, the results
S4a"11being negative.

Within the regulated areas machines were operated in the Salt River
Valley and at Tucson, Ariz., At Tucson, 57 different lots of trash were examined, 53 lots being infested with, the Thurberia weevil. >No specimens of the
*pink bollworm have been f6nd in the Tucson area this season. In the Salt River Valley tbree .-specimens of the pink bollworm were found in trash, which .apparently came fro*cultivated stub cotton in the 'vicinity'of Goodyear. A
specimen of .the .Thurberi'a weevil was found in trash at 'Coolidge, this SPecimen having apparently come from a field southwest of Casa Grande. Due to the fact that there is considerablae.ginning yet to be done in the Salt River Valley, it has been thought, advisable.,to continue .the operation of three machines
during the coming month.

The regular weekly infestation counts, which'have been made from.fields
in the Salt River Valley sinde July, were discontinued the earlypart of December, due to the scarcity and character of material available for inspection. All counts were. negative,

For the..past several years 54 man-days' annual field. inspection has been Performed on the Ivy Dale ranch. The Ivy Dale ranch isjlocated in the El Paso
-Valley of Texas, and was selected because cotton is planted each year. The purpose of the inspection is to obtain some idea of the increase or decrease of the pink bollworm. The inspection this season was about half completed during December. The results ,already obtained indicatetgat the infestation is much heavier this year than ever before also a greater number of living specimens are being found,: In connection with the field inspection, all trash from this ranch is be-ing run through one of the gin-trash machines so as to give a comparison of the. two methods of inspection. This work will- be completed during the coming month, and the results will be ,given in the next News Letter.

':'. Counts are now being made in the Big Bend of Texas to get some idea of .the-number oef live worms left in the various fields. The count has been completedin one field whichh the stalks had previously been raked and burned, :so that'the material left consisted of bolls, squares, and other parts of the plant too small to be raked. From an- area of 100 square feet, all material was collected and examined. It was found that approximately 97,000 living and 40,000 dead worms per acre were left in this particular field. The damage
counts merintioned in the last News Letter showed 26.22 per cent for this field.






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Seed samples from the Big Bend are now being inspected to check the efficiency of sterilization. The seeds are first run through a gin-trashmachine equipped with a modified drum for collecting double seeds. These seeds are then inspected, and also a considerable number of single seeds. Approximately 1,000 specimens of the pink bollworm have been found in the seeds examined thus far. All of the worms vere dead, thus indicating that sterilization has been efficient.

There was a considerable decrease in both the number of cars inspected and interceptions made at the road stations during the month, due largely to the cold weather prevailing. Many of the confiscations were taken frai Mexican cotton pickers returning to the Rio Grande Valley of Texas. One interception made at the Fort Davis, Tex., station on November 14, was found to be infested with the pink bollworm, This interception consisted of about one-fourth pound of cottonseed taken from the bed, of a truck which had been used to haul seed from the Big Bend to the Marfa oil mill. An examination of the seed resulted in the finding of 21 dead larvae. One other interception of material made at the Fort Davis station showed evidence of pink bollworm work; however, no specimens were found. The road station at Van Horn, Tex., has been relocated, due. to changing of the highway. This station is now permanently located and is equipped with electric lights, which is a great advantage to the inspectors.

PREVENTING SPREAD OF WDTHS
Practically all of the men who were temporarily transferred to the
quarantine force for Christmas tree and spruce bough inspection work had returned to the scouting and extermination project before the end of December and were assigned to scouting work. This work, however, no sooner got under way again in December, when it was temporarily slowed up by poor scouting conditions, and also because 9f the fact that a large part of the force was away from field duty on annual leave during the Christmas holidays. There was some snow during December which, 'in some instances, turned to rain and then froze, causing uncertain footing conditions particularlyin the mountainous areas in the Adirondack regions.

During December, scouting work for the gipsy moth was concluded as planned in Hague, Warren County, N. Y., with negative results, and the men were transferred to duty at Dresden, N..Y. At the close of the month, scouting crews were working in Putnam and Dresden, Washington County, N. Y. No gipsy moth infestations were found during the month in the area scouted by the: Federal crews in New York State.

During December there was some intensive scouting work carried on arounte old colony sites in New Marlboro, and also in Sheffield, Berkshire County, MaC There have been found to date 9 infestations aggregating 61 new egg clusters and 28 old egg clusters in New Marlboro, and 1 new and 1 old egg cluster in Sheffield. Clean-up work around these infestations has not as yet been eaxoted.

Preliminary scouting work was continued during December in Litchfield, Conn., by three supervisors and one agent, and also at Tyringham, Mass., bytWc





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supervisors. No indications of the gipsy moth were found during this period.

During December there were 92 lots of material offered for inspection in New Jersey, which represented a sharp decrease in the number of shipments and the quantities comprising these shipments over the previous month. This condition is usual in New Jersey at the time following the Christmas holidays. No gipsy moths were found on these shipments.

On Long Island, in Nassau County, there was also a decrease in the volume of stock offered for inspection, there being 69 lots examined and certified for shipment during December. No gipsy moths were found on these shipments. In addition to the inspection and certification of nursery stock originating in Nassau County, L. I., the Federal gipsy moth inspector stationed at Roslyn, L. I., learned that wood was being cut at Roslyn in order to furnish temporary employment to men in that locality. The wood cut was piled in cords and some of it was shipped outside of the regulated area in Nassau County. In the vicinity of where this wood was cut, the New York Conservation Departmentb scouting crews recently discovered a gipsy moth colony. During November and December approximately 140 cords of wood were cut and shipped. A stick by stick examination was made of this wood by the gipsy moth inspector without finding any gipsy moths. The cutting of this cord wood has been discontinued for the present.

The New York Conservation Department have reported that they had scouting crews engaged in the examination of wooded areas during December in East Fishkill, Wappinger, Northeast, and Amenia, Dutchess County; Harrison, Mamaroneck, Y7hite Plains, Bedford, North Castle, and Yorktown, 1estchester County; Chatham and Ghent, Columbia County; Whitehall and Granville, Washington County; Phillipstown, Ghent, and Carmel, Putrm County.

On Long Island the same number of men have been reported as employed
during December as during the previous month, these crews still being located in North Hempstead, Oyster Bay, and Hempstead, Nassau County. Scouting conditions on Long Island continued to be fairly good so that the New York Conservation Department are gradually completing the scouting work. There is not a great deal more work to be done in the 3-mile area surrounding No. Roslyn., L. I., the center of the original infestation found on Long Island during the fiscal year 1930.

The State of Connecticut has reported that since July 1, 1931, their scouting crews have found 78 infested locations in towns east of the barrier zone, which aggregate 8,674 egg clusters. There are two of these infested sites, however, which total 27 egg clusters in the town of Colebrook, Conn., which borders on the barrier zone at the Massachusetts State line.

Since the beginning of gipsy moth scouting and extermination work, the use of town maps was found to be indispensable to the foremen of crews and to other supervisory officials. The first maps were rather crude as no attempt was made to standardize them. Some of them were prepared from U. S. Geological Survey topographical sheets, and from whatever road maps were then available. As the gipsy moth work developed, and the demands for specific







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information became more and more necessary, it was imperative that a type-of map which supplied uniform information be adopted. Improvements have been made in these maps from time to time and also in-the, methods employed to secure data for the preparation of them. When they can best be spared from their regular duties, men who are well acquainted with the scouting and extermination work are assigned in pairs to make town woodland and road surveys. They usually start in one corner of the town to be surveyed. All 'oads are measured by an automobile odometer and are then drawn in on the map. The main roads are lettered alphabetically and the .smaller roads leading into these iain roads are sublettered such as Al,. Bl, Cl.. It has seldom been necessary to use more' than the letters A-B-C-D for the main roads. The scale of the map is usually 1 inch to a mile. As the woodlands are encountered, the boundaries of each are paced or otherwise measured., by.odometer, when possible, and the acreage is determined-by calculation, the basis being 4,840 square yards to an acre. The shape of'the woodland block is drawn in on the work map and the distance from the roadside is also shown. The woodland blocks are numbered and the acreage of each shown inside of it. Villages :within the town are des-ignated as are rivers, important trails leading. through woodland blocks averaging 20,000 acres or more,-*and large brooks and streams. -The predominating tree growth and other necessary information relative too the tree ,growth are indicated. All important elevations are shown.- Advantageousa locations for scouting and spraying crews within a town as well as locations .for highpower spraying machines with respect to accessibility of water, etc., are noted. Road and trail conditions as regards their use for motor vehicle travel are given. When the survey is completed-and it usually takes two men approximately two weeks in an .average town--a master map is made:embracing'these details, from which blueprint copies are-made. -The roads in the town are marked at suitable places with white lead to. correspond with the map. The road designations appear at the start and finish, at all, road junctions, and in cases where the road is unusually long and is not traversed by other roads, the designation is painted again' on trees, poles, etc., at intervals of 1 mile.

There were- 1,407 tons -of spruce boughs (28,140 bales of 100 pounds each) inspected and certified for shipment. from the quarantined area of western Massachusetts and southern Vermont this year. This. is an.increase of 21 per cent in the volume of spruce boughs shipped this, season over that shipped the previ-, ous season.

During the season just past, approximately 1,420,000 Christmas trees were actually inspected. This represented an increase by several thousand trees over those inrispected last-year. In connection with this work, there was
a 26 per dent increase "in the volume of shipmentsi.carried by motor-truck. The trees were consigned to 32 States, not including New England. One shipment, in addition, was shipped to Hawaii. Approximately 1,050,000 trees were sent to Illinois, New Jersey, New York, Ohio, and Pennsylvania. Related to the inspection of carload lot shipments of Christmas trees, -was the necessary inspection of 13,000 car stakes or approximately 300 cords, of lumber..- :The trees cut for stakes are mostly spruce, maple, and white bi-rch.. Considerably more white birch is now being used as it sets off the car and makes- the, carload more sale able






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There was a heavy increase in the shipment of mixed Christmas greenery from the quarantined area this year. Of this type of product there were 1,301 bundles and bales, 462 bags, 8,212 boxes, and 63 packages inspected and shipped in less-than-carload lots. This year one carload of mixed greenery consisting of 20,000 spruce and balsam wreaths was shipped from Skowhegan, Me., to Brooklyn, N. Y. It took approximately 12 tons of material to make up these wreaths. The greenery used in making these wreaths was assembled and inspected before the finished product was constructed. This is the first carload lot shipment of this type of product shipped from the regulated area, but with the apparent increase of this kind of inspection from year to year, it is to be expected that more carload lots may be shipped in the future. Christmas greenery includes wreaths, sprays, decorative baskets, evergreen roping, centrepieces, etc., and when practical, the regulated materials which are used in these articles are inspected before being used in making up the finished product. While inspecting mixed greenery assembled at Putney, Vt., for shipment outside of the quarantined area, one gipsy moth egg cluster was found on a branch of holly. The holly originated in the generally infested area and did not require inspection for transportation to Putney as this place is also in the generally infested territory.

An enterprising manufacturer of Vermont maple sugar products shipped to various parts of the United States 837 boxes of maple sugar candy and in each box he placed a single sprig of fir balsam which required inspection.

