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News letter

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Title:
News letter
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United States -- Plant Quarantine and Control Administration
Place of Publication:
Washington, D.C.
Publisher:
Plant Quarantine and Control Administration
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Monthly
Language:
English

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Plants -- Diseases and pests -- Control -- Periodicals -- United States ( lcsh )
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serial ( sobekcm )
federal government publication ( marcgt )

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Began with: no.1 (Jan. 1931)
Dates or Sequential Designation:
Ceased with: no.18 (June 1932)
General Note:
"Not for publication".

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University of Florida
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This item is a work of the U.S. federal government and not subject to copyright pursuant to 17 U.S.C. §105.
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030428070 ( ALEPH )
785786312 ( OCLC )
2012229621 ( LCCN )

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N E WS L ET TE R


PLANT QUARANTINE AND CONTROL ADMINISTRATION

UNITED STATES DEPARrM1ENT OF AGRICULTT-E,






Number 13 (NOT FOR PTJBLICATION) January 1, 1932.





TECHNOLOGICAL

A test was recently conducted at 3abylon, N. Y., for the purpose of determining the practicability of treating im-ported chestnuts by some means other than hot water. The hot-water sterilization, while entirely satisfactory in destroying the insects, generally leaves the nuts in a condition ideal for decay and mold growth. The treatment tested at Babylon, in which air heated to the correct degree and with a relative humidity of 100 per cent is used as the heating medium, eliminates the likelihood of this condition. By placing the chestnuts in shallow, wire-bottom trays, in a suitably designed room through which the conditioned air is circulated, this treatment can be accomplished rapidly and does not involve a drying process following the treating.

Reports on the tests being conducted at Acala, Tex., in which a machine for treating commercial quantities of seed cotton by heat is being used, continue to strengthen the evidence that treatments in this type of sterilizer are practicable. Approximately-80 tons of seed have been used for the tests in which various exposures and temperatures were tried. Germination determinations have been completed on samples taken from seed used in 34 of the tests. About the same number of viability results are yet to be reported on.

The laboratory at El Paso, in which work relative to certain phases of the pink bollworm quarantine has been conducted for several years under the direction of A. C. Johnson, is being moved to Alpine, Tex. The transfer involves the moving of all laboratory equipment from El Paso to Alpine and the establishment of permanent headquarters at the latter place of Mr. Johnson and his assistants.










FOREIGN PLANT qUARATINES

C-ECNT ENTODLOGICAL INTERCEPTIONS OF INTEREST

[editerranean fruit fly from the Azores.--At Providence, R. I.,
living larvae and pupae of the Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata Wied.) were intercepted in sweet limes in baggage from the Azores. Three living larvae of this fruit fly were also intercepted at Providence, R. I., in Sorbus fruit in baggage from the same islands.

Mediterranean fruit fly in Japanese persimmon.--Four living larvae of the Mediterranean fruit fly were intercepted at New York in a Japanese persimmon in the mail from France. This represents the first interception by inspectors of the Plant Quarantine and Control Administration of this fruit fly in Tananese persimmon.

Coffee berries infested with Mediterranean fruit fly.--The Mediterranean fruit fly was intercepted at San Francisco in coffee berries in quarters from Hawaii. Larvae of this fruit fly have been intercepted more than a score of times at California ports in coffee berries from Hawaii.

Mediterranean fruit fly in peach.--Fourteen living larvae of the
Mediterranean fruit fly were found at New York in a peach in baggage from Italy. This fruit fly has also been intercepted in peach from the Azores,
France, and Spain.

Coreid feeding on guavas.--Adults of Leptoglossus stigma Herbst (Coreidae) were found feeding on ripening guavas near Vieux Habitant, Guadeloupe, French West Indies, by Max Kisliuk, jr. and C. E. Cooley, September 1, 1931.

Soursop seed infested with an eurytomid.--An adult of Bephrata maculicollis Cam. (Eurytomidae) was collected by Max Kisliuk, jr., and C. E. Cooley in a soursop seed at Pointe Michel, Dominica, British West Indies, September 20, 1931.

Scale insect from the Straits Settlements.--Parlatoria pseudaspidiotus Lindinger (Coccidae) was intercepted at Honolulu, Hawaii, on orchids (Vanda spp.) in baggage from the Straits Settlements.

Pentatomid from Central America.--Discocephala humilis HerrichSchaeffer (Pentatomidae) was intercepted at San Francisco on bananas in cargo from Panama. This insect, which is not recorded from continental United States, has also been taken on bananas from Costa Rica, Guatemala, and Honduras,

Scale insect on orchids.--The coccid Chrysomphalus rossi (Mask.) was intercepted at tonolulu, Hawaii, on orchid plants (Phalaenopsis sanderiana










and P. schilleriana) in cargo from the Philippines. This scale insect has also arrived on various hosts from Australia, Belgium, Japan, The Netherlands, New Zealand, and Samoa.

Rice moth in cacao beans.--The rice moth (Corcyra cephalonica
Staint.) was intercepted at San Francisco in cacao beans in cargo from Africa and Brazil. According to E. A. Back and R. T. Cotton in Farmers' Bulletin No. 1260, this pyralid is seldom found in this country and has not become very widely disseminated.

Mealybug intercepted at Honolulu.--Pseudococcus lilacinus Ckll.
(Coccidae) was intercepted at Honolulu, Hawaii, on orchids (Phalaenopsis grandiflora, P. sanderiana, and P. schilleriana) in cargo from the Philippines. This coccid has also been intercepted from India and New Zealand.

Destructive termite from China.--Soldiers and workers of the termite Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki were intercepted at San Francisco in a wooden crate containing taros in cargo from China. T. E. Snyder, of the Bureau of Entomology, states that this termite does not occur in the continental United States and that it is one of the most destructive termites in the world.

Weevil in orchid plants.--Acythopeus aterrimus Waterhouse (Curculionidae) was intercepted at Honolulu, Hawaii, in orchid plants (Dendrobium phalaenopsis and _halaenopsis amabilis) in cargo from the Philippines. This weevil has also been intercepted in orchid plants from the Straits Settlements.

European corn borer from Italy.--A living larva of the European corn borer (Pyrausta nubilalis Hubner) was intercepted at New York in a lot of five ears of corn in baggage from Italy.

RECENT PATHOLOGICAL INTERCEPTIONS OF INTEREST

Lima bean scab interceptions.-A number of interceptions of Elsinoe canavaliae on Lima beans from Cuba have been received from the port of New York. One interception of thi-s disease has been received from San Juan,
Porto Rico, taken from a sh-pient of Lima beans destined for the mainland. Some of the Cuban beans .,ere infected with Facterium phv~:eol some with Colletotrichum liIca<.h a, and some with Dia c th :solorun. One of
the Bueau of Pla1i'. Industry specialists has asked for noe ai of the Colletotrichum as he wishes to get a pure culture of the organism for study. It is difficult to isolate as it is much slower to start than organisms likely to be associated with it. Spores of the Diaporthe from Cuba are variable and it is sometimes necessary to make several mounts before typical spores are found.

Euonymus spot.--Several interceptions of an unrecognized trouble on







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Euonymus have been received from Seattle in the last few months, on plants frtm Japan. The affected spots are quite small and fall out before any visible evidence of a fungous develops, if such is present.

Septobasidium spongia was intercepted at New York on orange twigs from Brazil. This fungus forms a thick brown g 'owth around twigs and branches. The importance of the group is a matter of some dispute. It had been generally supposed that the fungus killed the masses of scale insects it overgrows, but one investigator has recently come out with the results of his studies and claims that the fungus and scales live symbiotically, the fungus deriving food from the scales and in return protecting the scales from parasites and spray.

Nematode interceptions.--Tylenchus pratensis was intercepted from Porto Rico for the first time, the host being Dioscorea and the port of interception, Philadelphia. Aphelenchus parietinus was intercepted on ginger root and lily bulbs from China at Detroit. The former is a new host and China is a new locality among our interceptions of this nema. It has been reported from China in the literature according to the Division of Nematology.

A species of Phoma was intercepted on Verticordia monadelpha from Australia at the 1 ashington Inspection House. No record of diseases on this host was found. Unfortunately, the amount of material was too limited to permit of a detailed study.

Lavatera r4st.--A rust, apparently Puccinia sherardiana, was intercepted at El Paso on Lavatera sp. from Mexico. This rust apparently is not reported on this genus in North America although it is known to infect other members of the same family (Malvaceae).

Chinkerichee rust.--Interceptions of diseased cut flowers of chinkerichee have been received from Boston, Chicago, New York, and Philadelphia. In addition to the rust, Puccinia ornithogali-thyrsoides, several lots were found to be infected with Terosporium ornithogali, material of which was desired by one of the specialists of the Bureau of Plant Industry.

lIPO-RTS OF FUIGUS CULTURES

A shipment of fungus cultures for industrial uses was held up in the mails in Philadelphia recently, though not under plant quarantine restrictions. This incident stimulated an inquiry from our Philadelphia station as to what attitude should be taken by us toward such imported cultures if presented for entry, which brought the following information from the Washington office. It is quoted here as a matter which may be of interest in various ports.

"Although this Administration has at present no restrictions on the



1 A IPL AN~ I3ARO







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importation of fungus cultures as such, yet it is fully realized that among such imports may be important plant pathogenic organisms. Even when these cultures come under the names of species already present and well known here there is always the possibility that strains of exceptionally virulent nature may be thus introduced.

ItOn the other hand the Administration would wish to make no objection to the entry of cultures of organisms incapable of causing diseases and intended for commercial or industrial purposes. These materials are considered to be outside the scope of our activities.

"If the fungus cultures entering this country are adjudged to come within the last-mentioned category the inspector -lay allow then, to pass unquestioned. But if they consist of or include disease-producing types, or there is suspicion that such may be present, the Washington office desires to have the opportunity before they are delivered to the consignee of verifying their natur--, keeping record of the entry, and arranging with the consignee for such safeguards as may be necessary. In case such cultures are encountered the essential facts covering them should be promptly submitted to Washington for the action indicated."

'IY4 F SCORCH OF AZALPAA shipment of azaleas from Holland destined to New Jersey was found on inspection at Washington, D. C., on December 7 to be rather generally infected with a leaf-scorch disease due to Septoria azalea. Available information indicates that this disease is not recorded for this country, but that it occurs in Europe where it appears to be somewhat widely distributed and is reported as damaging. The disease also occurs in Japan. The azaleas in question were therefore held for return to the sende.- or for destruction. A similar shipment of azaleas presented for entry from Europe December 8, 1930, was likewise refused on account of this disease.

The fungus produces dull, dark-brown, irregular spots or patches on the leaves; under certain conditions there may be an evident chlorotic margin or halo around the spots, but this halo effect is not always present. The spore-bearing pyonidia are imbedded in the tissues of the upper surface of the spots and are difficult to observe even under a hand lens. However, after a period of dry weather stringy coils of adherent spore masses may sometimes be observed exuding from the pycnidia. These are white in color and are easily seen under the lens,

The disease is said to become evident in early autumn and after that time produces so much defoliation that the plants are greatly weakened. Infection is carried over apparently in fallen leaves and research in Japan indicates that infection may be followed by an incubation period of about two months. We have no record of its occurrence on plants other than azalea,








Inspectors are urged to watch carefully for this disease, both on incoming azalea plants and on plants growing under special permit. In import material leaves which have fallen off in transit should be especially scrutinized.

RIODODEDRON MOSAIC

Rhododendron M1osaic is reported for the first time by Dr. H. Pape in Die Gartenwolt 35:621, 1 fig, for Novembur 6, 1931. The leaves of affected plants bear some resemblance to those of beets infected with curly top of to the distortions of potato leaves suffering from certain types of mosaic. Special permit inspectors will watch for possible cases of this disease in this country.

BEETLE IN ClhIAND N SEED

An interesting species of coleaoterous insect was intercepted recently at the 1iashington, D. C., Inspection House in Cinnamcmum zeylanicum seed from the Department of Agriculture, Trinidad, B. 71. I. Approximately 30 per cent of the 60 seed in this shipment were badly injured by this beetle. In identifying this insect as Heilipus rectirostris Champ. L. L. Buchanan, of the bureau of Entomology, notes: "H. rectirostris was described from two specimens, one from Mexico and one from Guatemala and it is very remarkable that the species should be found in Trinidad breeding in a Ceylonese Cinnamomum. THowever, the specimens fit Champion's description so perfectly that I can scarcely doubt that they belong to his species. (It is possible that H. rectirostris Champ. is a synonym of H. draco Fab., from South America."




DOfl1STIC PLANT QTJARATIN2S

TRANSIT INSPECTION

The first and only violation of the Mexican fruit worm quarantine reported during the fall season was found by K. S. Rohwer at Pittsburgh, on December 1. It consisted of a crate of grapefruit frcm Brownsville, Tex., consigned to Pittsburgh, Pa., without the required certificate attached.

The checking of freight in the vicinity of Pittsburgh, particularly at the Pitcairn yard, is being worked out by Mr. Corliss, of the transit inspection force, and Mr. Rohwer, of the European corn borer project. A combination of telephone messages and copying of waybills is expected to provide an efficient system of checking freight shipments of articles restricted under the European corn borer quarantine and other domestic plant quarantines.







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More nursery stock is distributed by express through Washington,
D. C., than by parcel post or freight, if November is a criterion for the remainder of the year. H. J. Conkle, on checking the November shipping, found a total of 764 shipments en route. Of these, 565 were found to be moving by express, 289 through the railway mail service, 64 through the post office, 34 in train-to-train transfers of express and mail at the Union Station, and 12 in freight at the Potomac Yards. The reason for the apparent greater movement of express is that Washington is a parcel post distributing point for only a limited territory, involving parts of Virginia, West Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Tennessee, while express shipments of nursery stock available for examination here are distributed to 22 States.

Trucks and railway shipments of livestock arriving at the Chicago Union Stockyards, many of them for exhibition at the Annual Stock Show, are being checked by transit inspectors in cooperation with the Euronean corn borer project, to determine whether cornstalks and cobs used as bedding, and corn on the cob used for feed, are being shipped from the
European-corn-borer regulated area. These articles may be infested with the borer. Inspections for a 0-day period resulted in checking 1,045 trucks, of which 153 were from the reglated area. This work is done from 10 p. m. to 7 a. m. Night inspection is also carried on at the Chicago railway terminals in checking on p rcel post and express shipments. A high degree of compliance with the requirements is reported.

The New York field office states that the importance of freight
inspection at that city was greatly increased during the first 10 days in December, due to the shipping of Christmas trees. Over 100 carloads of
evergreen trees from the gipsy moth and brown-tail moth area were moved to or through the transportation terminals during this period.

