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News letter

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News letter
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United States -- Plant Quarantine and Control Administration
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Washington, D.C.
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Plant Quarantine and Control Administration
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Monthly
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English

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Plants -- Diseases and pests -- Control -- Periodicals -- United States ( lcsh )
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serial ( sobekcm )
federal government publication ( marcgt )

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Began with: no.1 (Jan. 1931)
Dates or Sequential Designation:
Ceased with: no.18 (June 1932)
General Note:
"Not for publication".

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University of Florida
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This item is a work of the U.S. federal government and not subject to copyright pursuant to 17 U.S.C. §105.
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030428070 ( ALEPH )
785786312 ( OCLC )
2012229621 ( LCCN )

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1 ATE PLTBO


NEWS LETTER


PLANT QUARANTINE AND CONTROL ADMINISTRATION

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICUTRE
9




Number 12 (NOT FOR PUBLICATION) December 1 1931.





FOREIGN PLANT QUARANTINES

RECET ENTOMOLOGICAL INTERCEPTIONS OF InTEREST

\ He terranean fruit fly from Venezuela.--Living larvae of the Mediterranean fruit fly were intercepted at San Juan, Porto Rico, in peaches in baggage from Venezuela. This represents the first interception by inspectors of the Plant Quarantine and Control Administration of this fruit fly from Venezuela. (See also New7s Letter No. 1, January, 1931; No. 2, February, 1931; No. 3, March, 1931; No. 4, April, 1931; No. 6, June, 1931; No. 7, July, 1931; No. 10, Oc0tober, 1931; No. 11, November, 1931.)

Mango weevil from Hawaii.--The mango weevil Sternoehetus mangifere was intercepted at San Francisco in mango seed in baggage from awaii. This weevil has also been intercepted in mango from Ceylon, Egypt, India,and Siam. This insect is a serious pest of mango in Hawaii, where it has been r orted to infest 60 to 90 per cent of the crop.

Thrips from Mexico.--Elaphrothrips longiceps (B3agn.) was interepted at Hidalgo, Tex., in a seedless avocado in baggage from mico. No entrance hole in the avocado was apparent. J. R. Watson, of Gainesville, Fla., remarks as follows in reference to this interception:"Th seems to be rather a common thrips on avocados inCentral America. It has not been recorded from the United States."

Whitefly on ale.-Aleyrodes analeae B. &,M. (Aleyrodidae) was
intercepted at te York on a leaf of Azalea sp. in the mail from Austria. This whitery,.which is not known to oeour in continental United 84qtes,
hen beenti 4ner
has een nter previously on azalea from Belgium, England, and Jap an.






2


Bruchid in vetch seed.--Bruchus brachialis Fabr. (Brushidae) was intercepted at Washington, D. C., in the seed of hairy vetch (Vicia villosa) in the mail from Budapest, Hungary. J. C. Bridwell, of Washington, D. C., states that this bruchid, like the pea weevil and broad-bean weevil, infests only green pods in the field and can not reinfest the seed in storage.

Weevil in Eugenia sp.--Larvae, pupae, and cocoons of Anthonomus
sp. (Curculionidae) were collected by Max Kisliuk, jr., and C. E. Cooley in green and ripe fruit of Eugenia sp. near St. Cloud, Guadeloupe, French West Indies, August 25, 1931, and larvae of Anthonomus sp. were collected in ripe fruit of Eugenia sp. en the ground 3 miles south of Castries, St. Lucia, British West Indies, September 8, 1931.

Scale insect from Japan.--Ceroplastes rubens (Coccidae) was intercepted at San Francisco on the leaves of Aralia sp. in ship's quarters from Japan. This scale insect, which is not known to occur in continental United States, has also been intercepted from Hawaii and Samoa.

Weevil found in guavas.--Larvae of Conotrachelus dimidiatus Champion (Curculionidae) were collected by T. R. Stephens in guavas at Matamoros, Mexico, August 15, 1931. The infested guavas originated in Uruapan, Michoacan, Mexico. According to A. G. Boving and L. L. Buchanan, of the Bureau of Entomology, this insect is potentially injurious and guava is the only known host. Dr. Boving further states that this weevil is a typical Mexican form and is not known to occur in continental United States. This insect was intercepted at San Antonio, Tex., in 1929, in guava from Mexico.

Weevil from Greenland.--Brachyrhinus arcticus Fab. (Curculionidae) was intercepted at New York in soil around the roots of a collection of miscellaneous plants from Greenland. This is the first record of this weevil being intercepted by inspectors of the Plant quarantine and Control Administration.

Syntomid from Panama.--Ceramidia scintillocollaris (Syntomidae) was intercepted at San Francisco with bananas in cargo from Panama. This lepidopteron, which is not recorded from continental United States, has also arrived with bananas from Costa Rica and Guatemala. According to William Schaus, of the National Museum, the larva of this moth feeds on weeds in plantations and climbs banana plants in search of a place to form a cocoon and pupate.

Tortricid from Switzerland.--Cacoecia podana Scop. var. sauberiana Sorh. (Tortrieidae) arrived at Washington, D. C., on Rhododendron hirsutum plants in cargo from Switzerland. Neither the species C. podana nor its variety sauberiana is recorded from continental United States.

Noctuid on pineapple slip.--An adult of Simplicia robustalis Guen.










(Noctuidae) was intercepted at San Juan, Porto Rico, on a pineapple slip in cargo from Hawaii. This noctuid is reported to attack the fruit of pineapple in Queensland, Australia, and is an occasional pest of ragi (Eleusine coracana) earheads in the stack in Mysore State, India.

Scale insect on papaya.--Pseudoparlatoria ostreata Ckll. (Coccidae) was intercepted at New York on papaya fruits in baggage from Porto Rico. This scale insect, which has not been recorded from continental United States, has also been intercepted from Guatemala, Jamaica, Mexico, and Venezuela.

Mexican jumping bean.--A larva of Grapholitha saltitans West. was
intercepted at Boston in a Mexican jumping bean (Sebastiania pavoniana) in crew's quarters from Mexico. The activity of the larva within the seed is the cause of the jumping. The larva changes to a chrysalis, and the butterfly emerges by lifting up a lid which had been cut out of the seed wall earlier by the larva. This tortricid is related to the codling moth of apple.

RECENT PATHOLOGICAL INTEICEPTIONS OF INVEST

A specimen of diseased mamey-sapote collected in Porto Rico was
found to be suffering from an attack of Cephaleuros virescens, a parasitic alga.

An Australian grown apple intercepted at Baltimore showed spots resembling those of the nonparasitic "Jonathan spot" which occurs in this country.

Black currant leaves from Canada bearing numerous telia and some
uredosori of the white pine blister rust (Cronartium ribicola) were intercepted at Boston. The rust was covered with other fungi and in poor condition.

Among the nematode interceptions from Philadelphia was Aphelenchus heterophallus n.sp., an interesting new species infesting sugar cams from Jamaica.

A small white blister intercepted at Philadelphia on a turnip leaf from France proved to be a spot of "white rust" caused by Albugo candida, formerly called Cystopus candidus. 7,hile this disease occurs on a number of crucifers in various States, it had not been intercepted before.

A species of Penicillium doubtfully referred to P. gladioli was
found in three lots of crocus bulbs from Holland intercepted at Philadelphia. P. gladioli has not been recorded as infecting crocus so far as the specialist who examined the material is aware.

Tylenchus dipsaci was recently intercepted at New York in garlic







4


from Italy, this being the first record of this nematode on garlic from that country.

An 6nion from Germany intercepted at Philadelphia was found to be infected with a species of 0ospora apparently identical with 0. citriaurantii, the organism causing sour rot of citrus. The specialists are testing the fungus on citrus.

Lima bean scab (Elsinoe canavaliae) was intercepted for the first time this season at New York on November 10, in two shipments of Cuban Lima beans. Cuban Lima beans are permitted entry at this port only, and their importation is confined to the period November--March, inclusive, these restrictions constituting sa: Zuards imposed under Quarantine 56 in relation to the pod borer (M1aruca tostulalis).

INCREASED DOSAGE AND EXPOSURE IN THE FUIJGATION
OF RAILWAY CARS ON 1-ICAN BORDER

Effective November 23, 1931, the dosage of liquid HCN used in the fumigation of railway cars from Mexico has been increased from 3 to 6 pounds per car when the temperature in the fumigation houses is 400 F. or over, and to 7 pounds when the temperature in the fumigation houses is under 400. The time of exposure has also bec~n increased frorl 1, to 6 hours dountin. front the tine all the 'gas is in the funiatio0n chamber.

The number of railway cars now being fumigated at Mexican border
ports is rather small compared with the number fumigated a few years ago, and it is not anticipated that the increase in the time of exposure will affect the movement of freight to any appreciable extent. The falling off in car fumigations has been due in part to the present economic conditions and also to a considerable extent to the exemptions which have been granted during recent years. The last exemptions, granted on August 21, 1931, included all stock cars if cleaned on the Mexican side, all refrigerator cars if free from cottonseed, and box cars hauling ore concentrates provided certain safeguards were employed. Prior to this, tank, flat, coal, and gondola types of cars had been exempted from fumigation if found upon inspection to be free from cottonseed. That the recent exemption on cars hauling ore concentrates will be the means of effecting a considerable saving in the movement of such materials is supported by the fact that since August 21 up to November 7, 531 carloads of ore concentrates have entered without fumigation.

NUA0ROUS INSECTS FOUND IN PACKING MATERIAL

Recently a shipment of four pecan trees was received at the Washington, D. C., inspection house from a nursery in Texas, the plants having been certified by the nursery inspector of that State as apparently free from injurious plant pests. On examination by the inspectors in Washington the







-5


trees themselves were found free of pests as certified by the Texas officials, but the rotted straw and other debris used as packing was found to be very much alive with insect life, meal worms and lepidopterous larva
being particularly abundant. Other insects present in the packing were sow-bugs, earwigs, carpet beetle larvae, and seven different species of adult coleoptera. Many of these species will be revealed, no doubt, after identification, as being very common throughout the country, but at the same time this case illustrates in an outstanding manner the danger of a new pest becoming established in a new locality by the use of infested packing material of this type.

ITALIAN CHESTNTJIS ENTER NEW YORK

The first shipment of Italian chestnuts for the Season reached
New York on September 28, and up to November 1, 155 shipments representing 39,872 containers had arrived. During the same period in 1930, 108 shipments consisting of 26,384 containers were entered. Not only has the movement started earlier this season but the chestnuts appear to be in better condition as regards infe)statio, with living larvae of the European codling moth and chestnut weevils. only 4 of the 155 shipments (611 containers) that entered prior to Novembe3r 1 required treatment, while last season 8 of the 108 shipments (1420 containers) reaching New York before November 1 were given the hot-water treatment.

FOREIGN PIANTI QUARANTINE SUI'M1ARIES

RTMNIA.---The American consul at Bucharest, Pumania, has transmitted the text of Rumanian Orders of August 19 and of September 7, 1931, to the Customs Service of that country. The text of the former reads:

"Being informed by the minister of Health, Labor, and Social W~elfare that Californian apples are treated with arsenic and therefore are injurious to health, we are requesting you to take all possible steps to prevent the importation of these apples through any means."

The latter orderprescribes that apples from California only are prohibited, and the importation of apples from other States will be approved only if it is ascertained by analysis that the apples have not been treated with toxic substances.

ENGLAND AND WALES.-- (Colorado Beetle Orde-r of October 15, 1931, effective March 15, 1932.) To prevent the introduction of the Colorado potato beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata) the landing in England and Wales of any potatoes grown in European France is prohibited. The landing of living plants is likewise prohibited, unleDss authorized by a license granted by the Minister of Agriculture and Fisheries, or unless each shipment is accompanied by the form of certificate pre Iscribed by the order.










The landing of raw vegetables gro' in European France between March 15 and October 14 in any year also is prohibited unless the landing is licensed, or unless each consignment is accompanied by a prescribed certificate.

CHANNM ISLANDS.--(Act of the Committee of Agriculture of August 7, 1931.) This Act prohibits until further orders the importation into the Islands of all products of the soil (agricultural and horticultural), seeds, and plants coming from France, to prevent the introduction of the Colorado potato beetle.




DOMESTIC PLA/IUT qUAMTIIThES

TRANSIT INSPECTION

A third inspector from the Missouri State nursery inspection force, B. F. Boillot, has been assigned to work with the transit inspectors of this Administration in inspecting nursery stock shipments at railway terminals. Mr. Boillot is stationed at St. Louis, where 0. J. Yoder, of the regular Federal force, makes inspections of both foreign and domestic plant shipments.

Uncertified cut flowers of chrysanthemums shipped from the twogeneration regulated area of the European corn borer quarantine constitute more violations of the domestic quarantines at this season of the year than any other product. Persons not engaged in the commercial shipping of these flowers and, therefore, not informed as to the requirements, are responsible for a considerable per cent of these infringements. A total of 326 violations of this quarantine (including all articles restricted thereunder) have been reported since the first of Tuly. This is 103 more than were reported for the second half of 1930, and the Thanksgiving shipping will doubtless increase the number still more. Uhile rany persons know that corn is restricted, the fact that chrysanthemums, gladioli, and asters also harbor the borer is apparently not so well known. Commercial shippers also frequently overlook the certification requirements.

Narcissus bulbs also come in for a c-onsiderable share of the uncertified articles moved at this time of the year. There has been no increase, however, in the number of narcissus bulb qu,rantine violations reported so
far, compared with that of a year ago. Vhile commercial concerns are responsible for more of these violations than are private individuals, the commercial shipments have consisted very largely of bulbs which on investigation were found to have passed the certifi(!ation requirements, the interceptions being due to lack of evidence of certification on the container.






?


The Japanese beetle quarantine violations have more than doubled the number Qeported for the fall of 1930.

Among the unusual interceptions, the Chicago inspectors recently reported a 600-nound tombstone moved from the gipsy moth infested area without the certificate of inspection. An inspection by the transit inspectors showed, however, that no gipsy-moth egg clusters were present, and the tombstone was, therefore, allowed to proceed to destination.

PHONY PEACH DISEASE

The phony peach disease quarantine was extended, effective November 30, to cover the States of Louisiana, Mississippi, and South Carolina, parts of the States of Arkansas, Florida, Illinois, North Carolina, Tennessee, and Texas, as well as those parts of Alabama and Georgia which are not already under quarantine to prevent the spread of this disease.

Quoting from the official press announcement,

The Secretary states that the Department of Agriculture
is extending the quarantine because of the discovery of scattered points of infection outside the areas previously under regulation. The disease has been knom in Georgia for a number of years and is believed to have spread from centers of infection in that State to other areas through the movement of infected nursery stock prior to the establishment of the
Federal quarantine in 1929. The Federal Departmentof Agriculture is cooperating, with the State Department of Agriculture of Georgia and other infected States in an attempt to
eradicate the disease.



