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News letter

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Title:
News letter
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United States -- Plant Quarantine and Control Administration
Place of Publication:
Washington, D.C.
Publisher:
Plant Quarantine and Control Administration
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Monthly
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English

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Plants -- Diseases and pests -- Control -- Periodicals -- United States ( lcsh )
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federal government publication ( marcgt )

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Began with: no.1 (Jan. 1931)
Dates or Sequential Designation:
Ceased with: no.18 (June 1932)
General Note:
"Not for publication".

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University of Florida
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This item is a work of the U.S. federal government and not subject to copyright pursuant to 17 U.S.C. §105.
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030428070 ( ALEPH )
785786312 ( OCLC )
2012229621 ( LCCN )

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L i3RAkY

N WS L ETT R iATE PLANT OA


PLANT QUARANTINE AND CONTROL ADMINISTRATION

UNITED STATES DEPARTIEIT OF AGRICULTURE





Number 11 (NOT FOR PUBLICATION) November 1, 1931.





ADMINISTRATIVE


A public hearing to consider the advisability of extending the quarantine on account of the Japanese beetle to the States of Ohio and South Carolina was held October 8, before the Plant Quarantine and Control Administration, in the auditorium of the U:ited States National Museum, Washington, D. C. The hearing was presided over by Mr. Lee A. Strong, and approximately 80 persons were in atte-dance.

In inspections last surmnner four Japanese beetles were found in Charleston, S. C., and five in Columbus and one in Cleveland, Ohio. The Administration now believes that, for the -resent at least, the situation can be handled by these States without the aid of a Federal querantine. It is exPected that Ohio and South Carolina will undertake control measures and this Adlninistration will cooperate. Accordingly, on October 10, the Secretary of Ariculture announced that the Japanese beetle quarantine would not be extended at this time to the States of Ohio and South Carolina.

This decision is in line with the policy which has been followed in similar cases in the past, and is in full accord with the desire of the Department to place restrictions only where they are absolutely necessary to prevent the spread of a dangerous pest.










ECNOLC()"TCAL


D. R?. Tackle, Senior Entomologist of the California Department of Agriculture, who is collaborating with this Administration on various phases of some pest control problems, contributed the following brief discussion of h)at treatments of fruits and vegetables to destroy certain pests.

A collaborative project between the Technological Division of the
Plant Quari'ntino and Control Adiministration and the California Department of Agriculture is seeking to dsvlop information on the compatibility of California fruits to thermal treatmcats that will prove 100 per cent lethal to fruit-inhabiting insects. The oroj.ct differs from most other projects in that it is in the nature of 4 areparedness program, whereas most Qf such projects are of a remedial nature.

It was initiated with the idca in view that the solutionsof too many of our problems are forced to wait until the day of reckoning is at hand, a practice inherently conducive to much confusion and loss. The project does not seek to develop specific formulae but rather to develop general information on the compatibility of fruits and to determine the thermi. death point of such insects as may inhabit them.

The work was started in 1930 to continue the study of the so-called Florida process of exposing fruit at 1100 F. for 8 hours, a schedule known to be lethal to MTedfly. It is hoped that data will be developed that will enable compatibility curves in relation to temperature to be constructed which will furnish an index as to the range of availability of such treatments in special regulatory entomology wherein 100 per cent kill is sought. The problem presents many aspects, as its availability depends upon whether or not it is capable of industrial application. Hence, all work has to be carried on upon an industrial scale. In this case the commercial lug box is being used as a unit. Only commercial grades of fruit are used. With each lot that is treated, a similar lot is carried as a check. Both are placed in cold storage and subjected to daily observation, the check being used as a basis of comparison. in order that the individual, i. e., the human element, may be reduced to a minimum, two men check on the fruit daily, the results being their joint opinion on such points in which they are in agreement.

The seasonal work in deciduous fruit and summer citrus is being
brought to a conclusion. It involves about 90 commercial lots representing about 45 varieties. It is expected that by continued observation over a number of seasons a more comprehensive understanding of the reactions that take place in different fruits will supply information on methods not only as to schedules of treatment which various fruits will stand, but the time they best lend themselves to treatment and also the practices to be avoided.










That great interest attaches to this work is evidenced by requests Aot only for further information but on all details as to where equipment can be purchased, its costs, capacity, etc.




FOREIGN PLANT QUALITIES

REC T ENTOMOLOGICAL INTERCEPTIONS OF INTEREST

Living larva of Mediterranean fruit fly found.--A living larva of the Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata) was intercepted at Philadelphia on a grape leaf among grapes in stores from Spain. (See also News Letter No. 1, January, 1931; No. 2, February, 1931; No. 3, March, 1931; No. 4, April, 1931; No. 6, June, 1931; No. 7, July, 1931; No. 10, October, 1931.)

Mediterranean fruit fly in sweet orange..--The Mediterranean fruit fly was intercepted at New York in sweet orange in stores from Spain. This fruit fly has also been intercepted by inspectors of the Plant Quarantine and Control Administration in oranges from Algeria, Azores, Brazil, Hawaii, and Italy.

Fruit fly in cherries.--One larva, 3-.prepupae, and 35 pupae of the trypetid Rhagoletis cerasi L. were intercepted at New York in 200 cherries in baggage from France. This fruit fly, which is not known to occur outside of Europe, was intercepted previously in dry sour cherries in cargo from Yugoslavia in 1930.

Fruit fly in Haden mango.--Anastrepha sp. (near fraterculus) was
intercepted at New York in the Haden variety of mango in baggage from Cuba. (See also News Letter No. 9, September, 1931.)

Mangoes heavily infested.--Five hundred and forty larvae of the
fruit fly Anastrepha sp. (near fraterculus) were found at New York in 80 mangoes in stores from Cuba.

A lentil weevil from Italy.--Bruchus ervi Froh. (Byu~hidae) was intercepted at Philadelphia in dry Lima beans and peas in the mail from Italy. This bruchid was intercepted in lentil (Lens esculenta) seed frman
Palestine in 192G.

Coccid on cactus.--Protortonia cacti (Linn.) (Coccidae) was intercepted at San Diego, Calif., on cactus in cargo from Porto Rico. This represents the first interception record of this coecid in our files.

Pink bollworm in okra pod.--A larva of the pink bollworm (Pectinophora gossypiella) was found by Max Kisliuk, Jr., and C. E. Cooley in an







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okra pod at Adrian, St. John, American Virgin Islands, August 4, 1931. The pink bollworm was reported to be very destructive to both cotton lint and to cottonseed in St. Croix, American Virgin Islands, by Charles E. Wilson in 1923. (See also News Letter No. 1, January, 1931; No. 3, March, 1931; No. 6, June, 1i31; No. 8, August, 1931; No. 9, September, 1931.)

Pink bollworm in St. Kitts.--Larvae of the pink bollworm were found in Sea Island cotton four miles east of Basseterre, St. Kitts, British West Indies, by Max Kisliuk, Jr., and C. E. Cooley, August 9, 1931.

Weevil on bananas in cargo.--Metamasius sericeus var. carbonarius (Curculionidae) was intercepted at Mobile, Ala., on bananas in cargo from Guatemala and Iexico. This weevil has also arrived with bananas from Honduras.

Scale insect from Japan.--The coccid Coccus pseudomagnoliarum (Kuwana) was intercepted at San Francisco on an ornamental plant in ship's quarters from Japan. This scale insect has also been intercepted on Aralia sp., Citrus sp., Daphne sp., and orange from Japan.

Chrysomelid on banana.--Myochrous tibialis Jacoby (Chrysomelidae) was intercepted at .obile, Ala., on banana in cargo from Hivaragua and at New Orleans on banana leaf in cargo from Mexico. This beetle was intercepted with banana debris from Nicaragua in 1930c.

Scale insect from the Azores.--The cnccid Targionia bromeliae was intercepted at Providence, R. I., on a pineapple leaf in baggage from the Azores. This scale insect has also been taken on pineapple from the Canary Islands, Cuba, Federated alay States, Haiti, Hawaii, Jamaica, Porto Rico, and the Straits Settlements, on Ananas sp. from India, and on Neoglaziovia
variegata from Brazil.

Whitefly on guava.--Cardin's whitefly (Aleurodicus cardini) was intercepted at Jacksonville, Fla., on guava leaf in parcel post from Cuba. This aleyrodid was described in 1912 by E. A. Back from material collected
by Dr. Back at Havana and Santiago de las Vegas, Cuba, in November, 1910. This whitefly has been recorded as occurring in Florida.

PRECNT PATHOLOGICAL INTERCEPTIONS OF INTEREST

Diseased apples from Australia (in Tasmania wrappers) were intercepted at Seattle and submitted to experts in the Bureau of Plant Industry. The spotting proved to be one with which they were not familiar. No organism was found associated with the disease.

0ospora citri-aurantii (sou* rot) was intercepted at Bellingham on an orange from Australia. This disease occurs on lemons in California and has been reported on oranges in Southern Europe but it is not listed by Stevenson or by Fawcett & Lee as occurring in Australia.




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Tylenchus dipsaci was intercepted in Sternbergia (Amaryllis) lutea bulbs from Istanbul, Turkey, at the Washington Inspection House. These bulbs are said to have been collected in the wild, and this finding is the first record for this host.

Parasitic nematodes were intercepted at Detroit in several lots of
hyacinth bulbs from Holland within a few days, the parasites being Aphelenchus parietinus (3 lots), A. sp., Paraphelenchus sp. (?) and Tylenchus dipsaci (3 lots). *

Tylenchus dipsaci (the bulb nematode) has been intercepted in six shipments of bulbous Iris recently at the Inspection House, Washington, D. C. The infestations are apparently heavier in the individual bulbs, often causing complete decay, particularly in the English Iris. Infestations have been found in bulbs of English, Dutch, and French origin.

The nematodes Aphelenchus avenae, A. parietinus, and A. subtenuis were also intercepted in shipments of bulbous Iris--the first two snecius from Holland, and the last in a shipment from London, England.

Coniothyrium hellebori was determined as the cause of a leaf spot of Helleborus niger collected at the Tashington Inspection House on a shipment from Holland. The disease had been collected previously, once in New York, once in Oregon, and once in Europe, according to the Bureau of Plant Industry records.

A leaf spot of oleander apparently caused by Sectoria oleandrina
was intercepted at New York in oleanders in baggage from B ormuda. S. oleandrina is reported from France and Italy as well as from Bermuda, according to Stevenson's Manual, and is listed in U. S. D. A. Bul. 1366 as having been found in Florida and Louisiana.

LIMA BEAN SCAB SURVEY

Lima bean scab (Elsinoe canavaliae) is not yet present in the continental United States, so far as could be determined by surveys made this season in the eastern seaboard States and in California.

Eight of the eastern seaboard States (Florida, Georgia, South Carolina, North Carolina, Virginia, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, and New York) were included in a survey made by the Office of My!cology and Plant Disease Survey in cooperation with this Administration. In this survey, conducted in July and August, over 100 examinations of Lima beans were made in the States mentioned, either of field beans or those in markets and packing houses. No scab was found in any case.

A survey in California was considered desirable in view of the presence of the disease in the Sinaloa region of ocxico, as shown by several interceptions of diseased beans coming from that area at the port of Nogales,





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Ariz., last January. A limited survey was therefore made of the Lima bean areas of California, August 10-15, by 71. A. McCubbin, ir. cooperation with the California Department of Agriculture. In this survey 58 lots of beans amounting to 173.5 bushels in 53 produce and grocery stores in eight cities and towns were examined. No trace of the scab disease was present. Examination ras also made on 40 farms in five counties south of San Francisco. In the 50 fields examined on these farms, amounting to 796 acres of Lia beans, the disease was not found.

SHIP 'S CAPTAIN IGNORES QUAAATTINE SAFEGUARD

A report by 7. W. Chapman, of the port of Philadelphia, on October 8, tells of the finding of a 30-pound lot of turnips in stores on the French SS 1erope heavily infested with a weevil, Ceutorhynchus sp. The inspector sealed the lot as a proper safeguard, whereupon the captain became indignant and broke the seal. 1,ith the cooperation of the customs officials a detainer was put on the clearance of the ship until th3 matter could be adjusted. However, when the ship was later boarded with an order for destruction of the infested rcterial, the captain made no further objection and even apologized for his action. It is fwu'ther noted that the local agents for this steamship line were nuch disturbed over the attitude of the captain and were ready and willin: to have the offending turnips disposed of as we might require,

This is said to be the first tirle that any ship's officer has ignored the seal of the Plant Quarantine and Control Administration, and it is safe to say that it is not likely to happen vry often in the future.

PION1 PLANE INECTED

On September 1, IT. V:. Hecker inspected on arrival at Chicago the German seaplane Greenland Tal, traveling ov.r the Arctic regions in an attempt to determine the feasibility of this northern route between Europe and America. The plane arrived via Hudson's Bay and Long Lake, Canada. No prohibited plant material was found aboard.

FRENCH CRUISERS ATTENDING YORIWOJN CELEBRATION INSPECTED

Special arrangements for interpreters and a certain amount of foresight enabled M. C. Rich, of tho Norfolk, Va., -ort, to make an inspection of the French cruisers Duquesne and Suffern which arrived in the Chesapeake Bay October 15, carrying a delegation of French notables to the Yorktown celebration. As no customs inspection was made in these vessels, our inspector made arrangements to board through the Commandant of the naval base at Norfolk, and through the Virginia Pilots' Association, the naval base having undertaken to notify both visitors by radio of his coming. The inspection was made as planned and instructions were issued to retain all vegetables on board while in territorial waters, to destroy all vegetable










refuse in the ships' incinerators, and to have the small amount of fruit present consumed as soon as possible. The inspection was carried out in good faith on our part and was accepted in the same spirit by the French officials.

OFFICIAL VISITS

Richard Faxon, in charge of Federal plant quarantine inspection in Porto Rico, visited Washington on October 20, to report on the plant quarantine situation in the island and discuss with Mr. Sasscer plans for future activities

E. R, Sasscer left ,V!ashinaton on October 4, for a two-weeks' visit with the Seattle District inspectors.

G. G. Becker retu rned on September 28 from District No. 1 on the
Mexican border, where he took up the personnel situation brought about by the partial or complete closing of several of the bridge ports as an economy measure.

INSPECTORS TRANSF=RED

Because of a shortening of the hours during which the bridges between this country and Mexico are open, it has been necessary to make certain adjustments in our Mexican border personnel during the past month. The appointrnenteof R. R. Roberts, E. L. Friday, and R. T. Kyzar were terminated, without prejudice; J. D. Smith has been temporarily detailed from Brownsville to Nogales; J. A. Stanton has been transferred from Brownsville to Seattle; E. L. Tolbert has been transferred from Del Rio to Laredo; H. G. Frane has been transferred from Hidalgo to Nogales, replacing R. A. Rodgers, who has been retired; G. A. Pfaffman has been transferred from Laredo to Zapata, where he will be acting in charge, arid E. W. Ingle has been temporarily detailed from Brownsville to furnish relief at a number of stations in District No. 1.

REDUCT1017 IN AUTO EQUIP121T

In line with the present economy program, a careful study has been made of the need for government owned automobiles at the various ports of this Division. As a result, arrangements have been made to dispense with the automobiles at Mercedes, Ysleta, and Del Rio, Tex., and to dispense with one of the two automobiles at Nogales, Ariz. It is believed that it will be found possible to dispense with one or two additional automobiles in the near future.