The Chicago field office sends in the following totals as the
number of Federal violations intercepted at Midwest stations during the period from July 1 to December 4, 1)31:

Chicago l8
Omaha and Council Bluffs 51
Kansas City 27
St. Paul and Minneanolis 17
St. Louis 15
Total 268

Information concerning the destinations of these violations is of interest. The shipments inter cepted at C]cano would have proceeded to Arkansas, California, Colorado, District of Columbia, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Missouri, New Jersey, New York, Nebraska, Ohio, Pennsylvania, and South Dakota. The Omaha a4d Council Bluffs shipments were destined to Colorado, Idaho, Massachusetts, Nebraska, Newi Jersey, Oregon, Wisconsin, and Wyoming. The violations i:tercepted at Kansos City





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were in transit to Colorado, Iowa, Kansas, Missouri, Oklahoma, Tex,. Virginia, and Wisconsin. Those seen at St. Louis were consigned to Arkansas, Illinois, Missouri, and Texas, while the St. Paul and
Minneapolis violations were en route to Iowa, :Mic1ian, Minnesota, South Dakota, Washington, and Wisconsin.

Chrisjtmas shiping.--The checking of shipments of Christmas greenery and similar decorative material forms the principal work of transit inspectors at this time of year. The quarantines relating to the gipsy moth and brown-tail moth, the white-pine blister rust, the Woodgete rust, the European corn borer, and the black stem rust, are all taken into consideration. The certification of Christmas trees and greens from most of the New England States is required and there is an embargo on the shipment of Christmas trees as such from the area generally infested with the
gipsy moth. Often white pine trees are used as Christmau trees and, as the blisters may develop and scatter spores weeks or months after trees and branches are cut, the shipment of white pine trees from infected to noninfected States is not allowed. Similar restrictions are also in effect as to hard pines from 10 counties in New York State kno-n to be infected with the Woodgate rust. One of the most popular cut flowers at this time of year is the Chrysanthemum, but it is also unfortunately one of the favored hosts of the two-generation strain of the European corn borer. Mahonias, also known as holly grapes, are much used as holiday
decorations on the Pacific Coast where they are native, and are occasionally shipped from that section, but under the black stem rust quarantine regulations, the species susceptible to the rust are not allowed shipment into the 13 orotecscd rmid(Ple-western States, and permits are required for such shipment of resistant species. The quarantine regulations provide exemptions of Christmas greenery wherever possible, in order to avoid interfering with the pleasures of the Christmas season, but it is nevertheless necessary from time to time to turn back shipments which involve a real hazard of carrying infestation to new localities.


WHITE-PINE PLISTLR RUST

Two interceptions of Ribes infected with the blister rust have
recently come to our attention. One consisted of R. nigrum shipped from Georges River, Nova Scotia, to Boston, Mlass., which was discovered by Chief Maritime Inspector WT. G. Bemis. The other was cultivated red currants shipped intrastate in Massachusetts, and discovered by E. J. McNerney.


PH0NY PEACH DISEASE

As reported in the last News Letter, the phony peach disease
quarantine was amended effective November 30 to involve 11 States instead of only 2 as heretofore. This announcement was followed immediately by







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the forwarding of letters and application blanks to the peach-growing nurserymen of these States. Where the nursery premises and the area within one mile of' the nursery had been found free from the disease during the past summer's inspection, permits were issuc;d authorizing interstate shipment. Nurserymen whose each stock was grown within a mile of known
infections were notified thct interstate ship-ing of peach and nectarine trees and roots from their premises would not be permitted.

The organization of quarantine activities in the newly regulated areas, including personal visits to important peach-growing nursery centers, and checking on nursery Stock shipments, occupied the attention of the Atlanta office during the month. G. 7T. R. Davidson is personally supervising the inauguration of such work in Georgia and Tennessee in cooperation with the Bureau of Plant Industry of this Departmrent, and Mr. Dopson has been assigned to Texas and A-rkansas.

A quarantine restricting the intrastate movement of peach and
nectarine trees and roots in North Carolina has been issued by the Commissioner of Agriculture of North Carolina. Preliminary steps in the direction of' State quarantines have alo already been taken by several other States involved in 1nhony peacha disease infection.

A survey of the routings of nursery stock shipments moving northeast from the areas infected with the phony peach disease has been carried on during the month under the direction of R. A. Sheals, assisted by C. A.. Lowe of the Bureau of Plant Industry. Evidence indicated that Spencer, Haralet, and Rocky Mount, IT. C., were the three principal transfer points through which such stock was distributed, mainly by freight, when destined for points in the east central States. Cooperative arrangements
were made with Dr. R. W. Leiby, State ljntorioloriJst of North Carolina, under which the State and Federal. Departments will Join in checking nursery stock shipments through those points to insure compliance with phony peach disease quarantine regulations. Similar vlork is being carried on at Atlanta, Ga., and Washi~ngton, D. C., with the result that it is believed a complete check on the movement of restricted plant material can be maintained.





DATE SCALE

In November, six far, palms and one date palm were found infested on an old infested property in the Im, crial valley. The palms were under 2 feet high, growing along a ditch bank in a heavy growth of arrowhead. In the fall of 1928 several large, heavily infested date palms were found on this property. It is probable that the small infested palms mentioned above were very small seedlings at the time and were overlooked becase of their location.





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This incident, with others previously recorded, emphasizes the
need of careful inspection of infested premises for a considerable time after the original infestation seems to have been cleaned up.

The arrowhead is a very common plant in desert areas growing along ditch banks and in uncultivated fields. It is cut and use3 as shelters for winter vegetables. The plant is a host of a scale identified by Dr. F. S. Stickney as Asnidiotus lantaniae Sign., the male of which resembles the male Parletoria scale. T'he dense growths ;-f arrowhead and mesquite 'An abandoned plantings of date palms often make adequ,:te inspection impossible.

During November, five oronerties in the Coachella Valley were
inspected on which no scale has been found since Movember, 1930. Scale has been found on only four properties in the Coachella Valley in the past year--twVo commercial plantings and two of no commercial value. Only four infested palmrs were found in the commercial Eardens, two cf which were defoliated and torched. The remaining two were not treated as only single dead scales were found. Thirteen infested paL ms were found in the two noncommercial plantings and were dug out and destroye,.. A total of 17 infested palms have been fouad in the Coachella Valley during the year ending Novembe,'30, 1931, as cor:pared with 201 found in the 12 months ending November 30, 1930. In the Imperial Valley lb date palms have been found infested during the year ending NovemIber 30, 1931, as compared with 98
found during the 12 months ending Nove-mbocr 30, 1930. In Arizona 2 infested palms were found during the year ending November 30, 1931, as compared with 22 during the 12 months preceding.





EUOPEAN CORN BORER A'D JAPAk~ESE BEETLE

General Project News

Field activities in corn borer control were almost wholly brought to a termination within the current period and in the Japanese beetle division also were subjected to additional reductions, except with reference to inspectors dealing with nurseries and in respect to treatment of isolated infestations. Last of the scouting for the borer which will be done this year took place during the first half of the month, and market inspection of oroducts also was discontinued. Road patrols and vehicle inspection stations remaining in operation at the beginning of the month were withdrawn a short time later. Office duties, on the other hand, were increased in a number of directions, the compilation of final records for the season requiring much attention. Information needed in consideration of proposed changes in the quarantine regulations also took up considerable time of certain members of the force.









Findinrc of scarabeid grubs, identified as Ochrosidea villosa Burm., on an estate at Greens Farnms, near South Tor- l, have 'een reorted to project headquarters. Turf o. another and adjoining residence property also has been injured by insects similarly determined. Feeding, of the grubs has ruined some three acrcs of lawn on the latter nlace, and a large number of specimens collected for experimental nurooses have been delivered to the Connecticut. State Entomologist, Dr. W. E. Britton.

Specialized Corn Borer Activities

Reports from the International Live Stock Exuosition and Hay and
Grain Show, which opened in Chicago on November 27, for a nine days' run, indicate that the Euronean corn borer exhibit attracted much attention and was a source of interest to thousands of people. The display, prenared at the western section headquarters in Springfield, Ohio, was transported to Chicago by truck and set up in ample time for the first day of the event. Some of the outstanding items in tihe exhibit were as follows: Life cycle of the borer, the injury done by it, and t1e parasites which prey upon the pest; larvae of the borer and of N other insects sometimes mistaken for it; borer moths collecte2 from various parts of the world
and moths of the fa:ri'y Pyralidae; damage to corn plants by the corn borer in comparison ,ith that by the ear worm, srmartweed borer, and lotus borer; seasonal activities and development of the corn borer, including flight of the moths, laying of eg masses on the leaves, depredations in growing plants during the larval stare, winter hibernation, spring resumption of larval functioningi, the pupation period, and emerg:ence of the new generation of moths. In another section, loss in yields was shown in a comparison between ears from infested and noninfested plants, in two small cribs with the same number of ears in each. Illustration of loss in yield further was riven in 5 lots of ears each from 25 plants, with the following number of borers per plant: 10, 1i, 125, 30. A section was devoted to plowing, one of the several methods of control recommended.
A full size table model of two turned furrows of a corn stubble field was shown. One-half of the model represented clean and satisfactory plowing, wThile the other half depicted a slovenly piece of work. The background of the exhibit was a panoramra of a field of corn stubble ready to plow. A striking feature :was a longitudinal section of a ploed furrow; one-half shoring the debris lying in the bottom, and the other half showing the debris near the top and along the surface, emphasizing
the relative merits of good and poor plonTing for control. Different phases of the quarantine enforcement were granhically presented. Present quarantine lines and the quarantined areas by St!.tes were shown on an outline map of the United States. The point of origin and the destination of 46 interceptions of ear corn at quarantine stations also were indicated on the map. Two miniature grain c:rs were featured, one loaded with clean shelled corn, permitted movement from the infested to noninfested
areas without interference, and the other with corn containing, parts of cobs, debris, etc., the movement of ILich is prohibited from quarantined territory. Tw:o corn cleaning screens, such as are used by elevators,







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also were exhibite; one showing the proper type, and the other allowing cobs or debris to drop through with the corn in the process of cleaning. 27o live stock cE.rs were displayed, one loaded with animals bedded down with stalks and debris, in violation of the regulations, and the other empty and in the process of cleaning before use in reshipment of cargoes from within the quarantined section. The centerpiece in the background was an illuminated cut-out sign depicting a quarantine station. A question box *ith answers was arranged in a form which permitted accurate mechanical operation. Questions were painted along the rim of a dial at the top, and just above and behind the dial there was a panel on which a pointer was set in the shape of an arrow which moved and pointed to the answers. When the interrogation mark on the dial was placed at a question, a button, conveniently at hand, was pressed and the arrow turned clockwise with the head stopping at the answer on the panel. Twelve of the questions most frequently asked by the general public were placed on the box and appropriate answers on the ?anel.

The overL for heat treating material to be moved outside the quarantined area was completed in time to treat all the ear corn exhibits for the International Live Stock Exoosition and Hay and Grain Show at Chicago which growers had submitted from the quarantined area. Corn was received as follows: From Canada, 1 lot, 10 ears; from Pennsylvania, 5 lots, 70 ears; from Indiana, 15 lots, 153 ears; from New York, 4 lots, 71 ears; from Michigan, lo lots, 192 ears; from Ohio, 9 lots, 100 ears; total, 50 lots, 596 ears. The oven was constructed as follows: 1-5/16" x 1/8" angle iron used for the frame, on which was riveted 1/16" galvanized sheet iron for both the outer and inner walls and 2 1/2" x 2 1/211 x 1/8"1 angle iron for the door frame. Inside dimensions were 40 x 52" x 64" and the outside 48" x 60" x 72", leaving a space of 4" between the walls; 1/2" of this space was taken up on each wall by insulation of sheet asbestos packed viith mineral wool, giving an air space on all sides of 3". Six electric heaters were placed on the floor of the inner wall, each heater equipped with an independent switch on the outside which permitted the use of any number desires. Four inches above the heaters is a false bottom, of 4" x 1/8" iron rods placed at a graduated distance from each other, from 0 at the back to 3/8" at the front, to equalize the amount of heat which the motor draws through t-e air duct at the back for circulation. The door was constructed the same as the walls of the oven in a manner that closed both the outer and inner walls of the door flush against the outer and inner openings of the oven. ietal weather strips were placed on both the outer and inner walls of the door to prevent any loss of heat. The door is supported by a large caster while open. The total weight of the oven is approximately 2,100 pounds, and it was erected on wooden skids for moving. The inside space above the false floor is divided equally for six trays, 40" x 63", which are about
6 1/2" apart. Each tray will hold approximately 100 ears of corn, average size. The trays when removed from the oven are blnced on a rack for cooling. Even temperatures are maintained at all points of the oven by a blower carrying air from the false bottom up through a duct at the









back, and is distributed by blower down through the center of the top.
The temperature is regulated by a thermostat mounted on the top, with a capillary tube running; through the side to the center. Corn which had been treated :'on high honors at the Hay and Grain Show, including first prize in the white dent classification, giving evidence that it had not been injured by the process. After the entries had been judged, typewritten slips mere attached to each collection of treated ears, explaining how the corn had been subjected to the heat treatment, so that visitors to the exhibit could see for themselves that it had sustained no injury.

Over 100,000 copies of the Massachusetts State lawi relative to
the disposition of cornstalks and stubble in connection with the suppression of the Euiropean corn borer have been distributed over rural routes and to post office box holders. This distribution will be followed by a
canvass of the agricultural and suburb n sections of Barnstable, Bristol, Essex, Middlesex, Norfolk, Plymouth, and Worcester Covnties, cy State inspectors. Fifteen men have been assigned to this .ork, and all persons who have not complied with the law will be required to appear in person at the State House, in Boston, or at some other conveniently located State or county building, for a hearing. Eight hundred "first offenders" were
compelled to attend these hearings last year and all were placed on probation. That there were no 'second offenders" and that it was unnecessary in any case to impose severe penalties speaks well for the operation of the law. The work of the State inspectors will be supplemented by a more intensive "farm to farn" campaign by experienced Federal inspectors, working in cooperation with the State, through the Greater Bost.n market garden section, which includes about 30 towns containing small farms, gardens, and greenhouses supplying the wholesale markets with fresh vegetables, plants, and flowers. This district covers the territory included in the first Federal and State quarantine against the European corn borer and contains heavily infested neighborhoods.

Conditions in the eastern shore counties of Virginia, where a firstrecord corn borer infestation was found late in the fall, as developed in a survey made during November, are much different from any existing elsewhere in the infested areas and present some unusual Droblems with reference to control practices. About half of the farmers in Accomac County, the scene of the new infestation, still follow the old-time custom of "topping" their corn, just above the ears, and stripping the leaves from the stalks below that point. This handling,, which was the general practice wherever corn was grown in the South up to 40 or 50 years a.go, supplies fodder claimed to have a maximum of feed value, as the tops are cut and the blades pulled while the corn is'yet green. Ears are harvested from the topped stalks at convenient periods during the winter, mostly in December. Sometimes the leaves are left, below the ecrs, and the stalks cut, Et a height of about 6 inches, Lfter the corn has been pulled off. In other cases, the stalks are allowed to stand for a ..'n'e, and afterwards cut down before spring plowing is done. On the other h".lf of the crop, corn is cut and shocked in the same manner as elsewh re in the grain-







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growing regions. Obviously, the extraordinary amount of stalks and stubble to be taken into consideration makes the approved method of control by turning under more or less impracticeble, and a further complicLtion is introduced by the light, sandy, and loamly soil, ranging from 4 to 6 inches in depth and customarily subjected to shallow plowing only. In Accomac aid Northamton Counties, some 70,000 acres of corn are cultivated in a normal year. Arrangements were carried forward for the cleaning up of from 75 to 100 acres around the location of the infestation .reviously found.