The quarantine regulations restrict the movement of peach
and nectarine trees and roots, not only from the quarantined to nonquarantined States but also from one quarantined State
to another. In connection with this latter provision, the
department announces that it makes this requirement on the
assurance by the responsible plant quarantine officers of most
of the States concerned that they will either continue or immediately undertake an active eradication program which, in the
Judgment of the Federal Department, will suppress the phony
peach disease. * *

Through the cooperation of the Bureau of Plant Industry, transit
inspection will be carried on at Nashville and Memphis, Tenn., and Roanoke
and Petersburg, Va. Three members of that Bureau aho have scouted for the phony peach disease will inspect shipments in transit to determine whether







8


peach and nectarine nursery stock shipped from the regulated areas is being certified for interstate movement under the provisions of the phony peach disease quarantine. A fourth man will be stationed at Ft. Valley, Ga., to check the origin of peach stock shipped from this nursery center. At Atlanta, Ga., transit inspection will be continued by M. E. Connolly, of this Administration.

WOODGATE RUST

No new localities have been found this y.ear infected with the woodgate rust although the disease is still appearing in the old localities, according to a recent report from the Bur3eau of Plant Industry.




DATE SCALE

During the month of October 30,094 palms were inspected in the Coachella and Imperial Valleys in California and no scale found. In Arizona 6,430 palm inspections were made and no scale found. No scale has been found in the Salt River Valley in Arizona siace October, 1930.

With the return of cooler weather scouting outside the regular areas and, in the Imperial Valley, the section by section survey, have been resumed. In the Coachella Valley clean-up work wes resumed and it is expected that all abandoned plantings will be dug out or pruned so that they may be adequately inspected by the end of this fiscal year.

During the month of October 257 fan palms on the Southern Pacific Station grounds at Indio, many of them over 50 feet high, were inspected. Parlatoria scale was found in September, 1930, on 44 of these fan paL71s which were within 300 feet of a heavily infested date palm. At that time all the palms were defoliated, leaving only the bud, and sprayed with an oil emulsion. At the time of the October, 1931, inspection the palms had full tops of leaves and no scale was found. There is no danger of leaf base infestation on these palms as the bases do not remain alive as on date palms.

The larger palms were inspected from 60-foot extension ladders.
The inspectors were equipped ith linemen's belts, with 10-foot light chain extensions with which they anchored themselves in the croms of the palms. This enabled them to use both hands for manipulation of the loaves for inspection. No Parlatoria scale was found, but a few specimens of Ivy scale and Tamarisk scale vere found.






9


EUROPEAN CORN BORER UMTD JAPANESE BEETLE

General Project News

In a radio broadcast of information concerning the spread in 1931 of insect pests which are the basis of existing quarantines made on October 22 as a part of that day's National Farm and Home Hour program, the European corn borer and the Japanese beetle were accorded special attention by Dr. Fracker, who delivered the talk. As scouting for the corn borer still was under way, an additional and iLportant new infestation having been found only a few days ago, the broadcast could not deal conclusively with the season's results in respect to spread of this insect. Owing to the time of day when the National Farm and Home Hour is on the air--12.55 to 1.10 p. m., eastern standard--it is believed that comparatively few plant pest control field men found it convenient to listen in on Dr. Fracker's remarks, but through the forty stations utilized--some of them leading and highly popular ones--unquestionably a great many people were reached. First-record finds of the corn borer outside of the regulated area, mentioned by Dr. Fracker as partial-results of the current season's scouting, included those in New Jersey down the Atlantic coast from New York, in two townships of two Wisconsin counties, and several in Indiana and Kentucky. New infestations of the Japanese beetle referred to were in South Carolina, Ohio, Pennsylvania, New York, and Maryland,

That the metropolitan press is becoming plant pest conscious might
be inferred when a newspaper with the standing of the New York Herald-Tribune includes references to a major pest in a dramatic criticism. In a recent issue, a staff writer, critically reviewing a new play, stated that the costume of one of the actors made him resemble a Japanese beetle more than the character he was supposed to portray. Several times lately the New York Sun has contained editorial mention of various plant-quarantine activities. "Iotorists who have smiled indulgently or bustled aggressively when stopped on the highways by inspectors will read with interest that six persons have been fined for transporting sod capable of carrying the Japanese beetle," the Sun
-commented in respect to a case recently terminated, concluding with the observation, "The protective cordon is not entirely jocular."

Specialized Corn Borer Activities
and
First record infestations of the European corn borer in Manitowr and Sheboygan Counties, Wis., discovered by Administration scouts duringsiderrent season, were regarded as of special importance because of the (en
able distance from the boundaries of the present regulated area. County, specimens were taken on a farm in Centerville Tovmship of Manitcof Mosel, nine one day and two the day following. In the adjoining townaext day, Sheboygan County, twelve borers were found, six one day, two 'ecovered was and four more five days later. Wile the number of the insnis case greater than usually is the case in isolated infestations







10


apparently the rust so far is confined to a restricted territory, no furtler evidences o' it having been developed by a picked crew which scouted more than 1,000 acres of corn in the neighborhood something over a month after the last of the findings had been made, concluding their work at the
end of the first week in October. Both the counties affected are in a dairy section, where the farmers take pride in the appearance of their premises and in the efficiency of the methods they use. All corn on the two farms which were the location of the infestations was cut and placed in silos early in the fall, and the debris plowed under in accordance with
approved borer control practice. Further check-up will be made next spring to determine if additional measures are required to dispose of corn remnants.

Discovery during October of an infestation of the European corn barer in Accomac County, Va., near the southern end of the eastern shore peninsula composed of portions of that State, of Maryland, and Delaware, was significant both in that it represented a finding of the pest several hundred miles from the boundaries of the area at present under quarantine and because of the somewhat unusual procedure which led to identification of the borer in this instance. On October 9 and 10, an inspector of the Administration working in the New Y'ork City markets found corn borers in Lima beans which had been purchased by a local buyer from a broker operating at Temperanceville,
Va. Members of a field crew, dispatched to that point, secured from the broker the names of three growers, from one of whom he believed he had secured the beans which were shipped to New York. Inspection of their premises having failed to disclose any infestation, a list of other growers was obtained, who might have furnished some of the oeans. In corn grown by neighbors of one of these farmees a specimen of the corn borer soon was taken.

A series of six de -monstrations of plowing for corn borer control,
arranged for by Mr. Harrington, Massachusetts Extension Agricultural Engineer, in cooperation with members of the South Norwalk staff, was initiated on October 26 at the James Lyman farm in Easthampton, Jampshire County, Mlass. Another was conducted the next day on the Henry Titt farm, Belchertown, in the same county. On October 29 and 30, plowing was demonstrated at two points in Franklin County, the F. L. Graves farmn near Viatley, and the Charles S. Tinney farm, Northfield. The two final ;vents in the series were scheduled for MTiddlesex County, on November 2 and 3. A unique feature was the use of plows furnished by farmers in the neighborhoods visited, in addition to the
equipment carried with them by the demonstrators.

Following the demonstrations and reports which were part of the proceedings of the Joint Conizittee on the European corn borer, held in Toledo,
Ohio, September 30, representatives of various agricultural implement manufacturing concerns, who were present by invitation, advised their superior officers as to the results of the meetings. A surmary of the conclusions reached by one of these farim machinery men, copy of which has been furnished the South Norwalk headquarters, particularly is interesting because of










definite suggestions included for the firm to undertake the making on a commercial scale of additional borer control mechanical devices perfected by the Bureau of Agricultural Engineering, in cooperation with the Administration.

The last of the surplus equipment from the ten million dollar corn
borer clean-up campaign of 1927, stored at the Erie Ordnance Depot, was advertised for sale in October, with bids returnable on or before November 3. Included in the machinery and supplies for which no calls had been received in response to proffers to other government departments and bureaus were the following items: Used, unserviceable stubble pulverizers, 497; used, serviceable stubble pulverizers, 200; used, serviceable Oliver plows, 197; burning carriages, 100; used Vulcan plows, 59; power take offs for Fordson tractors, 1 lot; junk tires and tubes and miscellaneous junk metal, 1 lot each. All of the material which could be used further was reconditioned before the sale.

Convening at the State College in Kingston on October 22, the fifth annual conference of the agricultural and industrial interests of Rhode Island devoted a three-day session to discussions of current problems, the proceedings having been concluded by the adoption of a series of resolutions,
one of which pledged support to the corn borer clean-up program. This organization is unique in that, in addition to the agricultural groups, the membership includes.representation of civic, co inercial, and industrial agencies concerned with the prosperity of farmers. Another unusual feature is the active part taken in respect to State legislation.

By the end of October all scouting in the central section of corn
borer work had been discontinued except that in the Delarva Peninsula undertaken after discovery of an infestation at Tomperaricevillo, Va. Crews were kept at work in southern New Jersey, however, until near the close of the month. Seventeen first-record findings were made in that region during the month--in an equal ntuaber of tomships of eight counties--additional to the 35 new infestations recorded in September. host of these were at points well removed from the areas at this time under regulation.

Compilation of the findings in the infestation survey recently made in Connecticut shows that the corn borer population was larger than heretofore throughout the sections in which the investigation was conducted. In New London County, the average number of borers per acre increased from
1,347 in 1930 to 15,646, while the 1iindham County average this year was 4,617 against 1,391 last season. Greater density of infestation also was found in the southern portion of I"iddlesex County and in two towns of New
Haven County--Liilford and Orange.

The meeting in New Brunswick, N. J., on October 15, 16, and 17, of
the North Atlantic Section, American Association of Agricultural Engineers, devoted no part of its fo-rmal program to discussion of corn borer control










machinery. Considerable interest regarding progress in development of more efficient devices was manifested, however, by individual members, in personal contact with Mcr. Irons, of the South Norwalk offices, 'Bureau of Agricultural Engineering, who was in attendance.

Early in the month, the vehicle inspection in the central section of borer activities was still further reduced, though road patrols were maintained in the vicinity of New York City throughout October, on irregular schedules. Receipts of Lima beans from the heavily infested sections of Long Island continued for the entire period, though decreasing in volume toward the end. One Sunday evening, 11 lots of beans were inspected and 101
borers found-66 of them taken from two 30-pound bags.

An oven for heat treatment of corn, having a capacity ofl 500 ears,
has been constructed at the headquarters in Springfield, Ohio, of the Western section borer control activities. Plans and specifications were passed on by Dr. Lon A. Hawkins, head of the technological division of the Administration. Dr. Hawkins visited the Springfield headquarters on October 9 for conference relative to the construction of this oven. A feature of the equipment is insulation making possible the maintenance of heat at any temperature. This oven will be utilized in treating corn produced within the infested area, which is to be shown at exhibitions in free territory.

~Thile calls for inspection of fCarm products-gradually grew less in the central corn borer section, they were in much greater numbers than is
usual at the season, ovring- to the absence of killing frosts. Inspectors had been withdrawn -from most of the markets in Connecticut by the last of October. Arrangements were made, nevertheless, whereby field inspection could be supplied u-pon request.

*When the exhibits at the International Live Stock Exposition in
Chicago are opened to the public on November 28 for a week's showing, that of Eurnopean corn borer control methods will be found of exceptional interest. Western section field leaders gave much time and thought to its preparation, during October, in the endeavor to make the display far surpass any shown at past exhibitions.

A survey of the territory in the vicinity of each of the first record corn borer infestations found this season along, and outside the southern Ohio and West Virginia boundaries of the present regulated area, was made from the Springfield, Ohio, offices, during October. Recorarendations with reference to location of the 1932 quarantine lines will be based on the findings.

Lizia beans from Long Island were found by the market inspectors at
South Norwalk, Conn., to be so heavily infested they could not be certified for shipment to points outside of the two-generation corn borer regulated
area. Larvae of the borer also were reported from the Bridgeport market t, in beans which came from the same section.








13


Exclusive or Combination Japanese Beetle Work

Enterprising newspaper Veporters recording their observations of Japanese beetle trap activities next year will find no occasion as heretofore to describe bait, consisting of a mixture of bran, molasses, eugenol and geraniol, as a "transparent liquid contained in the bottom of a glass jar attached to the trap." The bane to speedy trap tending has been the
necessity for emptying accumulated rain water from the ordinary pint Jars comprising the beetle collecting portion of each trap. Repeated rains during the past summer obliged trap tenders to devote considerable time to emptying water from Jars, which more profitably could have been employed in fiela scouting in the vicinity. The obvious remedy for this situation is a small slot in the bottom of each Jar. Jars so blown and in required quantity constitute an item of considerable expense. Ordinary files and emery wheels subject the jars to such friction that breakage results. Estimates received from commercial glass cutters quoted froM 3 to 10 cents per jar for slotting. At the South Norwalk headquarters there has been constructed an abrasive machine which cleanly and speedily cuts a slot approximately 1/16 inch in width and from 5/16 to 3/8 inch in length in the jar's bottom edge. The machine is belt driven by a 1 1/2 H. P. electric motor. A speed of 1,750 R.P.M. at the motor is stepped up by means of an intervening pulley to a machine speed of 8,000 R.P.I.. resulting in a speed of 12,000 surface feet per minute on the abrasive wheel. The base for the machine is a 10-inch dual polishing head, with 1/2 inch steel shaft and centrally mounted pulley. Cast iron bearings either side of the pulley are constantly lubricated by a visible drip oiler. Attached at either end of the shaft are 80-grain shellac bonded abrasive wheels, 6 inches in diameter and 1/16 inch thick. Safety guards cover the belts and co:Ipletely encase the abrasive wheels. Integral with these brass safety guards are vertically mounted brass cylinders of 3 inches inside measurement. The Jars are brought in contact with the wheels when placed in these cylinders. Adjustable bolts in the bottom of each cylinder act as stops for the Jars and may be lowered to compensate for wear on the wheel. Cold water is so fed through 5/16 inch copper tubing directly over each wheel that the point of
contact between the wheel and jar is constantly under a swift spray. Both wheel guards are slitted at the bottom and havu covered slits in the outer sides to permit water drainage. The entire aas mbly is bolted to an enameled cast iron sink having sewer connection. "V ious crystalline abrasive wheels were tried of 46, 60, and 80 grain and with both bakelite and shellac bonding. The 80-grain wheel with shellac bonding, costing 90 cents apiece, has proved most effective for speedy cutting and long wear. Each wheel is capable of cutting 2,000 or more Jars. A decrease of one second in the cutting period is obtained by putting an inch of water in each jar prior to feeding into the machine. The maximum production so far reached was 24 Jars in 65 seconds. The normal daily working capacity is 2,000 Jars cut, washed, and racked. Breakage attributable to the slotting operation is not over 1 per cent. From two to four men may be used in the operations. When four are used, one man supplies the operator with uncut Jars, another




5X~S:VLANT ?IoA







-14


washes the slotted jars by means of a two-jet bottle washer mounted on an inverted faucet, and the fourth man packs the jars in corrugated fiber cartons. Approximately one-third of the project's 35,000 jars have been cut, and the remainder will be handled from time to time throughout the winter.