During the past Christmas greenery shipping season, the U. So Customs
Inspectors were active at loading points for Christmas trees along the northern border of the gipsy moth quarantined area of New Hanpshire and Vermont. There is an import duty of 5 cents per bundle on trees originating in Canada, and a considerable number of trees were transported in hayracks and trucks across the Canadian border to the nearest railroad shipping points in the United States. Gipsy moth quarantine inspectors stationed at the border shipping points see to it that the Canadian trees are segregated from those originating in the United States. Trees originating in Canada do not require inspection as they are shipped under permit showing that they originated outside of the gipsy moth quarantined area, whereas trees originating in the United States must be inspected and certified.

There was a marked increase in the amount of different types of Christmas greenery insDected and certified for shipment from the gipsy moth quarantine area of New England during the past season. This can, no doubt, be attributed to the fact that persons who in previous years were otherwise employed but due to the present business depression were now without employment, found temporary relief in the Christmas greenery business, which is a seasonal activity.

Persons interested in preserving relics of early American industries
have from time to time acquired certain structures or buildings of this nature. In OctobertHenry Ford, one of the principal collectors of such relics, purchased for erection in his model early American village or his museum at Dearborn, Mich., the first silk mill built and operated in this country. This mill, in which the first silk manufactured in the United States was spun, was built and operated in 1810 by Rodney Hanks at Mansfield, Conn. Accounts of his early




UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA

-24- 111
3 162 09245 0799

efforts in developing a process of spinning silk state that the raw silk used at the mill was produced by silkworms raised on the premises, and that during the first year 300 pbunds Of this material were produced and used. All of the machines used were operated by hand power and it was not until 70 years later that the first mechanical power was introduced by the erection of a large water wheel. It was at first intended to move the mill intact from Mansfield, Conn., to Dearborn, Mich., but this was found to be impracticable. Accordingly, it was dismantled with care and each section packed for transportation by rail and truck to its final destination. Each piece or unit of the dismantled mill was inspected and certified by a Federal quarantine inspector before shipment.

Recently, school children in a section of Maine, acting upon suggestions and arrangements made by their teachers, have been sending collections of minerals, bark from different species of trees, and various evergreen twigs, all of which are characteristic of the section in which they are gathered, to children of corresponding grades in other schools throughout the country. The materials in all of these cases have to be inspected and certified even though the individual specimens are usually quite small. Packages have gone to schools in Georgia, Kentucky, Nebraska, Missouri, California, and Alaska.

In the border towns of the quarantined area, the inspection and certification of quarantined products may present some difficulties, particularly when these towns are located in sparsely poulated sections, where roads are few and railroad stations are rather far apart. Quite often, railroad stations in border town may serve large areas lying both inside and outside of the quarantined areas and materials from both areas may be shipped in considerable amounts. Inspection at such points is conducted vith care t6 insure the proper examination of all products originating inside of the quarantined area. The situation may be further complicated by the loading of cars with products fr6m both inside and outside the regulated areas. As a general rule, this mixing of materials is not practiced with respect to lumber and most other forest products, but it is quite a common thing with Christmas tree shipments. Each yeear numerous such mixed carloads are handled. The men who inspect at such points must be alert to see that all materials requiring inspection receive it. and that there shall be no mixing-prior to examination. Occasionally, no advantageous shipping points are present inside of the quarantined area and products have to be transported to points outside before being placed on cars. Wijhenever possible; particularly whn they have to be moved som- distance to stations located any distance from the quarantined area, the products are inspected before being'taken to the stations, but sometimes this is not possible or practicable and then the inspection takca place at the shipping point outside of the quarantined area.

In connection with nearly all types of quarantined products, there are occasional shipments which attract attention because 1) their nature or size. Two such shiorn.ts of quarry products vere cert:fic ?ati- Two ]a*e granite columns were shipped from Milford, Mass to Nef Ycr.: C+y f- u, in the Roosevelt Memorial Building now under construction. Each o these colUuns was slightly over 6 feet in diameter and reputed to be the largest in diameter of any granite used in a building in this country.
Correction.--In the second paragraph, line 4, p. 24, of the Yanuary News Letter, No. 13, 35 per cent should be changed to read 20 per cent.




Full Text

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I . 1 • Number 14 LI RAY ATE PLAN NE'lS LETTER PLANT Q,UA.RANI'INE' AND CONTROL ADMINISTRATION UNITED STATES DEPARrMlNT OF AGRICULTURE (NOT FOR PUBL~CATION) February 1, 1932. The laboratory at White Horse,N. J., e~~cted by the-State of Jew Jer~ey for co6p.erative. work v~ith this Administration on pt'oblems "6fi. the control of Japanese beetle, iscor.1pletea. • . ,It is a one-story building, 52 by'24 feet, with a well iighted main laboratory, 38 by 24 feet, :and three smaller rooms for preparation rooms and offices. The chemical work on determining the arsenic content of nurseryplots treated vii th arsenate of l~~d for the . des:truction. of larvas or J11iap~$e bee.tte tri" the" sciil about nursery stock t~at is to be shipped from-th~ regulated area will be carried on here. This work was done by the Japanese beetle laboratory at iJoorestow;r:\. wh~le the tre~tment was still in the exp~rimental stage and has just .. ,been tal(en' over P.Y theA.dmintst_ration this seastm.: :::The analyt'i6-ar nork will be hano.led by G. A. Russeil, formerly of the . Bureau of .Plant. Ind{istry, .. and more recentiy research c hemist with. the 'vi.ck Chemical Company at Greensboro, N. C. Tb,e. laboratory is well equipp.e,q . . for dE?ter.mining arsenic in soils, and 'the work of ai:ie.lysis •of .--seTiiral hundred. soil samplos--from various plots will begin in March... FOREIGN PLANT Q,UARANTil'IBS RECENT ENTOMOLOGTC-At INTERCEP'r10FS OF INTEBEST Mecl.i te.rranean fruit fly from. Italy ."--Thirteen living larvae of the Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata Wied.) wer o intercepted at New Ypr,k in or.ange~ in baggage from Italy. .Eigh.:ty-fi ve living lar:vae of the same fruft. fly ware also ~intercepted -at New York in tahgertnes in oag age from Italy. Apple maggot in tejocotes.--Liv'ing larvae of the apple maggot, Bhagoletis pomonella Walsh, were inter~epted at N~gales, A iz., in tcjocotes . (Crataegus--sp;)•.in baggage from Guadalajara, Hexl o; . . . . ,.

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Thrips from south Afriqa.--A t.~ips intercepted at Philadelphia on cut flowers of Orriithogalurn sp. frompouth Africa is commented on by J. R . Watson, of Gainesville, Fl(l. , as fol.J! 9ws, : ''This inseet is Haplothrips bagnali (Trybom), apparently a common_ thrips in blossoms in South Af~i~R, but not known to be present in this country. From the habits of the thrips, it might be a rather seriou~ pest if introduced;" Iris infested with thrips.--Br~gmatothrips iridis Watson was intercepted at Washington, D. C. , ' on bearded iris leaves in the mail from Paris, France. J. R. Watson reports that thts thrips is confined to the Nether-. lands, Belgium, France, and England. Dipterous larva in endive.--A living larva of Agromyza pinguis Fallen (Agr-omyzidae) was intercepted at New York in an outer leaf of endive {Cichorium intybus) in cargo from Belgium. This agromyzid is not record~d from the continental United Si;?-tes _ . Philippine termite .--The termite Kalotermes (.!~eotermes) malatensis Oshima was intercepted at Honolulu, Hawaii , in a wooden support of an orchid in cargo from the Philippines. T. E. Snyder, of the Bureau of Entomology, states that this is a Philippine species. Pentatomid withbananas.--Mormidea ypsilon {Linn.) (Pentatomidae) was intercepted at San Francisco with b&nanas in carg~ from Panama. This pentatomid was taken previously with bananas from Costa Rica. Weevil ins apodillas .--Larvae of Conotrachelus sp. (Curculionidae) were found by Max Kisliuk, jr., and c. E. Co'oley, in sapodillas (Achras sa-pota:) in a marke t at P?rt ?f Spain, Trinidad, October 11, 1931. Inga setifera. pod's infested.--Larvae of stenoma sp. {Stenomidae) were found by Max Kisliuk, jr., and C. E. Cooley, in Inga setifera pods in a mar-' -----k et at Port of Spain, Trinidad, October 18, 1931. Scale insect on cactus.--The coccid Lepidosaphes (Opuntiaspis ) philococcus (Ckll.) was intercepted at San Ysidro, Cal.if. , on a cactus plant in baggage from Puebla, Mexico. Globe artichokes infested with a weevil.--Larvae of Apion carduorum _Kirby (Curculionidae) were intercepted at New York in globe artichokes in cargo from Belgium. This weevil, which is not recorded from the continental United States, has also been take:n. in glob~ ?,rt:ic . n.o~es fr.om Fra.nce and Italy. . . . Tortricid intercepted.--Amorbia emigratella Busck {Tortricidae) was intercepted at San Francisco on rose in quarters from Hawaii. This leaf roller has also been intercepted at San Francisco on chrysanthemum from Hawaii and on gladiolus and rose from Japan. ' . .. ' Corsid from Central Am_erica.--An adult of Capaneus odiosus Stal -(Coreidae) was intercepted at Charleston, s, c., on bananas in cargo from Guatemala, This coreid has also been taken on bananas from Costa Rica, Honduras, and

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-3-Pe.name.. . Citrus blackfl from the Phili ines.--The citrus. blackfly {Aleurocanthus woglumi Ashby was intercepted. at. San Francis~o on mango plants in cargo from the Philippines. This represents the. ftrst. definite record in our files_of_t~~-interception of_ t~e. citrus blaekfly fran the Phil~pp_i~.~s. . -. . . . . . . . RECENT PATHOLOGICAL INTERCEPTIONS OF mTEREST . , . Sclerotinia minor~ which was intercepted in December, 1930, on "witloof" (Cichorium intybus) from Belgium (see p_. q of th. e News Letter for March; 1931) , was intercepted at New York six times on wi tloof from Belgium during December, 1931~ . . ,,. Nemas infesting t aro root fro'tn China were de :ter~ine. d by the DJ. vision of Nematology as a new species 9f c ephalobus. It is b .elieved that . some nematodes in this group are parasi t _ic at _times. ' The specialist. indicated that the nemas in this case were "saprophytic?." The interception was made at Detroit. Oospora citri~aurantii was int~rcepted at .Boston_9n an orange from Algeria . . This disease isnotlistedin Fawcett and Lee as occurring in any ' •r, • • part of A.:rrica. , . Recent interception~ at' the I~'sp~ptiori House. in . . Washington include the followi~g: . _ Phyllost.ic.t a . areyrEfa 9ri Elengnus ma.c:roptlylla from England, !:• epimedii o~ Epimedium peraldianuin Hol.~and, !: . tinea on Viburnum davidii from England, Colletotrichum hederi9ola on He_dera sp. (caenv10odiana?) from England, C iliophora $p. on p _edU?cle~ of flower. s of Vert~cordia ni tens from Australia, Ascomy cetella sp • . 'on_ Eupho:r;bi . ~ s~. ~fO!f!. South Africa, an~ Cytosporella sp .. (possibly .f. ninicola) _ oh :3pruce . e _ones. from Germany. -. • The : Phyllosticta spp. and c~ll~tot_richum. were, ~a using -leaf spots not known or not widely distributed in th~ .trni ~ed States. The Ciliophora is probably not of much economic importance but being rar.e is of interest.to the mycologists. The Ascomycetella does . riot 'fit any. of th. e known species as described. No record. of a Cytosp~re~la on s~r~ce in ~urqpe eould .be found. . . KISLIUK AND COOLEY FIN!) FRUIT FLIES IN BRAZIL '(Excerpt from lette;• -~f c ~ -E. CooJ.ey and • • t • ' Max Kisl'iuk, from Rio de. Janeiro. , Nov. 28, 193L) • • • : I • • • • • ''In another commercial grove in this section, containing some 20,000 trees of 'Natal' oranges, we found Ceratitis capitata adults quite abundant, and the fruit more heavily infe' s •ted than in any other gro,v.e yet. visi.ted. In about two and one-halfhours'tirrie, 'we collected 4 2 a _dult.Q. ... capitata, adult Anastrepha fraterculus, and 2 adult A. serpentina, on about six or seven trees in this grove. It wa. s intere.sting to note the attitude of the owner, who followed us through the g~~ve • . He ~tated that there was no fruit fly in