Men are to be placed in the field by the Rhode Island department
of agriculture, beginning on December 1, to make a thorough survey of all premises on w'ich corn was grown last season and ascertain how far there has been compliance with the State law requiring that all stubble and
debris shall be plowed under. Eforcoment of the law in 193 it is pointed out by the officials in their announcement of the investigation, resulted in an average reduction in infestation of ap roximately 50 per cent, in the State as a whole, and made possible the marketing of the best crop of early sweet corn produced in three years. Only one county reported a heavy increase in corn borer population, it is stated, and special attention will be accorded this section ia the forthcoming cleanup campaign. Warnings have been widely published in the State press that
corn growers who fail to conform to the provision of the law will be held to strict accountability under the penalties prescribed.

Proceedings instituted on October 26 against Clarence Shipp,
231 Paul Street, Belvidere, N. J., for a violation of the European corn borer quarantine on Se tember 4, were concluded on November 17. The violation involved the transportation vie rowboat of 36 ears of corn, grown in the one-generation area, across the Delaware River from Riverton, Pa., to Belvidere, IN. J. Just prior to the violation the dcfendant had been refused permission to walk across the bridge with the corP. He appeared before Judge George M. Bourquin, in the District Court at Trenton, and entered a plea of guilty. In view of the small quantity of corn involved and of the poverty of the defendant, a fine of only $3 was imposed.

In collecting additional information concerning infestations of the corn borer and crop damage resulting therefrom, 41r. Bartley, of the South Norwalk headquarters, visited farmer:-, canners, and county agents in the western, Lake Ontario, and Albany sections of New York, during the latter part of Nove-iber. Data from these sources indicate that growers of early-planted corn in several of the counties covered sustained considerable losses. The survey conducted by Mr. Bartley in this connection supplemented a similar one made by Mr. Crossman soue weeks previous.

Commercial dar ge to sweet corn, amounting to at least l0 per cent, as a consequence of heavy infestations of the Europeen corn borer, has







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been reported during the current season from the southwestern part of Vermont, according to information supplied the press by the State department of agriculture. Spread is said to have been observed from not far distant sections of New York which are heavily infested. Control by plowing under of all corn stubble and waste according to approved methods is urged upon Vermont farmers by the plant pest authorities of the State.

The remaining road patrols and vehicle inspection stations in the eastern section of corn borer control work were discontinued on November 14. These quarantine line activities had been confined to New York City and vicinity for some time before that date.

Shipments of the new crop of winter sweet corn grown in Florida first were reported as arriving at the Washington Market, in New York City, on November 16. This green corn on the cob was packed in crates. Only limited quantities were offered for reshipment under permit.

Late fall crops of Limaa beans supplied material for shipments to New York from California, Cuba, and some of the Southern States, which began to come through in the early part of November.


Exclusive or Combination Japanese Beetle Work

Project and field leaders in enforcement of the Japanese beetle quarantine were in confer horse sense in contacts vith t'he public also were stressed by several. A better understanding between headquarters Cficials and field office men as to the problems confronting each group appears to have been materially advanced, as one of the results of the meeting. Nearly all of those who participated gave expressions at the end of the sessions indicating hope that other like conferences could be arranged in the future.

Lead arsenate treatments of isolated infestations were begun at
Elmira, N. Y., on Novefmber 2 and concluded on the 5th. Properties on which 21 beetles were collected by scouts during the past summer are in close proximity, therefore treatment was applied to a continuous section









of some 18 acres. At the conclusion of the work two of the four spraying outfits used were returned to the South Norwalk headquarters. From Elrmira, two spray outfits proceeded to Watl:ins Glen, N. Y., where arsenate of lead was aIplied to approximately four acres on November 6. The three finds of a single beetle each in traps were all in close proximity to the Belknar Hotel, at the entrance to the Glen, so that a contiguous tract was treated. On November 9 about three acres of ground were treated in Little Falls, N. Y., surrounding the premises on which seven beetles were collected during the summer of 1931. Treating of 32 acres in Richmond, Va., was finished on November 9, in this operation, begun on October 24, four separated areas having been covered. Infestations in Richmond discovered last snmaer consisted of 5 beetles collected by scouts and 10 additional beetles recovered after the distribution of traps. After finishing in Richnond, two sprayer trucks proceeded to Charleston, S. C., where treating began on November 12 and was finished on the 23rd, 23 acres having been given attention. Unfavorable working conditions in congested residential districts slowed down the work. Three more or less isolated tracts were treated in and around the four locations at which single beetles were trapped last summer. Sprayer trucks were en route to the South Norwalk headquarters at the end of the month.

Steps for additional control operations next summer, in densely beetle infested sections of Philadelohia, wore taken during the month. The demonstration contemlates the treatment of a number of vacant lots with dosage of arsenate of lead toxic to larval survival, planting of smartweed on the treated soil, and subsequnt trapping operations on the plot during the noriod of adult beetle flight. Smartweed, nrcf rred as a food olant by the insect, will attract and feed large beetle ponulations. Traps with geraniol end eugenol bait will draw and catch the pests in great numbers. Ovioooition in the poisoned soil ';ill not perpetuate the insects, but will result in his:h 1iortality of the grubs. The intention of this control measure is to reduce by the millions, if possible, the beetle nopulatio-. Pre-eration of six vacant lots was nearing completion at the end of the month, permission having been secured for free use of seven. One of the lots is reserved for treatment and seeding in the spring,. Arsenate of lead is spread and harrowed thoroughly. Smartweed planting is accomplished by broadcasting. In most cases the broadcasted seed is lightly harrowed. The lots are distributed throughout the city, in sections known to hcve many beetles. On another plot, containing one-half acre, where there nas already a rank growth of tall smartweed,1ead arsenate was spread on tre soil to be washed in by the rain. One-half acre of ground at the White Horse district headquarters has also been treated, and a half acre is reserved for spring treatment.

After obtaining a "buyer's button" at the Ha: onton, d. J.,
berry market on Juie 29, 1931, Carnon Micale of' yrcuse, N. Y., purchased 24 crates o berries. Informed by the market master that carbon







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disulphide treatment was necessary before his berries might be certified for movement to Syracuse, the purchaser laced the crates in the fumigation house. Micale refused to pay the treating fee, so his fruits were not fumigated. En route to his destination with the uncertified berries, he was stopped by road inspectors stationed at Factoryville, Pa. Desuite warnings as to the consequences, he proceeded to Syracuse with the contraband. A criminal information was filed against the violator in the United States District Court at Syracuse. A plea of guilty was filed by the defendant on November 21 and he was fined $50.

Considerable outside work was done during the month in mapping nursery establishments recently or scantily infested and apparently eligible for Class II and III split-classification. Erection of suitable permanent fences or the establishment of other satisfactory boundaries to clearly mark the units subdivided as Class II on Class III premises was supervised in a nuinber of establishments.

Road patrol activities on the southern and western boundaries of the lightly infested areas were abandoned on November 30. Several inspectors stationed at these posts had been laid cff earlier in the month. Discontinuance of quarantine line work at these posts occasioned the dismantling of 19 road posts and the dismissal 3f 20 additional road inspectors.





M4XICAN FRUIT OIM

Two adult Anastrepha ludens were taken November 6 and 9 in traps maintained in a premise in Matamoros. Following the finding of these adults four applications of arsenical poison bait spray were made to the trees in 22 premises surrounding the point of infestation. Edible sweet oranges were growing in four of these premises. Cloths about 4 feet square were suspended in these trees and the poison applied to these cloths. Occupants of two premises objected to the spraying work and rather than build up opposition to the work the spraying on these premises was omitted.

An increase was noted in the amount of infested fruit recovered from the market in Matamoros. Guavas, sweet limes, oranges, and pears were found to be infested. Two hundred and sixty-four larvae were taken from these fruits.

No Anastrepha were found on the American side of the river.

The movement of fruit from the Valley was decidedly sluggish during the month due to a weak market and the lack of large sizes of fruit in







-13

Valley groves. Valley fruit is still running largely to 96s and smaller, and the market is demanding larger size fruit. Some growth was noted in the fruit during the month; groves which had been ring picked for 96s and larger at the beginning of the month showed a fair percenta e of 80s and larger when picked aain at the end of the month. A total of 668 cars were moved by rail during the month, and approximately 272 carloads, or about 40 per cent of the entire movement, was by truck. A casual check of the destination of these trucks showed the farthest points to which fruit is being trucked are New York, several points in Kansas and Missouri, and Denver, Colo. Naturally the great majority of fruit going out by truck is destined to Texas points.

The Rio Grande City road traffic inspection station wcs opened on
the 16th. Very little traffic moves over this road and, accordingly, only one inspector was assigned to duty at this station. Confiscations at both
stations have been fairly light considering the volumle of fruit passing.

Groves were found to be in good condition during the month. The
continued dry weather with several days of hirt winds caused a heavy drop of fruit which put the growers to considerable extra trouble and expense in picking it up and burying it. A total of 7,043 inspections were made during the month. Of the groves infected it was necessary to withhold "Certificates of Inspection" on 510 on account of -drop fruit and weedy condition of the groves.





PTTK 3OLL'ORK

Picking and ginning of the cotton crorp in the regulated areas
progressed very rapidly during the first nart of November. Weather conditions, however, interfered considerably during the latter part of the month. In a number of the districts there are many fields in which no picking has been done. Pract cally all of the cotton is now onen, consequently it will all be gathered at one nicking. It was thought that
ginning would be completed earlier than usual this season, but now that winter rains have begun it appears that the season will be prolonged as usual. At the end of November 174,501 bales had been ginned. The cold rains have affected the seed sterilizers somewhat, but as a whole seed
sterilization continued to be very satisfactory.

In last month's letter it was stated that iEry little cotton had been shipped from the regulated ercas and as a result practically all
gin yards were full. The latter Dart of the morlti a reduction of freight rates on cotton went into effect and since that time cotton has been moving very rapidly. This has resulted in a considerable increase in activities at the various comDresses and fumi;,ationi plants. In fact, the









compresses in the El Peso Valley have been unable to handle the cotton as fast as it comes in.

7ith the exception of the Tucson district and the Salt River
Valley, both in Arizona, specimens have been found in trash from practically all gins in the regulated areas; therefore, most of the gin trash machines were closed during the month. Two machines are still operating in California in addition to those in the Salt River Valley. The machines operating outside of the regulated area in the western extension of Texas were also closed the latter part of the month, and the men are now devoting their time to field inspection.

The results of all gin trash inspection outside of the regulated areas have been negative this season. A number of specimens were taken by the machines operating within the regulates areas during: November; however, these did not involve any new territory. All of the specimens taken in the Salt River Valley during November were in trash from the Gilbert Gin Company, at Gilbert, Ariz. Although none of these specimens have been traced directly to the fields as yet, the information secured from the ginning records indicates that the voris originated in fields of stub cotton in the vicinity of Chandler and Goodyear.

A new record finding was made by the gin trash machine in the
Big Bend district of Texas on November 3. One bale of cotton produced about three-fourths bushel of trash, which contained 8,767 specimens of the pink bollworm. The first frost occurred ir the Big Bend on the 19th of the month, and since that date the number of worms per bushel in trash has been decreasing. There has also been a considerable decrease in the number of pupae taken.

At the beginning of the season regulations were promulgated by the New Mexico authorities calling for the daily disposal of gin trash until November 15, the average date for a killing frost being before that time. This season, since there had not been a killing frost by the 15th, our gin supervisors requested the ginners to continue the daily disposal of trash until there was one. It is very encouraging to note that most of the ginners very readily agreed to this.

Mention was made in the last letter concerning the finding of a specimen of the Thurberia weevil in trash from the gin at Coolidge. Additional specimens have since been taken from rin trash and also found in the field. This cotton is grown at Eloy, which is outside the area regulated on account of the Thurberie weevil. On November 10 the Arizona Commission of Agriculture and Horticulture met and extended the Thurberia Weevil Quarantine so as to include this new area.

The number of cornfiscations mode at the road stations continues to show a slight increase. Only one of the confiscations was invested with the pink bollworm, this interception being made at the Alpine, Tex.,










20

station on November 6. This interception consisted of 37 cottonseed taken from cracks in the body of a truck, which contained two dead larvae. The driver readily informed our inspector that he had hauled seed from the Big Bend, but that his truck had been swept thoroughly. This finding indicates that a very cluse inspection is being made at the stations. A rather unusual confiscation was aede at the Van Horn, Tex., station on November 1. Five men passed tho station on foot, and as one of the men was carrying his clothes in a pick sack our inspector stopped them for inspection. About one-half -ound of seed cotton was found in the sack. One of the other men had a small amount of seed cotton in his suit case, while another was carrying two green bolls.

The latter part of Noveriber a delegation of citizens and
officials from the State of Arizoiia visited the !, Bend section of Texas, for the purpose of seeing actual field dam-ge done by the pink bollworm. Among those making the trip was the Chairman of the Commission of Agriculture and Horticulture, State Entomologist, County Agent of Maricopa County, a newspaper editor, and several prominent cotton farmers. These ]en,esecially the farners of the perty, mere all very much surprised to see the damage that could be done by the pink bollworm. They all expressed themselves Es being very heartily in f,-vor of continuing the eradication program in the Salt River Valley.

An estimate of the damage done by the pink bollworm to cotton in the Big Bend section has recently been made. Counts were made of the pickable and nonpickable bolls. Pickeble bolls -were counted as those which the ordinary picker would take, that is, bolls showing no injury and those showing injury to only one lock. Bolls showing injury to two or more locks were counted as nonuickable. The following table shows the results of the counts made in 14 fields in the vicinity of Presidio. Actual damage will run hi: her, as the injury to the lint and seed of the cotton that was picked was riot taken into account:





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Damage of the pink bollworm to the 1931 cotton cro i Bend section of Texas

(Records made on November 12, 13, 14, 1931)


:.Number : Number
Field "-o.: Location :bolls boIe un- Total :Per cent
.:pickl : ickable : bolls damage
1 : 1 Ii. SE Presidio : 1146 : 291 : 1437 : 20.2b
2 842 : 462 : 1304 : 35.43
3 : 2 : 1012 : 596 : 1604 : 37.06
4 : 2 : 870 : 231 : 1101 : 20.98
5 : 6 : 1031 3 25 : 1356 : 23.96
6 : 1680 : 597 : 2277 : 26.22
7 : 21- N7 : 1063 : 22'5 : 1288 : 17.47
8 : 3 : 772 : 278 : 1050 : 26.65
9 : 5 : 1065 : 70 : 1435 : 25.78
10 : 5--" : 607 : 106 : 713 : 14.87
11 :12 : 574 : 64 : 6358 : 10.03
12 :13 : 541 : 68 : 609 : 11.16
13 :20 : 1009 : 154 : 1163 : 13.24
14 :21 : 927 : 133 : 1060 : 12.55

: Average daae Presidio section 21.12






PREVEhTING SPREAD OF MOTHS

Scouting work for the gipsy moth was greatly reduced during
November because of the fact that there &ore ap roximately 100 men from the scouting and extermination force assigned to tomporary duty on quarantine work. These men were engaged in the seasonal inspection of evergreen boughs, Christmas greenery, and Christrmas trees to be shipped out of the area quarantined for the gipsy moth.