ROBERT A. RODGERS RETIRES

In retiring from the service at the age of 66 years on September 30, 1931, Robert A. Rodgers earns the distinction of being the first employee










of the Administration to be retired on account of age. At his own request 3&. liodgers was granted the privilege of retiring at the age of 62 because of his-work with poisonous gas. When the time for his retirement arrived, however, he requested an extension of time, which was granted, and at the end of this extension a second one was requested and granted. The second extension expired on September 30.

Mr. R~odgers had served in the Department of Agriculture for almost 26 years. He was employed in the Forest Service from January 24, 1906, until Januar'y 16, 1922, when he was transferred to the Federal Horticultural Board to serve as an inspector at Nogales, Ariz. He served continuously at that port from the date of his transfer.

In the last month o-f his employment, Mr. R~odgers was credited with saving the life of a coworker. On September 10, while working at an incinerator with R~. C. Watson, the clothing of the latter took fire and it was only the prompt action of Mlr. Rodgers in tearing off the burning shirt and rushing his companion to the hospital that averted consequences which might have proved fatal.

During his nine years of conscientious service 11r. Rodgers has always shown to the public and to his fellows an agreeablos and friendly personality, and he carries with him in his retirement the entire good will of both the Department and his coworkers.

BURNED INSPECTORS T~I =5 I NS TO DTJrY

R~. C. Watson, inspector at Nogales, referred to in the above note, has returned to duty, the burns received in his accident having proved not to be of a permanently serious nature.

COME~TTM 0O7 FORMS~

In order to provide in prompt and orderly manner for revision of the
numerous forms employed in the work of the Division, 1.r. Sasscer has appointed a committee to study these forms and present recomendations for any needed change, simplification, or merging that may be desirable. The committee, composed of W4i A. McCubbin, G-. G* Becker (or C. A. Locke), and N. R&~ Hunt, will at the outset give particular attention to forms which are in immediate need of revision. One of the problems nowv being attacked is uniformity in the use of rubber stamps, as a basis for which request has been made for facsimiles of all stamps used in the various ports with a note as to their function. The committee will also attempt to gather material for the compilation of a "Manual for Port Inspectors." This is a task of some magnitude and will require much reference to the experience of port inspectors before it can be completed.







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WO1N SuLJOGLES IRIS

A woman traveler coming from Canada through Rouse's Point, N.Y.,
recently, was observed by the eagle eye of a customs inspector to be somewhat more corpulent than was consistent with an otherwise slender figure. When searched by the woman inspector of the port, it was discovered that the traveler had a quantity of valuable iris roots wrapped in a towel and wound around her waist under her outer clothing. After being subjected to the humiliation of search and seizure, the smuggler suffered final complete mortification when she learned that she could have brought her personally conducted cargo into the country openly and freely under a permit.

PL *Y OF FRUIT FLY

W. H. Freeman calls attention to the interception in New York on August 8, of 67 living larvae of the tIlediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata) taken from 14 pears in the stores of the S.S. Triolus. The pears apparently originated in Algeria. This is one of those cases that throw a convincing flash of revealing light on the pest dangers to which we are constantly exposed and which only occasionally are made evident with such startling clearnessa

PROTECTION TO OTHER COUNTRIES

Two cases have recently come to hand in which our inspection serves to protect the interests of neighboring countrieS. A shipment of 20 mango plants from Calcut'ai India, destined to Sinaloa; Mexico, was entered at San Francisco Scntcmber 14, 193$l, and found on examination to be infested with eggs, larvae, and adults of the citrus blackfly (Aleurocanthus woglumi). The plants were also rooted in unsterilized soi14 The material was refused entry and was ordered to be either returned or destroyed.

The second case involved a shipment of 15 raspberry plants which
were examined at the port of New York for certification and export to Brazil. Four of the plants were found infested .wvith the raspberry root borer (Bembecia mnrginata). All infested plants were located and destroyed before a Te;ificate was issued. It is of interest to add that a State nursery inspection tag aceompanied this shipment.

The Department makes no claim to purely altruistic motives in such cases. In the first-mentioned instance it is clearly to our advantage to have our neighbor to the south kcept free from pests which might later on invade our own borders; and in the second we are only trying honestly to make our certificate mean what it says. Yet in both cases the countries in question have been undoubtedly benefited by oar activities.

FOREIGN PLANT QUARANTIlE SUMIVIARIES

MEXICO.--On account of the apparent extermination of the Mediterranean






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fruit fly in Florida and the consequent lifting of Quarantine No. 68, the Mexican Resolution of June 22, 1931, amends Exterior Quarantine No# 5 by excluding the State of Florida from the places affected by that quarantine. The text of Article 1 of this Resolution has been published as Supplement No. 4 to Circular PQCA-284.

The M1exican Decree of July 23, 1931, revokes that of March 4, 1931, which imposed an absolute Exterior Quarantine (No, 8) against wheat on account of the flag-smut and take-all diseases, and provides for the entry of wheat under permit, besides listing the countries in which the two diseases are known to occur. The text of this Decree has been published as Supplement No. 5 to Circular PQCA-284.

COLO MBIA.--Colombian Decree No. 1128, of July 1, 1931, prescribes that every shipment of trees, fruits, plants, bulbs, seeds, banana slips, unmanufactured plant products, or any part thereof, offered for entry into Colombia shall be accompanied by a certificate issued by competent authority of the country of origin and visaed by the Colombian consul or that of a friendly nation. It prescribes also that an import permit shall be obtained in advance by the importer. A summary of this Decree was transmitted in a memorandum to chief inspectors and collaborators under date of September 1, 1931.

CANADA.--The text of Canadian Regulation No. 10 (Foreign) 6th Revision, has been received and transmitted to chief inspectors and collaborators. This revision excludes Vermont from the list of States quarantined against the importation into Canada of certain cut flowers, straw, and vegetabLes.

The text of the first revision of Canadian Regulation No. 6 (Foreign) also has been received. In addition to prohibiting the importation into Canada of five-leafed pines from all foreign countries, the revision prohibits also the importation of the Austrian pine (Pinus nigra), Swiss mountain pine (P. mugho), and Scotch pine (P. silvestris) from Europe.

Copies of the Canadian regulations may be obtained from the Destructive Insect and Pest Act Advisory Board, Ottawa, Canada.

MANGO IX FROZEN PACK NOT ADLaTTED FROM REGIONS INFESTED WITH AEGO EVILS

Pending the .,ompletion of experiments in Hawaii to determine whether the frozen pack method described in Circular PQCA-311 will effect the destruction of mango weevils in mangoes, it has been decided to permit the importation of that fruit in the frozen pack condition only from countries of North and South America and the West Indies. This does not apply to mango pulp in the frozen pack condition, but only to the whole fruits.










DOMSTIC PLANT WARANTINES

TRANSIT INSPECT I011

The States of !iissouri, Minnesota, and Iowa have assigned State inspectors to work with Federal transit inspectors during the rush nursery stock shipping season this fall. Two Missouri inspectors are being assigned to Kansas City and St4 Louis, respectively, one Iowa inspector to Council Bluffs, and one Mlinnesota inspector to St. Paul. This additional help makes it possible to cover freight and express more ccmpletely at the points named and relieve the transit inspectors, at least partially, of a certain amount of overtime, which has heretofore been necessary.

With the removal of restrictions on farm products from the areas generally infested with the 5apanese beetle, which became effective on September 28, there has been a noticeable decrease in the number of violations of this quarantine. Narcissus bulb shipments are beginning to come through in considerable number however, and several violations of this quarantine have been reported, as well as some infringements of the white-pine blister-rust quarantine.

Specimens of the European corn borer (PTausta nubilalis Hubn.)
were discovered by the transit inspectors at New York in a recent shipment of corn moving from the two-generation regulated area.

BLACK STMA RUST

Permits to ship Barberry and Mahonia plants that are resistant to the black stem rust have recently been issued to 17 nurserymen who are growers of these plants. The black stem rust quarantine, as recently revised, requires a permit for shipping these plants to or among the 13 "protected States" which are eradicating the susceptible species. Before growers' permits are issued, inspection is made by the Barberry Eradication Office of the Bureau of Plant Industry, to determine that only inmune species are present on the premises of the applicant. The Bureau then makes a recommendation to the Administration as to whether a permit should be issued to the nurseryman. The applicant must also agree that shipping certificates will not be used in conn-ection with plants not grown in his nursery, and that he will not handle any species or variety of Barberis or Mahonia not listed in his application, unless written authorization to do so is received from the Administration. Of the 17 growers to whom permits have been issued, 8 are located in Ohio, and 3 are within other protected States. The other 6 are located outside the barberry-eradication area.

WHITE-PINE BLISTER RUST

The Administration has tentatively approved an application by the Federal Forest Service for a permit to grow five-leafed pines in the Wind







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River Nursery at Carson, 7ash., for interstate movement under the conditions specified in the white-pine blister-rust quarantine regulations, as to nurseries located in generally infected States. The Wind Rivar Nursery comprises a part of the Forest Service Experiment Station in the Columbia National Forest, and, according to the Forest Service, distributes annually about a million young trees to various points in the Northwest for planting on denuded areas. Experience and investigation indicate that blister-rustfree white pine can be p-oduced in infected areas such as the State of Washington by carrying out the Ribes-eradication measures outlined below. The tentative approval of the application was based on a report by the Bureau of Plant Industry showing thore arc no European black currant plants within a mile of the nursery, and that all other currant and gooseberry plants have
been destroyed within a radius of over 1,500 feet of the pines. The premises are also checked annually by inspectors of the Administration. The authority for interstate shipment relates to pines grown from seed which will be planted this fall and next spring, authorization for shipping being deferred until after reiirspection of the promises and environs prior to shipment. Tribes eradication is being carried out around three other Federal and State-owned nu-'series in the Pacific 1o40thwest, but has not yet advanced far enough to justify the distribution of five-leafed pines from such of these points as occur in generally infected areas.

PHOKY PEACH DISEASE

The inspection of the oremiscs and environs of peach-growing nurseries in Texas was resumed and extended in September and October by InspectorsDopson and Connolly. Several of the nurseries reported as handling peach trees for intrastate movement were, in fact, growing them for other nurseries which make interstate shipments. The number of nurseries it was necessary to inspect 7ms, therefore, greater than the first report showed.

NARCISSUS BULB S

On a recent trip to the Pacific Coast, Dr. S. B. Fracker consulted. with the plant quarantine officials of California, Oregon, and Washington concerning narcissus certification rieasures. He also attended informal conferences of bulb growers at Portland, Oreg., and Sumner, 7;ash.

A 'ecent outbreak of the bulb eelworm (Tylenchus dipsaci Kuehn) in onions at Canastota, N. Y., is of interest to narcissus producers. only two small areas of a few square yards each in one onion field are involved, but these are i',ported to have been a total loss in 1930. The infected onions were destroyed as rapidly as found in 1931, and lettuce and broccoli planted in their place. As an eradication measure, the soil was sterilized by steam under 80 pounds pressure. It is not as yet movn whether the eelworms involved in this outbreak belonged to one of the narcissus-attacking strains of T. disaci or not, nor how the pest reached the locality. According to the Bureau of Plant Industry, this is the first instance in which
this species of eelvworm has been found attacking onions, under natural conditions, in the United States.





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DATE SCALE
'he hope of success in the Date Scale Eradication Project is based on the assumption that an infested date palm can be found by inspection and the scale eliminated before the infestation reaches the point where it
will spread to near-by palms.

It is essential, therefore, that all the date palms and other hosts of the Parlatoria scale in the date-growing areas be located. The first operation when the project was reorganized in 1928 was a survey to locate palms. Reports were made by the inspectors giving, among other items, the location of the planting and number and age of the palms, and stating whether ornamental, commercial, or abandoned.

From these reports the plantings were located on maps, the Coachella Valley and Imperial Valley in California and the Salt River Valley and Yuma Valley in Arizona being taken as units. Next the maps were divided into districts, probability of infestation and convenience in inspection being the criteria. The reports were filed by districts and lists were made of the properties, giving the owners' names, size of planting, and location. The places requiring less than 5 one-man days were listed for "scouting inspection," and those requiring more than 5 days, for "routine inspection." The routine inspection was done by crews of four or more men working under squad leaders, and the scouting inspection by inspectors working in pairs.

When the inspection work is laid out for the month, the squad leaders and scout inspectors are given lists of the properties to be inspected. They are supposed to be on the alert for plantings in the district not listed. This, of course, affects the scout inspectors more than the routine crews.

When the inspectors come in at the close of the day's inspection, the reports submitted are checked with the lists. The changes in number of palms, etc., are made and new places added. 1ihen inspection of a district is completed, the lists are typed with corrections for the next inspection.

Following the first survey, many new places were added--all small,
abandoned, or ornamental plantings overlooked previously, or new plantings. When the scout inspectors became familiar with the districts, they naturally fell into beaten paths and were not as liable to locate new plantings as when unfamiliar with the territory. New -en, therefore, were put on scouting work from time to time.

Last year it seemed evident that practically all palms were listed in the date-growing areas which could be located in this manner, and a section-by-section survey connenced. A large map of the Coachella Valley was obtained, giving the sections and property ovmers as nearly up to date as possible. Two inspectors worked together and were given three or four










sections cut from the map with instructions to scout them thoroughly, walk.; ing over the entire area to be sure there were no palms growing in windbreaks and mesquite jungles overlooked. The listed palms were not to be inspected, but any unlisted palms were to be inspected and all located on the maps.

A considerable part of the Coachella Valley has been covered in this manner, and a few small unlisted palms--none of them infested--have been found to date. This type of survey was also started in the Imperial Valley and a number of unlisted palms found--one of them infested. The survey bhas not yet been commenced in Arizona.

Early in the summer this work was discontinued because of the hot
weather and because of the difficulty in locating small palms in the dense growths along the ditch banks in the Imperial Valley and mesquite thickets in the Coachella Valley. It will be resumed when the weather is cooler and the sunier growth dies downm. The survey is the final operation in the location of palms in the date-growing areas,

Another phase of this operation is the location of date palms outside the date-growing areas. This will not be so difficult, as we are interested only in offshoots taken from the infested areas. This movement has been very limited because of the State a *nd Federal quarantines, and also because of the demand for offshoots f6r planting within the infested areas. Some work has been done along this line but most of it will be postponed until reduction in the eradication areas can be safely made.




EUROPEANI CORN BOE AND ZJAPANESE BEETLE

General Project News

Exhibits of an educational character at largely attended fairs were a prominent factor in the work of the project for S3eptember. During the Eastern States Exposition, in Springfield, Mass., open from the 20th to the 26th, both European corn borer and Japanese beetle displays were shown. On several days this exhibit apparently attracted more attention than any other within the grounds. Many inquiries were made as to the habits of the pests, the products which they attack, and the best means of control. Special interest was generally manifested in the miniature stubble field, stressing the comparative scarcity of borers resulting from low cutting of corn and illustrating the increase in infestation proportionate to the height of the stalk left in thle field. Machinery and equipment for borer control were the main features of the exhibit at the Ohio State Fair, held in Columbus, from August 30 to September 5. Life history and seasonal habits were featured in display for the Kentucky State Fair, at Louisville, September 14 to 19, inclusive. here the comparison in yields as between infested and uninfested






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fields was displayed, and a corn borer question box, originally designed by the western section offices for the International Live Stock Exposition, was the center of attraction for many of those in attendance.

