The Insect pest survey bulletin


Material Information

The Insect pest survey bulletin
Physical Description:
v. : maps ; 26 cm.
United States -- Bureau of Entomology
United States -- Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine
Bureau of Entomology, U.S. Dept. of Agriculture
Place of Publication:
Washington, D.C.
Publication Date:
monthly, mar-nov. plus annual[1926-]
monthly, apr.-nov.[ former 1922-1925]
monthly, may-nov.[ former 1921]


Subjects / Keywords:
Insect pests -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Entomology -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
serial   ( sobekcm )
federal government publication   ( marcgt )


Dates or Sequential Designation:
Vol. 1, no. 1 (May 1, 1921)-
Numbering Peculiarities:
Vol. 14, no.9 issued only as a supplement..
Issuing Body:
Vols. for May 1, 1921-1934, issued by the U.S. Bureau of Entomology; 1935- by the U.S. Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine.
General Note:
"A monthly review of entomological conditions throughout the United States" (varies slightly).
General Note:
Includes annual summary starting in 1926.
General Note:
Includes some supplements.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 030368280
oclc - 08816534
lccn - sn 86033699
lcc - QL1 .I56
System ID:

Full Text



Volume 17 Summary for 1937 Number 10








Digitized by the Internet Archive
in 2013


Vol. 17 Summary for 1937 No. 10


The winter of 1936-37 resembled the preceding year in
spectacular weather. December was wet and.,warm, In January
extremes in temperature occurred in different sections of the
country, being from 100 to 140 above normal east of the Missis-
sippi River and from 100 to 20 colder than normal in the West.
The month was abnormally wet over the eastern half of the country,
the heavier rains culminating in the Ohio Valley, whereas it was
relatively dry in the West, except in the Great Basin and in cen-
tral California.

February weather, as a whole, registered near normal, be-
ing a little warm in the Lake Region and 'the Northeast and a
little colder than normal in tho West. Precipitation was ab-
normally heavy 'from the Rocky Mountains westward and in North
Dakota, South Dakota, Minnesota, Wisconsin, and the extreme
Southeast; elsewhere the rainfall was deficient. In March the
situation in regard to temperature was reversed but rainfall
continued the same,' being abundant in the West and deficient in
the East.

Temperature in April averaged remarkably near normal
everywhere. Precipitation was above normal generally in the
East and in the far Northwest, while a large area in the South-
west and much of the western plains had very little rain.

May as a whole was warmer than usual, but in the Ohio
Valley and the Lake States the weather was abnormally cold,
which, accompanied by rainfall, had an important bearing on in-
sect abundance in these areas. Rainfall was below normal over
much of the country, although some scattered States had more
than normal.

In June the weather was decidedly cool during the first
half and abnormally warm the latter hnlf. PRainfall was above
normal generally in most sections.





July had moderate temperatures over the Southern and Eastern
States, abnormally warm weather in Central and northern Midwestern
States. The rainfall was variable, with a tendency to dryness
generally east of the Rockies but comparatively heavy from eastern
Montana and Wyoming southwestward, where in some localities it was
four times the normal amount.

August was abnormally warm except in the Pacific Northwest,
where it was 2 cooler than normal. Precipitation was from moder-
ate to heavy over much of the eastern part of the country, al-
though there were local areas where rainfall was deficient,
especially in the central part of the Missisippi Valley and the
western part.of the Ohio Valley. Rainfall was, markedly deficient
in most parts from the central d southwestern 5reat Plains to
the Pacific, but in the Pacific Northwest it was well above normal.

September and October were cooler than normal east of the
Mississippi' Valley,' particularly in the Ohio Valley and some
Middle Atlantic sections, while it was warmer than usual gener-
ally west of the Mississippi. Precipitation in September was
variable, being excessive in some places and deficient in others.
Precipitation in October was heavy east-of the-Mississippi,
some sections having from two to three times the normal amount.
West of the Mississippi the distribution of rainfall was ir-
regular, with a general tendency to dryness.

The effect of climatic conditions on ins-ect development
became evident the middle of December, when the fall canker-
worm;,wasPobserved mating on Long Island. Other examples of
occurrences somewhat spectacular, although of no real importance,
were grasshoppers hopping about in New Hampshire the third week
in February, activity of moths in the northeastern part of the
country all winter during the milder periods, and the hatching
of eggs of the eastern tent caterpillar in southeastern New
York late in February., In the Southern States many species of
insects continued uninterrupted reproduction and others came
out of hibernation and fed from time to time. The tomato pin-
worm passed the winter out of doors in the Philadelphia area;
however, there were no reports of infestation in the summer.

The cool, rainy weather in April and May had an im-
portant effect on abundance of the chinch bug, in the eastern
part of its range. Emergence from hibernation was delayed and
when the bugs came out they either died or failed to reproduce
to any great extent. In the western part of their range, how-
ever, the weather was drier and damage was caused in some
localities. Weather conditions late in the summer and fall


were favorable to a decided recovery of chinch bug populations
from the spring set-back.

On the whole, grasshoppers were favored,by the weather.
Although the cool, rainy spring in some parts of the infested
area prolonged the hatching period and retarded nynphal develop-
ment, it also interfered with the baiting program. Severe in-
festations occurred in all of the infested area. Rainfall during
the summer was sufficient to produce more ample vegetation than
in the preceding dry years; consequently, the effect of grass-
hopper feeding on crops was, in general, less concentrated and
less severe. Abundant food, together with the unusual warmth
from late in the summer until late in the fall, prolonged grass-
hopper activities and enabled Melanoplus mexicanus Sauss. to
produce a partial second generation in the West Central and
Rocky Mountain States. Tho e 's laid by this generation ma-
terially increased the population in prospect for 1939.


GIASSHOrP ERS ,., . ..

-. In Michigan, Illinois, Missouri,, Arkansas., 'and Texas and
in all of the States of these, grasshopper infestations were
from light to very severe,,during the summer. The most severe -and
widespread damage; was done. to small grains in eight counties in
the northeastern quarter of. South Dakota and to, crop and-range
grasses throughout the": southeastern:quarter of Colorado. Severe
damage was done to cotton in Texas and Oklahoma, and spotted but
severe injury occurred, in'-corn, alfalfa, and small grains in other
States. Over the entire area the total crop loss was between one-
half and one-third of the loss in 1936.' A few States outside of
this area,/including Indiana, Tennessee, Alabama, 'Mississippi, and
Florida, reported increased numbers of grasshoppers or minor out-
breaks. '

In the great spring- and winter-sheat areas of the Plains
States Melanoplus mexicanus Sauss. was by far the most important
species. In areas of greater rainfall, in the Corn Belt, and
where farming is more diversified, other species such as M.differ-
entialis Thos., M. bivittatus Say, and M. femuezrubrum Deg., equale.d
or outnumbered 'A. mexicanus in many places. Camnula pellucida Scudd.
was dominant in northern Michigan and Wisconsin and in parts of
Oregon and California. In many parts of the area M. Packardii Scudd.
was also recorded as being numerous and important. For the first
time in history, M. differentials was dominant in Richland County,
in the eastern part of Montana. Before 1932 there had been no
record of this species in the State. It spread from the south-
western quarter of North Dakota east of the Badlands, where it was
numerous in 1931, 1932, and 1933.

Another important feature of the outbreaks during the last
Years has been the increase in numbers and importance of M.
femur-rubrum in practically all of the States and the development
of this species in a specific area embracing north-central and
northeastern Iowa, south-central md southeastern Minnesota, the
southern half of Wisconsin, and part of northern Illinois. A
spectacular feature was the outbreak of Dissosteira lonipennis
Those. in southeastern Colorado, the extreme western part of Kansas,
the Panhandle of Oklahoma, the northwestern counties of the Pan-
handle of Texas, and the extreme northeastern counties of New
Mexico. This year occurred the worst outbreak in the history of
the area and the almost complete destruction of small grains by
M. mexicanus in the eight counties in northeastern South Dakota,
after the fall survey in 1936 had indicated that th, re would be
little trouble from grasshoppers in 1937. If more stops had been

.-".-'' ..


~9 ii~




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made in each of these counties during the survey the scattered but
dense infestations would no doubt have been picked up.

There was some hatching of M. mexicanus and M. bivittatus
before May 1, and as early as February 15 in southern Arizona. In
many areas spring rains and cool weather delayed hatching from 2 to
3 weeks. M. differentialis and M. femur-rubrum were from 2 to 3
weeks later in hatching than were M. mexicanus and M. bivittatus.
Over the entire area the hatching of eggs of several species was
prolonged in many localities up to the middle of July or the first
of August. In Colorado and elsewhere D. longipennis started hatching
the second week in May. Late. hatching of some species in parts of
the area delayed the necessity of control campnaiins into the latter
part of July. This was caused by .cool rainy weather in June and
July. Ninety percent of the poisoned bait used in Minnesota was
put out after July 26. Over the entire area early rains delayed
grasshopper activity. In general, first injury began after the
middle of May and the worst damage occurred in June to. small grains
and to alfalfa after the first cutting, also to sealing alfalfa.
Damage to corn came later in July.

A nymphal survey in May and June showed newly hatched nymphs
to be congregated in restricted areas. On the range in Colorado
the third week of May, D. longipennis was in areas of 40 to 320
acres, at the rate of from 50 to 500 hoppers per square foot. They
were in the first instar and were already migrating and spreading.
The last week of May heavy concentrations of M. mexicanus and M.
byittatus occurred in alfalfa, draws, pasture, creek bottoms,
stubble, and field margins. Some of these concentrations ran from
300 to 500 per square yard. At this time there had been no general
movement of these species to other crops from the breeding grounds.
In South (Dakota only 1 out of 5 to 10 fields near Huron were at
first involved, because the infestations were spotted. At the be-
ginning well-tilled fields were free from hoppers. These spotted
infestations were so dense that their spread took in a wide area
adjacent to their original hatching ground. One quarter-section
of seedling alfalfa in this area had a population of 250 per square
yard all over the field. This infestation alone could have taken
all of the grain in g or 10 sections.

In both the Huron and Winner areas of South Dakota many of
the grassy headlands suitable for egg deposition of M. differentialis
and M. bivittatud had been covered by blown soil and changed to
hummocks of sandy loam, covered with Russian-thistle, a condition
well suited for egg deposition by M. mexicanus, aid in these places
this species hatched in considerable numbers. An environment suit-
able to certain species had been changed to one suitable to another
species. Most of the grain fields destroyed in the eight counties
in South Dakota started blowing as soon as the hoppers had taken off
the grain.

A period of cold rainy weather during the first 3 weeks of
TJuie retarded nymphal development and in northern Iowa, northern
Montana, northern andanortheastern. Wyoming,. and elsewhere destroyed
from 25 to 50 percent of the newly hatched nymphs. It also delayed
and seriously interfered with the baiting programs. Prolonged hatch-
ing aggravates the situation by increasing the number of applications
necessary. In some instances fir'st-instar hoppers of M. m6xicanus
were found together in the same field with the gravid females,

The first record- of adults was from southwestern Oklahoma,
where 50'percent of the M. mexicanus were adult by May 22. Ovipo-
sition started July 1, which permitted a second: generation of this
species to begin hatching on July 20, with adults appearing, again on
September 1. Egg deposition by this second generation began. on
September 20 and continued into November. In South Dako.ta, Nebraska,
Kansas, Oklahoma, Missouri, and Iowa, this second generation occurred
at the rate of 15 to 100 per square yard ir alfalfaand-.stubble and
along field margins. These infestations actually developed into
secondary outbreaks, being, especially injurious to winter wheat and
necessitating control measures to protect crops, -

By June 20 there were a few adults of M. bivittatus together
with all instars, but M. differentialis and M. femur-rubrum were
still in the first three instars. M. bivittatus started ovipositing
after July 15 and M. differentialis about September 1. ;From then on
until the middle of November there was an'almost'unbroken favorable
period for egg deposition in most of the grasshopper area. There
was also plenty of green food for the development of eggs within the
females. During the summer there were fewer flights recorded than
in 1936, which was- .probably due to the cooler weather and better food
conditions. In the D. longipennis areas this species.was migrating
by foot or wing from hatching until 'the females had settled down to
egg deposition. This involved some 3 or 4 million acres in Colorado
alone. M. mexicanus spread over 33 counties east of the Missouri
River in South Dakota from the 3 counties and local infestations;
however, most of the migrations were from breeding grounds -to adja-
Scent crop.