Treatment with lead arsenate of isolated infestations in Erie, Pa., was started on September 29 and concluded on October 5. First-record finds in Erie were made by scouts between July 30 and August 7 of this year, 141 beetles having bean collected in four adjacent blocks in the residential section near the city park. A month's operation of 600 traps, placed'in the infested section on August 18, was responsible for the collection of 22 additional beetles. The Erie infe st-tions created considerable alarm among the agriculturists of Erie County. Over 80 p.:;r cont of the vineyards in Pennsylvania are located in the county, and there also are large acreages devoted to cherry orchards. Since both grapes and cherries are among the preferred foods of the Japanese beetle, establishment in that section of the pest could cause widespread destruction of valuable crops. Arrangements were accordingly made to troat 32 acres of soil in and surrounding the infested premises. Four spraying outfits from the South Norwalk headquarters were employed in applying 8 tons of arsenate of lead purchased by the Pennsylvania Department of Agriculture. Two supervisors and four truck drivers were supplied from the permanent force of the project. Laborers hired locally in Erie and paid from Federal funds completed the operating personnel.

Two supervisors and four truck drivers were dispatched frcm South
Norwalk on October 29 to assemble equipment and materials in Elmira, N. Y., for soil treatments to be applied in that city and in W atkins Glen and
Little Falls. Purchase of 5 1/2 tons of dry arsenate of lead has been made by the State of New York, of which 3 3/4 tons will be applied in Elmira, 1 ton in Watkins Glen, and 3/4 ton in Little Falls. First-record finds of 21 beetles in Elmira and 7 beetles in Little Falls were made by scouts this summer. Traps placed in the vicinity of a tourist hotel near the entrance to W, atkins Glen were responsible for determination of a first-record infestation of three beetles.. Two spraying outfits are already in storage in Elmira, having been left there at the completion of the spraying in Erie, Pa. Two more outfits now in storage at Erie will also be brought to Elmira. Lead arsenate had been delivered to Little Falls by the end of the month, and the material for Elmira and Watkins Glen treatments was in transit from the manufacturers. All four outfits had been assembled in Elmira by October 31, ready to start operations on November 2.

Successful termination of the initial prosecution instituted for a
violation of the Maryland State Japanese beetle proclamation was accomplished on October 6. August 13, Arthur V. Dorsey, of Hagerstown, Md., was stopped at the quarantine line station located near Ellicott City and found to be transporting a load of uncertified farm products from Baltimaore to Hagerstown. Despite inspectors' warnings, the driver insisted on proceeding







15


to his destination with the contraband. Details of the violation were reported to the Maryland authorities. At their direction the State's Attorney at Ellicott City prepared necessary legal papers and the defendant was given a hearing before Magistrate Smith of Lisbon, Howard County. The violator pleaded guilty and was fined costs, amounting to $15. Since the case made considerable of an impression on the defendant and received suitable publicity throughout Howard County, the desired ends are believed to have been attained.

Richmond, Va., soil treatment operations, begun on October 24, were still in progress at the end of the month. Initial infestations of theXapanese beetle in Richmond were detarmincd this summer through the recovery during lune and July of five adult beetles. Subsequently traps distributed in the city collected ten additional specimens. operating crews of a supervisor, foreman and two truck drivers manning two spraying outfits left the South Norwalk headquarters for Richmond on October 20. Application of lead arsenate by power sprayer began in the city on October 2?, and 12 1/2 of a total of 32 acres had been treated by the end of the month. There are two isolated infestations in Richmond, one centering near Monroe Park and the other in the general vicinity of the Confederate Home and Memorial.

Various combinations of white paint, to furnish a durable coating
for trap funnels and baffles, are under trial. Preliminary reports of this season's trap research at the Moorestown laboratory of the Bureau of Entomology indicate that increases of as high as 115 per cent in beetles caught may be made with traps having white funnels and baffles as compared to traps painted entirely green. During the winter, all traps now in use will be reconditioned and repainted. The cylinders will be painted a medium green and the baffles and funnels ,Ihite. Iron supporting rods will also be painted black. Reconditioned traps will be distributed to storage places conveniently located to next season's proposed trapping areas.

An order was placed late in October by the South Carolina State Crop Pest Commission for 6 tons of dry arsenate of lead for use in treating 23 acres of soil in and about'the premises in Charleston, S. C., found infested with Tapanese beetle. Single beetles were trapped at four comparatively isolated locations in the congested business and residential district in the northeastern section of the city. The crews operating in Richmond at the completion of their treatments in that city will move to Charleston. At the present rate of progress in Richmond, the crews should start work in Charleston about November 16.

Second crop apples have been observed in Salem County, N. 1. Entire areas were defoliated by the beetle in sections of that county. In most instances the fruit was consumed as well. The tree on which the second crop apples were observed is one which is known to have been defoliated and denuded of fruit during the present .5ummer. It is of the princess Early







16


variety, which ordinarily matures its fruit about July 4. The apples when observed on October 29 were almost mature.

Quarantine line stations operated during the season on the western
and southern borders of the generally infested area were abandoned the last of September and the remaining road force moved out to guard the boundary of the lightly infested area. Four additional road posts were also established on the main exit roads from Norfolk, Va. Under the revised program 20 inspectors man 19 posts scattered throughout Virginia, IWest Virginia, Maryland, and Pennsylvania. Six lines were maintained in New York, checking shipments of nursery stock.

The virtual disappearance of all adult beetles in even the most
densely infested sections of Philadelphia led to the abandonment on October 16 of all attempts to scout classified establishments in connection with regular certification duties.

The lifting on October 16 of seasonal restrictions on the movement
of cut flowers from both the generally and lightly infested regulated areas permitted the dismissal of all temporary employees assigned to cut flower inspection and certification.




=WICAN FRUIT FLY

The second round of grove inspection was completed during the latter part of the month. A total of 6,931 grove inspections were made, during the course of which 16,505 specimens were taken in 2,581 collections and submitted for identification. No speciilens of fruit flies were taken on the American side of the river. Forty-four larvae of fruit flies were taken from guavas, oranges, and peaches brought from the interior to the local market at M.Tatamoros. In addition to these 44 larvae, the Mdexican inspector submitted a number to L:exico City for identification.

No adults were caught during October in the 202 traps maintained in 73 premises in ?Uataiioros. This is tne first month that has passed since last April during which no adult flies have been taken in the traps. A close inspection was also made of the citrus fruits growing in the premises in which the traps are maintained. The sour oranges are still small and green and, though dropping quite badly, no indications of infestation could be found. The cooperation of the officials and citizens of Matamoros continues to be of the highest order.

Two modifications of the regulations supplemental to Quarantine 64 were made effective during the month. On October 2 the use of water-proof fabric mesh bags il sizes not to exceed one and thiee-fifths bushels was







17


authorized as containers of citrus fruits. Heretofore fruit leaving the quarantined area was required to be packed in boxes or bushel baskets. Due to the inability of the manufacturers of these sacks to supply the trade, only a couple of cars of sacked fruit were loaded out during the month. A number of the packers claim that the use of this type of container will lower the packing costs without lo,.7ering the quality of the pack.

An announcement was made October 28 that the harvesting period for Valley fruit would be extended to April 10, 1932. Previously the harvesting period has closed on March 1. This announcement met with a most favorable reaction from the growers and packers, since considerable concern had been expressed as to the ability to harvest and market the largest crop ever produced in this section within the old time limit. The extension is particularly gratifying to the growers this season inasmuch as the Iarsh grapefruit, which constitutes about 80 per cent of the grapefruit crop, for some unknown reason is extremely slow in sizing up. The market has been very weak on sizes smaller than 96's. It is thought by many growers that this fruit will increase in size with
the advent of the winter rains.

The usual run of minor technical violations on the part of the
packers and growers was encountered during the month. On the part of the packers these violations usually consist of getting fruit from groves without first securing permission from the district inspector. The majority of violations listed against the growers are occasioned by fruit being improperly buried by Lexican laborers. In practically all cases encountered during the past month the ownership of improperly buried fruit was established, and the owners reprimanded and required to properly dispose of the fruit.

There was a lively movement during the first half of the month in the early varieties of grapefruit and oranges. The crop of Duncan grapefruit was fairly well cleaned up by the middle cf the molith. The latter half of the month was marked by a ocriod of general inactivity, except on the part of the truckers, due to the fact that only a small percentage of the ia oh fruit is considered of sufficient size to market. Many of the packj -7 antss were closed down td; k st wcek of the mcnth. In spite of thib "c; i :ty a total of 744 carloijd,- had been roved by rail to the end of O2Lober. In addition, approximately 1?0 carloads had been moved by truck.

The checking of road traffic was inaugurated on a 24-hour basis on
the 13th at the Falfurrias highway station. This station has been operated in previous years at Encino, about 20 miles south of Falfurrias. However, several grcves hove come into bearing this season between Encino and the Hidalgo-Brooks County line, and accordingly the inspection station was set up on the right-f-way of Highway 12. Through the cooperation of the State







18


Highway Department the hard surface of the road at this point was widened
8 feet.




PIHK BOLL d0RM

Perhaps the most outstanding feature of the pink bollworm work during the month of October was the operation of gin-trash machines. All 35 of the machines were in operation the entire month, and with very few exceptions they were able to secure sufficient trash for steady operation. At the close of the month the 21 machines operating outside of the regulated areas had inspected 65,118' bushels in Arizona, California, Louisiana, Oklahoma, Texas, and Mexico. A considerable amount of trash was examined in that part of the western extension of Texas which was released frcm the regulated area last season. Examinations were also made in the old eradication areas in Texas and Louisiana. The results of all examinations outside of the regulated area have been negative.

Within the regulated areas in Texas, New !Lexico, and Arizona,
31,955-- bushels of trash have been examined by the 14 machines operating. A total of 179,580 specimens have been taken this season. The great majority of these specimens were taken in the Big Bend and the Lower El Paso Valley of Texas. Specimens have been found in trash from 728 of the 125 gins operating. The infestation has been found to extend throughout the Pecos Valley of TOxes ran New 'Mexico, the El Paso Valley of Texas and the Mesilla Valley of New Mexico, the Safford Valley of Arizona and, of course, the Big Bend of Texas. A small amount of cotton is planted at Tularosa and Deming, N. 14ex. Specimens have been found in trash from both of these localities.

In the Salt River Valley of Arizona specimens were found in trash from the Gilbert Gin Company, at Gilbert, Ariz. This infestation was traced to a field located southwest of Gilbert, in Section 26, T2S, R5E,
4 live specimens having been found by field inspecti on October 23. Only 10 specimens have been found in gin trash in the Salt River Valley of Arizona this season--l from a gin near Phoenix during September, and 9 at the Gilbert Gin during October.

ScTeral examinations of trash in the Big Bend section are rather
outstanding. On October 15 two bales of cotton produced about 4 miles up the PRiver from Presidio yielded 1 bushel of trash. This trash was put thrcuh' the machine and a total of 7,068 sPeimons of the pink bollworm were !:::~r, 6,302 of which were alive, 731 dead, and 35 pupae. After the abc Nu -*.s< :as passed through the machine, the voluine was reduced to abou 3 qJ&'-Gs, 'his trash being placed in one end of a large pan. Within a very few minutes the worms began crawling from this trash, and our







19


inspectors report that 4,500 were collected in this manner without disturbing the trash. On October 22 one-hair bushel of trash from one bale of cotton yielded o,8923 specimens of the pink bollworm, 5,300 of which were alive, 441 dead, and 82 pupae. This cotton vras produced on a small farm about one-hair mile south of the gin at Presidio. It is interesting to note that the Bureau of Entomology has been making infestation counts in this field, and. on the 7th of October the infestation had reached 100 per cent witli an average of 5.i3 worms per boll. The following week threefourths bushel of trash from one bale of cotton produced on the same farm yielded 8,619 pink bollworms, 7,892 of which were alive, 684 dead, and 43
pupae.#

Some interesting information w.,as obtained from the results of the examination of trash fromi three bales of cotton produced in the lower part of Hudspeth County, Tex. Traqh from the first bale ginned on October 19, yielded 81 livina3 and lb dead specimens; from the second, on October 27, 342 living and 60 dead specimens, and from the third, on October 30, 592 living and 72 dead specimens. This cotton was produced on about 3-"2' acres which is some 3 miles from thii nearest cotton field. Also the land has been uncultivated for three years previous to this season.

Ginning picked up quito a bit during the month, but is still considerably less than to the same date last season. Additional pickers have gone to the Pecos Valley of Texas and New Mexico and the El Paso Valley of Texas, so that the crop is now being gathered much faster. In the Salt River Valley of Arizona there is still a shortage of pickers. At the end of October 105,084 bales had been ginned. Most of the gin yards are now full of cotton, as very little is being shipped. This is bor:xe out by the fact that only 13,764 bales had been fumigated and 28,660 bales from the lightly infested area had been compressed. Cotton is always shipped shortly after being treated by one of these two methods. In addition to the cotton, 1,951 bales of linters wore fumigated and 182 compressed.

There has been considerable increase in the price of seed to farmers in the eastern and western quarantined areas, as a result of which most farmers are now selling their seed instead of carrying it back home. This has enabled all of the oil mills in the regulated area to begin operations. So far 38,731 tons of seed have been shipped to the various mills, over half of which have already been milled. To date 2,360 bales of second-cut linters have been treated by the roller system.

A survey ofL all ginning and sterilizer equipment throughout the regulated area is now under way. This survey has been completed in all areas except the Salt River Valley of Arizona. Our gin supervisors report that they are receiving excellent oooperat ion from ginners with reference to correcting the defects revealed by this survey. This survey was considered advisable because of the change in regulations permitting the movement of baled cotton from lightly infested areas without fumigation under







20


certain safeguards, one of which was that it be ginned in such manner as to preclude the possibility of seed passing into the lint. On the whole the gin equipment was found to be in very good condition. To the end of October seed from 71,271 bales had been sterilized at an average efficiency of 98.6 per cent per bale.

There was considerable increase in the number of confiscations
made at the road stations during October, even though the number of cars inspected showed a decrease over the previous month. The material confiscated consisted of 88 small lots of cottonseed, lint, or seed cotton, 13 cotton plants with bolls attached, 9 pick sacks, 17 quilts, pillows, or mattresses, nd 2 other articles. In addition, 340 -nick seeks were treated and passed. On October 8 approxim.,'teiy 3 pounds of seed cotton were taken from a truck which had come from Presidio, Tex. ."n examination of this material resulted in the finainm of 7 dead pink bollworm larvae.
This interception was made at the Alpine, Text, station. This same station also made an interception of a small amount of cotmonseed which originated in the Big Bend section and showed pink bollworm damage; however, no specimens were found.