The first official announcement concerning spread of the Japanese beetle, as developed in the current season's scouting and trapping, was contained in the call issued by the Acting Secretary of Agriculture on September 17 for a hearing on proposed extensions of the quarantine, to be held in Washington October 8. Ohio and South Carolina are the two States specially to be dealt with, infestations of the beetle having been found this year for the first time at Cleveland and Columbus, in the former, and at Charleston, in the latter. Findings of the beetle in States already affected by the quarantine, of which there have been several in territory outside the.present regulated areas, were not mentioned in the call for the hearing, but some of them were named in an accompanying Department press release. Specific reference was made in the news story to new infestations in Somerset and Worcester Counties, Md., Altoona and Erie, Pa., and Albany, Ft. Edward, Little Falls, and Watkins Glen, N. Y. As some scouting for the corn borer was still under way at the end of September, the Department has not given out lists of the places where this pest has been discovered for the first time during the season.

Project activities of a sooul c V :.cV:' : ere ',reatly reduced -in volume by the end of the month, as regards both European corn borer and Japanese beetle field inspection and quarantine enforcement. In the eastern section of borer control work, the last scouting was done in the concluding days of September, road patrols previously having been discontinued. Central section special scout crews still were covering portions of Connecticut, Delaware, and New Jersey, on the 30th, and a few highway stations for vehicle inspection also were in operation, most of the latter, however, munder orders to cease on October 3. Western section scouts all had been withdrawn on the 5th, except three twovrAn crews in Wiconsin. Highway stations in the west mostly were abandoned on September 6, those in Indiana having been kept on, however, until the 20th. Japanese beetle scouting was entirely finished during the month, and further lessening of the road inspection forces took place.

Specialized Corn Borer Activities

The annual field day and corn borer conference held on September 17, at the Berkley farm of the Department, located near Taunton, Mass., was attended by more than 60 plant pest control officials, who manifested keen interest in the reports presented by the three bureaus cooperating in the maintenance of the property for experimental and demonstration purposes. In the list of speakers for the occasion, the Plant Cuarantine and Control Administration was represented by ir. Strong, Chiief; Mr. Hoyt, Assistant Chief; Mr. Worthley, in charge of Eurocoan con borer and Jaoanese beetle work, and by Prof. C. 0. Reed, of Ohio State University, Collaborator. For the Bureau of Entomology, talks were made by Mr. Rohwer, Assistant Chief;







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Dr. Larrimer, in charge Division of Cereal and Forage Insects; Mr. Caf'frey, i~n charge European corn borer research; Mr. Jones, in charge of the Arlington field laboratory, and Dr. Batchelder, in charge Experiments at Berkley
Farm. Bureau of Agricultural Engineering representatives who spoke included Mr. Gray, Chief of Division of Mechanical Equipment, and Mr. Merrill and Mr. Irons, of the Corn Borer Control eastern unit. Field demonstrations of control machinery made during the day, under the direction of Dr. Batchelder, M~r. Merrill and Mr. Irons, were devoted to corn binder attachments and hand hoes, for low cutting, sled-type stalk shavers, attachments to plows for cc::-pletro coverage of crop renants and debris, and spraying equipment. High lights of the discussions were the encouraging results of the year's experiments on spray materials and moth baits and the success attained in adapting mechanical devices for control to New England conditions. At the conclusion of the formal exercises, many of those present inspected heavily infested fields in the vicinity, where severe commercial damage was noted. Berkley farm was acquired by the Department late in, 1929, and since has been operated by the three burtoaus joining in corn borer control activities as a means of concentrating, at one point on the Atlantic seaboard, work such as it was felt could be more efficiently prosecuted if combined in this manner. Soil and terrain conditions on the farm are fairly typical of those generally found in New Englaznd, and the ravages of the corn borer have been particularly injurious in the neighborhood of the property. Corn was grown in this section by the Indians before the settlement therein of the English early in the seventeenth century, and the crop continued to be a major one until after the advent of the borer.

The survey of commercial damage to crops from the T~uropean corn borer in sections of western New York, conducted for the Administration during the second week in September by M1r. Crossman and LMr. Stockbridge, of the South Norwalk offices, developed information in large measure confirming other reports indicating substantial losses to farmers, especially on sweet corn. In several of the counties visited, evidence was available showing serious damage, and it was clearly apparent that the growers of field corn for seed, and for grain and ensilage had suffered materially, even if not to as great an extent as the producers of sweet corn. Typical instances of losses incurred from infestations of the borer were as follows: Tefferson County-numerous complaints of damage made to county agent; crop from one 60-acre plot of sweet corn all put in silo or plowed under--none picked for canning; field of grain corn expected to yield 600 bushels will turn off 20(' bushels or less; Livingston County--loss of ears in 200 acres of sweet corn will run 20 per cent or more; Monroe County--farmers lost 50 to 60 per cent of the ears on sweet corn, planted for supply of stores and roadside stands; in some cases damage so great crop was plowed under without attempt to harvest; Ontario County--in two communities, groups of farmers who planted 75 and 60 acres of sweet corn, respectively, have had a 40 per cent loss of ears; a leading canning concern is writing the sweet corn growers urging practice of control measures to prevent heavier infestations next season; Orleans County-one grower offered privilege of picking sweet corn at 10 cents a dozen, but persons who tried it gave this up as a bad job; another was able to harvest







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less than half of the anticipated crot, leaving the rest for hog feed; Wayne County--one grower lost 15 per cent or a 40-acre sweet corn crop; another farmer, who raises corn for seed, esti.Rates his daage at 90 per cent. Newspaper clippings and other advices also confirm reports of severe damage in Cattaraugus County, which tMr. Cr'ssman and ML,. Stockbridge were unable to visit on account of limited time.

The report of the Toint Committee on the '-"uropean corn borer, formul.ated at the annual meeting in Toledo, Ohio, September 30, stressed the spread and increase of the pest in 1931 as indicating danger from it in1932 corresponding to the greater intensity of inf~lstation--estimated as two and a half times as much as last year and more than twice that of the year before. Increase in borer population w~as reported as having been particularly heavy this year in northwestern Ohio, south of the former center of infestation along Lake Erie, and in the important sweet corn area of New York, along the southern and eastern shores of Lake Ontario. Continued cooperation of farmers, scientists, educators and State and Federal administrative officials was declared to be justified by the fact that the borer potentially is one of the most destructive crop pests ever introduced into America. Practice of control measures by farmers was commended and endorsement given to the research, regulatory, and educational activities of public agencies. Appropriations by State and Federal governments of funds needed to maintain and, if necessary, to expand the researeh, educational, and quarantine programs, were earnestly recommended. Support from all agencies and individuals interested in the welfare of An-eriean agriculture was urged for thorough scouting, careful clean-up of isolated infested areas, and maintenance of quarantines. Extension workers wore asked to strengthen, expand, and coordinate their educational progi'ars pertaiining to the borer. Investigations should be continued, it was recited, especially in relation to parasites, insecticides, environment, immune varieties, mechanical devices for control, feed values as affected by the borer, substitute crops, and influence on live stock production costs and quality. The Toint Committee represents the Amaerican Association of Economic Entomologists, the American Society or Agronomy, the American Society of Agricultural Engineers, the American Farm Economic Association, and the American Society of Animal Production.

Low cutting of corn arid removal of crop remnants with disposal according to recommended practices, followed last year by a goodly proportion of Rhode Island farmers, is crpaitod by the State department of agriculture with an apparent reduction this season of from 46 to 24 in the figures showing the percentage of corn borer infestation. In a survey of early sweet corn, from 1 to 67 per cent of plants examined were found infested in the 28 towns co7ered. As high as 39600O plants in a torm ,.ere inspected, the smallest number having been 250. The greatest drop in intensity of infestation, from 85 to
12 per cent, was in a county wbiere cloan-up work was most complete in 1930. The largest gain, on the other hand, from 40 to 5A3 per cont, wias developed in a county where there is said to have been lack of cooperation in respect to control measures,










An investigation was conducted this month, at the request of Dr.
Britton, Connecticut state entomologist, with respect to a reported 33 1/3 per cent borer infestat on of corn in Wethersfield, the inquiry having been directed from the Hartford office of the central section. V91ile not as great as had been represented to Dr. Britton, the infestation was found to be heavy--more so than ordinarily would be expected in view of the fact that the territory involved had been in the regulated area for only one year. Corn production is an important item in the agriculture around Wethersfield, and farmers are greatly concerned by reason of the increase in borer population. Control measures, principally consisting of plow ing under stalks and crop remnants, were begun by some of them before the Department inspectors had finished their studies.

Heavy infestations of the corn borer in Lima beans growing on Long Island led to an intensive survey of conditions on the northeastern end of the Island, in the township of Southold, Suffolk County, by special scouts sent from the central section headquarters. Two crews of scouts commenced work in the second week of September and concluded their inspection in approximately ten days. Detailed counts were made in some 125 fields to determine the percentage of plants infested and number of borers to the plant. Data also 'were collected as to dates of planting and acreage.

All highway stations for inspection of vehicles were discontinued, in the central section of corn borer control, during the first ten days of the month, except the ones located in New York City. Scouting activities also were ended in this territory, except with respect to a few crews engaged in special duty. Equipment employed in the field work has been collected in the South Norwalk warehouses for storage.

Exclusive or Combination Japanese Beetle Work

Flower shows held within the Japanese beetle regulated area annually present the necessity for protecting from infestation all certified cut flowers and plants brought to the show from classified establishments, and returned to certified greenhouses after the exhibition. The most recent of these shows was the Second National Atlantic City Flower and Garden Pageant, held from September 4 to 10, inclusive. An inspector was stationed in the Atlantic City Auditorium, which housed the show, from August 31 until all certified stock had been removed on September 11. Since the show was held during the period of adult beetle flight, all cut flowers were individually inspected before they were taken into the auditorium. Due to the care with which the flowers had been grown and tended, not a single beetle was found among 115,000 cut flowers examined. A total of 11,779 potted plants were received and returned under certification. One unusual feature of the show was a vegetable exhibit from Sutton's, of Reading$ England.. Five tons of vegetables and paraphernalia were included, the majority of the vegetables being of mammoth proportions. On the evening of September 8, thirty employees connected with the project in New Jersey attended the exhibition.









Practically all of thre sand pits in the 1 rriswick Townshinp area of Middlesex County, W. J., late in the month were released from the fumigation requirements which had been enforced during the period of adult beetle infestation. These -pits were found to be infested for the first time this year. Several pits in the southern section of New Jersey around Miliville and Bridgeton wo-re also similarly released from the treating requirements. Beetles were still found in reduced numbers in most of the sand pits in the vicinity of M~ount Holly, in Burlington County, N. 5. During the months of the year when the pits are free from adult beetles, the quarantine restrictions impose few, if any, burdensome requirements upon sand shippers, since all sand shipped is dug only after considerably more than the required twelve inches of top soil have been stripped from the pit. While adult beetles are present in thle -pits, however, all sand must be fumigated with carbon disulphide before_ certification is granted.

With the lifting of the farm products quarantine, this project has again, through Pennsylvania Secretary of Agriculture John A. McSparran, extended its thanks to the Delaware River Joint Bridge Commnission for its courtesy and cooperation in permitting the erection of the Philadelphia farm products inspection platform on ground owned by the Commission at the south side of the bridge approach. Appreciation has also been expressed to the Director of Public Wiorks of Philadelphia for-the assignment of a policeman for duty at the platform. The Philadelphia inspection center is ideally located, convenient to the t-D principal market districts of the city. A portable, covered platform annually has been erected on this same site. It would be extremely difficult to obtain a location equally as an,cessible and free from traffic congestion as the one which has been gratuitously offered for the project's use.

Preliminary demonstrations to determine the practicability of applying lead arsenate to nursery plots and heeling-in areas by means of a spray, rather than in dry form with fertilizer distributors, were started during the month. An application by the spray method of 500 pounds of lead arsenate to one-third of an acre of nursery section was made in a nursery near Philadelphia. The mixture was not washed into the ground by additional water from the sprayer, as has been the practice in treating isolated infestations. Rather the spray mixture was permitted to dry and the lead arsenate coating then harrowed into the ground. Grub diggings -were made before and subsequent to the application. Suffio-ient observations and grub tests have not Yet been made to determine the effectiveness of the new method.

Surveys are now under way in Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Delaware,
Maryland, and Virginia with a view to so subdividing nursery and greenhouse establishments classified under the Japanese beetle regulations that groups of from 15 to 30 establishments, dep-indkrnt upon the sizes and locations of the concerns, may be allotted to a single nursery and greenhouse inspector. In a number of instances it may be feasible to permanently station the inspector in the subdivision under his immediate supervision, and permit him to operate somewhat independently of a project suboff ice. Maintenance of closer contact with all classified establishments should result in mutually







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improved relations between the project and those affected by the quarantine restrictions.

Road inspectors stationed at Osterhout, Pa., intercepted during the month two uncertified shipments which, upon examination, were found to contain Japanese beetle larvae. The first shipment consisted of five spruce trees carried by a motorist traveling from Vineiland, N. I., to Olean, No Y. A single grub was removed from the soil about the roots of one of the trees. The second shipment contained two potted plants, en route from Philadelphia, Pa., to Penn Yan, N. Y. Five grubs were removed from the latter shipment. Quantities of uninfested articles were also intercepted and examined.

Employees working under the jurisdiction of the New Jersey district office at White Horse were recently given an examination based on the lecture courses held in connection with the third annual school for New Jersey inspectors, on June 1 to 4. The examination included questions concerning parasites, traps, sprays, physiological reactions of the Japanese beetle to poison, chemical treatments, administrative practices, ecology, identification of nursery stock, and general entomological data.

Cards, 4"1 x 6" in size, and bearing a colored picture of the Japanese beetle together with brief informative data concerning the Japanese beetle quarantine and the life history of the insect, were recently received from the Government Printing Offic-e. Information on the card is applicable to scouting, trapping, and road inspection phases of the project, and next season they will be available for distribution by scouts, trap tenders, and quarantine line inspectors.

Road inspection at the border of the generally infested area in
Pennsylvania was curtailed on September 1. Fourteen inspectors were retai ned to guard eight of the principal highways. Arrangements were made to move, on October 1, all road inspectors in Pennsylvania and Maryland to the boundary of the lightly infested 'areas in these States and in Virginia. A few highway stations in New York were still operating at the end of the month.

Changes in the classified status, under the Japan-ese beetle quarantine regulations, of 13 nursery and greenhouse establishments were necessitated by the discovery of infestations on their premises. Similar changes were made during August in 38 establishments. Ten of the establishments determined as infested were located in the generally infested area. The additional three establishments involved were located in the lightly infested areas.