Generally speaking, disease, parasites, and egg predators did
not reduce populations to any great degree during the summer. In
some areas sarcophagid flies were a. minor factor.. During the. egg
survey bee fly, blister beetle, and carabid larvae were numerous,
attacking from 40 to 70 percent of the egg pods in some places in
Missouri, Iowa," id Minnesota. Fungus disease occurred only

Eggs of -all species were, ii. general, easily found and were
well distributed over the entire area last fall. In Montana, Wyoming,
Illinois, Kansas, and Nebraska infestations are equal to or slightly
less than last year. In many of the other States infestations are

* **';* _


more widespread and more severe than they have been for several years.
They have increased in northern Michigan, throughout Wisconsin, and in
the southern half-of Minnesota. The most severe. infestations were
found in Iowa, in northern Missouri, and east of the Missouri River in
North Dakota and South Dakota. Egg pods of M. differentialis numbered
from 25 to 100 per square foot in many places in Iowa and Missouri.

One of the most-startling facts was the egg pods,
mostly M. mexicanus, at every one of 266 stops made in 33 counties east
of the Missouri River in South Dakota. At 264 stops 5 square-foot
samples were taken from within the field, or 1,320 square-foot s.nples
altogether. Egg pods-were found in 1,238 of them, or 15 out of 16
square-foot samples' contained egg pods. M. femur-rubrum ran from 4 or
S5 pods per square foot in upland pastures to 6 or 8 in the bottomlands
in southern Wisconsin.

Infestations are higher in the delta country of Arkansa-s, over
most of Oklahoma, and in 60 to 80 counties in northwestern, northern,
and central Texas. In northeastern New Mexico there are 400 or 500
egg beds of D. longipennis from 4 to 1C acres in size, with pods
numbering 8 to 30 per square foot. The average infestation in Arizona
is about the same as last year, although there have been shifts with-
in the State.

In Colorado D. longipennis still commands the most interest.
Last spring it was estimated that 3,400,000 acres in:". counties were
infested at hatching time. This fall it is estimated that there are
4,025,760 acres of breeding areas in 12 counties, only 4 of which were
included in last.year's egg beds. There are 5 new counties having in-
festations of D. longipennis and 4 of the counties infested last year
are not listed this year. This was due to the great migrations of
adults and the infested area is almost directly west of where D. long
ipennis hatched last spring. Other species are also abundant in the
irrigated sections of the State.

Areas in Colorado infested with D. lon7ipennis







3Baca -------- 700,000
Bent---------- 100,000
Cheyenne------ -300,000
Kit Carson----: 100,000
Las Animas --- 1,000,000
Lincoln------ :-- g800,000
Prowers----- :- 100,000

Total"------ -3, 00

Elbert -- --207,360
El Paso ----- 76F, 000
Pueblo----: ----- 640,000
Huerfano----!---'... 640,000
Lns Animas--_---1,000,O00
Kiow -------: 64,000oo
Lincoln-.--- 256,000
Crowley----- 134,000
Otero------- 250,000
r.nnt : ------ 4,000
Custer-------- 32,000
Pnt-------- 5.000
Total ------ 4,025,760


-59 8-

The adult grasshopper survey indi-cates that there will be some out-
breaks in Idaho, Utah, amd Washington. "Grasshoppers are on the in-
crease in widely separated parts of' Oregon threatening serious damage
in 1938. The egg survey in California indicated a material reduction
of grasshoppers for the State as a whole from the numbers prevailing
last year. Parasites have taken considerable toll of the grasshopper

Last summer and fall 80,000 tons of bait were used in all the
States for grasshopper control. All indications from the fall survey
point to the fact that there. will be needed twice that much to protect
crops from hoppers in all the States in 1938. (R. L.- .Shotwell, Bureau
of Entomology and Plant Quarantine, U. S. D. A.)


Mormon cricket infestations were reported for 1937 from -11
States, with a total of 19,273,242 acres in 105 counties, as follows:


SCounties : Acres infested

California------------ --------r
North Dakota-----------------
South Dakota---------------
Total-------------- --------

Number cres
1 : ?
2 : 522,000
17 : 1,046,229
39 : 7,487,695 -
: ? .


S 230,000
5,700,000 ?
* 64o,ooo

Montana, with 39 infested counties out of a total of 56,
showed the largest increase, over 1936, but the 1937 outbreak in
Wyoming was much more severe than that of 1936. Definite decreases
in the size and intensity of outbreaks were noted in Colorado Pnd
eastern Idaho. Crickets were reported as doing damage to crops for
the first time in North Dakota and South Dakota. These outbreaks are
widely scattered at present and, although not serious now, may develop
into serious proportions unless steps are taken to control them. In
the remaining States that showed infestations in 1936 little or no
change was noted in the size of the infestations, although the in-
tensity was decreased somewhat in most States. No definite informa-
tion was received from California thislyear, but it is understood

U<- M


that crickets were present again in small numbers in Modoc County.

Crop losses were reported as follows: Idaho, slight;
North Dakota, slight; Montana, $500,550; Oregon, $4,350; South
Dakota, slight; Utah, $10,000; Washington, $50; Wyoming, $250,873;
making a total of $89g,621. Campaigns were conducted in Colorado,
Montana, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming under the direction
of the Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine and the cooperating
States. State W. P. A. control projects were carried on in Idaho and
Nevada. Reports from the 9 States indicate that it will be necessary
to treat 454,500 "cricket acres" in 1939 in order to save crops.
(F. T. Cowan, Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine, U. S. D. A.)


Hibernating chinch bugs were present in moderate to very a-
hundant numbers during the winter and spring of 1937 in an area ex-
tending from southeastern Nebraska and eastern Kansas, south to the
Kansas-Oklahoma line, across southern Iowa aid northern Missouri and
the central part of Illinois into western Indiana. A generally lighter
infested region extended around this area and included northeastern
Oklahoma, southern Missouri, eastern Kansas, south-central Iowa, most
of Illinois except the extreme northern and southern parts of the State,
Indiana except the extreme southern part, and two-thirds of Ohio in the
northwestern and central parts of the State. The extreme southern end
of Michigan also came within this lighter infested area. Over most of
this area winter mortality was more nearly normal, as opposed to the
unusual, heavy mortality during the winter of 1935-36.- However, a
heavy winter mortality in southern Iowa was reported, which largely
removed the rather threatening infestation in that area. Over most of
the area spring was cool and wet, resulting in a gradual and delayed
emergence from winter hibernation. This belated emergence, combined
with the heavy rains in June and July, reduced the expected, rather
generally moderate-to-heavy infestation to local, spotted outbreaks.
The June and July rains were of more general distribution in most of
Indiana and Ohio, therefore the infestation was reduced to a minimum
in three States. Farther west from Illinois, across southern Iowa
and Missouri into eastern Kansas and Oklahoma, the spring and summer
rains were local. This caused some moderate-to-heavy infestation and
corresponding injury to small grains and adjacent cornr. by the first-
brood nymphs. These outbreaks were very spotted and local, covering
in some cases half a county. Considerable damage by first-brood bugs
was also reported from the north-central part of South Carolina and
several localities in central and southern Mississippi. In most of
the infested area the weather in late summer and fall was dry and
favorable to the development of the second brood. This comeback of
the second brood over much of the area resulted in some local da.-age
to corn.

The extent of the moderate-to-heavy infested chinch bug area
*~ U 1.:. KANT BOA RV


seems, from available reports, to be from western Indiana across
central Illinois, with the more generally and. heavily infested area
occupying the central part of the latter State, the southern two
tiers of counties:itj Iowa, most of the northern part-of Missouri,
southeastern Nebraska, eastern Kansas and northeastern Oklahoman.
There is some westward extension of.the infested area in Kansas aid
southwest into central Oklahoma. There is a general increase in
ab-zndance'of chinch bugs, especially in.Oklahoma, where both the in-
-.tensity and. extent of the infestation is the most severe in .several
: years. The infestation" throughout most of the entire area is very
spotted. This indicates the possibility of spotted local moderate-
to-severeoutbreaks occurring over the area, in case of .favorable
'* weather during the spring of- 193g, with, restricted -slighit-to-moder-
ate outbreaks in case of unfavorable weather. This survey is based
principally on data supplied by the State entomologists of the States
concerned, and on supplementary data from the stations of the Bureau
of 5ntom6logy and Plant' Quarantine in the States. (C. Benton, Bureau
of Entomology and Plant Quarantine, -U. S..-D. A.) .


At harvest time infestations'were extremely light in Nebraska,
Kansas', and Oklahoma, and practically no material damage occurred.
The same was generally truer of Iowa, except the northeastern part,
and of Missouri, northern Illinois, central and northeastern Indiana,,
Ohio, Kentucky, Tennessee, western and central Pennsylvania, Maryland,
Delawared, Virginia, anid North Carolina. In these States, however,
certain scattered fields contained enough infestation to -be a possi-
ble source of local trouble in the fall of 1937. The fly was un-
usually abundant in some of the more northern parts of its range,
including northeastern Iowa, southern Wisconsin, and south-central
Michigan. nther areas containing moderate-to-severe infestation,
in which there was real danger of an outbreak if weather should
favor fly activity, were southern Illinois, northwestern and southern
Indiana, and southeastern Pennsylvania.

There was some volunteer wheat in southeastern Pennsylvania
and southern Missouri, in which small supplementary broods of fly
developed and emerged to infest sown-wheat. Throughout the remainder
of the area under consideration there .was not much growth of volun-
teer, owing to unfavorable weather.

In Nebraska, Kansas, Missouri, north of the Missouri River,
and Oklahoma fall infestations appeared to be generally light and
scattered. In eastern Pennsylvania, northwestern Ohio, Iowa, and
in Missouri south of the Missouri River, the fly seems to be in-
creasing in abundance.'.

More than the usual amount of early sowing was done in

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eastern Pennsylvania, Ohio, southern Michigan, central and northern
Indiana, western Illinois, and southern Missouri. Some of these
early sown fields show infestations ranging from 20 to 100 percent
of the plants. In most cases this does not indicate a really serious
situation and damage will probably be restricted to local areas.
(W. B. Noble, Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine, U. S. D. A.)


Comparative data on the abundance of the European corn borer
in 1937 in different sections of the area infested were obtained in
a survey conducted from August 16 to October 1. In the surveyed
portions of Michigan, Indiana, an& Ohio, the borer was as generally
distributed and as antundant in 1937 as in any previous year of record.
Within the territory surveyed in these States in 1937, comprised of
18 counties and 4 county groups, there were 9 counties mnd 3 county
groups in which populations increased significantly from 1936 to
1937, and 9 counties and 1 county group in which the abundance of
the borer changed little in the same 2 years. Significant decreases
were absent. Damage to early sweet corn grown near Toledo, Ohio, in
1937 reached economic importance.

Although the weather of the 1937 season in the surveyed parts
of the above region was considered generally more favorable to the
European corn borer than that of any recent year, its effects were
offset to some extent by the prevalence of late corn and by severe
rain and wind storms in some sections at crucial periods of larval
establishment. In New York there was a decrease in abundance in
1937 over that of 1936 in the Jefferson-Oswego County group, where-
as in the Albany district approximately the same number of borers
were present in 1937 as were found in the last survey, made in 1935.

Along the Atlantic doast, the borer increased in abundance
in 1937 over 1936 in a portion of eastern Massachusetts, in central
Connecticut, in southeastern New Jersey, in southern Delaware, and
on the Eastern Shore of Maryland and Virginia. The only exception
to an increase or tendency in that direction was in western M:nsa-
chusetts, where a significant decrease in borer population was
shown by the survey. The heaviest populations found in 1937, or
in any other year of survey in the United States, occurred in
Hartford and New Haven Counties, Conn. The general increase in
abundance along the Atlantic coast in 1937 was undoubtedly due to
favorable weather, particularly the absence of dror.ght. A partial
second generation of the corn borer continued to occur in Michigan,
Ohio, and Indiana, and was particularly noticeable in e7.rly sweet
corn near Toledo, Ohio. (W. A. Baker, Bureau of Entomology and
Plant Quarantine, U. S. D. A.)