Of the 191,557 acres of -.oodland plarmed to be scouted by the
Federal force in the Adirondack region of the Ile? York barrier zone during the current fiscal year, approximately 150,000 acres have been examined with negative results.

Scouting work for the gipsy moth was concluded during November with negative results in Crown Point, N. Y., a to';n having more than 350,000
acres of woodland, and the men working there were transferred to other







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work. At the close of November, scouting crews were working in Putnam and Dresden, Washington County, N. Y., and in Hague, Warren County, N. Y. No gipsy moth infestations were found during November in the area regularly scouted by the Federal crews in New York State.

On November 30 a small crew was assigned to intensive scouting work
planned for this season around old colony sites in the town of New Marlboro, Berkshire County, Mass. This is one of the towns in southwestern Massachusetts where numerous gipsy moth infestations have been found in the past which were attributed to wind spread from the infested territory east of the barrier zone.

Preliminary scouting work was continued during November with
negative results in Beckett, Monterey, and 'yrin.ham, Mass., and Kent and Litchfield, Conn., in tho vicinity of where gipsy moth male adults were caught at the assembling cages.

The New York Conservation Department has been allotted the sum of $50,000 for gipsy moth work from an appropriation for the relief of the unemployed. The appropriation was passed at a special session of the New York legislature this fall. The training of men for gipsy moth work started November 9 and there are several crews now at work. The allotment will be expended for gipsy moth work by the Conservation Department in Washington, Putnam, and Westchester Counties, N. Y.

The New York Conservation Department has reported that t'.ere were scouting crews engaged in the examination of'wooded areas during November in East Fishkill, Kent, Southeast, and Phillipstorn, all in Dutchess County, N. Y., and in Newcastle, Eedford, \hite Plains, end Harrison, all in Westchester County, N. Y. The map received from the New York Conservation Department which gave the above information also indicated that scouting work was concluded in LaGrange and Fishkill, Dutchess County, N. Y., with negative results. In addition to the above scouting crews, there is one crew engaged in checking work around old colony sites in Milan, Dutchess County, N. Y.

The Conservation Department has reported 12 gipsy moth infested
locations on Long Island in Nassau County up to and including Novemuber 30, of which 9 are situated in North Hempstead and the other 3 in Oyster Bay. Ten of these infestations are within a 3-mile radius of No. Roslyn, L. I., the centre of the original infestation founAd on Long Island during the fiscal year 1930.

Clean-up work on Long Island is renorte as progressing slowly in
that it is limited to days when it is dark, foggy, or otherwise unfavorable for scouting work. There are New Yo:k State scouting crews working in North Hempstead, Oyster Bay, and He istead, Lone Island, N. Y., the work in the latter lace starting during Novemaber. These three towns are in Nassau County.







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During November, there were several employees of the scouting and extermination project caught in fox traps that were concealed beneath leaves and other debris. These employees were not injured by the exnerience because the type of dress adopted by the scouts consists in part of leather puttees or high leather boots and also because they were fortunate enough not to step onto stronger treps such as are used in trapping of bears and other large animals. However negligible it may seem, these hazards, in some instances, have a slight bearing on the quality of the scouting work accomplished.

Although the gipsy moth egg cluster usually h- tches from the latter part of April to the first half of ,iay and the larvae issuing from the eggs become full grown the latter part of July and the early part of August, there are rare occasions when gipsy moth eg- clusters are found hatching in the fall of the year. An instance of this was discovered just east of the barrier zone in back of Bald Mountain, Shelburne Falls, Mass., on September 11. Approximately 25 gipsy moth larvae were found on an egg cluster which was about 5 feet from the ground on the east side of an apple tree. Closer inspection revealed 12 additional egg clusters in
a cavity of a dead limb on the s=e tree end larvae were h-tching from
3 of these egg clusters. The fall hatching. of o'ipsy moth egg clusters is so rare that it is unimportant as a control factor and consequently very little study or investigation has been made to determine the facts in the
case. There were no temperature or other weather data available which would have a bearing on this fall hatching exceuot that in a general way the weather was unusually warm for that time of the year.

During November there were 143 lots of material offered for inspection in New Jersey, which represented a decrease in the number of ship ments and the quantities of materials comprising these shipments over the previous month. No gipsy moths were found on these shipments.

On Long Island, in Nassau County, there 'was also a decrease in the volume of stock offered for inspection, there being 12o lots examined and certified for shipment during November. No gipsy moths wcr found on these shipments.

At one time, cable reels used by the maintenance departments of telephone companies operating in the quarantined areas were difficult to inspect for infestation by the giosy n-oth. They were constructed entirely of wood, and the inner drum on which the c ble was wound was not made in such a manner as to prevent the entrance of full-grown larvae.
In consequence, egg clusters were sometimes; deposited inside of this inner drum, and in order to reach them the reel had to be taken apart. The cable reels now used have pressed on steel drums whose only openings are the two, one on either side, through which a steel bar is placed to act as an axle when unwinding the c, ble. 'o avoid the possibility of the drum becoming infested on the inside, the telephone companies provide plugs which they require to be placed in the holes at all times except







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of course when the reels are mounted for unindin. During the unwinding the holes are filled by the steel axle and close fittin;- steel plates so that larvae cannot enter. Particular care is exercised by the telephone employees as they realize that if t e inner drues did become infested, their dismantling for inspection 'ould be a difficult and expensive task.

In general, the inspection of quarantined roducts for shipment
to points outside of the quarantined area is made just prior to shipment. After inspection, the articles are nackeu or loadefo and then certified. With certain manuf actured products, such es wreaths and other decorative Christmas pieces, the materials may be put together in such a -ey that thorough inspection can not be made and as a result the usual procedure of inspection is not possible. Fo all such articles when inspection of the finished products can not be made, the raw materials are examined before used in the process of .anufecture and tle prorer precautions taken so that only inspected mr terils will be used. In most cases, the shippers will send out some if not many articles to points within the quarantined area where certification is rot ece~.ry, but as it is impossible to tell in advance of manufacture just what materials may be
used for the inside shipments, all are isacte:, end then at the time of shipment, certificates are issued only for :hose .ihich are consigned to points outside of the quarantined area.

The spruce boujb industry in southern Vermont and western
Massachusetts, which was explained in the Dece.ar ews Letter, was practically completed in November. Approxi1 atly 1,300 tons of spruce bouths were inspected up to iovoimbr 3D, which is ,bout 35 per cent increase in the amount of boughs submitted for inspection tbis year as over the quantity inspected and shipped las year. Te inspected boughs are being rapidly certified and shipped to points outside the quarantined area.

In connection with the spruce boug;h inspectio, b15 tons of balsam fir boughs and 10 tons of he:lock boughs have been inspected and certified for shipment. These were shipped in 100-pound bales and are used for mak ng up wreaths and other decorative nieces for Christ2:as use. The baling process of shipping this stock enables the florists to make their ow~n creations as ordered. Christmas tree inspection is purely seasonal, and the volume of business is so great over such a short
period in November and December that it is necessary every year to arrange with the scouting, and extermination project for the temporary transfer of approximately 100 men trained in gipsy :,oth work to take care of the inspection and certification work incidental to the Christmas tree and greenery industries. The inspection ;f Christmas trees in the quarantined area of Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, and western YMassachusetts started November 2 and rached its mexium point about Novembcr 25. The Christmas tree operators were unusually late in assembling the trees






-25

for inspection this season due to the fact that this November was the warmest on record for this type of inspection. The trees are conveyed to a shipping or assembling point and the 'urdles opened by the operators to allow for a tree-by-tree inspection for the gipsy moth. The trees when shipped are loaded onto flat ccrs, at which time a certificate is
issued covering the shipment based on the iisnection at the tire the trees were assembled and bunched at the shipping point. The cutting of car stakes, which are necessary in loading platform cers, is another work associated with this industry. A car will take from 14 to 22 stakes, 10 feet in height and bout d to 8 inches in diameter, and considering that there were aioroximately 850 cars loaded and shipped last year, a great deal of additional ins-,ection work is required for this type of product. The Christmas trees cut i> the quarantined gipsy moth area are shipped to practically every State in the Union, although for the most part they are destined to Illinois, New Jersey, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, and the New England States. This year inquiries have been received by the o-erators relative to shipments of Christmas trees to Italy, Germany, and England.

A new revision of the satin moth quarantine No. 53 has been issued by the Secretary of Agriculture to become effective December 1, 1931. In this revision, the territory under qoarantine has been extended in Maine,
Vermont, Massachusetts, and Connecticut to include within the regulated area all towns beyond the old regulated area which have been found to be infested with t-is insect. In Maine appDroximately 757 square miles were added to the regulated area and in this section are located 18 tons or other geographical units. This addel area is located in Piscataquis, Somerset, and Franklin Counties. In Vermont one town of approximately 47 square miles in Orange County w..s added to the regulated area. In Massachusetts the extension was in Berkshire and Franklin Counlties, and consisted of 8 towns of approximately 177 square miles. In Connecticut the area extensions were mainly in Hartford and Litchfield Counties, although a few towns were added in both New Haven and Fairfield Counties. In all, 24 towns of approximately 569 square miles weVre added to the regulated area in Connecticut. The regulations in so fcr as they affect poplars and willows, or parts thereof capable of propagation, remain the same. The shipment of these trees or parts from the regulated area is not permitted. As the regulated area has been extended from year to year, more and more nurseries have been brought into the area from which the shipment of poplars and willows is not permitted In many cases these nurseries receive orders for poplar and willow trees nhich they are unable to fill. The reg letions of some other quarantines permit the shipment from the quarantined areas of products which originate outside, but this has not been permitted under the regulations of quarantine No. 53. In the revision, a new regulation provides that these trees and parts may be brought into the regulated area after October 1 of any year, but they must be shipped prior to April 30 of the following year. In addition, it is provided that skch trees o-' parts while ,ithin the regulated area must be safeguarded by being sermerted so that there will be no possibility of their becoming infeste All shirmients of these trees and parts to points outside of the regulated ,rea will Po under permit.




UNIVERSITY OF FLOil,(A 3 1262 09245 0781




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N E W S L E T T E RPLANT QUARATINE AND CONTROL ADMI NI SRAITIONUNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURENumber 13 (NOT FOR PT3LICATIOT) january 1, l932.TLCHNOLOGICALA test was recently conducted at iabylon, iT. Y., for the purposeof determining the practicability of treating imported chestnuts by somemeans other than hot water. The hot-water sterilization, while entirely satisfactory in destroying the insects, generally leaves the nuts in acondition ideal for decay and mold growth. The treatment tested at Raby-lon, in which air heated to the correct degree and with a relative humidityof 100 per cent is used as the heating medium, eliminates the likelihood ofthis condition. By placing the chestnuts in shallow, wire-bottom trays, ina suitably designed room through which the conditioned air is circulated,this treatment can be accomplished rapidly and does not involve a dryingprocess following the treating.Reports on the tests being conducted at Acala, Tex., in which a ma-chine for treating commercial quantities of seed cotton by heat is beingused, continue to strengthen the evidence that treatments in this type ofsterilizer are practicable. Approximately 80 tons of seed have been usedfor the tests in which various ex-osures and temperatures were tried. Ger-mination determinations have been comnleted on samples taken from seed usedin 34 of the tests. About the same number of viability results are yet tobe reported on.The laboratory at El Paso, in which work relative to certain phasesof the pink bollworm quarantine has been conducted for several years underthe direction of A. C. Johnson, is being moved to ALpine, Tex. The transferinvolves the moving of all laboratory equipment Crom El Paso to AlpiLne andthe establishment of permanent headquarters at the latter place of Mr. John-son and his assistants.

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-2-F"ThJG PLA 2 QUARAIT I TES-,C7W E_KIOIOLOGICAL I'S7CH'TIOWS 01 Y7T22TMediterranern fruit fly from the Azores.--At Providence, P. I.living larvae and pupae of the IMediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitataVWied.) were intercepted in sweet limes in baggage from the Azores. Threeliving larvae of this fruit fly were also intercepted at Providence, P. 1.in Sorbus fruit in bag;,ae from the same islands.iditerranean fruit fly inJapanese persi,'mon.--Four living, larvaeof the Mediterranean fruit fly were intercepted at New York in a Japanesepersimmon in the mail from France. This represents the first interceptionby inspectors of the Plant Quaratine and Control Adi:inistration of thisfruit fly in Jananese persimmon.Coffee berries infested vith %editarranein fruit fly.--The editer-ranean fruit fly was intercepted at San Francisco in coffee berries inquarters fro,. awaii. Larvae of this fruit fly have been intercepted morethan a score of times at California ports in coffee berries from Hawaii.editerranean Cruit fly in peach.--Wourteen living larvae of the:editerranean fruit fly -lrfound at Iew York in a peach in baggage fromItaly. This ruit fly has also bean intercepted in peach from the Azores,France, and Seain.Cureid feediw on ,uavas.--Adults of Leptoglossus stigma Merbst(Coreidae) were found feeding on ripening guavas near Yieux Habitant,Guadeloupe, French West Indies, by Max Kisliuk, jr. and C. E. Cooley, Sep-tember 1, 1961.Soursomeed infested with an eurytomid.--An adult of Bephratamaculicollis Cas. (Eurytomidao) waS collected by Max Kisliuk, jr. , 'ndC. E. Cooley in a soursop seed at Pointe Michel, Dominica, British WestIndies, Sepotembe r 2C, 1931.Scale insect from the Straits Settlcments.--Parlntoria pseudaspidio-tus. Lindinger (Coccid~ae) w a intercepted at Honolulu, 1Hawaii, on orchids(Vanda spp. ) in baggage from tie Straits Settlements.Pentatonid from Central America.--Discoc(mhala humilis Herrich-Schaeffer (Pentatonidae) was intercepted at~San 'anisCO on bananas in car-go from Panama. This insect, which is not recorded from continental UnitedStates, has also been taken on bananas from Costa Rica, Guatemaln, and Hon-duras.Scale insect on orchids.--he coccid Chrysomuhalus rossi (Mask.) wasintercepted at .onolulu, Hawaii, on orchid p lants (phaltenopsis sandcviana