Lead arsenate treating of the infestations in Erie, Pa., began during the latter part of the month. Eight tons of treating material were purchased for this purpose by the Pennsylvania Department of Agriculture. Four sprayer tanks and an International truck were dispatched from the South Norwalk headquarters to perform the work,







1


Withdrawal from the field of all scout crews operating outside the regulated areas was accomplished by September 1. Scouting of classified nursery and 62eenhouse premises continued on a reduced scale, within the regulated areas, until September 15.





jXICAN FRTIT FLY

Inspection of citrus groves in the lower Rio Crande Valley preparatory to the certification of the movement of the 131-32 crop was started September 2. During the month, 5,945 inspections were made. It was necessary to withhold 397 "Certificates of Grove Inspection" because of drop fruit or weedy condition of the orchards. It is customary for the growers to plant cover crops or to allow weeds to grow in the groves during the summer months. These are usually turned under in late August or early September, and the groves given an irrigation. In turning these cover crops under, some fruit is always knocked off the trees. In addition to the fruit on the ground from this source, the irrigations, together with heavy local showers during September, caused an excessive splitting and dropping of all varieties of oranges. In most cases the groves were immediately put in proper sanitary condition following the inspector's visit.

Following a conference of Federal and State officials with representatives of the citrus industry of the valley, Quarantine 64 was revised to
allow the shipment of fruit from the qurantined area at any time in September that it passed the State green fruit test. Previous to this revision no fruit was allowed to leave the valley until October 1. However, it was held that the effectiveness of the host-free period was at an end when the fruit was ripe enough to pass the acid sugar ratio and juice control tests of the State green fruit law, and that there .,as no entcmological justification for requiring the fruit to remain on the trees until October 1. Shipment of frmit did not begin under this ruling until about the (0thi of the month, after which the movement gained momentum resulting in the shipment of 71 cars of fruit by rail and approximately 12 ears by truck.

Three adult fruit flies vere caug,,ht in the traps in Matamoros during the month. Due to the lightness of the infestation and to tt fact that the trees were developing a coat of sooty mold, the spraying operations were discontinued in that city on the 15th. Anastrepha larvae were found in apples, gravas, oranges, peaches, pears, and quinces reaching the market in Matamoros. Peaches from Rarmos Arispe, Coahuila, were found to be most heavily infested. As a further clue to the dissemination of fruit flies in M1ataimoros, it was learned during the month from Sr. Gonzales, in whose yard adult flies were taken on Tuly 31st, that prior to that date he had been given several sanote fruits from a premise on Independencia Street and on opening these fruit they were found to be wormy and consequently were thrown out in the yard to the









chickens.

Very few technical violations were encountered during the month.
Three packers were found to h:.ve cut fruit from goves without having first secured pD.,ission from the district inspectors, Considering the fact that many of the field foremen for the packing plants are new men and that the
competition for fruit a- tae opening of the season is always keen, it is gratifying th'tt no greater violation of this kind was encountered.

The i ,,portance of the collection by the inspectors of specinens for identification was stressed throughout the month with the result that 1,434
collections, totaling 8,561 specimens, were submitted by the inspectors. Of these 123 were species of Anastrcpha taken in Mfatwaoros. All collections in Texas were material other -hin fruit fly,

P. A. Hoidale, who for the past two aad a half years has administered the Mexican fruit fly project from the Atlanta and Orlando offices, returned to Harlingen September 18 to resume personal direction of the work.






PINIC BOLL#'ORM

During the 1931 crop season there will be 130 gins in the regulated
area, practically all of which are now in operation. This is a reduction of about 15 gins as compu: red to last season. Due to the present economic situation, the larger companies have closed some of their gins, especially were there was more than one in the locality. At the end of September, 19,846 bales had been ginned. This is just one-third of the total ginnings to the same date last season, and is due to a number of reasons. The cotton crop is quite a bit later this season than usual. Also, the rrice paid for picking, about 40 per hundred, does not seem to be attracting very many pickers; in fact, several districts are already reporting a shortage. As a result the owners and tenants are having to pick a large part of thJ crop themselves.

The slow ,inning season has naturally delayed the operation of the oil mills. There will be 17 mills to operate this season, about half of which have already beg-un. These mills have received 6,751 tons of seed, 3,412 tons of which have already been milled. Most of these mills are now equipped with the roller system for treating second-cut linters, 390 bales of which have been produced to date. The remaining mills are waiting until a sufficient supply of seed is on hand to insure steady operation.

Only two fumigation plants were in operation in September, these being
located in Tucson and Phoenix, Ariz. These two plants fumigated 2,231 bales of lint and 586 bales of linters, making total fumigations to date of 3,748 bales of lint and 1,727 bales of linters. The plant at Alpine, Tex., will
begin operations during the coming month. The plant at Fabens, Tex., will










also operate occasionally during the coming season. In addition to the two fumigation plants, there were four compresses in operation, at which 3,034 bales of lint and 105 bales of linters, produced in lightly infested areas, were compressed.

At the end of September there were 35 gin trash mac-hines in operation, 14 of which are located within the regulated area and 21 outside. A total of 29,469 1/3 bushels of trash was examined outside the regulated area in Texas, Arizona, California, Louisiana, and Mexico. The results were all negative. Within the regulated area, 650k bushels of trash were examined in Texas, 7,8073 bushels in Arizona, and 621- bushels in New Mexico, or a total of 9,079&3 bushels. In the Big Bend se -tion of Texas, 11,772 specimens of the pink bollworm have been found to date, or an average of 737 worms per bushel of trash examined. Two new findings were made during September. Trash from the Fort Quitman gin, in the lower part of Hudspeth County, yielded 8 specimens. The other finding was in the Salt River Valley of Arizona, at the Southern Avenue Gin, near Phoenix. A single specimen was taken from 4 bushels of trash on September 25. This trash was the accumulation of the ginning of 7 bales of cotton produced in
6 different fields. Trash had previously been examined from 5 of these fields, and since the finding additional trash has been examined from the fields with negative results. It will probably be necessary to await the second picking in order to determine definitely which of the fields is infested. Practically all of the machines are nowv able to secure sufficient trash for steady operation. The machines within the regulated area have thus far been able to examine all of the first cleaner trash.

The regular weekly infestation counts from 20 selected fields in
Maricopa County and 3 in Pinal County, Ariz., have been continued. Due to the increase in regulatory activities, it has been necessary to reduce the number of bolls examined in the Pinal County fields from 300 to 100 each. During September, 29,700 boils were examined with negative results. In addition, 1,000 bolls were examind from other fields which were infested last season, also with negative results. A rather thorough field inspection was made throughout the Parker Valley of Arizona. These inspections were made by gin trash machine men during the time when no gin trash was available for inspection. The gin trash machine in the Yuna Valley of Arizona developed mechanical trouble, und while this was being repaired the men devoted their tii.je to field inspection, 7T- man-days having been put in with negative results. Due to the local showers retarding ginning, the gin trash men in the Safford Valley of Arizona were also able to spend some time making field inspections, but no signs of the pink bollworm were discovered.
There was a considerable increase in the traffic at the 4 road stations during the month of September, 11,192 cars having been inspected and 173 confiscations made. The material confiscated consisted of 59 small lots of cottonseed and seed cotton, 8 cotton stalks with bolls attached, 252 pick sacks, 25 pillows, quilts, aid mattresses made of seed cotton, and 8 miscellaneous articles. On September 9, 1 specimen of the pink bollworm was intercepted at the Van Horn, Tex., road station. This specimen was found in







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two lots of seed cotton taken from a pick sack which had been used at Presidio, Tex.

During the 1931 season, 3060 cars have been inspected, from which 258 confiscations have been made.





PRKEENTING SPREAD OF MOTHS

During the month of' September a considerable force of' men continued with the overhauling and placing of office furniture which had been transferred to Greenfield, Mass., from Melrose, Mass. Considerable shop equipment also was transferred to the new repair shop from Bound Brook, N. 5.

The construction of racks, shelving, and bins in the repair shop
progressed rapidly so that before the close of the month it was possible to commnence arranging and storing a large amount of material used regularly in the field and for the repair and maintenance of motor equipment and spraying apparatus. Several pieces of shop machinery were set up and put in operation. Some delay ras encountered in making' necessary repairs to motor vehicles brought in by the field supervisors, but field supplies were pranptly dispatched to the field personnel.

Thirteen Federal scouting crews were enga-ed throughout September in the examination of woodland in the towns of Chcsterf'iold, Crown Point, Essex, Ticonderoga, Westport, and leWills'ooro, N. Y. Three of' the above towns, namely, Essex, Westport, and Willsboro, were completed during the month.

The New York Conservation Department conducted scouting work in the
following Hudson River Valley towns: Austerlitz, Canaan, Copakes Hillsdale, and LaGrange, N. Y.,' the first two of these towns being completed during the month. No infestations were located by either the Federal or State crew; in any of the foregoing townms.

New York Conservation forces also scouted all of the nurseries in the known infested area centering around Roslyn, L. I., 'with negative results. Two infestations were found, however, in Nassau County--one in the town of North Hempstead and the other in the town of Oyster Bay. It is impossible at this time to determine the size or extent of either infestation as no clean-up work has yet been attempted. Six State crews are now working in
the northern portion of Oyster 13ay r'ownf, N. YO

State of Connecticut crews were working during September in the towns of Colebrook, East Hampton, Enfield, Portland, and Suffield. A small amount of work conducted in Wethersfield, Conn., by State men resulted in the discovery of a gipsy moth infestation consisting of some 4,000 egg masses.







P, 5This town lies just south of .Iartford, Conn., and all of the towns scouted by the State of Connecticut forces are east of the barrier zone.

In addition to the work conducted by the Federal forces in the Adirondack region during the month, a siaall force of men were engaged in the inspection of wooded arenas in the eastern section of Bridgewater Township, N. T. No signs of the gipsy moth were found.

During September the necessary inspection work in New Jersey increased somewhat. One hundred and thirty-six lots of nursery stock and forest products were inspected and certified for shipment. The inrterial inspected was
found to be free from the gipsy rotn.

On Long Island the inspection wo-k at the quarantined nurseries in
Nassau County also increased materially--so much so that it was necessary to transfer another man to Long Island to assist i i this work. One hundred and thirty-four lots of nursery stock were inspected and certified for shipment. No infestation of the gipsy roth was found.

Demand for articles which seize popular fancy often provides additional inspection work. From the very nature of the demand, spood is of prime importance as the producers of the finished articles desire to get them on the market while the call is at its height. Often such articles are produced or shipped by individuals who have never handled any materials the shipment of which is regulated by quarantine, and who, therefore, have little if any knowledge of the requirements. As it is recognized by the inspectors that almost anything may be shipped at any time, they have to be on the lookout for new shippers and now products so that the quarantine may be properly enforced, and that no uninspjcted and uncertified shipments are transported. The responsibility for maintaining vigilance cannot be placed entirely on the shoulders of the agents of transportation, though it can be said that they have proven many times thut they arc alert.

For the last year or so miniature gardens constructed in ornamental
dishes of various types, termed "dish gardens," have been exceedingly popular. These are made of pebbles overlaid on soil in which arc planted a few particular species of small plants. Small rough pieces of stone, small clay figures, bridges, and other structures are added, and the whole arranged artistically after the form of Japanese gardens. The plants used are all greenhouse grown
and are not in the classes for which inspection is required. Since the market for this ornamental indoor garden has developed, there has been a market for locally produced materials which can be used for their construction. A number of shipments of asbestos rock have been made out of the quarantined area to
florists, and, of course, inspection was required for this rock. Rock of this type, after it has been exposed to the elements for somS time, takes on the appearance of age and, besides, it has the necessary roughness to insure lack of formality; in addition, it can be broken into any desired size. In the preparation of the dish gardens too much drabness is to be avoided and, to relieve this, small touches of color are added. Asbestos rock takes color










readily and producers have been able to dye it with various colors.

Ordinarily one does not connect the practice of medicine with
quarantine enforcement, but, at least in a certain sense, the former is responsible for some activity on the part of the inspectors. Bark from certain species of trees and shrubs is used to a degree in the preparation of specific remedies, and as this bark is a natural product of the woods, it has to be inspected and certified.

Shipments of lumber from the quarantined area are usually confined
to carload or smaller shipments, but from tinae to time there are calls from seaport towns to inspect larger lots which are to be transported by water. The inspection of these barge loads is a considerable undertaking, as each barge has a capacity of from 25 to 30 carloads. Lumber moved in this way has to be inspected with all of the speed possible without the sacrificing of carefulness. 5hs loading of such barges is accomplished just as rapidly as possible. Loading crews are as numerous as can be accoitote.' ... --fd the inspection has to keep ahead of the loaders. For such rush joos the district inspectors have to request extra men, as it would be impossible for them to attend to this work unaided.

During the month of Sertember, 12 tourist camps in Massachusetts and 10 in Connecticut were examined for gipsy moth infestation. None was found infested in Connecticut, but in Massachusetts 9 of the 12 camp sites examined were infested with this insect. The inspectors notified the property owners in each instance and advised them to eradicate the infestation as soon as possible. Additional inspections will be made before the opening of the next tourist season.

Rattlesnakes infest certain restricted sections of the barrier zone,
particularly in the mountainous regions of southwestern Massachusetts, northwestern Connecticut, and adjoining areas in New York skirting the Hudson Valley. New York State scouting crews working in one portion of Copake Town, N. Y., early in September encountered a number of these snakes, killing from one to four nearly every day. It was, therefore, deemed advisable to temporarily transfer the men from this area so badly infested with these venomous snakes, but work will be resumed there as soon as cold weather sets in.

During September the greater part of the assembling cages distributed earlier in the barrier zone and towns to the east of it were taken in, so that very shortly it will be possible to report in greater detail the results of this work.

Seventy-five collections of miscellaneous insects, one of which was of satin moths, were made during the month and forwarded to the Girsy Toth Laboratory at Malrose Highlands, Mass. All of these collections were made by field men incidental to their regular work.










The street numbers of the various buildings occupied by the gipsy moth project in Greenfield, Mass., are as follows-.

Office 20 Sanderson Street. Repair Shop (Building No. 5), 38 Haywood Street. Storage Building No. 3, No. 33 Riddell Street. Storage Building No. 3A, No. 36 Riddell Street.




UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 3 1262 09245 0765




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1' V1 S L> 7 T ?PLAiT QUARkNTIUT7 AND CJ)TR0L AD'IiNIT>TI0NUhITED STATES DEPART7ET 0F AGRICUTTVNumber 11 (NOT FOIR PTJ3LICATIOi!) overiber 1, 1921.ADT INISTAT VEL public hearing to consider the advisability of extendinthequarantine on account of the Japanese beetle to the Stntos of Ohio andSouth Carolina was held. October 8, before the T"lant Ourantine and Con-trol Administration, in -Lhe auditorium of the ULi ed SN tes NationalMuseum, Wishinrton, D. C. Th hearinr was presided over by Mr. Lee A.Strong, and approximately 80 persons were in attendance.In inspections last suimm:r four Japanese b.-ctlcs were found inCharleston, S. C., and five in Columbus and one in Cleveland, Ohio.The Administration noz o elieves that, fo -the nreoent at least, the situ-ation can be handled b those States without the aid of a Fed cml qurran-tine. It is ex-e ted t 11t Ohio end South :arolinj uill undertake controlmeasures and. this AdOinistration :ill Qoprate. AcrdindLy. on Otober10, the Secretary of Aoriculture announced that the , a beetle quaran-tine would not be extended at this time to the States of Ohio and SouthCarolina.This decision is in line with the policy which has been folo7edin similar cases in the past, and is in full accord with the desire ofthe Department to place restrictions only x!here they are absolutely neoos-sary to prevent thc spread of ;danzrous mest.