The weekly infestation counts from selected fields in Maricopa
and Pinal Counties, Ariz., have been continued. Also extra material from other fields has been examined. The results have all been negative. In a number of fields it is becoming impossible to collect green bolls. However, these fields are being dropped and others substituted. There are still plenty of green bolls available in long staple fields, and probably will be until frost. However, there are now very few green bolls in the short staple fields. The infestation counts will be continued as long as
green bolls aru available.

SOme important information on the Thurberia weevil infestation has been revealed by the gin-trash inspection. Quite a number of weevils have been taken in trash from two gins in the Tucson area. Weevils have been found in two fields near Tucson by field inspection. On October 28 a specimen of Thurboria weevil was taken in trash from The Western Pinal Gin Company, at Coolidge, Ariz. This finding is very important as it is outside of the area regulated on account of the Thurberia weevil. These findings would seem to indicate that the weevil infestation in the crop of 1931 will prove to be the heaviest yet. Climatic conditions have been especially favorable to the insect. Present plans call for quite a bit of scouting a little later in the season to determine the present status of the Thurberia weevil.







21


PREVTING SPREAD OF MOTHS

During October approximately 115,000 feet of high pressure spray hose were stored in one of the storage buildings at Greenfield, Mass, After this hose, which is in 50-foot lengths, is returned from the field at the close of the spraying season, it is thoroughly washed out with clear water and examined with a view of determining whether any leaks or other weaknesses have developed during the spraying season. It is then piled in separate stalls according to its age and condition. In addition to the 14 spray hose, approximately 1,500 feet of 2" suction hose were stored. The section hose is in 25-foot lengths. This hose is also examined with a view to determine, so far as possible, whether any of it became porous or otherwise damaged in use, and if such is found to be the
case, it is discarded.

Scouting work for the gipsy moth was concluded during October in the towns of Chesterfield and Ticonderoga, 11. Y., and the scouting crews working there were transferred to Hague and Putnam, N. Y. At the close of October there were seven Federal scouting crews engaged in the examination of woodland in Crown Point, Hague, and Putnam, N. Y. No gipsy moth infestations were found during October in the area regularly scouted by the Federal crews in New York State.

In the vicinity where gipsy roth rii16 a.lults -re caught at the assent bl1A$ cages, which contain an attractant for the male moth, a small amount of scouting work was done in Becket, Lee, and Tyringham, Mass., and Kent, Conn. This check up on the assemblin:; cage catches resulted in the finding of a gipsy moth infestation at Tyringham, Ilass.

Burlap bands, that were put on trees at and in proximity to infestations found during last year's scouting, were removed. A gipsy moth egg cluster was found beneath the burlap at Canaan, Conn., and two infestations of one egg cluster each were found at New IiarlborQ, Mass. Closer inspection of these areas around the assembling cages and where the burlap was removed will be given during the prosecution of the regular planned work for this year, and all necessary clean-up work will be done at that time.

Information from the New York Conservation Department indicated that the scouting work as planned along the New York-New England border was finished in Columbia County, N. Y., and at the close of the month there were 12 New York State scouting crews examining woodland areas in Dutchess County, N. Y. This area constitutes the most rugged mountainous section that remains to be covered in this county. It is encouraging to note that the towns scouted to date by the New York State crews have been found uninfested, although in the past, gipsy moth colonies have been found iu each of these towns, viz; Canaan, Austerlitz, Hillsdale, Copake, and Ancram, in Columbia County; Northeast, LaGrange, and Fishkill, in tAutchess County.







22


The work on Long Island conducted by the New York Conservation Department is reported by that department as progressing satisfactorily. No clean-up work has as yet been attempted at the two colony sites in Nassau County reported during September, or at the two colony sites found in Nassau County during October, due to the fact that the foliage has not dropped from the trees to any extent. There are three crews working in Oyster Bay and two in North Hempstead, Nassau County, N. Y. Up to the present time, these crews have escaped interference by reason of the heavy fogs usually present there at this time of the year, hence very little interruption in
the scouting work was encountered.

During October there was a slight increase in the number of shipments and quantities of materials co~mprising these shipments offered for inspection on account of the gipsy moth State quarantine in New Jersey. There were 156 lots certified for shipnent during the rionth. No gipsy moths were found on these.

On Long Island, the inspection work showed an increase during October in the number of lots examined, but there was a slight decrease in the quantities of stock constituting the shipments. There were 182 lots examined and certified for shipment and these were found to be free from gipsy moths.

The assembling cage work, which is supplemental to the control and eradication work, in that it determines to some extent the quality of previous scouting work, the effectiveness of spraying work, and the location of possible gipsy moth infestations that may have been overlooked, is now completed and it is possible at this time to report that there were 4,258 gipsy moth assembling cages, properly baited with an attractant, distributed as follows in New England, New York, and New Jersey: MASSACHUSETTS 1,258 cages were placed in 37 to;ns--9b8 cages inside the barrier zone and 300 cages east of the barrier zone. Eighty-six adult male gipsy moths were caught at these cages in Massachusetts towns as follows: 2 at Becket, 6 at Sandisfield, 4 at Tyringham, 3 at Lee, 1 at MJonterey, 22 at New Marlboro, and 18 at Sheffield, a total of 56 adults inside the barrier zone; 3 at Blandford, 2 at Chester, 20 at Granville, and 5 at Tolland, a total of 30 adults east of the barrier zone. CO CTICUT 1,184 cages were placed in 36
towns--777 cages inside the barrier zone and 407 cages east of the barrier zone. Forty-five adult male gipsy moths were caught at these cages as follows: 3 at Canaan, 3 at Cornwall, 1 at Kent, 2 at Litchfield, and 27 at Warren, a total of 36 adults inside the barrier zone; 1 at Barkhamsted, 6 at Hartland, and 2 at Jow Hartford, a total of 9 adults east of the barrier
zone. VERMH0lNT 820 cages were placed in 16 towns all of which were inside the barrier zone. There were no adult male gipsy moths caught at any of these assembling cages. NEIW YORK 3C9 cages were put up in 12 towns all of which were inside the barrier zone. At Milan, 1 adult male was caught, and 1 adult male was trapped at Northeast. N'W JESEYI There were 887 assembling cages placed in 29 townships, but no adult male gipsy moths were attracted.







-23


Of the 4,258 assembling cages played in the field this year, 44 per cent were refilled with fresh attractant material, thus prolonging their period of effectiveness. In Massachusetts 490 were refilled, in New York 195, in Connecticut 605, and in New Jersey 582.

The western portions of the New York towns, bordering on and in the Adirondack Mountains in the barrier zone, where I1ederal crews have been working for the past few months, are heavily wooded and otherwise extremely difficult to scout. The mountain slopes in this r,.egion are rough, precipitous, and in places actually inaccessible. IMany of the woodland areas are so large that it was necessary to take advantage of streams, old logging roads, and trails to reach the most distant points. Topographical maps are very helpful in laying out the work of the crews and in determining the location of the town lines.

In the town of Ticonderoga, N. Y., where scouting work was completed during October, 1931, there is situated the largest single woodland block to be scouted during the current fiscal year, and it is to some extent indicative of the topographic condition of this particular region. This woodland bl~ck consists of approximately 22,100 acres, and extends for 7 nilbs along the western boundary of the town, being 7 miles wide at its widest point. Located within the boundaries of this wo6odland. block are found 15 lakes and 6 mountains. The highest of these mountains is Mt. Treadway, which has an altitude of 2,248 feet above sea level.

The mountainous condition of this section has been contributory to an increase in the number of injuries occurring to employees while in the performance of official duties. Since July 1, 1931, when work w~as started in this area, there were 26 personal injury cases reported, consisting chiefly of sprains, wrenched ligaments, bruises, and lacerations.

With the advent of the deer hunting season in the Adirondacksduring the latter part of the month, another perplexity presents itself to the men engaged in woodland scouting work in this region. 71e have been fortunate in the past in that no gipsy moth employee has been wounded by hunters while performing official duties. The mental hazard, however, still remains, and another detriment to efficient scouting work is not removed until the hunting season closes.

As a result of a request from the Penfield Grange, of Crown Point, N. Y., a town in which gipsy moth work has been conducted during the past several weeks, three 1,000-foot motion picture reels were shown at this place on October 23 before a gathering of about 400 people. one reel shows the life histories of the gipsy moth and the brownm-tail moth and the damage they cause; another illustrates the control work in the barrier zone, with views of scouting, creosoting egg clusters, and spraying, and it also has some views of the various types of quarantine inspection work; the other reel shows views of the parasite work, which is carried on by the Bureau of







24


Entomnology. A brief instructive talk was given by H. L. Blaisdell, of this project, in conjunctioa with the pictures. In conversation with some of the audience, their remarks wiere commnendable in that the pictures were informative and educational to them. Due to the fact that some were unable to be present at this meeting, the three reels were again shown the same evening in Gromn Point before approximately 30 more people.

About the middle of October, depending on the weather conditions,
it is customary for several nurserymen in the quarantined area of Connecticut and Massachusetts to fill their storehouses with deciduous stock. This practice enables them to handle a greater volume of spring business in a short period of time and also allows an earlier and later shipping season due to the fact that they can ship to Southern States for planting, even though the frost in the ground would not ordinarily permit digging in these quarantined areas. After digging, the stock is inspected. It is then tied into bundles and transported from the growing fields to the storehouse, where it is graded and otherwise prepared for storing in bins by employees of the nurseries. The bins are marked so that the various grades, sizes, and varieties of shrubs ape easily distinguished. WThen the stock is consigned to points outside of the regulated area, it is certified by our inspectors. This inspection of stored stock requires the services of extra inspectors, as the element of time is of great-~value to the nurserymen in the spring of the year.

Although classified as Christmas greenery in the inspection reeords, and even though the shipping comes just nrior to the Christmas tree work,
the spruce bough business is an industry in itself and should not be associated with the Christmas tree industry. The spru-e boug-:h inspection work started October 19 and reached its height the latter rart of the month. It is confined chiefly to the spruce areas of western M.assachusetts and southern Vermont. only boughs having good color Fire selected from trees along the edges and openings of spruce woodlots and pasture spruce. Long-handled pruning cutters from 12 to 20 feet in length are used by the dealers for removing the spruce boughs from the trees, and in some cases short heavy knives similar to a machete are used. After the boughs, which are from 2 to 4 feet in length, are cut from the tree branches, they are gathered and hauled to the nearest press which is used for baling- purposes. The gipsy moth inspector then examines each bough, after which the operators press the boughs into bales. These bales are about 2 fee~t thick, 2 feet wide, and 4 feet long, and weigh approximately 100 pounds. Thcs bales are piled in tiers, and when shipping begins they are transported to thia railroad shipping point and loaded into box cars. An average of 200 bales (10 tons) are usually loaded into each car. At this time a certificate, based on the previous inspection at the tine of baling-, is issued covering the shipment. The average baler will press about e,OCO pounds of boughs (80 bales) each day, and this ordinarily keeps one inspector busy while the press is in operation. During October approximately 1500 toil.s of boughs were inspected. There wore 23 baling presses in operation at various points within the







-25


quarantined area. About 95 ner cent of the boughs are shipped to New York City, the remainder being distributed iraainly throughout Missouri, Michigan, and Ohio. The boughs are used chiefly as a covering in cemeteries to beautify the lots during the wintc r season, and also to some extent for co vering perennial and rose beds on private estates. There were 27 inspectors engaged in handling the necessary inspection work incident to the bough shipments.

Deciduous nursery stock is shipped without soil, but the roots
are packed in moist moss or other similar material. Evergreen trees, on the other hand, are dug with a ball of? earth surrounding the roots and this is usually enclosed in burlap. These methods prevent the roots from drying out before planting and preserve them while in transit. Because of dry weather, the soil is often so dry that it falls away from the roots, and consequently the movement of evergreen stock is restricted during these dry periods.

By tLhe use of modern methods of moving nursery an~d evergreen stock, size and weight are not prohibitive, as has been evidenced by the moving of four large red cedar trees recently from Torrington, Conn., to Yonkers, N. Y. These cedars averaged 25 feet in height, and the balls of earth, which preserve the roots, weighed in the vicinity-of 800 pounds on each tree. Stich large specimens are rather difficult to handle and care has to be exercised to avoid breaking, which would spoil the symmetry of the tree. Nurserymen provide help on these occasions to aid in the turning and handling so that thorough inspection may be made.

The V7.ashington Elm, under which the father of our country took command of the Continental Army at Cambridge, Mass., on July 3, 1775, still lives. Although this famous tree no longer stands, a horticulturist grafted a branch of the dying elm, and this graft is now a beautiful large tree, growing on the grounds of the Public Library, Wellesley, Mass. From this Wellesley elm, four scions were grafted. One was set out at the Arnold Arboretum, Jamaica Plains, Mlass., another at the PhillipsAndover Academy, Andover, Mass., and the other two at a nursery whose
products are shipped under quarantine regulations. I.any descend,,'.ts of the historic original Washington Elm were raised at this nursery and these have been examined and certified for shipment to various parts of the United States.




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N E W S L E TT RPLANT QUARANTINE AND CONTROL AD1IIISTRATIOTUNITED STATES DZPARTT1Ei1T OF AGRICTULTURENumber 12 (NOT FOR PUBLICATION) December 1,.1931.F02EIGN PLANT QUARATIMSRECENT ENTOMOLOGICAL IITE7CPTIQNS 0? INTERESTkediterranean fruit fly front Venezuela.--Living larvae of theMediterranean fruit fly were intercepted at San Juan, Porto Rico, inpeaches in baggage from Venezuela. This represents the first intercep-tion by inspectors of the Plant Quarantine and Control Administrationof this fruit fly from Venezuela. (See also Ne7s Letter No. 1, January,1931; No. 2, February, 1931; No. 3, March, 1931; No. 4, April, 1931;No. 6, June, 1931; No. 7, July, 1931; No. 10, 0-tober, 1931; No. 11, No-vember, 1931.)Mango weevil from Hawaii.--The mango weevil Sternophetus mangif-erae was intercepted at San Francisco in manio seed in baggage fromHawaii. This weevil has also been intercepted in -nman:o from Ceylon,Egypt, India,and Sian. This insect is a serious pest of mango in Hawaii,where it has been reported to infest 60 to 90 per cent of the crop.Thrips from Mexico.--Elaphrothrips longiceps (Bagn.) was inter-cepted at Hidalgo, Tex., in a seedless avocado in baggage from Mexico. No entrance hole in the avocado was apparent. J. R. 1atson, of Gaines-ville, Fla., remarks as follows in reference to this interception:"Thisseems to be rather a common thrips on avocados in Central America. Ithas not been recorded from the United States."Whitefly on azalea.--Aleyrodes azaleae B. & M. (Aleyrodidae) wasintercepted at New York on a leaf of Azalea sp. in the mail from Austria.This whitefly, which is not known to oecur in continental United States,has been intercepted previously on azalea from Belgium, England, andTap an.