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-4-his grove, and when shown the infested fruit hanging on the trees, wit~ _ the juice actually dripping from the exit holes made by the larvae, he replied with the remark that that was only the 'juice of the moon.' He e _xplained that when his tree~ bloomed at the wrong time of the .moon, the fruit always dripped with juice like that, when it got ripe. It was particularly-interesting to note all three species,, capitata, A. fraterculus ; and A. serpentina, all working on these oranges at the same time, and sometimes all three species in the same tree.'' ALL STAGES OF FRUIT FLY FOUND IN ONE SfilPMENT W. H. Freeman, of the port inspection service. in New York, calls attention to an unusually interesting interception of Mediterranean fruit fly made December 16, 1931, in a box of tangerines, oranges, and sweet limes from Italy. In this shipment an egg mass (cluster of eggs in egg cavity) was found in one of the oranges, 6 larvae in a tangerine, 15 pupae in the .paper packing, and 1 adult at large 'in the box, thus presenting all stages of the life cycle in this one package. CUBAN LIMA. BEANS MOVE INTO SOUTHERN STATES For some years there has existed an understanding with the trade that Cuban Lima beans, permitted entry at the port of New York only, and during the period Novembe~ to March inclusive, should not ae shipped to points south of Baltimore and St. Louis. This agreement was reached be-. cause of the occurrence of the bean pod borer (~~aruca testulalis) in Cuba, and since . . l
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-5Charge of Port Inspection, San Francisco, Calif.,to Oakland, Calif. . Mr. Brosius-. has been in charge of the Federal plant quarantine in-spection activities at San Francisco sinceJanuary 21, .1924. His keen interest and untiring efforts have largely contributed to the successful enforcement of the Federal plant quarantines at that important port. The Administration has always recognized the high caliber of his services as a collaborator and appreciates the interest he has always shown in the conduct.of Federal enforcementmeasures • . Mr. Brosius is succeeded by H. M. Armitage, until recently Deputy Agricultural Commissioner of Los Angeles County, Calif.~ whose appointment as collaborator of the Administration became effective November 1, 1931. The . San Francisco offices have been moved from the Ferry Building, the new address be _ing Agr -icu,l tural Building, Room 24. HIDING THEM FROM THE INSPECTOR The port inspectors at New Orleans maintain a file listing all the strange and unusual places in which artieles are concealed aboard ship in order to escape insp~ction. Each inspector is given the complete file.in the form of indexed cards giving vessel, date, material, quant i ty, owner ( if known), and the place of concealment. The New Orlean~ office claims the following advantages for this practice: It develops a more thoroughsystem of inspection of ships for contraband; reduces to a minimum attempts on the part of ships' officers and crew to "put something over on us''; keeps each inspector informed as to what the other is finding; furnishes advance i _nformation as tq what is to be expected on a given vessel; serves as a manual of instruction in training new inspectors; creates an interest to be a "finder" and,last but not least, helps us to not appear so dumb to those whom we try to keep straight--the ships' officers and crew. It is interesting to note some of the recent entries in this file: Ten orange trees, hidden under rope in poop deck, from Honduras; 3 mangoes found. under pots in galley, and one found under pillow in crew's quarters; , 10 mangoes . submerged under rice in -rice bin in dry store-room, from Cuba; 9 mangoes wedged between bananas next to stalk (in bunch) in first assistant engineer's room, from Honduras; 2 mangoes under bedding in'bunk, right-hand side, forward, crew's quarters, from Guatemala; 1 mango under tomatoes in icebox, from Mexico; 10 avocados and . 11 peaches under bread in icebox, from Honduras; 12 oranges in fireman's quarters forward in locker behind two suitcases, fro~ Nicaragua; 2 sweetpotatoes (Jpomo c a batatas) in mattress in ~ompartment No. 1, crew's quarters, from Nicaragua; 5 oranges under bread in breadbox in pantry, from Mexico; and l papaya, hidden under sack of garlic in icebox, from Canal Zone. MEDITERRANEAN FRUIT FLY STILL TRIES TO ENTER One of the chief functions of Quarantine No. 56, the Fruit and Vegeta l e Quarantine, is to prevent the introduction into this country of fruit flies, and particularly the Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata), which object

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-ois accomplished by shutting out host fruits and vegetables from .countries known to be infested. With such a prohibitory measure in effect all danger of the entrance of this fruit fly would seem to be removed, theoretically at least. But in many cases the theoretical danger and the actual danger do not coincide; the latter may be greater orless than theoretical considerations would indicate, according to circumstances. Is there any way of arriving at the actual.danger in this case? Yes;• if we look into the matter-throughthe eyes of the port inspector who examineE the actual mate~ials themselves and thus meets the problem face to face as a stern reality, it ought to be possible to determine fairly accurately the safety or danger of actual conditions. If we thu. s look thr9ugh his borrowed eyes we see at once that for-bidder fruits and vegetables are still knocking at the door for entry, not only in spite of the quarantine as cargo, .but in baggage, ships' stores, passengers' belongings, crews• effects, and parcel post. Are these materials likely to 1 carry fruit fly? Let the records of the port inspectors tell the tale. From April 1, 1930, to December 26, 1931, 59 lots of prohibited fruits and vegetables coming from 9 countries were intercepted at 15 different ports. These included 20 kinds of fruit and vegetable hosts of the Mediterranean fruit fly. In 43 of the 59 lots this insect was found to be present as follows: Orange, lots intercepted, 14, lots infested, 11; loquat, 3 3; mango, 6 -l; fig, 1 . 7 O; avocado, 4 -O; lemon (over-ripe) 1 -l; prickly pear, 1-:l _ ; pepper, 3 -l; tangerine, 8 7; eitron, 2 2; mandarin orange, 1 -l; swee t lime, 2 2; cotoneaster seed, 2 ... 2; pear, 2 2; peach, 4 4; grape (l~af), 1 -l; nlmond, 1 -l; sorbus, 1 -l; apple, 1 -l; persimmon, 1 -1. In all cases the identification was made by Bureau of Entomology experts. The records further show a high degree of infestation in same of these cases. The following a.re quoted: Seven of the pears contained 67 larvae; 7 tangerines, 70 larvae, one of these fruits having 30; 4 peaches, 35; l peach, 14; 1 lemon, 16; and 1 orange, 11 , There were taken from the 43 lots of in• fes.ted host fruits and vegetables 568 larvae and 45 pupae, or 613 in all. The average insect infestation of these lots is thus 14. 2. Further, if it were assumed that any lot containing 10 or more larvae would be capable of introducing fruit fly successfully if it was dropped into proper surroundings, then 17 of these infested lots could be considered distinctly dangerous. Are we not justified i'n concluding that considerable d'anger of fruit fly introd~tion still exists and that the vigilance of the port inspectors continues to be our only real defense against this pest? In the December, 1931, News Letter, the stat~ment was made that Aleyrodes azaleae B. & M. was not known to occur in wntinental United states. Sine tiien a letter has been r .ecei ved from G. B. Merrill, Gainesville, Fla., pointing out that his records showed the occurrence of this whitefly at four local} ties in Florida and one in South Carolina.

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-7-DOMESTIC PLANI' QtJ.ARANI1INES TRANSIT INSPECTION The inspection schedules at Chicago have been rearranged for the light shipping season from January to March in order to eliminate need for overtime and reduce the number of tours in which the daily duty is divided into separate morning and evening periods of employment. Thirty-five potted Christmas trees, with roots and soil, from one shipper in New York City were intercepted by transit inspectors at railway terminals in that city on December 18 and 19. The shipments were consigned without Japanese beetle certificates to points in the nonregulated territory. The first violation of the phony peach disease quarantine found for the season was intercepted by H, J. Conkle at 1'.iashington, D. C. , on January 7. It fs not unusual for inspectors examining interstate shipments to find violations of foreign plant quarantines. A. w. Clark, checking shipments at Boston for compliance with regulations.relating to the gipsy moth and brown-tail moth, as well as other domestic plant quarantines, recently intercepted a shipment containing five~leaf pine boughs . from Nova Scotia en route to California. The port inspector_at Boston1 ~. G. Bemis, on being notified of the discovery of these be .ughs enteIing the United States in violation of the Federal quarantine I which ;.:;rohibi_ts their impor-tation from Canada, Europe, and Asia, promptly remov0d and d estroyed tho boughs. The white-pine blister rust is not known to havG reached the valuable forests of sugar pine and other five-leaf pines of California. Twenty-five ears of corn being shipped as feed with a hog from Burford, Ontario, to Salem, Oreg., were recently seen in transit at Chicago by Inspector J'. M. Moran. Burford is in that part of Canada g0nerally infested with the European ~orn borer. Action was taken to arrange for the destruction at destination of any corn in the shipment which may have came from Canada or from areas in the United States that are regulated under the European corn borer quarantine, At St. Paul and Minneapolis, all foreign plant material passing through ~he Customs Bureau is examined by the transit insnector, George w. Nelson. During the fall of 1931, 43 packages of foreig n plant material were inspected, of which 8 wer~ diverted to V'lashington, 20 refused entry, 3 destroyed, and 12 .. released. All mail matter from foreign countries liable to customs duties enterihgthe united States through Nen York, Chicago, San Francisco, and Seattle, and destined for Minnesota throug h New York and Chicago for North and South Dakota, and through San Francisco and Se attle for points in Wisconsin, is examined by customs at St~ Paul. before redispatch to destination. In addition, consijerable Canadian mai~ from the province s of Saskatchewan, Ontario, Manitoba, and British Columbia to points as far east as Vermont, south to Georgia, and west to California, is examined at the st. Paul Customs Bureau. Packages containing plant material are referred to the transit inspector of the Administration there.