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TC(LOTCAL.B. 7. 'ackie, Senior entomologist of the California Department ofAgriculture, who is collaborating with this Administration on variousphases of some pest control problems, contributed the followinbriefdiscussion of het traat:nents of fruits and vegetables to destroy certainpests.A collabor'itive project between thT'hnolo;ical Division of thePlant Quar-ntine and Control AdjLinistration and the California Departmentof Agriculture is se'-king to develop information on the compatibility ofCalifornia frui Us to thermal treatmnts that will prove 100 per cent leth-al to fruit-inhabiting insects. The project differs from most other proj-ects in that it is in the nature of a prsparedncss program, whereas mostof such projects aru of a remedial nature.It was initiated with the idea in view that th_ solutions of toomany of our problems are forced to rait until the day of reckoning isat hand, a practice inherently conducive to much confusion and loss. Theproject does not seok to develop specific formulae but rather to developgeneral information on the compatibility of fruits and to determine thether=C. death point of such insects as may inhabit them.The work was started in 1030 to continue the study of the so-calledFlorida process of exposing fruit at 110' F. for 8 hours, a schedule knownto be lethal to ::edfly. It is hoped that data will be developed that willenable compatibility curves in relation to temperature to be constructedwhich will furnish an index as to the range of availability of such treat-ments in special regulatory entomology wherein 100 per cent kill is sought.The problem presents many aspects, as its availability depends upon whetheror not it is capaole of industrial epelicetion. Hence, all work has to becarried on unon an industrial scale. in this case the commercial lug boxis being used as a unit. Only comT.ercial grades of fruit are used. Witheach lot that is treated, a similar lot is carried as a check. Both areplaced in cold storage and subjected to daily observation, the cheek beingused as a basis of comparison. In order that the individual, i. e., thehuman clement, may be reduced to a minimum, two men check on the fruitdaily, the results being their joint opinion on such points in which theyare in agreement.The seasonal work in deciduous fruit and summer citrus is beingbrought to a conclusion. It involves about 90 commercial lots represent-ing about 45 varieties. It is expected that by continued observation overa number of seasons a more comprehensive understanding of the renetionsthat take place in different fruits will su'nly information on methods not only as to schedules of treatment which various fruits will stand, but thetime they best lead themselves to treatment end also the practices to beavoided.

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That great interest attaches to this wor'k is evidenced by requestsniot only for further information but on all details as to where equipmentcan be purchased, its costs, capacity, etc.FOR1FIGN PLATE QUART UISRCE-T EN1T0MLOGICAL IhTECFPTIONS OF IIERESTLiving larva of Mediterranean fruit fly f5und.--A living larva ofthe Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata) was intercepted atPhiladelphia on a grape leaf among grapes in stores from Spain. (Seealso News Letter p!1. 1, January, 1931; Jo, 2, Februiry, 19-1; No. J,March, 1931; No. 4, Auril, 1931; No. 3, Jun,, 19j1; No. 7, July, 19N1;No. 10, Oetober, 1951.)Mediterranean fruit fly in sweet orange. .--The Mediterranean fruitfly was intercepted at New York in sweet orange in stores from Spain.This fruit fly has also been intercepted by inspectors of the Plant Quar-antine and Control Administration in oranges from Algeria, Azores, Brazil,Hawaii, and Italy.Fruit fly in cherries.--One larva, 3 prepupae, and 35 pupae of thetrypetid lihagolatis cerasi L. were intercept ed at Jew York in 200 cherriesin baggage from France. This fruit fly, which is not k'no'n to occur out-side of Europe, was intercepted previously in dry sour cherries in cargofrom Yugoslavia in 1930.Fruit fly in Haden mango.--Anastrepha sn. (near fraterculus) wasintercepted at New York in the Haden variety of mango in baggage from Cuba.(See also News Letter 'o. 9, Sentenber, 1'3l.)Mangoes heavily infested.--Five hundred and forty larvae of thefruit fly Anastrepha sp. (near fraterculus) were found at New York in 80mangoes in stores from Cuba.A lentil weevil from Italy.--ruchus ervi Froh. (Bguhidae) was in-tercepted at Philadelphia in dry Lima boans and peas in the mail fromItaly. This bruchid was intercepted in lentil (LLens esculenta) seed fromPalestine in 192G.Coccid on cactus.--Protortonia cacti (Linn.) (Coccidae) was inter-cepted at San Diego, Calif., on cactus in cargo from Porto Rico. Thisrepresents the first interception record of this co-cid in our files.Pink bollworm in okra nod.--A larva of the pink bollworm (Pe'tin-ophora gossypiella) was found by Max Kisliuk, Jr., and C. 7. Cooley in an

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~4-okra pod at Adrian, St. John, Imeri'an Vir-in Islands, AuCust 4, 1931.The pink bollworri ws reported to be very destrutive to both cotton lintand to cottonseed in St. Croix, American Virrin Islands, by Charles E.ilson in 1923. (See also 13ws Letter No. 1, January, 1931; !Jo. 3, Marh,1931; No. 6, June , Ll; Jo .3 , August, 1931; !To. 9, Seotember, 1931.)Pink bollworm in St. Kitts.--Larvae of the pink bollworm were foundin Sea Island cotton four miles east of Basseterre, St. Kitts, British WestIndies, by Max Kisliuk, Jr., and C. E. Cooley, Auust 9, 1931.vefvil on bananas ii cero.--Metamasius seric'eus var. .arbonarlus(Curculicaidao) was intercepted at Mobile, Ala., on bananas in cargo fromGuatemala and :lexico. This weevil has also arrived with bananas from Hon-duras.Scale insect from Jaan.--The cocfid Coccus pseudomagnoliarum (Ku-wana) was intercepted at San Zrancisc'o on an ornamental pant in ship'squarters from Japan. This scale insect has also been intercepted onAralia sp., Citrus sn., Daphne sp., and orange from Japan.Chrysomelid on banana.--Myochrous tibialis Jacoby (Chrysomelidae)was intercepted at .(bile, Ala., on banana in cargo from Ni!aragua andat New Orleans on banana leaf in cargco from Mexico. This beetle was in-tercepted with banana debris from Nicaragua in 193C.Scale insect from the Azores.--The coccid Targionia bromeliad wasintercepted at Providence, 1. I., on a pineapple leaf in baggage from theAzores. This scale insect hes also been taken on pineapple from the CanaryIslands, Cuba, Federated 1.alay States, Haiti, hawaii, Jamaica, Porto Pico,and the Straits Settlements, on Ananas sp. from india, and on Neoglazioviavariegata from Brazil.Whitefly on Luava.--Cardin's whitefly (Aleurodicus cardini) was in-tercepted at Jacksonville, Fla., on guava leaf in parcel post from Cuba.This aleyrodid was described in 1912 by E. A. hack from materiall collectedby Dr. Back at Havana and Santiago de las Vogas, Cuba, In November, 1912.This whitefly has been recorded as occurring in Florida.P3CSiT PATHOLOGICAL INTMCEPTIONS OF I:CTF7ESTDiseased apples from Australia (in Tasmaniai wrappers) wore intercept-ed at Seattle and submitted to experts in the 9ureeu of Plant Industry. Thespotting proved to be one .:ith which they viere not familiar. No organismwas found associated with the disease.Oospora oitri-aurnntii (sour rot) was interrupted at Bllinpham on anorange from Australia. This disease occurs on lmon; in California and hasbon reported on oranges in Southern Europe but it is not listed by Stevon-son or by Fawcett & Lee as occurring in Australia.

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Tyleanhus dipsuci :as intercepted in Sternbersia (Anaryllis) luteIabulbs from Istanbul, Turkey, at the Vlashinton Inspection House. Thesebulbs are said to have been collected in the wild, and this finding is thefirst record for this host.Parasitic nematodes .,ere intercepted at Detroit in several lots ofhyacinth bulbs from Holland rithia a fe; days, the parasites being Aphelen-clhus parietinus (3 lots), A. sp., Parsphelenenus ap. (?) and Tylenchus diz-saci (6 lots).Tylenchus dipsaci (the bulb nemnatod.) has been intrcepted in sixshipments of bulbous Iris recently at the Inspection House, T.ashington,D. C. The infestations arc apparently heavier in the individual bulbs, of-ten causing complete decay, particularly in the injlish Iris. Infestationshave been found in bulbs of Enrlish, Dutch, and French origin.The nematodes Anhelenchus avenae, A. p'ri-tinus, and A. subtenuiswere also intercepted in shiprm.nts of bulbous Iris--the first tro Snecie.sfrom Holland, and the last in a shipment from London, Ensland.Coniothyrium hellebori was daterrrined as the cause of a leaf spotof Helleborus niger collected at the 7;ashington Insp.etion HIouse on ashipment from Hlolland. The disease had benn collected previously, once InNew York, once in Oregon, and once in Europe, accordin, to the Bureau ofPlant Industry records.A leaf spot of oleander apparently caused by Sentoi ia oleandrinawas intercepted at New York in oleanders in baggage from :rnuda. S. olean-drina is reported from France and Italy as well as from IBermuda, ac~Ordingto Stevenson's Manual, and is listed in U. S. D. A. hul. 136 as having beenfound in Florida and Louisiana.LIMA BFAN SCAB ZTJRVEYLima bean scab (Zisinoe canavaliac ) is not yet preUsunt in the ceontin-ental United States, so far as could be determined by surveys made this sea-son in the eastern seaboard States and in --lifornia,Eight of the eastern seaboard Stat s (Florida, Seorgia, South Caro-lina, North Carolina, Virginia, Pennsylvania, !ICVw 3ersy, and New York) wereincluded in a survey made by the Office of My-olo-,y and Plant Disease Surveyin cooperation with this Administration. 1n this survey, conducted in TuLyand August, over 100 examinations of Lima beans r made in the Status men-tioned, either of field beans or those in markets and parking houses. Noscab was found in any case.A survey in California ras considered des irable in vi.vw of the pres-ence of the disease in the Sineloa region on M xico, as sho~m by severalinterceptions of diseased beans coming from that arcea at the port of Tlogales,

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Ariz. , last January. A limited survey was therefor:mde of the Limabean areas of Cal ifornia, Aurust 1i-ib, by '. A. r 'ubbin, in cooproa-tion with the "alifornia Departinent of Aiulture. In this survey 5blots of beans a-iountinr to 17.b bushels in 1K produce and -roeery storesin eight cities and towns were examined. No trece of the scab d easewas present. Examination was also lade on 4" farms in five countiessouth of San Francisco. In the 50 fields examined on these farms, amount-ing to 796 acres of Li-a beans, the disease was not found.SHIP'S CAPTAIN IGNORES CUAAT INE SAFEGUARDA report by ,;. W. Chapman, of the port of PhilaIdelphia, on Octo-ber 8, tells of the finding of a 30-pound lot of turnIps in stores onthe French SS :erope heavily infested viith a weevil, Cutorhynkhus sp.The inspector sealed the lot as a proper safeguard, whereupon the captainbecame indignant end brokthe seal. *,i th h cooPCr. r tion of the customsofficials a detainer was put on the clearance of the ship until ths mattercould be adjusted. However, when the ship was later boarded with an orderfor destruction of the infested iriaterial, the certain iade no further ob-jection and even apologized for his aemion. It is further noted that thelocal agents for this steanshin line 1e-r murh disturbed over the attitudeof the captain and ;;er reedy ,ad willing to have the offending turnipsdisposed of as Ie might require.This is said to be the first tine that any ship's officer nas ig-nored the seal of the Plant Quarantine and Contol Administration, and itis safe to say that it is not likely to happen vary often in t'e future.PIOIEER PI.MU INSPCTEDOn September 1, 11. V. Heeker inspected on arrival at 1hicago theGerman seaplane Groenlond Al, travelin' ovr the Aretic regions in anattempt to deterrinr thc feasibility of this northern route between Zuropeand America. The planarrived via Hudson's Bay and Long Lake, Canada.No prohibited polnt material was found aboard.FRTNCII C:UISEYS AT'TNLING YORTUO0T CXLpRTh i 1U2P" TSpearial ar:'ang-ments for in t mpt'rs and a 'rtain amount of fore-sight enabled N. C. ich, of the 1orfolk, 'e. , rort, to make an insp tionof the French cruisers Duqu-sn; end Ouf. rn , whiah arrived in the t'hesa-peake Bay October 15, carrying a delegations of Frenh notables to the York-town celebration. As no customs inspection was made in these vessels, ourinspector made arrange ments to board throu -h tue ioromnandant of the navalbase at Norfolk, and through the iurgni: Pilots' Asso(iation, the navaLbase having uadertakcen to notify both visitors iy radio of his 0omin-. Theinspection was made us plarnnrd and instructions were issued to retain allvegetables on board while in territorIrl LwAtra's, to destroy all veg'tale

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-7-refuse in the ships' incinerators, and to have the small amount of fruitpresent consumed as soon as possible. Th, inspection was Carried out ingood faith on our part and wEs accepted in the same spirit by tie Frenchofficials.OFFICIAL VISITSRichard Faxon, in charge of Federal plant quarantine inspectionin Porto Rico, visited ashin,;ton on October 20, to report on the plantquarantine situation in the island and discuss with Mr. Sasscer plans forfuture activities -. '. Sasscer left 'Xlashin ton on October 4, for a two-weeks' visitwith the Seattle District inspectors.G. G. Becker returned on September 28 from District No. 1 on theMexican border, where he took up the personnel situation brought about bythe partial or complete closingof several of the bridge ports as an e-on-omy measure.INSPECTORS TPALSF:IPEDBecause of a snortening of the hours during which the bridges se-tween tnis country and Mexico are open, it has been necessary to make cer-tain adjustrients in our Mexican border personnel during the past month.The appointmenteof R. R. Roberts, E. L. Friday, and P. T. Kyzar were termin-ated, without prejudice; J. D. Smith has been temporarily detailed fromBrownsville to Nogales; J. A. Stanton h 1s been transferred from erovrnsvilleto Seattle; E. L. Tolbert has been transferred from Del Rio to Laredo; H. '.Frane has been transferred from Hidalo to Nogales, replacing F. A. Podgers,who has been retired; G. A. Pfaffrian has buen transferred from Laredo toZapata, where he will be acting in charge, and E. W. Inglo has been tempor-arily detailed from Brownsville to furnish relief at a number of stationsin District No. 1.REDUCTI.: I, AUTO 7,UIP NTIn line with the present economy program, a careful study has beenmade of the need for government owned automobiles at the various ports ofthis Division. As a result, arrangements have been made to dispense withthe automobiles at Mercedes, Ysleta, and Del Rio, Tox., and to dispensewith one of the two automobiles at Uogales, Ariz. It is believed that itwill be found possible to dispense oiLh on,or two additional automobilesin the near future.ROBERT A. RODCEPS RETI2ESIn retiring 2romi the service at thu aje of 66 years on September 30,1931, Robert A. Rodgers earns the distinction of bKin: tht first employee

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-a-of the Administration to be retired on account of age. At his own rquostYx. Rodgers was granted the privilege of retiring at the ace of 62 becauseof his work with poisonous gas. When the time for his retirement arrived,however, he requested an extension of time, which was -ranted, and at theend of this extension a second one was requested and granted. The secondextension expired on Sertember 30.1i'. _Rodgers had served in the Department of Agriculture for almost26 years. he was employed in the Forest Service from January r_4, 1206,until January 16, 1922, when he was transferred to the 3'ederal HorticulturalBoard to serve as an inspector at Nogales, Ariz. He served continuously atthat port from the date of his transfer.In the last month of his employment, 1. Dodgers was credited withsaving the life of a coworker. On Septemoer 10, while working at an incin-erator with R. C. atson, the clothing of the latter took fire and it wasonly the pro=mt action of PT. Rodgers in tearing off the burning shirt andrushing his companion to the hospital that averted consequences which mighthave proved fatal.During his nine years of conscientious service liiM. odgers has alwaysshown to the public and to his fellows an agrceablc and friendly rprsonality,and he carries with him in his retirement the entire good will of both theDepartment and his coworkers.7TRNED UTSPECTOL PTT7DS TO DTIYR. C. PVatson, inspector at Nogales, referred to in the above note,has returned to duty, the burns receive: in his accident having proved notto be of a permanently serious nature.C0IITTEE OPT ?OPRMSIn order to provide in prompt and orderly manner for revision of thenumerous forms employed in the work of the Division, Mr. Sasscer has appoint-ed a committee to study these forms and present recommendations for any need-ed change, simplification, or merging tht:t may be desirable. The cornm ittee,composed of W4 A. MCubbin, G. G. Becker (or C. A. Locke), and PT. R6 Hunt,will at the outset give particular attention to forms which are in i =mediateneed of revision. One of the problems new ben attacked is uniformity inthe use of rubber stam-s, as a basis for which request has been made forfacsimiles of all stamps used in the various ports with a note as to theirfunction. The corrittee will also attempt to gather material for the compil-ation of a "Manual for Port inspectors " This is a task of some magnitudeand will require much refareace to the experience of port inspectors beforeit can be completed.