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Bruchid in vetch seed.--Bruchus brachialis Fabr. (Brufhidae) wasintercepted at Washington, D. C., in the seed of hairy vetch (Vicia vil-losa) in the mail from Budapest, Hungary. J. C. Bridwell, of Washington,D. C., states that this bruchid, like the pea weevil and broad-bean wee-vil, infests only green pods in the field and can not reinfest the seedin storage.weevil in Eugenia sp.--Larvae, pupae, and cocoons of Anthonomussp. (Curculionidae) were collected by Max Kisliuk, jr., and C. E. Cooleyin green and ripe fruit of Eugenia sp. near St. Cloud, Guadeloupe, FrenchWest Indies, August 25, 1931, and larvae of Anthonomus sp. were collectedin ripe fruit of Eugenia sp. en the ground 3 miles south of Castries, St.Lucia, British West Indies, September 8, 1931.Scale insect from Japan.--Ceroplastes rubens (Coccidae) was inter-cepted at San Francisco on the leaves of Aralia sp. in ship's quartersfrom Japan. This scale insect, which is not known to occur in continental United States, has also been intercepted from Hawaii and Samoa.Weevil found in guavas.--Larvae of Conotrachelus dimidiatus Cham-pion (Curculionidae) were collected by T. R. Stephens in guavas at Mata-moros, Mexico, August 15, 1931. The infested guavas originated in Uruapan,Michoacan, Mexico. According to A. G. Boving and L. L. Buchanan, of theBureau of Entomology, this insect is potentially injurious and guava isthe only known host. Dr. Boving further states that this weevil is a typ-ical Mexican form and is not known to occur in continental United States.This insect was intercepted at San Antonio, Tex., in 1929, in guava fromMexico.Weevil from Greenland.--Brachyrhinus arcticus Fab. (Curculionidae)was intercepted at New York in soil around the roots of a collection ofmiscellaneous plants from Greenland. This is the first record of thisweevil being intercepted by inspectors of the Plant Quarantine and ControlAdministration. Syntomid from Panama.--Ceramidia scintillocollaris (Syntomidae) wasintercepted at San Francisco with bananas in cargo from Panama. This lepi-dopteron, which is not recorded from continental United States, has alsoarrived with bananas from Costa Rica and Guatemala. According to WilliamSchaus, of the National Museum, the larva of this moth feeds on weeds inplantations and climbs banana plants in search of a place to form a cocoonand pupate.Tortricid from Switzerland.--Cacoecia podana Scop. var. sauberianaSorh. (Tortrieidae) arrived at Washington, D. C., on Rhododendron hirsutumplants in cargo from Switzerland. Neither the species C. podana nor itsvariety sauberiana is recorded from continental United States.Noctuid on pineapple slip.--An adult of Simplicia robustalis Guen.

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-3 -(Noctuidae) was intercepted at "an Juan, Porto Rico, on a pineapple slipin caro from Hawaii. This noctuid is reported to attack the fruit ofpineapple in Queensland, Australia, and is an occasional pest of ragi(Eleusine coracana) earhoads in the stack in Lysore State, India.Scale insect on papaya.--Pseudoparlatoria ostreata Ckll. (Coccidae)was intercepted at New York on papaya fruits in baggage from Porto ica.This scale insect, which has not been recorded from continental UnitedStates, has also been intercaptd from Guatemala, Jamaica, 1exico, andVenezuela.Mexican jumping bean.--A larva of Grapholitha saltitans 7est. wasintercepted at Boston in a Mexican jumping bean (Sebastiania pavoniana) increw's quarters from Mexico. The activity of the larva within the seedi s the cause of the jumping. The larva changes to a chrysalis, and thebutterfly emerges by lifting up a lid which had becn cut out of the seedwall earlier by the larva. This tortricid is rTlited to the codling mothof apple.REC1,T PATHOLOGI CAL INTElCEPTIOIS 4S ITRSTA specimen of diseased mamey-sapote collected in Porto Pico wasfound to be suffering from an attack of Cpnhalauror virescens, a parasiticalga.An Australian grown apple intercepted at B'ltimore snowed spots re-sembling those of the nonparasitic "Jonathan spot" which occurs in thiscountry.Black currant leaves from Canada bearing numerous telia and someuredosori of the white pine blister rust (Cronartium ribicola) were inter-cepted at 3oston. The rust was covered with other fungi and in poor condi-tion.Among the nematode interceptions from Philadelphia was Aphelenchusheterophallus n.sp., an interesting new species infesting sugar cam fromJamaica.A small white blister intercepted at Philadelphia on a turnip leaffrom France proved to be a spot of "wnite rust" caused by Albugo candida,formerly called Cystopus candidus. ";hile this disease occurs on a numberof crucifers in various States, it had not been intercepted before.A species of Penicillium doubtfully referre% to P. gladioli wasfound in three lots of crocus bulbs rm Holland intercepted at Philadel-phia. P. gladioli has not b,en recorded as infecting crocus so far as thespecialist who examined the material is aware.Tylenchus dipsaci was recently intercepted at ilew York in garlic

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-4 -from Italy, this being the first record of this nematode on garlic fromthat country. An 6nion from Germany intercepted at Philadelphia was found to beinfected with a species of Oospora apparently identical with 0. citri-aurantii, the organism causing sour rot of citrus. The specialists aretesting the fun,'us on citrus.Lima bean scab (Elsinoe canavaliae) was intercepted for the firsttime this season at New York on November 10, in two shipments of CubanLima beans. Cuban Lima beans are permitted entry at this port only, andtheir importation is confined to the period November--March, inclusive,these restrictions constituting sar 'uards imposed under Quarantine 56 inrelation to the pod borer (Maruca tostulalis).INCREASED DOSAGE AND EXOSJPE IN THE FUMIGATIONOF PAIL7AY CARS ON =XICAIT BORkDEREffective November 23, 1931, the dosage of liquid HCN used in thefumigation of railway cars from Mexico has been increased from 3 to 6pounds per car when the temperature in the fumigation houses is 400 F. orover, and to 7 pounds when the temperature in the fumigation houses is un-der 400. The tib of exposure has also ben incr-aod frol 1; to 6 hourscounting, from the time all the 'as is in t:e usivaiji chamber.The number of railway cars now being fumigated at ,exican borderports is rather small compared with the number fumigated a few years ago,and it is not anticipated that the increase in the time of exposure willaffect the movement of freight to any appreciable extent. The falling offin car fumigations has been due in part to the present economic conditionsand also to a considerable extent to the exemptions which have been grantedduring recent years. The last exemptions, granted on August 21, 1931, in-cluded all stock cars if cleaned on the Mexican side, all refrigerator carsif free from cottonseed, and box cars haulin.7 ore concentrates providedcertain safeguards were employed. Prior to this, tank, flat, coal, andgondola types of cars had been exempted from fumigation if found upon in-spection to be free from cottonseed. That the recent exemption on carshauling ore concentrates will b:3 the means of effecting a considerable sav-ing in the rpovem.nt of such materials is support by the fact that sinceAugust 21 up to November 7, b3l carloads of oro concentrates have enteredwithout fumigation.NUIVEROUS INSECTS FOUND IN PACKING MATERIALRecently a shipment of four necan trees was received at the Washing-ton, D. C., inspection house from a nursery in Texas, the plants having beencertified by the nursery insp3ector of that State as apparently free from in-jurious plant pests. On examination by the inspectors in Pashington the

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trees themselves were found free of pests as certified by the Texas of-ficials, but the rotted straw and other debris used as packing was foundto be very much alive with insect life, meal worms and lepidopterous larvabeing particularly abundant. Other insects present in the packing weresow-bugs, earwigs, carpet beetle larvae, and seven different species ofadult coleoptera. Many of these species will be revealed, no doubt, afteridentification, as being very common throughout the country, but at thesame time this case illustrates in an outstanding manner the danger of anew pest becoming established in a new locality by the use of infestedpacking material of this type.ITALIAN CHESTNUTIS ENTER NEW YOPKThe first shipment of Italian chestnuts for the season reachedNew York on September 28, and up to November 1, 155 shipments represent-ing 39,872 containers had arrived. During the same period in 19Z30, 108shipments consisting of 26,384 containers were entered. Not only has themovement started earlier this season but the chestnuts appear to be inbetter condition as regards infestation with living larvae of the Europeancodling moth and chestnut weevils. Only 4 of tae 155 shipments (611 con-tainers) that entered prior to Jovembar 1 required treatment, while lastseason 8 of tie 108 shipments (1420 containers) reaching New York beforeNovember 1 were given the hot-water treatment.FOREIGN PLANT QUARANT=IE SUTS,:vLRIESRUIANIA.--The Ameriran consul at Bucharest, Pumania, has transmit-ted the text of Rumanian Orders of August 19 and of September 7, 1931, tothe Customs Service of that country. The text of the former reads:"Being informed by the minister of Health, Labor, and Social V-el-fare that Californian apples are treated with arsenic and therefore areinjurious to health, we are requesting you to take all possible steps toprevent the importation of these apples through any means."The latter order prescribes that apples from California only areprohibited, and the importation of apples from other States will be ap-proved only if it is ascertained by analysis that the apples have not beentreated with toxic substances.ENGLAND AND ALS.--(Colorado Beetle Ordsr of October 15, 1931, ef-fective March 15, 1932.) To prevent the introduction of the Colorado po-tato beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata) the landing in England and Valesof any potatoes grown in European France is prohibited. The landing ofliving plants is likewise prohibited, unless authorized by a licensegranted by the Minister of Agriculture and Fisheries, or unless .each ship-ment is accompanied by the form of certificate prescribed by the order.

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'he landing of raw vegetables grovn in Euro-ean Fcance between March 15and Octobefr 14 in aLny ;aw ;lso is prohibited unl ess t. landing is li-ensed, or unless each .onsi&;nqicnt is acompanied ty a pres(ribed certif-icAte.CH MU=L ISLANDS.--(Act of the Committee of i-llture of August 7,1931.) This Act prohibits until further orders the ir.portation into th2Islands of all products of the soil (agricultural and horticultural), seeds,and plants coming from France, to prevent the introduction of the Coloradopotato beetle.DOMEST IC PLPC T QUA? jANT IN1TEST RATIT li ?PECTIONA third inspector from the issouri State nursery inspection force,B. F. Doillot, has bean assigned to work v'ith the transit inspectors ofthis Administration in inspectin' nur -'ery stock shipments at railway ter-minals. Mr. Boillot is stationed at St. Louis, where. 0. T. Yoder, or theregular Federal force, makes insnections of both 'oreign and domesticplant shipments.Uncertified cut flowers of chrysanthemums shipped from the two-generation regulated area of the Euroean corn borer quarantine consJitutemore violations of the domestic quarantines at tni 2 season of the yearthan any other product. Persons not engaged in the co 'aercIal shippingof these flowers and, therefore, not informed as to the requirements, areresponsible for a considerable per cent of those infringements. A totalof 326 violations of this quarantine (including all articles r strictedthereunder) have been reported since thc first of yuLy. This is 1Q03 morethan were reported for the second half of 1930, and the Thanksgiving ship-ping will doubtless increase the number still more. hhile meny personsknow that corn is restricted, the fact that chrysanthemums, gladioli, andasters also harbor the borer is apparently not so well known. Commer ialshippers also frequently overlook the curtiiiation requirements.Narcissus bulbs also come in for a considerable share of the uncer-tified articles moved at this tir.ie of the year. '?hero has been no increase,however, in the number of narcissus bulb quarantine violations reported 5Ofar, compared with that of a year _go. Ihile cor:er(ial concerns are re-soonsible for more of these violatio is than arc private individuals, thecommercial shipments haave consisted very largely of bulbs which on investi-gation were found to have passed taO certifi'tion requirements, Ih interceptions being due to lack of evident e of crtIfi !L't ion on the conts ner.

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-7 -The Jaanso beetle quarintiie viot tionS C.ve more than doubledthe nu er,,por ed for tc f !l of 1 J.Ayon2 the unusunil interceptions, the Chicauo inspectors recentlyreported a GW~-ound toibston moved from the gipry moth infested arenwithout tue certificate of inspection. An inspection by the transit in-spectors showed, however, that no gipsy-moth eg clusters, were present,and the tombstone was, therefore, allowed to proceed to destination.PHOF! PEACH DISEASEThe p.ony peach disqeax ruaruntine wis extended, effective ?Tov(m-ber 30, to cover the States of Louisiana, :ississipi, and South Carolina,parts of the $tates of Arkansas, Florida, Illinois, North Carolina, Ten-nessee, and Texas, as well as those parts of Alabama and Geor'ia which arenot already under qurantine to prevent the spread of this disease.Quotin from the official prOss announcement,The Sjecretary states that the Dpaartmont of Agrioultureis extendingthe quarantine because of the discovery of scat-tered points of infection outaide the areas mraviously underregulation. The disease has been kcno .n in Georcia for a num-ber of years and is believed to have spread from centers ofinfection in that State to other areas through the movemclntof infected nursery stock prior to the establishment of the Federal quarantine in 1029. The T'ederal Department of Agri-culture is cooneratinwith the State Department of Agricul-ture of Geor-ia and otner ini'ected States in an attempt toeradicate th., disease.* * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * *The quarantine regulations restrict the movement of peachand nectarine trees and roots, not only from thp quarantined to noncuarantined States but also from one quarantined Stateto another. In connection with this latter provision, thedepartment announces that it makes this requirement on theassurance by the responsible plant quarantine officers of mostof the States concerned that they will either continue or im-mediately undertake an active eradication program which, in thejudgment of the Fedcral Department, will suppress the phonypeach disease. *Througji the cooperation of th.e bureau of Plant Industry, transitinspection will :e carried on at iashville and :Jnmphis, 'enn. , and Poanokeand Petersburf, Va. Three m:L's of thK Bureau ,iho have scouted for thephony peach disotss' will inspect shipments in transit to determine wetner