The armyworm was the outst.-ndinj insect .peEt in the Mississippi,
Arkansas, and Ohio River Valleys in May and June. The outbreak


developed the first week in May in northwestern Mississippi, east-
S'central Arkansas',' ainid northesternhLouisigna. Some injury--, extended
,later into Aorthern Texas and '-entral mand northeastern' Oklahoma.
..The pest spread northeastward, p'ausing' severe injury to small-grains,
grasses, 'corn idand alfalfa in thel'sbuthenstern half of Missouri, the
southern threecfourths of Illinois,1 tern outhern half of.Idi.aa and
western and central Kentucky. The infestation extended from the above-
mentioned area of severe injury into eastern Kansas, -throughout. Iowa
into southern Minnesota, Wisconsin, and .Michigan, anAd into 6Ohi6 and
western NewY'or-k. 'Small isolated outbreaks, Occurred: in central
Arizona, in Richland.: County AAn east.central Montana.;', and in south-
easte'rn North: Dakota. -
r' '* Along the:Atlantic coast the.insea.t occurred in destructive
abundance in scattered localities ih, North Carolina, in the Norfolk
"%district of Virginia, and on the.Eastern Shore of: Virginia and:'Mary-
land in June and damage' was-reported northward, ,reaching Maine: the
first week in August, when caterpillars were severely damaging. Oits
and grasses in the central part: of the"State* This'is the ,first time
.the insect.haqS been reported in- outbreak numbers in Maine for-several
years. A heavy flight of moths- Was reported from southern' California
and caterpillars were found attacking cotton in Kern County. A single
specimen was taken. in northern Florid.,.and moths were collected at
lights in' south-central Georgia.. These, States *are" rarely infested by
'arrywtorm. . .. -...

'CORI EAR WORMI : : ..... *

The corn ear" worm emerged. from hibernation in great abundance
'and.'started'its attack early. 'The mild winter probably permitted the
insect to live-.over farther north than usual, as reports were received
early in the season of severe injury to tomato mand early sweet corn in
the Southern: States, northward to'a lin e'frnm northern Delaware to
central Illinois* Early reports- of serious danag. to tomato ingreen-
houses in Ohio and Illinois were also recei-ved. ThisJ.type' of injury
usually occurs late in. the fall.' As .the season Progressed, reports of
serious .injuy'to sweet corn were received. fror:the entire eastern
half of the country. "-'An estimate of 50 percent infestation in extra
early sweet corn in'southern Connecticut was.reported in July. *Moths
were observed in-abundonce in Meine, but no la:vQl injury was reported.
While early':oeports indicated that this year would'be one.of'record-
breaking-abundance of this pest, for. some reason increase in popula-
tions d.iminihed .' 'terially by midseason. 'i.eld o"n probably was
not injured more than normally; however, the late crops of sweet corn
'were heavily infested. Considerable injury to late sweet corn southern Minnesota. Chrysanth;anms .wore damaged in Wiscon-
sin, as were peanuts in Oklahoma and gladiolus in Florida.

- -~

~- @
0 0
- 0.

0 0

DEC. 1937



The garden webworm occurred in outbreak numbers over the south-
eastern quarter of Nebraska, the eastern half of Kansas, over much of
Oklahoma, and into northern and central Texas. The infestation also
followed the Missouri River into central Missouri. The area of
heaviest infestation centered in Oklahoma. Alfalfa was the principal
crop attacked and corn, cotton, and garden crops were also damaged.
An isolated point of infestation also occurred in northern Indiana
and southwestern Michigan, where alfalfa was severely attacked, seed-
lings especially being destroyed.

The beet webworn was very abundant from southern and south-
eastern Idaho southward to southern Utah, and extended eastward into
western Wyoming where the insect rarely becomes of economic importance.
Isolated areas of infestation also occurred in northern Idaho, west-
central Montana, and eastern North Dakota. Sugar beets, alfalfa, and
truck crops were damaged.


The vetch bruchid began emerging from hibernation quarters in
North Carolina in April, the first adult being taken on the 17th.
They were present in all vetch fields by the 1st of May, and the peak
of overwintering adults in the field wrs reached on :i>r 19. The a-
bundance of adults was about the sane as during the last 2 years.
The weevil population, however, in this year's crop of seed is much
lower than during the two previous seasons. The maximum infestation
found was 65 percent, with a minimum of 9 percent, and an average of
about 30 percent. The average infestation for the last 2 years has
been 50 percent. T-:o factors seemed to have caused this condition,
the rapid maturity of the crop and the fact that many of the
pods set earliest, which received most of the e7? deposition, failed
to mature and produce seed. Most of the infested seed that came to
the cleaning mills contained dead fornis of various stage. of the
weevil and produced few living adults. One factor responsible for
this was the rapid hardening of the seed this year, which caused the
death of mrny first-, second-, and third-instar larvae throUih their
inability to consume the hardened material. Many of tho advanced
stages were also found dead. This condition has not bemn noticed
in previous observations.

During the course of the year the Iknovn distribution was in-
creased by eight counties in three Stn.tes as follows: Adams County,
Pa.; Turke, Cartldwell, E:L---co.-be, Hrlifax, Rutherford, and Polk
Counties, I. C. ; and York County, S. C. The attached mrap lives the
known distribution in this country to date.

Collections of bruchid-infested seed were gathered in North



Carolina and in Pennsylvania during the summer and placed in rear-
ing boxes for issuance of parasites. No new parasites were reared
from the North Carolina material. From the material collected in
Pennsylvania two parasites, Dibrachys cavus (Walk.) and Habrolepoidea
tarsalis Gir,, heretofore not known to attack this insect, were
reared. Two new loca-li-ties' were liste- for the European chalcid
Bruchobius maj Masi, which was reared for the first time in'this
. country last year from material collected in Rowan County, N.C. Ma-
terial collected in Iredell County, N. C.,.produced specimens of this
parasite; and many specimens also issued from the material collected
in the Adana County, Pa., bruchid infestation discovered last summer.
In July one release of Trichogramma and several releases of Triasis
thoracicus Curt. were made at Arendtsville, Pa. One adult of T.
thoracicus has been reared from the bruchid 1n collections made in
the area of release. (I. S. Pinckney, Bureau' of Entomology and Plant
Quarantine, U. S. D. A.)


On the basis of the 1936 fall survey, severe and general
damage by the weevil in 1937 was expected only in Mesa County, Colo.,
where three-fourths of the fields had threatening populations. One-
fourth of the fields were menaced in the upper Snake River Valley of
eastern Idaho, in Jackson County, Oreg., in Delta and Montrose Counties
of western Colorado, in Douglas County, Nev., and ,in Sanpete County,
Utah, while damage to 10-20 percent of the fields was indicated in Box
Elder, Salt Lake, and Sevier Counties, Utah, and in Washoe County, Nev.
Slight-to-negligible damage was expected in the lower Snake River;
Valley of western Idaho, eastern Oregon, Eagle Valley in Baker County,
Oreg3 ,t and in Churchill County, Nev. General economic damage actually
developed only in Douglas County, Nov., and Millard County, Utah, where
the first crop was severely damaged in 50 percent of the fields. In
Delta County, Colo., and in Eagle Valley of Baker County, Oreg.,
economic loss was light, although 25 and 35 percent of the fields,
respectively, changed color, the injury being limited to tips of
plants. Washoe County, Nev., Jackson County, Oreg., and Bonneville
and Bingham Counties of eastern Idaho experienced light injury in 10
percent of the fields. In the following districts 5 percent of the
fields developed light injury: Box Elder, Salt Lake, and Sanpete
Counties, Utah, Jefferson, Madison, and Fremont Counties, Idaho., and
Mesa and Montrose Counties, Colo. The damage was negligible in the
remaining counties in Utah and Oregon, all of western Idaho, western
Nebraska, eastern Wyoming, and the infested lowland district of
central California. In Douglas County, Nev., the injury indicated
by the fall survey was approximately 25 percent of the fields, but
severe injury developed in 50 percent of them, the injury being
mostly on large acreages where proper cutting could not be practiced.
This injury was to some extent exaggerated by old, thin stands and
poor growth. In Mesa County, Colo., on the contrary, where 75-percent

C 0




damage of the fields was expected only 5 percent were injured.
This reduction was due primarily to-heavy winter mortality and
partly to unfavorable' dry spring conditions. Millard County, Utah,
was not surveyed but experienced severe dnnmge to 50 percent of the
fields. This is a seed district where the practices necessary to
seed production always result in building up large adult popula-
tions by greatly delayed cutting of the second (seed) crop.

The 1937,fall survey shows that weevil populations have in-
creased generally throughout the infested territory since 1936.
The most important exception is Sioux County, Nebr., where the
population has negligible proportions following return
to more nearly normal weather conditions. Most ;severe daarage for
next year is indicated in Mesa and Delta Ccunties, Colo., Box Elder
County, Utah, and Jackson County, Oreg., where from one-third to
one-half of the fields have threatenin- adult populations. Approx-
imately from one-fourth to ono,.third of the fields are menaced in
Salt Lake nrid Sani-ete Counties, Utah, the several counties constitut-
ing the upper Snake River Valley of eastern Idaho, Eagle Valley in
Baker County, Oreg., and Douglas and Washoe Counties in western
Nevada. One-tenth or less of the fields are threatened with damage
in 1939 in Sevier County, Utah, the lower Snake River V7lley in
western Idaho and eastern Oregon, Churchill County, Nev., and
Montrose County, Colo. This outlook is, of course, subject to modi-
fication by weather conditions during winter and spring .

Scouting during the summer of 1937 yielded new records of in-
festation in six counties located in three States, namely, CG--bell,
Johnson, Sheridan, and Weston Counties, Wyo., Custer County, S. D.,
and Modoc County, Calif., the last discovery having been ::ade by
representatives of the California State department of agriculture.
(J. C, Hamlin, W. C. McDuffie, and R. W. Bunn, Bureau of Entomology
and PJ.1t A;arantine, U. S. D. A. )

The white-fringed beetle (Qliapiuctun leucoloma Boh.), a nrily
introduced pest which was first reported from this country in July
1936, ape-eared in great numbers in Walton and Okloosn: Counties,
Fla., and in Covington County,, Ala., in July 1937. Scouting in 1937
revealed that the infestation in southern Alabama and northwestern
Florida covered approximately 27 square miles and involved parts of
Covington and Geneva Counties, Ala., and Walton and Okaloosa Counties,
Fla. Minor infestations were found at Pensacola, Fla., Laurel, Miss.,
and New Orleans, La. The density of the population at these last-
mentioned places was considerably less than in the area centered
around Florala, Ala. In the Florala area the larvae destroyed from
10 to 90 percent of the stand of field crops over areas ranging in


size from a .few square ya~ds to 10 acres. In many instances where
the s-tands were materially reduced and' second plantings were made
these were also, destroyed. The jrindipal crops thus far damaged
have been peanuts, corn,' cotton,. velvetbeans,: eweetpotatoeS, and
cowpeas, although this insect has been found to attack 'more -than 50
plants. In July the population of adults'in many of the heavily in-
fested fields in the Florala area was more than 150,000 per acre.
The larval population in 4' fields during November and December
averaged l14 larvae per square yard, or at the rate of approximately
... 90,000 per acre; In the heaviest infested fields larval popula-
*tionsof more than 1,000 per square yard. have been found.

- :A new species of Naupactus was discovered in southern
Mississippi in the vicinity of Gulfport. This species is known to
occur ini Harrison and Stone counties Miss.,,.for a distance of
approximately;25 miles northward from the Gulf coast.. The habits
of this insect are very similar to those of the white-fringed beetle.
(H. C. Young, Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine, U. S. D. A.)


SThe clover leaf weevil appeared early in May 'and in the next
6 week? did considerable injury to clover and alfalfa from western
Ohio and southwestern Michigan, southwestward through Indiana,
Kentucky, Illinois, southeastern Iowa, Missouri, and northwestern
Arkansas-into central Kansas and Oklahoma. Evidently disease or
weather conditions prevented a second generation, as no reports of
injury in the fall were received.