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-3-and P. schilleriana) in cargo from the Philippines. This scale insecthas also arrived on various hosts from Australia, Felgium, yapan, TheNetherlands, New Zealand, and Samoa.Rice moth in cacao beans.--The rice moth (Corcyra cephalonicaStaint.) was intercepted at San Francisco in cacao beans in cargo fromAfrica and Brazil. According to E. A. Back and R. T. Cotton in Farmers'Bulletin No. 1260, this pyralid is seldom found in this country and hasnot become very widely disseminated.Mealybug intercepted at Honolulu.--Pseudococcus lilacinus Ckll.(Coccidae) was intercepted at Honolulu, Hawaii, on orchids (Phalaenopsisgrandiflora, P. sanderiana, and P. schilleriana) in cargo from the Philip-pines. This coccid has also been intercepted from India and New Zealand.Destructive termite from China.--Soldiers and workers of the ter-mite Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki were intercepted at San Francisco ina wooden crate containing taros in cargo from China. T. E. Snyder, of theBureau of Entomology, states that this termite does not occur in the con-tinental United States and that it is one of the most destructive termitesin the world.Weevil in orchid plants.--Acythoreus aterrimus "I'aterhouse (Curcu-lionidae) was in'rcepted at Honolulu, Hawaii, in orchid plants (Dendrobiumphalaenopsis and ;>alnenopsis amabilis) in cargo from the Philippines. Thisweevil has also been intercepted in orchid plants from the Straits Settle-ments.European corn borer from Italy.--A living larva of the European cornborer (Pyrausta nubilulis Hubner) was intercepted at New York in a lot offive ears of corn in baggage from Italy.RECENT PATHOLOGICAL INTPC:PTI0NS OF Ifl7EPESTLima bean scab interceptions.-A number of interceptions of 7lsinoecanavaliae on Lima leans frm Cuiba have been received from the port of NewYork. One iuterceuion of this disease has been received from San Tuan,Porto Rico, taken from a .hivcnt of Lixa beans destine for the mainland.Some of the Cuban >cans 7era infantod with wctu ur pvol: , rome withColletotri lm U: and some with ia c *um. One ofthe Blatu of PlsAi. indu:> y Specialists has aske dc '." C L the Col-letotrichum as he wishes to get a pura culture of' the or1aism for study.It is difficult to isolate as it is much slower to start than orga.nismslikely to be associated with it. Spocres of the Diaporthe from Cuba arovariable and it is sometimes necessary to make several mounts before typicalspores are found.Euonymus spot.--Several interceptions of an unrecognized trouble on

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-4-Euonymus have been received from Seattle in the last few months, on plantsfrcm Japan. The affected spots are quite small and fall out before anyvisible evidence of a fungous develops, if such is present.Soptobasidium spongia was intercepted at New York on orange twigsfrom Brazil. This fungus forms a thick brown [rovth around twigs andbranches. The importance of the group is a matter of some dispute. Ithad been generally supposed that the fungus killed the masses of scale in-sects it overgrows, but one investigator has recently ome out with theresults of his studies and claims that the fungus and scales live symbioti-cally, the fungus deriving food fran the scales and in return protectingthe scales from parasites and spray.Nematode interceptions.--Tylenchus pratensis was intercepted fromPorto Rico for the first time, the host being Dioscorea and the port ofinterception, Philadelphia. Aphelenchus parietinus was intercepted on gin-ger root and lily bulbs from China at Dotroit. The former is a new hostand China is a new locality among our interceptions of this nema. It hasbeen reported from China in the literature according to the Division ofNematology.A species of Phoma was intercepted on Verticordia monadelpha from Australia at the 7ashington Inspection House. No record of diseases onthis host was found. Unfortunately, the amount of material was too limitedto permit of a detailed study.Lavatera rzst.--A rust, apparently Puccinia sherardiana, was inter-cepted at El Paso on Lavatera sp. from exico. This rust apparently isnot reported on this genus in North America although it is known to infectother members of the same family (M!alvaceae).Chinkerichee rust.--Interceptions of diseased cut flowers of chink-erichee have been received from Boston, Chicago, New York, and Philadelphia.In addition to the rust, Puccinia ornithogili-thyrsoides, several lots werefound to be infected with Heterosporium ornithogali, material of which wasdesired by one of the specialists of the Bureau of Plant Industry.IIPORTS OF FUT&Uc CULTURESA shipment of fungus cultures for industrial uses was held up in themails in Philadelphia recently, though not under plant quarantine restric-tions. This incident stimulated an inquiry from our Philadelphia stationas to what attitude should be taken by us toward such imiported cultures ifpresented for entry, which brought the following information from the Wash-ington office. It is quoted here as a matter which may be of interest invarious ports."Although this Administration has at present no restrictions on the

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importation of fungus cultures as such, yet it is fully realized thatamong such imports may be important plant pathogenic organisms. Even whenthese cultures come under the names of species already present and wellknown here there is always the possibility that strains of exceptionallyvirulent nature may be thus introduced."On the other hand the Administration would wish to make no objec-tion to the entry of cultures of organisms incarable of causing diseasesand intended for commercial or industrial purposes. These materials areconsidered to be outside the scope of our activities."If the fungus cultures entering this country are adjudged to comewithin the last-mentioned category the inspctor may allow thorn to passunquestioned. But if they consist of or include disease-producing types,or there is suspicion that such may be present, the ashington office de-sires to have the opportunity before they are delivered to the consigneeof verifying their nataca, keeping record of thentry, and arranginZ withthe consigned for such safeguards as may be necessary. In case such cul-tures are encountered the essential facts covering them should be prorptlysubmitted to Uashington for the action indicated."_LEAF SCORCH OF A7JEAA shipment of azaleas from Holland destined to New Jersey was foundon inspection at Washington, D. C., on December 7 to be rather generallyinfected with a leaf-scorch disease due to Septoria azaleae. Available in-formation indicates that this disease is not recorded for this country, but that it occurs in Lurope where it appears to be somewhat widely distributedand is reported as damaging. Tlhe disease also occurs in Japan. The azaleasin question were therefore held for return to the sender or for destruction.A similar shipment of azaleas Presented for entry from Europe Decemiber 8,1930, was likewise refused on account of this disease.The fungus produces dull, dark-brown, irregular spots or patches onthe leaves; under certain conditions there may be an evident ehlorotic mar-gin or halo around the spots, but this halo effect is not always present.The spore-bearing pycnidia are imbedded in the tissues of the upper surfaceof the spots and are difficult to observe even under a hand lens. However,after a period of dry weather stringy coils ot' adherent spore masses maysometimes be observed exuding from the pycnidia. These are white in colorand are easily seen under the lens.The disease is said to become evident in early autumn and after thattime produces so much defoliation that the plants are greatly weakened. In-fection is carried over apparently in fallen leaves and research in Japanindicates that infection may be followed by an incubation period of abouttwo months. Ve have no record of its occurrence on plants other than azalea.

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-6-Insnectora are ur'.ged to watch carefully for this disease, both onincoming azelca plants and on plants grovzing under special permit. Inimport :aterial leaves whicn have fallen off in transit should be es-pecially scrutinized.:j OD7D TDRON MOSAICRhododendron :osaic is reported for the first time by Dr. H. Paperin Die Gartanwelt 3'.621, 1 fig, for Novembur 6, 1931. The leaves of af-fected plants bear sone resemblance to those of beets infected with curlytop of to th. distortions of potato leaves suffering from certain typesof mosaic. special ermit inspectors will watch for possible cases ofthis disease in this country.BEETLE IN CIhlcAMON 3EEDAn interesting' snecies of coleopterous insect was intercepted re-cently at the >ashin_'ton, D. C., Inspection house in Cinnemanu zeylanicumseed from the Department of Agriculture, Trinidad, B. V. I. Approximately30 per cent of the 60 seed in this shipment wore badly injured by thisbeetle. In identifyinr this insect as Heilipus rectirostris Champ. L. L.Buchanan, of the Bureau of entomology , notes: "H. rectirostris was describ-ed from two specimens, one from Mexico and one from Guatemala and it isvery remarkable that the species should be found in Trinidad breeding in aCeylonese Cinnamomurm. However, the specimens fit Champion's descriptionso perfectly that I can scarcely doubt that they belong to his species.(It is possible that H. rectirostris Champ. is a synonym of H. draco Fab.,from South America. )"DOMESTIC PLANT QUARAMTIVESTRANSIT INSPECTIONThe first and only violation of the Mexican fruit worm quarantinereported during) the fall season was found by K. S. Rohwer at Pittsburgh,on December 1. It consisted of a crate of grapefruit from Brownsville,Tex., consigned to Pittsburgh, Pa., without the required certificate at-tached.The checking of freight in the vicinity of Pittsburgh, particularlyat the Pitcairn yard, is being worked out by Mr. Corliss, of the transitinspection force, and Mr. Rohwer, of the European corn borer project. Acombination of telephone messages and copying of waybills is expected toprovide an efficient system of checking freight shipments of articles re-stricted. under the European corn borer quarantine and other domestic plantquarantines.

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-7-More nursery stock is distributed by erspress throu-h W7ashin,-ton,D. C., than by parcel post ur freight, if November is a criterion for theremainder of the year. H. J. Conkle, on checking the Movember shipprinc,found a total of 764 shipments en route. Of these, 36' were found to bemiovino by ex ress, 289 through the railway mail service, 64 through thepost office, 34 in train-to-train transfers of express and ma t theUnion Statiun, and 11 in freiht at the Potomac Yrds. The reason forthe a--ps~rent greater movement of express is that Washington is a parcelpost distributin ' point for only a limited territory, involving parts ofVirginia, 'lest Virninia, aorth Carolina, South Carolina, and Ternnessee,ohile express shipments of nursery stock available for examination hereare distributed to 22 States.Trucks and railway 2hipen ts of livestock arriving E-t the Chic o oUnion Stockyards, many of them for exhibition ot the Annual Sto-k Shou,;are beinn checked by transit ininectors in cooperation 7ith the 'ropancorn borer project, to determine whether cornstalas and cobs used asbedding, and corn on tho cob used for feed, are teing shinped from theEuropean-corn-borer reoulaned area. These artIcles may be infested withthe borer. Inspections for a e-day period resulted in checki> 1,04htrucks, of which 153 were from the reg-lated area. This wok is dDsxefrom 10 p. r). to 7 a. i. Ni:ht inspect eel .:ost acd e press ship-ments. A hioh degree of compliance with ho requirsorts is ro orted.The New York field office states thot the ipourtonce of freightinspection at that city was ;reatly increased during the first l' -an inDecember, due to the shioping: of Christmas trees. Over Ko car--ds ofevergreen trees from the oipsy moth and brown-tail oft area were moved toor through the transportation terminals during this peri-).The Chica&o field office sends in the following totals as thonumber of Federal violations intarcopted at Midwest stations auri theperiod from July 1 to December 4, 131:Chi ca o 1-8Omaha and Council Bluffs 21Kons s City 7St. haul and Minneo is 17St. Louis 1Total 268Information concerning the destinati cos of th!e violations i5 ofinterest. The shipments inte e to at C> :cc , Al have pnnee ,ed toArkansas, California, Colorado, Dtstrnmt of CAumbTa, Illinois, ''> a,Iowa, Kansas, Aichian, Visoouri, Ieersay, Jew hrk, ,0ebraiho io,Pennsylvania, and South Dak-ota. The Omsha and C:ci Blxffs 5hipment5were destined to Colorado, Idaho, Massashuset, obska, ' 'r ,Oragon, "lisconsin, and Wyoming. The violet on s itrcenten at C4( ty

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-8-were in transit to Colorado, Iowa, Kansas, Missouari, Oklahoma, Tex,Vir:-inia, _,,d Uiscsin Those seen at 3t. Louis wer, consigned tolarkansas, Iliniois, Missouri, and Texos, bhile the St. Paul andMinncapolis violations were .n route to Iowa, :Q _, innesota, SouthDak-ta, Thohinrton, and '7ise nsln.hismasshiiLpin.--The checking of shipments of Christmas green-ery and sim-ilcr decorative material forms the nrincinal work of transitir.rectors at tnis time of year. The quarantines relating to the gipsymoth and bro-n-tail moth, the white.pire blister rust, the 7oodgEte rust,the European-, corn borer, and the black stem rust, Pre all taken intoconsideration. The certification of Christmas treos and greens from mostof the New Enuland States is required cnd there is an embargo on the ship-ment of Christmas trees as such from the area generally infosted with theginsy moth. Often white 'ine trees are msed as Christma-, trees and, asthe blisters may develop and scatter spores weokc or months after treesand branches are cut, the shipment of white nine trees from infected tononinfectod States is not allowed. Similar restrictions are also ineffect e" to hard nines from 10 counties in Pew York State known to beinfected with toe Woodgate rust. One of the most popular cut flowers atthis time of year is tr e Chysanthemum, but it is also unfortunately oneof the favored hosts of the lwo-generation strain of the European cornborer. Mahonias, also known as holly grapes, are muchi used as holiday decorations on the Pacific Coast where they ore native, and are occasion-ally shinped from that seC:tion, 1Ut under toe boack stem rust quarantineregulation', the s cieci vusceptib e to the -usar.e not allowed shipmentinto the 13 nrotec-md :iiole-wostern States, &md rmits are required forsuch shivimint of rcsi stant :p)cies. The quarcnninr gulations Provideexemptions of Chvistmus greenery wherVer possible, in order to avoidinterfering with toe pleasures of the Christiias season, but it is never-theless necessary, fom time to time to turn back shipments which involvea real hazard of carrying infestation tnew localities.T7H1E-PIE PL I R UT11Two interceptions of IRbcs infected with the blister rust haverecently come to our attention. One consisted of !A'. niorum shipped fromGeorges Rivor, Nova Scotie, to Bocton, lnass. , which was discovered byChief Maritime Inspector 7. G. 3emis. The other aas cultivated redcurrants shipped i.trastate in Mlassachusetts, and discovered by E. J.MIlcNerney.PKO7 PEACH DISEASEAs reported in the last Ne,!s Lett"l, the phony peach diseasequarantine was ameodel effective November 3i to involve 11 States insteadof only 2 as heretofore. This announcement was olluved imm ediotely by

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-9-the forwarding of letters and auolication blanks to the peach-growing nurserymen of these States. Where the nursery premises and the area withinone mile of the nursery had been found free from the disease during thepast summer's inspection, ormits were issued authorizinF interstateshipment. Nurserymen whose each stock was grown within a mile of knowninfections were notified thet interstate shipsin: of peach and nectarinetrees and roots from their premises would not be permitted.The organization of quarantine activities in the newly regulated arees, including personal visits to important nezch-growing nurserycenters, and checking on nursery stock shipments, occupied the attentionof the Atlanta office during the month. G. 7. R. Davidson is personallysupervising the inauFuration of such work in Georgia and Tennessee incooperation with the Bureau of Plant Industry of this Department, and Mr.Dopson has been assigned to Texas and Arkansas.A quarantine restricting the intrastate movement of peach andnectarine trees and roots in North Carolina has been issued by the Com-missioner of Agriculture of North Carolia. Preliminary eteps in thedirection of State quarantines have also already been taken by several other States involved in nhony peach diiese infection.A survey of the routines of nursery stock shinosents movings north-east from the areas infected with the phony peach disease has been carriedon during the month under the direction of R. A. Sheals, assi-ted byC. A. Lowe of the Bureau of Plant Indulstry. Evidence indicated thatSpencer, Halet, and Rocky Mount, 1J. C., wers the three principal transferpoints through which such stock was distributed, mainly by frei t, cihendestined for points in the east central Stetes. Cooerative arrangementswere made with Dr. R. 7. Leiby, State hnto.o o tat of North Carolina,under which the State and Federal Departments will join in checkinnursery stock shipments through those points to insure compliance with nhony peachdisease quarantine regulations. Similar work is beir. carried on atAtlanta, Ga., and Dashington, D. C., with the result that it is believeda complete check on the movement of restricted plant material ce:n be main-tained.DATE SCALEIn November, six fan palms and one date palm were found infested onan old infested property in the Imo-rial alley. The palms wer under 'feet hih, growing alona ditch bank in a heavy growth of arrowhead. Inthe fall of 1928 several large, heavily infested date palms werf Found onthis property. It is probable that the small infested polms mentioned abovewere very small seedlings at the time and were overlooked becewse of theirlocation.