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-sA list of nursery stock shipments moving without State nursery inspection certificates attached is received from the Chicago office. The list shows that 256 such shipments were .seen by inspectors of the Central States during a period of slightly less t~a,n .four m~n,ts, ending December 15. These were reporte d to the mll' s ery inspection "off i"d'ia."1.s of the States concerned, as probable infringements of the St~te r~gu18:t.~ons. The parcel-post shipments, which included 75 per oent of the total, were reported to the Post Office Department fi& infr;ingements of the posta~. regulati. on requiring a State nursery insp~_ct.i.on ~~rt-if, i . pa.t e-. i;l shipping . woody _ plants. T ;he number gi ve. n do .es not includ13 : . t-fi. 0 .11>~ ~hi.i~ih ~+so. q _o~st,ituted vi?lat_ion_ ~ of Fe . de _ral. p'lant quarantines. • _ : n The Administration is at present assist ing the solicitor in assembling records of. d . ~ci;sions. in. S -ta_~~ courts _on cases :relating to plant quarantines and pest ~n.1:pp~e.ssion. , Ip. . . _;thi~ .'ork the. acti:ve. co<;>per~ti.9n of. the St~te. nursery -inspE?ctJo _p.._and plant q1:1,arap,.tine : officers i.s being . ~e _cei:ved. I.t. is anticipated tl,l~:t .:the decis~o.ns. w . :i,11 be, arranged :r,or_.pub.licati_on, at least in abstract form, wh~n assembled • • . : ! . . . ' . .. : . ' NARCISSUS lliSPECTIOij . ' -. .. Reports from State: .off.t.cer_ s _ on the bulb inspe_ c ; t .ion work of 1931 have .. ,:now beenrece;i.v~d . from _ ~ar.J_y all. states and. the res1:1lts -8!: e . being t _ a _bulated • . . -., . . . . : : PHONY PEACH D+~A$E -; . I', : 5 • • , • .• ' . : ' . . . . . Quarantin~s restricti:r:1g the intrastate movement . wi t);lin Texas. and Illi-noi~. ofpeachand .. nectarine treesand roots, on account .o:f the phony peach •. 1 . . ;..di"sease, hav~ b .een issued by these St~t~s • . These are .in:acl.d.iti.on to tll~ Nortl Carolina-qu~antine .rep,o.pted last mg.nth . . T _he Administration is now i:11 corres ponde.nce w i-t):i the pl. .an-'.t qua.+antin\3 c;>,ffipi~ls. of ArkaI;1sa_ s , , Y+orida, a.r:l,d Tennes• see regarding the provisions of simi).ar. State. quE:irantinespending in those ' . . . ' ' States • ... •. ' . . . • . . . : .: The States. t!,lpluded in . the ar_ea quaran:ti!1 by the Fed~:i;-a;t. Depar1;ment 9n . -iecoun'.t C?f: th~:~phony-peach di9~ase _q9nf_er:r'fd; at Ne_ w Orle~s ~m Drcem~er 28 reg~ding:: a.p:prop;r:i.,at<,7;re s ,tr.iction. s to prevent. th~ f'-?-I'.ther ~preadof. inpection . . wfth.in th~ St~tes tpro~Jl .the: tnt:rastat.E? mo_ v~ment o;-, nursery stock. . . ' , : .. : . ' ' .. , . ' . . . I., •• , ' . , , • • 1 • ,•:, I,! • '•,' • , .. ' . . . . . :, DATE. SCALE : : .: .i.'.' , i'• ; .. ' ... ' i : , . . Jn Dec~mperinten~_ive scou:t.ing of _.the Sal~-Ri.ver: and Yuma . . v~uey. ~ was begun tQ locate u~liste. d . p alms • . Most-.. or this .ter:J;'itory _o~i }?e ~a,s4-_ :iy :pcouted, put proper1;ies n,ot 9u1ti_vated .fqr f?. few years &Ild . waste land al.ong trrigation c e.na .ls. are . .generally. covered wi t.h:., de:n~e . grow.t~~ . o:t; depert. brus~ an~. -.. ~~-e~s whic • , .so~t.imes hide smal.l abando~e~ date.palms • . . . . : ._, .. : :. _.; _ _., .. .<. . . . . . \ . . . . ' . In :the Yuma Valley along the. C.olorado River there is quite. an_.. ar~ a thickly overgrown with timber, bJ!Ush, . and we.ed. s in. whicn are a number . o :f small . . . . clearing s _ where . farming is or he.s . been carried on. Q,u:i. te of~en date. : pa}ms are • J.

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-9found in these clearings, either grown from seed or from offshoots. Asthe area around the city of Yuma was once.generally infested, there is a possibility that some of these palms are i~ested. Intensive scouting is now being carried on over the entire date-growing area and it is hoped that all date palms in the area will be located. EUROPEAN CORN BORER AlID JAPANESE BEETLE General Project News Project functionings during December mainly consisted of work preparatory to seasonal enforcement of the European corn borer and the Japanese beetle quarantu1es in the periods of maximum.field activities. Headquarters officials were engaged much of the time on the pending revisions of the regulations. Numerous conferences and considerable correspondence with state plant pest officials were conducted. Clerical help mostly was employed in compilationof records and in arranging to inform other personnel in refere~ce to the new requirements. Mechanical employees had a busy month in repairing and reconditioning equipment. On December 1, Administration offieials conferred in Harrisburg with Pennsylvania department of agriculture o~Slcers concerning changes in the regulated areas under both the European corn boTer and Japanese beetle quarantines. Details were discussed between Mr. Strong, Chief of the Administration, fv'.[r. Worthley, the project leader, and Mr. Bell, Director of the state Bureau of Plant Industry. Understandings reached were approved by the Pennsylvania Secretary of Agriculture, Mr. JvlcSparran. Changes decided upon in the territory covered by the beetle quarantine were included in the revision announced on December 12. In reference to th~ corn borer; it is planned to modify existing boundaries in a minor degree only. A general conference on the extension within New Jersey of the areas under regulation in consequence of the corn borer quarantine was held at Trenton, on December 21. Agricultural leaders, county agents, farmers, growers, and shipping organizations were represented. State Secretary of Agriculture Duryee, Bureau Chief Weiss, and Entomologist Headlee were present as the New Jersey official delegation, and Messrs. Worthley, Crossman, and Bartley, from the South Horwalk headquarters, appeared for the Administration. Agreement was reached to recommend the placing of approximately four-fifths of the State under the provisions of the two-generation quarantine, including all portions except the southwestern section. New York plant pest control agencies were consulted at Albany, on December 4, by Mr. Vlorthley, in charge of the European corn borer and Japanese beetle project of the Administration, as he was returning from a trip to Chicago in connection with the corn borer exhibit at the International L'ive Stock Exposi .. tion. In the enforced absence of Commissioner of Agriculture Pyrke, Assistant

PAGE 10

-10-. i.. , Coffll!l.issioner N0rgord and Director Van .f3uren, of the Bure.au of Plant Indu.stry, represented: the State. i-Jew bo~da,rte s 9r the part' of N~w York r~gulated on acco.unt of the beetle are indicated 'in "the revised. quarant.ine. Recommenda tions in respect to the borer cdnte~plate addition to the.two-generation area of considerable territory in ~!le . eastern portion of the State • . Repair shops at the South Norwalk . headquarters . in December serviced and prepared for road use 39 half-ton trucks, changing gas and oil, fixing ignition and lighting systems• , s tra: ightening fenders, and attending to minor deficiencies. Ten light cars and 14 large trucks wore coinpletely overhauled-drive and rear shafts, motors, steer.1ng gear, and _ tre.ns mL~sion. In addition, bodies, curtains, and tops of trucks werE3 repaired, cari., washed and polished, both cars and trucks were repainted• a~d repairs were g_;_-..,ron to lighting and power plants and to tents. In the stock room, all. car and truck tools and supplies and quarantine line equipment were soI'.ted arid r,J.aced in bins, with nB11-e s ten cille6. +,her:eon, mMy fittings and parts ;1rnre r < uv Gd. to quarters where the.y w i J.l he mor e e .. ::.~E s s ru:Le, 'and keyboard for 350 cEr:i:. v1ci s Ie a: :ranged,. and \ IlUirSI'0'..18 o ther s imL . . e.:r ta3ks were parfO~'m3d.. W~i s c e lJ. a,ne 0 U B -cra11sactions on .the part 0 7 mec hd.niJ::.l emvloyees included remoyal f rom<10,1 __ -th Nort1alk to the army '3. f,pot at New Cumberland, Pa. , of six trucks _ and. on e trailer, checking and s D J dering of 11,000 beetle traps, and lik~ activities. Springfield, Ohio, subhee..c.quarters forces were acti ve during the period on rela4ed wo:.rk pertain-. ing: to machinery and s upplies. All project.field. equj_pment is :r.iade a bronze green as r epainted and the Department and Administration shield placed on trucks in decalcomania, greatly improving the appearance. • • • • ' ' '• ' , • , ' • , , • • , • I ' • : •,• • • . I ' Training' schools for' employ~~i o ' f . thci European corn b 'orer. and Japanese b 'eetle project, current items concerning whlc : h i=.(ppeared in s.ummer issues of. the Administration News Letter," are o-f; majo'r importance in :providing competent and informed personnel. 'Additional facts in relation to this phase o r project activities , collected in December for . trarismission t; the B.urea'l+ of Personne 1 and Business Administration of "the' Department I . furn'is~ed . a more comple~e picture of the schools than heretofcire l:ias been assembled. In the western sec-. tion of 66rn 'borer control, the special' training. courses were inaugurated in I • • • • • , ; . , 1926, in the central section they were started during 1928, and for exclusive .Tapaneso beetle purposes the first was conducted in 1929. _In 1~26 and 1927, however, the 111estern section schools also rupplied scouts fbr tpe central sec-. tion. Only one ~chool 'on corn borer contro l wa s he . ld. in 1926, but in 1927 three were conducted.: From 1928" to 1931, inc1usi ve , annually there was a single general tra inin.g unit in the westei~n section and. another in the central. Expenses of the undertaking.principal1y have been provi'ded through. special_ ass .ignments of. regular personnel~ Western section corn borer schools have been attended by an average or approximateiy 375 men, and thecentral section courses by about 100. In the western sect-ion s chools 7 instructors usually are engaged, in the central section2, and in the. Japanese beetle. di vi.sion there have been as many as 11. Many of the instructors :have college degrees; others possess long experience in field practice. Students failing to perform . ,.satisfactorily, or f .ailing to pass examinations, held a.t the close of the sc_hool ei.ther are dismissed or transferred to duties requiring lesser qualif'icat ions. All qourses closely parailel actual f i-eld work and are designe d . with SJ;)_eclal' reference to the practic-al side of' things. Corn borer scho61 st.udents in fact devote nearly 90 per cent of the' period to field 'demonst.rations and practice,