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peach and nectarine nursery stock shipnA 'a-.d the regulated areas is beinecertified for interstate movement und r thc. rovIiuios of th; phcny Cpeacdisease quarLantine. A fourth m will be station d at Ft. Valley, Ga., tocheck tae origin of puach stock shipped from this nursery center. At Atlan-ta, Ga. , transit inspection will be contiuiiiad by M. E. Connolly, of thisAdministration.V1OODGATE RUSTNo new localities have been found this y.ar infected with the wood-gate rust although the disease is still anearin, in the old localities,according to a recent report from the 3ureu cf Plant Industry.DATE SCALEDuring the -onth of October 30,0.4 eilms zer inspectd in the Con-chella and Imperial Trall'. y3 in California and no scale found. In Ari zona6,430 palm inspections wre mad: and no scal a found. N1o scale has beenfound in the Salt -iver Valley i. Arizona since October, 1930.With the return of cooler weather scouting outside tho regular arasand, in the Imperial Valley, the section by section survey, have been re-sumed. In the Coachella Valley clean-up -:work rews resued end it is expect-ed tnhat all abandoned plantin s will he duy out or prunld so thit they maybe adequately inspected by the end of this fiscal year.During the month of October 2'7 fan palms on the Southern Pacific Station grounds at Indio, many of thcx. over 51 'xt high, ,ere insoected.Parlatoria scale .:was found in Sober, lDLO, on 41 of thes_ fan pal:_swhich w re within 300 feet of a heavily infested date paL:. At that timeall the palms wore defoliated, leaving only the bud, and sprayed with anoil emulsion. At the time of tha October, 13hl, inspection the palms hadfull tops of Leavfs and no scale was found. Thare is no danger of leadbase infestation on these palms as the bases do not remain alive as; ondate palms.The larger palms ware inspected ro'm 6>-"oot extension ladders.The inspectors wera uquipp':d uith line n's bults, with lQ-foot li?ht
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EUROPEAN CORN BOR KiD JAP iZS B7E7LEGeneral Project NewsIn a radio broadcast of information concerning the spread in 193lof insect pests which are the basis of existing quarantines made on Octo-ber P2 as a part of that day's National Frarm and Home Hour program, theEuropean corn borer and the Japanese beetle were accorded special attentionby Dr. Fracker, who delivered the talk. As scouting for the corn borerstill was under way, an additional and imortAnt new infestation havingbeen found only a few days ago, the broadcast could not deal conclusivelywith the season's results in respect to spread of this insect. 0wing tothe time of day when the National Farm and Home Hour is on the air--12.55to 1.10 p. m., eastern standard--it is believed that comparatively fewplant pest control field men found it convenient to listen in on Dr. Frack-er's remarks, but through the forty stations utilized--some of them leadingand highly popular ones--unquestionably a great many people were reached.First-record finds of the corn oorer outside of the Teg-ulated area, mention-ed by Dr. Fracker as partial-results of the current season's scouting, in-cluded those in New Jersey down the Atlantic coast front New York, in twotownships of two aisconsin counties, and several in Indiana and Kentucky.New infestations of the Japanese beetle referred to wero in South Carolina,Ohio, Pennsylvania, NIew York, and :_aryland.That the metropolitan press is becoming plant pest conscious mightbe inferred when a newspaper with the standing of the New York Herald-Tribuneincludes references to a major rest in a dramatic criticism. In a recent is-sue, a staff writer, critically reviewing a new play, stated that the costumeof one of the actors made him resemble a Japanese beetle more than the char-acter he was supposed to portray. Several times lately the New York S3u hascontained editorial mention of various plant-quarantine activities. "Notor-ists who have smiled indulgently or bustled aggressively when stopped on thehighways by inspectors will read with interest that six persons have beenfined for transporting sod capable of carrying the Jananose beetle," the Suncommented in respect to a ease recently terminated, concluding with the obser-vation, "The protective cordon is not entirely jocular."Speaialized Corn Boer ActivitiesFirst record infestations of the Europeam corn borer in TanitowrSheboygan Counties, 7iis., discovered by Administration scouts during.iderrent season, were regarded as of special importance because of theable distance from the boundaries of th. present regulated area. Countyspecimens were taken on a farn in Centerville To'lnship of Maitcof se'nine one day and two the day follo,wi Lng. In the adjoining tOSn2ext day,Sheboygan County, twelve borers were fourd, six one day, two recovered 7sand four more five days later. Mile the number of the inris 'Casegreater than usually is the case in isolated infestations

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-10 -apparently the pnst so far is confined to a restricted territory, no fur-ther evidcnces Df it having been developed by a picked crew which scoutedmore than 1,006, cres of corn in tho neighborhood sormthing over a monthafter the last of the findings had beon made, oncludintheir work at theend of the first week in October. roth the counties affected are in adairy section, wher the farmers take pride in the aprucarance of theirpremises and in the efficiency of the methods they use. All corn on thetwo farms which were the location of the infestations was cut and placedin silos early in the fall, and the debris nlowod under in accordance withapproved borer control practice. Thurther check-up will be mode next springto determine if additional measures are required to dispose of corn rem-nants.Discov;ry during October of an infestat ion of the European corn bcroerin Accomac County, Va. , near the southern and of the eastern shore peninsulacomposed of norticas of that State. of Maryland, and Delaware, was signifi-cant both in that it ropreseiited a finding of the pest several hundred milesfrom the boundaries o1 tne area at present under quarantine and because ofthe somewhat unusual procedure which led to identification of the borer inthis instance. On October 9 and 10, an irspector of the Administrat ion work-ing in the Neo York City markets found corn borers in Lima beans which hadbeen purchased by a local buyer from a broker operating at Temperanceville,Va. Members of a field crew, dispatched to that point, secured from the bro-ker the names of three growers, from one of whom he believed he had securedthe beans which were shipped to Ne';; York. Inspection of their premises hav-ing filed to disclose any infestation, a list of other growers was obtained,who mipht have furnished some of the ocans. In corn gron by neighbors ofone of thdse famers a specimen of the corn borer soon was taken.A series of six demonstrations of plowing for corn borer control,arranged for by Mr. Harrington, assachusetts Extension Agricultural Engineer,in cooperation 7ith members of the South Norl::alk staff, was initiated on Octo-ber 26 at the James Lyman farm in E9asthamspton, Hampshire County, Mass. An-other was conducted the next day on the Hery itt farm, 7elchertown, in thesame county. On October 29 and O, plowing was; demonstrated at two pointsin Franklin County, the F. L. Graves farm near
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-11 -difinite suggostion included for the fir, to und;rtako the makinon acommercial scale of additional borer control mani al devices perfectedby the Bureau of Agri-ultural Enineerin, in coop ration vith the Adi:in-istration.The last of the surplus equip'ent froml thr ten million dollar coor'ncorer clean-up cainpaign of 1e27, stored at the Eria Ordnance Derot, was a.-vartised for sale in October, with bids rturnable on or Lefora UcvemLer 3.Included in the mza-linery and suplies for wIcn no calls had been receivedin response to proffers to other government departments and bureaus ware thefollowing items: Used, unserviceable stubble pulvrizers, 497; used, ser-viceable stubble pulverizers, 200; used, serviceable Oliver plows, 197; burn-ing carriages, 100; used Vulcan plows, 59; Po-,er take offs for Fordson trac-tors, 1 lot; junk tires and tubes and misoeLaneous junk metal, 1 lot anh.All of the material whioh could be usDd further :s reconditioned before thesale.Convening at the State Cellera in Kin:mton on October 2, the fifthannual conference of the agricultural and industrial interests of 1hodeIsland devoted a three-day session to disc':ssi ns of -urrent probl_-ns, theproceedings having ben concluded by the ado'tion of a series of rsolutions,one of which pledged support to the on bcr r cl a:-up rras. This Cr-ganization is unique in that, in addition to the a,ricultural reuts, themembership include s re-resontation of 'ivic, coIrrcial, and industrialagencies concerned with the prosnority if farmers. Anethcr unusual fmAtureis the active )art taken ian roopct to Staic lra isl'ction.By the end of October all scouting in th: ,ontral oi'tion of cornborer work had beun discontinued _x' ept tA in thi. D. li.arva Pcninsula under-taken after discover; of an infestation at. Tt prancevill.-, Va. 7r7s erkept at work in south ern New Jersey, however, until near the close of themonth. Seventeen first-rcord findings rere m^adin that re-ion during themnth--in an oual numb r of to-nships of eig t countiao--ndditional t3b new infeCtations record d in Septe mber. Moat of those were at pointswell removed from the areoo at this ticie under regulati::n.Comnilation of the findings in the infestation suov.y recently madein Connecticut shows that the corn borer population wa: larrar hanhereto-fore throughout the sections in which the inv:stLatioa W:as n condructd. inNow London County, the average number of bore-s p :r acre incroased fro.1,347 in 1930 to 1z,646, :hilthe 1'indham C> nty rage this y ar HaS4,617 against l,31, last season. greater de sity of infest'tion ala wasfound in the southern port ion of :iddlbse, County and in two towns of -ewHaven County--!ilford a-d Oranee.The meeting in jew Prunsick, 'T. T. , a Ot~oe 12, 10, and 17, ofthe North Atlantic Section, Amer'icnn Asso'ii ion of Ari'uturnl nrincers,devoted no part of its formaal proorama to d1;is:ussI of coon Loser Ontr'l

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-12 -Macninery. Coidersle -iterest regrarding progresss in development of moreffiient dc;vi es ,7s manifested, however, by individual members, in per-sonal contact vith Mr. Irons, of the South norwalk offices, Rureau of Acri-cultural n2inring, who was in attendance.2Jrly in the month, the vehicle inszection in the central sectionof borer activities was still further reduced, though road patrols weremaintained in th vicinity of New York City throughout October, on irregularchedulis. Receipts of Lima beans from the heavily infested sections ofLong Island continued for the entire period, though decreasing in volumetoward the end. One Sunday evening, 11 lots of beans were inspected and 101borers found-%G of the,:: takOn ro: two 5C-ound ta-s.An oven for hEat treatm-ent ef corn, having a capaci ty of 500 ears,has been constructed at the heidcuarters in Sprinfield, Ohio, of the west-ern section borer control activities. Plays and specifications were passedon oy Dr. Lon A. Hawkins, head of the technological division of the Adminis-tration. Dr. Hawkins visited the 3pringfield headquarters on October 9 forconference relative to tn construction of this oven. A feature of theequipment is insulation m:akin,possible the maintenance of heat at any tem-perature. This oven will be utilized in treating corn produced within theinfested area, which is to be shown at exhibitions in free territory.hhile calls for inspection of f2rm prod-Icts gradually grew less inthe central "orn borer section, they were in much greater numbers than isusual at the season, o'ing to the ab sere of killing frosts. Inspectorshad been .ithdrawn from most of the markets in Connecticut by the last ofOctober. Arran.emsnts were made, nevertheless, whereby field inspectioncould be supplied uron request.*-hen the -xhibits at the International Live Stock Exposition inChicago are opened to the public on Xoverver 28 for a week's showing, thatof .uTopean corn borer control methods will be found of ex 'eptional interest.iiestern section field i'aders -ave r.u.h time and thought to its preparation,during October, in the endeavor to mahe the display far surpass any sho.wn at past exhibitions.A sur ey of the territory in the vi'iity of each of the first re'cardcorn borer infestations found this season alcnr and outside the southern Ohioand est Virginia Ooundaries of the 'es nt reguI ated area, was made from theSpringfield, Ohio, offices, during Oct ober. Iccoumendations with refeoenzeto location of the 1931 quarantine lines will be based on the findings.Liria beans from Lang Island were found by the market inspectors atSouth Norwalk, Conn., to be so he-':Ily infested they could not be certifiedfor shipment to points outside of th, two-generat ion :orn yore; rerulatrdarea. La'ae of the bore; also we>e reported ,Osm the W'idzeaort markt, inbeans which cam: fsom the same section.

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-13 -Exclusive or Combination Japanese Beetle TorkEnterprising nerspwper reporte'rs recordin,' their observations ofJapanese beetle trap activities next year will find no occasion as here-tofore to describe bait, consilsting of a mixture of bran, molasses, eugenoland geraniol, as a "transparent liquid contained in the bottom of a Olassjar attached to the trap." The bane to speedy trap tending has been thenecessity for emptying accumulated rain water from the ordinary pint jarscomprising the beetle collecting portion of each trap. Repeated rains dur-ing the past summer obliged trap tenders to devote considerable time toemptying water from jars, which more profitably could have been employedin field scouting in the vicinity. The obvious remedy for this situationis a small slot in the bottom of each jar. yars so blown and in requiredquantity constitute an item of considerable expense. Ordinary files and emery wheels subject the jars to such friction th't breakage results. Es-timates received from commercial glass cutters quoted from 3 to 10 centsper jar for slotting. At the South Norwalk headquarters there has been eon-structed an abrasive machine which cleanly and speedily cuts a slot approx-imately 1/16 inch in width and from 5/16 to 3/8 inch in length in the jar'sbottom edge. The machine is belt driven by a 1 1/2 H. P. electric motor.A speed of 1,750 -i.P.L. t the motor is stepped up by means of an interven-ing pulley to a machine speed of 6,000 !.P.M. rusulting in a speed of12,000 surface fet per minute on the abrasive wheel. The base for themachine is a 10-inch dual polishing head, with 1/2 inch steel shaft endcentrally mounted pulley. Cast iron bearing's either side of the pulley areconstantly lubricated by a visible drip oiler. Attached at either end ofthe shaft arc 80-grain shellac bonded abrasive wheels, 6 inches in diameterand 1/16 inch thick. Safety guards cov3r the belts and coaipletely encasethe abrasive wheels. Integral with these brass safety guards are verticallymounted brass cylinders of 3 inches inside mea -urement. The jars arebrought in contact with the wheels when placed in these cylinders. Adjust-able bolts in the bottom of each cylinder act as stops for the jars and maybe lowered to compensate for v. ar on the wheel. Cold water is so fedthrough 5/16 inch copper tubing dir-ctIly over each wheel that the point ofcontact between the wheel and jar is constantly under a swift spray. Bothwheel guards are slitted at the bottom and hav. ' overed slits in the outersides to permit water drainage. The antir,tsbrly is bolted to an enam-eled cast iron sink having sewer connection. .'rious crystalline abrasivewheels were tried of 46, 60, and 30 ,rain aind with both bakelite and shel-lac bonding. The 80-grain wheel vith shellar bondi;L, costing. 00 cents apiece, has proved most effective for speedy cutting and lonl wear. Eachwheel is Papable of cutting 2,002 or more j;Irs. A doccease of one secondin the cutting period is obtained by putting an inch of water in each jarprior to feeding into the eiacaine. The maximum production so far reacacdwas 24 jars in 65 seconds. The n rmal daily working g capacity is 2,000 jarsout, washed, and rucked. Breakae etteisutable to the slotting operatILonis not over 1 per cent. From two to four men may be used in the operations.When four are used, one man supplies the operator with un7ut jars, another