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-9-WOJIAN SMUGGLES IRISA woman traveler coming from Canada through Rouse's Point, N.Y.,recently, was observed by the eagle eye of a 2ustorms inspector to be somewhat more corpulent than was consistent with an otherwise slender figure.When searched by the woman inspector of the port, it was discovered thatthe traveler had a quantity of valuable iris roots wrapped in a towel andwound around her waist under her outer clothing. After being subjectedto the humiliation of search and seizure, the smu-ggler suffered final com-plete mortification when she learned that she could have brought her per-sonally conducted cargo into the country openly and freely under a permit.PL1INTY OF FRUIi FLYW. H. Freeman calls attention to the interception in New York onAugust d, of 67 living larvae of the MEaditerranean fruit fly (Ceratitiscapitata) taken froir 14 pears in the stores of the S.S. Triolus. Thepears apparently originated in Algeria. This is one of those cases thatthrow a convincing flash of revealing light on the pest dangers to whichwe are constantly exposed and which only occasionally are made evident withsuch startling clearness,PROTECTION TO OTwER COUNTRIESTwo cases have recently come to hand in which our inspection servesto protect the interests of neighboring countrion. A shipment of 20 mangoplants from Calcutta, India, destined to Sinaloa; IMexico, was entered atSan Francisco ntembcr 14, 191, and found on examination to be infestedwith eggs, larvae, and adults of the citrus blackfly (Aleurocanthus woglumi).The plants were also rooted in unsterilized soil4 The material was refusedentry and was ordered to be either returned or destroyed.The second case involved a shipment of 15 raspberry plants whichwere examined at the port of New York for certification and export to Brazil.Four of the plants were found infested with the raspberry root borer (Bern-becia marginata). All infested plants were located and destroyed before acertificate was issued. It is of interest to add that a State nursery in-spection tag accompanied this shipment.The Department maLkes no claim to purely altruistic motives in suchcases. In the first-mentioned instance it is ,learly to our advantage tohave our neighbor to the south kept free from pets whih might later oninvade our own borders; and in the second we are only trying honestly tomake our certificate mean what it says. Yet in both cases the countriesin question have been undoubtedly benefited by our activities.FOREIGN PLU7T' QUA-rAT I NE SUMZAKIESEXICO.--On account of the apparent extermination of the Mediterranean

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-10-fruit fly in Florida and the consequent lifting of Quarantine No. 68, theMexican Resolution of June 22, 1931, amends Exterior Quarantine No. 5 by excluding the State of Florida from the places affected by that quarantine.The text of Article 1 of this Resolution has been published as SupplementNo. 4 to Circular PQCA-284.The Mexican Decree of July 23, 19'l, revokes that of March 4, 19l,which imposed an absolute Exterior Quarantine (No. 8) against wheat on ac-count of the flag-smut and take-all diseases, and provides for the entryof wheat under permit, besides listing the countries in which the two dis-eases are known to occur. The text of this Decree has been published asSupplement No. 5 to Circular PQCA-284.COL01IA.--Colombian Decree No. 1128, of July 1, 19.1, prescribesthat every shipment of trees, fruits, plants, bulbs, seeds, banana slips,unmanufactured plant products, or any part thereof, offered for entry intoColorpbia shall be accompanied by a certificate issued by competent author-ity of the country of origin and visaed by the Colombian consul or that ofa friendly nation. It prescribes also that an import permit shall be ob-tained in advance by the importer. A summary of this Decree was transmit-ted in a memorandum to chief inspectors and collaborators under date ofSeptember 1, 1931.CANADA.--The text of Canadian Regulation No. 10 (Foreign) 6th Revision, has been received and transmitted to chief inspectors and collabor-ators. This revision excludes Vermont from the list of States quarantinedagainst the importation into Canada of certAin cut flowers, straw, andvegetables.The text of the first revision of Canadian Regulation No. 6 (Foreign)also has been received. In addition to prohibiting the importation intoCanada of five-leafed pines from all foreign countries, the revision pro-hibits also the importation of the Austrian pine (Pinus nigra), Swiss moun-tain pine (P. mugho), and Scotch pine (P. silvestris) from Europe.Copies of the Canadian regulations may be obtained from the Destruc-tive Insect and Pest Act Advisory Board, Ottawa, Canada.MANGO I FROZEN PACK NOT ADMITTED FROMREGIONS IIIFESTE WITM MfX WEEVILSPending the completion of experiments in Hawaii to determine wheth-er the frozen pack method described in Circular PQCA-311 will effect thedestruction of mango weevils in mangoes, it has been decided to permit theimportation of that fruit in the frozen park condition only from countriesof North and South America and the West Indies. This does not apply tomango pulp in tae frozen pack condition, but only to the whole fruits.

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-11-DOMESTIC PLANT QUARANTINESTTANSIT INSPECTIONThe States of missouri, irminesota, and Iowa have assigned Stateinspectors to work with Federal transit inspectors during the rush nur-sery stock shipping season this fall. Two issouri inspectors are beingassigned to Kansas City and St4 Louis, respectively, one Iowa inspeetorto Council Bluffs, and one innesota inspector to St. Paul. This addi-tional help makes it possible to cover freight and express more ecmplete-ly at the points named and relieve the transit inspectors, at least par-tially, of a certain amount of overtime, which has heretofore been necs-sary.With the removal of restrictions on farm products from the areasgenerally infested with the Japanese beetle, which became effective onSeptember 28, there has been a noticeable decrease in the number of vio-lations of this quarantine. Narcissus bulb shipments are beginning tocome through in considerable numbers however, and several violations ofthis quarantine have been reported, as well as some infringements of thewhite-pine blister-rust quarantine.Specimens of the European corn borer (Pyrausta nubilalis Hubn.)were discovered by the transit inspectors at ilew York in a recent shipmentof corn moving from the two-generation regulated area.BLACK STEM RUSTPermits to ship 71arberry and Mahonia plants that are resistant tothe black stem rust have recently been issued to 17 nurserymen who aregrowers of these plants. The black sterm rust quarantine, as recently re-vised, requires a permit for shipping these plants to or among the 13 "pro-tected States" which are eradicating the susceptible species. Before grow-ers' permits are issued, inspection is madc by the Barberry EradicationOffice of the Bureau of Plant Industry, to determine that only imune spe-cies are present on the premises of the applicant. The Bureau then makes arecommendation to the Admiaistration as to whether a permit should be issuedto the nurseryman. The applicant must also agree that shipping certificateswill not be used in connection vwith plants not grown in his nursery, andthat he will not handle any species or variety of 3-rberis or Mahonia notlisted in his application, unless written authorization to do so is receivedfrom the Administration. Of the 17 growers to whom permits have been issued,8 are located in Ohio, and 3 are within other protected States. The other 6are located outside the barberry-eradication area.ITE-PINE BLI=STE RUSTThe Administration has tentatively approved an application by theFederal Forest Service for a permit to grow five-leafed pines in the Wind0

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-12-River fLursery at Carson, '7ash., for interstate movement under the condi-tions specified in the white-nine blister-rust quarantine regulations, asto nurseries located in generally infected States. The Wind Piv-r Nurserycomprises a part of the Forest Servic. Fxpenriment Station in the ColumbiaNational Forest, and, according to the Forest Service, distributes annuallyabout a million young trees to various points in the Korthwest for plantingon denuded areas. Experience and investigation indicate that blister-rust-free white pine -an be produced in infected areas such as the State of V.7ash-ington by carrying out the Pibes-eradication measures outlined below. Thetentative approval of the application was -asad on a report by the Bureauof Plant Industry showing tiure arc no Euroacan black currant plants withina nile of the nursery, and that all other currant and gooseberry plants havebeen destroyed within a radius of over l,3% feet of the pines. The prem-ises are also checked annually by inspectors of the Administration. Theauthority for interstate shipment relates to pines grown from seed whichwill be planted this fall and next spring, authorization for shipping beingdeferred until after reinspection of the promises and environs prior toshipment. Tribes eradicction is being; carried out around three other Federaland State-owned nurseries in the Pacific Uorthwest, but has not yet advancedfar enough to justify the distribution of five-leafed pines from such ofthese points as occur in generally infected areas.PflQ>7[ P'ACH D3I7EA2ETh: inspection of the premises and enr:irons of peach-growing nur-series in Texas was resumed and ;xt,-ended in September and October by Inspec-torsDopson and Connolly. Several of the nurseries reported as handlingpeach trees for intrastate rmovement were, in fact, growin-, them for othernurseries ahich make interstate shipments. The number of nurseries it wasnecessary to inspect 'n-s, therefore, greater then the first report showed.ARCISSUS PULSPOn a recent trip to the Pacific Coast , Dr. S. B. Fracker 'onsultedwith the plant quarantine officials of California, Oregon, and 7Xshingtonconcerning narcissus certification re.sures. He also attended informal conferences of bulb growers at Portland, Ore. , and Sumner, " ash.A recent outbreak of the bulb eelwoem (Tylencus dipsaci Kuehn) inonions at Canastota, >1. Y., is of interest to narcissus producers. Onlytwo small areas of a few square yards each in one onion field are involved,but these are reported to have been a total loss in 1930. The infectedonions were destroyed as rapidly as found in 1931, and lettuce and broccoliplanted in their place. As an eradication measure, the soil was sterilizedby steam under eQ pounds 7resure. It is not as yet known whether the eel-worms involved in this outbreak belonged to one of the narcissus-attackingstrains of ?. d or not, nor how the pest reached the locality. Ac-cording to the ueau of Plant Industry, this is the first instonee in whichthis species of eel*iorm has been found attacking onions, under natural con-ditions, in the United States.

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-13-DATE SCALEThe hope of success in the Date Scale Dradication Project is basedon the assumption that an infested date palm can be found by inspectionand the scale eliminated before the infestation reaches the point where itwil spread to near-by palms.It is essential, therefore, that all the date palms and oth;r hostsof the Parlatoria scale in the date-growing areas be lo 'ated. The firstoperation when the project was reorganized in lJ28 was a survey to locatepalms. Reports were made by the inspectors giving, among other items, thelocation of the planting arid number and a !e of the palms, and statingwhether ornamntal, commercial, or abandoned.From these reports the plantings were located on maps, the CoachellaValley and Imperial Vallby in California and the Salt River Valley and YumaValley in Arizona being taken as units. Next the maps vere divided intodistricts, probability of infestation and convenience in inspection beingthe criteria. The reports were filed by districts and lists were made ofthe properties, giving the owners' names, size of planting, and location.The places requiring less than 5 one-man days were listed for "scutinginspection," and those requiring more than 5 days, for "routine inspection."The routine inspection was done by crews of four or more men working undersquad leaders, and the scouting inspection by inspeetors working in pairs.When the inspection work is laid out for the month, the squad lead-ers and scout inspectors are !riven lists of the properties to be inspected.They are supposed to be on the alert for plantings in the district not list-ed. This, of course, affects the scout inspectors more than the routinecrews.When the inspectors co:e in at the close of the day's inspection,the reports submitted are checked with the lists. The changes in numberof palms, etc., are made and new places added. ,hon inspection of a dis-trict is completed, the lists arc typed with corrections for the next inspef-tion.Following the first survey, many new places were added--all small,abandoned, or ornamental plantings overlooked previously, or new plantings.When the scout inspectors bec-mue familiar ith the districts, they naturallyfell into beaten paths and were not as liable to locate new plantings aswhen unfamiliar with the territory. Nw mien, therefore, were put on scout-ing work from time to time.Last year it seemed evident that practically all palms were listedin the date-2rowing areas whic: could be located in this inner, and asection-by-section survey coAneaced. A large rap of the Coachella Valleywas obtained, giving the seetione and property owners as nio-rly up to dateas possible. Two inspectors worked together and v:erc giveni three or four