PAGE 11

-11while in the beetle school a somewhat greater proportion of attention has been paid entomological aspects. All available data 9:ppear to det~ni te.ly indicate dir.ect and worth-while results from the. training s9hools, observable in the . ~ncreasirig efficiency -and improved dipl;.~macy of :the employees. who c :ome into QOntact with the public. . . Specialized Corn Borer Activities ...... ' . At the conclusion,' on December 5, of. t}?.e Internat ibir~l Live. Stock Ex-p~si tion in Chicago, which had opened on November 28, as reported' in.-the last issue of the News Letter, it was estimated: _t!lat 75. ,00Q . PE?rsons had viewed the Eur~pean corn borer exhibit prepared at v;est~n1 s~cti.o;n 'neadq'Uarters. Deep interest in the:material shown was manif~sted up tothe end of the event. Both city and country people in-large numbers operated the mechanical questions an. d answers device. Corn belt farmers m~nifested, partic1,1lar co"ncern 'in respect to the cpntrol ~ection of the cUsplay . • : T _ he quarantine. e _nforcement part also attracted a great mariy people, as ' did. the pql;' .tion devoted t'o sea sona:1 activities and. deve lopmen:t bf the .b.orer. ..Tllree men fr.9m the. Adin.inis frat ion were assigp~d. tb the exhfb. i t,. with al ternati1'g shifts so' that two • Department representa'ti ves were on duty -at all times. Sixty~one samples of, c;orn conta in_ing 616 ears. , submi .tted by 50 growers, had been heat-treated at the Spri'ngfield offices. Twe.ntt-orie of the lots were from Mi~h .igan, ;1.5: f _ ram Indi1:ma, 10 from Ohio, ? ,f'r~m New York, 7 from Pennsylvania,' -a11d 1 from Ont .ar:io, .Canada. Of this tr~~ted C(?rn, t 'hat. from Michigan was awar~ed 10 prizes; :rnq.iana had 13 prizes out . of 15 1:ots; Ob;io 's received 6 ; th. e New :York sample~ , l; all of Pennsyl• van1n•s 7 were prize winners~ Rep ,ort of the second annual field d~y and Et'Opean ;qrn 'borer •oni'erence at Berkley Farm on September 17, .1931, was 9-istributed during . ~he ear.ly part of December to Department officials and others int!=)!'ested in_ contro t _of'the borer. In c _onnection with the mailing out of copies, a new and up-to-date mailing list was compiled, assembling the addressesof S~ate_department of agriculture of-. ficials , agricu;l. tr,-al experiment s.tation and ~xtension officers, college of agriculture staff members, county agents , and :i;-~lated personne+ associated with plant pest work in Connecticut, Maine . , .Massa9hus.etts , Ne. w Jersey, 1-{ew Hampshire, Rhode Island, and Vermont~ Delay in is.sue of th~ r .eport , : which was produced entirel;y. in the South Norwalk headquarters of ;the _pro_jec-t, wa,s de to the fact .that it wa~ har1dle4 by employees having other .major duties, in odd moments of spare time. The boo-k contain s 4-8 pages and .. co-vers. , and inclu,.des considerable material explanatory of the Berkley .demon~tration-farm, in.addftiop to repro-. d~ctions in full of _the addresses delivered on the occasion 6f th~ field day . and .coni'.ererice . A few extra copte s -are avai la:bl:.e • 8:Ild persons associated with othe~. project_ s whq mar wisi?. to read the report should I}'lake _application for it pr.ol!lptly, tb,.rough their of~icia'l: superiors. . ' ... ' Clean-up work as a control mells\ire .. was completed about the middle of December in the vicinity of the isolated infeste.ti9n found some weeks earlier, at Temperanceville, Va. Approximately 35 acres of lad were covered in the operat.ions, which consisted of plowing 22 acres und handpicking some 13 acres .see~ed to rye, as. we11 as foursmall garden9, for disposal of crop remnants. Corn 13tubble on: the land plowe: d was from 3 to ? inches high, and in most cases the spil had been ridged, rendering it more than ordinarily difficult to obtain

PAGE 12

-12-complete coverage. Results regarded as_practically 100 per cent efficient were secured, however, by frequent adjustments of the equipment.used. stalk shavers widened to 46 inches for the 60-inch rows were found to work splendidly. Much interest in the undertaking was manifested by farmers, who came . from all parts of the county to observe the operations and to get information concerning the corn bor-er. The county agent was present much of the time. Equipment 1i-1as supplied from the South Norwalk headquarters and in the undertaking the Admtnistration had the cooperation of the Bureau of Agricultural Engineering and the Virginia Department of Agriculture. Inspectors or't~e Rhode Island state department of agriculture now are engaged in a survey of corn-growing sections in.that State and ~hecking up faPmers who failed to comply with the law in relation to plowing under all corn stubble by December 1. In this connection, over 4,000 notices were posted, several radio talks were delivered, and a number of press releases were issued, citing the law. and the necessity for clean-up work at the .proper time. Persons who have failed to comply with. the law are notified to appear before, the Commissioner of Agriculture for hearings. Over seven hundred offenders appeared last year and were warned to clea~ up their premises. The Department intends to impose penalties on all second offenders found this year. Movement of cut flowers from the wholesale markets in New York City, requiring certification or permitti~g under the corn borer quarantine, decreas ed considerably in December, except in respect to gl_adioli, on which there was an increase. Gladioli from the Southern States bega to arrive early in the month and they were present in fairly large quantities by the middl~ of the ,period. Green corn on the cob, from Florida, was received in about the same amo\J.Ilts as during November, at the_ wholesale produce markets. More permits fol' shipments. to points outside.the regulated area were issued this month than last, but the total number of' packages moved was somewha t less. fhrough the offices of .the western section of corn bo rer control, the recommendations approved by the Administration regarding the location of the quarant1ne lines for 1!32 were presented to the officials of the Departments of Agriculture in the-various States concerned. In no case were the proposed revisions of the regulated area for the one-generation strain of the borer notably extensive, though some expansion was made necessary by the findings of new infestations and the showings as to greater density of infestation recorded last season. On December 31, all of the interested states exce'Pt Ohio had signified their concurrence in the proposed changes. Exhibit of material illustrating the habits and life history of the corn borer and Qf machinery for control of the pest, to be made at Trenton, N. J., January 26 to 29, was planned and in part prepar~d for during December. The New Jersey department of agriculture is sponsoring the event, and the Administration field headquarters at South Norwalk will be cooperated with by the Bureau of Agricultural Engineering in features relating to mechanical control practices. Trucks temporarily placed at the disposal of Post Office Department o~ficials by the South Norwalk corn borer headquarters, for use during the Chris mas season in promptly handling the abnormal quantities of mail requiring.

PAGE 13

-i3attention, were as follows: For Bridge-port post office, 14; for Stamford, 4; for Danbury, 3; for Norwalk, 3; and for South Norwalk, 2. All these ities are in Connecticut. Trucks were utilized for varying periods, ranging from 4 to 15 days. Inspection during December in the eastern section of eorn borer eon trol, principally of garden products and cut flowers from outside the regulated area in movement to other uninfested sections, disclosed no s~ecimens of the borer, but a rather heavy infestation of the corn ear worm was found in gladioli or Florida origin. Practically every consignme .nt fro~ that State contained large numbers of well developed la~v~e. Cut flowers inspected at Boston for certification, un~er whieh shipments could be made to _points outside the European corn borer regulated area, showed a further heavy decline in volutie during December. The 1931 total was only 20,439, as compared with 317,7?3 in the corresponding month of 1930. Extension of the quarantined territory to inciude New York City, made early in the year, accounted for most of the difference. With the expiration on December 31 of tho seasonal requirements of the corn borer quarantine respecting certain products in' the two-generation area, all per diem men engaged in inspection and certification of farm produce in the central section were rel~ase~. Cu~ flowers anQ other artieles remaining under regulation will be looked after by regularly appointed employees. Exclusive or Combination Japanese Beetle Work Abandonment of the two-area system of Japanese bee~le qua.l!anti~.oper-ation took place with the 10th revision, eff\~cti ve January 1, 1932. Since March 1, 1930, quarantine activities have been based on a division of the regulated zones into generally and lightly infested sections, with somewhat differing requirements for the movement of quarantined articles therefrom. The territories now affected are not contiguous but all are subjecte~ to the same measure of restriction. On the basis of ~revious years' reeords of farm products i~spection, it also has been considered practicable to material ly reduce the number of fruits and vegetables under r~gulation and to eliminate entirely restricti-ons on the movement of grain and forage ~roes. Farm products requiring certification under the revised rule s are limited to green corn on the cob, beans in the pod, bananas in entire bunches or in clusters of 25 or more, apples, peaches, blackberries, blueberries, huckleberrie&,_ an9-.• raspberries. These are the articles of produce subject to infestation at tbe farm or port of entry. Th e y ar e the only cornmodi ties in which in~1'M.tion over a period of years has evidenced consequ ential beetle infestation. In exeei,-: _ tionally rare instances, beetle s have been removed from a few othe r arti~les of produce, but only under conditions which also subjeet nonagricu.ltu.ral~om modities to equal infestation. Evidences of long-distance spread from the latter-sources are lacking. Modification of rules for nursery ~rtifioation has resulted in the elimination of the Class II status for nursery 9remise6._ Class II establishments comprised premises in which there was believed to be likelihood of early future infestation. Abandonment of this intermediai-y status limits nursery classification to Classes I and III. Cla~ I status..

PAGE 14

..... -:I.4-. requir-es the evidencing o-t;_. free.do;m ;from Japanese-beetle infestation of the -::::_ . nurs.ery premises and all adjacent -.properties within approximately 500 fee t .. .there.of. Nurseries so determined are accorded.certification without chemi--cal ir.eatment or inspection of their stock. Nurseries in wl?,.ich grubs or adults have been found, or situated within approximately 500 feet of an in;f'e.sta_t~on, are placed under Clas. s . ;tII r~qilirements • . Requisites for certifi. cat~_on of. stoc k from Class, IJL-pr,emise_ s -e.all for. chemica). treatment. of stock . or othe r safegu_ards adequate. to assure freedom from infestation. In the additional territory added to.the regulated zones under _the revised regulations. ar e the two southeastern t -iers, of Now y9rk counties, as far north as -, Lake George. Primarily, extendep. to e]Jl.b:race within, the. zone of quarantine > activity the newly-discovered infestations in Albany and Fort Edward, inclu. , siolJ.. of, . this southeastern. port ion of; : the pt ate.permits unrestricted movement : . . , :-:::-of r-arin:. prod~c.t~ 'to suimner resorts i~ the Catskill Mountains. Previously . , .. r equ'ired certification of large quantities of un.infested farl'\l. produce .. trans. -por:ted.., to . mountaJ.n resort_ s : will b e ~l~~inat~q.. A .dq._i~ ional a9-vanj;ages : also . accrue .from the. fact that. t h e two:..ge.n ora:tion, E:ur.opeai porn borer. qu~antine 1 . ~ • • • f ' • • • • • • • ' • ' • • ' • .' ~• • • " I • ; • • line in southeastern New. Yqrk, -is. conterminos wi -th, ,th~>-.Tapane~e , beetle. quarantine boundary, thus p er:mi t ti.ng op .eration of joint. road stations. Small ... sections of unin:t.:ested . te;rri~ory•: heretofore . . included: in. thf3 -lightly infested . . Hampden CouD,t.y,' iv1ass: . , ' zone. h ~ ve : b~en res:t0r~d .. to. nopreguiated status. Other ... -w~se. ivrii s saohVsetfs t. spheres'.or quarantine . . aetivi ty. rem~in. ~changed. Connec.. t , i ,cut and~Delaware :ave, acq\tired the s~atup ,of,.New J"efsey 'and Rhode Island as . , . entire .states uride~ +-egulation. . Pennsylvan,ia 's restriqted areas coincide \ • • '. ' • • ' • 1 • • • • • • • • • ' • • ' ' • • • largely with previously-regulated territory. Small uninfested sections of Mifflin and Br~dford Countie9 .. n,ave qeen rel~ased from quarantine requirements. Wayne a."'ld l'ike Counties, and.1isoiated zones' in Blair and' Erie Counties' have < . . -:be~l} in<;luded within th.~ . J..imi ts of the q_uar.an tine for the .first time. In western 'Maryland;, the reg~iated zones a r e c ;nfined to the . previously-restricte generally infest.ed sect;Lons, ; . . _together with t'?,'O smail. isolated, uni ts in the northwester!!counties: _ of,_.the State. R emaining. _disti-icts. qf the State, hereto-.. fore included in the, lightly infested zone, but "in ,which no inf es tat.ion has ., ~been_ determine d by pe.rsist. ~nt. scouting, hav~ re;e::r:ed • to no~egulated c ondi-tions. " . With the exce_ption of a section of' tije ___ ( ,H;iSt$rn shqre of ~ laryland, the . . . . . .. } ' . . Del-Iv iar-Va P ~nins\ll8:h a s : bG-e_ n include d in t ts ent.irety. Aside from reduced ~ quarantine jurisdi.ction: p f uninf~$ted re_gion s.: i :TI; Fairfax County, -Va., no mater~c ~hange . in. ac.tual _regu'iated area. :j.s e._vid_enced in the latter State • .... ,_ :.. . Zones under regulation will@ -onsist of _ .the . . ma-in ,regulated territory together with10 isolated localities. Most. of the -detac}).ed districts are so small that ' /~ .is i mpraqt:~i~able_ to. P~;~B;ne _ntly station an -:l~~pector therein. The regulat~:-: _tion~. as -or;iginally pr:0mul g~t.ed conditi:oned unre:str:icted movement between :; . , . is_olated -zone_ s of quaran't;ined ar:t:i. cles by. truck:or .other road vehicle up.on .... ~.'.-,i1~f i\ing of_ sea],,~ . by an insp~c'tor a:t-the, point. o . f origin and the maintenance • .. .c _ f the .seals itac"!; UJ1til e xamined by. an .inspectqr, . i n . the separate regulated .... . , . are~ tq wh-ic h _the stock was transported ... The ne-w situation created by the establishment of muner:o .us s _ ep!3,rate sections .. has .been. met by elimination of , . _ :the sealing reg_uirement, -tprough a _ .modif'ic .ation of the quarantine requir.ements .to be. come ef' fecti ve simultaneously with. the: re:vi.s~_ d: regulations, 7 . • I •• Meas~e~ to .ass_ure . . :th.orough riddance -fro~ . . t~aps of accumulated beetles . must . be taken annually. A 9tt v it y on the part qf,. tit'a.pped beetles often leads ' t hem to b ecome hidden in. parts of the tra p othe r than" ~he collecting jar-