Throughout the area of continuous infestation of the Japanese
beetle, as shown by the accompanying map, the winter of 1936-37 was
extremely mild and the winter mortality of the beetle was ho 'higher
than normal. Spring weather and soil conditions in general were
favorable for larval ad pupal development and adult emergence was
normal as to rate and relative date. Throughout large sections of
the area of continuous infestation a general reduction in the 1937
beetle population was observed. Drought conditions of varying in-
tensity that characterized the summer of .1936 throughout the greater
lzrt of'New Jersey, eastern Pennsylvania, and northern Delaware,
appear to have been the dominant factor in this reduction' in popula-
tion. The decrease in infestation was general throughout New Jersey,
eastern Pennsylvania, particularly north of the Schijylill River, and
in the Philadelphia area; however, substantial increases were recorded
in the New York City metropolitan area and on western Long Island,
while in most of the newly infested territory lying on the periphery
of the area of continuous infestation the usual increase in beetle




abundance was observed. Infestations ,were severe enough to develop
tree injury of varying intensity within an extensive tract roughly
arcuate in outline, which occupied southwestern New Jersey, northern
Delaware, the southeastern tier of counties it Pennsylvania, north-
central New Jersey, and the adjacent New York metropolitan area.
At the close of the 1937 beetle season the area continuously in-
fested was estimated at 13,851 square miles, distributed as follows:
Delaware, 946; Maryland, 664; Pennsylvania, 4,358; New Jersey, 6,980;
New York, 858; Connecticut, 45. Moisture conditions On the whole
during the fall of 1937 were favorable for the new brood throuhout
much of Delaware, eastern Pennsylvania,. ndnorth-central New Jersey,
so that a partial return to former conditions of abundance can be
reasonably expected during the coming year in areas that experienced
a marked decrease during the current season. This expectation is
substantiated by the increase in soil populations encountered in
grub surveys at a number of locations during the fall. However, in
New Jersey south of Trenton, together with the area adjacent to the
Delaware River in Pennsylvania, moisture conditions were not so
favorable, with the probability that the 1938 infestation will re-
main somewhere near the current level.

In the New England area, the winter of 1936-37 was likewise
quite mild, and larval survival seemed to-be normal. It was noted,
however, at an observation point in the northern range of the beetle
that eggs known to have entered the hibernating period did not sur-
vive the winter. At most of the established points of infestation,
the beetle population was'definitely greater in 1937 th.-' in 1936,
although at some points in the more northern range, there was but
little, if may, appreciable increase. In Connecticut, where beetles
have been present for many years, infestations are especially
numerous and heavy, and in the southeastern corner of the State the
infestation has now merged with and become part of the main area of
continuous infestation. There was no deficiency of rainfall last
summer and fall, therefore, conditions for the soil population were
very favorable. Larval surveys at several points showed that more
larvae entered the winter hibernation period in 1937 than in 1936,
indicating a further increase in the beetle population next year.
(C. H. Hadley, Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quiarantine U.S.D.A.)


No general surveys have been made during the year to determine
the spread or abunilance of the Asiatic gardenn beetle, but observa-
tions made in July in northern New Jrp-ey indicate a still further
reduction in the beetle population, in corpirison with that of pre-
ceding years. At the colony center in Philadelphia, similar re-
duction in beetles was noted, although new local infestations were
noted at several points. A reduction in beetle population -nd fe,'ding
on favored food plants was also noted at the colony center at Riverton,
N. J. (C. H. Hadloy, Bureau of Entomolo.-y and Plant Quarantine, U. S.



S .. , the,. country in, gpnera, codling moth.elopment seemed
.1ate in starti6, with retardation early in the summer-because' of
"' bcool,'moist weather? and more rapid increase with, wrmrni ar-ry weatier
later. Heavier infestations than usual are reported from'Massa_.
chuset t s, Delaware,:. ad: New Jersey, and in parts'% vof Virginia-and.
West Virginia, hear' Winchester, Va.' The, species decreased .some-
... what from 1936- in, other parts of Virginia -Pennsylvania, and. New
York:,"also in Ontario, South Carolina, and Georgia,. Over- a wide
midwestern" area- i high initial. infestation did '-not; increase much
'because of cool wet weather. early in the summer, but'"built .'up,:.`,
'-rapidly late in the summer and- .the .final' populat ion was: extremely
heavy. -* This was- true in' -Indiana, 'southern Michigan; Ill~nois,
S-::Missouri, aind Kansas. 'In' Wisconsin and Iowa considerable) build;
ip.p late .!in the"- summer-'W"s notede. *' Kentucky: reported& the species
more abundant. Arkansas and Oklahoma reported- light- variahbl' "
infestation' after. a crop failure and Idaho 'a light infestationn,
be6anse of winter mortality. 'Washington had less codling' moth'.'
thanlast year, with. a" cool damp season, but noted: some late in-
.rease. In southern' Oregon and-northern Cal, ifornia heavier'-in.',
festations were reported. .(F. M. Wadley, Bureau of"Entomology a d
Plant Qta.antine, U. S. D. A.)


.-- -The eastern, tent -.caterpillar"-was reported as decreasing .in
the Middle Atlantic sections, where it has. been abundant for-" .
several, years, and as very abundant -in parts ofI'New England' and'"
t1b western parts of New'York and Pennsylvania. The decrease was
noted in Delaware, New Jersey, eastern New'York, southern'and'
central Pennsylvania, and- Connecticut.' Heavy infestations were'-
noted in Vermont, Rhode Island, Maine, .Massachusetts, western New
York, and northwestern Pennsylvania 'with'.local outbreaks in parts
of Connecticut, South-Carolina, and. ,Georgia. New.Hampshire re'e-
ported destruction of larvae by'storms at hatching time. The
species was reported also from Mississippi, Arkansas, -Flbrida,,
North Carolina, Kentucky, and Tennessee. 'The vaf.iat-i-ori- i'n seasonal
history,: ow ing -to latitude, is shown in progress of hatching, from
..mid-March in the; South to late April in Maine'. (F. M. Wadl-ey,-
Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine, U. S. D. A.)


S On the whole this species caused little damage and attracted
little attention .in 1937. Activity began on dates varying from
April 10 in, Georgia to mid-May in New York and New England. The
species was recorded as light'or less than normal in- Minnesota,
Wiscor sin, '-Minsouri, Ohir. Delaware, Virgini., and Georgia. It .


was reported without comparisons from Michigan, ITebraska, and Iowa.
Abundance was rated as about normal in Massachusetts and most parts
of New York,' but heavier than usual in Maine and in eastern I'ew
York. Considerable abundance or injury was reported from spots in
Mississippi, northeastern Texas, and Connecticut. (F. M. Wadley,
Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine) U. S. D. A.), .


The distribution of damage by the .beet leafhopper during 1937
was very spotted. The 'spring migration occurred at about the normal
time in all areas. Numbers were light to moderate in western Colorado,
northern Utah, and California. Heavy migrations were received by the
Sevier Valley in central Utah and by the -Twin Falls area of southern
Idaho. Ohly beets of varieties resistant to curly-top were planted
in the last-named areas, but some damage was experienced, probably
reducing yields from 1 to 3 tons per acre. In central California
over 10,000 acres of resistant beets were planted in a new area,
closely adjacent to the breeding grounds in the foothills. Weather
conditions caused late planting, and most pf-the fields were severely
damaged by curly-top. New plantings of beets in the Yakima Valley of
Washington were damaged considerably by the leafhoppers from local
breeding areas. No damage to beets in Montana or to spinach in Texas
was reported thia year. Tomatoes in central California were damaged
more heavily this season than for the last three or four seasons.
(1?,C.Cook, Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine, U. S. D. A.)


The pea aphid, although moderately abundant in 1937, in
general did not occur in such numbers as were recorded during each
of the last 3 or 4 years. Over much of its rango the aphid appeared
on peas- rather late in the season, then increased in abundance very
rapidly- until some damage to peas resulted; only to decrease gain
in nu.nbers before the end of the pea-hirvesting season. This be-
havior was noted especially in New York, Indiana, Ohio, Illinois,
Wisconsin, and Utah.

In the north-central section of the United States very few
aphids were in evidence on either alfalfa or peas until after the
middle of June. Before the first of July, however, infestation had
increased to such rn extent that control measure were necessary on
most of the late pe- acreage. In this north-central section njhids
exhibited the unusual behavior of renchinr- a relatively low peak of
population and then dispersing from peas in many instances before
seriously injurin- the crop and long before their food supply of
gree rI succulent pees wain; exhausted.

Although predators, parasites, -diseases, and, in some localities,
adverse weather conditions are reported by various observers to
have been responsible for tEe decree' in the abundancee of thb.e in-
sect, it is believed that their. diminishing;numbers, in the .jorth-
central section at least, can be attributed to -a pronounced re-
duction in the normal rate of reproduction rather fhan.-t the..
effect of natural *enetmies.1'6 r *


The year 1937 was about an average year for the Mexican
bean beet1leb in the Eastern Statesj:,with the possible exception of
. the northern' limit! of its distribution., The high winter survival
in many section' was probably offset by .the smaller numbers enter-
ing hibernation in the :fall of 1936 he beetle was more. abundant
in central and northern'Ohir thanusnial,.-also .in Massachuse-t.s,
Connecticut, New York, New Jersey, 'Delaware,- and northern Indiana.

At Columbus, Ohi'o, the survival- in thp- spring of 19-7 .was
the highest of record. An average of -55.5 percent of the beetles
placed in hibernation cages. in the fall of 1936 survived and. emerged
S in the "spring of 1937-. At Beltsville, Md., 63.6 percent. -survived;
at Mappsville, Va.., 25.65 percent; and. at,.,Qlemson college S." C.,
50.26 percent.,* In the Ohio River Valley survival was high. but
beetles were not so numerous early in the spring as in some years,
'probably because fewer beetles entered hibernation in the: fall.
S In southern Ohi'o reproduction.-was rapid, causing lirge eopula-
tions, but a summer drought slowed up reproduction and in the fall
fewer beetles were present than usual, In central Ohio-populations
were larger than usual. In many sections of the East and South
reproduction was rapid amd populations were large. At Grand Junction,
Cold-4' the survival over winter was very low, less than 1 percent.

S New records of distribution include Niagara County, N, Y.:
Yalabusha County, Miss.; and Dale County, Ala. IN. F. Howard,
Bureau-of Entomology and Plant Quarantine, U. S. DI A.)


The cold spell of January 1937 materially reduced tomato
pinworm survival and cold nights during the spring aid early summer
acted as a further check on pinworm build-up, as compared to that
of 1936. Although various degrees of infestation could be found in
all areas of southern July 1, actbutl commercial damage
did not occur until the latter part ofSeptember. By that time the
insect had built up in early tomato fields, oi on tomato plants taken
from infested seed beds, until from 25 to 50 percent of the fruit was


infested. Consequently, many late fields which were near early in-
fested fields or which were startedI from infeste& seed beds became
heavily infested (50 to -90% wormy fruit) by November 1. The Vista
area of San Diego County, a small area near Riverside in Riverside
County, several semifrostless areas of Orange County, and an upland
area near San Fernando in Los Angeles County experienced this type
of heavy &damage in late tomato fields. In general, the lowland areas
or the areas of a comparatively short tomato-growing season experi-.
enced little or no damage from pinworm attack. In the El Cajon Valley
of San Diego County, where the tomato pinworm has caused serious losses
to the large late tomato crop in the past, infestations were at a low
point this year 'because small early plantings, on which the pinworm
has usually built up, were entirely omitted. In the Simi and Santa
Rosa Valleys of Ventura County, infestations in tomatoes ranged from
a trace to 17 percent, with little commercial damage. The pinworm
was not found in Santa Barbara and San Ljis Obispo Counties. A sur-
vey made on November 15 to 20, revealed the presence of the tomato
pinworm in the counties of Kern, Tulare, Fresno, Madera, Merced,
Stanislaus, and Sant Clara. It had previoui.y been reported from
Santa Clara, Kern, Tulare, and Stanislaus Cunties, In Merced,
Madera, and Fresno Counties, from 0SO to 90 percent of the fruit left
on the vines in several fields was infested. (J. C. Elmore, Bureau
of Entomology and Plant Quarantine, U. S. D. A.)

Note.--The first report of the occurrence of the tomato pinworm in
Arizona was made in June, when tomato fields northeast of Phoenix
were found to be generally infested. The insect injured tomatoes in
Manatee and Sarasota Counties, Fla., and a survey over the southern
half of the peninsula disclosed general light infestations. Al-
though a report on March 22, 1937, stated that the insect was living
through the winter out of doors in the Philadelphia district, no re-
ports of infestation were received during the summer and a report
late in the season indicated that cooperative control had reduced
the pest and that eradication is expected. The insect is believed
to have been eradicated in Delaware.