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-14-sections cut from the map with instruction:; to scoet them thorourhly, wal_.ing over the entire area to be sure there v:ere no palms growing in wind-breaks and mesquite jungles overlooked. The listed palms were not to beinspected, but any unlisted palms were to be inspected and all located onthe maps.A considerable part of the Coachella Valley has been covered in thismanner, and a few small unlisted palms--none of them infested--have beenfound to date. This type of survey was also started in the Imperial Valleyand a number of unlisted nalms found--une of them infested. The survey hasnot yet been commenced in Arizona.Early in the summer this work was discontinued because of the hotweather and because of the difficulty in locating small palms in the densegrowths along the ditch banks in the Imperial Valley and mesquite thicketsin the Coachella Valley. It will be resumed when the weather is cooler andthe suner growth dies down. The survey is the final operation in the loca-tion of palms in the date-growing areas.Another phase of this operation is the location of date palms outsidethe date-growing areas. This will not be so difficult, as we are interestedonly in offshoots taken from the infested areas. This movement has been verylimited because of the State a nd Federal quarantines, and also because of thedemand for offshoots fdr planting within the infested areas. Some work hasbeen done along this line but most of it will be postponed until reductionin the eradication areas can be safely made.EUROPEAN CORN BORER AND APANESE BEETLEGeneral Project NewsExhibits of an educational character at l'-r
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-15-fields was displayed, and a corn borer question box, originally designedby the western section office for the international Live Stock Ex-os i-tion, was the center of attraction for many o? those in attenance.The first olfi cial announcement concernin:' shared of the Jacanesebeetle, as developed in the current season's scouting and trapping, wascontained in the call issued by the Acting Secretary of Agriculture onSeptember 17 for a hearinlon proposed extensions of the quarantine , tobe held in iashington October 8. Ohio and South Cnrolina art the twoStates specially to be dealt vitn, infestations of the boetkl having beenfound this year fur the first time at Cloveland and Columbus, in the for-mer, and at Charleston, in the latter. Findings of the beetle in Statesalready affected by the quorantinv, of which these have been several interritory outside the present regulated arees, Vare not mentioned in thecall for the hearing, but sosme of them were named in an accompanying De-partment press release. Specific reference was rido in the news storyto new infestations in Somerset and orcester Counties, Md. , Altoona andErie, Pa. , and Aloany, Ft. Ldward, Little Falls, and 'atkins Glen, N. Y.As some scouting for the corn borer was still under Way at the end ofSeptember, the Danartment has not given out lists of the places where thispest has been discovered for toe fir.;s tr.o durinK the season.Project activities of a s .-s i ee 'reat> reduced involume by the end of the month, as rewards both buroean corn borer andJapanese beetle field inspection and quarantine enforcement. In the east-ern section of borer control work, the last scouting was done in the con-cluding days of September, road patrols previously having been discontinued.Central section special sa out crens still were cov-ri--portions of Conaecti-cut, Delaware, and Lew Jersey, on the 30th, and f e hi:hway stations forvehicle inspection also were in operation, .iost of t-e latter, however, un-der orders to cease on October 3. eastern section scouts all had been wi th-drawn on the bth, exceIt three twov crows in %iscznsin. Highway stationsin the west mostly were abandoned on September 6, those in Indiana havingbeen kept on, however, until the 20th. Japanese beetle scouting nas entire-ly finished during the month, and furtaer lesseni' of the road inspect ionforces took place.Speci-lized Corn Lorer ActivitiesThe annual field day and corn borer conferen' e held on Sentember 17,at the Berkley farm of the Dceartcnnt, located near Tanlton, Mass., wasattended by more than 60 plant pest control ;ci'cials, who manifested keeninterest in the repeats presented by the thra )e1us cooperating in themaintenane of the property xr exroriwental .'d demuanstretion purposes.In the list of' speakara foe the rasion, 1The Plant Carontine and ControlAdm inistrat ion wss :resented X. 3* on:, 'ie?; a. s ryt , Assi tantChief; Mr. horthley, in cha-. :" siTuse n corn bowr: and .C71nese toetlework, and by Prof. C, 0. heed, of Oh wLtot' Univrsity, Collaborator. For the Bureau of antomoloay, talks were ma9de by 1r. Lower, Assistant Chief;

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-16-Dr. Larrimer, in charge Division of Cereal and Forage Insects; Mx. Caffrey,in charge European corn borer research; Tr. yonts, in charge of the Arline-ton field laboratory, and Dr. Patchelder, in charge Experiments at BerklcyFarm. Bureau of ATricultural Enjiaeering representatives who snoke includedMr. Gray, Chief of Division of Mechanical Equipmnt, and Mr. Merrill and Mr.Irons, of the Corn Borer Control eastern unit. Field demonstrations of con-trol machinery made during tie day, under the direction of Dr. Batcheldsr,M7. Merrill and Mr. Irons, were devoted to corn binder attachments and handhoes, for low cutting, sled-type stalk shavers, attachrents to plows forcmrlotu coverage of crop remnants and debris, and spraying equipment.High lights of the discussions were the encouraging results of the year'sexperiments on spray materials and moth baits and the success attained inadapting mechanical devices for control to New rnwland conditions. At theconclusion of the formal exercises, many of those present inspected heavilyinfested fields in the vicinity, where severe commercial damage was noted.Berkley farm was acquired by the Department late in 1929, and since has beenoperated by the three bureaus joining in corn borer control activities as ameans of concentrating, at one coint on the Atlantic seaboard, work such asit was felt could be more efficiently prosecuted if corlbined in this manner.Soil and terrain conditions on the farm are fairly typical of those generallyfound in New England, and the ravages of the corn borer have been parti-ular-ly injurious in the neighborhood of the property. Corn was grown in thissection by the Indians before the settlement therein of the English early in the seventeenth century, and the crop continued to be a major one until afterthe advent of the borer.The survey of commercial damage to crops from the European corn borerin sections of western New York, conducted for the Administration during thesecond week in September by Mr. Crossman and Kr. Stockbridge, of the SouthNorwalk offices, developed information in large measure confirming other re-ports indicating substantial losses to farmers, especially on sweet corn.In several of the counties visited, evidence was available showing seriousdamage, and it was clearly apparent that the growers of field corn for seed,and for grain and ensilage had suffered materially, even if not to as greatan extent as the producers of sweet corn. Tycical instances of losses in-curred from infestations of the borer were as follows: yefferson County--numerous complaints of damage made to county ar-ent; crop from one 6O-acreplot of sweet corn all put in silo or plowed under--none nicked for canninr;field of grain corn expected to yield 600 bushels will turn off 2,0 bushelsor less; Livingston County--loss of ears in 200 acres of sweet corn will ru'n20 per cent or more; 1Monroe County--farmers lost 50 to 60 ner cent of theears on sweet corn, planted for sunply of stores and roadside stands; insome cases damage so great crop was plowed under without attempt to harvest;Ontario County--in two omr:uities, grouns of farmers who planted 75 and 60acres of sweet corn, respectively, hava had a 40 cer cent loss of ears; aleading canning concern is writing the sweet ,an growers urging practice ofcontrol measures to prevent heavier ineestaties next season; Orleans County--one grower offered privilege of picking sweet corn at 10 cents a dozen, butpersons who tried it gave this up as a bad job; another was able to harvest

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-17-less than half of the anticipated cron, lecvinc tho rest for ho(, feed;'iayne County--one grower lost 1b oer cent of a 4C-aore sweet corn crop;another farmer, who raises corn for seed, estates his damage at 90 percent. Newspaper clippings and other advices also confirm reports of se-vere damage in Cattaraugus County, which P'r. Crissman and Mr. Stockbriduewere unable to visit on account of limited time.The report of the Joint Committee on the European corn borer, formu-lated at the annual meeting in Toledo, Ohio, Sentember 3C, stressed thespread and increase of the post in 1931 as indicating danger from 4t in1932 corresponding to the greater intensity of infestation--estimated astwo and a half times as much as last year and more than twice that of theyear before. Increase in borer population Ws reported as having been par-ticularly heavy this year in northwestern Ohio, south of the former centerof infestation along Lake Erie, and in the important sweet corn area of LaYork, along the southern and eastern shores of Take Ontario. Continued co-operation of farri ers, scientists, educators and State and Federal adminis-trative officials was declared to be justified by the fact that the borerpotentially is one of the most destructive crop pDsts ever introduced intoAmerica. Practice of control measures by farmers was commended and endorse-ment given to the research, regulatory, and educational activities of publicagencies. Appropriations by State and Federal governments of funds neededto maintain and, if necessary, to expand the research, educational, andquarantine programs, were earnestly recorziended. Support from all agenciesand individuals interested in the welfare of Amariean agrioultare was urgedfor thorough scouting, careful clean-up of isolated infested areas, andmaintenance of quarantines. Extension workers were asked to strengthen,expand, and coordinate their educational programs pertaining to the borer.Investigations should be continued, it was recited, especially in relationto parasites, insecticides, environment, irramune varieties, mechanical de-vices for control, feed values as affected by the borer, substitute crops,and influence on live stock production costs and quality. The JToint Comr-mittee represents the Ajaerican Association of Economic Entomologists, theAmerican Society of Agronomy, the American Society of Agricultural Engineers,the American Farm Economic Association, and the American Society of AnimalProduction.Low cutting of corn and removal of crop remnants with disposal accord-ing to recommended practices, followed last year by a goodly proportion ofRhode Island farmers, is credited by the State department of agriculture withan apparent reduction this season of from 46 to 24 in the figu-es showing thepercentage of corn borer infestation. In a survey of early sweet corn, from1 to 67 per cent of plants examined were found infested in the 29 towns co-ered. As high as :,600 plants in a town rere iasrected, the smallest numberhaving been 2'0. The greatest drop in intensity of infestation, from F to12 per cent, was in a county waire clean-up work was most complete in 193.The largest gain, on the other hand, from 40 to iC p-r -ont, ;as dv.lop din a county where there is said to have been lack of (ooperation in resaretto control measures.

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An investigation was conducted this month, at the request of Dr.Britton, Connecticut state entomologist, with respect to a reported 33 V3per cent borer infestation of corn in Wethersfield, the inquiry havingbeen directed from the Hartford office of the central section. Thile not as great as had been represented to Dr. Britton, the infestation was foundto be heavy--more so than ordinarily would be expected in view of the factthat the territory involved had been in the regulated area for only oneyear. Corn production is an important item in the agriculture aroundWethersfield, and farmers are greatly concerned by reason of the increasein borer population. Control measures, principally consisting of plowingunder stalks and crop remnants, were begun by some of them before the De-partment inspectors had finished their studies.Heavy infestations of the corn borer in Lima beans growing on LongIsland led to an intensive survey of conditions on tAe northeastern endof the Island, in the township of Southold, Suffolk County, by special scouts sent from the central section headquarters. Two crews of scoutscommenced work in the second week of September and concluded their inspec-tion in approximately ten days. Detailed counts were made in some 125fields to determine the percentage of plants infested and number of borersto the plant. Data also were collected as to dates of planting and acreage.All highway stations for inspection of vehicles were discontinued,in the central section of corn borer control, during the first ten days ofthe month, except the ones located in New York City. Scouting activitiesalso were ended in this territory, except with respect to a few crews en-gaged in special duty. Equipment employed in the field work has been col-lected in the South Norwalk warehouses for storage.Exclusive or Combination Japanese Beetle WorkFlower shows held within the Japanese beetle regulated area annuallypresent the necessity for protecting from infestation all certified nutflowers and plants brought to the show from classified establishments, andreturned to certified greenhouses after the exhibition. The most recentof these shows was the Second National Atlantio City Flower and Garden Pag-eant, held from September 4 to 10, inclusive. An inspector was stationedin the Atlantic City Auditorium, which housed the show, from August 31 untilall certified stock had been removed on September 11. Since the show washeld during the period of adult beetle flight, all cut flowers were individ-ually inspected before they were taken into the auditorium. Due to thecare with which the flowers had been grown and tended, not a single beetle was found among 115,000 cut flowers examined. A total of 11,779 pottedplants were received and returned under certification. One unusual featureof the show was a vegetable exhibit from Sutton's, of Reading, England.Five tons of vegetables and paraphernalia were included, the majority of thevegetables being of mammoth proportions. On the evening of September 8,thirty employees connected with the project in New Jersey attended the ex-hibition.

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-19-Pract Jil all of the sand pits in the 'nm.ick To7nshih area ofMiddlesex County, N. J., late in the month were released from the fumiga-tion requirements which had been enforced during Ihe period of adult beetleinfestation. These nits were found to be infested for the first time thisyear. Several nits in the southern section of New Jersey around Milvilleand Bridgeton were also similarly released frDm the treating rEquirements.Beetles were still found in reduced numbers in most -f the sand pits inthe vicinity of Mount Holly, in Burlington County, I. T. During the monthsof the ye-r when the pits arc free from adult beetles, the quarantine re-strictions impose few, if any, burdensome require-i!ents upon sand shippers,since all sand shipped is dug only ufter considerably more than the requiredtwelve inches of top soil have been stripped from the pit. While adultbeetles are present in the nits, however, all s-and imist be fumigated withcarbon disulphide before certification is granted.With the lifting of the farm nroducts quarantine, this Project hasagain, through Pennsylvania Secretary of Agriculture John A. McSparran,extended its thanks to the Delaware 2iver Joint -3ridge Commission for itscourtesy and cooperation in permitting the erection of the Philadelphiafarm products inspection platform on ground owned by the Commission at thesouth side of the bridge approach. Appreciation has also been expressedto the Director of Public ':lorks of Philadelphia for the assignment of apoliceman for duty at the platform. The Philadelphia inspection center isideally located, convenient to the t-m principal market districts of thecity. A portable, covered platform annually has been erected on this samesite. It would be extremely difficult to obtain a location equally as ac-cessible and free from traffic congestion as the one which has been gratu-itously offered for the project's use.Preliminary demonstrations to determine the Practicability of apply-ing lead arsenate to nursery plots and heeling-in areas by means of a spray,rather than in dry form with fertilizer distributors, were started duringthe month. An application by the spray method of 500 pounds of lead arsenateto one-third of an acre of nursery section was made in a nursery near Phila-delphia. The mixture was not washed into the ground by additional water fromthe sprayer, as has been the practice in treating isolated infestations.Rather the spray mixture was permitted to dry and the lead arsenate coatingthen harrowed into the ground. Grub diggings were aade before and subse-quent to the application. Sufficient observations and grub tests have notyet been made to determine the effectiveness of the n.w method.Surveys are now under way in Pennsylvania, NeV: jersey, Dela-ware,Maryland, and Virginia with a view to so subdividing nursery and greenhouseestablishments classified under the Jaranese beetle regulations that go upsof from 15 to 30 establishments, deindent unon the sizus and locations oithe concerns, may be allotted to a single nussery and greenhouse inspector.In a number of instances it may be feasible to pr>uanently station the in-spector in the subdivision under his immediate supervision, and permit himto operate somewhat independently of a project su-ofice. Maintenance ofcloser contact with all classified establishments should result in mutually

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-20-improved relations between the project and those affected by the quaran-tine restrictions.Road inspectors stationed at Osterhout, Pa,, intercepted duringthe month two uncertified shipments which, upon examination, were foundto contain Japanese beetle larvae. The first shipment consisted of five spruce trees carried by a motorist traveling from Vinelnnd, N. J., toOlean, N. Y. A single grub was removed from the soil about the roots ofone of the trees. The second shipment contained two potted plants, enroute from Philadelphia, Pa., to Penn Yan, N. Y. Five grubs were removedfrom the latter shipment. Quantities of uninfested articles were also in-tercepted and examined.Employees working under the jurisdiction of the New Jersey districtoffice at White Horse were recently given an examination based on the lec-ture courses held in connection with the third annual school for New Jerseyinspectors, on June 1 to 4. The examination included questions concerningparasites, traps, sprays, physiological reactions of the Japanese beetle topoison, chemical treatments, administrative practices, ecology, identifina-tion of nursery stock, and general entomological dataCards, 4" x 6" in size, and bearing a colored picture of the Japanesebeetle together with brief informative data concerning the Japanese beetlequarantine and the life history of the insect, were recently received fromthe Government Printing Office. Information on the card is applicable toscouting, trapping, and road inspection phases of the project, and next season they will be available for distribution by scouts, trap tenders, andquarantine line inspectors.Road inspection at the border of the generally infested area inPennsylvania was curtailed on September 1. Fourteen inspectors were retainedto guard eight of the principal highways. Arrangements were made to move, onOctober 1, all road inspectors in Pennsylvania and aryland to the boundaryof the lightly infested areas in these States and in Virginia. A few highwaystations in New York were still operating at the end of the month.Changes in the classified status, under the Jap.nese beetle quarantineregulations, of 13 nursery and greenhouse establishments were necessitated bythe discovery of infestations on their premises. Similar changes were madeduring August in 38 establishments. Ten of the establishments determined asinfested were located in the generally infostod area. The additional threeestablishments involved were located in the lightly infested areas.Lead arsenate treating of the infestations in Erie, Pa., began duringthe latter part of the month. Eight tons of treating material were purohanedfor this purpose by the Pennsylvania Department of Agriculture. Four sprayertanks and an International truck were dispatched from the South Norwalk head-quarters to perform the work.