PAGE 15

-15-The insects someti:'i1es gain access to the inside of the traps and lodge themselves in the perforated metal bait container or become crushed between the bait container and the bottom cf the cylinder forming the body, especially when large nmnbers have been caught. Only by thoroughly cleansing the entire trap assembly may freedom from beetles be secured. Unless clean traps only are distributed each year, there is always the possibility of carrying dead adults of the previous year's catch to new localities in unwashed traps. Subsequent discovery of such adults might lead to the erroneous assumption that specimens had been trapped in the new location, whereas they were actually carry-overs. Frequently the beginning of the trapping season is accom~anied by high temperatures. Trapped beetles remaining in the glass collecting jars, for several days subjected to the extreme heat in the confined air of the jar and the sun's drying effect, become desiccated and are almost identical with dried specimens held over from the previous year. 'ashing of the baffle, funnel, cylinder, and bait container assemblies was last summer accomplished by trap tenders immediately after the completion of their summer's activities, and just prior to placement of the traps in temporary storage. When the trap? receive their annual reconditioning, the encrusted bait material and other accumulations of the summer are completely removed. This winter all traps have been assembled at t~e south Norwalk headquarters, where the metal portions will be repaired, ~nd the baffles, funnels, and cylinders painted. Painting of iron supporting rods is accomplished by dipping them in a small elongated wooden tank containing black asphaltum paint. Cleansing of the glass jars is performed in connection with the slotting operation described in a previous issue of the Ne.ws Letter. The jars are so carefully and thoroughly cleaned, during the p~ocess of overhauling them; as -to afford complete assurance that no beetles, lodged therein during the past season, will remain when the Nork is finished. Consolidation in a new subheadquarters near Oakmont, Pa.; of ~he project's two Pennsylv~ia cooperative suboffices previously located at 141 South 52nd Street, Philadelphia, and Germantown Pike, near Norristown, was accomplished on December 29. Moving operations started three weeks prior to the opening date. Transfer _of the office furniture, supplies, motor vehicles, gar~g,;, and other equipment frcm Norristown to Oakmont constituted the greates, i tern involved in the changed headquarters_ . A large automobile storage shed at Norristown was sectioned and re-erected at Oakmont, as was also a smaller temporary building used-as a repair shop. The new headquarters is an L-shapec one-story, high-ceilinged brick and sash building, having over 10,000 square feet of floor space. It was previously occupied by a manufacturing concern. Surrounding ground is available for expansion should conditions warrant. An oil-burning boiler supplies st~am to two enclosed coils within the building. Blowers integral with the coils force heated air to all parts of the building . Ground adjacent to the building has been plowed. When fill is available the environs of the building will be graded and grass sown. The building is located on West Eagle Road, near Oakmont, Delaware qounty, Pa. Post Office address of the new headquarters is Box 508, Llanerch Branch, Upper Darby Post Office, Pa. G. B. Stichter, previously in charge of the Philadelphia office, and J. K. Gould, supervisor of.the Norristow n t erritory, remain in charge of their respective quarantine activities.

PAGE 16

15 Jmmeq_i~tely upon deter.minati~n of the sl!ope of the revised. 3'apane s-e b$etle regulat~d area with the promulgation on December 12, 1931, of the 10th revision of the regulations, effective Janmu•,-l, 1932, work began on a shipper's guide. The guid? will include a brief digest of ~he regulations, together with a list of United States post of"fiees. express st~tions, and freight. offices, shown by ava:i,~able guides and maps as situated, within the new ar.ea. Approximately 40 mime ,ographed sheets containing 10.P cities and towns per page will be necessary. Counties in which the var1ou.s communities are included will also be shown. Probably the most. botl1,~ _rsome_ routine encountered by shippers in interpreting the quarantine is the necessfty for determining cities and towns to which their shipments are destineq. as inside or outside the regulated .area. Reference to the guide will deterini11e ' whether a community is within the area , when the shipment_ may go 'forw13-l'd :without restriction, or is outside_ the area, in which case t _he movement of the sto c : k must be ~~de -under certification. . ' United State_s .At_torney Oliver. D • . Burden, from Syracuse, N . y. , re-ports 1hat _on December 1, 1931,. Carmon Dagos:tino,. 409 N:•. State Street'., . Syra;.. cuse , ,appeared :_in :the United States District Co\-~ _at Utica an: d entered a . plea of guilty .to an ,informat-ion all_egirtg a violation ori JIy 21, 1931_, of the_ Pl0.I1t . Quara,ntin~ Act arising f:r 'pm. the .trahsp:ortati on contr_ary to the .T_ apant=;se . bee.tie r egul,ations of an uncertif ie'd t _ruck load of niisceliarieous veget~b,l~s and. fruit from. Swedesboro, N. :r~ , ~o Syra_ c .use. " The defendant was f -ined. $35 . • _: A:l..though stopped at the qua:ran:tirie line statrori at Factoryville, Pa.,: and, war _ned of, ;the pqss. ib:Le con.sequences of vi_oiat,ing .the regulations, the . (iefenda~t . eiecteid :to .-:proc .eed to,. his destinS:tion with the contraband. F orm of information was fileci wi'~h--the United. Stat: e s Attorney on Noyember 6~: H ... J" . • Doughe~ty .and . C. ft. , C}a_ un:t, __ agents of the project, _ _ who have be.re~o f.o;re ! pe.r 'r.or:niecf tr.aris_i:t J.rn~pec .ti.on. at. the. Phil~.delphia p6stal terminals . ., -' . , . . ' . . -. . . . . and .. railway exp.ress .. platforms, r:espect i vely , under the immediate supervision of Mr. Stich~er. ;~.--iii c ,h~rge. :of. _ tfie Phil;adelp_hia q,uarantine suboff ice, have . been tr:ansfe.r.red . t"o w o.r . ~ uncler, the_ dir:ect _supervision or the transit inspe c t~o n d;i. vision_. {ri, V/ash:i,"rigton • . ,.:nes,k room has beeii :furnished for use of these. men in the off fc. e . of .11:r. . Br. int :on' , -chief 'of the Phil'adelphia field inspection service ' s ' ta1; : i : on .. o . f the ' Fqod . . and n~ug Aqmirtistration, iocated at f34 south S~cond-Street'." .. .,.' ,. . . : I ' •, . ., . . : .J.1,1ild. ~~a.t~er <4~f~n~ ' much Pr nicembe; 'iiaJ pernii.tted movement of nurserr stoc~ for .. a .consid. e -rabJ,y _longer _pe.riod than _is usually available for winter . d _igging and_ shipment~ Aithough the actual shipment . of nursery stock under . certi-fir,ati:on has been comparatively 1imi ted / a considerable movement wi. thin uni-ts of. nu.rsery establishments. n~i$ taken pl"ace • . Th~s : additional demand for certification _ a nd s -upervtsion .of njovement on c .lassified _premises has resulted .in a.ctive empioymen , t fo"r . man y o'f the sk~leton force or" inspectors who would othel:'wise have been assigned to . ma,in~enanc . e or: other out-of.:.season oceupations, • . l ',. ' ' ' • A drafts~a: n . f'rom . tte -South Norwalk.heag.quarters •in company with an inspector from the Dover,' Del., suboff1ce we~ _ o : c-cupied d"ur ing the month in mapping classified establishments on the Del-rAa-Va Penin!!ula. Accurate maps to scale are required in connection with application of lead Qsenate to

PAGE 17

-17~. sections of nursery plots, treatment ot heeling-in and plunging areas, and as basis for determining classification boundaries. A swvey of six plots in Philadelphia,on which smartweed planting and lead.arsenate application were completed early in December, indicates that the major~ty of the broadcasted seeds have been washed . in by recent rains and all sur:face signs of the-arsenate have 4isappeared. Treated sections have been staked out, and warning signs erected to prevent trespassing on the demonstration plots. . .. Consid~rable equipment used at. quarantine line stations wh,~se locations donot confo~m to the revised regulated zones was collected during.the month ' and brought to th. e South Norwalk headquar'ter:s. Over winter the equipment. will be cleaned, repaired, or painted as. required. Cooperation du.ring the Christmas .matl rush was extended to the post ~ffice Department through the loan of two of the project'sdeliYery trucks to the Postmaster at Norristovm, . Pa. , and ,the transfer for a short period of a similar truck to the Postmaster at D~ver, Del. Transfer of an inspectorfrom the Dover, Del., office to Salisbury, Md., marked the establishment of ~eadily available inspection service in the lower Del-Mar-Va . Peninsula. MEXICAN. FRUIT V10RM The operati6n of traps in Matamo~os resulted in th~ -t~~ing of five adult Anastrepha ludens in three pr-ernis(? . s during December ~. Four . of these were females • . On dissecti'on no egg developI,11ent w~s observed, indicating that they had been caught shortly after emerging from the pupal st. age.. A close inspection of the citrus fruits growing in these premises gave _negative results. Upon the determination of these infesta.tions spraying oper.ations were instituted in the area comprJ~ed in the four blocks surrounding the points of infestation. Bait spray was appLied in 49 premises and will be continued at weekly intervals until 4 applications have been made. •• I A number .. ,of. sour orange trees were cut down by their owners in Mata moros wi 1;ih the i .dea _in V'it'.3w of. b _udding the sprouts to sweet fruit • .. . Spoiled oranges, guavas; -cherimoyas, pomegranates, apples, grapefruit, and sweet lime. s were secured fr~m Matamoros, inspection or' which resulted in taking ~2 ~arva~ from oranges irtU>prted . from Montemorelos, Nnevo Leon, Mexico • . . . ' Ne;, frui, t . flies in any stage. of. development were found ori the American side of the .r:i ver . The fourth rotmd of gro:ve -i-nspection was completed during the month. Inclement weather and the necessity oi a !t\.ending to regulatory _duties interfered to some extent with field work, resulting in a slight decrease in the