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-14 -washes the slotted jars uy means of a tuo-jet bottle washer mounted on aninverted faucet, and the fourth man packs the jars in corrugated fibercartons. Approximately one-third of the project's 35,000 jars have beencut, and the remainder will be handled from time to time throughout thewinter.Treatment with lead arsenate of isolated infestations in Erie, Pa.,was started on September 29 and concluded on October 5. First-record findsin Erie were made by scouts between July 30 %nd August 7 of this year, 141beetles having been collected in four adjacent blocks in the residentialsection near tae city park. A month's operation of 600 traps, placed inthe infested section on August 18, ws responsible for the collection of 22additional beetles. The Erie infestations arc-atod considerable alarm amongthe agriculturists of Erie County. Over 80 Dr cent of the vineyards inPennsylvania are located in the county, and thnre also are large acreagesdevoted to cherry orchards. Since both grapes and cherries are among thepreferred foods of the Japanese beetle, establishment in that section ofthe pest could cause widspread destruction of valuable crops. Arrangementswere accordingly made to treat 32 acres of soil in and surrounding the in-fosted promises. Four spraying outfits from the South Norwalk headquarterswere employed in applying 8 tons of arsenate of lead purchased by the Penn-sylvania Department of Agriculture. Two supervisors and four truck driverswere supplied from the permanent force of the project. Laborers hired lo-cally in Erie and paid from Fedrral funds completed the operating personnel.Two supervisors and four truck drivers were dispatched frcm SouthNorwalk on October 29 to assemble equipment and materials in Elmira, N. Y.,for soil treatments to be applied in that city and in Watkins Glen andLittle Falls. Purchase of 5 1/2 tons of dry arsenate of lead has been madeby the State of New York, of which 3 -/4 tons will be applied in Elmira, 1ton in aatkins Glen, and 3/4 ton in Little Falls. First-record finds of 21beetles in Elmira and 7 beetles in Little Falls were made by scouts thissummer. Traps placed in the. vicinity of a tourist hotel near the entranceto ?Wtkins Glen wero responsible for determination of a first-. (cord infes-tation of three beetles. Two spraying outfits ace already in storage inElmira, having been left there at thli completion of the spraying in Erie,Pa. Two more outfits now in storage at Erie will also bo brought to Elmira.Lead arsenate had been delivered to Little Falls by the end of the month,and the material for Elmira and Watkins Glen treatments was in transit fromthe manufacturers. All four outfits had been assembled in Elmira by Octo-ber 31, ready to start operations on _ovemb'r C.Successful termination of the initLal pro'eeution instituted for aviolation of the Maryland State Tapanes 'beetle proclamation was accomplish-ed on October 6. August 13, Arthur V. Dorsey, of Hagerstown, Md., was stop-ped at the quarantine line station loc-ted nar "'llicott City and found tobe transporting a load of uncertified rm. products from altimore to Ha-gerstown. Despite inspectors' warnings, the driver insisted on proceeding

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-15 -to his destination with the contraband. Details of the violation werereported to the Maryland authorities. At their direction the State'sAttorney at Ellicott City prepared necessary legal papers and the defen-dant was given a hearing before Magistrate Smith of Lisbon, Howard County.The violator pleaded guilty and was fined costs, amounting to ,15. Sincethe case made considerable of an impression on the defendant and receivedsuitable publicity throughout Howard County, the desired ends are believedto have been attained.Richmond, Va., soil treatment operations, begun on October 24, werestill in progress at the end of the month. Initial infestations of theJapanese beetle in Richnond wore determined this summer through the recov-ery during June and July of five adult beetles. Subsequently traps dis-tributed in the city collected ten additional specimens. Operating crewsof a supervisor, foreman and two truck drivers manning two spraying outfitsleft the South Norwalk headquarters for Richmond on October 20. Applica-tion of lead arsenate by power sprayer began in the city on October 2?, and12 1/2 of a total of 32 acres had been treated by the end of the month.There are two isolated infestations in Richmond, one centering near MonroePark and the other in the general vicinity of the Confederate Home andMemorial.Various combinations of white paint, to furnish a durable coatingfor trap funnels and baffles, are under trial. Preliminary reports of thisseason's trap research at the Moorestown laboratory of the Bureau of Entom-ology indicate that increases of as high as 115 per cent in beetles caughtmay be made with traps having white funnels and baffles as compared to trapspainted entirely green. During the winter, all traps now in use will be re-conditioned and repainted. The cylinders will be painted a medium green andthe baffles and funnels 7hitc. Iron supporting rods will also be paintedblack. Reconditioned traps will be distributed to store places convenient-ly located to next season's proposed trapping areas.An order was placed late in October by the South Carolina State CropPest Commission for 6 tons of dry arsenate of lead for use in treating 23acres of soil in and about the premises in Charleston, S. C., found infestedwith Japanese beetle. Single beetles were trapped at four comparativelyisolated locations in the congested business and residential district in thenortheastern section of the city. The crews operating in Richmond at thecompletion of their treatments in that city will move to Charleston. At thepresent rate of progress in Richmond, the crews should start work in Charles-ton about November 16.Second crop apples have been observed in Salem County, N. J. entireareas were defoliated by the beetle in sections of that county. In most in-stances the fruit was consumed as well. The tree on which the second cropapples were observed is one which is known to have bon defoliated and de-nuded of fruit during the present summer. It is of the Princess Rarly

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-1(3 -variety, wic. ordinarily matures its fruit alout Tuly 4. The apples whenobserved on Octooer 29 were almost mature.Qurantine line stations operated during' the season on the westernand southern borders of the generally infested area were abandoned the lastof September and t.o remaining road force moved out to guard the boundaryof the lightly / infested area. Four additional road posts were also estab-lished on te min exit roads from Lorfolk, 7a. Undcr the revised program20 inspectors r.mn 19 posts scattered throughout Virginia, est Virginia,Laryland, and Pennsylvania. Six lines were maintained in 14ew York, check-ing shi-ments of nursery stock.The virtual disappearance of all adult beetles in even the mostdensely infested sections of Philadelphia led to the abandonment on October16 of all attempts to scout classified establishments in connection withregular certification duties.The lifting on October 16 of seasonal restrictions on the movementof cut flowers from both the generally and lightly infested regulated areaspermitted the dismissal of all temporary employees assigned to (ut flowerinspection and certification.3XICAT FRTIT FLYThe second round of arove inspection was completed during: the lat-ter part of the month. A total of 6,901 grove inspections were made,during the course of which 15,0d specimens :ere taken in 2,581 collectionsand submitted for identification. N1 sp0ciiens of fruit flies were takenon the American side oi the river. Fjrty-four larvae of fruit flies weretaken from guavas, oran:es, and peaches brought from the interior to thelocal market at :.atamoros. In addition to these 44 larvae, the Mexicaninspector submitted a nur'Iber to ~e:ico City for identification.No adults were caught during October in the 202 traps maintained in73 premises in >ataioros. This is tnr frst month that has passed sincelast April dur ing which no adult flies have been taken in the traps. Aclose inspection was also made of the citrus fruits growing in the rrem-ises in which the traps are maintaLned. The sour oranges are still Smalland green end, thou-h dreppinv suite Ladly, no indi-ations of infe taioncould be found. The cooperation of the officials and citizen? of Mata-moros continues to )o of the highest order.Two medifications of the re.-ulations epnnlemental to 6u4antine 64were made effectivduring the month. On October 2 the use of water-Pr-ooffabric mesh baLs in sixes not to exceed ono and t"3e-fifths bushels was

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-17 -authorized as containers of citrus fruits. Heretofore fruit leaving thequarantined area was required to be packed in boxes or bushel baskets.Due to the i:abiliuy of the manufacturers of thuse sacks to supply thetrade, only a couple of cars of sacked fruit were loaded out during themonth. A nura'er of the packers claim that the use of this tyre of con-tainer will lower the packing costs without lo-:ering the quality of thepack.,,n announcement was made October 2U that the harvesting periodfor Valley fruit would be extended to April 10, 1902. Previously theharvesting period has closed on March 1. This announcement met with amost favorable reaction from the .rowers and packers, since considerableconcern had been exmresscd as to the ability to harvest and market thelargest crop ever produced in this section within the old time limit.The extension is particularly gratifying to the growers this seasoninasmuch as the Harsh grapefruit, which constitutes about 80 per centof the grapefruit crop, for some unknown reason is extremely slow insizing up. The market has been very weak on sizes smaller than 6's. It is thought by many gro;:.ers that this fruit will increase in size withthe advent of the winter rains.The usual run of minor technical violations on the part of thepackers and -rowers was encountered during the month. On the pert of the packers these violations usually c insist of getting fruit from groveswithout first securing, permission from the district inspector. The major-ity of violations listed against the growers are occasioned by fruit beingimproperly buried by :oexicun laborers. In practically all cases encoun-tered during. the past month the ownership of improperly buried fruit wasestablished, and the o-ners reprimanded and required to properly disposeof the fruit.There was a lively novment duri-, thr firs. nalf of the month inthe early 'arieti s of arapofruit a'id eraars. Thcrn o of Duncan grape-fruit was fairly well cleaned up by thi ,ad;a The :mth. The latterhalf of tre innTh was >arked oy a period uf enral in tIvity, excepton the part of the truckers, due t ) the fact that only a small percentageof the ;a .friit is a:nsi-eaod ef suf'fi ient size tm rkt. Many ofthe pa-k -ts w s-ad dcwn to lo t wuak o2 the !7nth. In spiteof tha f i: total a5f 744 or I b:: 1 --n ir:od 1y rail to theend of 0 uber In addition, arpr-ximateoy 170 earheads had been movedby truck.Th-3 checkinof oad traffic was inaugurated on a 24-hour basis onthe l3th at thc ?al furrlas :i 1 hwty stat n. Inis station has been operatedin prev es years at En7ino, about to aiL s south of 'n furris .However,several __> es 0e (3m into hr-arng thi -season Uetween Incinc. and theHidalgo-orooks County line, and ac-rdiinly the inspect sion ate -O'n Was setup on the right-.f-way of Highway 12. Through toe c'ooperstion -)f the State

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-16 -Highway Departmtovnt the hard surface of t~h read at this point was widenedc feet.PI1K BOLLOIIPerhaps the most outstanding future of the pink collcorm work dur-ing the month of October was the operation of n-trash machines. Allof the machines were in operation the entire month, and with very few ox-ceptions they were able to sure sufi icient trash for steady operation.At the close of the month tho 21 ahin-s op1raoing outside of the rogulat-ed areas had inspected 65,118% bushels in Arizona, California, Louisiana,Oklahoma, Texas, and Lexioo. A considrable amount of trash was exammnadin that part of the western oxt.nsion of xas wh.i:ch v;s rbeascd from theregulated area last season. Exainations vrere also mde in te old eradi-cation areas in Texas and Louisiana. The results of all _xmnations out-side of the regulated aroa have been negative.Within the regulated areas in Texas, Dew Yexio, and Arizona,31,955 bushels of trash have been examined by the 14 machines operating.A total of 179, b 0' spectimons have been taken thio season. The greet major-ity of these spe imens were taken in the big Bend snd the Lower El PasoValley of Texas. Specimens have been found in trash from 72 of the Lbgins operating. The infesta-ion has been found to extend throughout thePecos Valley of Toxes an Dew :exico, the 7-p Paso alley of Texas and theMesilla Valley of New Mexico, the Safford Valley of Arizona and, of course,the Big Bend of Texas. A small amount of cot Lon is planted at Tularosaand Deming, N. Iex. Specimens have been found in trash from both of theselocalities.In the Salt liver Valley of Arizona specimens vero found in trashfrom the Gilbert Gin Coa)ny, at Gilnort, Ariz. This infestation wastraced to a field located southwest ni' Gilbert, in Se'ction 26, TPS, FBE,4 live specimens having been found Ly field inspect> on October 25.Only 10 specimens have boon found in 4in trash in thSalt bivar Valleyof Arizona this season--l from agin near phoenix during Septambor, and 9at the Gilbert Gin durinOctober.,S _1ral examinations of trash in the Bit bend section are ratheroutstanding. On Octoer 15 two eales f cotton pro2.uced about 4 miles upthe r from Presidio yielded 1 uA1 of trash. This trash was putthr, the machine and a total c. 7, ta*, riaeas of tho pink bollwormr 6 ,3C02 of which woe alivs, 7: l d ad, and s puica .Aftor theas 2\ e a assad through the mao i , t s vsluca was oe no d toahou c
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-19 -inspectors report that 4,500 were collected in this manner without dis-turbinc the trash. On October 22 one-half bushel of trash from one baleof cotton yielded L,BL3 specimens of the pink bollworm, b,300 of whichwere alive, 441 dead, and 82 purae. This cotton was produced on a smallfarm about one-half mile south of the gin at Presidio. It is interestingto note that tiie iBreeu of Entomology has been mr-king infestation counts in this field, and on the 7th of October the infestation had reached 100per cent with an average of b.b worms per boll. The following week three-fourths busiel of trash from one bale of cotton produced on the seme farmyielded 8,619 -ink bollworms, 7,892 of which were alive, 684 dead, and 43pupae.Some interesting information was obtained from the results of theexamination of trash from three bales of cotton produced in the lowerpart of Hudspeth County, Tex. Trash from the first bale ginned on October19, yielded 61 living and 1b dead specimens; from the second, on October27, 342 living and 60 dead snecimens, and from the third, on October 30,592 living and 72 dead specimens. This cotton was produced on about 3)-acres, which is sone 3 miles from tha nearest cotton field. Also the landhas been uncultivated for three years previous to this season.sinning picked up quit a bit during the month, but is still con-siderably less than to the same date last season. Additional pickers have gone to the Pecos Valley of Texas and New Mexico and the El Paso Valley ofTexas, so that the crop is now beinj gathered much faster. In the SaltRiver Valley of Arizona there is still a shortage of pickers. At the endof October 105,084 bales had been ginned. Most of the gin yards are nowfull of cotton, as vary little is being shipped. This is borax out bythe fact that only 13,764 bal:s had been fumigated and 28,660 bales fromthe lightly infested area had been compressed. Cotton is always shippedshortly after being treated by one of these two methods. In addition tothe cotton, 1,.51 bales of linters were fumigated and 182 compressed.There has been considerable increase in the price of seed to farm-ers in the eastern and western quarantined areas, as a result of whichmost farmers are now selling their seed instead of carrying it back home.This has enabled all of the oil mills in the regulated area to begin oper-ations. So far 38,731 tons of seed have been shipped to the various mills,over half of whicn have already been milled. To date 2,360 bales ofsecond-cut linters have been treated by the roller a-ystem.A survey of all Cinning and sterilizer equipment throughout theregulated area is now under way. This survey has been completed in allareas except the Salt Piver Valley of Arizona. Our rin supervisors reportthat they are receiving excellent cooperation from ginners with refereneeto correcting tho defects revealed by this survey. This survey was consid-ered advisable because of the change in regulations permitting the move-ment of baled cotton from lightly infested areas without fumigation under

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-20 -certain safe-uards, one of .hich ws th t it b3 inncd in such manner asto preclude the possibility of seed passing into the lint. On the wholethe gin equipment .Vas foind to be in very ,ood condition. To the end ofOctober seed from 71, ' bales had been sterilized at an average efficien-cy of 98.6 -er cent p.r bale.There was consideable inc rese in the nuyrler of confiscationsmade at the road stat Lon dur October, even tourh the nu:ier of carsinspected showed a der asa over the revioas sonth. The neterial confis-cated consisted of d s:s'-ll lot' of cottened, lint, or seed cotton, 13cotton plants with bolls attach 1, 9 rick sacks, 17 quilts, Tillows, ormattresses, and 2 other erticleIn addition, 34O piek secks were treat-ed and passed. On Octocer n apCx ely & pounds of seedit cotton weretaken from a truwk v'hir had 1Oe fra Pres d, Tc-ac. :, cxaminntion ofthis material resulted in the I inainof 'Ld pi>k beIworm larvae.This interception was nade at the Alain, "x., sat Li same sta-tion also made an interception of a smll amount of r.a -Cnseed whichoriginated in the fig 3end section and showed pink boll:orm damage; how-ever, no specimens were found.The eekly infestation counts from selected fields in Maricopaand Pinal Counties, Ariz., have buen continued. Also extra material fromother fields has been examined. The results have all been negative. Ina number of fields it is becoming impossible to collect green bolls. How-ever, these fields are being: dropped and others substituted. There arestill plenty of green bolls availabi> in long staple fields, and probablywill be until frost. However, thurc are loTW very few green bolls in theshort staple fields. The infestation counts will bu continued as long asgreen bolls ar. available.Some important information on the Thurberia weevil infestation hasbeen revealed by the gin-trash inspection. Quite a number of w-evils havebeen taken in trasn from two gins in the Tucson area. evils have beenfound in two fields near Tucson by field inspection. On October 28 aspecimen of Thurberia icevil was taken in trash from The W.stern Pinal GinCompany, at Coolidge, Ariz. This finding is vcry important as it is out-side of tho area regulated on account of the Thurberia weevil. Th-so find-ings would seem to indicate that the weevil infestation in the crop of 1931will prove to be the heaviest yet. Climatic conditions have been espccial-ly favorable to the insect. Present plans call for quite a bit of scoutinga little later in the season to determine the present status of the Thur-beria weevil.