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-10-This incident, oih others previously recorded, (i.rUhasizs theneed of c reful inspection of infested remises for a considerable timeafter the tinl infaststion seern to 1,ve bee-. cleared up.ThUrrOWIeOd is a very COmmOn plant iidesert art.as ao 1in a lOnditch b*nks a;. in uncultivcted fields. 1t is cut End use c.s sheltersfor winter vereta les. The plnst i ) host of sc;lU ilenti;ied 'y -r.F. S. Stick:ev Lc As& i1Jo u le.ntaniae Si-n. , the male of which resofmi lesthe male Parlwtria scule. To dense growths arrowihend A d ,esquite1 n abandoned plstin;-s of dctc nclr, often. e s kc a dqu to i; ectio ir-;rossibie.Turi November, LIve proerties in the :oaohella lie wereinspected on oWi no scaLe has neen found s nce 1oe:er, l32. Sc rLIehas been found on only four pro erties in t e COachellr elley in tho Pastyear-to comercial plDantins And two of no c!n.erciol value. Only fourinfested pnlis !er. ouni in the o>Umrci-fens, two which weredefoliated and! t-rhed Tie recainind two were not treated non-singledead scales -;ere foun. Thi rteon ifest e a L i'-ur it-, the two non-commercial pnti:;;>s and were duo out and dsstr r)f. A tota .f 17 in-fested palms have beefou-d in the Coocholla Valley dunrn t yezr endiNovember' 30, 1931, aco:pr n ith 2. Uoun& in the 1i Miotns 1 endin,;November 3O, 1 30. In te Imperial Valley iL date paLes i eon fP undinfested duin; the year ending :rvemer 0, 19, es co-r i ith 19found duriCn the li months n' Ioveabor 3U, 1l3. In Arizona 3 infestedpalts were found dun the re : end us Nnvercber 30, 1931, as compared with22 during the 11 months precedingEU1OPEAM COBN BlUER ND JAPA Sl BEETLEGeneral Pro je t NewsField activities in corn borer control were lmost -Th'oly brought to a termination Vithin2 the current neriod mnd in The anese beetledivision also s subjected to aditional redscti on, exceo wii-hreference to inspectors decline. with nurseries and in resreclt to treatmentof isolated infestations. Last of the scutLn; for the borer "ih illbe done this year took place during the first half of the mnnth, andmarket inspection of >roducts also was di scontinued. load patrls candvehicle inspection stations remiainino in operation at the 1u-.; i nnino of themonth were withdrawn a short time lever. Office dutie;, on tne other hard,wore increased in a number of directIons, the compilation of final recordsfor the season requiring cuch attention. Information necaud in consid-ra-tion of proposed cn ,es in the quarantine reulati n also took up con-siderable time of certain Mem-ers of t.he Ifu'ce

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on ani estate )t rerens Fa , a "ti ue , GEn re-te torOct henodqu .rtur:. Tur 0 o fnOtuer' cnd a jii2n P05inc2 p~ propertyal10 has seon in jur y insects s:milarlr scetar:mned. Feadi of therubu has ruined :o, e th &;cres o1 le-m on the lAttcr o1e, at J&ar 1ee number of :eciens fllhcteu for en t'l pur o.e0 have 'eendelivered to 7iC ncticut State Entorloist , Du. 7. E. Pritton.i ei2lzed Cr ro'er "tivitiesPeTorts friv. ttI4n Liv. Lto E si tio 1cd Ea AnaGrcin ShO , RhLic opened i; C>ics,: ot Uovaber 27, for a nine days run.,indicate that th i Ers ean tOtsi 'uer cohibit ottractea 1nCh atttiznand was a :ource of iOtsrst t thousands of pe opi. Th dicly, pre--ei'ed at t1e west. so -on edq tern in S0 1fiold, Oio, was trans-ported to Chnc a-o v truck an set up in amiple time for the first day ofthe event. So.e of tc tssanon; items in te exhibit were as follow:Life cycle of the b-er, the injury done by it, and le parasites whichPre-, upon the pint; Larvae of the sorer and of 1A' other insects sOetimesiiaken fOi it; burer mJThs colecte from MXurm part. of the worldand moths of the fLa ILy .ra. ..L; da-e. to corn blyts Ly the corn Iorerin COmnarison in -hat b: t.e ear '7o, s--mtweed borer, and lotus borer:seasonal ac J vities r devalo ent of the corn orec, insludinz flightof the moths, layi: Iour a sses on the leaves, dereiatiuns in growingplants durinn the larval store, wintehibernutio urin recU.rntiCn oflorvel function-ia-, to puptiun eri', anl & ecr-nce of the new genera-timn of moths. In a" ther s1ctimi, ILss in yields was shown in a com-parison between errs fr s infested and noninifested .lants, in two smallcribs wit' t-e C&e mter Di' arS in ICh;. 1l13tration '" loss inyield further iS ivn in .lots of ears each from 7nn, iith thefollowing, number oS>rers per olnt: h, U, 1, Sb, 30. A section wasdevoted to plowi: , one of the several -.ethod of control recommended.A full size table model of two turned furross or e corn stubble fieldwas shown. One-half of the model reresented oleani aid sEtisfact Oryplor:ine, while the other hall' dticte a slovely riece of :ock. Theback (Iroud of the exhibit raI a ponorana of a fi lid of corn stubble readyto ploi. A striki .feature :va a nituuinnl section of a lo lonfurrow; one-hali shI' ing the lris lyi in the bttosm, and the otherhalf showing1 the de ris nea the top and alonn the surface, eiphacizin:the relative narits .1 goad and frv -loin Pcr control. Difcrentphases of the quarant nI:forceent fr o Ir'a'ni ally Cesented. Presentquarantine lines a d the quarrantineJ. areas y St at nere shfe:n on ILoutline o uf the United SLts:;. The ooift 1 oiin and the destinationof 46 interceptions of ear corn at quarantine stations also nere id 'atedon the map. T-::o miniature arain e n wers featured, un loAed withclean shellea corn, armitted move:e I fro. the i nifeted to mmninfestedareas without I I;eerence, A1 n t ot Ii' ath cot> con a i prt ofcobs, debris, etc. , the ofoveent 01 0 ith i5 prO I ttd fro: qu'rantineoterritory. T:o crn cleani ;y screens, suoh as are used by eiC'zt0r5

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-12-also were exhibite" ; one showiOF; the proper t'ne, anr the other alowi cobs or debris to drop through with the corn in the process -f cleanin r.T::o live stock c. rs w-re displayed, one loaded ,ith anirial bedded dswnwith stalks and debris, in vio-ation of thregulations, and the otherempty and in the process of cleaning before use in reshioment of cargoesfrom within the quarantined section. The enteroicce in the backgroundwas an illuminated cut-out sign denicting a qUarantine _tation. A ques-tion box *ith answers was arranrled in a form which permitted accuratemechanical operation. questions were painted alonr the rim of a dial atthe top, and just above and behind the dial there was a nanel on which apointer was set in the shape of an arrow which uoved and pointed to theanswers. When the interrogation mark on the diAl :ias placed at a question,a button, conveniently at hand, was pressed and the arrow turned clock-wise with the head stopning; at the answer on the panel. Telvc of thequestions mos t frequently asked by the general -ublic were placed on thebox and approPriate answers on the nanel.The oven for heat treating material to be moved outside the quaran-tined area was completed in time to treat all tie ecr corn exhibits forthe International Live Stock Exosition and Hay and Grain Show at Chicapowhich growers had subitted from the quarantined area. Corn was receivedas follows: From Canada, 1 lot, 10 ears; from Pennsylvania, 5 lots, 70ears; from Indiane, 15 lots, 13 ears; from Sew York, 4 lots, 71 ears;from Michigan, l lots, 192 ears; from Ohio, 9 lots, 100 ears; total, 50lots, 596 ears. The oven was constructed as follows: 1-h/i6" x 1/8"anjle iron used for the frame, on which was riveted 1/16" galvanizedsheet iron for both the outer and inner walls and 2 1/2" x 2 1/2"' x 1/"angle iron for the door frame. Inside dimensions were 40 x >2" x 64"and the outside 48" x 60' x 72", leaving a space of 4" botwen the walls;1/2" of this space was taken up on each wall by insulation of sheetasbestos packed with mineral wool, giving an eir space on all sides of3". Six electric heaters were placed on the floor of the inner wall,each heater equippei with Ln independent switch -an the outside which per-mitted the use of any number desired .Four inches above the heaters isa false bottom, of 4" x 1/8" iron rods place Lt a graduated distancefrom each other, from r at the back to 3/8" at the front, to equalizethe amount of heat which the motor draws through tie air duct at the backfor circulation. The door was constructed the same as the walls of theoven ini a manner that closed both the outer aod inner walls of the doorflush against the outer and inner opening of the oven. ,etal weatherstrips were placed on both the outer and inner walls of the door to pre-vent any loss of heat. The door is sunported by a large raster whileopen. The total weight of the oven is apnroximately 2,100 pounds, andit was erected on wooden ide for no viny. The inside pence above the-false floor is divided equally for six treys, do" x o3", whioh are about6 1/2" apart. Each tray will holb approximntely 100 earn of corn,average size. The trayo nhen removed from thb oven are minced on a rackfor cooling. Even temeratures are maintain at all point; of the ovenby a blower carryin air from the false bottom up through a Auct at the

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4.

PAGE 25

-17-back, ad is diotrib uted by ulYWer down through the -enter -f the To,.The tnofr:tuie i, e Vulated by a therY'.ostt : onlted on the top, i t acap i cry I ube runnin through h the side to the cont2. Corn c1 ic habeen tremned hi; : hn's at the La 2. Gr in Sh, i firstprize in the waio diat clss icac, lin evidence t', t ha tbeet in Ijurd y the rorce-s. afterr the entries ha," heer judje i, ype-written slir tre ttached to each ollecti -of treated ear s, exrnlininohow the cDrn ad be e sub jec ted to the heat treatment, so that visitsSto the exhibit co LId see far thrwesves t -it -r sustained o injury.Over 0 ,n'o copies of the a-sachu.setts tate lav relative tothe dispoai tio of COrnItalJ and stubbl in connection !Jith the surnr-sion of the Erro-ean curn borer have ree ditribute over rural routesand to post ffIe hou holders, This cistritutio:ill be foIlowed by acanvass of the aSricultural and subur n sections of Ba n5t; lw, BristoL,Essex, iddlesex, ihrfoIL!:, Plymouth, anid iT >rcester Counties, r: Starte in-c-,ectors. Fifteen en have bee as ined to tis ork, anC all erse swho have not cooled ,iil the Iaj wi !-t, recsuired to anear in perS7nat the State Houor , in Ioston, lr at :com ote s anvenientL2 located " tateor county buildin , for a hear inn. EiJ ht hundred "fi-st offenders" 7erecomnrelled to attend thesh;erings lest year aI all were plr ced or-"o-bation. That thero rare no sond offendera" and tnat it sas unnieccssrryin any case to im-ose severe _n3atis sna}-kz well for the operation ofthe lra. TL yark: of the State ins; ,tTi. will ho supplemented ty a moreintensive "fPrm: sr faro" campaiirn by ox oricoced Feseral inspectoro, workr-i in iii c ooperati on i th the Stace, through the Greater Boo arket !'ardensecti j, which i nIudes a.tc ",I tons contan na onall farns c rdens,and reenhouse s uyin, t I whoiessie m e to with fresh ve etabl es,plants, and flowe-. This district cover: the territory i-cluded in thefirst Fe ier1 an State qurcn tine -Gn -inst the zuromean e !rn borer and con-tains heavily irfcsted neighborhood.C )nditios is she eastern bhoru couatA r Vi rjLii, herm a first-record corn horcr infestation )as fourd l&te in the fall, ar davelLpod ina survey made durin, Loveber, &re (mr diffrent from any cxictiny -where in the infested areas and -resest some unusual Tiroble_ with refer-ence co control prrcCeO. A oat hal if the f0merr in AIso C(untythe scene of the ne; inoestatiom, st C ILollo te old-time custom oftoppingt" their co 'n, jun a IT the ears, and stripin! the LOVOS fromthe stalkS elol; tat r1oit T 711 hOndlin., w ish rms the generall pra ctiCwherever corn waes 'roi; cn -Ye South ur to 40 or rD v r a o , map liesfodder claimed to h no a ;sximum of feeno ae , as te tops a aut andthe blades pulled il Cl, n ir at 'reea. Eurs are harv s, d f somthe toppced stalks at ''nvini n or '2. > the w ter, atly i.December. Sme ti 'I; the e vs am r Pt, f ot the ar "s, a the stlscut, t a heiht 'f d our .incoe:, ite" :e corn is an ralled off.In other cases, t :e sLelr are e11owed t v n e, n Itwaid0cut dom before spri plo'in is done. n t.eK2'' r' of Lhi cr,cocn is cut and s.cked in the s'e manne. as a a: r in tao ua: n-