PAGE 18

-18-number of specimens submitted for identification. Due to the small sizes of the fruit and the practice of th~ packers in ring picking, very few groves have been completely cleaned of fruit. Rail shipments were light for the month. The holiday gift box shipment was about as heavy as last year for the two weeks period preceding Christmas. However, the movement of fruit by truck_ showed an unprecedented increase • .An equivalent of 376 carloads were shipped by this means during the month compared to 585 cars by rail. While the majority of fruit shipped by truck is consigned to Texas points a casual inquiry among the drivers as to their destination revealed a number of trucks making regular runs to New Mexico, Kansas, Oklahoma, Arkansas, Louisiana, and Colorado. Outlying points to which fruit was hauled in trucks during the month were in Illinois and Minnesota. During the early part of the season there was one trucker making regular runs between the Valley and New York City, completing the round about every two weeks. However, this trucker did not make the trip during December. A violation involving the improper use of permit stamps was en•ountered on the afternoon of December 31. A Mexican from Donna , engaged in a small way in the trucking of fruit to points upstate, bought the fruit from a grove south of .La Feria. In the sales contract this Mexican agreed to take care of the orchard and keep it properly cleaned. On the 15th it was found to have too much drop fruit on the ground, and ''Certificat-e of Grove Inspection'' was withheld. On rechecking this grove on the 31st, it was found that a truck load of fruit had been cut and was _in_proce~s.of being loaded on a truck. The baskets had permits from a Donna packing company attached. Upon investigation it appeared that the Mexican was considerably ignorant of the regulations; that he had been to the Donna inspector for stamps for this fruit and had been referred by him to the La Feria inspector in whose district the grove was located. However, instead of applying to the La Feria inspector, he had picked up a pad of stamps in the packing house at Donna which pe _WB:s inte_nding to • use. In view of his apparent ignorance of the requirements of the regulation~ he was allowed to move the fruit under La Feria permli. ts after putting a crew in the grove and thoroughly cleaning it. PINK BOLLWORM Ginning operations were very materially retarded throughout the regulated areas during December, as a result of unfavorable weather conditions. There ,has also been a shortage of pi~kers, espeeially i.n the lower part of the El Paso Valley of Texas. In the Salt River Valley of Arizona, a number of piokers have left the cotton fields to assist in harvesting the winter lettuce crop. As a result of the above conditions, less cotton was ginned during De cember than in any previous month since the season actually got under way. Probably the greatest amount of cotton yet to be ginned is in the Salt River Valley of Arizona, the latest estimate showing that some 29 per cent of the crop remains to be picked and ginned.

PAGE 19

. -19It is very gratifying to note that the sterilization of cottonseed has b~en very satisfactory, in vie'Y of. the cold weather that has been experienced. At,the end of December1 seed trom 211,971 bales had been sterilized, at an a~/e,rage _eff.~ctency. of 98 _per cent per bale. Duritj.g the past two mont .hs a survey o~ .th~ sterilizer equipment has been under way. T~e most seriousde fects revealed by thi'.s survey have already be~n correc'ie~. A fine sp~ri.:t. of cooperation was shown by the ginners in correcting such defects. Two ,_g'in~:tras.h _ niac;hines were in operation. mo~t 'of the month outside the regul.ated areas,, b .oth. of .~hesE? being in the San J"_ oaquil). . Valley of Califo:r:ni~. Trash was examined ~n. Ke~. n . , . Tulare, Mad~ra and .Kings Counties, ,.the re•suits . . . . ,~l_ l b~i ~ ne._gatiye . . . . :. . : ' W i tQ..i0n the ,reguiat, ~ .a: 'areas .mac~ines w~f~ :.?P .e.rited in the Salt River . V.~ey and at. Tucs~n, . Ju;-iz . . . At _Tucson, 57 9-iffe:r;'ent_ +,9ts o:r tr.ash were ~xamined; 53 lots being infe. s .t~' d: with. the Thurber_ia weeyil. ,No ,spec irnens of. the '.,.pi~k bollwo_rin, '.hayE? ~eeri . :t;o~d in the Tucso~_ a~ea, thi_.s ~easqn: in the Sait River_ Valley t1-~ ~ .. spec ireris of the pink b9llwo. rpi were fou.nd iri_ trash, which app_arently ,.ca,rne_ .i'r.'0712 cultivated stub co"t _t9n i~ tne :vicini i;y_: of o,oodyear. A . specimen .of_ -th~ Tli.urber,tt:i w~evil wa,s found; fn ti-ash .. at . C _oolidge, this e :ci men having apparentiy ' come frotn a ' f .ield southwest o"f. Casa Cfrande. Due tQ the fact that there is consider.ahle .. ginn.ing. ye. t to be done in the salt River Valley, it has been though~, adri_sable . . 1to continue ... the operation of three machines during .the coming month . ,_... . " f • • I ' •" I The r-egular. wee-kly .. inftlat:ation counts, whi:e.h hav. e been ma.de from.fields in the Salt River Vall'ey si: n.e,J.-ul-y,. were di scon..t .inue: d the earJ.y, part of De-. cember, due .to the scarci:ty-:and (;}har.acter of mater.ial. available for in~pection. All counts were. nega t-i ve • . : i' .. . . . .•:. t : ' • I • . . . . . . . : _: ! •.. . -For the . . past several , ye.a.rs .54 man-days' annual field. inspection has been perrormed on the -Tvy Dale •ranch.The Ivy Dale ranch is: loc~t:ed in the El Paso . Valley of T-exas , a;rid was .select. e . d . because cot-ton is planted each ye&r. T,he purpose of the inspection is to obtain sonlfl idea of:-t)ae inc:J;'_ease or decrease of the pink bollworm. The inspection this season was about half completed during Decsmber. • . . The xeS:ul ts . . . al~eady obta med ind.ic-ate. t.qat. the infestation is much • heav. -ier thi~. yee.r. •_than ever beofore ;. als_ o _ a •_-gr~ater, number: qf living specimens are .being fotmd,-In .conne-ctton _with 't;he field :ins-peatiqn , . all trash from this rancJr is b~-iM _runthrough orie .. of t_l:1e gin-~:r:-a-sh machine_ s ~so .as to give a comparison of the two methods of i;nspec.t:Lon~ 'J'.hi. s . work will; be c omplete_ d during the coming month, and the results will be _given in ~he next New s Letter. ,. : couin .ts are now_ being made in the Big Bend of Texas to get _ some idea of .t;tle . numbe~ . of: .live worm,s l.eftin the :various f -i.elds. The ount has been com . , p let.ed in• one field .in, which the sta •lks had previous~Y. bee~ raked and burned, . so t h~t. -the material left cons+st~d of bolls, squares, and other parts of the plant :to o-small to be raked. From an area qf 100 square feet, al_ l material was collected and examined. It was found that a pproximately 97,000 living and 40,000 dead worms per acre were left in t h i s part icular field. The damage c .ount: s tnent ion.ed in the last News Le.tter showed 2 6 . 2 2 per cent for this field. :, ..

PAGE 20

-20-Seed samples from the Big Bend are now being inspected to check the efficiency of sterilization. The seeds are first run through a gin-trashmachine equipped with a modified drum for collecting double seeds. The~e seeds are then inspected, and also a conside:rable number of single seeds. Approximately 1,000 spec irnens oi' the pink bollworm have been ro und in the seeds examined thus far. All of the worms were dead, thus indicating that sterilization has been efficient. There was a considerable decrease in both the number ofcars inspected and interceptions made at the road stations during the month, due largely to the cold weather prevailing. Many of the confiscations were taken from 1 1exican cotton pickers returning to the Rio Grande Valley of Texas. One interception made at the Fort Davis, Tex., station on November 14, was found to be infested with the pink bollworm. This interception consisted of about one-fourth pound of cottonseed taken: from the bed, of a truck which had been used to haul seed from the Big Bend to the-Marfa oil mill. An examination of the seed resulted in the finding of 21 dead larvae. One other intercep~ion of material made at the Fo+t Davis station. showed evidence of pink bollworm \'lOrk; however, no specimens were found. The road s.tation at Van Horn, Tex., has been.reiocated, due . to changing of the highway. This. station is now permanently tocated and is.equipped with electric lights, which is. a great advantage to the inspectors. PREVENTING SPREAD OF M)THS Practically all_of the_m~n who were temporarily transferred to the quarantine force for Christmas tree.and_ spruce bough inspection work had returned to the _scouting and exterm\~ati'on project before the end of. December and were assigned to scouting work. This work, however, no sooner got under way again in December, when it was temporarily siowed up by poor scouting conditions, and also.because Qf th~ fact th~t a large p~t of the force was away from field duty on an.r:iual leave during the_Christmas holidays. There was some snow during December which, in some instances~ turned to rafn and then froze, causing uncert_a1n footing conditions particu).arly in the mountainous areas in the Adirondack regions. During Decemper. scouting work for the gipsy moth was concluded as planned i _ n Hague, warren County, N. Y., with negative results, and the men were transferred.to duty at Dresden, N. Y. At the close of the mont'h, scouting crews v rere working in Putnam and Dresden, Washington County, N. Y, No gipsy moth infestations were found during the month in the area scouted by the Federal crews in New York State. During De cember there was some intensive scouting 'i7ork carried on arotinr old colony s . i tes in New Marlboro, and also in Sheffield, Berkshire C'.:ounty, Ma~, There have been found to date 9 infestations aggregating 61 new egg clusters and 28 old egg clusters in New Marlboro, and 1 new and 1 old egg cluster in Sheffield. Clean-up work around these infestations has not as yet been ~or.: ple-~ ed. Preliminary scouting work was eontinued during December in Litchfield, Conn., by three supervisors and one agent, and also at Tyringham, Mass., byt'i!,-