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-21 -PREVENTING SPREAD OF MOTHSDuring October approximately 115,000 feet of high pressure sprayhose were stored in one of the storage buildings -t Greenfield, Mass. After this hose, which is in 50-foot lengths, is returned from the fieldat the close of the spraying season, it is thoroughly washed out withclear water and examined with a view of determining whether any leaks orother weaknesses have developed during the spraying season. It is thenpiled in separate stalls according to its age and condition. In additionto the l'1 spray hose, approximately 1,500 feet of 2" suction hose were stored. The section hose is in 25-foot lengths. This hose is also exam-ined with a vies to determine, so far as possible, whether any of it be-came porous or otherwise damaged in usz,, and if such is found to be thecase, it is discarded.Scouting work for the gipsy moth was concluded during October in the towns of Chesterfield and Ticonderoga, N. Y., and the scouting crewsworking there were transferred to Haguc and Putnam, N. Y. At the close ofOctober there were seven Federal scouting crews engaged in the examinationof woodland in Crown Point, Hague, and Putnam, N. Y. No gipsy moth infes-tations were found during October in the area regularly scouted by theFederal crews in New York State.In the vicinity where gipsy moth %ro lulits ea caught at the asserbljag cages, which contain an attractant for the male moth, a small amountof scouting work was done in Becket, Lee, and Tyringham, ass., and Kent,Conn. This check un on the assembling cage catches resulted in the find-ing of a gipsy moth infestation at Tyringham, ::ass.Burlap bands, that were put on trees at and in proximity to infes-tations found during last year's scouting, were removed. A gipsy moth eggcluster was found beneath the burlap at Canaan, Conn., and two infestationsof one egg cluster each were found at Nev :arlboro, Mass. Closer inspec-tion of these areas around the assembling cages and where the burlap 7Tasremoved will be given during the Orosecution of the regular planned workfor this year, and all necessary clean-up work will be done at that time.Information from the New York Conservation Department indicated thatthe scouting work as planned along the New York-Nw England border was fin-ished in Columbia County, N. Y., and at the close of the month there were12 New York State scouting crews examining woodland areas in Dutchess Coun-ty, N. Y. This area constitutes the most rugged mountainous section thatremains to be covered in this county. It is encouraging to note that thetowns scouted to date by the New York State crews have been found uninfested,although in the past, gipsy moth colonies have been found iu coach of thesetowns, viz; Canaan, Austerlitz, Hillsdale, Corke, and Ancram, in ColumbiaCounty; Northeast, LaGrange, and Fishkill, in I uptchess County.

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-22 -The work on Long Island conducted ay the New York Conservation De-partmient is reported by that dcp.rtrI(nt as progressing satisfactorily. Noclean-up 'vork has as yut been attempted at the two colony sites in NassauCounty :eported during SentCmber, or at the two 'olony sites found in Nas-sau County during Octoser, due to the Pact that thfoliage has not droppedfrom the trees to any extent. There arc threc crews working in Oyster Bayand two in :[orta iHempstead, Nassau County, N. Y. Up to the present time,tneze crews have iscapcd interference by reason of the heavy fogs usuallypresent there at this ti:e of the year, h-nce very little interruption inthe scouting work was encountered.During October there was a slight increase in the number of shipmentsand quatities of materials coriprising theae shipments ofPered for inspeo-tion on account of the sipsy moth State quainntine in Tew Jersey. Therewere 156 lots certified for shipment during the -onth. No -ipsy moths werefound on those.On Long Island, the inspection work showed an increase during Octoberin the number of lots examined, but there was a slight decrease in the quan-tities of stock constituting thu shipments. There -ere 182 lots examinedand certified for shipment and thesc were found to be free from gipsy moths.The assembling cage work, which is supnlmental to the control anderadication *.ork, in that it determines to some extent the quality of pre-vious scouting work, the effectivenuss of spraying work, and the location ofpossible -ipsy moth infestations that may hav' been overlooked, is now corn-pleted and it is -ossible at this time to report that there ware 4,258 ,ipsymoth assembling cages, properly baitbd with an attraotant, distributed asfollows in Ihrev Enomd, Nec York, and :Tw Jersey: MASSACHUETS -1,258cages were placed in 7 towns-uS cags inside the barrier zone and 3CCcages east of the barrier zone. Eighty-six adult male gipsy moths werecaught at these cages in assachusetts towns as follows: 2 at T ecket, 6 atSandisfield, 4 at Tyringh-am, 3 at Lee, 1 at Monterey, 22 at New Earlboro,and 18 at Sheffield, a total of 56 adults inside t > barrier zone; 3 atBlandford, 2 at Chester, 20 at Ganvilb, and at 2olland, a total of 30adults east of the barrier zone. CaJYTlAi' -1,184 cages were placed in 36towns--777 ca'es inside the barrier :,ole -nd 407 eages east of the barrierzone. Forty-fivo adult male gipsy isothls were caunt at these ages as fol-lows: 3 at Canaan, 3 at Cornwall, 1 at Kent, 2 ,t Lit:hfield, And 27 atWarren, a total of 36 adults inside the ban u onu; 1 at airkhtamsted, 6 atHartland, and 2 at Tow hartford, a totil of 1 dts 0a t of thu barrierzone. VERKOiT' C20 cal;es were placed in %C to all of which were insidethe barrie a zone. There were no adult male /ipE oths caught at any OPthese assemling; caes. "EW MOSK -3C9 2;es urp put up in 12 towns allof which were inside the bar r 1 r one. At .i 1 adult male "as caught,and 1 adult male was trarped at horthaast. -Therc wereassemblin; ca!es pliced in 29 townships, but no :,diLt sle gipsy moths wreattracted.

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-23 -of the 4,258 assembling cages plated in the field this year, 44 percent were refilled with fresh attractunt material, thus prolonging theirperiod of effectiveness. In Massachusetts 490 were refilled, in New York195, in Connecticut 605, and in New Jersey 532.The western portions of the ijew York towns, bordering on and in theAdirondack Mountains in the barrier zone, where Federal crews have beenworking for the past few months, are heavily wooded and otherwise extremely difficult to scout. The mountain slopes in this region are rough, precip-itous, and in places actually inaccessible. ;any of the woodland areas areso large that it was necessary to take advantage of streams, old loggingroads, and trails to reach the most distant points. Topographical maps arevery helpful in laying out the work of the crews and in determining the lo-cation of the town lines.In the town of Ticonderoga, N. Y., where scouting aork was completedduring October, 1931, there is situated the largest single woodland blockto be scouted during the current fiscal year, and it is to some extent in-dicative of the topographic condition of this particular region. This wood-land blQck consists of approximately 22,100 acros, and extends for 7 milesalong the western boundary of the town, being 7 miles wide at its widestpoint. Located within the boundaries of this woodlan-i block are found 15lakes and 6 mountains. The highest of these mountains is Mt. Tread:.'ay,which has an altitude of 2,248 feet above sea level. The mountainous condition of this section has been contributory toan increase in the number of injuries occurring to ermloyees while in theperformance of official duties. Since July 1, 1931, when work was startedin this area, there were 26 personal injury cases reported, consisting chiefly of sprains, wrenched ligaments, bruises, and lacerations.With the advent of the deer hunting season in the Adirondac1sduringthe latter part of the month, another perplexity presents itself to the Ienengaged in woodland scouting work in this region. .e have been fortunatein the past in that no gipsy moth employee has been wounded by hunters whileperforming official duties. The mental hazard, however, still remains, andanother detriment to efficient scouting work is not removed until the hunt-ing season closes.As a result of a request from the Penfield Grange, of Crown point,N. Y. , a town in which gipsy moth work has been conducted duiring the past several weeks, three 1,000-foot mrotion1 picture reels were shown at thisplace on October 23 before a gathering of about 400 people. One reel showsthe life histories of the giosy moth a-0 the brow:n-tail moth and the damagethey cause; another illustrates the control aork in the barrier zone, withviews of scouting, creosoting egg clusters, a.d spraying, and it also hassome views of the various types of quarantine inspection work; the otherreel shows views of the parasite work, which is carried on by the Bureau of

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-24 -EntomoIogy. A brief instructive talk wv s -iven bl H. L. BArisdell, ofthis project, in conjun,4tiowith the eictures. in conversation 7iithsome of the audience, their remarks verc commendable in that the pictureswere informative and eductional to them. Due to the fact that some 7wercunable to be present at this meeting, the three reels were again snownthe same evening in Crown Point before anproximtely 30 morc pioplo.About thmiddle of October, depmnding on the *.wthor conditions,it is customary for several nurserymen in the quarantined area of Connecti-cut and Massachusetts to fill their storehouses with deciduous stock. Thispractice enables them to handle a greater volume of srring business in ashort period of time and also allows an earlier and later shipping seasondue to the fact that they can ship to Southern States for planting, eventhough the frost in the ground would not ordinarily permit digginin thesequarantined areas. After digging, the stock is inspected. It is then tiedinto bundles and transported from the growing fields to tie storehouse,where it is graded and otherwise prepared for storing in bins -y employeesof the nurseries. The bins are marked so that the various grades, sizes,and varieties of shrubs are easily distinguished. Y.hn the stock is con-signed to points outside: of the regulated area, it is certified by our in-spectors. This inspection of stored stock requires the services of extrainspectors, as the element of tiMle is of Crect value to the nurserymen inthe spring of the year.Although classified as Christmas greenery in tne inspection records,and even though the shipping comes just prior to the Christmas tree work,the spruce bough business is an industry in itself end should not be asso-ciated with the Christmas tree industry. The spruce bou;h inspecation workstarted Octooer 19 and reached its height thelatter pnert of the month. Itis confined chiefly to the spruce areas of western assachusetts and south-ern Vermont. Only boughs having good color are selected from trees alongthe edges and openings of spruce woodlots and pasture spruco. Long-handledpruning cutters from 12 to 20 feet in length are uced by the dealers for re-moving the spruce boughs from the trees, and in soxe cases short heavyknives similar to a machete are used. After the boughs, which Ore from 2to 4 feet in length, are cut from the tree brenchee, they are gathered andhauled to the nearest press which is used for balinpurposes. he gipsymoth inspector then examines each bough, after which the operators pressthe boughs into bales. These bales are about 2 feet thick, 2 feet wide,and 4 feet long, and weigh approximately 100 pounds. Tkh; bAles are piledin tiers, and when shipping begins they ae transported to the railroadshipping point and loaded into box cars. An average of 200 bales (10 tons)are usually loaded into each "ar. At this ti.e a certificate, based on theprevious inspection at the time of salin;, is issued covariag the shipment.The average baler will press itout ,&CQ pounds oC boughs (< bales) E;chday, and this ordinarily keere one inspector bu.oy while the press is inoperation. During October ap-roximtely C tos of boughs were insrpc ted.There were 23 baling presses in op"oetion at e bus points wthin tne

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-25 -quarantined area. About 95 ner cent of the boughs are shipped to NewYork City, the remainder being distributed mainlyy throughout Missouri,ichigan, and Ohio. The boughs are used chiefly as a covering in ceme-teries to beautify the lots during the winter season, and also to someextent for covering perennial and rose beds on private estates. Therewere 27 inspectors engaged in handling the necessary inspection work in-cident to tho bough shipments.Deciduous nursery stock is shipped ithout soil, but the rootsare packed in moist moss or other similar material. Evergreen trees, onthe other hand, are dug with a ball of earth surrounding the roots andthis is usually enclosed in burlap. These methods prevent the roots fromdrying out before planting and preserve there wile in transit. Becauseof dry weather, the soil is often so dry that it falls away from the roots,and consequently the movement of evergreen stock is restricted during thesedry periods.By the use of modern methods of moving nursery and evergreen stock,size and weight are not prohibitive, as has been evidenced by the movingof four large red cedar trees recently from 'orrington, Conn., to Yonkers,N. Y. These cedars averaged 25 feet in height, and the balls of earth,which preserve the roots, weighed in the vicinity-of 800 pounds on eachtree. Such large specimens are rather difficult to handle and care hasto be exercised to avoid breaking, which would spoil the symmetry of thetree. Nurserymen provide help on these occasions to aid in the turningand handlin. so that thorough inspection may be made.The ;'.;ashington Elm, under which the father of our country tookcommand of the Continental Army at Cambridge, Mass., on July 3, 1775,still lives. Although this famous tree no longer stands, a horticultur-ist grafted a branch of the dying elm, and this graft is now a beautifullarge tree, growing on the grounds of the Public Library, !ollesley, Mass.From this Wellesley elm, four scions were grafted. One was set out atthe Arnold Arboretum, Jamaica Plains, Mass., another at the PhillipsAndover Academy, Andover, Mass., and the other two at a nursery whoseproducts are shipped under quarantine regulations. Many desccndr i' eithe historic original 1'ashington Elm .,ere raised at this nursery and thesehave been examined and certified for shipment to various parts of theUnited States.

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UNVERSITY OF FLORIDA1 262 09245 0773 /


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