It the Charleston area some injury to the spring crop was
noticeable at the end of the season. Although all species were
present and increased in numbers rapidly as the season advanced,
the cabbage looper was responsible for the greater part of the in-
jury. The iiamondbaok moth was next in importance but was not
sufficiently abundant to cause economic injury. The imported
cabbage worm was of no economic importance until the end of the
season, when it was responsible for some injury. SuwL-er surveys
on available cruciferous plants indicated that cablr-ie loopers,
Eiamondbick moths, imported cabbage moths, several species of

Agrotinae, and webworms were present throughout the summer. If
Sthe:se, the looper.was the most abundant but the numbers of both
Snoopers and..imported cabbage worms. decreased gradu-illy tb-wrd the
Send. of the, s-ummer.. Diamondback moths were present in relatiVely
small numbers and the Agrotinae and webworms were not, conspicuous
.until early in the" fall.. The predominating species prese4i.t on the
fall crop, were those of the Agrotinae, except during the latter part
S of, the, period when loopers predominated. -Slight, injury resulted
.- from the presence'of these species but 'cold weather ini November
Definitely checked. any further development. ThIe diamondback moth
and the iMported cabbage worm werepresent but of no particular
economic impqrtance.-

S ... In Louisiarina during thespringhe the'popuations ofcdbbage
Sworms were belQw normal and infestations occurred only: in- isolated
...spots. There appeared to be an especially heavy parasitizatioi of
the imported cabbage worm. During the summer,''loopersj' diafdndback
S.moths, and cross-striped cabbage wornms were present 6nicruciferous
plants. Loopers predominated until September, when the imported
.cabbage worn increased to major"proportions. The fall' ctr6p suffered
but little from cabbage worms. Early in the 'season thea imported
cabbage worm was the predominating'species but later the loOper be-
.came most numerous, What appeared to be a rapid increase of diamond-
back moths was checked by cold weather late in November. (C. F. Stahl,
Bureau of Entomology anid Plant quarantine, U.- S. D.'A) :)


During the winter and spring of 1936-37, the vegetable weevil
was reported as doing more than the usual amount of damage in the
Gulf coast territory and also in southern California. 'It was re-
ported in destructive. abundance for the first- time in" Florida. In
This State it was also reported as damaging tobacco. ;This i's the
first record of its attacking this'host plant in the U.'S. '


A whitefly, Trialeurodes abutilonea Hald., was reported by
H. G. Walker as occurring in injurious numbers on beans in Norfolk
and Princess Anne Counties, Va., during the fall of 1937. This is
the first report of this insect attacking beans.


The records obtained in 1937 showed" that tobacco flea beetles
were abundant in all of the principal tobacco-producing areas. This
pest was destructive to 'newly set plants in South Carolina, North
Carolina, Virginia, Maryland, Tennessee, and Kentucky. In North
Carolina, South Carolina, ai Virginia considerable damage was in-
flicted in plant beds' and in many localities it was necessary 'to

replant fields of tobacco several times as a result of flea beetle
attack on the newly set plants. The most severe outbreak reported
occurred in western North Carolina, in Guilford, Forsyth, Stokes,
Surry, Yadkirn, Person, and Granville Counties.

The overwintered adults began activity in South Carolina
tobacco districts' on warm days in February and in North Carolina
some activity was noted early in March. In studies made at Oxford,
N. C., it was found that 24.1 percent of the overwintering flea
beetles survived in cages located at the edge of a woods, while
there was a survival of 33.6 percent in similar cages located from
6 to 8 feet within the woods. Samples taken nearby in the sane
woods indicated a survival under natural conditions of 17.1 percent.
The first activity of this insect in Tennessee was reported on April 12.

Infestations in the cigar tobacco-producing districts of
Florida and southern Georgia were much heavier in 1937 than in 1936.
In Connecticut this insect was recorded as occurring sporadically and
in small numbers on cigar tobacco. ( D. D. Reed, Pureau of Entonology
and Plant Quarantine, U. S. D. A.)


This insect was unusually abundant in the cigar tobacco dis-
tricts of the Connecticut River Valley and inflicted severe damage
on newly set tobacco plants during June. Owing to control measures,
the succeeding broods did not develop large populations in tobacco
shades but normal populations developed in untreated fields of sun-
grown cigar tobaccos. (W. D. Reed, Bureau of Entomolo.-,y and Plant
Quarantine, U. S. D. A.)


Hornworms were more abundant in 1937 than in 1936 in all
tobacco districts from which records were obtained and in nanyz
sections severe outbreaks occurred on tobacco. In the Florida and
Georgia tobacco-producing areas the predominant species, Protoparce
sexta Johan., began emergence about May 1. The first eg-s and young
larvae were collected from the field on May 9. Observations made in
1937 indicated that three generations of P. sexta developed in tobac-
co fields of this district d&irinz the year.

Both P. guinquemculata Haw. and P. sexta appeared at about
the same time in 1937 as in 1936 in the Bright-tobacco Belt, but the
infestati-ons were more severe in 1937. The first e-.s were col-
lected from tobacco fields in the vicinity of Oxford, IT. C., on May
24 and at Florence, S. C., on May 13. The first adults capture with


traps located in the field in North Carolina were taken on May 27.
The first- moths emerged from hibernation cages located at Oxford
on June 7. The damage from hornworms in NorthCarolina was wide-;
spread, especially in:late tobacco; Both species appeared late in
the season in destructive numbers on cigar'tobaccos in the Connect-
icut River Valley. Earlier in the season P, sexta was more abundant,
but later the numbers !of P. quinquemaculata predominated. C6nsider-
able damage was recorded in fields and barnsr of late. .harvested tobacco.

Heavy parasitization.on the late broods of. larvae by'Apanteles
congregatus (Say) was recorded in North Carolinar and Conniecticut.
(W. D. Reed, Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine, U S. D. A.)


Infestation of the tobacco budworm was general throughout the
principal producing districts in 1937. The degree of infestation
was about the same as for 1936 in the Florida and.Georgia districts
and, in the Bright-tobacco Belt. In the Tennessee and Kentucky dis-
tricts no unusual outbreaks were reported on Burley, and dark fire-
cured tobaccos. The only specimens observed in-the Connecticut
district ere taken from potted tobacco plants located on the grounds
of the Tobacco Experiment Station at Windsor. (W.D. Reed, Bureau of
E.ntpmology and Plant Quarantine, U. S. D. A.) ....


This pest caused severe damage to shade-g-rown tobacco in the
Florida district in 1936 but in 1937, owing apparently to abundant
rainfall, little damage was reported. Damage to. shade tobacco was
reported from several districts ir the Connecticut. River Valley, the
injury being more severe around edges of fields bordering on grass-
land. The commercial damage was observed to be less than'in 1936
in tobacco shades, owing perhaps to the widespread use of dusts for
controlling the potato flea beetle. (W. D. Reed, Bureau of Entomology
and Plant. Quarantine, U. S. D. A.) .


Reports obtained from light traps operating in Virginia, North
Carolina, New Jersey,.New York, and Connecticut showed that the
cigarette beetle was somewhat more abundant in tobacco, factories and
warehouses of stored tobacco in 1937 than in 1936. The spring brood
of beetles began emergence in Virginia around May g and activity was
noted in warehouses until about November 1. (W. D. Reed, Bureau of
Entomology and Plant Quarantine, U. S. D. A.)



The populations of the tobacco moth were greater in 1937 than
in 1936, especially in open warehouses of stored domestic cigarette
tobaccos where no control measures were applied. Destructive infes-
tations were recorded also in warehouses of imported ci-arette tobac-
cos. The spring brood of moths began emergence around April 25 in
the tobacco warehouses of Virginia and North Carolina and the heaviest
damage was observed in open storage. (I. D. Reed, Bureau of Zntonolo-
gy and Plant Quarantine, U. S. D. A.)


For the second consecutive year, the boll weevil damage over
the greater pIrt of the Cotton Belt was very light in 1937. The
rather small number of weevils entering hibernation in the fall of
1936 were favored by mild winter temperatures which caused very low
mortality. The survival in hibernation cages at Florence, S. C.,
equaled the previous high in 1933, while at Tallulah, La., and at
College Station, Tex., it was the highest since 1932. Emergence
continued over a longer period and later into the season than usual
at Florence and Tallulah but was more nearly normal at College
Station. As a result of the hiL'h survival, weevils were fairly
abundant in the fields in the early pirt of 1937, notwithstanding
the small numbers that entered hibernation the previous fall. How-
ever, the prospects for a year of normal or heavy weevil damage was
changed by the hot and dry weather, which. effectively checked weevil
multiplication and d&irt.n-e, except in the States along the Atlantic
seaboard and in eastern 'exas. In these sections the was
greater than it has been for several years, but in large areas in
the central part of the telt damage was lighter and less insecticide
was needed for control than in many years.. Conditions were very
favorable for cotton growth and the avert:-e yield per acre and total
production for the United States were the highest ever recorded.
During the latter part of the summer and fall abundant rains pro-
duced a large crop of late squares and bolls in which weevils multi-
plied rapidly and bec-ime very numerous before frost. The cotton
leaf worm caused very little defoliation and conditions were fa-
vorable for higher than average numbers of well-fed weevils to
enter hibernation. (U. C. Loftin, Bureau of Entomolo-y and Plant
Quarantine, U. S. D. A.)


The first appearance of the cotton leaf worm in 1937 was
reported by the experiment station entomologist from southern Texn7
on May 27-2 weeks later than last year. Spread was vr-ry slow and
records of appearances in other areas were as follows: Port Lavaca,
Tex., June 9; Gainesville, Fla., July 6; College Station, Tex.,
Jgly 23; Presidio, Tex,, July 24; Tallulah, L., August 7;Florence,


S. C, August 25; and Stoneville, MIss., September 4. Judzing from
the dates of observation, the moths apparently entered t-he United
States in three areas-southern Texas, Florida, and the irrigated
districts from'western Toxas to Arizona. Defoliation of cotton
was very-light and'control was needed only on late plantihs.
(U. C. Loftin, Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine, U, S9 'D.A.)


Emere&hnc. of bollworm moths in hibernation cages at College
Station, Tex., was about 20 percent. greater *than in 1-936.' E-gs were
not as abundant on corn early in the season as usual and oviposition
on cotton in July was much lighter and the infestation .was. more
spotted in Brazos and Burleson Counties, Tex., than in 1936. .Very
severe damage was caused to late-planted cotton in Calhoun, Jackson,
and other southern Texas counties. More than average daace was also
reported from southern Georgia arid Florida, but on the whole there
was less damage to cotton than normally. (U. C. Loftin, BureUa 'of
Entomology and Plant Quarantine-, U.' S. D. A.)


S Outbreaks of the beet armyworm in the Shlt River Valley of
Arizona for the third consecutive year indicate that this species is
becoming otne of the major local pests of cot'tdnr. In 1937 the damage
extended over a large area but was most severe in the Buckeye Valle,
where several hundred acres of cotton had to be replanted. Injury
consists of feeding on the leaves and terminal buds of the cotton
seedlings and. gird.ling of the sterns near the surface of the ground,
which causes either the death of the plants or the formation of
plants with several stems and excessive branching. (T. P. Cassidy,
Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine, U. S. D. A.)

The emergence of flea hoppers from overwintering eggs, as
indicated in hibernation cages at Port Lavaca, Tex., was about normal
in numbers though the peak of emergence was'earlier than usual. Dur-
ing May and June, or the period of heaviest dispersal to cotton, the
hopper population on cotton was greater than in 1936 but less than
during the three preceding years. On the whole, damage was"less than
normal in southern Texas in 1937, although- local areas experienced
considerable injury. The comparatively light damage was influenced
by the dry weather during April and May that caused a shortage of
succulent weed host plants and insufficient moisture for maximum
hatching of em's. The population on cotton increased rapidly during
the latter part of June, but by that time the early planted cotton
had set a crop of large squares and 'bolls' -hat were beyond the stage
of flea hopper injury. Reports receTved f3'4rn other sections indi-
cated considerable damage in local arerts of -nbrthern Georgia, but
only light damage elsewhere. (U.0 S: bftin, Bureau of Entomology
and Plant Quarantine, U' S. D, At)- ,


Brood XXIII, the most widespread of the 13-year race of the
periodical cicadr, appeared over most of the territory where it was

Brood XI, belonging to the 17-year race, a small, isolated
brood, which, it was feared, lhad become extinct as no record was
made of its appearance in 1920, was reported in 1937 from one 'roa
of not more than 10 acres near East Willington, Tollind County, in
north-central Connecticut.