PAGE 21

-21-supervisors. No indications of the gipsy moth were found during this period. During December there were 92 lots of material offered for inspection in New Jersey, which represented a sharp decrease in the number of shipments and the quantities comprising these shipments over the previous month. This condition is usual in New Jersey at the time following the Christmas holidays. No gipsy moths were found on these shipments. On Long Island, in Nassau County, there was also a decrease in the volume of stock offered for inspection, there being 69 1ots examined and certified for shipment during December. No gipsy moths were found on these shipments. In addition to the inspection and certification of nursery stock originating in Nassau County, L. I., the Federal gipsy moth inspector stationed at Roslyn, L. r., learned that wood was being cut at Roslyn in order to furnish temporary employment to men in that locality. The wood cut was piled in cords and some of it was shipped outside of the regulated area in Nassau County. In the vicinity of whe.re _this v1ood was cut, the Ne'i'l York Conservation Department's scouting crerls recently discovered a gipsy moth colony. During November and December approximately 140 cords of wood were cut and shipped. A stick by stick examination was made of this v1ood by the gipsy moth inspector v,ithout finding any gipsy moths. The cutting of this cord wood has been discontinued for the present. The New York Conservation Department have reported that they had scouting crews engaged in the examination of wooded areas during December in East Fishkill, Wappinger, Northeast, and Amenia, Dutchess County; Harri son, Mamaroneck, :Thi te plains, Bedford 1 North Castle, and Yorktown, Vlestchester County; Chatham and Ghent, Columbia County; Vfuitehall and Granville, Washington County, Phillipstown, Ghent, and Carmel, Putniro County. On Long Island tbe same number of men have been reported as employed during December as during the previous month, these crews still being located in North Hempstead, Oyster Bay, and Hempstead, Nassau Co~ty. Scouting conditions on Long Island continued to be fair~y good so tnat the New York Conservation Department are gradually completing the scouting work. There is not a great deal more work to be done in the 3-mile area surrounding No. Roslyn., L. r., the center of the original infestation found on Long Island during the fiscal year 1930. The State of Connecticut has reported that since July 1, 1931, their scouting crews have found 78 infested locations in towns east of the barrier zone, which aggregate 8,674 egg clusters. There are two of these infested sites, however, which total 27 egg clusters in the town of Colebrook, Conn., which borders on the. barrier zone at the M~ssachusetts State line. Since the beginning of gipsy moth scouting and extermination work, the use of town maps was found to be indispensable to the forem~n of crews and to other supeTvisory officials. The first maps were rather crude as no attempt was made to standardize them. Some of them were prepared from u. s. Geological Survey topographical sheets, and from whatever road maps were then available. As the gipsy moth work developed, and the demands for specific

PAGE 22

-22-information became more and more naeessary, it was imperative that a type of map which supplied uniform information be adopted. Improvements have been made in these maps from time-to time and also in• the methods employed to se cure data for the preparation of them. When they can best be spared from their: rEfgular duties, men who are well acquainted with the scouting and exter mination work are ass-igned in pa.irs to make t own woodland and road. surveys. They usually start in one corner of the town to be surveye. d • . All ;roads are measured by an automobile odometer and are then drawn in on the map. The main roaas are lettered al:,habetically and the .smaller.roads leadi.ng into these main roads are sublettered such as Al,. Bl I CL : . It has seldom been necessary to use more' than the letters A-B-C"."D for. the main roads. The scale of the map is usua-lly 1 inch to a mile. . As the woodlands are encountered, the boun1 daries of" ea:ch are -paced. -or otherwise mea.rured . . by. odometer, when pos-si ble, , :a:..11d the acreage is determined., by calculation, the basis _-being_ 4,S40 square ' yardsto anacre. The shape of the: woodland block -is drawn inon the.work map and the distance from the rcads•ide. is' also shovm. The wo.odland blocks are numbered and the acreage. of each shown "inside of it. Villages :'Within the town ' are des-ignated :as are rivers,. . important trails leading . . through woo_dland bloc ks averaging 20 ,-000 acres or more, and large brooks and_ streams-.-, The pred-ominating tree-growth and other necessary information r.elative , t . o . the t~ee _growth are indicated. All important elevations are shown . • -Advantageo:slocatiop.s for scouting and spraying crews within a town as well as locati_on!3 ,f9r highpower spraying machines with respect to accessibility of water, etc., are noted, . Road ana. -trai-1 conditions as.reg9-rds their-.u-st:> .for mo1;or . v _ehicle travel are .given • . When the survey is completed-and it. usi.ially -takes two . men : ap-. proximatelytwo. weeks in an .average town-a. master. map , .is _ _ made : embrac.ing • these details, from which blueprJnt co,p.ies are m~de • . • The r oa,ds _in tl1,e -t~wn. ar~ mark-. ed at suitable places with white lead tp _ _ "'COrresp:ond with :th~ .m~p • . The, ~ -oad designations appear at the -$;t"art ancl finish,. at all .ro.aq . j~mci;ions,: _and in cases where the road is unusually long and is not traversed by other roads, the designation is painted again' cm trees, poles, etc.,. atinterval_ s of 1 mile. -There were:, l, 40? tons :of . sprue~boug;hs ( 28, 140 b~.)..e; of .;l;.00 p .ounds each) inspected and cert1fied for. shipment. from. .the quarantined area of , wes•_~ern Massachusetts and southern Vermont -thfs year. This . . is an .. increase of 21_ per_ cent iri the volume of spruce boughs .shipped this. season ov~r that shipp~d -the previous season/ During the season just past, appl'oximately 1,420,000 Christmas trees were ,actua1ly iniii"pected. Tl'iis. .. repres-ented an ,increa.se by several '.thousand trees over -those irispected last year. In connectio. n . with this work_ , _there was a 26 per cent increase 'in :the volume of .shipment. s : .carried by motor truck. The trees were consigned to 32' States, not inc-ludi:rig . Ne . w . England: . O;ne ~hipment, in addi t-ion, was shipped to -Hawaii. Appr:oximately, 1,050,000 tr~~s were _sent to Illinois, New ~ersey, New ,York, Ohio, and Pennsylvania. Related to the inspection of carload lot shipments of. Cnristmas trees, : was the _ne,_ce-ssary inspection of 13,000 car stakes or approximate'ly 300 cords, of luml>er. ~ -.-:The trees cut for stakes are mostly spruce, maple, and white . . ,birch~ . . Cons _i.cierably more white birch is now being used as it sets off the. car. and makes the .ca,rloa.d more sal"' able

PAGE 23

-23-There was a heavy increase in the shipment of mixed Christmas greenery from the quarantined area this year. Of this type of product there were 1,301 bundles and bales, 462 bags, 8,212 boxes, and 63 packages inspected and shipped in less-than-carload lots. This year one carload of mixed greenery consisting of 20,000 spruce and balsam wreaths was shipped from Skowhegan, Me., to Brooklyn, N. Y. It took approximately 12 tons of material to make up these wreaths. The greenery used in making these wreaths was assembled and inspected before the finished product was constructed. This is the first carload lot shipment of this type of product shipped from the regulated area, but with the apparent increase of this kind of inspection from year to year, it is to be f expected that more carload lots may be shipped in the future. Ohristmas greenery includes wreaths, sprays, decorative baskets, evergreen roping, centreI pieces, etc., and when practical, the regulated materials which are used in these articles are inspected before being used in making up the finished product. While inspecting mixed greenery assembled at Putney, Vt., for shipment outside of the quarantined area, one gipsy moth egg cluster was found on a branch of holly. The holly originated in the generally infested area and did not require inspection for transportation to Putney as this place is also in the generally infested territory. An enterprising manufacturer of Vermont maple sugar products shipped to various parts of the United States 837 boxes of maple sugar candy and in each box he placed a single sprig of fir balsam which required inspection. During the past Christmas greenery shipping season, the u. S, Customs Inspectors were active at loading points for Christmas trees along the northern border of the gipsy moth quarantined area of New Hampshire and Vermont. There is an import duty of 5 cents per bundle on trees originating in Canada, and a considerable number of trees were transported in hayracks and trucks across the Canadian border to the nearest railroad shipping points in the United States. Gipsy moth quarantine inspectors stationed at the border shipping points see to it that the Canadian trees are segregated from those originating in the United States. Trees originating in Canada do not require inspection as they are shipped under permit showing that they originated outside of the gipsy moth quarantined area, whereas trees originating in the United States must be inspee5-> ed and certified. There was a marked increase in the amount of different types of Christmas greenery inspected and certified for shipment from the gipsy moth quarantine area of New England during the past season. This can, no doubt, be attributed to the fact that persons who in previous years were otherwise employed but due to the present business depression were now without employment, found temporary relief in the Christmas greenery business, which is a seasonal activity. Persons interested in preserving relics of early American industries have from time to time acquired certain structures or buildings of this nature. In October, Henry Ford, one of the principal collectors of such relics, purchased for erection in his model early American village or his museum at Dearborn, Mich., the first silk mill built and operated in this country. This mill, in which the first silk manufactured in the United States was spun, was built and o~erated in 1810 by Rodney Hanks at Mansfield, Conn. Accounts of his early

PAGE 24

-24llllllllll~~t1[i~1'~}~M1l~!l{1111111111 l efforts in developing a process of spinning silk state that the raw silk used at the mill was produced by silkworms raised o_n the premises, and that during the first year 300 pbunds of this material were produced and used. All of the machines u~ed _ were operated oy hand power and it was not until 70 years later that the.first mechanical po1Yer was introduced by the erecti'on of a large water whee l . It was at first intended to move the mill intact from Mansfield, Conn., to Dearborn. , Mich. , b~t thi's was found to be impracticable. According ly, it was dismantled with care and each section packe d for transportation hy rail and truck to its fi~al destination. Each piece or unit of the dism~ntled mill was inspected and certified by a Federal quarantine inspector before . shipment. Recently, school children in a ~ection of Haine, acting upon sugges_ . tions and arrangements made by their teachers, have been sending collections o f minerals, bark from different species of trees, and various evergreen twigs, all of which are . characterist-ic of the s ection in which they are gath ered, to children of co .rresponding grades in other schools throughout the country. The materials in all of these cases have to be inspected and certi;_ fied even though the individual specimens a.re usually quite small. Packages have gone to schools in Georgia' Ke'ntuck'J' Nebra'ska' Missouri, California' and Alaska. In the borde r towns o f tho quarantined area, -tho inspection and eertification of. quarantined products may present some difficulties,_particularly when these towns are1ocated in sparsely populated sections, where roads are few and railroad stations are rather f _ar apart. Quite often, railroad stations in border towns may serve large areas lying.both inside and outside of the quarantine d areas and materials from both areas may be shipped in cbnsiderable amounts. Inspection at such points is conducte d with care to insure the proper exarnin?,tion of all products origj.nating insid_(! of the quar~ntined area. The si~uation may be .further complicated by the l9ading of cars with products from both inside and outside the regulated areas. As a gener~l rule, this mixing of mat ~:.tials is not practiced with respect to lumber and most ' . other forest products, but it is quite a common thing with Chr_istmas tree shipments. Ea c h yae:r numerous such mixed carloads are handled. The men who inspect at such point~ must b ~ alert to see that all m~terials requiring inspection receive it: a nd that there shall be no mixing-prjor to examination. Occasionally, no ad-;ran+; a g eous shipping points are present inside of the_ quarantined a r e a and products have to be transported ~o points

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INGEST IEID EUPH636ME_VGD9MB INGEST_TIME 2014-08-12T22:02:53Z PACKAGE AA00023275_00007
AGREEMENT_INFO ACCOUNT UF PROJECT UFDC
FILES