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-21-Withdrawal from the field of all scout crews onerating outside theregulated areas was accomplished by 7enterib r 1. Sting of classifiednursery and greenhouse prcriises continued on a reduced scale, within theregulated areas, until Soptember 15.:.EXICAJ Fq TJIT FLYInspection of citrus groves in the lower ::-io ,rande Valley pro-ara-tory to the certification of the movement of the 1931-E crop was startedSeptember 2. During the month, b,94" instructions w ,re made. It was neces-sary to withhold 397 "Certificates of Grove Inspection" because of dropfruit or weedy condition of the orchards. It is customary for the growersto plant cover crops or to allow weeds to grow in the groves during the sum-mer months. These are usually turned under in late Aulust or early Septem-ber, and the groves :ivfn an irrigation. In turning these cover crops under,some fruit is always knocked off the trees. In addition to the fruit on theground from this source, the irrigations, together with heavy local showersduring September, caused an excessive splitting and dropping of all varietiesof oranges. In most cases the groves were immediately put in proper sanitarycondition following the inspector's visit.Following a conference of Federal and Gtate officials with representa-tives of the citrus industr .of the valley, Cunrntine 64 was r,,vised toallow the shipment of fruit from the quarAntin.ad are at any time in Septem-ber that it passed the State green fruit test. Previous to this revision nofruit was allowed to leave th. valley until ictosor I. However, it was holdthat the effectiveness of the ho3t-frec period vms at an end when the fruitwas ripe enough to puss the acid sugar ratio and juice control tests of theState green fruit law, and that there was no ento-ological justification for requiring the fruit to remain on the trees until October 1. Shipment of fmitdid not begin under this ruling ; until about the L-Othi of the month, after "hichthe movement gained momentum resulting in the shipment of 71 oars of fruit byrail and approximately 12 ears by truck.Three adult fruit flies nere c .a ht in the trans in Iatamoros duringthe month. Due to the lihtnezs of the infest iion and to tr fact that thetrees were developing a coat of sooty mold, the spraying operations were dis-continued in that city on the 15th. AnastrerhL larvae were found in apples,graves, oranges, peaches, pears, and quinces reaching the market in hatamoros. Peaches from Ramos Arispe, Coahuila, w,'re found to be most heavily infested.As a further clue to the dissemination of fruit flies in >ataamoros, it waslearned during tie month from Cr. "onzales, i o, e yard adult flies weretaken on July 31st, that prior to that date ha had been given several sa otfruits from a promise on Induoendencia Street and on opening thosc fruit theywere found to be wormy and consequently were thrown out in the yard to the

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chickens.Very few technical violations were encountered dur in the month.Three packers were found to hle cut fruit from -roves without having firstsecured p isiOn fro tno district ins-ctors. Considering; the fact thatmany of tie fiold foremen for thi racking plants are new men and that thecompetition for fruit a. the opening: of tne season is always keen, it isgratifying tnh t no -reater violation of this kind was enoountered.The importance of the collection b. the ins-ectors of spcimens foridentification was str-ssed throughout the month with the result that 1,434collections, totaling 8,561 snecimiens, 7e;e subitted b., the inspectors.Of these 123 -era species of Anastrepha taken in :.ata;oros. All collectionsin Texas were material other ;>n fruit flyP. A. Joidale, who for the past two and a half years has administeredthe Mexican fruit fly project from the Atlanta rnd Orlando offices, returnedto Harlingen Septemoer l to resume personal direction of tne work.PINK 75OIL7'OhDuring the 1031 crop season thcre will be 130 [,ins in the regulatedarea, practically all of -:hich arc now in operation. This is a reduction ofabout 15 gins as conrperei to l1st season. Due to the present economic situ-ation, the larger companies have closed some of their gins, especially wherethere was more than one in the locality. At the end of September, 19,040bales had been ginned. This is just onehiird of the total ginnin s to thesame date last season, and is due to a number of reasons. The cotton eropis quite a bit later this season than usual. Also, the Price naid for pick-ing, about 401 r(ur hundred, dous not seem to bs attracting very many riekers;in fact, several districts are already rerortin' a shortage. As a result theowners and tenants are havinto pick lcrgH part of tho :rop themselves.The slow ginnine seaso% has nturally delay d te operation of theoil mills. There will be 17 rills to operate this sUason, about half ofwhich have already begun. These mills hive received 6,751 tons of seed,3,412 tons of which heve already been milled. Most of these mills are nowequipped with the roller system for trentin' sseond-ut liters, 390 balesof which have been produced to date. The re;:aining mills are waiting unt ila sufficient supply of 6ufld is on hnd to ieure steady operation.Only two fulmiration plants were in perntion in September, these beInlocated in Tucson and Phoenix, Aria. These two plants fumigated 2,21 belesof lint and 586 bales of linters, making total fumi ions to date of 3,748bales of lint and 1,727 balcs of linters. The plant at ALpine, Thx., willbegin operations during the comin.: moth. The plant at Fabens, Tex., will

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-23-also operate occasionally during the coming season. In addition to thetwo fumigation pl-nts, there were four corrpresses in operation, at which3,034 bales of lint and 10 bales of linters, produced in lightly infest-ed areas, were compressed.At the end of September there were 35 gin trash machines in oper-Ition, 14 of which are located within the regulated are and 21 outside.A total of 73,469 1/3 bushels of trash was examined outside the regulatedarea in TfOXas, Arizona, California, Louisiana, and Mexico. The resultswere all negative. ithin the regulated area, 6501 bushels of trash wereexamined in Tixas, 7,SK7bushels in Arizona, and 621! bushels in NewMexico, or a total of 9,079Q bushels. In the Big Bend section of Texas,ll,772 specimens of the pink bollworm have been found to date, or anaverage of 737 worms par bushel of trash examined. Two new findings weremade during September. Trash from the Fort Quitman gin, in the lowerpart of Iudspeth County, yielded 8 specimens. Thz other finding g was inthe Salt liver Valley of Arizona, at the Southern Avenue Gin, near Phoenix.A single specimen was taken from 4 bushels of trash on September 25. Thistrash was the accumulation of the Cinning of 7 bales of cotton produced in6 different fields. Trash had previously been examined from 5 of thesefields, and since the finding additional trash has been exam ined from thefields with negative results. it -.ill probably be ne-essary to await thesecond picking in order to determine definitely which of the fields isinfested. Practically all of the machines are no.! able to secure suffi-cient trash for steady operation. The mahinen within the regulated areahave thus far been able to examine all of the first cleaner trash.The regular weekly infestation counts from 20 selected fields inMaricopa County and 3 in Pinal County, Ariz. , have been continued. Due tothe increase in regulatory activities, it has neen necessary to reduce thenumber of bolls examined in theo Pinal County fields from 3Y0 to ion ea'h.During September, 29,700 bolls were exa'ained with negative results. Inaddition, 1,00 bolls were examined fromt oth r fields which were infestedlast season, also with nesativo results. A rather thorough field inspec-tion was made throughout the Parker Valley of Arizona. These inspectionswere made by gin trash machine men duin g the time when no gin trash wasavailable for inspection. Te gin tra:h machine in the Yuma Valley ofArizona developed mechanical trouble, end while thi was being repairedthe men devoted their tihe to field inspection, 7!; man-days having been putin with negative results. Due to the lecal showers retarding ginning, thegin trash men in the Safford Valley of Arizona were ilso ble to spend sometime making field inspe tions, but ao ci nns of the pink bollworm were dis-covered.There was a oon:ider'bl in rense the traffic at the 4 road stn-tions during the month 01' Set ember, 11 ,1i ears having be n nspc'ted and 173 conf'i scations irdle .The ma teial conf i at d conr i sted of 59 11 0 letsof cottonseed and seed cotton, B cotton stalks wit! bolls attached, P5 risksacks, 25 pillows, quilts, and mattresses made of seed cotton, and B misel-laneous nrticLes. On Sertermber 9, 1 specimun of the pink bollworm was inter -cepted at the Van Horn, Tex., road station. This srecimon was found in

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two lots of seed cotton taken from a pick sack ehich had been used atPresidio, Tex.During the 1931 season, 30,603 cars have been inspected, fromwhich 258 confiscations have been made.PREVENTING SPREAD OF LIOTHISDuring the month of September a considerable force of men continuedwith the overhauling and placing of office furniture which had been trans-ferred to Greenfield, Mass., from Melrose, Mass. Considerable shop equip-mont also was transferred to the new repair shop from bound Brook, N. J.The construction of racks, shelving, and bins in the repair shopprogressed rapidly so that before the close of the month it was possible tocommence arranging and storing a large amount of material used regularly inthe field and for the repair and maintenance of motor equipment and spray-ing apparatus. Several pieces of shop machinery were set up and put inoperation. Some delay was encountered in akin< necessary repairs to motorvehicles brought in by the field supervisors, but field supplies were prCmpt-ly dispatched to the field personnel.Thirteen Federal scouting crews were engaged throughout September inthe examination of woodland in the towns of Ch:sterfield, Crown Point, Es-sex, Ticonderoga, Westport, and Villsboro, N. Y. Three of the above towns,namely, Essex, estport, and >illsboro, were completed during the month.The New York Conservation Department conducted scouting work in thefollowing Hudson River Valloy towns: Austerlitz, Canaan, Copakc, iillsdale,and LaGrange, N. Y., the first two of these tons being completed during themonth. No infestations were located by either the Federal or State crew; inany of the foregoing toTrns.New York Conservation forces also scouted all of the nurseries in theknown infested area -entering around Roslyn, L. I., 'ith negative results.Two infestations were found, however, in Nassau County--one in the town ofNorth Hempstead and the other in the town of Oyster Bay. It is impossibleat this time to determine the size or extent of either infestation as noclean-up work has yet been attempted. Six State crews are now working inthe northern portion of Oyster bay Town, N 7.State of Connectimut cri eis woro working during Sentember in the townsof Colebrook, East Hampton, Enfield, Portland, 'nd Suffield. A small amrountof work conducted in Wethersfield, Conn. , by State men resulted in the dis-covery of a gipsy moth infestation consisting of sorie 4,000 egg masses.

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This town lies just south o1 hartford, Conn. , end all of the towns scoutedby the State of Connecticut forces are east of the barrier zone.In addition to the work conducted by the Federal forces in the Adir-ondack region during the month, a small for-e of men were engaged in theinspection of wooded are s in the eastern section of Bridgewater Tonship,N. J. No signs of the gipsy moth were found.During -Stember the necessary inspect ion work in New Jersey increasedsomewhat. One hundred and thirty-six lots of nursery stock and forest prod-ucts were inspected and certified for ship-ent. The material inspected wasfound to be free 1'roni the gipsy motn.On Long Island the insnsction work at the quarantined nurseries inNassau County also increased materially--so much so that it was necessary totransfer another san to Long Island to assist i i this work. One hundred andthirty-four lots of nursery stock were inspected and certified for shipnment.No infestation of the gipsy moth was found.Demand for articles whicn seize popular fancy often provides addition-al inspection work. From the very nature of the demand, spoad is of primeimportance as the producers of the finished articols desire to get them onthe market while the call is at its height. Often such articles are producedor shipped by individuals who have never handled any materials the shipmentof which is regulate by quarantine, and who, therefore, have little if any knowledge of the requirements. As it is recognized by the inspectors thatalmost anything may be shipped at any time, they have to be on the lookoutfor new shippers and newv products so that the quqr intine may be properly e-forced, and that no uninsnpcted and uncertified shipments are transported.The responsibility for mainte ining vi-ilan-e cannot be placed entirely on theshoulders of the agents of transportation, though it can be said that theyhave proven many tims thet they are alort.For the last year or so miniature gardens constructed in ornsanentaldishes of various types, termed "dish gardens," have been exceedingly popular.These are made of pebbles ovrlaid on soil in which aro planted a few particu-lar species of small plants. Smell rough pieces of stontu, small clay figures,bridges, and other structures are added, and the whol. arranged artisticallyafter the form of Japanese gardens. The plants used are all greenhouse grownand are not in the classes for which inspection is required. Since the marketfor this ornamental indoor garden has developed, there has been a market forlocally produced aterials which can be used for their construction. A numberof shipments of asbestos rock have been riade out of the qurantined area toflorists, and, of course, inspection was required for this rock. Rock of thistype, after it has been exposd to thu elonnts for som time, takes on theappearance of age and, besides, it has the necessary roughness to insure lackof formality; in addition, it c:n be brokcin into any desired size. In thepreparation of the dish gardens too much drabness is to be avoided and, torelieve this, small touches of color are added. Abestos rock t kus color

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-26-readily and producers have been able to dye it with various colors.Ordinarily one does not connect the practice of medicine with quarantine enforcement, but, at least in a certain sense, the former isresponsible for some activity on the part of the inspectors. Bark fromcertain species of trees and shrubs is used to a de.7ee in the preparationof specific remedies, and as this bark is a natural product of the woods,it has to be inspected and certified.Shipments of lumber from te quarantined area are usually confinedto carload or smaller shipments, but from time to time there are calls fromseaport towns to inspect larger lots which are to be transported by water.The inspection of these barge loads is a considerable undertaking, as eachbarge has a capacity of from 25 to 30 carloads. Lumber moved in this wayhas to be inspected with all of tne speed possible without the sacrificingof carefulness. The loading of such barges is accomplished just as rapid-ly as possible. Loading "rews are as numerous as can be accor oJ.e.' adthe inspection has to keep ahead of the loaders. For such rush 3o0s thedistrict inspectors have to request extra men, as it would be impossible forthem to attend to this work unaided.During the month of Sertember, 12 touri t eams in ,Issachusetts and10 in Connecticut were examined for gipsy moth infestations. None wss foundinfested in Connecticut, but in 1.assachuaetts 9 of the 12 camp sites examinedwere infested with this insect. The inspectors notified the property ownersin each instance and advised them to eradicate the infestation as soon aspossible. Additional inspections will be made before the opening of the nexttourist season.Rattlesnakes infest certain restricted sections of the barrier zone,particularly in the mountainous regions of southwestern Massachusetts, north-western Connecticut, and adjoining areas in New York skirting the HudsonValley. New York State scouting crews working in one portion of Conake Tow,N. Y., early in September encountered a number of these snakes, killing fromone to four nearly every day. It was, therefore, deemed advisable to teno-rarily transfer tle men from this area so badly infested with these venomoussnakes, but work will be resumed there as soon 'is -old weather sets in.During September the greater part of the assembling cages distributedearlier in the barrier zone and towns to the east of it were taken in, sothat very shortly it will be possible to report In greater detail the resultsof this work,Seventy-five colletions of miscellaneous insects, onof which was ofsatin moths, were madu during the month ad forwarded to the --:y Voth Labor-atory at Lelrose Highlands, Lass. All of Je collot :1;e made by fieldmen incidental to their regular work.

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-27The street numbers of the various buildings occupied by thc 7ipsymoth project in Greenfield, :ass., are as ollows:Office -20 Sanderson Street.Pepair Shop (Building No. 5), 38 Haywood Street.Storage Building No. 3, No. 33 Piddell Street.Storage Building No. 3A, No. 36 Piddell Street.

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