Records of the occurrence of the insect in Perry Colmty, Pa.,
and from Delaware, Erie, and Grc-ene Counties, Ohio, cannot be
definitely associated with either of the. broods appearing this year.

The rest of the records of the year are being placed in Brood
XXIII as follows, the counties being underscored:

Etowah, Gadsden; Lauderdale, Waterloo; .Ti I or, between New
Hope and Paint Creek.

Arkansas; Clay; Craijhead; Cross; Franklin; Jackson; Jeffer-
son; Lawrence; Lee; Lincoln; Lonoke; !issisippi; )ornroe;
Prairie; Poinsett; Pulaski; Scott; Saint Francis; 'L- *njton;

Alexander; Pulaski; Union.

Knox, Vincinnes; Sullivan, Shelburn.

Allen; Chautauqua, Peru; Doublas; Framklin; .r-t ._.rj, Caney,
Coffeyville; ITeo'ho; Shawnee.

Pallnrd, Wickliffe, also mnost of the rest of the co-unty; Bath,
Owin-sville; Bracken, Lenoxbur., Milford, Wellsburi; Butler,
Qu-nlity; Callow.j,over most of county in large numbers; Car-
lisle, alonv Mississippi River, later appeared over most of
county; Edmonson, Chalybeate Sprin7s; Elliott, a few observed
on hilltops; Fulton, Hickman, Fulton; irant., Williaistown;
Graves, Cuba, Farmington, tMayfield, Pryors'ur'; Grwr.-\, Gray-
son Springs, Meredith, Falls of Rou .L; jLirt, iunfordville;

Hickman, over entire county; Lyon, Popular Creek, Confederate;
Pendletbn,- Falmouth; Pike, Shelby Creek; Rowan,, in small
numbers in every section of county; Warren, Rockland.

Louisiana:. .
Caldwell, Columbia, Crayson.

Mississippi: ;,, .. .. .
'Alcorn, Corinth; Chickasaw; George; Grenada, 're fej; Jc ks-on;
Montgomery, Kilmichael; Newton,. Decatur; Pike,'Magnolia;,
Pontotoc; Tippah; Tishomingo, luka; Wayne; Greene.

S.Missouri:' "
Douglas; Howell;: Mississippi; Scott; Stoddard. "

Ohio: '. .
Butler, along Indian Creek; Hamilton, Mount Airy.

Lauderdale.; Shelby, Memphis; Tipton.


The hatch of gypsy moth egg clusters in the spring of 1937
. was practically complete over the entire infested territory, owing
to the fact that the winter of 1936-37 was very mild; hence, the
exposed egg clusters were not 'subjected to extreme: ldw temperatures.
During the summer a total of 69O,760 acres of woodland were partially
or totally defoliated, this being over 50,000 acres more than any
previous record of defoliation. In Maine, the areas of defoliation
were much more extensive than in 1936 and.likewise, much more ex-
tensive than have ever been recorded for that 'State. This increase
was almost uniform throughout the infested territory, as much more
extensive areas of defoliation were noted than ever before inall
counties, with the exception of York, the most southern one. In
New Hampshire areas of defoliation were less extensive than in 1936.
In that State the total acreage recorded has been decreasing during
the last 2 years. In Massachusetts more defoliation was recorded
than ever before and there was a very marked increase from the records
of 1936, the 1937 total being more than double that recorded for the
previous year,and nearly double the highest ever recorded. For most
of the territory east of the Connecticut River, with the exception of
the Cape Cod district, the increases in acreages of defoliation over
1936 were very marked and for most counties the totals were higher
than ever-recorded. While there was a slight increase in certain
sections of Cape Cod, the defoliation in that section was nowhere
near so extensive as has been recorded previously. For the territory
immediately east of the Connecticut River the increase in size of areas


defoliated was particularly marked. In Rhode Island there was a
slight decrease in extent of areas showing"defoliation,while in
Vermont and Connecticut defoliation was very light. (A. F. Burgess,
Bureau of Entomology and Plant"Quarantine, U. S. D. A.)
During the summer of 1957 there were no reports of extensive
defoliation by the brown-tail moth. As a whole, the infest.rtion
over the entire area was light. The ,holosale cutting of wobs dur-
ing the fall and winter of 1935-36 m d 1936-37 help;.d greatly in
reducing the infestation. During the fall and winter of 1936-37 a
total of 743,610l winter webs were cut in Maine; 1,523,479 in New
Hampshire; 5 in Vermont; 779,4o4 in Massachusetts; and 44 in Rhode
Island, making a total of 3,046,539. (A. F. Burgess, Bureau of
Entomology and Plant'Quarantine, U. S. D. A.)


The satin moth seemed to be- somewhat more noticeable in
various sections of New England than in 1936, although no extensive
areas of defoliation-were noted in any locality. In Maine towns in
the south and southwestern part were generally infested and some
noticeable defoliation was noted in different sections of the in-
fested area. In southeastern and central New Hampshire some of the
towns were generally infested, but no heavy defoliation was noted.
In Vermont some heavy defoliation was noted in the eastern part of
the State along the Connecticut River. In Massachusetts heavy de-
foliation was noted in some sections of the State, several large
Carolina poplars in Pittsfield and Provincetown being entirely
defoliated. In Rhode "Island the whole State was lightly infested,
although several poplar trees in Barringtcn were noticeably de-
foliated. In Connecticut all towns east of-the Connectimut River
were lightly infested, although heavy defoliation was noted in
New London. (A. F. Burgess, Bureau of Entomology and Plant
Quarantine, U. S. D. A.:)

Defoliation by the satin moth in western Washington was
negligible in 1937, probably as a result of the effective work
of introduced parasites. However, at the southern extension of
its range in the Willamette Valley of Oregon, heavy defoliation
of white poplars was noted. (F. P. Keen, Bureau of Entnrolo--y and
Plant Quarantine, U. S. D. A.)


The native elm bark beetle (Hylurgopinus rufipes Eich.) is
not considered to be of as much importance in the spread of the
Dutch elm disease fungus as is the smaller Eurrpe:an elm bark


beetle (Scolytus multistriatus Marsh.). However, in obtaining
difstribultion- records of he ter species, attention has 'also
been given to H. rtfipes, We have ma'ny records-of -its occurrence
in the eastern half of the' United :States. Thd area of Iknown dis-
tribution is roughly buided 'ry -the following places where the
species has been taken: Augusta, Maine; Norfolk, Va..; .Decatur,
Ala.; Yazoo City, Miss.; Lawrence, Kans.; and Brandon, Minn.
(C. W.. "Coll ins, Bureau of0 Entomology and Plant Quarantine,
S. U. S. D.. A. . ..


.0 The -smaller .European elm bark -beetle (golytus multistriatus
Marsh. ') is -considered the most important, .inseot, vector of the Dutch
elm disease fungus. in- the Unite.d States. Until 1936 there insect was
known to occur in two distinct areas. One covered parts of eastern
Massachusetts and southeastern New Hampshire. The othe-r included
parts of western Connecticut, southeastern New York, eastern Penn-
sylvania, northern Delaware, anid northern New Jersey. In 1936
scouts 'connected with the Bureaus' s. Dutch eli' disease eradication
unit-found -the insect at Parkersburg, W# Ta. Since then that unit
and the Morristown,'N. Jc., laboratory hadire-cooperated; in getting
S additional information concerning the distribution of 'the species.
"It has- been found to be well'established in a large' contiguous
Territory including'parts of West Virginia,'-Ohio, Indiana,and
Kentucky bordering'on the Ohib River from East Liverpool, Ohio, to
EvAnsville, Ind. >The- known infested area lies -mostly in Ohio and
West Virginia. At some points in Ohio it extends back from the
river for approximately 50 miles and at some-points in West Virginia
for approximately 60 miles. Two other infested areas -have been
found.' One is about 225 square miles in extent and lies just south
of Pittsburg, Pa., The other area includes six localities where the
Beetle has been' fod in the Vicinity. of Martinsburg, W. Va. Five
of these localities are in West, Virginia and one- is in Maryland.
The attached map shows the known distribution of S. nul'tistriatus
and the Dutch elm disease. (C. W. Collins, Bureau of Entomology
and Plant Quarantine, U. S. D. A. )


The eastern spruce beetle has continued its ravages in 1937
causing heavy mortality in overmature spruce on lrje areas in the
Green- Mountains of Vermont and the Adirondacks in New York, where
outbreaks apparently have been'in progress for the last several
years. Salvage operations are being carried on in some of the in-
fested areas in the Green Mountains. (R. C. Brown, Bureau of
Entomology and Plant Quarantine, U. S. D. A.)


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Rather severe outbre-.ks of the southern pine 'beetle occurred
in several localities in- southeastern Virginia in 1937. Consider'-
ble loblolly pine of merchantable size was killed in the vicinity
of West Point, *h. Local outbreaks were also reported along the
East.-rn Shore of Maryland. Prought in 1936, whichc h lowered the
vitality of the trees, was probably the important factor aiding the
increase of this species. (R. A. St.George, Bureau of Entomolo ,y
and Plant quLr-ntine, U. S. D. A.)


In the Central Rocky Mountain region the serious outbreak
of the Black Hills beetle increased considerably over 1936 in areas
where no control was carried on. It is estimated that in south-
central '.ou.iing so, e 210"O007limber pine and lodgepole pine are in-
fested. In Colorado, in an area extending along the eastern range
of the Rockies from the northern to the central part of the State,
fall surveys indicated that 4,000 ponderosE" pine were infested
during the current flight of this beetle. The epide-mic in southern
Utah has been greatly reduced by control operations during the last
two seasons; however, about 4,000 infested ponderosa pine were found
in known epidemic areas. (J. A. Beal, Fure-.u of Ento.oloj and Flmnt
Quarantine, U. S. D. A.)


In the Pacific Coast States the mountain pine beetle nAs in an
endemic stage during 1937. In northern Idnho, in stands of w.7estern
white pine, only four small epidemic areas were found, necessitating
the treating of 4,000 infested trees. In stand!- of white b-irk pine,
which occurs at high elevations, the beetle continued to cause
severe damage throughout the northern Roc4y :Ioutain region. How-
ever, the :rent epidemic which in recent years spread through the
lod-:.:ipole stands of Idaho an.1 southwestern Montara has :materially
decreased. Tcw':'d the eastern edge of itf range, southeast of
Yellowstone Park nnd in north -central Wyo-Aing, the beetle continued
to be ver:. destructive and killed s-veral hundred thousand tre.-s
over a lar-'-e area. Here again a very hi>il p1-rccrtage of thi trees
infe-ted were either white-brrk pine or a closely- related s.. -cies,
limber pin (Division of Forest Insect Investi nations of
Ento:.ology and Plant QUrT rantine, U. S. D. A.)


Extensive surveys in Ore -on arind 'shinrgton, covering 8,o00,000
acres during the sizmer, indicated that attacks byj the wects-in pine
beetle had declined during 1937. Most areas carried endemic infesta-


tions of from 25 to 50 infested ponderosa pine per section, but
S.a few areas ,showed losses as high as 100 trees per secti'n.'"- In
California similar surveys indicated:that -the-.decline of infes-
tation trends which appeared in 1935. -and 1936 is! now,.,leveling out
a ndby late fall a'tendeicy toward:an.-increase was -noted 'in'.some
.areas. A severe cold. spell -in Januairy 1937 -killed. about- the same
proportion of western pine beetlee broods, in northeasternCalifornia
Sas the freeze of December 1932;' however, the recovery of populations
-has not-been so rapidthis-year... In the Northern- Rocky MIontain
region the beetle remained in an endemic status. (Diyision of Forest
Insect Investigations, Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine,
U. S. D. A.) ,


"'* Epidemics of Dehdrbctonus. pse.udot.sugae .Hopk. continued in the
scAttered stands of Douglas fir "in' ,any areas throughout.,-the entire
Rocky Mountain region. In s;, the worst infested arias 50 per-
cent or -more of the stand has been .destroyed. In. Oregon. this beetle
continued in an endemic status in the vicinity of the, great Tillarmook
Burn, where in 1935 it increased to--alarming proportions.... (Division
of Forest Insect Investigations, Bureau of ERtqmology and Plant Quar-
antine, U. S. D. A. ) .. . .