PAGE 27

dro;:e regions. 0hiously, the exaraordiroy amlunt of tlis andstul le to be tan into coni drt ion m; na the a r em rnethoc fCCItOIL by tno under 'r' o lss imprt ticvle, and a further 00>,-pli' tion is tcune Iy t 1 ih, nan;, Sno loo slil, r-ngfro> 4 to U ines n depth and custo'narily Sabjecteu to shallow plowinoonl'. In iom'c a; liormnar t> 0Oun Ae-, somn 7u,0 0 acren fcornare m.tivoted in a norl year. ArranUe t i icre carried fonerrl 1orthe ClSaMino of fro:. 7b to 100 acrec around the location of thcj in-festa*.ic n -ousel foun .Men are to be laed in the field by the Rhode Island dop;rtmrntof arinultune, beginnia on Leoe:er 1, to make _ thorou-1h survey of allpremises O wihioh L corni wagO&'n leist season anl ascertain how far therehas bhen compliance wih the Scte , -renuiri -hat u.ble anddebris shall te niowed under. :forcrIt of the la,iI -1 1., it iSpointed out by the 0fficials in their announce.ent of the investi _ation,resulted in an av rajo rctioa in infestation of an rmcimrtely dO percent, in the State as c .hrLc, &ar:nd 1d po: lble the raarneti:d of thebest crop of early sv'eet, ar orou'en in three years. Uni; one countTreported a heavy increase in corn borer poua ion, it is states, andspecial attention ,iil be ano:'ded this ser :io.l in the forthcoming cLean-up camain. ?Warnn s nave been widely ) blisned i the State prcss thatcorn growers who fail to COnfl'o> to the provision of the law will beheld to strict ac-ount I l ity u er Lhe e:c-itiea Prescribed.Procedin. instituted on jct o-er 26 a-nint Clarence nhi"p,2.31 Paul Street, 5el de.a, .J., for a viol 1tion of the Euirorein cornborer quarantine n Sel t-mer 4, ver c Ln luded on nve'mer 17. Theviolation involved the trenw n'tatio vi; ,at of 36 car of corn,grown in the one-Pieveation -rsa, across th ela'are River from Pivert on,Pa. , to Be lvid e, I. J. Ju prior to tie vaio. 0ion te d fed_ t hadbeen refused nermi1ssion to *wlk anros: the bride with the -o-. Heappeared bcfora Jua te Georme 7. ::>rquin, in the Lt strict C t atTrenton, and entered a ee of guilty In en oil the raal quant ity ofC rn involved and of the pcrty of the def(d'ant, a finoP Onf y 1 $ wasimposed.In callctii additional infm:ation nonmrni: infostations ofthe corn borer and eror oa ge rultini therefrom, mr. Eartley , of theSouth Norwall: headquarters , vii ted faraer-, cancer, aed (-uLty e;t:in the western, Lake On tari , and Al'any :ectios of Nev York, durintCne latter part ef november. bata from these :ource sin!iuate thatgrowers of early-pnan ted corn i several, of the countie: covered sustainedconsiderable 1ii52s. The survey conuc ted y Mr. hartley in thin Co' -necti on supple.eente a nn "Ue r one no I 0 by e b .0osr -en no eprevious.ComneoroLal d-: no to s-eet corn, a n a t at le:O 1. pcr c ntas a consepuence oi ean> infasttions of the : '< .no:no , ha:

PAGE 29

-15-been reported during the current season from the southwestern part ofVermont, according to information supplied the press by the State de-partment of agriculture. Spread is said to have been observed from notfar distant sections of New York which are heavily infested. Controlby plowing under of all corn stubble and waste according to approvedmethods is urged upon Vermont farmers by the plant pest authorities ofthe State.The remaining road patrols and vehicle inspection stations inthe eastern section of corn borer control worc wre discontinue, onNovember 14. These quarantine line activities had been confined toNew York City and vicinity for some time before that date.Shipments of the new crop of winter sweet corn grown in Floridafirst were reported as arriving at the Washingaton Market, in New YorkCity, on November 16. This green corn on the cab was packe: in crates.Only limited quantities were offered for reshiuiment under permit.Late fall crops of Li_-a beans supplied material for shipments toNew York from California, Cuba, and somo of the Southern States, whichbegan to come through in the early part of Nove'ber.Exclusive or Cobination Japanese Beetle 7orkProject and fiel 3'. n in enfrcrnnt of the Ja.anese beetlequarantine were in cOOn a Ifn tu' rys Ut the So 'uwelk head-quarters on November 16 ald 17. The uiscusaions a m a wide rangeof pertinent subjects and many interes-aing points were developed. Prac-tices and procedure which nave given their tho best result: were explainedin detail by prctn ol> a.l of ohs men nha have a ry l es inpoint, which anarentl ar ointer'< on' OL;e othc 2 :rest-ing different and imp ove: ratId. -i sessions r' 1. on Fe unan-imous as to the desirabilit of uniformity in the >orce ent of theregulations and with respect to the reed for preventing spread of thebeetle. The worth of -ood juds .-nt and the cell for exercise of commonhorse serse in c ntects liith t-epuvl> oln me>ei ; several.A better understanCinr between 2ed. te s ici m ' rid officemen as to the problems confronted erac grou-p ave to have beenmaterially advanced, as one of the results of the maetin. NearIy allof those who participated gaeve ex-re::sions at Ihe end of the sessionsindicating hope that other like conference: cor t Le arranged in thefuture.Lead arsenate treatments of isol ted infestations were begun atElmira, N. Y., on November 2 oand eonciLded so the .th. Properties onwhich 21 beetles were collecteby scouts durrinr the past sumer are inclose proximity, therefore treatment was appliecl to a continuous section

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-)of some k acres. At the conc:usion of the %-osk to of the four soray-i1n outf Is use w e retired to 1h_ -. T 0r::alk headquarters. FromELissa, two spra oi n tot proceed to ?,Tit in: .Le, h Y., where arsenateof lead woo a eli d to a-' roxi.etcly fo uc 'acre on Noveher 6. Thethree fiLd> of: a si, beetle each in tr.s: oero all in close proximityto the ELkna: Hot, at the entrance to th .Len, s that a contiguoustract wUs treated. On ove-ber 9 about thr;e acres ofround weretreated in Little Fails, j. Y., surrounding the remiseo on nich sevenbef re cI 0$ collected ndrinq the oiumer cf 1011. Treatin of 3 aoresin Hichl2Ond, Aa., was filisile' on Novembrir 9, in this oprrlration, beounon OcLober ., four se; ar: ted areas hluvinc 1een ceverec. Infestationsin Ri1chmonId discovered laSt sumer c-nsisted of I beetles collected byscouts and 10 ai(nAtioral beet Le recovere after the distribution oftraps. After finishing. in lc7, ond, two raer truCks proceeed toCharnlston, 5. >. , whrr trenting beoa november 10 and wa. finishedon the 23rd, 3 acres :>ving be(__ civen attention. Unfavora ie workingconditi ns in congested reside 'sial districts sleved lown the ork.Three more or less isolated tracts wre treated in and around the fourlocations a which siiO bveetes were trapped last suroier. Sryertrucks Were en route to the Sooth 1orwaik headquarters at the (nd of themonth.Ste-s Ls ad iitional r r operation; next s:sner, idenselybeetle infestei soctinof Philaduishin, mer' taken during t'e month.The re; onstrtion sonterplates ih> t atm'en of a nuriber of vacan t lotswith dosaC e of L YsOnLe ; of lad txi. io laval survival, planting ofsmartwzeed on the truc te2 ,oil, ane ssmn t trappinl op rat ons on theplot duing, the .-hor. of adult bectl .i ht -r'artwecd, -ruf rred asa food rlant ly tKe insot, ;ill attrct and feed leroc beetLe ponula-tion.s. Trcp with ret'aniol cnd e';venol 1ai will dram a1n catch thepests in great numbc. '-c iti on i: the poisoned coil 'ill not pcr-petuate the insect , but '.,ki rsult in hi h -ortality of the Frus.The intention Pf this contr 0 measure is to r lec by the millions, ifpossible, the beetle oooulati .Pre'ration of six vacant lot: wanearing' completion at the end of the 'mnth, oermision having teen se-cure; for free use of seven. One of the lots is reserve for treatmentand seedimn in the prine. Arzenate of Ced E spread and harroedthoroughly. Smartpead pantini; is acoqplishod by roadeasting. Inmost cases the broadcasted seed I li ht: hrro Cd. C to" ar dis-tributedI threeo hou t t c ti t n se tin k, R D1_ n v e 7ou; te.On another ulou, L otai :n o e-half acre, Lh re thcr n asy arank growth oP tall si art dee -,load mena I as sea; on -ii tobe wiahed in by the rain_ Onm-hal acre of ground t he 7t horsedistrict headquarters h05 n lso been treated, and a Kacre i reservedfor s-ring treatment.After attairig a "suyer's .tn 1 t th. u ,berry market on June :9, il, Cures 71e, C e, .., ir-chased 2-crates o ber-ies. lnmormed by the 'a? M c 1 tht 1,rO

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-17-disulphide treatment was necessary before his berries might be certifiedfor movement to Syracuse, the purchaser -laced the crates in the fumira-tion house. Micale refused to pay the treating fee, so his fruits werenot fumigated. En route to his destination with the uncertified berries,he was stopped by road inspectors stationed at 1actoyvilla, Pa. De-snite warnings as to the consequences, he proceeded to Syracuse with thecontraband. A criminal information was filed against the violator inthe United States District Coirt at Syracuse. A plea of :uilty was filedby the defendant on November .21 and he was fined b0.Considerable outside work was done during the month in manningnursery establishments recently or scantily infested and apparentlyeligible for Class II and III split-classification. Erection of suitablepermanent fences or the establishment of other sAtisfnct;ry boundariesto clearly mark the units subdivided as Class Il on Class 11I premiseswas supervised in a nu-nber of establishments.Road patrol activities on the southern and western boundaries ofthe lightly infested areas wer. abandoned on ovurbor 30. Several in-spectors stationed at these los-cs had been laid cff earlier in the month.Discontinuance of quarantine lin work at th-s nosts occasioned thedismantling of 19 road posts and the dismissal jf 20 additi-nal roadinspectors.EXlCAN FRUIT 710:Two adult Anastrepha ludens were taken November annd 9 in trapsmaintained in a premise in Liatamoros. Following the finding of theseadults four applications of arsenical poison bait pray were mde to thetrees in 22 premises surrounding the point of infestation. Edible sweetoranges were growing in four of these premises. Cloths about 4 feetsquare were suspended in these trees and the poison applied to thesecloths. Occupants of two premises objected to the praying work andrather than build up opposition to the work the spraying on these premiseswas omitted.An increase was noted in the amount of infested fruit recoveredfrom the market in Matamoros. Guava-, sweet limes, oranges, and pearswere found to be infested. Two hundred and sixty-four larvae wvere takenfrom these fruits.No Anastrepha were found on the Amriman side of the :ivor.The movement of fruit from tte VallPy :ai decidedly slungish duringthe month due to a weak marhot and the lack of' >mrf sizes of knuit in

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s .& -s -

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-12-Ualley groves. Valley fruit is still running largely to 06s and smaller,and the market is demanding larger size fruit. homn growth wns noted inthe fruit during the month; groves whu 'h had been rin nicked for 9cSand larer at the beninnin, of the month showed a fair perenta e of Ksand larger when picked acain at the end of the mL th. i total of 6 carswere moved by rail duri:0 the :')ntbh, and a proxi mtely 27L: carloads, orabout 40 per cent of the entire msovei ninds caied a heavy dropof fruit which put the roowers to consi rs' e extra trouble and ennensein picking it un and burying it, A total of Y, 043 insoecions were madeduring the month. Of the mrYes ins',ectel it wan recess y to withhold"Certificates of Inspectio<" on >lo on aceouint of drop friit and weedy con-dition of the groves.TYIK 30LL: O'1Picking and ginninF, of the cotton crop in the re. ulated areasprogressed very rapidly during the first nart of NoveCr. ee r con-ditions, however, irterfered c .nsiderably du ing the latter pr-t of themonth. In a number of the districts thern soe .any fields in which nopicking has been done. Pract call a, f th cotton in now en, con-sequently it will al be gathere at one ici :in .It was th u ht thatginning would be completed earl: er th n usual thi season, 1ut now thatwinter rains have begun it appears th' t the seano. will be proon *ed asusual. At the end of .ovember 174,h1-L bale: cscen rin-ed. The coIdrains hava affected the seed ster'lizers ooca'i r., but as a hole seedsterilization continue to )e very sa iscOr.In last month's letter t ataed rt ry little cotton hadbeen shipped from the related r a. an' a. a r-:1t pr1at c1ly allgin yards were full. Tae latter art o t' a a reda tion of Veinhtrates on cotton went intD efft and iz tha ti. e ctt, nas beenmoving very repidly. Thiis ivas ra ulto ir a 'om ieram in nm e inactivities at the various compresses A tuni 'tin plan It fact, the

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9

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-19-compresses in the El Paso Va: ley have been unable to handle the cettConas fast as it comes in."ith the exception of the Tucson district and the Salt PiverValley, both in AKi zona, specimen,: have been found in tr :jh from practi-cally all gins in the regulated areas; therefore, most of the gin trashmachines were closed during the month. Two machines are still operatingin California in addition to those in the Salt Piver Valley. Themachines operating outside of the re .ulated area in the western extensionof Texas were also closed the latter part of their month, and the men arenow devoting their time to field inspection.The results of all gin trash inspeo ion outside of the. regulatedareas have been negative this season. A number of specimens ,ere tahenby the machines operating within the regulate, areas during Vovember;however, these did not involve any new territory. All of the specimenstaken in the Salt River Valley durin Povember were in trash fro. tleGilbert Gin Comany, at Gilbert. Ariz. Althosrh none of these snecimenshave been traced directly to the fields as yet, the information securedfrom the ginnino records indicates that the norms originated in fieldsof stub cotton in the vicinity of Chandler snd ocdyear.A new record finding was iade by the gin trash machine in theBig Bend district of Texas on Novermcer 3. Ore bale of cotton producedabout three-fourths bushel of trash, which contained S , 767 specimens ofthe pink bollviorm. The first frost occurred is the Big Bend on the 19thof the month, and since that date the n'uber of worms per bushel in trashhas been decreasing. There has also been a considerable decrease in thenumber of pupae taken.At the beginning of the season regulations were promulgated bythe New Mexico authorities calling for the daily disposal of gin trashuntil November l1, the average dote for a killing frost being before thattime. This season, since there had not been a killing; frost by the 1th,our
PAGE 39

station on November o. This interception consisted of 37 cottonseedtaken from cracks in the body of a truck, which cor-ained two deadlarvae. The d-iver readily informed our i.-spector that he had hauledseed from the Big Bend, but that his truck had been swept thoroughly.This finding indicates that a very c se inspection is being made atthe stations. A rather unusual confiscation 'uas ,-de at the Van Horn,Tex., station on November 1. Five mon passed t station on foot, andas onle of the men was carryinhis clothes in e ico sack our inspectorstopped them for inspection. About one-half .c-.ud of seed cotton wasfound in the sack. One of th; other men IWU a :mall amount of seedcotton in his s5i case, while another was ca ;yir two groan tolls.The latter part of Nove-ber a de!egotion -) citizens andofficials from the State of Arizona nisited the BiL4 Le.d section ofTexas, for the purpose of seeing actual field damn ge done by the pinkbollworm. Among those making the tr, p was the Chairman of the Com-mission of Agriculture and horticulture, State Entomologist, CountyAgent of Maricopa County, a news-aper editor, and several uroinntcotton farmers. These man es eciell, the far :ers of the pcrty, ereall very much surprised to see the da 3e chat could be done by thepink bollworm. They all oxoressea themselves ,s beina very heartilyin favor of continuing the eradication program in the Salt River Valley.An estimate of the damene dono by the pink boillrorm to cottonin the Big Bend section has recently been made. Counts were made ofthe pickable and nonnickable bolls. Pickcble boils were counted asthose which the ordinary picker would tahe, that is, bollD showin: noinjury and those showing injury to only one lock. Bolls showio injuryto two or more locks were counted as nonni-kable. The followin: tableshows the results of the counts made in 1. fields in the vicinity ofPresidio. Actual damage will run hi her, as thie injury to the lintand seen of the cotton that was picked was not taken into account:

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-h -s.y a + 4 s i s i s s .-6 s.-s p

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-21-Daruaje of the )ink boll'iorto the 1 31 cototn crorEig .Bend seci ton of Tenon(Becord. mlAe on Noveml-or 12, 17, 14, 1231)T; ibei : um e rField Jlo. Locating :hoils : ho sotal :T>r centL__c____t_____noIIsC:IIck : ike : a'-1 1 Mi, SE Presidio : 11.46 : :1 : 1437 20.222 1 " " 842 : 4u2 : 1324 35.433 2 1012 : 9 : 1624 37.Oo4 2A " " "73 .<"1 1101 20.98b 6 " " " : 1031 : 25 135 :6 S : 1680 : 297 : 2277 : 26.27 2 : 1063 2>5 123R : 17.478 :3 4 " 772 : 7 105 : 26. 3,9 : 5 " " " : 1035 : 37 : 14 : 22.710 :i5 " " : 637 : 153 713 :14.8711 :12 " "74 : 64 638 : 10.0312 :13 " " : 241 : 609 : 11.1613 :20 " ' " : 12) : 14 : 113 : 13.2414 :27 4 " : 9i7 133 : 1060 12.2%Avg da. e 'Dresidij ,eCtioXn 21 .1>PPM ,TNTNG SPT KC7 OF MOfTOScouting work for the Ipsy moth was grontly reduced duringNovember because of the fct th .thor. are ap rori-tely 122 ren fromthe scouting and exterin ltion force a;s nn tD temnorary duty on queran-tine work. These men aare enruaed in thA s.onml inoecti of evergreenbouhs, Cristmas -reenery, and Chri tnns trecs to te shinnei out of thearea quarantined for the ips:/ moth.Of the 191,557 acres of 'Ulodla. plon: e tu be scouted by theFederal force in the kdirondack region of the Je': York barrier zone duringthe current fiscal year, apcroxi: tely 150,i0 ucres have been exarminedwith negi;ative result-;.Scoutirn, work for the gipny moth wa wued during November 7:ithnegative results in Crorn Point, I. Y., a ton -nn rore thon 59,622acres of woodland, and tho men ':vrking their, umo ora' ferrei to other

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-22-work. At the close of November, scoutin r crews were working in Putnamand Dresden, Washington County, .Y., and in Hague, V7arren County, 1. Y.No giTsy moth infestations were found during, November in the area reular-ly scouted by the Federal crews in New York Strte.On November 30 a small crew wes assigned to intensive scouting workplanned for this season around old colony sites in the town of NeT Marlboro,Berkshire County, Mass. This is one of the towns in southwestern Massa-chusetts where numerous gipsy moth infestations have bern found in thepast which were attributed to wind spread from the infested territory castof the barrier zone.Preliminary scouting, work was continued during November withnegative results in Bockett, Monterey, and Tyrin:-ham, Mass., and Kent andLitchfield, Conn., in the vicinity o1 whar, -ipsy moth male adults werecaught at the assembling caees.The New York Conservation Department has been allotted the sum of?50,000 for gipsy moth work from an appropriation for the relief of theunemployed. The appropriation was passed At a special session of theNew York legislature this fall. The training of men for ginsy moth workstarted November 9 and there are several crews now at work. The allotmentwill be expended for gipsy moth work by the Cnservation Department inWashington, Putnan, and 'estchester Counties, 7. Y.The New York Conservation Denrtment has reported that t' ere werescouting crews engaged in the examination of wooded ereas duri-n Novemberin East Fishkill, Lent, Southeast, ,nd Phiilipstown, all in DutchessCounty, N. Y., and in Newcastle, Fedford, V.hite Plains, end Harrison, allin Westchester County, I. Y. The map received from -he New York Conserva-tion Department which avo the above information also indicated that scout-ing work was concluded in LaGrange and Fishkill, Dutchess County, J. Y.,with negative results. In addition to the above scouting crews, there isone crow engaged in checking work around oid colony sites in Milan,Dutchess County, N. Y.The Conservation Department has reported lK gipsy moth infested&locations on Long Island in Nassau County up to and including November 30,of which 9 are situated in North Hempstead 1nd the other "' in Oyster Bay.Ten of these infestations are within a 3-mile radiu o' No. Roslyn, L. I.,the centre of the original infestation fos; on Long Island durinK thefiscal year 193'.Clean-up work on Lon-, Islund is re-orte c7 progressing slowly inthat it is limited to dr ys when it dark, fogf, or otherwise unfavorablefor scouting work. There are Ne, Yrk tt 'co tin r crews working in North Hempstead, Oyster Bay, end Herstea', Lo Inland, T. Y., the workin the latter olace starting during N vem .Te teree towns are inNasscu County.

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)p1I

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-23-During Noveibbe, there were several amp loyees of the scouting andextermination project caught in fox traps that wcre concealed beneathleaves and other debris. These emntloyees .Vre not injured by the cx-nerience because the tyne of dress adopted -y the scouts consists in partof leather outtees or nigh leather boots acd also because they werefortunate enough not to step onto stronger treps such as are used intrapping of bears and other large animals. However neglirible it mayseem, these hazards, in some instances, have a slight bearin on thequality of the scoutin-, cork accomplished.Although the gipsy moth egg cluster usual>, h: tches from the latterpart of Aril to the first half of >Lay and the ti'rvae issuing from theeggs become full grown the latter part of Julr and the early part ofAugust, there are rare occasions lhen ripsy moth eg: clusters are foundhatching in the fall of the year. Ai instance of this ,-is disc vereijust east of the barrier zone in back of BaLd Ilountain, Shelburne Falls,Mass., on September 11. Asoroximately 25 ,ips, moth larvae werc found onan ega cluster which was cbout 5 feet from the ,:round on the east side ofan apple tree. Closer inscecticn revealed -2 additional egg cluStrs ina cavity of a dead limb on the same tree na larvae 'era h, thing from3 of these egg clusters, The fall hatchine of cipsy moth og' clusters isso rare that it is unimportant Ls a contr foc or ad consequently verylittle study or investigation ha been muds to detcrmina the facts in thecase. Tilerc; were no temperature or other teacher det_ availale whichwould have a bearinon this fall hlittching except that in a general waythe ;iea.her was unusually warm for that time of the year,During November there were 143 lots of material offered for in-spection in New Jersey, which re -resented a decrease in the number of shipments and the quantities of materials comprising these shipments over theprevious month. No gipsy moths were found on these shipments.On Long Island, in Nassau County, there ;!s also a decrease in thevolume of stock offered for insoction, there being 1,u lots examinedand certified for shipment during November. no ipsy moths wr; foundon these shipments.At one time, cable reels used by the miaintenance departments oftelephone companies operating in the quarantinei areas were difficultto inspect for infestation by the :;iosy moth. They were constructed en-tirely of wood, and the inner druin on ihich the 2 ble Va wouet %Ia1 nutmade in such a manner as to -revent the entrance of full-grown larvae.In consequence, egg clusters were sometimes d mited sile ot thisinner drum, and in order to reach th em the reel had to be eahen art.Tthe cable reels now used have pressed on steel drums :hose only opningsare the two, one on either sile, shro. * -Ih a steel tr r is 0l: ceo toact as an axle vhen unending the c ble. c cv >d th ne iri ii ty of thedrum becomin; infested on the inside, the tl, mhone conenie: provideplugs which they require to be placed in to( ho s at all times except

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of course -hen the reels are mount f7r u.-irin'. During the unain,-ing!, the holes are fiIIli 1y the stee ax a an. close fi tril, steel niatesso that Iarvwe cc>not enter. _rt muss c,,' is excie y she tele-phone Luoyees a; thz PEnl ze shat if t' i or dron rid bem& in-festied, their Jisnantini fur ins-ection outl ' a d fficult and exnen-sivo tusk.In oenora , the i>" ecti'n of .uar-n.nP roucts for shipmtto points outside of the quaraninoad area i>d just :rior to shipn-dt.After ins-ection, -,1 artic le are -acke C: loaPo a' tr c rtifia.ith certain manuf>.ctur.d products, -,3 c *""r-'h d cthcr decorativeChristmras riece;, The materials rm-y so put" to ether in rsn a .v thatthorough ins-ec cion can rot e dade anfc: resu; nr urocl nre'ureof inspection is iot pas9il. Fo I1 nrc t e" an iac Ilin ofthe finished products can not be mide, t -e n v rid: are axayin,;before used in the a7ronesa o cnur "u'e r ; -ror C U ti nstoken so that on y iioecte m'oeri luil r'u. I' rost care:, theshi-pers -ill send ouF s xe if not racny 0 iy. o its T 1 -t' thequarcined aren *er Tied ce-tif tion is 0'. "S -r0, but as it icimpossible to tell n advanc re".I j C t t vn't mteri : I, F'y 1used for te inside -,ip o, cll I I i. s c , J; th'n at the t i neof shipment, certif c r t s ra, issue" nl3 , on e i hihi are consignedto points outside of the quraro inc or .The s-ruce bou in:du-tr in southeMn Er'-. ann 7'te"'Massachusetts, vhic h a s la1 I7 &c -x, c : LP :tcr, 'asc:prac t ia" lI com ted in _7v.bcr. Tr io tely -,v non o onucebouThs vier, insnecte -p to 2ov ' r 3 , ih e "bo' 5: per cntincrease in the a:.ou*-t o *ou is'mittod for in:oc"i 'i is y;ar asover the quantity in:e ctnd and ji ed i' ncr T in'2ec-;d -cuhsare being rapidly sertifiod no s:ipp<. to qins outiin th quaran-tined area.In cennecoion with the s ruce bou i inspection, l ton; of sas.fir boughs and 10 tor: of ho inck ;ophs have bee inupecte' 'd corti-fied for shiprment. These W-ere sein d in 1 i-pound bals ind are usedfor mak: n; i; v ree Ths ann d er decoritive niece: for Christ -S ,se.The bal.in process of shippin thi * stock a' e: tihe floiItn to :aretheir o!n creations as ordered. UPr.zts tr,. jiS-ctin i; nurel,seasonal, and the volume of business is so g:ea; ore: such i speriod in Nore. er end Dece ber thr;t it i c inecS Ly er 'or 2 toarrange 'irth the scourin a'd exter.'atio p'ojin for the ;erdrytransfer of ap'roxiuely 100 men traine. i -oth Xuik kcare of the inspection cor'ifica ion n 1 i crdn. to tnhe Chritastree and greenery industrins. The1 u iii-n Christfs tr s in theouaranti'.ed erua of 9si o, dw ia'phi ro , Vin". ,' 'd ' est> -o:sach-setts started iNovnr'nber ? and r( .ched its'V u noi> 2bout N. '. r >5.The Christmoas tree operators awere useslci ' in asse'blin the trees

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4YI

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-25-for in'oeetion this season dun to the fact that this 1'ovember was thewarmest on record for this typc of infection. The trees are (Dnveyedto a shipping; or asse-blinp point and tho ndle; opene by the operatorsto allow for a tree-by-trc inspection; for the ipsiy moth. The treeswhen ship'red are loade, onto flat cmas, at rhich timo a certificate isissues covering, the shiPmnt based on t e i.s ection at thti-e thetrees wer(: assevmbled and bunched at the sLip'inr poit Th & uttn Ocar stakes, :ihich are necess ry in loadi:> leltform cIrs, is anotherwork associatewith tliinLu try. A car *ilI take from 14 to 2Zstakes, 10 feet in heiahu and b ut to 8 inches in diameter, and con-sidering that tire v7sro a'croxi tely cmrs loaded and shipsed lestyear, a great deal of additional ins-ection fork is rekusired for thistype of a-oduct. Tie Crisxmas trees cut i the quarentined aipsy iotharea are shipped to practically every Jtatc in te Union, lthouih forthe most part they are destined to Illinois, :leo Jersey, Nen York, Ohio,Pennsylivani a, and the Ne.7 E: States. This psar incuirics hove beenreceived by the opert3 s)rs relative to shipna;.tc of Chritmcs trees toItaly, Germany, and -n la--.A new revision of the sa.ia moth qua'_ntin No. 53 has been issuedby the SecretEry of Arriculturt. to 1 incluin within the regulatedarea all towns beyond the old reruleiced ar( a ',i_ lave Veun f urd to beinfested ilith t is insect. In rMaine a roxicatey 72? scare miles wereadded to the reciulated area end in this actionon are looted 1i tons orother geographical units. This adde Jr-r 10 (oacaed in ?iseatacuis,Somerset, and Franklin Counties. In ver -o.t one s3ir oan roximately 47square miles in Oran e County w, s added to the re-ulaLed area. InMassachusetts the extension nas in Berk-mre and Fra.klin Carties, &ndconsisted of 8 towns of aaproxiately 177 square miles. In Conecticutthe area extensions cwcre manl" in ;Iartford an Litchfield Counties, al-though a few toms wer added i:. b tih Neai Havon an F-irfield Counties.In all, 24 towns of ansroximatoly c>9 square iles inrn added to theregulated area in Connettiut. The regulations in so f; r as they affectpoplars and 'illows, or norts thireof ccahle of !ropagationa, remain thesame. The shipment of these trees or arts from the recui'lated area isnot ermitted. As the ramulteK area has becn extender from year toyear, more end ,.ore nurseries have beon brou ght into the area fro% whichthe shipment of pmpmrs and w1 iloIs is not permit. In many esesthose nurseries receive orders for aop3ar and villow trees nhich thcyare unable to fill. Tho rean l.tion: f soe other qu'r ntines peri t theshipment from the auarantines areas of products hich oai inate outside,but this has not becn per:itted under te re&latiDns of quarantine No.53. In the revision, a new rep'lition provides that these trees andparts may be brou-ht into tle aula ed arm after Or tober 1 of any year,but they must be shippe prior to loril 30 at the follo'in ear. Inaddition, it is provided that 7cr h tres or: parts hi i c*thi" the reru-lated area must be eafeguarded 'y be1 re;', ' m so that tr' will !eno possibility of their becomiAg infest ._. i -ns of these troesand prts to points outside of te reoulatad a e il 1o under permit.

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UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA3 1262 09245 0781


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