A severe outbreak of ithe .ngelmann "spruce beetle,-is present in
the northwestern part of Yellowstone National Park. During the past
few years a large percentage of the spruce trees above 10 inches in
diameter have been killed. In western Montana, on the Kootenai and
Gallatin National Forests, spruce'stands have also -been found to be
infested with this beetle. "'(J. C. Evenlen,' Bureau of Entomology and
Plant Quarantine, U. S-. D. ) *


Dryocoetes confusus Sw.'continued to kill large quantities of
alpine fir in the central Rocky Mountain region, as it has--been do-
ing f r the last few years. (J. A, Beal, Bureau of Entomology and
Plant Qu-uarantine, U. S. D. A.)


This European sawfly, Pristiphora geniculate Htg., which
attacks mountain ash, was quite generally abundant in 1937' wherever
its food plant is common in New England and 11ev, York. The defolia-
tion was noted as particularly heavy on-.the trees-growing on the
higher elevations in Maine, New HIampshire, and Vermont. ( R. C.
Brown, Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine, U. S. D. A.)


Serious local outbreaks of a sawfly, Neodiprion sp., in a
few red pine plantations in Middlesex County, Mass., attracted.
attention in 1935 and 1936. In 1937 severe infestations occurred
in one natural stand. and several plantations of red pine in Middle-
sex and Worcester Counties, Mass. Heavy defoliation was prevented
in most of the plantations by timely spraying. 'lost of the eggs
are deposited in the needles of the red pine in October, and it
has been recently observed that in some localities where no insec-
ticides had been applied in 1937 the egg deposit is heavy. This
indicates that it is a potential menace to red pine in these lo-
calities for 1938.- (R. C. Fromn, Pureau of Entomology and Plant
Quarantine, U. S. D. A.)


A sawfly, Neodiprion sertifer Geoff., apparently was intro-
duced into NTew Jersey from Europe prior to 1925 but has only
recently been identified. Because this species is a serious pest
of pine in Europe an extensive survey was made in the spring of
1937 throu-h the area surrounding the locality where it was first
collected in 1925. Infestations were found in 22 localities
scattered through Hunterdon, Mercer, Middlesex, Somerset, and Union
Counties, N. J. The scarcity of pine plantations and the infre-
quent use of hard pines as ornamentals in these counties undoubted-
ly have been factors in limiting the dispersion of this pest.
Pinus montana (Swiss mountain pine), and the variety mr-hus, P.
sylvestris (Scotch pine), and P. densiflora (Japanese red pine)
seemed to be most heavily attacked, but P. resinosa (red pine) and
P. austriaca (Austrian pine) were also commonly.attacked, though
apparently to a lesser degree.

A note in the Bur .nu of Entomology and Plant Quarantine :Tews
Letter for September 1937 (Vol. 4, No. 11, p. 31, Nov. 1, 1937)
records the identifications of adults of this species tnken on
Pinus muAhus at Sidney, Ohio. (R. C. Brown, Bureau of Entomolo-y
and Plant Quarantine, U. S. D. A.)

A tremendous increase -in the abundance of the Europer-in Spruce
Sawfly bcburred in New England in 1937. Heavy infestations occurred
in several localities in northern Maine, on ,'.',unt o' ock, H.,
and at Wilmington and Lincoln, Vt. In 1937 the s1rucc. on approxi-
mately 30,000 acres showed noticeable defoliation and some tree
mortality has occurred in northern Maine. A lar:e population of
cocoons is now present in the heavily infested areas and a heavy
attack over a much larger acr,,n-e is probable in 1938. Larvae and


cocoons were found in two localities in Somerset 'County, N, J.,
-in June, but defoliation was scarcely noticeable.' (R. C. Brown,
SBureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine, U. S. D,. A.)

The larch sawfly,' a common eastern species, was recorded
in outbreak form on the north fork of 'the Flathead' River in western
Montana about 3 years ago. This epidemic does"not appear to be in-
creasing in severity, though the insect is still present-and is
doing some damage in small areas. Ovip6sition scars indicate that
it has been present in some areas for several years without caus-
ing serious damage, and it is possible that conditions in
Montana are not favorable for its development. In northern
Minnesota the sawfly is at its lowest stage in many years, having
practically disappeared in many localities. This-reduction
apparently was largely due to the extreme heat and drought of
1936, causing'an exceptiona-lly.heavy mortality to'the larvae be-
fore they matured.* (Division of' Forest Insect Investigations,
Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine, U. S. D. A,)


In the Northeast severe outbreaks of the forst tent cater-
pillar were very noticeable in many localities. Heavy defoliation
was observed on thousands of acres of forests in Maine, Vermont,
and New York, and in more limited areas in New Hampshire, western
Massachusetts, and northwestern Connecticut. It parts of Vermont
many sugar- maple orchards 'were severely attacked, -as well as large
areas of forests, although the degree of defoliation in general
was not as high as in 1936. A survey of plots in Vermont indi-
cated that the 1937 egg deposit averaged about 20 percent lower
than in 1936. However, in some .sugar. iaple orchards there is an
increase in egg clusters, and in general the insect can be con-
sidered a potential menace for 193,S. In northern Minnesota the
outbreak covered some 5,000,000 acres of forest land. In.general
there was a decline in the severity of the 1937 infestation as
compared to the severe epidemic in 1936. Greatest reductions
occurred in the oldest centers of heavy infestation. In recently
infested areas there will probably be a considerable increase in
caterpillar populations in 1938. (Division of Forest Insect In-
vestigations, Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine, U. S. D. A.


In central Colorado the spruce budworm was found to be caus-
ing excessive damage to ponderosa pine in several areas. This is
probably the first record of serious injury in pure stands of

- 25-

ponderosa pine. 'On this host the larvae bore through the bundle
sheath and feed on the base of the" developing needles. :he adults
proved to be one of many color phases of Cacoecia fumiferana (Clem.).
In several other infested areas in the central Rocky Mountain region
this insect appeared to be on the increase on the true firs and on
Douglas fir. In Cody Canyon, in western Wyoming, there was a marked
decline in the epidemic, which has continued there for a number of
years on Douglas fir. In northern Minnesota and upper Michigan the
form of the spruce budworm attacking jack pine caused less damage in
1937 than in 1936, although there was a continued spread of infested
areas. (Division of Forest Insect Investigations, -Bureau of Entomolo-
gy and Plany Quarantine, U. S,. D. A.)

An extensive outbreak of Coloradia pandora Blake was discovered
this year in central Colorado, on the Arapaho ITational Forest, where
lodgepole pine is being attacked and an area several miles in extent
is already heavily defoliated. Apparently it has been many years
since this species' has occurred in an epidemic stage in Colorado.
(J. A. Beal, Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine, U. S. D. A.)

Epidemic outbreaks of Homerocampa oslbri Barnes occurred in
the Inyo and '.-ono National Forests, central California, in 1936 and
caused considerable defoliation of white fir east of the Sierra
Nevada Mountains. This outbreak continued with similar intensity in
1937. The outbreak is of unusual interest, because no noticeable
epidemics of this insect have been reported in the Cralifornia region
since 1906. (J. M. .illr, Bureau of Entoiolo and Plant Quarantine,
U. S. D. A.)

An outbreak of Hjneroc--i-ni pseudotsugae .'cD. near Hailey,
Idaho, on the Snwtooth National Forest, which wis recorded in 1936,
increased in sevelrity and size in 1937. A lar7e percentage of the
defoliated Dougl-'s fir died during the season. An effort was made
to establish colonies of Corpsilura concinn.ata Mlig. and ETl.'ictes
exrr.inatnr F., which was shipped from the ..ew Haven, Conn., labora-
tory in July. (J. C. Evenden, Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quar-
antine, U. S. D. A. )


During 1937 outbreaks of Ellopia fiscellaria luubrosa Hlst.
appeared throughout all of the northern Idaho and wet;tern Miontana
forests. This is the first available record of the insect aplearirnj
in epidemic form in this particular region. In 1936 moths appeared


in sufficient.numbers .to cause comment, .though defoliation was
S not .especially heavy, However, in 1937 thousands of icres of
white fir.and, ass6oiated:troe species were severely defoliated,
and late in the season the adults appeared in tremendous numbers.
(J. C._-Evenden, Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine, U. S.

ORIENTAL MOTH : ... .:...

The population of the oriental moth has.definitely increased
over 1936 in:'5 6f the 17,observation points Boston, Mass.,
and nearby suburban towns.. ,The greatest' increased are in Cambridge
and Winthrop, and to a lesser degree in Revere and in two sections
of Dorchester. In the other 12 observation points.'tht conditions
-are similar to those of 1936. Although the cocoons of this insect
are very abundant.on shade and fruit trees in so6e localities, the
heavy infestations in .general are extremely local. Very little
serious defoliation was caused by this insect- last summer. Several
hundred cocoons were recently collected and the prepupal:. larvae
dissected. The results showed a decided general increase in para-
sitization by the introduced parasite Chaetexorista javana B. & B.
(R. C. Brown, Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine,7"U. S. D. A.)


The larch casebearer continues as a serious menace to larch
in the northeastern part of the United States. In 1937' larch trees
all through the Adirondack section of New York showed a.severe
browning by this miner. In New England the mined needles were very
noticeable in nearly every stand of larch, although in general the
1937 infestation seemed to be somewhat lessened in intensity from
that of the last several years. Tree mortality has been rather
high in some of the sample plots. (R. C. Brown, Bureau of Entomolo-
gy and Plant Quarantine, U. S. D. A.)


Recurvaria miller Busck was in flight in the high Sierra
areas .of central California during July of 1937 and appeared in
great numbers in the local areas where it has been developing in
epidemic proportions since 1933. There was evidence of a slow
spread from some of the areas where the infestation had reached
its greatest intensity; in a few other areas where a high degree
of parasitization was observed the outbreaks were apparently on
the decline. (J. M. Miller, Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quar-
antine, U. S. D. A.)


The fir bark louse increased in abundance in New England
and New York in 1937, owing primarily to the wild weather last
winter. Dead trees were more connmmon this fall in M'iine and 1Tv'
Hrampshire than in 1936. In New York scouting has revealed a
larger area of infestation extornding south into the Catskill
Mountains. Considerable mortality has occurred in the southern
part of the Adirondack Mountains. Infested trees were found in
two localities in Somerset County, N. J., in June 1937. ( R. C.
Brown, Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine, U. S. D. A.)


A survey of sample plots in Maine indicates that there has
been a definite increase in the infestation of the beach scale.
In many instances the infestation was medium to heavy near the
base of the trees in 1936 but at present it extends to distances
of 25 to 50 feet from theground. No marked increase in mortality
of trees over 1936 was observed. The predator Chilocorus bivul-
nerus Muls. is apparently unable to check the progress of the in-
festation in Maine. The infestation in Scarsdale, N. Y. is now
rather light. hilocorus has been abundant here and apparently
its feeding on the scale contributed largely to the checking- of
this particular infestation. (R. C. Brown, Bureau of Entonolowy
and Plant Quarantine, U. S. D. A.)


The locust leaf miner was more abundnt than usual in the
Appalachian Mountains from Pennsylvania southward to North Caro-
lina and Tennessee. There was a generall browning of locust leaves
and some forests looked as if they had been scorched by fire.


The catalpa sphinx appeared in great abundance in the Ohio
Valley from Illinois and western Kentucky and Tennessee to Pennsyl-
vania, and on the eastern side of the Appalachian Mountains from
New Jersey to South Carolina. Cntalpn trees generally were de-
foliated. Late in the summer the parasite Apirnt-..lts con.-rt.',tus
(Say) became very noticeable over much of the infested territory.
One report of injury -vas received from northern Mississippi.


The boxelder bug was first noted in the State of New Jersey
by the writer in the fall of 1936, when it was reported as numerous
in and about a house in Haddon Heights. A very larje number of the


insects were seen in Haddonfield in yards having large boxelder
trees. The owners stated that the bugs had been bothersome for the
last 3 years. Determination was verified by .. *G, Barber from speci-
mend collected in this locality December 1936. (L. J. Bottimer,
Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine, .U. S. D. A.)


In Texas the screwworm overwintered from the south edge of
the escarpment between Devil's River, in Val Verde County, and
D'Hanis, Medina County, and southward. Migration from this area-
began in March and by July 18 had reached a line from Oklahoma
City to Amarillo, Tex., and Tucumcari, N. Mex. Dispersion east-
ward reached western Louisiana about July 1 and north-central
Louisiana about August 15. The dispersion northward was slightly
slower than last year, hbut slightly more rapid to the east. These
migrations were rather uniformly progressive until the first of
August, when the hot, dry weather to the north apparently stopped
migration, as did the rather excessive rainfall in eastern Texas
and Louisiana in August, September, and October. The build-up.
of populations began in the southermost extremity of Texas mid
apparently reached peak at San Perlita, Willacy:County, in the
latter half of April. In the west Gulf plains area the peak was
reached in the latter half of April and in the east Gulf plains
area in the first half of July. Along the Lower Escarpment the
peak was reached about the first half of July at Sanderson. A-
long the Upper Escarpment the peak was reached during the latter
half of July at Sheffield. In the upper Gulf plains area and
along the escarpment there was a decrease in the fly population
in August, when there was no rainfall and the temperatures were
abnormally high. A second peak was reached in September and

Comparing the population of screwworms in Texas this year
with that of last year, the status trap at Uvalde indicated that
in 1937 the catches amounted to 58 percent as many flies as 1936
and approximately 20 percent as many as in 1935- Activity ceased
on November 18 at Uvalde, one month earlier than normal, on account
of an abnormally cold period. In Arizona laboratory tests indicate
that the insect did not overwinter at Tempe, and survey-trapping
tests indicate that the fly was killed out in Arizona and evi-
dently from 100 to 150 miles into Mexico. As indicated by standard
trap catches and scouting for infested cases, the first fly
appeared in the trap at Pozo Blanco on May 10. At approximately
the same time or shortly afterwards the fly appeared in the
eastern part of the area, along the Arizona-Mexico line to New
Mexico. Migrations from these infestations were rather slow dur-
ing the season and it is indicated that the fly did not reach the


escarpment al6ng the -Gila and Salt Rivers until'late and did not
pass the Divide into Little Colorado area during the sCnson. The
incidence of livestock infestations in Arizona wns very much
lighter than in 1936. CD. C. Parnan, .Bureau of Entomology and
Plant Quarantine, U. S. D.,. A.) .

A very mild winter afforded screwworms a long season of
activity in the Southeastern States. The lowest incidence of the
pest occurred in, Florida and.. Georgia during the last week of
.December and after that time .it continued activity. The infesta-
tion in Georgia involved approximately the area in the southeastern
part. of that State, from a line drawn from Early to Washington
Counties. Examninations of; ani.-ials in counties north and east of
the area known to be infested did not reveal new infestations ex-
cept in one instance, when larvae were obtained in Fulton County
on November 12. The infested area during the year in South Caro-
lina comprised the southeastern quarter of the State, included
within lines drawn from Bhrnwell to Sumter County and thence to
Berkeley County. A widespread po-pulation in Florida was encountered
early in the year.... The lowest incidence occurred in December 1936
and in the following January 3,213 cases were reported from5- 54
counties, from Lafayette, Columbia., 'Union, and Hnmilton Coutnties in
the north as far south as Lee and Glades Co-'xies. During the/last
two weeks of October. 1937, it was estimated 1h4&t '406 cases of screw-
worms occurred in Houston County, Ala., near the ( orgia boundary
line. This county,as well as four other counties in the. sDuth-
eastern corner of the State, were scout.od, but nr. further infesta-
tions were found.


Stableflies became seriously abundant in several States,
notably in Iowa, Missouri, and Kansas.

In Mississippi stableflies were reported as moderately a-
bundant throughout, the winter of 1936-37 and :,ore abundant in
Washington CoiCty on'April 15, 1937. By.,the middle of April they
had begun to annoy cattle at Valdosta, Ga., and nt Dallas, Tex.
They became active in the central part of Iown the last week in May.
During the latter p-rt of June they became seriously abundant in
K-.nsas, in th, central part of >,issnu-i, and in Io'ia, while in the
eastern part of 31ebraska cattle and horses were huiJdling in pastures
for protection.

In central Iowa observations made by S. W. Simmons on 37 farms
from'June 28 to July'13 showed a serious abundance of stableflics,
interfering greatly with farm operations. Mules, attacked moro than


,horses, could not be worked at times. Many farmers sprayed their
horses three or four times a day and some carried sprayers into the
fields with them.

In Missouri aad Iowa the abundance continued through July.
The pest was reported troublesome at Ocean City, Md., on July 2S
and abundant in Kansas on June 26.
In south-central Kansas, H. 0. Schroeder, reporting for the
period July 23 to August 22, described the outbreak as the heaviest
in 15 years. Horses and cattle became exhausted. Calves suffered
open wounds at the joints of the legs and had raw areas along their
backs. During the day many farmers protected thoir horses in
darkened barns. Horses were worked with great difficulty, even
while protected with nets and burlap.- 'This extreme abundance
followed a period of unusually heavy rainfall, from July 10 to 20.

Reports from Missouri and Iowa indicate some decline in
abundance in August, followed by an increase in September. In
Kossuth County, Iowa, on September 10, cattle in 10 or 15 pastures
observed were huddling at the north fences for relief from stable-
flies, relief being afforded Vy a strong, cool wind from the north.
After September 16 the numbers in Iowa declined rapidly. (R. H. Wells,
Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine, U. S. D. A.)

In the central part of Iowa all three species of horse bots,
Gast rophilus nasalis L., G. haemorrhoidalis L., and G. intestinalis
Deg,, were much less abundant than during any of the preceding 4
years. The scarcity of G. nasalis and G. haemorrhoidalis was
especially notable. G. intestinalis was reported active in Willacy
County, Tex., on March 23; at Ames, Iowa, not until June 21; still
active at Uvalde, Tex., on October l1; whereas, prior to 1936, they
had been practically absent for several years. G-. nasalis was re-
ported active in Willacy County, Tex., on March 22; at Ames, Iowa,
on June 10 and October lg; at Virginia Dale, Colo., on July 4; at
Uvalde, Tex., on October 1, G. haemorrhoidalis was remarkably scarce
all through the season in central Iowa. The species was reported
active in Larimer County, Colo., on July 3. ( R. H. Wells, Bureau
of Entomology and Plant Quarantine, U. S. D. A.)

More than the usual number of reports of occurrence of the
brown dog tick were received during the year. Reports were re-
ceived from Denver, Colo., New Haven, Conn.., Waukegan, Ill., Town-
son, Md., and Douglas County, Nebr.

- 3 1-


The brown-banded cockroach (Supella supellectilium Serv.)
is now so definitely established in the United States that it should
no longer be omitted from our economic literature. In recent publi-
cations: 1/,2/ the pest is illustrated and compared with other species.
E. D. Ball wrote recently that S. supellectilium had been established
in Tucson, Ariz., for about 3 years and that he had sent specimens to
M. Hebard, who states I/ that these specimens are the first from the
southwestern States to be received by him. In his letter Dr. Ball
also states that this cockroach has been taken .since 1935 in Arizona
at Phoenix, San Carlos Indian Reservation, Bisbbee, and Douglas and
that a correspondent stated that it is the only cockro-'.ch he has not
been able to successfully handle in the house.

A commercial exterminator company in Atlanta, Ga., wrote in
December, 1937, that an infestation was found in a house in Athens,
Ga. G. E. Gould reported the species found in October 1937 at
Bloomington, Ind.

In December 1937, K. Cook reported combating an infestation
in Worcester, Mass. J. J. Davis reports having received 'specimens
from a pest-control operator in Denver, Colo., in October 1937.
F. E. Cairns, Mazonanie, Wis., sent specimens on April 20, 1937,
from his home to C. L. Fluke at Wisconsin State University/ where
they were identified as this species by H. C. Severin. In further
correspondence with Mr. Fluke, it was learned that the infestation
was very active and that in recent years Mr. Cairns' family had
made a trip to Texas and the Gulf.

On November 6, 1937, J. L. Calhoun, San Angelo, Tex., wrote
that this roach is a serious pest in hones at that place and sent a
large collection of specimens in alcohol. He wrote on November 26,
1937, that this roach is never seen in his home except in th--e kitchen,
where-it likes to hide about the sink and in pot-and-pan cabinets.
In other houses it infes+s various rooms congregating in u'holstered
and other furniture in the daytime. The San Crlos Agency, San
Carlos, Ariz., sent specimens to the Office of Indian Affairs,
United States Department of Interior, with the statement that during
1937 this species was "becoming a great pest at the Indian

To date Supella pllctilin has ben recorded from the
following places: Florida--Key West (1903), Miami (1903), D-ytona
Beach (1936), Jacksonville (1936); Georgia-Savannah (1936), Atlanta
(1932-37), Athens (1937); Alatn ---Aburn (1934), Birmingham (1930-37);
l/ E. A. Back, Proc. Ent. Soc. Wash., vol. 39, pp. 205-213, November 1937.
2/ E. A. Back, U. S. Dept. Agr. Le-Lflet 144, 6 pp., 1937
3/ M. Hebard, Trans. Amer. Ent. Soc. vol. 61, p. 273, Sept "-,rer 1935.


3 1262 09244 6516


Mississippi--Cleveland (1937); Louisiana--'Shrevep6rt (1935); Texas-
Austin'(1931) .Ial las (1937),,-HoustQn (1937)- .San. AnGelo (1931-37),
.. San Antonio (1927) Arizonn=--Tucson:,(l935-a37 n :$n Carlos -Indian
S Reservation -(1937T), -isbee '(937), Phoenix (1937), Douglas (1937);
O- klaLomna-Ada"(l9537), Tulsa (1937)," 0Oklahoma City (1937); Wisconsin--
' Mazomanie *(1937;) .Mis souri-Kanas .City *(1937) 'N braska .C1929);
Illinois--Urbana (:19'33), Chicago (1937)'; :ITdiana-Bloomingtozi (1937),
S Indianapolis (1937); 'Mas'gachusetts--Worcester:"(1937).
... As this roach has such' a.-wide distriVbution throughout the South
Sand has demonstrated its *atilifty t6o survive 6ndA multiply in northern
S cities and towns, "new distribution records -may "be, expected to increase
rapidly. Cockroaches are so easily concealed!.in household effects and
baggage carried quickly in automobiles from the South to the North
that all entomIolgists and pet-,control operators should corabine
efforts to obtain the proper identification of all cockroach adults
that do not exceed 5/g inch'in length and possess wings with two light-
brown or yellowish cross bands. Blatella germaanicp. L. is the' only roach
in the United States that is likely to be confused with this species.
(E. A. Back, Bureau of Ento;iology and -Plant Q-arantine, U. S. D. A.)

Corrections.- 'The identificati6h of the mite published as
Tetranychus telarius L., 'in the Insect- Pest 'Survey Bulletin, vol. 17,
p. 2g4, 1937, has been changed to T. pac-ificus McG.

The rabbit tick (Haemaphysalis lepori's-palustris ?ack.), re-
ported by M. H, Swenk, in vol. 17, p. 424, has been changed to the
brown dog tick (Rhipicephalus sanguinr*as Latr.).

The spruce budworm (Oacoecia. fumiferana Clen.), reported by
L. H. Noble, in vol. 17, p. 4l7, has since 'been 'identified' as" Diprion
polytoum Htg. "

The identification of the sawfly,- reported as He:ichroa
pacifica Rohw. (vol. '17, p. 413) was in error. The insect is H.
washingtonia Rohw. and Midd. There is no H.'pacifica.

The report on cowpea weevils by Z. P. Metcalf (vol. 17, p. 49)
published as Chalcodermus aeneus Boh., should be, Callosobruchus
maculat-Lv-. F.
*An error in a note published in vol. 16, p. 376, 1936, has
come to our attentiion. The note on Tarsonemus floricolus C. nnd F., I
credited to F. F. Smith, should have been credited to A. C. D.avis.